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Sample records for colour doppler ultrasonography

  1. Colour doppler ultrasonography provides real-time microwave field visualisation in an ex vivo porcine model.

    PubMed

    Byrd, Jim F; Agee, Neal; McKillop, Iain H; Sindram, David; Martinie, John B; Iannitti, David A

    2011-06-01

    Microwave ablation (MWA) uses non-ionising thermal energy to cause cell death by coagulative necrosis. Colour Doppler ultrasound (US) produces a spherical image during tissue ablation that appears to approximate the microwave near field (MNF) in shape and size. The aim of the present study was to determine whether colour Doppler US images observed during microwave ablation correlate with the actual thermocoagulation zone (TCZ) observed in liver tissue. Twenty MWAs were performed in ex vivo bovine liver using a 915-MHz ablation antenna set to 45 W for 6 min concomitant with Doppler US imaging. The edges of spherical images observed with colour Doppler US were marked circumferentially in the tissue. The tissue was transected parallel to the angle of antenna insertion, and the distances between methylene blue markings and the TCZ were measured. The images observed using colour Doppler US were similar in size and shape to the actual TCZ observed in the tissue. The mean distance between the observed colour Doppler US field diameter and the measured TCZ was 2 ± 1 mm. Using colour Doppler US, the visualised field during MWA correlates with the TCZ in an ex vivo bovine liver model. Real-time, dynamic feedback of the treatment area may increase the effectiveness of MWA for liver tumours in vivo. © 2011 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.

  2. Colour Doppler Ultrasonography as a Tool to Assess Luteal Function in Santa Inês Ewes.

    PubMed

    Figueira, L M; Fonseca, J F; Arashiro, Ekn; Souza-Fabjan, Jmg; Ribeiro, Acs; Oba, E; Viana, Jhm; Brandão, F Z

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate luteal dynamics in the Santa Inês ewes using colour Doppler (CD) ultrasonography. Oestrus was synchronized in nulliparous females (n = 18), and subsequently, they were only teased (n = 6) or teased and mated (n = 12). Blood samples were collected daily for plasma progesterone (P4 ) concentrations. Ultrasonographic images of corpora lutea (CL) in CD mode were obtained for further analysis in its largest diameter. The CD mode allowed an early sequential monitoring of CL that was visualized by the first time 0.77 ± 0.62 days after ovulation, with luteal area 29.68 ± 13.21 mm(2) . During the luteogenesis, a progressive increase was observed, followed by a plateau of luteal area, vascularization area and plasma concentrations of P4 reaching maximum values in D11 (124.0 ± 38.0 mm(2) , 52.78 ± 24.08 mm(2) and 11.23 ± 4.89 ng/ml, respectively). In the luteolysis, the plasma concentrations of P4 decreased sharply, whereas luteal and vascularization area gradually. The vascularization area was positively correlated with plasma concentrations of P4 during the luteogenesis (r = 0.22) and luteolysis (r = 0.48). The luteal dynamics of Santa Inês ewes showed patterns similar to those observed in other sheep breeds studied. The CD ultrasonography has the potential to be used as a tool to assess luteal function in sheep.

  3. Penile Doppler ultrasonography revisited.

    PubMed

    Jung, Dae Chul; Park, Sung Yoon; Lee, Joo Yong

    2017-06-10

    Penile Doppler ultrasonography is a high-performing, noninvasive or minimally-invasive imaging modality that allows the depiction of the normal anatomy and macroscopic pathologic changes in real time. Moreover, functional changes in penile blood flow, as seen in erectile dysfunction (ED), can be analyzed using color Doppler ultrasonography (CDUS). This review article describes the normal sonographic anatomy of the penis, the sonographic technique for evaluating ED, the normal phases of erection, and the various causes of ED. Additionally, we describe the interpretation of different parameters and findings on penile CDUS for the diagnosis and classification of ED, priapism, and Peyronie disease.

  4. [Kidney obstruction: potential use of ultrasonography and Doppler color ultrasonography].

    PubMed

    Bertolotto, M; Perrone, R; Rimondini, A

    2000-12-01

    Ultrasonography is the first imaging approach in evaluation of patients with urinary obstruction. Presence of hydronephrosis, urinomas and inflammatory complications can be assessed. Moreover, the level and the cause of obstruction are often identified. The major limits of ultrasonography are poor visibility of the lumbar portion of the urinary tract and lack of specificity in detection of pyelocaliectasis. These limits are partially overcome with Doppler studies. Several factors can bias diagnostic accuracy of colour Doppler ultrasonography in evaluating renal obstruction; in particular, partial or intermittent obstruction cause minimum hemodynamic changes in patients with renal colic. Sensitivity of colour Doppler ultrasonography to detect obstruction decreases following medical treatment with NSAID and increases following hydration and diuretics administration. Diuretic ultrasound, colour Doppler evaluation of ureteral jets and evaluation of the twinkling artefact of stones are useful imaging techniques as well. Tissue harmonic imaging is a new imaging technique available in most latest generation US equipments. Evaluation of the kidney and of the urinary tract improves using this technique due to artefact reduction and increased contrast resolution.

  5. Ultrasonic colour Doppler imaging

    PubMed Central

    Evans, David H.; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonic colour Doppler is an imaging technique that combines anatomical information derived using ultrasonic pulse-echo techniques with velocity information derived using ultrasonic Doppler techniques to generate colour-coded maps of tissue velocity superimposed on grey-scale images of tissue anatomy. The most common use of the technique is to image the movement of blood through the heart, arteries and veins, but it may also be used to image the motion of solid tissues such as the heart walls. Colour Doppler imaging is now provided on almost all commercial ultrasound machines, and has been found to be of great value in assessing blood flow in many clinical conditions. Although the method for obtaining the velocity information is in many ways similar to the method for obtaining the anatomical information, it is technically more demanding for a number of reasons. It also has a number of weaknesses, perhaps the greatest being that in conventional systems, the velocities measured and thus displayed are the components of the flow velocity directly towards or away from the transducer, while ideally the method would give information about the magnitude and direction of the three-dimensional flow vectors. This review briefly introduces the principles behind colour Doppler imaging and describes some clinical applications. It then describes the basic components of conventional colour Doppler systems and the methods used to derive velocity information from the ultrasound signal. Next, a number of new techniques that seek to overcome the vector problem mentioned above are described. Finally, some examples of vector velocity images are presented. PMID:22866227

  6. Diagnostic accuracy of colour Doppler ultrasonography, CT angiography and blood-pool-enhanced MR angiography in assessing carotid stenosis: a comparative study with DSA in 170 patients.

    PubMed

    Anzidei, M; Napoli, A; Zaccagna, F; Di Paolo, P; Saba, L; Cavallo Marincola, B; Zini, C; Cartocci, G; Di Mare, L; Catalano, C; Passariello, R

    2012-02-01

    This study was undertaken to prospectively evaluate the diagnostic performance of colour Doppler ultrasonography (CDUS), first-pass (FP) and steady-state (SS) contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and computed tomography angiography (CTA) of the carotid arteries using digital subtraction angiography (DSA) as the reference standard. A total of 170 patients with previous cerebrovascular events and suspected carotid artery stenoses underwent CDUS, blood-pool MRA, CTA and DSA. Accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated for CDUS, FP MRA, SS MRA and CTA. The McNemar and Wilcoxon tests and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis were used to determine significant differences (p<0.05) between the diagnostic performances of the four modalities, and the degree of stenosis was compared using linear regression. A total of 336 carotid bifurcations were studied. The area under the curve (AUC) for degree of stenosis was: CDUS 0.85±0.02, FP MRA 0.982±0.005, SS MRA 0.994±0.002 and CTA 0.997±0.001. AUC analysis showed no statistically significant difference between CTA and MRA (p=0.0174) and a statistically significant difference between CDUS and the other techniques (p<0.001). Plaque morphology analysis showed no significant difference between CTA and SS MRA; a significant difference was seen between CTA and SS MRA versus FP MRA (p=0.04) and CDUS (p=0.038). Plaque ulceration analysis showed a statistically significant difference between MRA and CTA (0.04< p<0.046) versus CDUS (p=0.019). CTA is the most accurate technique for evaluating carotid stenoses, with a slightly better performance than MRA (97% vs. 95% for SS MRA and 92% for FP MRA) and a greater accuracy than CDUS (97% vs. 76%). Blood-pool contrast-enhanced SS sequences offer improved evaluation of degree of stenosis and plaque morphology with accuracy substantially identical to CTA.

  7. Colour Doppler ultrasonography for evaluation of anterior chest blood supply: the possible role of arterial blood supply to the costosternal junction in the aetiology of idiopathic scoliosis in female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Korovessis, Panagiotis; Iliopoulos, Panagiotis; Misiris, Alexandros; Koureas, Georgios

    2004-02-01

    This prospective comparative study was carried out to investigate the blood supply to the anterior chest wall by measurement of several anatomical and haemodynamic flow parameters of the internal mammary artery, with the use of colour Doppler ultrasonography, in female scoliotics with idiopathic right convex scoliosis in adolescence. Previous investigations have postulated that asymmetry of the breasts in female adolescents may be linked with the development of right convex thoracic scoliosis. This breast asymmetry is supposed to be linked with anatomical and functional asymmetry of the internal mammary artery that is the main supplier to the mammary gland. However, no measurements of anatomical and haemodynamic parameters of the internal mammary artery have been made to justify or reject the hypothesis of asymmetric blood flow volume to the breasts and costosternal junction in female adolescent scoliotics. Twenty female adolescents with right convex thoracic scoliosis and 16 comparable female individuals without spine deformity were examined with roentgenograms (scoliotics only) to measure scoliosis curve, vertebral rotation and concave and convex rib-vertebra angle at three vertebrae (the apical, one level above and one below the apical vertebra). Doppler ultrasonography was used to measure, at the origin of the internal mammary artery, its lumen diameter, cross-sectional area, time average mean flow and flow volume per minute in scoliotics and controls, which were compared with each other. The roentgenographic parameters were compared with the ultrasonographic parameters in the scoliotics to disclose any relationship. The reliability of colour Doppler ultrasonography was high and the intra-observer variability low (ANOVA, P=0.92-0.94). There was no statistically significant difference in the ultrasonographic parameters of the internal mammary artery between right and left side in each individual as well as between scoliotics and controls. In scoliotics the right

  8. The diagnosis of endometriomas using colour Doppler energy imaging.

    PubMed

    Guerriero, S; Ajossa, S; Mais, V; Risalvato, A; Lai, M P; Melis, G B

    1998-06-01

    We studied the role of colour Doppler energy (CDE) (or power Doppler) imaging in the differentiation between endometriomas and other adnexal masses in premenopausal non-pregnant women. A total of 170 consecutive patients with persistent adnexal masses was submitted to B-mode transvaginal ultrasonography associated with CDE imaging evaluation. Plasma concentrations of CA125 were measured before surgery. Using CDE imaging evaluation of vessel distribution, the occurrence of one of the following findings was considered to indicate the likely presence of endometrioma: (i) a round-shaped homogeneous hypoechoic 'tissue' of low-level echoes without papillary proliferations associated with 'poor' vascularization; (ii) a round-shaped homogeneous hypoechoic 'tissue' of low-level echoes with an echogenic portion in which no flow was detected. The overall agreement between the test result and the actual outcome was calculated using the k index. The CDE imaging evaluation was more accurate in the diagnosis of endometriomas compared with B-mode ultrasonography alone (k = 0.88 and 0.80 respectively). According to the logistic regression equation obtained, the probability of the presence of endometrioma varied between a minimum of 1.4% for patients with no risk factors to a maximum of 95.6% for patients with two risk factors (CDE result and value of CA125 >25 IU/ml).

  9. Ultrasound and colour Doppler in infantile subglottic haemangioma.

    PubMed

    Rossler, Leo; Rothoeft, T; Teig, N; Koerner-Rettberg, C; Deitmer, T; Rieger, C H L; Hamelmann, E

    2011-11-01

    Subglottic haemangioma causes progressive and life-threatening stridor, typically manifesting at age 2-3 months. Standard diagnosis is by laryngoscopy. Larynx sonography is rarely used but allows assessment of the presence and extension of a mass that impinges on the subglottic airway. The additional use of colour Doppler enables demonstration of the vascular nature of such masses. To compare US and endoscopic findings in infants with subglottic haemangioma and to evaluate accuracy of US and colour Doppler imaging in this diagnosis. We report eight infants with subglottic haemangioma seen in our institution over the last decade. They presented with laryngeal stridor and were all investigated with both US and endoscopy. Six infants underwent colour Doppler sonography. US and endoscopic findings showed excellent anatomical correlation in lateral subglottic haemangioma. Colour Doppler imaging was deemed helpful in four infants. Larynx sonography with complementary colour Doppler imaging was non-invasive and helpful in the diagnosis of subglottic haemangioma.

  10. [Cerebral Doppler ultrasonography in newborn infants].

    PubMed

    Luciano, R; Velardi, F

    1995-01-01

    Following the first study of Bada et al. (1979), Doppler assessment of cerebral blood flow has increasingly been used in newborn infants, matching the technical progress in the available equipment. The experience gathered in recent years has confirmed that Doppler US is a reliable and reproducible examination while precising the limitations and the methodology to be followed in order to prevent gross errors of assessment and interpretation. The interest this procedure has arisen, among other things, stems from being noninvasive and feasible at the patient's bed. These features enable its repeated use in newborn infants in poor clinical condition. The diagnostic and prognostic role of Doppler velocimetry has been shown in a number of neonatal diseases and the cerebral hemodynamics has been assessed in physiologic conditions as well as after drug administration. The most common equipment used in newborn infants is at present Duplex Doppler consisting of a pulsed Doppler combined with bidimensional scanner, which, with visualization of study arteries, enables precise positioning of sample volume and correction of the ultrasonic angle of incidence with respect to the direction of blood flow in the examined vessel. In this report, after a survey of the techniques and modalities of cerebral Doppler examination in newborns, a review of the present state of the art, in neonatal cerebral as well as extracranial disease, is presented.

  11. Color Doppler ultrasonography of the abdominal aorta.

    PubMed

    Battaglia, S; Danesino, G M; Danesino, V; Castellani, S

    2010-09-01

    Alterations of the abdominal aorta are relatively common, particularly in older people. Technological advances in the fields of ultrasonography, computed tomography, angiography, and magnetic resonance imaging have greatly increased the imaging options for the assessment of these lesions. Because it can be done rapidly and is also non-invasive, ultrasonography plays a major role in the exploration of the abdominal aorta, from its emergence from the diaphragm to its bifurcation. It is indicated for the diagnosis and follow-up of various aortic diseases, especially aneurysms. It can be used to define the shape, size, and location of these lesions, the absence or presence of thrombi and their characteristics. It is also useful for monitoring the evolution of the lesion and for postoperative follow-up. However, its value is limited in surgical planning and in emergency situations.

  12. [Varicose vein recurrence after surgery of the sapheno-femoral junction: color Doppler ultrasonography study].

    PubMed

    Roscitano, Giuseppe; Mirenda, Francesco; Mandolfino, Tommaso; De Caridi, Giovanni; Stilo, Francesco; Benedetto, Filippo; Spinelli, Francesco

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and sensitivity of colour Doppler ultrasonography for the diagnosis of postoperative recurrent varicose veins in patients submitted to surgical ligation of the saphenofemoral junction with a view to classifying the recurrences according to the causes. We studied 401 lower limbs in the orthostatic position with colour Doppler ultrasonography in 318 patients (64 M and 254 F) presenting postoperative varicose vein recurrence during the follow-up (12-60 months). We evaluated the type of reflux at the inguinal level under the Valsalva manoeuvre and divided them into 5 types. We observed an incomplete crossectomy (type 1) in 23.2% of the cases; an incontinent saphenofemoral junction, intact and in an anatomical site in 12.5% (type 2); a major tributary (double saphena) originating from the common femoral vein near to the crossectomy site in 10.2% (type 3); neovascularization in 9.7% (type 4) and the presence of a number of major tributaries from the veins of the perineal and pudendal region or from the abdominal parietal veins in 44.4% (type 5). In all cases it was possible to note and classify the type of recurrence. Colour Doppler ultrasonography is an accurate, reliable tool for the diagnosis and classification of postoperative varicose vein recurrences in patients submitted to surgical obliteration of the saphenofemoral junction. It is decisive in the preoperative evaluation and follow-up of patients. In our experience, more than one half of the cases of recurrence were not due to an error of surgical technique.

  13. Ultrasound imaging for the rheumatologist. XVII. Role of colour Doppler and power Doppler.

    PubMed

    Iagnocco, A; Epis, O; Delle Sedie, A; Meenagh, G; Filippucci, E; Riente, L; Scirè, C A; Montecucco, C; Bombardieri, S; Grassi, W; Valesini, G

    2008-01-01

    The use of Doppler ultrasound in rheumatology has grown in recent years. This is partly due to the increasing number of rheumatologists who perform US in their daily clinical practise and also to the technological advances of US systems. Both colour Doppler and power Doppler are used to evaluate the degree of intra- and peri-articular soft tissue inflammation. Moreover, Doppler US has been found to be of help in the assessment of vascular pathologies such as the vasculitides. In this review we provide an update of the data regarding the use of colour Doppler and power Doppler in rheumatology.

  14. Three-dimensional echocardiography of colour Doppler flow.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhi-Wen; Xu, Ya-Wei; Ashraf, Muhammad; Sahn, David J

    2010-05-01

    Three-dimensional echocardiography of colour Doppler flow developed quickly with the advent of three-dimensional echocardiography. An increasing amount of research has shown that three-dimensional echocardiography of colour Doppler flow is feasible and facilitates measurement of stroke volume and cardiac output, and assessment of heart valve and congenital heart diseases. Although the technique still has some drawbacks that hamper its widespread use, as the technology continues to improve, three-dimensional echocardiography of colour Doppler flow has the potential to serve as a powerful noninvasive clinical tool, aiding physicians in the serial assessment of heart disease and response to intervention. We review the developmental history and the most recent clinical information related to three-dimensional echocardiography of colour Doppler flow. 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Doppler ultrasonography of the lower extremity arteries: anatomy and scanning guidelines.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Ji Young

    2017-04-01

    Doppler ultrasonography of the lower extremity arteries is a valuable technique, although it is less frequently indicated for peripheral arterial disease than for deep vein thrombosis or varicose veins. Ultrasonography can diagnose stenosis through the direct visualization of plaques and through the analysis of the Doppler waveforms in stenotic and poststenotic arteries. To perform Doppler ultrasonography of the lower extremity arteries, the operator should be familiar with the arterial anatomy of the lower extremities, basic scanning techniques, and the parameters used in color and pulsed-wave Doppler ultrasonography.

  16. Doppler ultrasonography of the lower extremity arteries: anatomy and scanning guidelines

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Doppler ultrasonography of the lower extremity arteries is a valuable technique, although it is less frequently indicated for peripheral arterial disease than for deep vein thrombosis or varicose veins. Ultrasonography can diagnose stenosis through the direct visualization of plaques and through the analysis of the Doppler waveforms in stenotic and poststenotic arteries. To perform Doppler ultrasonography of the lower extremity arteries, the operator should be familiar with the arterial anatomy of the lower extremities, basic scanning techniques, and the parameters used in color and pulsed-wave Doppler ultrasonography. PMID:28219004

  17. Ultrasonography with color Doppler and power Doppler in the diagnosis of periapical lesions

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Sumit; Nagendrareddy, Suma Gundareddy; Raju, Manthena Srinivasa; Krishnojirao, Dayashankara Rao Jingade; Rastogi, Rajul; Mohan, Ravi Prakash Sasankoti; Gupta, Swati

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of ultrasonography (USG) with color Doppler and power Doppler applications over conventional radiography in the diagnosis of periapical lesions. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients having inflammatory periapical lesions of the maxillary or mandibular anterior teeth and requiring endodontic surgery were selected for inclusion in this study. All patients consented to participate in the study. We used conventional periapical radiographs as well as USG with color Doppler and power Doppler for the diagnosis of these lesions. Their diagnostic performances were compared against histopathologic examination. All data were compared and statistically analyzed. Results: USG examination with color Doppler and power Doppler identified 29 (19 cysts and 10 granulomas) of 30 periapical lesions accurately, with a sensitivity of 100% for cysts and 90.91% for granulomas and a specificity of 90.91% for cysts and 100% for granulomas. In comparison, conventional intraoral radiography identified only 21 lesions (sensitivity of 78.9% for cysts and 45.4% for granulomas and specificity of 45.4% for cysts and 78.9% for granulomas). There was definite correlation between the echotexture of the lesions and the histopathological features except in one case. Conclusions: USG imaging with color Doppler and power Doppler is superior to conventional intraoral radiographic methods for diagnosing the nature of periapical lesions in the anterior jaws. This study reveals the potential of USG examination in the study of other jaw lesions. PMID:22223940

  18. Electroencephalography and transcranial Doppler ultrasonography in neonatal citrullinemia.

    PubMed

    Su, Pen-Hua; Chen, Jia-Yuh; Chen, Yung-Jung; Niu, Dau-Ming; Hsu, Ju-Hui; Lee, Inn-Chi

    2014-11-01

    The authors present a case of citrullinemia with a genotype of argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS1), c.380 G>A (p.R127Q)/c.380 G>A (p.R127Q), in two alleles. A 3-day-old female infant presented with status epilepticus and coma. Laboratory data showed hyperammonemia and marked lactic acidosis in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid; electroencephalography showed severely suppressed cerebral activity and focal paroxysmal volleys of slow and sharp waves (< 1Hz) over the left hemisphere. Real-time transcranial Doppler ultrasonography showed a brain edema and high peaked systolic and low diastolic flows in basal, anterior, and middle cerebral arteries; however, immediately after a blood exchange transfusion, systolic flows were lower and diastolic flows were higher. The resistance indices were significantly different (means: 0.58 vs. 0.37; p=0.01). The patient was placed on diet therapy. After six blood exchange transfusions and peritoneal dialysis, her neurologic examination results and serum ammonia and lactate values were normal. The authors found that electroencephalography and transcranial Doppler ultrasonography were useful for the diagnosis and follow-up treatment of neonatal citrullinemia.

  19. Analysis of retrograde ejaculation using color Doppler ultrasonography before and after transurethral collagen injection.

    PubMed

    Nagai, A; Nasu, Y; Watanabe, M; Tsugawa, M; Iguchi, H; Kumon, H

    2004-10-01

    Transurethral bladder neck collagen injection therapy was performed in a patient with retrograde ejaculation. The phenomenon of retrograde ejaculation and its correction after the therapy were clearly demonstrated by color Doppler ultrasonography. To our knowledge this is the first report showing successful observation of retrograde ejaculation using color Doppler ultrasonography.

  20. Review of ultrasonography of malignant neck nodes: greyscale, Doppler, contrast enhancement and elastography

    PubMed Central

    Ying, M.; Bhatia, K.S.S.; Lee, Y.P.; Yuen, H.Y.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Assessment of neck lymph nodes is essential in patients with head and neck cancers for predicting the patient’s prognosis and selecting the appropriate treatment. Ultrasonography is a useful imaging tool in the assessment of neck lymph nodes. Greyscale ultrasonography assesses the size, distribution, and internal architecture of lymph nodes. Doppler ultrasonography evaluates the intranodal vascular pattern and resistance of lymph nodes. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography provides information on lymph node parenchymal perfusion. Elastography allows qualitative and quantitative assessment of lymph node stiffness. This article reviews the value of greyscale, Doppler and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography as well as elastography in the assessment of malignant nodes in the neck. PMID:24434158

  1. Power Doppler ultrasonography in the diagnosis of acute childhood pyelonephritis.

    PubMed

    Halevy, Raphael; Smolkin, Vladislav; Bykov, Sergey; Chervinsky, Leonid; Sakran, Waheeb; Koren, Ariel

    2004-09-01

    In the absence of specific symptomatology in children, the early diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis (APN) is a challenge, particularly during infancy. In an attempt to differentiate APN from lower urinary tract infection (UTI), we evaluated the ability of power Doppler ultrasonography (PDU) to predict renal parenchymal involvement, as assessed by dimercaptosuccinic acid ((99m )Tc-DMSA) scintigraphy. The study comprised 62 patients, 46 girls and 16 boys, aged 2 weeks to 5 years, admitted to the pediatric department with febrile UTI. All children were examined by PDU and DMSA scintigraphy within the first 3 days of admission. In the group of 31 patients with one or more DMSA scan abnormalities, the PDU showed a matching perfusion defect in 27 (87%). Of 26 children with normal DMSA scintigraphy, the PDU evaluation was also normal in 24. The sensitivity and specificity of PDU for the detection of affected kidneys were 87% and 92.3%, and the positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 93.1% and 85.7%, respectively. These data indicate the PDU has a high sensitivity and specificity for differentiating APN from lower UTI and may be a useful and practical tool for the diagnosis of APN in infants and children.

  2. Cerebral monitoring during carotid endarterectomy by transcranial Doppler ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the efficacy and safety of cerebral monitoring by transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD) for the detection of cerebral ischemia during carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Methods From August 2004 to December 2013, 159 CEAs were performed in a tertiary hospital. All procedures were performed under general anesthesia. Intraoperative TCD was routinely used to detect cerebral ischemia. Of the 159 patients, 102 patients were included in this study, excluding 27 patients who had a poor transtemporal isonation window and 30 patients who used additional cerebral monitoring systems such as electroencephalography or somatosensory evoked potentials. When mean flow velocity in the ipsilateral middle cerebral artery decreased by >50% versus baseline during carotid clamping carotid shunting was selectively performed. The carotid shunt rate and incidence of perioperative (<30 days) stroke or death were investigated by reviewing medical records. Results Carotid shunting was performed in 31 of the 102 patients (30%). Perioperative stroke occurred in 2 patients (2%); a minor ischemic stroke caused by embolism in one and an intracerebral hemorrhage in the other. Perioperative death developed in the latter patient. Conclusion TCD is a safe cerebral monitoring tool to detect cerebral ischemia during CEA. It can reduce use of carotid shunt. PMID:28203558

  3. Utility of colour Doppler sonography in patients with Graves' disease.

    PubMed

    Kumar, K V S Hari; Vamsikrishna, P; Verma, A; Muthukrishnan, J; Rayudu, B Ramasubba; Modi, K D

    2009-12-01

    Assessment of thyroid blood flow gives valuable information about underlying functional status. Colour Flow Doppler Sonography (CFDS) is a powerful tool which displays tissue blood flow and vascularity. Colour Flow Doppler Sonography of the thyroid gland in different subsets of patients with Graves' disease was studied to define its role in initial diagnosis and management. Eighty consecutive patients with Graves' disease (both treated and untreated) presented to hospital between August 2007 and February 2008. All patients were evaluated with CFDS of the thyroid for size, vascularity and peak systolic velocity (PSV) of the Inferior Thyroid Artery (ITA). Pertechnate scan and thyroidal autoantibody levels were done in selected cases. The patients were divided into Untreated Graves' disease (n = 31), Graves' disease on treatment but hyperthyroid (n = 26) and euthyroid Graves' disease on therapy (n = 23). Mann-Whitney U-test was used for statistical analysis and a p-value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. Thyroid blood flow, as assessed by PSV of ITA, was significantly higher in untreated Graves' disease than in Graves disease on treatment but hyperthyroid and euthyroid Graves respectively (61.5 +/- 19.5 versus 42.9 +/- 24.7 versus 32.2 +/- 12.9 cm/s, p < 0.05). Parenchymal vascularity of the thyroid gland was higher in hyperthyroid patients than in euthyroid patients irrespective of therapy. In both groups on therapy, the dose of carbimazole correlated with the vascularity of the gland (r = 0.492 versus 0.564, p < 0.05). Colour Flow Doppler Sonography parameters correlated significantly with pertechnate scan results giving comparable sensitivity and specificity. Assessment of thyroid blood flow by CFDS is an effective marker in the initial diagnosis of Graves' disease. Vascularity of the gland can predict long term disease course while on medical therapy.

  4. Analysis of human ejaculation using color Doppler ultrasonography: a comparison between antegrade and retrograde ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Atsushi; Watanabe, Masami; Nasu, Yasutomo; Iguchi, Hiroki; Kusumi, Norihiro; Kumon, Hiromi

    2005-02-01

    To observe the phenomenon of human ejaculation dynamically using color Doppler ultrasonography. Human ejaculation was observed using transrectal color Doppler ultrasonography in a healthy man and a patient with retrograde ejaculation. Ejaculation was induced manually with audiovisual sexual stimulation. The ejaculatory phenomenon was analyzed and compared with that of retrograde ejaculation. In the healthy man, the prostatic urethra flattened slightly and the bladder neck contracted just before expulsion. The ejaculatory stream spurted from the seminal vesicles to the bulbous urethra through the ejaculatory duct. In the patient with retrograde ejaculation, the ejaculatory stream from the seminal vesicles and inframontanal and distal prostatic urethras distended into a globular-shaped sac filled with semen. No seminal flow toward the bulbous urethra occurred. The semen remaining in the prostatic urethra began flowing slowly into the bladder. Differences between antegrade and retrograde ejaculation can be clearly detected by color Doppler ultrasonography, providing a noninvasive method to diagnose ejaculatory disorders.

  5. UltraFast Doppler ultrasonography for hepatic vessels of liver recipients: preliminary experiences

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the value of UltraFast Doppler ultrasonography (US) for evaluating hepatic vessels in liver recipients. Methods: Thirty-nine liver Doppler US sessions were conducted in 20 liver recipients. Each session consisted of UltraFast and conventional liver Doppler US in a random order. We compared the velocities and phasicities of the hepatic vessels, duration of each Doppler study, occurrence of technical failures, and differences in clinical decisions. Results: The velocities and resistive index values of hepatic vessels showed a strong positive correlation between the two Doppler studies (mean R=0.806; range, 0.710 to 0.924). The phasicities of the hepatic vessels were the same in both Doppler US exams. With respect to the duration of the Doppler US exam, there was no significant difference between the UltraFast (251±99 seconds) and conventional (231±117 seconds) Doppler studies (P=0.306). In five poor breath-holders, in whom the duration of conventional Doppler US was longer, UltraFast Doppler US (272±157 seconds) required a shorter time than conventional Doppler US (381±133 seconds; P=0.005). There was no difference between the two techniques with respect to technical failures and clinical decisions. Conclusion: UltraFast Doppler US is clinically equivalent to conventional Doppler US with advantages for poor breath-holders during the post-liver transplantation work-up. PMID:25409662

  6. Spinal arteriovenous malformation: use of intraoperative color Doppler ultrasonography guidance for surgical resection. Case report.

    PubMed

    Baskan, Ozdil; Durdag, Emre; Geyik, Serdar; Elmaci, Ilhan

    2014-12-01

    Spinal arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) may be associated with sensory and motor deficits, bowel or bladder dysfunction, radicular pain or deficit, and back pain. Hemorrhage can occur in the parenchyma leading to the acute onset of symptoms. Neurosurgical resection is one of the way of treatment. Several techniques including intraoperative angiography, dye-injection and the micro Doppler method have proven to be useful during the surgical resection of spinal vascular lesions. Herein, we report our experience with intraoperative ultrasonography (IOUS) and color Doppler ultrasonography guidance for visualizing a spinal cord AVM during surgery. IOUS is a time-saving and noninvasive method for intraoperative imaging of spinal AVM.

  7. Diagnostic vascular ultrasonography with the help of color Doppler and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The use of ultrasonography and especially of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in the diagnosis of vascular pathologies before and after interventions has significantly increased over the past years due to the broader availability of modern ultrasound systems with CEUS capabilities and more trained user experience in this imaging modality. For the preinterventional and postinterventional work-up of carotid diseases, duplex ultrasound as well as CEUS have been established as the standard-of-care examination procedures for diagnosis, evaluation, and follow-up. In addition to its use for carotid arterial diseases, ultrasonography has also become the primary modality for the screening of vascular pathologies. This review describes the most common pathologies found in ultrasonography of the carotid arteries, the abdominal aorta, and the femoral arteries. PMID:27669962

  8. A novel approach for manual de-torsion of an atypical (outward) testicular torsion with bedside Doppler ultrasonography guidance.

    PubMed

    Güneş, Mustafa; Umul, Mehmet; Çelik, Ahmet Orhan; Armağan, Hamit Hakan; Değirmenci, Bumin

    2015-01-01

    A 17-year-old boy presented with right testicular torsion to the lateral side. Torsion was diagnosed by physical examination; the colour Doppler ultrasonography (CDU) confirmed right testicular torsion with minimal peripheral hydrocele. Transverse and longitudinal examination of the spermatic cord with ultrasound and CDU revealed a counter-clockwise testicular torsion. Manual de-torsion was performed in a clockwise direction (720o) and testicular blood flow and the neutral position of the spermatic cord were confirmed by CDU. We did not encounter a residual twist of the spermatic cord upon surgical exploration. In our experience, ultrasound and CDU may predict the direction of testicular torsion and may allow appropriate management of cases prior to surgery.

  9. A novel approach for manual de-torsion of an atypical (outward) testicular torsion with bedside Doppler ultrasonography guidance

    PubMed Central

    Güneş, Mustafa; Umul, Mehmet; Çelik, Ahmet Orhan; Armağan, Hamit Hakan; Değirmenci, Bumin

    2015-01-01

    A 17-year-old boy presented with right testicular torsion to the lateral side. Torsion was diagnosed by physical examination; the colour Doppler ultrasonography (CDU) confirmed right testicular torsion with minimal peripheral hydrocele. Transverse and longitudinal examination of the spermatic cord with ultrasound and CDU revealed a counter-clockwise testicular torsion. Manual de-torsion was performed in a clockwise direction (720o) and testicular blood flow and the neutral position of the spermatic cord were confirmed by CDU. We did not encounter a residual twist of the spermatic cord upon surgical exploration. In our experience, ultrasound and CDU may predict the direction of testicular torsion and may allow appropriate management of cases prior to surgery. PMID:26425241

  10. Technology Insight: the role of color and power Doppler ultrasonography in rheumatology.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Wolfgang A

    2007-01-01

    An increasing number of rheumatologists have access to ultrasound equipment that provide both color and power Doppler modes, which can be used to investigate musculoskeletal and vascular pathologies. Musculoskeletal Doppler ultrasonography can be used to estimate levels of inflammation, to document the anti-inflammatory effect of agents such as corticosteroids and tumor necrosis factor inhibitors, to differentiate between inflammatory and degenerative disease, and to distinguish between normal and inflamed joints in cases of minor synovial swelling. Vascular Doppler ultrasonography can be used to determine organ involvement in small-vessel vasculitides, to delineate aneurysms in vasculitides of medium-sized arteries, and to assess the characteristic findings in large-vessel vasculitis. Numerous studies, including a meta-analysis, have been published on the use of temporal-artery ultrasonography for the diagnosis of giant cell arteritis. Duplex ultrasonography is a sensitive approach for detecting characteristic edematous wall swellings in active temporal arteritis and for assessing vasculitis of the axillary arteries (large-vessel giant cell arteritis) in patients with suspected temporal arteritis, polymyalgia rheumatica, or fever of unknown origin. Duplex ultrasonography can also be used to assess vasculitis of subclavian and carotid arteries in younger patients with Takayasu's arteritis and acute finger artery occlusions in patients with small-vessel vasculitides.

  11. Efficiency of three-dimensional Doppler ultrasonography in assessing nodal metastasis of head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Hong, San-Fu; Lai, Yu-Shih; Lee, Kwo-Whei; Chen, Mu-Kuan

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the clinical usefulness of three-dimensional (3D) color Doppler ultrasonography with a novel predictive model in the detection of cervical metastasis of untreated head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients. We assessed cervical lymph node metastasis in 52 head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients by 3D color Doppler ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging, and [(18)F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography with computed tomography. Pathologic analysis was used as the gold standard for evaluation of these imaging modalities. The rate of correct N staging was 84.6% on ultrasonography, 55.8% on magnetic resonance imaging, and 71.2% on positron emission tomography/computed tomography. On a level-by-level basis, the ultrasonography had 78.9% sensitivity, 99.0% specificity, 93.8% positive predictive value, 96.0% negative predictive value, and 95.7% accuracy. It also showed the highest agreement to histology results as compared with magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (kappa value = 0.832, 0.506, and 0.537, respectively). 3D Doppler ultrasonography with our prediction model provides a rapid, low-cost, noninvasive, and reliable method with low inter-observation variations for detecting neck metastasis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients.

  12. [Doppler color ultrasonography in patients with erectile dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Migaleddu, V; Virgilio, G; Cucciari, P; Retanda, L; Carboni, C; Piras, P; Carboni, M; Canalis, G C

    2000-12-01

    The introduction of new oral therapy doesn't change the rule of color Doppler US in the screening modality of the diagnosis of vasculogenic impotence. The hemodynamic changes can be non invasively evaluated with color and energy Doppler US and with spectral analysis following injection of a vaso-active pharmacological agent. The new high sensitive US equipment allows an easy detection of the cavernous artery. Duplex Doppler can quantify the systolic-diastolic flow changes after the intra-cavernous vaso-active drugs injection. It is then possible to establish the diagnosis of arterial or venous vasculogenic impotence. The organic cause can also be excluded. The pick systolic velocity less than 0.30 m/sec is indicative of arterial origin. The absence of flow-reversal in the diastolic phase, 30 minutes after the injection, is significant for a venous type problem. Elicine arteries can be visualised and analysed using high sensitive color Doppler energy US equipment.

  13. Comparison between ultrasonographic findings of benign and malignant canine mammary gland tumours using B-mode, colour Doppler, power Doppler and spectral Doppler.

    PubMed

    Soler, Marta; Dominguez, Elisabet; Lucas, Xiomara; Novellas, Rosa; Gomes-Coelho, Kassia Valeria; Espada, Yvonne; Agut, Amalia

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the comparison between the ultrasonographic features of canine mammary tumours, assessed by B-Mode, colour Doppler, power Doppler, spectral Doppler, and histopathologic features, would help to differentiate if a tumour is benign or malignant. Ultrasonographic examinations of 104 tumours were performed. Volume, margins, presence of a capsule, echotexture and presence and distribution of the vascular flow of the tumours were evaluated. All the tumours were surgically removed, submitted for histopathologic examination and classified in two groups: Group I (benign tumours) and Group II (malignant tumours). Echotexture was the only parameter evaluated by B-Mode ultrasonography where significant differences were found (p<0.01), with tumours in Group I being homogeneous and tumours in Group II presenting greater heterogeneity. Presence of vascular flow was observed in most of the tumours from both groups and no differences between them were found. Regarding flow distribution, significant differences were observed between groups (p<0.05). In benign tumours, the most common vascular pattern was the peripheral, showing significant differences (p<0.05) compared to mixed and central patterns. In malignant tumours the mixed pattern was the most frequent. Also significant differences among other patterns (peripheral and central) were found. Concerning vascular resistivity and pulsatility indexes, there were no significant differences between the two groups. The echotexture and type of vascular flow pattern of canine mammary gland tumours may help, in a first examination of the tumour, to differentiate between benign and malignant tumours; however to reach a definitive diagnosis histological study is required. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessment of hemodynamic disturbances in aphasic patients by transcranial Doppler ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Pendefunda, L

    1989-01-01

    The author presents a study of Doppler cerebrovascular ultrasonography carried out in 38 aphasie patients (forms ranging from transient speech disturbances to severe, persistent disturbances of motor, sensory or mixed aphasia) after ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. In these cases, the clinical symptoms were dominated by speech impairment and neurological deficits (mainly pyramidal), of low intensity or transient. The angiographic study revealed stenotic or occlusive disturbances at various levels of the cerebral arterial trunks. The prevalence of some clinical aspects of aphasia correlated with Doppler velocimetric images is discussed and the use of transcranial Doppler method in idiopathic aphasia, possible consequence of a transient ischemic attack, is suggested.

  15. Settings and artefacts relevant in colour/power Doppler ultrasound in rheumatology.

    PubMed

    Torp-Pedersen, S T; Terslev, L

    2008-02-01

    The paper explains the most important parameters for the use of colour and power Doppler in rheumatology. Recommendations for machine settings are given. The commonly encountered artefacts and their importance for image interpretation are explained.

  16. Doppler ultrasonography of the central retinal artery by duplex scanning.

    PubMed

    Steigerwalt, R D; Cesarone, M R; Laurora, G; Belcaro, G V; De Sanctis, M T; Incandela, L; Christopoulos, V

    1996-01-01

    To present duplex scanning of the central retinal artery, which the authors have termed duplex scanner imaging, as an alternative to color Doppler imaging in the evaluation of retinal blood flow velocity, and to show the difference in measurements obtained with the two different techniques. The high-resolution ATL-Ultramark 4 duplex scanner (Advanced Technology Laboratories, Bothell, WA) with the variable focus access probe was used to measure blood flow velocity of the central retinal artery in the eyes of 48 healthy volunteers. Using this technique the peak systolic flow velocity (+/- standard deviation [SD]) of the central retinal artery was 36.6 +/- 10.8 cm/sec, and the end diastolic flow velocity was 12.6 +/- 3.7 cm/sec. The flow velocity measurements of the central retinal artery obtained with this technique were much higher than those obtained by other authors using color Doppler imaging (9.6 cm/sec for the peak systolic flow velocity, and 4.7 cm/sec for the end diastolic flow velocity). The authors propose duplex scanner imaging as an alternative to color Doppler imaging for evaluating retinal blood flow velocity. The duplex scanner also can be used to measure the flow velocity of orbital vessels.

  17. Efficacy of Doppler Ultrasonography for Assessment of Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt Patency

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, Masashi; Sato, Morio; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Tanaka, Kayo; Sonomura, Tetsuo; Shioyama, Kazushi; Kishi, Yasukazu; Terada, Masaki; Yamada, Ryusaku

    1996-11-15

    Purpose: To assess the efficacy of Doppler ultrasonography (US) as a noninvasive method for monitoring patency of the transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS). Methods: Twenty-nine patients who had received TIPS for bleeding esophagogastric varices and/or refractory ascites with portal hypertension underwent Doppler US studies within 2 weeks after TIPS. Further studies were performed in 15 of them at 6 months, in 9 at 1 year, and in 4 at 2 years for a total of 57 US studies. The US findings were compared with the angiographic findings obtained at the same time. Results: In 45 of the 57 studies, shunt patency was found by Doppler US, correlating to 44 patencies and one occlusion on angiography. Doppler signal in the shunt could not be detected in 12 studies resulting in the diagnosis of shunt occlusion. This correlated with angiographic occlusion in 8 studies and patency in the remaining 4. All angiographically patent shunts that were occluded by Doppler US had various degrees of stenosis. A number of technical factors were found to be responsible for Doppler US false-positive or false-negative diagnoses, some related to the type of stent used. The Doppler US sensitivity was therefore 92%, the specificity 89%. Conclusion: Doppler US is a reliable noninvasive method to evaluate patency of TIPS.

  18. Value of superb microvascular imaging ultrasonography in the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome: Compared with color Doppler and power Doppler.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Chen, Li; Wu, Lei; Wang, Rui; Liu, Ji-Bin; Hu, Bing; Jiang, Li-Xin

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the value of superb microvascular imaging (SMI) in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) with that of color Doppler ultrasonography (CDUS) and power Doppler ultrasonography (PDUS).Fifty patients with symptomatic CTS and 25 healthy volunteers were enrolled. The cross-sectional area (CSA), CDUS score, PDUS score, and SMI score of the median nerve (MN) at the carpal tunnel were recorded. The value of different ultrasonography (US) diagnostic strategies was calculated.The blood flow display ratio in the MN of the healthy volunteers had no statistical difference between CDUS, PDUS, and SMI (20%, 32%, and 48%, respectively, P >.05). The blood flow display ratio for SMI in patients was significantly higher than that of CDUS and PDUS (90%, 52%, and 60%, respectively, P <.005). The accuracy of SMI score ≥2 (79%) was much higher than that of CDUS and PDUS (61% and 63%, respectively, P <.05). Comprehensive consideration of SMI and CSA, CSA≥10.5 mm, and/or SMI score ≥2 has the highest accuracy (83%), significantly higher than that of CSA combination with CDUS or PDUS (68% and 69%, respectively, P <.05).SMI is more sensitive to display the blood flow in the MN with CTS than CDUS and PDUS. It might significantly improve the diagnosis value for CTS.

  19. Practical application of color Doppler ultrasonography in patients with ejaculatory dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Hara, Ryoei; Nagai, Atsushi; Fujii, Tomohiro; Fukumoto, Kazuhiko; Ohira, Shin; Jo, Yoshimasa; Yokoyama, Teruhiko; Miyaji, Yoshiyuki

    2015-06-01

    We describe two cases in which dynamic analysis of ejaculation using color Doppler ultrasonography was useful in diagnosis of ejaculatory dysfunction and planning of therapy. The first patient was a 32-year-old man with a diagnosis of retrograde ejaculation. A bladder neck collagen injection was carried out, as the main cause was thought to be the bladder neck remaining open during ejaculation. The patient had antegrade ejaculation 1 week later. The second patient was a 48-year-old man with a diagnosis of anorgasmia accompanied by decreased seminal emission and insufficient function of the rhythmic pelvic striated muscles. The patient was prescribed etilefrine hydrochloride 15 mg/day. The symptom improved 2 weeks after starting this drug. These cases suggest that the use of color Doppler ultrasonography during ejaculation can improve the understanding of ejaculatory dysfunction and therapy for this condition. © 2015 The Japanese Urological Association.

  20. Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography: From methodology to major clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    D’Andrea, Antonello; Conte, Marianna; Cavallaro, Massimo; Scarafile, Raffaella; Riegler, Lucia; Cocchia, Rosangela; Pezzullo, Enrica; Carbone, Andreina; Natale, Francesco; Santoro, Giuseppe; Caso, Pio; Russo, Maria Giovanna; Bossone, Eduardo; Calabrò, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive Doppler ultrasonographic study of cerebral arteries [transcranial Doppler (TCD)] has been extensively applied on both outpatient and inpatient settings. It is performed placing a low-frequency (≤ 2 MHz) transducer on the scalp of the patient over specific acoustic windows, in order to visualize the intracranial arterial vessels and to evaluate the cerebral blood flow velocity and its alteration in many different conditions. Nowadays the most widespread indication for TCD in outpatient setting is the research of right to left shunting, responsable of so called “paradoxical embolism”, most often due to patency of foramen ovale which is responsable of the majority of cryptogenic strokes occuring in patients younger than 55 years old. TCD also allows to classify the grade of severity of such shunts using the so called “microembolic signal grading score”. In addition TCD has found many useful applications in neurocritical care practice. It is useful on both adults and children for day-to-day bedside assessment of critical conditions including vasospasm in subarachnoidal haemorrhage (caused by aneurysm rupture or traumatic injury), traumatic brain injury, brain stem death. It is used also to evaluate cerebral hemodynamic changes after stroke. It also allows to investigate cerebral pressure autoregulation and for the clinical evaluation of cerebral autoregulatory reserve. PMID:27468332

  1. Doppler ultrasonography in living donor liver transplantation recipients: Intra- and post-operative vascular complications

    PubMed Central

    Abdelaziz, Omar; Attia, Hussein

    2016-01-01

    Living-donor liver transplantation has provided a solution to the severe lack of cadaver grafts for the replacement of liver afflicted with end-stage cirrhosis, fulminant disease, or inborn errors of metabolism. Vascular complications remain the most serious complications and a common cause for graft failure after hepatic transplantation. Doppler ultrasound remains the primary radiological imaging modality for the diagnosis of such complications. This article presents a brief review of intra- and post-operative living donor liver transplantation anatomy and a synopsis of the role of ultrasonography and color Doppler in evaluating the graft vascular haemodynamics both during surgery and post-operatively in accurately defining the early vascular complications. Intra-operative ultrasonography of the liver graft provides the surgeon with useful real-time diagnostic and staging information that may result in an alteration in the planned surgical approach and corrections of surgical complications during the procedure of vascular anastomoses. The relevant intra-operative anatomy and the spectrum of normal and abnormal findings are described. Ultrasonography and color Doppler also provides the clinicians and surgeons early post-operative potential developmental complications that may occur during hospital stay. Early detection and thus early problem solving can make the difference between graft survival and failure. PMID:27468207

  2. Comparing Color Doppler Ultrasonography and Angiography to Assess Traumatic Arterial Injuries of the Extremities

    PubMed Central

    Pezeshki Rad, Masoud; Mohammadifard, Mahyar; Ravari, Hassan; Farrokh, Donya; Ansaripour, Emad; Saremi, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Background: Traumatic events are one of the major causes of arterial injuries. Physical examination is not a good predictor of the extent of injuries and arteriography is considered as the gold standard for this purpose. In the recent years, noninvasive modalities are increasingly replacing diagnostic arteriography. Color Doppler ultrasonography (USG) is an excellent method to investigate arterial diseases. Objectives: The present study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic value of color Doppler USG compared to conventional angiography in traumatic arterial injuries of extremities. Patients and Methods: Seventy-five patients with extremity trauma suspicious for arterial injury were examined by color Doppler USG just before angiography. Doppler pattern and flow states were assessed, then angiography was performed. The results of duplex USG were compared with angiography. Results: Color Doppler USG had a sensitivity of 95% and specificity of 98% in diagnosis of arterial injury. Positive and negative predictive values of Doppler USG were 92.5% and 94.2%, respectively. Conclusions: Color Doppler USG can be used as a reliable modality with acceptable sensitivity and specificity values to screen hemodynamically stable patients with limb trauma suspicious for arterial injury. PMID:25785180

  3. Evaluation of bovine luteal blood flow by using color Doppler ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Lüttgenau, J; Bollwein, H

    2014-04-01

    Since luteal vascularization plays a decisive role for the function of the corpus luteum (CL), the investigation of luteal blood flow (LBF) might give valuable information about the physiology and patho-physiology of the CL. To quantify LBF, usually Power mode color Doppler ultrasonography is used. This method detects the number of red blood cells moving through the vessels and shows them as color pixels on the B-mode image of the CL. The area of color pixels is measured with computer-assisted image analysis software and is used as a semiquantitative parameter for the assessment of LBF. Although Power mode is superior for the evaluation of LBF compared to conventional color Doppler ultrasonography, which detects the velocity of blood cells, it is still not sufficiently sensitive to detect the blood flow in the small vessels in the center of the bovine CL. Therefore, blood flow can only be measured in the bigger luteal vessels in the outer edge of the CL. Color Doppler ultrasonographic studies of the bovine estrous cycle have shown that plasma progesterone (P4) concentration can be more reliably predicted by LBF than by luteal size (LS), especially during the CL regression. During the midluteal phase, cows with low P4 level showed smaller CL, but LBF, related to LS, did not differ between cows with low and high P4 levels. In contrast to non-pregnant cows, a significant rise in LBF was observed three weeks after insemination in pregnant cows. However, LBF was not useful for an early pregnancy diagnosis due to high LBF variation among cows. When the effects of an acute systemic inflammation and exogenous hormones on the CL are examined, the LBF determination is more sensitive than LS assessment. In conclusion, color Doppler ultrasonography of the bovine CL provides additional information on luteal function compared to measurements of LS and plasma P4, but its value as a parameter concerning assessment of fertility in cows has to be clarified.

  4. Assessment of severity of aortic regurgitation by M-mode colour Doppler flow imaging.

    PubMed

    Tribouilloy, C; Shen, W F; Slama, M; Rey, J L; Dufossé, H; Choquet, D; Lesbre, J P

    1991-03-01

    To assess the value of measuring the aortic regurgitant jet diameter at its origin by M-mode colour Doppler imaging, 82 patients with aortic regurgitation underwent, within 72 h of each other, colour Doppler examination and angiography. After excluding one patient without colour Doppler aortic regurgitation and five with a highly eccentric regurgitant jet, we found a close relationship between the jet diameter at its origin measured by M-mode colour Doppler and the angiographic grade of aortic regurgitation (r = 0.88). A jet diameter greater than or equal to 12 mm identified severe aortic regurgitation (grade III or IV) with a sensitivity of 86.4% and a specificity of 94.4%. In 38 patients, the jet diameter correlated well with the regurgitant fraction measured by a combined haemodynamic-angiographic method (r = 0.88). A jet diameter greater than or equal to 12 mm identified a regurgitant fraction greater than or equal to 40% with a sensitivity of 88.2% and a specificity of 95.2%. This study indicates that the size of the regurgitant jet diameter at its origin measured by M-mode colour Doppler provides a simple and useful measure of the severity of aortic regurgitation. It may allow differentiation between mild or moderate and severe aortic regurgitation and evaluation of regurgitant fraction.

  5. Activity of Crohn's disease assessed by colour Doppler ultrasound analysis of the affected loops.

    PubMed

    Esteban, J M; Maldonado, L; Sanchiz, V; Minguez, M; Benages, A

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate with colour Doppler ultrasound the vascular changes in the wall of the loops affected by Crohn's disease, and to establish whether these changes reflects clinical or biochemical activity of Crohn's disease. Seventy-nine patients with Crohn's disease (44 with active disease and 35 inactive patients) were studied with frequency- and amplitude-encoded duplex Doppler sonography. A group of 35 healthy volunteers were also included. The exam consisted of the search for colour signals in the walls of the loops affected by Crohn's disease, classifying the degree of vascularity with a simple scoring system into three groups: absence of colour signal (score of 0); weak or scattered colour signals (score of 1); and multiple colour signals or clear identification of vessels in the loops walls (score of 2). Doppler curves were obtained of the detected vessels with measurement of the resistive index (RI). There was a visible increase in the gut walls' vascularity in the active patients compared with those with inactive disease. The mean RI was statistically significantly lower in the gut wall vessels of the patients with active illness than that obtained in the inactive patients. Colour Doppler ultrasound is a useful tool in the assessment of activity in Crohn's disease.

  6. Vascular mapping of the face: B-mode and doppler ultrasonography study

    PubMed Central

    Tucunduva-Neto, Raul; Saieg, Mauro; Costa, Andre-Luiz; de Freitas, Cláudio

    2016-01-01

    Background To analyze the face vascularization pattern using B-mode and Doppler ultrasonography, and also propose an arterial vessel mapping. Material and Methods The investigation was performed on 20 ultrasonography exams of facial vessels through linear and endocavitary transducers. We analyzed and determined the average values for diameters, peak systolic velocity and resistive index of the following arteries: external carotid, lingual, deep lingual, sublingual, facial, submental, inferior labial, superior labial, angular, maxillary inferior alveolar, mental, buccal, greater palatine, infraorbital, superficial temporal, transverse facial and frontal. Results Data was obtained allowing the analysis of the tissue hemodynamics. We were able to map the vascularization of the face and it was possible to access three arteries of small diameter (0,60mm angular artery; 0,55mm greater palatine artery; 0,45mm infraorbital artery). Conclusions The results presented in this article are valid tool supporting the non-invasive mapping of facial vascularization. Key words:Anatomy, vascularization, ultrasonography, doppler. PMID:26827055

  7. Technical note: comparison of colour Doppler energy sonography with conventional colour Doppler sonography in detection of flow signal in peripheral renal transplant vessels.

    PubMed

    Preidler, K W; Szolar, D M; Uggowitzer, M; Stiskal, M; Horina, J

    1995-10-01

    The technical advantage of colour Doppler energy sonography (CDE) results in a higher sensitivity for blood flow detection than in conventional colour Doppler sonography (CDI). We compared the efficiency of CDE versus CDI in the detection of blood flow signals in asymptomatic patients after renal transplantation. 10 asymptomatic voluntary patients after renal transplantation were evaluated with CDI and subsequently with CDE by two examiners. Filter, scale and gate setting were kept constant, the Doppler gain was increased individually in every patient until background noise just did not derange the image. The assessment of blood flow signal was done using a self defined score system. CDI showed Doppler signal in the interlobar vessels in all 10 patients and blood flow signal in arcuate arteries and adjacent portions of interlobular vessels in nine of 10 patients. We were not able to detect blood flow related signal in the more peripheral medullary and cortical vessels. CDE obtained blood flow signal in interlobar and interlobular vessels in all patients. In addition, Doppler signal was observed in all patients in small medullary and cortical vessels. CDE increases detection of blood flow related signal in peripherally located small medullary and cortical vessels. There was no improvement in the evaluation of blood flow in interlobar vessels but marked improvement in blood flow detection in small peripherally located vessels. CDE cannot completely replace CDI in the sonographic evaluation of vascular complications in renal transplants, but should be used as an additional measure to rule out pathology in small peripheral renal vessels.

  8. Utility of Doppler ultrasonography for diagnosing and assessing treatment effects in liver compartment syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ando, Yusuke; Ishigami, Masatoshi; Ishizu, Yoji; Kuzuya, Teiji; Honda, Takashi; Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Goto, Hidemi; Hirooka, Yoshiki

    2017-06-01

    Liver compartment syndrome is a life-threatening complication of hepatic subcapsular hematoma; diagnosis and assessment of treatment effects are therefore important. We report a rare case of liver compartment syndrome due to spontaneous hepatic subcapsular hematoma without any underlying conditions, in which Doppler ultrasonography (US) proved useful in both diagnosis and assessment of treatment effects. A 32-year-old woman experienced sudden epigastralgia and was diagnosed with hepatic subcapsular hematoma in the right lobe, based on contrast-enhanced computed tomography. Hepatic arteriography showed active hemorrhage and Doppler US showed retrograde flow in the right portal vein. From these findings, we diagnosed hepatic subcapsular hematoma complicated with liver compartment syndrome, and performed embolization of the bleeding point and percutaneous hematoma drainage. After these medical procedures, normalized antegrade flow in the right portal vein was observed on Doppler US. No underlying conditions contributing to hematoma were identified. In this case, Doppler US was useful for both diagnosis and assessment of treatment effects in liver compartment syndrome. When we examine patients with hepatic subcapsular hematoma, Doppler US should be used to diagnose the presence of liver compartment syndrome and assess treatment effects.

  9. Vascular mapping of the face: B-mode and doppler ultrasonography study.

    PubMed

    Tucunduva, M-J; Tucunduva-Neto, R; Saieg, M; Costa, A-L; de Freitas, C

    2016-03-01

    To analyze the face vascularization pattern using B-mode and Doppler ultrasonography, and also propose an arterial vessel mapping. The investigation was performed on 20 ultrasonography exams of facial vessels through linear and endocavitary transducers. We analyzed and determined the average values for diameters, peak systolic velocity and resistive index of the following arteries: external carotid, lingual, deep lingual, sublingual, facial, submental, inferior labial, superior labial, angular, maxillary inferior alveolar, mental, buccal, greater palatine, infraorbital, superficial temporal, transverse facial and frontal. Data was obtained allowing the analysis of the tissue hemodynamics. We were able to map the vascularization of the face and it was possible to access three arteries of small diameter (0,60mm angular artery; 0,55mm greater palatine artery; 0,45mm infraorbital artery). The results presented in this article are valid tool supporting the non-invasive mapping of facial vascularization.

  10. Transthoracic needle biopsy of thoracic tumours by a colour Doppler ultrasound puncture guiding device.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, H. C.; Yu, C. J.; Chang, D. B.; Yuan, A.; Lee, Y. C.; Yang, P. C.; Kuo, S. H.; Luh, K. T.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Ultrasound guided transthoracic needle aspiration biopsy has recently been used to obtain specimens for histological diagnosis of pulmonary and mediastinal tumours. Conventional real time, grey scale puncture guiding devices cannot differentiate vascular structures, and clear visualisation of the needle shaft or tip within a desired target is not always possible. This study describes a new built-in colour Doppler ultrasound puncture guiding device and assesses the relative safety of transthoracic needle aspiration biopsy of thoracic tumours by grey scale or colour Doppler ultrasound guidance. METHODS--Thirty patients with radiographic evidence of pulmonary (22 patients) or mediastinal tumours (eight patients) underwent ultrasonographic evaluation and transthoracic needle aspiration biopsy by using the colour Doppler ultrasound puncture guiding device (Aloka UST 5045P-3.5). These tumours were initially examined by grey scale ultrasound, and colour Doppler imaging was then used to evaluate the number of blood vessels surrounding and within the target tumour and the possibility of visualisation of the needle shaft or needle tip during the aspiration biopsy procedure. RESULTS--The colour Doppler ultrasound guiding device was far superior to the grey scale device for identification of the number of vessels surrounding or within the target tumour (83% v 20%) and for visualisation of the needle shaft or needle tip (80% v 17%). CONCLUSIONS--By using the colour Doppler ultrasound puncture device, vascular structures surrounding or within the target tumour can be verified. Visualisation of the needle shaft or tip is also better. Biopsy routes can be selected to avoid puncturing vessels. This approach should be particularly helpful for guiding biopsies of mediastinal tumours, where puncturing the heart or great vessels is a potential complication. Images PMID:8553297

  11. Value of doppler ultrasonography in the study of hemodialysis peripheral vascular access dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Moreno Sánchez, T; Martín Hervás, C; Sola Martínez, E; Moreno Rodríguez, F

    2014-01-01

    The main objectives of this study were to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of duplex Doppler ultrasonography in the study of hemodialysis peripheral vascular access dysfunction and to analyze the resistance index and flow in the afferent artery. We prospectively studied 178 patients with 178 peripheral vascular accesses that were dysfunctional in at least three consecutive hemodialysis sessions. Patients underwent duplex Doppler ultrasonography and clinical and laboratory follow-up for three months (provided angiography findings were negative). We calculated the sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and coefficients of probability. We studied the morphology of the afferent artery, the arteriovenous anastomosis, and the efferent vein, and we measured the resistance index and the flow of the afferent artery, the diameter of the anastomosis, and the flow and peak systolic velocity in the efferent vein. The final sample consisted of 159 patients. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and positive and negative coefficients of probability were 0,98 (95% CI: 0,88-1.00), 0,74 (95% CI: 0,66-0,81), 0,96, 0,82, 3.7, and 0,03, respectively. The resistance index was less than 0,5 in 78.5% of the peripheral vascular accesses with normal function and greater than 0,5 in 86.1% of the dysfunctional peripheral vascular accesses. We found aneurysms in 19 of the native peripheral vascular accesses and pseudoaneurysms in 7 of the prosthetic grafts. Inverted flow was seen in 57 peripheral vascular accesses. Duplex Doppler ultrasonography is an efficacious method for detecting and characterizing stenosis and thrombosis in peripheral vascular accesses, and it provides information about the morphology and hemodynamics. Copyright © 2012 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. [Determining the aortic and renal hemodynamic effects of propofol on rabbits using Doppler ultrasonography].

    PubMed

    Apan, Alpaslan; Karadeniz Bilgili, M Yasemin; Cağlayan, Fatma

    2004-03-01

    The hemodynamic effects of propofol-fentanyl anesthesia were known to reduce arterial pressure and heart rate. We aimed to determine the effects of propofol-fentanyl anesthesia on renal artery blood flow and aorta by using Doppler ultrasonography on an animal model. The study was conducted on 8 male New Zaeland White strain rabbits. The initial aortic and renal hemodynamic measurements were determined on animals using ketamin anesthesia. Later the right femoral arteries were cannulated for determining arterial blood pressure and pulse oximetry was followed from the ear. Propofol 5-7 mg/kg with fentanyl 1-2 microg/kg was injected via the ear vein. Doppler parameters (RI, RI, Vmax, Vmin) of the renal artery and aorta were determined after the anesthesia. According to the basal measurements, arterial blood pressure and breath rates declined significantly (27% and 53% respectively, p<0.05); however there were no statistical alteration of aortic and renal artery Doppler parameters. Anesthesia induced by propofol-fentanyl did not induce a statistically significant difference in Doppler parameters obtained from the renal artery and aorta. It is clinically important to know that determining the changes in RI and PI during the postoperative period is not related to the propofol-fentanyl anesthesia.

  13. Vascular waveform analysis of flap-feeding vessels using color Doppler ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Ogino, Akihiro; Onishi, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    We performed vascular waveform analysis of flap-feeding vessels using color Doppler ultrasonography and evaluated the blood flow in the flaps prior to surgery. Vascular waveform analysis was performed in 19 patients. The analyzed parameters included the vascular diameter, flow volume, flow velocity, resistance index, pulsatility index, and acceleration time. The arterial waveform was classified into 5 types based on the partially modified blood flow waveform classification reported by Hirai et al.; in particular, D-1a, D-1b, and D-2 were considered as normal waveforms. They were 4 patients which observed abnormal vascular waveform among 19 patients (D-4 : 1, D-3 : 1, and Poor detect : 2). The case which presented D-4 waveform changed the surgical procedure, and a favorable outcome was achieved. Muscle flap of the case which presented D-3 waveform was partially necrosed. The case which detected blood flow poorly was judged to be the vascular obstruction of the internal thoracic artery. In the evaluation of blood flow in flaps using color Doppler ultrasonography, determination of not only basic blood flow information, such as the vascular distribution and diameter and flow velocity, but also the flow volume, vascular resistance, and arterial waveform is essential to elucidate the hemodynamics of the flap.

  14. The value of high-frequency and color Doppler ultrasonography in diagnosing congenital muscular torticollis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Congenital muscular torticollis (CMT) is a relatively common neck deformity in infancy. The aim of our research was to determine the value of high-frequency and color Doppler ultrasonography in diagnosing CMT. Methods Patients with a clinical suspicion of CMT underwent an ultrasound examination before diagnosis, and the sonographic characteristics were analyzed and compared with the clinical findings. Results The sensitivity and specificity of an ultrasound diagnosis for CMT was 95.83% and 83.33%, respectively. The patients were divided into 2 groups based on the stage of the disease: the early-stage group (age <1 year) and the late-stage group(age ≥1 year). Differences existed between the two groups with respect to sonographic findings and clinical characteristics. The sonographic characteristics of the early-stage group included local thickening of the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM), weak or uneven echoes, and blood flow signals around or inside most of the lesions. The sonographic characteristics of the late-stage group included diffusely hyperechoic, or cord-like hyperechoic signals inside the muscle layer without significant blood flow signals. Conclusions Different stage of CMT patients had different sonographic characteristics. High-frequency and color Doppler ultrasonography can serve as adjunct confirmation tool for the diagnosis of CMT. PMID:23102117

  15. Scintigraphy and Doppler ultrasonography for the evaluation of obstructive urinary calculi.

    PubMed

    Gandolpho, L; Sevillano, M; Barbieri, A; Ajzen, S; Schor, N; Ortiz, V; Heilberg, I P

    2001-06-01

    Forty-seven patients with unilateral obstructive calculi (12 males and 35 females) were submitted to 99mTc-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) or 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scans for assessment of renal function. The scans revealed unilateral functional deficit in 68 and 66% of the patients, respectively. A calculus size of 1.1 to 2.0 cm was significantly associated with deficit detected by DTPA, but duration of obstruction and calculus localization were not. After relief of the obstruction, the mean percent renal function of the affected kidney was found to be significantly increased from 25 +/- 12% to 29 +/- 12% in DTPA and from 21 +/- 15% to 24 +/- 12% in DMSA. Initial Doppler ultrasonography performed in 35 patients detected an increased resistive index in 10 (29%). In the remaining patients with a normal resistive index, ureteral urinary jet was observed, indicating partial obstruction. The high frequency of renal function impairment detected by DTPA and of tubulointerstitial damage detected by DMSA as well as the slight amelioration of unilateral renal function after relief of obstruction suggest that scintigraphy assessment may help evaluate the unilateral percentage of renal function and monitor renal function recovery when it occurs. The presence of a urinary jet detected by Doppler ultrasonography further indicates the severity of obstruction and the recovery prognosis.

  16. Blood flow in intracranial aneurysms treated with Pipeline embolization devices: computational simulation and verification with Doppler ultrasonography on phantom models

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to validate a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of flow-diverter treatment through Doppler ultrasonography measurements in patient-specific models of intracranial bifurcation and side-wall aneurysms. Methods: Computational and physical models of patient-specific bifurcation and sidewall aneurysms were constructed from computed tomography angiography with use of stereolithography, a three-dimensional printing technology. Flow dynamics parameters before and after flow-diverter treatment were measured with pulse-wave and color Doppler ultrasonography, and then compared with CFD simulations. Results: CFD simulations showed drastic flow reduction after flow-diverter treatment in both aneurysms. The mean volume flow rate decreased by 90% and 85% for the bifurcation aneurysm and the side-wall aneurysm, respectively. Velocity contour plots from computer simulations before and after flow diversion closely resembled the patterns obtained by color Doppler ultrasonography. Conclusion: The CFD estimation of flow reduction in aneurysms treated with a flow-diverting stent was verified by Doppler ultrasonography in patient-specific phantom models of bifurcation and side-wall aneurysms. The combination of CFD and ultrasonography may constitute a feasible and reliable technique in studying the treatment of intracranial aneurysms with flow-diverting stents. PMID:25754367

  17. Blood flow in intracranial aneurysms treated with Pipeline embolization devices: computational simulation and verification with Doppler ultrasonography on phantom models.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Anderson Chun On; Lai, Simon Sui Man; Chung, Wai Choi; Tang, Abraham Yik Sau; Leung, Gilberto Ka Kit; Poon, Alexander Kai Kei; Yu, Alfred Cheuk Hang; Chow, Kwok Wing

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to validate a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of flow-diverter treatment through Doppler ultrasonography measurements in patient-specific models of intracranial bifurcation and side-wall aneurysms. Computational and physical models of patient-specific bifurcation and sidewall aneurysms were constructed from computed tomography angiography with use of stereolithography, a three-dimensional printing technology. Flow dynamics parameters before and after flow-diverter treatment were measured with pulse-wave and color Doppler ultrasonography, and then compared with CFD simulations. CFD simulations showed drastic flow reduction after flow-diverter treatment in both aneurysms. The mean volume flow rate decreased by 90% and 85% for the bifurcation aneurysm and the side-wall aneurysm, respectively. Velocity contour plots from computer simulations before and after flow diversion closely resembled the patterns obtained by color Doppler ultrasonography. The CFD estimation of flow reduction in aneurysms treated with a flow-diverting stent was verified by Doppler ultrasonography in patient-specific phantom models of bifurcation and side-wall aneurysms. The combination of CFD and ultrasonography may constitute a feasible and reliable technique in studying the treatment of intracranial aneurysms with flow-diverting stents.

  18. Anterior mitral valve aneurysm perforation secondary to aortic valve endocarditis detected by Doppler colour flow mapping.

    PubMed

    Decroly, P; Vandenbossche, J L; Englert, M

    1989-02-01

    We report a case of mitral valve aneurysm formation and perforation, secondary to Streptococcus sanguis endocarditis of the aortic valve. Aneurysm formation was documented by cross-sectional echocardiography and its perforation was established by Doppler colour flow mapping, and subsequently confirmed at surgery.

  19. Hepatocellular Carcinoma Treated with Chemoembolization: Assessment with Contrast-Enhanced Doppler Ultrasonography

    SciTech Connect

    Catalano, Orlando; Esposito, Maria; Lobianco, Roberto; Cusati, Bianca; Altei, Francesco; Siani, Alfredo

    1999-11-15

    Purpose: To report our preliminary experience concerning the use of Doppler ultrasonography (DUS) techniques after intravenous injection of the galactose-based contrast agent Levovist in the assessment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE). The sonographic findings are correlated with those obtained using iodized oil (Lipiodol) helical computed tomography (CT). Methods: For 7 months we studied 28 patients with cirrhosis and HCC (a total of 43 nodules) who had undergone TACE between 18 and 30 days previously. The lesions were investigated with color Doppler ultrasonography (CDUS) and power Doppler ultrasonography (PDUS), before and after infusion of the echo-contrast agent (300 mg/ml, maximum 1 injection for each nodule, administered at constant velocity within 60-90 sec), and with helical Lipiodol-CT (0-7 days after DUS). In the retrospective analysis, special attention was given to the Doppler signals related to pulsatile intra- and perinodular flow and to the detection of new vessels after contrast agent injection. The signal intensity was graded as 0 (absent), 1 (low), 2 (medium), or 3 (high), while its distribution was classified as peripheral, central, or diffuse. Oily agent retention on CT scans was assessed as 0 (absent), I (<10%), II (<50%), III (>50%), or IV (homogeneous). These scores were awarded separately, without knowledge of the other judgments. Results: An hepatic global echo-enhancing effect was identified in all cases and always lasted long enough to allow an accurate analysis of all parenchymal lesions (at least 8 min). The signal scores could be evaluated in 39 of 43 HCCs, as follows: basal CDUS: grade 0 in 17 lesions, grade 1 in 16, grade 2 in 6; contrast-enhanced CDUS: grade 0 in 12 lesions, grade 1 in 10, grade 2 in 14, grade 3 in 3; basal PDUS: grade 0 in 15 lesions, grade 1 in 13, grade 2 in 9, grade 3 in 2; contrast-enhanced PDUS: grade 0 in 11 lesions, grade 1 in 9, grade 2 in 15

  20. A comparison of colour duplex ultrasonography after transurethral alprostadil and intracavernous alprostadil in the assessment of erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Ahn, H S; Lee, S W; Yoon, S J; Hann, H J; Hong, J M

    2004-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether transurethral alprostadil could be used for the diagnosis of erectile dysfunction using colour duplex ultrasound. The ultrasonography results were compared after transurethral and intracavernous alprostadil administration in 20 patients with erectile dysfunction. There were no significant differences in the mean peak systolic velocities (PSVs) between the two routes of administration, but the mean end diastolic velocities (EDVs) showed significant differences, with patients treated with transurethral alprostadil having higher EDVs. Linear regression analysis of the PSVs reached following the two routes of administration showed a moderate relationship, but linear regression analysis of the EDVs showed no relationship. We concluded that transurethral alprostadil was an inappropriate vasoactive drug to use with colour duplex ultrasonography for the evaluation of patients with erectile dysfunction because it required a longer scan time and it was less effective and less reliable than intracavernous alprostadil at stimulating complete corporeal smooth muscle relaxation.

  1. Evaluation of pulmonary arterial pressure by Doppler colour flow mapping in patients with a ductus arteriosus.

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, K; Tasneem, H

    1990-01-01

    Blood flow in the pulmonary artery was studied by Doppler colour flow mapping and cardiac catheterisation in 19 patients with a ductus arteriosus and different pulmonary artery pressures. In the four patients with normal pulmonary artery pressures colour Doppler flow mapping showed multicoloured wide and long systolic and diastolic jets in the pulmonary artery. In the 15 patients with raised pulmonary arterial pressure the systolic jets varied from multicoloured to red and were thinner: in patients with considerably raised pulmonary arterial pressure the jets became redder during diastole. The Doppler velocity tracings showed that in patients with normal pulmonary artery pressures the mean peak systolic velocity was higher than the mean end diastolic velocity--so that in all four the ratio of peak systolic velocity to end diastolic velocity was less than 2. The mean peak systolic velocity was much higher than the mean end diastolic velocity in 13 of the 15 patients with raised pulmonary artery pressure; this meant that the ratio of peak systolic velocity to end diastolic velocity was greater than 2 in 10 of 11 patients. The end diastolic velocity was significantly lower in those patients with raised pulmonary artery pressure than in those with normal artery pressure. There was an inverse linear correlation between the mean pulmonary artery pressure and end diastolic ductal jet velocity in 17 of the 19 patients. Colour flow mapping and this quantitative Doppler technique can detect pulmonary artery hypertension in patients with a ductus arteriosus. Images PMID:2278800

  2. Radiologic importance of a high-resistive vertebral artery Doppler waveform on carotid duplex ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Kim, Esther S H; Thompson, Megan; Nacion, Kristine M; Celestin, Carmel; Perez, Alejandro; Gornik, Heather L

    2010-08-01

    The appearance of the vertebral artery (VA) waveform on a pulsed Doppler examination performed during standard carotid duplex ultrasonography (CDU) may suggest vertebrobasilar disease. We sought to determine the radiographic importance of high-resistive (HR) pulsed Doppler VA waveforms seen on CDU. The Noninvasive Vascular Laboratory database was queried for CDU studies noting the HR VA Doppler signal. Studies with unilateral or bilateral HR and antegrade VA waveforms with correlative neuroimaging studies within 60 days were included. Imaging reports were reviewed to determine the following: (1) a normal VA; (2) at least moderate distal VA or basilar artery (BA) stenosis, occlusion, or dissection; (3) a congenitally diminutive VA; or (4) other abnormalities. Of 1338 studies with 1 or more HR VA waveforms, 79 studies met all inclusion criteria (n = 157 arteries) and had adequate correlative neuroimaging. There were 90 HR VAs, and HR waveforms were equally distributed between right and left sides. The mean peak systolic velocity of HR versus low-resistive (LR) VAs was 51.7 versus 63.6 cm/s (P = .04); the mean end-diastolic velocity of HR versus LR VAs was 4.6 versus 17.3 cm/s (P < .001); and the resistive index of HR versus LR VAs was 0.92 versus 0.73 (P < .001). Of all HR VAs, 18.9% were normal; 38.9% had distal vertebrobasilar stenosis or occlusion; 35.6% were congenitally diminutive; and 6.7% had other abnormalities (proximal stenosis, excessive tortuosity, fibromuscular dysplasia, and BA hypoplasia). The finding of an HR spectral Doppler signal in the VA was associated with major vertebrobasilar disease (46% of cases) and should prompt additional neuroimaging in the appropriate clinical situation.

  3. Testicular resistive index determined by Doppler ultrasonography in men with spinal cord injury - a case series.

    PubMed

    Krebs, J; Göcking, K; Pannek, J

    2015-09-01

    In this case series, the testicular resistive index was determined in men with spinal cord injury. In ten men participating in our fertility programme, the peak systolic and end-diastolic velocity of centripetal testicular arteries was measured in triplicates by Doppler ultrasonography to calculate the testicular resistive index. Furthermore, the right and left testicular volume was determined by ultrasonography, blood samples were obtained for hormonal evaluation, and sperm analysis was performed according to the WHO guidelines. The median testicular resistive index measured 0.69 and was significantly (P < 0.001) greater than the reported cut-off value of 0.6. The spermiograms were characterised by normal sperm count but decreased sperm motility and plasma membrane integrity. The median right and left testicular volume was significantly (P < 0.01) smaller compared to the volumes measured in able-bodied adult males without scrotal pathology and measured 8.4 ml and 7.2 ml respectively. There was a significant (P = 0.005) correlation (rs  = 0.81) between testicular resistive index and sperm concentration. However, no correlations were observed between testicular resistive index and other variables. The testicular resistive index in men with spinal cord injury was significantly greater than 0.6. Measuring the testicular resistive index may represent a useful additional parameter in the assessment of infertility in spinal cord-injured men.

  4. Clinical applications of colour Doppler energy imaging in the female reproductive tract and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Guerriero, S; Ajossa, S; Lai, M P; Risalvato, A; Paoletti, A M; Melis, G B

    1999-01-01

    This review describes the usefulness of colour Doppler energy (CDE) (or power Doppler) imaging to measure vascularization in the female reproductive tract. CDE imaging is characterized by an increased sensitivity to flow, and thus may be useful in low-flow states and when optimal Doppler angles cannot be obtained. In addition, longer segments of vessels and more individual vessels can be visualized with CDE imaging. The role of CDE imaging in the evaluation of stromal vasculature in normal and in polycystic ovaries is described, and the relationship between follicular vascularity and outcome following in-vitro fertilization are discussed, together with the findings obtained from the evaluation of thecal arteriole of corpus luteum in early pregnancy. The fundamental role of CDE imaging in differentiation among ovarian masses is also reviewed. We summarize the role of CDE imaging in pregnancy, and describe two new applications of three-dimensional power Doppler sonography and the use of ultrasound contrast media. In conclusion, CDE imaging can replace conventional colour Doppler when the information on the direction of flow is not useful. Moreover, the technique appears superior to others for describing microvascular architecture and determining the presence or absence of flow.

  5. Screening for rheumatoid arthritis with finger joint power Doppler ultrasonography: quantification of conventional power Doppler ultrasonographic scoring.

    PubMed

    Fukae, Jun; Shimizu, Masato; Kon, Yujiro; Tanimura, Kazuhide; Matsuhashi, Megumi; Kamishima, Tamotsu; Koike, Takao

    2009-01-01

    Power Doppler ultrasonography (PD-US) has proved to be a useful technique to measure synovial vascularity due to its capability to provide data that can be used to evaluate the level of joint inflammation and assess rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We have developed a novel PD-US finger joint scoring method that introduces quantitative measurements into the conventional PD-US assessment method. A comparison of the two methods revealed that our novel PD-US method strongly correlates with the conventional method in terms of RA assessment. We performed finger joint PD-US on 69 patients with RA and 70 patients who had multiple joint pain but showed no evidence of inflammatory diseases (non-inflammatory disease, NI) and measured the synovial vascularity of the metacarpophalangeal joints 1-5 and proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints 1-5 for each patient. We analyzed the data with receiver operating characteristic analysis and, based on the results for the total vascularity of 20 finger joints, defined a cut-off value of 36% as discriminating between RA and NI. This cut-off value was found to be a valuable tool in screening for RA. We conclude that our finger joint PD-US scoring system is both useful and applicable for diagnosing RA.

  6. Uterine blood flow during various stages of pregnancy in dairy buffaloes using transrectal Doppler ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Varughese, E E; Brar, P S; Dhindsa, S S

    2013-07-01

    Reference data to assess function and perfusion of uteroplacental tissues by assessment of uterine blood flow parameters is not available in buffaloes. The objective of the present study was to assess and quantify blood flow parameters at various stages of gestation. A total of 54 Murrah buffaloes, six animals at every month of gestation, from two months to ten months, were subjected to transrectal Doppler ultrasonography to assess uterine blood flow in both the middle uterine arteries. Resistance and pulsatility indices, velocity and volume of blood flow, diameter of the artery and notch signal were measured for different waveforms. The resistance index value was positively correlated with pulsatility index (r=0.94, P<0.05) but negatively correlated with all other parameters for both arteries, ipsilateral and contralateral to the fetus. With a significant advancement of pregnancy, there was reduction in resistance index with a significant increase in velocity, volume of blood flow and diameter in both arteries. There was a significant increase in the volume and velocity of blood flow (P<0.05) during the last trimester with increased growth demands of the fetus. The notch signal disappeared by 20-24 weeks. Thus, transrectal Doppler ultrasongraphy proved to be a useful non-invasive method to assess the uterine blood flow during pregnancy in buffaloes. This could be a valuable tool to ascertain hemodynamic changes in complicated pregnancy (e.g. abnormalities in uterine blood flow/placenta/fetus) and its extent of deviation from normal.

  7. Quantitative investigation of in vitro flow using three-dimensional colour Doppler ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Guo, Z; Moreau, M; Rickey, D W; Picot, P A; Fenster, A

    1995-01-01

    A quantitative in vitro flow study was performed by using a three-dimensional colour Doppler imaging system. This system was based on a clinical ultrasound instrument with its transducer mounted on a motor-driven translation stage. A vascular and tissue-mimicking phantom containing two wall-less vessels, one normal and another stenotic, was used to quantify the measurement accuracy of the flow velocity and the flow field. Steady state flows, having Reynolds numbers ranging between 460 and 1300, were generated by a computer-controlled positive displacement pump. Effects of the parameter settings of the ultrasound instrument on results of the estimation of flow field were also studied. Experimental results show that our three-dimensional colour Doppler system's velocity accuracy was better than 7% of the Nyquist velocity and its spatial accuracy was better than 0.5 mm. The system showed a good correlation (r = 0.999) between the estimated and the true mean flow velocity, and a good correlation (r = 0.998) between the estimated maximum and the true mean flow velocity. This study is our first step toward validating the measurement of the three-dimensional velocity and wall shear stress distributions by using three-dimensional colour Doppler ultrasound

  8. Adding Doppler Ultrasonography to the Follow-Up of Patients with Vasospastic Disorder Improves Objectivity

    PubMed Central

    Karabacak, Kubilay; Kadan, Murat; Kaya, Erkan; Erol, Gokhan; Arslan, Gokhan; Celik, Murat; Doğanci, Suat; Demirkilic, Ufuk

    2015-01-01

    Background Assessing therapeutic efficacy and patient satisfaction objectively and quantitatively has always been a problem in patients with vasospastic disorders. We aimed to present the additive value of ultrasonographic assessment of peripheral arteries secondary to cold stimulation, as a test for treatment efficacy during follow-up. Material/Methods Arterial blood flow rates were measured from radial artery with Doppler USG in patients who presented to our department with vasospastic disorders. Ultrasonography was performed at the following intervals; before cold stimulation and at 5th, 10th, 15th, 20th minutes of cold stimulation. Patients were controlled by repeat cold stimulation test and Doppler US at the 2nd month of the treatment. Results were analyzed with SPSS for Mac 20.0 package program. Results We enrolled 46 patients in the study. All patients were male and mean age was 22.3±2.17 years. Most common symptoms were cyanosis and coldness. There were statistically significant differences between pre-treatment and post-treatment arterial blood flow rates at each measurement time point (p<0.001) except initial measurement (p>0.05). On post-treatment values, there were 10.04±0.78 cm/s increase in 5th minute, 6.25±1.39 cm/s in 10th minute, 6.43±2.13 cm/s in 15th minute, and 6.38±1.86 cm/s in 20th minute measurements. All increases at the 5 time points were statistically meaningful when compared to their pre-treatment corresponding time points (p<0.001). Conclusions Doppler flowmetry added to standard cold stimulation test for evaluating the patients with vasospastic disorders provides better and more objective results when compared to the patient-oriented subjective scoring systems. PMID:25639947

  9. Planning digital artery perforators using color Doppler ultrasonography: A preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Shintani, Kosuke; Takamatsu, Kiyohito; Uemura, Takuya; Onode, Ema; Okada, Mitsuhiro; Kazuki, Kenichi; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2016-05-01

    Digital artery perforator (DAP) flaps have been applied for the coverage of finger soft tissue defects. Although an advantage of this method is that there is no scarification of the digital arteries, it is difficult to identify the location of the perforators during intraoperative elevation of the DAP flap. In this study, anatomically reliable locations of DAPs were confirmed using color Doppler ultrasonography (US) in healthy volunteers. A successful case using an adiposal-only DAP flap for the coverage of a released digital nerve using preoperative DAP mapping with color Doppler US is also described. A total of 40 digital arteries in 20 fingers of the right hands of five healthy volunteers (mean age: 32.2 years old) were evaluated. The DAPs were identified using color flow imaging based on the beat of the digital artery in the short axial view. In total, 133 perforators were detected, 76 (an average of 3.8 per finger) arising from the radial digital artery and 57 (an average of 2.9 per finger) arising from ulnar digital artery. Sixty-three perforators (an average of 3.2 per finger) in the middle phalanges and 70 (an average of 3.5 per finger) in the proximal phalanges were found. Overall, an average of 1.7 perforators from each digital artery was detected in the proximal or middle phalanges. Moreover, at least one DAP per phalanx was reliably confirmed using color Doppler US. Preoperative knowledge of DAP mapping could make elevating the DAP flap easier and safer.

  10. Accuracy of color Doppler ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging in diagnosis of placenta accreta: A survey of 82 cases

    PubMed Central

    Ayati, Sedigheh; Leila, Leila; Pezeshkirad, Masoud; Seilanian Toosi, Farokh; Nekooei, Sirous; Shakeri, Mohammad Taghi; Golmohammadi, Mansoureh Sadat

    2017-01-01

    Background: Placenta adhesive disorder (PAD) is one of the most common causes of postpartum hemorrhage and peripartum hysterectomy. The main risk factors are placenta previa and prior uterine surgery such as cesarean section. Diagnosis of placenta adhesive disorders can lead to a decrease of maternal mortality and morbidities. Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of color Doppler ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of PADs. Materials and Methods: In this is cross-sectional study, Eighty-two pregnant women who were high risk for PAD underwent color Doppler ultrasound and MRI after 18 weeks of gestation. The sonographic and MRI findings were compared with the final pathologic or clinical findings. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Mean maternal age was 31.42±4.2 years. The average gravidity was third pregnancy. 46% of patients had placenta previa. The history of the previous cesarean section was seen in 79 cases (96%). The diagnosis of placenta adhesive disorder was found in 17 cases (21%). Doppler sonography sensitivity was 87% and MRI sensitivity was 76% (p=0.37). Doppler sonography specificity was 63% and MRI specificity was 83% (p=0.01). Conclusion: Women with high-risk factors for PAD should undergo Doppler ultrasonography at first. When results on Doppler sonography are equivocal for PAD, MRI can be performed due to its high specificity. PMID:28835939

  11. Intrarenal post-traumatic pseudoaneurysm-USG colour Doppler diagnosis: a case report with review of literature.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Muddassir; Abbas, S Zafar; Haque, Faisal; Rizvi, S Aijaz Abbas; Ali, Wasif Mohammad

    2007-09-01

    Renal artery pseudoaneurysm, although a well-known complication in patients after penetrating trauma or iatrogenic injury, has rarely been described after blunt torso trauma. A 22-year-old man suffered an accident while on a motorcycle. Upon arrival in the Emergency Room, the patient was unconscious, hypotensive and had hematuria. Initial investigations revealed a fractured shaft of the right femur, multiple rib fractures with hemothorax, extradural haematoma on the right side and a laceration in the right kidney. After the evacuation of intracranial bleed, the patient was managed conservatively. The patient recovered well and was discharged on the 15th post-trauma day. The patient was again present in the emergency room after 6 weeks with 1-week history of gross hematuria. Ultrasonography revealed an anechoic lesion in the right kidney with pulsatile flow on colour Doppler. Further investigation with computed tomography renal angiography was done, which confirmed the pseudoaneurysm of a branch of renal artery. The patient was referred to a higher centre where he was successfully managed with selective arterial coil embolisation.

  12. Using Doppler ultrasonography on day 34 of pregnancy to predict pregnancy loss in lactating dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Dale E; Galvão, Klibs N; Mortensen, Christopher J; Risco, Carlos A; Ealy, Alan D

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine whether uterine or ovarian vascular dynamics could be used to identify cows at risk for pregnancy loss. Our hypothesis was that cows that subsequently lose their pregnancy will have decreased corpus luteal (CL) perfusion, or an increased resistance index (RI; reduced blood flow), or both, at d 34 of pregnancy. Day 34 was chosen because it is a common time for dairy cattle to be checked for pregnancy. This experiment was performed in 2 replicates from November 2011 to April 2012 (n = 69) and from November 2012 to April 2013 (n = 53). Cows were bred via timed artificial insemination using Ovsynch-56 and checked for pregnancy on d 32 after artificial insemination. At d 34, cows confirmed pregnant were examined via transrectal Doppler ultrasonography. Blood samples collected via coccygeal vein were used to measure circulating plasma progesterone concentrations. Diameter of the corpus luteum and crown-rump length were measured. Color power Doppler ultrasonography was used to determine vascular perfusion to the CL, and RI was measured for the uterine arteries just after branching from the umbilical artery. Records were later examined to identify pregnancy status of cows after reconfirmation. Abortion rate did not differ between replicates (11.6% in replicate 1, 9.4% in replicate 2). Mean crown-rump length of embryos that were carried to term was greater on d 34 than that in cows that aborted (14.23 ± 0.27 vs. 13.21 ± 0.53 mm). Circulating progesterone concentration at d 34 was greater for cows that carried pregnancies to term than for those that aborted (9.1 ± 0.7 vs. 7.5 ± 1.0 ng/mL). The final logistic regression model consisted of crown-rump length, progesterone concentration, and RI of the uterine artery contralateral to pregnancy. Decreased crown-rump length and progesterone concentration tended to be associated with increased odds ratio for pregnancy loss, whereas CL perfusion and uterine blood flow were not

  13. Evaluation of arterial digital blood flow using Doppler ultrasonography in healthy dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Müller, H; Heinrich, M; Mielenz, N; Reese, S; Steiner, A; Starke, A

    2017-06-06

    Local circulatory disturbances have been implicated in the development of foot disorders in cattle. The goals of this study were to evaluate the suitability of the interdigital artery in the pastern region in both hind limbs using pulsed-wave (PW) Doppler ultrasonography and to investigate quantitative arterial blood flow variables at that site in dairy cows. An Esaote MyLabOne ultrasound machine with a 10-MHz linear transducer was used to assess blood flow in the interdigital artery in the pastern region in both hind limbs of 22 healthy German Holstein cows. The cows originated from three commercial farms and were restrained in a standing hoof trimming chute without sedation. A PW Doppler signal suitable for analysis was obtained in 17 of 22 cows. The blood flow profiles were categorised into four curve types, and the following quantitative variables were measured in three uniform cardiac cycles: vessel diameter, pulse rate, maximum systolic velocity, maximum diastolic velocity, end-diastolic velocity, reverse velocity, maximum time-averaged mean velocity, blood flow rate, resistance index and persistence index. The measurements did not differ among cows from the three farms. Maximum systolic velocity, vessel diameter and pulse rate did not differ but other variables differed significantly among blood flow profiles. Differences in weight-bearing are thought to be responsible for the normal variability of blood flow profiles in healthy cows. The scanning technique used in this report for evaluation of blood flow in the interdigital artery appears suitable for further investigations in healthy and in lame cows.

  14. Ultrasonography and color Doppler of proximal gluteal enthesitis in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The presence of enthesitis (insertional inflammation) in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is difficult to establish clinically and may influence classification and treatment of the disease. We used ultrasonography (US) and color Doppler (CD) imaging to detect enthesitis at the small and deep-seated proximal insertion of the gluteus medius fascia on the posterior iliac crest where clinical diagnosis is difficult. The findings in JIA patients were compared with those obtained in healthy controls and with the patients' MRI results. Methods Seventy-six proximal gluteus medius insertions were studied clinically (tenderness to palpation of the posterior iliac crest) and by US and CD (echogenicity, thickness, hyperemia) in 38 patients with JIA and in 38 healthy controls, respectively (median age 13 years, range 7-18 years). In addition, an additional MRI examination of the sacroiliac joints and iliac crests was performed in all patients. Results In patients with focal, palpable tenderness, US detected decreased echogenicity of the entheses in 53% of the iliac crests (bilateral in 37% and unilateral in 32%). US also revealed significantly thicker entheses in JIA patients compared to healthy controls (p < 0.003 left side, p < 0.001 right side). There was no significant difference in thickness between the left and right sides in individual subjects. Hyperemia was detected by CD in 37% (28/76) of the iliac crests and by contrast-enhanced MRI in 12% (6/50). Conclusions According to US, the gluteus medius insertion was thicker in JIA patients than in controls, and it was hypoechoic (enthesitis) in about half of the patients. These findings may represent chronic, inactive disease in some of the patients, because there was only limited Doppler flow and MRI contrast enhancement. The present study indicates that US can be useful as an adjunct to clinical examination for improved assessment of enthesitis in JIA. This may influence disease classification

  15. Monitoring of hepatocellular carcinoma, following proton radiotherapy, with contrast-enhanced color Doppler ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Niizawa, Gaku; Ikegami, Tadashi; Matsuzaki, Yasushi; Saida, Yukihisa; Tohno, Eriko; Kurosawa, Takashi; Saito, Yoshifumi; Chiba, Toshiya; Kita, Yasuyo; Tokuuye, Koichi; Akine, Yasuyuki; Tanaka, Naomi

    2005-03-01

    We have reported that proton radiotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a safe and effective therapeutic option. However, it is difficult to evaluate its effect in certain cases. Recently, it has been reported that the usage of contrast-enhanced color Doppler ultrasonography (CECDU) can improve diagnostic accuracy, both in terms of the presence of hepatic tumor and in the evaluation of treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the usefulness of CECDU in assessing the therapeutic response of HCC treated with proton radiotherapy. Twenty-two patients treated with the proton radiotherapy were studied. We inspected HCC lesions by CECDU, before and after the irradiation, over time. The magnitude of blood flow in the HCC was quantified on still images by CECDU. The ratio of the number of color pixels against that of the total number of pixels in the tumor area was defined as the tumor blood flow ratio (TBFR). Immediately after the proton treatment, a transient increase of blood flow in the tumor was recognized in more than half of the patients, while the TBFR was unchanged or decreased in the remaining patients. At longer periods after irradiation, the TBFR in all HCCs gradually decreased, and this reduction of TBFR was statistically significant from 9 months after irradiation. These findings are consistent with those obtained previously by computed tomography (CT) as well as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We propose CECDU as a useful diagnostic option for the evaluation of HCC treated with proton radiotherapy.

  16. Diuretic Doppler ultrasonography in chronic unilateral partial ureteric obstruction in dogs.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, H; Tsuji, Y

    2002-07-01

    To compare the effects of diuresis induced by a loop diuretic (frusemide), an osmotic diuretic (mannitol) and a high-osmolar radio-contrast medium (sodium iothalamate) on the intrarenal resistive index (RI) in dogs with chronic unilateral partial ureteric obstruction (UPUO). The split renal clearance and intrarenal RI were estimated in 11 dogs with chronic UPUO. Doppler ultrasonography measurements of the interlobar arteries were obtained before and 10 min after the intravenous infusion of 1 mg/kg frusemide, 1 g/kg mannitol or 20 mL 60% sodium iothalamate. The same experimental protocol was repeated with another drug at 1-week intervals. There was a significant difference between the intrarenal RI of obstructed and unobstructed kidneys in the chronic phase of UPUO. While mannitol and sodium iothalamate significantly increased the RI in both kidneys, differences in RI between the kidneys decreased after infusing the two drugs. However, while frusemide insignificantly increased the RI in the obstructed kidney, it decreased the RI in unobstructed one. Consequently, the difference in RI between the kidneys increased significantly after administering frusemide. There were no significant differences in urinary volume after administering each of the drugs. As there were no significant differences in the diuretic effects of the drugs, frusemide may have additional effects on the RI of unobstructed kidneys other than diuresis. Frusemide increased the difference between the intrarenal RI of the kidneys and therefore may improve the detection of unilateral urinary obstruction in humans.

  17. The Effectiveness of Real-Time Feedback with an Audible Pulse: A Preliminary Study in Renal Doppler Ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min Hee; Lee, Hae Kyung; Choi, Seo-Youn; Yi, Boem Ha

    The effectiveness of real-time feedback using an audible pulse in renal Doppler ultrasonography was evaluated. This study was approved by the institutional review board of our hospital. Written informed consent was provided by all volunteers at enrollment. The 26 healthy volunteers enrolled in this study underwent Doppler ultrasound of both kidneys using audible and inaudible pulses in randomized order and at 1-week intervals. Doppler waveforms were obtained at the interlobar or arcuate arteries using a 2-mm Doppler gate. Each session was considered complete when reproducible waveforms were obtained for 5 s in three predefined regions of the kidney. The scan times needed to obtain waveforms of the right and left kidneys were recorded separately. Measurements were compared using a paired t-test and a two-sample Wilcoxon rank-sum test. The total recorded Doppler sonography scan time for each kidney ranged from 33 to 146 s. The mean scan time was 56.83 s (right, 58.19 s; left, 55.46 s) in the audible session and 72.58 s (right, 72.08 s; left, 73.08 s) in the inaudible session. The scan times were significantly shorter in the audible than inaudible session (p<0.001), whereas the difference in the scan times between the right and left kidneys was not significant. The order of the sessions had no effect on the total scan time. Real-time feedback using an audible pulse may encourage patient cooperation during breath-holding and can shorten the time needed to perform Doppler ultrasonography.

  18. EFFECT OF TRANSFUSION THERAPY ON TRANSCRANIAL DOPPLER ULTRASONOGRAPHY VELOCITIES IN CHILDREN WITH SICKLE CELL DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Kwiatkowski, Janet L.; Yim, Eunsil; Miller, Scott; Adams, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Children with sickle cell disease and abnormal transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasonography have a high risk of stroke, but this risk is greatly reduced when chronic transfusion therapy is administered. The change in TCD velocities during chronic transfusion therapy and rate and frequency of normalization of TCD findings have not been studied extensively. Procedures Using data from children with sickle cell disease enrolled as potential subjects in the Optimizing Primary Stroke Prevention in Sickle Cell Anemia (STOP 2) trial, we characterized the change in TCD velocities on transfusion therapy and identified predictors of developing a normal TCD. Results Among 88 children with serial TCD data after starting transfusions for abnormal TCD 46 (52%) converted to normal TCD after a mean of 4.3 months (median 3.0; range 0.85-14.3 months) of transfusions. TCD studies remained abnormal in 19/88 (21.6%) after a mean of 2.4 years of transfusion. The median TCD velocity was lowered by 38 cm/s within three months of initiating transfusions, followed by a more gradual decline then stabilization of velocities, although with significant individual variation. Factors associated with conversion to normal TCD included lower initial TCD velocity, younger age, and higher pre-transfusion hemoglobin level during transfusion therapy. Conclusion Younger children with higher pre-transfusion hemoglobin levels and lower abnormal TCD velocities are most likely to have rapid normalization of TCD on transfusions. Long-term follow-up of children with persistently abnormal exams or worsening velocities on transfusion is needed to determine if these children are at higher risk of stroke. PMID:21370410

  19. Increased incidence of abnormal reflux flow in lower extremity veins of cirrhotic patients by Doppler ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Degirmenci, Nevbahar A; Ozakyol, Aysegul H; Atlanoglu, Sahinde; Akcan, Esra; Susuz, Salim

    2013-03-01

    To determine incidence of abnormal reflux flow (ARF) in legs of cirrhotic patients by Doppler ultrasonography (DUS). We prospectively studied 100 patients and 56 controls from the Faculty of Medicine, Eskisehir Osmangazi University Eskisehir, Turkey, between January 2010 and December 2011. We classified the legs according to the Clinical Etiology Anatomy Pathophysiology (CEAP) scores. Lower extremity superficial and deep veins were examined in supine position by DUS for ARF. Reflux flows more than 1000 msec were considered as abnormal. Abnormal reflux flow was classified in 3 categories as superficial (SARF), deep (DARF), and SARF and/or DARF (ARF). We also performed abdominal DUS to depict anterior abdominal collateral and paraumbilical vein. Statistical analysis was carried out by using analysis of variance with Tukey test, t-test, and correlation coefficient analysis. Percentages of SARF in patients were 56%, DARF 52%, and ARF 58%. Correlation analysis showed association between SARF or DARF or ARF and cirrhosis (p=0.002, p=0.000, p=0.001). Patients were distributed within CEAP 1 to CEAP 4. There was an association between SARF or DARF and CEAP 1 (p=0.007, p=0.000) or CEAP 2 (p=0.004, p=0.041) or CEAP 4 (p=0.022, p=0.90). We showed no correlation between CEAP 3 and SARF or DARF. There were also correlation between paraumbilical vein and SARF (p=0.015). Cirrhotic patients increased incidence of ARF at lower extremity veins and CEAP classification creates and provides essential information.

  20. Color Doppler Ultrasonography-Targeted Perforator Mapping and Angiosome-Based Flap Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Gunnarsson, Gudjon Leifur; Tei, Troels; Thomsen, Jørn Bo

    2016-10-01

    Knowledge about perforators and angiosomes has inspired new and innovative flap designs for reconstruction of defects throughout the body. The purpose of this article is to share our experience using color Doppler ultrasonography (CDU)-targeted perforator mapping and angiosome-based flap reconstruction throughout the body. The CDU was used to identify the largest and best-located perforator adjacent to the defect to target the reconstruction. The cutaneous or fasciocutaneous flaps were raised, mobilized, and designed according to the reconstructive needs as rotation, advancement, or turnover flaps. We performed 148 reconstructions in 130 patients. Eleven facial reconstructions, 118 reconstructions in the body, 7 in the upper limbs, and 12 in the lower limbs. The propeller flap was used in 135 of 148 (91%) cases followed by the turnover design in 10 (7%) and the V to Y flap in 3 (2%) cases. The flaps were raised on 1 perforator in 98 (67%), 2 perforators in 48 (33%), and 3 perforators in 2 (1%) flaps. The reconstructive goal was achieved in 143 of 148 reconstructions (97%). In 5 cases, surgical revision was needed. No flaps were totally lost indicating a patent pedicle in all cases. We had 10 (7%) cases of major complications and 22 (15%) minor complications. The CDU-targeted perforator mapping and angiosome-based flap reconstruction are simple to perform, and we recommended its use for freestyle perforator flap reconstruction. All perforators selected by CDU was identified during surgery and used for reconstruction. The safe boundaries of angiosomes remain to be established.

  1. Using functional transcranial Doppler ultrasonography to assess language lateralisation: Influence of task and difficulty level

    PubMed Central

    Badcock, Nicholas A.; Nye, Abigail; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

    2011-01-01

    Language is lateralised to the left hemisphere in most people, but it is unclear whether the same degree and direction of lateralisation is found for all verbal tasks and whether laterality is affected by task difficulty. We used functional transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (fTCD) to assess the lateralisation of language processing in 27 young adults using three tasks: word generation (WG), auditory naming (AN), and picture story (PS). WG and AN are active tasks requiring behavioural responses whereas PS is a passive task that involves listening to an auditory story accompanied by pictures. We also examined the effect of task difficulty by a post hoc behavioural categorisation of trials in the WG task and a word frequency manipulation in the AN task. fTCD was used to measure task-dependent blood flow velocity changes in the left and right middle cerebral arteries. All of these tasks were significantly left lateralised: WG, 77% of individuals left, 5% right; AN, 72% left: 4% right; PS, 56% left: 0% right. There were significant positive relationships between WG and AN (r = 0.56) as well as AN and PS (r = .76) but not WG and PS (r = −0.22). The task difficulty manipulation affected accuracy in both WG and AN tasks, as well as reaction time in the AN task, but did not significantly influence laterality indices in either task. It is concluded that verbal tasks are not interchangeable when assessing cerebral lateralisation, but that differences between tasks are not a consequence of task difficulty. PMID:23098198

  2. The usefulness of power Doppler ultrasonography in differentiating primary and secondary Raynaud's phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Il; Lee, Sang Yong; Yoo, Wan Hee

    2006-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess a usefulness of power Doppler ultrasonography (PDU) and compare the diagnostic value of PDU to nailfold capillaroscopy (NFC) in the patients with clinically diagnosed Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) and healthy controls. Forty-one patients with primary (n=19), secondary RP (n=22), and ten healthy controls underwent PDU and NFC examinations on the same day. Microvascularity was evaluated using PDU before and after cold challenges, and the PDU signals were qualitatively graded on a scale of 1-4. According to the change of microvascularity before and after cold challenges, the findings of PDU were classified into three groups: (1) 'pattern I' (normal microvascularity over grade 3 both before and after cold challenges), (2) 'pattern II' (decreased microvascularity to grade 1 or 2 only after cold challenge), and (3) 'pattern III' (decreased microvascularity of grade 1 or 2 both before and after cold challenges). PDU confirmed the presence of RP in all patients with clinically diagnosed RP and yielded a correct classification in 88.9% of the all persons analyzed (normal=100%, primary RP=89.5%, secondary RP=77.3%). The analysis was performed to assess the degree of agreement between the final diagnoses obtained by PDU and NFC. A good correlation rate was observed between PDU and NFC examinations in differentiating primary from secondary RP (Kappa=0.658, p<0.01). In conclusion, PDU examination with a cold challenge is a useful and reliable method to diagnose RP and discriminate between primary and secondary RP.

  3. Implementation of a Process for Initial Transcranial Doppler Ultrasonography in Children With Sickle Cell Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Crosby, Lori E.; Joffe, Naomi E.; Davis, Blair; Quinn, Charles T.; Shook, Lisa; Morgan, Darice; Simmons, Kenya; Kalinyak, Karen A.

    2016-01-01

    Stroke, a devastating complication of sickle cell anemia (SCA), can cause irreversible brain injury with physical and cognitive deficits. Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD) is a non-invasive tool for identifying children with SCA at highest risk of stroke. National guidelines recommend that TCD screening begin at age 2 years, yet there is research to suggest less than half of young children undergo screening. The purpose of this project was to use quality improvement methods to improve the proportion of patients aged 24–27 months who successfully completed their initial TCD from 25% to 75% by December 31, 2013. Quality improvement methods (e.g., process mapping, simplified failure mode effect analysis, and plan–do–study–act cycles) were used to develop and test processes for identifying eligible patients, scheduling TCDs, preparing children and families for the first TCD, and monitoring outcomes (i.e., TCD protocol). Progress was tracked using a report of eligible patients and a chart showing the age in months for the first successful TCD (population metric). As of December 2013, 100% of eligible patients successfully completed their initial TCD screen; this improvement was maintained for the next 20 months. In November 2014, a Welch’s one-way ANOVA was conducted. Results showed a statistically significant difference between the average age of first TCD for eligible patients born in 2009 and eligible patients born during the intervention period (2010–2013; F[1,11.712]=16.03, p=0.002). Use of quality improvement methods to implement a TCD protocol was associated with improved TCD screening rates in young children with SCA. PMID:27320459

  4. The role of colour Doppler imaging in the management of Peyronie's disease.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, M; Chilton, C P; Munson, K W; Williams, J H; Pallan, J H; Turner, G

    1998-04-01

    To determine the role of colour Doppler imaging (CDI) in the investigation of erectile dysfunction in patients with Peyronie's disease. Fifty consecutive patients (age 35-75 years) with Peyronie's disease who were considered suitable for surgical treatment were investigated using CDI to determine the haemodynamic variables of penile vasculature after an intracorporeal injection of 20 microg of alprostadil (with manual self-stimulation). A clinician independently recorded the quality of erection and the deformity. Twenty of 50 patients (40%) considered they had normal erectile function despite their penile deformity and all had normal responses, although they tended to exaggerate the degree of penile deformity. Of the 30 remaining patients, 21 who considered themselves to have erectile dysfunction had normal clinical and CDI haemodynamic responses to alprostadil. The remaining nine patients had a variety of erectile problems and whilst CDI showed altered haemodynamic values, in no case did CDI alter the proposed treatment based on the clinically apparent features of those patients. Colour Doppler imaging of the penis after pharmacologically induced erection gives anatomical and functional information in patients with Peyronie's disease but does not provide useful additional information to aid the selection of surgical treatment for the disease.

  5. Sonographic imaging of extra-testicular focal lesions: comparison of grey-scale, colour Doppler and contrast-enhanced ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Rafailidis, Vasileios; Robbie, Hasti; Konstantatou, Eleni; Huang, Dean Y; Deganello, Annamaria; Sellars, Maria E; Cantisani, Vito; Isidori, Andrea M

    2016-01-01

    Extra-testicular lesions are usually benign but present with nonspecific grey-scale sonography findings. This study assesses conventional sonographic characteristics in the differentiation of extra-testicular tumoural from inflammatory lesions and whether contrast-enhanced ultrasound has a role. A retrospective database analysis was performed. All patients were examined by experienced sonographers employing standard techniques combining grey-scale, colour Doppler sonography and contrast-enhanced ultrasound. Features recorded were: clinical symptoms, size, location, echogenicity, colour Doppler sonography and contrast-enhanced ultrasound enhancement. Vascularity on colour Doppler sonography and contrast-enhanced ultrasound was graded and compared. The lesions were classified as tumoural or inflammatory. The Chi-square test was used to analyse the sonographic patterns and kappa coefficient to measure the agreement between colour Doppler sonography and contrast-enhanced ultrasound. A total of 30 lesions were reviewed (median diameter 12 mm, range 5–80 mm, median age 52 years, range 18–86 years), including 13/30 tumoural and 17/30 inflammatory lesions. Lesions were hypoechoic (n = 12), isoechoic (n = 6), hyperechoic (n = 2) or mixed (n = 10). Grey-scale characteristics of tumoural vs. inflammatory lesions differed significantly (P = 0.026). On colour Doppler sonography, lesions had no vessels (n = 16), 2–3 vessels (n = 10) and ≥4 vessels (n = 4). On contrast-enhanced ultrasound, lesions showed no vascularity (n = 17), perfusion similar to testis (n = 7) and higher (n = 6). All abscesses identified (n = 9) showed no vascularity on both colour Doppler sonography and contrast-enhanced ultrasound. There was good agreement between these techniques in evaluating vascularity (κ = 0.719) and no significant difference between colour Doppler sonography and contrast-enhanced ultrasound of tumoural vs. inflammatory

  6. Doppler ultrasonography in obstetrics: from the diagnosis of fetal anemia to the treatment of intrauterine growth-restricted fetuses.

    PubMed

    Mari, Giancarlo

    2009-06-01

    After the adoption of the use of umbilical artery and middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity in high-risk pregnancies and in pregnancies that are at risk of having an anemic fetus, the main focus of Doppler ultrasonography in obstetrics today is intrauterine growth-restricted fetuses. What is most needed at this time are (1) training of sonographers and sonologists on how to perform a Doppler study, (2) an international classification of intrauterine growth-restricted fetuses, and (3) a study of the natural history of intrauterine growth-restricted fetuses that might contribute to a better understanding of the intrauterine growth-restriction process and to standard treatment of intrauterine growth-restricted fetuses. Future investigations, which would include randomized studies, could be designed from the results of such studies.

  7. Doppler Ultrasonography in Suspected Subclavian Artery Obstruction and in Patient Monitoring after Subclavian Stenting

    SciTech Connect

    Kablak-Ziembicka, Anna Przewlocki, Tadeusz; Pieniazek, Piotr; Musialek, Piotr; Kozanecki, Artur; Stopa, Ireneusz; Zalewski, Jaroslaw; Tracz, Wieslawa

    2007-09-15

    Purpose. Subclavian or innominate artery (SIA) stenosis affects up to 5% of patients referred to coronary bypass grafting; it is symptomatic in less than half of these. This study aimed to assess the Doppler ultrasonography (DU) findings in SIA obstruction and patients' follow-up after percutaneous angioplasty (PTA). Methods. The study enrolled 118 patients (68 men, 50 women), aged 61.3 {+-} 8.7 years, with suspected SIA obstruction, in whom peak systolic velocity (PSV) in the SIA and subclavian steal grade were assessed on DU and verified by quantitative angiography (QA). Serial follow-up DU was performed in patients treated with PTA. Results. Grade I-III of subclavian steal from the vertebral artery (VA) was found in 89.8% of patients. In the remaining 10.2% only a PSV increase in the SIA was observed. QA confirmed the presence of SIA obstruction in all patients (stenosis grade: 80.9 {+-} 17.3%). In patients with one-sided SIA obstruction, the ultrasonographic steal grade correlated with the QA stenosis grade (p < 0.001, r = 0.648). Lack of subclavian steal was noted in the case of distal subclavian stenosis, VA obstruction, VA originating from the aortic arch, and bilateral SIA obstruction. Successful PTA was performed in 77 of 83 patients referred to that procedure. PSV was reduced from 4.4 {+-} 1.2 (2.2-6.5) m/sec to 1.34 {+-} 0.51 (0.5-2.5) m/sec and flow in the VA was normalized. During the mean follow-up time of 24.7 {+-} 15.6 months, there was a gradual increase in the in-stent PSV as well as gradual VA flow alterations, resulting in symptom recurrence. More than a twofold PSV increase, compared with the post-PTA values, was an indicator of restenosis in 11 of 12 patients. Conclusions. Careful DU evaluation enables the recognition of SIA obstruction in all patients. Ninety percent of them have subclavian steal correlating with the stenosis grade. Restenosis can be reliably detected with DU based on in-stent PSV and VA flow alterations.

  8. Diagnostic value of colour Doppler twinkling artefact in sites negative for stones on B mode renal sonography.

    PubMed

    Turrin, Alberto; Minola, Paolo; Costa, Fortunato; Cerati, Luciana; Andrulli, Simeone; Trinchieri, Alberto

    2007-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the diagnostic value of the colour Doppler twinkling artefact (TA) in renal stone disease. To enhance the evidence of TA, a preliminary in vitro study was performed to optimise the setting of colour Doppler sonography. In the in vitro study, an oxen kidney was examined using an high-frequency (12.5 MHz) linear array probe in a water bath before and after the inoculation of an aliquot of powder obtained by fragmentation of a calcium oxalate stone. In the clinical study, 67 patients with diagnosis of urinary stone based on B-mode sonography and 67 matched control subjects were examined with colour Doppler sonography using a low-frequency (2.5 MHz) curvilinear phased array probe. In vitro, the injection of calcium oxalate powder in a bovine kidney sample induced the appearance of spots without any back shadowing appearance on B mode but with a large number of TA on colour Doppler. In vivo, TA was much more frequent in patients with stone disease (95.5%) compared to controls (9.0%) (P < 0.001). TA was highly associated to renal stone disease and was also present in renal areas where a stone was undetected with B mode approach suggesting its diagnostic role although further studies are needed to confirm its accuracy. The type of instrumentation and its setting is crucial to obtain reproducible results.

  9. [A test object for quality control of the instrument for doppler (duplex) ultrasonography, based on the Draft IEC 61685 Standard].

    PubMed

    Kollmann, C; Bezemer, R A; Fredfeldt, K E; Schaarschmidt, U G; Teirlinck, C J

    1999-12-01

    The authors, forming part of a multicenter project funded by the European Community, summarize the validation of a tissue-mimicking flow Doppler test object and of procedures for testing medical diagnostic Doppler equipment. The results of the project are expected to contribute to a future international IEC Standard concerning flow Doppler test objects (Draft IEC 61685 Standard) and for the European Medical Device Directive (MD 93/42/EEC). Within this project a test protocol was developed that includes a set of different procedures, suitable for checking Spectral and Colour Doppler systems. The performance parameters for describing the image quality as well as the accuracy and the correct functioning of a system are in accordance with the definitions made in the Draft IEC 61685 Standard. A survey of the design and materials used for this Doppler test object will be presented with a special emphasis on the suitability of the procedures for routine measurement of performance parameters in hospitals. The test object satisfies the requirements of the Draft IEC 61685 Standard. The test procedures in combination with this test object can be used for checking different transducer models with nominal frequencies between 2.5-10.0 MHz.

  10. Doppler colour flow imaging of fetal intracerebral arteries relative to fetal behavioural states in normal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Noordam, M J; Hoekstra, F M; Hop, W C; Wladimiroff, J W

    1994-09-30

    In 14 normally developing term fetuses, the relationship between the blood flow velocity waveforms at cerebral arterial level (internal carotid artery, anterior, middle and posterior cerebral artery) and fetal behavioural states was studied using Doppler colour flow imaging. Behavioural state dependent changes in absolute flow velocities occurred in all vessels, except for the middle cerebral artery. These changes suggest preferential blood flow to the left heart resulting in increased flow to the cerebrum during fetal behavioural state 2F (active sleep) when compared with fetal behavioural state 1F (quiet sleep). The middle cerebral artery supplies the neocerebrum. This developing part of the cerebrum does not seem to take part in the regulation of fetal behaviour. In the internal carotid artery, an inverse relationship between peak systolic velocity and fetal heart rate could be established, which can be explained by a shorter rapid filling phase at raised fetal heart rate according to the Frank-Starling Law.

  11. [Diagnosis of placenta previa accreta by two dimensional ultrasonography and color doppler in patients with cesarean section].

    PubMed

    Shi, Huafang; Pi, Pixiang; Ding, Yiling

    2012-09-01

    To determine the accuracy of two dismensional sonography and color doppler in diagnosing placenta previa accreta in patients with previous cesarean section. Forty-one patients with previous cesarean sections were confirmed to have partial or total placenta previa in the current pregnancy and were given ultrasound examinations after the 28th week of gestation. Specific ultrasound features of the placenta and its interphase with the uterus and the bladder for placenta accreta were checked by two-dimensional ultrasonography and color Doppler. All the patients were traced until delivery. The golden standard in diagnosis was the intraoperative finding and the pathologic exam. Twenty-two patients had ultrasonographic evidence of placenta previa, 20 of which were later confirmed placenta previa accreta intraoperatively. Nineteen patients had no ultrasound evidence of placenta previa, and 1 of which was later confirmed placenta previa accreta. The sensitivity and specificity of antenatal ultrasound diagnosis of placenta previa accreta were 95.24% and 94.74% respectively. The most prominent feature to suggest placenta accreta in twodismensional sonography was the presence of multiple lakes that represented dilated vessels extending from the placenta through the myometrium. The most prominent color Doppler feature was the presence of interphase hypervascularity with abnormal vessels linking the placenta to the bladder, and the rate was 95.24%. Placenta previa accreta can be diagnosed made with a thorough two dimensional ultrasonographic and color Doppler examination in patients with previous cesarean scar and placenta previa.

  12. Determination of Testicular Blood Flow in Camelids Using Vascular Casting and Color Pulsed-Wave Doppler Ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Kutzler, Michelle; Tyson, Reid; Grimes, Monica; Timm, Karen

    2011-01-01

    We describe the vasculature of the camelid testis using plastic casting. We also use color pulsed-wave Doppler ultrasonography to measure testicular blood flow and compare the differences between testicular blood flow in fertile and infertile camelids. The testicular artery originates from the ventral surface of the aorta, gives rise to an epididymal branch, and becomes very tortuous as it approaches the testis. Within the supratesticular arteries, peak systolic velocity (PSV) was higher in fertile males compared to infertile males (P = 0.0004). In addition, end diastolic velocity (EDV) within the supratesticular arteries was higher for fertile males when compared to infertile males (P = 0.0325). Within the marginal arteries, PSV was also higher in fertile males compared to infertile males (P = 0.0104). However, EDV within the marginal arteries was not significantly different between fertile and infertile males (P = 0.121). In addition, the resistance index was not significantly different between fertile and infertile males within the supratesticular (P = 0.486) and marginal arteries (P = 0.144). The significance of this research is that in addition to information obtained from a complete reproductive evaluation, a male camelid's fertility can be determined using testicular blood flow measured by Doppler ultrasonography. PMID:21941690

  13. Extra- and transcranial echo colour Doppler in the diagnosis of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Van den Berg, P J; Visser, L H

    2012-03-01

    A new venous disorder, chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI), has been proposed in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). It is a vascular condition characterized by an impaired cerebrospinal venous drainage due to obstructions in the main extracranial cerebrovenous outflow routes (i.e. internal jugular veins [IJV] and/or azygos veins). In this review, the studies which assessed the prevalence of CCSVI in MS by echo colour Doppler (ECD) will be discussed. The technical aspects of determination of the five CCSVI criteria: (1) reflux in the IJV and/or vertebral veins in supine and upright position, (2) reflux in the deep cerebral veins, (3) high-resolution B-mode proximal IJV stenosis, (4) flow not Doppler detectable in IJVs and/or vertebral veins (VVs) and (5) reverted postural control of the main cerebrovenous outflow pathway are described in detail. We conclude that so far there are many studies with contradictory results, and as yet a strong scientific base to support the evidence for a causative relationship of CCSVI and MS is lacking. Recent studies call into question the validity of using ECD as a proper and reliable test for the diagnosis of CCSVI. One explanation for the variety in interpretation of the individual CCSVI criteria, with the wide-ranging percentages CCSVI, could be the different methods by using ECD to determine various criteria.

  14. Left ventricular radial colour and longitudinal pulsed-wave tissue Doppler echocardiography in 39 healthy domestic pet rabbits.

    PubMed

    Casamian-Sorrosal, Domingo; Saunders, Richard; Browne, William; Elliot, Sarah; Fonfara, Sonja

    2014-10-01

    This paper reports radial colour and longitudinal mitral annulus pulsed-wave tissue Doppler findings in a large cohort of healthy, adult pet rabbits. Thirty-nine rabbits (22 Dwarf Lops, 14 French Lops and three Alaskans) underwent conscious echocardiography. The median age of the rabbits was 22 months and the median weight was 2.8 kg (Dwarf Lop 2.4 kg/French Lop 6.0 kg). Adequate radial colour and longitudinal pulsed-wave tissue Doppler traces were obtained in 100% and 85% of cases, respectively. Most systolic tissue Doppler parameters were significantly higher in French Lops than in Dwarf Lops. Separation of mitral inflow diastolic waves was present in 40% of cases using conventional spectral Doppler and in >60% of cases using pulsed-wave tissue Doppler which could be beneficial when evaluating diastolic function in rabbits. This study can be used as a reference for normal echocardiographic tissue Doppler values for adult rabbits undergoing conscious echocardiography in clinical practice.

  15. Extent of collateralization predicting symptomatic cerebral vasospasm among pediatric patients: correlations among angiography, transcranial Doppler ultrasonography, and clinical findings.

    PubMed

    Moftakhar, Parham; Cooke, Daniel L; Fullerton, Heather J; Ko, Nerissa U; Amans, Matthew R; Narvid, Jared A; Dowd, Christopher F; Higashida, Randall T; Halbach, Van V; Hetts, Steven W

    2015-03-01

    Although the development and prevalence of cerebral vasospasm (CV) has been extensively investigated in adults, little data exist on the development of CV in children. The authors hypothesized that even though children have highly vasoreactive arteries, because of a robust cerebral collateral blood flow, they rarely develop symptomatic CV. The authors retrospectively reviewed their university hospital's neurointerventional database for children (that is, patients ≤ 18 years) who were examined or treated for aneurysmal or traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) during the period 1990-2013. Images from digital subtraction angiography (DSA) were analyzed for the extent of CV and collateralization of the cerebral circulation. Results from transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasonography were correlated with those from DSA. Cerebral vasospasm on TCD ultrasonography was defined according to criteria developed for adults. Clinical outcomes of CV were assessed with the pediatric modified Rankin Scale (mRS). Among 37 children (21 boys and 16 girls ranging in age from 8 months to 18 years) showing symptoms of an aneurysmal SAH (comprising 32 aneurysms and 5 traumatic pseudoaneurysms), 17 (46%) had CV confirmed by DSA; CV was mild in 21% of these children, moderate in 50%, and severe in 29%. Only 3 children exhibited symptomatic CV, all of whom had poor collateralization of cerebral vessels. Among the 14 asymptomatic children, 10 (71%) showed some degree of vessel collateralization. Among 16 children for whom TCD data were available that could be correlated with the DSA findings, 13 (81%) had CV according to TCD criteria. The sensitivity and specificity of TCD ultrasonography for diagnosing CV were 95% and 59%, respectively. The time to CV onset detected by TCD ultrasonography was 5 ± 3 days (range 2-10 days). Twenty-five (68%) of the children had good long-term outcomes (that is, had mRS scores of 0-2). Children have a relatively high incidence of angiographically detectable

  16. [Chronic arterial mesenteric ischemia: Doppler color ultrasonography demonstration of collateral flow].

    PubMed

    Danse, E M; Hammer, F; Matondo, H; Dardenne, A N; Geubel, A; Goffette, P

    2001-11-01

    Two cases of atypical mesenteric ischemia where color Doppler US demonstration of the underlying arterial abnormality and collateral supply was possible are presented. Significant stenosis of the celiac axis and thrombosis of the SMA were clearly depicted, along with the presence of collateral arterial supply. Endovascular treatment was successful in both cases. These cases confirm the possibility of detecting collateral flow at Doppler imaging in patients with mesenteric ischemia, both for diagnosis of mesenteric ischemia and endovascular treatment planning.

  17. Diagnostic performance of colour duplex ultrasonography along with temporal artery biopsy in suspicion of giant cell arteritis.

    PubMed

    Roncato, Christophe; Allix-Béguec, Caroline; Brottier-Mancini, Elisabeth; Gombert, Bruno; Denis, Guillaume

    2017-01-01

    Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is a vasculitis that occurs in older adults, affecting vessels of medium and large caliber. GCA diagnosis is a challenge for general practitioners and specialists. The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyse performances of temporal artery biopsy (TAB) and colour duplex ultrasonography (CDU) for GCA diagnosis. All patients with suspicion of GCA and who underwent both TAB and CDU between April 2009 and March 2014 were included in the study. A positive CDU examination was defined by halos on both superficial temporal arteries. Patients were classified based on the physician final diagnosis. Among the 42 eligible patients, 12 had an alternative diagnosis and 30 were diagnosed with GCA. Sensitivities were 77% and 80% for TAB and CDU examinations, respectively. Specificities were 100% for both tests. Twenty-nine (96.7%) patients with GCA had their diagnosis confirmed either by CDU and/or by TAB. Time lengths between the first medical examination and results of TAB and CDU were 15 and 4.2 days (p<0.001), respectively. Our study suggests that in suspected GCA, CDU may be used as first line examination followed by TAB in case of CDU negative results. Such algorithm needs to be further assessed in a multicentre prospective study.

  18. Quantitative Evaluation of Vascularity Using 2-D Power Doppler Ultrasonography May Not Identify Malignancy of the Thyroid.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jung Hyun; Shin, Hyun Joo; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Roh, Yun Ho; Kwak, Jin Young

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a quantitative vascular index in predicting thyroid malignancy. A total of 1309 thyroid nodules in 1257 patients (mean age: 50.2 y, range: 18-83 y) were included. The vascularity pattern and vascular index (VI) measured by quantification software for each nodule were obtained from 2-D power Doppler ultrasonography (US). Gray-scale US + vascularity pattern was compared with gray-scale US + VI with respect to diagnostic performance. Of the 1309 thyroid nodules, 927 (70.8%) were benign and 382 (29.2%) were malignant. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (Az) for gray-scale US (0.82) was significantly higher than that for US combined with vascularity pattern (0.77) or VI (0.70, all p < 0.001). Quantified VIs were higher in benign nodules, but did not improve the performance of 2-D US in diagnosing thyroid malignancy.

  19. Postoperative monitoring of free flap reconstruction: A comparison of external Doppler ultrasonography and the implantable Doppler probe

    PubMed Central

    Hosein, Rayaad C; Cornejo, Agustin; Wang, Howard T

    2016-01-01

    HYPOTHESIS: The time to detection of vascular compromise and the postoperative time to re-exploration are shorter using the implantable Doppler (ID) probe, thereby resulting in earlier surgical re-exploration and a higher flap salvage rate. METHODS: A single-centre experience with 176 consecutive free flap reconstructions in 167 patients from 2000 to 2008 in a university-based teaching hospital by retrospective chart review is presented. RESULTS: There was a significant difference in overall flap survival (ID 98.0%, external Doppler [ED] 89.3%) and total flap loss (ID 2.0%, ED 10.7%) between the two groups (P=0.03). The difference in flap salvage rate was not significant (ID 90.9%, ED 63.6%; P=0.068). The false-positive (ID 0%, ED 3%; P=0.18) and false-negative rates (ID 0.0%, ED 4.5%; P=1.0) were not significantly different. There was also a lower median postoperative time to re-exploration for the ID group, from 48 h to one week after initial surgery (ID 74.5 h, ED 136.8 h; P=0.05). CONCLUSION: The present analysis revealed a potential benefit for the ID probe in the postoperative monitoring of free tissue transfers. PMID:27054132

  20. Assessing hemispheric specialization for processing arithmetic skills in adults: A functional transcranial doppler ultrasonography (fTCD) study.

    PubMed

    Connaughton, Veronica M; Amiruddin, Azhani; Clunies-Ross, Karen L; French, Noel; Fox, Allison M

    2017-05-01

    A major model of the cerebral circuits that underpin arithmetic calculation is the triple-code model of numerical processing. This model proposes that the lateralization of mathematical operations is organized across three circuits: a left-hemispheric dominant verbal code; a bilateral magnitude representation of numbers and a bilateral Arabic number code. This study simultaneously measured the blood flow of both middle cerebral arteries using functional transcranial Doppler ultrasonography to assess hemispheric specialization during the performance of both language and arithmetic tasks. The propositions of the triple-code model were assessed in a non-clinical adult group by measuring cerebral blood flow during the performance of multiplication and subtraction problems. Participants were 17 adults aged between 18-27 years. We obtained laterality indices for each type of mathematical operation and compared these in participants with left-hemispheric language dominance. It was hypothesized that blood flow would lateralize to the left hemisphere during the performance of multiplication operations, but would not lateralize during the performance of subtraction operations. Hemispheric blood flow was significantly left lateralized during the multiplication task, but was not lateralized during the subtraction task. Compared to high spatial resolution neuroimaging techniques previously used to measure cerebral lateralization, functional transcranial Doppler ultrasonography is a cost-effective measure that provides a superior temporal representation of arithmetic cognition. These results provide support for the triple-code model of arithmetic processing and offer complementary evidence that multiplication operations are processed differently in the adult brain compared to subtraction operations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. [Evaluation of transvaginal ultrasonography-color Doppler energy imaging in surveillance of gynecologic malignant tumors after operation].

    PubMed

    Pei, Xiao-Qing; Xie, Yan-Jun; Zeng, Hui; Chen, Xiao-Yue; Wang, Yue; Liu, Fu-Yuan

    2004-02-01

    Transvaginal ultrasonography (TVS) and color Doppler energy imaging (CDE) have been already applied in ultrasonography diagnosis extensively, but articles about the methods in surveillance of gynecologic malignant tumors after operation are few. The objective of this study was to evaluate TVS-CDE in surveillance of gynecologic malignant tumors after operation. Fifty-four cases of gynecologic malignant tumors after operation, which were doubted as recurrent malignant tumors in clinic, were scanned with transabdominal ultrasonography (TAS), TVS, and TVS-CDE. The results were compared with that of pathology. Then their sensitivity, specificity,and accuracy were calculated, and the accuracy was compared by Chi-square test. Forty-three cases were diagnosed as malignant tumors by TAS; Forty-six cases were diagnosed as malignant tumors by TVS,and the positions, sizes, characteristics of the recurrent malignant tumors could be depicted visually. Forty-seven cases were diagnosed as malignant tumors by TVS-CDE; Not only the blood flow characteristics of masses,but also more diagnostic information than TVS were provided. The sensitivity was 81.3%, 91.7%, and 95.9%, respectively; the specificity was 33.3%,66.7%, and 83.3%, respectively; the accuracy was 75.9%, 88.9%, and 94.4%, respectively. Obviously, the accuracy of both TVS and TVS-CDE was higher than that of TAS(P< 0.05), but the accuracy of TVS and TVS-CDE was similar (P >0.05). TVS-CDE is helpful in the diagnosis of gynecologic malignant masses. It will be more effective in surveillance of recurrent gynecologic malignant tumors if it combined with CDE.

  2. Value of sagittal color Doppler ultrasonography as a supplementary tool in the differential diagnosis of fetal cleft lip and palate

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and usefulness of sagittal color Doppler ultrasonography (CDUS) for the diagnosis of fetal cleft lip (CL) and cleft palate (CP). Methods We performed targeted ultrasonography on 25 fetuses with CL and CP, taking coronal and axial images of the upper lip and maxillary alveolar arch in each case. The existence of defects in and malalignment of the alveolus on the axial image, hard palate defects on the midsagittal image, and flow-through defects on CDUS taken during fetal breathing or swallowing were assessed. We compared the ultrasonography findings with postnatal findings in all fetuses. Results Alveolar defects were detected in 16 out of 17 cases with CP and four out of eight cases with CL. Alveolar malalignment and hard palate defects were detected in 11 out of 17 cases and 14 out of 17 cases with CP, respectively, but not detected in any cases with CL. Communicating flow through the palate defect was detected in 11 out of 17 cases of CL with CP. The accuracy of detection in axial scans of an alveolar defect and malalignment was 80% and 76%, respectively. Accuracy of detection of in mid-sagittal images of hard palate defect and flow was 80% and 86%, respectively. The overall diagnostic accuracy of combined axial and sagittal images with sagittal CDUS was 92%. Conclusion Sagittal CDUS of the fetal hard palate is a feasible method to directly reveal hard palate bony defects and flow through defects, which may have additional value in the differential diagnosis of fetal CL and CP. PMID:27764909

  3. Color Doppler ultrasonography: diagnosis of ectopic thyroid gland in patients with congenital hypothyroidism caused by thyroid dysgenesis.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Hisashi; Sato, Hirokazu; Noda, Hiromasa; Inomata, Hiroaki; Sasaki, Nozomu

    2003-11-01

    The etiology of congenital hypothyroidism (CH) may play an important role in determining disease severity, outcome, and, therefore, its treatment schedule. Radionuclide imaging (RI) is currently the most precise diagnostic technique to establish the etiology of CH. Conventional ultrasound can identify an athyrotic condition at the normal neck position and has gained acceptance for the initial evaluation of CH; however, its ability in delineating ectopic thyroid is limited. We used color Doppler ultrasonography (CDU) to assess blood flow and morphology in the detection of ectopic thyroid in 11 CH patients disclosed by neonatal screening; thyroid glands were undetectable at the normal location by gray-scale ultrasonography (GSU). The patients studied consisted of two infants for initial investigation and nine children for reevaluating the cause of CH. All of the patients underwent GSU, CDU, RI, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) investigation. We set RI as the defining diagnostic test for detecting ectopic thyroid and compared the imaging of CDU with those of GSU and MRI. The results of RI showed 10 ectopic thyroids and one athyreosis. In the patients with ectopic thyroid, the sensitivity of CDU, GSU, and MRI for detecting ectopic thyroid was 90, 70, and 70%, respectively. We conclude that CDU is superior to GSU and MRI for detecting ectopic thyroid and that CDU may be adopted as the diagnostic tool for the initial investigation of suspected CH.

  4. Feasibility of creating a normative database of colour Doppler imaging parameters in glaucomatous eyes and controls.

    PubMed

    Rusia, Deepam; Harris, Alon; Pernic, Allison; Williamson, Kathleen M; Moss, Adam M; Shoshani, Yochai Z; Siesky, Brent

    2011-09-01

    Colour Doppler imaging (CDI) is a frequently cited methodology for quantifying ocular blood flow velocities. This investigation reviews the feasibility of creating a normative database of CDI parameters in glaucoma patients and controls. A literature search was conducted for CDI studies involving glaucomatous eyes. Using data from these studies, a weighted mean was derived for the peak systolic velocity, end diastolic velocity and Pourcelot's resistive index in the ophthalmic, central retinal and posterior ciliary arteries. A multivariate analysis was performed to identify whether methodological characteristics contributed to the inter-study variance in CDI values. Data from 3061 glaucoma patients and 1072 controls were included. The mean values for glaucomatous eyes were within one standard deviation of the values for controls for most CDI parameters. Gender mix (p=0.043), intraocular pressure status (p=0.017), frequency of the ultrasound transducer (p=0.02) and whether the patients were on antihypertensive therapy (p=0.004) contributed to the variance. Methodological differences create inter-study variance in CDI values, complicating the construction of a normative database and limiting its utility. Because the mean values for glaucomatous and normal eyes have overlapping ranges, caution should be used when classifying glaucoma status based on a single CDI measurement.

  5. Significance of clearing differentiated thyroid carcinoma lymph node by high-frequency color Doppler ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bing; Qin, Huadong; Zhang, Bin; Shi, Tiefeng; Li, Chuanle; Liu, Yao; Song, Meiyue

    2017-01-01

    We compared the clinical effects and prognosis of patients receiving lymph node dissection after surgical removal of the thyroid tissues and those not receiving it after the removal. A total of 80 patients diagnosed with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) by our hospital from March 2012 to March 2014 were successively included in the study. The cases were divided into the control group (n=36 cases) and observation group (n=44 cases), and the two groups underwent total or subtotal resection of the thyroid. In the control group, patients underwent preoperative high-frequency color ultrasonography, and the most suspicious lymph node was removed. In the observation group, patients underwent preoperative high-frequency color ultrasonography, and the surgeons cleared the lymph node of the widest range. Difference in clinical effects and prognosis of the two groups were compared. After nearly a year's follow-up observation, the tumor recurrence rate of the observation group was significantly lower than that of the control group and the survival rate of the observation group was significantly higher than that of the control group (P<0.05). The rate of surgery complications and comparative difference of the two patient groups had no statistical significance (P>0.05). When comparing the data of lymphatic metastasis tested by preoperative high-frequency color ultrasonography with intraoperative diagnosed figures, sensitivity was 97.4%, specificity 33.3%, positive predictive value 90.2% and the negative predictive value 66.7%. In conclusion, removal of the lymph node for DTC patients having undergone thyroid tissue excision with preoperative high-frequency color ultrasonography can be beneficial to improve the effects along with reduction in the recurrence rate. PMID:28123550

  6. Correlation between computerised findings and Newman's scaling on vascularity using power Doppler ultrasonography imaging and its predictive value in patients with plantar fasciitis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, H; Ho, H M; Ying, M; Fu, S N

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to correlate findings on small vessel vascularity between computerised findings and Newman's scaling using power Doppler ultrasonography (PDU) imaging and its predictive value in patients with plantar fasciitis. Methods PDU was performed on 44 patients (age range 30–66 years; mean age 48 years) with plantar fasciitis and 46 healthy subjects (age range 18–61 years; mean age 36 years). The vascularity was quantified using ultrasound images by a customised software program and graded by Newman's grading scale. Vascular index (VI) was calculated from the software program as the ratio of the number of colour pixels to the total number of pixels within a standardised selected area of proximal plantar fascia. The 46 healthy subjects were examined on 2 occasions 7–10 days apart, and 18 of them were assessed by 2 examiners. Statistical analyses were performed using intraclass correlation coefficient and linear regression analysis. Results Good correlation was found between the averaged VI ratios and Newman's qualitative scale (ρ = 0.70; p<0.001). Intratester and intertester reliability were 0.89 and 0.61, respectively. Furthermore, higher VI was correlated with less reduction in pain after physiotherapeutic intervention. Conclusions The computerised VI not only has a high level of concordance with the Newman grading scale but is also reliable in reflecting the vascularity of proximal plantar fascia, and can predict pain reduction after intervention. This index can be used to characterise the changes in vascularity of patients with plantar fasciitis, and it may also be helpful for evaluating treatment and monitoring the progress after intervention in future studies. PMID:22167513

  7. Power doppler ultrasonography guided and random prostate biopsy in prostate cancer diagnosis - a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Sohail, Shahzada Khalid; Sarfraz, Rahat; Imran, Muhammad; Khan, Naeem Ahmed; Yusuf, Noshin Wasim

    2015-01-01

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of power Doppler-guided targeted prostate biopsy and random sextant biopsy in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. The prospective study was carried out at the Allama Iqbal Medical College and Jinnah Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan, from January to December, 2012, and comprised clinically suspected cases of carcinoma prostate. Power Doppler-guided biopsies using automatic biopsy gun were obtained from the suspected targeted site. One to three cores per suspected site were obtained. Subsequently random sextant biopsies were performed in the same sitting. Six cores were obtained from 6 random sites using the same gun. Biopsies from both sources were processed for routine haematoxylin and eosin stainstained sections for histopathological examination. Of the 50 patients in the study, 30(60%) were diagnosed with power Doppler-guided biopsy as malignant, whereas random sextant biopsy could pick up 22(44%) cases. For benign prostatic hyperplasia, random sextant biopsy labelled 28(56%)as benign, whereas only 20 (40%) were labelled as benign with power Doppler-guided biopsy. Discrepancy in the results between the two procedures was observed in 14(28%) cases, and of them, 1 1(22%) were labelled as malignant on power Doppler-guided biopsy while histopathology of sextant biopsies labelled these as benign.The sextant biopsies rendered a specificity, sensitivity, negative predictive value, positive predictive value and diagnostic accuracy of 60.71%, 86.36%, 85%, 63.33% and 72% respectively. Random sextant biopsy in combination with power Doppler-guided targeted biopsy increases the rate of detection of prostate cancer whereas both procedures in isolation have low sensitivity and specificity for cancer detection.

  8. Comparative B-mode and Doppler renal ultrasonography with histopathological findings in dogs positive for canine visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Baltazar, Pollyana Irene; Da Silva Moura, Laecio; Pessoa, Gerson Tavares; De Sá Rodrigues, Renan Paraguassu; Sanches, Marina Pinto; Das Neves Diniz, Anaemilia; Das Chagas Araújo Sousa, Francisco; Guerra, Porfírio Candanedo; Neves, Willams Costa; Giglio, Robson Fortes; De Jesus Rosa Pereira Alves, Jacyara; De Assis Leite Souza, Francisco; Braga, Juliana Fortes Vilarinho; Alves, Flávio Ribeiro

    2016-07-01

    Morphological parameters and renal flow were assessed and measured in six clinically healthy dogs with negative serological and parasitological examinations for canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) and six dogs with CVL-positive serological and parasitological tests and asymptomatic condition of the disease. Kidney length and diameter were measured and compared with the aorta/kidney ratio. Alterations in flow were measured using the flow velocity (cm/s) and resistance index (RI). Renal function was assessed by serum biochemical examination (urea, creatine, total proteins, albumin, and globulin) and urinalysis. CVL-positive animals presented heterogeneous kidney echotexture, reduced vascular flow, hypoperfusion, lesser visualization of the arcuate arteries, high RI values (1.06 ± 0.28 for the right kidney and 1.10 ± 0.30 for the left kidney), reduced diastolic flow, and high systolic peak. They also presented positive creatine/RI correlation and between the renal artery vascular flow and kidney diameter. Histopathological analysis of CVL-positive animals was compatible and confirmed hemodynamic changes observed by Doppler ultrasound. The findings in the present study showed that Doppler ultrasonography is a valid method to assess and detect alterations in flow in renal pathological processes with kidney vascular damage, as in the case of leishmaniasis, and can help in the diagnosis of animals with this infection. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:637-645, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Transabdominal color doppler ultrasonography: A relevant approach for assessment of effects of uterine torsion in buffaloes

    PubMed Central

    Devender; Chandolia, Ramesh Kumar; Pandey, Anand Kumar; Yadav, Vishal; Kumar, Parveen; Dalal, Jasmer

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted on advanced pregnant buffaloes suffering from uterine torsion to assess the status of fetus and uterus by transabdominal ultrasonography, and the findings were compared with normal advanced pregnant buffaloes. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 20 clinical cases of uterine torsion and 20 normal advanced pregnant buffaloes (control group). The lower ventral area just lateral to linea alba (on both sides of the udder) in standing animals was scanned transabdominally by the two-dimensional convex transducer for various ultrasonographic findings. The data collected were statistically analyzed by “one-way ANOVA” and “independent sample t-test” using computerized SPSS 16.0 software program. Results: Transabdominal ultrasonography revealed dead fetus in 95% uterine torsion cases and proved useful in imaging internal structures of fetuses while no dead fetus was reported in the control group. Size of umbilicus was found significantly decreased (p<0.05) in uterine torsion group in comparison to control animals, but the decrease in placentomal area was marginal (p>0.05) in uterine torsion group. Average thickness of the uterine wall and mean pixel values of fetal fluids (echogenicity) were found significantly increased (p<0.05) in uterine torsion affected buffaloes in comparison to control group. Conclusion: Status of fetus (whether live or dead), internal status of uterus, and its contents could be determined by transabdominal ultrasonography in uterine torsion cases and thus determining the prognosis of the uterine torsion cases before going for further manipulations. This will also help in taking all the precautions to avoid death of the fetus. PMID:27651672

  10. Spontaneous rupture of a middle colic artery aneurysm arising from superior mesenteric artery dissection: Diagnosis by color Doppler ultrasonography and CT angiography.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Bo Reum; Han, Hyun Young; Cho, Young Kwon; Park, Suk Jin

    2012-05-01

    Both middle colic artery (MCA) aneurysm and spontaneous dissection of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) are rare. We report the first case of concomitancy of both conditions, diagnosed by ultrasonography and CT angiography. A 56-year-old man with abrupt abdominal pain and hypovolemic shock was diagnosed initially with ruptured MCA aneurysm by color Doppler ultrasonography. Computed tomography and angiography confirmed MCA aneurysm and showed that it was arising from the false lumen of an SMA dissection and was probably associated with segmental arterial mediolysis. The MCA aneurysm was treated successfully by transcatheter coil embolization, and the SMA dissection was treated conservatively.

  11. Wandering Spleen: Whirlpool Appearance in Color Doppler Ultrasonography. A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    MOHAMMADI, Afshin; GHASEMI-RAD, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Wandering spleen is an unusual surgical condition that is generally asymptomatic, but the long and mobile vascular pedicle of the spleen predisposes it to torsion. Various imaging modalities can be used to diagnose a wandering spleen. We present the case of a 23 year-old female patient with abdominal pain, in whom torsion of the spleen was diagnosed preoperatively, using color Doppler sonography, as a whirlpool appearance. PMID:26225153

  12. Wandering Spleen: Whirlpool Appearance in Color Doppler Ultrasonography. A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Afshin; Ghasemi-Rad, Mohammad

    2015-03-01

    Wandering spleen is an unusual surgical condition that is generally asymptomatic, but the long and mobile vascular pedicle of the spleen predisposes it to torsion. Various imaging modalities can be used to diagnose a wandering spleen. We present the case of a 23 year-old female patient with abdominal pain, in whom torsion of the spleen was diagnosed preoperatively, using color Doppler sonography, as a whirlpool appearance.

  13. Color and power Doppler ultrasonography for characterization of splenic masses in dogs.

    PubMed

    Sharpley, Jenelle L; Marolf, Angela J; Reichle, Jean K; Bachand, Annette M; Randall, Elissa K

    2012-01-01

    Benign and malignant splenic masses can appear similar on B-mode imaging, making ultrasound sensitive but not specific in their diagnosis. Our goal was to characterize color and/or power Doppler characteristics of vasculature within and adjacent to a splenic mass, which would distinguish benign vs. malignant lesions. The hypothesis was that malignant splenic masses will have altered vascular patterns compared with benign masses. Color and power Doppler cineloops evaluating the vasculature within the mass and normal splenic parenchyma were obtained in sagittal and transverse planes using a standardized protocol. Categories of evaluation included presence of peritoneal effusion, a large aberrant or tortuous vessel within the mass, relative blood flow within the mass compared with normal parenchyma, and path of vessels in the adjacent parenchyma entering into the mass. All patients had histopathologic or definitive cytologic diagnosis. Thirty-one dogs were included. There were 13 malignant masses and 18 were benign. Peritoneal effusion was significantly associated with malignancy (P = 0.0007). Presence of an aberrant or tortuous vessel within the mass was nearly significant (P = 0.059). There was no significant difference in any of the color or power Doppler blood flow evaluations. Ultrasonographic findings of a splenic mass and peritoneal effusion may indicate malignancy. The presence of an aberrant vessel within a splenic mass could suggest malignancy; however more data are needed. © 2012 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.

  14. Association of vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency with thyroid artery Doppler ultrasonography in patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Nalbant, Ahmet; Aydin, Ayhan; Karacan, Alper; Onmez, Attila; Tamer, Ali; Cinemre, Hakan

    2017-01-01

    During the course of the autoimmune thyroid diseases, ultrasonography change parallel to histopathology. Vitamin D is associated with autoimmune diseases and thus can affect thyroid blood flow. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency and thyroid hemodynamic indices in patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis. A total of 93 patients who presented to Sakarya University Endocrinology outpatient clinic from April to September 2016 and diagnosed with Hashimoto thyroiditis were included in this study. Clinical and serologic data, thyroid antibodies and 25(OH)D3 were evaluated. Mean peak systolic velocity(mPSV), mean end-diastolic velocity (EDV), mean resistive index (RI) flows of superior and inferior thyroid arteries were measured with B-mode Doppler ultrasonography. Vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency was detected in 59 (63.4%). TPO Ab and TgAb levels were found higher in patients with vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency. In the normal vitamin D group, superior thyroid artery mPSV (32.21±6.73cm/s) and EDV(13.27±2.80 cm/s) were higher than in the low vitamin D group [mPSV (28.32±8.99cm/s) and EDV(10.67±3.68 cm/s)] (P=0.034, P=0.001, respectively). Inferior thyroid artery EDV value was higher in the normal compared to the low vitamin D group (0.032). RI measured in all arteries were higher in the vitamin D insufficient/deficient group compared to the Vitamin D normal group (p=0.001). Vitamin-D insufficiency/deficiency has led to reduced parenchymal blood supply and increased micro-vascular resistance in Hashimoto thyroiditis patients.

  15. Intraoperative landmarking of vascular anatomy by integration of duplex and Doppler ultrasonography in image-guided surgery. Technical note.

    PubMed

    Sure, Ulrich; Benes, Ludwig; Bozinov, Oliver; Woydt, Michael; Tirakotai, Wuttipong; Bertalanffy, Helmut

    2005-02-01

    The integration of ultrasound technology into neuronavigation systems has recently been the subject of reports by several groups. This article describes our preliminary findings with regard to the integration of data derived from intraoperative duplex (color mode) and Doppler ultrasonography into a neuronavigational data set. It was the aim of the study to investigate (1) whether the intraoperative landmarking of vessels that are outlined with ultrasound technology is possible and (2) whether such a technique might be of clinical interest for neurosurgical interventions. The video image of an ultrasound plane (Toshiba, Powervision 6000 SSA-370A, Tokyo, Japan) was integrated into our neuronavigation system (VectorVision2, BrainLab, Heimstetten, Germany). For calibration of the ultrasound plane, an instrument adapter was fixed to the ultrasound probe and then calibrated using a special, predefined calibration phantom. Accordingly, the system supported a combination of the ultrasound plane functionality with the preoperatively acquired neuronavigational data. The duplex and Doppler mode of the ultrasound system displayed the intraoperative vascular anatomy. Once a vessel was outlined during surgery, it could be landmarked by touching the navigation screen. These landmarks were integrated automatically into the neuronavigational data set and could be used to provide intraoperative image updates of the vascular anatomy. This technique was successful in 45 of 47 (95.7%) surgical interventions. Both image-guided ultrasound and duplex-guided integration of vascular anatomy into the neuronavigational data set are technically possible. In the future, this technology may provide useful intraoperative information during surgery of complex cerebral pathologies.

  16. Three-dimensional ultrasonography and power Doppler for discrimination between benign and malignant endometrium in premenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    El-Sharkawy, Mohamed; El-Mazny, Akmal; Ramadan, Wafaa; Hatem, Dina; Abdel-Hafiz, Aly; Hammam, Mohamed; Nada, Adel

    2016-03-16

    Ultrasonography has been extensively used in women suspected of having a gynecological malignancy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of 3D ultrasonography and power Doppler for discrimination between benign and malignant endometrium in premenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding. This cross-sectional study included 78 premenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding scheduled for hysteroscopy and endometrial curettage. The endometrial thickness (ET), uterine artery pulsatility index (PI) and resistance index (RI), and endometrial volume (EV) and 3D power Doppler vascularization index (VI), flow index (FI), and vascularization flow index (VFI) were measured and compared with hysteroscopic and histopathologic findings. The ET (P <0.001), EV (P <0.001), and endometrial VI (P <0.001) and VFI (P = 0.043) were significantly increased in patients with atypical endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial carcinoma (n = 10) than those with benign endometrium (n = 68); whereas, the uterine artery PI and RI and endometrial FI were not significantly different between the two groups. The best marker for discrimination between benign and malignant endometrium was the VI with an area under the ROC curve of 0.88 at a cutoff value of 0.81%. 3D ultrasonography and power Doppler, especially endometrial VI, may be useful for discrimination between benign and malignant endometrium in premenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding.

  17. Current Opinion and Use of Transcranial Doppler Ultrasonography in Traumatic Brain Injury in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit.

    PubMed

    LaRovere, Kerri L; O'Brien, Nicole F; Tasker, Robert C

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and review clinical studies using transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasonography in children with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). We identified 16 articles from January 2005 to July 2015 that met inclusion (TBI, five or more cases in case series, subjects <18 years old, TCD performed in PICU) and exclusion criteria (age not stated, data from subjects <18 years not separated from adult data, <85% study population <18 years in mixed population with adults). TCD parameters were used to assess autoregulation, intracranial pressure, and vasospasm, and to predict neurological outcome. Incidence of impaired autoregulation varied in severe TBI from 25% to 80%. Altered TCD flows and pulsatility index variably predicted intracranial hypertension across studies. Sonographic vasospasm in the middle cerebral artery occurred in 34% of 69 children with severe TBI. Outcomes seem to be related to altered TCD-derived flow velocities while in the ICU. TCD may be a useful tool to assess autoregulation, intracranial pressure, and vasospasm following TBI in the PICU. Further research is needed to establish gold standards and validate the findings in children. TCD may then impact day-to-day management in the PICU, and potentially improve outcomes in children with severe TBI.

  18. Abnormal blood flow patterns in renal arteries of small preterm infants with patent ductus arteriosus detected by Doppler ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Bömelburg, T; Jorch, G

    1989-06-01

    Blood flow velocities and pulsatory indices in both renal arteries (RAs) and in the internal carotid artery (CAI) were measured by pulsed Doppler ultrasonography in ten preterm infants with patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), before and after surgical ligation. The results obtained in the RAs were compared to those found in a reference group of 22 stable preterm infants. In the RAs the diastolic steal volume of the PDA led to a marked decrease in diastolic blood flow velocity (range 3 to -23 cm/s). Seven infants showed retrograde diastolic flow, whereas only three infants had these flow patterns in the CAI. In the RAs, the peak systolic blood flow velocities (range 56 to 135 cm/s) exceeded the values found in the reference group by 85% on average. The pulsatility indices reached values of above 1,00. In spite of the increase in systolic flow velocities before surgery, the time mean of maximum velocities was significantly lower than those measured after surgery and in the reference group. After PDA ligation, blood flow velocities normalized. The present study shows that a large PDA may induce abnormal flow patterns even in the RAs. These flow patterns may predispose to renal hypoperfusion and subsequent impairment of renal function.

  19. Comparison of Doppler ultrasonography and high-definition oscillometry for blood pressure measurements in healthy awake dogs.

    PubMed

    Chetboul, Valérie; Tissier, Renaud; Gouni, Vassiliki; de Almeida, Virginie; Lefebvre, Hervé P; Concordet, Didier; Jamet, Nathalie; Sampedrano, Carolina Carlos; Serres, François; Pouchelon, Jean-Louis

    2010-07-01

    To determine the intra- and interobserver variability of systolic arterial pressure (SAP) and diastolic arterial pressure (DAP) measurements obtained with 2 indirect methods in awake dogs and percentage of successful measurements. 6 healthy conscious adult dogs. 4 observers with different levels of training measured SAP and DAP on 4 days by use of Doppler ultrasonography (DU) and high-definition oscillometry (HDO). The examinations were randomized. Measurements for each technique were recorded 5 consecutive times, and mean values (total, 720 measurements) were used for statistical analysis. All within- and between-day coefficients of variation (CVs) for SAP were < 15% irrespective of the observer or method (HDO, 3.6% to 14.1%; DU, 4.1% to 12.4%). Conversely, half the CVs for DAP were > 15% with the highest within- and between-day CVs obtained by the least experienced observer by use of DU (19.5% and 25.9%, respectively). All attempts with HDO were successful, whereas DAP could not be measured by use of DU by the least experienced observer in 17% of attempts. SAP may be assessed in healthy dogs by use of DU and HDO with good repeatability and reproducibility after a short period of training. Conversely, the variability of DAP is higher and longer training is required to assess DAP via DU than via HDO.

  20. Transcranial Doppler Ultrasonography As a Non-Invasive Tool for Diagnosis and Monitoring of Reversible Cerebral Vasoconstriction Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Levin, Jay H; Benavides, Jorge; Caddick, Claudine; Laurie, Kathleen; Wilterdink, Janet; Yaghi, Shadi; Silver, Brian; Khan, Muhib

    2016-09-01

    Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is a vascular headache disorder characterized by severe headaches with vasospasm of cerebral arteries. Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD) has been widely applied and validated in studying vasospasm of intracranial vessels, but the role of TCD in the diagnosis and monitoring of RCVS is less well established. We sought to determine the reliability of TCD for diagnosis and monitoring of RCVS. Patients admitted to an inpatient neurology service between 2011 and 2014 with a discharge diagnosis of RCVS were retrospectively analyzed for demographics, neuroimaging, and functional outcomes. Baseline and follow-up TCD flow velocities in the middle cerebral artery (Vmca) were compared relative to the final diagnosis. The cohort consisted of fifteen patients (93% females; mean age 46.7 +/- 12.4 years); initial TCD evaluation was performed 10.9 +/- 6.6 (range 1-24) days after headache onset. Fourteen patients (93.3%) had increased flow velocities by initial TCD in at least one major cerebral blood vessel (MCA, ACA, PCA, vertebral, basilar). TCD flow velocities in the middle cerebral artery (Vmca) reached a mean peak of 163 cm/s three to four weeks after the onset of thunderclap headache. TCD is a non-invasive neuroimaging modality that may have potential for the initial diagnosis and subsequent monitoring of patients with suspected RCVS. Larger studies will be needed to establish its utility. [Full article available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2016-09.asp, free with no login].

  1. The use of colour-coded and spectral Doppler ultrasound in the differentiation of benign and malignant breast lesions.

    PubMed Central

    Peters-Engl, C.; Medl, M.; Leodolter, S.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of colour-coded and spectral Doppler sonography to predict the benign or malignant nature of breast lesions. A total of 112 women with mammographically suspicious breast lesions were investigated prior to surgery. Thirty-nine breast carcinomas and 73 benign lesions were evaluated for the resistance index, pulsatility index and the flow velocity. A resistance index of > or = 0.70 was characteristic of malignant tumours with a sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 81%. The positive predictive value was 70% and the negative predictive value 89%. Doppler sonography offers one possible method for further investigation of patients with mammographic abnormalities. PMID:7819029

  2. "Focal thyroid inferno" on color Doppler ultrasonography: a specific feature of focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xianshui; Guo, Limei; Zhang, Huabin; Ran, Weiqiang; Fu, Peng; Li, Zhiqiang; Chen, Wen; Jiang, Ling; Wang, Jinrui; Jia, Jianwen

    2012-11-01

    To evaluate color-Doppler features predictive of focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis. A total of 521 patients with 561 thyroid nodules that underwent surgeries or gun biopsies were included in this study. These nodules were divided into three groups: focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis (104 nodules in 101 patients), benignity other than focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis (73 nodules in 70 patients), and malignancy (358 nodules in 350 patients). On color Doppler sonography, four vascularity types were determined as: hypovascularity, marked internal flow, marked peripheral flow and focal thyroid inferno. The χ2 test was performed to seek the potential vascularity type with the predictive ability of certain thyroid pathology. Furthermore, the gray-scale features of each nodule were also studied. The vascularity type I (hypovascularity) was more often seen in focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis than other benignity and malignancy (46% vs. 20.5% and 19%). While the type II (marked internal flow) showed the opposite tendency (26.9% [focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis] vs. 45.2% [other benignity] and 52.8% [malignancy]). However, type III (marked peripheral flow) was unable to predict any thyroid pathology. Importantly, type IV (focal thyroid inferno) was exclusive to focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis. All 8 type IV nodules appeared to be solid, hypoechoic, and well-defined. Using "focal thyroid inferno" as an indicator of FHT, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 7.7% and 100% respectively. The vascularity type of "focal thyroid inferno" is specific for focal Hashimoto thyroiditis. Recognition of this particular feature may avoid unnecessary interventional procedures for some solid hypoechoic thyroid nodules suspicious of malignancy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Transcranial doppler ultrasonography should it be the first choice for persistent foramen ovale screening?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Persistent foramen ovale (PFO) is considered a cause of cryptogenic stroke and a risk factor for neurological events in young patients. The reference standard for identifying a PFO is contrast-enhanced transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). The goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of transcranial color Doppler (TCD) and its diagnostic sensitivity compared with TEE. Methods We investigated 420 patients admitted to our department with cryptogenic stroke, transient ischemic attacks or other neurological symptoms. All patients underwent TCD and TEE evaluation. TCD and TEE examinations were performed according to a standardized procedure: air-mixed saline was injected into the right antecubital vein three times, while the Doppler signal was recorded during the Valsalva maneuver. During TCD the passage of contrast into the right-middle cerebral artery was recorded 25 seconds following the Valsalva maneuver. Results We detected a right-to-left shunt in 220 patients (52.3%) and no-shunts in 159 patients (37.9%) with both TCD and TEE. In 20 (4.8%) patients TEE did not reveal contrast passage which was then detected by TCD. In 21 (5.0%) patients only TEE revealed a PFO. The feasibility of both methods was 100%. TCD had a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 92% in the diagnosis of PFO. Conclusions TCD has a relatively good sensitivity and specificity. TCD and TEE are complementary diagnostic tests for PFO, but TCD should be recommended as the first choice for screening because of its simplicity, non-invasive character, low cost and high feasibility. PMID:24884981

  4. Colour Doppler ultrasound hemodynamic characteristics of patients with priapism before and after therapeutic interventions.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Rei K; Aggarwal, Himanshu; Chiou, Christopher R; Broughton, Fleur; Liu, Susan

    2009-08-01

    BACKGROUND: Information in the literature on the hemodynamic characteristics of priapism, especially after therapeutic intervention, is very limited. We analyzed our colour Doppler ultrasound (CDU) studies performed for patients with various durations of priapism before and after therapeutic intervention. METHODS: We reviewed 52 CDU studies for 24 patients with priapism before and after treatment for the period 1997-2007. The duration of priapism ranged from 4 hours to 8 days. We performed 17 CDU studies in 8 patients who presented with a duration of priapism of 7 hours or less, 9 studies in 4 patients who presented with duration of priapism of more than 20 hours, 23 studies in 11 patients referred to us after they had failed prior therapeutic intervention at other institutions and 3 studies in 1 patient with priapism related to perineal trauma. RESULTS: Among the 8 patients who presented with a duration of priapism of 7 hours or less, CDU studies on presentation showed detectible cavernosal arterial flow in all except 1 study. Among the 4 patients who presented with a duration of more than 20 hours, the studies showed no detectible cavernosal arterial blood flow. We repeated CDU studies after therapeutic intervention, and they showed restoration of cavernosal arterial flow with relief of veno-occlusive status. Among the 11 patients in whom prior treatments failed before they were referred to us, CDU studies performed on presentation showed no detectible cavernosal arterial flow in 10 of the 11 patients. We performed 12 CDU studies in 8 patients after placing a penile cavernosa-dorsal vein (CD) shunt. We observed the presence of blood flow in the CD shunt, indicating its patency in all 8 patients. Some patients showed high cavernosal arterial flow (peak systolic velocity [PSV] up to 27.6 cm/s) after surgery. These patients appeared to have residual priapism of primarily arteriogenic status that improved after observation. CONCLUSION: After therapeutic intervention

  5. Power Doppler ultrasonography in the evaluation of infliximab treatment for sacroiliitis in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yeqing; Chen, Ling; Zhu, Jiaan; Xue, Qin; Wang, Niansong; Huang, Yunxia; Liu, Fang; Hu, Yizhou; Hu, Bing

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using power Doppler ultrasound (PDUS) to detect changes in the sacroiliac joint regions after infliximab (an anti-TNF-α blocker) treatment in active axial ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients. A total of 110 sacroiliac joints in 55 patients with active AS were detected by PDUS before and after the infliximab treatment. The color flow signals inside the sacroiliac joints were observed, and the resistance index (RI) was measured. The clinical condition of the AS patients was improved compared with their condition before the infliximab treatment. Before the treatment, color flow signals were observed in 103 joints, and the mean RI value was 0.56 ± 0.06. Three months after the first infliximab treatment, color flow signals were observed in 50 joints, and the mean RI value was 0.87 ± 0.11. There were more blood flow signals in the sacroiliac joints before the infliximab treatment in patients with active AS (p < 0.01), and the mean RI value was higher after the infliximab treatment (p < 0.01). The blood flow signals in the sacroiliac joints became weaker or even disappeared and the RI values increased in patients with active sacroiliitis after infliximab treatment. This result shows that PDUS can be used in the follow-up of patients with axial AS.

  6. [Perioperative evaluation of cerebral hemodynamics by transcranial Doppler ultrasonography in patient with hemolytic uremic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, M; Hayashi, T; Yoshitomi, T; Inoue, T; Ichiyama, T; Furukawa, S

    2000-11-01

    Major central nervous system (CNS) complications such as seizures and coma, occur in about 30% of children with hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Serious CNS involvement is associated with an increased mortality. The purpose of this study was to evaluate intracranial hemodynamics in HUS encephalopathy. We measured mean blood flow velocity and pulsatility index (PI) of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) with transcranial Doppler (TCD) in a two year-old girl with acute encephalopathy, and compared them to those in a one year-old girl with febrile convulsion incidentally complicating HUS (a disease control). In the patient with HUS encephalopathy TCD demonstrated abnormally low PI of 0.58, while the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and single-photon emission-computed tomography (SPECT) reveal no abnormal findings in the acute stage. The abnormal TCD findings disappeared with her recovery. In the HUS patient with febrile convulsion alone, TCD demonstrated normal maximal flow velocity and PI. Thus TCD may be useful in evaluating intracranial hemodynamics in HUS encephalopathy in the absence of MRI and SPECT abnormalities at the early stage of illness.

  7. Comparison of harmonic and conventional power Doppler ultrasonography for assessment of slow flow in hyperechoic tissue: experimental study using a Doppler phantom.

    PubMed

    Kim, A Y; Kim, T K; Kim, Y H; Han, J K; Choi, B I

    2000-02-01

    Despite the advantages of depicting slow flow in small vessels, conventional power Doppler ultrasound (US) has a basic limitation, specifically that artifactual power Doppler signals mimic blood flow, especially in hyperechoic tissue. The purpose of this study was to compare harmonic power Doppler US with power Doppler US using a Doppler phantom under various parameter settings, focusing on the assessment of slow flow in the hyperechoic tissue. While controlling the flow velocity (5 and 10 cm/s), pulse repetition frequency (500, 700, and 1,000 Hz), wall filter (low and medium), and Doppler gain (90%, 96%, and 100%), the authors performed both harmonic Doppler US and power Doppler US by using a Doppler phantom/flow control system. We measured and compared the relative intensities of the Doppler signals (0-250 scale) in both the vessels and hyperechoic tissue-mimicking materials with the two different imaging modalities. Power Doppler US with any combination of the four parameters evaluated depicted strong flow signals (mean, 213) that were superior to harmonic Doppler US (mean, 61). Relatively strong artifactual signals within the hyperechoic tissue-mimicking materials were noted on all power Doppler US studies (mean, 106) but nearly none on harmonic Doppler US (mean, 3). The contrast-to-noise ratio of harmonic Doppler US was significantly greater than that of power Doppler US. Harmonic Doppler US is more useful in assessing slow flow in hyperechoic tissue than power Doppler US because it produces fewer artifactual Doppler signals originating from stationary hyperechoic tissues, which can be misjudged as true signals on power Doppler US.

  8. 4-Dimensionally Guided 3-Dimensional Color-Doppler Ultrasonography Quantifies Carotid Artery Stenosis With High Reproducibility and Accuracy.

    PubMed

    Macharzina, Roland Richard; Kocher, Sascha; Messé, Steven R; Rutkowski, Thomas; Hoffmann, Fabian; Vogt, Matthias; Vach, Werner; Fan, Nian; Rastan, Aljoscha; Neumann, Franz-Josef; Zeller, Thomas

    2017-07-13

    The purpose was to analyze the agreement and binary accuracy of the degree of internal carotid artery stenosis (ICAS) as determined by 4-dimensionally (4D) real-time gray-scale guided 3-dimensional (3D) color-Doppler ultrasonography (3DC-US) (4D/3DC-US) compared with catheter angiography (CA) and duplex ultrasonography (DUS). This study hypothesized that 4D/3DC-US is noninferior to CA and DUS in grading ICAS in selected patients. Clinical stratification in patients with ICAS largely depends on a patient's symptomatic status and the degree of stenosis. Screening with 4D/3DC-US was prospectively performed in 93 study patients (with 122 ICASs), thus yielding 80 patients for analysis (with 103 ICASs) after excluding patients with insufficient image quality, previous revascularization, and contraindications to CA. The ultrasound examination (10 MHz) consisted of consensus conform DUS examination and independent real-time 4D-guided gray-scale views for orientation followed by static 3DC-US NASCET (North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial) percent stenosis quantification using off-line multiplanar rendering. Multiplanar selective CA of the same ICASs was quantified with dedicated software in a blinded fashion. Quantitative CA of 103 stenoses with a mean degree of 65 ± 17% was compared with 4D/3DC-US, with a resulting concordance correlation coefficient of 0.89 and a standard deviation of differences (SDD) of 8.1% at a bias of +1.7%. Binary 50% and 70% stenosis detection with 4D/3DC-US revealed a sensitivity of 97% and 87%, respectively, and a specificity of 92% and 84%, respectively. Interobserver SDD for CA of 52 stenoses (7.2%) did not differ from SDD for 4D/3DC-US and CA (p = 0.274). Accuracy of 50% stenosis detection by 4D/3DC-US was tendentially higher compared with DUS (96% vs. 91%). The 4D/3DC-US method provides reliable and accurate stenosis quantification and binary classification with good diagnostic accuracy compared with CA and DUS. Copyright

  9. Focal bowel wall changes detected with colour Doppler ultrasound: diagnostic value in acute non-diverticular diseases of the colon.

    PubMed

    Danse, E M; Jamart, J; Hoang, P; Laterre, P F; Kartheuser, A; Van Beers, B E

    2004-11-01

    We performed a study to determine if colour Doppler findings may help to identify the cause of wall thickening in acute non-diverticular diseases of the colon. The study group included 66 patients admitted to the emergency department with a final diagnosis of infectious colitis (n=23), inflammatory colitis (n=10), ischaemic colitis (n=23) and malignant tumours (n=10). The following ultrasound features were assessed: maximal wall thickness, wall stratification, arterial flow in the colonic wall and arteriolar resistive index. Higher values of wall thickness were observed in malignant tumour (18.2+/-6.2 mm, p<0.001). Moderately thickened wall (6.6+/-1.3 mm, p< or =0.06), preserved stratification (90% versus 46% in the remainder of the study population) and lower resistive index (0.51+/-0.10, p< or =0.05) were significantly related to inflammatory colitis. Absence of arterial flow was more frequently observed in ischaemia (43% versus 12% in the remainder of the study population). In conclusion, despite some overlap, both ultrasound and colour Doppler features are helpful in the differential diagnosis of colonic thickening related to non-diverticular colonic lesions.

  10. The Effect of Cranioplasty on Cerebral Hemodynamics as Measured by Perfusion Computed Tomography and Doppler Ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Paredes, Igor; Castaño, Ana María; Cepeda, Santiago; Alén, Jose Antonio Fernández; Salvador, Elena; Millán, Jose María; Lagares, Alfonso

    2016-09-01

    Cranioplasties are performed to protect the brain and correct cosmetic defects, but there is growing evidence that this procedure may result in neurological improvement. We prospectively studied cranioplasties performed at our hospital over a 5-year period. The National Institute of Health Stroke Scale and Barthel index were recorded prior to and within 72 h after the cranioplasty. A perfusion computed tomography (PCT) and transcranial Doppler sonography (TCDS) were performed prior to and 72 h after the surgery. For the PCT, regions irrigated by the anterior cerebral artery, the middle cerebral artery (MCA), the posterior cerebral artery, and the basal ganglia were selected, as well as the mean values for the hemisphere. The sonography was performed in the sitting and the supine position for the MCA and internal carotid. The velocities, pulsatility index, resistance index, and Lindegaard ratio (LR) were obtained, as well as a variation value for the LR (ΔLR = LR sitting - LR supine). Fifty-four patients were included in the study. Of these, 23 (42.6%) patients presented with objective improvement. The mean cerebral blood flow of the defective side (m-CBF-d) increased from 101.86 to 117.17 mL/100 g/min (p = 0.064), and the m-CBF of the healthy side (m-CBF-h) increased from 128.14 to 145.73 mL/100 g/min (p = 0.028). With regard to the TCDS, the ΔLR was greater on the defective side prior the surgery in those patients who showed improvement (1.295 vs. -0.714; p = 0.002). Cranioplasty resulted in clinical improvement in 40% of the patients, with an increase in the post-surgical CBF. The larger variations in the LR when the patient is moved from the sitting to the supine position might predict the clinical improvement.

  11. A new scoring model for characterization of adnexal masses based on two-dimensional gray-scale and colour Doppler sonographic features

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, A.M.; Zahran, K.M.; Nasr, A.; Kamel, H.S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the most discriminating two-dimensional gray-scale and colour Doppler sonographic features that allow differentiation between malignant and benign adnexal masses, and to develop a scoring model that would enable more accurate diagnosis with those features. Methods: A cross sectional prospective study was conducted on patients scheduled for surgery due to presence of adnexal masses at Woman’s Health Center, Assiut University, Egypt between October 2012 and October 2013. All patients were evaluated by 2D ultrasound for morphological features of the masses combined with colour Doppler examination of their vessels. The final diagnosis, based on histopathological analysis, was used as a gold standard. Results: One hundred forty-six patients were recruited, 104 with benign masses, 42 with malignant masses. Features that allowed statistically significant discrimination of benignity from malignancy were; volume of mass, type of mass, presence and thickness of septae, presence and length of papillary projections, location of vessels at colour Doppler and colour score. A scoring model was formulated combining these features together; Assiut Scoring Model (ASM). The cut-off level with the highest accuracy in detection of malignancy, was ≥6, had a sensitivity of 93.5% and specificity of 92.2%. Conclusion: Our Scoring Model; a multiparameter scoring using four gray-scale ultrasound and two colour Doppler features, had shown a high sensitivity and specificity for prediction of malignancy in adnexal masses compared with previous scoring systems. PMID:25009729

  12. Diagnostic value of color Doppler ultrasonography of temporal arteries and large vessels in giant cell arteritis: a consecutive case series.

    PubMed

    Diamantopoulos, Andreas P; Haugeberg, Glenn; Hetland, Helene; Soldal, Dag M; Bie, Rolf; Myklebust, Geirmund

    2014-01-01

    Color Doppler ultrasonography (CDUS) can detect inflammation in the vessel wall. No studies have evaluated the examination of the common carotid artery by CDUS in the diagnostics of giant cell arteritis (GCA). Our aim was to evaluate the combination of CDUS examination of the temporal, axillary, and common carotid arteries in the diagnosis of GCA. Patients ages ≥50 years who were referred to our department between April 2010 and October 2012 and suspected to have GCA were consecutively examined. A positive clinical evaluation for GCA 6 months after the first evaluation by 3 rheumatologists was considered as the gold diagnostic standard. All patients underwent CDUS of the temporal, axillary, and common carotid arteries. A biopsy of the temporal artery was performed for most patients. A total of 88 patients were assessed. Forty-six patients were diagnosed to have GCA by the defined gold standard. Forty-eight patients had a positive CDUS of the temporal artery. Forty-six patients diagnosed with GCA had a positive CDUS of the temporal, common carotid, and axillary arteries (100% sensitivity) and 4 patients had a positive CDUS without having GCA (91% specificity). Among the 39 GCA patients that underwent a biopsy, vasculitis was observed in 26 patients (66%), yielding a sensitivity of 67% and a specificity of 95%. CDUS of the common carotid, axillary, and temporal arteries had an excellent sensitivity and high specificity to diagnose GCA. CDUS has the potential to replace biopsy in ordinary clinical care without compromising on sensitivity and specificity. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  13. [Changes in the cerebral flow velocity induced in the middle cerebral artery by acute stress studied by transcranial Doppler ultrasonography].

    PubMed

    Martín, R; González, M J; Ruiz, C; Montiel, I; Alberdi, M; Matías-Guiu, J

    1994-10-29

    The behavior of brain flow on acute stress has not been previously evaluated. Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TD) is a bloodless method to evaluate the speed of cerebral flow in the arteries of the Willis polygon. The present study was designed to analyze the changes which occur in the same during two situations of acute stress. The mean speed of cerebral flow (MS) and the pulsation rate (PR) of the right and left middle cerebral artery (MCA) were measured basally and following a mental stress test (calculation) and physical stress (cold test) by TD and through the temporal window. Twenty-five healthy volunteers (18 women and 8 men) with a mean age of 27.8 +/- 7.3 years were studied. In response to mental stress an increase was observed in MS in both the right MCA (10 +/- 8.6 cm/sec) and the left MCA (10.4 +/- 8.7 cm/sec) with a decrease in the MCA (0.14 +/- 0.23 in the right MCA, 0.14 +/- 0.18 cm/sec in the left MCA). In response to the cold test an increase in MS (7.3 +/- 7.5 cm/sec in the right MCA, 14.8 +/- 14.7 cm/sec in the left MCA) was also observed with a decrease in the PR (0.2 +/- 0.2 in the right MCA and 0.2 +/- 0.16 in the left MCA). No significant differences were observed in the changes induced in the right or left artery or in those induced by the mental or cold tests. These results suggest that the acute stress produces an increase in cerebral flow in the arteries of the Willis polygon.

  14. [The role of color doppler ultrasonography, thyroid function and auto antibody for the screening of Graves' disease in pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Xue, M; Shi, Q L; Tan, K N; Wu, Y; Zhou, R

    2016-06-01

    To determine whether color doppler ultrasonography (CDU), thyroid function or thyroid autoimmune antibodies could identify Graves' disease in pregnancy(GDP) in pregnant patients with newly diagnosed thyrotoxicosis. It is an observational study. Sixty-eight pregnant patients with newly diagnosed thyrotoxicosis including gestational hyperthyroidism(GHT) subjects (GHT group, n=33) and GDP subjects (GDP group, n=35), and 62 age-and sex-matched healthy subjects (C1 group: pregnant, n=32, C2 group: non-pregnant, n=30) were recruited. Thyroid function, human chorionic gonadotropin(HCG), thyroid autoimmune antibodies were detected. Peak systolic velocity of the superior thyroid artery (STA-PSV) and diastole inner diameter(STA-D) of the superior thyroid artery were measured by CDU. A ROC curve was used to evaluate STA-PSV, STA-D, thyroid function and thyroid autoimmune antibodies for identification of GDP. The area under the ROC curve of STA-PSV, STA-D and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free T4 (FT4) for GDP were 0.905, 0.887, 0.803 and 0.786, respectively. The optimal cut-off points of STA-PSV, STA-D, TSH and FT4 for GDP were 40 cm/s, 2.0mm, 0.03 mIU/L and 30 pmol/L with the sensitivity of 82.9%, 72.1%, 81.8%, 76.2% and specificity of 81.8%, 87.9%, 75.2%, 80.3%, respectively. Detection of STA-PSV and STA-D by CDU, as well as thyroid function, is useful in screening GDP in pregnant patients with thyrotoxicosis.

  15. [Value of quantitative measurement of placenta with three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasonography in pregnant women with pregnancy-induced hypertension].

    PubMed

    Yang, Ruiqi; Zhang, Jialing; Zhu, Chonglei; Wang, Fei; Fan, Limei

    2015-08-18

    To evaluate the intrauterine state of fetuses with pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) through quantitative measurement of placenta by three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasonography, and to judge the value of three-dimensional power Doppler in PIH fetuses. A total of 50 pregnant women with PIH in our hospital from November 2012 to August 2014 were enrolled into the observation group, while 50 cases were randomly selected into the control group to match the former group's gestational week (GA). The placental vascularization index (VI), flow index (FI) and vascularization flow index (VFI) were quantitatively measured by three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasonography in the two groups. SPSS 19 statistics software was used to do the linear regression for the above parameters.And those parameters of the two groups were compared by t test. P<0.05 was deemed significant. The detection ratio of fetal placental VI, FI and VFI of the whole 100 cases was 100%. The regression equation of VI and GA was: Y=0.394X-5.358, R² = 0.694, P<0.05; the regression equation of FI and GA was: Y=0.801X+5.61, R² = 0.807, P<0.05; the regression equation of VFI and GA was: Y=0.225X-4.148, R² = 0.691, P<0.05. t tests showed the differences of the means of placental VI, FI and VFI between the observation group and the control group were statistically significant (all P<0.05). VI, FI and VFI of placenta measured by three-dimensional power Doppler examination increase with the increase of GA, and the means of placental VI, FI and VFI in PIH patients are less than those in normal cases. Quantitative measurement of placenta with three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasound has its own advantages, and can evaluate the status of placenta of PIH fetus accurately.

  16. Common carotid artery pseudoaneurysm after neck dissection: colour Doppler ultrasound and multidetector computed tomography findings.

    PubMed

    Flor, N; Sardanelli, F; Ghilardi, G; Tentori, A; Franceschelli, G; Felisati, G; Cornalba, G P

    2007-05-01

    Common carotid artery pseudoaneurysm is a rare disease, which has been previously unreported in association with neck dissection. We describe the Doppler ultrasound and multidetector computed tomography (CT) findings of a case of carotid pseudoaneurysm, one month after pharyngolaryngectomy with bilateral neck dissection. Multidetector CT confirmed the diagnosis made on the basis of Doppler ultrasound; the high image quality of axial and three-dimensional reconstructions avoided the need for pre-operative conventional angiography. In the presence of a pulsatile cervical mass after neck surgery, pseudoaneurysm of the carotid artery should be included in the differential diagnosis, and multidetector CT can be the sole pre-operative diagnostic imaging modality.

  17. Use of Color Doppler Ultrasonography to Measure Thyroid Blood Flow and Differentiate Graves' Disease from Painless Thyroiditis

    PubMed Central

    Hiraiwa, Tetsuya; Tsujimoto, Naoyuki; Tanimoto, Keiji; Terasaki, Jungo; Amino, Nobuyuki; Hanafusa, Toshiaki

    2013-01-01

    Backgrounds Color Doppler ultrasonography (CDU) has not yet been established as a method to investigate the pathogenesis of thyrotoxicosis. Objectives Our first objective was to determine whether the measurement of peak systolic blood-flow velocity in the superior thyroid artery (STV) and thyroid tissue blood flow (TBF) using CDU could differentiate Graves' disease (GD) from painless thyroiditis (PT). The second objective was to examine the factors mediating increased blood flow to the thyroid gland in GD. Methods Recruited patients had untreated GD or PT and visited the Department of Internal Medicine (I), Osaka Medical College, between April 1, 2006 and May 31, 2010. Age, gender, blood pressure, pulse rate, thyroid-stimulating hormone, free thyroxine, tri-iodothyronine, TSH receptor antibody and thyroid volume were evaluated in patients. In addition, bilateral measurements of STV, TBF and peak systolic velocity in the common carotid artery (CCV) were also performed. TBF was quantified by calculating the ratio of blood-flow pixels to total pixels in the region of interest using sagittal section images of the thyroid gland. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to determine the ability of STV and TBF measurements to differentiate GD from PT. Results For the average of STV measured on both sides, the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) was 0.956. For the average of TBF measured on both sides, the AUC was 0.920. At an average STV cut-off value of 43 cm/s, the sensitivity to discriminate GD from PT was 0.87 and the specificity was 1.00. At an average TBF cut-off value of 3.8%, the sensitivity was 0.71 and the specificity was 1.00. In the GD group, neither blood pressure nor pulse rate correlated with the average STV or TBF. Moreover, there was no correlation between STV and CCV or between TBF and CCV on either side. However, STV was correlated with TBF (right side: R = 0.47; left side: R = 0.52). Conclusions The

  18. Limited Accuracy of Colour Doppler Ultrasound Dynamic Tissue Perfusion Measurement in Diabetic Adults

    PubMed Central

    Stoperka, Felix; Karger, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic tissue perfusion measurement (DTPM) is a pre-described and available method in pediatric ultrasound to quantify tissue perfusion in renal Doppler ultrasound by particular video analysis software. This study evaluates DTPM during single and between repeated visits after 6 months, calibrates repeated DTPM within different region of interest (ROI) and compares DTPM with kidney function markers in adult patients with early diabetic nephropathy (n = 17). During repeated measurements, no association of readings at the same patients in the same (n = 3 readings) as well as repeated visit (n = 2 visits) could be retrieved. No association between DTPM, MDRD-GFR, albuminuria, age and duration of diabetes was observed. These negative results are presumably related to inconsistency of DTPM due to non-fixed ROI position as could be shown in calibrating series. Further development of the method should be performed to enable reproducible DTPM readings in adults. PMID:28033403

  19. Relationship between colour flow Doppler sonographic assessment of corpus luteum activity and progesterone concentrations in mares after embryo transfer.

    PubMed

    Brogan, P T; Henning, H; Stout, T A E; de Ruijter-Villani, M

    2016-03-01

    Colour-flow Doppler sonography has been described as a means of assessing corpus luteum (CL) function rapidly, because area of luteal blood vessels correlates well with circulating progesterone (P4) concentrations [P4] in oestrous cycling mares. The aim of this study was to assess the relationships between CL size and vascularity, and circulating [P4] during early pregnancy in mares, and to determine whether luteal blood flow was a useful aid for selecting an embryo transfer recipient. Equine embryos (n=48) were recovered 8 days after ovulation and were transferred to available recipient mares as part of a commercial program with the degree of synchrony in timing of recipient ovulation ranging from 1 day before to 4 days after the donor. Immediately prior to embryo transfer (ET), maximum CL cross-section and blood vessel areas were assessed sonographically, and jugular blood was collected to measure plasma [P4]. Sonographic measurements and jugular blood collection were repeated at day 4 after ET for all mares, and again at days 11, 18 and 25 after ET in mares that were pregnant. The number of grey-scale and colour pixels within the CL was subsequently quantified using ImageJ software. The CL blood flow correlated significantly but weakly with plasma [P4] on the day of transfer and on day 4 after ET in all mares, and on days 11 and 25 after ET in pregnant mares (r=0.30-0.36). The CL area and plasma [P4] were also correlated on each day until day 11 after ET (r=0.49-0.60). The CL colour pixel area decreased significantly after day 18, whereas CL area was already decreasing by day 4 after ET. The CL area, area of blood flow, or [P4] was predictive of pregnancy. Findings in the present study suggest that both CL area and blood flow are correlated with circulating [P4] at the time of transfer and in early pregnancy. Evaluation of the CL using B-mode or CF sonography, although practical, provides no improvement in the selection of recipients or prediction of pregnancy

  20. Application of colour Doppler in encircling constriction of the superficial femoral vein in primary deep venous insufficiency of the lower limbs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Wang, Ling; Yi, Jun; Yao, Qing; Chen, Jiang-Hao; Yuan, Shi-Fang; Zhang, Ju-Liang; Yun, Jun; Han, Zeng-Hui; Ren, Jun; Ling, Rui

    2011-12-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical value of colour Doppler application in encircling constriction of the superficial femoral vein in deep vein insufficiency. 2. A total of 87 patients with primary deep venous insufficiency (PDVI) using ascending venography were randomly divided into group A (44 patients) and group B (43 patients). All patients underwent encircling constriction of the superficial femoral vein, high ligation and ablation of the great saphenous vein and perforator vein. The duration of venous reflux at operation was monitored with colour Doppler in group A (but not group B) to evaluate the immediate effects. Clinical grading and scoring of the clinical, etiological, anatomical, pathophysiological (CEAP) classification system were used to evaluate the follow-up curative effect. 3. In four cases from group A, completely destroyed valves were identified at the time of operation and autografting of the vein segment with a valve was carried out. The intraoperative examination of colour Doppler in group A showed a much shorter duration of vein reflux after the encircling constriction procedure than the presurgery condition. According to the results of CEAP grading, the success rate of group A (95.0%, 38/40) was significantly higher than that of group B (76.7%, 33/43). Postoperative clinical scores were markedly lower than preoperative scores in both groups A and B. 4. In conclusion, our data suggest that application of colour Doppler in encircling constriction of superficial femoral vein might enhance surgical pertinence and improve surgical effect for PDVI. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. Evaluation of ocular surface temperature and retrobulbar haemodynamics by infrared thermography and colour Doppler imaging in patients with glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Galassi, Fernando; Giambene, Barbara; Corvi, Andrea; Falaschi, Giacomo

    2007-01-01

    Background Ocular surface temperature (OST) could berelated to retrobulbar haemodynamics in patients with glaucoma. Aims To compare OST measurements in patients with glaucoma and healthy controls, and to investigate the correlation between OST, intraocular pressure (IOP) and retrobulbar haemodynamics in patients with glaucoma. Methods 32 patients with primary open‐angle glaucoma (POAG) and 40 controls were included in the study. The parameters considered both in patients with POAG and in controls were IOP and OST values measured by infrared ocular thermography. Colour Doppler imaging was used to determine haemodynamic parameters in ophthalmic artery (OA), central retinal artery (CRA) and short posterior ciliary arteries (SPCAs) in patients with POAG. Results OST values were significantly lower in patients with POAG than in controls (p<0.001). OST was negatively related with resistivity index of OA (p<0.001), CRA (p = 0.001) and SPCAs (p<0.001), and positively related with end‐diastolic velocity of OA (p = 0.02) and SPCAs (p = 0.05). Conclusion This study suggested that OST could be a marker of impaired retrobulbar haemodynamics in patients with glaucoma. PMID:17314146

  2. Validation of color Doppler ultrasonography for evaluating the uterine blood flow and perfusion during late normal pregnancy and uterine torsion in buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Hassan A

    2013-04-15

    The aim of this study was to verify the efficacy of color Doppler ultrasonography for diagnosis of degree and duration of uterine torsion in buffaloes. In Assiut province/Upper Egypt, 65 buffaloes (37 with uterine torsion, 28 with normal late pregnancy) were examined clinically and using Doppler ultrasonography. The Doppler indices including resistance index (RI), pulsatility index (PI), time-averaged maximum velocity (TAMV), and blood flow volume (BFV) in the arteries ipsilateral to the uterine torsion (IPUT) and in arteries contralateral to the uterine torsion (COUT) were recorded. Methods of correction were documented along with dam and calf survival. Torsion was recorded postcervically with vaginal involvement in 35/37 (94.6%) of the cases. The degrees of uterine torsion were light and high in 9/37 (24.3%) and 28/37 (75.7%) of the cases, respectively (P = 0.001). Right uterine torsion was present in 36/37 (97.3%) of the cases (P = 0.0001). Pulsatility index, RI, TAMV, and BFV in IPUT and COUT did not differ significantly (P > 0.05) in normal late pregnancy. The PI and RI in IPUT were significantly higher (P < 0.01) than in COUT, and the TAMV and BFV in IPUT were less (P < 0.001) than that in COUT in uterine torsion. The PI and RI of torsion cases in IPUT were higher (P < 0.001) than that in normal pregnancy. Time-averaged maximum velocity and BFV in torsion cases were lower (P < 0.01) than that of normal pregnancy in IPUT. There was approximately 50% of RI and PI higher than in light degree uterine torsion in IPUT (P < 0.001). Consequently, TAMV and BFV were greatly lower (P < 0.0001) than that in light degree in IPUT. Pulsatility index and RI were positively correlated (r = 0.856; P < 0.001) with the duration and degree of the uterine torsion, and TAMV and BFV were negatively correlated (r = -0.763; P < 0.001). In all cases of uterine torsion the uterine flow velocity waveform showed high systolic flow and absence of early diastolic flow and poor uterine and

  3. Hemodynamics and changes after STA-MCA anastomosis in moyamoya disease and atherosclerotic cerebrovascular disease measured by micro-Doppler ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Morisawa, Hanako; Kawamata, Takakazu; Kawashima, Akitsugu; Hayashi, Masataka; Yamaguchi, Kohji; Yoneyama, Taku; Okada, Yoshikazu

    2013-07-01

    Moyamoya disease (MMD) and atherosclerotic cerebrovascular disease (ACVD) differ in angiographic appearance and probably hemodynamics. Pediatric MMD (PMMD) usually presents with cerebral ischemia, while intracranial hemorrhage is more common in adult MMD (AMMD), suggesting differences in cerebral hemodynamics. We analyzed the cortical flow velocity and direction of recipient arteries using micro-Doppler ultrasonography to evaluate the cortical circulation before and after anastomosis in MMD and ACVD. Twenty-eight patients with adult MMD (AMMD), 7 with pediatric MMD (PMMD), 16 with ACVD, and 12 control patients were studied. A micro-Doppler probe was applied on the cortical recipient artery (A4 or M4) before and after anastomosis. Systolic maximum flow velocity (V max) and blood flow direction were investigated at proximal and distal parts of anastomosed sites in recipient arteries. Pre- and postoperative regional cerebral blood flow was measured by cold xenon-computed tomography (Xe-CT). Before anastomosis, retrograde cortical flow was significantly more common in PMMD patients, and V max in cortical artery was significantly lower in AMMD patients. Bypass surgery changed the direction of blood flow from the anastomosis site to proximal and distal sites of the recipient artery in most patients, but pre-anastomosis flow direction was preserved more frequently in PMMD patients. The rate of V max increase after anastomosis was significantly higher in AMMD than in PMMD (11.6 ± 9.8 vs. 3.9 ± 1.8; P = 0.01). Micro-Doppler ultrasonography identified differences in cortical circulation among AMMD, PMMD, and ACVD. In AMMD, significantly low velocity in the cortical artery was observed before anastomosis, and bypass surgery reversed the flow and significantly increased flow velocity. The data of PMMD showed unique hemodynamics of the cortical artery before anastomosis, characterized by a higher frequency of retrograde flow and preserved velocity. The V max

  4. Determination of prestenotic flow volume using an automated method based on colour Doppler imaging for evaluating orifice area by the continuity equation: validation in a pulsatile flow model

    PubMed Central

    Dennig, K; Nesser, H; Hall, D; Haase, H; Schomig, A

    1998-01-01

    Objective—To evaluate, in a pulsatile flow model simulating flow conditions in valvar stenoses, whether accurate determination of orifice area can be achieved by the continuity equation using automated determination of flow volumes based on spatiotemporal integration of digital colour Doppler flow velocities.
Methods—A method for automated determination of flow volumes which takes into account the velocity distribution across a region of interest was examined using flow through a tube and various restrictive outlet orifices with areas ranging between 0.2 and 3.1 cm2. The sampling rectangle of the Doppler method was positioned proximal to the obstructions within the flow convergence zone for evaluating prestenotic flow volume. Stenotic jet velocities were recorded by continuous wave Doppler to obtain the integral under the velocity curve. Prestenotic flow volume was then divided by the velocity integral to calculate functional orifice area according to the continuity equation.
Results—The presence of parabolically shaped velocity profiles across the prestenotic region was demonstrated by the Doppler method. Excellent agreement was found between prestenotic flow volumes measured by the Doppler technique and actual values (r = 0.99, SEE = 1.35 ml, y = 0.99x−0.24). Use of the continuity equation led to a close correlation, with a systematic underestimation of geometric orifice sizes. Correction of Doppler data for flow contraction yielded an excellent agreement with actual orifice areas.
Conclusions—The study validated the accuracy of a Doppler method for automated determination of flow volumes for quantifying orifice area by the continuity equation. Prestenotic flow volume and functional orifice area could be evaluated reliably in the presence of non-flat velocity profiles. Thus the method contributes to the non-invasive assessment of valvar stenoses.

 Keywords: Doppler echocardiography;  automated flow volume determination;  valvar

  5. Analysis of the blood supply to the post-fracture edentulous mandible: study by colour Doppler sonography.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Júlio Cezar M A; Garcia, Márcio Ricardo Taveira; de Oliveira, Ilka Regina Souza; de Freitas, Ronaldo Rodrigues; Luz, João Gualberto C

    2016-12-01

    This study assessed the arterial blood supply to the mandible of edentulous patients treated for mandibular fractures using colour Doppler ultrasound. The blood supply of edentulous patients surgically treated for mandibular fractures (group A) and edentulous fracture-free individuals (group B) was assessed. Only the fractured sides were evaluated in the first group (N = 17), whereas each side was evaluated in the second group (N = 20). The arterial flow of six sites was assessed. The systolic-peak maximum velocity (SPV), final diastolic velocity (FDV), resistive index (RI), pulsatility index (PI), acceleration and flow direction of each artery were obtained. Additionally, the presence of local vascular obstructive factors was evaluated. The differences between groups were analysed using the Kruskal-Wallis test, which was complemented by the Mann-Whitney test, for correlations between the degree of alveolar atrophy and the study factors (p < 0.050). There was a significant decrease in the flow of certain arteries, especially the submental (SPV, p = 0.007, PI, p = 0.022, and acceleration, p = 0.015), in the fracture group. The facial artery in both groups showed lower values related to local obstructive factors (SPV, p = 0.001, FDV, p = 0.040, and PI, p = 0.030). The submental artery flow was higher (SPV, p = 0.006, and FDV, p = 0.009) in non-atrophic individuals. There was a decreased flow mainly in the submental artery, but there were no cases of major vascular injury in edentulous patients treated for mandibular fractures.

  6. Colour-duplex ultrasonography of the temporal and ophthalmic arteries in the diagnosis and follow-up of giant cell arteritis.

    PubMed

    Pérez López, J; Solans Laqué, R; Bosch Gil, J A; Molina Cateriano, C; Huguet Redecilla, P; Vilardell Tarrés, M

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of colour-duplex ultrasonography (CDU) of the temporal and ophthalmic arteries in the diagnosis of giant cell arteritis (GCA) and its usefulness in the follow-up of the disease. Furthermore, to examine the relationship between CDU abnormalities in ophthalmic arteries and blindness. This is a prospective study of all patients with clinical suspicion of GCA or polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) seen consecutively at the Internal Medicine Department at Vall d'Hebron University Hospital, Spain, between March 2003 and July 2006. Patients were evaluated with regard to the sensitivity and specificity of the dark halo sign in the temporal artery for the diagnosis of GCA, as well as the sensitivity and specificity of the presence of stenosis in temporal and/or ophthalmic arteries. Additionally, the usefulness of the dark halo sign in the follow-up of GCA was addressed. Forty-seven patients (30 with GCA, 17 with PMR) and 13 controls were included in the study. The sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of biopsy-proven GCA were higher for the temporal halo (72% in both cases) than for temporal artery stenosis (41% and 89%, respectively), or for ophthalmic artery stenosis (58% and 89%, respectively). Disappearance of the halo was observed in 50% of patients six months after diagnosis, although all patients were in clinical remission, and laboratory parameters were within normal values. CDU of the temporal arteries may be a valid tool in the diagnosis of GCA. However, its role in the follow up of the disease deserves re-evaluation. CDU of the ophthalmic arteries is less useful for CGA diagnosis and no relationship with blindness is suspected.

  7. Inter- and intra-observer agreement of high-resolution ultrasonography and power Doppler in assessment of joint inflammation and bone erosions in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Chávez-López, Mario Alfredo; Hernández-Díaz, Cristina; Moya, Carlos; Pineda, Carlos; Ventura-Ríos, Lucio; Möller, Ingrid; Naredo, Esperanza; Espinosa, Rolando; Peña, Angélica; Rosas-Cabral, Alejandro; Filippucci, Emilio

    2013-01-01

    To assess the inter- and intra-observer reproducibility of musculoskeletal ultrasonography among rheumatologist in detecting inflammatory and morphostructural changes in small joints of the hands in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Five members of the "Escuela de Ecografía del Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología" tested their inter- and intra-observer reliabilities in the assessment of basic sonographic findings of joint inflammation and bone erosion. Their results were compared to those obtained by a group of international experts from European League Against Rheumatism. A clinical rheumatologist evaluated eight RA patients. Five Siemens Acuson Antares ultrasound machines (7-13 MHz linear probes) were used. The OMERACT preliminary definitions of joint effusion, synovial hypertrophy, bone erosions and tenosynovitis were adopted. Inter-observer and intra-observer agreement was calculated by overall agreement and kappa statistics. Mean kappa value for joint effusion was good, 0.654 (85%); synovial hypertrophy, 0.550 (77.2%); power Doppler signal, 0.550 (82.5%); bone erosions, 0.549 (81%); and tenosynovitis, 0.500 (91.5%). Mean and overall intra-observer agreement for semiquantitative score was good for joint effusion, 0.630 (77.2%) and bone erosions, 0.605 (56.25%); and moderate to synovial hypertrophy, 0.476 (65%) and power Doppler signal, 0.471 (80%). Mean kappa value for joint effusion was 0.381 (95%), synovial hypertrophy, 0.447 (72%); power Doppler signal, 0.496 (81%); bone erosions, 0.294 (81%); and tenosynovitis, 0.030 (66%). Mean and overall inter-observer agreement for semiquantitative score was poor for joint effusion, 0.325 (57%) and bone erosions, 0.360 (43%); and moderate to synovial hypertrophy, 0.431 (55%) and power Doppler signal, 0.496 (81%). Intra-observer variability reached the highest levels of agreement. Factors related to the experience of the rheumatologist, the time spent in each examination and knowledge of the software ultrasound

  8. Value of color Doppler ultrasonography and radiography for the assessment of the cancellous bone scaffold coated with nano-hydroxyapatite in repair of radial bone in rabbit.

    PubMed

    Rahimzadeh, Rasoul; Veshkini, Abbas; Sharifi, Davood; Hesaraki, Saeed

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate the osteo-regenerative capacity of proprietary bone grafting material as a bone defect filler and osteogenetic stimulation to speed up bone healing too. Eighteen adult male New Zealand white rabbits were anesthetized and a segmental full thickness bone defect of 10 mm in length was created in the middle of the right radial shaft in all rabbits. They were divided into two groups of 9 rabbits. Group I was considered as control and the fractured site was fixed using finger bone plate with 4 screws, whereas the cancellous bone scaffold coated with Nano-Hydroxyapatite was used to fill the gap after fracture fixation in Group II. Radiography, two dimensional and color Doppler ultrasonography were done before and after creating defects and on 0, 15, 30, 60 and 90 days to evaluate local reaction as far as new blood vessels network and callus formation are observed. On the radiographs during the whole process, bone repair in Group I was not as perfect as those in Group II samples and trace of internal callus filled the gap incompletely in 60 days in Group I, whereas in Group II internal callus almost was formed on 30 days and in addition intercortical callus was seen supporting to cover and filled the gap completely in this group in 60 day; Sonographic findings confirmed the protrusion of newly formed blood vascular network in 30 days in Group I and from 15 days in Group II and remarkably increased till end of observation period. The nano-hydroxyapatite with more features and shorter in time, made possible the reconstruction of bone tissue and alternative techniques as well as previous bone graft, also radiography and ultrasonography are reliable techniques to trace local reaction at proper time.

  9. Diagnostic value of color doppler ultrasonography in detecting stenosis and occlusion of central veins in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Rad, Masoud Pezeshki; Kazemzadeh, Gholam Hosain; Ziaee, Masood; Azarkar, Ghodsieh

    2015-03-01

    Venography is an invasive diagnostic test that uses contrast material that provides a picture of the condition of the veins. But, complications, including adverse effects on the kidney, do occur. On the other hand, with the current technological development, application of ultrasound in the diagnosis of obstructive diseases of the veins is gaining popularity, being non-invasive, easy to perform and cost-effective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of Doppler sonography in the diagnosis of central vein stenosis. In this descriptive-analytical study, 41 hemodialysis patients who had been referred for 50 upper limb venographies to the radiology department of Imam Reza (AS) were included. Patients with chronic kidney disease with a history of catheterization of the vein, jugular or subclavian, and who had established fistulas or synthetic vascular grafts were targeted. Central venous ultrasound was performed on both sides to evaluate stenosis or occlusion. Venography was performed by the radiologist the next day or the day before hemodialysis. Data on demographic characteristics, findings of clinical examination and findings of ultrasound as well as venography were recorded by using the SPSS software, Chi-square test and Spearman correlation, and Kappa agreement was calculated for sensitivity, specificity and predictive values. Twenty-three (56%) patients were male subjects and 18 patients (44%) were female. Twenty-three (56%) patients of the study population were aged <60 years and 18 (43/9%) patients were aged >60 years. The overall sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value and negative predictive value of Doppler sonography in the proximal veins in hemodialysis patients compared with venography were, respectively, 80.9%, 79.3%, 73.9% and 85.1%. Color Doppler sonography, as a non-invasive method, could be a good alternative for venography in the assessment of the upper limb with central vein stenosis and occlusion.

  10. Seminal, clinical and colour-Doppler ultrasound correlations of prostatitis-like symptoms in males of infertile couples.

    PubMed

    Lotti, F; Corona, G; Mondaini, N; Maseroli, E; Rossi, M; Filimberti, E; Noci, I; Forti, G; Maggi, M

    2014-01-01

    'Prostatitis-like symptoms' (PLS) are a cluster of bothersome conditions defined as 'perineal and/or ejaculatory pain or discomfort and National Institutes of Health-Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) pain subdomain score ≥4' (Nickel's criteria). PLS may originate from the prostate or from other portions of the male genital tract. Although PLS could be associated with 'prostatitis', they should not be confused. The NIH-CPSI is considered the gold-standard for assessing PLS severity. Although previous studies investigated the impact of prostatitis, vesiculitis or epididymitis on semen parameters, correlations between their related symptoms and seminal or scrotal/transrectal colour-Doppler ultrasound (CDU) characteristics have not been carefully determined. And no previous study evaluated the CDU features of PLS in infertile men. This study was aimed at investigating possible associations among NIH-CPSI (total and subdomain) scores and PLS, with seminal, clinical and scrotal/transrectal CDU parameters in a cohort of males of infertile couples. PLS of 400 men (35.8 ± 7.2 years) with a suspected male factor were assessed by the NIH-CPSI. All patients underwent, during the same day, semen analysis, seminal plasma interleukin 8 (sIL-8, a marker of male genital tract inflammation), biochemical evaluation, urine/seminal cultures, scrotal/transrectal CDU. PLS was detected in 39 (9.8%) subjects. After adjusting for age, waist and total testosterone (TT), no association among NIH-CPSI (total or subdomain) scores or PLS and sperm parameters was observed. However, we found a positive association with current positive urine and/or seminal cultures, sIL-8 levels and CDU features suggestive of inflammation of the epididymis, seminal vesicles, prostate, but not of the testis. The aforementioned significant associations of PLS were further confirmed by comparing PLS patients with age-, waist- and TT-matched PLS-free patients (1 : 3 ratio). In conclusion, NIH

  11. Non-visualization of the internal carotid artery with a normal ipsilateral common carotid artery Doppler waveform: a finding suggesting congenital absence of the ICA on colour Doppler ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, C; Utebay, B; Kalaycioglu, S; Onat, G; Solak, A

    2006-09-01

    We report a case of congenital absence of the left internal carotid artery (ICA) that presented with left-sided facial numbness. On MRI of the brain, occlusion of the left cavernous ICA was suggested. On colour Doppler ultrasound (CDS), the left ICA was not visualized and the ipsilateral common carotid artery (CCA) showed normal flow in systole and diastole. Combined with the correct identification of the left external carotid artery (ECA), these findings were suggestive of congenital absence of the ICA rather than occlusion. The final diagnosis of congenital absence of the ICA was confirmed with CT of the skull base.

  12. An evaluation of B-mode and color Doppler ultrasonography for detecting periovulatory events in the bitch.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Lindsay H; Nykamp, Stephanie G; Brisson, Brigitte A; Madan, Pavneesh; Gartley, Cathy J

    2013-01-15

    When determining optimal breeding time in the bitch, specific periovulatory events must be identified. The main objectives were to relate ultrasonographic changes in ovarian blood flow, follicle/corpora lutea count and echotexture to periovulatory events, and to assess the efficacy of each for identifying these events. Twelve Beagle (N = 3), Beagle-cross (N = 2) and hound-cross (N = 7) bitches (body weight range, 7.5-27.5 kg) were examined daily from the onset of proestrus to approximately 4 days post-LH peak. Follicle and corpora lutea count and echotexture analyses were performed using B-mode ultrasound and ovarian blood flow analysis was performed using color Doppler ultrasound. Serum LH concentrations were analyzed by validated RIA. There was an increase (P < 0.05) in ovarian blood flow from the day of the preovulatory LH peak (605 pixels; confidence interval, 397-856), to 1 day after this peak (1092 pixels; confidence interval, 724-1535), enabling detection of the preovulatory LH peak. There were no significant changes in follicle/corpora lutea echotexture relative to days from the preovulatory LH peak. There were significant decreases in follicle/corpora lutea number between Days -1 and 3; Days -1 and 4; and Days 0 and 3, relative to the preovulatory LH peak. We concluded that color Doppler ultrasound performed once daily was more accurate in identifying the preovulatory LH peak than B-mode ultrasound and enabled prospective determination of ovulation.

  13. Is a pediatrician performed gray scale ultrasonography with power Doppler study safe and effective for triaging acute non-perforated appendicitis for conservative management?

    PubMed

    Jimbo, Keisuke; Takeda, Masahiro; Miyata, Eri; Murakami, Hiroshi; Kyodo, Reiko; Orikasa, Hideki; Lane, Geoffrey J; Shimizu, Toshiaki; Yamataka, Atsuyuki

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether acute non-perforated appendicitis (ANPA) can be safely triaged by a pediatrician for conservative management (CM) using gray-scale ultrasonography with power Doppler (GSPD). Seventy five cases of ANPA assessed by a pediatrician with GSPD (2013-2015) were reviewed. GSPD grading for ANPA was: I: slightly irregular wall/normal blood flow; II: irregular wall/increased blood flow; III: irregular wall/decreased blood flow; and IV: absence of wall/blood flow. Grades I/II were managed conservatively with intravenous antibiotics then encouraged to book for interval appendectomy (IA). Grades III/IV were reviewed for emergency appendectomy (EA) by a pediatric surgeon. GSPD grading was I (n=26), II (n=36), III (n=9), and IV (n=4). EA was required for 5 cases, one grade III, and four grade IV cases. One grade IV case was treated conservatively after surgical review but EA was unavoidable. Of the remaining 70 cases discharged well after a mean of 5.7days hospitalization, 25/70 had IA with chronic inflammation on histology, 6/70 had recurrence of ANPA treated successfully by EA, and 39/70 remain asymptomatic at least 10months after declining IA. Overall, GSPD triaging with CM was cheaper than surgery. GSPD performed by pediatricians appears to be safe/effective for triaging ANPA. Level III. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Relationship of elongated styloid process in digital panoramic radiography with carotid intima thickness and carotid atheroma in Doppler ultrasonography in osteoporotic females.

    PubMed

    Hamedani, Shahram; Dabbaghmanesh, Mohammad Hossein; Zare, Zahra; Hasani, Mahvash; Torabi Ardakani, Mahshid; Hasani, Mahsa; Shahidi, Shoaleh

    2015-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis are major health dilemmas. Osteoporotic patients frequently display vascular calcification that consequently increases the cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to investigate the relation of osteoporosis, vascular calcification (atheroma, intima-media thickness (IMT)) and elongated styloid process (ESP) in a sample of osteoporotic and normal female individuals. This study recruited 78 women who were assessed for bone mass density (BMD). Sample included individuals with normal BMD (n=13, 17 %), osteopenia (n=36, 46 %), and osteoporosis (n=29, 37%). The presence of atheroma and IMT was examined using color Doppler ultrasonography (CD-US). In addition, digital panoramic radiographs (PRs) were obtained to assess ESP. In this study, 55 subjects (70%) with low BMD exhibited at least one side ESP. Femoral BMD decreased significantly in subjects with ESP (p= 0.03). Bilateral ESP was correlated with the presence of atheroma (p= 0.029). The CIMT was greater in patients with ESP, although the relation was not significant. The obtained data suggest referring the aged individuals with ESP for BMD assessment and individuals with low bone mass and ESP for more cardiovascular risk assessment.

  15. Significance of phentolamine redosing during prostaglandin E1 penile color Doppler ultrasonography in diagnosis of vascular erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Arafa, Mohamed; Eid, Hazem; Shamloul, Rany

    2007-05-01

    Recently, it was reported that phentolamine redosing during penile duplex can abolish a false diagnosis of venous leakage in patients with impotence. The aim of this study is to identify any useful role of phentolamine redosing in diagnosis of venogenic impotence. Sixty-seven consecutive patients complaining of weak erection for at least 6 months were included in this study. Penile color Doppler ultrasound (CDU) was performed using a 7.5 MHz linear array transducer with a color flow mapping capability. Following intracavernous injection of 20 microg prostaglandin E1 (PGE1), all patients with persistent end diastolic velocity (EDV) >5 cm/sec with an erectile response of E3 or lower, 20 min after intracavernosal injection of PGE1, were asked to revisit our clinic for a second CDU, 2 weeks later. During initial CDU examination, all 67 patients experienced poor response to 20 microg PGE1 with their average peak systolic velocity (PSV) and EDV being 42.8 and 6.6 cm/sec, respectively. The second CDU examination had similar results to the first one. Addition of 2 mg phentolamine did not significantly change the PSV and EDV of cavernosal arteries in any of the 67 patients. In conclusion, addition of intracavernous phentolamine during PGE1 CDU examination carries no advantage over the use of PGE1 alone regarding cavernosal artery response in patients with suspected venogenic EDV.

  16. Magnetic resonance angiography in children with sickle cell disease and abnormal transcranial Doppler ultrasonography findings enrolled in the STOP study.

    PubMed

    Abboud, Miguel R; Cure, Joel; Granger, Suzanne; Gallagher, Dianne; Hsu, Lewis; Wang, Winfred; Woods, Gerald; Berman, Brian; Brambilla, Don; Pegelow, Charles; Lewin, Jonathan; Zimmermann, Robert A; Adams, Robert J

    2004-04-01

    The stroke prevention study in sickle cell disease (STOP) demonstrated a 90% reduction in stroke risk with transfusion among patients with time-averaged mean cerebral blood velocity (TAMV) of 200 cm/s or more as measured by transcranial Doppler (TCD). In STOP, 232 brain magnetic resonance angiograms (MRAs) were performed on 100 patients, 47 in the transfusion arm and 53 in the standard care arm. Baseline MRA findings were interpreted as normal in 75 patients and as indicating mild stenosis in 4 patients and severe stenosis in 21 patients. Among 35 patients who underwent magnetic resonance angiography within 30 days of random assignment, the TAMV was significantly higher in 7 patients with severe stenosis compared with 28 patients with normal MRA findings or mild stenosis (276.7 +/- 34 vs 215 +/- 15.6 cm/s; P<.001). In the standard care arm, 4 of 13 patients with abnormal MRA findings had strokes compared with 5 of 40 patients with normal MRA findings (P=.03). In this arm, TAMV became normal (less than 170 cm/s) or conditional (170-199 cm/s) in 26 of 38 patients with normal or mildly abnormal baseline MRA but remained abnormal in 8 of 10 patients with severely abnormal baseline MRA. These results suggest that TCD often detects flow abnormalities indicative of stroke risk before MRA lesions become evident. Furthermore, patients with abnormal MRA findings and higher TCD velocities are at higher risk for stroke, and their cerebral TAMVs are unlikely to decrease without transfusion.

  17. The relationship of patient-reported joints with active synovitis detected by power Doppler ultrasonography in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Peter P; Gossec, Laure; Ruyssen-Witrand, Adeline; Le Bourlout, Catherine; Mézières, Maryse; Dougados, Maxime

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the relationship of patient-reported tender and swollen joints with active inflammation as detected by power Doppler (PDUS) and whether this relationship is affected by significant joint damage. Fifty rheumatoid arthritis patients self-assessed 28 tender and swollen joints and were followed by PDUS assessment. Relationship of tender and swollen joints with active synovitis (PDUS 'gold standard') was assessed at the joint level by: a) percentage agreement at each PDUS semiquantitative grade (grade 1 to 3), b) positive likelihood ratio (LR) of agreement with PDUS, and c) LR of agreement with PDUS according to radiographic damage (significant erosive disease vs. non-erosive disease). Correlation of tender and swollen joint counts with disease activity markers was analysed by Spearman's. Sensitivity analyses examined the influence of disease activity or global pain on level of agreement at the joint level. Of joints with significant active inflammation (e.g. grade 3 PDUS), patients identified 75% as tender and 63% as swollen. Swollen joints showed strong association at the joint level with active synovitis when there was no significant radiographic damage (LR 2.54, 95%CI 1.93-3.34), but with no significant radiographic damage (LR 1.32, 95%CI 0.75-2.32). Swollen joint counts were statistically correlated with PDUS-DAS28 and CRP, but not PDUS score. Sensitivity analysis showed better agreement of tender and swollen joints with active synovitis when DAS28 was ≤ 3.2 and when patient global pain was <50mm on visual analogue scale. The relationship between patient-reported joints and active synovitis is stronger in the setting of low disease activity without erosive disease, affected also by degree of reported global pain. Further longitudinal studies of patient-reported joints are needed.

  18. Randomized comparison of power Doppler ultrasonography-guided core-needle biopsy with open surgical biopsy for the characterization of lymphadenopathies in patients with suspected lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Pugliese, Novella; Di Perna, M; Cozzolino, I; Ciancia, G; Pettinato, G; Zeppa, P; Varone, V; Masone, S; Cerchione, C; Della Pepa, R; Simeone, L; Giordano, C; Martinelli, V; Salvatore, C; Pane, F; Picardi, M

    2017-04-01

    The sensitivity of lymph node core-needle biopsy under imaging guidance requires validation. We employed power Doppler ultrasonography (PDUS) to select the lymph node most suspected of malignancy and to histologically characterize it through the use of large cutting needle. Institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained for this randomized clinical trial. In a single center between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2015, patients with lymph node enlargement suspected for lymphoma were randomly assigned (1:1) to biopsy with either standard surgery or PDUS-guided 16-gauge modified Menghini needle. The primary endpoint was the superiority of sensitivity for the diagnosis of malignancy for core-needle cutting biopsy (CNCB). Secondary endpoints were times to biopsy, complications, and costs. A total of 376 patients were randomized into the two arms and received allocated biopsy. However, four patients undergoing CNCB were excluded for inadequate samples; thus, 372 patients were analyzed. Sensitivity for the detection of malignancy was significantly better for PDUS-guided CNCB [98.8%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 95.9-99.9] than standard biopsy (88.7%; 95% CI, 82.9-93; P < 0.001). For all secondary endpoints, the comparison was significantly disadvantageous for conventional approach. In particular, estimated cost per biopsy performed with standard surgery was 24-fold higher compared with that performed with CNCB. The presence of satellite enlarged reactive and/or necrotic lymph nodes may impair the success of an open surgical biopsy (OSB). PDUS and CNCB with adequate gauge are diagnostic tools that enable effective, safe, fast, and low-cost routine biopsy for patients with suspected lymphoma, avoiding psychological and physical pain of an unnecessary surgical intervention.

  19. Influence of the observer's level of experience on systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure measurements using Doppler ultrasonography in healthy conscious cats.

    PubMed

    Gouni, Vassiliki; Tissier, Renaud; Misbach, Charlotte; Balouka, David; Bueno, Hanna; Pouchelon, Jean-Louis; Lefebvre, Hervé P; Chetboul, Valérie

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the influence of the observer's level of experience on within- and between-day variability, and the percentage of successful systolic (SAP) and diastolic arterial blood pressure (DAP) measurements obtained by Doppler ultrasonography (DU) in awake cats. For this purpose, six healthy conscious cats were used and four observers with different levels of training performed 144 SAP and DAP measurements on 4 days using DU. Measurements were recorded five consecutive times, and mean values were used for statistical analysis. Only the two most skilled observers - a PhD student in cardiology and a Dipl ECVIM-CA (cardiology) - had within- and between-day coefficients of variation (CVs) for SAP ⩽16% (13-16%). Conversely, the two less experienced observers - a fifth-year student and an assistant - had high between-day CVs (61% and 73%). For DAP, only the most experienced observer (Dipl ECVIM-CA) succeeded in 100% of the attempts, with within- and between-day CVs of 11% and 4%, respectively. Conversely, DAP could not be measured by the other three observers in 8%, 19% and 56% of attempts (from the highest to the lowest level of experience); therefore, the corresponding CV values could not be calculated. In conclusion, SAP may be assessed using DU in healthy awake cats with good repeatability and reproducibility by a well-trained observer. Measurement of DAP is more difficult than of SAP, and needs a longer training period, which represents one of the limitations of DU in cats.

  20. Brief Report: Power Doppler Ultrasonography for Detection of Increased Vascularity in the Fascia: A Potential Early Diagnostic Tool in Fasciitis of Dermatomyositis.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Ken; Nishioka, Makiko; Matsushima, Satoshi; Joh, Kensuke; Oto, Yosuke; Yoshiga, Masayuki; Otani, Kazuhiro; Ito, Haruyasu; Hirai, Kenichiro; Furuya, Kazuhiro; Ukichi, Taro; Noda, Kentaro; Kingetsu, Isamu; Kurosaka, Daitaro

    2016-12-01

    We previously demonstrated that fasciitis is a common lesion of dermatomyositis (DM) that is detectable early after disease onset by en bloc muscle biopsy combined with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Power Doppler ultrasonography (PDUS) is a useful method for detection of inflammation and vascularity in rheumatic diseases. We undertook this study to determine whether fasciitis was detectable by PDUS in patients with DM. We prospectively evaluated 7 patients with DM and 7 patients with polymyositis (PM) for the detection of fasciitis with PDUS. MRI and PDUS were both performed in all patients. Fasciitis was histologically confirmed by en bloc biopsy. Among all patients with DM, 4 showed signs of fasciitis on MRI, while increased blood flow signals were observed along the fascia by PDUS in 6 DM patients, including 4 patients with early disease (<2 months after the onset of muscle symptoms). Histologically, significant fasciitis was confirmed in 4 patients with DM. In the remaining 3 patients with DM, significant fasciitis was not evident histologically, but mild proliferation of capillaries and mild inflammation were notable in the area of the fascia. Immunohistochemical staining for CD31 indicated abnormal neovascular proliferation in the fascia in patients with DM. None of the PM patients showed signs of fasciitis or increased vascularity by MRI, PDUS, or en bloc biopsy. In our limited population, PDUS was useful for the detection of fasciitis associated with DM, especially in the early stage of disease. The increased blood flow signal as detected by PDUS is involved in angiogenesis accompanying fasciitis in patients with DM. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  1. Diagnostic value of high-frequency color Doppler ultrasonography examination in combination with anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody testing in rheumatoid arthritis patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ming-Yu; Wang, Xian-Bin; Sun, Xue-Hui; Liu, Feng-Li; Huang, Sheng-Chuan

    2017-01-01

    We studied the diagnostic value of high-frequency color Doppler ultrasonography (HCDU) examination in combination with anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibody testing in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients with finger joint damage. From January 2015 to December 2015, 80 patients diagnosed with RA with finger joints damage were enrolled in this study. Patients were examined with HCDU. Serum anti-CCP antibody level was tested using ELISA, and results were compared with the healthy control group. Results obtained by ELISA demonstrated that the positive rate of anti-CCP antibodies was 73.8% in the study group, and 10% in the control group. The negative rate was 26.2% in the study group, and 90% in the control group. HCDU examination suggested that the predominantly affected joint by bone erosion of RA with finger joint damage was MCP3 (16.7%), followed by PIP3 (14.1%), MCP2 (13.5%) and PIP2 (12.8%). The slightest affected joint was thumb metacarpophalangeal joint, followed by thumb, little finger metacarpophalangeal joint and proximal interphalangeal joint. The sensitivity of diagnosis of RA with finger joints damage with both HCDU and CCP antibody examination showed a significantly lower level compared with examination with each one of the methods alone, while specificity showed a significantly higher level. Thus, a combination of HCDU examination and anti-CCP antibody testing can be considered useful to improve the early diagnostic rate of RA. HCDU examination is a sensitive, secure, atraumatic and easily-operated diagnostic method for early RA patients with finger joint damage. When combined with anti-CCP antibody testing, it will provide a better chance for RA patients, and give them hope for a better treatment and improved prognosis. PMID:28450917

  2. Arterial blood flow characteristics in central retinal vein occlusion and effects of panretinal photocoagulation treatment: an investigation by colour Doppler imaging

    PubMed Central

    Avunduk, A. M.; Dinc, H.; Kapicioglu, Z.; Ugurlu, S.; Dayanir, V.; Korkmaz, E.

    1999-01-01

    AIMS—To determine whether an increase in vascular resistance in the central retinal and ophthalmic arterial circulations contributes to the development of central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO), or haemodynamic alterations in central retinal and ophthalmic arteries occur secondary to the vein occlusion as increased intravascular pressure is transferred through the capillary bed to the arterial side and the effect of panretinal photocoagulation treatment on these circulations in ischaemic cases.
METHODS—The ophthalmic and central retinal arteries of the affected and non-affected eyes of 20 patients with non-ischaemic CRVO, 13 patients with ischaemic CRVO, and 22 control subjects were investigated by colour Doppler imaging. Panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) treatment was applied to the eyes with ischaemic CRVO. Maximum and minimum blood flow velocities, and resistivity indexes were calculated in the affected and healthy eyes of patients and in the control eyes.
RESULTS—Average blood flow velocity in the central retinal and ophthalmic arteries of patients with non-ischaemic CRVO did not differ from their fellow eyes, but a significantly lower average blood flow velocity was found in the ophthalmic and central retinal arteries of the patients with ischaemic CRVO compared with their fellow eyes. Patients with ischaemic CRVO had significantly lower blood flow velocities in their ophthalmic and central retinal arteries than non-ischaemic cases that were further reduced following PRP treatment.
CONCLUSION—This study suggests that impaired arterial blood flow observed in patients with CRVO may be partly related to secondary changes in the retrobulbar arterial circulation as a result of enhanced arterial resistance following CRVO. These data also demonstrate that PRP treatment decreases retinal and ophthalmic blood flow velocities in patients with ischaemic CRVO.

 Keywords: central retinal vein occlusion; panretinal photocoagulation; arterial circulation

  3. Is the measurement of inferior thyroid artery blood flow velocity by color-flow Doppler ultrasonography useful for differential diagnosis between gestational transient thyrotoxicosis and Graves' disease? A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Zuhur, Sayid Shafi; Ozel, Alper; Velet, Selvinaz; Buğdacı, Mehmet Sait; Cil, Esra; Altuntas, Yüksel

    2012-01-01

    To determine the role of peak systolic velocity, end-diastolic velocity and resistance indices of both the right and left inferior thyroid arteries measured by color-flow Doppler ultrasonography for a differential diagnosis between gestational transient thyrotoxicosis and Graves' disease during pregnancy. The right and left inferior thyroid artery-peak systolic velocity, end-diastolic velocity and resistance indices of 96 patients with thyrotoxicosis (41 with gestational transient thyrotoxicosis, 31 age-matched pregnant patients with Graves' disease and 24 age- and sex-matched non-pregnant patients with Graves' disease) and 25 age and sex-matched healthy euthyroid subjects were assessed with color-flow Doppler ultrasonography. The right and left inferior thyroid artery-peak systolic and end-diastolic velocities in patients with gestational transient thyrotoxicosis were found to be significantly lower than those of pregnant patients with Graves' disease and higher than those of healthy euthyroid subjects. However, the right and left inferior thyroid artery peak systolic and end-diastolic velocities in pregnant patients with Graves' disease were significantly lower than those of non-pregnant patients with Graves' disease. The right and left inferior thyroid artery peak systolic and end-diastolic velocities were positively correlated with TSH-receptor antibody levels. We found an overlap between the inferior thyroid artery-blood flow velocities in a considerable number of patients with gestational transient thyrotoxicosis and pregnant patients with Graves' disease. This study suggests that the measurement of inferior thyroid artery-blood flow velocities with color-flow Doppler ultrasonography does not have sufficient sensitivity and specificity to be recommended as an initial diagnostic test for a differential diagnosis between gestational transient thyrotoxicosis and Graves' disease during pregnancy.

  4. Feasability of a novel audio-video sexual stimulation system: an adjunct to the use of penile duplex Doppler ultrasonography for the investigation of erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yuh-Chen; Liu, Shih-Ping; Chen, Jyh-Horng; Chang, Hong-Chiang; Tsai, Vincent F S; Hsieh, Ju-Ton

    2010-12-01

    Penile color Doppler ultrasonography (CDUS) with pharmacotesting has become an important tool for evaluating vascular erectile dysfunction (ED), and audio-visual sexual stimulation (AVSS) has been suggested to be helpful in assisting the performance of CDUS during the examination. To investigate the feasibility of using a novel, remotely controllable AVSS system to assist CDUS. This prospective randomized cross-over study recruited 60 consecutive ED patients. Each patient received three randomized sessions of CDUS under different conditions-AVSS, intracavernous injection (ICI) of alprostadil 20 microgram, or AVSS plus ICI. Clinical responses (rigidity) and penile vascular parameters including peak systolic velocity (PSV), end diastolic velocity (EDV), and resistive index (RI) were measured. At the end of the study, patients were asked about how they perceived the AVSS system in generating sexual arousal. PSV, EDV, RI, and rigidity. Fifty-eight ED patients (aged 21-79) underwent 174 sessions of CDUS. The mean PSV and maximal rigidity of patients under ICI alone were significantly greater than those of patients under AVSS alone (48.25 ± 22.78 vs. 36.54 ± 23.25 cm/second and 65.00 ± 23.93% vs. 43.28 ± 31.79%, respectively; both P < 0.05). The mean PSV of patients under AVSS plus ICI (55.38 ± 28.81 cm/second) was significantly greater than that of patients under ICI alone (P < 0.05), while the mean maximal rigidity (72.50 ± 22.03%) was only marginally greater (P = 0.082). EDV or RI was of no significant difference among the different conditions. Ultrasonographic diagnoses of ED under different conditions varied substantially. Fifty-four (93%) patients considered the AVSS system "very satisfactory" or "satisfactory" in evoking sexual arousal. The novel, remotely controllable AVSS system is well accepted by patients and, in conjunction with ICI, helps to produce higher PSV for patients undergoing CDUS. © 2009 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  5. Detection of carotid artery stenosis using histological specimens: a comparison of CT angiography, magnetic resonance angiography, digital subtraction angiography and Doppler ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Netuka, David; Belšán, Tomáš; Broulíková, Karolina; Mandys, Václav; Charvát, František; Malík, Josef; Coufalová, Lucie; Bradáč, Ondřej; Ostrý, Svatopluk; Beneš, Vladimír

    2016-08-01

    Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is accepted as a primary modality to treat carotid stenosis. The accuracy of measuring carotid stenosis is important for indication of the CEA procedure. Different diagnostic tools have been developed and used in the past 2 decades for the diagnosis of carotid stenosis. Only a few studies, however, have focused on the comparison of different diagnostic tools to histological findings of carotid plaque. Patients with internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis were investigated primarily by computed tomography angiography (CTA). Digital subtraction angiography (DSA), Doppler ultrasonography (DUS) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) were performed as well. Atherosclerotic plaque specimens were transversally cut into smaller segments and histologically processed. The slides were scanned and specimens showing maximal stenosis were determined; the minimal diameter and the diameter of the whole plaque were measured. High quality histological specimen and histological measurement was considered to be the prerequisite for inclusion into the analysis. The preoperative findings were compared with histological measurement. CTA and histological measurements were obtained from 152 patients. DSA measurements were available in 138 of these cases, MRA in 107 and DUS in 88. A comparison between preoperative and histological findings was performed. In addition, correlation coefficients were computed and tested. A significant correlation was found for each of the diagnostic procedures. The strongest correlation coefficient and the best allocation of stenosis into clinical significant groups (<50 %, 50-69 %, ≥70 %) was observed for CTA. Mean differences in the whole cohort between preoperative and histological measurements were as follows: CTA underestimated histological measurement by 2.4 % (based on European Carotid Surgery Trial [ECST] methodology) and 11.9 % (based on North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial [NASCET] methodology

  6. Doppler ultrasonography in tinnitus patients.

    PubMed

    Bertora, Guillermo O; Bergman, Julia M

    2002-01-01

    Tinnitus can be functionally measured and localized through sensorimotor and neurosensory tests. According to our Neurofisiología Otooftalmológica data bank, 60% of patients requiring a consultation have a history of cardiocirculatory disorders. This figure has moved us to study cerebrovascular processes in those patients seeking consultation for a tinnitus symptom only. The sudden appearance of the tinnitus symptom alone independent of patient age, leads us to consider a pathology of vascular origin, which should be evaluated and treated immediately. A mistake or delay in the diagnosis could cause the symptom to become chronic, owing to the appearance of microlesions at any level of the auditory pathway, as has been demonstrated in former investigations.

  7. [Intraoperative ultrasonography in the staging of pancreatic head neoplasms].

    PubMed

    Alberti, Antonino; Dattola, Pasquale; Littori, Francesca; Dattola, Arturo; Maccarone, Pietro; Basile, Maurizio

    2002-01-01

    Tumours of the head of the pancreas constitute the fourth most common cause of cancer deaths. These tumours are characterised by low survival rates (5% at 5 years) and low surgical resectability rates (20-25%). Liver metastases, lymph-node and vascular involvement, and peritoneal metastases are, in our opinion, exclusion criteria for curative surgical resection. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of intraoperative ultrasonography on the staging of such tumours. Over the period from 1990 to 2000 we introduced intraoperative ultrasonography in the staging of pancreatic cancer. We evaluated 51 patients who at preoperative staging had been regarded as candidates for surgical therapy consisting in a pancreaticoduodenectomy. All patients had been staged by preoperative abdominal ultrasound, ERCP, CT and MRI. Intraoperative ultrasound and colour-Doppler imaging (from 1997 on) revealed involvement of (i) the liver, (ii) the splenomesenteric vessels and (iii) the portal vein. Intraoperative ultrasonography yielded a diagnosis of occult liver metastases in 10 cases and signs of vascular involvement (absence of cleavage, partial and total thrombosis) in 12. One false-negative was registered. Intraoperative ultrasonography in our experience showed 98% sensitivity and specificity in the detection of vascular and lymph-node involvement. Its sensitivity in the detection of liver metastases was 100%. Intraoperative ultrasound is a procedure with a very high sensitivity in the operative staging of cancer of the head of the pancreas.

  8. Thyroid perfusion imaging as a diagnostic tool in Graves' disease--arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging vs. colour-coded Doppler ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Müssig, K; Schraml, C; Rietig, R; Martirosian, P; Schwenzer, N F; Claussen, C D; Häring, H-U; Schick, F; Balletshofer, B

    2012-12-01

    Though increased thyroid perfusion assessed by colour-coded Doppler ultrasound (CDUS) is characteristic of Graves' disease (GD), sometimes perfusion assessment by CDUS is not possible. In these cases, arterial spin labelling (ASL), a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique allowing non-invasive thyroid perfusion quantification, may have additional diagnostic value. We aimed to evaluate the potential of ASL-MRI for assessment of increased blood perfusion in patients with GD compared to CDUS. Thyroid perfusion was measured by CDUS (volume flow rate calculated from pulsed wave Doppler signals and vessel diameter) and ASL-MRI at 1.5 T in 7 patients with GD and 10 healthy controls. In patients with GD, average perfusion in both thyroid lobes was markedly increased compared to controls. Both techniques applied for volume related perfusion as well as absolute volume flow in thyroid feeding vessels provided similar results (all p=0.0008). Using a cut-off value of 22 ml/min for the volume flow rate assessed by CDUS in the four feeding vessels allowed discrimination between patients with GD and controls in all cases. After adjusting thyroid perfusion for the differences in organ volume, both CDUS and ASL revealed also complete discrimination between health and disease. Thyroid perfusion measurement by ASL-MRI reliably discriminate GD from normal thyroid glands. In patients in whom thyroid arteries cannot be depicted by CDUS for technical or anatomical reasons, ASL-MRI may have additional diagnostic value. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Effect of a single injection of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) on testicular blood flow measured by color doppler ultrasonography in male Shiba goats.

    PubMed

    Samir, Haney; Sasaki, Kazuaki; Ahmed, Eman; Karen, Aly; Nagaoka, Kentaro; El Sayed, Mohamed; Taya, Kazuyoshi; Watanabe, Gen

    2015-05-01

    Although color Doppler ultrasonography has been used to evaluate testicular blood flow in many species, very little has been done in goat. Eight male Shiba goats were exposed to a single intramuscular injection of either gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH group; 1 µg/kg BW) or human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG group; 25 IU/kg BW). Plasma testosterone (T), estradiol (E2) and inhibin (INH) were measured just before (0 hr) and at different intervals post injection by radioimmunoassay. Testis volume (TV) and Doppler indices, such as resistive index (RI) and pulsatility index (PI) of the supratesticular artery, were measured by B-mode and color Doppler ultrasonography, respectively. The results indicated an increase in testicular blood flow in both groups, as RI and PI decreased significantly (P<0.05), but this increase was significant higher and earlier in hCG group (1 hr) than in the GnRH group (2 hr). A high correlation was found for RI and PI with both T (RI, r= -0.862; PI, r= -0.707) and INH in the GnRH group (RI, r=0.661; PI, r=0.701). However, a significant (P<0.05) correlation was found between E2 and both RI (r= -0.610) and PI (r= -0.763) in hCG group. In addition, TV significantly increased and was highly correlated with RI in both groups (GnRH, r= -0.718; hCG, r= -0.779). In conclusion, hCG and GnRH may improve testicular blood flow and TV in Shiba goats.

  10. The role of elastosonography, gray-scale and colour flow Doppler sonography in prediction of malignancy in thyroid nodules

    PubMed Central

    Tatar, Idil Gunes; Kurt, Aydin; Yilmaz, Kerim Bora; Doğan, Mehmet; Hekimoglu, Baki; Hucumenoglu, Sema

    2014-01-01

    Background Ultrasound is as a noninvasive method commonly used in the work-up of thyroid nodules. This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of sonographic and elastosonographic parameters in the discrimination of malignancy. Patients and methods. 150 thyroid nodules were evaluated by gray-scale, Doppler and elastosonography. The cytological analysis revealed that 141 nodules were benign and 9 were malignant. Results Orientation of the nodule was the only sonographic parameter associated with malignancy (p = 0.003). In the strain ratio analysis the best cut-off point was 1.935 to discriminate malignancy (p = 0.000), with 100% sensitivity, 76% specificity, 100% negative predictive value, 78.5% positive predictive value and 78% accuracy rate. There was a statistically significant correlation between the elasticity score and malignancy (p = 0.001). Most of the benign nodules had score 2 and 3, none of them displayed score 5. On the other hand, none of the malignant nodules had score 1 and 2, most of them displaying score 5. Conclusions A change in the diagnostic algorithm of the thyroid nodules should be considered integrating the elastosonographic analysis. PMID:25435847

  11. [Carotid ultrasonography: evaluation of carotid ultrasonography].

    PubMed

    Taniuchi, Ryosui

    2007-02-01

    Carotid ultrasonography is a laboratory procedure showing how arteriosclerosis screening can diagnose carotid artery occlusion and high-grade stenosis. It is useful for inspection in general practice because of its non-invasiveness, development of sonography equipment, laboratory methods and the establishment of an evaluation method. We generally use a linear array probe of around 7-8MHz for carotid observation and combine the B mode method, color and power Doppler method, and pulsed Doppler method for inspection. At vessel analysis, the intima-media thickness, the property of plaque and stenotic ratio are evaluated. We observe the direction of bloodstream and presence of stricture by Doppler color flow imaging and measure flow velocity and the wave pattern by pulsed Doppler method and, with the B mode method, evaluate the extent or degree of stricture. This can be depicted well using a convex array probe and sector array probe when the mental change caused by disease is deep, and depiction is difficult by linear array probe.

  12. Effect of metformin treatment on endometrial vascular indices in anovulatory obese/overweight women with polycystic ovarian syndrome using three-dimensional power doppler ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Mohsen, Iman Abdel; Elkattan, Eman; Nabil, Hala; Khattab, Sherif

    2013-06-01

    Metformin has been shown to be an effective treatment for anovulatory polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients in terms of menstrual cyclicity, ovulation, and pregnancy, as well as reduction of early miscarriage rate. The aim of the study is to assess the effect of metformin on the endometrial vascular indices in anovulatory obese PCOS women using three-dimensional power Doppler sonography (3DPDUS). A prospective study was set to determine the beneficial effects of metformin on PCOS patients. Fifty anovulatory obese PCOS patients were compared with another 50 healthy volunteers who were age- and body mass index-matched (control group). PCOS patients were treated with metformin (Glucophage; MerckSerono) 850 mg 3 times a day for 6 months. Assessment of the endometrial thickness and volume, uterine Doppler indices, and Doppler vascular indices of the endometrium and subendometrium in the periovulatory and midluteal phases were performed with 3DPDUS. There was a significant increase in the endometrial thickness, endometrial volume, and endometrial and subendometrial vascularity indices (vascularization index, flow index, vascularization flow index) after 6 months of metformin treatment in PCOS women, whereas there was no change in the resistance index and the pulsatility index of the uterine artery in both periovulatory and midluteal phases. Metformin, owing to its metabolic, endocrine, vascular, and anti-inflammatory effects, improves markers of endometrial receptivity. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Pediatric ultrasonography

    SciTech Connect

    Hayden, C.K. Jr.; Swischuk, L.E.

    1987-01-01

    Two leading experts explore the benefits and limitations of pediatric ultrasonography, explaining the latest techniques for optimal imaging of specific body regions: the head, chest, abdomen, pelvis, extremities, and soft tissues. Numerous illustrations emphasize significant points and combine with the text to show specifically what to look for when imaging children.

  14. Power Doppler ultrasonography of painful Achilles tendons and entheses in patients with and without spondyloarthropathy: a comparison with clinical examination and contrast-enhanced MRI.

    PubMed

    Wiell, Charlotte; Szkudlarek, Marcin; Hasselquist, Maria; Møller, Jakob M; Nørregaard, Jesper; Terslev, Lene; Ostergaard, Mikkel

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to describe ultrasonography (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings at painful Achilles tendons and entheses in patients with and without spondyloarthropathy (SpA and non-SpA) and healthy control persons (CTRLs). Particularly, we aimed to investigate if any changes differentiate SpA from non-SpA. Finally, we investigated the reliability of US compared to clinical examination of Achilles tendinopathy, using MRI as gold standard reference. Twelve SpA patients and 15 non-SpA patients with pain and tenderness at at least one Achilles tendon and/or enthesis due to sports-related causes and 10 CTRLs were examined at the Achilles tendons and entheses with US, MRI and clinical assessment. Intratendinous changes, entheseal changes, bursitis and peritendonitis were assessed. An US interobserver substudy was performed in nine persons. US findings showed high agreement between observers (median 89 %, κ = 0.64) and with MRI (median 89 %, κ = 0.74). All inflammatory intratendinous changes were less frequent in SpA than non-SpA patients (p < 0.05). Entheseal changes and bursitis were found equally frequent in both patient groups except for enthesophytes, which were most common in the SpA group (p < 0.01). No findings were exclusively found in SpA. When MRI was considered gold standard, US showed higher sensitivity for intratendinous and entheseal changes than clinical examination (median sensitivity 0.83 versus 0.66). Especially, entheseal changes had higher sensitivity than clinical examination without loss of specificity. In conclusion, US performed by a trained operator can be a useful adjunct to clinical examination for improved assessment of Achilles tendons and entheses.

  15. Ejaculatory dysfunction caused by the new alpha1-blocker silodosin: A preliminary study to analyze human ejaculation using color Doppler ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Atsushi; Hara, Ryoei; Yokoyama, Teruhiko; Jo, Yoshimasa; Fujii, Tomohiro; Miyaji, Yoshiyuki

    2008-10-01

    In order to clinically investigate the mechanism of ejaculatory dysfunction attributable to the alpha1-blocker silodosin, a real-time observation of ejaculation by healthy males was performed. Following intake of silodosin, a newly developed selective alpha1-blocker for benign prostatic hypertrophy, ejaculation was dynamically observed using color Doppler ultrasound in three healthy males. Normal ejaculation was also investigated in the same manner. With silodosin intake, no antegrade ejaculation was observed in cases 1 or 2. In case 1, seminal fluid slowly but continuously flowed out from the seminal vesicles into the bladder. In case 2, only a small amount of seminal fluid flowed into the bladder during the ejaculatory sensation. In case 3, ejection of a small amount of semen from the external urethral orifice was observed and inflow of a small amount of seminal fluid into the bladder was also captured. Without silodosin intake, all three subjects exhibited antegrade ejaculation. The mechanism of ejaculatory dysfunction is intricately related to retrograde ejaculation (retrograde inflow of seminal fluid), insufficient contraction of the seminal vesicles, and insufficient rhythmic contraction of the muscles of the pelvic floor.

  16. Failure to attain stretched penile length after intracavernosal injection of a vasodilator agent is predictive of veno-occlusive dysfunction on penile duplex Doppler ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Yafi, F A; Libby, R P; McCaslin, I R; Sangkum, P; Sikka, S C; Hellstrom, W J G

    2015-09-01

    Penile duplex Doppler ultrasound (PDDU) assesses the etiology of erectile dysfunction. Peak systolic velocity (PSV), end-diastolic velocity (EDV), and resistive index (RI) are common PDDU parameters. We assessed whether stretched penile length (SPL) in the flaccid state and measured penile length at peak erection after intracavernosal injection (ICI) of a vasodilator during PDDU correlated with the etiology of erectile dysfunction. We performed a retrospective review of 93 patients who underwent PDDU for erectile dysfunction. Normal and stretched penile length were measured, both at a flaccid state prior to ICI and at peak erection during PDDU. Collected data included patient demographics, vascular, and anatomic parameters. The mean age was 52 years. SPL was equivalent to peak penile length after ICI in 60 patients (65%, group 1) and did not match in 33 (35%, group 2). There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of flaccid, stretched, and post-ICI erect penile lengths, IIEF score, PSV, percent rigidity or tumescence, and vasodilator dose used. Patients in group 2 had less of a change in penile length from flaccid to erect state (36% vs. 44%, p = 0.02), higher EDV (12.0 vs. 8.5, p = 0.041), lower RI (0.6 vs. 1.0, p = 0.046), and more veno-occlusive dysfunction (82% vs. 53%, p = 0.001). On multivariate analysis, failure to reach maximum SPL at peak ICI erection (OR 2.255, CI 1.191-4.271, p = 0.0126), EDV (OR 1.281, CI 1.115-1.471, p < 0.001) and RI (OR 0.694, CI 0.573-0.723, p = 0.009) predicted veno-occlusive dysfunction. Failure to reach maximal SPL during PDDU using ICI with a vasodilator agent predicted veno-occlusive dysfunction, which is independent of both penile rigidity and tumescence. This measurement could serve as another diagnostic tool for predicting veno-occlusive dysfunction when PDDU is not readily available. Limitations include the subjective nature of penile measurements and different PGE1 doses used.

  17. Artifacts in musculoskeletal ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Taljanovic, Mihra S; Melville, David M; Scalcione, Luke R; Gimber, Lana H; Lorenz, Eileen J; Witte, Russell S

    2014-02-01

    During the past 2 decades, high-resolution ultrasonography (US) has been increasingly utilized in the diagnosis of musculoskeletal trauma and diseases with results comparable with MR imaging. US has an advantage over other cross-sectional modalities in many circumstances due to its superior spatial resolution and ability to allow dynamic assessment. When performing musculoskeletal US, the examiner has to be knowledgeable in the complex anatomy of the musculoskeletal system and US imaging technique. Additionally, he or she must be familiar with several common imaging artifacts in musculoskeletal US that may be mistaken for pathology, as well as several artifacts that frequently accompany pathologic conditions. These artifacts may occur with both B-mode gray-scale and Doppler imaging. In this article, we discuss common artifacts seen in musculoskeletal US and techniques to avoid or minimize these artifacts during clinical US examinations. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  18. Phentolamine re-dosing during penile dynamic colour Doppler ultrasound: a practical method to abolish a false diagnosis of venous leakage in patients with erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Gontero, P; Sriprasad, S; Wilkins, C J; Donaldson, N; Muir, G H; Sidhu, P S

    2004-11-01

    Increased sympathetic tone may cause an equivocal response to a prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) penile Doppler ultrasound (US) examination interpreted as a venous leak. We evaluated the US parameters and erectile response to the addition of phentolamine to a PGE1 penile Doppler US examination to ascertain whether addition of phentolamine would abolish a suboptimal response. 32 patients (median age 29 years, range 17-70 years) with either a previous Doppler US pattern of venous leakage or a clinical suspicion of venogenic impotence, underwent Doppler US after a total dose of 20 microg of PGE1. Peak systolic velocity (PSV), end diastolic velocity (EDV) and grade of erection were documented. If erectile response was suboptimal irrespective of the EDV measurement, 2 mg-intracavernosal phentolamine was administered and measurements repeated. Six patients had a normal erectile response, the remaining 26 received phentolamine. A significant increase in PSV between baseline and 20 microg PGE1 (p<0.001) was observed in all cases. Following phentolamine there was a significant increase in grade of erection (p=0.0001) and a significant reduction in the EDV (p=0.0001). A reduction of the EDV to below 0.0 cm s(-1) was observed in 16 patients. Four patients with EDV <5.0 cm s(-1) but >0.0 cm s(-1) had improved erectile response following phentolamine while six showed persistent EDV elevation >5 cm s(-1). No priapism was documented. It is essential to ensure cavernosal relaxation using phentolamine before a Doppler US diagnosis of venous leak is made. This two-stage assessment will allow this to be done efficiently and with a low risk of priapism.

  19. Standards for scrotal ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Tyloch, Janusz F.

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a description of essential equipment requirements for scrotal ultrasonography, including current ultrasound techniques, as well as a review of the most common scrotal pathologies. Patient preparation for the examination as well as ultrasound methodology for the assessment of scrotal and inguinal canal structures are discussed. The standard for scrotal ultrasound examination includes a precise B-mode evaluation, including testicular volumetric assessment performed using automatic measurement options based on the formula of a rotating ellipsoid or three measurements perpendicular to one another. Also, criteria for morphological assessment of abnormalities within testicular or epididymal parenchyma, including a precise evaluation of lesion size, delineation, shape and vascular pattern obtained with Doppler US, have been proposed. Standard assessment further includes epididymal evaluation, including epididymal size in the case of enlargement. The paper additionally discusses the method of ultrasonographic examination and describes the most common pathologies occurring within scrotal structures, including a quantitative analysis of hydrocele and other abnormal fluid reservoirs. We have also presented criteria for the assessment of varicocele as well as color and spectral Doppler flows in scrotal pathologies. Furthermore, we have proposed key components of scrotal ultrasound documentation, so that the contained data could be used to establish appropriate diagnosis, allowing for both adequate clinical management and the reproducibility of subsequent US evaluations performed by either the same or a different examiner. The most common causes of diagnostic errors have also been discussed. PMID:28138410

  20. [Pancreatic ultrasonography].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Rodríguez, T; Segura-Grau, A; Rodríguez-Lorenzo, A; Segura-Cabral, J M

    2015-04-01

    Despite the recent technological advances in imaging, abdominal ultrasonography continues to be the first diagnostic test indicated in patients with a suspicion of pancreatic disease, due to its safety, accessibility and low cost. It is an essential technique in the study of inflammatory processes, since it not only assesses changes in pancreatic parenchyma, but also gives an indication of the origin (bile or alcoholic). It is also essential in the detection and tracing of possible complications as well as being used as a guide in diagnostic and therapeutic punctures. It is also the first technique used in the study of pancreatic tumors, detecting them with a sensitivity of around 70% and a specificity of 90%. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  1. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography: usefulness in the assessment of postoperative recurrence of Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Paredes, José María; Ripollés, Tomás; Cortés, Xavier; Moreno, Nadia; Martínez, María Jesús; Bustamante-Balén, Marco; Delgado, Fructuoso; Moreno-Osset, Eduardo

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether the contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) can increase the value of the ultrasonography in the study of postoperative recurrence of Crohn's disease (CD). 60 patients with CD who had previously undergone ileocolic resection underwent prospectively both CEUS and colonoscopy within a 3-day period. The sonographic examination included evaluation of bowel wall thickness, transmural complications, colour Doppler grade and contrast-enhanced US. In addition a sonographic score was established. The capacity of CEUS to diagnose endoscopic recurrence, as well as its severity, was assessed by calculating the sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values, accuracy and odds ratio, with their respective 95% confidence intervals. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were also calculated. 49 out of 60 patients showed endoscopic postoperative recurrence. Severe endoscopic recurrence was present in 34 patients (57%). Classic ultrasound parameters (wall thickness >3mm and colour Doppler flow) revealed an accuracy of 88.3% for the diagnosis of recurrence. Sonographic score 2, including thickness >5mm or contrast enhancement >46%, improved the results with a sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 98%, 100% and 98.3%, respectively, in the diagnosis of endoscopic recurrence. The area under the ROC curve was 0.99, in remarkable agreement with endoscopy (k: 0.946). Sonographic score 3, including thickness >5mm, contrast enhancement >70% or fistula identified 32 out of 34 (94.1%) severe endoscopic recurrences. The area under the ROC curve was 0.836, in good agreement with endoscopy (k: 0.688). CEUS shows excellent sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of postoperative recurrence in CD and can also detect severe recurrences. Copyright © 2012 European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Endoscopic ultrasonography: equipment and technique.

    PubMed

    Röesch, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    By definition, endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) combines endoscopy and high-frequency ultrasound, incorporating a small ultrasonic transducer into the tip of endoscopes. For the upper gastrointestinal tract, mostly oblique-viewing endoscopes are used, although recently, forward viewing instruments have become available. For colorectal EUS, rigid probes for the rectum and a flexible forward-viewing echocolonoscope are available. EUS generates ultrasound either mechanically or electronically, depending on the type of instrument used. The electronic technique potentially allows the incorporation of (color) Doppler ultrasound, which allows for additional processing and postprocessing functions. This generally is considered the EUS technique of the future.

  3. Ultrasonography of the hip.

    PubMed

    Nestorova, Rodina; Vlad, Violeta; Petranova, Tzvetanka; Porta, Francesco; Radunovic, Goran; Micu, Mihaela C; Iagnocco, Annamaria

    2012-09-01

    A complete physical examination of the hip is often difficult due to its size and deep position. During the last two decades, ultrasonography (US) of the hip has been widely accepted as a useful diagnostic tool in patients with hip pain and /or limited range of motion. It is commonly used in both adults and children. This technique allows evaluation of different anatomical structures and their pathological changes, such as joint recess (joint effusion, synovial hypertrophy), changes within the bursae (bursitis), tendons and muscles (tendinopathy, ruptures, calcifications), as well as changes in the bony profile of the joint surfaces, ischial tuberosity, and greater trochanter (erosions, osteophytes, calcific deposits). US is very useful for guided procedures in hip joint and periarticular soft tissues under direct visualization. The needle aspiration of synovial fluid and steroid injections are commonly-applied activities in daily rheumatology practice. The relatively limited acoustic windows available to the US beam are the principal limitations to hip US. Therefore, conducting a detailed examination of some important structures together with the interpretation of Doppler signal (sometimes undetectable) is not easy, requiring good knowledge of the modality. The aim of this review is to analyze the current literature about US of the hip and to describe the most frequently-observed normal and pathological findings.

  4. Applying colour science in colour design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Ming Ronnier

    2006-06-01

    Although colour science has been widely used in a variety of industries over the years, it has not been fully explored in the field of product design. This paper will initially introduce the three main application fields of colour science: colour specification, colour-difference evaluation and colour appearance modelling. By integrating these advanced colour technologies together with modern colour imaging devices such as display, camera, scanner and printer, some computer systems have been recently developed to assist designers for designing colour palettes through colour selection by means of a number of widely used colour order systems, for creating harmonised colour schemes via a categorical colour system, for generating emotion colours using various colour emotional scales and for facilitating colour naming via a colour-name library. All systems are also capable of providing accurate colour representation on displays and output to different imaging devices such as printers.

  5. Ultrasonography of the scrotum in adults

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonography is the ideal noninvasive imaging modality for evaluation of scrotal abnormalities. It is capable of differentiating the most important etiologies of acute scrotal pain and swelling, including epididymitis and testicular torsion, and is the imaging modality of choice in acute scrotal trauma. In patients presenting with palpable abnormality or scrotal swelling, ultrasonography can detect, locate, and characterize both intratesticular and extratesticular masses and other abnormalities. A 12-17 MHz high frequency linear array transducer provides excellent anatomic detail of the testicles and surrounding structures. In addition, vascular perfusion can be easily assessed using color and spectral Doppler analysis. In most cases of scrotal disease, the combination of clinical history, physical examination, and information obtained with ultrasonography is sufficient for diagnostic decision-making. This review covers the normal scrotal anatomy as well as various testicular and scrotal lesions. PMID:26983766

  6. Pharmaco Penile Duplex Ultrasonography in the Evaluation of Erectile Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Ramanjaneyulu, Harshavardhana Kuruba; Susarla, Rammurti; Yarlagadda, Jyotsna; Devraj, Rahul; Palanisamy, Prabakaran

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The National Institute of Health defined ‘erectile dysfunction’ as the persistent inability to achieve and/or to maintain an erection for a satisfactory sexual performance. In last few years, the concept of erectile dysfunction has evolved from that of a disorder referred to as ‘impotence’ which used to be considered predominantly psychogenic to that of ‘Erectile Dysfunction’ (ED), a well understood physiologic result of multiple risk factors, both psychological and organic. The most common cause of organic erectile dysfunction is vasculogenic causes. Doppler evaluation of cavernosal arteries after intracavernosal injection of Papaverine is particularly useful in the evaluation of vasculogenic causes. Aim To define the role of intracavernosal injection of Papaverine in the evaluation of vasculogenic causes of erectile dysfunction that includes arterial insufficiency and veno occlusive nature. Materials and Methods Pharmaco Penile Duplex Ultrasonography (PPDU) was done using a linear broadband phased array transducer (7–12 MHz) on a E-Saote MyLab 60 ultrasound colour Doppler system on 73 patients over a period of three years. Informed consent was taken from all patients. Visual grading score for erection, Cavernosal Artery Diameter (CAD), PSV (Peak Systolic Velocity), EDV (End Diastolic Velocity), RI (Resistive Index), AT (Acceleration Time) and dorsal vein changes were obtained in all patients following intracavernosal injection of Papaverine. Results Visual grading for erectile response was E0 in one patient, E1 in 11 patients, E2 in 9 patients, E3 in 7 patients, E4 in 4 patients and E5 in 41 patients. Eighteen patients were diagnosed as having arterial insufficiency, three patients were diagnosed as having venous insufficiency and two patients showed indeterminate results. Conclusion In our study, Papaverine induced PPDU proved to be highly accurate and excellent method for assessing patients with erectile dysfunction. PMID:28274021

  7. Pharmaco Penile Duplex Ultrasonography in the Evaluation of Erectile Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Mutnuru, Phani Chakravarty; Ramanjaneyulu, Harshavardhana Kuruba; Susarla, Rammurti; Yarlagadda, Jyotsna; Devraj, Rahul; Palanisamy, Prabakaran

    2017-01-01

    The National Institute of Health defined 'erectile dysfunction' as the persistent inability to achieve and/or to maintain an erection for a satisfactory sexual performance. In last few years, the concept of erectile dysfunction has evolved from that of a disorder referred to as 'impotence' which used to be considered predominantly psychogenic to that of 'Erectile Dysfunction' (ED), a well understood physiologic result of multiple risk factors, both psychological and organic. The most common cause of organic erectile dysfunction is vasculogenic causes. Doppler evaluation of cavernosal arteries after intracavernosal injection of Papaverine is particularly useful in the evaluation of vasculogenic causes. To define the role of intracavernosal injection of Papaverine in the evaluation of vasculogenic causes of erectile dysfunction that includes arterial insufficiency and veno occlusive nature. Pharmaco Penile Duplex Ultrasonography (PPDU) was done using a linear broadband phased array transducer (7-12 MHz) on a E-Saote MyLab 60 ultrasound colour Doppler system on 73 patients over a period of three years. Informed consent was taken from all patients. Visual grading score for erection, Cavernosal Artery Diameter (CAD), PSV (Peak Systolic Velocity), EDV (End Diastolic Velocity), RI (Resistive Index), AT (Acceleration Time) and dorsal vein changes were obtained in all patients following intracavernosal injection of Papaverine. Visual grading for erectile response was E0 in one patient, E1 in 11 patients, E2 in 9 patients, E3 in 7 patients, E4 in 4 patients and E5 in 41 patients. Eighteen patients were diagnosed as having arterial insufficiency, three patients were diagnosed as having venous insufficiency and two patients showed indeterminate results. In our study, Papaverine induced PPDU proved to be highly accurate and excellent method for assessing patients with erectile dysfunction.

  8. [Carotid duplex ultrasonography for neurosurgeons].

    PubMed

    Sadahiro, Hirokazu; Ishihara, Hideyuki; Oka, Fumiaki; Suzuki, Michiyasu

    2011-12-01

    Carotid duplex ultrasonography (CDU) is one of the most well-known imaging methods for arteriosclerosis and ischemic stroke. For neurosurgeons, it is very important for the details of carotid plaque to be thoroughly investigated by CDU. Symptomatic carotid plaque is very fragile and easily changes morphologically, and so requires frequent CDU examination. Furthermore, after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and carotid artery stenting (CAS), restenosis is evaluated with CDU. CDU facilitates not only morphological imaging in the B mode, but also allows a flow study with color Doppler and duplex imaging. So, CDU can help assess the presence of proximal and intracranial artery lesions in spite of only having a cervical view, and the patency of the extracranial artery to intracranial artery bypass is revealed with CDU, which shows a rich velocity and low pulsatility index (PI) in duplex imaging. For the examiner, it is necessary to ponder on what duplex imaging means in examinations, and to summarize all imaging finding.

  9. Colour blindness.

    PubMed

    Gordon, N

    1998-03-01

    The physiology of colour vision is discussed; as is the way in which the human eye can detect various combinations of red, green and blue. Red-green colour blindness, with X-linked inheritance, is the most common, but other types are also considered. Methods of testing relating to the age of the child are reviewed. The use of colours in teaching is widespread, but there is controversy over the difficulties this may cause a colour blind child. A review of the literature does not reveal much information on this, and any problems that do arise are likely to be individual to the child, and to depend on such factors as overall intelligence, the attitude of the teacher, and the personality of the child. There is not doubt that it is essential to recognise colour vision defects when it comes to choosing a career, and that tests must be done during secondary schooling, but in order to avoid some affected children being disadvantaged there is enough evidence to support testing at school entry.

  10. Ultrasonographic Doppler Use for Female Reproduction Management.

    PubMed

    Bollwein, Heinrich; Heppelmann, Maike; Lüttgenau, Johannes

    2016-03-01

    Transrectal color Doppler ultrasonography is a useful technique to get new information about physiologic and pathophysiologic alterations of the uterus and ovaries in female cattle. During all reproductive stages characteristic changes in uterine blood flow are observed. Cows with puerperal disturbances show delayed decrease in uterine blood flow in the first few weeks postparturition compared with healthy cows. Measurement of follicular blood flow is used to identify normally developing follicles and predict superovulatory response. Determination of luteal blood is more reliable than B-mode sonography to distinguish between functional and nonfunctional corpora lutea. Color Doppler ultrasonography is a promising tool to improve reproductive management in female cattle.

  11. Diagnosing erectile dysfunction: the penile dynamic colour duplex ultrasound revisited.

    PubMed

    Aversa, A; Bruzziches, R; Spera, G

    2005-12-01

    A number of disease processes of the penis including Peyronie's disease, priapism, penile fractures and tumors are clearly visualized with ultrasound. Diagnostic evaluation of erectile dysfunction (ED) by penile dynamic colour-duplex Doppler ultrasonography (D-CDDU) is actually considered a second level approach to ED patients because of the fact that intracavernous injections test IV with prostaglandin-E(1) may provide important information about the patients' erectile capacity. However, no direct vascular imaging and a high percentage of false negative diagnoses of vasculogenic ED are its major pitfalls and subsequent treatment decisions remain quite limited. The occurrence of ED and its sentinel relationship to cardiovascular disease has prompted more accurate vascular screening in all patients even in the absence of cardiovascular risk factors. The sonographic evaluation of the intima-media thickness of the carotid arteries may sometimes represent an early manifestation of diffuse atherosclerotic disease and endothelial damage. This latter finding is often the cause of failure to oral agents, i.e. phosphodiesterase inhibitors, because of inability of the dysfunctional endothelium to release nitric oxide. D-CDDU represents an accurate tool to investigate cavernous artery inflow and venous leakage when compared with more invasive diagnostic techniques i.e. selective arteriography and dynamic infusion cavernosometry along with cavernosography.

  12. Covert colour processing in colour agnosia.

    PubMed

    Nijboer, Tanja C W; van Zandvoort, Martine J E; de Haan, Edward H F

    2006-01-01

    Patients with colour agnosia can perceive colours and are able to match coloured patches on hue, but are unable to identify or categorise colours. It is a rare condition and there is as yet no agreement on the clinical definition or a generally accepted explanation. In line with observations from object agnosia and prosopagnosia, we hypothesised that (some of) these patients might still be able to process colour information at an implicit level. In this study, we investigated this possibility of implicit access to colour semantics and colour names in a man (MAH) who suffers from developmental colour agnosia. We designed two experimental computer tasks: an associative colour priming task with a lexical decision response and a reversed Stroop task. The results of these experiments suggest that there is indeed automatic processing of colour, although MAH was unable to explicitly use colour information.

  13. Doppler and the Doppler Effect.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    Doppler Applications Doppler Effect Roemer Doppler Principle Bradley Relative motion Velocity History Light Velocity 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse...of Colorado, Boulder, CO 11-14 Jan 1984 5 1. Historical Background The astronomer Olaf Roemer determined the velocity of light in 1676 from time...approached Jupiter and longer when it receded from Jupiter. In effect, Roemer used a Doppler method in determining the velocity of light . [2 ] In 1727

  14. Ultrasonography in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Whitson, Micah R; Mayo, Paul H

    2016-08-15

    Point-of-care ultrasonography (POCUS) is a useful imaging technique for the emergency medicine (EM) physician. Because of its growing use in EM, this article will summarize the historical development, the scope of practice, and some evidence supporting the current applications of POCUS in the adult emergency department. Bedside ultrasonography in the emergency department shares clinical applications with critical care ultrasonography, including goal-directed echocardiography, echocardiography during cardiac arrest, thoracic ultrasonography, evaluation for deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, screening abdominal ultrasonography, ultrasonography in trauma, and guidance of procedures with ultrasonography. Some applications of POCUS unique to the emergency department include abdominal ultrasonography of the right upper quadrant and appendix, obstetric, testicular, soft tissue/musculoskeletal, and ocular ultrasonography. Ultrasonography has become an integral part of EM over the past two decades, and it is an important skill which positively influences patient outcomes.

  15. Assessment of changes in vascularity and blood volume in canine sarcomas and squamous cell carcinomas during fractionated radiation therapy using quantified contrast-enhanced power Doppler ultrasonography: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Ohlerth, Stefanie; Bley, Carla Rohrer; Laluhová, Dagmar; Roos, Malgorzata; Kaser-Hotz, Barbara

    2010-10-01

    Radiation therapy does not only target tumour cells but also affects tumour vascularity. In the present study, changes in tumour vascularity and blood volume were investigated in five grade 1 oral fibrosarcomas, eight other sarcomas (non-oral soft tissue and bone sarcomas) and 12 squamous cell carcinomas in dogs during fractionated radiation therapy (total dose, 45-56 Gy). Contrast-enhanced power Doppler ultrasound was performed before fraction 1, 3, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 and 15 or 16 (sarcomas) or 17 (squamous cell carcinomas). Prior to treatment, median vascularity and blood volume were significantly higher in squamous cell carcinomas (P=0.0005 and 0.001), whereas measurements did not differ between oral fibrosarcomas and other sarcomas (P=0.88 and 0.999). During the course of radiation therapy, only small, non-significant changes in vascularity and blood volume were observed in all three tumour histology groups (P=0.08 and P=0.213), whereas median tumour volume significantly decreased until the end of treatment (P=0.04 for fibrosarcomas and other sarcomas, P=0.008 for squamous cell carcinomas). It appeared that there was a proportional decrease in tumour volume, vascularity and blood volume. Doppler measurements did not predict progression free interval or survival in any of the three tumour groups (P=0.06-0.86). However, the number of tumours investigated was small and therefore, the results can only be considered preliminary.

  16. Ultrasonography of the eye and orbit.

    PubMed

    Dudea, Sorin M

    2011-06-01

    Ultrasonography (US) is, quite often, the first imaging modality used in eye and orbit assessment. The indications of ophthalmic US cover a wide range of disease where direct clinical assessment is impossible or of little value. Doppler US enhances the ability to assess blood flow in the main arteries and veins. In order to take full advantage of all the possibilities US has to offer the examiner thorough knowledge of the examination technique and normal US anatomy of the eye and orbit is required. This paper reviews the basics of the examination technique and ultrasound anatomy of the eye and orbit.

  17. Thyroid Doppler US: Tips and tricks.

    PubMed

    Lacout, Alexis; Chevenet, Carole; Salas, Joël; Marcy, Pierre Yves

    2016-04-01

    Incidental diagnosis of thyroid nodules is very common on adult neck ultrasonography (US) examination. They are primarily assessed on size and greyscale ultrasound criteria such as hypoechogenicity, taller than wide, spiculated margins and calcifications. In difficult situations Doppler US features may improve tumour characterisation and staging. © 2015 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  18. [Role of dynamic penile color Doppler echography in the evaluation of the patient with La Peyronie's disease].

    PubMed

    Cormio, L; Bettocchi, C; Zizzi, V; Sblendorio, D; Pace, G; Traficante, A

    1996-12-01

    From March 1995 to February 1996, sixteen consecutive patients with Peyronie's Disease (PD) were routinely submitted to penile dynamic colour-coded doppler ultrasonography (CCDU). The test yielded normal results in 6 patients who had no erectile problems and in other 4 patients who conversely complained of reduced erectile function. In the other 6 patients who complained of reduced erectile function, the test pointed out pure arteriogenic failure in 1 case, pure venogenic failure in 4, and mixed arteriogenic and venogenic failure in 1. CCDU enables a precise assessment of erectile function as well of the site, kind and entity of the penile curvature to be corrected. These data are very useful when planning the surgical approach for each patient.

  19. Ultrasonography applications in diagnosis and management of early rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Thiele, Ralf G

    2012-05-01

    Ultrasonography is an elegant tool for the detection of tenosynovitis, synovitis, and erosions very early in rheumatoid arthritis, and the presence of a power Doppler signal is one of the best predictors of joint damage. Although clinical scores remain the mainstay of disease activity assessment, ultrasonography has proved to be a remarkably robust tool for reliable assessment of changes in rheumatoid arthritis. There is no evidence to suggest that problems with operator dependence would be greater than with other imaging modalities or physical examination, if performed by trained providers.

  20. Ultrasonography in ocular trauma.

    PubMed

    Dastevska-Djosevska, Emilija

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasonography is a non-invasive, simple and effective diagnostic method which enables visualization and evaluation of intraocular injury degree in cloudy eye media. The basic aim of this investigation was to find out the frequency of various types of ocular injuries using ultrasonography and to make an analysis of their frequency in relation to gender and age. This retrospective study included 182 patients hospitalized at the Clinic of Ophthalmology in Skopje due to mechanical eye trauma. The patients underwent ultrasonography on the Alcon Ultrascan Imagining System apparatus and Sonomed EZ Scan AB 5500+. B scan technique was used primarily, while the A scan had a positive and correlative role. Ocular trauma was more present in males (85.2%) compared to females (14.8%). 49.5% of the patients had open, and 50.5% had closed globe injuries. The most represented age group in ocular injuries was the age ranged from 51 to 60 years. There was no significant difference between the type of mechanical injury and the age (Chi-Squares=5.52 p=0.47895025). Ultrasonography showed that the most frequent pathologic result, both in open and closed globe injuries, was vitreous hemorrhage. Ultrasonography has an irreplaceable role in the clinical evaluation and management of ocular trauma. It showed that the most frequent finding in ocular trauma was vitreous haemorrhage, and the male gender was more frequently exposed to ocular trauma.

  1. Ultrasonography of Extravaginal Testicular Torsion in Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Bombiński, Przemysław; Warchoł, Stanisław; Brzewski, Michał; Majkowska, Zofia; Dudek-Warchoł, Teresa; Żerańska, Maria; Panek, Małgorzata; Drop, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Extravaginal testicular torsion (ETT), also called prenatal or perinatal, occurs prenatally and is present at birth or appears within the first month of life. It has different etiology than intravaginal torsion, which appears later in life. Testicular torsion must be taken into consideration in differential diagnosis of acute scrotum and should be confirmed or ruled out at first diagnostic step. Ultrasonography is a basic imaging modality, however diagnostic pitfalls are still possible. There is still wide discussion concerning management of ETT, which varies from immediate orchiectomy to conservative treatment resulting in testicle atrophy. Material/Methods In this article we present ultrasonographic spectrum of ETT in neonates, which were diagnosed and treated in our hospital during the last 8 years (2008–2015), in correlation with clinical and intraoperative findings. Results Thirteen neonates with ETT were enrolled in the study – 11 patients with a single testicle affected and 2 patients with bilateral testicular torsion. Most common signs on clinical examination were: hardened and enlarged testicle and discoloration of the scrotum. Most common ultrasonographic signs were: abnormal size or echostructure of the affected testicle and absence of the blood flow in Doppler ultrasonography. In 3 patients ultrasound elastography was performed, which appeared very useful in testicle structure assessment. Conclusions Testicular torsion may concern boys even in the perinatal period. Ultrasonographic picture of acute scrotum in young boys may be confused. Coexistence of the abnormal size or echostructure of the torsed testicle with absence of the blood flow in Doppler ultrasonography appear as very specific but late ultrasonographic sings. Ultrasound elastography may be a very useful tool for visualisation of a very common clinical sign – hardening of the necrotic testicle. PMID:27757176

  2. Developmental colour agnosia.

    PubMed

    van Zandvoort, Martine J E; Nijboer, Tanja C W; de Haan, Edward

    2007-08-01

    Colour agnosia concerns the inability to recognise colours despite intact colour perception, semantic memory for colour information, and colour naming. Patients with selective colour agnosia have been described and the deficit is associated with left hemisphere damage. Here we report a case study of a 43-year-old man who was referred to us with a stroke in his right cerebellar hemisphere. During the standard assessment it transpired that he was unable to name coloured patches. Detailed assessment of his colour processing showed that he suffers from a selective colour agnosia. As he claimed to have had this problem all his life, and the fact that the infratentorial infarct that he had incurred was in an area far away from the brain structures that are known to be involved in colour processing, we suggest that he is the first reported case of developmental colour agnosia.

  3. Interactions between colour and synaesthetic colour: an effect of simultaneous colour contrast on synaesthetic colours.

    PubMed

    Nijboer, Tanja C W; Gebuis, Titia; te Pas, Susan F; van der Smagt, Maarten J

    2011-01-01

    We investigated whether simultaneous colour contrast affects the synaesthetic colour experience and normal colour percept in a similar manner. We simultaneously presented a target stimulus (i.e. grapheme) and a reference stimulus (i.e. hash). Either the grapheme or the hash was presented on a saturated background of the same or opposite colour category as the synaesthetic colour and the other stimulus on a grey background. In both conditions, grapheme-colour synaesthetes were asked to colour the hash in a colour similar to the synaesthetic colour of the grapheme. Controls that were pair-matched to the synaesthetes performed the same experiment, but for them, the grapheme was presented in the colour induced by the grapheme in synaesthetes. When graphemes were presented on a grey and the hash on a coloured background, a traditional simultaneous colour-contrast effect was found for controls as well as synaesthetes. When graphemes were presented on colour and the hash on grey, the controls again showed a traditional simultaneous colour-contrast effect, whereas the synaesthetes showed the opposite effect. Our results show that synaesthetic colour experiences differ from normal colour perception; both are susceptible to different surrounding colours, but not in a comparable manner.

  4. Doppler echocardiography

    SciTech Connect

    Labovitz, A.J.; Williams, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    The authors are successful in presenting a basic book on clinical quantitative Doppler echocardiography. It is not intended to be a comprehensive text, but it does cover clinical applications in a succinct fashion. Only the more common diseases in the adult are considered. The subjects are presented logically and are easy to comprehend. The illustrations are good, and the book is paperbound. The basic principles of Doppler echocardiography are presented briefly. The book ends with chapters on left ventricular function (stroke volume and cardiac output), congenital heart disease, and color Doppler echo-cardiography. There are numerous references and a good glossary and index.

  5. Synaesthesia and colour constancy.

    PubMed

    Erskine, Holly; Mattingley, Jason B; Arnold, Derek H

    2013-04-01

    Grapheme-colour synaesthesia is an atypical condition characterized by the perception of colours when reading achromatic text. We investigated the level of colour processing responsible for these experiences. To do so, we tapped a central characteristic of colour perception. In different lighting conditions the same wavelength of light can prompt the perception of different colours. This helps humans recognize distinctive coloured objects despite changes in illumination. We wanted to see if synaesthetic colours were generated at a neural locus that was susceptible to colour constancy analyses. We used colour matching and naming tasks to examine interactions between simulated coloured illuminants and synaesthetic colours. Neither synaesthetic colour matching or naming was impacted. This contrasted with non-synaesthetic control participants, who performed the colour-matching task with graphemes physically coloured to mimic synaesthesia. Our data suggest that synaesthetic colour signals are not generated at lower-levels of colour processing, but are introduced at higher levels of analysis and are therefore not impacted by the processes responsible for perceptual constancy. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Colour Perception in ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banaschewski, Tobias; Ruppert, Sinje; Tannock, Rosemary; Albrecht, Bjorn; Becker, Andreas; Uebel, Henrik; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Rothenberger, Aribert

    2006-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with unexplained impairments on speeded naming of coloured stimuli. These deficits may reflect hypofunctioning retinal dopaminergic mechanisms impairing particularly blue-yellow colour discrimination. Colour perception and rapid colour naming ability were investigated in 14 children…

  7. Colour Perception in ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banaschewski, Tobias; Ruppert, Sinje; Tannock, Rosemary; Albrecht, Bjorn; Becker, Andreas; Uebel, Henrik; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Rothenberger, Aribert

    2006-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with unexplained impairments on speeded naming of coloured stimuli. These deficits may reflect hypofunctioning retinal dopaminergic mechanisms impairing particularly blue-yellow colour discrimination. Colour perception and rapid colour naming ability were investigated in 14 children…

  8. Proliferation of prenatal ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    You, John J.; Alter, David A.; Stukel, Therese A.; McDonald, Sarah D.; Laupacis, Andreas; Liu, Ying; Ray, Joel G.

    2010-01-01

    Background The extent to which temporal increases in the use of prenatal ultrasonography reflect changes in maternal risk is unknown. In this population-based study, we examined the use of prenatal ultrasonography from 1996 to 2006 in Ontario. Methods With fiscal year 1996/97 as the baseline, we evaluated the relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the change in rates of ultrasonography for each subsequent year. The RR was adjusted for maternal age, income, rural residence, maternal comorbidities, receipt of genetics consultation or amniocentesis — all in the index pregnancy — and history of complications in a prior pregnancy. Results The study sample consisted of 1 399 389 singleton deliveries. The rate of prenatal ultrasonography increased from 2055 per 1000 pregnancies in 1996 to 3264 per 1000 in 2006 (adjusted RR 1.55, 95% CI 1.54–1.55). The rate increased among both women with low-risk pregnancies (adjusted RR 1.54, 95% CI 1.53–1.55) and those with high-risk pregnancies (adjusted RR 1.55, 95% CI 1.54–1.57). The proportion of pregnancies with at least four ultrasound examinations in the second or third trimesters rose from 6.4% in 1996 to 18.7% in 2006 (adjusted RR 2.68, 95% CI 2.61–2.74). Paradoxically, this increase was more pronounced among low-risk pregnancies (adjusted RR 2.92, 95% CI 2.83–3.01) than among high-risk pregnancies (adjusted RR 2.25, 95% CI 2.16–2.35). Interpretation Substantial increases in the use of prenatal ultrasonography over the past decade do not appear to reflect changes in maternal risk. Nearly one in five women now undergo four or more ultrasound examinations during the second and third trimesters. Efforts to promote more appropriate use of prenatal ultrasonography for singleton pregnancies appear warranted. PMID:20048009

  9. Ultrasonography of intrauterine devices.

    PubMed

    Nowitzki, Kristina M; Hoimes, Matthew L; Chen, Byron; Zheng, Larry Z; Kim, Young H

    2015-07-01

    The intrauterine device (IUD) is gaining popularity as a reversible form of contraception. Ultrasonography serves as first-line imaging for the evaluation of IUD position in patients with pelvic pain, abnormal bleeding, or absent retrieval strings. This review highlights the imaging of both properly positioned and malpositioned IUDs. The problems associated with malpositioned IUDs include expulsion, displacement, embedment, and perforation. Management considerations depend on the severity of the malposition and the presence or absence of symptoms. Three-dimensional ultrasonography has proven to be more sensitive in the evaluation of more subtle findings of malposition, particularly side-arm embedment. Familiarity with the ultrasonographic features of properly positioned and malpositioned IUDs is essential.

  10. Ultrasonography of intrauterine devices

    PubMed Central

    Nowitzki, Kristina M.; Hoimes, Matthew L.; Chen, Byron; Zheng, Larry Z.; Kim, Young H.

    2015-01-01

    The intrauterine device (IUD) is gaining popularity as a reversible form of contraception. Ultrasonography serves as first-line imaging for the evaluation of IUD position in patients with pelvic pain, abnormal bleeding, or absent retrieval strings. This review highlights the imaging of both properly positioned and malpositioned IUDs. The problems associated with malpositioned IUDs include expulsion, displacement, embedment, and perforation. Management considerations depend on the severity of the malposition and the presence or absence of symptoms. Three-dimensional ultrasonography has proven to be more sensitive in the evaluation of more subtle findings of malposition, particularly side-arm embedment. Familiarity with the ultrasonographic features of properly positioned and malpositioned IUDs is essential. PMID:25985959

  11. [Diagnosing pneumothorax with ultrasonography].

    PubMed

    Lasarte Izcue, A; Navasa Melado, J M; Blanco Rodríguez, G; Fidalgo González, I; Parra Blanco, J A

    2014-01-01

    The ultrasonographic diagnosis of pneumothorax is based on the analysis of artifacts. It is possible to confirm or rule out pneumothorax by combining the following signs: lung sliding, the A and B lines, and the lung point. One fundamental advantage of lung ultrasonography is its easy access in any critical situation, especially in patients in the intensive care unit. For this reason, chest ultrasonography can be used as an alternative to plain-film X-rays and computed tomography in critical patients and in patients with normal plain films in whom pneumothorax is strongly suspected, as well as to evaluate the extent of the pneumothorax and monitor its evolution. Copyright © 2012 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Rethinking Colour Constancy

    PubMed Central

    Logvinenko, Alexander D.; Funt, Brian; Mirzaei, Hamidreza; Tokunaga, Rumi

    2015-01-01

    Colour constancy needs to be reconsidered in light of the limits imposed by metamer mismatching. Metamer mismatching refers to the fact that two objects reflecting metameric light under one illumination may reflect non-metameric light under a second; so two objects appearing as having the same colour under one illuminant can appear as having different colours under a second. Yet since Helmholtz, object colour has generally been believed to remain relatively constant. The deviations from colour constancy registered in experiments are usually thought to be small enough that they do not contradict the notion of colour constancy. However, it is important to determine how the deviations from colour constancy relate to the limits metamer mismatching imposes on constancy. Hence, we calculated metamer mismatching’s effect for the 20 Munsell papers and 8 pairs of illuminants employed in the colour constancy study by Logvinenko and Tokunaga and found it to be so extensive that the two notions—metamer mismatching and colour constancy—must be mutually exclusive. In particular, the notion of colour constancy leads to some paradoxical phenomena such as the possibility of 20 objects having the same colour under chromatic light dispersing into a hue circle of colours under neutral light. Thus, colour constancy refers to a phenomenon, which because of metamer mismatching, simply cannot exist. Moreover, it obscures the really important visual phenomenon; namely, the alteration of object colours induced by illumination change. We show that colour is not an independent, intrinsic attribute of an object, but rather an attribute of an object/light pair, and then define a concept of material colour in terms of equivalence classes of such object/light pairs. We suggest that studying the shift in material colour under a change in illuminant will be more fruitful than pursuing colour constancy’s false premise that colour is an intrinsic attribute of an object. PMID:26356217

  13. Rethinking Colour Constancy.

    PubMed

    Logvinenko, Alexander D; Funt, Brian; Mirzaei, Hamidreza; Tokunaga, Rumi

    2015-01-01

    Colour constancy needs to be reconsidered in light of the limits imposed by metamer mismatching. Metamer mismatching refers to the fact that two objects reflecting metameric light under one illumination may reflect non-metameric light under a second; so two objects appearing as having the same colour under one illuminant can appear as having different colours under a second. Yet since Helmholtz, object colour has generally been believed to remain relatively constant. The deviations from colour constancy registered in experiments are usually thought to be small enough that they do not contradict the notion of colour constancy. However, it is important to determine how the deviations from colour constancy relate to the limits metamer mismatching imposes on constancy. Hence, we calculated metamer mismatching's effect for the 20 Munsell papers and 8 pairs of illuminants employed in the colour constancy study by Logvinenko and Tokunaga and found it to be so extensive that the two notions-metamer mismatching and colour constancy-must be mutually exclusive. In particular, the notion of colour constancy leads to some paradoxical phenomena such as the possibility of 20 objects having the same colour under chromatic light dispersing into a hue circle of colours under neutral light. Thus, colour constancy refers to a phenomenon, which because of metamer mismatching, simply cannot exist. Moreover, it obscures the really important visual phenomenon; namely, the alteration of object colours induced by illumination change. We show that colour is not an independent, intrinsic attribute of an object, but rather an attribute of an object/light pair, and then define a concept of material colour in terms of equivalence classes of such object/light pairs. We suggest that studying the shift in material colour under a change in illuminant will be more fruitful than pursuing colour constancy's false premise that colour is an intrinsic attribute of an object.

  14. Diagnosis of adnexal malignancies by using color Doppler energy imaging as a secondary test in persistent masses.

    PubMed

    Guerriero, S; Ajossa, S; Risalvato, A; Lai, M P; Mais, V; Angiolucci, M; Melis, G B

    1998-04-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to compare the accuracy of B-mode transvaginal ultrasonography alone and in combination with color Doppler energy (or power Doppler) imaging in differentiating benign from malignant adnexal masses. A total of 192 consecutive persistent adnexal masses (159 benign, 33 malignant) were studied before surgery by B-mode transvaginal ultrasonography with and without color Doppler energy. In addition, CA-125 plasma levels were determined and spectral Doppler analysis was performed. By color Doppler energy imaging, a mass was considered malignant when arterial flow was visualized in an echogenic portion of a mass defined as malignant by B-mode. Intratumoral arterial blood flow could be readily detected by color Doppler energy imaging in all malignant tumors and in 94% of the benign tumors. The combined use of transvaginal B-mode ultrasonography and color Doppler energy imaging has greater accuracy in the diagnosis of ovarian malignancies than transvaginal ultrasonography alone (value of kappa: 0.81 and 0.63, respectively), reducing the number of false-positive results. The use of spectral Doppler analysis was of limited diagnostic value, with a kappa value of 0.17 for the pulsatility index (< 1) and of 0.41 for the resistance index (< 0.4). Also, the association with CA-125 increased the number of false-negative results. In conclusion, the use of color Doppler energy imaging seems to be a useful secondary test when a mass is suspected to be malignant by B-mode ultrasonography.

  15. Ultrasonography for diagnosis of alcoholic cirrhosis in people with alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Pavlov, Chavdar S; Casazza, Giovanni; Semenistaia, Marianna; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Tsochatzis, Emmanuel; Liusina, Ekaterina; Ivashkin, Vladimir T; Gluud, Christian

    2016-03-02

    , nodularity of the liver surface, size of the lymph nodes around the hepatic artery, irregularity and narrowness of the inferior vena cava, portal vein velocity, and spleen size.Diagnosis of cirrhosis by ultrasound, especially in people who are asymptomatic, may have its advantages for the prognosis, motivation, and treatment of these people to decrease their alcohol consumption or become abstinent.Timely diagnosis of alcoholic cirrhosis in people with alcoholic liver disease is the cornerstone for evaluation of prognosis or choosing treatment strategies. To determine the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography for detecting the presence or absence of cirrhosis in people with alcoholic liver disease compared with liver biopsy as reference standard.To determine the diagnostic accuracy of any of the ultrasonography tests, B-mode or echo-colour Doppler ultrasonography, used singly or combined, or plus ultrasonography signs, or a combination of these, for detecting hepatic cirrhosis in people with alcoholic liver disease compared with liver biopsy as a reference standard, irrespective of sequence. We performed searches in The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Diagnostic Test Accuracy Studies Register, The Cochrane Library (Wiley), MEDLINE (OvidSP), EMBASE (OvidSP), and the Science Citation Index Expanded to 8 January 2015. We applied no language limitations.We screened study references of the retrieved studies to identify other potentially relevant studies for inclusion in the review and read abstract and poster publications. Three review authors independently identified studies for possible inclusion in the review. We excluded references not fulfilling the inclusion criteria of the review protocol. We sent e-mails to study authors.The included studies had to evaluate ultrasound in the diagnosis of hepatic cirrhosis using only liver biopsy as the reference standard.The maximum time interval of investigation with liver

  16. Contrast-enhanced transrectal ultrasonography for the detection of diffuse prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Gao, Y; Liao, X H; Lu, L; Wang, L; Ma, Y; Qin, H Z; Yan, X; Guo, P

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced transrectal ultrasonography (CE-TRUS) versus baseline TRUS (combination of grey-scale and colour Doppler imaging) for diffuse prostate cancer. Forty-six patients without an obvious focal mass on baseline TRUS (grey-scale and colour Doppler), underwent additional CE-TRUS and TRUS-guided biopsy due to elevated levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA ≥4 ng/ml) and/or abnormal digital rectal examination (DRE). In all patients, CE-TRUS was performed with intravenous injection of a contrast agent (sulphur hexafluoride microbubble; SonoVue, 2.4 ml) before biopsy. TRUS-guided biopsy targeted suspicious areas detected on CE-TRUS imaging or sampled the outer gland of the normal prostate. The final diagnosis was based on results of the TRUS-guided biopsy. The diagnostic accuracy of baseline TRUS and CE-TRUS for diffuse prostatic lesions was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Diffuse prostate cancer was present in 32 (69.5%) patients and absent in 14 (30.5%) patients. Nineteen patients had diffuse prostate cancer that was not detected by baseline TRUS, whereas 15 cases were identified using CE-TRUS. Conversely, five patients had benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) that was diagnosed as cancer by CE-TRUS, and two of these patients were diagnosed with BPH by baseline TRUS. The combined sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 87.5%, 64.2%, and 80.4%, respectively, for CE-TRUS, and 40.6%, 78.5%, and 52.1%, respectively, for baseline TRUS. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) values for the diagnostic accuracy of baseline CE-TRUS versus TRUS for diffuse prostate cancer differed significantly at 0.904 and 0.667, respectively (Z=4.098, p<0.0001). CE-TRUS exhibited greater diagnostic accuracy for diffuse prostate cancer than baseline TRUS. CE-TRUS may improve cancer detection over baseline TRUS imaging for the diagnosis of diffuse prostate cancer in patients with an elevated PSA level. CE

  17. Colour Reflection Holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubel, Paul Matthew

    1990-01-01

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. The fidelity of colour reproduction achievable in reflection holograms is analysed by an in depth experimental and theoretical treatment. The experimental work consists of a comparison of materials and development of techniques for producing colour reflection holograms. Colour reflection holograms were recorded using a suitable material and various types of three-band laser illumination. Holograms recorded with the combinations 458, 529, and 633 nm or 458, 529, and 647 nm reproduced a full range of colours accurately, including yellow, dark blue, and purple images, which was impossible by previous methods. A theoretical model of the colour reproduction by holograms incorporates colour rendering analysis, effects of bandwidth, a new definition of signal to noise ratio, wavelength shifting, and colour balance. The model compares octagons formed by points on a CIE diagram corresponding to eight Munsell coloured chips when reproduced by the holographic image and when illuminated by a standard light source. Figures of merit of average vector length between image and object colours and gamut area size are considered. The theory compares well with holograms recorded of the Munsell chips using eight different sets of recording wavelengths. Holographic image colour reproduction for all possible recording wavelengths is predicted by the model. From this analysis, optimum wavelength combinations are obtained that support experimental results. In conclusion, a new definition of true colour holography is suggested that considers the quality of colour reproduction of a holographic image compared to colours viewed under normal conditions.

  18. Diagnosis of pancreatic tumors by endoscopic ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Hiroki; Kitano, Masayuki; Kamata, Ken; El-Masry, Muhammad; Kudo, Masatoshi

    2010-01-01

    Pancreatic tumors are highly diverse, as they can be solid or cystic, and benign or malignant. Since their imaging features overlap considerably, it is often difficult to characterize these tumors. In addition, small pancreatic tumors, especially those less than 2 cm in diameter, are difficult to detect and diagnose. For characterizing pancreatic tumors and detecting small pancreatic tumors, endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is the most sensitive of the imaging procedures currently available. This technique also provides good results in terms of the preoperative staging of pancreatic tumors. EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) has also proved to be a safe and useful method for tissue sampling of pancreatic tumors. Despite these advantages, however, it is still difficult to differentiate between benign and malignant, solid or cystic pancreatic tumors, malignant neoplasms, and chronic pancreatitis using EUS, even when EUS-FNA is performed. Recently, contrast-enhanced EUS with Doppler mode (CE-EUS) employing ultrasound contrast agents, which indicate vascularization in pancreatic lesions, has been found to be useful in the differential diagnosis of pancreatic tumors, especially small pancreatic tumors. However, Doppler ultrasonography with contrast-enhancement has several limitations, including blooming artifacts, poor spatial resolution, and low sensitivity to slow flow. Consequently, an echoendoscope was developed recently that has a broad-band transducer and an imaging mode that was designed specifically for contrast-enhanced harmonic EUS (CEH-EUS) with a second-generation ultrasound contrast agent. The CEH-EUS technique is expected to improve the differential diagnosis of pancreatic disease in the future. This review describes the EUS appearances of common solid and cystic pancreatic masses, the diagnostic accuracy of EUS-FNA, and the relative efficacies and advantages of CE-EUS and CEH-EUS along with their relative advantages and their complementary roles

  19. Can Doppler or contrast-enhanced ultrasound analysis add diagnostically important information about the nature of breast lesions?

    PubMed Central

    Stanzani, Daniela; Chala, Luciano F.; de Barros, Nestor; Cerri, Giovanni G.; Chammas, Maria Cristina

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Despite evidence suggesting that Doppler ultrasonography can help to differentiate between benign and malignant breast lesions, it is rarely applied in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to determine whether certain vascular features of breast masses observed by duplex Doppler and color Doppler ultrasonography (before and/or after microbubble contrast injection) add information to the gray-scale analysis and support the Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) classification. METHODS: Seventy solid lesions were prospectively evaluated with gray-scale ultrasonography, color Doppler ultrasonography, and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography. The morphological analysis and lesion vascularity were correlated with the histological results. RESULTS: Percutaneous core biopsies revealed that 25/70 (17.5%) lesions were malignant, while 45 were benign. Hypervascular lesions with tortuous and central vessels, a resistive index (RI)≥0.73 before contrast injection, and an RI≥0.75 after contrast injection were significantly predictive of malignancy (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: The combination of gray-scale ultrasonography data with unenhanced or enhanced duplex Doppler and color Doppler US data can provide diagnostically useful information. These techniques can be easily implemented because Doppler devices are already present in most health centers. PMID:24519198

  20. Hemianopic colour blindness.

    PubMed

    Albert, M L; Reches, A; Silverberg, R

    1975-06-01

    A man developed cortical blindness after cerebral infarction in the distribution of both posterior cerebral arteries. When he recovered from this condition, he was found to be colour blind in the left visual field, but not in the right. This unusual situation resulted in apparently contradictory performances on hemifield and free-field tasks of colour discrimination, naming, and recognition. The contradictions may be explained by interhemispheric competition between a hemisphere which could discriminate colours and a hemisphere which was colour blind.

  1. Does Colour Preference Have a Role in Colour Term Acquisition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitchford, Nicola J.; Davis, Emma E.; Scerif, Gaia

    2009-01-01

    A developmental association exists between colour preference and emerging colour term acquisition in young children. Colour preference might influence colour term acquisition by directing attention towards or away from a particular colour, making it more or less memorable. To investigate the role that colour preference may have in the acquisition…

  2. Does Colour Preference Have a Role in Colour Term Acquisition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitchford, Nicola J.; Davis, Emma E.; Scerif, Gaia

    2009-01-01

    A developmental association exists between colour preference and emerging colour term acquisition in young children. Colour preference might influence colour term acquisition by directing attention towards or away from a particular colour, making it more or less memorable. To investigate the role that colour preference may have in the acquisition…

  3. Routine transplant Doppler ultrasonography following pediatric kidney transplant.

    PubMed

    Bou Matar, Raed; Warshaw, Barry; Hymes, Leonard; Greenbaum, Larry A

    2012-09-01

    The utility and cost-effectiveness of routine transplant renal DU as a screening test in the immediate postoperative period following pediatric renal transplantation has not been systematically evaluated. Our center's transplant protocol includes a routine DU on postoperative day 3, unless an earlier DU was obtained for a specific indication. We retrospectively evaluated 113 consecutive pediatric renal transplant recipients. Indication for DU (routine vs. non-routine), timing, results, and graft outcome data were collected. We determined whether the DU result affected patient management. Eighty routine DU examinations were evaluated. Thirty (37.5%) of the 80 routine DUs had abnormalities. Most abnormalities were minor and did not require intervention. One patient with a dysfunctional bladder had mild hydronephrosis; this led to a decision to increase the frequency of bladder catheterization. This was the only intervention based upon the routine DUs. Twenty percent of routine DUs revealed abnormalities that led to a follow-up study, but none of these studies led to an intervention. The incremental cost of each DU exceeded $1080 and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for a documented change in management exceeded $86, 400. Our results suggest that routine post-transplant DU is not cost-effective in pediatric renal allograft recipients. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. Gray-scale and color Doppler ultrasound imaging findings of an ovarian inguinal hernia and torsion of the herniated ovary: a case report.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Ramazan; Polat, Ahmet Veysel; Ozaydin, Ilkay; Aydin, Gulten

    2013-03-01

    Inguinal hernia is extremely rare among girls. The hernia sac may sometimes involve intestinal structures, but ovaries in the sac are uncommon. Early diagnosis of a possible ovarian torsion is essential because potential amenable benefits can be achieved with surgery. A baby girl was admitted to our pediatric emergency unit with the complaints of swelling and erythema of the left groin. Then gray-scale ultrasonography and color Doppler ultrasonography was performed immediately at the emergency radiology room. In our case, ovarian torsion was diagnosed by gray-scale ultrasonography and color Doppler ultrasonography. After the diagnosis of ovarian torsion, the patient underwent surgery. It is possible to diagnose inguinal emergencies by high-resolution ultrasonography and color Doppler ultrasonography.

  5. Role of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of temporal arteritis.

    PubMed

    Ball, E L; Walsh, S R; Tang, T Y; Gohil, R; Clarke, J M F

    2010-12-01

    Temporal artery (TA) biopsy is the current standard for diagnosing temporal arteritis, but has limited sensitivity. Colour duplex ultrasonography is a newer, non-invasive method of diagnosing temporal arteritis. A systematic review was performed of trials comparing TA biopsy with duplex ultrasonography. Duplex results (halo sign, stenosis or vessel occlusion) were compared with either TA biospy findings or the American College of Rheumatology research criteria for diagnosing temporal arteritis. Trials were identified from MEDLINE, Embase and the Cochrane Library trials register. The performance of duplex ultrasonography was assessed with weighted independent sensitivity and specificity values, and summary receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. There were 17 eligible studies containing 998 patients. When the halo sign on duplex imaging was compared with TA biopsy, the sensitivity was 75 (95 per cent confidence interval 67 to 82) per cent and the specificity was 83 (78 to 88) per cent. There was no heterogeneity across the eligible studies. Duplex ultrasonography was relatively accurate for diagnosing temporal arteritis. It should become the first-line investigation, with biopsy reserved for patients with a negative scan. Copyright © 2010 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Practical colour management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Susan

    2006-06-01

    Spectrophotometers have been successfully used for colour measurement. This paper addresses digital imaging as a complementary and alternative method of colour measurement and appearance and an effective communication tool as part of a practical colour management programme within the supply chain of a textile retailer. The specific needs—to measure and communicate textured dyed material and printed fabric—are discussed, as well as the colour specification and quality control (QC) of currently un-measurable fabrics and accessories. A unique method of using digital imaging for the assessment of colour fastness will also be discussed.

  7. Pediatric imaging/doppler ultrasound of the chest: Extracardiac diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Huhta, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    In this book the author spells out new diagnostic applications in pediatrics for high resolution cross-sectional ultrasonography, and demonstrates the ways in which Doppler techniques complement the cross-sectional method. This reference presents practical, step-by-step methods for non-invasive ultrasound examination of extra-cardiac anatomy and assessment of vascular blood flow.

  8. Colour vision deficiency.

    PubMed

    Simunovic, M P

    2010-05-01

    Colour vision deficiency is one of the commonest disorders of vision and can be divided into congenital and acquired forms. Congenital colour vision deficiency affects as many as 8% of males and 0.5% of females--the difference in prevalence reflects the fact that the commonest forms of congenital colour vision deficiency are inherited in an X-linked recessive manner. Until relatively recently, our understanding of the pathophysiological basis of colour vision deficiency largely rested on behavioural data; however, modern molecular genetic techniques have helped to elucidate its mechanisms. The current management of congenital colour vision deficiency lies chiefly in appropriate counselling (including career counselling). Although visual aids may be of benefit to those with colour vision deficiency when performing certain tasks, the evidence suggests that they do not enable wearers to obtain normal colour discrimination. In the future, gene therapy remains a possibility, with animal models demonstrating amelioration following treatment.

  9. Colour Measurements and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Shyam N.

    The most common property to measure quality of any material is its appearance. Appearance includes colour, shape, size and surface conditions. The analysis of colour is especially an important consideration when determining the efficacy of variety of postharvest treatments. Consumers can easily be influenced by preconceived ideas of how a particular fruit or vegetable or a processed food should appear, and marketers often attempt to improve upon what nature has painted. Recently colour measurements have also been used as quality parameters and indicator of some inner constituents of the material. In spite of the significance of colour in food industries, many continue to analyze it inadequately. This chapter deals with theory of colour, colour scales and its measurement, sampling techniques, and modeling of colour values for correlating them with some internal quality parameters of selected fruits.

  10. Is colour cognitive?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skorupski, Peter; Chittka, Lars

    2011-03-01

    In recent years, colour-vision abilities have been rather generously ascribed to various invertebrates and even bacteria. This uncertainty of when to diagnose colour vision stems in part from confusing what colour vision can do with what it is. What colour vision can do is discriminate wavelength independent of intensity. However, if we take this as a definition of what colour vision is, then we might be obliged to conclude that some plants and bacteria have colour vision. Moreover, there is a similar confusion of what are necessary and what are sufficient mechanisms and behavioural abilities for colour vision. To humans, seeing in colour means seeing an image in which objects/lights have chromatic attributes—in contrast to the sensation that we have when viewing monochrome movies, or our experience in dim light when only rod vision is possible. The necessary basic equipment for this is to have at least two types of photoreceptors that differ in spectral sensitivity, and at least one type of spectrally opponent cell to compare the signals from the photoreceptors. Clearly, however, a necessary additional prerequisite for colour vision is to have vision, which entails the identification of shapes, sizes and locations of objects in the world. Thus, if an animal has colour vision, it should see an image in which distinct objects/lights have colour attributes. This distinguishes colour vision from wavelength discrimination, but also from what has historically been called wavelength-specific behaviour: a type of behaviour triggered by fixed configurations of spectral receptor signals; however, we discuss difficulties in diagnosing wavelength-specific behaviour as an indicator of the absence of colour vision. Finally, we discuss whether colour vision, by definition, contains a cognitive dimension for ordering and classifying perceptual experience.

  11. Complications of endoscopic ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Fabbri, C; Luigiano, C; Cennamo, V; Ferrara, F; Pellicano, R; Polifemo, A M; Tarantino, I; Barresi, L; Morace, C; Consolo, P; D'Imperio, N

    2011-06-01

    Since its development in the 1980s, endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) has undergone a great deal of technological modifications. EUS has become an important tool in the evaluation of patients with various clinical disorders and is increasingly being utilized in many centers. EUS has been evolving over the years; EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) for cytological and/or histological diagnosis has become standard practice and a wide array of interventional and therapeutic procedures are performed under EUS guidance for diseases which otherwise would have needed surgery, with its associated morbidities. EUS shares the risks and complications of other endoscopic procedures. This article addresses the specific adverse effects and risks associated with EUS, EUS-FNA and interventional EUS, namely perforation, bleeding, pancreatitis and infection. Measures to help minimizing these risks will also be discussed.

  12. A review of Doppler ultrasound quality assurance protocols and test devices.

    PubMed

    Browne, Jacinta E

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, an overview of Doppler ultrasound quality assurance (QA) testing will be presented in three sections. The first section will review the different Doppler ultrasound parameters recommended by professional bodies for use in QA protocols. The second section will include an evaluation and critique of the main test devices used to assess Doppler performance, while the final section of this paper will discuss which of the wide range of test devices have been found to be most suitable for inclusion in Doppler QA programmes. Pulsed Wave Spectral Doppler, Colour Doppler Imaging QA test protocols have been recommended over the years by various professional bodies, including the UK's Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM), the American Institute for Ultrasound in Medicine (AIUM), and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). However, despite the existence of such recommended test protocols, very few commercial or research test devices exist which can measure the full range of both PW Doppler ultrasound and colour Doppler imaging performance parameters, particularly quality control measurements such as: (i) Doppler sensitivity (ii) colour Doppler spatial resolution (iii) colour Doppler temporal resolution (iv) colour Doppler velocity resolution (v) clutter filter performance and (vi) tissue movement artefact suppression. In this review, the merits of the various commercial and research test devices will be considered and a summary of results obtained from published studies which have made use of some of these Doppler test devices, such as the flow, string, rotating and belt phantom, will be presented. Copyright © 2014 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Colour constancy in insects.

    PubMed

    Chittka, Lars; Faruq, Samia; Skorupski, Peter; Werner, Annette

    2014-06-01

    Colour constancy is the perceptual phenomenon that the colour of an object appears largely unchanged, even if the spectral composition of the illuminating light changes. Colour constancy has been found in all insect species so far tested. Especially the pollinating insects offer a remarkable opportunity to study the ecological significance of colour constancy since they spend much of their adult lives identifying and choosing between colour targets (flowers) under continuously changing ambient lighting conditions. In bees, whose colour vision is best studied among the insects, the compensation provided by colour constancy is only partial and its efficiency depends on the area of colour space. There is no evidence for complete 'discounting' of the illuminant in bees, and the spectral composition of the light can itself be used as adaptive information. In patchy illumination, bees adjust their spatial foraging to minimise transitions between variously illuminated zones. Modelling allows the quantification of the adaptive benefits of various colour constancy mechanisms in the economy of nature. We also discuss the neural mechanisms and cognitive operations that might underpin colour constancy in insects.

  14. [Ultrasonography in chronic inflammatory rheumatic and connective tissue disorders].

    PubMed

    Mérot, O; Le Goff, B

    2014-08-01

    Musculoskeletal ultrasonography is now widely used by almost all rheumatologists thanks to an improvement in the quality of ultrasound unit and probe and to the systematic teaching of this imaging technique to the rheumatology fellows. Applications have broadened from the study of degenerative and mechanical diseases to inflammatory rheumatic diseases. Ultrasound is more sensitive than clinical examination. Power Doppler allows the direct visualisation of inflammation within the tissues. Finally, it is a prognostic tool helping the physician in the management of the disease. This review will focus on the value and applications of ultrasonography in the 2 most frequent rheumatic diseases: rheumatoid arthritis and spondyloarthritis. We will also give some recent data on the usefulness of this imaging technique in the study of musculoskeletal manifestations associated with connective tissue disease.

  15. The colour preference control based on two-colour combinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Ji Young; Kwak, Youngshin; Park, Du-Sik; Kim, Chang Yeong

    2008-02-01

    This paper proposes a framework of colour preference control to satisfy the consumer's colour related emotion. A colour harmony algorithm based on two-colour combinations is developed for displaying the images with several complementary colour pairs as the relationship of two-colour combination. The colours of pixels belonging to complementary colour areas in HSV colour space are shifted toward the target hue colours and there is no colour change for the other pixels. According to the developed technique, dynamic emotions by the proposed hue conversion can be improved and the controlled output image shows improved colour emotions in the preference of the human viewer. The psychophysical experiments are conducted to investigate the optimal model parameters to produce the most pleasant image to the users in the respect of colour emotions.

  16. Colour harmony of two colour combinations in clothes matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wicaksono, Sungging Haryo; Fu, Tzu-Hao; Chen, Liang-Ya; Hou, Chien-Yu; Ou, Li-Chen

    2015-01-01

    There are many definitions and theories about colour harmony. But no consistent rules and definitions can be determined. Some previous researches show that there are many factors that influence the colour harmony. Colour harmony is highly depends on the external factors, including the context of colour besides their colour combinations. In the current research an experiment conducted by observing two colour combinations which applied in shirt and trousers. Twenty observers involved in the experiment, consist of ten male and ten female. Each observer predict colour harmony score in 58 samples of shirt and trouser pairs, the colour combination then applied upside down. Based on the experimental results, male and female group has similar tendency in colour harmony score prediction in the same colour samples (correlation coefficient, r=0.84). Upside down colour combinations will change the impression of observer about colour harmony and yields a different value of colour harmony prediction score which indicated from correlation coefficient results of 0.53.

  17. A colour image reproduction framework for 3D colour printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Kaida; Sohiab, Ali; Sun, Pei-li; Yates, Julian M.; Li, Changjun; Wuerger, Sophie

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the current technologies in full colour 3D printing technology were introduced. A framework of colour image reproduction process for 3D colour printing is proposed. A special focus was put on colour management for 3D printed objects. Two approaches, colorimetric colour reproduction and spectral based colour reproduction are proposed in order to faithfully reproduce colours in 3D objects. Two key studies, colour reproduction for soft tissue prostheses and colour uniformity correction across different orientations are described subsequently. Results are clear shown that applying proposed colour image reproduction framework, performance of colour reproduction can be significantly enhanced. With post colour corrections, a further improvement in colour process are achieved for 3D printed objects.

  18. Dynamic plasmonic colour display

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Xiaoyang; Kamin, Simon; Liu, Na

    2017-01-01

    Plasmonic colour printing based on engineered metasurfaces has revolutionized colour display science due to its unprecedented subwavelength resolution and high-density optical data storage. However, advanced plasmonic displays with novel functionalities including dynamic multicolour printing, animations, and highly secure encryption have remained in their infancy. Here we demonstrate a dynamic plasmonic colour display technique that enables all the aforementioned functionalities using catalytic magnesium metasurfaces. Controlled hydrogenation and dehydrogenation of the constituent magnesium nanoparticles, which serve as dynamic pixels, allow for plasmonic colour printing, tuning, erasing and restoration of colour. Different dynamic pixels feature distinct colour transformation kinetics, enabling plasmonic animations. Through smart material processing, information encoded on selected pixels, which are indiscernible to both optical and scanning electron microscopies, can only be read out using hydrogen as a decoding key, suggesting a new generation of information encryption and anti-counterfeiting applications. PMID:28232722

  19. Dynamic plasmonic colour display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Xiaoyang; Kamin, Simon; Liu, Na

    2017-02-01

    Plasmonic colour printing based on engineered metasurfaces has revolutionized colour display science due to its unprecedented subwavelength resolution and high-density optical data storage. However, advanced plasmonic displays with novel functionalities including dynamic multicolour printing, animations, and highly secure encryption have remained in their infancy. Here we demonstrate a dynamic plasmonic colour display technique that enables all the aforementioned functionalities using catalytic magnesium metasurfaces. Controlled hydrogenation and dehydrogenation of the constituent magnesium nanoparticles, which serve as dynamic pixels, allow for plasmonic colour printing, tuning, erasing and restoration of colour. Different dynamic pixels feature distinct colour transformation kinetics, enabling plasmonic animations. Through smart material processing, information encoded on selected pixels, which are indiscernible to both optical and scanning electron microscopies, can only be read out using hydrogen as a decoding key, suggesting a new generation of information encryption and anti-counterfeiting applications.

  20. [Tridimensional (3D) endoscopic ultrasonography].

    PubMed

    Varas Lorenzo, M J; Muñoz Agel, F; Abad Belando, R

    2007-01-01

    A review and update on 3D endoscopic ultrasonography is included regarding all of this technique s aspects, technical details, and current indications. Images from our own clinical experience are presented.

  1. Hemianopic colour blindness.

    PubMed Central

    Albert, M L; Reches, A; Silverberg, R

    1975-01-01

    A man developed cortical blindness after cerebral infarction in the distribution of both posterior cerebral arteries. When he recovered from this condition, he was found to be colour blind in the left visual field, but not in the right. This unusual situation resulted in apparently contradictory performances on hemifield and free-field tasks of colour discrimination, naming, and recognition. The contradictions may be explained by interhemispheric competition between a hemisphere which could discriminate colours and a hemisphere which was colour blind. PMID:1080190

  2. Plasmonic colour generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, Anders; Yang, Joel K. W.; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Link, Stephan; Nordlander, Peter; Halas, Naomi J.; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2016-11-01

    Plasmonic colours are structural colours that emerge from resonant interactions between light and metallic nanostructures. The engineering of plasmonic colours is a promising, rapidly emerging research field that could have a large technological impact. We highlight basic properties of plasmonic colours and recent nanofabrication developments, comparing technology-performance indicators for traditional and nanophotonic colour technologies. The structures of interest include diffraction gratings, nanoaperture arrays, thin films, and multilayers and structures that support Mie resonances and whispering-gallery modes. We discuss plasmonic colour nanotechnology based on localized surface plasmon resonances, such as gap plasmons and hybridized disk-hole plasmons, which allow for colour printing with sub-diffraction resolution. We also address a range of fabrication approaches that enable large-area printing and nanoscale lithography compatible with complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technologies, including nanoimprint lithography and self-assembly. Finally, we review recent developments in dynamically reconfigurable plasmonic colours and in the laser-induced post-processing of plasmonic colour surfaces.

  3. Doppler flowmeter

    DOEpatents

    Karplus, Henry H. B.; Raptis, Apostolos C.

    1983-01-01

    A Doppler flowmeter impulses an ultrasonic fixed-frequency signal obliquely into a slurry flowing in a pipe and a reflected signal is detected after having been scattered off of the slurry particles, whereby the shift in frequencies between the signals is proportional to the slurry velocity and hence slurry flow rate. This flowmeter filters the Doppler frequency-shift signal, compares the filtered and unfiltered shift signals in a divider to obtain a ratio, and then further compares this ratio against a preset fractional ratio. The flowmeter utilizes a voltage-to-frequency convertor to generate a pulsed signal having a determinable rate of repetition precisely proportional to the divergence of the ratios. The pulsed signal serves as the input control for a frequency-controlled low-pass filter, which provides thereby that the cutoff frequency of the filtered signal is known. The flowmeter provides a feedback control by minimizing the divergence. With the cutoff frequency and preset fractional ratio known, the slurry velocity and hence flow will also be determinable.

  4. Doppler flowmeter

    DOEpatents

    Karplus, H.H.B.; Raptis, A.C.

    1981-11-13

    A Doppler flowmeter impulses an ultrasonic fixed-frequency signal obliquely into a slurry flowing in a pipe and a reflected signal is detected after having been scattered off of the slurry particles, whereby the shift in frequencies between the signals is proportional to the slurry velocity and hence slurry flow rate. This flowmeter filters the Doppler frequency-shift signal, compares the filtered and unfiltered shift signals in a divider to obtain a ratio, and then further compares this ratio against a preset fractional ratio. The flowmeter utilizes a voltage-to-frequency convertor to generate a pulsed signal having a determinable rate of repetition precisely proportional to the divergence of the ratios. The pulsed signal serves as the input control for a frequency-controlled low-pass filter, which provides thereby that the cutoff frequency of the filtered signal is known. The flowmeter provides a feedback control by minimizing the divergence. With the cutoff frequency and preset fractional ratio known, the slurry velocity and hence flow will also be determinable.

  5. Ultrasonography of ovarian masses using a pattern recognition approach

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sung Il

    2015-01-01

    As a primary imaging modality, ultrasonography (US) can provide diagnostic information for evaluating ovarian masses. Using a pattern recognition approach through gray-scale transvaginal US, ovarian masses can be diagnosed with high specificity and sensitivity. Doppler US may allow ovarian masses to be diagnosed as benign or malignant with even greater confidence. In order to differentiate benign and malignant ovarian masses, it is necessary to categorize ovarian masses into unilocular cyst, unilocular solid cyst, multilocular cyst, multilocular solid cyst, and solid tumor, and then to detect typical US features that demonstrate malignancy based on pattern recognition approach. PMID:25797108

  6. Ultrasonography of ovarian masses using a pattern recognition approach.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sung Il

    2015-07-01

    As a primary imaging modality, ultrasonography (US) can provide diagnostic information for evaluating ovarian masses. Using a pattern recognition approach through gray-scale transvaginal US, ovarian masses can be diagnosed with high specificity and sensitivity. Doppler US may allow ovarian masses to be diagnosed as benign or malignant with even greater confidence. In order to differentiate benign and malignant ovarian masses, it is necessary to categorize ovarian masses into unilocular cyst, unilocular solid cyst, multilocular cyst, multilocular solid cyst, and solid tumor, and then to detect typical US features that demonstrate malignancy based on pattern recognition approach.

  7. Intraoperative endovascular ultrasonography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eton, Darwin; Ahn, Samuel S.; Baker, J. D.; Pensabene, Joseph; Yeatman, Lawrence S.; Moore, Wesley S.

    1991-05-01

    The early experience using intra-operative endovascular ultrasonography (EU) is reported in eight patients undergoing lower extremity revasularization. In four patients, intra-operative EU successfully characterized inflow stenoses that were inadequately imaged with pre- operative arteriography. Two patients were found to have hemodynamically significant inflow stenoses, and were treated with intra-operative balloon angioplasty followed by repeat EU. The other two patients were found to have non-hemodynamically significant inflow stenoses requiring no treatment. Additional outflow procedures were required in all four patients. In the remaining four patients, EU was used to evaluate the completeness of TEC rotary atherectomy, of Hall oscillatory endarterectomy, of thrombectomy of the superficial femoral and popliteal arteries, and of valve lysis during in situ saphenous vein grafting, respectively. In the latter case, the valve leaflets were not clearly seen. In the other cases, EU assisted the surgeon. Angioscopy and angiography were available for comparison. In one case, angioscopy failed because of inability to clear the field while inspecting retrograde the limb of an aorto-bi-femoral graft. EU however was possible. No complications of EU occurred. EU is a safe procedure indicated when characterization of a lesion is needed prior to an intervention or when evaluation of the intervention's success is desired. We did not find it useful in valve lysis for in-site grafting.

  8. Does colour preference have a role in colour term acquisition?

    PubMed

    Pitchford, Nicola J; Davis, Emma E; Scerif, Gaia

    2009-11-01

    A developmental association exists between colour preference and emerging colour term acquisition in young children. Colour preference might influence colour term acquisition by directing attention towards or away from a particular colour, making it more or less memorable. To investigate the role that colour preference may have in the acquisition of colour terms, experimental tasks of colour preference, discrimination, attention, memory, and new colour term learning, were given to three groups of participants (preschool children; primary school children; and adults). Each task utilized the same colour stimuli, which were four computer-simulated colours, matched perceptually to four different Munsell chips, drawn from the same colour category. Three colours varied systematically from an anchor colour (10PB 4/8) only in saturation (10PB 4/4), luminance (10PB 6/8), or hue (5P 4/8). Results showed that within-category colour preferences emerged with age, and that when established within individuals, most preferred colours were named significantly more accurately than least preferred colours, although this association did not appear to be mediated directly by attention or memory. Rather, perceptual saliency was shown to have a mediating role, to some extent, in determining the relationship between colour preference and the cognitive processing of colour.

  9. [Color Doppler in breast tumor pathology].

    PubMed

    Balu-Maestro, C; Bruneton, J N; Giudicelli, T; Chauvel, C; Hery, M D

    1991-11-01

    Colour Doppler findings in a series of 63 cases of breast tumours and 19 cases of lymph node enlargements are reported. Colour Doppler signals of abnormal flow are found in 68.5 percent of the cancers, in 42.8 percent of metastatic lymph nodes and in 10 percent of benign lesions. There was bidirectional flow in 80 percent of all the cases. In cases of malignant tumours, the signal was correlated with the size and location of the lesions most often found peripherally. Presently, this technique appears to be of little value in determining whether a primary malignant tumour of the breast is malignant or benign. It does appear to be useful, first to follow-up cancers during initial chemotherapy (partial regression of the signal and of tumour volume) and secondly, in the diagnosis of metastatic lymph nodes with a specificity of 100 percent in our series. Colour Doppler is on the contrary difficult to interprete after conservative treatment of breast cancer because of post-radiotherapy tissue remodelling.

  10. The Colour of Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrar, Bernice Lever

    Students from the ages of 13 or 14 onward need to know the "colours of words" which can let them live fully in the rainbow of life, thus eliminating student fears associated with written language and of being pawns of those who have the power of words, especially written words. Colour coding the eight basic types of work that words can…

  11. Emergency medicine ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Michael Y.; Nussbaum, Chris; Lee, A. Curtis

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To survey program directors of family medicine–emergency medicine (CCFP[EM]) training programs regarding current and future emergency medicine ultrasonography (EMUS) training. DESIGN A Web-based survey using a modified Dillman method. Two academic emergency physicians reviewed the validity and reliability of the survey. SETTING Canada. PARTICIPANTS Program directors of all 17 Canadian CCFP(EM) residency training programs in 2006. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Characteristics of EMUS training currently offered and program directors’ perceptions of needs for future EMUS training. RESULTS The survey, performed in 2006, had a response rate of 100% (17/17), although not all respondents answered all questions. At the time of the study, 82.4% of respondents’ programs used EMUS. Although all program directors recommended that residents attend introductory EMUS courses, only 71.4% (10/14) of programs offered such courses; 60.0% (9/15) of those were mandatory. In one-third of the programs, more than 75% of the attending staff used EMUS. A total of 76.5% of program directors thought that introductory courses in EMUS should be mandatory; 62.5% (10/16) believed that residents were able to acquire sufficient experience to use EMUS independently to make practice decisions before completion of their residency; and 88.2% believed that EMUS should be a part of the scope of practice for emergency medicine physicians. Only 58.8% believed that there should be questions about EMUS on the CCFP(EM) Certification examination. Open responses indicated that funding, resources, and standardization were issues that needed to be addressed. CONCLUSION Formal EMUS training for CCFP(EM) programs is being introduced in Canada. Quality assurance needs to be strengthened. Most program directors thought that an introductory course in EMUS should be mandatory. Fewer directors, however, believed EMUS should be on the CCFP(EM) Certification examination until further funding, resources

  12. Hyalinizing trabecular tumor of the thyroid gland: characteristic features on ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Kaoru; Hirokawa, Mitsuyoshi; Jikuzono, Tomoo; Fukata, Shuji; Amino, Nobuyuki; Miyauchi, Akira; Nakamura, Yasushi

    2007-03-01

    We report a case of hyalinizing trabecular tumor of the thyroid gland and describe the characteristic ultrasonographic features of this tumor. This was a rare tumor of follicular cell origin with a trabecular pattern of growth and marked intratrabecular hyalinization. The tumor had an irregular shape, a delicately jagged border, and hypoechoic and heterogeneous internal echoes on B-mode ultrasonography. Very rich intratumoral blood flow, the so-called "tumor inferno" was evident on power Doppler ultrasonography. In the clinical management of thyroid nodules, clinicians should be aware of this peculiar type of thyroid tumor and its characteristic ultrasonographic findings.

  13. Relative colour cues improve colour constancy in birds.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Peter; Kelber, Almut

    2017-05-15

    A ripe strawberry looks red to our eyes in sunlight and in the green light of a forest, although the spectrum of light reflected from its surface differs dramatically. This is caused by two effects: colour constancy and our ability to learn relative colour cues - the ripe strawberry remains relatively 'redder' than an unripe green strawberry. While colour constancy - the ability to recognize colours in shifted illumination - has been studied in many animals, the use of relative colour cues is investigated more rarely. In a previous study on chickens, we measured how large a shift in illumination their colour constancy mechanisms tolerate without reliable relative colour cues. Here, we show that chickens remain colour constant over larger illumination shifts, if they can use such relative colour cues. As relative colour cues are readily available in natural environments, we suggest that their use contributes strongly to colour constancy performance in nature. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. Effects of memory colour on colour constancy for unknown coloured objects

    PubMed Central

    Granzier, Jeroen J M; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2012-01-01

    The perception of an object's colour remains constant despite large variations in the chromaticity of the illumination—colour constancy. Hering suggested that memory colours, the typical colours of objects, could help in estimating the illuminant's colour and therefore be an important factor in establishing colour constancy. Here we test whether the presence of objects with diagnostical colours (fruits, vegetables, etc) within a scene influence colour constancy for unknown coloured objects in the scene. Subjects matched one of four Munsell papers placed in a scene illuminated under either a reddish or a greenish lamp with the Munsell book of colour illuminated by a neutral lamp. The Munsell papers were embedded in four different scenes—one scene containing diagnostically coloured objects, one scene containing incongruent coloured objects, a third scene with geometrical objects of the same colour as the diagnostically coloured objects, and one scene containing non-diagnostically coloured objects (eg, a yellow coffee mug). All objects were placed against a black background. Colour constancy was on average significantly higher for the scene containing the diagnostically coloured objects compared with the other scenes tested. We conclude that the colours of familiar objects help in obtaining colour constancy for unknown objects. PMID:23145282

  15. Doppler velocimetric parameters of the testicular artery in healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Mírley Barbosa; da Cunha Barbosa, Claudia; Pereira, Barbara Sucupira; Monteiro, Cynthia Levi Baratta; Pinto, José Nicodemos; Linhares, Jussiara Candeira Spíndola; da Silva, Lúcia Daniel Machado

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to examine the Doppler velocimetric pattern of the testicular artery of small dogs in two different locations. Testes of 21 dogs were evaluated by two-dimensional ultrasonography to measure testicular volume and by Doppler ultrasonography to record the velocimetric patterns of the testicular artery in the spermatic cord and marginal location. The volume of left testes (4.70 ± 1.22 cm(3)) was significantly higher than the volume of the right testes (4.45 ± 1.17 cm(3)). Peak systolic velocity (PSV) of the left spermatic cord was significantly higher than the right side. End-diastolic velocity was significantly higher in the marginal artery than the spermatic cord on both sides; however, resistance and pulsatility indexes were significantly lower in the marginal artery. Results demonstrate the viability of Doppler ultrasonography for characterization of the testicular artery in small dogs and Doppler velocimetric values vary according to the location of measurement along the artery.

  16. Unconventional colour vision.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Justin; Arikawa, Kentaro

    2014-12-15

    Butterflies and stomatopods are certainly outliers in their unconventional colour sense and despite some similarities at first glance, in fact sample the world of colour very differently. In one way, butterflies are relatively conventional, possessing either tri-or tetrachromatic colour vision, then just adding one or several task-specific sub-mechanisms onto this. It is the stomatopods so far that have really pushed the boat out into a different colour vision mechanism. Over 400 million years of independent evolution they have arrived at a solution with more in common with the way a satellite sensor examines the colours of the earth than other animals. Remember, however, that unconventional colour vision is not just the realm of the serially polychromatic. Apparently waterfleas with four classes of spectral receptors living in ponds operate a task-specific spectral sense with no need, or indeed neural processing power, to construct a complex discriminatory mechanism. It seems they have the butterfly added-extra set without the more complex comparative chromatic mechanisms, although in truth, conclusive behavioural proof is lacking. Behavioural observation of colour vision in the ecological context of each animal is vital before making the distinction between conventional and unconventional. Just counting spectral sensitivities is never enough.

  17. Adaptive colouration in amphibians.

    PubMed

    Rudh, Andreas; Qvarnström, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Amphibians, i.e. salamanders, frogs and caecilians show a wide range of bright colours in combination with contrasting patterns. There is variation among species, populations and also within species and populations. Furthermore, individuals often change colours during developmental stages or in response to environmental factors. This extraordinary variation means that there are excellent opportunities to test hypotheses of the adaptive significance of colours using amphibian species as models. We review the present view of functions of colouration in amphibians with the main focus on relatively unexplored topics. Variation in colouration has been found to play a role in thermoregulation, UV protection, predator avoidance and sexual signalling. However, many proposed cases of adaptive functions of colouration in amphibians remain virtually scientifically unexplored and surprisingly few genes influencing pigmentation or patterning have been detected. We would like to especially encourage more studies that take advantage of recent developments in measurement of visual properties of several possible signalling receivers (e.g. predators, competitors or mates). Future investigations on interactions between behaviour, ecology and vision have the potential to challenge our current view of the adaptive function of colouration in amphibians.

  18. [Chest ultrasonography in pleurapulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Gallego Gómez, M P; García Benedito, P; Pereira Boo, D; Sánchez Pérez, M

    2014-01-01

    Although the initial diagnosis and follow-up of pleuropulmonary disease are normally done with plain chest films and the gold standard for chest disease is computed tomography, diverse studies have established the usefulness of chest ultrasonography in the diagnosis of different pleuropulmonary diseases like pleural effusion and lung consolidation, among others. In this article, we show the different ultrasonographic patterns for pleuropulmonary disease. The availability of ultrasonography in different areas (ICU, recovery areas) makes this technique especially important for critical patients because it obviates the need to transfer the patient. Moreover, ultrasonography is noninvasive and easy to repeat. On the other hand, it enables the direct visualization of pleuropulmonary disease that is necessary for interventional procedures. Copyright © 2011 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Object knowledge modulates colour appearance

    PubMed Central

    Witzel, Christoph; Valkova, Hanna; Hansen, Thorsten; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the memory colour effect for colour diagnostic artificial objects. Since knowledge about these objects and their colours has been learned in everyday life, these stimuli allow the investigation of the influence of acquired object knowledge on colour appearance. These investigations are relevant for questions about how object and colour information in high-level vision interact as well as for research about the influence of learning and experience on perception in general. In order to identify suitable artificial objects, we developed a reaction time paradigm that measures (subjective) colour diagnosticity. In the main experiment, participants adjusted sixteen such objects to their typical colour as well as to grey. If the achromatic object appears in its typical colour, then participants should adjust it to the opponent colour in order to subjectively perceive it as grey. We found that knowledge about the typical colour influences the colour appearance of artificial objects. This effect was particularly strong along the daylight axis. PMID:23145224

  20. Use of intraoperative ultrasonography in canine spinal cord lesions.

    PubMed

    Nanai, Beatrix; Lyman, Ronald; Bichsel, Pierre S

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe the intraoperative appearance of various spinal cord conditions, and to investigate how intraoperative ultrasonography assisted in modification of surgical and postoperative treatment plans. Intraoperative ultrasonography (B-mode, and power Doppler mode) was used in 25 dogs undergoing spinal surgery. The neurologic conditions included cervical spondylomyelopathy, intervertebral disc (IVD) protrusion, IVD extrusion, spinal tumors, nerve sheath mass, granulomatous myelitis, and discospondylitis. All of these diagnoses were supported by histopathologic and/or cytologic evaluation. It was possible to visualize the spinal cord and the abnormal spinal tissue in all of the patients. Power Doppler imaging allowed assessment of the spinal cord microcirculation, and assisted in judgment of the degree of decompression. Ultrasound imaging directly impacted the surgical and the medical treatment plans in four patients. Owing to the intraoperative imaging, two hemilaminectomies were extended cranially and caudally, and additional disc spaces were fenestrated, one hemilaminectomy site was extended dorsally to retrieve the disc material from the opposite side, and one intramedullary cervical spinal cord lesion was discovered, aspirated, and consequently diagnosed as granulomatous inflammation, which altered the long-term medication protocol in that dog. This study suggests that intraoperative sonographic spinal cord imaging is a useful and viable technique.

  1. [Thyroid ultrasonography--considerations and progress in routine diagnostic examinations].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Kitaoka, Masafumi

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid ultrasonography is becoming increasingly important because it is easy to perform non-invasively and provides much more information than other imaging devices such as CT and MRI. It is possible to infer the causes of diffuse goiter and thyrotoxicosis by the internal echo level and blood flow analysis. The combination of B mode and color Doppler imaging is also useful for the diagnosis of thyroid nodules. Malignant B mode findings include an irregular shape, indistinct border, hypo and inhomogeneous internal echo, and fine calcification. New diagnostic criteria for thyroid nodules and a flow chart for the selection of indications of aspiration biopsy cytology have been developed by the Japan Association of Breast and Thyroid Sonology. Recent improvements in thyroid ultrasonography include 3D imaging, contrast agents and tissue elasticity imaging. 3D ultrasonography and contrast agents have made it possible to display vascular structures more accurately. Tissue elasticity imaging is expected to play an important role in the diagnosis of thyroid carcinomas since it evaluates tissue stiffness objectively. Tissue elastography may be useful for the differentiation of follicular adenomas from follicular carcinomas, which is still one of the most difficult clinical challenges for all endocrinologists. It also provides detailed information on the efficacy of thyroid interventions. New combinations with tissue elastography and other imaging devices are under development.

  2. Clinical colour vision tests.

    PubMed

    Dain, Stephen J

    2004-07-01

    The structure and function of the available and significant clinical colour vision tests are reviewed in the light of the needs in the clinical examination of congenital and acquired colour vision deficiencies. The tests are grouped and described as pseudo-isochromatic plates, arrangement tests, matching tests and vocational tests. The colorimetric constructions of the test types are described and the efficiency of their performance and usefulness discussed. Recommendations are made for basic and extended test batteries, when examining of congenital and acquired colour vision deficiencies in the consulting room.

  3. Colour Coding of Maps for Colour Deficient Observers.

    PubMed

    Røise, Anne Kari; Kvitle, Anne Kristin; Green, Phil

    2016-01-01

    We evaluate the colour coding of a web map traffic information service based on profiles simulating colour vision deficiencies. Based on these simulations and principles for universal design, we propose adjustments of the existing colours creating more readable maps for the colour vision deficient observers.

  4. Use of Audible and Chart-recorded Ultrasonography to Monitor Fetal Heart Rate and Uterine Blood Flow Parameters in Cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the use of audible chart-recorded doppler ultrasonography (DUS) to monitor both uterine blood flow and fetal heart rate (FHR) during pregnancy in dairy cattle. Possible applications of DUS include the monitoring of fetal distress when a pregnancy be...

  5. Use of Audible and Chart-recorded Ultrasonography to Monitor Fetal Heart Rate and Uterine Blood Flow Parameters in Cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the use of audible chart-recorded doppler ultrasonography (DUS) to monitor both uterine blood flow and fetal heart rate (FHR) during pregnancy in dairy cattle. Possible applications of DUS include the monitoring of fetal distress when a pregnancy be...

  6. Tunable structural colour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham-Rowe, Duncan

    2009-10-01

    Strain gauges that change colour when stressed, bright backlight-free displays and highly sensitive biological sensors are all potential applications of tunable photonic crystal materials, reports Duncan Graham-Rowe.

  7. Colour Mixing Based on Daylight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyn, Jan-Peter

    2008-01-01

    Colour science is based on the sensation of monochromatic light. In contrast to that, surface colours are caused by reflection of wide sections of the daylight spectrum. Non-spectral colours like magenta and purple appear homologous to colours with spectral hue, if the approach of mixing monochromatic light is abandoned. It is shown that a large…

  8. Colour Mixing Based on Daylight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyn, Jan-Peter

    2008-01-01

    Colour science is based on the sensation of monochromatic light. In contrast to that, surface colours are caused by reflection of wide sections of the daylight spectrum. Non-spectral colours like magenta and purple appear homologous to colours with spectral hue, if the approach of mixing monochromatic light is abandoned. It is shown that a large…

  9. [Color-Doppler semiology in transplanted kidney].

    PubMed

    Rivolta, R; Castagnone, D; Burdick, L; Mandelli, C; Mangiarotti, R

    1993-05-01

    Color-encoded duplex ultrasonography (CEDU) makes a more accurate technique in kidney graft monitoring by combining real-time US with pulsed Doppler studies of renal vasculature. It is a non-invasive and easy technique. Suitable to study the whole renal artery and vein, CEDU also allows the qualitative and quantitative assessment of the intrarenal vasculature and therefore the easy diagnosis of such vessel dysfunctions as arteriovenous fistulas following biopsy. Moreover, Doppler spectral analysis can be used to distinguish among different causes of renal allograft dysfunction--i.e. rejection, cyclosporine nephrotoxicity or acute tubular necrosis. The value of the resistive index for the differential diagnosis is discussed. CEDU allows a more reliable measurement of renal blood flow thanks to the more precise evaluation of renal artery diameter and mean flow velocity.

  10. Colour reconnections in Herwig++

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gieseke, Stefan; Röhr, Christian; Siódmok, Andrzej

    2012-11-01

    We describe the implementation details of the colour reconnection model in the event generator Herwig++. We study the impact on final-state observables in detail and confirm the model idea from colour preconfinement on the basis of studies within the cluster hadronization model. Moreover, we show that the description of minimum bias and underlying event data at the LHC is improved with this model and present results of a tune to available data.

  11. Plasmonic colour laser printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiaolong; Vannahme, Christoph; Højlund-Nielsen, Emil; Mortensen, N. Asger; Kristensen, Anders

    2016-04-01

    Colour generation by plasmonic nanostructures and metasurfaces has several advantages over dye technology: reduced pixel area, sub-wavelength resolution and the production of bright and non-fading colours. However, plasmonic colour patterns need to be pre-designed and printed either by e-beam lithography (EBL) or focused ion beam (FIB), both expensive and not scalable processes that are not suitable for post-processing customization. Here we show a method of colour printing on nanoimprinted plasmonic metasurfaces using laser post-writing. Laser pulses induce transient local heat generation that leads to melting and reshaping of the imprinted nanostructures. Depending on the laser pulse energy density, different surface morphologies that support different plasmonic resonances leading to different colour appearances can be created. Using this technique we can print all primary colours with a speed of 1 ns per pixel, resolution up to 127,000 dots per inch (DPI) and power consumption down to 0.3 nJ per pixel.

  12. Tetrachromatic colour space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo, Alfredo

    2012-03-01

    We derive colour spaces of the hue-colourfulness-luminance type, on the basis of a four-dimensional hypercube I4 (I = [0, 1]). The hypercube corresponds to a tetrachromatic colour system, analogous to the three-dimensional RGB cube. In the first derived space the colourfulness is chromatic saturation while in the second one, colourfulness refers to the vividness of the colour, even if it is achromatic. The hue is defined on the basis of an icositetrahedron of 24 triangles that is embedded in the boundary of the hypercube. The boundary of the hypercube is the polytope {4 3 3} (in Sclafli notation) that is a topological 3-sphere. Out of the 24 square faces in the boundary of the hypercube, 6 meet the black vertex and 6 meet the white vertex; the remaining 12 faces form a dodecahedron which is a topological 2-sphere. This equatorial or chromatic dodecahedron is used to define a hue for each point in the hypercube that is not on the achromatic segment; the icositetrahedron results from a division of each of the square faces of the dodecahedron into two triangles. In addition, a hexdecahedron of 16 square faces with the topology of a torus that is also embedded in the boundary of the hypercube, is used to define an alternate two-dimensional hue space.

  13. Colour and pulsed Doppler ultrasonographic study of the canine testis.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, J D; Soler, M; Lucas, X; Agut, A

    2012-08-01

    This study was performed to characterize the normal blood flow of the canine testis and to measure the peak systolic velocity (PSV), end-diastolic velocity (EDV), resistive index (RI) and pulsatility index (PI) of testicular arteries weekly during a period of 6 months in five healthy Beagle dogs and to evaluate whether there were any change along this time. The ultrasonographic exams were made with an 11 MHz linear transducer. The vessels of the testes were subdivided into three categories: supratesticular arteries, marginal artery and intratesticular vessels. At the supratesticular arteries, two measurements were recorded at the cranial and the looping parts. No significant differences in any of the parameters studied were observed for the 6 months that the study was performed. The cranial part of the supratesticular artery showed a flow pattern of high-resistive vessel, whereas in the looping part of the supratesticular artery, marginal and intratesticular arteries, the flow showed a low-resistance pattern. PSV, RI and PI values were higher at the cranial part of the supratesticular artery, followed by the looping part of the supratesticular artery, marginal and intratesticular vessels. EDV measurements were higher in the looping part of the supratesticular artery. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Is Doppler ultrasound useful for evaluating gestational trophoblastic disease?

    PubMed

    Lin, Lawrence H; Bernardes, Lisandra S; Hase, Eliane A; Fushida, Koji; Francisco, Rossana P V

    2015-12-01

    Doppler ultrasound is a non-invasive method for evaluating vascularization and is widely used in clinical practice. Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia includes a group of highly vascularized malignancies derived from placental cells. This review summarizes data found in the literature regarding the applications of Doppler ultrasound in managing patients with gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. The PubMed/Medline, Web of Science, Cochrane and LILACS databases were searched for articles published in English until 2014 using the following keywords: "Gestational trophoblastic disease AND Ultrasonography, Doppler." Twenty-eight articles met the inclusion criteria and were separated into the 4 following groups according to the aim of the study. (1) Doppler ultrasound does not seem to be capable of differentiating partial from complete moles, but it might be useful when evaluating pregnancies in which a complete mole coexists with a normal fetus. (2) There is controversy in the role of uterine artery Doppler velocimetry in the prediction of development of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. (3) Doppler ultrasound is a useful tool in the diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia because abnormal myometrial vascularization and lower uterine artery Doppler indices seem to be correlated with invasive disease. (4) Lower uterine artery Doppler indices in the diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia are associated with methotrexate resistance and might play a role in prognosis. Several studies support the importance of Doppler ultrasound in the management of patients with gestational trophoblastic neoplasia, particularly the role of Doppler velocimetry in the prediction of trophoblastic neoplasia and the chemoresistance of trophoblastic tumors. Doppler findings should be used as ancillary tools, along with human chorionic gonadotropin assessment, in the diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.

  15. Is Doppler ultrasound useful for evaluating gestational trophoblastic disease?

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Lawrence H; Bernardes, Lisandra S; Hase, Eliane A; Fushida, Koji; Francisco, Rossana P V

    2015-01-01

    Doppler ultrasound is a non-invasive method for evaluating vascularization and is widely used in clinical practice. Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia includes a group of highly vascularized malignancies derived from placental cells. This review summarizes data found in the literature regarding the applications of Doppler ultrasound in managing patients with gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. The PubMed/Medline, Web of Science, Cochrane and LILACS databases were searched for articles published in English until 2014 using the following keywords: “Gestational trophoblastic disease AND Ultrasonography, Doppler.” Twenty-eight articles met the inclusion criteria and were separated into the 4 following groups according to the aim of the study. 1 Doppler ultrasound does not seem to be capable of differentiating partial from complete moles, but it might be useful when evaluating pregnancies in which a complete mole coexists with a normal fetus. 2 There is controversy in the role of uterine artery Doppler velocimetry in the prediction of development of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. 3 Doppler ultrasound is a useful tool in the diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia because abnormal myometrial vascularization and lower uterine artery Doppler indices seem to be correlated with invasive disease. 4 Lower uterine artery Doppler indices in the diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia are associated with methotrexate resistance and might play a role in prognosis. CONCLUSION: Several studies support the importance of Doppler ultrasound in the management of patients with gestational trophoblastic neoplasia, particularly the role of Doppler velocimetry in the prediction of trophoblastic neoplasia and the chemoresistance of trophoblastic tumors. Doppler findings should be used as ancillary tools, along with human chorionic gonadotropin assessment, in the diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. PMID:26735221

  16. Cadmium colours: composition and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulus, J.; Knuutinen, U.

    The composition and the properties of cadmium aquarelle colours are discussed. The examined colours were 24 different aquarelle cadmium colours from six different manufacturers. The colours ranged from light, bright yellows to dark, deep-red tones. The aim of this research was to find out if the pigments contain cadmium salts: sulphides and/or selenides. This information will help in choosing watercolours in conservation processes. Today, aquarelle colours not containing cadmium pigments are being sold as cadmium colours; thus their properties might be different from actual cadmium colours. The aim of the research was to verify that the colour samples contained cadmium pigments and to estimate their compositions and ageing properties. Element analyses were performed from colour samples using micro-chemical tests and X-ray fluorescence measurements. Thin-layer chromatography was used for analysing gum Arabic as a possible binding medium in the chosen colour samples. Through ageing tests, the resistance of the colour samples to the exposure to light, heat and humidity was studied. Visible-light spectroscopy was used in determining the hues and hue changes of the aquarelle colour samples. The spectrophotometer used the CIE L*a*b* tone colour measuring system. From the colour measurements the changes in the lightness/darkness, the redness, the yellowness and the saturation of the samples were examined.

  17. A one-stop approach to the management of soft tissue and degenerative musculoskeletal conditions using clinic-based ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Sivan, Manoj; Brown, James; Brennan, Stephen; Bhakta, Bipin

    2011-06-01

    One-stop clinics aim at assessment, investigation and initiating treatment in a single hospital visit. They have been proven to be cost-effective and to increase patient satisfaction in various specialties. The aim of this study was to describe the one-stop approach to managing soft tissue and degenerative musculoskeletal conditions using clinic-based musculoskeletal ultrasonography (MSUS). A retrospective case record review was carried out of patients assessed and managed in the musculoskeletal clinic by a musculoskeletal and sports physician over a 10-month period. A total of 1,166 patients were assessed and managed in a total of 155 outpatient clinics. The age range of patients was 19 to 85 years (median age 45 years). The diagnoses included traumatic or overuse tendinopathy, degenerative arthritis, bursitis, acute/chronic sporting injuries and acute/chronic back pain. A total of 1,012 patients (87%) had conditions related to the appendicular system (shoulder girdle, upper limb, pelvic girdle and lower limb) and 154 patients were referred with spinal pain. All patients with appendicular system problems had a definite diagnosis and treatment initiated on the first visit to the clinic. In 658 (65%) patients, a diagnostic ultrasound was deemed an appropriate investigation to improve the accuracy of diagnosis and more than half of them (352 patients) needed ultrasound-guided injections as part of the management of their conditions. A portable GE Healthcare LOGIQe machine with a 10 MHz linear probe and colour Doppler flow imaging was used to perform all scans. No adverse incidents were reported. The use of clinic-based MSUS enables a one-stop approach, reduces repeated hospital appointments and improves quality of care in an outpatient musculoskeletal clinic. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Colour in flux: describing and printing colour in art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parraman, Carinna

    2008-01-01

    This presentation will describe artists, practitioners and scientists, who were interested in developing a deeper psychological, emotional and practical understanding of the human visual system who were working with wavelength, paint and other materials. From a selection of prints at The Prints and Drawings Department at Tate London, the presentation will refer to artists who were motivated by issues relating to how colour pigment was mixed and printed, to interrogate and explain colour perception and colour science, and in art, how artists have used colour to challenge the viewer and how a viewer might describe their experience of colour. The title Colour in Flux refers, not only to the perceptual effect of the juxtaposition of one colour pigment with another, but also to the changes and challenges for the print industry. In the light of screenprinted examples from the 60s and 70s, the presentation will discuss 21 st century ideas on colour and how these notions have informed the Centre for Fine Print Research's (CFPR) practical research in colour printing. The latter part of this presentation will discuss the implications for the need to change methods in mixing inks that moves away from existing colour spaces, from non intuitive colour mixing to bespoke ink sets, colour mixing approaches and colour mixing methods that are not reliant on RGB or CMYK.

  19. Flower Colour: How Bumblebees Handle Colours with Perceptually Changing Hues.

    PubMed

    Lunau, Klaus

    2016-03-21

    Colours are floral signals enabling bees to detect, inspect and discriminate flowers in a multitasking world. Behavioural tests now show that trained bumblebees find iridescent coloured targets more quickly and that weak iridescence does not corrupt target identification.

  20. DOPPLER WEATHER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Berlin, Gary J.

    2002-08-05

    The SRS Doppler Weather System consists of a Doppler Server, A Master Server (also known as the Weather Server), several Doppler Slave Servers, and client-side software program called the Doppler Radar Client. This system is used to display near rel-time images taken from the SRS Weather Center's Doppler Radar computer. The Doppler Server is software that resides on the SRS Doppler Computer. It gathers raw data, 24-bit color weather images via screen scraping ever five minutes as requested by the Master Server. The Doppler Server then reduces the 24-bit color images to 8-bit color using a fixed color table for analysis and compression. This preserves the fidelity of the image color and arranges the colors in specific order for display. At the time of color reduction, the white color used for the city names on the background images are remapped to a different index (color) of white that the white on the weather scale. The Weather Server places a time stamp on the image, then compresses the image and passes it to all Doppler Slave servers. Each of the Doppler Slave servers mainitain a circular buffer of the eight most current images representing the last 40 minutes of weather data. As a new image is added, the oldest drops off. The Doppler Radar Client is an optional install program for any site-wide workstation. When a Client session is started, the Client requests Doppler Slave server assignment from the Master Server. Upon its initial request to the Slave Server, the Client obtains all eight current images and maintains its own circular buffer, updating its images every five minutes as the Doppler Slave is updated. Three background reference images are stored as part of the Client. The Client brings up the appropriate background image, decompresses the doppler data, and displays the doppler data on the background image.

  1. Why birds eat colourful grit: colour preferences revealed by the colour of gizzard stones.

    PubMed

    Møller, A P; Erritzøe, J

    2010-03-01

    Colour preferences from sexual or social contexts are assumed to have arisen owing to preferences for specific kinds of food, representing a sensory bias, but once colour preferences have evolved in a sexual context, they may also be expressed during foraging. We tested whether preferences for specific body colours (i.e. plumage and soft parts) were related to colour preferences for grit ingested by birds. Birds eat grit to facilitate break down of food by the gizzard, and this function is independent of the colour of grit, but depends on the physical properties of stones. Bird species were significantly consistent in colour of grit, and grit of different colours varied in prevalence among species, even when analyses were restricted to a sample from a single locality. There were positive correlations between presence of lilac and red grit in the gizzard and presence of sexually dichromatic lilac and red colour on the body. There was a positive correlation between red grit colour and red sexually monochromatic body colour. Bird species with many different sexual colours, but not sexually monochromatic colours on their body had many different colours of grit. Males had more lilac and red grit than females, with this effect differing among species, whereas that was not the case for grit of other colours. These findings are consistent with the sensory bias hypothesis that birds express preferences for grit of specific colours and a high diversity of colours related to sexual colouration of the body, even when the colour of such grit is only visible to the individual at the moment of ingestion.

  2. Colour detection thresholds in faces and colour patches.

    PubMed

    Tan, Kok Wei; Stephen, Ian D

    2013-01-01

    Human facial skin colour reflects individuals' underlying health (Stephen et al 2011 Evolution & Human Behavior 32 216-227); and enhanced facial skin CIELab b* (yellowness), a* (redness), and L* (lightness) are perceived as healthy (also Stephen et al 2009a International Journal of Primatology 30 845-857). Here, we examine Malaysian Chinese participants' detection thresholds for CIELab L* (lightness), a* (redness), and b* (yellowness) colour changes in Asian, African, and Caucasian faces and skin coloured patches. Twelve face photos and three skin coloured patches were transformed to produce four pairs of images of each individual face and colour patch with different amounts of red, yellow, or lightness, from very subtle (deltaE = 1.2) to quite large differences (deltaE = 9.6). Participants were asked to decide which of sequentially displayed, paired same-face images or colour patches were lighter, redder, or yellower. Changes in facial redness, followed by changes in yellowness, were more easily discriminated than changes in luminance. However, visual sensitivity was not greater for redness and yellowness in nonface stimuli, suggesting red facial skin colour special salience. Participants were also significantly better at recognizing colour differences in own-race (Asian) and Caucasian faces than in African faces, suggesting the existence of cross-race effect in discriminating facial colours. Humans' colour vision may have been selected for skin colour signalling (Changizi et al 2006 Biology Letters 2 217-221), enabling individuals to perceive subtle changes in skin colour, reflecting health and emotional status.

  3. Morphological patterns and their colour.

    PubMed

    Dadam, James; Albertazzi, Liliana; Da Pos, Osvaldo; Canal, Luisa; Micciolo, Rocco

    2012-04-01

    This study analyzed qualitative aspects in perception, particularly the relationship between morphological aspects of biological shapes and colour. The experiment reported by the study assessed the functional relation between shape and colour and, in particular, the relations among the patterns of shapes appearing in perceptual configurations, as well as certain characteristics of colour. Participants were shown 32 natural images and were asked to match them with a colour. The results indicated that some figures were more frequently associated (positively or negatively) with some colours instead of others. Type of shape, texture, and three-dimensionality were important elements in the participants' choices. Rounded figures and non-holed figures had positive matches with red; elongated figures were associated with colours between blue and green; and holed figures showed positive matches with colours between green and yellow. Type of shape and texture also exhibited a relationship with the warmth of the colour.

  4. Fun with Colour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rennie, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The Australian Curriculum: Science for Year 5 includes "recognising that the colour of an object depends on the properties of the object and the color of the light source". This article shows how much more can be done with color in the science laboratory. Activities include using a prism to explore white light, using a hand lens to…

  5. Fun with Colour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rennie, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The Australian Curriculum: Science for Year 5 includes "recognising that the colour of an object depends on the properties of the object and the color of the light source". This article shows how much more can be done with color in the science laboratory. Activities include using a prism to explore white light, using a hand lens to…

  6. Colour vision in billfish.

    PubMed Central

    Fritsches, K A; Partridge, J C; Pettigrew, J D; Marshall, N J

    2000-01-01

    Members of the billfish family are highly visual predatory teleosts inhabiting the open ocean. Little is known about their visual abilities in detail, but past studies have indicated that these fishes were likely to be monochromats. This study, however, presents evidence of two anatomically distinct cone types in billfish. The cells are arranged in a regular mosaic pattern of single and twin cones as in many fishes, and this arrangement suggests that the different cone types also show different spectral sensitivity, which is the basis for colour vision. First measurements using microspectrophotometry (MSP) revealed a peak absorption of the rod pigment at 484 nm, indicating that MSP, despite technical difficulties, will be a decisive tool in proving colour vision in these offshore fishes. When hunting, billfish such as the sailfish flash bright blue bars on their sides. This colour reflects largely in ultraviolet (UV) light at 350 nm as revealed by spectrophotometric measurements. Billfish lenses block light of wavelengths below 400 nm, presumably rendering the animal blind to the UV component of its own body colour. Interestingly, at least two prey species of billfish have lenses transmitting light in the UV waveband and are therefore likely to perceive a large fraction of the UV peak found in the blue bar of the sailfish. The possible biological significance of this finding is discussed. PMID:11079409

  7. Colour vision in billfish.

    PubMed

    Fritsches, K A; Partridge, J C; Pettigrew, J D; Marshall, N J

    2000-09-29

    Members of the billfish family are highly visual predatory teleosts inhabiting the open ocean. Little is known about their visual abilities in detail, but past studies have indicated that these fishes were likely to be monochromats. This study, however, presents evidence of two anatomically distinct cone types in billfish. The cells are arranged in a regular mosaic pattern of single and twin cones as in many fishes, and this arrangement suggests that the different cone types also show different spectral sensitivity, which is the basis for colour vision. First measurements using microspectrophotometry (MSP) revealed a peak absorption of the rod pigment at 484 nm, indicating that MSP, despite technical difficulties, will be a decisive tool in proving colour vision in these offshore fishes. When hunting, billfish such as the sailfish flash bright blue bars on their sides. This colour reflects largely in ultraviolet (UV) light at 350 nm as revealed by spectrophotometric measurements. Billfish lenses block light of wavelengths below 400 nm, presumably rendering the animal blind to the UV component of its own body colour. Interestingly, at least two prey species of billfish have lenses transmitting light in the UV waveband and are therefore likely to perceive a large fraction of the UV peak found in the blue bar of the sailfish. The possible biological significance of this finding is discussed.

  8. Colour, vision and ergonomics.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Cristina; da Silva, Fernando Moreira

    2012-01-01

    This paper is based on a research project - Visual Communication and Inclusive Design-Colour, Legibility and Aged Vision, developed at the Faculty of Architecture of Lisbon. The research has the aim of determining specific design principles to be applied to visual communication design (printed) objects, in order to be easily read and perceived by all. This study target group was composed by a selection of socially active individuals, between 55 and 80 years, and we used cultural events posters as objects of study and observation. The main objective is to overlap the study of areas such as colour, vision, older people's colour vision, ergonomics, chromatic contrasts, typography and legibility. In the end we will produce a manual with guidelines and information to apply scientific knowledge into the communication design projectual practice. Within the normal aging process, visual functions gradually decline; the quality of vision worsens, colour vision and contrast sensitivity are also affected. As people's needs change along with age, design should help people and communities, and improve life quality in the present. Applying principles of visually accessible design and ergonomics, the printed design objects, (or interior spaces, urban environments, products, signage and all kinds of visually information) will be effective, easier on everyone's eyes not only for visually impaired people but also for all of us as we age.

  9. Contrast-enhanced harmonic ultrasonography of medial iliac lymph nodes in healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Gaschen, Lorrie; Angelette, Nik; Stout, Rhett

    2010-01-01

    Herein, we describe the normal contrast-enhanced harmonic, color, and power Doppler ultrasonographic characteristics of the medial iliac lymph nodes in healthy dogs. Contrast-enhanced harmonic ultrasonography of the medial iliac lymph nodes was performed on 14 healthy dogs after intravenous administration of the lipoprotein-bound inert gas-filled microbubble contrast media Definity. Time-pixel intensity curves were generated for 1-min postinjection. Quantification of these curves was performed using Philips QLab software. Non-contrast-enhanced power and color Doppler examinations were performed in each node to assess vascular patterns subjectively. Normal lymph nodes exhibited a mean contrast wash-in phase beginning at 6.3 s from the time of injection with mean peak pixel intensity at 12.1s. Angioarchitecture was best visualized with contrast-enhanced harmonic ultrasound compared with power and color Doppler. Normal lymph nodes in dogs have a central artery with a centrifugal and uniform branching pattern. Contrast-enhanced harmonic ultrasonography is a noninvasive examination that demonstrates improved visibility of the intranodal architecture of healthy medial iliac lymph nodes in dogs compared with conventional, non-contrast-enhanced Doppler methods that may have future clinical applications.

  10. Ultrasonography of Leprosy Neuropathy: A Longitudinal Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Lugão, Helena Barbosa; Frade, Marco Andrey Cipriani; Marques, Wilson; Foss, Norma Tiraboschi; Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello Henrique

    2016-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that leprosy multi-drug therapy (MDT) does not stop the progression of nerve function impairment. There are no prospective studies investigating the evolution of nerve anatomic abnormalities after treatment. We examined leprosy patients aiming to investigate the evolution of nerve ultrasonography (US) abnormalities and the risk factors for poor outcomes after MDT. We performed bilateral US of the ulnar (U), median (M) and common fibular (CF) nerves in 9 paucibacillary (PB) and 64 multibacillary (MB) patients before and after MDT. Forty-two patients had leprosy reactions (type 1, type 2, acute neuritis) during the study. We analyzed nerve maximum cross-sectional areas (CSA), echogenicity and Doppler signal. Poor outcomes included a post-treatment CSA above normal limits with a reduction of less than 30% (U, M) or 40% (CF) from the baseline, echogenicity abnormalities or intraneural Doppler in the post-treatment study. We found that PB and patients without reactions showed significant increases in CSA at CF, whereas MB and patients with reactions had CSA reduction in some nerves after treatment (p<0.05). Despite this reduction, we observed a greater frequency of poor CSA outcomes in the MB compared to the PB (77.8% and 40.6%; p>0.05) and in the patients with reactions compared to those without (66.7% and 38.7%; p<0.05). There was significantly higher odds ratio (7.75; 95%CI: 1.56-38.45) for poor CSA outcomes only for M nerve in patients with reactions. Poor echogenicity outcomes were more frequent in MB (59.4%) compared to PB (22.2%) (p<0.05). There was significant association between poor Doppler outcomes and neuritis. Gender, disease duration, and leprosy classification were not significant risk factors for poor outcomes in CSA, echogenicity or Doppler. US nerve abnormalities can worsen after treatment despite the leprosy classification or the presence of reactions.

  11. Adrenal glands transabdominal ultrasonography - pictorial essay.

    PubMed

    Chira, Romeo Ioan; Chira, Alexandra; Manzat-Saplacan, Roberta Maria; Nagy, Georgiana; Valea, Ana; Silaghi, Alina Cristina; Mircea, Petru Adrian; Valean, Simona

    2017-05-03

    Adrenal gland ultrasonography is one of the corner stones of the abdominal ultrasonography examination for many medical specialties. The adrenal areas can be easily overlooked though adrenal gland pathology is diverse. We present the normal aspects and various transabdominal ultrasonography findings of the adrenal glands, both common and rare. Even though ultrasound examination is operator and patient dependent, we consider the examination of the adrenal glands very important, due to relatively frequent incidental detection of an adrenal mass.

  12. Christian Doppler and the Doppler effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toman, Kurt

    1984-04-01

    A summary is given of Doppler's life and career. He was born 180 years ago on November 29, 1803, in Salzburg, Austria. He died on March 17, 1853 in Venice. The effect bearing his name was first announced in a presentation before the Royal Bohemian Society of the Sciences in Prague on May 25, 1842. Doppler considered his work a generalization of the aberration theorem as discovered by Bradley. With it came the inference that the perception of physical phenomena can change with the state of motion of the observer. Acceptance of the principle was not without controversy. In 1852, the mathematician Petzval claimed that no useful scientific deductions can be made from Doppler's elementary equations. In 1860, Ernst Mach resolved the misunderstanding that clouded this controversy. The Doppler effect is alive and well. Its role in radio science and related disciplines is enumerated.

  13. False-colour palette generation using a reference colour gamut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Phil

    2015-01-01

    Monochrome images are often converted to false-colour images, in which arbitrary colours are assigned to regions of the image to aid recognition of features within the image. Criteria for selection of colour palettes vary according to the application, but may include distinctiveness, extensibility, consistency, preference, meaningfulness and universality. A method for defining a palette from colours on the surface of a reference gamut is described, which ensures that all colours in the palette have the maximum chroma available for the given hue angle in the reference gamut. The palette can be re-targeted to a reproduction medium as needed using colour management, and this method ensures consistency between cross-media colour reproductions using the palette.

  14. Hue-specific colour memory impairment in an individual with intact colour perception and colour naming.

    PubMed

    Jakobson, L S; Pearson, P M; Robertson, B

    2008-01-15

    Cases of hue-selective dyschomatopsias, together with the results of recent optical imaging studies [Xiao, Y., Casti, A. R. R., Xiao, J., & Kaplan, E. (2006). A spatially organized representation of colour in macaque primary visual cortex. Perception, 35, ECVP Abstract Supplement; Xiao, Y., Wang, Y., & Felleman, D. J. (2003). A spatially organized representation of colour in macaque cortical area V2. Nature, 421, 535-539], have provided support for the idea that different colours are processed in spatially distinct regions of extrastriate cortex. In the present report, we provide evidence suggesting that a similar, but distinct, map may exist for representations of colour in memory. This evidence comes from observations of a young woman (QP) who demonstrates an isolated deficit in colour memory secondary to a concussive episode. Despite having normal colour perception and colour naming skills, and above-average memory skills in other domains, QP's ability to recall visually encoded colour information over short retention intervals is dramatically impaired. Her long-term memory for colour and her colour imagery skills are also abnormal. Surprisingly, however, these impairments are not seen with all hues; specifically, her ability to remember or imagine blue shades is spared. This interesting case contributes to the literature suggesting that colour perception, naming, and memory can be clinically dissociated, and provides insights into the organization of colour information in memory.

  15. Evolution of vertebrate colour vision.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Gerald H; Rowe, Mickey P

    2004-07-01

    Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in learning how colour vision has evolved. This trend has been fuelled by an enhanced understanding of the nature and extent of colour vision among contemporary species, by a deeper understanding of the paleontological record and by the application of new tools from molecular biology. This review provides an assessment of the progress in understanding the evolution of vertebrate colour vision. In so doing, we offer accounts of the evolution of three classes of mechanism important for colour vision--photopigment opsins, oil droplets and retinal organisation--and then examine details of how colour vision has evolved among mammals and, more specifically, among primates.

  16. Signal Functions of Carotenoid Colouration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blount, Jonathan D.; McGraw, Kevin J.

    The importance of carotenoids for natural colouration, in relation to other classes of pigments and structural colours, has been outlined in Chapter 10. But colour only has significance if it is perceived, identified and interpreted by other organisms (animals). In other words, colour is a means of communication, a signal. Now, in this Chapter, this new direction for carotenoid research, behavioural ecology, is highlighted. Various hypotheses that have been proposed to explain the signal functions of colour, and particularly of carotenoids, in plants and animals are discussed and the empirical evidence to support these hypotheses is presented.

  17. Nocturnal colour vision in geckos.

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Lina S V; Kelber, Almut

    2004-01-01

    Nocturnal animals are said to sacrifice colour vision in favour of increased absolute sensitivity. This is true for most vertebrates that possess a dual retina with a single type of rod for colour-blind night vision and multiple types of cone for diurnal colour vision. However, among the nocturnal vertebrates, geckos are unusual because they have no rods but three cone types. Here, we show that geckos use their cones for colour vision in dim light. Two specimens of the nocturnal helmet gecko Tarentola (formerly Geckonia) chazaliae were able to discriminate blue from grey patterns by colour alone. Experiments were performed at 0.002 cd m(-2), a light intensity similar to dim moonlight. We conclude that nocturnal geckos can use cone-based colour vision at very dim light levels when humans rely on colour-blind rod vision. PMID:15801611

  18. Nocturnal colour vision in geckos.

    PubMed

    Roth, Lina S V; Kelber, Almut

    2004-12-07

    Nocturnal animals are said to sacrifice colour vision in favour of increased absolute sensitivity. This is true for most vertebrates that possess a dual retina with a single type of rod for colour-blind night vision and multiple types of cone for diurnal colour vision. However, among the nocturnal vertebrates, geckos are unusual because they have no rods but three cone types. Here, we show that geckos use their cones for colour vision in dim light. Two specimens of the nocturnal helmet gecko Tarentola (formerly Geckonia) chazaliae were able to discriminate blue from grey patterns by colour alone. Experiments were performed at 0.002 cd m(-2), a light intensity similar to dim moonlight. We conclude that nocturnal geckos can use cone-based colour vision at very dim light levels when humans rely on colour-blind rod vision.

  19. [Relationship between wrist bone mineral density and synovitis, erosion by ultrasonography in female rheumatoid arthritis patients].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Geng, Yan; Deng, Xue-rong; Zhang, Zhuo-li

    2015-10-18

    To find the correlation of wrist bone mineral density (BMD) to wrist synovitis and erosion, by comparing wrist BMD and ultrasonography. A number of 80 female RA patients were examined by BMD measurement of the femoral neck, spine and non-dominant wrist using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Synovitis of the wrist was examined by ultrasonography. The wrist joint (radiocarpal joint, dorsal midline, and carpoulnar joint) was assessed in the same side of DXA, with transverse and longitudinal scans for USGS synovial hypertrophy and proliferation, tenosynovitis,tendinitis and bone erosion. Colour and power doppler ultrasonography (PDUS) were used to sum the synovitis score. We found: (1) In the study, 80 female RA patients were enrolled, the mean age was 54.6±13.3 (27.0-80.0) years, the disease duration was 48 (12-116) months, and the body Mass Index was 23.0±4.0 (14.8-31.2) kg/m2. The Wrist BMD (g/cm2) in RA significantly reduced, compared with normal controls(0.297±0.121 vs. 0.420±0.180,P<0.01). (2) The Wrist BMD (g/cm2) exceeded in early RA compared with the established RA (0.326±0.103 vs. 0.285±0.132,P<0.01); the positive rate of severe osteoporosis in wrist was lower in early RA compared with the established RA (47.8% vs. 64.9%, P<0.05); the positive rate of bone erosion in wrist by ultrasound was lower in early RA compared with the established RA (39.1% vs. 56.1%, P<0.01). (3) The wrist BMD (g/cm2) in RA with high disease activity reduced compared with moderate and low disease activity (0.267±0.140 vs. 0.280±0.126) and (0.267±0.140 vs. 0.320±0.103) respectively, P<0.05). The percentages of positive ACPA in the high and moderate disease activity groups were significantly higher than those in the remission group (85% vs. 81.8% and 92.6% vs. 81.8%, respectively). DAS28ESR was correlated with wrist BMD (r=-0.288, P<0.01). (4) A significant positive correlation was found between wrist and spine/femur BMD (r=0.634, P<0.01, r=0.795, P<0.01), and a

  20. Doppler flowmetry in preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Zahumensky, J

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to summarize the new published data on the Doppler flowmetry in preeclampsia. We summarize the new published data on the Doppler flowmetry in uteroplacental, fetoplacental and fetal circulation in preeclampsia. The present review summarized the results of clinical research on the Doppler flowmetry in the screening of risk of preclampsia, in the diagnosis of preclampsia and in the fetal risk in preclampsia (Ref. 19). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk.

  1. Advances in Doppler OCT

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Gangjun; Chen, Zhongping

    2014-01-01

    We review the principle and some recent applications of Doppler optical coherence tomography (OCT). The advances of the phase-resolved Doppler OCT method are described. Functional OCT algorithms which are based on an extension of the phase-resolved scheme are also introduced. Recent applications of Doppler OCT for quantification of flow, imaging of microvasculature and vocal fold vibration, and optical coherence elastography are briefly discussed. PMID:24443649

  2. Advanced Doppler tracking experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J. W.

    1989-01-01

    The Doppler tracking method is currently the only technique available for broadband gravitational wave searches in the approx. 10(exp -4) to 10(exp -1) Hz low frequency band. A brief review is given of the Doppler method, a discussion of the main noise sources, and a review of experience with current spacecraft and the prospects for sensitivity improvements in an advanced Doppler tracking experiment.

  3. Power Doppler ultrasound appearances of neonatal ischaemic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Steventon, D M; John, P R

    1997-02-01

    Following neonatal ischaemic brain injury, irregular vessels increase in size owing to luxury perfusion. These may be demonstrated by conventional colour flow Doppler (CFD) imaging at the periphery of the infarcted area. We present a case in which power Doppler imaging (PDI) was performed in addition to CFD in a neonate with unexplained seizures and which proved more sensitive than CFD in demonstrating luxury perfusion. Ultrasound appearances were compared with those seen on cranial CT. PDI can be a useful adjunct to conventional CFD examination of the neonatal brain in cerebral infarction.

  4. Colour and translucency of tooth-coloured orthodontic brackets.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Keun

    2008-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the reflected and transmitted colours and the diffuse light transmittance of tooth-coloured brackets. Four ceramic and four plastic brands were evaluated and five brackets of each brand were tested. Reflected colour and spectral reflectance of the labial surface of the brackets were measured according to the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) colour scale and transmitted colour and diffuse spectral transmittance measured with a spectrophotometer. One-way analyses of variance were performed for the reflected and transmitted colour co-ordinates (CIE L*, a*, and b*) and for light transmittance according to bracket brand. The range for CIE L* (lightness) was 36.2-50.3, for a* (red-green parameter) -1.3-3.8 and for b* (yellow-blue parameter) -2.9-11.2. All these colour co-ordinates were influenced by bracket brand (P < 0.05). Diffuse light transmittance was also influenced by bracket brand and ranged from 44.9 to 75.9 per cent (P < 0.05). Colour and transmittance varied by bracket brand. Variations in optical properties influenced the aesthetic performance of the brackets and the degree of cure of the adhesive that is possible through the brackets. Further studies on the clinical implications of colour matching of tooth-coloured brackets with teeth should now be performed.

  5. Colour discrimination of dental professionals and colour deficient laypersons.

    PubMed

    Poljak-Guberina, Renata; Celebic, Asja; Powers, John M; Paravina, Rade D

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare results of non-dental (conventional) and dental colour discrimination tests (customized, shade guide test), to evaluate influence of profession, gender and age of colour normal dentists and laboratory technicians on colour discrimination results and to evaluate results of colour deficient laypersons. A total of 36 colour normal dental professionals, all volunteers were divided into two groups consisting of 18 participants each: dentists (DDS) and laboratory technicians (CDT). In addition, a group 15 colour deficient males also volunteered (CDP). Colour discrimination was examined using Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue Test and total error scores (TES) were calculated. Participants performed a dentistry related colour discrimination test by matching 26 pairs of shade tabs. Shade guide scores (3DS) were calculated. These tests were performed under the controlled conditions of a viewing booth. Mean values and standard deviations were determined. ANOVA, Mann-Whitney test, t-test and Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) were used for result analysis. TES and 3DS were correlated for colour normal observers, r = 0.47 (p < 0.01). No statistically significant differences in TES and 3DS by profession, gender and age were recorded. TES of 159 (83) and 3DS of 6.7 (2.7) were recorded for colour deficient laypersons. Based on TES, 33% of colour deficient laypersons had average discrimination, whilst 67% had low discrimination. Within the limitation of this study, it was concluded that results of non-dental and dental colour discrimination tests were correlated, and that profession (DDS/CDT), gender and age gender did not influence colour discrimination of colour normal participants. Although colour and appearance of dental restorations are of paramount importance for the aesthetic outcome, colour vision of dental professionals is not routinely tested. This paper validates and recommends the usage of dental shade guides for a simple

  6. Measuring changes in internal meat colour, colour lightness and colour opacity as predictors of cooking time.

    PubMed

    Pakula, Christiane; Stamminger, Rainer

    2012-03-01

    Consumers and cooks often assess the degree of doneness of roasted beef by the internal meat colour. Real-time colour measurement of the cooking process is therefore developed in order to determine the degree of doneness, and thus the end of the cooking process, by the internal meat colour. The colour values (X, Y, Z) provided by the true colour sensor show significant variation within initial values and end values. Change in colour lightness caused by the increase of meat colour opacity is dominant. Calculating the first deviation of the Y values (dY/dt) indicates that most rapid changes in lightness are within a temperature range of 42°C and 56°C. At this temperature, the degree of meat doneness is still assumed to be rare, but it is possible to predict the time needed from this point until the desired degree of doneness is reached.

  7. Eyebrow colour in diabetics.

    PubMed

    Wollina, U

    2005-12-01

    Hair colour may be affected by a metabolic disease. Systematic investigations in diabetics are missing. A clinical study was performed to evaluate whether dark colour of eyebrows in greying males is associated with diabetes or not. Academic teaching hospital, inpatient and outpatient department. In an uncontrolled analysis two groups of male patients between 50 to 70 years of age were investigated for evidence of diabetes mellitus. Inclusion criteria were original scalp hair colour brown to black with more than 50% greying hair, no chemotherapy, hormone (except insulin) or interferon treatment, current or previous, no artificial colouring of hair, and absence of total alopecia. Group A consisted of 50 males with dark eyebrow colour, group B of 50 males with greying of eyebrows. A careful medical history and clinical examination was performed. In patients without known diabetes, blood sugar levels (profile during the day) and HbA1c were evaluated. In group A 38 of 50 patients (76%) were diabetics type II. The mean duration of diabetes was 3.4 years (SD 6.8 years; range 1 year to 31 years). Six patients were diagnosed as having diabetes for the first time. In group B 9 of 50 patients (18%) were diabetics, two of type I and 7 of type II. One patient with a newly detected diabetes type II was seen. The mean duration of diabetes was 4.1 years (SD 7.6 years; range: 1 year to 39 years). The difference in diabetes frequency is statistically highly significant (two-sided t-test: p<0.0001). Odds ratios (OR) for diabetes are higher in greying males with dark eyebrows (OR 3.17) vs. those with greying eyebrows and scalp hair (OR 0.19) in this age group. In male diabetics at the age of 50 years or more greying of the eyebrows seems to be inhibited or delayed. The presence of dark eyebrows with greying scalp hair in males might be a clinical sign for patients at risk of diabetes type II.

  8. Color Doppler ultrasound of the hand: observations on clinical utility in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Saadeh, Constantine; Gaylor, Patrick; Lee, Doohi; Malacara, Jan; Gaylor, Michael

    2004-02-01

    The use of ultrasound with color Doppler in the evaluation of rheumatoid arthritis was followed in 25 patients with joint complaints. Small joint ultrasound of the metacarpophalangeal joints (MCPs) as well as the wrists was performed with supplementation by color Doppler. In addition, 6 patients were followed for at least 3 months after start of treatment of rheumatoid arthritis using the same technique. In patients with what appeared to be definite rheumatoid arthritis, ultrasound supported this diagnosis as evidenced by the finding of cortical defects, extensor tendon sheath thickening, and synovial proliferation. Increased activity by color Doppler ultrasonography was the most common finding. Significant decrease in color Doppler activity was noted in the 6 patients who were followed up after 3 months of therapy with disease-modifying agents. Therefore, the use of ultrasound with color Doppler could aid in the diagnosis and follow up of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

  9. Colour Terms Affect Detection of Colour and Colour-Associated Objects Suppressed from Visual Awareness.

    PubMed

    Forder, Lewis; Taylor, Olivia; Mankin, Helen; Scott, Ryan B; Franklin, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The idea that language can affect how we see the world continues to create controversy. A potentially important study in this field has shown that when an object is suppressed from visual awareness using continuous flash suppression (a form of binocular rivalry), detection of the object is differently affected by a preceding word prime depending on whether the prime matches or does not match the object. This may suggest that language can affect early stages of vision. We replicated this paradigm and further investigated whether colour terms likewise influence the detection of colours or colour-associated object images suppressed from visual awareness by continuous flash suppression. This method presents rapidly changing visual noise to one eye while the target stimulus is presented to the other. It has been shown to delay conscious perception of a target for up to several minutes. In Experiment 1 we presented greyscale photos of objects. They were either preceded by a congruent object label, an incongruent label, or white noise. Detection sensitivity (d') and hit rates were significantly poorer for suppressed objects preceded by an incongruent label compared to a congruent label or noise. In Experiment 2, targets were coloured discs preceded by a colour term. Detection sensitivity was significantly worse for suppressed colour patches preceded by an incongruent colour term as compared to a congruent term or white noise. In Experiment 3 targets were suppressed greyscale object images preceded by an auditory presentation of a colour term. On congruent trials the colour term matched the object's stereotypical colour and on incongruent trials the colour term mismatched. Detection sensitivity was significantly poorer on incongruent trials than congruent trials. Overall, these findings suggest that colour terms affect awareness of coloured stimuli and colour- associated objects, and provide new evidence for language-perception interaction in the brain.

  10. Colour Terms Affect Detection of Colour and Colour-Associated Objects Suppressed from Visual Awareness

    PubMed Central

    Forder, Lewis; Taylor, Olivia; Mankin, Helen; Scott, Ryan B.; Franklin, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The idea that language can affect how we see the world continues to create controversy. A potentially important study in this field has shown that when an object is suppressed from visual awareness using continuous flash suppression (a form of binocular rivalry), detection of the object is differently affected by a preceding word prime depending on whether the prime matches or does not match the object. This may suggest that language can affect early stages of vision. We replicated this paradigm and further investigated whether colour terms likewise influence the detection of colours or colour-associated object images suppressed from visual awareness by continuous flash suppression. This method presents rapidly changing visual noise to one eye while the target stimulus is presented to the other. It has been shown to delay conscious perception of a target for up to several minutes. In Experiment 1 we presented greyscale photos of objects. They were either preceded by a congruent object label, an incongruent label, or white noise. Detection sensitivity (d’) and hit rates were significantly poorer for suppressed objects preceded by an incongruent label compared to a congruent label or noise. In Experiment 2, targets were coloured discs preceded by a colour term. Detection sensitivity was significantly worse for suppressed colour patches preceded by an incongruent colour term as compared to a congruent term or white noise. In Experiment 3 targets were suppressed greyscale object images preceded by an auditory presentation of a colour term. On congruent trials the colour term matched the object’s stereotypical colour and on incongruent trials the colour term mismatched. Detection sensitivity was significantly poorer on incongruent trials than congruent trials. Overall, these findings suggest that colour terms affect awareness of coloured stimuli and colour- associated objects, and provide new evidence for language-perception interaction in the brain. PMID:27023274

  11. Colour vision requirements of firefighters.

    PubMed

    Margrain, T H; Birch, J; Owen, C G

    1996-04-01

    To perform their job safely firefighters must be able to identify colours on industrial gas cylinders, portable fire extinguishers, road traffic signals and several pieces of firefighting equipment. Although good colour vision is necessary we believe that the existing colour vision standard, which bars entry to the fire service to applicants who fail more than two plates of the Ishihara test, is unnecessarily stringent. We have identified and quantified the colour coded information encountered by firefighters. Colours were plotted on the CIE chromaticity diagram (1931) and isochromatic zones, which document the colour confusions of colour deficient observers, superimposed. This novel technique established possible colour confusions in different types of colour deficiency. Analysis of the results showed that red/green dichromats (protanopes and deuteranopes), severe deuteranomalous trichromats who fail the Farnsworth D15 test, and protanomalous trichromats are unsuitable for firefighting work. However, people with slight deuteranomalous trichromatism who pass the D15 test, are not disadvantaged and can be employed safely as firefighters. A new colour vision standard and a new testing procedure is recommended.

  12. Value of superb microvascular imaging ultrasonography in the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jie; Chen, Li; Wu, Lei; Wang, Rui; Liu, Ji-Bin; Hu, Bing; Jiang, Li-Xin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to compare the value of superb microvascular imaging (SMI) in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) with that of color Doppler ultrasonography (CDUS) and power Doppler ultrasonography (PDUS). Fifty patients with symptomatic CTS and 25 healthy volunteers were enrolled. The cross-sectional area (CSA), CDUS score, PDUS score, and SMI score of the median nerve (MN) at the carpal tunnel were recorded. The value of different ultrasonography (US) diagnostic strategies was calculated. The blood flow display ratio in the MN of the healthy volunteers had no statistical difference between CDUS, PDUS, and SMI (20%, 32%, and 48%, respectively, P >.05). The blood flow display ratio for SMI in patients was significantly higher than that of CDUS and PDUS (90%, 52%, and 60%, respectively, P <.005). The accuracy of SMI score ≥2 (79%) was much higher than that of CDUS and PDUS (61% and 63%, respectively, P <.05). Comprehensive consideration of SMI and CSA, CSA≥10.5 mm2, and/or SMI score ≥2 has the highest accuracy (83%), significantly higher than that of CSA combination with CDUS or PDUS (68% and 69%, respectively, P <.05). SMI is more sensitive to display the blood flow in the MN with CTS than CDUS and PDUS. It might significantly improve the diagnosis value for CTS. PMID:28538376

  13. New developments in ultrasonography for the detection of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    de la Rosette, J J; Aarnink, R G

    2001-02-01

    The introduction of contrast agents has changed the diagnostic role of ultrasonography dramatically. Advanced ultrasound techniques, although currently largely unexplored, especially for prostate applications, were introduced to improve, for example, differential diagnosis. Also, new technologies became available using the interaction of the angioemboli with the transmitted ultrasound waves, and sensitive methods to detect microbubbles were developed. As the traveling of microbubbles through the vascular system is a dynamic process, new information becomes available: when the concentration of the contrast agent can be determined as a function of time, a measure for the actual blood flow can be obtained that provides quantitative information. Initially developed to enhance the ultrasound examinations in cardiac applications, contrast agents can currently be found in radiologic applications as well. The first reports of enhanced Doppler examinations of prostatic blood flow have been published, and the results indicate that contrast agents are a promising addition to the conventional ultrasound examination. In this paper, we present a short overview of the status of transrectal ultrasound imaging in prostate cancer, background information on contrast agents and imaging modalities, and early results of enhanced Doppler studies of the prostate to identify cancer. The early results suggest the feasibility of using angioemboli to enhance ultrasound imaging of prostate diseases, and although many issues remain to be solved, angioemboli in combination with a dedicated imaging modality have the potential to improve the diagnostic application of ultrasound in evaluating the prostate for disease.

  14. [Color-coded M-mode Doppler echocardiography in the diagnosis of fetal arrhythmia].

    PubMed

    Gembruch, U; Bald, R; Hansmann, M

    1990-04-01

    Colour-coded M-mode Doppler echocardiography is a simultaneous registration of the conventional M-mode echocardiogram and of the pulsed wave colour-coded Doppler echocardiogram with simultaneous analysis of several sample volumes along the ultrasound cursor with a high timely resolution, guided by the two-dimensional imaging. Within 9 months, 36 foetuses with arrhythmias were prospectively examined (24 foetuses with atrial premature beats, 9 foetuses with supraventricular tachycardia, and 3 foetuses with complete heart block). The classification of arrhythmia by the colour-coded M-mode Doppler echocardiography was always possible at first examination. The most important advantage of this method is the simultaneous registration of the information of conventional M-mode and Doppler echocardiography. Therefore, the intervals between atrial and ventricular contractions can also be analysed even when the angle of insonation to the foetal heart is unfavourable, since contractions cannot only be identified by wall movements but also by the flow velocities. Furthermore, the duration of regurgitation of atrioventricular valves can be exactly measured by colour-coded M-mode Doppler echocardiography. In foetal supraventricular tachycardia, it appears that severity of congestive heart failure is correlated with the duration of atrioventricular valve regurgitation up to a holosystolic insufficiency. Thus, it seems possible, that the duration of insufficiency of atrioventricular valves is a good parameter for evaluation of cardiac function and for modifying antiarrhythmic treatment in cases of supraventricular tachycardia.

  15. The Cognitive Doppler.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozoil, Micah E.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the learning needs of students in the concrete operational stage in mathematics. Identifies the phenomenon of reduced cognitive performance in an out-of-class environment as the "Cognitive Doppler." Suggests methods of reducing the pronounced effects of the Cognitive Doppler by capitalizing on the students' ability to memorize…

  16. Doppler ultrasound monitoring technology.

    PubMed

    Docker, M F

    1993-03-01

    Developments in the signal processing of Doppler ultrasound used for the detection of fetal heart rate (FHR) have improved the operation of cardiotocographs. These developments are reviewed and the advantages and disadvantages of the various Doppler and signal processing methods are compared.

  17. The Cognitive Doppler.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozoil, Micah E.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the learning needs of students in the concrete operational stage in mathematics. Identifies the phenomenon of reduced cognitive performance in an out-of-class environment as the "Cognitive Doppler." Suggests methods of reducing the pronounced effects of the Cognitive Doppler by capitalizing on the students' ability to memorize…

  18. [The role of intraoperative ultrasonography].

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Yoko; Okayama, Yukinari; Matsuo, Shuji

    2008-06-01

    Intraoperative ultrasonography (US) is able to visualize the inside of the viscera in real time, and is also both noninvasive and simple to perform without influence of the bone or alimentary canal gas disturbing the propagation of the ultrasound. US has recently been widely used for neurosurgery or abdominal surgery, 1) to check the position and size of the tumor, which can not be directly visualized, and to evaluate the relationship between the tumor and blood vessel or tissue, 2) to search for lesions not detected before surgery, 3) to search for residual tumor, 4) to carry out ultrasound-guided biopsy or puncture. For effective intraoperative US, thorough knowledge of the US instrument and the local anatomy is necessary. The medical technologists who routinely perform US are qualified to assist with intraoperative US.

  19. Joint Agency Doppler Technology Tests.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    DOPPLER RADAR, *METEOROLOGICAL RADAR, *EARLY WARNING SYSTEMS, DAMAGE, HAZARDS, NETWORKS, REAL TIME, RADAR, IDENTIFICATION, RELIABILITY, HAIL, AIR FORCE FACILITIES, DOPPLER SYSTEMS, AIRPORTS, WARNING SYSTEMS, TORNADOES .

  20. Accuracy of pregnancy diagnosis in swine by ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Sara I.; Piñeyro, Pablo; de la Sota, R. Luzbel

    2008-01-01

    Early and accurate diagnosis of nonpregnant sows and gilts has the potential to increase reproductive efficiency and the financial income in pig production by reducing non-productive days per sow per year. The objectives of this study were to compare the efficiency of pregnancy diagnosis between Doppler Echo+ and real time ultrasonography (RTU) and to compare the efficiency by using RTU at different days post-mating (days 17 to 24) under commercial conditions. In the 1st study, using crossbreed sows and gilts (n = 107), pregnancy diagnoses were done with Doppler Echo+ and then with RTU. Between 28 and 65 days of gestation, Doppler Echo+ had 85% sensitivity and 32% specificity, and efficiency was 73%. In the 2nd study, sows (n = 142) were scanned for pregnancy diagnosis between 17 and 24 d post-mating (PD1) and reconfirmed between 38 and 45 days of gestation (PD2). After 21 days of gestation, RTU had over 90% sensitivity and 45% specificity, and 70% efficiency. Accuracy between PD1-farrowing was 75.5% and between PD1 and PD2 was 80.6%. In the 3rd study, sows were diagnosed pregnant by RTU (n = 151) at 17 to 24 days of gestation or A-mode ultrasound (n = 172) at 28 to 30 days of gestation. There were no significant differences in conception rate (P > 0.09) and farrowing rate (P > 0.67) between both groups. Hence, there was no improvement in fertility and farrowing rate by using RTU instead of A-mode ultrasound under commercial conditions. PMID:18390099

  1. Accuracy of pregnancy diagnosis in swine by ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Williams, Sara I; Piñeyro, Pablo; de la Sota, R Luzbel

    2008-03-01

    Early and accurate diagnosis of nonpregnant sows and gilts has the potential to increase reproductive efficiency and the financial income in pig production by reducing non-productive days per sow per year. The objectives of this study were to compare the efficiency of pregnancy diagnosis between Doppler Echo+ and real time ultrasonography (RTU) and to compare the efficiency by using RTU at different days post-mating (days 17 to 24) under commercial conditions. In the 1st study, using crossbreed sows and gilts (n=107), pregnancy diagnoses were done with Doppler Echo+ and then with RTU. Between 28 and 65 days of gestation, Doppler Echo+ had 85% sensitivity and 32% specificity, and efficiency was 73%. In the 2nd study, sows (n=142) were scanned for pregnancy diagnosis between 17 and 24 d post-mating (PD1) and reconfirmed between 38 and 45 days of gestation (PD2). After 21 days of gestation, RTU had over 90% sensitivity and 45% specificity, and 70% efficiency. Accuracy between PD1-farrowing was 75.5% and between PD1 and PD2 was 80.6%. In the 3rd study, sows were diagnosed pregnant by RTU (n=151) at 17 to 24 days of gestation or A-mode ultrasound (n=172) at 28 to 30 days of gestation. There were no significant differences in conception rate (P > 0.09) and farrowing rate (P > 0.67) between both groups. Hence, there was no improvement in fertility and farrowing rate by using RTU instead of A-mode ultrasound under commercial conditions.

  2. Pre- and posttreatment ultrasonography of the thyroid gland in hyperthyroid cats.

    PubMed

    Barberet, Virginie; Baeumlin, Yseult; Taeymans, Olivier; Duchateau, Luc; Peremans, Kathelijne; van Hoek, Ingrid; Daminet, Sylvie; Saunders, Jimmy H

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasonography is useful for assessing the morphology of the thyroid gland in hyperthyroid cats. Our aim was to describe the ultrasonographic changes of the thyroid gland in hyperthyroid cats after 131I therapy. Ultrasonography was performed in 15 hyperthyroid cats at initial presentation and 6 months after 131I using a multifrequency linear transducer set at 12 MHz. The following criteria were evaluated: length, width, height, volume, shape, homogeneity, and vascularity, using Power Doppler. Pretreatment, 10 cats had bilaterally abnormal thyroid lobes, four cats one abnormal lobe with the contralateral lobe being normal or reduced in size, and one cat with one normal lobe and one lobe not visible. Six months after 131I therapy, there was a reduction in median volume from 819 to 210 mm3, reduced rounding, reduced heterogeneity, and decreased vascularity. In conclusion, ultrasonography may be used to monitor thyroid changes in order to assess 131I treatment response. Further studies are necessary to determine whether ultrasonography could contribute to the detection of a relapsing course of hyperthyroidism.

  3. Evaluation of colour images printed by a thermal dye diffusion process.

    PubMed

    Deldinne, M; Dondelinger, R F; Trotteur, G; Remont, A; Namur, P; Malchair, F

    1996-01-01

    Dry printing of medical images, without photochemicals, may be based on the principle of thermal dye diffusion. The Drystar (Agfa Gevaert, Mortsel, Belgium) system was evaluated in colour-coded Doppler examinations of the carotid arteries. A total of 25 consecutive patients were examined for the colour test and 37 patients for the black-and-white test. Colour and black-and-white data were available on the same view. The performances of the Drystar were tested against against laser films, matrix films and two types of glossy paper using the following criteria: grey scale, colour scale, quality of reproduction of vascular colouring, registration, endothelial layer, intraluminal echogenicity, spectral resolution, and artefacts. The overall handiness of the document was graded. A significant difference (p = 0.00005) was noted in favour of the Drystar concerning registration, grey scale, spectral resolution and vascular colouring. The global score for handiness of the colour film was 96%. Radiologists preferred the colour hard copy as compared with glossy paper prints. As in the black-and-white test, blue-base and clear-base films obtained with the Drystar were rated inferior to laser films, a double line print mode was included in the printer, giving a density of 2.3 OD.

  4. Christian Doppler is 200 years young.

    PubMed

    Bollinger, Alfred; Partsch, Hugo

    2003-11-01

    Christian Doppler was born 200 years ago in Salzburg, Austria, on November 29, 1803, worked in Prague and Vienna and died 150 years ago in Venice. In an article of eight pages he described the principle, which made him famous. It appeared in 1842 with the exotic title: "On the Coloured Light of the Double Stars and Certain Other Stars of the Heaven". The validity of his principle for velocity measurement was confirmed by trumpet sounds produced on a train moving towards and away from the observer. Around 1960 Japanese scientists suggested that flow velocity in blood vessels could be determined by analysing the difference of frequency between emitted and backscattered ultrasound. Rushmer and coworkers built machines suitable for medicine in Seattle, where Eugene Strandness recognized their potential and applied them in first studies. In 1967 the technique jumped to Europe and started to be used worldwide. Already by using continuous wave ultrasound it was possible to diagnose occlusive disease of neck and limb arteries, venous thrombosis and valvular insufficiency with accuracy. Measurements of postestenotic ankle blood pressure were facilitated by Doppler sensing. Over the years more sophisticated instruments were developed. Pulsed emission of ultrasound waves opened a way to study flow velocity profiles across large vessels. By combining the method with A or B mode ultrasound blood flow could be quantified and finally perfused segments of blood vessels visualized. Duplex scanning in its simple and then in its colour coded version is nowadays the standard non-invasive technique that nobody would like to miss. Vascular territories like intracranial, renal and intestinal arteries can also be explored. For the assessment of microvascular flow in skin and mucosae laser Doppler instruments were introduced.

  5. B-mode Ultrasound Versus Color Doppler Twinkling Artifact in Detecting Kidney Stones

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Jonathan D.; Hsi, Ryan S.; Shah, Anup R.; Dighe, Manjiri K.; Carter, Stephen J.; Moshiri, Mariam; Paun, Marla; Lu, Wei; Bailey, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Purpose To compare color Doppler twinkling artifact and B-mode ultrasonography in detecting kidney stones. Patients and Methods Nine patients with recent CT scans prospectively underwent B-mode and twinkling artifact color Doppler ultrasonography on a commercial ultrasound machine. Video segments of the upper pole, interpolar area, and lower pole were created, randomized, and independently reviewed by three radiologists. Receiver operator characteristics were determined. Results There were 32 stones in 18 kidneys with a mean stone size of 8.9±7.5 mm. B-mode ultrasonography had 71% sensitivity, 48% specificity, 52% positive predictive value, and 68% negative predictive value, while twinkling artifact Doppler ultrasonography had 56% sensitivity, 74% specificity, 62% positive predictive value, and 68% negative predictive value. Conclusions When used alone, B-mode is more sensitive, but twinkling artifact is more specific in detecting kidney stones. This information may help users employ twinkling and B-mode to identify stones and developers to improve signal processing to harness the fundamental acoustic differences to ultimately improve stone detection. PMID:23067207

  6. Doppler findings in chronic ectopic pregnancy: case report.

    PubMed

    Abramov, Y; Nadjari, M; Shushan, A; Prus, D; Anteby, S O

    1997-05-01

    Chronic ectopic pregnancy is an uncommon form of tubal pregnancy manifested as a pelvic mass with minimal symptoms and a low or absent titer of human chorionic gonadotropin. For this reason, most of the reported cases have been diagnosed only after explorative laparotomy. The value of Doppler ultrasonography for preoperative diagnosis of this entity has not yet been established. We report on a 36-year-old patient who was admitted for intermittent right lower quadrant abdominal pain of 3 months' duration, and a right adnexal mass found on pelvic examination. On Doppler ultrasonography, a right complex adnexal mass was demonstrated, characterized by extensive external vascularization, aberrant vessels and arteriovenous shunting, but with no internal blood flow. Explorative laparotomy revealed a right tubal mass adherent to the omentum, and covered by numerous enlarged and tortuous blood vessels originating in the omentum. Pathological examination of the mass revealed a chronic ectopic pregnancy. The possible contribution of Doppler-specific characteristics for the diagnosis of chronic ectopic pregnancy is described and discussed.

  7. Digital colour management system for colour parameters reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grudzinski, Karol; Lasmanowicz, Piotr; Assis, Lucas M. N.; Pawlicka, Agnieszka; Januszko, Adam

    2013-10-01

    Digital Colour Management System (DCMS) and its application to new adaptive camouflage system are presented in this paper. The DCMS is a digital colour rendering method which would allow for transformation of a real image into a set of colour pixels displayed on a computer monitor. Consequently, it can analyse pixels' colour which comprise images of the environment such as desert, semi-desert, jungle, farmland or rocky mountain in order to prepare an adaptive camouflage pattern most suited for the terrain. This system is described in present work as well as the use the subtractive colours mixing method to construct the real time colour changing electrochromic window/pixel (ECD) for camouflage purpose. The ECD with glass/ITO/Prussian Blue(PB)/electrolyte/CeO2-TiO2/ITO/glass configuration was assembled and characterized. The ECD switched between green and yellow after +/-1.5 V application and the colours have been controlled by Digital Colour Management System and described by CIE LAB parameters.

  8. The colours of cloaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guenneau, Sébastien; McPhedran, Ross C.; Enoch, Stefan; Movchan, Alexander B.; Farhat, Mohamed; Nicorovici, Nicolae-Alexandru P.

    2011-02-01

    We present a survey of results from various research groups under the unifying viewpoint of transformational physics, which has been recently introduced for the design of metamaterials in optics and acoustics. We illustrate the versatility of underlying geometric transforms in order to bridge wave phenomena (the different 'colours' of waves) ranging from transverse electric waves, to linear surface water waves at an air-fluid interface, to pressure waves in fluids and out-of-plane shear waves in elastic media: these waves are all governed by a second order scalar partial differential equation (PDE) invariant under geometric transform. Moreover, flexural waves propagating in thin plates represent a very peculiar situation whereby the displacement field satisfies a fourth order scalar PDE which also retains its form under geometric transform (unlike for the Navier equation in elastodynamics). Control of flexural wave trajectories is illustrated with a multilayered cloak and a carpet. Interestingly, the colours of waves can be revealed through an analysis of the band spectra of invisibility cloaks. In the context of acoustics, this suggests one can hear the shape of a drum. Alternative avenues towards cloaking based upon anomalous resonances of a negatively refracting coating (which can be seen as the result of folding the space back onto itself), and even plasmonic shells reducing the scattering cross-section of nano-objects are also addressed.

  9. Across light: through colour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo, Isabel; Richardson, Martin; Bernardo, Luis Miguel

    2012-03-01

    The speed at which our world is changing is reflected in the shifting way artistic images are created and produced. Holography can be used as a medium to express the perception of space with light and colour and to make the material and the immaterial experiments with optical and digital holography. This paper intends to be a reflection on the final product of that process surrounding a debate of ideas for new experimental methodologies applied to holographic images. Holography is a time-based medium and the irretrievable linear flow of time is responsible for a drama, unique to traditional cinematography. If the viewers move to left or right, they see glimpses of the next scene or the previous one perceived a second ago. This interaction of synthetic space arises questions such as: can we see, in "reality", two forms in the same space? Trying to answer this question, a series of works has been created. These concepts are embryonic to a series of digital art holograms and lenticulars technique's titled "Across Light: Through Colour". They required some technical research and comparison between effects from different camera types, using Canon IS3 and Sony HDR CX105.

  10. Ultrasonography in the diagnosis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guihua; Zou, Dazhong; Cai, Haiyun; Liu, Yajun

    2016-06-01

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis is a type of autoimmune thyroid disease with an increasing prevalence in past decades. Its diagnosisis mostly based on ultrasonography. Ultrasonography is a useful and essential tool to make this diagnosis based on the characteristics of the disease. In the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules, ultrasound-guided fine-needle biopsy is an effective method to distinguish Hashimoto's thyroiditis from other thyroid disorders. One exciting and recent advance is that non-invasive ultrasound-based methods have supplemented fine-needle aspiration to diagnose Hashimoto's thyroiditis under more complex conditions. In this review, we discuss the recent advantages of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

  11. Disruptive Colouration and Perceptual Grouping

    PubMed Central

    Espinosa, Irene; Cuthill, Innes C.

    2014-01-01

    Camouflage is the primary defence of many animals and includes multiple strategies that interfere with figure-ground segmentation and object recognition. While matching background colours and textures is widespread and conceptually straightforward, less well explored are the optical ‘tricks’, collectively called disruptive colouration, that exploit perceptual grouping mechanisms. Adjacent high contrast colours create false edges, but this is not sufficient for an object’s shape to be broken up; some colours must blend with the background. We test the novel hypothesis that this will be particularly effective when the colour patches on the animal appear to belong to, not merely different background colours, but different background objects. We used computer-based experiments where human participants had to find cryptic targets on artificial backgrounds. Creating what appeared to be bi-coloured foreground objects on bi-coloured backgrounds, we generated colour boundaries that had identical local contrast but either lay within or between (illusory) objects. As predicted, error rates for targets matching what appeared to be different background objects were higher than for targets which had otherwise identical local contrast to the background but appeared to belong to single background objects. This provides evidence for disruptive colouration interfering with higher-level feature integration in addition to previously demonstrated low-level effects involving contour detection. In addition, detection was impeded in treatments where targets were on or in close proximity to multiple background colour or tone boundaries. This is consistent with other studies which show a deleterious influence of visual ‘clutter’ or background complexity on search. PMID:24466337

  12. Disruptive colouration and perceptual grouping.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Irene; Cuthill, Innes C

    2014-01-01

    Camouflage is the primary defence of many animals and includes multiple strategies that interfere with figure-ground segmentation and object recognition. While matching background colours and textures is widespread and conceptually straightforward, less well explored are the optical 'tricks', collectively called disruptive colouration, that exploit perceptual grouping mechanisms. Adjacent high contrast colours create false edges, but this is not sufficient for an object's shape to be broken up; some colours must blend with the background. We test the novel hypothesis that this will be particularly effective when the colour patches on the animal appear to belong to, not merely different background colours, but different background objects. We used computer-based experiments where human participants had to find cryptic targets on artificial backgrounds. Creating what appeared to be bi-coloured foreground objects on bi-coloured backgrounds, we generated colour boundaries that had identical local contrast but either lay within or between (illusory) objects. As predicted, error rates for targets matching what appeared to be different background objects were higher than for targets which had otherwise identical local contrast to the background but appeared to belong to single background objects. This provides evidence for disruptive colouration interfering with higher-level feature integration in addition to previously demonstrated low-level effects involving contour detection. In addition, detection was impeded in treatments where targets were on or in close proximity to multiple background colour or tone boundaries. This is consistent with other studies which show a deleterious influence of visual 'clutter' or background complexity on search.

  13. Linguistic determinants of word colouring in grapheme-colour synaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Simner, Julia; Glover, Louise; Mowat, Alice

    2006-02-01

    Previous studies of grapheme-colour synaesthesia have suggested that words tend to be coloured by their initial letter or initial vowel (e.g., Baron-Cohen et al., 1993; Ward et al., 2005). We examine this assumption in two ways. First, we show that letter position and syllable stress have been confounded, such that the initial letters of a word are often in stressed position (e.g., 'wo-man, 'ta-ble, 'ha-ppy). With participant JW, we separate these factors (e.g., with stress homographs such as 'con-vict vs. con-'vict) and show that the primary determinant of word colour is syllable stress, with only a secondary influence of letter position. We show that this effect derives from conceptual rather than perceptual stress, and that the effect is more prominent for synaesthetes whose words are coloured by vowels than by consonants. We examine, too, the time course of word colour generation. Slower colour naming occurs for spoken versus written stimuli, as we might expect from the additional requirement of grapheme conversion in the former. Reaction time data provide evidence, too, of incremental processing, since word colour is generated faster when the dominant grapheme is flagged early rather than late in the spoken word. Finally, we examine the role of non-dominant graphemes in word colouring and show faster colour naming when later graphemes match the dominant grapheme (e.g., ether) compared to when they do not (e.g., ethos). Taken together, our findings suggest that words are coloured incrementally by a process of competition between constituent graphemes, in which stressed graphemes and word-initial graphemes are disproportionately weighted.

  14. Doppler radar flowmeter

    DOEpatents

    Petlevich, Walter J.; Sverdrup, Edward F.

    1978-01-01

    A Doppler radar flowmeter comprises a transceiver which produces an audio frequency output related to the Doppler shift in frequency between radio waves backscattered from particulate matter carried in a fluid and the radiated radio waves. A variable gain amplifier and low pass filter are provided for amplifying and filtering the transceiver output. A frequency counter having a variable triggering level is also provided to determine the magnitude of the Doppler shift. A calibration method is disclosed wherein the amplifier gain and frequency counter trigger level are adjusted to achieve plateaus in the output of the frequency counter and thereby allow calibration without the necessity of being able to visually observe the flow.

  15. Validation of noninvasive fetal renal artery flow measurement by pulsed Doppler in the lamb.

    PubMed

    Veille, J C; Figueroa, J P; Mueller-Heubach, E

    1992-12-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the accuracy of quantitative measurement of blood flow of the left renal artery in the fetal lamb by means of range-gated, two-dimensional pulsed Doppler ultrasonography. Doppler measurements were compared with invasive measurements obtained with a perivascular flow probe (Transonic) placed on the fetal renal artery. Renal blood flow was manipulated acutely either by volume expansion or depletion or by means of pharmacologic agents. With each manipulation values of the left fetal renal artery blood flow were obtained with both methods. The size of the fetal renal artery was determined by postmortem examination. A total of 36 paired flow measurements were obtained on five fetuses. One fetus had only Transonic determination of renal blood flow. Pulsed Doppler ultrasonography blood flow and transit-time ultrasonography blood flow estimations were correlated (F = 82.4, R2 = 0.73, p < 0.001). This study suggests that two-dimensional pulsed Doppler can reliably estimate renal blood flow in the fetal lamb.

  16. Complementary Colours for a Physicist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babic, Vitomir; Cepic, Mojca

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a simple experiment which enables splitting incident light into two different modes, each having a colour exactly complementary to the other. A brief historical development of colour theories and differences in a physicist's point of view with respect to an artist's one is discussed. An experimental system for producing…

  17. Colourful Semantics: A Clinical Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolderson, Sarah; Dosanjh, Christine; Milligan, Claudine; Pring, Tim; Chiat, Shula

    2011-01-01

    Children with language difficulties often omit verbs and grammatical elements and fail to complete sentences. Bryan (1997) described "colourful semantics", a therapy she used to treat a 5-year-old boy. The therapy uses colour coding to highlight the predicate argument structure of sentences. This study further tested the therapy's…

  18. Characterization of Caramel Colour IV.

    PubMed

    Licht, B H; Shaw, K; Smith, C; Mendoza, M; Orr, J; Myers, D V

    1992-05-01

    A large number of commercial Caramel Colour IV samples were characterized in order to assess the uniformity of the class and to provide data to be used in specifications development. Owing to the chemical and physical complexity of caramel colour it was not feasible to perform detailed analysis of all constituents for assessment of uniformity. Instead, selected parameters were evaluated and judgements were made with respect to compositional uniformity based on the similarities of these parameters among the various samples. As Caramel Colour IV is required by the food industry in a range of colour intensities, there must be a range of properties that differ from sample to sample, but that are sufficiently similar for the material to still be considered as part of the Caramel Colour IV class. Fractions as well as whole caramel were analysed using selected spectrophotometric, chromatographic and chemical techniques. Samples were fractionated based on molecular weight and polarity. The data presented here provide evidence for the uniformity in composition of Caramel Colour IV with respect to molecular weight distribution, to nitrogen and sulphur content and their distribution throughout the fractions, to absorbance properties and to specific low molecular weight compounds. Thus, it can be concluded that Caramel Colour IV exhibits compositional uniformity within the range of colour intensity required by the food industry worldwide.

  19. Reversible colour change in Arthropoda.

    PubMed

    Umbers, Kate D L; Fabricant, Scott A; Gawryszewski, Felipe M; Seago, Ainsley E; Herberstein, Marie E

    2014-11-01

    The mechanisms and functions of reversible colour change in arthropods are highly diverse despite, or perhaps due to, the presence of an exoskeleton. Physiological colour changes, which have been recorded in 90 arthropod species, are rapid and are the result of changes in the positioning of microstructures or pigments, or in the refractive index of layers in the integument. By contrast, morphological colour changes, documented in 31 species, involve the anabolism or catabolism of components (e.g. pigments) directly related to the observable colour. In this review we highlight the diversity of mechanisms by which reversible colour change occurs and the evolutionary context and diversity of arthropod taxa in which it has been observed. Further, we discuss the functions of reversible colour change so far proposed, review the limited behavioural and ecological data, and argue that the field requires phylogenetically controlled approaches to understanding the evolution of reversible colour change. Finally, we encourage biologists to explore new model systems for colour change and to engage scientists from other disciplines; continued cross-disciplinary collaboration is the most promising approach to this nexus of biology, physics, and chemistry.

  20. Blood flow velocity in monocular retinoblastoma assessed by color doppler

    PubMed Central

    Bonanomi, Maria Teresa B C; Saito, Osmar C; de Lima, Patricia Picciarelli; Bonanomi, Roberta Chizzotti; Chammas, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the flow of retrobulbar vessels in retinoblastoma by color Doppler imaging. METHODS: A prospective study of monocular retinoblastoma treated by enucleation between 2010 and 2014. The examination comprised fundoscopy, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasonography and color Doppler imaging. The peak blood velocities in the central retinal artery and central retinal vein of tumor-containing eyes (tuCRAv and tuCRVv, respectively) were assessed. The velocities were compared with those for normal eyes (nlCRAv and nlCRVv) and correlated with clinical and pathological findings. Tumor dimensions in the pathological sections were compared with those in magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography and were correlated with tuCRAv and tuCRVv. In tumor-containing eyes, the resistivity index in the central retinal artery and the pulse index in the central retinal vein were studied in relation to all variables. RESULTS: Eighteen patients were included. Comparisons between tuCRAv and nlCRAv and between tuCRVv and nlCRVv revealed higher velocities in tumor-containing eyes (p<0.001 for both), with a greater effect in the central retinal artery than in the central retinal vein (p=0.024). Magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography measurements were as reliable as pathology assessments (p=0.675 and p=0.375, respectively). A positive relationship was found between tuCRAv and the tumor volume (p=0.027). The pulse index in the central retinal vein was lower in male patients (p=0.017) and in eyes with optic nerve invasion (p=0.0088). CONCLUSIONS: TuCRAv and tuCRVv are higher in tumor-containing eyes than in normal eyes. Magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography measurements are reliable. The tumor volume is correlated with a higher tuCRAv and a reduced pulse in the central retinal vein is correlated with male sex and optic nerve invasion. PMID:26735219

  1. Role of Ultrasonography in Knee Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Oo, Win Min; Bo, Myat Thae

    2016-09-01

    Ultrasound has become popular among rheumatologists as the first-choice imaging investigation for the evaluation and monitoring of osteoarthritis (OA). Because of recent improvement in technology, ultrasound has the ability to demonstrate and assess the minimal structural abnormalities, which involve the pathophysiology and progression of OA, such as articular cartilage, synovial tissue, bony cortex, and other soft tissue. Nowadays, ultrasonography is a promising technique for assessing soft tissue abnormalities such as joint effusion, synovial hypertrophy, Baker cyst, and other structural changes including the decrease in cartilage thickness, meniscus bulging, and formation of osteophyte. Ultrasonography not only possesses diagnostic potential in knee OA but also reveals long-term predictability for disease progress as imaging biomarker. Ultrasonography has also been proven as a useful tool in guiding therapeutic interventions and monitoring treatment effectiveness. This review addresses the utility, reliability, and potential utilization of ultrasonography as an imaging technique in knee OA.

  2. Doppler Lidar (DL) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Newsom, RK

    2012-02-13

    The Doppler lidar (DL) is an active remote sensing instrument that provides range- and time-resolved measurements of radial velocity and attenuated backscatter. The principle of operation is similar to radar in that pulses of energy are transmitted into the atmosphere; the energy scattered back to the transceiver is collected and measured as a time-resolved signal. From the time delay between each outgoing transmitted pulse and the backscattered signal, the distance to the scatterer is inferred. The radial or line-of-sight velocity of the scatterers is determined from the Doppler frequency shift of the backscattered radiation. The DL uses a heterodyne detection technique in which the return signal is mixed with a reference laser beam (i.e., local oscillator) of known frequency. An onboard signal processing computer then determines the Doppler frequency shift from the spectra of the heterodyne signal. The energy content of the Doppler spectra can also be used to determine attenuated backscatter.

  3. Genetics of colouration in birds.

    PubMed

    Roulin, Alexandre; Ducrest, Anne-Lyse

    2013-01-01

    Establishing the links between phenotype and genotype is of great importance for resolving key questions about the evolution, maintenance and adaptive function of phenotypic variation. Bird colouration is one of the most studied systems to investigate the role of natural and sexual selection in the evolution of phenotypic diversity. Given the recent advances in molecular tools that allow discovering genetic polymorphisms and measuring gene and protein expression levels, it is timely to review the literature on the genetics of bird colouration. The present study shows that melanin-based colour phenotypes are often associated with mutations at melanogenic genes. Differences in melanin-based colouration are caused by switches of eumelanin to pheomelanin production or by changes in feather keratin structure, melanoblast migration and differentiation, as well as melanosome structure. Similar associations with other types of colourations are difficult to establish, because our knowledge about the molecular genetics of carotenoid-based and structural colouration is quasi inexistent. This discrepancy stems from the fact that only melanin-based colouration shows pronounced heritability estimates, i.e. the resemblance between related individuals is usually mainly explained by genetic factors. In contrast, the expression of carotenoid-based colouration is phenotypically plastic with a high sensitivity to variation in environmental conditions. It therefore appears that melanin-based colour traits are prime systems to understand the genetic basis of phenotypic variation. In this context, birds have a great potential to bring us to new frontiers where many exciting discoveries will be made on the genetics of phenotypic traits, such as colouration. In this context, a major goal of our review is to suggest a number of exciting future avenues.

  4. Detection of duct ectasia of mammary gland by ultrasonography in a neonate with bloody nipple discharge.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Ramazan; Gul, Selim Baris; Polat, Ahmet Veysel

    2014-06-01

    Bloody nipple discharge, a rare finding in infants, is associated most often with benign mammary duct ectasia and commonly resolves spontaneously. Ultrasonography is a useful diagnostic imaging method to detect the cause of discharge. The rarity of this symptom in infants and its association with breast carcinoma in adults can lead to unnecessary investigation and treatment. Here, we describe ultrasonographic and color Doppler ultrasonographic findings of a 20-day-old boy with bilateral bloody nipple discharge that resolved spontaneously without treatment after 15 days. We conclude that bloody nipple discharge is usually a benign and self-limited process in infancy, and that it is advisable to avoid unnecessary invasive investigations initially.

  5. Non-mass-like lesions on breast ultrasonography: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Uematsu, Takayoshi

    2012-10-01

    This article reviews various non-mass-like ultrasonography (US) findings of the breast and the sonographic-pathologic correlation with Doppler techniques, elastography, and MRI. High-resolution US allows for identification of small, clinically occult non-mass-like US findings. Ductal carcinoma in situ and invasive lobular carcinoma usually manifest as a non-mass-like lesion on US. It is useful to classify non-mass-like lesions on US in a similar manner to the classification of non-mass-like enhancement on MRI.

  6. Neurilemmoma of the glans penis: ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Jung, Dae Chul; Hwang, Sung Il; Jung, Sung Il; Kim, Sun Ho; Kim, Seung Hyup

    2006-01-01

    Neurilemmoma of the glans penis is rare, and no imaging findings have been reported. A case of neurilemmoma of the glans penis is presented. Ultrasonography (US) and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a well-defined small mass in the glans penis. The mass appeared hypoechoic on gray-scale US and hypervascular on color Doppler US. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed high signal intensity of the mass on a T2-weighted image and strong enhancement on a contrast-enhanced T1-weighted image.

  7. Sources of error in emergency ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Antonio; Pinto, Fabio; Faggian, Angela; Rubini, Giuseppe; Caranci, Ferdinando; Macarini, Luca; Genovese, Eugenio Annibale; Brunese, Luca

    2013-07-15

    To evaluate the common sources of diagnostic errors in emergency ultrasonography. The authors performed a Medline search using PubMed (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Maryland) for original research and review publications examining the common sources of errors in diagnosis with specific reference to emergency ultrasonography. The search design utilized different association of the following terms : (1) emergency ultrasonography, (2) error, (3) malpractice and (4) medical negligence. This review was restricted to human studies and to English-language literature. Four authors reviewed all the titles and subsequent the abstract of 171 articles that appeared appropriate. Other articles were recognized by reviewing the reference lists of significant papers. Finally, the full text of 48 selected articles was reviewed. Several studies indicate that the etiology of error in emergency ultrasonography is multi-factorial. Common sources of error in emergency ultrasonography are: lack of attention to the clinical history and examination, lack of communication with the patient, lack of knowledge of the technical equipment, use of inappropriate probes, inadequate optimization of the images, failure of perception, lack of knowledge of the possible differential diagnoses, over-estimation of one's own skill, failure to suggest further ultrasound examinations or other imaging techniques. To reduce errors in interpretation of ultrasonographic findings, the sonographer needs to be aware of the limitations of ultrasonography in the emergency setting, and the similarities in the appearances of various physiological and pathological processes. Adequate clinical informations are essential. Diagnostic errors should be considered not as signs of failure, but as learning opportunities.

  8. Pulse subtraction Doppler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahue, Veronique; Mari, Jean Martial; Eckersley, Robert J.; Caro, Colin G.; Tang, Meng-Xing

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances have demonstrated the feasibility of molecular imaging using targeted microbubbles and ultrasound. One technical challenge is to selectively detect attached bubbles from those freely flowing bubbles and surrounding tissue. Pulse Inversion Doppler is an imaging technique enabling the selective detection of both static and moving ultrasound contrast agents: linear scatterers generate a single band Doppler spectrum, while non-linear scatterers generate a double band spectrum, one being uniquely correlated with the presence of contrast agents and non-linear tissue signals. We demonstrate that similar spectrums, and thus the same discrimination, can be obtained through a Doppler implementation of Pulse Subtraction. This is achieved by reconstructing a virtual echo using the echo generated from a short pulse transmission. Moreover by subtracting from this virtual echo the one generated from a longer pulse transmission, it is possible to fully suppress the echo from linear scatterers, while for non-linear scatterers, a signal will remain, allowing classical agent detection. Simulations of a single moving microbubble and a moving linear scatterer subject to these pulses show that when the virtual echo and the long pulse echo are used to perform pulsed Doppler, the power Doppler spectrum allows separation of linear and non-linear moving scattering. Similar results are obtained on experimental data acquired on a flow containing either microbubble contrast agents or linear blood mimicking fluid. This new Doppler method constitutes an alternative to Pulse Inversion Doppler and preliminary results suggest that similar dual band spectrums could be obtained by the combination of any non-linear detection technique with Doppler demodulation.

  9. Ultrasonography of Leprosy Neuropathy: A Longitudinal Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Frade, Marco Andrey Cipriani; Marques-Jr, Wilson; Foss, Norma Tiraboschi

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that leprosy multi-drug therapy (MDT) does not stop the progression of nerve function impairment. There are no prospective studies investigating the evolution of nerve anatomic abnormalities after treatment. We examined leprosy patients aiming to investigate the evolution of nerve ultrasonography (US) abnormalities and the risk factors for poor outcomes after MDT. Methodology/Principal findings We performed bilateral US of the ulnar (U), median (M) and common fibular (CF) nerves in 9 paucibacillary (PB) and 64 multibacillary (MB) patients before and after MDT. Forty-two patients had leprosy reactions (type 1, type 2, acute neuritis) during the study. We analyzed nerve maximum cross-sectional areas (CSA), echogenicity and Doppler signal. Poor outcomes included a post-treatment CSA above normal limits with a reduction of less than 30% (U, M) or 40% (CF) from the baseline, echogenicity abnormalities or intraneural Doppler in the post-treatment study. We found that PB and patients without reactions showed significant increases in CSA at CF, whereas MB and patients with reactions had CSA reduction in some nerves after treatment (p<0.05). Despite this reduction, we observed a greater frequency of poor CSA outcomes in the MB compared to the PB (77.8% and 40.6%; p>0.05) and in the patients with reactions compared to those without (66.7% and 38.7%; p<0.05). There was significantly higher odds ratio (7.75; 95%CI: 1.56–38.45) for poor CSA outcomes only for M nerve in patients with reactions. Poor echogenicity outcomes were more frequent in MB (59.4%) compared to PB (22.2%) (p<0.05). There was significant association between poor Doppler outcomes and neuritis. Gender, disease duration, and leprosy classification were not significant risk factors for poor outcomes in CSA, echogenicity or Doppler. Conclusions/Significance US nerve abnormalities can worsen after treatment despite the leprosy classification or the presence of reactions

  10. Contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasonography in digestive diseases.

    PubMed

    Hirooka, Yoshiki; Itoh, Akihiro; Kawashima, Hiroki; Ohno, Eizaburo; Itoh, Yuya; Nakamura, Yosuke; Hiramatsu, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Hiroyuki; Sumi, Hajime; Hayashi, Daijiro; Ohmiya, Naoki; Miyahara, Ryoji; Nakamura, Masanao; Funasaka, Kohei; Ishigami, Masatoshi; Katano, Yoshiaki; Goto, Hidemi

    2012-10-01

    Contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasonography (CE-EUS) was introduced in the early 1990s. The concept of the injection of carbon dioxide microbubbles into the hepatic artery as a contrast material (enhanced ultrasonography) led to "endoscopic ultrasonographic angiography". After the arrival of the first-generation contrast agent, high-frequency (12 MHz) EUS brought about the enhancement of EUS images in the diagnosis of pancreatico-biliary diseases, upper gastrointestinal (GI) cancer, and submucosal tumors. The electronic scanning endosonoscope with both radial and linear probes enabled the use of high-end ultrasound machines and depicted the enhancement of both color/power Doppler flow-based imaging and harmonic-based imaging using second-generation contrast agents. Many reports have described the usefulness of the differential diagnosis of pancreatic diseases and other abdominal lesions. Quantitative evaluation of CE-EUS images was an objective method of diagnosis using the time-intensity curve (TIC), but it was limited to the region of interest. Recently developed Inflow Time Mapping™ can be generated from stored clips and used to display the pattern of signal enhancement with time after injection, offering temporal difference of contrast agents and improved tumor characterization. On the other hand, three-dimensional CE-EUS images added new information to the literature, but lacked positional information. Three-dimensional CE-EUS with accurate positional information is awaited. To date, most reports have been related to pancreatic lesions or lymph nodes. Hemodynamic analysis might be of use for diseases in other organs: upper GI cancer diagnosis, submucosal tumors, and biliary disorders, and it might also provide functional information. Studies of CE-EUS in diseases in many other organs will increase in the near future.

  11. [Relationship between the ankle-arm index determined by Doppler ultrasonography and cardiovascular outcomes and amputations, in a group of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus from the Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán].

    PubMed

    Miranda Garduño, Luis Miguel; Bermúdez Rocha, Rocío; Gómez Pérez, Francisco J; Aguilar Salinas, Carlos A

    2011-01-01

    An ankle/arm index < 0.90 and ≥ 1.41 is considered as abnormal. This study was aimed to investigate the prevalence of peripheral arterial disease through the identification of the ankle/arm index using Doppler ultrasound, and the possible association between pathological ankle/arm index and the micro- and macrovascular complications of diabetes and amputation. The ankle/arm index was determined in outpatient type 2 diabetic subjects. There were the following variables: age and cardiovascular outcomes. To find if the ankle/arm index is related to the cardiovascular outcomes or with the presence of micro- or macrovascular complications we determined the index of correlation of Pearson and also used logistic regression methods to analyze the association between ankle/arm index with the categorical variables. We calculated the ankle/arm index in 242 patients. The prevalence of ischemic ankle/arm index (< 0.90) was 13.6%. The Pearson correlation coefficient for ankle/arm index pathological and cardiovascular outcomes was 0.180 (p = 0.005), amputation 0.130 (p < 0.05), retinopathy 0.132 (p < 0.05), and nephropathy 0.158 (p = 0.01). In logistic regression analysis, the factors associated with pathological ankle/arm index were age > 51 years, cardiovascular outcomes, and amputation. With the Mann Whitney U test we found that a relationship exists between pathological and amputation iliotibial band (p < 0.05). Diabetic patients have a high prevalence of pathological ankle/arm index.

  12. Generating colour and texture verniers.

    PubMed

    Brelstaff, G J; Wilson, J B

    1994-05-01

    This paper describes computer graphics techniques for presenting visual stimuli in a vernier format composed out of coloured texture patterns. Such stimuli can be used to investigate the performance at the task of localising boundaries mediated by changes in colour and/or texture. We summarise the contents as follows: (1) Techniques for presenting visual stimuli are reviewed with a view to how they might be used to present colour and texture verniers. (2) The design of the vernier stimuli for the localisation task is considered. (3) Significant elements of this design are: (a) the use of non-isoplanatic textures to avoid interference effects at boundaries, (b) the modulation of the texture patterns along axes in MacLeod-Boynton colour space so that relative retinal cone contributions are controlled, and (c) the use of double-buffering, colour map manipulation, and contrast randomisation techniques to avoid problems commonly encountered when presenting computer graphics stimuli on colour monitors. (4) Results of a psychophysical experiment that presents colour and texture verniers are reported elsewhere.

  13. Christian Andreas Doppler: A legendary man inspired by the dazzling light of the stars

    PubMed Central

    Katsi, V; Felekos, I; Kallikazaros, I

    2013-01-01

    Christian Andreas Doppler is renowned primarily for his revolutionary theory of the Doppler effect, which has deeply influenced many areas of modern science and technology, including medicine. His work has laid the foundations for modern ultrasonography and his ideas are still inspiring discoveries more than a hundred years after his death. Doppler may well earn the title of Homo Universalis for his broad knowledge of physics, mathematics and astronomy and most of all for his indefatigable investigations for new ideas and his ingenious mind. According to Bolzano: “It is hard to believe how fruitful a genius Austria has in this man”. His legacy of scientific achievement have seen Doppler honoured in the later years on coinage and money, names of streets, educational institutions, rock groups, even of a lunar crater; while the ultimate tribute to his work is the countless references to the homonymous medical eponym. PMID:24376313

  14. Christian Andreas Doppler: A legendary man inspired by the dazzling light of the stars.

    PubMed

    Katsi, V; Felekos, I; Kallikazaros, I

    2013-04-01

    Christian Andreas Doppler is renowned primarily for his revolutionary theory of the Doppler effect, which has deeply influenced many areas of modern science and technology, including medicine. His work has laid the foundations for modern ultrasonography and his ideas are still inspiring discoveries more than a hundred years after his death. Doppler may well earn the title of Homo Universalis for his broad knowledge of physics, mathematics and astronomy and most of all for his indefatigable investigations for new ideas and his ingenious mind. According to Bolzano: "It is hard to believe how fruitful a genius Austria has in this man". His legacy of scientific achievement have seen Doppler honoured in the later years on coinage and money, names of streets, educational institutions, rock groups, even of a lunar crater; while the ultimate tribute to his work is the countless references to the homonymous medical eponym.

  15. Colour Reconnection in WW Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Hondt, J.

    2003-07-01

    Preliminary results are presented for a measurement of the κ parameter used in the JETSET SK-I model of Colour Reconnection in {W}+{W}^- -> qbar {q}'bar {q}q^' events at LEP2. An update on the investigation of Colour Reconnection effects in hadronic decays of W pairs, using the particle flow in DELPHI is presented. A second method is based on the observation that two different mW estimators have different sensitivity to the parametrised Colour Reconnection effect. Hence the difference between them is an observable with information content about κ.

  16. Optimal colour quality of LED clusters based on memory colours.

    PubMed

    Smet, Kevin; Ryckaert, Wouter R; Pointer, Michael R; Deconinck, Geert; Hanselaer, Peter

    2011-03-28

    The spectral power distributions of tri- and tetrachromatic clusters of Light-Emitting-Diodes, composed of simulated and commercially available LEDs, were optimized with a genetic algorithm to maximize the luminous efficacy of radiation and the colour quality as assessed by the memory colour quality metric developed by the authors. The trade-off of the colour quality as assessed by the memory colour metric and the luminous efficacy of radiation was investigated by calculating the Pareto optimal front using the NSGA-II genetic algorithm. Optimal peak wavelengths and spectral widths of the LEDs were derived, and over half of them were found to be close to Thornton's prime colours. The Pareto optimal fronts of real LED clusters were always found to be smaller than those of the simulated clusters. The effect of binning on designing a real LED cluster was investigated and was found to be quite large. Finally, a real LED cluster of commercially available AlGaInP, InGaN and phosphor white LEDs was optimized to obtain a higher score on memory colour quality scale than its corresponding CIE reference illuminant.

  17. Alternative to colour feature classification using colour contrast ocurrence matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, R. A.; Richard, N.; Fernandez, C.

    2015-04-01

    Texture discrimination was the second more important task studied after colour perception and characterization. Nevertheless, colour texture assessment and characterization was few studied and no vector processing was proposed to assess this important visual information. In this work we show the construction of a new vector that integrates fully the information of texture and color. This vector is based on Julesz psico-physics conjectures and the Haralick cooccurrence matrix. A colour texture image in the CIEL*a* b* colour space is characterizing in a 3D matrix, from which it is possible to visually some variations in chromaticity. The performance of this vector had evaluated in tasks of classification in front of other developments that mix the texture and colour information. The colour contrast occurrence matrix (C2O) has the best classification rates in three of the four image database evaluated as OUTEX, VISTEX, STEX and ALOT. C2O texture classification was evaluated in front of co-occurrence matrix (GLMC), run-length matrix (RLM) and local binary patterns (LBP) approaches.

  18. Management of pseudoaneurysm of the leg: is Color Doppler US enough?

    PubMed

    Pagliariccio, G; Catalini, R; Giantomassi, L; Angelini, A

    2010-06-01

    The authors describe two clinical cases showing that Color Doppler Ultrasonography (US) examination is effective and sufficient in the presence of a clinical suspicion of pseudoaneurysm. In cases of iatrogenic damage and post-traumatic lesions, US provides an easy and accurate diagnosis depicting the location and the morphology of the false aneurysm. The patient can thus be referred to appropriate treatment without undergoing further diagnostic examinations. Moreover, regardless of the performed treatment, Color Doppler US is an efficient non-invasive diagnostic tool in the follow-up.

  19. Enhanced Doppler ultrasound imaging of interstitial laser therapy in rat mammary tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zasuly, James M.; Fan, Ming; Dowlatshahi, Kambiz

    1997-05-01

    In order to better develop ultrasonography for use in monitoring interstitial laser therapy (ILT), we imaged rat mammary tumors using power Doppler ultrasound in conduction with intravenous contrast agent (Albunex) before and after laser therapy. Small vessel perfusion throughout a variable portion of the tumor could be detected by power Doppler ultrasound. Lesions created with diode laser by delivery of 500 to 3000 J appeared as perfusion defects on post-treatment images. Image topography and lesion size correlated with gross histologic findings. We conclude that ultrasonographic monitoring of local changes in blood flow using contrast enhancing agent can be useful in characterizing lesions created with ILT.

  20. Accurate evaluation of axillary sentinel lymph node metastasis using contrast-enhanced ultrasonography with Sonazoid in breast cancer: a preliminary clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Matsuzawa, Fumihiko; Omoto, Kiyoka; Einama, Takahiro; Abe, Hironori; Suzuki, Takashi; Hamaguchi, Jun; Kaga, Terumi; Sato, Mami; Oomura, Masako; Takata, Yumiko; Fujibe, Ayako; Takeda, Chie; Tamura, Etsuya; Taketomi, Akinobu; Kyuno, Kenichi

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women. The 5-year survival rate in patients with breast cancer ranges from 74 to 82 %. Sentinel lymph node biopsy has become an alternative to axillary lymph node dissection for nodal staging. We evaluated the detection of the sentinel lymph node and metastasis of the lymph node using contrast enhanced ultrasonography with Sonazoid. Between December 2013 and May 2014, 32 patients with operable breast cancer were enrolled in this study. We evaluated the detection of axillary sentinel lymph nodes and the evaluation of axillary lymph nodes metastasis using contrast enhanced computed tomography, color Doppler ultrasonography and contrast enhanced ultrasonography with Sonazoid. All the sentinel lymph nodes were identified, and the sentinel lymph nodes detected by contrast enhanced ultrasonography with Sonazoid corresponded with those detected by computed tomography lymphography and indigo carmine method. The detection of metastasis based on contrast enhanced computed tomography were sensitivity 20.0 %, specificity 88.2 %, PPV 60.0 %, NPV 55.6 %, accuracy 56.3 %. Based on color Doppler ultrasonography, the results were sensitivity 36.4 %, specificity 95.2 %, PPV 80.0 %, NPV 74.1 %, accuracy 75.0 %. Based on contrast enhanced ultrasonography with Sonazoid, the results were sensitivity 81.8 %, specificity 95.2 %, PPV 90.0 %, NPV 90.9 %, accuracy 90.6 %. The results suggested that contrast enhanced ultrasonography with Sonazoid was the most accurate among the evaluations of these modalities. In the future, we believe that our method would take the place of conventional sentinel lymph node biopsy for an axillary staging method.

  1. BRIEF REPORT: The colour relaxation equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaofei, Zhang; Jiarong, Li

    1996-03-01

    Colour diffusion in quark - gluon plasma (QGP) is investigated from the transport equations of QGP. The pure non-Abelian collision term describing the colour diffusion in QGP is obtained, the expression for colour relaxation time is derived and the physical picture of the colour diffusion in QGP is shown.

  2. What Colour Is a Shadow?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, S. W.

    2009-01-01

    What colour is a shadow? Black, grey, or some other colour? This article describes how to use a digital camera to test the hypothesis that a shadow under a clear blue sky has a blue tint. A white sheet of A4 paper was photographed in full sunlight and in shadow under a clear blue sky. The images were analysed using a shareware program called…

  3. What Colour Is a Shadow?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, S. W.

    2009-01-01

    What colour is a shadow? Black, grey, or some other colour? This article describes how to use a digital camera to test the hypothesis that a shadow under a clear blue sky has a blue tint. A white sheet of A4 paper was photographed in full sunlight and in shadow under a clear blue sky. The images were analysed using a shareware program called…

  4. Doppler ion program description

    SciTech Connect

    Henline, P.

    1980-12-01

    The Doppler spectrometer is a conventional Czerny-Turner grating spectrometer with a 1024 channel multiple detector. Light is dispersed across the detector, and its output yields a spectrum covering approximately 200 A. The width of the spectral peak is directly proportional to the temperature of the emitting ions, and determination of the impurity ion temperature allows one to infer the plasma ion temperature. The Doppler ion software system developed at General Atomic uses a TRACOR Northern 1710-31 and an LSI-11/2. The exact configuration of Doublet III is different from TRACOR Northern systems at other facilities.

  5. Ultrasonography of the hand, wrist, and elbow.

    PubMed

    Bodor, Marko; Fullerton, Brad

    2010-08-01

    High-frequency diagnostic ultrasonography of the hand, wrist and elbow has significant potential to improve the quality of diagnosis and care provided by neuromuscular and musculoskeletal specialists. In patients referred for weakness, pain and numbness of the hand, wrist or elbow, diagnostic ultrasonography can be an adjunct to electrodiagnosis and help in identifying ruptured tendons and treating conditions such as carpal tunnel syndrome or trigger finger. Use of a small high-frequency (>10-15 MHz) transducer, an instrument with a blunt pointed tip to enhance sonopalpation and a model of the hand, wrist and elbow is advised to enhance visualization of small anatomical structures and complex bony contours. A range of conditions, including tendon and ligament ruptures, trigger finger, de Quervain tenosynovitis, intersection syndrome, lateral epicondylitis, and osteoarthritis, is described along with detailed ultrasonography-guided injection techniques for carpal tunnel syndrome and trigger finger.

  6. Ultrasonography in diagnosing chronic pancreatitis: New aspects

    PubMed Central

    Dimcevski, Georg; Erchinger, Friedemann G; Havre, Roald; Gilja, Odd Helge

    2013-01-01

    The course and outcome is poor for most patients with pancreatic diseases. Advances in pancreatic imaging are important in the detection of pancreatic diseases at early stages. Ultrasonography as a diagnostic tool has made, virtually speaking a technical revolution in medical imaging in the new millennium. It has not only become the preferred method for first line imaging, but also, increasingly to clarify the interpretation of other imaging modalities to obtain efficient clinical decision. We review ultrasonography modalities, focusing on advanced pancreatic imaging and its potential to substantially improve diagnosis of pancreatic diseases at earlier stages. In the first section, we describe scanning techniques and examination protocols. Their consequences for image quality and the ability to obtain complete and detailed visualization of the pancreas are discussed. In the second section we outline ultrasonographic characteristics of pancreatic diseases with emphasis on chronic pancreatitis. Finally, new developments in ultrasonography of the pancreas such as contrast enhanced ultrasound and elastography are enlightened. PMID:24259955

  7. Duplex Doppler ultrasonographic evaluation of the fetal renal artery in normal and abnormal fetuses.

    PubMed

    Veille, J C; Kanaan, C

    1989-12-01

    Using duplex Doppler ultrasonography in asymmetrically grown fetuses with decreased amniotic fluid, we found the renal artery waveform pattern was different from that in the normally grown fetus. Such an abnormal waveform may reflect an increase in vascular resistance within the renal bed in oligohydramnios and intrauterine growth retardation. This would suggest that local mechanisms are operational and may influence renal blood flow in the human fetus with intrauterine growth retardation.

  8. Role of color Doppler in differentiation of Graves' disease and thyroiditis in thyrotoxicosis

    PubMed Central

    Donkol, Ragab Hani; Nada, Aml Mohamed; Boughattas, Sami

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the role of thyroid blood flow assessment by color-flow Doppler ultrasonography in the differential diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis and compare it to technetium pertechnetate thyroid scanning. METHODS: Twenty-six patients with thyrotoxicosis were included in the study. Clinical history was taken and physical examination and thyroid function tests were performed for all patients. Thyroid autoantibodies were measured. The thyroid glands of all patients were evaluated by gray scale ultrasonography for size, shape and echotexture. Color-flow Doppler ultrasonography of the thyroid tissue was performed and spectral flow analysis of both inferior thyroid arteries was assessed. Technetium99 pertechnetate scanning of the thyroid gland was done for all patients. According to thyroid scintigraphy, the patients were divided into two groups: 18 cases with Graves’ disease and 8 cases with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. All patients had suppressed thyrotropin. The diagnosis of Graves’ disease and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis was supported by the clinical picture and follow up of patients. RESULTS: Peak systolic velocities of the inferior thyroid arteries were significantly higher in patients with Graves’ disease than in patients with thyroiditis (P = 0.004 in the right inferior thyroid artery and P = 0.001 in left inferior thyroid artery). Color-flow Doppler ultrasonography parameters demonstrated a sensitivity of 88.9% and a specificity of 87.5% in the differential diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis. CONCLUSION: Color Doppler flow of the inferior thyroid artery can be used in the differential diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis, especially when there is a contraindication of thyroid scintigraphy by radioactive material in some patients. PMID:23671754

  9. Ultrasonography of the shoulder with arthroscopic correlation.

    PubMed

    Yablon, Corrie M; Bedi, Asheesh; Morag, Yoav; Jacobson, Jon A

    2013-07-01

    Ultrasonography is a well-established and widely accepted modality for the evaluation of rotator cuff tears and injury to the biceps brachii tendon. Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging have comparable sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing both full-thickness and partial-thickness rotator cuff tears. This article addresses the ultrasonographic diagnosis of abnormalities of the rotator cuff, rotator interval, and biceps brachii, with magnetic resonance imaging and arthroscopic correlation. Characteristic ultrasonographic findings as well as imaging pitfalls are reviewed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Musculoskeletal ultrasonography delineates ankle symptoms in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Toyota, Yukihiro; Tamura, Maasa; Kirino, Yohei; Sugiyama, Yumiko; Tsuchida, Naomi; Kunishita, Yosuke; Kishimoto, Daiga; Kamiyama, Reikou; Miura, Yasushi; Minegishi, Kaoru; Yoshimi, Ryusuke; Ueda, Atsuhisa; Nakajima, Hideaki

    2017-05-01

    To clarify the use of musculoskeletal ultrasonography (US) of ankle joints in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Consecutive RA patients with or without ankle symptoms participated in the study. The US, clinical examination (CE), and patients' visual analog scale for pain (pVAS) for ankles were assessed. Prevalence of tibiotalar joint synovitis and tenosynovitis were assessed by grayscale (GS) and power Doppler (PD) US using a semi-quantitative grading (0-3). The positive US and CE findings were defined as GS score ≥2 and/or PD score ≥1, and joint swelling and/or tenderness, respectively. Multivariate analysis with the generalized linear mixed model was performed by assigning ankle pVAS as a dependent variable. Among a total of 120 ankles from 60 RA patients, positive ankle US findings were found in 21 (35.0%) patients. The concordance rate of CE and US was moderate (kappa 0.57). Of the 88 CE negative ankles, US detected positive findings in 9 (10.2%) joints. Multivariate analysis revealed that ankle US, clinical disease activity index, and foot Health Assessment Questionnaire, but not CE, was independently associated with ankle pVAS. US examination is useful to illustrate RA ankle involvement, especially for patients who complain ankle pain but lack CE findings.

  11. The Doppler Pendulum Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, C. K.; Wong, H. K.

    2011-01-01

    An experiment to verify the Doppler effect of sound waves is described. An ultrasonic source is mounted at the end of a simple pendulum. As the pendulum swings, the rapid change of frequency can be recorded by a stationary receiver using a simple frequency-to-voltage converter. The experimental results are in close agreement with the Doppler…

  12. The Doppler Pendulum Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, C. K.; Wong, H. K.

    2011-01-01

    An experiment to verify the Doppler effect of sound waves is described. An ultrasonic source is mounted at the end of a simple pendulum. As the pendulum swings, the rapid change of frequency can be recorded by a stationary receiver using a simple frequency-to-voltage converter. The experimental results are in close agreement with the Doppler…

  13. Photonic doppler velocimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Lowry, M E; Molau, N E; Sargis, P D; Strand, O T; Sweider, D

    1999-01-01

    We are developing a novel fiber-optic approach to laser Doppler velocimetry as a diagnostic for high explosives tests. Using hardware that was originally developed for the telecommunications industry, we are able to measure surface velocities ranging from centimeters per second to kilometers per second. Laboratory measurements and field trials have shown excellent agreement with other diagnostics.

  14. Finnish Meteorological Institute Doppler Lidar

    SciTech Connect

    Ewan OConnor

    2015-03-27

    This doppler lidar system provides co-polar and cross polar attenuated backscatter coefficients,signal strength, and doppler velocities in the cloud and in the boundary level, including uncertainties for all parameters. Using the doppler beam swinging DBS technique, and Vertical Azimuthal Display (VAD) this system also provides vertical profiles of horizontal winds.

  15. Applications of Colour Processing In Optical Inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, W. V.; Connolly, C.

    1986-11-01

    Humans are endowed with the facility to perceive colour. This not only provides an additional aesthetic dimension but also helps perform visual tasks efficiently. There are many occupations, including inspection, not open to those with defective colour vision. Todays machine vision systems are virtually all colour-blind. Yet there are applications where colour is intrinsic. Consider for example the inspection and grading of fruit, vegetables, biscuits and other food products. Consider also the widespread use of colour coding for wiring and components in the electrical and electronic industries. Automatic optical inspection of such things cannot be done without relating to colour. There are other applications where colour is not directly relevant but the additional information provided can help simplify and speed up the processing task. This paper reviews the nature of colour, relating the psychophysical aspects of colour perception and the physical properties of available sensors to the needs of an automatic inspection system. The theory of colour perception is based on the tri-stimulus theory which says that any colour may be matched using appropriate proportions of three primary colours. Although later experiments have suggested human colour perception is more complex, most electronic video sensors employ a three colour system. Usually the red, green and blue primary components are derived and may be used directly as sensory inputs to a vision system. However the primary representation of colour is not the most efficient means of encoding nor is it the most useful basis for interpretive processing. The R,G and B primary signals may be simply transformed into a new coordinate system where one of the axes represents true object colour or hue. Using this new colour space simplifies processing. These ideas are illustrated by an inspection example. The colour coded wires of a European power cable are identified to ensure that a power plug is safely wired. For this

  16. Color Doppler energy imaging in the diagnosis of fetal intracranial hemorrhage in the second trimester.

    PubMed

    Guerriero, S; Ajossa, S; Mais, V; Risalvato, A; Angiolucci, M; Labate, F; Lai, M P; Melis, G B

    1997-09-01

    Unlike conventional color Doppler imaging; color Doppler energy (or power Doppler) displays the intensity of the returning Doppler signal, is less dependent on the orientation of the blood vessel, and is therefore better able to detect low blood velocities. For these reasons it could be useful in some investigations which are difficult to perform, such as transvaginal evaluation of fetal brain vessels. We report a case of a fetal intracranial hyperechoic lesion detected at 26 weeks by transabdominal sonography in a severely growth-retarded fetus. There was absence of diastolic flow in the umbilical artery and low impedance to diastolic flow in the middle cerebral arteries. The fetus was further investigated by transvaginal sonography for the evaluation of the nature and localization of the lesion and an intraventricular hemorrhage in the right brain parenchyma with disorganized supratentorial brain structure was observed. As color Doppler energy imaging is more sensitive to slow flow, it was more reliable than conventional Doppler imaging in confirming the absence of flow within and around the hyperechoic lesion in contrast to the normal vascularity of the contralateral ventricular system. After informed parental counselling, the mother, for psychological reasons, asked to be delivered by Cesarean section. The fetus died 24 h after birth. The autopsy corroborated the ultrasonographic diagnosis. This case report confirms the accuracy of transvaginal ultrasonography in the diagnosis of intracranial hemorrhage and suggests a specific role for color Doppler energy imaging.

  17. The colour of gender stereotyping.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Sheila J; Macrae, C Neil

    2011-08-01

    Despite legislative attempts to eliminate gender stereotyping from society, the propensity to evaluate people on the basis of their sex remains a pernicious social problem. Noting the critical interplay between cultural and cognitive factors in the establishment of stereotypical beliefs, the current investigation explored the extent to which culturally transmitted colour-gender associations (i.e., pink is for girls, blue is for boys) set the stage for the automatic activation and expression of gender stereotypes. Across six experiments, the results demonstrated that (1) consumer choice for children's goods is dominated by gender-stereotyped colours (Experiment 1); (2) colour-based stereotypic associations guide young children's behaviour (Experiment 2); (3) colour-gender associations automatically activate associated stereotypes in adulthood (Experiments 3-5); and (4) colour-based stereotypic associations bias impressions of male and female targets (Experiment 6). These findings indicate that, despite prohibitions against stereotyping, seemingly innocuous societal practices may continue to promote this mode of thought. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  18. Utility of Placental Laterality and Uterine Artery Doppler Abnormalities for Prediction of Preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Yousuf, Shagufta; Ahmad, Abida; Qadir, Shazia; Gul, Sabia; Tali, Showkat Hussain; Shaheen, Feroz; Akhtar, Shareefa; Dar, Rayees

    2016-10-01

    To find out whether placental laterality and abnormal uterine artery waveform and resistance index, as determined by antenatal ultrasonography and Doppler, can be used as a predictor for the development of preeclampsia. This prospective observational cohort study was conducted from August 2013 to October 2014. Two hundred and one (201) normotensive, primigravida women with singleton pregnancies attending the antenatal clinics without any high-risk factor for development of hypertension were subjected to ultrasonography at 18-22 weeks of gestation to determine the placenta location. All the subjects with lateral placentas were subjected to Doppler ultrasonography to look for abnormal Doppler waveform and resistance index. They were followed for the development of preeclampsia till 40 weeks of gestation or delivery. Out of the total 201 women, 71 (24.5 %) had laterally located placentas and of them 37 (52 %) developed preeclampsia, while the remaining 130 (75.5 %) had centrally located placentas and of them 14 (10.8 %) developed preeclampsia (p < 0.001). In subjects with lateral placentas alone (n = 33), 2 (6 %) developed preeclampsia while as those with lateral placentas with Doppler abnormality (n = 38), 35 (92 %) developed preeclampsia (p < 0.001). The overall risk of developing preeclampsia with laterally located placenta was 9.27 (odds ratio), and 95 % confidence interval was (4.30-19.98). Pregnant women with lateral placentas are at significant risk for development of preeclampsia. Lateral placentas when associated with uterine artery Doppler abnormality, risk for development of preeclampsia increases significantly as compared to lateral placentas alone.

  19. Use of ultrasonography to make management decisions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Transrectal ultrasonography has been available for making management decisions since the mid 1980’s. This technology allows for the real-time visualization of internal structures (i.e. ovary and fetus) that are otherwise difficult to evaluate. The use of this technology in making reproductive manag...

  20. The colour of an avifauna: A quantitative analysis of the colour of Australian birds.

    PubMed

    Delhey, Kaspar

    2015-12-18

    Animal coloration is a poorly-understood aspect of phenotypic variability. Here I expand initial studies of the colour gamut of birds by providing the first quantitative description of the colour variation of an entire avifauna: Australian landbirds (555 species). The colour of Australian birds occupies a small fraction (19%) of the entire possible colour space and colour variation is extremely uneven. Most colours are unsaturated, concentrated in the centre of colour space and based on the deposition of melanins. Other mechanisms of colour production are less common but account for larger portions of colour space and for most saturated colours. Male colours occupy 45-25% more colour space than female colours, indicating that sexual dichromatism translates into a broader range of male colours. Male-exclusive colours are often saturated, at the edge of chromatic space, and have most likely evolved for signalling. While most clades of birds occupy expected or lower-than-expected colour volumes, parrots and cockatoos (Order Psittaciformes) occupy a much larger volume than expected. This uneven distribution of colour variation across mechanisms of colour production, sexes and clades is probably shared by avifaunas in other parts of the world, but this remains to be tested with comparable data.

  1. The colour of an avifauna: A quantitative analysis of the colour of Australian birds

    PubMed Central

    Delhey, Kaspar

    2015-01-01

    Animal coloration is a poorly-understood aspect of phenotypic variability. Here I expand initial studies of the colour gamut of birds by providing the first quantitative description of the colour variation of an entire avifauna: Australian landbirds (555 species). The colour of Australian birds occupies a small fraction (19%) of the entire possible colour space and colour variation is extremely uneven. Most colours are unsaturated, concentrated in the centre of colour space and based on the deposition of melanins. Other mechanisms of colour production are less common but account for larger portions of colour space and for most saturated colours. Male colours occupy 45–25% more colour space than female colours, indicating that sexual dichromatism translates into a broader range of male colours. Male-exclusive colours are often saturated, at the edge of chromatic space, and have most likely evolved for signalling. While most clades of birds occupy expected or lower-than-expected colour volumes, parrots and cockatoos (Order Psittaciformes) occupy a much larger volume than expected. This uneven distribution of colour variation across mechanisms of colour production, sexes and clades is probably shared by avifaunas in other parts of the world, but this remains to be tested with comparable data. PMID:26679370

  2. Doppler effect in optical velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinkevichius, Bronius S.

    1996-02-01

    The current state of the optical metrology based on the Doppler effect has been reviewed. Some historical and scientific information is given, in addition the contemporary optical methods of the velocity measurement using the Doppler effect are analyzed. The Doppler effect applications in astrophysics, plasma physics, investigations of gas and liquid flows, acoustics, mechanics of the deforming solid body and of the rotational motion are considered. The description is presented for the following techniques of the velocity measurement: laser Doppler anemometry, laser Doppler vibrometry, laser gyroscopy.

  3. Effect of power Doppler and digital subtraction techniques on the comparison of myocardial contrast echocardiography with SPECT.

    PubMed

    Haluska, B; Case, C; Short, L; Anderson, J; Marwick, T H

    2001-05-01

    To compare the accuracy and feasibility of harmonic power Doppler and digitally subtracted colour coded grey scale imaging for the assessment of perfusion defect severity by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in an unselected group of patients. Cohort study. Regional cardiothoracic unit. 49 patients (mean (SD) age 61 (11) years; 27 women, 22 men) with known or suspected coronary artery disease were studied with simultaneous myocardial contrast echo (MCE) and SPECT after standard dipyridamole stress. Regional myocardial perfusion by SPECT, performed with (99m)Tc tetrafosmin, scored qualitatively and also quantitated as per cent maximum activity. Normal perfusion was identified by SPECT in 225 of 270 segments (83%). Contrast echo images were interpretable in 92% of patients. The proportion of normal MCE by grey scale, subtracted, and power Doppler techniques were respectively 76%, 74%, and 88% (p < 0.05) at > 80% of maximum counts, compared with 65%, 69%, and 61% at < 60% of maximum counts. For each technique, specificity was lowest in the lateral wall, although power Doppler was the least affected. Grey scale and subtraction techniques were least accurate in the septal wall, but power Doppler showed particular problems in the apex. On a per patient analysis, the sensitivity was 67%, 75%, and 83% for detection of coronary artery disease using grey scale, colour coded, and power Doppler, respectively, with a significant difference between power Doppler and grey scale only (p < 0.05). Specificity was also the highest for power Doppler, at 55%, but not significantly different from subtracted colour coded images. Myocardial contrast echo using harmonic power Doppler has greater accuracy than with grey scale imaging and digital subtraction. However, power Doppler appears to be less sensitive for mild perfusion defects.

  4. Real-time and interactive virtual Doppler ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirji, Samira; Downey, Donal B.; Holdsworth, David W.; Steinman, David A.

    2005-04-01

    This paper describes our "virtual" Doppler ultrasound (DUS) system, in which colour DUS (CDUS) images and DUS spectrograms are generated on-the-fly and displayed in real-time in response to position and orientation cues provided by a magnetically tracked handheld probe. As the presence of complex flow often confounds the interpretation of Doppler ultrasound data, this system will serve to be a fundamental tool for training sonographers and gaining insight into the relationship between ambiguous DUS images and complex blood flow dynamics. Recently, we demonstrated that DUS spectra could be realistically simulated in real-time, by coupling a semi-empirical model of the DUS physics to a 3-D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of a clinically relevant flow field. Our system is an evolution of this approach where a motion-tracking device is used to continuously update the origin and orientation of a slice passing through a CFD model of a stenosed carotid bifurcation. After calibrating our CFD model onto a physical representation of a human neck, virtual CDUS images from an instantaneous slice are then displayed at a rate of approximately 15 Hz by simulating, on-the-fly, an array of DUS spectra and colour coding the resulting spectral mean velocity using a traditional Doppler colour scale. Mimicking a clinical examination, the operator can freeze the CDUS image on-screen, and a spectrogram corresponding to the selected sample volume location is rendered at a higher frame rate of at least 30 Hz. All this is achieved using an inexpensive desktop workstation and commodity graphics card.

  5. Methods for describing illumination colour uniformities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotscholl, Ingo; Trampert, Klaus; Herrmann, Franziska; Neumann, Cornelius

    2015-02-01

    Optimizing angular or spatial colour homogeneity has become an important task in many general lighting applications and first requires a valid description of illumination colour homogeneity. We analyse different frequently used methods to describe colour distributions in theory and with measurement data. It is described why information about chromaticity coordinates, correlated colour temperature and global chromaticity coordinate distances are not sufficient for describing colour homogeneity perception of light distributions. We present local chromaticity coordinate distances as expandable and easy implementable method for describing colour homogeneity distributions that is adaptable to the field of view by only one intuitive, physiological meaningful parameter.

  6. Pulse Doppler ultrasound as a tool for the diagnosis of chronic testicular dysfunction in stallions

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Rodriguez, Jose M.; Anel-Lopez, Luis; Martín-Muñoz, Patricia; Álvarez, Mercedes; Gaitskell-Phillips, Gemma; Anel, Luis; Rodríguez-Medina, Pedro; Peña, Fernando J.

    2017-01-01

    Testicular function is particularly susceptible to vascular insult, resulting in a negative impact on sperm production and quality of the ejaculate. A prompt diagnosis of testicular dysfunction enables implementation of appropriate treatment, hence improving fertility forecasts for stallions. The present research aims to: (1) assess if Doppler ultrasonography is a good tool to diagnose stallions with testicular dysfunction; (2) to study the relationship between Doppler parameters of the testicular artery and those of sperm quality assessed by flow cytometry and (3) to establish cut off values to differentiate fertile stallions from those with pathologies causing testicular dysfunction. A total of 10 stallions (n: 7 healthy stallions and n: 3 sub-fertile stallions) were used in this study. Two ejaculates per stallion were collected and preserved at 5°C in a commercial extender. The semen was evaluated at T0, T24 and T48h by flow cytometry. Integrity and viability of sperm (YoPro®-1/EthD-1), mitochondrial activity (MitoTracker® Deep Red FM) and the DNA fragmentation index (Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay) were assessed. Doppler parameters were measured at three different locations on the testicular artery (Supratesticular artery (SA); Capsular artery (CA) and Intratesticular artery (IA)). The Doppler parameters calculated were: Resistive Index (RI), Pulsatility Index (PI), Peak Systolic Velocity (PSV), End Diastolic Velocity (EDV), Time Average Maximum Velocity (TAMV), Total Arterial Blood Flow (TABF) and TABF rate. The capsular artery was the most reliable location to carry out spectral Doppler assessment, since blood flow parameters of this artery were most closely correlated with sperm quality parameters. Significant differences in all the Doppler parameters studied were observed between fertile and subfertile stallions (p ≤ 0.05). The principal components analysis assay determined that fertile stallions are characterized by high EDV, TAMV, TABF and TABF rate

  7. Hypersensitivity reactions to food colours with special reference to the natural colour annatto extract (butter colour).

    PubMed

    Mikkelsen, H; Larsen, J C; Tarding, F

    1978-01-01

    It is well known that synthetic food colours especially some azo dyes can provoke hypersensitivity reactions such as urticaria, angioneurotic oedema, and astma (Michaëlsson and Juhlin, 1973, Granholt and Thune, 1975). Natural food colours are scarcely investigated with respect to potential allergic properties. Annatto extract, a commonly used food colour in edible fats e.g. butter, has been tested in patients. Among 61 consecutive patients suffereing from chornic urticaria and/or angioneurotic oedema 56 patients were orally provoked by annatto extract during elimination diet. Challenge was performed with a dose equivalent to the amount used in 25 grammes of butter. Twentysix per cent of the patients reacted to this colour 4 hours (SD: 2,6) after intake. Similar challenges with synthetic dyes showed the following results: Tartrazine 11%, Sunset Yellow FCF 17%, Food Red 17 16%, Amaranth 9%, Ponceau 4 R 15%, Erythrosine 12% and Brillant Blue FCF 14%. The present study indicates that natural food colours may induce hypersensitivity reactions as frequent as synthetic dyes.

  8. Diagnosis of aortic coarctation by tardus-parvus renal artery Doppler signal in an infant with multicystic dysplastic kidney: a case report.

    PubMed

    Park, Kate; McHugh, Kieran; vant Hoff, William

    2007-03-01

    We report an infant with known unilateral multicystic dysplastic kidney (MCDK) who underwent renal ultrasonography and Doppler spectral waveform analysis for investigation of hypertension. A tardus-parvus waveform was demonstrated in the renal artery on the normal side suggesting either renal artery or more proximal stenosis. Coarctation of the aorta was subsequently demonstrated.

  9. Chromatic induction in neon colour spreading.

    PubMed

    da Pos, Osvaldo; Bressan, Paola

    2003-03-01

    Neon colour spreading occurs when sections of a lattice are replaced by segments of a different colour. This colour appears to diffuse out of the segments, and produce a slightly tinted transparent surface floating above the lattice. In two of the four experiments reported here, observers varied the colour of an area in a test display, until it matched the neon colour perceived in a corresponding (illusory) area in a comparison display. We found that the neon colour is an additive mixture of the colour of the segments and the colour complementary to the lattice, as suggested by Bressan (Vision Research 35 (1995) 375). In the other two experiments, we separately manipulated the presence and alignment of lattice and segments, to test whether the neon effect is fully predicted by a combination of colour diffusion and simultaneous colour contrast. We found that the colour induced in a neon figure is more saturated than the colour induced in a comparable non-neon figure. We discuss the implications of these results on our current understanding of the mechanisms of neon colour spreading.

  10. Colour in digital pathology: a review.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Emily L; Treanor, Darren

    2017-01-01

    Colour is central to the practice of pathology because of the use of coloured histochemical and immunohistochemical stains to visualize tissue features. Our reliance upon histochemical stains and light microscopy has evolved alongside a wide variation in slide colour, with little investigation into the implications of colour variation. However, the introduction of the digital microscope and whole-slide imaging has highlighted the need for further understanding and control of colour. This is because the digitization process itself introduces further colour variation which may affect diagnosis, and image analysis algorithms often use colour or intensity measures to detect or measure tissue features. The US Food and Drug Administration have released recent guidance stating the need to develop a method of controlling colour reproduction throughout the digitization process in whole-slide imaging for primary diagnostic use. This comprehensive review introduces applied basic colour physics and colour interpretation by the human visual system, before discussing the importance of colour in pathology. The process of colour calibration and its application to pathology are also included, as well as a summary of the current guidelines and recommendations regarding colour in digital pathology. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. An airborne Doppler Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimarzio, C. A.

    1980-01-01

    A pulsed CO2 Doppler Lidar, developed for airborne measurements of atmospheric wind fields, is described. In-flight tests show that the device can be successfully utilized in the detection and measurement of mountain-wave turbulence and wind shear, and in the generation of time histories of wind-field variations in smooth flight. This Lidar is in the process of being configured for measurement of the atmospheric flow fields surrounding severe convective storms.

  12. Laser Doppler anemometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Dennis A.

    1988-01-01

    The material in this NASA TM is to appear as a chapter on Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) in the AGARDograph entitled, A Survey of Measurements and Measuring Techniques in Rapidly Distorted Compressible Turbulent Boundary Layers. The application of LDA (specifically, the dual-beam, burst-counter approach) to compressible flows is discussed. Subjects treated include signal processing, particle light scattering and tracking, data reduction and sampling bias, and three-dimensional measurements.

  13. Laser double Doppler flowmeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poffo, L.; Goujon, J.-M.; Le Page, R.; Lemaitre, J.; Guendouz, M.; Lorrain, N.; Bosc, D.

    2014-05-01

    The Laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) is a non-invasive method for estimating the tissular blood flow and speed at a microscopic scale (microcirculation). It is used for medical research as well as for the diagnosis of diseases related to circulatory system tissues and organs including the issues of microvascular flow (perfusion). It is based on the Doppler effect, created by the interaction between the laser light and tissues. LDF measures the mean blood flow in a volume formed by the single laser beam, that penetrate into the skin. The size of this measurement volume is crucial and depends on skin absorption, and is not directly reachable. Therefore, current developments of the LDF are focused on the use of always more complex and sophisticated signal processing methods. On the other hand, laser Double Doppler Flowmeter (FL2D) proposes to use two laser beams to generate the measurement volume. This volume would be perfectly stable and localized at the intersection of the two laser beams. With FL2D we will be able to determine the absolute blood flow of a specific artery. One aimed application would be to help clinical physicians in health care units.

  14. Doppler Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Leitgeb, Rainer A.; Werkmeister, René M.; Blatter, Cedric; Schmetterer, Leopold

    2014-01-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) has revolutionized ophthalmology. Since its introduction in the early 1990s it has continuously improved in terms of speed, resolution and sensitivity. The technique has also seen a variety of extensions aiming to assess functional aspects of the tissue in addition to morphology. One of these approaches is Doppler OCT (DOCT), which aims to visualize and quantify blood flow. Such extensions were already implemented in time domain systems, but have gained importance with the introduction of Fourier domain OCT. Nowadays phase-sensitive detection techniques are most widely used to extract blood velocity and blood flow from tissues. A common problem with the technique is that the Doppler angle is not known and several approaches have been realized to obtain absolute velocity and flow data from the retina. Additional studies are required to elucidate which of these techniques is most promising. In the recent years, however, several groups have shown that data can be obtained with high validity and reproducibility. In addition, several groups have published values for total retinal blood flow. Another promising application relates to non-invasive angiography. As compared to standard techniques such as fluorescein and indocyanine-green angiography the technique offers two major advantages: no dye is required and depth resolution is required is provided. As such Doppler OCT has the potential to improve our abilities to diagnose and monitor ocular vascular diseases. PMID:24704352

  15. Colour Vision: Understanding #TheDress.

    PubMed

    Brainard, David H; Hurlbert, Anya C

    2015-06-29

    A widely-viewed image of a dress elicits striking individual variation in colour perception. Experiments with multiple variants of the image suggest that the individual differences may arise through the action of visual mechanisms that normally stabilise object colour.

  16. Colour Reconnection at LEP2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abreu, P.

    2002-03-01

    The preliminary results on the search of colour reconnection effects (CR) from the four experiments at LEP, Aleph, Delphi, L3 and Opal, are reviewed. Extreme models are excluded by studies of standard variables, and on going studies of a method first suggested by L3, the particle flow method1, are yet inconclusive.

  17. Structural colour in Chondrus crispus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, Chris J.; Wilts, Bodo D.; Vignolini, Silvia; Brodie, Juliet; Steiner, Ullrich; Rudall, Paula J.; Glover, Beverley J.; Gregory, Thomas; Walker, Rachel H.

    2015-07-01

    The marine world is incredibly rich in brilliant and intense colours. Photonic structures are found in many different species and provide extremely complex optical responses that cannot be achieved solely by pigments. In this study we examine the cuticular structure of the red alga Chondrus crispus (Irish Moss) using anatomical and optical approaches. We experimentally measure the optical response of the multilayer structure in the cuticle. Using finite-difference time-domain modelling, we demonstrate conclusively for the first time that the dimensions and organisation of lamellae are responsible for the blue structural colouration on the surface of the fronds. Comparison of material along the apical-basal axis of the frond demonstrates that structural colour is confined to the tips of the thalli and show definitively that a lack of structural colour elsewhere corresponds with a reduction in the number of lamellae and the regularity of their ordering. Moreover, by studying the optical response for different hydration conditions, we demonstrate that the cuticular structure is highly porous and that the presence of water plays a critical role in its ability to act as a structural light reflector.

  18. The colour of fossil feathers.

    PubMed

    Vinther, Jakob; Briggs, Derek E G; Prum, Richard O; Saranathan, Vinodkumar

    2008-10-23

    Feathers are complex integumentary appendages of birds and some other theropod dinosaurs. They are frequently coloured and function in camouflage and display. Previous investigations have concluded that fossil feathers are preserved as carbonized traces composed of feather-degrading bacteria. Here, an investigation of a colour-banded feather from the Lower Cretaceous Crato Formation of Brazil revealed that the dark bands are preserved as elongate, oblate carbonaceous bodies 1-2 microm long, whereas the light bands retain only relief traces on the rock matrix. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis showed that the dark bands preserve a substantial amount of carbon, whereas the light bands show no carbon residue. Comparison of these oblate fossil bodies with the structure of black feathers from a living bird indicates that they are the eumelanin-containing melanosomes. We conclude that most fossil feathers are preserved as melanosomes, and that the distribution of these structures in fossil feathers can preserve the colour pattern in the original feather. The discovery of preserved melanosomes opens up the possibility of interpreting the colour of extinct birds and other dinosaurs.

  19. Structural colour in Chondrus crispus

    PubMed Central

    Chandler, Chris J.; Wilts, Bodo D.; Vignolini, Silvia; Brodie, Juliet; Steiner, Ullrich; Rudall, Paula J.; Glover, Beverley J.; Gregory, Thomas; Walker, Rachel H.

    2015-01-01

    The marine world is incredibly rich in brilliant and intense colours. Photonic structures are found in many different species and provide extremely complex optical responses that cannot be achieved solely by pigments. In this study we examine the cuticular structure of the red alga Chondrus crispus (Irish Moss) using anatomical and optical approaches. We experimentally measure the optical response of the multilayer structure in the cuticle. Using finite-difference time-domain modelling, we demonstrate conclusively for the first time that the dimensions and organisation of lamellae are responsible for the blue structural colouration on the surface of the fronds. Comparison of material along the apical-basal axis of the frond demonstrates that structural colour is confined to the tips of the thalli and show definitively that a lack of structural colour elsewhere corresponds with a reduction in the number of lamellae and the regularity of their ordering. Moreover, by studying the optical response for different hydration conditions, we demonstrate that the cuticular structure is highly porous and that the presence of water plays a critical role in its ability to act as a structural light reflector. PMID:26139470

  20. [Power Doppler e mezzi di contrasto nello studio della membrana sinoviale reumatoide].

    PubMed

    Carotti, M; Filippucci, E; Salaffi, F

    2002-01-01

    Pannus formation is a fundamental event in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis and its hypervascularisation seems to be crucial to the development of joint damage. High-resolution greyscale ultrasonography is a safe, quick, and inexpensive imaging tool that allows an accurate detection of even minimal morphostructural changes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, including joint effusion, thickening of synovial membrane and bone erosions. More recently, power Doppler sonography has proved to be a reliable tool for semiquantitative assessment of the vascularity of the synovial tissue. The contrast-enhanced power Doppler sonography seems to be a helpful adjunct in assessing synovitis and the therapeutic response to the different therapies in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The aim of this radiological vignette was to show a representative example of use of power Doppler sonography with contrast agent in assessing rheumatoid synovitis.

  1. Color Doppler US of the postoperative penis: anatomy and surgical complications.

    PubMed

    Bertolotto, Michele; Serafini, Giovanni; Savoca, Gianfranco; Liguori, Giovanni; Calderan, Loretta; Gasparini, Cristiana; Mucelli, Roberto Pozzi

    2005-01-01

    A number of surgical procedures that significantly change the penile anatomy and vasculature can be used to manage pathologic conditions of the penis (eg, congenital and acquired deformities, erectile dysfunction, priapism). Phallic reconstruction surgery can be used for sex reassignment and after penile amputation or for correction of congenital malformations. Color Doppler ultrasonography (US) clearly depicts the normal penile anatomy and postoperative changes (eg, changes of the tunica albuginea, extraalbugineal pathologic fluid collections, cavernosal tissue changes produced by scars and fibrosis). It is also effective in evaluating surgery-related complications and determining the causes of erectile dysfunction and other unsatisfactory long-term results. Moreover, color Doppler US of the penile vessels and vascular anastomoses following revascularization allows direct evaluation of flow characteristics, shunt patency, and venous engorgement. Color Doppler US is the imaging modality of choice in evaluating patients who have undergone penile surgery.

  2. The "Human Colour" Crayon: Investigating the Attitudes and Perceptions of Learners Regarding Race and Skin Colour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Neeske; Costandius, Elmarie

    2017-01-01

    Some coloured and black learners in South Africa use a light orange or pink crayon to represent themselves in art. Many learners name this colour "human colour" or "skin colour". This is troublesome, because it could reflect exclusionary ways of representing race in images and language. This case study, conducted with two…

  3. Biological Components of Colour Preference in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Anna; Bevis, Laura; Ling, Yazhu; Hurlbert, Anya

    2010-01-01

    Adult colour preference has been summarized quantitatively in terms of weights on the two fundamental neural processes that underlie early colour encoding: the S-(L+M) ("blue-yellow") and L-M ("red-green") cone-opponent contrast channels ( Ling, Hurlbert & Robinson, 2006; Hurlbert & Ling, 2007). Here, we investigate whether colour preference in…

  4. Colour Vision Deficiency and Physics Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maule, Louise; Featonby, David

    2016-01-01

    1 in 12 males suffer from some form of colour vision deficiency (CVD) which in the present colour dominated world of education presentation can be a severe disadvantage. Although aware of "colourblindness" most teachers make little or no adjustment for these pupils for whom tasks may be more difficult. This article examines colour vision…

  5. An RGB Approach to Prismatic Colours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theilmann, Florian; Grusche, Sascha

    2013-01-01

    Teaching prismatic colours usually boils down to establishing the take-home message that white light consists of "differently refrangible" coloured rays. This approach explains the classical spectrum of seven colours but has its limitations, e.g. in discussing spectra from setups with higher resolution or in understanding the well…

  6. Biological Components of Colour Preference in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Anna; Bevis, Laura; Ling, Yazhu; Hurlbert, Anya

    2010-01-01

    Adult colour preference has been summarized quantitatively in terms of weights on the two fundamental neural processes that underlie early colour encoding: the S-(L+M) ("blue-yellow") and L-M ("red-green") cone-opponent contrast channels ( Ling, Hurlbert & Robinson, 2006; Hurlbert & Ling, 2007). Here, we investigate whether colour preference in…

  7. An RGB Approach to Prismatic Colours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theilmann, Florian; Grusche, Sascha

    2013-01-01

    Teaching prismatic colours usually boils down to establishing the take-home message that white light consists of "differently refrangible" coloured rays. This approach explains the classical spectrum of seven colours but has its limitations, e.g. in discussing spectra from setups with higher resolution or in understanding the well…

  8. Colour Vision Deficiency and Physics Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maule, Louise; Featonby, David

    2016-01-01

    1 in 12 males suffer from some form of colour vision deficiency (CVD) which in the present colour dominated world of education presentation can be a severe disadvantage. Although aware of "colourblindness" most teachers make little or no adjustment for these pupils for whom tasks may be more difficult. This article examines colour vision…

  9. Focused Real-Time Ultrasonography for Nephrologists

    PubMed Central

    Kaptein, Matthew J.

    2017-01-01

    We propose that renal consults are enhanced by incorporating a nephrology-focused ultrasound protocol including ultrasound evaluation of cardiac contractility, the presence or absence of pericardial effusion, inferior vena cava size and collapsibility to guide volume management, bladder volume to assess for obstruction or retention, and kidney size and structure to potentially gauge chronicity of renal disease or identify other structural abnormalities. The benefits of immediate and ongoing assessment of cardiac function and intravascular volume status (prerenal), possible urinary obstruction or retention (postrenal), and potential etiologies of acute kidney injury or chronic kidney disease far outweigh the limitations of bedside ultrasonography performed by nephrologists. The alternative is reliance on formal ultrasonography, which creates a disconnect between those who order, perform, and interpret studies, creates delays between when clinical questions are asked and answered, and may increase expense. Ultrasound-enhanced physical examination provides immediate information about our patients, which frequently alters our assessments and management plans. PMID:28261499

  10. Bedside ultrasonography in the ICU: part 2.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, Yanick; Marik, Paul E

    2005-09-01

    This is the second of a two-part review on the application of bedside ultrasonography in the ICU. In this part, the following procedures will be covered: (1) echocardiography and cardiovascular diagnostics (second part); (2) the use of bedside ultrasound to facilitate central-line placement and to aid in the care of patients with pleural effusions and intra-abdominal fluid collections; (3) the role of hand-carried ultrasound in the ICU; and (4) the performance of bedside ultrasound by the intensivist. The safety and utility of bedside ultrasonography performed by adequately trained intensivists has now been well demonstrated. This technology, as a powerful adjunct to the physical examination, will become an indispensable tool in the management of critically ill patients.

  11. [Chest ultrasonography in pediatric critical care practice].

    PubMed

    Riu, B; Ruiz, J; Mari, A; Silva, S

    2013-12-01

    An increasingly amount of evidence suggests that lung ultrasonography constitutes a relevant complementary diagnostic tool for adults patient in acute respiratory failure. A comprehensive and standardized ultrasonographic semiology has been described, relying on accurate and reproducible data directly obtained at patient's bedside. Therefore, pleural effusion, pneumothorax, pulmonary consolidation and interstitial lung disease can be diagnosed in a critical care environment with a similar level of performance than when reference diagnosis methods such as thoracic CT-scan are employed. Furthermore, lung ultrasonography seems to be able to contribute to an early therapeutic decision based on such online physiopathological data. Pioneers works in this field have suggested an attractive similarity between the ultrasonographic patterns described in adults and children. Nevertheless, the clinical usefulness of lung ultrasonographic approach in the pediatric critical care medicine still needs to be confirmed by specifically designed studies.

  12. Clinical applications of doppler ultrasound

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, K.J.W.; Burns, P.N.; Well, P.N.T.

    1987-01-01

    This book introduces a guide to the physical principles and instrumentation of duplex Doppler ultrasound and its applications in obstetrics, gynecology, neonatology, gastroentology, and evaluation of peripheral vascular disease. The book provides information needed to perform Doppler ultrasound examinations and interpret the results. An introduction to Doppler physics and instrumentation is followed by a thorough review of hemodynamics, which explains the principles underlying interpretation of Doppler signals. Of special note is the state-of-the-art coverage of new applications of Doppler in recognition of high-risk pregnancy, diagnosis of intrauterine growth retardation, investigation of neonatal blood flow, evaluation of first-trimester pregnancy, and diagnosis of gastrointestinal disease. The book also offers guidelines on the use of Doppler ultrasound in diagnosing carotid disease, deep venous thrombosis, and aorta/femoral disease.

  13. Localization of needle tip with color doppler during pericardiocentesis: In vitro validation and initial clinical application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, G.; Cardon, L.; Vilkomerson, D.; Lipson, D.; Wong, J.; Rodriguez, L. L.; Thomas, J. D.; Griffin, B. P.

    2001-01-01

    This study evaluates a new device that uses color Doppler ultrasonography to enable real-time image guidance of the aspirating needle, which has not been possible until now. The ColorMark device (EchoCath Inc, Princeton, NJ) induces high-frequency, low-amplitude vibrations in the needle to enable localization with color Doppler. We studied this technique in 25 consecutive patients undergoing pericardiocentesis, and in vitro, in a urethane phantom with which the accuracy of color Doppler localization of the needle tip was compared with that obtained by direct measurement. Tip localization was excellent in vitro; errors axial to the ultrasound beam (velocity Doppler -0.13 +/- 0.90 mm, power Doppler -0.05 +/- 1.7 mm) were less than lateral errors (velocity -0.36 +/- 1.8 mm, power -0.02 +/- 2.8 mm). In 18 of 25 patients, the needle was identified and guided into the pericardial space with the ColorMark technique, and it allowed successful, uncomplicated drainage of fluid. Initial failures were the result of incorrect settings on the echocardiographic machine and inappropriate combinations of the needle puncture site and imaging window. This study demonstrates a novel color Doppler technique that is highly accurate at localizing a needle tip. The technique is feasible for guiding pericardiocentesis. Further clinical validation of this technique is required.

  14. Localization of needle tip with color doppler during pericardiocentesis: In vitro validation and initial clinical application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, G.; Cardon, L.; Vilkomerson, D.; Lipson, D.; Wong, J.; Rodriguez, L. L.; Thomas, J. D.; Griffin, B. P.

    2001-01-01

    This study evaluates a new device that uses color Doppler ultrasonography to enable real-time image guidance of the aspirating needle, which has not been possible until now. The ColorMark device (EchoCath Inc, Princeton, NJ) induces high-frequency, low-amplitude vibrations in the needle to enable localization with color Doppler. We studied this technique in 25 consecutive patients undergoing pericardiocentesis, and in vitro, in a urethane phantom with which the accuracy of color Doppler localization of the needle tip was compared with that obtained by direct measurement. Tip localization was excellent in vitro; errors axial to the ultrasound beam (velocity Doppler -0.13 +/- 0.90 mm, power Doppler -0.05 +/- 1.7 mm) were less than lateral errors (velocity -0.36 +/- 1.8 mm, power -0.02 +/- 2.8 mm). In 18 of 25 patients, the needle was identified and guided into the pericardial space with the ColorMark technique, and it allowed successful, uncomplicated drainage of fluid. Initial failures were the result of incorrect settings on the echocardiographic machine and inappropriate combinations of the needle puncture site and imaging window. This study demonstrates a novel color Doppler technique that is highly accurate at localizing a needle tip. The technique is feasible for guiding pericardiocentesis. Further clinical validation of this technique is required.

  15. Preoperative imaging for DIEA perforator flaps: a comparative study of computed tomographic angiography and Doppler ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Rozen, Warren M; Phillips, Timothy J; Ashton, Mark W; Stella, Damien L; Gibson, Robert N; Taylor, G Ian

    2008-01-01

    Abdominal donor-site flaps, including the transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM) and deep inferior epigastric artery (DIEA) perforator flaps, are standard in autologous breast reconstruction. With significant variation in the vascular anatomy of the abdominal wall, preoperative imaging is essential for preoperative planning and reducing intraoperative error. Doppler and color duplex sonography have been used with varying results, and the quest continues for optimal preoperative assessment. Computed tomographic angiography has recently been proposed as a noninvasive modality for this purpose. This is the first study to formally compare preoperative Doppler ultrasound with computed tomographic angiography for imaging the DIEA. Eight consecutive patients undergoing DIEA perforator flap surgery for breast reconstruction underwent both computed tomographic angiography and Doppler ultrasound preoperatively. All investigations and procedures were performed at the same institution with the same primary and assisting surgeons and the same radiology team. Computed tomographic angiography was superior to Doppler ultrasound at identifying the course of the DIEA and its branching pattern, and in visualizing its perforators. Preoperative computed tomographic angiography was highly specific (100 percent) and more sensitive in mapping and visualizing perforators (p = 0.0078). It was also proficient at identifying the superficial epigastric arterial system and for effectively displaying the results intraoperatively. It was substantially quicker and removed the interobserver error associated with Doppler ultrasonography. The study was ceased after eight patients because of the overwhelming benefit of computed tomographic angiography over Doppler ultrasonography. Computed tomographic angiography is a valuable imaging modality for the preoperative assessment of the donor-site vascular supply for TRAM and DIEA perforator flaps.

  16. Preoperative imaging for DIEA perforator flaps: a comparative study of computed tomographic angiography and doppler ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Rozen, Warren M; Phillips, Timothy J; Ashton, Mark W; Stella, Damien L; Gibson, Robert N; Taylor, G Ian

    2008-01-01

    Abdominal donor-site flaps, including the transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM) and deep inferior epigastric artery (DIEA) perforator flaps, are standard in autologous breast reconstruction. With significant variation in the vascular anatomy of the abdominal wall, preoperative imaging is essential for preoperative planning and reducing intraoperative error. Doppler and color duplex sonography have been used with varying results, and the quest continues for optimal preoperative assessment. Computed tomographic angiography has recently been proposed as a noninvasive modality for this purpose. This is the first study to formally compare preoperative Doppler ultrasound with computed tomographic angiography for imaging the DIEA. Eight consecutive patients undergoing DIEA perforator flap surgery for breast reconstruction underwent both computed tomographic angiography and Doppler ultrasound preoperatively. All investigations and procedures were performed at the same institution with the same primary and assisting surgeons and the same radiology team. Computed tomographic angiography was superior to Doppler ultrasound at identifying the course of the DIEA and its branching pattern, and in visualizing its perforators. Preoperative computed tomographic angiography was highly specific (100 percent) and more sensitive in mapping and visualizing perforators (p = 0.0078). It was also proficient at identifying the superficial epigastric arterial system and for effectively displaying the results intraoperatively. It was substantially quicker and removed the interobserver error associated with Doppler ultrasonography. The study was ceased after eight patients because of the overwhelming benefit of computed tomographic angiography over Doppler ultrasonography. Computed tomographic angiography is a valuable imaging modality for the preoperative assessment of the donor-site vascular supply for TRAM and DIEA perforator flaps.

  17. Ultrasonography of the hip and lower extremity.

    PubMed

    Malanga, Gerard A; Dentico, Richard; Halperin, Jonathan S

    2010-08-01

    Musculoskeletal ultrasonographic evaluation of the proximal lower limb includes the evaluation of the soft tissue structures, including tendons, ligaments, or muscles, and the bony structures of this region, include the hip, pubic symphysis, and sacroiliac joints. The evaluation of the hip or proximal lower limb region can be performed in an efficient and systematic manner. Ultrasonography of the lateral hip, intra-articular hip, medial thigh, and posterior thigh are discussed in the article.

  18. Vascular access: the impact of ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Carlos Eduardo Saldanha

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vascular punctures are often necessary in critically ill patients. They are secure, but not free of complications. Ultrasonography enhances safety of the procedure by decreasing puncture attempts, complications and costs. This study reviews important publications and the puncture technique using ultrasound, bringing part of the experience of the intensive care unit of the Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo (SP), Brazil, and discussing issues that should be considered in future studies. PMID:28076607

  19. Laser Doppler diagnostics for orthodontia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhkova, Anastasia V.; Lebedeva, Nina G.; Sedykh, Alexey V.; Ulyanov, Sergey S.; Lepilin, Alexander V.; Kharish, Natalia A.

    2004-06-01

    The results of statistical analysis of Doppler spectra of intensity fluctuations of light, scattered from mucous membrane of oral cavity of healthy volunteers and patients, abused by the orthodontic diseases, are presented. Analysis of Doppler spectra, obtained from tooth pulp of patients, is carried out. New approach to monitoring of blood microcirculation in orthodontics is suggested. Influence of own noise of Doppler measuring system on formation of the output signal is studied.

  20. Critical care ultrasonography in circulatory shock.

    PubMed

    Koster, Geert; van der Horst, Iwan C C

    2017-08-01

    The objective was to define the role of ultrasound in the diagnosis and the management of circulatory shock by critical appraisal of the literature. Assessment of any patient's hemodynamic profile based on clinical examination can be sufficient in several cases, but many times unclarities remain. Arterial catheters and central venous lines are commonly used in critically ill patients for practical reasons, and offer an opportunity for advanced hemodynamic monitoring. Critical care ultrasonography may add to the understanding of the hemodynamic profile at hand. Improvements in ultrasound techniques, for example, smaller devices and improved image quality, may reduce limitations and increase its value as a complementary tool. Critical care ultrasonography has great potential to guide decisions in the management of shock, but operators should be aware of limitations and pitfalls as well. Current evidence comes from cohort studies with heterogeneous design and outcomes. Use of ultrasonography for hemodynamic monitoring in critical care expands, probably because of absence of procedure-related adverse events. Easy applicability and the capacity of distinguishing different types of shock add to its increasing role, further supported by consensus statements promoting ultrasound as the preferred tool for diagnostics in circulatory shock.

  1. Measurements and modelling of the influence of dentine colour and enamel on tooth colour.

    PubMed

    Battersby, Paul D; Battersby, Stephen J

    2015-03-01

    We provide a quantitative predictive model for the extent to which coloured dentine, visible through the enamel, contributes to tooth colour. Our model uses (L(*),a(*),b(*)) measurements rather than spectral measurements. We have used a model system, composed of a slice of bovine enamel placed on top of coloured paper. We have measured the colour of the enamel-paper combination, as an analogue for a tooth, and have related this to the colour of the paper, as an analogue for dentine. By changing the paper colour, we have been able to explore how the colour of dentine determines tooth colour, according to our model system. We have also compared hydrated and desiccated samples. In qualitative terms, superimposing the enamel on top of the paper increases the "lightness" for all colours tested except white while simultaneously reducing the chromaticity, a measure of the extent to which the colour differs from grey. Desiccated enamel is much more effective at increasing the lightness and reducing the chromaticity than hydrated enamel. Quantitatively, our measurements are reproduced by the mathematical model we have developed to within 2% in "lightness" and about 8% in chromaticity. We are able to predict the colour of an analogue for a tooth, composed of bovine enamel and coloured paper, from the colour of an analogue for the dentine, the coloured paper alone, with good accuracy. This understanding provides insights into the role of dentine colour in determining tooth colour. Our work helps quantify the importance of dentine colour, compared to other, extrinsic causes of colour, such as staining, in determining the visible colour of teeth. Our predicted colours represent a baseline to which extrinsic sources will add. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Colour annealing - a toy model of colour reconnections

    SciTech Connect

    Sandhoff, Marisa; Skands, Peter; /Fermilab

    2005-12-01

    We present a simple toy model for colour reconnections at the nonperturbative level. The model resembles an annealing-type algorithm and is applicable to any collider and process type, though we argue for a possible enhancement of the effect in hadron-hadron collisions. We present a simple application and study of the consequences for semileptonic t{bar t} events at the Tevatron.

  3. Vasoconstriction in horses caused by endophyte-infected tall fescue seed is detected with Doppler ultrasonography

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The hypotheses that endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum)-infected tall fescue (TF) seed causes vasoconstriction in horses in vivo and that ground seed would cause more pronounced vasoconstriction than whole seed were tested. Ten horses each received 1 of 3 treatments: endophyte-free ground (E–G; n ...

  4. A STANDARDIZED LANTERN FOR TESTING COLOUR VISION.

    PubMed

    Martin, L C

    1939-01-01

    A Lantern for lesting Colour-Vision is arranged to show test colours in pairs as in the Board of Trade Lantern. It is adapted to use electric light, and is standardized by stringent testing. The paper discusses the experiments and considerations which led to the formulation of the allowable tolerances in the transmission and colour co-ordinate specifications of the filters, the colour temperature of the lamps and so on. The results of tests on normal and colour-defective subjects are described.

  5. A STANDARDIZED LANTERN FOR TESTING COLOUR VISION

    PubMed Central

    Martin, L. C.

    1939-01-01

    A Lantern for lesting Colour-Vision is arranged to show test colours in pairs as in the Board of Trade Lantern. It is adapted to use electric light, and is standardized by stringent testing. The paper discusses the experiments and considerations which led to the formulation of the allowable tolerances in the transmission and colour co-ordinate specifications of the filters, the colour temperature of the lamps and so on. The results of tests on normal and colour-defective subjects are described. PMID:18169586

  6. Put on that colour, it fits your emotion: Colour appropriateness as a function of expressed emotion.

    PubMed

    Dael, Nele; Perseguers, Marie-Noëlle; Marchand, Cynthia; Antonietti, Jean-Philippe; Mohr, Christine

    2016-01-01

    People associate affective meaning with colour, and this may influence decisions about colours. Hue is traditionally considered the most salient descriptor of colour and colour-affect associations, although colour brightness and saturation seem to have particularly strong affective connotations. To test whether colour choices can be driven by emotion, we investigated whether and how colour hue, brightness, and saturation are systematically associated with bodily expressions of positive (joy) and negative (fear) emotions. Twenty-five non-colour-blind participants viewed videos of these expressions and selected for each video the most appropriate colour using colour sliders providing values for hue, brightness, and saturation. The overall colour choices were congruent with the expressed emotion--that is, participants selected brighter and more saturated colours for joy expressions than for fear expressions. Also, colours along the red-yellow spectrum were deemed more appropriate for joy expressions and cyan-bluish hues for fear expressions. The current study adds further support to the role of emotion in colour choices by (a) showing that emotional information is spontaneously used in an unconstrained choice setting, (b) extending to ecologically valid stimuli occurring in everyday encounters (dressed bodies), and (c) suggesting that all colour parameters are likely to be important when processing affective nonverbal person information, though not independently from each other.

  7. The neural correlate of colour distances revealed with competing synaesthetic and real colours.

    PubMed

    Laeng, Bruno; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Specht, Karsten

    2011-03-01

    Synaesthetes claim to perceive illusory colours when reading alphanumeric symbols so that two colours are said to be bound to the same letter or digit (i.e., the colour of the ink, e.g., black, and an additional, synaesthetic, colour). To explore the neural correlates of this phenomenon, we used a Stroop single-letter colour-naming task and found that distances in colour space between the illusory and real colours of a letter target (as computed from either the RGB or CIExyY coordinates of colours) systematically influenced the degree of neuronal activation in colour-processing brain regions. The synaesthetes also activated the same fronto-parietal network during the classic colour-word Stroop task and single-letter tasks. We conclude that the same neural substrate that supports the conscious experience of colour, as triggered by physical wavelength, supports the experience of synaesthetic colours. Thus, two colour attributes (one that is wavelength-dependent and one that is illusory) can be bound to the same stimulus position and simultaneously engage the colour areas in proportion to their similarity in colour space. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  8. Characterisation of the n-colour printing process using the spot colour overprint model.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Kiran; Green, Phil; Pointer, Michael R

    2014-12-29

    This paper is aimed at reproducing the solid spot colours using the n-colour separation. A simplified numerical method, called as the spot colour overprint (SCOP) model, was used for characterising the n-colour printing process. This model was originally developed for estimating the spot colour overprints. It was extended to be used as a generic forward characterisation model for the n-colour printing process. The inverse printer model based on the look-up table was implemented to obtain the colour separation for n-colour printing process. Finally the real-world spot colours were reproduced using 7-colour separation on lithographic offset printing process. The colours printed with 7 inks were compared against the original spot colours to evaluate the accuracy. The results show good accuracy with the mean CIEDE2000 value between the target colours and the printed colours of 2.06. The proposed method can be used successfully to reproduce the spot colours, which can potentially save significant time and cost in the printing and packaging industry.

  9. Neutrino Induced Doppler Broadening

    PubMed Central

    Jolie, J.; Stritt, N.

    2000-01-01

    When a nucleus undergoes beta decay via the electron capture reaction, it emits an electron neutrino. The neutrino emission gives a small recoil to the atom, which can be experimentally observed as a Doppler broadening on subsequently emitted gamma rays. Using the two-axis flat-crystal spectrometer GAMS4 and the electron capture reaction in 152Eu, the motion of atoms having an excess kinetic energy of 3 eV in the solid state was studied. It is shown how the motion of the atom during the first hundreds of femtoseconds can be reconstructed. The relevance of this knowledge for a new neutrino helicity experiment is discussed. PMID:27551591

  10. Laser Doppler velocimetry primer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachalo, William D.

    1985-01-01

    Advanced research in experimental fluid dynamics required a familiarity with sophisticated measurement techniques. In some cases, the development and application of new techniques is required for difficult measurements. Optical methods and in particular, the laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) are now recognized as the most reliable means for performing measurements in complex turbulent flows. And such, the experimental fluid dynamicist should be familiar with the principles of operation of the method and the details associated with its application. Thus, the goals of this primer are to efficiently transmit the basic concepts of the LDV method to potential users and to provide references that describe the specific areas in greater detail.

  11. Printing colour at the optical diffraction limit.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Karthik; Duan, Huigao; Hegde, Ravi S; Koh, Samuel C W; Wei, Jennifer N; Yang, Joel K W

    2012-09-01

    The highest possible resolution for printed colour images is determined by the diffraction limit of visible light. To achieve this limit, individual colour elements (or pixels) with a pitch of 250 nm are required, translating into printed images at a resolution of ∼100,000 dots per inch (d.p.i.). However, methods for dispensing multiple colourants or fabricating structural colour through plasmonic structures have insufficient resolution and limited scalability. Here, we present a non-colourant method that achieves bright-field colour prints with resolutions up to the optical diffraction limit. Colour information is encoded in the dimensional parameters of metal nanostructures, so that tuning their plasmon resonance determines the colours of the individual pixels. Our colour-mapping strategy produces images with both sharp colour changes and fine tonal variations, is amenable to large-volume colour printing via nanoimprint lithography, and could be useful in making microimages for security, steganography, nanoscale optical filters and high-density spectrally encoded optical data storage.

  12. Colour dependence of zodiacal light models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giese, R. H.; Hanner, M. S.; Leinert, C.

    1973-01-01

    Colour models of the zodiacal light in the ecliptic have been calculated for both dielectric and metallic particles in the sub-micron and micron size range. Two colour ratios were computed, a blue ratio and a red ratio. The models with a size distribution proportional to s to the -2.5 power ds (where s is the particle radius) generally show a colour close to the solar colour and almost independent of elongation. Especially in the blue colour ratio there is generally no significant dependence on the lower cutoff size (0.1-1 micron). The main feature of absorbing particles is a reddening at small elongations. The models for size distributions proportional to s to the -4 power ds show larger departures from solar colour and more variation with model parameters. Colour measurements, including red and near infra-red, therefore are useful to distinguish between flat and steep size spectra and to verify the presence of slightly absorbing particles.

  13. Colour discrimination and categorisation in Williams syndrome.

    PubMed

    Farran, Emily K; Cranwell, Matthew B; Alvarez, James; Franklin, Anna

    2013-10-01

    Individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) present with impaired functioning of the dorsal visual stream relative to the ventral visual stream. As such, little attention has been given to ventral stream functions in WS. We investigated colour processing, a predominantly ventral stream function, for the first time in nineteen individuals with Williams syndrome. Colour discrimination was assessed using the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test. Colour categorisation was assessed using a match-to-sample test and a colour naming task. A visual search task was also included as a measure of sensitivity to the size of perceptual colour difference. Results showed that individuals with WS have reduced colour discrimination relative to typically developing participants matched for chronological age; performance was commensurate with a typically developing group matched for non-verbal ability. In contrast, categorisation was typical in WS, although there was some evidence that sensitivity to the size of perceptual colour differences was reduced in this group.

  14. Evolution of colour vision in mammals.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Gerald H

    2009-10-12

    Colour vision allows animals to reliably distinguish differences in the distributions of spectral energies reaching the eye. Although not universal, a capacity for colour vision is sufficiently widespread across the animal kingdom to provide prima facie evidence of its importance as a tool for analysing and interpreting the visual environment. The basic biological mechanisms on which vertebrate colour vision ultimately rests, the cone opsin genes and the photopigments they specify, are highly conserved. Within that constraint, however, the utilization of these basic elements varies in striking ways in that they appear, disappear and emerge in altered form during the course of evolution. These changes, along with other alterations in the visual system, have led to profound variations in the nature and salience of colour vision among the vertebrates. This article concerns the evolution of colour vision among the mammals, viewing that process in the context of relevant biological mechanisms, of variations in mammalian colour vision, and of the utility of colour vision.

  15. What colour is a shadow?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, S. W.

    2009-05-01

    What colour is a shadow? Black, grey, or some other colour? This article describes how to use a digital camera to test the hypothesis that a shadow under a clear blue sky has a blue tint. A white sheet of A4 paper was photographed in full sunlight and in shadow under a clear blue sky. The images were analysed using a shareware program called ImageJ. The average red, green and blue pixel values in a region of interest drawn on a photograph of the paper in sunlight and shadow were 0.3, 0.32, 0.38 and 0.2, 0.3, 0.5 respectively, demonstrating that a shadow under a blue sky has a blue tint. The experiment would be a useful exercise for a science class.

  16. Cardiac involvement in Sydenham's chorea: clinical and Doppler echocardiographic findings.

    PubMed

    Elevli, M; Celebi, A; Tombul, T; Gökalp, A S

    1999-10-01

    Sydenham's chorea is often encountered in pure form, but it may also occur in association with carditis. Recently, it has been reported that silent, mild valvular regurgitation has been encountered in patients with rheumatic fever manifested by isolated polyarthritis and pure chorea. We studied 22 children with Sydenham's chorea to determine clinical and subclinical heart involvement at the time of the initial diagnosis. Ages of the patients ranged from 6-19 y (mean 13.14+/-3.0), and the female/male ratio was 3.4:1. All patients were evaluated by clinical and echocardiographic examination with respect to heart involvement. Carditis was detected in only 5 of 22 patients (23%) by auscultation. Clinical valvular involvement was determined: mitral regurgitation in three and combined mitral and aortic regurgitation in two. The frequency of valvular involvement increased significantly to 63% 2(14/22) after adding silent mitral regurgitation detected by colour Doppler echocardiography (chi2=7.50, p=0.0062). We found that clinically inaudible, but echocardiographically significant, mild valvular regurgitation was frequent in patients with pure chorea. It is concluded that colour Doppler echocardiography may be useful in detecting silent valvular regurgitation and in deciding the duration of prophylaxis.

  17. Colour application on mammography image segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Embong, R.; Aziz, N. M. Nik Ab.; Karim, A. H. Abd; Ibrahim, M. R.

    2017-09-01

    The segmentation process is one of the most important steps in image processing and computer vision since it is vital in the initial stage of image analysis. Segmentation of medical images involves complex structures and it requires precise segmentation result which is necessary for clinical diagnosis such as the detection of tumour, oedema, and necrotic tissues. Since mammography images are grayscale, researchers are looking at the effect of colour in the segmentation process of medical images. Colour is known to play a significant role in the perception of object boundaries in non-medical colour images. Processing colour images require handling more data, hence providing a richer description of objects in the scene. Colour images contain ten percent (10%) additional edge information as compared to their grayscale counterparts. Nevertheless, edge detection in colour image is more challenging than grayscale image as colour space is considered as a vector space. In this study, we implemented red, green, yellow, and blue colour maps to grayscale mammography images with the purpose of testing the effect of colours on the segmentation of abnormality regions in the mammography images. We applied the segmentation process using the Fuzzy C-means algorithm and evaluated the percentage of average relative error of area for each colour type. The results showed that all segmentation with the colour map can be done successfully even for blurred and noisy images. Also the size of the area of the abnormality region is reduced when compare to the segmentation area without the colour map. The green colour map segmentation produced the smallest percentage of average relative error (10.009%) while yellow colour map segmentation gave the largest percentage of relative error (11.367%).

  18. ANL Doppler flowmeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karplus, H. B.; Raptis, A. C.; Lee, S.; Simpson, T.

    1985-10-01

    A flowmeter has been developed for measuring flow velocity in hot slurries. The flowmeter works on an ultrasonic Doppler principle in which ultrasound is injected into the flowing fluid through the solid pipe wall. Isolating waveguides separate the hot pipe from conventional ultrasonic transducers. Special clamp-on high-temperature transducers also can be adapted to work well in this application. Typical flows in pilot plants were found to be laminar, giving rise to broad-band Doppler spectra. A special circuit based on a servomechanism sensor was devised to determine the frequency average of such a broad spectrum. The device was tested at different pilot plants. Slurries with particulates greater than 70 microns (0.003 in.) yielded good signals, but slurries with extremely fine particulates were unpredictable. Small bubbles can replace the coarse particles to provide a good signal if there are not too many. Successful operation with very fine particulate slurries may have been enhanced by the presence of microbubbles.

  19. Renal transplantation parenchymal complications: what Doppler ultrasound can and cannot do.

    PubMed

    Granata, Antonio; Di Nicolò, Pierpaolo; Scarfia, Viviana R; Insalaco, Monica; Lentini, Paolo; Veroux, Massimiliano; Fatuzzo, Pasquale; Fiorini, Fulvio

    2015-06-01

    Kidney transplantation is the treatment of choice in end-stage renal disease, given the better quality of life of transplanted patients when compared with patients on maintenance dialysis. In spite of surgical improvements and new immunosuppressive regimens, parts of transplanted grafts still develop chronic dysfunction. Ultrasonography, both in B-mode and with Doppler ultrasound, is an important diagnostic tool in case of clinical conditions which might impair kidney function. Even though ultrasonography is considered fundamental in the diagnosis of vascular and surgical complications of the transplanted kidney, its role is not fully understood in case of parenchymal complications of the graft. The specificity of Doppler is low both in case of acute complications, such as acute tubular necrosis, drugs toxicity and acute rejection, and in case of chronic conditions, such as chronic allograft nephropathy. Single determinations of resistance indices present low diagnostic accuracy, which is higher in case of successive measurements performed during the follow-up of the graft. Modern techniques such as tissue pulsatility index, maximal fractional area and contrast-enhanced ultrasound increase ultrasonography diagnostic power in case of parenchymal complications of the transplanted kidney.

  20. Colour categories are reflected in sensory stages of colour perception when stimulus issues are resolved

    PubMed Central

    He, Xun; Franklin, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Debate exists about the time course of the effect of colour categories on visual processing. We investigated the effect of colour categories for two groups who differed in whether they categorised a blue-green boundary colour as the same- or different-category to a reliably-named blue colour and a reliably-named green colour. Colour differences were equated in just-noticeable differences to be equally discriminable. We analysed event-related potentials for these colours elicited on a passive visual oddball task and investigated the time course of categorical effects on colour processing. Support for category effects was found 100 ms after stimulus onset, and over frontal sites around 250 ms, suggesting that colour naming affects both early sensory and later stages of chromatic processing. PMID:28542426

  1. Colour categories are reflected in sensory stages of colour perception when stimulus issues are resolved.

    PubMed

    Forder, Lewis; He, Xun; Franklin, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Debate exists about the time course of the effect of colour categories on visual processing. We investigated the effect of colour categories for two groups who differed in whether they categorised a blue-green boundary colour as the same- or different-category to a reliably-named blue colour and a reliably-named green colour. Colour differences were equated in just-noticeable differences to be equally discriminable. We analysed event-related potentials for these colours elicited on a passive visual oddball task and investigated the time course of categorical effects on colour processing. Support for category effects was found 100 ms after stimulus onset, and over frontal sites around 250 ms, suggesting that colour naming affects both early sensory and later stages of chromatic processing.

  2. Doppler Beats or Interference Fringes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Paul S.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the following: another version of Doppler beats; alternate proof of spin-1 sin-1/2 problems; some mechanisms related to Dirac's strings; Doppler redshift in oblique approach of source and observer; undergraduate experiment on noise thermometry; use of the time evolution operator; resolution of an entropy maximization controversy;…

  3. Doppler Beats or Interference Fringes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Paul S.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the following: another version of Doppler beats; alternate proof of spin-1 sin-1/2 problems; some mechanisms related to Dirac's strings; Doppler redshift in oblique approach of source and observer; undergraduate experiment on noise thermometry; use of the time evolution operator; resolution of an entropy maximization controversy;…

  4. Ultrasonography as a diagnostic aid in bovine musculoskeletal disorders.

    PubMed

    Kofler, Johann

    2009-11-01

    In the last 15 years, ultrasonography of the bovine musculoskeletal system has become an established diagnostic method used routinely in many veterinary teaching hospitals worldwide. Ultrasonography is ideal for the evaluation of musculoskeletal disorders because they are often associated with extensive soft tissue swelling and inflammatory exudation. The goal of this article is to encourage veterinarians to use ultrasonography for the evaluation of bovine orthopedic disorders. Not only does ultrasonography improve the likelihood of a definitive diagnosis, added use of the machine helps recoup expenses.

  5. Assessment of fracture healing after minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis or open reduction and internal fixation of coexisting radius and ulna fractures in dogs via ultrasonography and radiography.

    PubMed

    Pozzi, Antonio; Risselada, Marije; Winter, Matthew D

    2012-09-15

    To evaluate fracture healing after minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) or open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) of coexisting radius and ulna fractures in dogs via ultrasonography and radiography. Prospective cohort study. 16 dogs with radius-ulna fractures that underwent MIPO (n = 9; 2 dogs were subsequently not included in the analyses because of incomplete follow-up information) or ORIF (7). Dogs in the 2 treatment groups were matched by age, body weight, and configuration of the fractures. Fracture healing was evaluated with ultrasonography, power Doppler ultrasonography, and radiography every 3 to 4 weeks until healing was complete; a semiquantitative score based on the number of Doppler signals was used to characterize neovascularization, and subjective B-mode ultrasonographic and radiographic scores were assigned to classify healing. Fractures in dogs that underwent MIPO healed in significantly less time than did fractures in dogs that underwent ORIF (mean ± SD; 30 ± 10.5 days and 64 ± 10.1 days, respectively). Radiography revealed that fractures in dogs that underwent MIPO healed with significantly more callus formation than did fractures in dogs that underwent ORIF. Although Doppler ultrasonography revealed abundant vascularization in fractures that were healing following MIPO, no significant difference in neovascularization scores was found between groups. For dogs with radius-ulna fractures, data indicated that bridging osteosynthesis combined with a minimally invasive approach contributed to rapid healing after MIPO. The MIPO technique may offer some clinical advantage over ORIF, given that complete radius-ulna fracture healing was achieved in a shorter time with MIPO.

  6. Measurement and prediction of pork colour.

    PubMed

    Van Oeckel, M J; Warnants, N; Boucqué, C V

    1999-08-01

    The extent to which instrumental colour determinations by FOPu (light scattering), Göfo (reflectance) and Labscan II (CIE L*, CIE a* and CIE b*, hue and chroma) are related to the Japanese colour grades was studied. Additionally, four on-line methods: pH1, FOP1, PQM1 (conductivity) and DDLT (Double Density Light Transmission, analogous to Capteur Gras/Maigre), were evaluated for their ability to predict subjectively and objectively colour. One hundred and twenty samples of m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum, from animals of different genotypes, were analysed. Of the instrumental colour determinations, CIE L* (r=-0.82), FOPu (r=-0.70) and Göfo (r=0.70) were best correlated with the Japanese colour scores. The Japanese colour grades could be predicted by the on-line instruments, pH1, FOP1, PQM1 and DDLT, with determination coefficients between 15 and 28%. Ultimate meat colour, determined by Japanese colour standards, FOPu, Göfo and CIE L*, was better predicted by DDLT than by the classic on-line instruments: FOP1, pH1 and PQM1, although the standard error of the estimate was similar for all instruments. This means that DDLT, although originally designed for estimating lean meat percentage, can additionally give information about meat quality, in particular colour. However, it must be stressed that the colour estimate by DDLT refers to a population of animals, rather than to individual pigs, because of the number of erroneously assigned samples.

  7. The original colours of fossil beetles.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Maria E; Briggs, Derek E G; Orr, Patrick J; Noh, Heeso; Cao, Hui

    2012-03-22

    Structural colours, the most intense, reflective and pure colours in nature, are generated when light is scattered by complex nanostructures. Metallic structural colours are widespread among modern insects and can be preserved in their fossil counterparts, but it is unclear whether the colours have been altered during fossilization, and whether the absence of colours is always real. To resolve these issues, we investigated fossil beetles from five Cenozoic biotas. Metallic colours in these specimens are generated by an epicuticular multi-layer reflector; the fidelity of its preservation correlates with that of other key cuticular ultrastructures. Where these other ultrastructures are well preserved in non-metallic fossil specimens, we can infer that the original cuticle lacked a multi-layer reflector; its absence in the fossil is not a preservational artefact. Reconstructions of the original colours of the fossils based on the structure of the multi-layer reflector show that the preserved colours are offset systematically to longer wavelengths; this probably reflects alteration of the refractive index of the epicuticle during fossilization. These findings will allow the former presence, and original hue, of metallic structural colours to be identified in diverse fossil insects, thus providing critical evidence of the evolution of structural colour in this group.

  8. Severe Portal Hypertension in Cirrhosis: Evaluation of Perfusion Parameters with Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Joo Hyun; Kim, Yongsoo; Kim, Jinoo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) and Doppler ultrasonography (DUS) in the diagnosis of severe portal hypertension (PH) in patients with liver cirrhosis (LC). Methods Patients with PH scheduled to receive hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) measurement were recruited for this study. Hepatic DUS and CEUS were performed successively. Several Doppler and CEUS parameters were explored for correlation with HVPG values and their association with severe PH (≥ 12 mmHg of HVPG). Comparison of the parameters between the severe and non-severe PH groups and their correlation with HVPG values was evaluated. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was also performed to investigate the performance in order to diagnose severe PH. Results Fifty-three consecutive patients were enrolled in this study. Among them, 43 patients did not have significant ascites. Compared with the non-severe PH group, portal venous velocity and intrahepatic transit time (ITT) were significantly reduced in the severe PH group (all p<0.05). Difference between inspiratory and expiratory hepatic venous damping indices (ΔHVDI), hepatic venous arrival time (HVAT) and ITT moderately correlated with HVPG (r = -0.358, -0.338, and -0.613, respectively). Areas under the curves for severe PH were 0.94 of ITT and 0.72 of HVAT, respectively (all p<0.05). ITT under 6 seconds indicated severe PH with a sensitivity of 92% and a specificity of 89%. Conclusions Hepatic CEUS may be more useful in estimating the HVPG value and determining the presence of severe PH compared to DUS, and ITT was the most accurate parameter to diagnose severe PH. PMID:25798930

  9. Interobserver reliability in musculoskeletal ultrasonography: results from a “Teach the Teachers” rheumatologist course

    PubMed Central

    Naredo, E; Möller, I; Moragues, C; de Agustín, J J; Scheel, A K; Grassi, W; de Miguel, E; Backhaus, M; Balint, P; Bruyn, G A W; D'Agostino, M A; Filippucci, E; Iagnocco, A; Kane, D; Koski, J M; Mayordomo, L; Schmidt, W A; Swen, W A A; Szkudlarek, M; Terslev, L; Torp‐Pedersen, S; Uson, J; Wakefield, R J; Werner, C

    2006-01-01

    Objective To assess the interobserver reliability of the main periarticular and intra‐articular ultrasonographic pathologies and to establish the principal disagreements on scanning technique and diagnostic criteria between a group of experts in musculoskeletal ultrasonography. Methods The shoulder, wrist/hand, ankle/foot, or knee of 24 patients with rheumatic diseases were evaluated by 23 musculoskeletal ultrasound experts from different European countries randomly assigned to six groups. The participants did not reach consensus on scanning method or diagnostic criteria before the investigation. They were unaware of the patients' clinical and imaging data. The experts from each group undertook a blinded ultrasound examination of the four anatomical regions. The ultrasound investigation included the presence/absence of joint effusion/synovitis, bony cortex abnormalities, tenosynovitis, tendon lesions, bursitis, and power Doppler signal. Afterwards they compared the ultrasound findings and re‐examined the patients together while discussing their results. Results Overall agreements were 91% for joint effusion/synovitis and tendon lesions, 87% for cortical abnormalities, 84% for tenosynovitis, 83.5% for bursitis, and 83% for power Doppler signal; κ values were good for the wrist/hand and knee (0.61 and 0.60) and fair for the shoulder and ankle/foot (0.50 and 0.54). The principal differences in scanning method and diagnostic criteria between experts were related to dynamic examination, definition of tendon lesions, and pathological v physiological fluid within joints, tendon sheaths, and bursae. Conclusions Musculoskeletal ultrasound has a moderate to good interobserver reliability. Further consensus on standardisation of scanning technique and diagnostic criteria is necessary to improve musculoskeletal ultrasonography reproducibility. PMID:15941835

  10. Emerging technology in head and neck ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Holtel, Michael R

    2010-12-01

    Increased use of ultrasonography of the head and neck by clinicians has resulted from more compact, higher resolution ultrasound machines that can be more readily used in the office setting. Palm-sized machines are already used for vascular access and bladder assessment. As the resolution of these machines becomes adequate for head and neck assessment, ultrasonography is likely to become a routine adjunct to the office physical examination. Further techniques to reduce artifact beyond spatial compounding, second harmonics, and broadband inversion techniques are likely to be developed to improve ultrasound images. Manual palpation using the ultrasound transducer or "sound palpation," using sound to recreate vibration provides information on tissue "stiffness," which has been successfully used to distinguish between benign and malignant lesions in the head and neck (particularly thyroid nodules). Microbubble contrast-enhanced ultrasound provides improved resolution of ultrasound images. Three- and four-dimensional ultrasonography provides for more accurate diagnosis. The ability of microbubbles with ligands affixed to their outer surface to target specific tissue makes them excellent delivery vehicles. DNA plasmids, chemotherapy agents, and therapeutic drugs can be released at a specific anatomic site. The motion of microbubbles stimulated by ultrasound can be used to increase drug penetration through tissues and has been shown to be effective in breaking up clots in stroke patients (without increased risk). High-intensity focused ultrasound can be used to create coagulation necrosis without significant damage to adjacent tissue. It has been effectively used in neurosurgery and urology, but its effectiveness in the head and neck is still being determined. A prototype for surgical navigation with ultrasound has been developed for the head and neck, which allows real-time imaging of anatomic surgical changes. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Hemodynamic study with duplex ultrasonography on combined (direct/indirect) revascularization in adult moyamoya disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Chen, Li; Wang, Yida; Pan, Huiwen; Wang, Yi; Xu, Bin; Liao, Yujun

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the hemodynamic changes by duplex ultrasonography in adult moyamoya disease (MMD) patients who underwent combined direct and indirect revascularization surgery. Seventeen adult patients underwent direct and indirect revascularization surgery in our hospital. Hemodynamic parameters, peak systolic velocity (PSV), end-diastolic velocity (EDV) and resistance index (RI), were determined by color Doppler at the baseline, 2 weeks, and 6 months after bypass. Both the PSV and EDV of direct bypass were lower at 6 months after surgery compared with those at 2 weeks postoperatively. The EDV of indirect revascularization surgery of the maxillary artery (MA) at 6 months after surgery was higher and the RI of the MA lower compared with the baseline levels. Decreased PSV and EDV in the bypass vessel did not significantly correlate with increased EDV or decreased RI of the MA. Duplex ultrasonography is a reliable, noninvasive tool to assess hemodynamic changes and evaluate the therapeutic performance of combined bypass surgery in adult MMD. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Ultrasonography for the assessment of the upper trapezius properties in healthy females: a reliability study

    PubMed Central

    Adigozali, Hakimeh; Shadmehr, Azadeh; Ebrahimi, Esmail; Rezasoltani, Asghar; Naderi, Farrokh

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background to date, an assessment of morphometric features, muscle stiffness and blood flow in the upper trapezius among healthy females at rest and contraction states has not been conducted. So, in the current research, the intra-rater reliability of ultrasonographic features of upper trapezius in healthy females was examined. Method in this study stiffness and thickness of the upper trapezius in rest and contraction states were measured by ultrasonography on 12 healthy female subjects (28.33±5.05 years old). Color Doppler imaging was used to assess muscle circulation in the rest state only. Every step and calculation of measurements was repeated 3 times with the same rater. Therefore, in total 36 measurements were done for each variable. Results according to the analysis, the value of intra class correlation coefficient (ICC) for total variables showed an excellent level of reliability. Thickness at contraction had maximum reliability (ICC= 0.993) and Minimum Diastolic Velocity had the lowest reliability (ICC=0.771). Conclusions the results of current research demonstrated that real time ultrasonography is a reliable method for measurement of various parameters of upper trapezius, including morphometric features, its stiffness and blood supply in non-symptomatic females. These mentioned variables can likely be used for objective assessment and provide numerical reference value for clinical plans. PMID:27331047

  13. Diagnostic ultrasonography for peripheral vascular emergencies.

    PubMed

    Cook, Thomas; Nolting, Laura; Barr, Caleb; Hunt, Patrick

    2014-04-01

    Over the past decade, emergency and critical care physicians have been empowered with the ability to use bedside ultrasonography to assist in the evaluation and management of a variety of emergent conditions. Today a single health care provider at the bedside with Duplex ultrasound technology can evaluate peripheral vascular calamities that once required significant time and a variety of health care personnel for the diagnosis. This article highlights peripheral thromboembolic disease, aneurysm, pseudoaneurysm, and arterial occlusion in the acute care setting. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effectiveness of a Critical Care Ultrasonography Course.

    PubMed

    Greenstein, Yonatan Y; Littauer, Ross; Narasimhan, Mangala; Mayo, Paul H; Koenig, Seth J

    2017-01-01

    Widespread use of critical care ultrasonography (CCUS) for the management of patients in the ICU requires an effective training program. The effectiveness of national and regional CCUS training courses is not known. This study describes a national-level, simulation-based, 3-day CCUS training program and evaluates its effectiveness. Five consecutive CCUS courses, with a total of 363 people, were studied. The 3-day CCUS training program consisted of didactic lectures, ultrasonography interpretation sessions, and hands-on modules with live models. Thoracic, vascular, and abdominal ultrasonography were taught in addition to goal-directed echocardiography. Learners rotated between hands-on training and interpretation sessions. The teacher-to-learner ratio was 1:3 during hands-on training. Interpretation sessions were composed of interactive small groups that reviewed normal and abnormal ultrasonography images. Learners completed a video-based examination before and after completion of the courses. Hands-on image acquisition skills were tested at the completion of the course. Average scores on the pretest and posttest were 57% and 90%, respectively (P < .001). The average score on the hands-on test was 86%. Learners aged 20 to 39 years compared with learners ≥ 40 years old scored better on the pretest (64% vs 51%; P < 0.001), posttest (91% vs 88%; P < .010), and hands-on test (90% vs 82%; P < .001). Learners demonstrated a significant improvement in written test scores that assessed cognitive and image interpretation abilities. In addition, they demonstrated acquisition of practical skills as evidenced by high scores during hands-on testing. Further studies are needed to determine if a simulation-based CCUS course will translate into effective clinical practice and to measure the durability of training. This 3-day course is an effective method to train large groups of critical care clinicians in the skills requisite for CCUS (image acquisition and image

  15. Ultrasonography of bovine urinary tract disorders.

    PubMed

    Floeck, Martina

    2009-11-01

    Ultrasonography is a helpful diagnostic tool in cattle with urinary tract disorders. It can be used to diagnose pyelonephritis, urolithiasis, hydronephrosis, renal cysts, renal tumors, amyloidosis, cystitis, bladder paralysis, bladder rupture, bladder neoplasms, and, occasionally, nephrosis, glomerulonephritis, and embolic nephritis. This article describes the anatomy, scanning technique, indications, limitations, normal and pathologic sonographic appearance of the bovine urinary tract. References from horses and humans are included, especially when the sonographic findings in these species may complement the understanding of similar diseases reported in cattle.

  16. Structural colour: Colour mixing in wing scales of a butterfly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vukusic, P.; Sambles, J. R.; Lawrence, C. R.

    2000-03-01

    Green coloration in the animal kingdom, as seen in birds' feathers and reptile integument, is often an additive mixture of structurally effected blue and pigmentary yellow. Here we investigate the origin of the bright green coloration of the wing scales of the Indonesian male Papilio palinurus butterfly, the microstructure of which generates an extraordinary combination of both yellow and blue iridescence. The dual colour arises from a modulation imposed on the multilayer, producing the blue component as a result of a previously undiscovered retro-reflection process.

  17. Quantifying Plant Colour and Colour Difference as Perceived by Humans Using Digital Images

    PubMed Central

    Kendal, Dave; Hauser, Cindy E.; Garrard, Georgia E.; Jellinek, Sacha; Giljohann, Katherine M.; Moore, Joslin L.

    2013-01-01

    Human perception of plant leaf and flower colour can influence species management. Colour and colour contrast may influence the detectability of invasive or rare species during surveys. Quantitative, repeatable measures of plant colour are required for comparison across studies and generalisation across species. We present a standard method for measuring plant leaf and flower colour traits using images taken with digital cameras. We demonstrate the method by quantifying the colour of and colour difference between the flowers of eleven grassland species near Falls Creek, Australia, as part of an invasive species detection experiment. The reliability of the method was tested by measuring the leaf colour of five residential garden shrub species in Ballarat, Australia using five different types of digital camera. Flowers and leaves had overlapping but distinct colour distributions. Calculated colour differences corresponded well with qualitative comparisons. Estimates of proportional cover of yellow flowers identified using colour measurements correlated well with estimates obtained by measuring and counting individual flowers. Digital SLR and mirrorless cameras were superior to phone cameras and point-and-shoot cameras for producing reliable measurements, particularly under variable lighting conditions. The analysis of digital images taken with digital cameras is a practicable method for quantifying plant flower and leaf colour in the field or lab. Quantitative, repeatable measurements allow for comparisons between species and generalisations across species and studies. This allows plant colour to be related to human perception and preferences and, ultimately, species management. PMID:23977275

  18. Fruit over sunbed: carotenoid skin colouration is found more attractive than melanin colouration.

    PubMed

    Lefevre, Carmen E; Perrett, David I

    2015-01-01

    Skin colouration appears to play a pivotal part in facial attractiveness. Skin yellowness contributes to an attractive appearance and is influenced both by dietary carotenoids and by melanin. While both increased carotenoid colouration and increased melanin colouration enhance apparent health in Caucasian faces by increasing skin yellowness, it remains unclear, firstly, whether both pigments contribute to attractiveness judgements, secondly, whether one pigment is clearly preferred over the other, and thirdly, whether these effects depend on the sex of the face. Here, in three studies, we examine these questions using controlled facial stimuli transformed to be either high or low in (a) carotenoid colouration, or (b) melanin colouration. We show, firstly, that both increased carotenoid colouration and increased melanin colouration are found attractive compared to lower levels of these pigments. Secondly, we show that carotenoid colouration is consistently preferred over melanin colouration when levels of colouration are matched. In addition, we find an effect of the sex of stimuli with stronger preferences for carotenoids over melanin in female compared to male faces, irrespective of the sex of the observer. These results are interpreted as reflecting preferences for sex-typical skin colouration: men have darker skin than women and high melanization in male faces may further enhance this masculine trait, thus carotenoid colouration is not less desirable, but melanin colouration is relatively more desirable in males compared to females. Taken together, our findings provide further support for a carotenoid-linked health-signalling system that is highly important in mate choice.

  19. Quantifying plant colour and colour difference as perceived by humans using digital images.

    PubMed

    Kendal, Dave; Hauser, Cindy E; Garrard, Georgia E; Jellinek, Sacha; Giljohann, Katherine M; Moore, Joslin L

    2013-01-01

    Human perception of plant leaf and flower colour can influence species management. Colour and colour contrast may influence the detectability of invasive or rare species during surveys. Quantitative, repeatable measures of plant colour are required for comparison across studies and generalisation across species. We present a standard method for measuring plant leaf and flower colour traits using images taken with digital cameras. We demonstrate the method by quantifying the colour of and colour difference between the flowers of eleven grassland species near Falls Creek, Australia, as part of an invasive species detection experiment. The reliability of the method was tested by measuring the leaf colour of five residential garden shrub species in Ballarat, Australia using five different types of digital camera. Flowers and leaves had overlapping but distinct colour distributions. Calculated colour differences corresponded well with qualitative comparisons. Estimates of proportional cover of yellow flowers identified using colour measurements correlated well with estimates obtained by measuring and counting individual flowers. Digital SLR and mirrorless cameras were superior to phone cameras and point-and-shoot cameras for producing reliable measurements, particularly under variable lighting conditions. The analysis of digital images taken with digital cameras is a practicable method for quantifying plant flower and leaf colour in the field or lab. Quantitative, repeatable measurements allow for comparisons between species and generalisations across species and studies. This allows plant colour to be related to human perception and preferences and, ultimately, species management.

  20. B-mode and Doppler sonography of the mammary glands in dairy goats for mastitis diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Santos, V J C; Simplício, K; Sanchez, D; Coutinho, L; Teixeira, P; Barros, F; Almeida, V; Rodrigues, L; Bartlewski, P; Oliveira, M; Feliciano, M; Vicente, W

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the sonographic characteristics of the udder and teats and to determine the Doppler indexes of mammary artery in healthy and undergoing subclinical and clinical mastitis goats. Thirty animals among Saanen and Alpine Brown goats were arranged in three groups, healthy goats (HG), goats with subclinical mastitis (SMG) and goats with clinical mastitis (CMG). Using the B-mode, the sonographic characteristics (echotexture and echogenicity) and biometry (diameter and area of the udder cistern, diameter and area of the teat cistern and thickness of the teat wall) were evaluated. Using Doppler ultrasonography, the vascular indexes of the mammary artery were obtained. It was observed hyperechogenicity with solid component in the gland cistern when comparing animals with clinical mastitis and healthy mammary tissue. Regarding the echotexture of the breast tissue, there was heterogeneity in the mammary parenchyma on the three groups, for the milk, it was observed homogeneity for animals on HG and SMG and heterogeneity for animals on CMG. Grey-scale quantitative assessment revealed increase in echogenicity (mean value) for all the structures when comparing the three groups. Biometry did not reveal statistical difference between groups, for none of the evaluated structures. Doppler examination of the mammary artery showed the decrease of end diastolic velocity and raise of pulsatility index between groups. The association of B-mode and Doppler ultrasonography is useful for the evaluation of the udder of dairy goats with mastitis. It is a sensitive and specific method for the study of this disease. Doppler mode was unable to establish reliable criteria for diagnosis of subclinical mastitis. Moreover, the quantification of echogenicity is a useful technique for the evaluation of the milk in animals with mastitis; therefore, it is suggested that it can be used as complementary technique for the diagnosis of mastitis in goats.

  1. Usefulness of ultrasonography in assessment of laryngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Xia, C-X; Zhao, H-X; Yan, F; Li, S-L; Zhang, S-M

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the usefulness of ultrasonography in assessing laryngeal cancer. Methods: 72 patients with laryngeal carcinoma proven by surgery and pathology were enrolled. The pre-therapeutic ultrasonography and CT images were retrospectively evaluated, including tumour detection, localisation and invasion of intra- and extralaryngeal structures. A comparative assessment was made between the detection rate, correspondence rate of localisation and sensitivity and specificity of ultrasonography and CT. The mobility of the larynx was observed on real-time ultrasonography and compared with laryngoscopy. Results: The detection rate of ultrasonography [63 (87.5%)/72] was lower than that of CT [72 (100.0%)/72] (p=0.006). The primary foci were accurately located in 59 (93.7%) of 63 lesions using ultrasonography compared with 70 (97.2%) of 72 lesions using CT (p=0.392). In the evaluation of invasion, the sensitivity and specificity of ultrasonography were similar to that of CT in most of the intra- and extralaryngeal structures (p=0.059–1.000). A higher specificity was obtained during the assessment of the paraglottic space involvement when using ultrasonography than CT (94.9% vs 66.7%, p=0.001). For vocal cord fixation, no statistical difference was found between ultrasonography and laryngoscopy (p=0.223). Conclusion: Ultrasonography could be used as a valuable supplementary imaging method to CT and laryngoscopy in the assessment of laryngeal carcinoma, even in male adults with some calcifications of the thyroid cartilage. Advances in knowledge: Our study demonstrates that ultrasonography, which has been used scarcely in the larynx, could supply useful information on the detection, localisation and intra- and extralaryngeal invasion of laryngeal carcinoma. PMID:24004487

  2. Colour Consideration for Waiting areas in hospitals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zraati, Parisa

    2012-08-01

    Colour is one the most important factors in the nature that can have some affects on human behaviour. Many years ago, it was proven that using colour in public place can have some affect on the users. Depend of the darkness and lightness; it can be vary from positive to negative. The research will mainly focus on the colour and psychological influences and physical factors. The statement of problem in this research is what is impact of colour usually applied to waiting area? The overall aim of the study is to explore the visual environment of hospitals and to manage the colour psychological effect of the hospital users in the waiting area by creating a comfortable, pleasant and cozy environment for users while spend their time in waiting areas. The analysisconcentrate on satisfaction and their interesting regarding applied colour in two private hospital waiting area in Malaysia.

  3. Social perception in synaesthesia for colour.

    PubMed

    Janik McErlean, Agnieszka B; Susilo, Tirta; Rezlescu, Constantin; Bray, Amy; Banissy, Michael J

    2016-12-11

    Synaesthesia is a rare phenomenon in which stimulation in one modality (e.g., audition) evokes a secondary percept not associated with the first (e.g., colour). Prior work has suggested links between synaesthesia and other neurodevelopmental conditions that are linked to altered social perception abilities. With this in mind, here we sought to examine social perception abilities in grapheme-colour synaesthesia (where achromatic graphemes evoke colour experiences) by examining facial identity and facial emotion perception in synaesthetes and controls. Our results indicate that individuals who experience grapheme-colour synaesthesia outperformed controls on tasks involving fine visual discrimination of facial identity and emotion, but not on tasks involving holistic face processing. These findings are discussed in the context of broader perceptual and cognitive traits previously associated with synaesthesia for colour, with the suggestion that performance benefits shown by grapheme-colour synaesthetes may be related to domain-general visual discrimination biases observed in this group.

  4. Tooth colour: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Joiner, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    To review current knowledge with respect to tooth colour and its measurement. 'Medline' database for the period 1966 to the present day and 'ISI Web of Science' database for the period 1974 to the present day were searched electronically with key words tooth, teeth, colour and color. The colour and appearance of teeth is a complex phenomenon, with many factors such as lighting conditions, translucency, opacity, light scattering, gloss and the human eye and brain influencing the overall perception of tooth colour. The measurement of tooth colour is possible via a number of methods including visual assessment with shade guides, spectrophotometry, colourimetry and computer analysis of digital images. These methods have successfully been used to measure longitudinal tooth colour changes when the dentition has undergone tooth whitening procedures.

  5. The role of Doppler ultrasound in rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Porta, Francesco; Radunovic, Goran; Vlad, Violeta; Micu, Mihaela C; Nestorova, Rodina; Petranova, Tzvetanka; Iagnocco, Annamaria

    2012-06-01

    The use of Doppler techniques, including power, colour and spectral Doppler, has greatly increased in rheumatology in recent years. This is due to the ability of Doppler US (DUS) to detect pathological vascularization within joints and periarticular soft tissues, thereby demonstrating the presence of active inflammation, which has been reported to be correlated with the local neo-angiogenesis. In synovitis, DUS showed a high correlation with histological and MRI findings, thus it is considered a valid tool to detect pathological synovial vascularization. Moreover, it is more sensitive than clinical examination in detecting active joint inflammation and in the evaluation of response to treatment. In addition, DUS may be considered as a reference imaging modality in the assessment of enthesitis, MRI being not sensitive and histology not feasible. Moreover, it has been demonstrated to be able to detect changes in asymptomatic enthesis. In conclusion, DUS is a useful and sensitive tool in the evaluation and monitoring of active inflammation. Its widespread use in clinical rheumatological practice is recommended. The aim of this article is to review the current literature about the role of DUS in rheumatic diseases, analysing its validity, reliability and feasibility.

  6. Early postoperative spectral Doppler parameters of renal transplants: the effect of donor and recipient factors.

    PubMed

    Wang, H-K; Chiou, S-Y; Lai, Y-C; Cheng, H-Y; Lin, N-C; Loong, C-C; Chiou, H-J; Chou, Y-H; Chang, C-Y

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the donor and recipient factors related to the spectral Doppler parameters of the transplant kidney in the early posttransplantation period. This retrospective study included 76 patients who underwent renal transplantation assessed using Doppler ultrasonography (US) on the first postoperative day. We compared spectral Doppler parameters (peak systolic velocity [PSV] and resistive index [RI]) of the segmental artery of the transplant kidney according to the type of renal transplant, level of serum creatinine (SCr) of donor prior to organ donation, and donor/recipient age. RI was significantly higher in deceased-donor kidney transplantation (DDKT) as compared with living-donor kidney transplantation (LDKT; 0.73 ± 0.10 vs 0.66 ± 0.11; P = .007). In the DDKT recipients, multivariate analysis showed donor SCr was the only factor affecting PSV (P = .023), whereas recipient age was the only factor affecting RI (P = .035). In the LDKT recipients, multivariate analysis showed recipient age was the only factor affecting both PSV (P = .009) and RI (P = .018). Spectral Doppler parameters in the early posttransplantation period are related to the type of renal transplant, donor renal function, and recipient age. These factors should be taken into consideration when interpreting the results of spectral Doppler US. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Colour vision deficiency and physics teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maule, Louise; Featonby, David

    2016-05-01

    1 in 12 males suffer from some form of colour vision deficiency (CVD) which in the present colour dominated world of education presentation can be a severe disadvantage. Although aware of ‘colourblindness’ most teachers make little or no adjustment for these pupils for whom tasks may be more difficult. This article examines colour vision deficiency and looks at ways in which we can help the many students who have this problem.

  8. Colour Vision Impairment in Young Alcohol Consumers.

    PubMed

    Brasil, Alódia; Castro, Antônio José O; Martins, Isabelle Christine V S; Lacerda, Eliza Maria C B; Souza, Givago S; Herculano, Anderson Manoel; Rosa, Alexandre Antônio M; Rodrigues, Anderson R; Silveira, Luiz Carlos L

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption among young adults is widely accepted in modern society and may be the starting point for abusive use of alcohol at later stages of life. Chronic alcohol exposure can lead to visual function impairment. In the present study, we investigated the spatial luminance contrast sensitivity, colour arrangement ability, and colour discrimination thresholds on young adults that weekly consume alcoholic beverages without clinical concerns. Twenty-four young adults were evaluated by an ophthalmologist and performed three psychophysical tests to evaluate their vision functions. We estimated the spatial luminance contrast sensitivity function at 11 spatial frequencies ranging from 0.1 to 30 cycles/degree. No difference in contrast sensitivity was observed comparing alcohol consumers and control subjects. For the evaluation of colour vision, we used the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test (FM 100 test) to test subject's ability to perform a colour arrangement task and the Mollon-Reffin test (MR test) to measure subject's colour discrimination thresholds. Alcohol consumers made more mistakes than controls in the FM100 test, and their mistakes were diffusely distributed in the FM colour space without any colour axis preference. Alcohol consumers also performed worse than controls in the MR test and had higher colour discrimination thresholds compared to controls around three different reference points of a perceptually homogeneous colour space, the CIE 1976 chromaticity diagram. There was no colour axis preference in the threshold elevation observed among alcoholic subjects. Young adult weekly alcohol consumers showed subclinical colour vision losses with preservation of spatial luminance contrast sensitivity. Adolescence and young adult age are periods of important neurological development and alcohol exposure during this period of life might be responsible for deficits in visual functions, especially colour vision that is very sensitive to neurotoxicants.

  9. Colour Vision Impairment in Young Alcohol Consumers

    PubMed Central

    Brasil, Alódia; Castro, Antônio José O.; Martins, Isabelle Christine V. S.; Lacerda, Eliza Maria C. B.; Souza, Givago S.; Herculano, Anderson Manoel; Rosa, Alexandre Antônio M.; Rodrigues, Anderson R.; Silveira, Luiz Carlos L.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption among young adults is widely accepted in modern society and may be the starting point for abusive use of alcohol at later stages of life. Chronic alcohol exposure can lead to visual function impairment. In the present study, we investigated the spatial luminance contrast sensitivity, colour arrangement ability, and colour discrimination thresholds on young adults that weekly consume alcoholic beverages without clinical concerns. Twenty-four young adults were evaluated by an ophthalmologist and performed three psychophysical tests to evaluate their vision functions. We estimated the spatial luminance contrast sensitivity function at 11 spatial frequencies ranging from 0.1 to 30 cycles/degree. No difference in contrast sensitivity was observed comparing alcohol consumers and control subjects. For the evaluation of colour vision, we used the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test (FM 100 test) to test subject’s ability to perform a colour arrangement task and the Mollon-Reffin test (MR test) to measure subject’s colour discrimination thresholds. Alcohol consumers made more mistakes than controls in the FM100 test, and their mistakes were diffusely distributed in the FM colour space without any colour axis preference. Alcohol consumers also performed worse than controls in the MR test and had higher colour discrimination thresholds compared to controls around three different reference points of a perceptually homogeneous colour space, the CIE 1976 chromaticity diagram. There was no colour axis preference in the threshold elevation observed among alcoholic subjects. Young adult weekly alcohol consumers showed subclinical colour vision losses with preservation of spatial luminance contrast sensitivity. Adolescence and young adult age are periods of important neurological development and alcohol exposure during this period of life might be responsible for deficits in visual functions, especially colour vision that is very sensitive to neurotoxicants. PMID

  10. Identification of benign and malignant endometrial cancer with transvaginal ultrasonography combined with elastography and tissue hardness analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Luo, L; Luo, Q

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to explore tissue hardness and distinguish benign and malignant endometrial cancer with the use of transvaginal ultrasonography combined with elastography. Color Doppler ultrasonic diasonograph was used to carry out transvaginal ultrasonography and elastography. Once the nidus was observed, features of the 2D image were analyzed. Then features of elasticity of the uterine cavity in different states were analyzed by elastography, and strain rate ratio was measured. Finally, elasticity scoring (0~5 points) was made. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was drawn based on elasticity score and strain rate ratio. The area under the elasticity score curve and strain rate ratio curve was 0.761 and 0.852, respectively, and there was no statistically significant difference between them (c2= 4.663, P>0.05). Then 2.98 was confirmed as the diagnostic cut-off value of benign and malignant lesions, based on strain rate ratio. Ultrasonic elastography as an effective assistance for transvaginal ultrasonography provides more valuable information for confirmation of lesions and offers more accurate evidence for diagnosis of disease in the uterine cavity.

  11. Internal snapping hip syndrome in dynamic ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Maczuch, Jarosław; Skupiński, Jarosław; Kukawska-Sysio, Karolina; Wawrzynek, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Snapping hip syndrome is an audible or palpable snap in a hip joint during movement which may be accompanied by pain or locking. It is typically seen in young athletes performing activities requiring repeated extreme movements of the hip. It may also follow a physical trauma, intramuscular injections or surgeries. There are two main forms of snapping hip: extra- or intra-articular. Extra-articular snapping hip is elicited by an abnormal movement of specific tendons and is divided into two forms: internal and external. The internal form of snapping hip syndrome is attributed to an abrupt movement of an iliopsoas tendon against an iliopectineal eminence. Radiograph results in patients with this form of snapping tend to be normal. Dynamic ultrasound is the gold standard diagnostic technique in both forms of extra-articular snapping hip syndrome. The objective of the following text is to describe a step-by-step dynamic ultrasonography examination in internal extra-articular snapping hip syndrome in accordance to the proposed checklist protocol. To evaluate abrupt movement of an involved tendon, the patient needs to perform specific provocation tests during the examination. With its real-time imaging capabilities, dynamic ultrasonography detects the exact mechanism of the abnormal tendon friction during hip movement in a noninvasive way. It also allows for a diagnosis of additional hip tissue changes which may be causing the pain. PMID:27679733

  12. [Carpal tunnel syndrome. The contribution of ultrasonography].

    PubMed

    Pardal-Fernandez, J M

    2014-11-16

    Carpal tunnel syndrome is the most frequent mononeuropathy. Its incidence is huge and the ensuing community health problems are therefore the cause of much concern. Such a situation has made it necessary to develop a key point in the management of the illness, that is, to find flexible, sensitive, specific and cost-effective diagnostic procedures. Today tools of proven worth are now available, especially electrophysiology, and quite recently we also have ultrasonography. Both of these techniques allow us to confirm and characterise neuropathies due to entrapment and indeed a large number of papers dealing with ultrasound imaging have been published in the literature over the last few years. It therefore comes as no surprise that many renowned authors have acknowledged the usefulness of this technique. Here, we review the pathophysiological and diagnostic aspects of carpal tunnel syndrome, with greater emphasis on how ultrasonography has contributed to the morphological evaluation of the entrapped nerve. This method has proved itself to have significant advantages not only due to its being readily available, inexpensive, fast and painless, but also, and above all, because of its high capacity to detect neural and perineural alterations. A critical review of the literature supports this thesis and shows its incorporation into routine daily evaluation to be highly recommendable.

  13. The contribution of ultrasonography to intrauterine contraception.

    PubMed

    Defoort, P; Thiery, M

    1981-01-01

    Various methods of assessing the presence and position of the IUD device within the uterine cavity have been developed (barium sulfate in the IUD matrix, tail strings, uterine sounding, radiography), but all have distinct disadvantages (risk of infection, inadvertent displacing of IUD). Diagnostic ultrasound, or ultrasonography, is a non-invasive, rapid technic with no known biological side effects. It requires no patient preparation except a distended bladder, and it can be repeated at will. This paper reviews the possibilities and limitations of ultrasound, and discusses principles of echographic IUD detection. Ultrasonography can prove the presence and location of an IUD in utero in uncomplicated cases of missing threads. It reduces pregnancy rates significantly by establishing early displacement or expulsion of IUD. It is important that the echographer be aware of the clinical context, and if possible, the type of IUD he is looking for, especially in diagnosing partial penetration and breakage. In a small number of cases, there are situations in which the method will be unreliable, and anticipated success rates will be similar to those of blind clinical trials (e.g., significant number of misdiagnoses). These include: 1) the missing tail, where the uterus appears not to contain the IUD; and 2) incipient pregnancy. Radiographic studies are indicated for both situations.

  14. Colour assortative pairing in a colour polymorphic lizard is independent of population morph diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez i de Lanuza, Guillem; Font, Enrique; Carretero, Miguel Ángel

    2016-10-01

    Previous work with a colour polymorphic population of Podarcis muralis (Lacertidae) revealed that lizards pair by ventral colour, favouring the same colour (i.e. homomorphic) pairs. Such assortative pairing, which probably results in colour assortative mating, can have consequences for the genetic structure of the population and potentially promote speciation. The population previously studied, located in the Pyrenees, encompasses white, yellow and orange animals, as well as intermediate white-orange and yellow-orange morphs. However, other Pyrenean populations of P. muralis have less ventral colour morphs. Our aim in this study is to test the generality of the assortative colour pairing system, extending our previous analyses to populations with different morph compositions and frequencies. The results show that the assortative pattern of pairing is similar in all the populations analysed and, hence, independent of morph composition and not restricted to pentamorphic populations. This suggests that assortative pairing by colour is a general phenomenon for colour polymorphic populations of P. muralis.

  15. Colour-space distortion in women who are heterozygous for colour deficiency.

    PubMed

    Bimler, David; Kirkland, John

    2009-03-01

    We examined colour perception among a group of women heterozygous for colour vision deficiency. Judgements of colour dissimilarity were collected by presenting colour stimuli in groups of three for odd-one-out decisions. The judgements were summarised as one consensus colour space for the heterozygotes and another for age-matched controls. Individual differences MDS was also applied, resulting in a single colour space which can be adjusted to fit each subject's responses individually by compressing it along its axes. Heterozygous women showed a trend towards colour-space compression in a red-green dimension, or reduced salience of that dimension compared to controls, though less extreme than found in overt colour deficiency.

  16. Colour assortative pairing in a colour polymorphic lizard is independent of population morph diversity.

    PubMed

    Pérez I de Lanuza, Guillem; Font, Enrique; Carretero, Miguel Ángel

    2016-10-01

    Previous work with a colour polymorphic population of Podarcis muralis (Lacertidae) revealed that lizards pair by ventral colour, favouring the same colour (i.e. homomorphic) pairs. Such assortative pairing, which probably results in colour assortative mating, can have consequences for the genetic structure of the population and potentially promote speciation. The population previously studied, located in the Pyrenees, encompasses white, yellow and orange animals, as well as intermediate white-orange and yellow-orange morphs. However, other Pyrenean populations of P. muralis have less ventral colour morphs. Our aim in this study is to test the generality of the assortative colour pairing system, extending our previous analyses to populations with different morph compositions and frequencies. The results show that the assortative pattern of pairing is similar in all the populations analysed and, hence, independent of morph composition and not restricted to pentamorphic populations. This suggests that assortative pairing by colour is a general phenomenon for colour polymorphic populations of P. muralis.

  17. Digital Doppler measurement with spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinman, Peter W.; Hinedi, Sami M.; Labelle, Remi C.; Bevan, Roland P.; Del Castillo, Hector M.; Chong, Dwayne C.

    1991-01-01

    Digital and analog phase-locked loop (PLL) receivers were operated in parallel, each tracking the residual carrier from a spacecraft. The PLL tracked the downlink carrier and measured its instantaneous phase. This information, combined with a knowledge of the uplink carrier and the transponder ratio, permitted the computation of a Doppler observable. In this way, two separate Doppler measurements were obtained for one observation window. The two receivers agreed on the magnitude of the Doppler effect to within 1 mHz. There was less jitter on the data from the digital receiver. This was due to its smaller noise bandwidth. The demonstration and its results are described.

  18. GEOS-3 Doppler difference tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenbaum, B.

    1977-01-01

    The Doppler difference method as applied to track the GEOS 3 spacecraft is discussed. In this method a pair of 2 GHz ground tracking stations simultaneously track a spacecraft beacon to generate an observable signal in which bias and instability of the carrier frequency cancel. The baselines are formed by the tracking sites at Bermuda, Rosman, and Merritt Island. Measurements were made to evaluate the effectiveness of the Doppler differencing procedure in tracking a beacon target with the high dynamic rate of the GEOS 3 orbit. Results indicate the precision of the differenced data to be at a level comparable to the conventional precise two way Doppler tracking.

  19. Digital Doppler measurement with spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinman, Peter W.; Hinedi, Sami M.; Labelle, Remi C.; Bevan, Roland P.; Del Castillo, Hector M.; Chong, Dwayne C.

    1991-01-01

    Digital and analog phase-locked loop (PLL) receivers were operated in parallel, each tracking the residual carrier from a spacecraft. The PLL tracked the downlink carrier and measured its instantaneous phase. This information, combined with a knowledge of the uplink carrier and the transponder ratio, permitted the computation of a Doppler observable. In this way, two separate Doppler measurements were obtained for one observation window. The two receivers agreed on the magnitude of the Doppler effect to within 1 mHz. There was less jitter on the data from the digital receiver. This was due to its smaller noise bandwidth. The demonstration and its results are described.

  20. Colour vision and computer-generated images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramek, Michael

    2010-06-01

    Colour vision deficiencies affect approximately 8% of the male and approximately 0.4% of the female population. In this work, it is demonstrated that computer generated images oftentimes pose unnecessary problems for colour deficient viewers. Three examples, the visualization of molecular structures, graphs of mathematical functions, and colour coded images from numerical data are used to identify problematic colour combinations: red/black, green/black, red/yellow, yellow/white, fuchsia/white, and aqua/white. Alternatives for these combinations are discussed.

  1. Automated digital mapping of geological colour descriptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Chris

    2002-12-01

    Sediment colour data are delivered by geologists as Munsell codes (Rock Color Chart) and linguistic descriptions. Using new software suitable for very large data sets, the two types can be brought into conformance and mapped together digitally. The native codes are extracted. For linguistic descriptions chromatic terms are identified with Munsell codes, then mixed in a temporary transform of psychometrically linear CIE colour space. Adjustments are made for dark/light and pale/strong modifiers. The output Munsell codes are statistically validated and mapped using special GIS legends to render them in true colour. The output displays provide a new view of marine sediment facies, comparable to remotely sensed colour imagery.

  2. Colour thresholds in a coral reef fish.

    PubMed

    Champ, C M; Vorobyev, M; Marshall, N J

    2016-09-01

    Coral reef fishes are among the most colourful animals in the world. Given the diversity of lifestyles and habitats on the reef, it is probable that in many instances coloration is a compromise between crypsis and communication. However, human observation of this coloration is biased by our primate visual system. Most animals have visual systems that are 'tuned' differently to humans; optimized for different parts of the visible spectrum. To understand reef fish colours, we need to reconstruct the appearance of colourful patterns and backgrounds as they are seen through the eyes of fish. Here, the coral reef associated triggerfish, Rhinecanthus aculeatus, was tested behaviourally to determine the limits of its colour vision. This is the first demonstration of behavioural colour discrimination thresholds in a coral reef species and is a critical step in our understanding of communication and speciation in this vibrant colourful habitat. Fish were trained to discriminate between a reward colour stimulus and series of non-reward colour stimuli and the discrimination thresholds were found to correspond well with predictions based on the receptor noise limited visual model and anatomy of the eye. Colour discrimination abilities of both reef fish and a variety of animals can therefore now be predicted using the parameters described here.

  3. Colour thresholds in a coral reef fish

    PubMed Central

    Vorobyev, M.; Marshall, N. J.

    2016-01-01

    Coral reef fishes are among the most colourful animals in the world. Given the diversity of lifestyles and habitats on the reef, it is probable that in many instances coloration is a compromise between crypsis and communication. However, human observation of this coloration is biased by our primate visual system. Most animals have visual systems that are ‘tuned’ differently to humans; optimized for different parts of the visible spectrum. To understand reef fish colours, we need to reconstruct the appearance of colourful patterns and backgrounds as they are seen through the eyes of fish. Here, the coral reef associated triggerfish, Rhinecanthus aculeatus, was tested behaviourally to determine the limits of its colour vision. This is the first demonstration of behavioural colour discrimination thresholds in a coral reef species and is a critical step in our understanding of communication and speciation in this vibrant colourful habitat. Fish were trained to discriminate between a reward colour stimulus and series of non-reward colour stimuli and the discrimination thresholds were found to correspond well with predictions based on the receptor noise limited visual model and anatomy of the eye. Colour discrimination abilities of both reef fish and a variety of animals can therefore now be predicted using the parameters described here. PMID:27703704

  4. [Measurement set-up for estimation of colour discrimination thresholds of colour vision deficiencies and while wearing coloured filters].

    PubMed

    Schürer, M; Walter, A; Eppig, T; Brünner, H; Langenbucher, A

    2009-07-01

    In clinical practice, several techniques for the evaluation of colour vision deficiencies are well established. Most of them are designed for the detection of congenital or pathological changes. Due to the narrow-banded light sources, used in monitors or anomaloscopes, the human gamut can be addressed only in part. With these set-ups, the impact of coloured filters on colour vision such as blue light filtering intraocular lenses cannot be investigated precisely. The technique is based on the visual matching of colour differences between two halves of a test field. The colours are generated by mixing seven types of LEDs. A transparent, vertically divided circular test field is retro-illuminated with this light using optical fibres and projection optics. An ocular optic assures the unaccommodated sight of the subject on the test field (size 2 degrees). The developed set-up presents freely adjustable colours in the form of continuous light spectra to examine the influence of filter materials on colour discrimination. A colour space can be generated which corresponds to that of human perception. The saturation and brightness of the light is adjustable. The subject has to decide if he can discriminate between the colours in the test field halves or not. Before the next colours are shown the subject is neutrally adapted by a neutral hue to provide different adaptation levels. The luminescence of the test field can be varied up to 1500 cd/m(2). The adaptive algorithm of the sequence is based on the SIAM method described by Kaernbach. Based on reference measurements, including 4 subjects with a congenital deficiency, it was shown that the discrimination thresholds at the characteristic confusing axes are significantly different than those with normal colour vision. Also, the impact of green laser goggles on the colour perception was determined. Due to the filter the thresholds in the vicinity of yellow (x = 0.4664; y = 0.4525) are reduced in the yellow-orange and cyan

  5. Real-time ultrasonography for location of IUDs.

    PubMed

    Reiertsen, O

    1981-04-01

    Ultrasonography is a non-invasive, non-ionizing and painless technique used to locate IUDs in the uterine cavity. This study evaluates the reliability and precision of real-time ultrasonography in locating IUDs. 151 IUD users (duration of use, 2 days to 108 months) were subjected to ultrasonography to detect and locate the IUD. Indications for ultrasonography are: 1) no visible IUD strings (61 patients); 2) pregnant after IUD insertion (7); 3) abnormal uterine pain or bleeding (50); and 4) control of IUD (33). 90% of the women used standard copper-bearing devices (Copper 7; Multiload; Gravigard). Ultrasonography detected the IUD in utero in 128 cases with no false positive results. It did not detect the IUD in 23 cases (expulsion occurred in 18 patients; IUD was removed in 2 cases due to IUD perforation; IUD was erroneously not detected in 3 cases (false negative)) Hysterography was performed in 57 women to confirm ultrasonographic findings. Ultrasonography diagnosed IUD in situ in 54 cases; it was confirmed by hysterography in 44 cases (81%). Hysterography diagnosed penetration of the uterine wall by the IUD; ultrasonography failed to detect all cases of penetration. Ultrasonography is reliable in detecting an IUD in utero but not within the uterine cavity. However, it helps in IUD management by increasing contraceptive efficiency through early diagnoses of expulsion and cervical location of the IUD.

  6. Ultrasonography findings of vulvar liposarcoma. Case report.

    PubMed

    Yanik, Bahar; Inceboz, Umit; Bulbul, Erdogan; Demirpolat, Gulen; Uzgoren, Ismail Engin

    2015-09-01

    Liposarcoma (LPS) of vulva is a rare entity. We present the ultrasonographic (US) and color Doppler ultrasonographic (CDUS) findings of a vulvar myxoid LPS. Although LPS cases have been reported in the extremities and trunk, the US or CDUS findings of LPS in vulva have not been described previously. On US the mass appeared as a well-defined, homogeneous hypoechoic structure and on CDUS it was quite hypervascular.

  7. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in the diagnosis of upper urinary tract urothelial cell carcinoma: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Drudi, F M; Di Candio, G; Di Leo, N; Malpassini, F; Gnecchi, M; Cantisani, V; Iori, F; Liberatore, M

    2013-02-01

    The main objective was to assess the effectiveness of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in the diagnosis of upper urinary tract malignancies by comparing with multidetector computed tomographic urography (MDCTU) and magnetic resonance urography (MRU). Secondary objectives were to compare the tumor size measured with CEUS, MDCTU and MRU and to assess the usefulness of CEUS in distinguishing high-grade tumors from low-grade ones. In connection with this prospective study carried out from January 2009 to September 2011, 18 patients underwent MDCTU or MRU, grayscale ultrasonography (US), color Doppler ultrasonography and CEUS followed by surgery and histological examination of the specimen. Quantitative analysis was performed using perfusion software. Time intensity curves were extracted and the following parameters were considered: wash-in time, time-to-peak, maximum signal intensity and wash-out time. Grayscale US identified 15/18 lesions; color Doppler showed no flow signal in 8 lesions, low color signal in 9 lesions and an intense color signal in 1 lesion; CEUS identified 17/18 lesions with the undetected lesion being the smallest one (1.2 cm) located in the upper pelvicalyceal system. Semi-quantitative analysis produced different data for high-grade and low-grade urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC). All detected upper urinary tract masses were UCCs. MRU, MDCTU and grayscale US overestimated the tumor size, while CEUS was the most accurate. CEUS is useful for evaluating upper urinary tract masses as this method permits differentiation between high-grade and low-grade tumors as well as distinction of the tumor from the adjacent structures and accurate mass measurements. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Point-of-care ultrasonography by pediatric emergency medicine physicians.

    PubMed

    Marin, Jennifer R; Lewiss, Resa E

    2015-04-01

    Emergency physicians have used point-of-care ultrasonography since the 1990 s. Pediatric emergency medicine physicians have more recently adopted this technology. Point-of-care ultrasonography is used for various scenarios, particularly the evaluation of soft tissue infections or blunt abdominal trauma and procedural guidance. To date, there are no published statements from national organizations specifically for pediatric emergency physicians describing the incorporation of point-of-care ultrasonography into their practice. This document outlines how pediatric emergency departments may establish a formal point-of-care ultrasonography program. This task includes appointing leaders with expertise in point-of-care ultrasonography, effectively training and credentialing physicians in the department, and providing ongoing quality assurance reviews.

  9. The uses of colour vision: behavioural and physiological distinctiveness of colour stimuli.

    PubMed Central

    Derrington, Andrew M; Parker, Amanda; Barraclough, Nick E; Easton, Alexander; Goodson, G R; Parker, Kris S; Tinsley, Chris J; Webb, Ben S

    2002-01-01

    Colour and greyscale (black and white) pictures look different to us, but it is not clear whether the difference in appearance is a consequence of the way our visual system uses colour signals or a by-product of our experience. In principle, colour images are qualitatively different from greyscale images because they make it possible to use different processing strategies. Colour signals provide important cues for segmenting the image into areas that represent different objects and for linking together areas that represent the same object. If this property of colour signals is exploited in visual processing we would expect colour stimuli to look different, as a class, from greyscale stimuli. We would also expect that adding colour signals to greyscale signals should change the way that those signals are processed. We have investigated these questions in behavioural and in physiological experiments. We find that male marmosets (all of which are dichromats) rapidly learn to distinguish between colour and greyscale copies of the same images. The discrimination transfers to new image pairs, to new colours and to image pairs in which the colour and greyscale images are spatially different. We find that, in a proportion of neurons recorded in the marmoset visual cortex, colour-shifts in opposite directions produce similar enhancements of the response to a luminance stimulus. We conclude that colour is, both behaviourally and physiologically, a distinctive property of images. PMID:12217169

  10. The uses of colour vision: behavioural and physiological distinctiveness of colour stimuli.

    PubMed

    Derrington, Andrew M; Parker, Amanda; Barraclough, Nick E; Easton, Alexander; Goodson, G R; Parker, Kris S; Tinsley, Chris J; Webb, Ben S

    2002-08-29

    Colour and greyscale (black and white) pictures look different to us, but it is not clear whether the difference in appearance is a consequence of the way our visual system uses colour signals or a by-product of our experience. In principle, colour images are qualitatively different from greyscale images because they make it possible to use different processing strategies. Colour signals provide important cues for segmenting the image into areas that represent different objects and for linking together areas that represent the same object. If this property of colour signals is exploited in visual processing we would expect colour stimuli to look different, as a class, from greyscale stimuli. We would also expect that adding colour signals to greyscale signals should change the way that those signals are processed. We have investigated these questions in behavioural and in physiological experiments. We find that male marmosets (all of which are dichromats) rapidly learn to distinguish between colour and greyscale copies of the same images. The discrimination transfers to new image pairs, to new colours and to image pairs in which the colour and greyscale images are spatially different. We find that, in a proportion of neurons recorded in the marmoset visual cortex, colour-shifts in opposite directions produce similar enhancements of the response to a luminance stimulus. We conclude that colour is, both behaviourally and physiologically, a distinctive property of images.

  11. Robust colour calibration of an imaging system using a colour space transform and advanced regression modelling.

    PubMed

    Jackman, Patrick; Sun, Da-Wen; Elmasry, Gamal

    2012-08-01

    A new algorithm for the conversion of device dependent RGB colour data into device independent L*a*b* colour data without introducing noticeable error has been developed. By combining a linear colour space transform and advanced multiple regression methodologies it was possible to predict L*a*b* colour data with less than 2.2 colour units of error (CIE 1976). By transforming the red, green and blue colour components into new variables that better reflect the structure of the L*a*b* colour space, a low colour calibration error was immediately achieved (ΔE(CAL) = 14.1). Application of a range of regression models on the data further reduced the colour calibration error substantially (multilinear regression ΔE(CAL) = 5.4; response surface ΔE(CAL) = 2.9; PLSR ΔE(CAL) = 2.6; LASSO regression ΔE(CAL) = 2.1). Only the PLSR models deteriorated substantially under cross validation. The algorithm is adaptable and can be easily recalibrated to any working computer vision system. The algorithm was tested on a typical working laboratory computer vision system and delivered only a very marginal loss of colour information ΔE(CAL) = 2.35. Colour features derived on this system were able to safely discriminate between three classes of ham with 100% correct classification whereas colour features measured on a conventional colourimeter were not.

  12. Evaluation of meteorological airborne Doppler radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildebrand, P. H.; Mueller, C. K.

    1984-01-01

    This paper will discuss the capabilities of airborne Doppler radar for atmospheric sciences research. The evaluation is based on airborne and ground based Doppler radar observations of convective storms. The capability of airborne Doppler radar to measure horizontal and vertical air motions is evaluated. Airborne Doppler radar is shown to be a viable tool for atmospheric sciences research.

  13. Vascular complications after adult living donor liver transplantation: Evaluation with ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Lin; Lu, Qiang; Luo, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has been widely used to treat end-stage liver disease with improvement in surgical technology and the application of new immunosuppressants. Vascular complications after liver transplantation remain a major threat to the survival of recipients. LDLT recipients are more likely to develop vascular complications because of their complex vascular reconstruction and the slender vessels. Early diagnosis and treatment are critical for the survival of graft and recipients. As a non-invasive, cost-effective and non-radioactive method with bedside availability, conventional gray-scale and Doppler ultrasonography play important roles in identifying vascular complications in the early postoperative period and during the follow-up. Recently, with the detailed vascular tracing and perfusion visualization, contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) has significantly improved the diagnosis of postoperative vascular complications. This review focuses on the role of conventional gray-scale ultrasound, Doppler ultrasound and CEUS for early diagnosis of vascular complications after adult LDLT. PMID:26819527

  14. Doppler characteristics of sea clutter.

    SciTech Connect

    Raynal, Ann Marie; Doerry, Armin Walter

    2010-06-01

    Doppler radars can distinguish targets from clutter if the target's velocity along the radar line of sight is beyond that of the clutter. Some targets of interest may have a Doppler shift similar to that of clutter. The nature of sea clutter is different in the clutter and exo-clutter regions. This behavior requires special consideration regarding where a radar can expect to find sea-clutter returns in Doppler space and what detection algorithms are most appropriate to help mitigate false alarms and increase probability of detection of a target. This paper studies the existing state-of-the-art in the understanding of Doppler characteristics of sea clutter and scattering from the ocean to better understand the design and performance choices of a radar in differentiating targets from clutter under prevailing sea conditions.

  15. Doppler tracking of planetary spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinman, Peter W.

    1992-01-01

    This article concerns the measurement of Doppler shift on microwave links that connect planetary spacecraft with the Deep Space Network. Such measurements are made by tracking the Doppler effect with phase-locked loop receivers. A description of equipment and techniques as well as a summary of the appropriate mathematical models are given. The two-way Doppler shift is measured by transmitting a highly-stable microwave (uplink) carrier from a ground station, having the spacecraft coherently transpond this carrier, and using a phase-locked loop receiver at the ground station to track the returned (downlink) carrier. The largest sources of measurement error are usually plasma noise and thermal noise. The plasma noise, which may originate in the ionosphere or the solar corona, is discussed; and a technique to partially calibrate its effect, involving the use of two simultaneous downlink carriers that are coherently related, is described. Range measurements employing Doppler rate-aiding are also described.

  16. Dual-Doppler Feasibility Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huddleston, Lisa L.

    2012-01-01