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Sample records for columbia river white

  1. Radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, D.D.; Price, K.R.; Poston, T.M.

    1992-09-01

    Although radioactive releases from the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site have been monitored in the environment since the reactors began operating in 1945, recent information regarding historical releases of radionuclides has led to renewed interest in estimating human exposure to radionuclides at Hanford. Knowledge of the fate of radionuclides in some fish species may be important because of the potential for food-chain transfer to humans. White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) were selected for study because they are long-lived, reside year-round in the Hanford Reach, are benthic, and are an important commercial and sport species in the Columbia River. They also have a greater potential for accumulating persistent radionuclides than shorter-lived species with pelagic and/or anadromous life histories. The purpose of our study was to summarize data on historical concentrations of industrial radionuclides in white sturgeon and to collect additional data on current body burdens in the Columbia River.

  2. Radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, D.D.; Price, K.R.; Poston, T.M.

    1992-09-01

    Although radioactive releases from the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site have been monitored in the environment since the reactors began operating in 1945, recent information regarding historical releases of radionuclides has led to renewed interest in estimating human exposure to radionuclides at Hanford. Knowledge of the fate of radionuclides in some fish species may be important because of the potential for food-chain transfer to humans. White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) were selected for study because they are long-lived, reside year-round in the Hanford Reach, are benthic, and are an important commercial and sport species in the Columbia River. They also have a greater potential for accumulating persistent radionuclides than shorter-lived species with pelagic and/or anadromous life histories. The purpose of our study was to summarize data on historical concentrations of industrial radionuclides in white sturgeon and to collect additional data on current body burdens in the Columbia River.

  3. Radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, D.D.; Price, K.R.; Poston, T.M.

    1993-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) review and summarize historical data on radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River, (2) determine present-day radionuclide tissue burdens from different locations in the Columbia River, and (3) compare historical data with current data. We first reviewed and summarized the historical literature on radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Hanford Reach. Field studies were then conducted to evaluate the relationship among sample locations, age/length of white sturgeon, and present radionuclide tissue burdens. Results and comparisons are discussed in the remainder of this report.

  4. Toxicity of copper to early-life stage Kootenai River white sturgeon, Columbia River white sturgeon, and rainbow trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Little, E.E.; Calfee, R.D.; Linder, G.

    2012-01-01

    White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) populations throughout western North America are in decline, likely as a result of overharvest, operation of dams, and agricultural and mineral extraction activities in their watersheds. Recruitment failure may reflect the loss of early-life stage fish in spawning areas of the upper Columbia River, which are contaminated with metals from effluents associated with mineral-extraction activities. Early-life stage white sturgeon (A. transmontanus) from the Columbia River and Kootenai River populations were exposed to copper during 96-h flow-through toxicity tests to determine their sensitivity to the metal. Similar tests were conducted with rainbow trout (RBT [Oncorhynchus mykiss]) to assess the comparative sensitivity of this species as a surrogate for white sturgeon. Exposures were conducted with a water quality pH 8.1-8.3, hardness 81-119 mg/L as CaCO2, and dissolved organic carbon 0.2-0.4 mg/L. At approximately 30 days posthatch (dph), sturgeon were highly sensitive to copper with median lethal concentration (LC50) values ranging from 4.1 to 6.8 μg/L compared with 36.5 μg/L for 30 dph RBT. White sturgeon at 123-167 dph were less sensitive to copper with LC50 values ranging from 103.7 to 268.9 μg/L. RBT trout, however, remained more sensitive to copper at 160 dph with an LC50 value of 30.9 μg/L. The results indicate that high sensitivity to copper in early-life stage white sturgeon may be a factor in recruitment failure occurring in the upper Columbia and Kootenai rivers. When site-specific water-quality criteria were estimated using the biotic ligand model (BLM), derived values were not protective of early-life stage fish, nor were estimates derived by water-hardness adjustment.

  5. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, David L.; Kern, J. Chris; Hughes, Michele L.

    2003-12-01

    We report on our progress from April 2001 through March 2002 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam.

  6. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, David L.; Kern, J. Chris; Hughes, Michele L.

    2004-02-01

    We report on our progress from April 2002 through March 2003 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam.

  7. Capture of white sturgeon larvae downstream of The Dalles Dam, Columbia River, Oregon and Washington, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsley, Michael J.; Kofoot, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Wild-spawned white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) larvae captured and reared in aquaculture facilities and subsequently released, are increasingly being used in sturgeon restoration programs in the Columbia River Basin. A reconnaissance study was conducted to determine where to deploy nets to capture white sturgeon larvae downstream of a known white sturgeon spawning area. As a result of the study, 103 white sturgeon larvae and 5 newly hatched free-swimming embryos were captured at 3 of 5 reconnaissance netting sites. The netting, conducted downstream of The Dalles Dam on the Columbia River during June 25–29, 2012, provided information for potentially implementing full-scale collection efforts of large numbers of larvae for rearing in aquaculture facilities and for subsequent release at a larger size in white sturgeon restoration programs.

  8. A spatial model of white sturgeon rearing habitat in the lower Columbia River, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatten, J.R.; Parsley, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Concerns over the potential effects of in-water placement of dredged materials prompted us to develop a GIS-based model that characterizes in a spatially explicit manner white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus rearing habitat in the lower Columbia River, USA. The spatial model was developed using water depth, riverbed slope and roughness, fish positions collected in 2002, and Mahalanobis distance (D2). We created a habitat suitability map by identifying a Mahalanobis distance under which >50% of white sturgeon locations occurred in 2002 (i.e., high-probability habitat). White sturgeon preferred relatively moderate to high water depths, and low to moderate riverbed slope and roughness values. The eigenvectors indicated that riverbed slope and roughness were slightly more important than water depth, but all three variables were important. We estimated the impacts that fill might have on sturgeon habitat by simulating the addition of fill to the thalweg, in 3-m increments, and recomputing Mahalanobis distances. Channel filling simulations revealed that up to 9 m of fill would have little impact on high-probability habitat, but 12 and 15 m of fill resulted in habitat declines of ???12% and ???45%, respectively. This is the first spatially explicit predictive model of white sturgeon rearing habitat in the lower Columbia River, and the first to quantitatively predict the impacts of dredging operations on sturgeon habitat. Future research should consider whether water velocity improves the accuracy and specificity of the model, and to assess its applicability to other areas in the Columbia River.

  9. Diel and seasonal movements of white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, in the mid-Columbia river

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, J.M.; Gray, R.H.

    1981-04-01

    To evaluate seasonal movements in the free-flowing Hanford reach of the Columbia River, white sturgeon with radio transmitters in spring and early summer 1977 were monitored along with fish that had been tagged in 1975 and 1976. Daily environmental temperature records indicated sturgeon did not consistently engage in a diel movement pattern. It was concluded that although temperature is a major influence stimulating seasonal movements, light cycle and feeding probably influence diel movements. (JMT)

  10. Snout dimorphism in white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, from the Columbia River at Hanford, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Crass, D.W.; Gray, R.H.

    1982-01-01

    Although differences in snout length and shape between young and adult sturgeon are known, morphological divergence in snout type of similar sized individuals has not been reported. Field observations in the Hanford reach of the Columbia River on 99 white sturgeon ranging from 35 to 205 cm total length showed two snout types based on size and shape. The occurrence of this dimorphism at Hanford may reflect isolating mechanisms, such as physical barriers which block fish movements. (RAF)

  11. Contaminants in white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) from the upper Fraser River, British Columbia, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, D.D.; Ikonomou, M.G.; Rantalaine, A.L.; Rogers, I.H.; Sutherland, D.; Oostdam, J. Van

    1997-03-01

    Four white sturgeon were collected from the upper Fraser River near Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, in the fall of 199a and 1992. Two additional fish were taken from the Fraser River near Williams Lake, some 250 km downstream of Prince George. Samples of white muscle, red muscle, liver, and roe were analyzed for metals, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), non-ortho and mono-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and chlorophenols to determine whether the tissues of this species were acceptable for human consumption. The concentrations of mercury in the white muscle and liver of several fish from the upper Fraser River exceeded the provincial tissue residue criteria for people who consumed low quantities of fish. The concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs, and coplanar PCBs (expressed as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalents) in red muscle and liver of these fish exceeded the Health Canada working guidelines for the protection of human health. By comparison, white sturgeon collected in the lower Fraser River had much lower concentrations of metals and organic contaminants. The differences in contaminant burdens in fish from the two widely separated reaches of the river reflect their proximity to or distance from known contaminant sources.

  12. Seasonal and diel movements of white sturgeon in the lower columbia river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsley, M.J.; Popoff, N.D.; Van Der Leeuw, B. K.; Wright, C.D.

    2008-01-01

    Continuous monitoring of the movements and depths used by white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus with acoustic telemetry technologies in the lower Columbia River provided information on diel and seasonal migrations, local movements, and site fidelity. White sturgeon moved to shallower water at night and showed greater activity, inferred from rates of movement, than during daytime. The extent of local movement within a season was variable among fish; some fish readily moved among habitats while the movements of others were more constrained. White sturgeon were absent from the study area (river kilometers 45-52) during winter and returned from upstream during the spring, confirming an upstream seasonal migration in the fall and downstream migration in spring. The return of individual fish and reoccupation of areas previously inhabited showed that some white sturgeon exhibit site fidelity. This work shows that studies seeking to characterize habitat for white sturgeon need to be cognizant of diel migrations and site fidelity. We urge caution in the use of limited fish location data to describe habitats if diel activities and fine-scale movements are not known.

  13. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rien, Thomas A.; Hughes, Michele L.; Kern, J. Chris

    2006-03-01

    We report on our progress from April 2004 through March 2005 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete; therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported.

  14. White Sturgeon Mitgation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rein, Thomas A.; Hughes, Michele L.; Kern, J. Chris

    2005-08-01

    We report on our progress from April 2003 through March 2004 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete; therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported.

  15. Diet of first-feeding larval and young-of-the-year white sturgeon in the lower Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muir, W.D.; McCabe, G.T.; Parsley, M.J.; Hinton, S.A.

    2000-01-01

    In some Snake and Columbia River reservoirs, adult white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are common but few juvenile fish are found, indicating a lack of spawning success or poor survival of larvae. In contrast, recruitment of young-of-the-year white sturgeon to juvenile and adult stages is successful in the unimpounded Columbia River downstream of Bonneville Dam. The availability and size of preferred prey during the period when white sturgeon larvae begin exogenous feeding could be an important determinant of year-class strength. To explore this issue, we examined the diet composition of 352 larval and young-of-the year white sturgeon collected from 1989 through 1991 in the lower Columbia River. Samples were collected downstream from Bonneville Dam and upstream from the dam in Bonneville and The Dalles Reservoirs. Fish that ranged in size from 15 to 290 mm in total length fed primarily on gammarid amphipods (Corophium spp.) during all months. This diet item became increasingly important to all sizes of white sturgeon examined as they grew. The length of Corophium spp. eaten by larval and young-of-the-year white sturgeon increased with increasing fish length (r2 = 45.6%, P < 0.0001). Copepods (Cyclopoida), Ceratopogonidae larvae, and Diptera pupae and larvae (primarily chironomids) were also consumed, especially at the onset of exogenous feeding. A small percentage of white sturgeon were found with empty stomachs during June (1.6% downstream from Bonneville Dam) and July (4.5% downstream and 2.6% in the reservoirs). Diets of larval and young-of-the year white sturgeon from both impounded and free-flowing sections of the Columbia River were similar and we found no evidence of larval starvation in the areas investigated, areas currently supporting healthy white sturgeon populations.

  16. Summary of Stock Identification Research on White Sturgeon of the Columbia River, 1985-1991 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Setter, Ann L.; Brannon, E.L.

    1992-01-01

    White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are a long-lived, primitive fish species which forage primarily along the river bottom of large river systems in the Pacific Northwest. Historically, as an anadromous species, they could distribute downstream to feed in the rich estuary or marine areas and then migrate back up the river to spawn. With the historic river becoming a series of flooded impoundments, sturgeon were denied open river access, but they appear to have been able to adapt to the altered environment. White sturgeon are found throughout the Columbia River and are thought to be successfully reproducing in some of the impoundments. In those reservoirs where little or no reproduction takes place, enhancement hatcheries may be an option for use in rebuilding isolated populations. However, the degree of stock specificity that exists in the Columbia River was unknown and precluded the use of the more abundant lower river fish as a common egg source to repropagate the upper river unless genetic similarity could be demonstrated among sturgeon throughout the river system. To resolve the issue, research was conducted to determine what level of genetic differentiation exists among sturgeon in the Columbia River system, using starch gel electrophoresis to enable a baseline of population genetic structure data to be assembled. A greater diversity in electrophoretic pattern was observed in the lower portions of the river. The bulk of the qualitative variability we noted was consistent throughout all sections of the river. Some specific quantitative differences were apparent between the areas we examined. Interpretation of the results was complicated by the fact that dam construction would tend to isolate and mix stocks by preventing the migration of fish returning upstream.

  17. Columbia River White Sturgeon (Acipenser Transmontanus) Enhancement, May 1-December 31, 1983 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Brannon, E.L.

    1984-12-01

    Studies were undertaken to examine and define the early life history characteristics of Columbia River white sturgeon as a working base from which enhancement measures could be developed. Adult sturgeon were captured and held for spawning at Covert's Landing, the site of the hatchery facilities below Bonneville Dam. Pituitary hormones stimulated ovulation; ripe females were live spawned surgically and the eggs incubated in hatching jars. Larvae were either reared at the hatchery site after incubation to advanced fingerling stages or transferred to the University laboratory for more detailed study. Displacement downstream occurs as a means of distribution and can last several days before a strong substrate preference is manifested. Once bottom contact is sought by the larvae, displacement is abated, and a general preference for sandy surface appears to predominate. Since potentially extensive displacement downstream could result in the distribution of larvae in saltwater, the tolerance of young sturgeon to saltwater was examined. The responsiveness of young sturgeon to artificial feed was positive. With these results, the original concern for identifying an adequate diet and food source that would be readily accepted by fry was greatly attenuated. The readiness of young fry to initiate feeding on the artificial diet made further study on feeding stimulants unnecessary. Examination of the feeding response suggested that as long as the diet used in the present study was initiated at the proper time and with adequate frequency, the fry would feed quite well and survive. 6 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) passage at the Dalles Dam, Columbia River, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsley, M.J.; Wright, C.D.; Van Der Leeuw, B. K.; Kofoot, E.E.; Peery, C.A.; Moser, M.L.

    2007-01-01

    White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) ???95 cm TL were monitored using acoustic and radio telemetry at a large hydroelectric dam (the Dalles Dam) on the Columbia River, during March 2004 through November 2005 to determine timing and routes of passage and to characterize general movements. Transmitters were surgically implanted into 148 fish during the study; 90 were released into the tailrace and 58 into the forebay. We documented 26 passage events by 19 tagged fish: eight upstream via fish ladders and 18 downstream, mostly through open spill gates. During the study 17 fish entered the two ladders one or more times; 11 entered only the east ladder, three entered only the north ladder, and three entered both ladders at sometime. Residence time within the ladders by individual fish was variable, ranging from about 1 min to nearly 6 months (median = 7.7 h). Only six fish successfully ascended the east ladder, one fish twice. We could not unequivocally determine which fish ladder one fish used to pass upstream. Differences in construction between the north and east fish ladders may account for the greater success of the east fish ladder in passing sturgeon upstream. Changes to operations at hydroelectric dams to benefit migrating anadromous salmonids may influence upstream or downstream passage by white sturgeon. Altering patterns and timing of spill discharge, altering fish ladder entrance attraction flows, and the use of lights, sound, and partial barriers to direct other species of fish to preferred passage routes have unknown effects on sturgeon passage. A better understanding of the consequences to the metapopulation of increasing or precluding upstream or downstream passage is needed. ?? 2007 The Authors.

  19. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 1998-1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, David L.

    2000-12-01

    The authors report on their progress from April 1998 through March 1999 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW; Report A), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW; Report B), U.S. Geological Survey Biological Resources Division (USGS; Report C), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS; Report D), Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC; Report E), and the University of Idaho (UI; Report F). This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete. Therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported. Highlights of results of our work from April 1998 through March 1999 are given.

  20. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam, 1999-2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, David L.

    2001-04-01

    We report on our progress from April 1999 through March 2000 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW; Report A), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW; Report B), U.S. Geological Survey Biological Resources Division (USGS; Report C), Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC; Report D), and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS; Report E). This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete. Therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported. Highlights of results of our work from April 1999 through March 2000 are given.

  1. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kern, J. Chris; Ward, David L.; Farr, Ruth A.

    2002-02-01

    We report on our progress from April 2000 through March 2001 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW; Report A), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW; Report B), U.S. Geological Survey Biological Resources Division (USGS; Report C), Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC; Report D), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS; Report E), and Oregon State University (OSU; Report F). This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete; therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported. Highlights of results of our work from April 2000 through March 2001 are listed.

  2. Differences in the dynamics and potential production of impounded and unimpounded white sturgeon populations in the lower Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Beamesderfer, R.C.P.; Rien, T.A.; Nigro, A.A.

    1995-11-01

    White sturgeons Acipenser transmontanus were sampled in three lower Columbia River reservoirs from 1987 to 1991 to describe population dynamics, the ability of these stocks to sustain harvest, and differences among reservoir and unimpounded populations. Significant differences were observed among reservoirs in white sturgeon abundance, biomass, size composition, sex ratio, size of females at maturity, growth rate, condition factor, and rate of exploitation. No differences among reservoirs were detected in fecundity, natural mortality rate, or longevity, in part because of sampling difficulties. Recruitment rates and densities in reservoirs were inversely correlated with growth rate, condition factor, and size of females at maturity. Differences in population dynamics resulted in substantial differences in sustainable yields. Maximum yields per recruit were predicted at annual exploitation rates between 5 and 15%. Most characteristics of reservoir populations were less than or equal to optima reported for the unimpounded lower river; as a result, yield per recruit, reproductive potential per recruit, and the number of recruits were less in reservoirs than in the unimpounded river. Comparisons with pristine standing stocks suggest that the unimpounded river may approximate preimpoundment conditions for white sturgeon. We conclude that potential yield from impounded populations has been reduced by dam construction, which restricts populations to river segments that may not include conditions optimal for all life stages. Alternatives for enchancement of reservoir populations might include improved passage at dams, increased spring flow to improve spawning success, transplants from productive populations, hatchery supplementation, and more intensive harvest management. 54 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; Annual Progress Report, April 2007 - March 2008.

    SciTech Connect

    Mallette, Christine

    2009-07-28

    We report on our progress from April 2007 through March 2008 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW; Report A), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW; Report B), Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC; Report C), and Montana State University (MSU; Report D). This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete; therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported.

  4. Bull Trout Population Assessment in the White Salmon and Klickitat Rivers, Columbia River Gorge, Washington, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Thiesfeld, Steven L.; McPeak, Ronald H.; McNamara, Brian S.; Honanie, Isadore

    2002-01-01

    We utilized night snorkeling and single pass electroshocking to determine the presence or absence of bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in 26 stream reaches (3,415 m) in the White Salmon basin and in 71 stream reaches (9,005 m) in the Klickitat River basin during summer and fall 2001. We did not find any bull trout in the White Salmon River basin. In the Klickitat River basin, bull trout were found only in the West Fork Klickitat River drainage. We found bull trout in two streams not previously reported: Two Lakes Stream and an unnamed tributary to Fish Lake Stream (WRIA code number 30-0550). We attempted to capture downstream migrant bull trout in the West Fork Klickitat River by fishing a 1.5-m rotary screw trap at RM 4.3 from July 23 through October 17. Although we caught other salmonids, no bull trout were captured. The greatest limiting factor for bull trout in the West Fork Klickitat River is likely the small amount of available habitat resulting in a low total abundance, and the isolation of the population. Many of the streams are fragmented by natural falls, which are partial or complete barriers to upstream fish movement. To date, we have not been able to confirm that the occasional bull trout observed in the mainstem Klickitat River are migrating upstream into the West Fork Klickitat River.

  5. Spawning and rearing habitat use by white sturgeons in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam

    SciTech Connect

    Parsley, M.J.; Beckman, L.G. )

    1993-03-01

    Spawning and rearing habitats used by white sturgeons Acipenser transmontanus were described from water temperature, depth, and velocity measurements and substrate types present at sites where eggs, larvae, young-of-the-year, and juveniles (ages 1-7) were collected. Spawning and egg incubation occurred in the swiftest water available (mean water column velocity, 0.8-2.8 m/s), which was within 8 km downstream from each of the four main-stem Columbia River dams in our study area. Substrates where spawning occurred mainly cobble, boulder, and bedrock. Yolk-sac larvae were transported by the river currents from spawning areas into deeper areas with lower water velocities and finer substrates. Young-of-the-year white sturgeons were found at depths of 9-57 m, at mean water column velocities of 0.6 m/s and less, and over substrates of hard clay, mud and silt, sand, gravel, and cobble. Juvenile fish were found at depths of 2-58 m, at mean water column velocities of 1.2 m/s and less, and over substrates of hard clay, mud and silt, sand, gravel, cobble, boulder, and bedrock. 38 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Status and Habitat Requirements of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam, 1986-1987 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, Jr., George T.; Beckman, Lance G.; Kreitman, Gayle

    1987-06-01

    Measure 804(e)(8) of the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) Fish and Wildlife Program states that Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) ''shall fund research to determine the impacts of development and operation of the hydroelectric power system on sturgeon in the Columbia River Basin...'' In June 1985, BPA sponsored a workshop to define and list in priority order research needs in the basin (Fickeisen 1985a). In December 1985, BPA submitted a research program implementation plan (Fickeisen 1985b) to the NPPC. The purpose of the plan is to provide guidance for conducting research necessary to address four objectives identified by regional fishery interests for protecting, mitigating and enhancing white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River basin. The plan's objectives are: (1) Assess the current status of Columbia River basin white sturgeon stocks. (2) Provide the basis to evaluate the need for protection, mitigation and enhancement of white sturgeon in the Columbia River system. (3) Provide information that can be used to evaluate potential methods of protection, mitigation and enhancement of existing stocks. (4) Provide tools to assess the effectiveness of protection, mitigation and enhancement efforts.

  7. The Columbia River Research Laboratory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maule, Alec

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (CRRL) was established in 1978 at Cook, Washington, in the Columbia River Gorge east of Portland, Oregon. The CRRL, as part of the Western Fisheries Research Center, conducts research on fishery issues in the Columbia River Basin. Our mission is to: 'Serve the public by providing scientific information to support the stewardship of our Nation's fish and aquatic resources...by conducting objective, relevant research'.

  8. Effects of Mitigative Measures on Productivity of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam; Determine Status and Habitat Requirements of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from the McNary Dam, 1994-1995 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Beiningen, Kirk T.

    1996-03-01

    The author reports on progress from April 1994 through March 1995 of research on white sturgeon in the lower Columbia River. The study began in July 1986 and is a cooperative effort of federal, state and tribal fisheries entities to determine the (1) the status and habitat requirements, and (2) the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the lower Columbia River. This report describes activities conducted during the third year of this contract's second phase. Information was collected, analyzed, and evaluated on sub-adult and adult life histories, population dynamics, quantity and quality of habitat, and production enhancement strategies. The report is divided into sections that evaluate success of developing and implementing a management plan for white sturgeon; evaluate growth, mortality, and contributions to fisheries of juvenile white sturgeon transplanted from areas downstream; describe the life history and population dynamics of sub-adult a nd adult white sturgeon; define habitat requirements for spawning and rearing of white sturgeon and quantify the extent of habitat available; describe reproductive and early life history characteristics of white sturgeon; and quantify physical habitat used by spawning and rearing white sturgeon in the free-flowing portion of the Columbia River.

  9. Columbia River White Sturgeon Genetics and Early Life History: Population Segregation and Juvenile Feeding Behavior, 1987 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Brannon, Ernest L.

    1988-06-01

    The geographic area of the genetics study broadly covered the distribution range of sturgeon in the Columbia from below Bonneville Dam at Ilwaco at Lake Roosevelt, the Upper Snake River, and the Kootenai River. The two remote river sections provided data important for enhancement considerations. There was little electrophoretic variation seen among individuals from the Kootenai River. Upper Snake river sturgeon showed a higher percentage of polymorphic loci than the Kootenai fish, but lower than the other areas in the Columbia River we sampled. Sample size was increased in both Lake Roosevelt and at Electrophoretic variation was specific to an individual sampling area in several cases and this shaped our conclusions. The 1987 early life history studies concentrated on the feeding behavior of juvenile sturgeon. The chemostimulant components in prey attractive to sturgeon were examined, and the sensory systems utilized by foraging sturgeon were determined under different environmental conditions. These results were discussed with regard to the environmental changes that have occurred in the Columbia River. Under present river conditions, the feeding mechanism of sturgeon is more restricted to certain prey types, and their feeding range may be limited. In these situations, enhancement measures cannot be undertaken without consideration given to the introduction of food resources that will be readily available under present conditions. 89 refs., 7 figs., 11 tabs.

  10. Columbia River White Sturgeon (Acipenser Transmontanus) Population Genetics and Early Life History Study, January 1, 1986 to December 31, 1986, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Brannon, Ernest L.

    1986-12-01

    The 1986 Columbia River white sturgeon investigations continued to assess genetic variability of sturgeon populations isolated in various areas of the Columbia River, and to examine environmental factors in the habitat that may affect early life history success. Baseline data have been collected for three character sets. Twenty-eight loci have been analyzed for differences using electrophoresis, snout shapes were assessed for multivariate distinction, and scute counts have been examined as an index of variability. Fish that reside in the mid-Columbia and lower river have been sufficiently characterized by electrophoresis to compare with up-river areas. To date, few electrophoretic differences have been identified. However, Lake Roosevelt sturgeon sample size will be increased to determine if some of the observed differences from lower river fish are significant. Snout shape has been shown to be easily quantifiable using the digitizing technique. Scute count data initially indicate that variability exists within as well as between areas. Patterns of differentiation of one or more of these data sets may be used to formulate stock transplant guidelines essential for proper management or enhancement of this species. The historical habitat available to sturgeon in the Columbia River has changed through the development of hydroelectric projects. Dams have reduced the velocity and turbulence, and increased light penetration in the water column from less silt. These changes have affected the ability of sturgeon to feed and have made them more vulnerable to predation, which appear to have altered the ability of populations isolated in the reservoirs to sustain themselves. Present studies support the theory that both the biological and physical habitat characteristics of the Columbia River are responsible for reduced sturgeon survival, and justify consideration of enhancement initiatives above Bonneville to improve sturgeon reproductive success.

  11. Columbia River White Sturgeon (Acipenser Transmontanus) Early Life History and Genertics Study, August 1, 1984 to December 31, 1985 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Brannon, Ernest L.

    1985-12-01

    Research on Columbia River white sturgeon has been directed at their early life history as it may apply to production and enhancement strategies for management of the species. The river environment in which sturgeon historically migrated, spawned, and reared has changed through development. Habitat changes are expected to precipitate genetic changes in the fish, as well as reduce the fitness in populations. Genetic analysis of samples taken from various locations over the length of the Columbia River have indicated that observed gene frequencies in all areas sampled were not in Hardy-Weinburg equilibrium, which could suggest that the general population is experiencing perturbation in the system. Analysis thus far has exposed few differences between samples from the lower, middle, and upper portions of the system. Allelic differences were identified in fish from the Roosevelt Lake, which may be evidence of unique characteristics among fish from that general area.

  12. The Columbia River Research Laboratory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waste, Steve; Reagan, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    The mission of the Columbia River Research Laboratory is to serve the public by providing scientific information to support the stewardship of our Nation's fish and aquatic resources, with emphasis on the Columbia River basin. As a part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Western Fisheries Research Center, we conduct objective, relevant research and seek partnerships to help fulfill this mission.

  13. Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2003-04-23

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to fund the White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam Project. The project proposes to continue to carry out harvest monitoring and stock status updates coordinated with fisheries management planning, annual young-of-the year recruitment indexing, research, experimental artificial propagation, and transport of white sturgeon to less densely populated areas of the river(s). Additionally, release of hatchery-reared juveniles is proposed to evaluate release strategies. Actions will take place in the following Columbia River mainstem reaches: Bonneville, The Dalles, John Day, and McNary Reservoirs; Hanford Reach, as well as the Wanapum and Rock Island Reservoirs; and the following Snake River mainstem reaches: Ice Harbor, Lower Monumental and Little Goose Reservoirs. Spawning and rearing are undertaken at established hatcheries at McNary Dam and also the Abernathy Fish Technology Center. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1367, April 2003) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and BPA is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  14. Acute toxicity of copper, lead, cadmium, and zinc to early life stages of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) in laboratory and Columbia River water.

    PubMed

    Vardy, David W; Santore, Robert; Ryan, Adam; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Populations of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are in decline in North America. This is attributed, primarily, to poor recruitment, and white sturgeon are listed as threatened or endangered in several parts of British Columbia, Canada, and the United States. In the Columbia River, effects of metals have been hypothesized as possible contributing factors. Previous work has demonstrated that early life stage white sturgeon are particularly sensitive to certain metals, and concerns over the level of protectiveness of water quality standards are justified. Here we report results from acute (96-h) toxicity tests for copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), and lead (Pb) from parallel studies that were conducted in laboratory water and in the field with Columbia River water. Water effect ratios (WERs) and sensitivity parameters (i.e., median lethal accumulations, or LA50s) were calculated to assess relative bioavailability of these metals in Columbia River water compared to laboratory water, and to elucidate possible differences in sensitivity of early life stage white sturgeon to the same concentrations of metals when tested in the different water sources. For Cu and Pb, white sturgeon toxicity tests were initiated at two life stages, 8 and 40 days post-hatch (dph), and median lethal concentrations (LC50s) ranged between 9-25 μg Cu/L and 177-1,556 μg Pb/L. LC50s for 8 dph white sturgeon exposed to Cd in laboratory water and river water were 14.5 and 72 μg/L, respectively. Exposure of 8 dph white sturgeon to Zn in laboratory and river water resulted in LC50s of 150 and 625 μg/L, respectively. Threshold concentrations were consistently less in laboratory water compared with river water, and as a result, WERs were greater than 1 in all cases. In addition, LA50s were consistently greater in river water exposures compared with laboratory exposures in all paired tests. These results, in combination with results from the biotic ligand model, suggest that the observed

  15. Effects of Mitigative Measures on Productivity of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam: Determine Status and Habitat Requirements of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from McNary Dam, 1997-1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, David L.

    1999-02-01

    The authors report on their progress from April 1997 through March 1998 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW; Report A), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW; Report B), U.S. Geological Survey Biological Resources Division (USGS; Report C), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS; Report D), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS; Report E), and Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC; Report F). This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete. Therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported. Highlights of results of the work from April 1997 through March 1998 listed.

  16. Columbia River Impact Evaluation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, S.G.

    1994-03-01

    A preliminary impact evaluation was conducted to assess the adequacy of existing data and proposed data collection programs for evaluating cumulative health and environmental impacts to the Columbia River due to past practices at the Hanford Site. The results of this evaluation were used to develop this plan to ensure collection of sufficient data for adequate characterization of the Columbia River along the 100 Area for CERCLA purposes. The evaluation used to develop the plan is not a risk assessment; the plan presented here is only a mechanism to collect additional data to support a future risk assessment.

  17. Effects of Mitigation Measures on Productivity of the White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam, and Status and Habitat Requirements of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from McNary Dam, 1992-1993 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Beamesdorfer, Raymond C.; Nigro, Anthony A.

    1993-12-01

    We report on our progress from April 1992-March 1993 in research on white sturgeon in the lower Columbia River. The study began in July 1986 and progress through 1992 was summarized in a comprehensive report in 2 volumes (Beamesderfer and Nigro 1993a, 1993b). This report details activities during the first year of Phase II of this sturgeon research. In Phase I, we assessed the status and habitat requirements of the white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam. Phase II will examine the effects on white sturgeon productivity of mitigative measures recommended in Phase I. The status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations upstream from McNary Dam will also be examined in Phase II. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Washington Department of Fisheries, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and National Marine Fisheries Service. Work during the past year has focused on: (1) analysis of results of limited sampling conducted in 1992, (2) submission of Phase I results to the peer-review literature to ensure widespread dissemination, clarity of presentation, and credibility of findings, and (3) preparations for additional field work in 1993. In report sections A to D, each agency reports 1992 results if applicable and the current status of manuscripts. Results of field work conducted in 1993 will be reported in the 1994 annual report.

  18. Status and Habitat Requirements of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam, 1988-1989 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Nigro, Anthony A. )

    1989-09-01

    We report on our progress from April 1988 through March 1989 on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam. Highlights of results of our work in the Dalles and Bonneville reservoirs are: using setlines, we caught 1,586 sturgeon in The Dalles Reservoir and 484 sturgeon in Bonneville Reservoir in 1988. Fork length of fish caught ranged from 34 cm to 274 cm. Of the fish caught we marked 1,248 in The Dalles Reservoir and 341 in Bonneville Reservoir. Of the fish marked in 1988, we recaptured 82 in The Dalles Reservoir and none in Bonneville Reservoir. We recaptured 89 fish marked in 1987 in The Dalles Reservoir. Anglers recaptured 35 fish marked in 1988 and 16 fish marked in 1987 in The Dalles Reservoir. Anglers recaptured 2 sturgeon marked in 1988 in Bonneville Reservoir. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base.

  19. Evidence of Detrimental Effects of Environmental Contaminants on Growth and Reproductive Physiology of White Sturgeon in Impounded Areas of the Columbia River

    PubMed Central

    Feist, Grant W.; Webb, Molly A.H.; Gundersen, Deke T.; Foster, Eugene P.; Schreck, Carl B.; Maule, Alec G.; Fitzpatrick, Martin S.

    2005-01-01

    This study sought to determine whether wild white sturgeon from the Columbia River (Oregon) were exhibiting signs of reproductive endocrine disruption. Fish were sampled in the free-flowing portion of the river (where the population is experiencing reproductive success) and from three reservoirs behind hydroelectric dams (where fish have reduced reproductive success). All of the 18 pesticides and almost all of the 28 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) that were analyzed in livers and gonads were detected in at least some of the tissue samples. Metabolites of p,p′-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) [p,p′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and p,p′-1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDD)] were consistently found at relatively high levels in fish. Some males and immature females showed elevated plasma vitellogenin; however, concentrations were not correlated with any of the pesticides or PCBs analyzed. Negative correlations were found between a number of physiologic parameters and tissue burdens of toxicants. Plasma triglycerides and condition factor were negatively correlated with total DDT (DDD + DDE + DDT), total pesticides (all pesticides detected – total DDT), and PCBs. In males, plasma androgens and gonad size were negatively correlated with total DDT, total pesticides, and PCBs. Fish residing in the reservoir behind the oldest dam had the highest contaminant loads and incidence of gonadal abnormalities, and the lowest triglycerides, condition factor, gonad size, and plasma androgens. These data suggest that endocrine-disrupting chemicals may be accumulating behind dams over time. Overall, results of this study indicate that exposure to environmental contaminants may be affecting both growth and reproductive physiology of sturgeon in some areas of the Columbia River. PMID:16330346

  20. Evidence of detrimental effects of environmental contaminants on growth and reproductive physiology of white sturgeon in impounded areas of the Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feist, G.W.; Webb, M.A.H.; Gundersen, D.T.; Foster, E.P.; Schreck, C.B.; Maule, A.G.; Fitzpatrick, M.S.

    2005-01-01

    This study sought to determine whether wild white sturgeon from the Columbia River (Oregon) were exhibiting signs of reproductive endocrine disruption. Fish were sampled in the free-flowing portion of the river (where the population is experiencing reproductive success) and from three reservoirs behind hydroelectric dams (where fish have reduced reproductive success). All of the 18 pesticides and almost all of the 28 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) that were analyzed in livers and gonads were detected in at least some of the tissue samples. Metabolites of p,p???-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) [p,p???-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and p,p???-1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDD)] were consistently found at relatively high levels in fish. Some males and immature females showed elevated plasma vitellogenin; however, concentrations were not correlated with any of the pesticides or PCBs analyzed. Negative correlations were found between a number of physiologic parameters and tissue burdens of toxicants. Plasma triglycerides and condition factor were negatively correlated with total DDT (DDD + DDE + DDT), total pesticides (all pesticides detected - total DDT), and PCBs. In males, plasma androgens and gonad size were negatively correlated with total DDT, total pesticides, and PCBs. Fish residing in the reservoir behind the oldest dam had the highest contaminant loads and incidence of gonadal abnormalities, and the lowest triglycerides, condition factor, gonad size, and plasma androgens. These data suggest that endocrine-disrupting chemicals may be accumulating behind dams over time. Overall, results of this study indicate that exposure to environmental contaminants may be affecting both growth and reproductive physiology of sturgeon in some areas of the Columbia River.

  1. Columbia River Component Data Evaluation Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    C.S. Cearlock

    2006-08-02

    The purpose of the Columbia River Component Data Compilation and Evaluation task was to compile, review, and evaluate existing information for constituents that may have been released to the Columbia River due to Hanford Site operations. Through this effort an extensive compilation of information pertaining to Hanford Site-related contaminants released to the Columbia River has been completed for almost 965 km of the river.

  2. Status and Habitat Requirements of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam, 1989-1990 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Nigro, Anthony A.

    1990-09-01

    We report on our progress from April 1989 through March 1990 on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), Washington Department of Fisheries (WDF), US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). Study objectives addressed by each agency are to describe the life history and population dynamics of subadults and adults between Bonneville and McNary dams and evaluate the need and identify potential methods for protecting, mitigating and enhancing populations downstream from McNary Dam, to describe the white sturgeon recreational fishery between Bonneville and McNary dams, describe reproductive and early life history characteristics downstream from Bonneville Dam and describe life history and population dynamics of subadults and adults downstream from Bonneville Dam, to describe reproduction and early life history characteristics, define habitat requirements for spawning and rearing and quantify extent of habitat available between Bonneville and McNary dams, and to describe reproduction and early life history characteristics, define habitat requirements for spawning and rearing and quantify extent of habitat available downstream from Bonneville Dam. Our approach is to work concurrently downstream and upstream from Bonneville Dam. Upstream from Bonneville Dam we began work in the Dalles Reservoir in 1987 and expanded efforts to Bonneville Reservoir in 1988 and John Day Reservoir in 1989. Highlights from this work is also included. 47 refs., 33 figs., 66 tabs.

  3. The Columbia River System : the Inside Story.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1991-09-01

    The Columbia Ricer is one of the greatest natural resources in the western United States. The river and its tributaries touch the lives of nearly every resident of the Northwest-from providing the world-famous Pacific salmon to supplying the clean natural fuel for over 75 percent of the region's electrical generation. Since early in the century, public and private agencies have labored to capture the benefits of this dynamic river. Today, dozens of major water resource projects throughout the region are fed by the waters of the Columbia Basin river system. And through cooperative efforts, the floods that periodically threaten developments near the river can be controlled. This publication presents a detailed explanation of the planning and operation of the multiple-use dams and reservoirs of the Columbia River system. It describes the river system, those who operate and use it, the agreements and policies that guide system operation, and annual planning for multiple-use operation.

  4. Decline of radionuclides in Columbia River biota

    SciTech Connect

    Cushing, C.E.; Watson, D.G.; Scott, A.J.; Gurtisen, J.M.

    1980-03-01

    In January 1971, the last of nine plutonium production reactors using direct discharge of once-through cooling waters into the Columbia River was closed. Sampling was initiated at three stations on the Columbia River to document the decline of the radionuclide body burdens in the biota of the Columbia River ecosystem. The data show that in a river-reservoir complex, the measurable body burden of fission-produced radionuclides decreased to essentially undetectable levels within 18 to 24 mo after cessation of discharge of once-through cooling water into the river. On the basis of data from the free-flowing station, we believe that this decrease would be even more rapid in an unimpounded river.

  5. Columbia River Component Data Gap Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    L. C. Hulstrom

    2007-10-23

    This Data Gap Analysis report documents the results of a study conducted by Washington Closure Hanford (WCH) to compile and reivew the currently available surface water and sediment data for the Columbia River near and downstream of the Hanford Site. This Data Gap Analysis study was conducted to review the adequacy of the existing surface water and sediment data set from the Columbia River, with specific reference to the use of the data in future site characterization and screening level risk assessments.

  6. The Columbia River System Inside Story

    SciTech Connect

    2001-04-01

    The Columbia River is one of the greatest natural resources in the western United States. The river and its tributaries touch the lives of nearly every resident of the Pacific Northwest—from fostering world-famous Pacific salmon to supplying clean natural fuel for 50 to 65 percent of the region’s electrical generation. Since early in the 20th century, public and private agencies have labored to capture the benefits of this dynamic river. Today, dozens of major water resource projects throughout the region are fed by the waters of the Columbia Basin river system.

  7. Commentary on Columbia River instream flows

    SciTech Connect

    Coop, H.D.

    1983-08-01

    The Washington State Department of Ecology in 1980 adopted the Columbia River Instream Resource Protection Plan (CRIRPP). This plan requires that flowrates in the river be at least at minimum specified levels (or higher) at all times. Columbia River flowrates are highly regulated by storage and hydropower plants. Plant discharge fluctuates accordingly to fairly-well established power demands, particularly in low water years. CRIRPP requires that streamflow regulation would need to be modified so that outflows from plants are higher than at present. In turn, this means that power demand patterns would have to be modified, significant spill would be necessary, or some of both. There appears to be sufficient runoff, even in low runoff years, specifically, to meet CRIRPP requirements at Columbia River locations upstream from the Snake River confluence.

  8. Columbia River impact evaluation plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    As a result of past practices, four areas of the Hanford Site (the 100, 200, 300, and 1100 Areas) have been included on the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) National Priorities List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980. To accomplish the timely cleanup of the past-practice units, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement), was signed by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), EPA, and the US Department of Energy (DOE). To support the Tri-Party Agreement, milestones were adopted. These milestones represent the actions needed to ensure acceptable progress toward Hanford Site compliance with CERCLA, RCRA, and the Washington State Hazardous Waste Management Act of 1976. This report was prepared to fulfill the requirement of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-30-02, which requires a plan to determine cumulative health and environmental impacts to the Columbia River. This plan supplements the CERCLA remedial investigations/feasibility studies (RI/FS) and RCRA facility investigations/corrective measures studies (RFI/CMSs) that will be undertaken in the 100 Area. To support the plan development process, existing information was reviewed and a preliminary impact evaluation based on this information was performed. The purpose of the preliminary impact evaluation was to assess the adequacy of existing data and proposed data collection activities. Based on the results of the evaluation, a plan is proposed to collect additional data or make changes to existing or proposed data collection activities.

  9. Emplacement of Columbia River flood basalt

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, Stephen P. )

    1997-11-01

    Evidence is examined for the emplacement of the Umatilla, Wilbur Creek, and the Asotin Members of Columbia River Basalt Group. These flows erupted in the eastern part of the Columbia Plateau during the waning phases of volcanism. The Umatilla Member consists of two flows in the Lewiston basin area and southwestern Columbia Plateau. These flows mixed to form one flow in the central Columbia Plateau. The composition of the younger flow is preserved in the center and the composition of the older flow is at the top and bottom. There is a complete gradation between the two. Flows of the Wilbur Creek and Asotin Members erupted individually in the eastern Columbia Plateau and also mixed together in the central Columbia Plateau. Comparison of the emplacement patterns to intraflow structures and textures of the flows suggests that very little time elapsed between eruptions. In addition, the amount of crust that formed on the earlier flows prior to mixing also suggests rapid emplacement. Calculations of volumetric flow rates through constrictions in channels suggest emplacement times of weeks to months under fast laminar flow for all three members. A new model for the emplacement of Columbia River Basalt Group flows is proposed that suggests rapid eruption and emplacement for the main part of the flow and slower emplacement along the margins as the of the flow margin expands.

  10. Status and Habitat Requirements of the White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam Volume II; Supplemental Papers and Data Documentation, 1986-1992 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Beamesderfer, Raymond C.; Nigro, Anthony A.

    1995-01-01

    This is the final report for research on white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus from 1986--92 and conducted by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), and Washington Department of Fisheries (WDF). Findings are presented as a series of papers, each detailing objectives, methods, results, and conclusions for a portion of this research. This volume includes supplemental papers which provide background information needed to support results of the primary investigations addressed in Volume 1. This study addresses measure 903(e)(1) of the Northwest Power Planning Council's 1987 Fish and Wildlife Program that calls for ''research to determine the impact of development and operation of the hydropower system on sturgeon in the Columbia River Basin.'' Study objectives correspond to those of the ''White Sturgeon Research Program Implementation Plan'' developed by BPA and approved by the Northwest Power Planning Council in 1985. Work was conducted on the Columbia River from McNary Dam to the estuary.

  11. American shad in the Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, J.H.; Hinrichsen, R.A.; Gadomski, D.M.; Feil, D.H.; Rondorf, D.W.

    2003-01-01

    American shad Alosa sapidissima from the Hudson River, New York, were introduced into the Sacramento River, California, in 1871 and were first observed in the Columbia River in 1876. American shad returns to the Columbia River increased greatly between 1960 and 1990, and recently 2-4 million adults have been counted per year at Bonneville Dam, Oregon and Washington State (river kilometer 235). The total return of American shad is likely much higher than this dam count. Returning adults migrate as far as 600 km up the Columbia and Snake rivers, passing as many as eight large hydroelectric dams. Spawning occurs primarily in the lower river and in several large reservoirs. A small sample found returning adults were 2-6 years old and about one-third of adults were repeat spawners. Larval American shad are abundant in plankton and in the nearshore zone. Juvenile American shad occur throughout the water column during night, but school near the bottom or inshore during day. Juveniles consume a variety of zooplankton, but cyclopoid copepods were 86% of the diet by mass. Juveniles emigrate from the river from August through December. Annual exploitation of American shad by commercial and recreational fisheries combined is near 9% of the total count at Bonneville Dam. The success of American shad in the Columbia River is likely related to successful passage at dams, good spawning and rearing habitats, and low exploitation. The role of American shad within the aquatic community is poorly understood. We speculate that juveniles could alter the zooplankton community and may supplement the diet of resident predators. Data, however, are lacking or sparse in some areas, and more information is needed on the role of larval and juvenile American shad in the food web, factors limiting adult returns, ocean distribution of adults, and interactions between American shad and endangered or threatened salmonids throughout the river. ?? 2003 by the American Fisheries Society.

  12. 78 FR 15293 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Columbia River, Vancouver, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-11

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Columbia River, Vancouver, WA AGENCY... (BNSF) Railway Bridge across the Columbia River, mile 105.6, at Vancouver, WA. This deviation is...: BNSF has requested that the BNSF Swing Bridge across the Columbia River, mile 105.6, remain closed...

  13. 77 FR 38004 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Columbia River, Vancouver, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Columbia River, Vancouver, WA AGENCY... across the Columbia River, mile 106.5, between Portland, Oregon and Vancouver, Washington. This deviation... Columbia River remain closed to vessel traffic to facilitate heavier than normal roadway traffic...

  14. 33 CFR 117.1035 - Columbia River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Washington § 117.1035 Columbia River. (a) The term... the center of the drawspan. The RACON operates only when the drawspan is fully open, by responding... the remote control stations located at the ends of the bridge. Operation of the bridge shall be...

  15. 33 CFR 117.1035 - Columbia River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Washington § 117.1035 Columbia River. (a) The term... the center of the drawspan. The RACON operates only when the drawspan is fully open, by responding... the remote control stations located at the ends of the bridge. Operation of the bridge shall be...

  16. Columbia River Fishes of the Lewis and Clark Expedition

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, Dennis D.

    2007-06-21

    The Lewis and Clark expedition crossed the Continental Divide in 1805 on the way west to the Pacific Ocean. Based on journal entries, members of the expedition probably encountered two species of resident salmonids and four of the six species of anadromous salmonids and steelhead (Family Salmonidae, genus Oncorhynchus). The salmonid species were called common salmon (now known as Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha), red char (sockeye salmon O.nerka) white salmon trout (coho salmon [also known as silver salmon] O. kisutch), salmon trout (steelhead O. mykiss), and spotted trout (cutthroat trout O. clarkii). There was no evidence of the expedition encountering pink salmon O. gorbuscha, chum salmon O. keta, or species of true char Salvelinus spp. Common fishes procured from Indian tribes living along the lower Columbia River included eulachon Thaleichthys pacificus and white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus. The identity of three additional resident freshwater species is questionable. Available descriptions suggest that what they called mullet were largescale sucker Catastomus macrocheilus, and that chubb were peamouth Mylocheilus caurinus. The third questionable fish, which they called bottlenose, was probably mountain whitefish Prosopium williamsoni, although there is no evidence that the species was observed in the Columbia River drainage. Missing from the species list were more than 20 other fishes known to Sahaptin-speaking people from the mid-Columbia region. More complete documentation of the icthyofauna of the Pacific Northwest region did not occur until the latter half of the 19th century. However, journals from the Lewis and Clark expedition provide the first documentation of Columbia River fishes.

  17. Coast and river mouths, Columbia, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Numerous rivers in Ecuador and Columbia stand out in this South American Pacific coastal scene (1.5N, 79.0W). This region has one of the highest rainfalls in the world with the consequent heavy cloud cover and it is rare to be able to photograph the surface. The Pacific mountain drainage area is small but produces a large volume of runoff and sediment flow into the ocean.

  18. SURVEY OF COLUMBIA RIVER BASIN STREAMS FOR COLUMBIA PEBBLESNAIL Fluminicola columbiana AND SHORTFACE LANX Fisherola nuttalli

    SciTech Connect

    Neitzel, D. A.; Frest, T. J.

    1993-05-01

    At present, there are only two remaining sizable populations of Columbia pebblesnail Fluminicola columbiana; those in the Methow and Okanogan rivers, Washington. Smaller populations survive in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, Washington; the lower Salmon River and middle Snake River, Idaho; and possibly in Hells Canyon of the Snake River, Idaho, Washington, and Oregon; and the Grande Ronde River, Oregon and Washington. Neither large population is at present protected, and there has been a substantial documented reduction in the species' historical range. Large populations of the shortface lanx Fisherola nuttalli persist in four streams: the Deschutes River, Oregon; the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, Washington; Hells Canyon of the Snake River, Idaho and Oregon; and the Okanogan River, Washington. Smaller populations, or ones of uncertain size, are known from the lower Salmon and middle Snake rivers, Idaho; the Grande Ronde, Washington and Oregon; Imnaha and John Day rivers, Oregon; Bonneville Dam area of the Columbia River, Washington and Oregon; and the Methow River, Washington. While substantial range reduction has occurred in this species, and the large populations are not well protected, the problem is not as severe as in the case of the Columbia pebblesnail. Both species appear to have been widespread historically in the mainstem Columbia River and the Columbia River Basin prior to the installation of the current dam system. Both are now apparently reduced within the Columbia River: Columbia pebblesnail to a population in the Hanford Reach plus six other sites that are separated by large areas of unsuitable habitat from those in the river's major mbutaries shortface lanx to two populations (in the Hanford Reach and near Bonneville Dam) plus nine other sites that are separated by large areas of unsuitable habitat from those in the river's major tributaries.

  19. Effects of Mitigative Measures on Productivity of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam; Determine Status and Habitat Requirements of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from McNary Dam, 1995-1996 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rien, Thomas A.; Beiningen, Kirk T.

    1997-07-01

    This project began in July 1986 and is a cooperative effort of federal, state, and tribal fisheries entities to determine (1) the status and habitat requirements, and (2) effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the lower Colombia and Snake rivers.

  20. Columbia River monitoring: Distribution of tritium in Columbia River water at the Richland Pumphouse

    SciTech Connect

    Dirkes, R.L.

    1993-02-01

    The Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This report presents the results of a special study conducted as part of the SESP to supplement the routine Columbia River monitoring program and provide information relative to the dispersion and distribution of Hanford origin contaminants entering the river through the seepage of ground water along the Hanford Site. Sampling was conducted along cross sections to determine the distribution of tritium within the Columbia River at Richland, Washington. The investigation was also designed to evaluate the relationship between the average tritium concentrations in the river water at this location and in water collected from the routine SESP river monitoring system located at the city of Richland drinking water intake (Richland Pumphouse). This study was conducted during the summers of 1987 and 1988. Water samples were collected along cross sections located at or near the Richland Pumphouse monitoring station.

  1. The CHPRC Columbia River Protection Project Quality Assurance Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Fix, N. J.

    2008-11-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory researchers are working on the CHPRC Columbia River Protection Project (hereafter referred to as the Columbia River Project). This is a follow-on project, funded by CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company, LLC (CHPRC), to the Fluor Hanford, Inc. Columbia River Protection Project. The work scope consists of a number of CHPRC funded, related projects that are managed under a master project (project number 55109). All contract releases associated with the Fluor Hanford Columbia River Project (Fluor Hanford, Inc. Contract 27647) and the CHPRC Columbia River Project (Contract 36402) will be collected under this master project. Each project within the master project is authorized by a CHPRC contract release that contains the project-specific statement of work. This Quality Assurance Project Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by the Columbia River Project staff.

  2. Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification Ecosystem Complex

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Charles M.; Ramirez, Mary F.; Heatwole, Danelle W.; Burke, Jennifer L.; Simenstad, Charles A.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Marcoe, Keith Marcoe

    2012-01-01

    Estuarine ecosystems are controlled by a variety of processes that operate at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Understanding the hierarchical nature of these processes will aid in prioritization of restoration efforts. This hierarchical Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification (henceforth "Classification") of the Columbia River estuary is a spatial database of the tidally-influenced reaches of the lower Columbia River, the tidally affected parts of its tributaries, and the landforms that make up their floodplains for the 230 kilometers between the Pacific Ocean and Bonneville Dam. This work is a collaborative effort between University of Washington School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences (henceforth "UW"), U.S. Geological Survey (henceforth "USGS"), and the Lower Columbia Estuary Partnership (henceforth "EP"). Consideration of geomorphologic processes will improve the understanding of controlling physical factors that drive ecosystem evolution along the tidal Columbia River. The Classification is organized around six hierarchical levels, progressing from the coarsest, regional scale to the finest, localized scale: (1) Ecosystem Province; (2) Ecoregion; (3) Hydrogeomorphic Reach; (4) Ecosystem Complex; (5) Geomorphic Catena; and (6) Primary Cover Class. For Levels 4 and 5, we mapped landforms within the Holocene floodplain primarily by visual interpretation of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) topography supplemented with aerial photographs, Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) soils data, and historical maps. Mapped landforms are classified as to their current geomorphic function, the inferred process regime that formed them, and anthropogenic modification. Channels were classified primarily by a set of depth-based rules and geometric relationships. Classification Level 5 floodplain landforms ("geomorphic catenae") were further classified based on multivariate analysis of land-cover within the mapped landform area and attributed as "sub

  3. Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification Geomorphic Catena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Charles M.; Ramirez, Mary F.; Heatwole, Danelle W.; Burke, Jennifer L.; Simenstad, Charles A.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Marcoe, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Estuarine ecosystems are controlled by a variety of processes that operate at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Understanding the hierarchical nature of these processes will aid in prioritization of restoration efforts. This hierarchical Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification (henceforth "Classification") of the Columbia River estuary is a spatial database of the tidally-influenced reaches of the lower Columbia River, the tidally affected parts of its tributaries, and the landforms that make up their floodplains for the 230 kilometers between the Pacific Ocean and Bonneville Dam. This work is a collaborative effort between University of Washington School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences (henceforth "UW"), U.S. Geological Survey (henceforth "USGS"), and the Lower Columbia Estuary Partnership (henceforth "EP"). Consideration of geomorphologic processes will improve the understanding of controlling physical factors that drive ecosystem evolution along the tidal Columbia River. The Classification is organized around six hierarchical levels, progressing from the coarsest, regional scale to the finest, localized scale: (1) Ecosystem Province; (2) Ecoregion; (3) Hydrogeomorphic Reach; (4) Ecosystem Complex; (5) Geomorphic Catena; and (6) Primary Cover Class. For Levels 4 and 5, we mapped landforms within the Holocene floodplain primarily by visual interpretation of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) topography supplemented with aerial photographs, Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) soils data, and historical maps. Mapped landforms are classified as to their current geomorphic function, the inferred process regime that formed them, and anthropogenic modification. Channels were classified primarily by a set of depth-based rules and geometric relationships. Classification Level 5 floodplain landforms ("geomorphic catenae") were further classified based on multivariate analysis of land-cover within the mapped landform area and attributed as "sub

  4. Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification Hydrogeomorphic Reach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Charles M.; Ramirez, Mary F.; Heatwole, Danelle W.; Burke, Jennifer L.; Simenstad, Charles A.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Marcoe, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Estuarine ecosystems are controlled by a variety of processes that operate at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Understanding the hierarchical nature of these processes will aid in prioritization of restoration efforts. This hierarchical Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification (henceforth "Classification") of the Columbia River estuary is a spatial database of the tidally-influenced reaches of the lower Columbia River, the tidally affected parts of its tributaries, and the landforms that make up their floodplains for the 230 kilometers between the Pacific Ocean and Bonneville Dam. This work is a collaborative effort between University of Washington School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences (henceforth "UW"), U.S. Geological Survey (henceforth "USGS"), and the Lower Columbia Estuary Partnership (henceforth "EP"). Consideration of geomorphologic processes will improve the understanding of controlling physical factors that drive ecosystem evolution along the tidal Columbia River. The Classification is organized around six hierarchical levels, progressing from the coarsest, regional scale to the finest, localized scale: (1) Ecosystem Province; (2) Ecoregion; (3) Hydrogeomorphic Reach; (4) Ecosystem Complex; (5) Geomorphic Catena; and (6) Primary Cover Class. For Levels 4 and 5, we mapped landforms within the Holocene floodplain primarily by visual interpretation of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) topography supplemented with aerial photographs, Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) soils data, and historical maps. Mapped landforms are classified as to their current geomorphic function, the inferred process regime that formed them, and anthropogenic modification. Channels were classified primarily by a set of depth-based rules and geometric relationships. Classification Level 5 floodplain landforms ("geomorphic catenae") were further classified based on multivariate analysis of land-cover within the mapped landform area and attributed as "sub

  5. Rivers Run Through It: Discovering the Interior Columbia River Basin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Shelley; Wojtanik, Brenda Lincoln; Rieben, Elizabeth

    1998-01-01

    Explores the Columbia River Basin, its ecosystems, and challenges faced by natural resource managers. By studying the basin's complexity, students can learn about common scientific concepts such as the power of water and effects of rain shadows. Students can also explore social-scientific issues such as conflicts between protecting salmon runs and…

  6. 78 FR 23487 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Columbia River, Vancouver, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ... across the Columbia River, mile 106.5, between Portland, Oregon and Vancouver, Washington. This deviation..., Docket Operations, telephone 202-366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Oregon Department...

  7. Snake and Columbia Rivers Sediment Sampling Project

    SciTech Connect

    Pinza, M.R.; Word, J.Q; Barrows, E.S.; Mayhew, H.L.; Clark, D.R. )

    1992-12-01

    The disposal of dredged material in water is defined as a discharge under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act and must be evaluated in accordance with US Environmental Protection Agency regulation 40 CFR 230. Because contaminant loads in the dredged sediment or resuspended sediment may affect water quality or contaminant loading, the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Walla Walla District, has requested Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory to collect and chemically analyze sediment samples from areas that may be dredged near the Port Authority piers on the Snake and Columbia rivers. Sediment samples were also collected at River Mile (RM) stations along the Snake River that may undergo resuspension of sediment as a result of the drawdown. Chemical analysis included grain size, total organic carbon, total volatile solids, ammonia, phosphorus, sulfides, oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons, metals, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and 21 congeners of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans.

  8. Survey of Columbia River Basin Streams for Giant Columbia River Spire Snail Fluminicola columbiana and Great Columbia River limpet Fisherola nuttalli

    SciTech Connect

    Neitzel, D.A.; Frest, T.J.; Washington Univ., Seattle, WA )

    1989-10-01

    Surveys have confirmed the survival of both the giant Columbia River spire snail Fluminicola columbiana and the great Columbia River limpet Fisherola nuttalli in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, Washington State, as well as other sites in Washington, Oregon, and Idaho. A review of historical collection records suggests that both species exist in still other sites of the Columbia River Basin. At present, there is insufficient information to allow adequate appraisal of either species relative to possible federal or state listing as endangered or threatened species. The results of our studies suggest that additional undiscovered populations of both species exist. There is a relatively good chance that pristine habitat required by spire snails and limpets remains in 37 streams or portions of streams in Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and Montana (British Columbia was considered outside the project scope). For a thorough survey, visits to more than 600 sites will be required. 20 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  9. Survey of Columbia River Basin streams for Columbia pebblesnail Fluminicola columbiana and shortface lanx Fisherola nuttalli

    SciTech Connect

    Neitzel, D.A.; Frest, T.J.

    1992-08-01

    At present, there are only two remaining sizable populations of Columbia pebblesnails Fluminicola columbiana; those in the Methow and Okanogan rivers, Washington. Smaller populations survive in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, Washington, and the lower Salmon River, Idaho, and possibly in the middle Snake River, Idaho; Hells Canyon of the Snake River, Idaho, Washington, and Oregon, and the Grande Ronde River, Oregon and Washington. Neither large population is at present protected, and there has been a substantial documented reduction in the species` historic range. Large populations of the shortface lanx Fisherolla nuttalli persist in four streams: the Deschutes River, Oregon; the Hanford Reach and Bonneville Dam area of the Columbia River, Washington and Oregon; Hens Canyon of the Snake River, Idaho and Oregon; and the Okanogan River, Washington. Smaller populations, or ones of uncertain size, are known from the lower Salmon and middle Snake rivers, Idaho; the Grande Ronde Washington and Oregon; Imnaha, and John Day rivers, Oregon; and the Methow River, Washington. While substantial range reduction has occurred in this species, and the large populations are not well protected, the problem is not as severe as in the case of the Columbia pebblesnail. Both species appear to have been widespread historically in the mainstem Columbia River and the Columbia River Basin prior to the installation of the current dam system. Both are now apparently reduced within the Columbia River to populations in the Hanford Reach and possibly other sites that are now separated by large areas of unsuitable habitat from those in the river`s major tributaries.

  10. Survey of Columbia River Basin streams for Columbia pebblesnail Fluminicola columbiana and shortface lanx Fisherola nuttalli

    SciTech Connect

    Neitzel, D.A. ); Frest, T.J. )

    1992-08-01

    At present, there are only two remaining sizable populations of Columbia pebblesnails Fluminicola columbiana; those in the Methow and Okanogan rivers, Washington. Smaller populations survive in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, Washington, and the lower Salmon River, Idaho, and possibly in the middle Snake River, Idaho; Hells Canyon of the Snake River, Idaho, Washington, and Oregon, and the Grande Ronde River, Oregon and Washington. Neither large population is at present protected, and there has been a substantial documented reduction in the species' historic range. Large populations of the shortface lanx Fisherolla nuttalli persist in four streams: the Deschutes River, Oregon; the Hanford Reach and Bonneville Dam area of the Columbia River, Washington and Oregon; Hens Canyon of the Snake River, Idaho and Oregon; and the Okanogan River, Washington. Smaller populations, or ones of uncertain size, are known from the lower Salmon and middle Snake rivers, Idaho; the Grande Ronde Washington and Oregon; Imnaha, and John Day rivers, Oregon; and the Methow River, Washington. While substantial range reduction has occurred in this species, and the large populations are not well protected, the problem is not as severe as in the case of the Columbia pebblesnail. Both species appear to have been widespread historically in the mainstem Columbia River and the Columbia River Basin prior to the installation of the current dam system. Both are now apparently reduced within the Columbia River to populations in the Hanford Reach and possibly other sites that are now separated by large areas of unsuitable habitat from those in the river's major tributaries.

  11. Species for the screening assessment. Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, J.M.; Brandt, C.A.; Dauble, D.D.; Maughan, A.D.; O`Neil, T.K.

    1996-03-01

    Because of past nuclear production operations along the Columbia River, there is intense public and tribal interest in assessing any residual Hanford Site related contamination along the river from the Hanford Reach to the Pacific Ocean. The Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment was proposed to address these concerns. The assessment of the Columbia River is being conducted in phases. The initial phase is a screening assessment of the risk, which addresses current environmental conditions for a range of potential uses. One component of the screening assessment estimates the risk from contaminants in the Columbia River to the environment. The objective of the ecological risk assessment is to determine whether contaminants from the Columbia River pose a significant threat to selected receptor species that exist in the river and riparian communities of the study area. This report (1) identifies the receptor species selected for the screening assessment of ecological risk and (2) describes the selection process. The species selection process consisted of two tiers. In Tier 1, a master species list was developed that included many plant and animal species known to occur in the aquatic and riparian systems of the Columbia River between Priest Rapids Dam and the Columbia River estuary. This master list was reduced to 368 species that occur in the study area (Priest Rapids Dam to McNary Dam). In Tier 2, the 181 Tier 1 species were qualitatively ranked based on a scoring of their potential exposure and sensitivity to contaminants using a conceptual exposure model for the study area.

  12. Columbia River Treaty History and 2014/2024 Review

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-02-01

    The Columbia River, the fourth largest river on the continent as measured by average annual flow, generates more power than any other river in North America. While its headwaters originate in British Columbia, only about 15 percent of the 259,500 square miles of the Columbia River Basin is actually located in Canada. Yet the Canadian waters account for about 38 percent of the average annual volume, and up to 50 percent of the peak flood waters, that flow by The Dalles Dam on the Columbia River between Oregon and Washington. In the 1940s, officials from the United States and Canada began a long process to seek a joint solution to the flooding caused by the unregulated Columbia River and to the postwar demand for greater energy resources. That effort culminated in the Columbia River Treaty, an international agreement between Canada and the United States for the cooperative development of water resources regulation in the upper Columbia River Basin. It was signed in 1961 and implemented in 1964.

  13. The Columbia River--on the Leading Edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, J. E.

    2005-05-01

    On the leading edge of the North American plate, the Columbia River is the largest of the world's 40 or so rivers with drainage areas greater than 500,000 square kilometers to drain toward a convergent plate boundary. This unique setting results in a unique continental river basin; marked by episodic and cataclysmic geologic disturbance, but also famously fecund with perhaps 10 to 16 million salmon historically spawning in its waters each year. Now transformed by dams, transportation infrastructure, dikes and diversions, the Columbia River presents an expensive conundrum for management of its many values. Inclusion of river ecology and geomorphology in discussions of river management is generally limited to observations of the last 200 years-a time period of little natural disturbance and low sediment transport. However, consideration of longer timescales provides additional perspective of historical ecologic and geomorphic conditions. Only 230 km from its mouth, the Columbia River bisects the volcanic arc of the Cascade Range, forming the Columbia River Gorge. Cenozoic lava flows have blocked the river, forcing diversions and new canyon cutting. Holocene eruptions of Mount Mazama (Crater Lake), Mount Hood, Mount St. Helens, and Mount Rainier have shed immense quantities of sediment into the lower Columbia River, forming a large percentage of the Holocene sediment transported through the lower river. Quaternary landslides, perhaps triggered by great earthquakes, have descended from the 1000-m-high gorge walls, also blocking and diverting the river, one as recently as 550 years ago. These geologic disturbances, mostly outside the realm of historical observation and operating at timescales of 100s to 1000s of years in the gorge and elsewhere, have clearly affected basin geomorphology, riverine ecology, and past and present cultural utilization of river resources. The historic productivity of the river, however, hints at extraordinary resilience (and perhaps

  14. 33 CFR 162.230 - Columbia River, Wash.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Grand Coulee Dam discharge channel; restricted area—(1) The area. That portion of the Columbia River between Grand Coulee Dam (situated at river mile 596.6) and river mile 593.7. (2) The regulations. (i) No.... Department of the Interior, Coulee Dam, Washington....

  15. 33 CFR 162.230 - Columbia River, Wash.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Grand Coulee Dam discharge channel; restricted area—(1) The area. That portion of the Columbia River between Grand Coulee Dam (situated at river mile 596.6) and river mile 593.7. (2) The regulations. (i) No.... Department of the Interior, Coulee Dam, Washington....

  16. Historical changes in the Columbia River Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, Christopher R.; Jay, David A.; Bradford Harvey, R.; Hamilton, Peter; Simenstad, Charles A.

    Historical changes in the hydrology, sedimentology, and physical oceanography of the Columbia River Estuary have been evaluated with a combination of statistical, cartographic, and numerical-modelling techniques. Comparison of data digitized from US Coast and Geodetic Survey bathymetric surveys conducted in the periods 1867-1875, 1926-1937, and 1949-1958 reveals that large changes in the morphology of the estuary have been caused by navigational improvements (jetties, dredged channels, and pile dikes) and by the diking and filling of much of the wetland area. Lesser changes are attributable to natural shoaling and erosion. There has been roughly a 15% decrease in tidal prism and a net accumulation of about 68 × 10 6m 3 of sediment in the estuary. Large volumes of sediment have been eroded from the entrance region and deposited on the continental shelf and in the balance of the estuary, contributing to formation of new land. The bathymetric data indicate that, ignoring erosion at the entrance, 370 to 485 × 10 6m 3 of sediment has been deposited in the estuary since 1868 at an average rate of about 0.5 cm y -1, roughly 5 times the rate at which sea level has fallen locally since the turn of the century. Riverflow data indicate that the seasonal flow cycle of the Columbia River has been significantly altered by regulation and diversion of water for irrigation. The greatest changes have occurred in the last thirty years. Flow variability over periods greater than a month has been significantly damped and the net discharge has been slightly reduced. These changes in riverflow are too recent to be reflected in the available in the available bathymetric data. Results from a laterally averaged, multiple-channel, two-dimensional numerical flow model (described in HAMILTON, 1990) suggest that the changes in morphology and riverflow have reduced mixing, increased stratification, altered the response to fortnightly (neap-spring) changes in tidal forcing, and decreased the

  17. The Volcanic Story of the Columbia River Gorge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, John Eliot

    1982-01-01

    Uses maps, diagrams, and geological accounts to describe the Columbia River Gorge which separates Oregon from Washington and exposes an unexcelled record of Cenozoic volcanic stratigraphy, sedimentation, flooding, and landsliding for the visiting tourists, geologists, or students. (Author/DC)

  18. Indexing the relative abundance of age-0 white sturgeons in an impoundment of the lower Columbia River from highly skewed trawling data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Counihan, T.D.; Miller, A.I.; Parsley, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    The development of recruitment monitoring programs for age-0 white sturgeons Acipenser transmontanus is complicated by the statistical properties of catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) data. We found that age-0 CPUE distributions from bottom trawl surveys violated assumptions of statistical procedures based on normal probability theory. Further, no single data transformation uniformly satisfied these assumptions because CPUE distribution properties varied with the sample mean (??(CPUE)). Given these analytic problems, we propose that an additional index of age-0 white sturgeon relative abundance, the proportion of positive tows (Ep), be used to estimate sample sizes before conducting age-0 recruitment surveys and to evaluate statistical hypothesis tests comparing the relative abundance of age-0 white sturgeons among years. Monte Carlo simulations indicated that Ep was consistently more precise than ??(CPUE), and because Ep is binomially rather than normally distributed, surveys can be planned and analyzed without violating the assumptions of procedures based on normal probability theory. However, we show that Ep may underestimate changes in relative abundance at high levels and confound our ability to quantify responses to management actions if relative abundance is consistently high. If data suggest that most samples will contain age-0 white sturgeons, estimators of relative abundance other than Ep should be considered. Because Ep may also obscure correlations to climatic and hydrologic variables if high abundance levels are present in time series data, we recommend ??(CPUE) be used to describe relations to environmental variables. The use of both Ep and ??(CPUE) will facilitate the evaluation of hypothesis tests comparing relative abundance levels and correlations to variables affecting age-0 recruitment. Estimated sample sizes for surveys should therefore be based on detecting predetermined differences in Ep, but data necessary to calculate ??(CPUE) should also be

  19. Status and Habitat Requirements of the White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam, 1990-1991 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Nigro, Anthony A.

    1991-09-01

    We report on our effort from April 1990 to March 1991 to describe the life history and population dynamics of white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus in.John Day Reservoir. We set 1188 set lines and 26 gill nets. We caught 623 white sturgeon with set lines and 236 with gill nets. Catch per unit effort was much higher in areas near the tailrace than in downstream sites. Our setlines were size selective. We recaptured 3 fish released in John Day Reservoir in 1989 and 28 fish released in 1990. Sport and commercial fishermen recovered 62 tags from fish we tagged in Bonneville, The Dalles and John Day reservoirs, 1987-1990. We observed extensive movements of marked sturgeon within the reservoirs. We completed aging of available samples from all three reservoirs from 1987-1990. We aged fish as old as 46 years. Bone marks were observed on 74 of 78 fish previously injected with oxytetracycline and annulus formation was generally complete after June. We estimated parameters in a length-weight equation. About 1.5% of the female white sturgeon we examined to date had early or late vitellogenic eggs and would be expected to spawn the following year.

  20. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Conservation Aquaculture Project : Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    US Bonneville Power Administration; Kootenai Tribe of Idaho

    1997-04-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is responding to the need to prevent the extinction of the Kootenai River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) between Libby Dam in Montana and Corra Linn Dam in British Columbia. Construction and operation of Libby Dam altered the natural flow of the Kootenai River, especially the normal May-to-July flows needed for natural reproduction and recruitment. It also affected the river`s biological productivity and the quality of spawning and rearing habitat. As part of its responsibilities under the Northwest Power Act (Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980), BPA must mitigate for losses of fish and wildlife (including related spawning grounds and habitat) that are attributable to power production at federal hydroelectric dams on the Columbia River and its tributaries.

  1. Data Compendium for the Columbia River comprehensive impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Eslinger, P.W.; Huesties, L.R.; Maughan, A.D.; Miley, T.B.; Walters, W.H.

    1994-04-01

    The Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment (CRCIA). The CRCIA is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The purpose of the CRCIA is to evaluate the current human and ecological risk from the Columbia River attributable to past and present activities on the Hanford Site. Human risk will be addressed for radioactive and hazardous materials over a range of river use options. Ecological risk will be evaluated relative to the health of the current river ecosystem. The initial effort for the CRCIA is the development of a compendium of existing data on Columbia River contamination. This document provides the data compendium. It also includes a discussion of data sources, descriptions of the physical format of the data, and descriptions of the search process used to identify data.

  2. USGS Activities at Lake Roosevelt and the Upper Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barton, Cynthia; Turney, Gary L.

    2010-01-01

    Lake Roosevelt (Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake) is the impoundment of the upper Columbia River behind Grand Coulee Dam, and is the largest reservoir within the Bureau of Reclamation's Columbia Basin Project (CBP). The reservoir is located in northeastern Washington, and stretches 151 miles from Grand Coulee Dam north to the Canadian border. The 15-20 miles of the Columbia River downstream of the border are riverine and are under small backwater effects from the dam. Grand Coulee Dam is located on the mainstem of the Columbia River about 90 miles northwest of Spokane. Since the late 1980s, trace-element contamination has been known to be widely present in Lake Roosevelt. Trace elements of concern include arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, and zinc. Contaminated sediment carried by the Columbia River is the primary source of the widespread occurrence of trace-element enrichment present in Lake Roosevelt. In 2001, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) initiated a preliminary assessment of environmental contamination of the Lake Roosevelt area (also referred to as Upper Columbia River, UCR site, or UCR/LR site) and has subsequently begun remedial investigations of the UCR site.

  3. Hydraulic and sedimentary processes causing anastomosing morphology of the upper Columbia River, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makaske, Bart; Smith, Derald G.; Berendsen, Henk J. A.; de Boer, Arjan G.; van Nielen-Kiezebrink, Marinka F.; Locking, Tracey

    2009-10-01

    The upper Columbia River, British Columbia, Canada, shows typical anastomosing morphology — multiple interconnected channels that enclose floodbasins — and lateral channel stability. We analysed field data on hydraulic and sedimentary processes and show that the anastomosing morphology of the upper Columbia River is caused by sediment (bedload) transport inefficiency, in combination with very limited potential for lateral bank erosion because of very low specific stream power (≤ 2.3 W/m 2) and cohesive silty banks. In a diagram of channel type in relation to flow energy and median grain size of the bed material, data points for the straight upper Columbia River channels cluster separately from the data points for braided and meandering channels. Measurements and calculations indicate that bedload transport in the anastomosing reach of the upper Columbia River decreases downstream. Because of lateral channel stability no lateral storage capacity for bedload is created. Therefore, the surplus of bedload leads to channel bed aggradation, which outpaces levee accretion and causes avulsions because of loss of channel flow capacity. This avulsion mechanism applies only to the main channel of the system, which transports 87% of the water and > 90% of the sediment in the cross-valley transect studied. Because of very low sediment transport capacity, the morphological evolution of most secondary channels is slow. Measurements and calculations indicate that much more bedload is sequestered in the relatively steep upper anastomosing reach of the upper Columbia River than in the relatively gentle lower anastomosing reach. With anastomosing morphology and related processes (e.g., crevassing) being best developed in the upper reach, this confirms the notion of upstream rather than downstream control of upper Columbia River anastomosis.

  4. Tritium concentrations in the Columbia River at Richland

    SciTech Connect

    Dirkes, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    The concentrations of tritium in the Columbia River, which are measurable using special analytical techniques, have been decreasing during recent years. Tritium levels are significantly greater at the Richland Pumphouse downstream of the Hanford Site than upstream at Priest Rapids Dam. Tritium is known to enter the river along the Hanford Site as direct effluent discharges, which have been virtually eliminated, and through the seepage of ground water contaminated as a result of past operations. The seepage of contaminated ground water has continued, expanding over time to encompass a larger portion of the Hanford shoreline nearer to the downstream Columbia River monitoring station. Cross-sectional sampling of the river was conducted to determine the distribution of tritium across the river and evaluate the relationship between average tritium concentrations in the river and those measured by the downstream river sampling system.

  5. Nontronite Mineralization in Columbia River Basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, L.

    2015-12-01

    The ferric smectite nontronite is one of the first minerals formed by secondary weathering of Columbia River Basalts (CRB). Although nontronite is a common weathering product of CRB, it is not ubiquitous; field relations in near-surface flows suggest it only forms where sufficient water is available. In near-surface flows that are above the water table, nontronite is found filling cracks or vesicles, or in association with paleosols now preserved between flows in many localities. Field relations strongly suggest that porosity and permeability at the millimeter to meter scale control the supply of water for weathering and are key to the chemical composition of secondary clays and to the overall abundance of individual secondary weathering minerals. Weathering in the basalts initiates in void spaces that hold water, where high-Fe nontronite forms radiating acicular sprays. Small void spaces fill completely with nontronite of uniform composition, which penetrates the walls and replaces surrounding glass and ferromagnesian minerals. This process produces a relatively limited quantity of high-purity ferric nontronite. In large void spaces where water is limiting, nontronite lines the interior of vesicles but does not fill them; vermicular clay strands grow into the space from nucleation sites at the vesicle wall. Nontronitic cores are coated by layers of Mg- and Al-rich clays, and Mn oxides coat the exteriors. Thus, weathering under water-limited conditions appears to produce more compositionally complex mineral assemblages. In more extensively weathered basalts, nontronite is not present except in isolated, enclosed spaces. Results of this study may be useful in interpreting remotely sensed mineralogical data on Mars. The compositions of ferromagnesian smectites and spatial relationships between different clays on Mars may hold clues to the original conditions of water-rock interaction.

  6. 1992 Columbia River Salmon Flow Measures Options Analysis/EIS.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This Options Analysis/Environmental Impact Statement (OA/EIS) identifies, presents effects of, and evaluates the potential options for changing instream flow levels in efforts to increase salmon populations in the lower Columbia and Snake rivers. The potential actions would be implemented during 1992 to benefit juvenile and adult salmon during migration through eight run-of-river reservoirs. The Corps of Engineers (Corps) prepared this document in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration and the Bureau of Reclamation. The US Fish and Wildlife Service (FSWS) is a participating agency. The text and appendices of the document describe the characteristics of 10 Federal projects and one private water development project in the Columbia River drainage basin. Present and potential operation of these projects and their effects on the salmon that spawn and rear in the Columbia and Snake River System are presented. The life history, status, and response of Pacific salmon to current environmental conditions are described.

  7. The Evolving Landscape of the Columbia River Gorge: Lewis and Clark and Cataclysms on the Columbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connor, James E.

    2004-01-01

    Travelers reacting Lewis and Clark's journey to the Pacific over the past two hundred years have witnessed tremendous change to the Columbia River Gorge and its primary feature, the Columbia River. Dams, reservoirs, timer harvest, altered fisheries, transportation infrastructure, and growth and shrinkage of communities have transformed the river and valley. This radically different geography of human use and habitation is  commonly contrasted with the sometimes romantic view of a prior time provided both by early nineteenth-century chronicle and present day critics of the modern condition - an ectopia of plentiful and perpetual resources sustaining a stable culture from time immemorial. Reality is more complicated. Certainly the human-caused changes to the Columbia River and the gorge since Lewis and Clark have been profound; by the geologic history of immense floods, landslides, and volcanic eruptions that occurred before the journey had equally, if not more, acute effects on landscapes and societies of the gorge. In many ways, the Lewis and Clark Expidition can be viewed as a hinge point for the Columbia River, the changes engineered to the river and its valley in the two hundred years since their visit mirrored by tremendous cchanges geologically engendered in the thousands of years before. 

  8. The Evolving Landscape of the Columbia River Gorge: Lewis and Clark and Cataclysms on the Columbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connor, James E.

    2004-01-01

    TAVELERS RETRACING LEWIS AND CLARKE JOURNEY to the Pacific over the past two hundred years have witnessed tre mendous change to the Columbia River Gorge and its pri mary feature, the Columbia River. Dams, reservoirs, timber harvest, altered fisheries, transportation infrastructure, and growth and shrinkage of communities have transformed the river and valley.1 This radically different geography of human use and habitation is commonly contrasted with the sometimes romantic view of a prior time provided both by early nineteenth-century chroniclers and present-day critics of the modern condition ? an ecotopia of plentiful and perpetual resources sustaining a stable culture from time immemorial. Reality is more com plicated. Certainly the human-caused changes to the Columbia River and the gorge since Lewis and Clark have been profound; but the geologic his tory of immense floods, landslides, and volcanic eruptions that occurred before their journey had equally, if not more, acute effects on landscapes and societies of the gorge. In many ways, the Lewis and Clark Expedi tion can be viewed as a hinge point for the Columbia River, the changes engineered to the river and its valley in the two hundred years since their visit mirrored by tremendous changes geologically engendered in the thousands of years before. 

  9. Identification of contaminants of concern Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, B.A.; Batishko, N.C.; Heise-Craff, D.A.; Jarvis, M.F.; Snyder, S.F.

    1995-01-01

    The Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment (CRCIA) Project at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is evaluating the current human and ecological risks from contaminants in the Columbia River. The risks to be studied are those attributable to past and present activities on the Hanford Site. The Hanford Site is located in southcentral Washington State near the town of Richland. Human risk from exposure to radioactive and hazardous materials will be addressed for a range of river use options. Ecological risk will be evaluated relative to the health of the current river ecosystem. The overall purpose of the project is to determine if enough contamination exists in the Columbia River to warrant cleanup actions under applicable environmental regulations. This report documents an initial review, from a risk perspective, of the wealth of historical data concerning current or potential contamination in the Columbia River. Sampling data were examined for over 600 contaminants. A screening analysis was performed to identify those substances present in such quantities that they may pose a significant human or ecological risk. These substances will require a more detailed analysis to assess their impact on humans or the river ecosystem.

  10. The return on the blueback salmon to the Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, Frederick S.

    1948-01-01

    THE year 1941 was a crucial one for the blueback salmon of the Columbia River. During that year, one brood came closer to extinction than was realized by more than a few individuals. The immediate causes were not overfishing, hydroelectric power development, or irrigation—although these factors continued to exert their long-standing effects. The direct causes can be attributed to an “act of God” plus—in large measure--lack of knowledge concerning the basic principles of effective artificial propagation. With the security and assurance provided by subsequent developments, those concerned with the Columbia River blueback salmon may be interested in a brief recapitulation of events that transpired during the early 1940s. This particular piece of fishery history bears upon the problems of the immediate future on the Columbia River.

  11. Sediments from the lower columbia river and origin of graywacke.

    PubMed

    Whetten, J T

    1966-05-20

    The mineral and chemical composition of sediments deposited in the three lowermost reservoirs of the Columbia River is remarkably similar to the composition of many graywackes. Lithic fragments are abundant. In comparison with an "average" sandstone, the sediments have low concentrations of silica and high concentrations of all other major constituents, except calcium. Sodium is more abundant than potassium. The sediments are generally better sorted than graywackes. If graywacke texture is post-depositional in origin, Columbia River-type sediments could be expected to form graywackes upon deep burial without any significant addition or removal of material. PMID:17754814

  12. Status Review of Wildlife Mitigation, Columbia Basin Hydroelectric Projects, Columbia River Mainstem Facilities, 1984 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Howerton, Jack; Hwang, Diana

    1984-11-01

    This report reviews the status of past, present, and proposed future wildlife planning and mitigation programs at existing hydroelectric projects in the Columbia River Basin. The project evaluations will form the basis for determining any needed remedial measures or additional project analysis. Each hydropower facility report is abstracted separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  13. 75 FR 64752 - Amended Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ... POWER AND CONSERVATION PLANNING COUNCIL Amended Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program AGENCY... Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 4(h) of the Northwest Power Act, the Council has amended its Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program to add...

  14. 33 CFR 110.128 - Columbia River at Portland, Oreg.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... waters of the Columbia River between Sand Island and Government Island, bounded on the west by pile dike U.S. 5.75 and a line extending true north from the northerly end of the dike to the south shore...

  15. 33 CFR 110.128 - Columbia River at Portland, Oreg.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... waters of the Columbia River between Sand Island and Government Island, bounded on the west by pile dike... Sand Island and bounded on the east by a line bearing 339°15′ true, from a point on Government Island at latitude 45°35′10″, longitude 122°32′41″, to the southerly shore of Sand Island....

  16. 33 CFR 110.128 - Columbia River at Portland, Oreg.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... waters of the Columbia River between Sand Island and Government Island, bounded on the west by pile dike... Sand Island and bounded on the east by a line bearing 339°15′ true, from a point on Government Island at latitude 45°35′10″, longitude 122°32′41″, to the southerly shore of Sand Island....

  17. 77 FR 53141 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Columbia River, Vancouver, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ... necessary to facilitate heavy maintenance on the bridges lift-spans. This deviation allows height-restricted lifts which will reduce the vertical clearance available to vessels transiting beneath the bridges... mile 106.5 only be required to lift to a reduced height of 130 feet above Columbia River Datum for a...

  18. 77 FR 24146 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Columbia River, Vancouver, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ... (BNSF) Railway Bridge across the Columbia River, mile 105.6, at Vancouver, WA. This deviation is... system on April 30, 2012. During this cut-over the swing span of the BNSF Railway Bridge across the... opening may continue to transit beneath the bridge during this closure period. Under normal operation...

  19. Columbia River Channel Improvement Project Rock Removal Blasting: Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Johnson, Gary E.

    2010-01-29

    This document provides a monitoring plan to evaluate take as outlined in the National Marine Fisheries Service 2002 Biological Opinion for underwater blasting to remove rock from the navigation channel for the Columbia River Channel Improvement Project. The plan was prepared by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Portland District.

  20. Columbia River : Terminal Fisheries Research Report : Annual Report 1994.

    SciTech Connect

    Hirose, Paul; Miller, Marc; Hill, Jim

    1996-12-01

    In 1993 the Northwest Power Planning Council recommended in its Strategy for Salmon that terminal fishing sites be identified and developed. The Council called on the Bonneville Power Administration to fund a 10-year study to investigate the feasibility of creating and expanding terminal known stock fisheries in the Columbia River Basin.

  1. Pomona Member of the Columbia River Basalt Group: an intracanyon flow in the Columbia River Gorge, Oregon.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    The Pomona Member of the Saddle Mountains Basalt (Columbia River Basalt Group) occurs as an intracanyon flow greater than 75m (250ft) thick along the S side of the Columbia River Gorge between Mitchell Point and Shellrock Mountain, Oregon. Best exposures are at Mitchell Point, where this flow caps more than 70m (230ft) of cobble conglomerate that partially fills a canyon cut into flows of the underlying Frenchman Springs Member. These exposures provide a necessary link between outcrops of the Pomona Member in the Columbia Plateau and western Washington. Post-Frenchman Springs, pre-Pomona canyon cutting implies deformation in the ancestral Cascade Range between about 14.5 and 12Ma ago.-Author

  2. 75 FR 81464 - Safety Zone; Columbia River, The Dalles Lock and Dam

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Columbia River, The Dalles Lock and Dam... temporary safety zone on the waters of the Columbia River in the vicinity of The Dalles Lock and Dam while... Dalles Lock and Dam (a) Location. The following is a safety zone: All waters of the Columbia...

  3. Quality of surface waters in the lower Columbia River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Santos, John F.

    1965-01-01

    This report, made during 1959-60, provides reconnaissance data on the quality of waters in the lower Columbia River basin ; information on present and future water problems in the basin; and data that can be employed both in water-use studies and in planning future industrial, municipal, and agricultural expansion within this area. The lower Columbia River basin consists of approximately 46,000 square miles downstream from the confluence of the Snake and Columbia Rivers The region can be divided into three geographic areas. The first is the heavily forested, sparsely populated mountain regions in which quality of water in general is related to geologic and climatological factors. The second is a semiarid plateau east of the Cascade Mountains; there differences in geology and precipitation, together with more intensive use of available water for irrigation, bring about marked differences in water quality. The third is the Willamette-Puget trough area in which are concentrated most of the industry and population and in which water quality is influenced by sewage and industrial waste disposal. The majority of the streams in the lower Columbia River basin are calcium magnesium bicarbonate waters. In general, the rivers rising in the. Coast Range and on the west slope of the Cascade Range contain less than 100 parts per million of dissolved solids, and hardness of the water is less than 50 parts per million. Headwater reaches of the streams on the east slope of the Cascade Range are similar to those on the west slope; but, downstream, irrigation return flows cause the dissolved-solids content and hardness to increase. Most of the waters, however, remain calcium magnesium bicarbonate in type. The highest observed dissolved-solids concentrations and also some changes in chemical composition occur in the streams draining the more arid parts of the area. In these parts, irrigation is chiefly responsible for increasing the dissolved-solids concentration and altering the

  4. 33 CFR 117.139 - White River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false White River. 117.139 Section 117.139 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Arkansas § 117.139 White River. (a) The draws of the St....

  5. 33 CFR 117.139 - White River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false White River. 117.139 Section 117.139 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Arkansas § 117.139 White River. (a) The draws of the St....

  6. 33 CFR 117.139 - White River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false White River. 117.139 Section 117.139 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Arkansas § 117.139 White River. (a) The draws of the St....

  7. 33 CFR 117.139 - White River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false White River. 117.139 Section 117.139 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Arkansas § 117.139 White River. (a) The draws of the St....

  8. 33 CFR 117.139 - White River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false White River. 117.139 Section 117.139 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Arkansas § 117.139 White River. (a) The draws of the St....

  9. The Columbia River Protection Supplemental Technologies Quality Assurance Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Fix, N. J.

    2008-03-12

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory researchers are working on the Columbia River Protection Supplemental Technologies Project. This project is a U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management-funded initiative designed to develop new methods, strategies, and technologies for characterizing, modeling, remediating, and monitoring soils and groundwater contaminated with metals, radionuclides, and chlorinated organics. This Quality Assurance Project Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by the Technologies Project staff.

  10. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations; White Sturgeon Spawning and Recruitment Evaluation, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rust, Pete; Wakkinen, Virginia

    2005-06-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the environmental requirements for successful spawning and recruitment of the Kootenai River white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus population. Annual tasks include monitoring and evaluating the various life stages of Kootenai River white sturgeon. Sampling for adult Kootenai River white sturgeon in 2003 began in March and continued through April. Eighty-one adult white sturgeon were captured with 3,576 hours of angling and set-lining effort in the Kootenai River. Discharge from Libby Dam and river stage at Bonners Ferry in 2003 peaked in May and early June. Flows remained above 500 m{sup 3}/s throughout June, decreased rapidly through mid July, and increased back to near 500 m{sup 3}/s after mid July and through mid August. By late August, flows had decreased to below 400 m{sup 3}/s. We monitored the movements of 24 adult sturgeon in Kootenay Lake, British Columbia (BC) and the Kootenai River from March 15, 2003 to August 31, 2003. Some of the fish were radio or sonic tagged in previous years. Twelve adult white sturgeon were moved upstream to the Hemlock Bar reach (rkm 260.0) and released as part of the Set and Jet Program. Transmitters were attached to seven of these fish, and their movements were monitored from the time of release until they moved downstream of Bonners Ferry. Eight additional radio-tagged white sturgeon adults were located in the traditional spawning reach (rkm 228-240) during May and June. Sampling with artificial substrate mats began May 21, 2003 and ended June 30, 2003. We sampled 717 mat d (a mat d is one 24 h set) during white sturgeon spawning. Three white sturgeon eggs were collected near Shortys Island on June 3, 2003, and five eggs were collected from the Hemlock Bar reach on June 5, 2003. Prejuvenile sampling began June 17, 2003 and continued until July 31, 2003. Sampling occurred primarily at Ambush Rock (rkm 244.0) in an attempt to document any recruitment that might have occurred from

  11. Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification — Concept and application

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simenstad, Charles A.; Burke, Jennifer L.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Cannon, Charles; Heatwole, Danelle W.; Ramirez, Mary F.; Waite, Ian R.; Counihan, Timothy D.; Jones, Krista L.

    2011-01-01

    This document describes the concept, organization, and application of a hierarchical ecosystem classification that integrates saline and tidal freshwater reaches of estuaries in order to characterize the ecosystems of large flood plain rivers that are strongly influenced by riverine and estuarine hydrology. We illustrate the classification by applying it to the Columbia River estuary (Oregon-Washington, USA), a system that extends about 233 river kilometers (rkm) inland from the Pacific Ocean. More than three-quarters of this length is tidal freshwater. The Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification ("Classification") is based on six hierarchical levels, progressing from the coarsest, regional scale to the finest, localized scale: (1) Ecosystem Province; (2) Ecoregion; (3) Hydrogeomorphic Reach; (4) Ecosystem Complex; (5) Geomorphic Catena; and (6) Primary Cover Class. We define and map Levels 1-3 for the entire Columbia River estuary with existing geospatial datasets, and provide examples of Levels 4-6 for one hydrogeomorphic reach. In particular, three levels of the Classification capture the scales and categories of ecosystem structure and processes that are most tractable to estuarine research, monitoring, and management. These three levels are the (1) eight hydrogeomorphic reaches that embody the formative geologic and tectonic processes that created the existing estuarine landscape and encompass the influence of the resulting physiography on interactions between fluvial and tidal hydrology and geomorphology across 230 kilometers (km) of estuary, (2) more than 15 ecosystem complexes composed of broad landforms created predominantly by geologic processes during the Holocene, and (3) more than 25 geomorphic catenae embedded within ecosystem complexes that represent distinct geomorphic landforms, structures, ecosystems, and habitats, and components of the estuarine landscape most likely to change over short time periods.

  12. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations and Experimental Culture, 1990-1991 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Apperson, Kimberly A.

    1992-07-01

    Setline and angling techniques were used to sample 56 white sturgeon Acioenser transmontanus from the Kootenai River in 1991. Of those sampled, nine were recaptures from previous years of this study. A total of 382 white sturgeon were captured from March 1989 through October 1991. Fork lengths of white sturgeon in the sample ranged from 88-274 cm. Our data indicated there was a complete lack of recruitment of juveniles into the population. The youngest fish sampled was of the 1977 year class. The population was estimated at 880 individuals with a 95% confidence interval of 638 to 1,211. Annual mortality of white sturgeon since 1982 is 3.74%. Approximately 80% of the population was more than 20 years old and was reproductively mature. Surgical examination of 309 white sturgeon since 1989 indicated that approximately 7% of the female white sturgeon and 30% of the male white sturgeon are reproductive each year. The ratio of males to females was estimated at 1:l. White sturgeon sampled and released with and without surgical examination were recaptured at equal rates. An ongoing sonic telemetry study has documented long distance movements by adults. White sturgeon regularly move across the British Columbia - Idaho border. White sturgeon seek out deep holes in the river or migrate to Kootenay Lake during late fall, During spring and early summer of both 1990 and 1991 reproductively mature white sturgeon moved from 15 to 110 km upriver and congregated within 10 km downriver from Bonners Ferry in areas of elevated water velocity. This behavior coincided with increasing discharge and water temperatures. Developing white sturgeon eggs were recovered from the river near Bonners Ferry on July 3, 1991. Contamination of eggs by organochloride compounds were less in recent samples from the Kootenai River than in a single sample collected in 1982. White sturgeon eggs from the Kootenai River fish contained approximately one tenth the organochloride compounds of white sturgeon eggs

  13. 77 FR 3115 - Safety Zone; Grain-Shipment Vessels, Columbia and Snake Rivers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-23

    ... Snake Rivers. This safety zone extends to waters 500 yards ahead of these vessels and 200 yards abeam... will threaten safe navigation and the safety of persons and property on the Columbia and Snake rivers... vessels will have arrived or departed the Columbia and Snake Rivers before the end of a 30 day...

  14. The Columbia River: Its Future and You. Teacher's Manual for Grades 5-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Marcia

    Designed as a part of a multidisciplinary set of curricula and educational materials on the Columbia River, this teacher's guide focuses on the many uses of the river and the conflicts arising from those uses. This unit's major purpose is to help students in grades 5-8 to start thinking about how the resources of the Columbia River should be…

  15. PROTECTING GROUNDWATER & THE COLUMBIA RIVER AT THE HANFORD SITE

    SciTech Connect

    GERBER, M.S.

    2006-06-29

    Along the remote shores of the Columbia River in southeast Washington state, a race is on. Fluor Hanford, a prime cleanup contractor to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) at the Hanford Site, is managing a massive, multi-faceted project to remove contaminants from the groundwater before they can reach the Columbia. Despite the daunting nature and size of the problem--about 80 square miles of aquifer under the site contains long-lived radionuclides and hazardous chemicals--significant progress is being made. Many groups are watching, speaking out, and helping. A large. passionate, diverse, and geographically dispersed community is united in its desire to protect the Columbia River--the eighth largest in the world--and have a voice in Hanford's future. Fluor Hanford and the DOE, along with the US. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) interact with all the stakeholders to make the best decisions. Together, they have made some remarkable strides in the battle against groundwater contamination under the site.

  16. Lower Columbia River Terminal Fisheries Research Project : Final Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-04-01

    This notice announces BPA`S`s decision to fund the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), and the Clatsop Economic Development Committee for the Lower Columbia River Terminal Fisheries Research Project (Project). The Project will continue the testing of various species/stocks, rearing regimes, and harvest options for terminal fisheries, as a means to increase lower river sport and commercial harvest of hatchery fish, while providing both greater protection of weaker wild stocks and increasing the return of upriver salmon runs to potential Zone 6 Treaty fisheries. The Project involves relocating hatchery smolts to new, additional pen locations in three bays/sloughs in the lower Columbia River along both the Oregon and Washington sides. The sites are Blind Slough and Tongue Point in Clatsop County, Oregon, and Grays Bay/Deep River, Wahkiakum County, Washington. The smolts will be acclimated for various lengths of time in the net pens and released from these sites. The Project will expand upon an existing terminal fisheries project in Youngs Bay, Oregon. The Project may be expanded to other sites in the future, depending on the results of this initial expansion. BPA`S has determined the project is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required, and BPA`S is issuing this FONSI.

  17. Regional Sediment Budget of the Columbia River Littoral Cell, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buijsman, Maarten C.; Sherwood, C.R.; Gibbs, A.E.; Gelfenbaum, G.; Kaminsky, G.M.; Ruggiero, P.; Franklin, J.

    2002-01-01

    Summary -- In this Open-File Report we present calculations of changes in bathymetric and topographic volumes for the Grays Harbor, Willapa Bay, and Columbia River entrances and the adjacent coasts of North Beach, Grayland Plains, Long Beach, and Clatsop Plains for four intervals: pre-jetty - 1920s (Interval 1), 1920s - 1950s (Interval 2), 1950s - 1990s (Interval 3), and 1920s 1990s (Interval 4). This analysis is part of the Southwest Washington Coastal Erosion Study (SWCES), the goals of which are to understand and predict the morphologic behavior of the Columbia River littoral cell on a management scale of tens of kilometers and decades. We obtain topographic Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) data from a joint project by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (DOE) and bathymetric data from the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey (USC&GS), U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), USGS, and the DOE. Shoreline data are digitized from T-Sheets and aerial photographs from the USC&GS and National Ocean Service (NOS). Instead of uncritically adjusting each survey to NAVD88, a common vertical land-based datum, we adjust some surveys to produce optimal results according to the following criteria. First, we minimize offsets in overlapping surveys within the same era, and second, we minimize bathymetric changes (relative to the 1990s) in deep water, where we assume minimal change has taken place. We grid bathymetric and topographic datasets using kriging and triangulation algorithms, calculate bathymetric-change surfaces for each interval, and calculate volume changes within polygons that are overlaid on the bathymetric-change surfaces. We find similar morphologic changes near the entrances to Grays Harbor and the Columbia River following jetty construction between 1898 and 1916 at the Grays Harbor entrance and between 1885 and

  18. Environmental contaminants in bald eagles in the Columbia River estuary

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony, R.G.; Garrett, M.G. ); Schuler, C.A. )

    1993-01-01

    Eggs, blood, and carcasses of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and fish were collected and breeding success of eagles was monitored in the Columbia River estuary, 1980-87, to determine if contaminants were having an effect on productivity. High levels of dichloro diphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's), and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) were found in eggs, blood from adults, and 2 eagle carcasses. Detectable levels of DDE and PCB's were found in blood of nestlings indicating they were exposed to these contaminants early in life. Increasing concentrations of DDE and PCB's with age also indicated accumulation of these contaminants. Adult eagles also had higher levels of mercury (Hg) in blood than subadults or young indicating accumulation with age. The high levels of DDE and PCB's were associated with eggshell thinning ([bar x] = 10%) and with productivity ([bar x] = 0.56 young/occupied site) that was lower than that of healthy populations (i.e., [ge]1.00 young/occupied site). DDE and PCB's had a deleterious effect on reproduction of bald eagles in the estuary. The role dioxins play in eagle reproduction remains unclear, but concentrations in eagle eggs were similar to those in laboratory studies on other species where dioxins adversely affected hatchability of eggs. Probable source of these contaminants include dredged river sediments and hydroelectric dams, and the proper management of each may reduce the amount of contaminants released into the Columbia River estuary. 46 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  19. Anadromous salmonids of the Hanford Reach, Columbia River: 1984 status

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, C.D.

    1985-09-01

    The Hanford Reach, a regulated but flowing section of the Columbia River, supports spawning populations of fall chinook salmon and steelhead. It also serves as a migration route for upriver runs of chinook, coho and sockeye salmon, and of steelhead. Environmental studies conducted in association with activities on the Hanford Site provide a basis for assessing present ecological conditions in the Hanford Reach. Spawning populations of fall chinook salmon at Hanford increased dramatically after 1960, when Priest Rapids Dam was completed, and have remained relatively stable since 1969. Generally, upriver runs of spring, summer, and fall chinook salmon have been depressed, but the fall run has been increasing since 1980. Habitat modification represents the greatest threat to sustained production of fall chinook salmon in the Hanford Reach. Operations on and near the Hanford Site releases of small amounts of radioactivity from onsite operations to river and groundwater, and operation of a steam electric plant, can have negligible effects on salmonids and other aquatic resources. Possible activities with potential future impacts include development of a multi-unit power plant complex at Hanford, construction of a low-head hydroelectric dam above Richland, flow fluctuations from peaking power generation at Priest Rapids Dam, irrigation and reductions of instream flows, and dredging and commercial navigation above Hanford. If reproducing populations of fall chinook salmon and steelhead are to survive in the mid-Columbia River, the Hanford Reach must remain flowing, undeveloped for navigation, and with unimpaired water quality. 156 refs., 16 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. Columbia River: Terminal fisheries research project. 1994 Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Hirose, P.; Miller, M.; Hill, J.

    1996-12-01

    Columbia River terminal fisheries have been conducted in Youngs Bay, Oregon, since the early 1960`s targeting coho salmon produced at the state facility on the North Fork Klaskanine River. In 1977 the Clatsop County Economic Development Council`s (CEDC) Fisheries Project began augmenting the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife production efforts. Together ODFW and CEDC smolt releases totaled 5,060,000 coho and 411,300 spring chinook in 1993 with most of the releases from the net pen acclimation program. During 1980-82 fall commercial terminal fisheries were conducted adjacent to the mouth of Big Creek in Oregon. All past terminal fisheries were successful in harvesting surplus hatchery fish with minimal impact on nonlocal weak stocks. In 1993 the Northwest Power Planning Council recommended in its` Strategy for Salmon that terminal fishing sites be identified and developed. The Council called on the Bonneville Power Administration to fund a 10-year study to investigate the feasibility of creating and expanding terminal known stock fisheries in the Columbia River Basin. The findings of the initial year of the study are included in this report. The geographic area considered for study extends from Bonneville Dam to the river mouth. The initial year`s work is the beginning of a 2-year research stage to investigate potential sites, salmon stocks, and methodologies; a second 3-year stage will focus on expansion in Youngs Bay and experimental releases into sites with greatest potential; and a final 5-year phase establishing programs at full capacity at all acceptable sites. After ranking all possible sites using five harvest and five rearing criteria, four sites in Oregon (Tongue Point, Blind Slough, Clifton Channel and Wallace Slough) and three in Washington (Deep River, Steamboat Slough and Cathlamet Channel) were chosen for study.

  1. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations, 1993 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Marcuson, Patrick E.

    1994-05-01

    U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in concordance with Bonneville Power Administration provided a release of 324.3 m{sup 3}/s (400,000 acre feet) of impounded water from Lake Koocanusa, Montana from June 2 to June 16, 1993. This release of water provided approximately 566.4 m{sup 3}/s (20,000 cfs) discharge in the Kootenai River at Bonners Ferry, Idaho. Nineteen adult white sturgeon equipped with combinations of radio and sonic transmitters were monitored from mid-April to mid-July, 1993. Nine females and one male remained in the Kootenai River near the British Columbia/Idaho border and/or Kootenay Lake, British Columbia. One female was captured by the crew from the Kootenai Hatchery, operated by the Kootenai Tribe of Idaho, delivered to the hatchery, tagged, and released seven days later. She retreated to Kootenay Lake immediately after release. Eight sturgeon with transmitters formed the aggregate of unknown numbers of fish in the staging area. The monitored fish were all judged late vitellogenic and were used to characterize what was assumed reproductive behavior of white sturgeon in the Kootenai River. Four late vitellogenic females moved upriver with the lowland spring runoff (May 11), lingered around the ''staging area'' May 11-24, then retreated downriver May 21-24. Two fish retreated all the way to Kootenay Lake, British Columbia; the other two re-advanced upriver May 27-30 concurrent with the initiation of the augmented discharge on May 28. None of the monitored fish were detected beyond the U.S. Highway 95 bridge. By June 4, the remaining females began moving downriver. Male sturgeon tended to move upriver seven days earlier than the females. They arrived in staging waters about May 11. On May 21, three male sturgeon demonstrated a slight downriver run the same time as did the females. The maximum downriver travel was 14.2 km. All four of the monitored males returned upriver just prior to and during the augmented flow period. Crews fished a combined 14

  2. 76 FR 58112 - Safety Zone; M/V DAVY CROCKETT, Columbia River

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ... cofferdam at the M/V DAVY CROCKETT removal sight at approximate river mile 117. The original safety zone was... M/V DAVY CROCKETT removal sight is located on the Washington State side of the Columbia River...

  3. Portland, Mount Hood, & Columbia River Gorge, Oregon, Perspective View

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Portland, the largest city in Oregon, is located on the Columbia River at the northern end of the Willamette Valley. On clear days, Mount Hood highlights the Cascade Mountains backdrop to the east. The Columbia is the largest river in the American Northwest and is navigable up to and well beyond Portland. It is also the only river to fully cross the Cascade Range, and has carved the Columbia River Gorge, which is seen in the left-central part of this view. A series of dams along the river, at topographically favorable sites, provide substantial hydroelectric power to the region.

    This perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), a Landsat satellite image, and a false sky. Topographic expression is vertically exaggerated two times.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data substantially help in analyzing Landsat images by revealing the third dimension of Earth's surface, topographic height. The Landsat archive is managed by the U.S. Geological Survey's Eros Data Center (USGS EDC).

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet

  4. 76 FR 34862 - Safety Zone; M/V DAVY CROCKETT, Columbia River

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; M/V DAVY CROCKETT, Columbia River AGENCY... enforcement of a safety zone established on the waters of the Columbia River surrounding the M/ V DAVY... hazards associated with ongoing salvage operations involving the M/ V DAVY CROCKETT. All persons...

  5. 76 FR 49664 - Safety Zone; M/V DAVY CROCKETT, Columbia River

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-11

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; M/V DAVY CROCKETT, Columbia River AGENCY... enforcement of a safety zone established on the waters of the Columbia River surrounding the M/ V DAVY... hazards associated with ongoing salvage operations involving the M/ V DAVY CROCKETT. All persons...

  6. 33 CFR 80.1365 - Columbia River Entrance, OR/WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Columbia River Entrance, OR/WA. 80.1365 Section 80.1365 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1365 Columbia River...

  7. 33 CFR 80.1365 - Columbia River Entrance, OR/WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Columbia River Entrance, OR/WA. 80.1365 Section 80.1365 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1365 Columbia River...

  8. 33 CFR 80.1365 - Columbia River Entrance, OR/WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Columbia River Entrance, OR/WA. 80.1365 Section 80.1365 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1365 Columbia River...

  9. 33 CFR 80.1365 - Columbia River Entrance, OR/WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Columbia River Entrance, OR/WA. 80.1365 Section 80.1365 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1365 Columbia River...

  10. 33 CFR 80.1365 - Columbia River Entrance, OR/WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Columbia River Entrance, OR/WA. 80.1365 Section 80.1365 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1365 Columbia River...

  11. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix J: Recreation.

    SciTech Connect

    Columbia River System Operation Review

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix J of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System discusses impacts on the recreational activities in the region. Major sections include the following: scope and processes; recreation in the Columbia River Basin today - by type, location, participation, user characteristics, factors which affect usage, and managing agencies; recreation analysis procedures and methodology; and alternatives and their impacts.

  12. 33 CFR 162.225 - Columbia and Willamette Rivers, Washington and Oregon; administration and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... direction of emergency regulations to govern navigation of these streams. (b) Speed. During very high water... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Columbia and Willamette Rivers... NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.225 Columbia and Willamette Rivers, Washington and Oregon; administration...

  13. 33 CFR 162.225 - Columbia and Willamette Rivers, Washington and Oregon; administration and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... direction of emergency regulations to govern navigation of these streams. (b) Speed. During very high water... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Columbia and Willamette Rivers... NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.225 Columbia and Willamette Rivers, Washington and Oregon; administration...

  14. 33 CFR 162.225 - Columbia and Willamette Rivers, Washington and Oregon; administration and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... direction of emergency regulations to govern navigation of these streams. (b) Speed. During very high water... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Columbia and Willamette Rivers... NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.225 Columbia and Willamette Rivers, Washington and Oregon; administration...

  15. 33 CFR 162.225 - Columbia and Willamette Rivers, Washington and Oregon; administration and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... direction of emergency regulations to govern navigation of these streams. (b) Speed. During very high water... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Columbia and Willamette Rivers... NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.225 Columbia and Willamette Rivers, Washington and Oregon; administration...

  16. 33 CFR 162.225 - Columbia and Willamette Rivers, Washington and Oregon; administration and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... direction of emergency regulations to govern navigation of these streams. (b) Speed. During very high water... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Columbia and Willamette Rivers... NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.225 Columbia and Willamette Rivers, Washington and Oregon; administration...

  17. Columbia River food webs: Developing a broader scientific foundation for river restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alldredge, J. Richard; Beauchamp, David; Bisson, Peter A.; Congleton, James; Henny, Charles; Huntly, Nancy; Lamberson, Roland; Levings, Colin; Naiman, Robert J.; Pearcy, William; Rieman, Bruce; Ruggerone, Greg; Scarnecchia, Dennis; Smouse, Peter; Wood, Chris C.

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this report are to provide a fundamental understanding of aquatic food webs in the Columbia River Basin and to illustrate and summarize their influences on native fish restoration efforts. The spatial scope addresses tributaries, impoundments, the free-flowing Columbia and Snake rivers, as well as the estuary and plume. Achieving the Council's vision for the Columbia River Fish and Wildlife Program (NPCC 2009-09) of sustaining a "productive and diverse community" that provides "abundant" harvest, is best accomplished through a time-prioritized action plan, one that complements other approaches while addressing important challenges and uncertainties related to the Basin's food webs. Note that the oceanic food webs, although of immense importance in sustaining fish populations, are not considered beyond the plume since they involve an additional set of complex and rapidly evolving issues. An analysis of oceanic food webs of relevance to the Columbia River requires a separately focused effort (e.g., Hoegh- Guldberg and Bruno 2010).

  18. Bull Trout Population Assessment in the Columbia River Gorge : Annual Report 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Byrne, Jim; McPeak, Ron

    2001-02-01

    We summarized existing knowledge regarding the known distribution of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) across four sub-basins in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington. The Wind River, Little White Salmon River, White Salmon River, and the Klickitat River sub-basins were analyzed. Cold water is essential to the survival, spawning, and rearing of bull trout. We analyzed existing temperature data, installed Onset temperature loggers in the areas of the four sub-basins where data was not available, and determined that mean daily water temperatures were <15 C and appropriate for spawning and rearing of bull trout. We snorkel surveyed more than 74 km (46.25 mi.) of rivers and streams in the four sub-basins (13.8 km at night and 60.2 km during the day) and found that night snorkeling was superior to day snorkeling for locating bull trout. Surveys incorporated the Draft Interim Protocol for Determining Bull Trout Presence (Peterson et al. In Press). However, due to access and safety issues, we were unable to randomly select sample sites nor use block nets as recommended. Additionally, we also implemented the Bull Trout/Dolly Varden sampling methodology described in Bonar et al. (1997). No bull trout were found in the Wind River, Little White Salmon, or White Salmon River sub-basins. We found bull trout in the West Fork Klickitat drainage of the Klickitat River Sub-basin. Bull trout averaged 6.7 fish/100m{sup 2} in Trappers Creek, 2.6 fish/100m{sup 2} on Clearwater Creek, and 0.4 fish/100m{sup 2} in Little Muddy Creek. Bull trout was the only species of salmonid encountered in Trappers Creek and dominated in Clearwater Creek. Little Muddy Creek was the only creek where bull trout and introduced brook trout occurred together. We found bull trout only at night and typically in low flow regimes. A single fish, believed to be a bull trout x brook trout hybrid, was observed in the Little Muddy Creek. Additional surveys are needed in the West Fork Klickitat and mainstem

  19. Human scenarios for the screening assessment. Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, B.A.; Harper, B.L.; Lane, N.K.; Strenge, D.L.; Spivey, R.B.

    1996-03-01

    Because of past nuclear production operations along the Columbia River, there is intense public and tribal interest in assessing any residual Hanford Site related contamination along the river from the Hanford Reach to the Pacific Ocean. The Columbia River Impact Assessment (CRCIA) was proposed to address these concerns. The assessment of the Columbia River is being conducted in phases. The initial phase is a screening assessment of risk, which addresses current environmental conditions for a range of potential uses. One component of the screening assessment estimates the risk from contaminants in the Columbia River to humans. Because humans affected by the Columbia river are involved in a wide range of activities, various scenarios have been developed on which to base the risk assessments. The scenarios illustrate the range of activities possible by members of the public coming in contact with the Columbia River so that the impact of contaminants in the river on human health can be assessed. Each scenario illustrates particular activity patterns by a specific group. Risk will be assessed at the screening level for each scenario. This report defines the scenarios and the exposure factors that will be the basis for estimating the potential range of risk to human health from Hanford-derived radioactive as well as non-radioactive contaminants associated with the Columbia River.

  20. Columbia River Hatchery Reform System-Wide Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Dan

    2009-04-16

    Puget Sound/Coastal Washington hatchery programs, followed by the development in 2005 of a suite of analytical tools to support application of the principles (all reports and tools are available at www.hatcheryreform.us). In 2005, Congress directed the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration-Fisheries (NOAA Fisheries) to replicate the Puget Sound and Coastal Washington Hatchery Reform Project in the Columbia River Basin. The HSRG was expanded to 14 members to include individuals with specific knowledge about the Columbia River salmon and steelhead populations. This second phase was initially envisioned as a one-year review, with emphasis on the Lower Columbia River hatchery programs. It became clear however, that the Columbia River Basin needed to be viewed as an inter-connected ecosystem in order for the review to be useful. The project scope was subsequently expanded to include the entire Basin, with funding for a second year provided by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) under the auspices of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council's (NPCC) Fish and Wildlife Program. The objective of the HSRG's Columbia River Basin review was to change the focus of the Columbia River hatchery system. In the past, these hatchery programs have been aimed at supplying adequate numbers of fish for harvest as mitigation primarily for hydropower development in the Basin. A new, ecosystem-based approach is founded on the idea that harvest goals are sustainable only if they are compatible with conservation goals. The challenge before the HSRG was to determine whether or not conservation and harvest goals could be met by fishery managers and, if so, how. The HSRG determined that in order to address these twin goals, both hatchery and harvest reforms are necessary. The HSRG approach represents an important change of direction in managing hatcheries in the region. It provides a clear demonstration that current hatchery programs can indeed be redirected to better meet both

  1. Two distinct phylogenetic clades of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus overlap within the Columbia River basin.

    PubMed

    Garver, Kyle A; Troyer, Ryan M; Kurath, Gael

    2003-08-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), an aquatic rhabdovirus, causes a highly lethal disease of salmonid fish in North America. To evaluate the genetic diversity of IHNV from throughout the Columbia River basin, excluding the Hagerman Valley, Idaho, the sequences of a 303 nt region of the glycoprotein gene (mid-G) of 120 virus isolates were determined. Sequence comparisons revealed 30 different sequence types, with a maximum nucleotide diversity of 7.3% (22 mismatches) and an intrapopulational nucleotide diversity of 0.018. This indicates that the genetic diversity of IHNV within the Columbia River basin is 3-fold higher than in Alaska, but 2-fold lower than in the Hagerman Valley, Idaho. Phylogenetic analyses separated the Columbia River basin IHNV isolates into 2 major clades, designated U and M. The 2 clades geographically overlapped within the lower Columbia River basin and in the lower Snake River and tributaries, while the upper Columbia River basin had only U clade and the upper Snake River basin had only M clade virus types. These results suggest that there are co-circulating lineages of IHNV present within specific areas of the Columbia River basin. The epidemiological significance of these findings provided insight into viral traffic patterns exhibited by IHNV in the Columbia River basin, with specific relevance to how the Columbia River basin IHNV types were related to those in the Hagerman Valley. These analyses indicate that there have likely been 2 historical events in which Hagerman Valley IHNV types were introduced and became established in the lower Columbia River basin. However, the data also clearly indicates that the Hagerman Valley is not a continuous source of waterborne virus infecting salmonid stocks downstream.

  2. Two distinct phylogenetic clades of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus overlap within the Columbia River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garver, K.A.; Troyer, R.M.; Kurath, G.

    2003-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), an aquatic rhabdovirus, causes a highly lethal disease of salmonid fish in North America. To evaluate the genetic diversity of IHNV from throughout the Columbia River basin, excluding the Hagerman Valley, Idaho, the sequences of a 303 nt region of the glycoprotein gene (mid-G) of 120 virus isolates were determined. Sequence comparisons revealed 30 different sequence types, with a maximum nucleotide diversity of 7.3% (22 mismatches) and an intrapopulational nucleotide diversity of 0.018. This indicates that the genetic diversity of IHNV within the Columbia River basin is 3-fold higher than in Alaska, but 2-fold lower than in the Hagerman Valley, Idaho. Phylogenetic analyses separated the Columbia River basin IHNV isolates into 2 major clades, designated U and M. The 2 clades geographically overlapped within the lower Columbia River basin and in the lower Snake River and tributaries, while the upper Columbia River basin had only U clade and the upper Snake River basin had only M clade virus types. These results suggest that there are co-circulating lineages of IHNV present within specific areas of the Columbia River basin. The epidemiological significance of these findings provided insight into viral traffic patterns exhibited by IHNV in the Columbia River basin, with specific relevance to how the Columbia River basin IHNV types were related to those in the Hagerman Valley. These analyses indicate that there have likely been 2 historical events in which Hagerman Valley IHNV types were introduced and became established in the lower Columbia River basin. However, the data also clearly indicates that the Hagerman Valley is not a continuous source of waterborne virus infecting salmonid stocks downstream.

  3. Update of Columbia River flow and temperature data measured at Priest Rapids Dam and Vernita Bridge

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, G.; Newbill, C.A.

    1983-09-01

    Columbia River temperatures and flow rates are collected daily at Priest Rapids Dam and Vernita Bridge. These data are necessary for assessing trends or changes in river conditions downstream of Priest Rapids Dam. In order to analyze this data, Pacific Northwest Laboratory developed a computerized data base using existing US Geological Survey flow and temperature records at Priest Rapids Dam and Vernita Bridge. Daily-averaged temperature and daily flow information on the Columbia River just downstream of Priest Rapids Dam and upstream of river mile 380 were collected and stored in a data base. A newly developed computer model, COLSTAT (Columbia River Statistical Update), used the data base to statistically analyze temperature and flow conditions by computing the frequency of occurrence and duration of selected temperatures and flow rates for the Columbia River. Information regarding the data base is presented, as well as, a description of the COLSTAT model.

  4. Fishes of the White River basin, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crawford, Charles G.; Lydy, Michael J.; Frey, Jeffrey W.

    1996-01-01

    Since 1875, researchers have reported 158 species of fish belonging to 25 families in the White River Basin. Of these species, 6 have not been reported since 1900 and 10 have not been reported since 1943. Since the 1820's, fish communities in the White River Basin have been affected by the alteration of stream habitat, overfishing, the introduction of non-native species, agriculture, and urbanization. Erosion resulting from conversion of forest land to cropland in the 1800's led to siltation of streambeds and resulted in the loss of some silt-sensitive species. In the early 1900's, the water quality of the White River was seriously degraded for 100 miles by untreated sewage from the City of Indianapolis. During the last 25 years, water quality in the basin has improved because of efforts to control water pollution. Fish communities in the basin have responded favorably to the improved water quality.

  5. Assessing Pacific Lamprey Status in the Columbia River Basin.

    SciTech Connect

    Moser, Mary L.; Close, David A.

    2003-06-01

    In the Columbia River drainage, salmonid-based monitoring programs have historically been used to assess status of both adult and juvenile Pacific lamprey. We compared adult lamprey counts at hydropower dams to recent radiotelemetry results and found that the counts underestimated losses between some dams and overestimated passage times through reservoirs. Count data were not correlated with trap captures of adults conducted in the same area and at the same time, likely due to lamprey-specific behaviors that result in inaccurate counts. We recommend maintenance of traditional count protocols, but emphasize the need for continued research to develop an accurate correction factor to apply to these data. Existing salmonid-based sampling for juvenile lamprey is inadequate and we highlight the need for standardized larval lamprey monitoring that provides both abundance and size distributions. Our electrofishing survey for juvenile lamprey indicated that this technique provides critical information on lamprey recruitment and is feasible over large spatial scales.

  6. Causes of haze in the Columbia River Gorge

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Green; Jin Xu

    2007-08-15

    Visibility impairment in the Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area is an area of concern. A field study conducted from July 2003 to February 2005 was followed by data analysis and receptor modeling to better understand the temporal and spatial patterns of haze and the sources contributing to the haze in the Columbia River Gorge in the states of Washington and Oregon. The nephelometer light scattering and surface meteorological data at eight sites along the gorge showed five distinct wind patterns, each with its characteristic diurnal and spatial patterns in light scattering by particles (b{sub sp}). In summer, winds were nearly always from west to east (upgorge) and showed decreasing b{sub sp} with distance into the gorge and a pronounced effect of the Portland, OR, metropolitan area on haze, especially in the western portions of the gorge. Winter often had winds from the east with very high levels of b{sub sp}, especially at the eastern gorge sites, with sources east of the gorge responsible for much of the haze. The major chemical components responsible for haze were organic carbon, sulfate, and nitrate. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) using chemically speciated Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments data indicated seven source factors in the western gorge and five factors in the eastern gorge. Organic mass is a large contributor to haze in the gorge in all seasons, with a peak in fall. Approximately half of the organic mass is biomass smoke, with mobile sources as the second largest contributor. PMF analysis showed nitrates mainly attributed to a generic secondary nitrate factor. Sulfate is a significant contributor in all seasons, with peak sulfate concentrations in summer. Sources east of the gorge, likely a coal-fired power plant, nearby dairy farm, and upriver cities, appear to be major contributors to wintertime haze in the gorge. 22 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Hierarchical Mapping of Landforms along the Columbia River Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannon, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    Mapping and hierarchical classification of landforms along the Columbia River estuary provides insight into formative geologic, hydrologic, and biologic processes and their associated ecosystems, thereby aiding assessment of future trajectories and restoration approaches. The Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification includes an inventory of landforms along 230 km of riverine estuary between the Pacific Ocean and Bonneville Dam in Oregon and Washington, USA. Landforms were mapped by interpretation of lidar topography supplemented with high-resolution bathymetry, aerial photographs, soil maps, and historical maps. Groupings of landforms were assigned to formative process regimes. These landform groupings relate ecosystems to geophysical processes. Assessment of historical changes to the processes that form and maintain landforms thus has implications for the types of ecosystems that can form and persist along the estuary. The estuary was historically a complex system of channels with a floodplain dominated by extensive tidal wetlands in the lower reaches and backswamp lakes and wetlands in upper reaches. Natural levees flank most channels in the upper reaches, locally including areas of ridge and swale topography and crevasse splays that intrude into backswamps. Other Holocene process regimes affecting floodplain morphology have included volcanogenic deltas, tributary fans, eolian dunes, and landslides. Pre-Holocene landforms are locally prominent and include ancient fluvial deposits and bedrock. Historical changes to streamflow regimes, floodplain isolation, and direct anthropogenic disturbance have resulted in channel narrowing and limited the amount of floodplain that can be shaped by flowing water. Floodplain isolation has caused relative subsidence of tidal floodplains along much of the lower estuary. Most extant landforms are on trajectories strongly influenced by humans and new landforms are mostly created by humans.

  8. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations; White Sturgeon Spawning and Recruitment Evaluation, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rust, Pete; Wakkinen, Virginia

    2006-05-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the environmental requirements for successful spawning and recruitment of the Kootenai River white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus population. Annual tasks include monitoring and evaluating the response of various life stages of Kootenai River white sturgeon to mitigation flows supplied by the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). Sampling for adult Kootenai River white sturgeon in 2004 began in March and continued into May. One hundred forty-two adult white sturgeon were captured with 4,146 hours of angling and set-lining effort in the Kootenai River. Kootenai River discharge and stage at Bonners Ferry in 2004 peaked in mid December. Discharge remained below 400 cubic meters per second (cms) until June 1; then, because of a systems operations request (SOR), increased and remained between 480 and 540 cms through the end of June. From July through September, discharge ranged from 360 to 420 cms, decreasing to 168 cms by the end of October. Discharge increased again to above 625 cms by November 4 to increase winter storage in Lake Koocanusa and ranged from 310 to 925 cms through the end of December. We monitored the movements of 31 adult sturgeon in Kootenay Lake, British Columbia (BC) and the Kootenai River from mid-March until late August 2004. All telemetered fish were dual tagged with external sonic and radio transmitters, and some of the fish were tagged in previous years. Eighteen of the 31 telemetered adult white sturgeon were released at Hemlock Bar reach (rkm 260.0) as part of a research project to test the feasibility of moving sexually mature adult white sturgeon to areas with habitat types thought to be more suitable for successful egg hatching and early life stage recruitment. Marked fish were monitored from the time of release until they moved downstream of Bonners Ferry. Sampling for white sturgeon eggs with artificial substrate mats began May 3 and ended June 10, 2004. We sampled 650 mat days

  9. Columbia River Pathway Dosimetry Report, 1944-1992. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Farris, W.T.; Napier, B.A.; Simpson, J.C.; Snyder, S.F.; Shipler, D.B.

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate the radiation dose that individuals could have received as a result of radionuclide emissions since 1944 from the Hanford Site. One objective of the HEDR Project is to estimate doses to individuals who were exposed to the radionuclides released to the Columbia River (the river pathway). This report documents the last in a series of dose calculations conducted on the Columbia River pathway. The report summarizes the technical approach used to estimate radiation doses to three classes of representative individuals who may have used the Columbia River as a source of drinking water, food, or for recreational or occupational purposes. In addition, the report briefly explains the approaches used to estimate the radioactivity released to the river, the development of the parameters used to model the uptake and movement of radioactive materials in aquatic systems such as the Columbia River, and the method of calculating the Columbia River`s transport of radioactive materials. Potential Columbia River doses have been determined for representative individuals since the initiation of site activities in 1944. For this report, dose calculations were performed using conceptual models and computer codes developed for the purpose of estimating doses. All doses were estimated for representative individuals who share similar characteristics with segments of the general population.

  10. Summer habitat use by Columbia River redband trout in the Kootenai River drainage, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Bennett, David H.

    2001-01-01

    The reported decline in the abundance, distribution, and genetic diversity of Columbia River redband trout Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri (a rainbow trout subspecies) has prompted fisheries managers to investigate their habitat requirements, identify critical habitat, and develop effective conservation and recovery programs. We analyzed the microhabitat, mesohabitat, and macrohabitat use and distribution of Columbia River redband trout by means of snorkel surveys in two watersheds in the Kootenai River drainage, Montana and Idaho, during the summers of 1997 and 1998. Juvenile (36–125 mm total length, TL) and adult (>=126 mm TL) fish preferred deep microhabitats (>=0.4 m) with low to moderate velocities (<=0.5 m/s) adjacent to the thalweg. Conversely, age-0 (<=35 mm) fish selected slow water (<=0.1 m/s) and shallow depths (<=0.2 m) located in lateral areas of the channel. Age-0, juvenile, and adult fish strongly selected pool mesohabitats and avoided riffles; juveniles and adults generally used runs in proportion to their availability. At the macrohabitat scale, density of Columbia River redband trout (35 mm) was positively related to the abundance of pools and negatively related to stream gradient. The pool: riffle ratio, gradient, and stream size combined accounted for 80% of the variation in density among 23 stream reaches in five streams. Our results demonstrate that low-gradient, medium-elevation reaches with an abundance of complex pools are critical areas for the production of Columbia River redband trout. These data will be useful in assessing the impacts of land-use practices on the remaining populations and may assist with habitat restoration or enhancement efforts.

  11. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix N: Wildlife.

    SciTech Connect

    Columbia River System Operation Review

    1995-11-01

    The Columbia River System is a vast and complex combination of Federal and non-Federal facilities used for many purposes including power production, irrigation, navigation, flood control, recreation, fish and wildlife habitat and municipal and industrial water supply. Each river use competes for the limited water resources in the Columbia River Basin. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. The environmental impact statement (EIS) itself and some of the other appendices present analyses of the alternative approaches to the other three decisions considered as part of the SOR. This document is the product of the Wildlife Work Group, focusing on wildlife impacts but not including fishes. Topics covered include the following: scope and process; existing and affected environment, including specific discussion of 18 projects in the Columbia river basin. Analysis, evaluation, and alternatives are presented for all projects. System wide impacts to wildlife are also included.

  12. Steelhead Spawning Surveys Near Locke Island, Hanford Reach of the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Geist,; Mueller, RP

    1999-10-19

    In 1997, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) listed upper Columbia River steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus znykiss) as endangered. This action affected management of land-use activities along and within the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, which flows through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. Steelhead covered in this listing include all naturally spawned populations of steel-head and their progeny in streams in the Columbia River Basin upstream from the Yakima River to the United States/Canada border. The NMFS has identified a general listing of activities that could potentially result in harm to steelhead (62 FR 43937, August 18, 1997). One of these concerns includes land-use changes resulting in mass wasting or surface erosion. Landslide activity along the White Bluffs on the east ,side of Locke Island has redirected river flow into the island where substantial erosion has occurred. This erosion has exposed important anthropological and archaeological resources that were previously buried on the island. The DOE is working with affected tribes and other agencies to develop a plan for addressing the erosion of Locke Island. As part of this effort, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers has prepared an assessment of potential alternatives to stabilize the erosion, including a no-action alternative. Steelhead historically spawned in the vicinity of Locke Island, but recent information on the occurrence of steelhead spawning or availability of spawning habitat was lacking. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if steelhead spawned in the vicinity of Locke Island erosion and to evaluate the composition of substrate in the affected area. Surveys to document the occurrence of steelheads redds were conducted in Spring 1999. The surveys were conducted from the air as well as with the use of an underwater video camera. Neither aerial nor underwater surveys documented steelhead spawning within the survey area. Habitat surveys were

  13. Changing late Holocene flooding frequencies on the Columbia River, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatters, James C.; Hoover, Karin A.

    1986-11-01

    Data from prehistoric fluvial deposits can be used to extend the flood history of a river valley beyond historical records, thus increasing our understanding of variability in large, low-frequency flood events and providing a valuable means for paleoenvironmental reconstruction. We have applied this form of analysis to fluvial deposits from an archaeological site on the upper Columbia River in the state of Washington dating from 120 A.D. ∗ to 1948 A.D. It was our expectation that, had flood frequencies remained constant, sedimentation event frequency would conform to an exponential function derived from the Wolman and Leopold model of vertical floodplain accretion. Our findings deviate from this model, showing that flood frequencies comparable to those of the twentieth century existed prior to 1020 A.D. ∗ and after 1390 A.D. ∗ Large floods were three to four times more common during the intervening centuries. On the basis of field evidence, we can rule out changing channel geometry, leaving climatic conditions as the most probable factors controlling this variation in flood frequency.

  14. Impacts of the Columbia River Hydroelectric System on Mainstem Habitats of Fall Chinook Salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, Dennis D.; Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Geist, David R.; Parsley, Michael J.

    2003-08-01

    Salmonid habitats in mainstem reaches of the Columbia and Snake rivers have changed dramatically during the past 60 years because of hydroelectric development and operation. Only about 13 and 58% of riverine habitats in the Columbia and Snake rivers, respectively, remain. Most riverine habitat is found in the upper Snake River; however, it is upstream of Hells Canyon Dam and not accessible to anadromous salmonids. We determined that approximately 661 and 805 km of the Columbia and Snake rivers, respectively, were once used by fall chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha for spawning. Fall chinook salmon currently use only about 85 km of the mainstem Columbia River and 163 km of the mainstem Snake River for spawning. We used a geomorphic model to identify three river reaches downstream of present migration barriers with high potential for restoration of riverine processes: the Columbia River upstream of John Day Dam, the Columbia-Snake-Yakima River confluence, and the lower Snake River upstream of Little Goose Dam. Our analysis substantiated the assertion that historic spawning areas for fall chinook salmon occurred primarily within wide alluvial floodplains once common in the mainstem Columbia and Snake rivers. These areas possessed more unconsolidated sediment, more bars and islands, and had lower water surface slopes than areas not extensively used. Because flows in the mainstem are now highly regulated, the pre-development alluvial river ecosystem is not expected to be restored simply by operational modification of one or more dams. Establishing more normative flow regimes, specifically sustained peak flows for scouring, is essential to restoring the functional characteristics of existing, altered habitats. Restoring production of fall chinook salmon to any of these reaches also requires that population genetics and viability of potential seed populations (i.e., from tributaries and tailrace spawning areas, and hatcheries) be considered.

  15. Impacts of the Columbia River hydroelectric system on main-stem habitats of fall chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dauble, D.D.; Hanrahan, T.P.; Geist, D.R.; Parsley, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Salmonid habitats in main-stem reaches of the Columbia and Snake rivers have changed dramatically during the past 60 years because of hydroelectric development and operation. Only about 13% and 58% of riverine habitats in the Columbia and Snake rivers, respectively, remain. Most riverine habitat is found in the upper Snake River; however, it is upstream of Hells Canyon Dam and not accessible to anadromous salmonids. We determined that approximately 661 and 805 km of the Columbia and Snake rivers, respectively, were once used by fall chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha for spawning. Fall chinook salmon currently use only about 85 km of the main-stem Columbia River and 163 km of the main-stem Snake River for spawning. We used a geomorphic model to identify three river reaches downstream of present migration barriers with high potential for restoration of riverine processes: the Columbia River upstream of John Day Dam, the Columbia-Snake-Yakima River confluence, and the lower Snake River upstream of Little Goose Dam. Our analysis substantiated the assertion that historic spawning areas for fall chinook salmon occurred primarily within wide alluvial floodplains, which were once common in the mainstem Columbia and Snake rivers. These areas possessed more unconsolidated sediment and more bars and islands and had lower water surface slopes than did less extensively used areas. Because flows in the main stem are now highly regulated, the predevelopment alluvial river ecosystem is not expected to be restored simply by operational modification of one or more dams. Establishing more normative flow regimes - specifically, sustained peak flows for scouring - is essential to restoring the functional characteristics of existing, altered habitats. Restoring production of fall chinook salmon to any of these reaches also requires that population genetics and viability of potential seed populations (i.e., from tributaries, tailrace spawning areas, and hatcheries) be considered.

  16. Development of a high-resolution bathymetry dataset for the Columbia River through the Hanford Reach

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, Andre M.; Ward, Duane L.; Larson, Kyle B.; Lettrick, Joseph W.

    2010-10-08

    A bathymetric and topographic data collection and processing effort involving existing and newly collected data has been performed for the Columbia River through the Hanford Reach in central Washington State, extending 60-miles from the tailrace of Priest Rapids Dam (river mile 397) to near the vicinity of the Interstate 182 bridge just upstream of the Yakima River confluence (river mile 337). The contents of this report provide a description of the data collections, data inputs, processing methodology, and final data quality assessment used to develop a comprehensive and continuous merged 1m resolution bathymetric and topographic surface dataset for the Columbia River through the Hanford Reach.

  17. 33 CFR 165.1314 - Safety Zone; Fort Vancouver Fireworks Display, Columbia River, Vancouver, Washington.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zone; Fort Vancouver Fireworks Display, Columbia River, Vancouver, Washington. 165.1314 Section 165.1314 Navigation and Navigable... Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1314 Safety Zone; Fort Vancouver Fireworks Display, Columbia...

  18. 33 CFR 165.1314 - Safety Zone; Fort Vancouver Fireworks Display, Columbia River, Vancouver, Washington.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety Zone; Fort Vancouver Fireworks Display, Columbia River, Vancouver, Washington. 165.1314 Section 165.1314 Navigation and Navigable... Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1314 Safety Zone; Fort Vancouver Fireworks Display, Columbia...

  19. 33 CFR 165.1314 - Safety Zone; Fort Vancouver Fireworks Display, Columbia River, Vancouver, Washington.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety Zone; Fort Vancouver Fireworks Display, Columbia River, Vancouver, Washington. 165.1314 Section 165.1314 Navigation and Navigable... Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1314 Safety Zone; Fort Vancouver Fireworks Display, Columbia...

  20. 33 CFR 165.1314 - Safety Zone; Fort Vancouver Fireworks Display, Columbia River, Vancouver, Washington.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety Zone; Fort Vancouver Fireworks Display, Columbia River, Vancouver, Washington. 165.1314 Section 165.1314 Navigation and Navigable... Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1314 Safety Zone; Fort Vancouver Fireworks Display, Columbia...

  1. 33 CFR 165.1314 - Safety Zone; Fort Vancouver Fireworks Display, Columbia River, Vancouver, Washington.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety Zone; Fort Vancouver Fireworks Display, Columbia River, Vancouver, Washington. 165.1314 Section 165.1314 Navigation and Navigable... Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1314 Safety Zone; Fort Vancouver Fireworks Display, Columbia...

  2. 78 FR 263 - Safety Zones; TEMCO Grain Facilities; Columbia and Willamette Rivers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-03

    ... Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security ] FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; TEMCO Grain Facilities; Columbia and... establishing temporary safety zones around the TEMCO grain facilities on the Columbia River in Kalama, WA...

  3. 75 FR 78228 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Columbia River Crossing Project...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-15

    ... authorization to take marine mammals incidental to bridge construction and demolition activities at the Columbia... (MMPA), NMFS is announcing receipt of CRC's request for the development and implementation of... activities: Replacement of the existing Columbia River bridges with two new structures; Widening of...

  4. Operations Plans for Anadromous Fish Production Facilities in the Columbia River Basin, Volume II of V; 1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchison, Bill

    1993-05-01

    . All units are in good condition due to the recent remodeling. The Crooked River satellite facility is located 20 miles downstream of Red River. The trap is located 0.5 miles upstream of the mouth of Crooked River, a tributary of the South Fork of the Clearwater River. The rearing ponds are 10 miles upstream from the Crooked River adult trap. Crooked River water is supplied by gravity flow by an intake 200 yards upstream of the facility raceways. Water rights allow for 10 cfs at the rearing facility and 10 cfs at the trapping facility. Water temperatures range from 42 to 70 F. The trap and weir are located at the mouth of Crooked River. Ten miles upstream from the mouth are two raceways, a cleaning waste pond and final settling pond. All facility units are in good condition. The Powell satellite facility is located 122 miles east of the Clear-water Hatchery at the headwaters of the Lochsa River, the confluence of the Crooked Fork Creek and White Sands Creek. Powell is 192.5 miles from Lower Granite Dam and 624 miles from the mouth of the Columbia River. The Powell Facility receives gravity flow water from Walton Creek at a rate of 7 cfs with the intake being located 100 yards upstream from the facility. Powell also has a pumped supply from White Sands Creek at 3 cfs. Water temperature ranges from 45.8 to 50.2 F from the Walton Creek intake and 41 to 65 F from the White Sands pump station. The facility consists of one rearing pond, a diversion and intake screen, two adult holding ponds, a floating weir, and an open bay spawning shelter. All facility units are in good condition.

  5. Seasonal Juvenile Salmonid Presence and Migratory Behavior in the Lower Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, Jessica A.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Welch, Ian D.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Bellgraph, Brian J.

    2009-04-30

    To facilitate preparing Biological Assessments of proposed channel maintenance projects, the Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers contracted the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to consolidate and synthesize available information about the use of the lower Columbia River and estuary by juvenile anadromous salmonids. The information to be synthesized included existing published documents as well as data from five years (2004-2008) of acoustic telemetry studies conducted in the Columbia River estuary using the Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System. For this synthesis, the Columbia River estuary includes the section of the Columbia River from Bonneville Dam at river kilometer (Rkm) 235 downstream to the mouth where it enters the Pacific Ocean. In this report, we summarize the seasonal salmonid presence and migration patterns in the Columbia River estuary based on information from published studies as well as relevant data from acoustic telemetry studies conducted by NOAA Fisheries and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) between 2004 and 2008. Recent acoustic telemetry studies, conducted using the Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS; developed by the Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers), provided information on the migratory behavior of juvenile steelhead (O. mykiss) and Chinook salmon in the Columbia River from Bonneville Dam to the Pacific Ocean. In this report, Section 2 provides a summary of information from published literature on the seasonal presence and migratory behavior of juvenile salmonids in the Columbia River estuary and plume. Section 3 presents a detailed synthesis of juvenile Chinook salmon and steelhead migratory behavior based on use of the JSATS between 2004 and 2008. Section 4 provides a discussion of the information summarized in the report as well as information drawn from literature reviews on potential effects of channel maintenance activities to juvenile salmonids rearing in

  6. Optical characterization of water masses within the Columbia River plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palacios, Sherry L.; Peterson, Tawnya D.; Kudela, Raphael M.

    2012-11-01

    The Columbia River plume (CRP) is a buoyant plume that influences the Oregon and Washington shelf with the delivery of freshwater, silicic acid, trace metals, and particulate and dissolved organic matter. The highly dynamic plume contains submesoscale features that have an impact on the chemistry, biology, and transport of water and material offshore. Bio-optical classification of the larger plume water mass has confirmed seasonal and annual flow patterns but has not described the internal structure of the plume in a biogeochemically relevant way, as there were no in situ data to validate classification. The objectives of this study were to define water types statistically within the CRP using in situ measurements of biogeochemically and bio-optically relevant variables, to build a training data set from these water types, and to apply this training data set to 250 m resolution Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Aqua imagery from an oceanographically downwelling and upwelling period to predictively discriminate water masses within the plume. This study's classification technique was effective at predicting water types in the CRP. The three-variable input matrix (temperature, salinity, and chlorophyllafluorescence) performed better than the two-variable input matrix (temperature and salinity) at distinguishing fine-scale structure within the plume at the river mouth. Retentive features such as the plume bulge and eddies were observed at the river mouth and on the Washington shelf. This classification approach was limited to the available continuous variables measured by shipboard, mooring, and satellite sensors. Two new classification methods are proposed that build on the framework of the classifier described here.

  7. 11. DETAIL VIEW OF BRIDGE DATEPLATE WHICH READS 'WHITE RIVER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. DETAIL VIEW OF BRIDGE DATEPLATE WHICH READS 'WHITE RIVER, PETERSON & EARNHART, CONTRACTOR, ARKANSAS STATE HIGHWAY COMMISSION, DWIGHT H. BLACKWOOD, CHAIRMAN, C.S. CHRISTIAN, ENGINEER, 1931' - White River Bridge, Spanning White River at U.S. Highway 70, De Valls Bluff, Prairie County, AR

  8. Developing a broader scientific foundation for river restoration: Columbia River food webs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naiman, Robert J.; Alldredge, Richard; Beauchamp, David A.; Bisson, Peter A.; Congleton, James; Henny, Charles J.; Huntly, Nancy; Lamberson, Roland; Levings, Colin; Merrill, Erik N.; Pearcy, William G.; Rieman, Bruce E.; Ruggerone, Gregory T.; Scarnecchia, Dennis; Smouse, Peter E.; Wood, Chris C.

    2012-01-01

    Well-functioning food webs are fundamental for sustaining rivers as ecosystems and maintaining associated aquatic and terrestrial communities. The current emphasis on restoring habitat structure—without explicitly considering food webs—has been less successful than hoped in terms of enhancing the status of targeted species and often overlooks important constraints on ecologically effective restoration. We identify three priority food web-related issues that potentially impede successful river restoration: uncertainty about habitat carrying capacity, proliferation of chemicals and contaminants, and emergence of hybrid food webs containing a mixture of native and invasive species. Additionally, there is the need to place these food web considerations in a broad temporal and spatial framework by understanding the consequences of altered nutrient, organic matter (energy), water, and thermal sources and flows, reconnecting critical habitats and their food webs, and restoring for changing environments. As an illustration, we discuss how the Columbia River Basin, site of one of the largest aquatic/riparian restoration programs in the United States, would benefit from implementing a food web perspective. A food web perspective for the Columbia River would complement ongoing approaches and enhance the ability to meet the vision and legal obligations of the US Endangered Species Act, the Northwest Power Act (Fish and Wildlife Program), and federal treaties with Northwest Indian Tribes while meeting fundamental needs for improved river management.

  9. Developing a broader scientific foundation for river restoration: Columbia River food webs.

    PubMed

    Naiman, Robert J; Alldredge, J Richard; Beauchamp, David A; Bisson, Peter A; Congleton, James; Henny, Charles J; Huntly, Nancy; Lamberson, Roland; Levings, Colin; Merrill, Erik N; Pearcy, William G; Rieman, Bruce E; Ruggerone, Gregory T; Scarnecchia, Dennis; Smouse, Peter E; Wood, Chris C

    2012-12-26

    Well-functioning food webs are fundamental for sustaining rivers as ecosystems and maintaining associated aquatic and terrestrial communities. The current emphasis on restoring habitat structure--without explicitly considering food webs--has been less successful than hoped in terms of enhancing the status of targeted species and often overlooks important constraints on ecologically effective restoration. We identify three priority food web-related issues that potentially impede successful river restoration: uncertainty about habitat carrying capacity, proliferation of chemicals and contaminants, and emergence of hybrid food webs containing a mixture of native and invasive species. Additionally, there is the need to place these food web considerations in a broad temporal and spatial framework by understanding the consequences of altered nutrient, organic matter (energy), water, and thermal sources and flows, reconnecting critical habitats and their food webs, and restoring for changing environments. As an illustration, we discuss how the Columbia River Basin, site of one of the largest aquatic/riparian restoration programs in the United States, would benefit from implementing a food web perspective. A food web perspective for the Columbia River would complement ongoing approaches and enhance the ability to meet the vision and legal obligations of the US Endangered Species Act, the Northwest Power Act (Fish and Wildlife Program), and federal treaties with Northwest Indian Tribes while meeting fundamental needs for improved river management. PMID:23197837

  10. Developing a broader scientific foundation for river restoration: Columbia River food webs

    PubMed Central

    Naiman, Robert J.; Alldredge, J. Richard; Beauchamp, David A.; Bisson, Peter A.; Congleton, James; Henny, Charles J.; Huntly, Nancy; Lamberson, Roland; Levings, Colin; Merrill, Erik N.; Pearcy, William G.; Rieman, Bruce E.; Ruggerone, Gregory T.; Scarnecchia, Dennis; Smouse, Peter E.; Wood, Chris C.

    2012-01-01

    Well-functioning food webs are fundamental for sustaining rivers as ecosystems and maintaining associated aquatic and terrestrial communities. The current emphasis on restoring habitat structure—without explicitly considering food webs—has been less successful than hoped in terms of enhancing the status of targeted species and often overlooks important constraints on ecologically effective restoration. We identify three priority food web-related issues that potentially impede successful river restoration: uncertainty about habitat carrying capacity, proliferation of chemicals and contaminants, and emergence of hybrid food webs containing a mixture of native and invasive species. Additionally, there is the need to place these food web considerations in a broad temporal and spatial framework by understanding the consequences of altered nutrient, organic matter (energy), water, and thermal sources and flows, reconnecting critical habitats and their food webs, and restoring for changing environments. As an illustration, we discuss how the Columbia River Basin, site of one of the largest aquatic/riparian restoration programs in the United States, would benefit from implementing a food web perspective. A food web perspective for the Columbia River would complement ongoing approaches and enhance the ability to meet the vision and legal obligations of the US Endangered Species Act, the Northwest Power Act (Fish and Wildlife Program), and federal treaties with Northwest Indian Tribes while meeting fundamental needs for improved river management. PMID:23197837

  11. Goldschmidt Conference 2005: Field Trip Guide to the Columbia River Basalt Group

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Barton S.; Petcovic, Heather L.; Reidel, Steve P.

    2005-06-16

    This field trip guide was prepared for the 2005 Goldschmidt Conference held in Moscow, Idaho. The field trip guide provides a two day introduction to the features of the Columbia River Basalt Group in eastern Washington.

  12. Operational Hydrologic Forecasts in the Columbia River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, K. Y.; Curry, J. A.; Webster, P. J.; Toma, V. E.; Jelinek, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Columbia River Basin (CRB) covers an area of ~670,000 km2 and stretches across parts of seven U.S. states and one Canadian province. The basin is subject to a variable climate, and moisture stored in snowpack during the winter is typically released in spring and early summer. These releases contribute to rapid increases in flow. A number of impoundments have been constructed on the Columbia River main stem and its tributaries for the purposes of flood control, navigation, irrigation, recreation, and hydropower. Storage reservoirs allow water managers to adjust natural flow patterns to benefit water and energy demands. In the past decade, the complexity of water resource management issues in the basin has amplified the importance of streamflow forecasting. Medium-range (1-10 day) numerical weather forecasts of precipitation and temperature can be used to drive hydrological models. In this work, probabilistic meteorological variables from the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) are used to force the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model. Soil textures were obtained from FAO data; vegetation types / land cover information from UMD land cover data; stream networks from USGS HYDRO1k; and elevations from CGIAR version 4 SRTM data. The surface energy balance in 0.25° (~25 km) cells is closed through an iterative process operating at a 6 hour timestep. Output fluxes from a number of cells in the basin are combined through one-dimensional flow routing predicated on assumptions of linearity and time invariance. These combinations lead to daily mean streamflow estimates at key locations throughout the basin. This framework is suitable for ingesting daily numerical weather prediction data, and was calibrated using USGS mean daily streamflow data at the Dalles Dam (TDA). Operational streamflow forecasts in the CRB have been active since October 2012. These are 'naturalized' or unregulated forecasts. In 2013, increases of ~2600 m3/s (~48% of

  13. Monitor and Protect Wigwam River Bull Trout for Koocanusa Reservoir; White River Bull Trout Enumeration Project Summary, Progress Report 2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Cope, R.

    2004-02-01

    This report summarizes the first year of a three-year bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) enumeration project on the White River and is a co-operative initiative of the British Columbia Ministry of Water, Land, and Air Protection and Bonneville Power Administration. The White River has been identified as an important bull trout spawning tributary of the upper Kootenay River in southeastern British Columbia. The objective was to collect information on the returning adult spawning population to the White River through the use of a fish fence and traps, and to conduct redd surveys at the conclusion of spawning to provide an index of spawning escapement and distribution. The fence was installed on September 9th, 2003 and was operated continuously (i.e. no high-water or breaching events) until the fence was removed on October 9th, 2003. Estimation of the spawning population of White River bull trout was incomplete. This was due to a larger and more protracted out-migration than expected. As a result, the bull trout spawning population of the White River was estimated to be somewhere above 899 fish. In comparison, this represents approximately one third the population estimate of the 2003 Wigwam River bull trout spawning population. Based on redd index data, the number of bull trout per redd was over twice that of the Wigwam River or Skookumchuck Creek. This was expected as the index sites on the Wigwam River and Skookumchuck Creek cover the majority of the spawning area. This is not true on the White River. From previous redd counts, it is known that there are approximately twice as many redds in Blackfoot Creek as there are in the index site. Additionally, given the large size of the White River watershed and in particular, the large number of tributaries, there is a high likelihood that important bull trout spawning areas remain unidentified. Both floy tag and radio-telemetry data for the White River bull trout have identified extensive life history migrations

  14. 77 FR 74781 - Safety Zones; Columbia Grain and United Grain Corporation Facilities; Columbia and Willamette Rivers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-18

    ... Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; Columbia Grain and United Grain.... SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing temporary safety zones around the Columbia Grain facility on...

  15. Salmon habitat assessment for conservation planning in the lower White Salmon River, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hardiman, Jill M.; Allen, M. Brady

    2015-01-01

    In 2011, Condit Dam was removed from the White Salmon River, Washington. Since dam removal, there has been interest among scientists (State and Federal), Tribes, non-profit organizations, and the general public in assessing Pacific salmon habitat and use in the White Salmon River for conservation planning and potential fishery management actions. The study area extended from the lower 6 miles of the White Salmon River to the confluence with the Columbia River, including the former reservoir area. The Mid-Columbia Fisheries Enhancement Group received a grant to initiate efforts to plan for salmon habitat protection in the lower 6 river miles of the White Salmon River. As part of efforts by the Mid-Columbia Fisheries Enhancement Group to conduct conservation planning, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) used current and historical habitat information to assist in the planning process. The USGS compiled existing georeferenced habitat data into a Geographic Information System to identify areas of high quality habitat for salmon, potential areas for restoration/improvement, and areas that could be threatened. The primary sources of georeferenced data for this project include a lidar flight contracted by PacifiCorp, bathymetry from USGS, and fall Chinook salmon redd surveys from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife. Redd observations provided support that the study area is a migratory corridor for salmon and steelhead and that the lowest 2–3 miles had the highest concentration of documented fall Chinook salmon redds. The study area has potential for restoration/conservation areas to improve/conserve salmon habitat.

  16. Impact on the Columbia River of an outburst of Spirit Lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sikonia, W.G.

    1985-01-01

    A one-dimensional sediment-transport computer model was used to study the effects of an outburst of Spirit Lake on the Columbia River. According to the model, flood sediment discharge to the Columbia from the Cowlitz would form a blockage to a height of 44 feet above the current streambed of the Columbia River, corresponding to a new streambed elevation of -3 feet, that would impound the waters of the Columbia River. For an average flow of 233,000 cubic feet in that river, water surface elevations would continue to increase for 16 days after the blockage had been formed. The river elevation at the Trojan nuclear power plant, 5 miles upstream of the Cowlitz River, would rise to 32 feet, compared to a critical elevation of 45 feet, above which the plant would be flooded. For comparison, the Columbia River at average flow without the blockage has an elevation at this location of 6 feet. Correspondingly high water surface elevations would occur along the river to Bonneville Dam , with that at Portland, Oregon, for example, rising also to 32 feet, compared to 10 feet without the blockage. (USGS)

  17. Climate Change Impacts on Stream Temperatures in the Columbia River System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yearsley, J. R.; Crozier, L.

    2014-12-01

    The Columbia River system, a drainage basin of 668,000 sq. km that includes the Columbia and Snake River rivers, supports a large population of anadromous, cold-water fishes. 13 species of these fishes are listed under the Endangered Species Act and are vulnerable to impacts of climate change. Bioenergetics models for these species have been developed by the federal agencies that operate the Federal Columbia River Power System. These models simulate the impacts on anadromous fishes as they move through the power system both upstream as adults and downstream as juveniles. Water temperature simulations required for input to the bioenergetics models were made for two different segments of the Columbia River system; one being the portions from the Canadian border to Bonneville Dam and the Snake River from Brownlee Dam in Idaho to its confluence and the other, the Salmon River basin in Idaho. Simulations were performed for the period 1928-1998 with the semi-Lagrangian stream temperature model, RBM, for existing conditions and for a two 2040 climate scenarios, a cool, dry condition (ECHO_g model) and a warm, wet condition (MIROC_3.2 model). Natural flows were simulated with the variable infiltration capacity model, VIC, and modified for Columbia River project operations using HYDSIM, a hydro system regulation model that simulates month-to-month operation of the Pacific Northwest hydropower system.

  18. Muscleworms, Parelaphostrongylus andersoni (Nematoda: Protostrongylidae), discovered in Columbia white-tailed deer from Oregon and Washington: implications for biogeography and host associations.

    PubMed

    Asmundsson, Ingrid M; Mortenson, Jack A; Hoberg, Eric P

    2008-01-01

    Parelaphostrongylus andersoni is considered a characteristic nematode infecting white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Host and geographic distribution for this parasite, however, remain poorly defined in the region of western North America. Fecal samples collected from Columbia white-tailed deer (O. v. leucurus) in a restricted range endemic to Oregon and Washington, USA, were examined for dorsal-spined larvae characteristic of many protostrongylid nematodes. Multilocus DNA sequence data (internal transcribed spacer 2 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1) established the identity and a new record for P. andersoni in a subspecies of white-tailed deer previously unrecognized as hosts. Populations of P. andersoni are now recognized along the basin of the lower Columbia River in Oregon and Washington and from south-central Oregon on the North Umpqua River. Current data indicate a potentially broad zone of sympatry for P. andersoni and Parelaphostrongylus odocoilei in the western region of North America, although these elaphostrongylines seem to be segregated, respectively, in white-tailed deer or in black-tailed and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) at temperate latitudes. The geographic range for P. andersoni in white-tailed deer is extended substantially to the west of the currently defined limit in North America, and we confirm an apparently extensive range for this elpahostrongyline. These observations are explored in the broader context of host and geographic associations for P. andersoni and related elaphostrongylines in North American cervids.

  19. The Columbia River Protection Supplemental Technologies Quality Assurance Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Fix, N. J.

    2007-01-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has conducted interim groundwater remedial activities on the Hanford Site since the mid-1990s for several groundwater contamination plumes. DOE established the Columbia River Protection Supplemental Technologies Project (Technologies Project) in 2006 to evaluate alternative treatment technologies. The objectives for the technology project are as follows: develop a 300 Area polyphosphate treatability test to immobilize uranium, design and test infiltration of a phosphate/apatite technology for Sr-90 at 100-N, perform carbon tetrachloride and chloroform attenuation parameter studies, perform vadose zone chromium characterization and geochemistry studies, perform in situ biostimulation of chromium studies for a reducing barrier at 100-D, and perform a treatability test for phytoremediation for Sr-90 at 100-N. This document provides the quality assurance guidelines that will be followed by the Technologies Project. This Quality Assurance Project Plan is based on the quality assurance requirements of DOE Order 414.1C, Quality Assurance, and 10 CFR 830, Subpart A--Quality Assurance Requirements as delineated in Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s Standards-Based Management System. In addition, the technology project is subject to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Requirements for Quality Assurance Project Plans (EPA/240/B-01/003, QA/R-5). The Hanford Analytical Services Quality Assurance Requirements Documents (HASQARD, DOE/RL-96-68) apply to portions of this project and to the subcontractors. HASQARD requirements are discussed within applicable sections of this plan.

  20. Proceedings of the Columbia River Estuary Conference on Ecosystem Restoration.

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Bonneville Power Administration

    2008-08-01

    The 2008 Columbia River Estuary Conference was held at the Liberty Theater in Astoria, Oregon, on April 19-20. The conference theme was ecosystem restoration. The purpose of the conference was to exchange data and information among researchers, policy-makers, and the public, i.e., interrelate science with management. Conference organizers invited presentations synthesizing material on Restoration Planning and Implementation (Session 1), Research to Reduce Restoration Uncertainties (Session 2), Wetlands and Flood Management (Session 3), Action Effectiveness Monitoring (Session 4), and Management Perspectives (Session 5). A series of three plenary talks opened the conference. Facilitated speaker and audience discussion periods were held at the end of each session. Contributed posters conveyed additional data and information. These proceedings include abstracts and notes documenting questions from the audience and clarifying answers from the presenter for each talk. The proceedings also document key points from the discussion periods at the end of each session. The conference program is outlined in the agenda section. Speaker biographies are presented in Appendix A. Poster titles and authors are listed in Appendix B. A list of conference attendees is contained in Appendix C.

  1. Predictability of wind ramps in the Columbia River Gorge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, C.

    2013-12-01

    Wind generation capacity in the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) system, which stands at 4,500 MW currently, can at time account for 70% of total electricity demand. With 2,500 additional MW of wind generation capacity expected by 2015, increasingly accurate forecasts are required to avoid water quality issues associated with hydropower dam overspill. Wind ramps, or large increases or decreases in wind generation over a short period of time, are particularly difficult to accurately forecast in the Columbia River Gorge area. Industry standard computational resources, combined with turbulence grey-zone issues associated with planetary boundary (PBL) schemes, suggest a leveling off of numerical weather prediction (NWP) model skill score with respect to increasing grid resolution until eddy resolving scales are resolved. However, we show that dispersion errors, which associated with wind ramps, continue to decrease for locations and seasons in which meso-scale and topographically forced diurnal motions account for a significant portion of the power spectral density of hub-height wind speeds.

  2. Adaptive Governance and Resilience: the Columbia River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosens, B.; Boll, J.; Fremier, A. K.

    2012-12-01

    Ecologists have made progress in developing criteria for describing the resilience of an ecological system. Expansion of that effort to social-ecological systems has begun the identification of institutional changes to the social system necessary to foster ecological resilience including the use of adaptive management and integrated ecosystem management. But the changes in governance needed to foster ecosystem resilience will not be adopted by democratic societies without careful attention to their effect on the social system itself. Increased flexibility by resource management agencies in the form of adaptive management must be exercised in a manner that is legitimate and responsive to the social system. In addition, any change in governance must begin with the current complexities in which jurisdictional boundaries do not mimic those of ecosystems, and economic dependency on development imposes risk on any management change. We use the concept of legitimacy in governance as a necessary component of any change to achieve greater social-ecological resilience and turn to network theory as a means to facilitate legitimacy across existing geographic and subject matter jurisdictional boundaries. In application to the Columbia River Basin shared by the US and Canada, we explore the concept of resilience in a complex multi-jurisdictional watershed, taking the position that while adaptive management may foster ecological resilience, it is only one factor in the institutional changes needed to foster social-ecological resilience captured in the concept of adaptive governance.

  3. Alteration of Rock Fragments from Columbia River Basalt Microcosms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentworth, Susan J.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Velbel, Michael A.; McKay, David S.; Stevens, Todd O.

    1999-01-01

    During an earlier study, microorganisms were grown microcosms consisting of sterilized chips of Columbia River Basalt (CRB) and natural CRB ground water with its natural microflora; environmental conditions simulated a deep subsurface, anaerobic, dark environment. Subsequent scanning and transmission electron microscope (SEM and TEM) studies revealed the presence of several types of bacteria and biofilm, some of which were mineralized. Some of these biological features are very similar to possible biogenic features found in two meteorites from Mars, ALH84001 (found in Antarctica) and Nakhla (observed to fall in Egypt). Both ALH84001 and Nakhla contain traces of low-temperature aqueous alteration of silicates, oxides, and sulfides. The goals of this study are to use high-resolution field-emission SEM (FE-SEM) to examine the CRB samples for evidence of alteration features similar to those in the martian meteorites, to determine the extent of alteration during the CRB microcosm experiments, and to determine whether effects of biological activity can be distinguished from inorganic effects.

  4. Diel spawning behavior of chum salmon in the Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, K.F.; Rondorf, D.W.; Skalicky, J.J.

    2005-01-01

    We conducted a study during 2003 in a side channel of the Columbia River downstream of Bonneville Dam to describe the diel spawning behavior of wild chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta. We collected observational data on 14 pairs of chum salmon using a dual-frequency identification sonar. Spawners of both genders were observed chasing intruders during nighttime and daytime as nests were constructed. Regardless of diel period, females were engaged in digging to both construct nests and cover eggs, and courting males exhibited the prespawning behavior of tail-crossing. We observed a total of 13 spawning events, of which 9 occurred at night and 4 occurred during the day. Once chum salmon begin nest construction, visual cues are apparently not required for courtship, nest defense, and spawning. To enhance successful spawning, flows from Bonneville Dam during the spawning season were reduced during the day but were sometimes increased at night to pass water and meet power demand (i.e., reverse loading), the assumption being that chum salmon are inactive at night. Our findings show that this assumption was violated. Therefore, reverse loading may disrupt the complex prespawning behavior that occurs both during the day and at night, as well as attract spawners to areas that were dewatered during the day.

  5. Summary of radiological monitoring of Columbia River water along the Hanford Reach, 1980 through 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Dirkes, R.L.

    1994-02-01

    The Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The Columbia River monitoring program, conducted as part of the SESP, provides a historical record of contaminant concentrations in the river attributable to natural causes, worldwide fallout, and operations conducted at the Hanford Site. In addition to ongoing monitoring, special studies are conducted periodically to enhance the understanding of the transport and fate of contaminants in the river. The Columbia River monitoring program includes sampling of river water, river sediment, river-bank springs entering the river, and various types of aquatic biota found in or along the river. These samples are analyzed for radiological constituents and a wide range of chemical parameters. This report describes the water sampling component of the overall Columbia River monitoring program conducted during the years 1980 through 1989 and summarizes the radiological results generated through the program during this time period. The only radionuclides found in the river that were consistently influenced by Hanford were tritium and iodine-129. Strontium-90 and uranium, also attributable to Hanford operations, were present in localized areas within the river near ground-water discharge points; however, these contaminants are quickly dispersed within the river to concentrations similar to background.

  6. Monitoring groundwater and river interaction along the Hanford reach of the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, M.D.

    1994-04-01

    As an adjunct to efficient Hanford Site characterization and remediation of groundwater contamination, an automatic monitor network has been used to measure Columbia River and adjacent groundwater levels in several areas of the Hanford Site since 1991. Water levels, temperatures, and electrical conductivity measured by the automatic monitor network provided an initial database with which to calibrate models and from which to infer ground and river water interactions for site characterization and remediation activities. Measurements of the dynamic river/aquifer system have been simultaneous at 1-hr intervals, with a quality suitable for hydrologic modeling and for computer model calibration and testing. This report describes the equipment, procedures, and results from measurements done in 1993.

  7. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix O: Economic and Social Impact.

    SciTech Connect

    Columbia River System Operation Review

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix O of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System measures the economic and social effects of the alternative system operation strategies and includes both geographic and methodology components. Areas discussed in detail include the following: purpose, scope and process; an economic history of the Columbia River Basin and its use today including the Columbia River and Socio-economic development in the Northwest and Major uses of the River System; Analysis procedures and methodologies including national economic evaluation, the concepts, analysis of assumptions, analysis for specific river uses, water quality, Regional evaluation, analysis, and social impacts; alternatives and impacts including implementation costs, andromous fish, resident fish and wildlife, flood control, irrigation and municipal and industrial water supply, navigation impacts, power, recreation, annual costs, regional economic analysis. Extensive comparison of alternatives is included.

  8. Isotopic Tracking of Hanford 300 Area Derived Uranium in the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, John N.; Dresel, P. Evan; Conrad, Mark E.; Patton, Gregory W.; DePaolo, Donald J.

    2010-10-31

    Our objectives in this study are to quantify the discharge rate of uranium (U) to the Columbia River from the Hanford Site's 300 Area, and to follow that U down river to constrain its fate. Uranium from the Hanford Site has variable isotopic composition due to nuclear industrial processes carried out at the site. This characteristic makes it possible to use high-precision isotopic measurements of U in environmental samples to identify even trace levels of contaminant U, determine its sources, and estimate discharge rates. Our data on river water samples indicate that as much as 3.2 kg/day can enter the Columbia River from the 300 Area, which is only a small fraction of the total load of dissolved natural background U carried by the Columbia River. This very low-level of Hanford derived U can be discerned, despite dilution to < 1 percent of natural background U, 350 km downstream from the Hanford Site. These results indicate that isotopic methods can allow the amounts of U from the 300 Area of the Hanford Site entering the Columbia River to be measured accurately to ascertain whether they are an environmental concern, or are insignificant relative to natural uranium background in the Columbia River.

  9. Reconnaissance of contaminants in selected wastewater-treatment-plant effluent and stormwater runoff entering the Columbia River, Columbia River Basin, Washington and Oregon, 2008-10

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morace, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    With a better understanding of the presence of these contaminants in the environment, future work can focus on developing research to characterize the effects of these contaminants on aquatic life and prioritize toxic-reduction efforts for the Columbia River Basin.

  10. Surveying Cross Sections of the Kootenai River Between Libby Dam, Montana, and Kootenay Lake, British Columbia, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barton, Gary J.; Moran, Edward H.; Berenbrock, Charles

    2004-01-01

    The declining population of Kootenai River white sturgeon, which was listed as an Endangered Species in 1994, has prompted a recovery team to assess the feasibility of various habitat enhancement scenarios to reestablish white sturgeon populations. As the first phase in this assessment, the U.S. Geological Survey collected stream channel cross-section and longitudinal data during 2002—03 at about 400 locations along the Kootenai River from Libby Dam near Libby, Montana, to where the river empties into Kootenay Lake near Creston, British Columbia, Canada. Survey control stations with a horizontal and vertical accuracy of less than 0.1 foot were established using a global positioning system (GPS) prior to collection of stream channel cross-section data along the Kootenai River. A total of 245 cross sections were surveyed. Six cross sections upstream from Kootenai Falls were surveyed using a total station where the river was too shallow or dangerous to navigate by vessel. The remaining 239 cross sections were surveyed by interfacing real-time GPS equipment with an echo sounder to obtain bathymetric data and with a laser range- finder to obtain streambank data. These data were merged, straightened, ordered, and reduced in size to be useful. Spacing between these cross sections ranged from about 600 feet in the valley flat near Deep Creek and Shorty Island and near bridges to as much as several miles in other areas. These stream channel cross sections will provide information that can be used to develop hydraulic flow models of the Kootenai River from Libby Dam, Montana, to Queens Bay on Kootenay Lake in British Columbia, Canada.

  11. Investigation of groundwater seepage from the Hanford shoreline of the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    McCormack, W.D.; Carlile, J.M.V.

    1984-11-01

    Groundwater discharges to the Columbia River are evaluated by the Hanford Environmental Surveillance and Groundwater Surveillance Programs via monitoring of the Columbia River and Hanford groundwater. Both programs concluded that Hanford groundwater has not adversely affected Columbia River water quality. This report supplements the above programs by investigating the general characteristics of groundwater entering the Columbia River from the Hanford Site. Specific objectives of the investigation were to identify general shoreline areas where Hanford-related materials were entering the river, and to evaluate qualitatively the physical characteristics and relative magnitudes of those discharges. The study was conducted in two phases. Phase 1 involved visual inspection of Columbia River shoreline, within the Hanford Site, for indications of groundwater seepage. As a result of that inspection, 115 springs suspected of discharging groundwater were recorded. During Phase 2, water samples were collected from these springs and analyzed for Hanford-related materials known to be present in the groundwater. The specific materials used as indicators for the majority of samples were tritium or uranium and nitrate. The magnitude and distribution of concentrations measured in the spring samples were consistent with concentrations of these materials measured in groundwater near the sampled spring locations. Water samples were also collected from the Columbia River to investigate the localized effects of groundwater discharges occurring above and below river level. These samples were collected within 2 to 4 m of the Hanford shoreline and analyzed for tritium, nitrate, and uranium. Elevated concentrations were measured in river samples collected near areas where groundwater and spring concentrations were elevated. All concentrations were below applicable DOE Concentration Guides. 8 references, 6 figures, 7 tables.

  12. Preliminary subsurface hydrologic considerations: Columbia River Plateau Physiographic Province. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Veatch, M.D.

    1980-04-01

    This report contains a discussion of the hydrologic conditions of the Columbia River Plateau physiographic province. The Columbia River Plateau is underlain by a thick basalt sequence. The Columbia River basalt sequence contains both basalt flows and sedimentary interbeds. These sedimentary interbeds, which are layers of sedimentary rock between lava flows, are the main aquifer zones in the basalt sequence. Permeable interflow zones, involving the permeable top and/or rubble bottom of a flow, are also water-transmitting zones. A number of stratigraphic units are present in the Pasco Basin, which is in the central part of the Columbia River Plateau. At a conceptual level, the stratigraphic sequence from the surface downward can be separated into four hydrostratigraphic systems. These are: (1) the unsaturated zone, (2) the unconfined aquifer, (3) the uppermost confined aquifers, and (4) the lower Yakima basalt hydrologic sequence. A conceptual layered earth model (LEM) has been developed. The LEM represents the major types of porous media (LEM units) that may be encountered at a number of places on the Columbia Plateau, and specifically in the Pasco Basin. The conceptual LEM is not representative of the actual three-dimensional hydrostratigraphic sequence and hydrologic conditions existing at any specific site within the Columbia Plateau physiographic province. However, the LEM may be useful for gaining a better understanding of how the hydrologic regime may change as a result of disruptive events that may interact with a waste repository in geologic media.

  13. 76 FR 34852 - Safety Zones; Fireworks Displays in the Sector Columbia River Area of Responsibility

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; Fireworks Displays in the Sector Columbia River Area of Responsibility AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast... Ocean at the mouth of the Chetco River for 4th of July fireworks displays. The safety zones...

  14. Cataclysms and controversy -- aspects of the geomorphology of the Columbia River Gorge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connor, Jim; Burns, Scott; Madin, Ian; Dorsey, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Landslides and floods of lava and water tremendously affected the Columbia River during its long history of transecting the Cascade Volcanic Arc. This field trip touches on aspects of the resulting geology of the scenic Columbia River Gorge, including the river-blocking Bonneville landslide of ~550 years ago and the great late- Pleistocene Missoula floods. Not only did these events create great landscapes, but they inspired great geologists. Mid-nineteenth century observations of the Columbia River and Pacific Northwest by James Dwight Dana and John Strong Newberry helped germinate the “school of fluvial” erosion later expanded upon by the southwestern United States topographic and geologic surveys. Later work on features related to the Missoula floods framed the career of J Harlen Bretz in one of the great geologic controversies of the twentieth century.

  15. Additions and corrections to the bibliography of geologic studies, Columbia Plateau (Columbia River Besalt) and adjacent Areas, in Idaho, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Strowd, W.

    1980-01-01

    This bibliography is an update to Idaho Bureau of Mines and Geology Open-File Report 78-6, Bibliography of Geological Studies, Columbia Plateau (Columbia River Basalt Group) and adjacent areas in Idaho (also known as Rockwell Hanford Operations' contractor report RHO-BWI-C-44). To keep the original document current, this additions and corrections report was prepared for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project of Rockwell Hanford Operations. This update is supplementary; therefore, references cited in the original document have not been included here. What is included are materials that have become available since the original publication and pertinent literature that had originally been overlooked. Accompany this updated bubliography are index maps that show locations of geologic studies and geochemical petrographic, remanent paleomagnetic, and radiometric age-dated sites within the Columbia River Basalt Group field within Idaho; also identified are archeological sites, test wells, mines, quarries, and other types of excavations. References on the index maps are keyed to the bibliography and cover the Spokane, Pullman, Hamilton, Grangeville, Elk City, Baker, Boise, and Jordan Valley Army Map Service two-degree quadrangles.

  16. Field Summary Report for Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River, Hanford Site, Washington, Collection of Surface Water, River Sediments, and Island Soils

    SciTech Connect

    L. C. Hulstrom

    2009-09-28

    This report has been prepared in support of the remedial investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River and describes the 2008/2009 data collection efforts. This report documents field activities associated with collection of sediment, river water, and soil in and adjacent to the Columbia River near the Hanford Site and in nearby tributaries.

  17. The Columbia River Basalt Group: from the gorge to the sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, Ray E.; Niem, Alan R.; Evarts, Russell C.; Hagstrum, Jonathan T.

    2009-01-01

    Miocene flood basalts of the Columbia River Basalt Group inundated eastern Washington, Oregon, and adjacent Idaho between 17 and 6 Ma. Some of the more voluminous flows followed the ancestral Columbia River across the Cascade arc, Puget-Willamette trough, and the Coast Range to the Pacific Ocean. We have used field mapping, chemistry, and paleomagnetic directions to trace individual flows and flow packages from the Columbia River Gorge westward into the Astoria Basin, where they form pillow palagonite complexes and mega-invasive bodies into older marine sedimentary rocks. Flows of the Grande Ronde, Wanapum, and Saddle Mountains Basalts all made it to the ocean; at least 33 flows are recognized in the western Columbia River Gorge, 50 in the Willamette Valley, 16 in the lower Columbia River Valley, and at least 12 on the Oregon side of the Astoria Basin. In the Astoria Basin, the basalt flows loaded and invaded the wet marine sediments, producing peperite breccias, soft sediment deformation, and complex invasive relations. Mega-invasive sills up to 500 m thick were emplaced into strata as old as Eocene, and invasive dikes up to 90 m thick can be traced continuously for 25 km near the basin margin. Mega-pillow complexes up to a kilometer thick are interpreted as the remains of lava deltas that prograded onto the shelf and a filled submarine canyon southeast of Astoria, possibly providing the hydraulic head for injection of invasive sills and dikes at depth.

  18. Juvenile salmonid migratory behavior at the mouth of the Columbia River and within the plume

    SciTech Connect

    McMichael, Geoffrey A.; O'Toole, Amanda C.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Trott, Donna M.

    2013-01-01

    A total of 8,159 acoustic-tagged salmonid smolts were detected at the mouth of the Columbia River. Of the fish detected at the mouth, 14% of yearling Chinook salmon, 9% of steelhead, and 22% of subyearling Chinook salmon were detected on a sparse array deployed in the Columbia River plume. Chinook salmon smolts decreased travel rate as they left the river and entered the plume, while steelhead increased travel rate. Chinook salmon also spent more time in the transitional area between the river mouth and plume as compared to steelhead. In early spring, yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead predominately migrated past the plume array towards the edge of the shelf and to the south. Later in the season, yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead smolts tended to migrate out of the river mouth in a northerly direction. Subyearling Chinook salmon migrated predominately past the portion of the plume array to the north of the river mouth.

  19. Multi-scale analysis of the fluxes between terrestrial water storage, groundwater, and stream discharge in the Columbia River Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    The temporal relationships between the measurements of terrestrial water storage (TWS), groundwater, and stream discharge were analyzed at three different scales in the Columbia River Basin (CRB) for water years 2004 - 2012. Our nested watershed approach examined the Snake River ...

  20. Residence Times of Juvenile Salmon and Steelhead in Off-Channel Tidal Freshwater Habitats, Columbia River, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Sather, Nichole K.; Teel, D. J.

    2015-05-01

    We estimated seasonal residence times of acoustic-tagged juvenile salmonids in off-channel, tidal freshwater habitats of the Columbia River near the Sandy River delta (rkm 198; 2007, 2008, 2010, and 2011) and Cottonwood Island (rkm 112; 2012).

  1. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix D: Exhibits.

    SciTech Connect

    Columbia River System Operation Review

    1995-11-01

    The Columbia River and its tributaries are the primary water system in the Pacific Northwest, draining some 219,000 square miles in seven states and another 39,500 square miles in British Columbia. Beginning in the 1930`s, the Columbia River has been significantly modified by construction of 30 major dams on the river and its tributaries, along with dozens of non-Federal projects. Construction and subsequent operation of these water development projects have contributed to eight primary uses of the river system, including navigation, flood control, irrigation, electric power generation, fish migration, fish and wildlife habitat, recreation, and water supply and quality considerations. Increasing stress on the water development of the Columbia River and its tributaries has led primary Federal agencies to undertake intensive analysis and evaluation of the operation of these projects. These agencies are the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Bureau of Reclamation, who operate the large Federal dams on the river, and the Bonneville Power Administration who sells the power generated at the dams. This review, termed the System Operation Review (SOR), has as its ultimate goal to define a strategy for future operation of the major Columbia River projects which effectively considers the needs of all river uses. This volume, Appendix D: Cultural resources appendix, Technical imput includes the following: Development of geomorphology based framework for cultural resources management, Dworshak Reservoir, Idaho; Impact profiles for SOR reservoirs; comments from the following Native American tribes: Burns Paiute Tribe; Coville Confederated Tribes; Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Indian Reservation; Confederated Tribes and bands of the Yakama Indian Nation (comments); Nez Perce Tribe; Coeur D`Alene Tribe; Spokane Tribe of Indians; The confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation.

  2. Kootenai river velocities, depth, and white sturgeon spawning site selection - A mystery unraveled?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paragamian, V.L.; McDonald, R.; Nelson, G.J.; Barton, G.

    2009-01-01

    The Kootenai River white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus population in Idaho, US and British Columbia (BC), Canada became recruitment limited shortly after Libby Dam became fully operational on the Kootenai River, Montana, USA in 1974. In the USA the species was listed under the Endangered Species Act in September of 1994. Kootenai River white sturgeon spawn within an 18-km reach in Idaho, river kilometer (rkm) 228.0-246.0. Each autumn and spring Kootenai River white sturgeon follow a 'short two-step' migration from the lower river and Kootenay Lake, BC, to staging reaches downstream of Bonners Ferry, Idaho. Initially, augmented spring flows for white sturgeon spawning were thought to be sufficient to recover the population. Spring discharge mitigation enhanced white sturgeon spawning but a series of research investigations determined that the white sturgeon were spawning over unsuitable incubation and rearing habitat (sand) and that survival of eggs and larvae was negligible. It was not known whether post-Libby Dam management had changed the habitat or if the white sturgeon were not returning to more suitable spawning substrates farther upstream. Fisheries and hydrology researchers made a team effort to determine if the spawning habitat had been changed by Libby Dam operations. Researchers modeled and compared velocities, sediment transport, and bathymetry with post-Libby Dam white sturgeon egg collection locations. Substrate coring studies confirmed cobbles and gravel substrates in most of the spawning locations but that they were buried under a meter or more of post-Libby Dam sediment. Analysis suggested that Kootenai River white sturgeon spawn in areas of highest available velocity and depths over a range of flows. Regardless of the discharge, the locations of accelerating velocities and maximum depth do not change and spawning locations remain consistent. Kootenai River white sturgeon are likely spawning in the same locations as pre-dam, but post-Libby Dam

  3. Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program Work Plan for Fiscal Year 1988.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Northwest Power Planning Council; Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority

    1987-10-01

    The FY 1988 Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program Work Plan (Work Plan) presents Bonneville Power Administration's plans for implementing the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (Program) in FY 1988. The Work Plan focuses on individual Action Items found in the amended Program for which Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has determined it has authority and responsibility to implement. The FY 1988 Work Plan emphasizes continuation of 95 ongoing projects, most of which involve protection, mitigation, or enhancement of anadromous fishery resources. These continuing activities are summarized briefly by Program area: (1) mainstem passage; (2) artificial propagation; (3) natural propagation; (4) resident fish and wildlife; and (5) planning activities.

  4. 2001 Columbia River Recreation Survey -- Implications for Hanford Site Integrated Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Dave M.; Scott, Michael J.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Fowler, Richard A.; Prendergast, Ellen L.; Miley, Terri B.; Eschbach, Tara O.; Jaksch, John A.

    2002-05-16

    This report presents the results from the Columbia River Recreation Survey conducted in the summer of 2001. The survey combined on-site personal interviews with parties engaged in river recreation with on-site field observations to develop a picture of summer river recreation on the Columbia. The study area stretched from just below Priest Rapids Dam in the north to McNary Dam in the south, and was divided into four "Areas" that correspond to the river areas used by the Groundwater/Vadose Zone Integration Project. This study is part of the Groundwater/Vadose Zone Integration Project and was commissioned specifically to document the current recreation use levels in these areas of the river, and to elicit recreation-related expenditure information from visitors. This information informs economic and environmental models used to measure the economic risk posed by possible, but unlikely, releases of contaminants from the Hanford site into the Columbia River. During the study period, researchers collected 256 survey responses and 396 field observations from recreation sites up and down both shores of the river in the study area. Results presented include analysis of trip duration by river activity, trip frequency, and visitor place of origin. Economics-related results include trip expenditure profiles by activity and place of origin. Data also were collected on fishing effort. Visitors also were asked to indicate what activity or destination substitution they would choose in the hypothetical example that the river could not be accessed. The report also highlights some limitations in the approach. Principally, by doing this research in the summer, the recreational use of the river in the other seasons was not documented. The report provides data that suggest the significance of the other seasons - particularly spring and fall - for salmon and steelhead fishing. This stretch of the Columbia is also well known for waterfowl hunting.

  5. Modeling the System: How Computers are Used in Columbia River Planning.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; United States. Army Corps of Engineers; United States. Bureau of Reclamation

    1992-10-01

    This publication describes the three computer models Federal agencies and the Northwest Power Pool use regularly to help plan hydro operations in the Columbia River Basin: HYSSR, HYDROSIM, and HYDREG. It is one of a series of booklets written for participants in the System Operation Review (SOR) being conducted jointly by the US Army Corps of Engineers (Corps), the US Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), and theBonneville Power Administration (BPA). A list of the other publications appears on the inside front cover. The SOR is the environmental analysis required to consider changes in Columbia River system operations related contract arrangements. Over the next few years, the agencies will develop a new multiple-use operation for the Columbia River. At the time, the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA) and other contracts related to the Columbia River Treaty between the United States and Canada will be renegotiated and renewed. Many alternative ways of operating individual projects and the river system as a whole will be considered in the SOR. To analyze how these changes would affect the system's ability to meet its multiple-use goals, various operating scenarios will be thoroughly evaluated. The three computer models, HYSSR, HYDROSIM, and HYDREG, will play an important role in this evaluation.

  6. Annual Report of the Columbia River Treaty, Canadian and United States Entities, October 1, 1995--September 30, 1996.

    SciTech Connect

    Columbia River Treaty Operating Committee; B.C. Hydro; United States. Bonneville Power Administration

    1996-11-01

    Agreements approved by the Entities during the period of this report include: (1) Columbia River Treaty Entity Agreement on the Detailed Operating Plan for Columbia River Storage for 1 August 1995 through 31 July 1996, signed 31 January 1996. (2) Columbia River Treaty Entity Agreement on the Detailed Operating Plan for Columbia River Storage for 1 August 1996 through 31 July 1997, signed 29 August 1996. (3) Columbia River Treaty Entity Agreement on Resolving the Dispute on Critical Period Determination, the Capacity Entitlement for the 1998/99, 1999/00, and 2000/01 AOP/DDPB`s, and Operating Procedures for the 2001/02 and Future AOP`s, signed 29 August 1996.

  7. Laboratory Assessment of Potential Impacts to Dungeness Crabs from Disposal of Dredged Material from the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Vavrinec, John; Pearson, Walter H.; Kohn, Nancy P.; Skalski, J. R.; Lee, Cheegwan; Hall, Kathleen D.; Romano, Brett A.; Miller, Martin C.; Khangaonkar, Tarang P.

    2007-05-07

    Dredging of the Columbia River navigation channel has raised concerns about dredging-related impacts on Dungeness crabs (Cancer magister) in the estuary, mouth of the estuary, and nearshore ocean areas adjacent to the Columbia River. The Portland District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers engaged the Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to review the state of knowledge and conduct studies concerning impacts on Dungeness crabs resulting from disposal during the Columbia River Channel Improvement Project and annual maintenance dredging in the mouth of the Columbia River. The present study concerns potential effects on Dungeness crabs from dredged material disposal specific to the mouth of the Columbia River.

  8. Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River - 13603

    SciTech Connect

    Lerch, J.A.; Hulstrom, L.C.; Sands, J.P.

    2013-07-01

    In south-central Washington State, the Columbia River flows through the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site. A primary objective of the Hanford Site cleanup mission is protection of the Columbia River, through remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater that resulted from its weapons production mission. Within the Columbia River system, surface water, sediment, and biota samples related to potential Hanford Site hazardous substance releases have been collected since the start of Hanford operations. The impacts from release of Hanford Site radioactive substances to the Columbia River in areas upstream, within, and downstream of the Hanford Site boundary have been previously investigated as mandated by the U.S. Department of Energy requirements under the Atomic Energy Act. The Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River [1] was issued in 2008 to initiate assessment of the impacts under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 [2]. The work plan established a phased approach to characterize contaminants, assess current risks, and determine whether or not there is a need for any cleanup actions. Field investigation activities over a 120-mile stretch of the Columbia River began in October 2008 and were completed in 2010. Sampled media included surface water, pore water, surface and core sediment, island soil, and fish (carp, walleye, whitefish, sucker, small-mouth bass, and sturgeon). Information and sample results from the field investigation were used to characterize current conditions within the Columbia River and assess whether current conditions posed a risk to ecological or human receptors that would merit additional study or response actions under CERCLA. The human health and ecological risk assessments are documented in reports that were published in 2012 [3, 4]. Conclusions from the risk assessment reports are being summarized and integrated with remedial investigation

  9. Origin of the Grande Ronde Basalts, Columbia River Basalt Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durand, S. R.; Sen, G.; Reidel, S. P.

    2005-12-01

    The Columbia River basalts are generally thought to have formed by plume melting. Takahashi et al. (1998) suggested that the near-aphyric Grande Ronde Basalts (GR), which comprise ~63% of the CRBG, are essentially primary melts formed by nearly complete fusion of eclogite source rock in the plume and that such melting took place ~2.0 GPa. Durand and Sen (2002) examined phenocrysts and whole rock analyses and concluded that all the basalts are non-primary and, more importantly, that they underwent significant "processing" in shallow crustal magma chambers which erased their higher pressure geochemical signal, thus casting doubt on the validity of the eclogitic plume melting model. Here we report the results of our efforts to simulate the higher pressure histories of GR basalts using COMAGMAT and MELTS software. Our intent was to evaluate (1) whether such melts could be derived from primary melts formed by partial melting of a peridotite source as an alternative to the eclogite model, or if bulk melting of eclogite is required; and (2) at what pressure such primary melts could have been in equilibrium with the mantle. We carried out both forward and inverse modeling. In the forward models we chose different starting melt compositions, all produced in laboratory experiments, from peridotite vs. eclogitic sources. Our starting melts were produced by 6-17% partial melting of the peridotite KLB-1 (Hirose and Kushiro, 1993) and 18-40% melting of eclogites (77SL-582; CRB72-31; Keshav et al., 2004; Takahashi et al., 1998) at 1-3.0 GPa. In a second model, our starting melt composition was the most primitive GR lava with 6.5 wt. % MgO. We extrapolated a linear regression through the GR data to 8 wt. % MgO. We then assumed that such a melt was only olivine-equilibrated, and incrementally added olivine while maintaining equilibrium between olivine and melt using a Kd of 0.3, until a melt in equilibrium with the mantle olivine (Fo89) was found. This composition was fractionated

  10. White Sturgeon Bibliography, 1985 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Fickeisen, Duane H.

    1986-03-01

    This bibliography presents citations to the majority of published materials on white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus). The purpose was to assist in planning and implementing research on white sturgeon in the Columbia River system. (ACR)

  11. Genetic structure of Columbia River redband trout populations in the Kootenai River drainage, Montana, revealed by microsatellite and allozyme loci

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knudsen, K.-L.; Muhlfeld, C.C.; Sage, G.K.; Leary, R.F.

    2002-01-01

    We describe the genetic divergence among 10 populations of redband trout Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri from the upper Columbia River drainage. Resident redband trout from two watersheds in the Kootenai River drainage and hatchery stocks of migratory Kamloops redband trout from Kootenay Lake, British Columbia, were analyzed using allele frequency data from microsatellite and allozyme loci. The Kamloops populations have significantly different allele frequencies from those of the Kootenai River drainage. Of the total genetic variation detected in the resident redband trout, 40.7% (microsatellites) and 15.5% (allozymes) were due to differences between populations from the two Kootenai River watersheds. The divergence among populations within each watershed, however, was less than 3.5% with both techniques. Our data indicate that watershed-specific broodstocks of redband trout are needed by fisheries managers for reintroduction or the supplementation of populations at risk of extinction.

  12. Pollution in the lower Columbia Basin in 1948 with particular reference to the Willamette River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fish, F.F.; Rucker, R.R.

    1950-01-01

    Development of the salmon resources of the lower Columbia River Basin appears as sound insurance against the threat of a serious reduction in the runs to the upper river areas through the multiple-purpose programs of water development now under way by the Corps of Engineers, the Bureau of Reclamation, and private interests. Any comprehensive plan for the full development of the fisheries resources in the lower Columbia Basin must be predicated upon accurate knowledge of the waters therein polluted to a degree affecting fish life. Pollution surveys have been made in the lower Columbia Basin at various times in the past -- the most intensive studies having been made in the Willamette Valley.

  13. Valuing the salmon resource: Columbia River stocks under climate change and fishery enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.M.; Scott, M.J.

    1993-04-01

    This paper represents an update to ongoing multidisciplinary research in the area of climate change and associated regional impacts to fisheries and economies. This work particularly deals with the total value of Columbia River salmon and the idea that fish have capital value, articulated here as spawning value. Earlier work dealt solely with the Yakima River spring chinook fishery`s response to climate change and fishery enhancement programs and the associated direct economic effects (Anderson et al. 1992). We have expanded our modeling attempts to examine similar impacts in the Grande Ronde River subbasin of the Columbia River basin, and added the summer steelhead stock to the analysis. Relatively recent developments and improvements in climate change modeling and fishery modeling enabled us to attempt such an endeavor.

  14. Columbia River monitoring: Summary of chemical monitoring along cross sections at Vernita Bridge and Richland

    SciTech Connect

    Dirkes, R.L.; Patton, G.W.; Tiller, B.L.

    1993-05-01

    This report presents the results of the chemical monitoring performed by the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) along cross sections of the Columbia River established at Vernita Bridge and the Richland Pumphouse. Potential Hanford-origin chemical constituents of interest were selected based on their presence in ground water near the river, past surveillance efforts that have documented their entry into the river, and reviews of special study reports, CERCIA remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) documentation, RCRA facility investigation/corrective measure (FI/CW) study plans, and preliminary risk assessments. Results presented in this report include volatile organic compounds, metals, and anions. The data were generated as part of the routine Columbia River monitoring program currently conducted as part of the SESP.

  15. Irrigation and streamflow depletion in Columbia River basin above The Dalles, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simons, Wilbur Douglas

    1953-01-01

    The Columbia River is the largest stream in western United States. Above The Dalles, Oregon, it drains an area of 237,000 square miles, of which 39,000 square miles is in Canada. This area is largely mountainous and lies between the Rocky Mountains and the Cascade Range. The Kootenai, Pend Oreille, and Snake Rivers are the principal tributaries. Precipitation varies from 7 inches near Kennewick, Wash. to over 100 inches in some of the mountainous regions. Most of the runoff occurs in the spring and summer months as a result of melting snow. Precipitation is generally light during the summer months, and irrigation is necessary for sustained crop production. Historical data indicate that irrigation in the Columbia River basin began prior to 1840 at the site of missions established near Walla Walla, Wash. and Lewiston, Idaho. During the next half century the increase in irrigated area was slow and by 1890 included only 506,000 acres. The period 1890 to 1910 was marked by phenomenal increase to a total of 2,276,000 acres in 1910. Since that time there has been more gradual addition to a total of 4,004,S00 acres of irrigated land in 1946 in the Columbia River basin above The Dalles, Oreg. Of this total 918,000 acres were located in the Columbia Basin above the mouth of the Snake River; 2,830,000 acres in the Snake River basin, and the balance, 256,000 acres below the mouth of the Snake River. Values of net consumptive use were determined or estimated for various tributary basins of the Columbia River basin and compared to available experimental data. These values were then used to compute the average depletion which could be directly attributed to irrigation. The yield of a drainage basin was considered to be the rum of the ob- served runoff and the estimated depletion. For purposes of comparison, the depletion was expressed both in terms of acre-feet and as a percentage of the yield of the basin. This percentage depletion varied from less than 1 percent for many

  16. 75 FR 61354 - Safety Zone; Interstate 5 Bridge Repairs, Columbia River, Portland, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Interstate 5 Bridge Repairs, Columbia River... Interstate 5 Bridge. The safety zone is necessary to ensure the safety of the workers involved as well as the... Bridge would be completed by the time notice could be published and comments taken. Under 5 U.S.C....

  17. The non-fisheries biological resources of the Hanford reach of the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Rickard, W.H.; Hanson, W.C.; Fitzner, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    The Hanford Reach is the only undammed segment of the Columbia River in the United States upstream from Bonneville Dam. The non-agricultural and non-recreational land-use policies imposed by the Department of Energy have permitted the Hanford Site to function as a refugium for wildlife for 35 years. The protection offered by the Hanford Site has been especially important for the Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leurocephalus), mule deer (Odocileus hemionus), coyote (Canis latrans), and resident Great Basin Canada Goose (Branta canadensis moffitti). Island habitats are especially important for nesting geese and for mule deer fawning. Coyotes are important predators upon nesting geese and mule deer fawns. Salmon carcasses are an important winter food for Bald Eagles. Riparian plant communities along the Columbia River have been changing in response to changing water level fluctuations largely regulated by power generation schedules at upstream hydroelectric dams. There are no studies presently established to record the response of Columbia River shoreline plant communities to these kinds of fluctuating water levels. The existing information is summarized on birds and mammals closely allied with the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. High trophic level wild animals are discussed as indicators of chemical contamination of food chains.

  18. 77 FR 3111 - Safety Zone; Export Grain Terminal (EGT), Columbia River, Longview, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-23

    ... 3111-3114] [FR Doc No: 2012-1170] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket... published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477), or you may visit http://DocketsInfo.dot.gov . Background and.... C. Jones, Captain, U. S. Coast Guard, Captain of the Port, Columbia River. [FR Doc. 2012-1170...

  19. Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program Annual Implementation Work Plan for Fiscal Year 1994.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Northwest Power Planning Council; Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority

    1994-02-01

    This document is part of Bonneville Power Administration`s program to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife affected by the development and operation of hydroelectric facilities on the Columbia River and its tributaries. The Fiscal Year 1994 (FY 1994) Annual Implementation Work Plan (AIWP) presents Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA`s) plan for implementation of the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (Program). The purpose of the Program is to guide BPA and other federal agencies in carrying out their responsibilities to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife in the Columbia River Basin. Phase I began the work of salmon recovery with certain fast-track measures completed in August 1991. Phase II dealt with Snake and Columbia river flow and salmon harvest and was completed in December 1991. Phase III dealt with system-wide habitat and salmon production issues and was completed in September 1992. Phase IV planning, focusing on resident fish and wildlife, began in August 1993, and was finished and adopted in November 1993. This report provides summaries of the ongoing and new projects for FY 1994 within the areas of juvenile migration, adult migration, salmon harvest, production and habitat, coordinated implementation, monitoring and evaluation, resident fish, and wildlife.

  20. Protocols for Monitoring Habitat Restoration Projects in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary

    SciTech Connect

    Roegner, G. Curtis; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Borde, Amy B.; Thom, Ronald M.; Dawley, Earl M.; Whiting, Allan H.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Johnson, Gary E.

    2008-04-25

    Protocols for monitoring salmon habitat restoration projects are essential for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' environmental efforts in the Columbia River estuary. This manual provides state-of-the science data collection and analysis methods for landscape features, water quality, and fish species composition, among others.

  1. Integrated Hatchery Operations : Existing Policy Affecting Hatcheries in the Columbia River Basin, 1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Shelldrake, Tom

    1993-05-01

    Collected together in this document is relevant laws and policy of the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington State Department of Wildlife, Oregon State, Washington Department of Fisheries, and Idaho Department of Fish and Game as they affect hatcheries in the Columbia River Basin.

  2. 33 CFR 165.1316 - Safety Zone; Columbia River, Astoria, Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1316 Safety Zone; Columbia River, Astoria, Oregon. (a) Location. The following area is a safety...

  3. 33 CFR 165.1316 - Safety Zone; Columbia River, Astoria, Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1316 Safety Zone; Columbia River, Astoria, Oregon. (a) Location. The following area is a safety...

  4. 77 FR 50914 - Anchorage; Change to Cottonwood Island Anchorage, Columbia River, Oregon and Washington

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-23

    ... Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A. Regulatory History and Information On... Island Anchorage on the Columbia River (76 FR 34197). On May 23, 2012, the Coast Guard published a Supplemental NPRM revising that proposal in response to public comments (77 FR 30440). During the...

  5. 77 FR 23547 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Columbia River Crossing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... April 19, 2012 Part II Department of Commerce National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR..., April 19, 2012 / Proposed Rules#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Incidental to Columbia River Crossing Project, Washington and Oregon AGENCY: National Marine...

  6. Securing the Value of the Federal Columbia River Power System, Keeping Current, June 1998, Issue 98.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1998-06-01

    This report focuses on issues which will enhance the value of the Columbia River for the future. Many important decisions must be made about the Bonneville Power Administration in the coming months. These issues include the following: cost management; future fish and wildlife funding; power markets, revenues and subscription; transmission issues; and risk management.

  7. Microbial community composition and metagenomes across the river-to-ocean continuum of the Columbia and Amazon Rivers (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crump, B. C.; Doherty, M.; Fortunato, C.; Simon, H. M.; Smit, M. W.; Krusche, A. V.; Brito, D.; Cunha, A.; Fernandes, M.; Zielinski, B.; Paul, J. H.; Ward, N. D.; Richey, J. E.; Satinsky, B. M.; Sharma, S.; Smith, C. B.; Moran, M.; Yager, P. L.

    2013-12-01

    Rivers are the primary conduits for land-to-ocean transfer of materials including terrestrial organic matter, nutrients and anthropogenic pollutants. Microbial communities in rivers, estuaries, and plumes regulate the nutrient concentrations and biogeochemistry of these riverborne materials and mediate their impact on carbon cycling. Despite their importance little is known about the composition and genetic capabilities of these organisms. Here we describe and compare the phylogeny and metagenomic profiles of microbial communities across the river-to-ocean gradients of two very large rivers: the tropical Amazon and temperate Columbia rivers. For the Amazon, samples were collected from the lower 600 km of the river and from surface waters across 1300 km of the plume in 2010 and 2011. For the Columbia, samples were collected along the gradient from river to deep ocean during 14 cruises between 2007 and 2010. Amplicon pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes showed that bacterial communities were similar along the length of the lower Amazon River with variability caused by inputs from major tributaries. Freshwater taxa from both rivers were very rare in plume waters, but in the Columbia River estuary freshwater taxa mixed with marine communities. Communities in both rivers shifted with local seasons, likely due to changes in river environmental conditions including dissolved and particulate organic matter, river flow, and light availability. Seasonal variability was less pronounced in river plumes where spatial variability was greater than temporal variability. Bacterial community composition was very different between the two systems, and was most similar at the marine end of the gradient outside the plumes. Illumina-based metagenomic analyses of a subset of these samples showed similarity in the relative abundance of many annotated gene categories despite differences in phylogeny across salinity gradients. However, several categories of genes varied in relative

  8. Prey of nesting ospreys on the Willamette and Columbia Rivers, Oregon and Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, B.L.; Kaiser, J.L.; Henny, C.J.; Grove, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    To more effectively use ospreys as a biomonitoring tool and to better assess contaminant pathways, the diet of nesting ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) was studied along the lower Columbia and upper mainstem Willamette rivers by evaluating prey remains collected from wire baskets constructed under artificial feeding perches installed near nest sites and from the ground beneath natural feeding perches and nests. Prey remains from 1997-2004 on the Columbia River and 1993 (previously published) and 2001 on the Willamette River were evaluated and compared. Largescale suckers (Catostomus macrocheilus) were the predominate fish species identified in collections from the Columbia River (61.5% [84.3% biomass]) and Willamette River (76.0% [92.7% biomass]). Prey fish diversity, when based only on ground collections, was higher in the Columbia (2.45) than the Willamette river (1.92) (P = 0.038). Prey fish diversity in collections from the Willamette River did not differ between this study (2001) and previous study (1993) (P = 0.62). Fishbones recovered in wire baskets are likely more representative of osprey diet compared to bones recovered from the ground, because prey diversity was higher among basket samples compared to ground collections (wire basket diversity = 5.25 vs. ground collection diversity = 2.45, P = 0.011). Soft-boned salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.), American shad (Alosa sapidissima), and mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni) were probably underrepresented in collections obtained from the ground. Study results suggest that baskets provide a better method for assessing osprey diet than other indirect methods. These findings augment available osprey food-habits information and provide additional biological and ecological information to better assess potential impacts of various environmental contaminants on nesting ospreys.

  9. Bonneville Project Act, Federal Columbia River Transmission System Act and Other Related Legislation.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Legislative texts are provided for: Bonneville Project Act which authorizes the completion, maintenance, and operation of Bonneville project for navigation, and for other purposes; Federal Columbia River Transmission system Act which enables the Secretary of the Interior to provide for operation, maintenance, and continued construction of the Federal transmission system in the Pacific Northwest by use of the revenues of the Federal Columbia River Power System and the proceeds of revenue bonds, and for other purposes; public law 88--552 which guarantees electric consumers of the Pacific Northwest first call on electric energy generated at Federal hydroelectric plants in that regions and reciprocal priority, and for other purposes; and public law 78--329 which provides for the partial construction of the Hungary Horse Dam on the South Fork of the Flathead River in the state of Montana, and for other purposes

  10. Summary of Radiological Monitoring of Columbia and Snake River Sediment, 1988 Through 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, Gregory W.; Dirkes, Roger L.

    2007-10-01

    From 1988 through 2004, samples of upper-layer sediments from the Columbia River and Snake River were collected under the Hanford Site Surface Environmental Surveillance Project to document concentrations and trends of radionuclides. Low concentrations of potassium-40, cesium-137, uranium isotopes, and plutonium isotopes were detected consistently in sediment samples over the entire sampling period. The concentrations of most radionuclides were similar to values measured upstream of the Hanford Site behind Priest Rapids Dam. For all locations, the concentrations of radionuclides in sediment samples from the Columbia and Snake rivers were below concentrations that would result in a 1-mrem effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical exposed individual using a shoreline exposure scenario (i.e., 500 hr/yr of external dose). The DOE limit for public exposure is 100 mrem/yr.

  11. Incidence of Renibacterium salmoninarum infections in juvenile hatchery spring chinook salmon in the Columbia and Snake Rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maule, A.G.; Rondorf, D.W.; Beeman, J.W.; Haner, P.V.

    1996-01-01

    From 1988 through 1992, we assessed the prevalence (frequency of occurrence) and severity (degree of infection) of Renibacterium salmoninarum (RS) among fish in marked groups of Columbia River basin and Snake River basin hatchery spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha before release and during their seaward migration. During the study, prevalence of RS infection decreased (from >90% to <65%) in six of the eight hatchery groups. We attributed this decrease to changes in hatchery practices that reduced vertical and horizontal transmission. Fish from Snake River hatcheries had a higher prevalence of infection when sampled at dams (mean >90%) than in the hatchery (mean <70%), but there were no differences in similar comparisons of Columbia River fish. Although prevalence and severity of RS infection were not correlated in the groups studied, it appears that fish from the Snake River were more severely infected than those from the Columbia River. Some groups of Snake River fish had higher severity of infection at dams than in the hatchery, but infection in fish from Columbia River hatcheries did not change. These differences between Snake River and Columbia River fish might have resulted from differences in river conditions and the distances from hatcheries to dams.

  12. Hydrogeologic controls on ground-water and contaminant discharge to the Columbia River near the Hanford Townsite

    SciTech Connect

    Luttrell, S.P.; Newcomer, D.R.; Teel, S.S.; Vermeul, V.R.

    1992-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to quantify ground-water and contaminant discharge to the Columbia River in the Hanford Townsite vicinity. The primary objectives of the work are to: describe the hydrogeologic setting and controls on ground-water movement and contaminant discharge to the Columbia River; understand the river/aquifer relationship and its effects on contaminant discharge to the Columbia River; quantify the ground-water and contaminant mass discharge to the Columbia River; and provide data that may be useful for a three-dimensional model of ground-water flow and contaminant transport in the Hanford Townsite study area. The majority of ground-water contamination occurs within the unconfined aquifer; therefore, ground-water and contaminant discharge from the unconfined aquifer is the emphasis of this study. The period of study is primarily from June 1990 through March 1992.

  13. Reintroduction of Lower Columbia River Chum Salmon into Duncan Creek, 2007 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hillson, Todd D.

    2009-06-12

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) listed Lower Columbia River (LCR) chum salmon as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in March, 1999 (64 FR 14508, March 25, 1999). The listing was in response to the reduction in abundance from historical levels of more than one-half million returning adults to fewer than 10,000 present-day spawners. Harvest, habitat degradation, changes in flow regimes, riverbed movement and heavy siltation have been largely responsible for this decline. The timing of seasonal changes in river flow and water temperatures is perhaps the most critical factor in structuring the freshwater life history of this species. This is especially true of the population located directly below Bonneville Dam, where hydropower operations can block access to spawning sites, dewater redds, strand fry, cause scour or fill of redds and increase sedimentation of spawning gravels. Prior to 1997, only two chum salmon populations were recognized as genetically distinct in the Columbia River, although spawning had been documented in many Lower Columbia River tributaries. The first population was in the Grays River (RKm 34), a tributary of the Columbia River, and the second was a group of spawners utilizing the mainstem Columbia River just below Bonneville Dam (RKm 235) adjacent to Ives Island and in Hardy and Hamilton creeks. Using additional DNA samples, Small et al. (2006) grouped chum salmon spawning in the mainstem Columbia River and the Washington State tributaries into three groups: the Coastal, the Cascade and the Gorge. The Coastal group comprises those spawning in the Grays River, Skamokawa Creek and the broodstock used at the Sea Resources facility on the Chinook River. The Cascade group comprises those spawning in the Cowlitz (both summer and fall stocks), Kalama, Lewis, and East Fork Lewis rivers, with most supporting unique populations. The Gorge group comprises those spawning in the mainstem Columbia River from the I-205 Bridge up to

  14. 1992 Columbia River Salmon Flow Measures Options Analysis/EIS : Appendices.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This Options Analysis/Environmental Impact Statement (OA/EIS) identifies, presents effects of, and evaluates the potential options for changing instream flow levels in efforts to increase salmon populations in the lower Columbia and Snake rivers. The potential actions would be implemented during 1992 to benefit juvenile and adult salmon during migration through eight run-of-river reservoirs. The Corps of Engineers (Corps) prepared this document in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration and the Bureau of Reclamation. The US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) is a participating agency. The text and appendices of the document describe the characteristics of 10 Federal projects and one private water development project in the Columbia River drainage basin. Present and potential operation of these projects and their effects on the salmon that spawn and rear in the Columbia and Snake River System are presented. The life history, status, and response of Pacific salmon to current environmental conditions are described. The document concludes with an evaluation of the potential effects that could result from implementing proposed actions. The conclusions are based on evaluation of existing data, utilization of numerical models, and application of logical inference. This volume contains the appendices.

  15. Columbia River Statistical Update Model, Version 4. 0 (COLSTAT4): Background documentation and user's guide

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, G.; Damschen, D.W.; Brockhaus, R.D.

    1987-08-01

    Daily-averaged temperature and flow information on the Columbia River just downstream of Priest Rapids Dam and upstream of river mile 380 were collected and stored in a data base. The flow information corresponds to discharges that were collected daily from October 1, 1959, through July 28, 1986. The temperature information corresponds to values that were collected daily from January 1, 1965, through May 27, 1986. The computer model, COLSTAT4 (Columbia River Statistical Update - Version 4.0 model), uses the temperature-discharge data base to statistically analyze temperature and flow conditions by computing the frequency of occurrence and duration of selected temperatures and flow rates for the Columbia River. The COLSTAT4 code analyzes the flow and temperature information in a sequential time frame (i.e., a continuous analysis over a given time period); it also analyzes this information in a seasonal time frame (i.e., a periodic analysis over a specific season from year to year). A provision is included to enable the user to edit and/or extend the data base of temperature and flow information. This report describes the COLSTAT4 code and the information contained in its data base.

  16. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations and Experimental Culture, 1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Apperson, Kimberly A.; Wakkinen, Virginia (

    1993-11-01

    Setline and angling techniques were used to sample 64 white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus from the Kootenai River in 1992. Of those sampled, 15 were recaptures from previous years of this study. A total of 429 white sturgeon were captured from March 1989 through September 1992. Fork lengths of white sturgeon in the total sample ranged from 88 to 274 cm. The data indicated there was a complete lack of recruitment of juveniles into the population which was estimated in 1990 at 880 individuals with a 95% confidence interval of 638 to 1,211. Annual mortality of white sturgeon from 1982 to 1991 was 0.0374. Approximately 80% of the population was more than 20 years old and was reproductively mature. An ongoing sonic telemetry study revealed long distance movements among adults. Sturgeon regularly moved across the British Columbia-Idaho border. Sturgeon used deep holes in the river or migrated to Kootenai Lake during late fall. During spring and early summer, reproductively mature sturgeon moved from 15 to 110 kilometers upriver and congregated within 15 kilometers downriver from Bonners Ferry in areas of elevated water velocity. This behavior coincided with increasing discharge and water temperatures. The authors monitored movements of five reproductively mature female white sturgeon. The fish responded to increasing then decreasing flows by moving upriver then downriver, respectively. All five fish quickly moved to Kootenai Lake when flows dropped suddenly from higher than 20 kcfs to less than 10 kcfs. One fish was recaptured and was reabsorbing eggs. Trawling and sampling with mats of artificial substrate failed to capture white sturgeon eggs or larvae in 1992. One hundred and four age 1 and 14 age 2 hatchery-reared Kootenai white sturgeon were released into the Idaho section of the river in 1992. Telemetry of six of the larger juveniles showed general downriver movement from September into November.

  17. Stock Assessment of Columbia River Anadromous Salmonids : Final Report, Volume I, Chinook, Coho, Chum and Sockeye Salmon Summaries.

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, Philip J.

    1986-07-01

    The purpose was to identify and characterize the wild and hatchery stocks of salmon and steelhead in the Columbia River Basin on the basis of currently available information. This report provides a comprehensive compilation of data on the status and life histories of Columbia Basin salmonid stocks.

  18. Assessment of impacts from water level fluctuations on fish in the Hanford Reach, Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, C.D.; Fickeisen, D.H.; Montgomery, J.C.

    1981-05-01

    Observations on the effects of water level fluctuations in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, Washington, were made in 1976 and 1977. The two years provided contrasting flow regimes: high water and fluctuations of greater magnitude prevailed in 1976; low water and higher temperatures prevailed in 1977. Situations where fish and other aquatic organisms were destroyed by changing water levels were observed and evaluated each year in three study areas: Hanford, F-Area, and White Bluffs sloughs. Losses primarily were due to stranding, entrapment (with or without complete dewatering), and predation. Juvenile fish were more susceptible to entrapment and stranding than were adult fish. Estimates of actual losses were biased and conservative because relatively few fish could be found after each decline of water level and dewatering. The most valued species of fish affected by water level fluctuations at Hanford were the anadromus fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and the resident smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui). Crucial periods for chinook salmon occurred during winter when incubating eggs were in the gravel of the main channel, and before and during seaward migration in the spring when fry were abundant in shoreline zones. The crucial period for smallmouth bass was during spring and early summer when adults were spawning in warmed sloughs and shoreline zones. Chinook salmon and smallmouth bass fry were vulnerable to stranding and entrapment, and smallmouth bass nests were susceptible to exposure and temperature changes resulting from repeated water level fluctuations. Thus, flow manipulation may be crucial to their survival. The extent to which other species of riverine fish were affected by water level fluctuations depended upon their use of shoreline zones for spawning and rearing young.

  19. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary, Annual Report 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Borde, Amy B.; Dawley, Earl; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Putman, Douglas A.; Roegner, G. C.; Thom, Ronald M.; Vavrinec, John; Whiting, Allan H.

    2007-12-06

    This report is the third annual report of a six-year project to evaluate the cumulative effects of habitat restoration action in the Columbia River Estuary (CRE). The project is being conducted for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) by the Marine Sciences Laboratory of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, the Pt. Adams Biological Field Station of the National Marine Fisheries Service, and the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce. Measurement of the cumulative effects of ecological restoration projects in the Columbia River estuary is a formidable task because of the size and complexity of the estuarine landscape and the meta-populations of salmonids in the Columbia River basin. Despite the challenges presented by this system, developing and implementing appropriate indicators and methods to measure cumulative effects is the best way to enable estuary managers to track the overall effectiveness of investments in estuarine restoration projects. This project is developing methods to quantify the cumulative effects of multiple restoration activities in the CRE. The overall objectives of the 2006 study were to continue to develop techniques to assess cumulative effects, refine the standard monitoring protocols, and initiate development of an adaptive management system for Corps of Engineers’ habitat restoration monitoring efforts in the CRE. (The adaptive management effort will be reported at a later date.) Field studies during 2006 were conducted in tidal freshwater at Kandoll Farm on the lower Grays River and tidal brackish water at Vera Slough on Youngs Bay. Within each of area, we sampled one natural reference site and one restoration site. We addressed the overall objectives with field work in 2006 that, coupled with previous field data, had specific objectives and resulted in some important findings that are summarized here by chapter in this report. Each chapter of the report contains data on particular monitored variables for pre- and post

  20. Columbia River Treaty 2014/2024 Review • Phase 1 Report

    SciTech Connect

    2010-07-01

    Under the Columbia River Treaty (Treaty or CRT) of 1964, Canada and the United States (U.S.) jointly regulate and manage the Columbia River as it flows from British Columbia into the U.S. The Treaty has provided substantial flood control and power generation benefits to both nations. The Treaty established Canadian and U.S. Entities as implementing agents for each government. British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority (BC Hydro) was designated as the Canadian Entity. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Administrator and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) Division Engineer, Northwestern Division, were designated as the U.S. Entity. The Canadian and U.S. Entities are empowered by their respective governments with broad discretion to implement the existing Columbia River Treaty. They are not, however, authorized to terminate, renegotiate, or otherwise modify the Treaty. In the U.S., authority over international treaties rests with the President, assisted in foreign relations and international negotiations by the Department of State and subject in certain cases to the advice and consent of the U.S. Senate. In Canada, international treaties are within the prerogative of the executive branch of the federal government. Under current policy, treaties are tabled in the House of Commons, and are subject to a waiting period before the executive branch brings the treaty into effect. In the case of the Columbia River Treaty, Canada has assigned certain rights and obligations relating to the Treaty to British Columbia pursuant to the Canada-B.C. Agreement. The Phase 1 report is provided to those respective governmental bodies to support possible independent and/or joint decisions that may be made with respect to the future of the Treaty. The Treaty contains two important provisions that take effect on and after September 16, 2024, that could impact the current power and flood control benefits: 1. Canadian flood control obligations automatically change from a pre

  1. Disease Susceptibility of Hatchery Snake River Spring-Summer Chinook Salmon with Different Juvenile Migration Histories in the Columbia River.

    PubMed

    Arkoosh, Mary R; Kagley, Anna N; Anulacion, Bernadita F; Boylen, Deborah A; Sandford, Benjamin P; Loge, Frank J; Johnson, Lyndal L; Collier, Tracy K

    2006-12-01

    Various methods have been developed to mitigate the effects of dams on juvenile Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. migrating to the Pacific Ocean through the Columbia River basin. In this study, we examined the health of hatchery Snake River spring and summer Chinook salmon relative to two mitigating strategies: dam bypass and transportation (e.g., barging). The health of out-migrants was assessed in terms of the difference in the incidence of mortality among fish, categorically grouped into no-bypass, bypass, and transportation life histories, in response to challenge with the marine pathogen Listonella anguillarum during seawater holding. These three life histories were defined as follows: (1) fish that were not detected at any of the juvenile bypass systems above Bonneville Dam were classified as having a no-bypass life history; (2) fish that were detected at one or more juvenile bypass systems above Bonneville Dam were classified as having a bypass life history; and (3) fish that were barged were classified as having the transportation life history. Barged fish were found to be less susceptible to L. anguillarum than in-river fish-whether bypassed or not-which suggests that transportation may help mitigate the adverse health effects of the hydropower system of the Columbia River basin on Snake River spring-summer Chinook salmon. The findings of this study are not necessarily transferable to other out-migrant stocks in the Columbia River basin, given that only one evolutionarily significant unit, that is, Snake River spring-summer Chinook salmon, was used in this study.

  2. Disease Susceptibility of Hatchery Snake River Spring-Summer Chinook Salmon with Different Juvenile Migration Histories in the Columbia River.

    PubMed

    Arkoosh, Mary R; Kagley, Anna N; Anulacion, Bernadita F; Boylen, Deborah A; Sandford, Benjamin P; Loge, Frank J; Johnson, Lyndal L; Collier, Tracy K

    2006-12-01

    Various methods have been developed to mitigate the effects of dams on juvenile Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. migrating to the Pacific Ocean through the Columbia River basin. In this study, we examined the health of hatchery Snake River spring and summer Chinook salmon relative to two mitigating strategies: dam bypass and transportation (e.g., barging). The health of out-migrants was assessed in terms of the difference in the incidence of mortality among fish, categorically grouped into no-bypass, bypass, and transportation life histories, in response to challenge with the marine pathogen Listonella anguillarum during seawater holding. These three life histories were defined as follows: (1) fish that were not detected at any of the juvenile bypass systems above Bonneville Dam were classified as having a no-bypass life history; (2) fish that were detected at one or more juvenile bypass systems above Bonneville Dam were classified as having a bypass life history; and (3) fish that were barged were classified as having the transportation life history. Barged fish were found to be less susceptible to L. anguillarum than in-river fish-whether bypassed or not-which suggests that transportation may help mitigate the adverse health effects of the hydropower system of the Columbia River basin on Snake River spring-summer Chinook salmon. The findings of this study are not necessarily transferable to other out-migrant stocks in the Columbia River basin, given that only one evolutionarily significant unit, that is, Snake River spring-summer Chinook salmon, was used in this study. PMID:26599158

  3. Evaluation of Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Thom, Ronald M.; Roegner, G. Curtis; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Skalski, John R.; Borde, Amy B.; Dawley, Earl; Coleman, Andre M.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Breithaupt, Stephen A.; Cameron, April; Corbett, C.; Donley, Erin E.; Jay, D. A.; Ke, Yinghai; Leffler, K.; McNeil, C.; Studebaker, Cindy; Tagestad, Jerry D.

    2012-05-01

    This is the seventh and final annual report of a project (2004–2010) addressing evaluation of the cumulative effects of habitat restoration actions in the 235-km-long lower Columbia River and estuary. The project, called the Cumulative Effects (CE) study, was conducted for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Portland District by a collaboration of research agencies led by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. We achieved the primary goal of the CE study to develop a methodology to evaluate the cumulative effects of habitat actions in the Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program. We delivered 1) standard monitoring protocols and methods to prioritize monitoring activities; 2) the theoretical and empirical basis for a CE methodology using levels-of-evidence; 3) evaluations of cumulative effects using ecological relationships, geo-referenced data, hydrodynamic modeling, and meta-analyses; and 4) an adaptive management process to coordinate and coalesce restoration efforts in the LCRE. A solid foundation has been laid for future comprehensive evaluations of progress made by the Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program to understand, conserve, and restore ecosystems in the lower Columbia River and estuary.

  4. Trends in selected water-quality characteristics, Flathead River at Flathead, British Columbia, and at Columbia Falls, Montana, water years, 1975-86

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cary, L.E.

    1989-01-01

    Data for selected water quality variables were evaluated for trends at two sampling stations--Flathead River at Flathead, British Columbia (Flathead station) and Flathead River at Columbia Falls, Montana (Columbia Falls station). The results were compared between stations. The analyses included data from water years 1975-86 at the Flathead station and water years 1979-86 at the Columbia Falls station. The seasonal Kendall test was applied to adjusted concentrations for variables related to discharge and to unadjusted concentrations for the remaining variables. Slope estimates were made for variables with significant trends unless data were reported as less than the detection limit. At the Flathead station, concentrations of dissolved solids, calcium, magnesium, sodium, dissolved nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen (total and dissolved), total organic nitrogen, and total phosphorus increased during the study period. Concentrations of total nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen and dissolved iron decreased during the same period. At the Columbia Falls station, concentrations increased for calcium and magnesium and decreased for sulfate and dissolved phosphorus. No trends were detected for 10 other variables tested at each station. Data for the Flathead station were reanalyzed for water years 1979-86. Trends in the data increased for magnesium and dissolved nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen and decreased for dissolved iron. Magnesium was the only variable that displayed a trend (increasing) at both stations. The increasing trends that were detected probably will not adversely affect the water quality of the Flathead River in the near future. (USGS)

  5. Columbia River Basin Seasonal Volumes and Statistics, 1928-1989. 1990 Level Modified Streamflows Computed Seasonal Volumes 61-Year Statistics.

    SciTech Connect

    A.G. Crook Company

    1993-04-01

    This report was prepared by the A.G. Crook Company, under contract to Bonneville Power Administration, and provides statistics of seasonal volumes and streamflow for 28 selected sites in the Columbia River Basin.

  6. Relationships Between Landscape Habitat Variables and Chinook Salmon Production in the Columbia River Basin, 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, William L.; Lee, Danny C.

    1999-09-01

    This publication concerns the investigation of potential relationships between various landscape habitat variables and estimates of fish production from 25 index stocks of spring/summer chinook salmon with the Columbia River Basin.

  7. 76 FR 28315 - Security Zone; Vessels Carrying Hazardous Cargo, Sector Columbia River Captain of the Port Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ..., Sector Columbia River Captain of the Port Zone in the Federal Register (75 FR 76328). No comments were... cargoes include, but are not limited to, liquefied petroleum gas, ammonium nitrate and associated...

  8. The Columbia River plume as cross-shelf exporter and along-coast barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banas, N. S.; MacCready, P.; Hickey, B. M.

    2009-01-01

    An intensive Lagrangian particle-tracking analysis of the July 2004 upwelling period was conducted in a hindcast model of the US Pacific Northwest coast, in order to determine the effect of the Columbia River plume on the fate of upwelled water. The model, implemented using Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS), includes variable wind and atmospheric forcing, variable Columbia river flow, realistic boundary conditions from Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM), and 10 tidal constituents. Model skill has been demonstrated in detail elsewhere [MacCready, P., Banas, N.S., Hickey, B.M., Dever, E.P., Liu, Y., 2008. A model study of tide- and wind-induced mixing in the Columbia River estuary and plume. Continental Shelf Research, this issue, doi:10.1016/j.csr.2008.03.015]. Particles were released in the Columbia estuary, along the Washington coastal wall, and along the model's northern boundary at 48°N. Particles were tracked in three dimensions, using both velocities from ROMS and a vertical random displacement representing turbulent mixing. When 25 h of upwelling flow is looped and particles tracked for 12 d, their trajectories highlight a field of transient eddies and recirculations on scales from 5 to 50 km both north and south of the Columbia. Not all of these features are caused by plume dynamics, but the presence of the plume increases the entrainment of inner-shelf water into them. The cumulative effect of the plume's interaction with these transient features is to increase cross-shelf dispersion: 25% more water is transported laterally past the 100 m isobath when river and estuarine effects are included than when they are omitted. This cross-shelf dispersion also disrupts the southward transport of water along the inner shelf that occurs in the model when the Columbia River is omitted. This second effect—increased retention of upwelled water on the Washington shelf—may be partly responsible for the regional-scale alongcoast gradient in chlorophyll biomass

  9. Potential Effects of Dams on Migratory Fish in the Mekong River: Lessons from Salmon in the Fraser and Columbia Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, John W.; Healey, Michael; Dugan, Patrick; Barlow, Chris

    2011-01-01

    We compared the effects of water resource development on migratory fish in two North American rivers using a descriptive approach based on four high-level indicators: (1) trends in abundance of Pacific salmon, (2) reliance on artificial production to maintain fisheries, (3) proportion of adult salmon that are wild- versus hatchery-origin, and (4) number of salmon populations needing federal protection to avoid extinction. The two rivers had similar biological and physical features but radically different levels of water resource development: the Fraser River has few dams and all are located in tributaries, whereas the Columbia River has more than 130 large mainstem and tributary dams. Not surprisingly, we found substantial effects of development on salmon in the Columbia River. We related the results to potential effects on migratory fish in the Mekong River where nearly 200 mainstem and tributary dams are installed, under construction, or planned and could have profound effects on its 135 migratory fish species. Impacts will vary with dam location due to differential fish production within the basin, with overall effects likely being greatest from 11 proposed mainstem dams. Minimizing impacts will require decades to design specialized fish passage facilities, dam operations, and artificial production, and is complicated by the Mekong's high diversity and productivity. Prompt action is needed by governments and fisheries managers to plan Mekong water resource development wisely to prevent impacts to the world's most productive inland fisheries, and food security and employment opportunities for millions of people in the region.

  10. Potential effects of dams on migratory fish in the Mekong River: lessons from salmon in the Fraser and Columbia Rivers.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, John W; Healey, Michael; Dugan, Patrick; Barlow, Chris

    2011-01-01

    We compared the effects of water resource development on migratory fish in two North American rivers using a descriptive approach based on four high-level indicators: (1) trends in abundance of Pacific salmon, (2) reliance on artificial production to maintain fisheries, (3) proportion of adult salmon that are wild- versus hatchery-origin, and (4) number of salmon populations needing federal protection to avoid extinction. The two rivers had similar biological and physical features but radically different levels of water resource development: the Fraser River has few dams and all are located in tributaries, whereas the Columbia River has more than 130 large mainstem and tributary dams. Not surprisingly, we found substantial effects of development on salmon in the Columbia River. We related the results to potential effects on migratory fish in the Mekong River where nearly 200 mainstem and tributary dams are installed, under construction, or planned and could have profound effects on its 135 migratory fish species. Impacts will vary with dam location due to differential fish production within the basin, with overall effects likely being greatest from 11 proposed mainstem dams. Minimizing impacts will require decades to design specialized fish passage facilities, dam operations, and artificial production, and is complicated by the Mekong's high diversity and productivity. Prompt action is needed by governments and fisheries managers to plan Mekong water resource development wisely to prevent impacts to the world's most productive inland fisheries, and food security and employment opportunities for millions of people in the region. PMID:20924582

  11. Potential effects of dams on migratory fish in the Mekong River: lessons from salmon in the Fraser and Columbia Rivers.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, John W; Healey, Michael; Dugan, Patrick; Barlow, Chris

    2011-01-01

    We compared the effects of water resource development on migratory fish in two North American rivers using a descriptive approach based on four high-level indicators: (1) trends in abundance of Pacific salmon, (2) reliance on artificial production to maintain fisheries, (3) proportion of adult salmon that are wild- versus hatchery-origin, and (4) number of salmon populations needing federal protection to avoid extinction. The two rivers had similar biological and physical features but radically different levels of water resource development: the Fraser River has few dams and all are located in tributaries, whereas the Columbia River has more than 130 large mainstem and tributary dams. Not surprisingly, we found substantial effects of development on salmon in the Columbia River. We related the results to potential effects on migratory fish in the Mekong River where nearly 200 mainstem and tributary dams are installed, under construction, or planned and could have profound effects on its 135 migratory fish species. Impacts will vary with dam location due to differential fish production within the basin, with overall effects likely being greatest from 11 proposed mainstem dams. Minimizing impacts will require decades to design specialized fish passage facilities, dam operations, and artificial production, and is complicated by the Mekong's high diversity and productivity. Prompt action is needed by governments and fisheries managers to plan Mekong water resource development wisely to prevent impacts to the world's most productive inland fisheries, and food security and employment opportunities for millions of people in the region.

  12. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Studies, Annual Report FY 1993.

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Paul J.; Siple, John T.

    1993-12-01

    This report evaluates natural spawning of white sturgeon in the Kootenai River before, during and after the 1993 augmented discharge period. To determine how altering the operation of Libby Dam may improve conditions for natural spawning of white sturgeon in the Kootenai River, discharge from Libby Dam (with no power peaking or load following) was increased to produce 20 kcfs ([plus minus] 2 kcfs) discharge at Bonners Ferry, Idaho, for a 14 day period June 2--16. Objectives of this research were to determine if white sturgeon spawned in the Kootenai River during 1993; and collect baseline biological data including timing, location, and habitat requirements of white sturgeon spawning in the Kootenai River in order to formulate and implement future flow regimes as effective recovery measures for white sturgeon. While sampling is not expected to collect a majority of white sturgeon eggs or larvae produced in a river, the fact that over 41,000 hours of sampling (combined gear) collected only 3 white sturgeon eggs and no larvae suggests that spawning conditions during 1993 were inadequate to benefit this population.

  13. Columbia River Coordinated Information System (CIS); Phase II Cooperative Agreement, 1992 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Roger, Phillip B.

    1993-05-01

    Anadromous salmon in the Columbia River Basin are presently far below historic level of production, due to the impacts of development in the basin. To halt the downward trend in production and ultimately increase returns, the Northwest Power Planning Council developed the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. The Program outlines a coordinated plan for restoring anadromous salmonid runs to the basin. The goals and objectives outlined in the Program require addressing a complex set of problems that encompass a broad range of social, political, economic and biological issues. Resolution of these problems will require the efforts of a number of federal, state, and tribal agencies that have regulatory authority over activities that either directly or indirectly affect anadromous salmonids in the basin. Resource managers have realized the need for coordination in these efforts. The Coordinated Information System is designed to share information critical to Program development and evaluation efficiently among the numerous participants in the restoration process.

  14. Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program Annual Implementation Work Plan for Fiscal Year 1993.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Northwest Power Planning Council; Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority

    1992-09-01

    The Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (Program) was developed by the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) in accordance with Public Law 96-501, the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act (Act). The purpose of the Program is to guide the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and other Federal agencies in carrying out their responsibilities to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife of the Columbia River Basin. The Annual Implementation World Plan (AIWP) presents BPA`s plans for implementing the Program during fiscal year (FY) 1993. The FY 1993 AIWP emphasizes continuation of 143 ongoing or projecting ongoing Program projects, tasks, or task orders, most of which involve protection, mitigation, or enhancement of anadromous fishery resources. The FY 1993 AIWP also contains three new Program projects or tasks that are planned to start in FY 1993.

  15. Thiaminase activity and life history investigations in American Shad in the Columbia river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wetzel, Lisa A.; Parsley, Michael J; van der Leeuw, Bjorn K.; Larsen, Kimberly A.

    2011-01-01

    American shad Alosa sapidissima fry were successfully transplanted from the Atlantic to the Pacific coast in 1871 and have subsequently proliferated. The Columbia River population is in the millions, yet few investigations have been conducted to better understand their life history, population dynamics, or potential impacts on other species. In 2007 and 2008 we captured American shad from the Columbia River to assess levels of thiaminase activity and to characterize some aspects of American shad life history. Thiaminase levels in age-0 and adult fish were high and ranged from 4,113-20,874 pmol/g/min. Ages of spawning American shad ranged from 3-7 years and iteroparity was approximately 33-36% in the spawning population. Males were typically younger and smaller and had a higher degree of iteroparity than females

  16. Interim Columbia and Snake rivers flow improvement measures for salmon: Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    Public comments are sought on this final SEIS, which supplements the 1992 Columbia River Salmon Flow Measures Options Analysis (OA)/Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). The Corps of Engineers, in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration and the Bureau of Reclamation proposes five alternatives to improve flows of water in the lower Columbia-Snake rivers in 1993 and future years to assist the migration of juvenile and adult anadromous fish past eight hydropower dams. These are: (1) Without Project (no action) Alternative, (2) the 1992 Operation, (3) the 1992 Operation with Libby/Hungry Horse Sensitivity, (4) a Modified 1992 Operation with Improvements to Salmon Flows from Dworshak, and (5) a Modified 1992 Operation with Upper Snake Sensitivity. Alternative 4, Modified 1992 Operations, has been identified as the preferred alternative.

  17. Sediment-quality assessment of Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake and the upstream reach of the Columbia River, Washington, 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bortleson, Gilbert Carl; Cox, S.E.; Munn, M.D.; Schumaker, R.J.; Block, E.K.

    2001-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of trace elements were found in bed sediment of Lake Roosevelt and the Columbia River, its principal source of inflow. Trace-element concentrations in whole water samples did not exceed criteria for freshwater organisms. Bed sediments of Lake Roosevelt were analyzed for organic compounds associated with wood-pulp waste. Dioxins and furans were found in suspended sediment and water of the Columbia River. Abundance and diversity of benthic invertebrate communities were analyzed.

  18. Radionuclide releases to the Columbia River from Hanford Operations, 1944--1971. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Heeb, C.M.; Bates, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate the radiation dose that individuals could have received as a result of radionuclide emissions since 1944 from the Hanford Site. One source of radionuclide releases to the Columbia River was from production reactor operations. This report provides a quantitative estimate of the amount of radioactivity released each month (1944--1971) to the Columbia River from eleven radionuclides as well as from gross beta activity.

  19. Radionuclide releases to the Columbia River from Hanford Operations, 1944--1971. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Heeb, C.M.; Bates, D.J.

    1994-05-01

    The purpose of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate the radiation dose that individuals could have received as a result of radionuclide emissions since 1944 from the Hanford Site. One source of radionuclide releases to the Columbia River was from production reactor operations. This report provides a quantitative estimate of the amount of radioactivity released each month (1944--1971) to the Columbia River from eleven radionuclides as well as from gross beta activity.

  20. Data Summary Report for teh Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River, Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Hulstrom, L.

    2011-02-07

    This data summary report summarizes the investigation results to evaluate the nature and distribution of Hanford Site-related contaminants present in the Columbia River. As detailed in DOE/RL-2008-11, more than 2,000 environmental samples were collected from the Columbia River between 2008 and 2010. These samples consisted of island soil, sediment, surface water, groundwater upwelling (pore water, surface water, and sediment), and fish tissue.

  1. Environmental monitoring at Hanford for 1987: Surface and Columbia River data

    SciTech Connect

    Jaquish, R.E.

    1988-08-01

    Environmental monitoring at the Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State is conducted for the US Department of Energy. The data collected provide a historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels attributable to natural causes, worldwide fallout, and Hanford operations. Data are also collected to monitor the status of chemicals on the site and in the Columbia River. This volume contains the actual raw data used to create the summaries in PNL--6464.

  2. Multi-Scale Action Effectiveness Research in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Sather, Nichole K.; Storch, Adam; Johnson, Jeff; Skalski, J. R.; Teel, D. J.; Brewer, Taylor; Bryson, Amanda J.; Dawley, Earl M.; Kuligowski, D. R.; Whitesel, T.; Mallette, Christine

    2013-11-30

    The study reported herein was conducted for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE) by researchers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), University of Washington (UW), and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). The goal of the study was to evaluate the ecological benefits of restoration actions for juvenile salmon in the lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE; rkm 0–234).

  3. SUPPLEMENTAL COLUMBIA RIVER PROTECTION ACTIVITIES AT THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY HANFORD SITE: 2006 TECHNICAL PEER REVIEW

    SciTech Connect

    Looney, B; Dawn Kaback; Gene Leboeuf; Jason Mulvihill-Kuntz; Lynn Lefkoff

    2006-12-20

    Prompted by a $10 million Congressional allocation to identify supplemental actions to protect the Columbia River from groundwater contamination beneath the Hanford Reservation, the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) Office of Clean-up Technology identified twenty-three potential technical projects and then down-selected ten of these for further evaluation. An independent expert peer review was conducted for the ten down-selected proposals. The review panel consisted of twenty-three recognized subject matter experts that broadly represented academia, industry, and federal laboratories. Of the initial ten proposals reviewed, one was given unconditional support, six were given conditional support, and three were not supported as proposed. Three additional proposals were then submitted by DOE for review--these proposals were structured, in part, to respond to the initial round of technical peer review comments. Peer reviews of these additional proposals provided conditional support. For those proposals that received conditional support, DOE requested specific implementation and work plans and assessed whether the plans adequately addressed the technical conditions identified by the review panel. The final list of technology proposals receiving support, or conditional support, primarily focused on understanding and reducing the potential impacts of uranium, chromium, and strontium from facilities adjacent to the Columbia River, with a secondary focus on understanding and limiting the future Columbia River impacts from the large carbon tetrachloride groundwater plume underlying and downgradient of the Hanford Central Plateau facilities. The results and recommendations of the peer reviews informed the final DOE project selections and supported implementation of the selected projects to protect the Columbia River and address groundwater contamination at Hanford.

  4. Climate-change scenario for the Columbia River basin. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, S.A.

    1997-04-01

    This work describes the method used to generate a climate-change scenario for the Columbia River basin. The scenario considers climate patterns that may change if the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2), or its greenhouse gas equivalent, were to double over pre-Industrial Revolution values. A composite approach was taken to generate a climate scenario that considers knowledge of current regional climate controls, available output from general circulation and regional climate models, and observed changes in climate.

  5. Large-scale coastal change in the Columbia River littoral cell: an overview

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gelfenbaum, Guy; Kaminsky, George M.

    2010-01-01

    This overview introduces large-scale coastal change in the Columbia River littoral cell (CRLC). Covering 165 km of the southwest Washington and northwest Oregon coasts, the littoral cell is made up of wide low-sloping dissipative beaches, broad coastal dunes and barrier plains, three large estuaries, and is bounded by rocky headlands. The beaches and inner shelf are composed of fine-grained sand from the Columbia River and are exposed to a high-energy winter wave climate. Throughout the Holocene, the CRLC has undergone large fluctuations in shoreline change trends, responding to a variety of coastal change drivers, including changing rates of sea-level rise, infrequent, yet catastrophic, co-seismic subsidence events, a large regional sediment supply, inter-annual climatic fluctuations (El Niño cycles), seasonally varying wave climate, and numerous anthropogenic influences. Human influences on the CRLC include construction of over 200 dams in the Columbia River drainage basin, dredging of navigation channels removing sand to upland sites and offshore deep-water sites, and construction of large inlet jetties at the entrances to the Columbia River and Grays Harbor. The construction of these massive entrance jetties at the end of the 19th century has been the dominant driver of coastal change through most of the littoral cell over the last hundred years. Presently, some beaches in the littoral cell are eroding in response to nearshore sediment deficits resulting from a) ebb-jets of the confined entrances pushing the previously large, shallow ebb-tidal deltas offshore into deeper water, and b) waves dispersing the nearshore delta flanks initially onshore and then alongshore away from the jetties. This overview describes 1) the motivation for developing a system-wide understanding of sediment dynamics in the littoral cell at multiple time and space scales, 2) the formation and approach of the Southwest Washington Coastal Erosion Study, and 3) an introduction to the

  6. Columbia River : Select Area Fishery Evaluation project : 1995-96 Annual Reports.

    SciTech Connect

    Hirose, Paul; Miller, Marc; Hill, Jim

    1998-06-01

    Water quality monitoring was conducted from November 1994 through October 1996 at five Oregon and three Washington select area study sites in the lower Columbia River. Physicochemical monitoring and aquatic biomonitoring programs were established to profile baseline parameters at each study site and document differences between study sites. Data collected at study sites where fish rearing operations were initiated indicate a potential negative impact on the surrounding benthic invertebrate communities.

  7. Habitat Evaluation and Monitoring in the Columbia River Basin, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Everson, Larry B.; Campbell, Charles J.; Craven, Richard E.; Welsh, Thomas L.

    1986-12-01

    The law established the Northwest Power Planning Council to prepare and adopt a regional conservation and electric power plan, and a program to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife. The objectives are the development of regional plans and programs related to energy conservation, renewable resources, other resources, and protecting mitigating, and enhancing fish and wildlife resources and to protect, mitigate, and enhance the fish and wildlife, including related spawning grounds and habitat, of the Columbia River and its tributaries. 4 refs.

  8. Data for the screening assessment. Volume 1: Text, Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Miley, T.B.; O`Neil, T.K.; Gilbert, R.O.; Klevgard, L.A.; Walters, T.B.

    1996-06-01

    The Columbia River is a critical resource for residents of the Pacific Northwest. This resource drew the Manhattan Project`s planners to the site now called Hanford to produce nuclear weapon materials. Production of those materials has left behind a legacy of chemical and radioactive contamination and materials that have, are, and will continue to pose a threat to the Columbia river for the foreseeable future. To evaluate the impact to the river from this Hanford-derived contamination, the US Department of Energy, US Environmental Protection Agency, and State of Washington Department of Ecology (the Tri-Party agencies) initiated a study referred to as the Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment (CRCIA). To address concerns about the scope and direction of CRCIA as well as enhance regulator, stakeholder, tribal, and public involvement, the CRCIA Management Team was formed in August 1995. A major CRCIA Team decision was to organize CRCIA into phases, with additional phases to be identified as warranted after completion of the initial phase. The initial phase is comprised of two parts: (1) a screening assessment to evaluate the current impact to the river resulting from Hanford-derived contamination and (2) identification of requirements considered necessary by the CRCIA Management Team for a comprehensive assessment of impact to the river. The purpose of the screening assessment is to support cleanup decisions. The scope of the screening assessment is to evaluate the current risk to humans and the environment resulting from Hanford-derived contaminants. The screening assessment has the primary components of: identifying contaminants to be assessed; identifying a variety of exposure scenarios to evaluate human contaminant exposure; identifying a variety of other species to evaluate ecological contaminant exposure; and assessing risks posed by exposure of humans and other species to the contaminants.

  9. A lithospheric instability origin for Columbia River flood basalts and Wallowa Mountains uplift in northeast Oregon.

    PubMed

    Hales, T C; Abt, D L; Humphreys, E D; Roering, J J

    2005-12-01

    Flood basalts appear to form during the initiation of hotspot magmatism. The Columbia River basalts (CRB) represent the largest volume of flood basalts associated with the Yellowstone hotspot, yet their source appears to be in the vicinity of the Wallowa Mountains, about 500 km north of the projected hotspot track. These mountains are composed of a large granitic pluton intruded into a region of oceanic lithosphere affinity. The elevation of the interface between Columbia River basalts and other geological formations indicates that mild pre-eruptive subsidence took place in the Wallowa Mountains, followed by syn-eruptive uplift of several hundred metres and a long-term uplift of about 2 km. The mapped surface uplift mimics regional topography, with the Wallowa Mountains in the centre of a 'bull's eye' pattern of valleys and low-elevation mountains. Here we present the seismic velocity structure of the mantle underlying this region and erosion-corrected elevation maps of lava flows, and show that an area of reduced mantle melt content coincides with the 200-km-wide topographic uplift. We conclude that convective downwelling and detachment of a compositionally dense plutonic root can explain the timing and magnitude of Columbia River basalt magmatism, as well as the surface uplift and existence of the observed melt-depleted mantle.

  10. Gas bubble disease in smallmouth bass and northern squawfish from the Snake and Columbia Rivers

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, J.C.; Becker, C.D.

    1980-11-01

    In 1975 and 1976, 179 smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui) and 85 northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) were collected by angling from the lower Snake and mid-Columbia rivers, southeastern Washington. All fish were examined externally for gas bubble syndrome. Emboli were found beneath membranes of the opercula, body, and fins of 72% of the smallmouth bass and 84% of the northern squawfish. Hemorrhage was also noted on the caudal, anal, and pectoral fins of several smallmouth bass. Presence of gas bubble syndrome corresponded to the spring runoff when total dissolved gas supersaturations in river water exceeded 115%.

  11. Environmental monitoring of Columbia River sediments: Grain-size distribution and contaminant association

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, M.L.; Gardiner, W.W.; Dirkes, R.L.

    1995-04-01

    Based on the results of this study and literature review, the following conclusions can be made: Sediment grain size and TOC (total organic carbon) influence contaminant fate and transport (in general, sediments with higher TOC content and finer grain-size distribution can have higher contaminant burdens than sediments from a given river section that have less TOC and greater amounts of coarse-grained sediments). Physiochemical sediment characteristics are highly variable among monitoring sites along the Columbia River. Sediment grain characterization and TOC analysis should be included in interpretations of sediment-monitoring data.

  12. The acoustic streamflow-measuring system on the Columbia River at The Dalles, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Winchell; Hubbard, Larry L.; Laenen, Antonius

    1971-01-01

    Installation of this sytem, which is the first application of an AVM (acoustic velocity meter) in a large natural channel, was completed in April 1969. It has been in continuous operation since that date. Performance has been satisfactory, and similar installations at other key points in the Columbia River basin are now under consideration. This paper covers the general theory behind acoustic velocity meters, tracing development from earlier concepts to the present commercially available system. Conclusions are that the AVM can now be considered as an operational instrument which permits accurate gaging of river discharge at many sites where conventional stream-gaging procedures have proved to be unreliable.

  13. Diet of juvenile and adult American Shad in the Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauter, Sally T.; Blubaugh, J; Parsley, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    The diet of juvenile and adult American shad Alosa sapidissima captured from various locations in the Columbia River was investigated during 2007 and 2008. Collection efforts in 2007 were restricted to fish collected from existing adult and juvenile fish collection facilities located at Bonneville Dam and to adult shad captured by angling downstream from Bonneville Dam. In 2008, we used gillnets, electrofishing, beach seining, or cast nets to collect juvenile and adult shad from the saline estuary near Astoria (approximately river km 24) to just upstream from McNary Dam (approximately river km 472). We examined the stomach contents of 436 American shad captured in 2007 and 1,272 captured in 2008. Fish caught within the river were much more likely to contain food items than fish removed from fish collection facilities.


    The diet of age-0 American shad varied spatially and temporally, but was comprised primarily of crustaceans and insects. Prey diversity of age-0 American shad, as assessed by the Shannon Diversity Index, increased with decreasing distance to the estuary. Pre- and partial-spawn American shad primarily consumed Corophium spp. throughout the Columbia River; however, post-spawn adults primarily consumed gastropods upstream of McNary Dam

  14. Total dissolved gas, barometric pressure, and water temperature data, lower Columbia River, Oregon and Washington, 1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanner, Dwight Q.; Harrison, Howard E.; McKenzie, Stuart W.

    1996-01-01

    Increased levels of total dissolved gas pressure can cause gas-bubble trauma in fish downstream from dams on the Columbia River. In cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the U.S. Geological Survey collected data on total dissolved gas pressure, barometric pressure, water temperature, and dissolved oxygen pressure at 11 stations on the lower Columbia River from the John Day forebay (river mile 215.6) to Wauna Mill (river mile 41.9) from March to September 1996. Methods of data collection, review, and processing are described in this report. Summaries of daily minimum, maximum, and mean hourly values are presented for total dissolved gas pressure, barometric pressure, and water temperature. Hourly values for these parameters are presented graphically. Dissolved oxygen data are not presented in this report because the quality-control data show that the data have poor precision and high bias. Suggested changes to monitoring procedures for future studies include (1) improved calibration procedures for total dissolved gas and dissolved oxygen to better define accuracy at elevated levels of supersaturation and (2) equipping dissolved oxygen sensors with stirrers because river velocities at the shoreline monitoring stations probably cannot maintain an adequate flow of water across the membrane surface of the dissolved oxygen sensor.

  15. Stock Identification of Columbia River Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout, 1986 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Schreck, Carl B.; Li, Hiran W.; Hjort, Randy C.

    1986-08-01

    For the first time genetic similarities among chinook salmon and among steelhead trout stocks of the Columbia River were determined using a holistic approach including analysis of life history, biochemical, body shape and meristic characters. We examined between year differences for each of the stock characteristics and we also correlated the habitat characteristics with the wild stock characteristics. The most important principle for managing stocks of Columbia River chinook salmon and steelhead trout is that geographically proximal stocks tend to be like each other. Run timing and similarity of the stream systems should be taken into account when managing stocks. There are similarities in the classifications derived for chinook salmon and steelhead trout. Steelhead trout or chinook salmon tend to be genetically similar to other steelhead or chinook stocks, respectively, that originate from natal streams that are geographically close, regardless of time of freshwater entry. The primary exception Lo this trend is between stocks of spring and fall chinook in the upper Columbia River where fish with the different run timings are dissimilar, though geographically proximate stocks within a run form are generally very similar. Spring chinook stocks have stronger affinities to other spring chinook stocks that originate in the same side of the Cascade Range than to these Spring chinook stock: spawned on the other side of the Cascade Range. Spring chinook from west of the Cascades are more closely related to fall chinook than they are to spring chinook from east of the Cascades. Summer chinook can be divided into two main groups: (1) populations in the upper Columbia River that smolt as subyearlings and fall chinook stocks; and (2) summer chinook stocks from the Salmon River, Idaho, which smolt as yearlings and are similar to spring chinook stocks from Idaho. Fall chinook appear to comprise one large diverse group that is not easily subdivided into smaller subgroups. In

  16. Total Dissolved Gas Effects on Fishes of the Lower Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    McGrath, Kathy E.; Dawley, Earl; Geist, David R.

    2006-03-31

    Gas supersaturation problems generated by spill from dams on the Columbia River were first identified in the 1960s. Since that time, considerable research has been conducted on effects of gas supersaturation on aquatic life, primarily juvenile salmonids. Also since that time, modifications to dam structures and operations have reduced supersaturated gas levels produced by the dams. The limit for total dissolved gas saturation (TDGS) as mandated by current Environmental Protection Agency water quality standards is 110%. State management agencies issue limited waivers to water quality, allowing production of levels of up to 120% TDGS to facilitate the downstream migration of juvenile salmonids. Recently, gas supersaturation as a water quality issue has resurfaced as concerns have grown regarding chronic effects of spill-related total dissolved gas on salmonids, including incubating embryos and larvae, resident fish species, and other aquatic organisms. Because of current concerns, and because the last comprehensive review of research on supersaturation effects on fishes was conducted in 1997, we reviewed recent supersaturation literature to identify new or ongoing issues that may not be adequately addressed by the current 110% TDGS limit and the 120% TDGS water quality waiver. We found that recent work supports older research indicating that short-term exposure to levels up to 120% TDGS does not produce acute effects on migratory juvenile or adult salmonids when compensating depths are available. Monitoring programs at Snake and Columbia river dams from 1995 to the early 2000s documented a low incidence of significant gas bubble disease or mortality in Columbia River salmonids, resident fishes, or other taxa. We did, however, identify five areas of concern in which total dissolved gas levels lower than water quality limits may produce sublethal effects on fishes of the Columbia River. These areas of concern are 1) sensitive and vulnerable species or life stages, 2

  17. Ground water flow velocity in the bank of the Columbia River, Hanford, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Ballard, S.

    1995-12-01

    To properly characterize the transport of contaminants from the sediments beneath the Hanford Site into the Columbia River, a suite of In Situ Permeable Flow Sensors was deployed to accurately characterize the hydrologic regime in the banks of the river. The three dimensional flow velocity was recorded on an hourly basis from mid May to mid July, 1994 and for one week in September. The first data collection interval coincided with the seasonal high water level in the river while the second interval reflected conditions during relatively low seasonal river stage. Two flow sensors located approximately 50 feet from the river recorded flow directions which correlated very well with river stage, both on seasonal and diurnal time scales. During time intervals characterized by falling river stage, the flow sensors recorded flow toward the river while flow away from the river was recorded during times of rising river stage. The flow sensor near the river in the Hanford Formation recorded a component of flow oriented vertically downward, probably reflecting the details of the hydrostratigraphy in close proximity to the probe. The flow sensor near the river in the Ringold Formation recorded an upward component of flow which dominated the horizontal components most of the time. The upward flow in the Ringold probably reflects regional groundwater flow into the river. The magnitudes of the flow velocities recorded by the flow sensors were lower than expected, probably as a result of drilling induced disturbance of the hydraulic properties of the sediments around the probes. The probes were installed with resonant sonic drilling which may have compacted the sediments immediately surrounding the probes, thereby reducing the hydraulic conductivity adjacent to the probes and diverting the groundwater flow away from the sensors.

  18. Evaluation of the Contribution of Chinook Salmon Reared at Columbia River Hatcheries to the Pacific Salmon Fisheries, 1986 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Vreeland, Robert R.

    1986-12-01

    FY 1986 was the eighth year of a study to determine the distribution, contribution, and value of artificially propagated fall chinook on the Columbia River. Tagging of hatchery fall chinook was completed in FY81. Sampling of sport and commercial marine fisheries from Alaska through California, Columbia River fisheries, and Columbia River hatcheries and adjacent streams occurred in 1986 as planned. Catches and returns of one brood year tagged for this study (1981) could have occurred in 1986. Returns of fall chinook to Columbia River facilities as of December 1, 1986 are 108,154. This return is already the fourth largest of the past seven years. Several facilities (Cowlitz, Grays River, and Washougal) are having the greatest returns since inception of the study. However, Spring Creek and Lewis River hatcheries are having the smallest return. Estimated Catches of coded wire tagged salmonids are available through 1984 for all fisheries except Alaska in 1981 and Washington in 1984. Catch proportions by fishery for the 1978 brood are .01, .39, .34, .07, 0, and .19 for the Alaska, Canada, Washington, Oregon, California, and Columbia River fisheries respectively. Catch proportions for the 1979 brood are similar to those for the 1978 brood (.03, .33, .37, .05, .01, and . 21) for the same fisheries respectively. The proportion of recoveries for the four age groups of 1978-brood fish caught are .07, .69, .23, .01 for the two-through five-year-old chinook respectively.

  19. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations and Experimental Culture, 1988-1989 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Apperson, Kimberly A.; Anders, Paul J.

    1990-06-01

    The population of white sturgeon in the Kootenai River has continued to decline since 1983, in spite of a closure to harvest in the U.S. section of the river. Setline and angling techniques were used to sample 228 sturgeon from the river between Kootenai Falls and Kootenay Lake during 1989. Sturgeon were found in Montana within 4 km of Kootenai Falls and downstream from Bonners Ferry, Idaho to Kootenay Lake, British Columbia. Our data indicate there is a complete lack of recruitment of juveniles into the population. The youngest fish sampled was of the 1977 year class, and the population is estimated at 850 individuals with 95% confidence intervals of 574 to 1,463. At present, we do not understand what mechanisms are limiting recruitment. Over the past 70 years, the lower Kootenai River has been extensively diked for flood control, effectively eliminating backwater and slough areas that may have provided juvenile rearing habitat: Contaminants have entered the river system via mining operations and agricultural practices. In 1972, Libby Dam began operation, reversing the natural flow regime of the river, and releasing frequent power peaking flows. Of 179 fish that were surgically sexed, 37% were female and 35% were male. Thirty-four percent of the females held developing oocytes. All oocyte samples from nine females contained copper (1.18 to 2.50 {micro}g/g) and zinc (15.6 to 32.8 {micro}g/g). Most samples also contained organochloride residues such as DDT, DDD, DDE, and PCBs (0.215 to 1.080 {micro}g/g, combined). River sediment samples contained 1.62 to 12.8 {micro}g/g copper and 22.4 to 70.6 {micro}g/g zinc, but no organochloride residues. Electrophoretic analysis of muscle samples indicated reduced heterogeneity compared with lower basin white sturgeon and showed a significantly different degree of variation between the two stocks in seven enzyme systems. An ongoing sonic telemetry study has revealed definite long distance movements in response to water flow

  20. Environmental data for calendar year 1992: Surface and Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.; Woodruff, R.K.

    1993-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory publishes an annual environmental report for the Hanford Site each calendar year. The Hanford Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1992 describes the Site mission and activities, general environmental features, radiological and chemical releases from operations, status of compliance with environmental regulations, status of programs to accomplish compliance, and environmental monitoring activities and results. The report includes a summary of offsite and onsite environmental monitoring data collected during 1992 by PNL`s Environmental Monitoring Program. Appendix A of that report contains data summaries created from raw surface and river monitoring data. This volume contains the actual raw data used to create the summaries. Ground-water monitoring data are available in a separate volume (Hanford Site Environmental Data for Calendar Year 1992--Ground Water).

  1. Reconstructions of Columbia River streamflow from tree-ring chronologies in the Pacific Northwest, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Littell, Jeremy; Pederson, Gregory T.; Gray, Stephen T.; Tjoelker, Michael; Hamlet, Alan F.; Woodhouse, Connie A.

    2016-01-01

    We developed Columbia River streamflow reconstructions using a network of existing, new, and updated tree-ring records sensitive to the main climatic factors governing discharge. Reconstruction quality is enhanced by incorporating tree-ring chronologies where high snowpack limits growth, which better represent the contribution of cool-season precipitation to flow than chronologies from trees positively sensitive to hydroclimate alone. The best performing reconstruction (back to 1609 CE) explains 59% of the historical variability and the longest reconstruction (back to 1502 CE) explains 52% of the variability. Droughts similar to the high-intensity, long-duration low flows observed during the 1920s and 1940s are rare, but occurred in the early 1500s and 1630s-1640s. The lowest Columbia flow events appear to be reflected in chronologies both positively and negatively related to streamflow, implying low snowpack and possibly low warm-season precipitation. High flows of magnitudes observed in the instrumental record appear to have been relatively common, and high flows from the 1680s to 1740s exceeded the magnitude and duration of observed wet periods in the late-19th and 20th Century. Comparisons between the Columbia River reconstructions and future projections of streamflow derived from global climate and hydrologic models show the potential for increased hydrologic variability, which could present challenges for managing water in the face of competing demands

  2. Screening assessment and requirements for a comprehensive assessment: Volume 1, Draft. Columbia River comprehensive impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    To evaluate the impact to the Columbia River from the Hanford Site-derived contaminants, the U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and Washington State Department of Ecology initiated a study referred to as the Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment (CRCIA). To address concerns about the scope and direction of CRCIA as well as enhance regulator, tribal, stockholder, and public involvement, the CRCIA Management Team was formed in August 1995. The Team agreed to conduct CRCIA using a phased approach. The initial phase, includes two components: 1) a screening assessment to evaluate the potential impact to the river, resulting from current levels of Hanford-derived contaminants in order to support decisions on Interim Remedial Measures, and 2) a definition of the essential work remaining to provide an acceptable comprehensive river impact assessment. The screening assessment is described in Part I of this report. The essential work remaining is Part II of this report. The objective of the screening assessment is to identify areas where the greatest potential exists for adverse effects on humans or the environment. Part I of this report discusses the scope, technical approach, and results of the screening assessment. Part II defines a new paradigm for predecisional participation by those affected by Hanford cleanup decisions.

  3. Factors affecting stranding of juvenile salmonids by wakes from ship passage in the Lower Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, Walter H.; Skalski, John R.

    2011-09-01

    The effects of deep-draft vessel traffic in confined riverine channels on shorelines and fish are of widespread concern. In the Pacific Northwest of the United States, wakes and subsequent beach run-up from ships transiting the Lower Columbia River have been observed to strand juvenile salmon and other fish. As part of a before-and-after study to assess stranding effects that may be associated with channel deepening, we measured 19 co-variables from observations of 126 vessel passages at three low-slope beaches and used multiple logistic regression to discern the significant factors influencing the frequency of stranding. Subyearling Chinook salmon were 82% of the fish stranded over all sites and seasons. Given a low-slope beach, stranding frequencies for juvenile salmon were significantly related to river location, salmon density in the shallows, a proxy for ship kinetic energy, tidal height, and two interactions. The beach types selected for our study do not include all the beach types along the Lower Columbia River so that the stranding probabilities described here cannot be extrapolated river-wide. A more sophisticated modeling effort, informed by additional field data, is needed to assess salmon losses by stranding for the entire lower river. Such modeling needs to include river-scale factors such as beach type, berms, proximity to navigation channel, and perhaps, proximity to tributaries that act as sources of out-migrating juvenile salmon. At both river and beach scales, no one factor produces stranding; rather interactions among several conditions produce a stranding event and give stranding its episodic nature.

  4. Physicochemical Characteristics of the Hyporheic Zone Affect Redd Site Selection of Chum and Fall Chinook Salmon, Columbia River.

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David R.

    2001-10-01

    Chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) may historically have been the most abundant species of Columbia River salmon, contributing as much as 50% of the total biomass of all salmon in the Pacific Ocean prior to the 1940's (Neave 1961). By the 1950's, however, run sizes to the Columbia River dropped dramatically and in 1999 the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) listed Columbia River chum salmon as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA; NMFS 1999). Habitat degradation, water diversions, harvest, and artificial propagation are the major human-induced factors that have contributed to the species decline (NMFS 1998). Columbia River chum salmon spawn exclusively in the lower river below Bonneville Dam, including an area near Ives Island. The Ives Island chum salmon are part of the Columbia River evolutionary significant unit (ESU) for this species, and are included in the ESA listing. In addition to chum salmon, fall chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) also spawn at Ives Island. Spawning surveys conducted at Ives Island over the last several years show that chum and fall chinook salmon spawned in clusters in different locations (US Fish and Wildlife Service and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, unpublished data). The presence of redd clusters suggested that fish were selecting specific habitat features within the study area (Geist and Dauble 1998). Understanding the specific features of these spawning areas is needed to quantify the amount of habitat available to each species so that minimum flows can be set to protect fish and maintain high quality habitat.

  5. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary, Annual Report 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Thom, Ronald M.; Borde, Amy B.; Roegner, G. C.; Whiting, Allan H.; Johnson, Gary E.; Dawley, Earl; Skalski, John R.; Vavrinec, John; Ebberts, Blaine D.

    2006-12-20

    This report is the second annual report of a six-year project to evaluate the cumulative effects of habitat restoration projects in the Columbia River Estuary, conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Marine Sciences Laboratory, NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service Pt. Adams Biological Field Station, and the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce for the US Army Corps of Engineers. In 2005, baseline data were collected on two restoration sites and two associated reference sites in the Columbia River estuary. The sites represent two habitat types of the estuary--brackish marsh and freshwater swamp--that have sustained substantial losses in area and that may play important roles for salmonids. Baseline data collected included vegetation and elevation surveys, above and below-ground biomass, water depth and temperature, nutrient flux, fish species composition, and channel geometry. Following baseline data collection, three kinds of restoration actions for hydrological reconnection were implemented in several locations on the sites: tidegate replacements (2) at Vera Slough, near the city of Astoria in Oregon State, and culvert replacements (2) and dike breaches (3) at Kandoll Farm in the Grays River watershed in Washington State. Limited post-restoration data were collected: photo points, nutrient flux, water depth and temperature, and channel cross-sections. In subsequent work, this and additional post-restoration data will be used in conjunction with data from other sites to estimate net effects of hydrological reconnection restoration projects throughout the estuary. This project is establishing methods for evaluating the effectiveness of individual projects and a framework for assessing estuary-wide cumulative effects including a protocol manual for monitoring restoration and reference sites.

  6. Determining indicator taxa across spatial and seasonal gradients in the Columbia River coastal margin

    PubMed Central

    Fortunato, Caroline S; Eiler, Alexander; Herfort, Lydie; Needoba, Joseph A; Peterson, Tawnya D; Crump, Byron C

    2013-01-01

    Bacterioplankton communities are deeply diverse and highly variable across space and time, but several recent studies demonstrate repeatable and predictable patterns in this diversity. We expanded on previous studies by determining patterns of variability in both individual taxa and bacterial communities across coastal environmental gradients. We surveyed bacterioplankton diversity across the Columbia River coastal margin, USA, using amplicon pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes from 596 water samples collected from 2007 to 2010. Our results showed seasonal shifts and annual reassembly of bacterioplankton communities in the freshwater-influenced Columbia River, estuary, and plume, and identified indicator taxa, including species from freshwater SAR11, Oceanospirillales, and Flavobacteria groups, that characterize the changing seasonal conditions in these environments. In the river and estuary, Actinobacteria and Betaproteobacteria indicator taxa correlated strongly with seasonal fluctuations in particulate organic carbon (ρ=−0.664) and residence time (ρ=0.512), respectively. In contrast, seasonal change in communities was not detected in the coastal ocean and varied more with the spatial variability of environmental factors including temperature and dissolved oxygen. Indicator taxa of coastal ocean environments included SAR406 and SUP05 taxa from the deep ocean, and Prochlorococcus and SAR11 taxa from the upper water column. We found that in the Columbia River coastal margin, freshwater-influenced environments were consistent and predictable, whereas coastal ocean community variability was difficult to interpret due to complex physical conditions. This study moves beyond beta-diversity patterns to focus on the occurrence of specific taxa and lends insight into the potential ecological roles these taxa have in coastal ocean environments. PMID:23719153

  7. Influence of multiple dam passage on survival of juvenile Chinook salmon in the Columbia River estuary and coastal ocean.

    PubMed

    Rechisky, Erin L; Welch, David W; Porter, Aswea D; Jacobs-Scott, Melinda C; Winchell, Paul M

    2013-04-23

    Multiple dam passage during seaward migration is thought to reduce the subsequent survival of Snake River Chinook salmon. This hypothesis developed because juvenile Chinook salmon from the Snake River, the Columbia River's largest tributary, migrate >700 km through eight hydropower dams and have lower adult return rates than downstream populations that migrate through only 3 or 4 dams. Using a large-scale telemetry array, we tested whether survival of hatchery-reared juvenile Snake River spring Chinook salmon is reduced in the estuary and coastal ocean relative to a downstream, hatchery-reared population from the Yakima River. During the initial 750-km, 1-mo-long migration through the estuary and coastal ocean, we found no evidence of differential survival; therefore, poorer adult returns of Snake River Chinook may develop far from the Columbia River. Thus, hydrosystem mitigation efforts may be ineffective if differential mortality rates develop in the North Pacific Ocean for reasons unrelated to dam passage.

  8. Influence of multiple dam passage on survival of juvenile Chinook salmon in the Columbia River estuary and coastal ocean.

    PubMed

    Rechisky, Erin L; Welch, David W; Porter, Aswea D; Jacobs-Scott, Melinda C; Winchell, Paul M

    2013-04-23

    Multiple dam passage during seaward migration is thought to reduce the subsequent survival of Snake River Chinook salmon. This hypothesis developed because juvenile Chinook salmon from the Snake River, the Columbia River's largest tributary, migrate >700 km through eight hydropower dams and have lower adult return rates than downstream populations that migrate through only 3 or 4 dams. Using a large-scale telemetry array, we tested whether survival of hatchery-reared juvenile Snake River spring Chinook salmon is reduced in the estuary and coastal ocean relative to a downstream, hatchery-reared population from the Yakima River. During the initial 750-km, 1-mo-long migration through the estuary and coastal ocean, we found no evidence of differential survival; therefore, poorer adult returns of Snake River Chinook may develop far from the Columbia River. Thus, hydrosystem mitigation efforts may be ineffective if differential mortality rates develop in the North Pacific Ocean for reasons unrelated to dam passage. PMID:23576733

  9. 9000 years of salmon fishing on the Columbia River, North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, V.L.; O'Connor, J. E.

    2004-01-01

    A large assemblage of salmon bones excavated 50 yr ago from an ???10,000-yr-old archaeological site near The Dalles, Oregon, USA, has been the primary evidence that early native people along the Columbia River subsisted on salmon. Recent debate about the human role in creating the deposit prompted excavation of additional deposits and analysis of archaeologic, geologic, and hydrologic conditions at the site. Results indicate an anthropogenic source for most of the salmonid remains, which have associated radiocarbon dates indicating that the site was occupied as long ago as 9300 cal yr B.P. The abundance of salmon bone indicates that salmon was a major food item and suggests that migratory salmonids had well-established spawning populations in some parts of the Columbia Basin by 9300-8200 yr ago. ?? 2004 University of Washington. All rights reserved.

  10. Late Pleistocene and Holocene-Age Columbia River Sediments and Bedforms: Hanford Reach Area, Washington - Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    K.R. Fecht, T.E. Marceau

    2006-03-28

    This report presents the results of a geologic study conducted on the lower slopes of the Columbia River Valley in south-central Washington. The study was designed to investigate glaciofluvial and fluvial sediments and bedforms that are present in the river valley and formed subsequent to Pleistocene large-scale cataclysmic flooding of the region.

  11. Epidemiology and Control of Infectious Diseases of Salmonids in the Columbia River Basin, 1983 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Fryer, John L.

    1984-11-01

    The Department of Microbiology at Oregon State University with funding from the Bonneville Power Administration conducted a study relating to the epidemiology and control of three fish diseases of salmonids in the Columbia River Basin. These three diseases were ceratomyxosis which is caused by the myxosporidan parasite Ceratomyxa shasta, bacterial kidney disease, the etiological agent of which is Renibacterium salmoninarum, and infectious hematopoietic necrosis, which is caused by a rhabdovirus. Each of these diseases is highly destructive and difficult or impossible to treat with antimicrobial agents. The presence of ceratomyxosis in rainbow trout exposed at McNary and Little Goose Dams extends the range of this disease about 200 miles further up the Columbia River and into the Snake River drainage. Wallowa steelhead trout were less resistant to this disease than other upriver stocks tested. Juvenile salmonids entering the Columbia River estuary were collected periodically between May to September, 1983. Nine percent of the beach seined chinook salmon and 5, 11 and 12%, respectively, of the purse seined coho and chinook salmon and steelhead trout were infected with Ceratomyxa shasta. Experiments indicated ceratomyxosis progresses in salt water at the same rate as in fresh water once the fish have become infected. These data indicate a longer exposure to infective stages of C. shasta than previously identified and that approximately 10% of the migrating salmonids are infected and will probably die from this organism after entering salt water. Since sampling began in 1981 the bacterial kidney disease organism, Renibacterium salmoninarum, has been detected by the fluorescent antibody test in seven salmonid species caught in the open ocean off the coasts of Washington and Oregon. The bacterium has been found primarily in chinook salmon (11%) with lesions in 2.5% of these fish. This disease was also detected at levels ranging from 17% in coho salmon to 25% in chinook

  12. Response of winter birds to soil remediation along the Columbia River at the Hanford Site.

    PubMed

    Becker, J M; McKinstry, C A

    2004-01-01

    The Columbia River at the Hanford Site, located in south-central Washington State, U.S.A., is a regionally important refugium for overwintering birds. Some of the river shoreline has been designated by the U.S. Department of Energy for environmental clean-up following past production of materials for nuclear weapons. We evaluated the effects of soil remediation on winter birds at six inactive nuclear reactor areas. Remediation activities consisted of daily excavation and removal of approximately 1035 t of contaminated soil from previously herbicided and denuded areas located between 30 and 400 m and mostly in line-of-sight of the river shoreline. Remediation activities had no apparent effect on numbers of riverine or terrestrial birds using adjacent undisturbed shoreline and riparian habitat. PMID:15074620

  13. Response of winter birds to soil remediation along the Columbia River at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, James M.; McKinstry, Craig A.

    2004-04-01

    The Columbia River at the Hanford Site, located in south-central Washington State, USA, is a regionally important refugium for overwintering birds. Some of the river shoreline has been designated by the U.S. Department of Energy for environmental clean-up following past production of materials for nuclear weapons. We evaluated the effects of soil remediation on winter birds at six inactive nuclear reactor areas. Remediation activities consisted of daily excavation and removal of approximately 1,035 t of contaminated soil from previously herbicided and denuded areas located between 30 m and 400 m and mostly in line-of-sight of the river shoreline. Remediation activities had no apparent effect on numbers of riverine or terrestrial birds using adjacent undisturbed shoreline and riparian habitat.

  14. Response of winter birds to soil remediation along the Columbia River at the Hanford Site.

    PubMed

    Becker, J M; McKinstry, C A

    2004-01-01

    The Columbia River at the Hanford Site, located in south-central Washington State, U.S.A., is a regionally important refugium for overwintering birds. Some of the river shoreline has been designated by the U.S. Department of Energy for environmental clean-up following past production of materials for nuclear weapons. We evaluated the effects of soil remediation on winter birds at six inactive nuclear reactor areas. Remediation activities consisted of daily excavation and removal of approximately 1035 t of contaminated soil from previously herbicided and denuded areas located between 30 and 400 m and mostly in line-of-sight of the river shoreline. Remediation activities had no apparent effect on numbers of riverine or terrestrial birds using adjacent undisturbed shoreline and riparian habitat.

  15. Compliance Monitoring of Underwater Blasting for Rock Removal at Warrior Point, Columbia River Channel Improvement Project, 2009/2010

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Johnson, Gary E.; Woodley, Christa M.; Skalski, J. R.; Seaburg, Adam

    2011-05-10

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE) conducted the 20-year Columbia River Channel Improvement Project (CRCIP) to deepen the navigation channel between Portland, Oregon, and the Pacific Ocean to allow transit of fully loaded Panamax ships (100 ft wide, 600 to 700 ft long, and draft 45 to 50 ft). In the vicinity of Warrior Point, between river miles (RM) 87 and 88 near St. Helens, Oregon, the USACE conducted underwater blasting and dredging to remove 300,000 yd3 of a basalt rock formation to reach a depth of 44 ft in the Columbia River navigation channel. The purpose of this report is to document methods and results of the compliance monitoring study for the blasting project at Warrior Point in the Columbia River.

  16. Early life history of the northern pikeminnow in the lower Columbia River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gadomski, D.M.; Barfoot, C.A.; Bayer, J.M.; Poe, T.P.

    2001-01-01

    The northern pikeminnow Ptychocheilus oregonensis is a large, native cyprinid in the Columbia River basin that has persisted in spite of substantial habitat alterations. During the months of June to September 1993-1996, we investigated the temporal and spatial patterns of northern pikeminnow spawning, along with describing larval drift and characterizing larval and early juvenile rearing habitats in the lower Columbia River (the John Day and Dalles reservoirs and the free-flowing section downstream of Bonneville Dam) as well as in the lower sections of two major tributaries (the John Day and Deschutes rivers). The density of newly emerged drifting larvae was higher in dam tailraces (a mean of 7.7 larvae/100 m3 in surface tows) than in the lower reservoirs (0.3 larvae/100 m3), indicating that tailraces were areas of more intense spawning. Density was particularly high in the Bonneville Dam tailrace (15.1 larvae/100 m3), perhaps because adult northern pikeminnow are abundant below Bonneville Dam and this is the first tailrace and suitable main-stem spawning habitat encountered during upriver spawning migrations. Spawning also occurred in both of the tributaries sampled but not in a backwater. Spawning in the Columbia River primarily took place during the month of June in 1993 and 1994, when the water temperature rose from 14??C to 18??C, but occurred about 2 weeks later in 1995 and 1996, possibly because of cooler June water temperature (14-15??C) in these years. The period of drift was brief (about 1-3 d), with larvae recruiting to shallow, low-velocity shorelines of main-channel and backwater areas to rear. Larvae reared in greatest densities at sites with fine sediment or sand substrates and moderate- to high-density vegetation (a mean density of 92.1 larvae/10 m3). The success of northern pikeminnow in the Columbia River basin may be partly attributable to their ability to locate adequate spawning and rearing conditions in a variety of main-stem and tributary

  17. Experiments in dam removal, sediment pulses and channel evolution on the Clark Fork River, MT and White Salmon River, WA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, A. C.

    2012-12-01

    Two recent dam removals on tributaries to the Columbia River in the northwestern United States present contrasting examples of how dam removal methods, reservoir contents, and geomorphic settings influence system responses. The 2008 removal of Milltown Dam, from the Clark Fork River (CFR), Montana, and the 2011 removal of Condit Dam from the White Salmon River (WSR), Washington (Table 1), represent two of the largest dam removals to date. The Milltown Dam removal was notable because the dam stored millions of cubic meters of contaminated mine tailings, a portion of which were excavated as part of Superfund remediation but a portion of which flowed downstream after the removal. On the CFR, post-breach high flows in 2008 produced reservoir erosion and downstream deposition in bed interstices, along bars, and on the floodplain, but above-average (3-15 year recurrence interval) floods since then have remobilized this material and have, to a large extent, erased signs of downstream sedimentation. The Condit Dam removal entailed dynamiting of a 4m by 5.5m hole at the base of the dam, which produced rapid and dramatic draining of fine reservoir sediments within hours of the blast. Downstream of Condit Dam, the initial hyperconcentrated flows and sediment pulse draped the WSR with fine sediment, filled pools, and, in an unconfined reach influenced by the Columbia River's backwater, caused meters of aggradation and new bar formation. In the confined, bedrock-dominated reach downstream of the Condit site, pool-riffle structure has started to reemerge as of summer 2012 and the finest bed materials have been evacuated from the main channel, although sediment storage in pools and eddies persists. Whereas post-breach geomorphic responses on the CFR have been largely driven by hydrology, the post-breach evolution of the WSR has been predominantly influenced by antecedent geomorphic conditions (slope, confinement, and Columbia River backwater). On both the CFR and WSR, the pace of

  18. Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation of Avian Predation on Salmonid Smolts in the Lower and Mid-Columbia River, 2006 Final Season Summary.

    SciTech Connect

    Roby, Daniel D.; Collis, Ken; Lyons, Donald E.

    2009-06-18

    This study investigates predation by piscivorous waterbirds on juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) from throughout the Columbia River Basin. During 2006, study objectives in the Columbia River estuary, work funded by the Bonneville Power Administration, were to (1) monitor and evaluate previous management initiatives to reduce Caspian tern (Hydroprogne caspia) predation on juvenile salmonids (smolts); (2) measure the impact of double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) predation on smolt survival, and assess potential management options to reduce cormorant predation; and (3) monitor large colonies of other piscivorous waterbirds in the estuary (i.e., glaucous-winged/western gulls [Larus glaucescens/occidentalis]) to determine the potential impacts on smolt survival. Study objectives on the mid-Columbia River, work funded by the Walla Walla District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, were to (1) measure the impact of predation by Caspian terns and double-crested cormorants on smolt survival; and (2) monitor large nesting colonies of other piscivorous waterbirds (i.e., California gulls [L. californicus], ring-billed gulls [L. delawarensis], American white pelicans [Pelecanus erythrorhynchos]) on the mid-Columbia River to determine the potential for significant impacts on smolt survival. Our efforts to evaluate system-wide losses of juvenile salmonids to avian predation indicated that Caspian terns and double-crested cormorants were responsible for the vast majority of smolt losses to avian predators in the Columbia Basin, with most losses occurring in the Columbia River estuary. In 2006, East Sand Island in the Columbia River estuary supported the largest known breeding colonies of Caspian terns and double-crested cormorants in the world. The Caspian tern colony on East Sand Island consisted of about 9,200 breeding pairs in 2006, up slightly (but not significantly so) from the estimate of colony size in 2005 (8,820 pairs). There has not been a

  19. Influence of the Columbia River plume on cross-shelf transport of zooplankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Jay O.; Peterson, William T.

    2009-02-01

    A high-resolution sampling strategy along a cross-shelf transect near the mouth of the Columbia River was used to determine the distribution, abundance, and spatial relationship between plankton and a tidally modulated river plume. During a strong ebb tide, zooplankton-sized particles were concentrated on the seaward side of the plume front and transported 15 km across the shelf at a rate of 38 cm s-1, roughly fivefold faster than typical wind-driven transport in the region. Physical processes associated with the developing plume vertically depressed relatively dense layers of phytoplankton and zooplankton an average of 7 m deeper into the water column beneath the plume and up to 10 km beyond the extent of the plume front. The enhanced cross-shelf transport by the Columbia River plume is unique for this region of the Northern California Current. Its impact on the vertical and horizontal distribution of zooplankton shifts prey availability for higher trophic levels, such as larval fish, that primarily feed in the upper water column.

  20. Ecology of an estuarine mysid shrimp in the Columbia River (USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haskell, C.A.; Stanford, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    The estuarine mysid, Neomysis mercedis, has colonized John Day and other run-of-the-river Reservoirs of the Columbia River, over 400 km from the estuary. In John Day Reservoir N. mercedis numbers peaked (2 m-3) in August in areas near the dam in association with lower water velocity and softer bottom than at the upstream sampling sites. Neomysis broods were primarily released in late spring and early fall. Gut content analysis showed that Neomysis feeds mostly on cladoceran zooplankton and rotifers in John Day Reservoir. Diel vertical migration was documented, with daytime distribution restricted to the bottom and preferentially to the soft-textured sediments in the deepest areas. Common pelagic fishes in the reservoir, especially juvenile American shad (Alosa sapidissima) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), are daytime zooplankton feeders that cannot prey on Neomysis owing to mysid diel vertical migration. Thus, Neomysis has become an important food web component in John Day Reservoir. We also collected N. mercedis further upstream in Lower Granite Reservoir, where another estuarine crustacean, Corophium salmonis, also is reported, underscoring the need to better understand the role of these estuarine invertebrates in the trophic ecology of the Columbia River. Copyright ?? 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Daily/Hourly Hydrosystem Operation : How the Columbia River System Responds to Short-Term Needs.

    SciTech Connect

    Columbia River System Operation Review

    1994-02-01

    The System Operation Review, being conducted by the Bonneville Power Administration, the US Army Corps of Engineers, and the US Bureau of Reclamation, is analyzing current and potential future operations of the Columbia River System. One goal of the System Operations Review is to develop a new System Operation Strategy. The strategy will be designed to balance the many regionally and nationally important uses of the Columbia River system. Short-term operations address the dynamics that affect the Northwest hydro system and its multiple uses. Demands for electrical power and natural streamflows change constantly and thus are not precisely predictable. Other uses of the hydro system have constantly changing needs, too, many of which can interfere with other uses. Project operators must address various river needs, physical limitations, weather, and streamflow conditions while maintaining the stability of the electric system and keeping your lights on. It takes staffing around the clock to manage the hour-to-hour changes that occur and the challenges that face project operators all the time.

  2. Lower Columbia River and Estuary Habitat Monitoring Study, 2011 - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Borde, Amy B.; Kaufmann, Ronald M.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Thom, Ronald M.; Wright, Cynthia L.

    2012-03-22

    The Ecosystem Monitoring Program is a collaborative effort between the Lower Columbia River Estuary Partnership (LCREP), University of Washington, Wetland Ecosystem Team (UW), US Geological Survey, Water Science Center (USGS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service (NOAA-Fisheries, hereafter NOAA), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Marine Sciences Laboratory (PNNL). The goal of the program is to conduct emergent wetland monitoring aimed at characterizing salmonid habitats in the lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE) from the mouth of the estuary to Bonneville Dam (Figure 1). This is an ecosystem based monitoring program focused on evaluating status and trends in habitat and reducing uncertainties regarding these ecosystems to ultimately improve the survival of juvenile salmonids through the LCRE. This project comprehensively assesses habitat, fish, food web, and abiotic conditions in the lower river, focusing on shallow water and vegetated habitats used by juvenile salmonids for feeding, rearing and refugia. The information is intended to be used to guide management actions associated with species recovery, particularly that of threatened and endangered salmonids. PNNL’s role in this multi-year study is to monitor the habitat structure (e.g., vegetation, topography, channel morphology, and sediment type) as well as hydrologic patterns.

  3. Hydrodynamic Simulation of the Columbia River, Hanford Reach, 1940--2004

    SciTech Connect

    Waichler, Scott R.; Perkins, William A.; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2005-06-15

    Many hydrological and biological problems in the Columbia River corridor through the Hanford Site require estimates of river stage (water surface elevation) or river flow and velocity. Systematic collection of river stage data at locations in the Hanford Reach began in 1991, but many environmental projects need river stage information at unmeasured locations or over longer time periods. The Modular Aquatic Simulation System 1D (MASS1), a one-dimensional, unsteady hydrodynamic and water quality model, was used to simulate the Columbia River from Priest Rapids Dam to McNary Dam from 1940 to 2004, providing estimates of water surface elevation, volumetric flow rate, and flow velocity at 161 locations on the Hanford Reach. The primary input data were bathymetric/topographic cross sections of the Columbia River channel, flow rates at Priest Rapids Dam, and stage at McNary Dam. Other inputs included Yakima River and Snake River inflows. Available flow data at a gaging station just below Priest Rapids Dam was mean daily flow from 1940 to 1986 and hourly thereafter. McNary dam was completed in 1957, and hourly stage data are available beginning in 1975. MASS1 was run at an hourly timestep and calibrated and tested using 1991--2004 river stage data from six Hanford Reach locations (areas 100B, 100N, 100D, 100H, 100F, and 300). Manning's roughness coefficient in the Reach above each river recorder location was adjusted using an automated genetic algorithm and gradient search technique in three separate calibrations, corresponding to different data subsets, with minimization of mean absolute error as the objective. The primary calibration was based on 1999, a representative year, and included all locations. The first alternative calibration also used all locations but was limited in time to a high-flow period during spring and early summer of 1997. The second alternative calibration was based on 1999 and included only 300 Area stage data. Model goodness-of-fit for all years

  4. Coastal Upwelling Supplies Oxygen-Depleted Water to the Columbia River Estuary

    PubMed Central

    Roegner, G. Curtis; Needoba, Joseph A.; Baptista, António M.

    2011-01-01

    Low dissolved oxygen (DO) is a common feature of many estuarine and shallow-water environments, and is often attributed to anthropogenic nutrient enrichment from terrestrial-fluvial pathways. However, recent events in the U.S. Pacific Northwest have highlighted that wind-forced upwelling can cause naturally occurring low DO water to move onto the continental shelf, leading to mortalities of benthic fish and invertebrates. Coastal estuaries in the Pacific Northwest are strongly linked to ocean forcings, and here we report observations on the spatial and temporal patterns of oxygen concentration in the Columbia River estuary. Hydrographic measurements were made from transect (spatial survey) or anchor station (temporal survey) deployments over a variety of wind stresses and tidal states during the upwelling seasons of 2006 through 2008. During this period, biologically stressful levels of dissolved oxygen were observed to enter the Columbia River estuary from oceanic sources, with minimum values close to the hypoxic threshold of 2.0 mg L−1. Riverine water was consistently normoxic. Upwelling wind stress controlled the timing and magnitude of low DO events, while tidal-modulated estuarine circulation patterns influenced the spatial extent and duration of exposure to low DO water. Strong upwelling during neap tides produced the largest impact on the estuary. The observed oxygen concentrations likely had deleterious behavioral and physiological consequences for migrating juvenile salmon and benthic crabs. Based on a wind-forced supply mechanism, low DO events are probably common to the Columbia River and other regional estuaries and if conditions on the shelf deteriorate further, as observations and models predict, Pacific Northwest estuarine habitats could experience a decrease in environmental quality. PMID:21533083

  5. Coastal upwelling supplies oxygen-depleted water to the Columbia River estuary.

    PubMed

    Roegner, G Curtis; Needoba, Joseph A; Baptista, António M

    2011-01-01

    Low dissolved oxygen (DO) is a common feature of many estuarine and shallow-water environments, and is often attributed to anthropogenic nutrient enrichment from terrestrial-fluvial pathways. However, recent events in the U.S. Pacific Northwest have highlighted that wind-forced upwelling can cause naturally occurring low DO water to move onto the continental shelf, leading to mortalities of benthic fish and invertebrates. Coastal estuaries in the Pacific Northwest are strongly linked to ocean forcings, and here we report observations on the spatial and temporal patterns of oxygen concentration in the Columbia River estuary. Hydrographic measurements were made from transect (spatial survey) or anchor station (temporal survey) deployments over a variety of wind stresses and tidal states during the upwelling seasons of 2006 through 2008. During this period, biologically stressful levels of dissolved oxygen were observed to enter the Columbia River estuary from oceanic sources, with minimum values close to the hypoxic threshold of 2.0 mg L(-1). Riverine water was consistently normoxic. Upwelling wind stress controlled the timing and magnitude of low DO events, while tidal-modulated estuarine circulation patterns influenced the spatial extent and duration of exposure to low DO water. Strong upwelling during neap tides produced the largest impact on the estuary. The observed oxygen concentrations likely had deleterious behavioral and physiological consequences for migrating juvenile salmon and benthic crabs. Based on a wind-forced supply mechanism, low DO events are probably common to the Columbia River and other regional estuaries and if conditions on the shelf deteriorate further, as observations and models predict, Pacific Northwest estuarine habitats could experience a decrease in environmental quality. PMID:21533083

  6. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix C: Anadromous Fish and Juvenile Fish Transportation.

    SciTech Connect

    Columbia River System Operation Review

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix C of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System discusses impacts on andromous fish and juvenile fish transportation. The principal andromous fish in the Columbia basin include salmonid species (Chinook, coho, and sockeye salmon, and steelhead) and nonsalmoinid andromous species (sturgeon, lamprey, and shad). Major sections in this document include the following: background, scope and process; affected environment for salmon and steelhead, shaded, lamprey, sturgeon; study methods; description of alternatives: qualitative and quantitative findings.

  7. Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-04-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project, Pacific Northwest Laboratory reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Certain radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the 1964--1966 time period. This report summarizes the literature and database review and the results of the preliminary dose estimates.

  8. Calculation of groundwater discharge to the Columbia River in the 100-N Area

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmore, T.J.; Newcomer, D.R.; Wurstner, S.K.; Spane, F.A.

    1992-04-01

    A computer code called WATDIS (an acronym for water discharge) was developed that, when used with the commercially available software, WATER-VEL{trademark}, calculates the volumetric discharge to a specific cross-sectional area of the aquifer. This report describes the development of the WATDIS code and its application. The development of this code is Phase 1 of a two-phased project whose objective is to estimate the amounts of radionuclides reaching the Columbia River through the unconfined aquifer as a result of natural'' conditions.

  9. Lower Columbia River Salmon Business Plan for Terminal Fisheries : Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Salmon For All

    1996-07-01

    Salmon fishing in the Northwest requires a public-private partnership. The public through its decision-makers, agencies, and laws states it will do all that is necessary to protect and preserve the valuable salmon resource. Yet, the public side of the partnership is broken. The Columbia River salmon fishing industry, with over 140 years of documented history, is at a crossroads. This report explores a variety of issues, concerns, and ideas related to terminal fishery development. In some cases recommendations are made. In addition, options are explored with an understanding that those designated as decision-makers must make decisions following considerable discussion and reflection.

  10. Technical Appendix for Development for Modified Streamflows 1928-1989 : Columbia River & Coastal Basin.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; A.G. Crook Company

    1993-06-01

    The report ``Adjusted Streamflow and Storage 1928-1989`` contains listings of historical flows for the sites in the Columbia River and Coastal Basins. This section of the Technical Appendix provides for the site specific procedures used to determine those historical flows. The study purpose, authority, and definitions are given in the main report. The purpose of this section of the Technical Appendix is to document the computational procedures used at each of the project sites to develop historical flows for the period July 1928--September 1989.

  11. Migratory Behavior and Survival of Juvenile Salmonids in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary in 2009

    SciTech Connect

    McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Bellgraph, Brian J.; Carter, Jessica A.; Ham, Kenneth D.; Titzler, P. Scott; Hughes, Michael S.

    2010-08-01

    The study reported herein was funded as part of the Anadromous Fish Evaluation Program, which is managed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). The Anadromous Fish Evaluation Program study code is EST P 02 01: A Study of Salmonid Survival and Behavior through the Columbia River Estuary Using Acoustic Tags. The study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Fisheries for the USACE Portland District. Estimated survival of acoustic-tagged juvenile Chinook salmon and steelhead through the lower Columbia River and estuary in 2009 was lowest in the final 50 km of the estuary. Probability of survival was relatively high (>0.90) for yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon from the Bonneville Dam forebay (rkm 236) to Three-tree Point (rkm 49.6). Survival of juvenile Chinook salmon declined sharply through the lower 50 km of the estuary. Acoustic-tagged steelhead smolts did not survive as well as juvenile Chinook salmon between Bonneville Dam and the mouth of the Columbia River. Steelhead survival began to decline farther upstream (at rkm 86) relative to that of the Chinook salmon stocks. Subyearling Chinook salmon survival decreased markedly as the season progressed. It remains to be determined whether later migrating subyearling Chinook salmon are suffering increasing mortality as the season progresses or whether some portion of the apparent loss is due to fish extending their freshwater residence. This study provided the first glimpse into what promises to be a very informative way to learn more about how juvenile salmonid passage experiences through the FCRPS may influence their subsequent survival after passing Bonneville Dam. New information regarding the influence of migration pathway through the lower 50 km of the Columbia River estuary on probability of survival of juvenile salmonids, combined with increased understanding regarding the foraging distances and time periods of

  12. Status Report of the Pacific Lamprey (Lampetra Trzdentata) in the Columbia River Basin.

    SciTech Connect

    Close, David A.; Parker, Blaine; James, gary

    1995-07-01

    The widespread decline of Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) in the Pacific Northwest, especially in the Columbia River system has led to concerns and questions from a number of regional agencies, Native American tribes, and the public. To address these concerns, new research efforts must focus on specific problems associated with this understudied species. The preservation and restoration of this species is critical for a number of reasons, including its importance to the tribes and its importance as an indicator of ecosystem health. Historically lamprey have been labeled a pest species due to the problems associated with the exotic sea lamprey, (Petromyzon marinus), invading the Great Lakes.

  13. Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-11-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project, Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the period 1964 through 1966. This report summarizes the literature and database reviews and the results of the preliminary dose estimates.

  14. Plans for Implementing the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program in Fiscal Year 1986.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration

    1985-10-01

    The Fish and Wildlife Program is an effort to enhance, protect, and mitigate losses of those fish and wildlife which have been affected by the development, operation, and management of hydroelectric facilities in the Columbia River Basin. The implementation plan is organized to address the action items assigned to BPA in Section 1500 of the Council's Fish and Wildlife Program (1984). These action items generally relate to one or more specific measures in the Program. The following information is listed for each project: budget summary, projects, obligation plan, and work plan and milestones.

  15. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Main Report Exhibits.

    SciTech Connect

    Columbia River System Operation Review

    1995-11-01

    This Volume is a part of the Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Columbia River System. This volume contains technical exhibits of cultural resources and commentary on the (System Operation Review) SOR process. The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation comment is the majority of the material in the volume, in the Consultation Plan, Identification of trust resources; Criteria for the selection of a System Operating Strategy; comment on rights protection and implementation of Federal Trust responsibility; analysis of the draft EIS. Comment by other Native American Tribes and groups is also included: Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation; Kootenai Tribe of Idaho; Spokane Tribe of Indians; Coeur d` Alene tribe.

  16. Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program Annual Implementation Work Plan for Fiscal Year 1992.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Northwest Power Planning Council; Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority

    1991-09-01

    The Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (Program) was developed by the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) in accordance with Public Law 96-501, the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act (Act). The purpose of the Program is to guide the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and other Federal agencies in carrying out their responsibilities to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife of the Columbia River Basin. The Act explicitly gives BPA the authority and responsibility to use the BPA fund for these ends, to the extent that fish and wildlife are affected by the development and operation of hydroelectric generation in the Columbia River Basin. The Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program Annual Implementation Work Plan (AIWP) presents BPA's plans for implementing the Program during Fiscal Year (FY) 1992. The AIWP reflects the primary goals of the Council's Action Plan (Section 1400 of the Program): to provide a solid, timely, and focused basis for budgeting and planning. In addition, the AIWP provides a means to judge the progress and the success of Program implementation. The AIWP is based on the outline developed by the Policy Review Group (PRG) during Step 1 of the annual cycle of the Implementation Planning Process (IPP), which is described in Section III. This AIWP has been organized and written to meet the specific needs of Program Action Items 10.1-10.3. The AIWP includes schedules with key milestones for FY 1992 and beyond, and addresses the Action Items assigned to BPA in Section 1400 of the 1987 Program and in subsequent amendments. All Program projects discussed in the AIWP are listed in Tables 1 and 2 according to their status as of May 21, 1991. Table 1 (pp. 3-14) lists completed, ongoing, and deferred projects. Table 2 (pp. 15-16) lists FY 1992 new-start projects. ''Ongoing'' status indicates that the project started in FY 1991 or before and that it is expected to continue through part or all of

  17. Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program Annual Implementation Work Plan for Fiscal Year 1989.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Northwest Power Planning Council; Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority

    1988-09-01

    The Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (Program) was developed by the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) in accordance with Public Law 96-501. the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act (Act). The purpose of the Program is to guide the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and other Federal agencies in carrying out their responsibilities to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife of the Columbia River Basin. The Act explicitly gives BPA the authority and responsibility to use the BPA fund for these ends, to the extent that fish and wildlife are affected by the development and operation of hydroelectric generation in the Columbia River Basin. This document presents BPA's plans for implementing the Program during Fiscal Year (FY) 1989. BPA's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program Work Plan (Work Plan) reflects the primary goals of the Council's Action Plan (Section 1400 of the Program): to provide a solid, timely, and focused basis for budgeting and planning. In addition, BPA's Work Plan provides a means to judge progress and the success of Program implementation. This Work Plan has been organized and written to meet the specific needs of the Council's Action Plan, as described in Action Items 10.1-10.3 of the Program. The Work Plan includes schedules with key milestones for FY 1989 and beyond, and is organized to address the Action Items assigned to BPA in Section 1400 of the 1987 Program. All BPA-funded projects discussed in the FY 1989 Work Plan are listed in Tables 1 and 2 according to their current status. Table 1 (pp. 3-11) lists completed, ongoing, and deferred projects. Table 2 (pp. 12-13) lists all projects which BPA plans to fund as ''new'' projects in FY 1989. ''Ongoing'' status indicates that the project started in FY 1988 or before, and that it was still being implemented by BPA at the end of FY 1988. ''Deferred'' means that BPA implementation has been postponed to FY 1990 or later. ''Completed

  18. Immobilization of U(VI) from Oxic Groundwater by Hanford 300 Area Sediments and Effects of Columbia River Water

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, B.; Cao, Bin; Mishra, Bhoopesh; Boyanov, Maxim I.; Kemner, Kenneth M.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Beyenal, Haluk

    2012-09-23

    Regions within the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford 300 Area (300 A) site experience periodic hydrologic influences from the nearby Columbia River as a result of changing river stage, which causes changes in groundwater elevation, flow direction and water chemistry. An important question is the extent to which the mixing of Columbia River water and groundwater impacts the speciation and mobility of uranium (U). In this study, we designed experiments to mimic interactions among U, oxic groundwater or Columbia River water, and 300 A sediments in the subsurface environment of Hanford 300 A. The goals were to investigate mechanisms of: 1) U immobilization in 300 A sediments under bulk oxic conditions and 2) U remobilization from U-immobilized 300 A sediments exposed to oxic Columbia River water. Initially, 300 A sediments in column reactors were fed with U(VI)-containing oxic 1) synthetic groundwater (SGW), 2) organic-amended SGW (OA-SGW), and 3) de-ionized (DI) water to investigate U immobilization processes. After that, the sediments were exposed to oxic Columbia River water for U remobilization studies. The results reveal that U was immobilized by 300 A sediments predominantly through reduction (80-85%) when the column reactor was fed with oxic OA-SGW. However, U was immobilized by 300 A sediments through adsorption (100%) when the column reactors were fed with oxic SGW or DI water. The reduced U in the 300 A sediments fed with OA-SGW was relatively resistant to remobilization by oxic Columbia River water. Oxic Columbia River water resulted in U remobilization (~7%) through desorption, and most of the U that remained in the 300 A sediments fed with OA-SGW (~93%) was in the form of uraninite nanoparticles. These results reveal that: 1) the reductive immobilization of U through OA-SGW stimulation of indigenous 300 A sediment microorganisms may be viable in the relatively oxic Hanford 300 A subsurface environments and 2) with the intrusion of Columbia River water

  19. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix F: Irrigation, Municipal and Industrial/Water Supply.

    SciTech Connect

    Columbia River System Operations Review; United States. Bonneville Power Administration; United States. Army. Corps of Engineers. North Pacific Division; United States. Bureau of Reclamation. Pacific Northwest Region.

    1995-11-01

    Since the 1930`s, the Columbia River has been harnessed for the benefit of the Northwest and the nation. Federal agencies have built 30 major dams on the river and its tributaries. Dozens of non-Federal projects have been developed as well. The dams provide flood control, irrigation, navigation, hydro-electric power generation, recreation, fish and wildlife, and streamflows for wildlife, anadromous fish, resident fish, and water quality. This is Appendix F of the Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System, focusing on irrigation issues and concerns arrising from the Irrigation and Mitigation of impacts (M&I) working Group of the SOR process. Major subheadings include the following: Scope and process of irrigation/M&I studies; Irrigation/M&I in the Columbia Basin Today including overview, irrigated acreage and water rights, Irrigation and M&I issues basin-wide and at specific locations; and the analysis of impacts and alternative for the Environmental Impact Statement.

  20. Spawning and abundance of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, 1948--1988

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, D.D.; Watson, D.G.

    1990-03-01

    The Hanford Reach of the Columbia River provides the only major spawning habitat for the upriver bright (URB) race of fall chinook salmon in the mainstem Columbia River. Hanford Site biologists have conducted aerial surveys of spawning salmon in the Hanford Reach since 1948. This report summarizes data on fall chinook salmon spawning in the Hanford Reach and presents a discussion of factors that may affect population trends. Most data are limited to fisheries agency reports and other working documents. Fisheries management practices in the Columbia River system have changed rapidly over the last decade, particularly under requirements of the Pacific Northwest Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980. New information has been generated and included in this report. 75 refs., 17 figs., 11 tabs.

  1. Reconnaissance of pharmaceuticals and wastewater indicators in streambed sediments of the lower Columbia River basin, Oregon and Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nilsen, Elena; Furlong, Edward T.; Rosenbauer, Robert

    2014-01-01

    One by-product of advances in modern chemistry is the accumulation of synthetic chemicals in the natural environment. These compounds include contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), some of which are endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) that can have detrimental reproductive effects. The role of sediments in accumulating these types of chemicals and acting as a source of exposure for aquatic organisms is not well understood. Here we present a small-scale reconnaissance of CECs in bed sediments of the lower Columbia River and several tributaries and urban streams. Surficial bed sediment samples were collected from the Columbia River, the Willamette River, the Tualatin River, and several small urban creeks in Oregon. Thirty-nine compounds were detected at concentrations ranging from 1,000 ng [g sediment]-1 dry weight basis. Columbia River mainstem, suggesting a higher risk of exposure to aquatic life in lower order streams. Ten known or suspected EDCs were detected during the study. At least one EDC was detected at 21 of 23 sites sampled; several EDCs were detected in sediment from most sites. This study is the first to document the occurrence of a large suite of CECs in the sediments of the Columbia River basin. A better understanding of the role of sediment in the fate and effects of emerging contaminants is needed.

  2. Monitoring Tissue Concentrations of Chromium and Fish Condition in Juvenile Fall Chinook Salmon from the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Tiller, Brett L.; Patton, Gregory W.; Dauble, Dennis D.; Poston, Ted M.

    2004-01-01

    This study involved the collection of juvenile fall Chinook salmon and Columbia River water samples to assess whether fall Chinook salmon population are exposed to chromium that upwells into the river from contaminated groundwater.

  3. Environmental contaminants and biomarker responses in fish from the Columbia River and its tributaries: spatial and temporal trends.

    PubMed

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Schmitt, Christopher J; Blazer, Vicki S; Denslow, Nancy D; Bartish, Timothy M; Anderson, Patrick J; Coyle, James J; Dethloff, Gail M; Tillitt, Donald E

    2006-08-01

    Fish were collected from 16 sites on rivers in the Columbia River Basin (CRB) from September 1997 to April 1998 to document temporal and spatial trends in the concentrations of accumulative contaminants and to assess contaminant effects on the fish. Sites were located on the mainstem of the Columbia River and on the Snake, Willamette, Yakima, Salmon, and Flathead Rivers. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio), black bass (Micropterus sp.), and largescale sucker (Catostomus macrocheilus) were the targeted species. Fish were field-examined for external and internal lesions, selected organs were weighed to compute somatic indices, and tissue and fluid samples were preserved for fish health and reproductive biomarker analyses. Composite samples of whole fish, grouped by species and gender, from each site were analyzed for organochlorine and elemental contaminants using instrumental methods and for 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro dibenzo-p-dioxin-like activity (TCDD-EQ) using the H4IIE rat hepatoma cell bioassay. Overall, pesticide concentrations were greatest in fish from lower CRB sites and elemental concentrations were greatest in fish from upper CRB sites. These patterns reflected land uses. Lead (Pb) concentrations in fish from the Columbia River at Northport and Grand Coulee, Washington (WA) exceeded fish and wildlife toxicity thresholds (>0.4 microg/g). Selenium (Se) concentrations in fish from the Salmon River at Riggins, Idaho (ID), the Columbia River at Vernita Bridge, WA, and the Yakima River at Granger, WA exceeded toxicity thresholds for piscivorous wildlife (>0.6 microg/g). Mercury (Hg) concentrations in fish were elevated throughout the basin but were greatest (>0.4 microg/g) in predatory fish from the Salmon River at Riggins, ID, the Yakima River at Granger, WA, and the Columbia River at Warrendale, Oregon (OR). Residues of p,p'-DDE were greatest (>0.8 microg/g) in fish from agricultural areas of the Snake, Yakima, and Columbia River basins but were not detected in upper CRB

  4. Environmental contaminants and biomarker responses in fish from the Columbia River and its tributaries: spatial and temporal trends

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinck, J.E.; Schmitt, C.J.; Blazer, V.S.; Denslow, N.D.; Bartish, T.M.; Anderson, P.J.; Coyle, J.J.; Dethloff, G.M.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2006-01-01

    Fish were collected from 16 sites on rivers in the Columbia River Basin (CRB) from September 1997 to April 1998 to document temporal and spatial trends in the concentrations of accumulative contaminants and to assess contaminant effects on the fish. Sites were located on the mainstem of the Columbia River and on the Snake, Willamette, Yakima, Salmon, and Flathead Rivers. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio), black bass (Micropterus sp.), and largescale sucker (Catostomus macrocheilus) were the targeted species. Fish were field-examined for external and internal lesions, selected organs were weighed to compute somatic indices, and tissue and fluid samples were preserved for fish health and reproductive biomarker analyses. Composite samples of whole fish, grouped by species and gender, from each site were analyzed for organochlorine and elemental contaminants using instrumental methods and for 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro dibenzo-p-dioxin-like activity (TCDD-EQ) using the H4IIE rat hepatoma cell bioassay. Overall, pesticide concentrations were greatest in fish from lower CRB sites and elemental concentrations were greatest in fish from upper CRB sites. These patterns reflected land uses. Lead (Pb) concentrations in fish from the Columbia River at Northport and Grand Coulee, Washington (WA) exceeded fish and wildlife toxicity thresholds (> 0.4 ??g/g). Selenium (Se) concentrations in fish from the Salmon River at Riggins, Idaho (ID), the Columbia River at Vernita Bridge, WA, and the Yakima River at Granger, WA exceeded toxicity thresholds for piscivorous wildlife (> 0.6 ??g/g). Mercury (Hg) concentrations in fish were elevated throughout the basin but were greatest (> 0.4 ??g/g) in predatory fish from the Salmon River at Riggins, ID, the Yakima River at Granger, WA, and the Columbia River at Warrendale, Oregon (OR). Residues of p,p???-DDE were greatest (> 0.8 ??g/g) in fish from agricultural areas of the Snake, Yakima, and Columbia River basins but were not detected in upper CRB fish

  5. Flood-inundation maps for White River at Petersburg, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fowler, Kathleen K.

    2015-08-20

    The availability of these maps along with Internet information regarding current stage from the USGS streamgage at White River at Petersburg, Ind., and forecasted stream stages from the NWS provide emergency management personnel and residents with information that is critical for flood response activities such as evacuations and road closures as well as for post-flood recovery efforts.

  6. Testing, Testing...Simple Technology Improves Groundwater Monitoring along the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Graybeal, Judith W.

    2006-05-16

    "Leave No Trace" is a popular ethic for outdoor recreationists who advocate a natural landscape. Now it is also applicable to groundwater sampling collection sites along the Columbia River in southeastern Washington State. Hydrologists from the Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory are using a simple apparatus of ¼-inch-diameter plastic tubing to collect samples at varying levels in the aquifer along the river's edge. Though a permanent installation, the low-cost, lightweight materials are easy to camouflage with indigenous rocks and vegetation so that the collection site appears undisturbed. Hydrologists compare the aquifer tube method to sipping groundwater through a long straw. The tube system was developed to provide supplemental monitoring in locations where traditional monitoring wells cannot be installed because of access constraints. It has proven to be economical, visually unobtrusive and effective in providing an accurate picture of the vertical distribution of contaminants in groundwater at a specific location.

  7. Entrainment of Dungeness Crab in the Desdemona Shoals Reach of the Lower Columbia River Navigation Channel

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, Walter H.; Kohn, Nancy P.; Skalski, J. R.

    2006-09-30

    Proposed dredging of the Columbia River has raised concerns about related impacts on Dungeness crab in the Columbia River Estuary (CRE). This study follows two major efforts, sponsored by the Portland District of the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to quantify the number of crabs entrained by a hopper dredge working in the CRE. From June 2002 through September 2002, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted direct measurements of crab entrainment in the CRE from the mouth of the Columbia River (MCR, river mile -3 to +3) upriver as far as Miller Sands (river mile 21 to 24). These studies constituted a major step in quantifying crab entrainment in the CRE, and allowed statistically bounded projections of adult equivalent loss (AEL) for Dungeness crab populations under a range of future construction dredging and maintenance dredging scenarios (Pearson et al. 2002, 2003). In 2004, PNNL performed additional measurements to improve estimates of crab entrainment at Desdemona Shoals and at Flavel Bar, a reach near Astoria that had not been adequately sampled in 2002 (Figure 1). The 2004 data were used to update the crab loss projections for channel construction to 43 ft MLLW. In addition, a correlation between bottom salinity and adult (age 2+ and 3+, >100 mm carapace width) crab entrainment was developed using 2002 data, and elaborated upon with the 2004 data. This crab salinity model was applied to forecasting seasonal (monthly) entrainment rates and AEL using seasonal variations in salinity (Pearson et al. 2005). In the previous studies, entrainment rates in Desdemona Shoals were more variable than in any of the other reaches. Pearson et al. (2005) concluded that ?the dynamics behind the variable entrainment rates at Desdemona Shoals are not fully understood,? as well as finding that juvenile crab entrainment was not significantly correlated with salinity as it was for older crab. The present study was undertaken to address the question of whether the

  8. Past Radioactive Particle Contamination in the Columbia River at the Hanford Site, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Poston, Ted M.; Peterson, Robert E.; Cooper, Andrew T.

    2007-08-24

    The Hanford Site was originally established in 1943 as part of the World War II Manhattan Project to produce a nuclear weapon. During the Site’s early history, eight single-pass reactors were constructed along the “Hanford Reach” of the Columbia River to produce plutonium. Reactor coolant effluent was held temporarily in retention basins so that short-lived activation products and temperature could dissipate before discharge to the river. Reactor components included valves and pumps constructed with Stellite, an alloy containing high levels of cobalt and other metals. Neutron activation of these components produced cobalt-60. As these components aged, they deteriorated and released radioactive particles into the liquid effluent. Over the 26 years of reactor operations, relatively small numbers of these particles were released to the Columbia River along with the liquid discharges, and the particles were deposited in sediment along the shoreline and on islands. In 1976, portions of the Hanford Reach were opened for public access and the presence of these radioactive cobalt-60 particles became a concern for public exposure. A survey conducted in 1979 determined that the particles were small, with a diameter of approximately 0.1 mm, and their activity level was estimated to be between 63 and 890 GBq. Dose rates from the particles ranged from 1 to 14 μGray/hr. Fourteen particles were collected during the 1979 survey and subsequent monitoring and particle clean-up campaigns continued during the 1980s and 1990s. The presence of radioactive particles in the river environment was a continuing concern as cleanup of the Hanford Site accelerated during the 1990s. Principal issues included: 1) Site management response to the presence of radioactive particles in the Columbia River, 2) methods to monitor this contamination, 3) stakeholder concerns, and 4) anti-nuclear activist intervention. Reducing ecological and human health risk caused by contamination is a major focus

  9. Sediment-quality assessment of Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake and the upstream reach of the Columbia River, Washington, 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bortleson, Gilbert Carl; Cox, S.E.; Munn, M.D.; Schumaker, R.J.; Block, E.K.; Bucy, L.R.; Cornelius, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    The occurrence and distribution of trace elements and of wood-pulp-related compounds in the sediments of Lake Roosevelt and the upstream reache sampler of the Columbia River were studied in 1992. In addition, an analysis ofbenthic invertebrate community structure and tests of sediment toxicity were conducted. Concentrations of trace elements were elevated, relative to background reference sites, in samples of bed sediment. Copper, lead, and zinc most often exceeded the sediment-quality guidelines for benthic organisms. In whole-water samples, trace-element concentrations did not exceed criteria for freshwater organisms. These concen- trations were relatively small, reflecting the small suspended-sediment concentrations and the large water-diluting capacity of the Columbia River. Elevated concentrations of trace elements in sediments are attributable to the transport of metallurgical waste from a smelter discharging to the Columbia River in Canada. Dioxins and furans were found in Columbia River water, but only a few isomers were detected. A furan isomer common in effluent from pulp and paper mills was found in suspended sediment. Dioxins and furans in the water phase were isolated using solid-phase extraction to concentrate these compounds from large volumes of water. Few of the many other organic compounds associated with wood-pulp waste were detected in the bed sediments of Lake Roosevelt. Benthic invertebrate communities in the Columbia River showed effects from trace elements in bed sediments or from loss of physical habitat. Lethal and sublethal effects were observed in toxicity tests of selected aquatic organisms exposed to bed sediments from the Columbia River near the international boundary.

  10. Factors affecting chick provisioning by Caspian Terns nesting in the Columbia River estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, S.K.; Roby, D.D.; Lyons, Donald E.; Collis, K.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated factors affecting chick provisioning by radio-tagged Caspian Terns (Sterna caspia) nesting in a large colony on East Sand Island in the Columbia River estuary during 2001. Caspian Tern predation on juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) in the estuary prompted resource managers to relocate ca. 9,000 pairs of terns nesting on Rice Island (river km 34) to East Sand Island (river km 8), where terns were expected to consume fewer salmonids in favor of marine forage fishes. This study investigated factors influencing foraging success, diet composition, and overall reproductive success at the managed Caspian Tern colony. Our results indicated that daytime colony attendance by nesting terns averaged 64% and decreased throughout the chick-rearing period, while duration of foraging trips averaged 47 min and increased during the same period; these seasonal changes were more strongly related to date than chick age. Average meal delivery rates to 2-chick broods (0.88 meals h-1) were 2.6 times greater than to 1-chick broods (0.33 meals h-1). Parents delivered more juvenile salmonids to chicks during ebb tides than flood tides, but meal delivery rates to the nest remained constant, suggesting diet composition tracks relative availability of prey species. Foraging trips resulting in delivery of juvenile salmonids averaged 68% longer than foraging trips for schooling marine forage fishes, indicating higher availability of marine prey near the colony. High availability of marine forage fish in the Columbia River estuary during 2001 was apparently responsible for high colony attendance, short foraging trips, high chick meal delivery rates, and high nesting success of Caspian Terns on East Sand Island.

  11. Water Quality Sampling Locations Along the Shoreline of the Columbia River, Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Robert E.; Patton, Gregory W.

    2009-12-14

    As environmental monitoring evolved on the Hanford Site, several different conventions were used to name or describe location information for various sampling sites along the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. These methods range from handwritten descriptions in field notebooks to the use of modern electronic surveying equipment, such as Global Positioning System receivers. These diverse methods resulted in inconsistent archiving of analytical results in various electronic databases and published reports because of multiple names being used for the same site and inaccurate position data. This document provides listings of sampling sites that are associated with groundwater and river water sampling. The report identifies names and locations for sites associated with sampling: (a) near-river groundwater using aquifer sampling tubes; (b) riverbank springs and springs areas; (c) pore water collected from riverbed sediment; and (d) Columbia River water. Included in the listings are historical names used for a particular site and the best available geographic coordinates for the site, as of 2009. In an effort to create more consistency in the descriptive names used for water quality sampling sites, a naming convention is proposed in this document. The convention assumes that a unique identifier is assigned to each site that is monitored and that this identifier serves electronic database management requirements. The descriptive name is assigned for the convenience of the subsequent data user. As the historical database is used more intensively, this document may be revised as a consequence of discovering potential errors and also because of a need to gain consensus on the proposed naming convention for some water quality monitoring sites.

  12. Identification of the Spawning, Rearing, and Migratory Requirements of Fall Chinook Salmon in the Columbia River Basin, Annual Report 1993.

    SciTech Connect

    Rondorf, Dennis W.; Tiffan, Kenneth F.

    1994-12-01

    Recovery efforts for the endangered fall chinook salmon necessitates knowledge of the factors limiting the various life history stages. This study attempts to identify those physical and biological factors which affect spawning of the fish in the free-flowing Snake River and their rearing seward migration through Columbia River basin reservoirs. The spawning was generally a November event in 1993, with some activity in late Oct. and early Dec. Spawning habitat availability was assessed by applying hydraulic and habitat models to known fall chinook salmon spawning sites. Juveniles were seined and PIT tagged in the free-flowing Snake River, and in the Columbia River in he Hanford Reach and in McNary Reservoir. Subyearling fish were marked at McNary Dam to relate river flow and migration patterns of juveniles to adult returns. Hydroacoustic surveys were conducted on McNary and John Day reservoirs and in net pens.

  13. Columbia River Basalt Chemistry, Degassing, and Eruption Dynamics: Insights From Quenched Glassy Lapilli and Tuffs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, K.; Wolff, J.; Rowe, M. C.; Neill, O. K.

    2015-12-01

    Primary eruptive vent areas for several lavas in the Imnaha and Grande Ronde Formations of the Columbia River Basalt exhibit phreatomagmatic character, due to the interaction of rising flood basalt magma with groundwater and/or surface water. Vent constructional forms range from extensive (>1 km) maar complexes with abundant basement lithics to small (<<1 km), lithic-poor low-angle cones. Phreatomagmatic tephra is lithified and variably palagonitized, but glassy basaltic lapilli can be recovered from many locations. Many lapilli have experienced variable degrees of Na leaching but preserve magmatic abundances of most other elements; nonetheless in many cases pristine, unmodified glass is amenable to analysis. In addition, phenocrysts in lapilli have fully glassy melt inclusions. Glassy lapilli have highly variable S contents between ~100 and ~1300 ppm. This is consistent with quenching before degassing was complete, a common feature of phreatomagmatic eruptions. Melt inclusions have ≤2900 ppm S, ≤3400 ppm CO2 and ≤2.6 wt% H2O, allowing estimates of atmospheric input from the main phase of Columbia River volcanism. In addition, the lithophile trace element contents, and petrogenetically significant ratios such as Ba/Nb, of glassy lapilli exhibit differ from those in the equivalent 'stony' lava flows by up to a factor of 2. This suggests that processes in the flow and crystallization of lava serve to modify trace element abundances, and may place limits on the petrogenetic significance of trace element data from crystalline lava samples.

  14. Temperature constraints on the Ginkgo flow of the Columbia River Basalt Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Anita M.; Cashman, Katharine V.

    1997-05-01

    This study provides the first quantitative estimate of heat loss for a Columbia River Basalt Group flow. A glass composition-based geothermometer was experimentally calibrated for a composition representative of the 500-km-long Ginkgo flow of the Columbia River Basalt Group to measure temperature change during transport. Melting experiments were conducted on a bulk sample at 1 atm between 1200 and 1050 °C. Natural glass was sampled from the margin of a feeder dike near Kahlotus, Washington, and from pillow basalt at distances of 120 km (Vantage, Washington), 350 km (Molalla, Oregon), and 370 km (Portland, Oregon). Ginkgo basalt was also sampled at its distal end at Yaquina Head, Oregon (500 km). Comparison of the glass MgO content, K2O in plagioclase, and measured crystallinities in the experimental charges and natural samples tightly constrains the minimum flow temperature to 1085 ± 5 °C. Glass and plagioclase compositions indicate an upper temperature of 1095 ± 5 °C; thus the maximum temperature decrease along the flow axis of the Ginkgo is 20 °C, suggesting cooling rates of 0.02 0.04 °C/km. These cooling rates, substantially lower than rates observed in active and historic flows, are inconsistent with turbulent flow models. Calculated melt temperatures and viscosities of 240 750 Pa · s allow emplacement either as a fast laminar flow under an insulating crust or as a slower, inflated flow.

  15. Evaluation of persistent hydrophobic organic compounds in the Columbia River Basin using semipermeable-membrane devices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarthy, K.A.; Gale, R.W.

    2001-01-01

    Persistent hydrophobic organic compounds are of concern in the Columbia River because they have been correlated with adverse effects on wildlife. We analysed samples from nine main-stem and six tributary sites throughout the Columbia River Basin (Washington and Oregon) for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, and priority-pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Because these compounds may have important biological consequences at aqueous concentrations well below the detection limits associated with conventional sampling methods, we used semipermeable-membrane devices to sample water and achieved parts-per-quintillion detection limits. All of these compound classes were prevalent within the basin, but concentrations of many analytes were highest in the vicinity of Portland-Vancouver, indicating that the Willamette subbasin-and perhaps the urban area in particular-is an important source of these compounds. Data collected during basin low-flow conditions in 1997 and again during basin high-flow conditions in 1998 indicate that in-stream processes such as dilution by relatively clean inflow, and flow through island hyporheic zones may be important mechanisms for attenuating dissolved concentrations of hydrophobic compounds.

  16. Radiological survey of shoreline vegetation from the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, 1990--1992

    SciTech Connect

    Antonio, E.J.; Poston, T.M.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.

    1993-09-01

    A great deal of interest exists concerning the seepage of radiologically contaminated groundwater into the Columbia River where it borders the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site (Hanford Reach). Areas of particular interest include the 100-N Area, the Old Hanford Townsite, and the 300 Area springs. While the radiological character of the seeps and springs along the Hanford Site shoreline has been studied, less attention has been given to characterizing the radionuclides that may be present in shoreline vegetation. The objective of this study was to characterize radionuclide concentrations in shoreline plants along the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River that were usable by humans for food or other purposes. Vegetation in two areas was found to have elevated levels of radionuclides. Those areas were the 100-N Area and the Old Hanford Townsite. There was also some indication of uranium accumulation in milfoil and onions collected from the 300 Area. Tritium was elevated above background in all areas; {sup 60}Co and {sup 9O}Sr were found in highest concentrations in vegetation from the 100-N Area. Technetium-99 was found in 2 of 12 plants collected from the Old Hanford Townsite and 1 of 10 samples collected upstream from the Vernita Bridge. The concentrations of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, and isotopes of uranium were just above background in all three areas (100-N Area, Old Hanford Townsite, and 300 Area).

  17. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Borde, Amy B.; Bryson, Amanda J.; Cameron, April; Coleman, Andre M.; Corbett, C.; Dawley, Earl M.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Kauffman, Ronald; Roegner, G. Curtis; Russell, Micah T.; Silva, April; Skalski, John R.; Thom, Ronald M.; Vavrinec, John; Woodruff, Dana L.; Zimmerman, Shon A.

    2010-10-26

    This is the sixth annual report of a seven-year project (2004 through 2010) to evaluate the cumulative effects of habitat restoration actions in the lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE). The project, called the Cumulative Effects Study, is being conducted for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Portland District (USACE) by the Marine Sciences Laboratory of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), the Pt. Adams Biological Field Station of the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST), and the University of Washington. The goal of the Cumulative Effects Study is to develop a methodology to evaluate the cumulative effects of multiple habitat restoration projects intended to benefit ecosystems supporting juvenile salmonids in the 235-km-long LCRE. Literature review in 2004 revealed no existing methods for such an evaluation and suggested that cumulative effects could be additive or synergistic. From 2005 through 2009, annual field research involved intensive, comparative studies paired by habitat type (tidal swamp versus marsh), trajectory (restoration versus reference site), and restoration action (tidegate replacement vs. culvert replacement vs. dike breach).

  18. Avian Predation on Juvenile Salmonids in the Lower Columbia River: 1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Collis, Ken; Adamany, Stephanie; Roby, Daniel D.; Craig, David P.; Lyons, Donald E.

    2000-04-01

    The authors initiated a field study in 1997 to assess the impacts of fish-eating colonial waterbirds (i.e., terns, cormorants, and gulls) on the survival of juvenile salmonids in the lower Columbia River. Here the authors present results from the 1998 breeding season, the second field season of work on this project. The research objectives in 1998 were to: (1) determine the location, size, nesting chronology, nesting success, and population trajectories of breeding colonies of fish-eating birds in the lower Columbia River; (2) determine diet composition of fish-eating birds, including taxonomic composition and energy content of various prey types; (3) estimate forage fish consumption rates, with special emphasis on juvenile salmonids, by breeding adults and their young; (4) determine the relative vulnerability of different groups of juvenile salmonids to bird predation; (5) identify foraging range, foraging strategies, and habitat utilization by piscivorous waterbirds; and (6) test the feasibility of various alternative methods for managing avian predation on juvenile salmonids and develop recommendations to reduce avian predation, if warranted by the results.

  19. Avian Predation on Juvenile Salmonids in the Lower Columbia River: 1997 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Roby, Daniel D.; Craig, David P.; Collis, Ken; Adamany, Stephanie L.

    1998-09-01

    The authors initiated a field study in 1997 to assess the impacts of fish-eating colonial waterbirds (i.e., terns, cormorants, and gulls) on the survival of juvenile salmonids in the lower Columbia River. Here the authors present results from the 1998 breeding season, the second field season of work on this project. The research objectives in 1998 were to: (1) determine the location, size, nesting chronology, nesting success, and population trajectories of breeding colonies of fish-eating birds in the lower Columbia River; (2) determine diet composition of fish-eating birds, including taxonomic composition and energy content of various prey types; (3) estimate forage fish consumption rates, with special emphasis on juvenile salmonids, by breeding adults and their young; (4) determine the relative vulnerabilit2048 different groups of juvenile salmonids to bird predation; (5) identify foraging range, foraging strategies, and habitat utilization by piscivorous waterbirds; and (6) test the feasibility of various alternative methods for managing avian predation on juvenile salmonids and develop recommendations to reduce avian predation, if warranted by the results.

  20. Investigation of exposure rates and radionuclide and trace metal distributions along the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, A.T.; Woodruff, R.K.

    1993-09-01

    Studies have been conducted to investigate exposure rates, and radionuclide and trace metal distributions along the Columbia River where it borders the Hanford Site. The last major field study was conducted in 1979. With recently renewed interest in various land use and resource protection alternatives, it is important to have data that represent current conditions. Radionuclides and trace metals were surveyed in Columbia River shoreline soils along the Hanford Site (Hanford Reach). The work was conducted as part of the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project, Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The survey consisted of taking exposure rate measurements and soil samples primarily at locations known or expected to have elevated exposure rates.

  1. Annual Report of the Columbia River Treaty, Canadian and United States Entities: 1 October 1992--30 September 1993.

    SciTech Connect

    Columbia River Treaty Operating Committee; B.C. Hydro; United States. Bonneville Power Administration

    1993-11-01

    This annual Columbia River Treaty Entity Report is for the 1993 Water Year, 1 October 1992 through 30 September 1993. It includes information on the operation of Mica, Arrow, Duncan, and Libby reservoirs during that period with additional information covering the reservoir system operating year, 1 August 1992 through 31 July 1993. The power and flood control effects downstream in Canada and the United States are described. This report is the twenty-seventh of a series of annual reports covering the period since the ratification of the Columbia River Treaty in September 1964.

  2. Total dissolved gas and water temperature in the lower Columbia River, Oregon and Washington, 2002: Quality-assurance data and comparison to water-quality standards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanner, Dwight Q.; Johnston, Matthew W.; Bragg, Heather M.

    2002-01-01

    From mid-July to mid-September, water temperatures were usually above 20 degrees Celsius at each of the seven lower Columbia River sites in operation. According to the Oregon water-quality standard, when the temperature of the lower Columbia River exceeds 20 degrees Celsius, no measurable temperature increase resulting from anthropogenic activities is allowed.

  3. Evaluation of the Contribution of Fall Chinook Salmon Reared at Columbia River Hatcheries to the Pacific Salmon Fisheries, Appendix, 1989 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Vreeland, Robert R.

    1989-10-01

    This document contains 43 appendices for the Evaluation of the Contribution of Fall Chinook Salmon Reared at Columbia River Hatcheries to the Pacific Salmon Fisheries'' report. This study was initiated to determine the distribution, contribution, and value of artificially propagated fall Chinook Salmon from the Columbia River.

  4. Total dissolved gas and water temperature in the lower Columbia River, Oregon and Washington, 2002: Quality-assurance data and comparison to water-quality standards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanner, Dwight Q.; Johnston, Matthew W.; Bragg, Heather M.

    2002-12-10

    From mid-July to mid-September, water temperatures were usually above 20 degrees Celsius at each of the seven lower Columbia River sites in operation. According to the Oregon water-quality standard, when the temperature of the lower Columbia River exceeds 20 degrees Celsius, no measurable temperature increase resulting from anthropogenic activities is allowed.

  5. Impacts of Columbia River discharge on salmonid habitat: 2. Changes in shallow-water habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukulka, Tobias; Jay, David A.

    2003-09-01

    This is the second part of an investigation that analyzes human alteration of shallow-water habitat (SWH) available to juvenile salmonids in the tidal Lower Columbia River. Part 2 develops a one-dimensional, subtidal river stage model that explains ˜90% of the stage variance in the tidal river. This model and the tidal model developed in part 1 [, 2003] uncouple the nonlinear interaction of river tides and river stage by referring both to external forcing by river discharge, ocean tides, and atmospheric pressure. Applying the two models, daily high-water levels were predicted for a reach from rkm-50 to rkm-90 during 1974 to 1998, the period of contemporary management. Predicted water levels were related to the bathymetry and topography to determine the changes in shallow-water habitat area (SWHA) caused by flood control dikes and altered flow management. Model results suggest that diking and a >40% reduction of peak flows have reduced SWHA by ˜62% during the crucial spring freshet period during which juvenile salmon use of SWHA is maximal. Taken individually, diking and flow cycle alteration reduced spring freshet SWHA by 52% and 29%, respectively. SWHA has been both displaced to lower elevations and modified in its character because tidal range has increased. Our models of these processes are economical for the very long simulations (seasons to centuries) needed to understand historic changes and climate impacts on SWH. Through analysis of the nonlinear processes controlling surface elevation in a tidal river, we have identified some of the mechanisms that link freshwater discharge to SWH and salmonid survival.

  6. Preliminary estimate of possible flood elevations in the Columbia River at Trojan Nuclear Power Plant due to failure of debris dam blocking Spirit Lake, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kresch, D.L.; Laenen, Antonius

    1984-01-01

    Failure of the debris dam, blocking the outflow of Spirit Lake near Mount St. Helens, could result in a mudflow down the Toutle and Cowlitz Rivers into the Columbia River. Flood elevations at the Trojan Nuclear Power Plant on the Columbia River, 5 mi upstream from the Cowlitz River, were simulated with a hydraulic routing model. The simulations are made for four Columbia River discharges in each of two scenarios, one in which Columbia River floods coincide with a mudflow and the other in which Columbia River floods follow a mudflow sediment deposit upstream from the Cowlitz River. In the first scenario, Manning 's roughness coefficients for clear water and for mudflow in the Columbia River are used; in the second scenario only clear water coefficients are used. The grade elevation at the power plant is 45 ft above sea level. The simulated elevations exceed 44 ft if the mudflow coincides with a Columbia River discharge that has a recurrence interval greater than 10 years (610,000 cu ft/sec); the mudflow is assumed to extend downstream from the Cowlitz River to the mouth of the Columbia River, and Manning 's roughness coefficients for a mudflow are used. The simulated elevation is 32 ft if the mudflow coincides with a 100-yr flood (820,000 cu ft/sec) and clear-water Manning 's coefficients are used throughout the entire reach of the Columbia River. The elevations exceed 45 ft if a flow exceeding the 2-yr peak discharge in the Columbia River (410,000 cu ft/sec) follows the deposit of 0.5 billion cu yd of mudflow sediment upstream of the Cowlitz River before there has been any appreciable scour or dredging of the deposit. In this simulation it is assumed that: (1) the top of the sediment deposited in the Columbia River is at an elevation of 30 ft at the mouth of the Cowlitz River, (2) the surface elevation of the sediment deposit decreases in an upstream direction at a rate of 2.5 ft/mi, and (3) clear water Manning 's coefficients apply to the entire modeled reach of

  7. Diel and distributional abundance patterns of fish embryos and larvae in the lower Columbia and Deschutes rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gadomski, D.M.; Barfoot, C.A.

    1998-01-01

    Diel and distributional abundance patterns of free embryos and larvae of fishes in the lower Columbia River Basin were investigated. Ichthyoplankton samples were collected in 1993 during day and night in the main-channel and a backwater of the lower Columbia River, and in a tributary, the Deschutes River. Fish embryos and larvae collected in the main-channel Columbia River were primarily (85.6%) of native taxa (peamouth Mylocheilus caurinus, northern squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonensis, suckers Catostomus spp., and sculpins Cottus spp.), with two introduced species (American shad Alosa sapidissima and common carp Cyprinus carpio) comprising a smaller percentage of the catch (13.3%). Similarly, in the Deschutes River native taxa [lampreys (Petromyzontidae), minnows (Cyprinidae), and suckers Catostomus spp.] dominated collections (99.5% of the catch). In contrast, 83.5% of embryos and larvae in the Columbia River backwater were of introduced taxa [American shad, common carp, and sunfishes (Centrarchidae)]. In all locations, all dominant taxa except sculpins were collected in significantly greater proportions at night. Taxon-specific differences in proportions of embryos and larvae collected at night can in some instances be related to life history styles. In the main-channel Columbia River, northern squawfish and peamouth were strongly nocturnal and high proportions still had yolksacs, suggesting that they had recently hatched and were drifting downriver to rearing areas. In contrast, sculpin abundances were similar during day and night, and sculpins mostly had depleted yolksacs, indicating sculpins were feeding and rearing in offshore limnetic habitats. Taxon-specific diel abundance patterns and their causes must be considered when designing effective sampling programs for fish embryos and larvae.

  8. Columbia River Treaty 2014/2024 Review: Phase 1 Technical Studies

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2009-04-01

    Since 1964, the Columbia River Treaty has provided significant benefits to the United States and Canada through coordinated river management by the two countries. It remains the standard against which other international water coordination agreements around the world are compared. When the Treaty was negotiated, its goals were to provide significant flood control and power generation benefits to both countries. However, the Treaty contains two provisions that may significantly change these benefits as early as the year 2024. First, in 2024 the 60 years of purchased flood control space in Canadian Treaty projects expires. Instead of a coordinated and managed plan to regulate both Canadian and U.S. projects for flood control, the Treaty calls for a shift to a Canadian operation under which the United States can call upon Canada for flood control assistance. The United States can request this “called upon” assistance as needed but only to the extent necessary to meet forecast flood control needs in the United States that cannot adequately be met by U.S. projects. When called upon is requested, the United States will then have to pay Canada for its operational costs and any economic losses resulting from the called upon flood control operation. Second, while the Treaty has no specified end date, it does allow either Canada or the United States the option to terminate most of the provisions of the Treaty on or after Sept. 16, 2024, with a minimum of 10 years advance written notice. Thus, the year 2024 is the first year a notice of termination would take effect assuming written notice of termination is given by the Canadian or U.S. governments by 2014. Unless the Treaty is terminated or the federal governments elect to modify the Treaty, its provisions continue indefinitely, except for the changes in flood control discussed above. Given the significance of both of these provisions, it is important that the parties to the Treaty understand the implications for post

  9. Evidence for liquefaction identified in peeled slices of Holocene deposits along the Lower Columbia River, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Takada, K.; Atwater, B.F.

    2004-01-01

    Peels made from 10 geoslices beneath a riverbank at Washington's Hunting Island, 45 km inland from the Pacific coast, aid in identifying sand that liquefied during prehistoric earthquakes of estimated magnitude 8-9 at the Cascadia subduction zone. Each slice was obtained by driving sheetpile and a shutter plate to depths of 6-8 m. The resulting sample, as long as 8 m, had a trapezoidal cross section 42-55 cm by 8 cm. The slicing created few artifacts other than bending and smearing at slice edges. Each slice is dominated by well-stratified sand and mud deposited by the tidal Columbia River. Nearly 90% of the sand is distinctly laminated. The sand contains mud beds as thick as 0.5 m and at least 20 m long, and it is capped by a mud bed that contains a buried soil that marks the 1700 Cascadia earthquake of estimated magnitude 9. Every slice intersected sills and dikes of fluidized sand, and many slices show folds and faults as well. Sills, which outnumber dikes, mostly follow and locally invade the undersides of mud beds. The mud beds probably impeded diffuse upward flow of water expelled from liquefied sand. Trapped beneath mud beds, this water flowed laterally, destroyed bedding by entraining (fluidizing) sand, and locally scoured the overlying mud. Horizontal zones of folded sand extend at least 10 or 20 m, and some contain low-angle faults. Many of the folds probably formed while sand was weakened by liquefaction. The low-angle faults may mark the soles of river-bottom slumps or lateral spreads. As many as four great Cascadia earthquakes in the past 2000 yr contributed to the intrusions, folds, and faults. This subsurface evidence for fluid escape and deformation casts doubt on maximum accelerations that were previously inferred from local absence of liquefaction features at the ground surface along the Columbia River. The geosliced evidence for liquefaction abounds not only beneath banks riddled with dikes but also beneath banks in which dikes are absent. Such

  10. Crims Island-Restoration and monitoring of juvenile salmon rearing habitat in the Columbia River Estuary, Oregon, 2004-10

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haskell, Craig A.; Tiffan, Kenneth F.

    2011-01-01

    Under the 2004 Biological Opinion for operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System released by the National Marine Fisheries Service, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), and the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) were directed to restore more than 4,047 hectares (10,000 acres) of tidal marsh in the Columbia River estuary by 2010. Restoration of Crims Island near Longview, Washington, restored 38.1 hectares of marsh and swamp in the tidal freshwater portion of the lower Columbia River. The goal of the restoration was to improve habitat for juveniles of Endangered Species Act (ESA)-listed salmon stocks and ESA-listed Columbian white-tailed deer. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) monitored and evaluated the fisheries and aquatic resources at Crims Island in 2004 prior to restoration (pre-restoration), which began in August 2004, and then post-restoration from 2006 to 2009. This report summarizes pre- and post-restoration monitoring data used by the USGS to evaluate project success. We evaluated project success by examining the interaction between juvenile salmon and a suite of broader ecological measures including sediments, plants, and invertebrates and their response to large-scale habitat alteration. The restoration action at Crims Island from August 2004 to September 2005 was to excavate a 0.6-meter layer of soil and dig channels in the interior of the island to remove reed canary grass and increase habitat area and tidal exchange. The excavation created 34.4 hectares of tidal emergent marsh where none previously existed and 3.7 hectares of intertidal and subtidal channels. Cattle that had grazed the island for more than 50 years were relocated. Soil excavated from the site was deposited in upland areas next to the tidal marsh to establish an upland forest. Excavation deepened and widened an existing T-shaped channel to increase tidal flow to the interior of the island. The western arm of the existing 'T

  11. Ecology of Juvenile Salmonids in Shallow Tidal Freshwater Habitats in the Vicinity of the Sandy River Delta, Lower Columbia River, 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Sobocinski, Kathryn L.; Johnson, Gary E.; Sather, Nichole K.; Storch, Adam; Jones, Tucker A.; Mallette, Christine; Dawley, Earl M.; Skalski, John R.; Teel, David; Moran, Paul

    2008-03-18

    This document is the first annual report for the study titled “Ecology of Juvenile Salmonids in Shallow Tidal Freshwater Habitats in the Vicinity of the Sandy River Delta in the Lower Columbia River.” Hereafter, we refer to this research as the Tidal Freshwater Monitoring (TFM) Study. The study is part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation effort developed by the Action Agencies (Bonneville Power Administration, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation) in response to obligations arising from the Endangered Species Act as a result of operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). The project is performed under the auspices of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council’s Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program.

  12. Evaluation of a long-term hindcast simulation for the Columbia River estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kärnä, Tuomas; Baptista, António M.

    2016-03-01

    In order to simulate the biogeochemical function of estuaries across the land-ocean continuum, circulation models must represent a cascade of complex physical processes spanning several spatial and temporal scales. Furthermore, governing physical processes tend to vary under different flow regimes, in response to external forcings. Model validation must therefore cover all relevant flow regimes and span sufficiently long time to represent transient and slowly-varying phenomena. We focus in a multi-year hindcast simulation of the Columbia River estuary - a mesotidal, river-dominated estuary that is also influenced by coastal upwelling in an Eastern Boundary Current system. Model skill is assessed against long-term observational time series, covering the lower estuary (for salinity) as well as most of the tidal river (for water temperature and elevation). In addition, high-resolution profiles of velocity and salinity are used to study salt transport mechanisms at a single station. Results indicate that the model captures the estuarine dynamics of the system, but the skill depends on the flow regime: In general the model performs far better during spring tides (i.e., under partially mixed or time-dependent salt wedge regimes) than under neap tides (i.e., salt wedge and strongly stratified regimes). While the model accurately represents tidal salt transport mechanisms, it tends to underestimate gravitational transport which becomes more important under neap tide conditions. Furthermore, the skill decreases during high river discharge periods, because the model has difficulty capturing the extremely strong stratification characteristic to those periods.

  13. Changes in productivity and contaminants in bald eagles nesting along the lower Columbia River, USA.

    PubMed

    Buck, Jeremy A; Anthony, Robert G; Schuler, Carol A; Isaacs, Frank B; Tillitt, Donald E

    2005-07-01

    Previous studies documented poor productivity of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in the lower Columbia River (LCR), USA, and elevated p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins, and furans in eagle eggs. From 1994 to 1995, we collected partially incubated eggs at 19 of 43 occupied territories along the LCR and compared productivity and egg contaminants to values obtained in the mid-1980s. We found higher productivity at new nesting sites along the river, yet productivity at 23 older breeding territories remained low and was not different (p = 0.713) between studies. Eggshell thickness at older territories had not improved (p = 0.404), and eggshells averaged 11% thinner than shells measured before dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane use. Decreases in DDE (p = 0.022) and total PCBs (p = 0.0004) in eggs from older breeding areas occurred between study periods. Productivity was not correlated to contaminants, but DDE, PCBs, and dioxin-like chemicals exceeded estimated no-effect values. Some dioxin-like contaminants in eggs were correlated to nest location, with highest concentrations occurring toward the river's mouth where productivity was lowest. Although total productivity increased due to the success of new nesting pairs in the region, egg contaminants remain high enough to impair reproduction at older territories and, over time, may alter productivity of new pairs nesting near the river's mouth.

  14. Changes in productivity and contaminants in bald eagles nesting along the lower Columbia River, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buck, J.A.; Anthony, R.G.; Schuler, C.A.; Isaacs, F.B.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies documented poor productivity of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in the lower Columbia River (LCR), USA, and elevated p,p???-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins, and furans in eagle eggs. From 1994 to 1995, we collected partially incubated eggs at 19 of 43 occupied territories along the LCR and compared productivity and egg contaminants to values obtained in the mid-1980s. We found higher productivity at new nesting sites along the river, yet productivity at 23 older breeding territories remained low and was not different (p = 0.713) between studies. Eggshell thickness at older territories had not improved (p = 0.404), and eggshells averaged 11% thinner than shells measured before dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane use. Decreases in DDE (p = 0.022) and total PCBs (p = 0.0004) in eggs from older breeding areas occurred between study periods. Productivity was not correlated to contaminants, but DDE, PCBs, and dioxin-like chemicals exceeded estimated no-effect values. Some dioxin-like contaminants in eggs were correlated to nest location, with highest concentrations occurring toward the river's mouth where productivity was lowest. Although total productivity increased due to the success of new nesting pairs in the region, egg contaminants remain high enough to impair reproduction at older territories and, over time, may alter productivity of new pairs nesting near the river's mouth. ?? 2005 SETAC.

  15. Food and growth parameters of juvenile chinook in the central Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, C.D.

    1994-10-01

    Juvenile chinook, salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Hanford area of the free-flowing central Columbia River, Washington consume almost entirely adult and larval stages of aquatic insects. The diet is dominated by midges (Diptera: Chironomidae). By numbers, adult midges provided 64 and 58% of the diet and larval midges 17 and 18% of the diet, in 1968 and 1969, respectively. The families Hydropsychidae (Trichoptera), Notonectidae (Hemiptera) and Hypogastruridae (Collembola) are of minor numerical importance with a combined utilization of 7% in 1968 and 15% in 1969. Distinctive features of food and feeding activity of juvenile chinook at Hanford are fourfold: (1) the fish utilize relatively few insect groups, predominantly Chironomidae; (2) they depend largely upon autochthonous river organisms; (3) they visually select living prey drifting, floating or swimming in the water; and (4) they are apparently habitat opportunists to a large extent. Analyses were made of variations in diet and numbers of insects consumed between six sampling stations distributed along a 38 km section of the river. Data are provided on feeding intensity, fish lengths, length-weight relationships, and coefficients of condition. Seasonal changes in river temperature and discharge, as well as variations in regulated flow levels are environmental features influencing feeding, growth, and emigration of fish in the Hanford environs.

  16. Seasonal distribution, movements and habitat associations of northern squawfish in two Lower Columbia River reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martinelli, T.L.; Shively, R.S.

    1997-01-01

    We tracked 335 northern squawfish implanted with radio transmitters in the Columbia River in May-December 1993 and May-September 1994. Most fish were released near The Dalles and John Day dams, with the remaining fish released into reservoir areas away from dams. We used boats with mounted Yagi antennas, fixed site receiver stations near the dams and aerial surveys to track movements of tagged northern squawfish. Northern squawfish were commonly associated with water <5 m deep, water velocities <1 m/s and were <45 m from shore. The average movement from the release site was 19.5 km; fish released near dams remained closer to their release sites than fish released into reservoirs. Short-term movements (successive observations within 24 h) comprised 75% of all detected movements, represented fish moving short distances (mean = 0.96 km) between dams and down-river areas and corresponded to increased passage of juvenile salmonids. Long-term movements (successive observations exceeding 24 h) were mainly attributed to fish released into the reservoirs moving up-river to a dam, and fish moving between the two dam tailrace areas. A strong up-river movement trend terminating at John Day Dam tailrace in June suggested that spawning occurred nearby. Reduced numbers of observations of fish in the autumn suggested that northern squawfish moved away from dam areas and into deeper water for the winter. ?? 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Biological and chemical characterization of metal bioavailability in sediments from Lake Roosevelt, Columbia River, Washington, USA.

    PubMed

    Besser, John M; Brumbaugh, William G; Ivey, Chris D; Ingersoll, Christopher G; Moran, Patrick W

    2008-05-01

    We studied the bioavailability and toxicity of copper, zinc, arsenic, cadmium, and lead in sediments from Lake Roosevelt (LR), a reservoir on the Columbia River in Washington, USA that receives inputs of metals from an upstream smelter facility. We characterized chronic sediment toxicity, metal bioaccumulation, and metal concentrations in sediment and pore water from eight study sites: one site upstream in the Columbia River, six sites in the reservoir, and a reference site in an uncontaminated tributary. Total recoverable metal concentrations in LR sediments generally decreased from upstream to downstream in the study area, but sediments from two sites in the reservoir had metal concentrations much lower than adjacent reservoir sites and similar to the reference site, apparently due to erosion of uncontaminated bank soils. Concentrations of acid-volatile sulfide in LR sediments were too low to provide strong controls on metal bioavailability, and selective sediment extractions indicated that metals in most LR sediments were primarily associated with iron and manganese oxides. Oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus) accumulated greatest concentrations of copper from the river sediment, and greatest concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, and lead from reservoir sediments. Chronic toxic effects on amphipods (Hyalella azteca; reduced survival) and midge larvae (Chironomus dilutus; reduced growth) in whole-sediment exposures were generally consistent with predictions of metal toxicity based on empirical and equilibrium partitioning-based sediment quality guidelines. Elevated metal concentrations in pore waters of some LR sediments suggested that metals released from iron and manganese oxides under anoxic conditions contributed to metal bioaccumulation and toxicity. Results of both chemical and biological assays indicate that metals in sediments from both riverine and reservoir habitats of Lake Roosevelt are available to benthic invertebrates. These findings will be used as

  18. Biological and chemical characterization of metal bioavailability in sediments from Lake Roosevelt, Columbia River, Washington, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Besser, J.M.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; Ivey, C.D.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Moran, P.W.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the bioavailability and toxicity of copper, zinc, arsenic, cadmium, and lead in sediments from Lake Roosevelt (LR), a reservoir on the Columbia River in Washington, USA that receives inputs of metals from an upstream smelter facility. We characterized chronic sediment toxicity, metal bioaccumulation, and metal concentrations in sediment and pore water from eight study sites: one site upstream in the Columbia River, six sites in the reservoir, and a reference site in an uncontaminated tributary. Total recoverable metal concentrations in LR sediments generally decreased from upstream to downstream in the study area, but sediments from two sites in the reservoir had metal concentrations much lower than adjacent reservoir sites and similar to the reference site, apparently due to erosion of uncontaminated bank soils. Concentrations of acid-volatile sulfide in LR sediments were too low to provide strong controls on metal bioavailability, and selective sediment extractions indicated that metals in most LR sediments were primarily associated with iron and manganese oxides. Oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus) accumulated greatest concentrations of copper from the river sediment, and greatest concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, and lead from reservoir sediments. Chronic toxic effects on amphipods (Hyalella azteca; reduced survival) and midge larvae (Chironomus dilutus; reduced growth) in whole-sediment exposures were generally consistent with predictions of metal toxicity based on empirical and equilibrium partitioning-based sediment quality guidelines. Elevated metal concentrations in pore waters of some LR sediments suggested that metals released from iron and manganese oxides under anoxic conditions contributed to metal bioaccumulation and toxicity. Results of both chemical and biological assays indicate that metals in sediments from both riverine and reservoir habitats of Lake Roosevelt are available to benthic invertebrates. These findings will be used as

  19. Organochlorine contaminants in bald eagles and double-crested cormorants nesting along the lower Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, J.; Schuler, C.; Anthony, R.; Tillitt, D.

    1995-12-31

    The Columbia River receives numerous contaminants from municipal and industrial permitted discharges, nonpoint pollution, accidental spills, and hazardous waste sites. Poor reproductive success has been documented in bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nesting along the river, and concentrations of DDE and PCBs in eagle eggs has been correlated with reduced productivity and significant eggshell thinning. Recently, elevated 2,3,7,8 tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) concentrations also were detected in embryos of bald eagles and double-crested cormorants. The authors collected eggs from 11 bald eagle nest sites in 1994 and from 10 cormorant nest sites in 1993 and 1994 and found organochlorines at concentrations potentially harmful to the species. DDE, PCBS, and 2,3,7,8-TCDD in bald eagle eggs averaged 6.84 parts per million (ppm), 6.15 ppm, and 30 parts per trillion (pptr)fresh weight, respectively. In cormorant eggs, fresh weight values ranged from 1.14 to 13.1 ppm for DDE, 0.98 to 9.67 for total PCBS, and 4.8 to 58 pptr for 2,3,7,8-TCDD. Cormorant eggs subjected to a H4IIE rat hepatoma cell bioassay indicated the amounts of TCDD-Equivalents (TCDD-EQs) present would relate to a 23% egg mortality when compared to dose-response relationships between H4IIE-derived TCDD-EQs and egg mortality rates in double-crested cormorants in the Great Lakes. Preliminary results suggest DDE continues to impair reproductive success in Columbia River bald eagles, and dioxin and PCB concentrations may be impacting double-crested cormorants. Further egg analysis and productivity studies will be conducted in 1995.

  20. Foraging patterns of Caspian terns and double-crested cormorants in the Columbia River estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lyons, Donald E.; Roby, D.D.; Collis, K.

    2007-01-01

    We examined spatial and temporal foraging patterns of Caspian terns and double-crested cormorants nesting in the Columbia River estuary, to potentially identify circumstances where juvenile salmonids listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act might be more vulnerable to predation by these avian piscivores. Data were collected during the 1998 and 1999 breeding seasons, using point count surveys of foraging birds at 40 sites along the river's banks, and using aerial strip transect counts throughout the estuary for terns. In 1998, terns selected tidal flats and sites with roosting beaches nearby for foraging, making greater use of the marine/mixing zone of the estuary later in the season, particularly areas near the ocean jetties. In 1999, cormorants selected foraging sites in freshwater along the main channel with pile dikes present, particularly early in the season. Foraging trends in the other year for each species were generally similar to the above but usually not significant. During aerial surveys we observed 50% of foraging and commuting terns within 8 km of the Rice Island colony, and ??? 5% of activity occurred ??? 27 km from this colony in both years. Disproportionately greater cormorant foraging activity at pile dikes may indicate greater vulnerability of salmonids to predation at those features. Colony relocations to sites at sufficient distance from areas of relatively high salmonid abundance may be a straightforward means of reducing impacts of avian predation on salmonids than habitat alterations within the Columbia River estuary, at least for terns. ?? 2007 by the Northwest Scientific Association. All rights reserved.

  1. Carbon and Manganese Cycling in the Columbia River's Estuarine Turbidity Maxima in the South Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bräuer, S. L.; Kranzler, K.; Tebo, B. M.

    2007-12-01

    The Columbia River represents the largest input (60-90%) of fresh water to the California Current System, and provides a major source of dissolved manganese and nutrients to the coastal waters. Researchers have identified upper Estuarine Turbidity Maxima (ETM(s)) as hot spots for microbial activity, and it is here that extensive manganese cycling is thought to occur. Most probable number counts of microorganisms within the ETM have revealed that the cultivable numbers of manganese-oxidizing bacteria are not statistically significantly different than that of other heterotrophs when grown on defined media with simple carbon sources or low concentrations (0.05%) of casamino acids and were in the range of 103 - 104 cells per mL. Similar numbers of heterotrophs (9.3 X 103 cells/mL) were found using a nutrient-rich complex medium; however, the numbers of manganese-oxidizers were significantly lower (~13 cells/mL). Approximately 100 different manganese-oxidizing bacteria were isolated from different media and are being phylogenetically characterized. Measurements of dissolved, ascorbate-reducible and total Mn by inductively coupled plasma- optical emission spectroscopy revealed that concentrations of Mn are positively correlated with turbidity and thus are higher during an ETM event. In addition, dissolved, total, and ascorbate-reducible Mn were all negatively correlated with salinity, supporting the idea that the manganese originates in the river and is diluted by the seawater originating off the coast. Uptake of 14C-labeled bicarbonate in response to various electron donors (nitrite, ammonium, thiosulfate, or Mn(II)) was stimulated during an ETM event but not before or after, indicating that these electron donors may serve as potential energy sources for carbon fixation. Taken together, our results further demonstrate that ETMs are zones with high microbial activity and that the ETM microbial communities harbor the potential for carbon fixation even in the relatively

  2. An assessment the effects of human-caused air pollution on resources within the interior Columbia River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schoettle, A.W.; Tonnessen, K.; Turk, J.; Vimont, J.; Amundson, Ronald; Acheson, A.; Peterson, J.

    1999-01-01

    An assessment of existing and potential impacts to vegetation, aquatics, and visibility within the Columbia River basin due to air pollution was conducted as part of the Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project. This assessment examined the current situation and potential trends due to pollutants such as ammonium, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, particulates, carbon, and ozone. Ecosystems and resources at risk are identified, including certain forests, lichens, cryptogamic crusts, high-elevation lakes and streams, arid lands, and class I areas. Current monitoring data are summarized and air pollution sources identified. The assessment also includes a summary of data gaps and suggestions for future research and monitoring related to air pollution and its effects on resources in the interior Columbia River basin.

  3. Multi-Scale Action Effectiveness Research in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, 2011 - FINAL ANNUAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Sather, Nichole K.; Storch, Adam; Johnson, Gary E.; Teel, D. J.; Skalski, J. R.; Bryson, Amanda J.; Kaufmann, Ronald M.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Blaine, Jennifer; Kuligowski, D. R.; Kropp, Roy K.; Dawley, Earl M.

    2012-05-31

    The study reported here was conducted by researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), the University of Washington (UW), and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE). This research project was initiated in 2007 by the Bonneville Power Administration to investigate critical uncertainties regarding juvenile salmon ecology in shallow tidal freshwater habitats of the lower Columbia River. However, as part of the Washington Memorandum of Agreement, the project was transferred to the USACE in 2010. In transferring from BPA to the USACE, the focus of the tidal freshwater research project shifted from fundamental ecology toward the effectiveness of restoration in the Lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE). The research is conducted within the Action Agencies Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program (CEERP). Data reported herein spans the time period May 2010 to September 2011.

  4. Assessment of the effects of human-caused air pollution on resources within the interior Columbia River basin

    SciTech Connect

    Schoettle, A.W.; Tonnessen, K.; Turk, J.; Vimont, J.; Amundson, R.

    1999-07-01

    An assessment of existing and potential impacts to vegetation, acquatics and visibility within the Columbia River basin due to air pollution was conducted as part of the Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project. This assessment examined the current situation and potential trends due to pollutants such as ammonium, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, particulates, carbon, and ozone. Ecosystems and resources at risk are identified, including certain forest, lichens, cryptogamic crusts, high-elevation lakes and streams, arid land, and class 1 areas. Current monitoring data are summarized and air pollution sources identified. The assessment also includes a summary of data gaps and suggestions for future research and monitoring related to air pollution and its effects on resources in the interior Columbia River basin.

  5. Effects of Marine Mammals on Columbia River Salmon Listed under the Endangered Species Act : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 3 of 11.

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Donn L.

    1993-06-01

    Most research on the Columbia and Snake Rivers in recent years has been directed to downstream migrant salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) losses at dams. Comparatively little attentions has been given to adult losses. Recently an estimated 378,4000 adult salmon and steelhead (O. mykiss) were unaccounted-for from Bonneville Dam to terminal areas upstream. It is now apparent that some of this loss was due to delayed mortality from wounded by marine mammals. This report reviews the recent literature to define predatory effects of marine mammals on Columbia River salmon.

  6. Lead isotopes and the sources of the Columbia River Basalt Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberlain, V. E.; Lambert, R. St. J.

    1994-06-01

    A detailed study of Pb-208/Pb-204, Pb-207/Pb-204, and Pb-206/Pb-204 ratios suggests that the number of Pb isotopic reservoirs required for the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG) (as currently defined) must be increased from the presently accepted four to at least six. The identities of the six reservoirs are two of mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) slightly contaminated with sediment (R1 and R2, R1 being 'Cascades' PB); one a probable plume component (R3); two of unspecified mantle material but probably of R1 type, contaminated with local crustal Pb (R4 and R5); and the sixth a complex enriched reservoir of 2150 Ma age (R6). R1 is an end-member for all CRBG, except the Saddle Mountains Basalts. R2 is a second end-member for the Picture Gorge Basalt and CRBG, except the Saddle Mountains Basalts. R2 is a second end-member for the Picture Gorge Basalt and appears to be unique to it. R3 is the principal source for most of the Wanapum Basalt, as well as for most of the chemically evolved portions of the Grande Ronde Basalt. Volumetric and tectonic considerations require that one source of the CRBG be a plume or, at least, a nonlocal crustal or uppermost mantle source, and R3 is the ideal candidate for that role. R4 is the second source for the Imnaha Basalt, and R5 is the source for the (206)Pb-rich varieties of the Grande Ronde Basalt. R4 and R5 are identified with contamination by local Phanerozoic crust because of their similarity to local crustal Pb and because the rocks which contain them also have Cu contents correlated with their Pb isotopic compositions. R6 is the parent for Pb in all the Saddle Mountain Basalts. This last source appears to have been homogeneous 2150 m.y. ago but has since split into a number of separate, discrete pockets, each with its own characteristic Pb isotopic signature. Some of these appear in individual Saddle Mountain Basalt flows, while other sources have mixed with R4 to produce individual Saddle Mountain Basalt flows of the Ice Harbor

  7. Epidemiology and Control of Infectious Diseases of Salmonids in the Columbia River Basin, 1987 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Fryer, John L.

    1989-01-01

    The Department of Microbiology at Oregon State University with funding from the Bonneville Power Administration has been conducting a study concerning the epidemiology and control of three fish pathogens which cause major disease problems in salmonids of the Columbia River basin. The pathogens studied include Cera to myxa Shasta, the myxosporean parasite which causes ceratomyxosis; Renibacterium salmoninarum, the bacterium which is the etiological agent of bacterial kidney disease; and the rhabdovirus which causes infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN). During this project, the host and geographic range of C. Shasta have been more precisely determined and the known geographic range has been significantly expanded. The effects of the parasite on fish migrating through the Columbia River and on their introduction into salt water have been examined. Similar studies have been conducted with R. salmoninarum and it has been shown that bacterial kidney disease occurs at all life stages of salmonids and is responsible for mortality in both fresh and salt water. It has also been demonstrated that different isolates of R. salmoninarum have different antigenic composition. Results of demonstration projects designed to control IHN by using UV treated water for early rearing of salmonid fry were equivocal. The scope of the project was considerably narrowed and focused during the past two years The project has concentrated on a study concerning the biology of C. Shasta and the identification of potential chemotherapeutants for control of bacterial kidney disease. The emphasis of work on C. Shasta has been its pathogenesis. This aspect of the parasite has been investigated using histopathologic and immunologic methodology. Mode of transmission, the nature of the infectious stage, and potential intermediate hosts of the parasite have also been areas of active research. Classes of chemotherapeutants with the highest potential for efficacy against R. salmoninarum have been

  8. Field Summary Report for Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River, Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    L.C. Hulstrom

    2010-08-11

    This report summarizes field sampling activities conducted in support of WCH’s Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River. This work was conducted form 2008 through 2010. The work included preliminary mapping and measurement of Hanford Site contaminants in sediment, pore water, and surface water located in areas where groundwater upwelling were found.

  9. 75 FR 76328 - Security Zone; Vessels Carrying Hazardous Cargo, Sector Columbia River Captain of the Port Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public.... SUMMARY: The Coast Guard proposes the establishment of a 500 yard security zone around vessels carrying... coming within 500 yards of such vessels while located in Sector Columbia River COTP Zone. In the...

  10. 78 FR 26380 - Proposal To Replace the Existing Movable I-5 Bridge Across the Columbia River With a Fixed Multi...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Background and Purpose CRC is an entity... SECURITY Coast Guard Proposal To Replace the Existing Movable I-5 Bridge Across the Columbia River With a Fixed Multi-use Bridge Which Will Accommodate Vehicular, Light Rail, Pedestrian and Bicycle Traffic...

  11. Water quality of the lower Columbia River basin; analysis of current and historical water-quality data through 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuhrer, Gregory J.; Tanner, Dwight Q.; Morace, Jennifer L.; McKenzie, Stuart W.; Skach, Kenneth A.

    1996-01-01

    Trend tests showed significant (r < 0.05) downward trends from 1973 to 1994 for three constituents at the Columbia River at Warrendale: phosphorus in unfiltered water, total dissolved solids, and specific conductance. These trends may be a consequence of more conservative agricultural practices in the area upstream from Warrendale.

  12. 33 CFR 165.1335 - Security Zone; Vessels Carrying Hazardous Cargo, Sector Columbia River Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Zone as defined in 33 CFR 3.65-15 and the COTP Columbia River determines that a security zone is... REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1335 Security Zone; Vessels Carrying Hazardous Cargo,...

  13. 33 CFR 165.1335 - Security Zone; Vessels Carrying Hazardous Cargo, Sector Columbia River Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Zone as defined in 33 CFR 3.65-15 and the COTP Columbia River determines that a security zone is... REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1335 Security Zone; Vessels Carrying Hazardous Cargo,...

  14. Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program Annual Implementation Work Plan for Fiscal Year 1987-1988.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Northwest Power Planning Council; Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority

    1987-10-01

    The Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (Program) was developed by the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) in accordance with Public Law 96-501, the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act (Act). The purpose of the Program is to guide Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) in carrying out our responsibility to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife of the Columbia River Basin. The Act explicitly gave BPA the authority and responsibility to use the BPA fund for these ends, to the extent that fish and wildlife were affected by the development and operation of hydroelectric generation in the Columbia River Basin. This document presents BPA's plans for Program implementation during Fiscal Year (FY) 1988. BPA's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program Work Plan (Work Plan) reflects the primary goals of the Program's Action Plan: to provide a solid, timely, and focused basis for budgeting and planning. Additionally, BPA's Work Plan provides a means to judge progress and the success of Program implementation. This Work Plan has been organized and written to meet the specific needs of the Council's Action Plan, as described in Action Items 10.1-10.3. It includes schedules with key milestones for FY 1988 through FY 1990. The Work Plan is organized to address the Action Items assigned to BPA in Section 1400 of the 1987 Program.

  15. Carbonate Globules in Columbia River Basalt The Search for Life in Terrestrial Subsurface Environments as Possible Martian Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starke, V.; McKay, D. S.; Wentworth, S. J.; ThomasKeprta, K. L.

    2002-01-01

    Basalts from the Columbia River (CRB) Plateau contain minor amounts of carbonates of unknown origins. We have examined the petrology and chemistry of the CRB carbonates to elucidate the modes of formation. This study is directly relevant to meteorites and future samples returned from Mars. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  16. Survey of Artificial Production of Anadromous Salmonids in the Columbia River Basin, 1981-1985 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Washington, Percy M.

    1985-11-25

    The overall objective of this project is to collect, organize, and summarize data concerning anadromous fish culture stations of the Columbia River system for 1981, 1982, and 1983 and to create a data archive system with a means of making this information available to the public.

  17. Lower Columbia River and Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program Reference Site Study: 2011 Restoration Analysis - FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Borde, Amy B.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Thom, Ronald M.; Kaufmann, Ronald M.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Sagar, Jina; Buenau, Kate E.; Corbett, C.

    2012-05-31

    The Reference Site (RS) study is part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation (RME) effort developed by the Action Agencies (Bonneville Power Administration [BPA], U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District [USACE], and U.S. Bureau of Reclamation) in response to Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinions (BiOp). While the RS study was initiated in 2007, data have been collected at relatively undisturbed reference wetland sites in the LCRE by PNNL and collaborators since 2005. These data on habitat structural metrics were previously summarized to provide baseline characterization of 51 wetlands throughout the estuarine and tidal freshwater portions of the 235-km LCRE; however, further analysis of these data has been limited. Therefore, in 2011, we conducted additional analyses of existing field data previously collected for the Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program (CEERP) - including data collected by PNNL and others - to help inform the multi-agency restoration planning and ecosystem management work underway in the LCRE.

  18. A hierarchical approach to fisheries planning and modeling in the Columbia River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Danny C.; Grant, William E.

    1995-01-01

    The Columbia River Basin is the scene of a massive effort to restore populations of Pacific salmon ( Oncorhynchus spp.) and steelhead ( O. mykiss). Efficient restoration is confounded by a high level of complexity, competing sociopolitical goals and values, and uncertainty about key system properties. Simulation models and other tools of systems analysis are important to development of a comprehensive, regionally acceptable strategy. Hierarchy theory provides a useful paradigm for organized complexity within the Columbia Basin and the basis for a trilevel hierarchical structure for organizing and integrating models. Life-stage models compose the most basic simulation units at the lowest level in the proposed hierarchical modeling structure. Each life-stage model simulates a distinct period in the life cycle of anadromous salmonids. Population models at the intermediate level simulate the complete life cycles of salmon and steelhead populations. At the highest level in the hierarchy, interpopulation models simulate extensive, long-term processes that affect multiple species and stocks. A hierarchical system of models is preferable to a single model or to a group of models lacking formal structure. A principal advantage is that models have the correct spatial and temporal resolution for analyzing questions at different scales. A hierarchical structure also facilitates the flow of information among models, and aids in understanding the impacts of uncertainty. Constructing a hierarchy of models should involve both bottom-up and top-down perspectives that maintain logical consistency among models, while allowing unique model structures appropriate for each level in the hierarchy.

  19. Impact of impingement on the Hudson River white perch population

    SciTech Connect

    Barnthouse, L W; Van Winkle, W

    1980-01-01

    The impact of power plant impingement on the 1974 and 1975 year classes of the Hudson River white perch population is assessed using a simple model derived from Ricker's theory of fisheries dynamics. The impact of impingement is expressed in the model as the conditional mortality rate, rather than as the more commonly used exploitation rate. Since the calculated impact is sensitive to errors in the estimation of population size and total mortality, ranges of probable values of these quantities are used to compute upper and lower bounds on the fractional reduction in abundance of each year class. Best estimates of abundance and mortality are used to compute the conditional impingement mortality rate separately for each plant and month. The results are used to assess the relative impacts of white perch impingement at six Hudson River power plants and to identify the seasons during which the impact is highest.

  20. Estimates of Columbia River radionuclide concentrations: Data for Phase 1 dose calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Richmond, M.C.; Walters, W.H.

    1991-05-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory is conducting the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project to estimate the radiation doses people may have received from historical Hanford Site operations. Under the direction of an independent Technical Steering Panel, the project is being conducted in phases. The objective of the first phase is to assess the feasibility of the project-wide technical approach for acquiring data and developing models needed to calculate potential radiation doses. This report summarizes data that were generated for the Phase 1 dose calculations. These included monthly average concentrations of specific radionuclides in Columbia River water and sediments between Priest Rapids Dam and McNary Dam for the years 1964 to 1966. Nine key radionuclides were selected for analysis based on estimation of their contribution to dose. Concentrations of these radionuclides in the river were estimated using existing measurements and hydraulic calculations based on the simplifying assumption that dilution and decay were the primary processes controlling the fate of radionuclides released to the river. Five sub-reaches between Priest Rapids Dam and McNary Dam, corresponding to population centers and tributary confluences, were identified and monthly average radionuclide concentrations were calculated for each sub-reach. The hydraulic calculations were performed to provide radionuclide concentration estimates for time periods and geographic locations where measured data were not available. The validity of the calculation method will be evaluated in Phase 2. 12 refs., 13 figs., 49 tabs.

  1. Numerical modeling of circulation in high-energy estuaries: A Columbia River estuary benchmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kärnä, Tuomas; Baptista, António M.; Lopez, Jesse E.; Turner, Paul J.; McNeil, Craig; Sanford, Thomas B.

    2015-04-01

    Numerical modeling of three-dimensional estuarine circulation is often challenging due to complex flow features and strong density gradients. In this paper the skill of a specific model is assessed against a high-resolution data set, obtained in a river-dominated mesotidal estuary with autonomous underwater vehicles and a shipborne winched profiler. The measurements provide a detailed view of the salt wedge dynamics of the Columbia River estuary. Model skill is examined under contrasting forcing conditions, covering spring freshet and autumn low flow conditions, as well as spring and neap tides. The data set provides a rigorous benchmark for numerical circulation models. This benchmark is used herein to evaluate an unstructured grid circulation model, based on linear finite element and finite volume formulations. Advection of momentum is treated with an Eulerian-Lagrangian scheme. After the model's sensitivity to grid resolution and time step is examined, a detailed skill assessment is provided for the best model configuration. The simulations reproduce the timing and tidal asymmetry of salinity intrusion. Sharp density gradients, however, tend to be smoothed out affecting vertical mixing and gravitational circulation. We show that gravitational salt transport is underestimated in the model, but is partially compensated through tidal effects. The discrepancy becomes most pronounced when the stratification is strongest, i.e., under high river discharge and neap tide conditions.

  2. Daily forecast of Columbia River plume: a tale of two cruises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, A. M.; Zhang, Y. J.; Chawla, A.; Seaton, C.; Turner, P.; Wilkin, M.; Racicot, A.; Peterson, B.; Morgan, C. A.; Hickey, B.; Kosro, M.; Wesson, J.; Jay, D.

    2004-12-01

    The Columbia River plume has a very dynamic and complex response to external forcings such as wind, freshwater discharge, and tides. In May and July 2004, the CORIE (http://www.ccalmr.ogi.edu/CORIE/) forecasting technology was used to provide daily predictions of baroclinic plume circulation in support of multi-vessel NOAA Fisheries and NSF RISE cruises. Model simulations were transferred real-time or daily to the vessels, and the results were contrasted against data from the CORIE real-time observation network and the Oregon State University coastal radar network, as well as against selected data from the vessels and (in May) airborne remote sensors. The forecasts proved effective in capturing major characteristics of the plume including its response to shifting winds. Post cruise simulations added quality to the quantitative characterization of the plume.

  3. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary, Annual Report 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Borde, Amy B.; Dawley, Earl M.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Putman, Douglas A.; Roegner, G. C.; Russell, Micah; Skalski, John R.; Thom, Ronald M.; Vavrinec, John

    2008-10-01

    The goal of this multi-year study (2004-2010) is to develop a methodology to evaluate the cumulative effects of multiple habitat restoration projects intended to benefit ecosystems supporting juvenile salmonids in the lower Columbia River and estuary. Literature review in 2004 revealed no existing methods for such an evaluation and suggested that cumulative effects could be additive or synergistic. Field research in 2005, 2006, and 2007 involved intensive, comparative studies paired by habitat type (tidal swamp vs. marsh), trajectory (restoration vs. reference site), and restoration action (tide gate vs. culvert vs. dike breach). The field work established two kinds of monitoring indicators for eventual cumulative effects analysis: core and higher-order indicators. Management implications of limitations and applications of site-specific effectiveness monitoring and cumulative effects analysis were identified.

  4. Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program Annual Implementation Work Plan for Fiscal Year 1990.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Northwest Power Planning Council; Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority

    1990-01-01

    The Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (Program) was developed by the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) in accordance with Public Law 96-501, the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act (Act). The purpose of the Program is to guide the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and other Federal agencies in carrying out their responsibilities to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife of the Columbia River Basin. The Act explicitly gives BPA the authority and responsibility to use the BPA fund for these ends, to the extent that fish and wildlife are affected by the development and operation of hydroelectric generation in the Columbia River Basin. This document presents BPA's plans for implementing the Program during Fiscal Year (FY) 1990. The Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program Annual Implementation Work Plan (AIWP) reflects the primary goals of the Council's Action Plan (Section 1400 of the Program): to provide a solid, timely, and focused basis for budgeting and planning. In addition, the AIWP provides a means to judge progress and the success of Program implementation. The FY 1990 AIWP also follows the outline developed by the Policy Review Group (PRG) during Step 1 of initial cycle of the Implementation Planning Process (IPP), which is described in Section III. A number of new FY 1990 projects were still under review by the PRG as the AIWP went to press. These projects have been noted in Table 2, New FY 1990 Program Projects, and in the text of the AIWP. This AIWP has been organized and written to meet the specific needs of Program Action Items 10.1-10.3. The AIWP includes schedules with key milestones for FY 1990 and beyond, and addresses the Action Items assigned to BPA in Section 1400 of the 1987 Program. All BPA-funded Program projects discussed in the FY 1990 AIWP are listed in Tables 1 and 2 according to their status as of September 30, 1989. Table 1 (pp. 3-14) lists completed, ongoing, and

  5. Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program Annual Implementation Work Plan for Fiscal Year 1991.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Northwest Power Planning Council; Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority

    1990-09-01

    The Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (Program) was developed by the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) in accordance with Public Law 96-501, the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act (Act). The purpose of the Program is to guide the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and other Federal agencies in carrying out their responsibilities to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife of the Columbia River Basin. The Act explicitly gives BPA the authority and responsibility to use the BPA fund for these ends, to the extent that fish and wildlife are affected by the development and operation of hydroelectric generation in the Columbia River Basin. The Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program Annual Implementation Work Plan (AIWP) presents BPA's draft plans for implementing the Program during Fiscal Year (FY) 1991. The AIWP reflects the primary goals of the Council's Action Plan (Section 1400 of the Program): to provide a solid, timely, and focused basis for budgeting and planning. In addition, the AIWP provides a means to judge the progress and the success of Program implementation. The AIWP is based on the outline developed by the Policy Review Group (PRG) during Step 1 of the annual cycle of the Implementation Planning Process (IPP), which is described in Section III. This AIWP has been organized and written to meet the specific needs of Program Items 10.1-10.3. The AIWP includes schedules with key milestones for 1 and beyond, and addresses the Action Items assigned to BPA in Section 1400 of the 1987 Program and in subsequent amendments. All Program projects discussed in the AIWP are listed in Tables 1 and 2 according to their status as of September 1, 1990. Table 1 (pp. 3-14) lists completed, ongoing, and deferred projects. Table 2 (pp. 15-17) lists FY 1991 new-start projects. ''Ongoing'' status indicates that the project started in FY 1990 or before and that it is expected to continue through part or all of

  6. Population Estimates for Chum Salmon Spawning in the Mainstem Columbia River, 2002 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rawding, Dan; Hillson, Todd D.

    2003-11-15

    Accurate and precise population estimates of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) spawning in the mainstem Columbia River are needed to provide a basis for informed water allocation decisions, to determine the status of chum salmon listed under the Endangered Species Act, and to evaluate the contribution of the Duncan Creek re-introduction program to mainstem spawners. Currently, mark-recapture experiments using the Jolly-Seber model provide the only framework for this type of estimation. In 2002, a study was initiated to estimate mainstem Columbia River chum salmon populations using seining data collected while capturing broodstock as part of the Duncan Creek re-introduction. The five assumptions of the Jolly-Seber model were examined using hypothesis testing within a statistical framework, including goodness of fit tests and secondary experiments. We used POPAN 6, an integrated computer system for the analysis of capture-recapture data, to obtain maximum likelihood estimates of standard model parameters, derived estimates, and their precision. A more parsimonious final model was selected using Akaike Information Criteria. Final chum salmon escapement estimates and (standard error) from seining data for the Ives Island, Multnomah, and I-205 sites are 3,179 (150), 1,269 (216), and 3,468 (180), respectively. The Ives Island estimate is likely lower than the total escapement because only the largest two of four spawning sites were sampled. The accuracy and precision of these estimates would improve if seining was conducted twice per week instead of weekly, and by incorporating carcass recoveries into the analysis. Population estimates derived from seining mark-recapture data were compared to those obtained using the current mainstem Columbia River salmon escapement methodologies. The Jolly-Seber population estimate from carcass tagging in the Ives Island area was 4,232 adults with a standard error of 79. This population estimate appears reasonable and precise but batch

  7. Evaluate Factors Limiting Columbia River Gorge Chum Salmon Populations : FY2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, Thomas A.

    2001-12-01

    Juvenile and adult chum salmon were monitored in fiscal year 2001 to continue evaluating factors limiting production. Total adult salmon caught (in weirs or by carcass surveys) in Hardy Creek and Hamilton Springs in 2000 was 25 and 130 fish, respectively. Fifty-two fish captured in the main stem Columbia River, Hamilton Springs, Hardy Creek, or Bonneville Dam were implanted with radio tags and tracked with an array of fixed aerials and underwater antennae. Males tended to move greater distances than females. Population estimates in Hardy Creek and Hamilton Springs were 37{+-}2 and 157{+-}5, respectively. Chum smolt emigration began in Hamilton Springs 25 February 2001 and 2 March 2001 in Hardy Creek. Total catches in Hardy Creek and Hamilton Springs were 2,955 and 14,967, respectively. Population abundance estimates were 11,586{+-}1,836 in Hardy Creek and 84,520{+-}9,283 in Hamilton Springs.

  8. Status and trends monitoring of the mainstem Columbia River: sample frame development and review of programs relevant to the development of an integrated approach to monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Counihan, Timothy D.; Hardiman, Jill M.; Waste, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Implementing an Integrated Status and Trends Monitoring program (ISTM) for the mainstem Columbia River will help identify trends in important natural resources and help us understand the long-term collective effects of management actions. In this report, we present progress towards the completion of a stepwise process that will facilitate the development of an ISTM for the mainstem Columbia River. We discuss planning and regulatory documents that can be used to identify monitoring goals and objectives and present existing monitoring and research activities that should be considered as the development of a Columbia River ISTM proceeds. We also report progress towards the development of sample frames for the Columbia and Snake Rivers and their floodplains. The sample frames were formulated using Digital Elevation Models (DEM’s) of the river channel and upland areas and a Generalized Random-Tessellation Stratified (GRTS) algorithm for an area based resource to generate “master sample(s).” Working with the Pacific Northwest Aquatic Monitoring Partnership (PNAMP) we facilitated the transfer of the sample frames to the PNAMP “Monitoring Sample Designer” tool. We then discuss aspects of response and survey designs as they pertain to the formulation of a mainstem Columbia River ISTM. As efforts to formulate an ISTM for the mainstem Columbia River proceed, practitioners should utilize the extensive literature describing the planning and implementation of fish and wildlife mitigation and recovery efforts in the Columbia River Basin. While we make progress towards establishing an ISTM framework, considerable work needs to be done to formulate an ISTM program for the mainstem Columbia River. Long-term monitoring programs have been established for other large rivers systems; scientists that have experience planning, implementing, and maintaining large river monitoring efforts such as those in the Colorado, Illinois, and Mississippi Rivers should be consulted and

  9. An Ecosystem-Based Restoration Plan with Emphasis on Salmonid Habitats in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Thom, Ronald M.; Whiting, Allan H.; Sutherland, George B.; Berquam, Taunja J.; Ebberts, Blaine; Ricci, Nicole M.; Southard, John A.; Wilcox, Jessica D.

    2003-10-14

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), in coordination with the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE) and NOAA Fisheries, originated this project (BPA Project No. 2002-076; Contract No. DE-AC06-76RL01830, Release No. 652-24). Their intent was to develop a useful habitat restoration plan for the lower Columbia River and estuary to help guide restoration efforts and fulfill Reasonable and Prudent Alternative Action 159 of the 2000 National Marine Fisheries Service Biological Opinion on operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System. This document focuses on salmon habitat, although its ecosystem-based approach necessarily affects other species as well. Salmon habitat restoration is best undertaken within the context of other biota and physical processes using an ecosystem perspective. The anticipated audience for the plan includes entities responsible for, interested in, or affected by habitat restoration in the lower Columbia River and estuary. Timeframes to apply this plan extend from the immediate (2003-2004) to the near-term (2005-2006) to the long-term (2007 and beyond). We anticipate and encourage that the plan be revised as new knowledge and experience are attained. A team comprised of the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST), the Lower Columbia River Estuary Partnership (Estuary Partnership), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) wrote this document. The BPA and the COE, as the responsible Action Agencies, provided technical oversight. The Estuary Partnership's Science Work Group, NOAA Fisheries Habitat Conservation Division, Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) staff, and state and tribal fisheries management agencies reviewed drafts. The Independent Scientific Advisory Board of the NPPC reviewed and commented on the 90% draft. Revisions were incorporated into the final draft document subsequently released for public review. Extensive efforts were made to ensure a sound technical and policy basis and to solicit input from all

  10. Epidemiology and Control of Infectious Diseases of Salmonids in the Columbia River Basin, 1984 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Fryer, John L.

    1985-11-01

    The Department of Microbiology at Oregon State University with funding from the Bonneville Power Administration has conducted a study since 1983 relating to the epidemiology and control of three diseases of salmonids in the Columbia River Basin. These diseases are ceratomyxosis, caused by the protozoan parasite Ceratomyxa Shasta, bacterial kidney disease, the etiological agent of which is Renibacterium salmoninarum and infectious hematopoietic necrosis which is caused by a rhabdovirus. Each of these diseases is difficult or impossible to treat with antimicrobial agents. The presence of the infectious stage of C. shasta was again detected at Little Goose Dam on the Snake River. The prevalence of ceratomyxosis increased from 1.1% in 1984 to 10% in 1985. None of the susceptible rainbow trout exposed in the Yakima and Umatilla Rivers died of this disease. Ceratomyxosis in resistant chinook salmon smolts seined from the Columbia River just above the estuary seems dependent on whether or not they are held after capture in fresh or salt water. In fresh water the disease incidence ranged from 7--19%, whereas in salt water it ranged from 0--3%. These results which suggest that recovery from ceratomyxosis may occur after the smolts enter salt water are different from those obtained with susceptible Alsea steelhead trout where experimental groups in salt water have died at the same rate as those in fresh water. Comparing data from groups of Columbia River chinook smolts held after capture in either fresh or salt water, R. salmoninarum is a much more effective pathogen in the salt water environment. After four years of sampling smolts in the open ocean, numbers of this microorganism sufficient to cause death have been detected in chinook (7%) and, coho salmon (2%) and steelhead trout (1%). Results from three years of sampling have consistently indicated that additional fish infected with R. salmoninarum will be detected if egg washings are included in the procedures for

  11. A Survey of Landslide Activity in the Columbia River Gorge from InSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, X.; Schmidt, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Columbia River Gorge contains several large landslide complexes that have exhibited historical movement, both catastrophic and slow moving. Monitoring the kinematics of active movement helps to characterize the ongoing natural hazard. In this study, we document the status of several large landslide complexes along the Columbia River Gorge. We use synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data from multiple satellites (ERS, ENVISAT and ALOS) to reveal the spatial-temporal movement of slow-moving landslides over two decades, 1992-2011. To increase the spatial extent of the signal we developed a new InSAR time-series method based on pixel coherence and derived the time series of the landslides. We also investigate the ability of Persistent Scatterer InSAR to better illuminate active movement. While many historical landslide complexes show minimal or non-existent movement, we measure significant creep on the Redbluff landslide, which is part of the Cascade Landslide Complex near the Bonneville Dam. The InSAR time-series data reveal approximately 25 cm of line-of-sight movement from 5 years of ALOS observations, which translates into greater than 60 cm of downslope movement. The Redbluff landslide is seasonally activated, with accelerated movement observed during the early winter of each year. However, the amplitude of the seasonal signal is variable from year-to-year. To assess the triggering mechanisms, we compared the deformation time series data with local precipitation data. The deformation correlates well with precipitation, implying the slow movement is controlled by rainfall that infiltrates to the base of the slide. A preliminary comparison with the bare earth 2m-resolution digital elevation model from LiDAR reveals that the overall deformation pattern and the active perimeter is highly correlated with the morphology of the landslide.

  12. Food habits of Juvenile American Shad and dynamics of zooplankton in the lower Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haskell, C.A.; Tiffan, K.F.; Rondorf, D.W.

    2006-01-01

    As many as 2.4 million adult American shad annually pass John Day Dam, Columbia River to spawn upriver, yet food web interactions of juvenile shad rearing in John Day Reservoir are unexplored. We collected zooplankton and conducted mid-water trawls in McNary (June-July) and John Day reservoirs (August-November) from 1994 through 1996 during the outmigration of subyearling American shad and Chinook salmon. Juvenile American shad were abundant and represented over 98% of the trawl catch in late summer. The five major taxa collected in zooplankton tows were Bosmina longirostris, Daphnia, cyclopoid cope-pods, rotifers, and calanoid copepods. We evaluated total crustacean zooplankton abundance and Daphnia biomass in relation to water temperature, flow, depth, diel period, and cross-sectional location using multiple regression. Differences in zooplankton abundance were largely due to differences in water temperature and flow. Spatial variation in total zooplankton abundance was observed in McNary Reservoir, but not in John Day Reservoir. Juvenile American shad generally fed on numerically abundant prey, despite being less preferred than larger bodied zooplankton. A decrease in cladoceran abundance and size in August coupled with large percentages of Daphnia in juvenile American shad stomachs indicated heavy planktivory. Smaller juvenile American shad primarily fed on Daphnia in August, but switched to more evasive copepods as the mean size of fish increased and Daphnia abundance declined. Because Daphnia are particularly important prey items for subyearling Chinook salmon in mainstem reservoirs in mid to late summer, alterations in the cladoceran food base is of concern for the management of outmigrating salmonids and other Columbia River fishes. ?? 2006 by the Northwest Scientific Association. All rights reserved.

  13. Physiological development and migratory behavior of subyearling fall chinook salmon in the Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, K.F.; Rondorf, D.W.; Wagner, P.G.

    2000-01-01

    We describe the migratory behavior and physiological development of subyearling fall chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha migrating through John Day Reservoir on the Columbia River, Washington and Oregon. Fish were freeze-branded and coded-wire-tagged at McNary Dam, Oregon, from 1991 to 1994, to determine travel time to John Day Dam and subsequent adult contribution. Stepwise multiple regression showed that 47% of the variation in subyearling fall chinook salmon travel time was explained by the reciprocal of minimum flow and fish size. Smoltification, as measured by gill Na+-K+ adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity, was not important in explaining variability in travel time of subyearling chinook salmon. Fish marked early in the out-migration generally traveled faster than middle and late migrants. Seawater challenges were used to describe physiological development and showed that osmoregulatory competence of premigrants in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River increased with fish size and gill ATPase activity. Once active migrants began passing McNary Dam, fish generally had survival exceeding 90% and were able to regulate their blood plasma Na+ in seawater. Gill ATPase activity increased as premigrants, reared in nearshore areas of the Hanford Reach, reached a peak among active migrants in late June and early July then decreased through the remainder of the out-migration. Salinity preference also peaked in subyearling fall chinook salmon during late June to mid July in 1995. Return of adults from marked groups showed no consistent patterns that would suggest a survival advantage for any portion of the juvenile out-migration. Presumed wild migrants from the middle and late portions of the out-migration were primary contributors to all fisheries, except the Priest Rapids Hatchery. As such, fishery managers should take action to ensure the survival of these fish, especially because they migrate under more unfavorable environmental conditions than early

  14. A procedural evaluation of an analytic-deliberative process: the Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment.

    PubMed

    Kinney, Aimee Guglielmo; Leschine, Thomas M

    2002-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment (CRCIA) was an ambitious attempt to direct its cleanup of the Hanford Nuclear Reservation toward the most significant risks to the Columbia River resulting from past plutonium production. DOE's approach was uncommonly open, including tribal, regulatory agency, and other Hanford interest group representatives on the board that was to develop the assessment approach. The CRCIA process had attributes of the "analytic-deliberative" process for risk assessment recommended by the National Research Council. Nevertheless, differences between the DOE and other participants over what was meant by the term "comprehensive" in the group's charge, coupled with differing perceptions of the likely effectiveness of remediation efforts in reducing risks, were never resolved. The CRCIA effort became increasingly fragmented and the role its products were to play in influencing future clean-up decisions increasingly ambiguous. A procedural evaluation of the CRCIA process, based on Thomas Webler's procedural normative model of public participation, reveals numerous instances in which theoretical-normative discourse disconnects occurred. These had negative implications for both the basic procedural dimensions of Webler's model-fairness and competence. Tribal and other interest group representatives lacked the technical resources necessary to make or challenge what philosopher Jurgens Habermas terms cognitive validity claims, while DOE and its contractors did not challenge normative claims made by tribal representatives. The results are cautionary for implementation of the analytic-deliberative process. They highlight the importance of bringing rigor to the evaluation of the quality of the deliberation component of risk characterization via the analytic-deliberative process, as well as to the analytic component.

  15. Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program Work Plan for Fiscal Year 1989.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration. Division of Fish and Wildlife.

    1988-11-01

    The FY 1989 Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program Work Plan (Work Plan) presents Bonneville Power Administration's plans for implementing the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (Program) in FY 1989. The Work Plan focuses on individual Action Items found in the 1987 Program for which Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has determined that it has authority and responsibility to implement. Each of the entries in the Work Plan includes objectives, background, and progress to date in achieving those objectives, and a summary of plans for implementation in FY 1989. Most Action Items are implemented through one or more BPA-funded projects. Each Action Item entry is followed by a list of completed, ongoing, and planned projects, along with objectives, results, schedules, and milestones for each project. The FY 1989 Work Plan emphasizes continuation of 113 projects, most of which involve protection, mitigation, or enhancement of anadromous fishery resources. BPA also plans to start 20 new projects in FY 1989. The number of ongoing FY 1988 projects to be continued in FY 1989 and the number of new projects planned to start in FY 1989 are based on current (September 7, 1988) procurement expectations. Several projects presently in BPA's procurement process are expected to be contracted by September 30, 1988, the last day of FY 1988. Although these projects have not yet started, they have been listed in the Work Plan as ongoing FY 1988 projects, based on projected start dates in late September 1988. Throughout the Work Plan, those projects with projected start dates in September 1988 have been noted.

  16. Seasonal variability of river geochemistry in the Fraser River, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voss, B. M.; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, B.; Eglinton, T. I.; Montlucon, D.; Gillies, S. L.; Marsh, S.; Janmaat, A.; Downey, B.; Fanslau, J.; Fraser, H.; Macklam-Harron, G.

    2010-12-01

    River systems play a dynamic role in the cycling of carbon between terrestrial and marine reservoirs. The response of these systems to global warming and human activities is uncertain, but likely to involve complex interactions between hydrologic and biogeochemical changes from the basin-scale (e.g. shifts in distribution, volume, and type of precipitation; ecosystem adjustments to land use changes) to particle-scale (e.g. changes in organic matter composition due to altered terrestrial vegetation, changes in sediment characteristics due to damming on individual watersheds). To address these processes in a manner relevant to their global scope, a campaign (funded by the National Science Foundation’s Emerging Topics in Biogeochemical Cycling initiative) is underway to study basin-wide geochemical characteristics of the dissolved, suspended, and bed loads of several major rivers. The Fraser River is of particular interest due to its diversity of geological terrain, seasonality of discharge, and limited damming. Field campaigns in summer 2009 and fall 2010 offer a detailed characterization of the stable and radiogenic isotope signatures of particulate and sedimentary organic carbon; dissolved nutrients, organic and inorganic carbon, and trace metal concentrations; and dissolved 87Sr/86Sr at multiple points along the Fraser main stem and many tributaries. The critical next step is to extrapolate this information across seasonal cycles throughout the year. To that end, a time series sampling program has been established near the Fraser River mouth. Since late 2009, samples for dissolved nutrients, major ions, and 87Sr/86Sr have been collected by colleagues and undergraduate students at the University of the Fraser Valley in Abbotsford, B.C. With a full year of monthly or more frequent samples, we can assess how river geochemistry changes in response to seasonal cycles of temperature and discharge in such a heterogeneous system. This aspect of the world river project

  17. Regional Abrupt Climate Change in the U.S.: Comparing the Colorado and Columbia River Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, D.

    2001-12-01

    Paleoclimatic evidence and historical experience indicate the earth's climate system is capable of switching rapidly from one quasi-stable state to another. Current global assessments of anthropogenic climate change, however, do not fully account for such abrupt shifts, and instead generally assume the earth's climate will gradually warm over the next several centuries. Integrated assessments of abrupt climate change exist, but on a regional level. Here we discuss two examples where abrupt climate change information was applied to the management of natural resources, including water in the Colorado Basin and salmon in the Columbia Basin. Tree-ring data imply that a massive 20-yr drought occurred in the Colorado Basin during the late sixteenth century. The Severe-Sustained Drought assessment (SSD) evaluated the socioeconomic impacts of this historically-unprecedented drought in the context of modern water allocation policy in the Colorado Basin. Based on semi-structured, open-ended interviews with assessment participants and regional stakeholders, the SSD clarified positions of competing water interests and expanded awareness of potential drought impacts, but did not modify Colorado River water management or policies. Assessment design characteristics had limited influence on effectiveness; the timing of publication and political and legal factors constraining alternative policy options for water distribution were more influential determinants. Absent a crisis, there are few incentives for water managers to implement SSD policy recommendations. The lack of a basin wide commission and long-term climate assessment group in the Colorado Basin appear to limit stakeholder ability to utilize technical information related to abrupt climate change. In the Columbia River Basin, the crisis of declining salmon stocks motivated the consideration of alternative policies which recognize the role of unpredictable and abrupt decadal shifts in oceanic productivity. Although actual

  18. Assessing survival of Mid-Columbia River released juvenile salmonids at McNary Dam, Washington, 2008-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, Scott D.; Walker, Christopher E.; Brewer, Scott J.; Adams, Noah S.

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated survival of juvenile salmon over long river reaches in the Columbia River and information regarding the survival of sockeye salmon at lower Columbia River dams is lacking. To address these information gaps, the U.S. Geological Survey was contracted by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to evaluate the possibility of using tagged fish released in the Mid-Columbia River to assess passage and survival at and downstream of McNary Dam. Using the acoustic telemetry systems already in place for a passage and survival study at McNary Dam, fish released from the tailraces of Wells, Rocky Reach, Rock Island, Wanapum, and Priest Rapids Dams were detected at McNary Dam and at the subsequent downstream arrays. These data were used to generate route-specific survival probabilities using single-release models from fish released in the Mid-Columbia River. We document trends in passage and survival probabilities at McNary Dam for yearling Chinook and sockeye salmon and juvenile steelhead released during studies in the Mid-Columbia River. Trends in the survival and passage of these juvenile salmonid species are presented and discussed. However, comparisons made across years and between study groups are not possible because of differences in the source of the test fish, the type of acoustic tags used, the absence of the use of passive integrated transponder tags in some of the release groups, differences in tagging and release protocols, annual differences in dam operations and configurations, differences in how the survival models were constructed (that is, number of routes that could be estimated given the number of fish detected), and the number and length of reaches included in the analysis (downstream reach length and arrays). Despite these differences, the data we present offer a unique opportunity to examine the migration behavior and survival of a group of fish that otherwise would not be studied. This is particularly true for sockeye salmon because

  19. Determination of key radionuclides and parameters related to dose from the Columbia River pathway. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, B.A.

    1993-03-01

    A series of scoping calculations has been undertaken to evaluate the absolute and relative contributions of different radionuclides and exposure pathways to doses that may have been received by individuals living in the vicinity of the Hanford Site. These scoping calculations may include some radionuclides and pathways that were included in the Phase 1 Columbia River pathway dose evaluations, as well as other potential exposure pathways being evaluated for possible inclusion in future Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project (HEDR) modeling efforts. This scoping calculation (Calculation 009) examines the contributions of numerous radionuclides to dose via environmental exposures and accumulation in water, fish, and other aquatic biota. Addressed in these calculations are the contributions to effective dose from (1) external exposure to contaminated river water, ( 2) ingestion of contaminated drinking water, and (3) ingestion of contaminated resident Columbia River fish. Additional information on contamination of anadromous fish and waterfowl is provided.

  20. Chlorinated hydrocarbons in livers of American mink (Mustela vison) and river otter (Lutra canadensis) from the Columbia and Fraser River Basins, 1990-1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, J.E.; Henny, Charles J.; Harris, M.L.; Wilson, L.K.; Norstrom, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    We investigated chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants in aquatic mustelid species on the Fraser and Columbia Rivers of northwestern North America. Carcasses of river otter (Lutra canadensis) (N=24) and mink (Mustela vison) (N=34) were obtained from commercial trappers during the winters of 1990-91 and 1991a??92. Pooled liver samples were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), including non-ortho congeners, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Most samples contained detectable concentrations of DDE, PCBs, although there was substantial variability in patterns and trends among neighboring samples. Concentrations of DDE were in some mink and several otter samples from the lower Columbia River elevated (to 4700 g/kg wet weight); excluding one mink sample from the Wenatchee area, mean DDE levels generally decreased between 1978a??79 and 1990a??92. PCBs were present in all samples. PCB concentrations in otter livers collected from the lower Columbia were ten-fold lower than measured a decade previously; nevertheless, a sample taken near Portland had a mean concentration of 1500 g/kg, within a range of concentrations associated with reproductive effects in captive mink. Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-TCDD and TCDF were generally below detection limits, except for one otter collected near a pulp mill at Castlegar, on the upper Columbia, with 11 ng TCDD/kg in liver. Elevated concentrations of higher chlorinated PCDD/Fs, probably resulting from use of chlorophenolic wood preservatives, were found in both species; one otter sample from the lower Columbia had 2200 ng OCDD/kg. International TCDD toxic equivalent levels in mink (31 ng/kg) and otter (93 ng/kg) from the lower Columbia River approached toxicity thresholds for effects on reproduction in ranch mink.

  1. Simultaneously Extracted Metals/Acid-Volatile Sulfide and Total Metals in Surface Sediment from the Hanford Reach of the Columbia RIver and the Lower Snake River

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, Gregory W.; Crecelius, Eric A.

    2001-01-24

    Metals have been identified as contaminants of concern for the Hanford Reach because of upriver mining, industrial activities, and past nuclear material production at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. This study was undertaken to better understand the occurrence and fate of metals in sediment disposition areas in the Columbia and Snake Rivers.

  2. Simultaneously Extracted Metals/Acid-Volatile Sulfide and Total Metals in Surface Sediment from the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River and the Lower Snake River

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, Gregory W; Crecelius, Eric A

    2001-01-24

    Metals have been identified as contaminants of concern for the Hanford Reach because of upriver mining, industrial activities, and past nuclear material production at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. This study was undertaken to better understand the occurrence and fate of metals in sediment disposition areas in the Columbia and Snake Rivers.

  3. Genetic and Phenotypic Catalog of Native Resident Trout of the interior Columbia River Basin : FY-2001 Report : Populations in the Wenatchee, Entiat, Lake Chelan and Methow River Drainages.

    SciTech Connect

    Trotter, Patrick C.

    2001-10-01

    The 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council specifies the recovery and preservation of population health of native resident fishes of the Columbia River Basin. Among the native resident species of concern are interior rainbow trout of the Columbia River redband subspecies Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri 1 and westslope cutthroat trout O. clarki lewisi. The westslope cutthroat trout has been petitioned for listing under the U. S. Endangered Species Act (American Wildlands et al. 1997). Before at-risk populations can be protected, their presence and status must be established. Where introgression from introduced species is a concern, as in the case of both westslope cutthroat trout and redband rainbow trout, genetic issues must be addressed as well. As is true with native trout elsewhere in the western United States (Behnke 1992), most of the remaining pure populations of these species in the Columbia River Basin are in relatively remote headwater reaches. The objective of this project was to photo-document upper Columbia Basin native resident trout populations in Washington, and to ascertain their species or subspecies identity and relative genetic purity using a nonlethal DNA technique. FY-2001 was year three (and final year) of a project in which we conducted field visits to remote locations to seek out and catalog these populations. In FY-2001 we worked in collaboration with the Wenatchee National Forest to catalog populations in the Wenatchee, Entiat, Lake Chelan, and Methow River drainages of Washington State.

  4. A River Runs through It: A School on the Edge of the Columbia River Estuary Combines Science and Stewardship Right in Its Own Backyard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Lee

    2002-01-01

    The estuary at the mouth of the Columbia River in Wahkiakum County Washington) provides a natural laboratory for experiential learning. Wahkiakum High School students participate in interdisciplinary projects that have included habitat restoration, a salmon hatchery, stream restoration, tree planting, and recreating the final leg of the Lewis and…

  5. Epidemiology and Control of Infectious Diseases of Salmonids in the Columbia River Basin, 1986 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Fryer, John L.

    1986-12-01

    The Department of Microbiology at Oregon State University with funding from the Bonneville Power Administration conducted a study relating to the epidemiology and control of three fish diseases of salmonids in the Columbia River Basin. These three diseases were ceratomyxosis caused by the myxosporidan parasite Ceratomyxa Shasta, bacterial kidney disease, the causative agent Renibacterium salmoninarum, and infectious hematopoietic necrosis, caused by a rhabdovirus. Each of these diseases is highly destructive and difficult or impossible to treat with antimicrobial agents. The geographic range of the infectious stage of C. Shasta has been extended to include the Snake River to the Oxbow and Hells Canyon Dams. These are the farthest upriver sites tested. Infections of ceratomyxosis were also initiated in the east fork of the Lewis River and in the Washougal River in Washington. Laboratory studies with this parasite failed to indicate that tubeficids are required in its life cycle. Bacterial kidney disease has been demonstrated in all life stages of salmonids: in the eggs, fry, smolts, juveniles and adults in the ocean, and in fish returning to fresh water. Monoclonal antibodies produced against R. salmoninarum demonstrated antigenic differences among isolates of the bacterium. Monoclonal antibodies also showed antigens of R. salmoninarum which are similar to those of a wide variety of gram positive and gram negative bacteria. A demonstration project at Round Butte Hatchery showed U V treatment to be an effective method for reducing the microbial population of the water supply and could reduce risks of IHNV. Tangential flow filtration was used successfully to concentrate IHNV from environmental water. At Round Butte Hatchery the carrier rate of IHNV in adults was very low and there was no subsequent mortality resulting from IHN in juveniles.

  6. Feeding bionomics of juvenile chinook salmon relative to thermal discharges in the central Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, C.D.

    1994-10-01

    Juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Hanford environs of the central Columbia River, Washington consumed almost entirely adult and larval stages of aquatic insects. The food organisms were dominated by midges (Diptera: Tendipedidae); by numbers, adult midges provided 64 and 58% of the diet and larval midges 17 and 18% of the diet, in 1968 and 1969, respectively. The families Hydropsychidae (Trichoptera), Notonectidae (Hemiptera) and Hypogastruridae (Collembola) were of secondary importance. Small fry fed almost exclusively on the small tendipedids. Over 95% of all food organisms originated within the river ecosystem. The distinctive features of food and feeding activity were fourfold: first, relatively few insect groups were utilized; second, the fish depended on drifting, floating, or swimming organisms; third, they visually selected living prey moving in or on the water; and fourth, they were habitat opportunists to a high degree. The 1969 data, were studied to reveal possible thermal effects of heated discharges from plutonium production reactors at Hanford on food and growth parameters. All data were characterized by considerable variation between and within stations. No discernable effects between coldwater and warmwater stations were revealed by analyses of: (1) groups of food organisms utilized, (2) food and feeding activity, (3) numbers of insects consumed, (4) seasonal increases in fish length, (5) fish length-weight relationships, (6) fish coefficients of condition, and (7) stomach biomass. The lack of detectable thermal effects was apparently due to the fact that the main effluent plumes discharge in midstream and the effluents are well mixed before reaching inshore feeding areas. The transient nature of fish groups at each station, influenced by changes in regulated river flows, and the availability of food organisms in the river drift were ecological factors affecting critical thermal evaluation in situ.

  7. Identification of the Spawning, Rearing and Migratory Requirements of Fall Chinook Salmon in the Columbia River Basin, Annual Report 1992.

    SciTech Connect

    Rondorf, Dennis W.; Miller, William H.

    1994-03-01

    This document is the 1992 annual progress report for selected studies of fall chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha conducted by the National Biological Survey (NBS) and the US Fish and Wildlife Service. The decline in abundance of fall chinook salmon in the Snake River basin has become a growing concern. Effective recovery efforts for fall chinook salmon cannot be developed until we increase our knowledge of the factors that are limiting the various life history stages. This study attempts to identify those physical and biological factors which influence spawning of fall chinook salmon in the free-flowing Snake River and their rearing and seaward migration through Columbia River basin reservoirs.

  8. Observations of the Behavior and Distribution of Fish in Relation to the Columbia River Navigation Channel and Channel Maintenance Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Johnson, R. L.; Mueller, Robert P.; Weiland, Mark A.; Johnson, P. N.

    2001-10-19

    This report is a compilation of 7 studies conducted for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers between 1995 and 1998 which used hydroacoustic methods to study the behavior of migrating salmon in response to navigation channel maintenance activities in the lower Columbia River near river mile 45. Differences between daytime and nighttime behavior and fish densities were noted. Comparisons were made of fish distribution across the river (in the channel, channel margin or near shore) and fish depth upstream and downstream of dikes, dredges, and pile driving areas.

  9. System-Wide Significance of Predation on Juvenile Salmonids in Columbia and Snake River Reservoirs : Annual Report 1992.

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, James H.; Poe, Thomas P.

    1993-12-01

    Northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) predation on juvenile salmonids was characterized during 1992 at ten locations in the Columbia River below Bonneville Dam and at three locations in John Day Reservoir. During the spring and summer, 1,487 northern squawfish were collected in the lower Columbia River and 202 squawfish were sampled in John Day Reservoir. Gut content data, predator weight, and water temperature were used to compute a consumption index (CI) for northern squawfish, and overall diet was also described. In the Columbia River below Bonneville Dam, northern squawfish diet was primarily fish (spring 69%; summer 53%), most of which were salmonids. Salmonids were also the primary diet component in the Bonneville Dam tailrace, John Day Dam forebay, and the McNary Dam tailrace. Crustaceans were the dominant diet item at the John Day mid-reservoir location, although sample sizes were small. About half of the non-salmonid preyfish were sculpins. The consumption index (CI) of northern squawfish was generally higher during summer than during spring. The highest CI`s were observed during summer in the tailrace boat restricted zones of Bonneville Dam (CI = 7.8) and McNary Dam (CI = 4.6). At locations below Bonneville Dam, CI`s were relatively low near Covert`s Landing and Rooster Rock, higher at four locations between Blue Lake and St. Helens, and low again at three downriver sites (Kalama, Ranier, and Jones Beach). Northern squawfish catches and CI`s were noticeably higher throughout the lower Columbia compared to mid-reservoir sites further upriver sampled during 1990--92. Predation may be especially intense in the free-flowing section of the Columbia River below Bonneville Dam. Smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui; N = 198) ate mostly fish -- 25% salmonids, 29% sculpins, and 46% other fish. Highest catches of smallmouth bass were in the John Day Dam forebay.

  10. Exotic plant colonization and occupancy within riparian areas of the Interior Columbia River and Upper Missouri River basins, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Ray, Andrew M.; Roper, Brett B.; Archer, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Exotic plant invasions into riparia often result in shifts in vegetative composition, altered stream function, and cascading effects to biota at multiple scales. Characterizing the distribution patterns of exotic plants is an important step in directing targeted research to identify mechanisms of invasion and potential management strategies. In this study, we employed occupancy models to examine the associations of landscape, climate, and disturbance attributes with the colonization and occupancy patterns for spotted knapweed (Centaurea stoebe L.), Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense L., Scop.), and cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) in the riparia of headwater streams (n = 1,091) in the Interior Columbia River and Upper Missouri River Basins. We found relatively low occupancy rates for cheatgrass (0.06, SE = 0.02) and spotted knapweed (0.04, SE = 0.01), but moderate occupancy of Canada thistle (0.28, SE = 0.05); colonization rates were low across all species (<0.01). We found the distributions of spotted knapweed, Canada thistle, and cheatgrass to exhibit significant associations with both ambient climate conditions and anthropogenic and natural disturbances. We attribute the low to moderate occupancy and colonization rates to the relatively remote locations of our sample sites within headwater streams and urge consideration of means to prevent further invasions.

  11. Estimated Entrainment of Dungeness Crab During Dredging For The Columbia River Channel Improvement Project

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, Walter H.; Williams, Greg D.; Skalski, John R.

    2002-12-01

    The studies reported here focus on issues regarding the entrainment of Dungeness crab related to the proposed Columbia River Channel Improvement Project and provided direct measurements of crab entrainment rates at three locations (Desdomona Shoals, Upper Sands, and Miller Sands) from RM4 to RM24 during summer 2002. Entrainment rates for all age classes of crabs ranged from zero at Miller Sands to 0.224 crabs per cy at Desdemona Shoals in June 2002. The overall entrainment rate at Desdomona Shoals in September was 0.120 crabs per cy. A modified Dredge Impact Model (DIM) used the summer 2002 entrainment rates to project crab entrainment and adult equivalent loss and loss to the fishery for the Channel Improvement Project. To improve the projections, entrainment data from Flavel Bar is needed. The literature, analyses of salinity intrusion scenarios, and the summer 2002 site-specific data on entrainment and salinity all indicate that bottom salinity influences crab distribution and entrainment, especially at lower salinities. It is now clear from field measurements of entrainment rates and salinity during a period of low river flow (90-150 Kcfs) and high salinity intrusion that entrainment rates are zero where bottom salinity is less than 16 o/oo most of the time. Further, entrainment rates of 2+ and older crab fall with decreasing salinity in a clear and consistent manner. More elaboration of the crab distribution- salinity model, especially concerning salinity and the movements of 1+ crab, is needed.

  12. AUV Measured Variability in Phytoplankton Fluorescence within the ETM of the Columbia River during Summer 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeil, C. L.; Shcherbina, A.; Litchendorf, T. M.; Sanford, T. B.; Martin, D.; Baptista, A. M.; Lopez, J.; Crump, B. C.; Peterson, T. D.; Prahl, F. G.; Cravo, A.

    2014-12-01

    We present highly resolved observations of fluorescence and optical backscatter taken in the estuarine turbidity maxima (ETM) of the North Channel of the Columbia River estuary (USA) during summer 2013. Measurements were made using two REMUS-100 autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) equipped with ECO Puck triplets. Concentrations of three phytoplankton pigments were measured by fluorescence emission at wavelengths of 695 nm for chlorophyll, 570 nm for phycoerythrin, and 680 nm for phycocyanin. We use phycocyanin to indicate the presence of freshwater phytoplankton. Optical backscatter at wavelengths of 700 nm and 880 nm are used to characterize turbidity. During flood tide, high phycocyanin concentrations were associated with a strong ETM event which had relatively low salinity waters of approximately 6 psu. These data indicate that this low salinity ETM event contained large concentrations of freshwater phytoplankton. Since freshwater phytoplankton are known to lyse in saltwater, the brackish ETM event may have formed by the accumulation of lysed freshwater phytoplankton that settled out from the river as it mixed in the lower estuary. As the flood tide proceeded, it brought high concentrations of marine phytoplankton into the north channel at mid-depth as indicated by high chlorophyll levels with significantly lower phycoerythrin concentrations in high salinity waters of approximately 30 psu. The data set highlights the potential for large variability in phytoplankton species composition and concentrations within the ETM depending on mixing rates and phytoplankton bloom dynamics. Visualization of the 4-D data is aided by generating interpolated data movies.

  13. Imaging fall Chinook salmon redds in the Columbia River with a dual-frequency identification sonar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, K.F.; Rondorf, D.W.; Skalicky, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    We tested the efficacy of a dual-frequency identification sonar (DIDSON) for imaging and enumeration of fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha redds in a spawning area below Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River. The DIDSON uses sound to form near-video-quality images and has the advantages of imaging in zero-visibility water and possessing a greater detection range and field of view than underwater video cameras. We suspected that the large size and distinct morphology of a fall Chinook salmon redd would facilitate acoustic imaging if the DIDSON was towed near the river bottom so as to cast an acoustic shadow from the tailspill over the redd pocket. We tested this idea by observing 22 different redds with an underwater video camera, spatially referencing their locations, and then navigating to them while imaging them with the DIDSON. All 22 redds were successfully imaged with the DIDSON. We subsequently conducted redd searches along transects to compare the number of redds imaged by the DIDSON with the number observed using an underwater video camera. We counted 117 redds with the DIDSON and 81 redds with the underwater video camera. Only one of the redds observed with the underwater video camera was not also documented by the DIDSON. In spite of the DIDSON's high cost, it may serve as a useful tool for enumerating fall Chinook salmon redds in conditions that are not conducive to underwater videography.

  14. Effects of Total Dissolved Gas on Chum Salmon Fry Incubating in the Lower Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Arntzen, Evan V.; Hand, Kristine D.; Geist, David R.; Murray, Katherine J.; Panther, Jenny; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Dawley, Earl M.; Elston, Ralph A.

    2008-01-30

    This report describes research conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in FY 2007 for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, to characterize the effects of total dissolved gas (TDG) on the incubating fry of chum salmon (Onchorhynchus keta) in the lower Columbia River. The tasks conducted and results obtained in pursuit of three objectives are summarized: * to conduct a field monitoring program at the Ives Island and Multnomah Falls study sites, collecting empirical data on TDG to obtain a more thorough understanding of TDG levels during different river stage scenarios (i.e., high-water year versus low-water year) * to conduct laboratory toxicity tests on hatchery chum salmon fry at gas levels likely to occur downstream from Bonneville Dam * to sample chum salmon sac fry during Bonneville Dam spill operations to determine if there is a physiological response to TDG levels. Chapter 1 discusses the field monitoring, Chapter 2 reports the findings of the laboratory toxicity tests, and Chapter 3 describes the field-sampling task. Each chapter contains an objective-specific introduction, description of the study site and methods, results of research, and discussion of findings. Literature cited throughout this report is listed in Chapter 4. Additional details on the study methdology and results are provided in Appendixes A through D.

  15. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Spring-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2008.

    SciTech Connect

    Faulkner, James R.; Smith, Steven G.; Muir, William D.

    2009-06-23

    In 2008, the National Marine Fisheries Service completed the sixteenth year of a study to estimate survival and travel time of juvenile salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. All estimates were derived from detections of fish tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. We PIT tagged and released a total of 18,565 hatchery steelhead O. mykiss, 15,991 wild steelhead, and 9,714 wild yearling Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha at Lower Granite Dam in the Snake River. In addition, we utilized fish PIT tagged by other agencies at traps and hatcheries upstream from the hydropower system and at sites within the hydropower system in both the Snake and Columbia Rivers. These included 122,061 yearling Chinook salmon tagged at Lower Granite Dam for evaluation of latent mortality related to passage through Snake River dams. PIT-tagged smolts were detected at interrogation facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, Ice Harbor, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams and in the PIT-tag detector trawl operated in the Columbia River estuary. Survival estimates were calculated using a statistical model for tag-recapture data from single release groups (the single-release model). Primary research objectives in 2008 were to: (1) estimate reach survival and travel time in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the migration period of yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead, (2) evaluate relationships between survival estimates and migration conditions, and (3) evaluate the survival estimation models under prevailing conditions. This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 2008 for PIT-tagged yearling Chinook salmon (hatchery and wild), hatchery sockeye salmon O. nerka, hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch, and steelhead (hatchery and wild) in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Additional details on the methodology and statistical models used are provided in previous reports cited here. Survival

  16. Water supply, demand, and quality indicators for assessing the spatial distribution of water resource vulnerability in the Columbia River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chang, Heejun; Jung, Il-Won; Strecker, Angela; Wise, Daniel; Lafrenz, Martin; Shandas, Vivek; ,; Yeakley, Alan; Pan, Yangdong; Johnson, Gunnar; Psaris, Mike

    2013-01-01

    We investigated water resource vulnerability in the US portion of the Columbia River basin (CRB) using multiple indicators representing water supply, water demand, and water quality. Based on the US county scale, spatial analysis was conducted using various biophysical and socio-economic indicators that control water vulnerability. Water supply vulnerability and water demand vulnerability exhibited a similar spatial clustering of hotspots in areas where agricultural lands and variability of precipitation were high but dam storage capacity was low. The hotspots of water quality vulnerability were clustered around the main stem of the Columbia River where major population and agricultural centres are located. This multiple equal weight indicator approach confirmed that different drivers were associated with different vulnerability maps in the sub-basins of the CRB. Water quality variables are more important than water supply and water demand variables in the Willamette River basin, whereas water supply and demand variables are more important than water quality variables in the Upper Snake and Upper Columbia River basins. This result suggests that current water resources management and practices drive much of the vulnerability within the study area. The analysis suggests the need for increased coordination of water management across multiple levels of water governance to reduce water resource vulnerability in the CRB and a potentially different weighting scheme that explicitly takes into account the input of various water stakeholders.

  17. Determination of Columbia River flow times from Pasco, Washington using radioactive tracers introduced by the Hanford reactors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Jack L.; Perkins, R.W.; Haushild, W.L.

    1966-01-01

    Radioactive tracers introduced into the Columbia River in cooling water from the Hanford reactors were used to measure flow times downstream from Pasco, Washington, as far as Astoria, Oregon. The use of two tracer methods was investigated. One method used the decay of a steady release of Na24 (15-hour half-life) to determine flow times to various downstream locations, and flow times were also determined from the time required for peak concentration of instantaneous releases of I131 (8-day half-life) to reach these locations. Flow times determined from the simultaneous use of the two methods agreed closely. The measured flow times for the 224 miles from Pasco to Vancouver, Washington, ranged from 14.6 to 3.6 days, respectively, for discharges of 108,000 and 630,000 ft3/sec at Vancouver, Washington. A graphic relation for estimating flow times at discharges other than those measured and for several locations between Pasco and Vancouver was prepared from the data of tests made at four river discharges. Some limited data are also presented on the characteristics of dispersion of I131 in the Columbia River. (Keywords: Radioactivity; time of flow; Columbia River.)

  18. Some volcanologic aspects of Columbia River basalt volcanism relevant to the extinction controversy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, Donald A.

    1988-01-01

    The Columbia River Basalt Group is the youngest and most thoroughly studied flood-basalt province known; information about it should be relevant to questions about the possible relation of flood-basalt volcanism to mass extinctions. The group has a total volume of about 174,000 cu km and covers an area of about 164,000 sq km. It was erupted between 17.5 and 6 Ma, as measured by K-Ar and Ar-40/Ar-39 dates. Early eruptions formed the Imnaha Basalt. More than 85 percent of the group was produced during a 1.5 my period between 17 and 15.5 Ma, forming the Grande Ronde and greatly subordinate Picture Gorge Basalts. Later flows formed the Wanapum Basalt, which includes the well-known Roza Member, and the Saddle Mountains Basalt. Linear vent systems for many of the flows are known and are located only in the eastern third of the Columbia Plateau. No systematic migration of vents occurred throughout the 11.5 my period of activity; this and other considerations make it unlikely that the province is related to a hot spot. Model calculations based on observations that little cooling occurred during flow of hundreds of kilometers suggest eruption and emplacement durations of a few days. Some voluminous flows occur in all formations, but most such flows apparently were erupted during Grande Ronde time. The eruption and emplacement of more than 1,000 cu km of 1100 C basaltic lava on the surface within several days doubtless had at least local meteorologic effects. Whether the effects were broader can at present only be hypothesized. Grande Ronde Basalt and Picture Gorge Basalts contain moderately common but thin sedimentary interbeds between flows, whereas earlier and later formations contain numerous, locally thick sediment accumulations. Volcaniclastic debris derived from extra-plateau sources commonly occurs in the testbeds.

  19. Locating Ground-Water Discharge in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, D.R.; Geist, D.R.; Saldi, K.; Hartwig, D.; Cooper, T.

    1997-03-01

    A bottom-contacting probe for measuring electrical conductivity at the sediment-water interface was used to scan the bed of the Columbia River adjacent to the Hanford Site in southeast Washington State during a 10-day investigation. Four river-sections, each about a kilometer in length, were scanned for variations in electrical conductivity. The probe was towed along the riverbed at a speed of 1 m/s and is position was recorded using a Global Positioning System. The bottom tows revealed several areas of elevated electrical conductivity. Where these anomalies were relatively easy to access, piezometers were driven into the riverbed and porewater electrical conductivity ranged from 111 to 150 uS/cm. The piezometers, placed in electrical conductivity “hotspots,” yielded chemical or isotopic data consistent with previous analyses of water taken from monitoring wells and visible shoreline seeps. Tritium, nitrate, and chromium exceeded water quality standards in some porewaters. The highest tritium and nitrate levels were found near the Old Hanford Townsite at 120,000 pCi/L (+ 5,880 pCi/L total propagated analytical uncertainty) and ug/L (+ 5,880 ug/L), respectively. The maximum chromium (total and hexavalent) levels were found near 100-H reactor area where unfiltered porewater total chromium was 1,900 ug/L (+ 798 ug/L) and hexavalent chromium was 20 ug/L. The electrical conductivity probe provided rapid, cost-effective reconnaissance for ground-water discharge areas when used in combination with conventional piezometers. It may be possible to obtain quantitative estimates of both natural and contaminated ground-water discharge in the Hanford Reach with more extensive surveys of river bottom.

  20. Bypass system modification at Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River improved the survival of juvenile salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferguson, J.W.; Sandford, B.P.; Reagan, R.E.; Gilbreath, L.G.; Meyer, E.B.; Ledgerwood, R.D.; Adams, N.S.

    2007-01-01

    From 1987 to 1992, we evaluated a fish bypass system at Bonneville Dam Powerhouse 2 on the Columbia River. The survival of subyearling Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha released into the system ranged from 0.774 to 0.911 and was significantly lower than the survival of test fish released into turbines and the area immediately below the powerhouse where bypass system flow reentered the river. Yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon and yearling coho salmon O. kisutch released into the bypass system were injured or descaled. Also, levels of blood plasma cortisol and lactate were significantly higher in yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon that passed through the bypass system than in fish released directly into a net located over the bypass exit. This original system was then extensively modified using updated design criteria, and the site where juvenile fish reentered the river was relocated 2.8 km further downstream to reduce predation on bypassed fish by northern pikeminnow Ptychocheilus oregonensis. Based on studies conducted from 1999 to 2001, the new bypass system resulted in high fish survival, virtually no injuries to fish, fish passage times that were generally similar to water travel times, and mild stress responses from which fish recovered quickly. The mean estimated survival of subyearling Chinook salmon passing through the new bypass system was 0.946 in 2001, which was an usually low-flow year. Survival, physical condition, passage timing, and blood physiological indicators of stress were all useful metrics for assessing the performance of both bypass systems and are discussed. The engineering and hydraulic criteria used to design the new bypass system that resulted in improved fish passage conditions are described.

  1. Foraging ecology of Caspian Terns in the Columbia River Estuary, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lyons, Donald E.; Roby, D.D.; Collis, K.

    2005-01-01

    Comparisons were made of the foraging ecology of Caspian Terns (Sterna caspia) nesting on two islands in the Columbia River estuary using radio telemetry and observations of prey fed to chicks and mates at each colony. Early in the chick-rearing period, radio-tagged terns nesting at Rice Island (river km 34) foraged mostly in the freshwater zone of the estuary close to the colony, while terns nesting on East Sand Island (river km 8) foraged in the marine or estuarine mixing zones close to that colony. Late in the chick-rearing period, Rice Island terns moved more of their foraging to the two zones lower in the estuary, while East Sand Island terns continued to forage in these areas. Tern diets at each colony corresponded to the primary foraging zone (freshwater vs. marine/ mixing) of radio-tagged individuals: Early in chick-rearing, Rice Island terns relied heavily on juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp., 71% of identified prey), but this declined late in chick-rearing (46%). East Sand Island terns relied less on salmonids (42% and 16%, early and late in chick-rearing), and instead utilized marine fishes such as Anchovy (Engraulis mordax) and Herring (Clupea pallasi). Throughout chick-rearing, Rice Island terns foraged farther from their colony (median distance: 12.3 km during early chick-rearing and 16.9 km during late chick-rearing) than did East Sand Island terns (9.6 and 7.7 km, respectively). The study leads to the conclusion that Caspian Terns are generalist foragers and make use of the most proximate available forage fish resources when raising young.

  2. Century-scale variability in late-summer rainfall events recorded over seven centuries in subannually laminated lacustrine sediments, White Pass, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cockburn, Jaclyn M. H.; Lamoureux, Scott F.

    2007-03-01

    Formation of annually laminated sediments in Summit Lake, White Pass, British Columbia is controlled by runoff generated by snowpack and glacier melt and major rainfall events. The 700-yr varve record is divided into two subannual series (early and late) based on sedimentological criteria and sedimentary structures within each varve. A comparison of recent subannual laminae with nearby meteorological records supports the interpretation they are formed by river discharge events generated by major snow and glacier melt events and large late-summer rainfall events. A significant correlation exists between the late subannual thickness series and the size of the largest rainfall events in late summer. The long record indicates there was an abrupt increase in the thickness and frequency of major rainfall-induced sedimentary events at the end of the seventeenth century. In addition, the frequency of laminae generated by early runoff events also increased. However, early subannual varve thickness component remains statistically the same as the thickness prior to the end of the seventeenth century. This suggests the change in varve thickness at this time is due to increases in major late-summer rainfall frequency rather than increased sediment availability caused by regional Little Ice Age glacier advances.

  3. STS-93: Columbia Flight Crew Arrival on FSS 195' Level, Walk Across OAA and Ingress into White Room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The primary objective of the STS-93 mission was to deploy the Advanced X-ray Astrophysical Facility, which had been renamed the Chandra X-ray Observatory in honor of the late Indian-American Nobel Laureate Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar. The mission was launched at 12:31 on July 23, 1999 onboard the space shuttle Columbia. The mission was led by Commander Eileen Collins. The crew was Pilot Jeff Ashby and Mission Specialists Cady Coleman, Steve Hawley and Michel Tognini from the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). This videotape opens with a view of the shuttle on the launch pad. It then shows the flight crew arrival on the 195 foot level of the fixed service structure (FSS), walks across the orbiter access arm (OAA) into the white room, where the crew is assisted in putting on the final stages of their spacesuits, and then their crawl into the orbiter.

  4. Tracing and Apportioning Sources of Uranium to the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River Using Uranium Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, J. N.; Dresel, P. E.; Conrad, M. E.; Patton, G. W.; Depaolo, D. J.

    2004-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site is situated along an unimpounded portion of the Columbia River, the highest discharge volume river west of the continental divide. Decades of nuclear related activities have left significant local contamination (e.g. nitrate, U, tritium, Cr6+, 99Tc) in the vadose zone and groundwater within the site. Some of this contamination has reached the Columbia River, and there remains the potential for further contaminant migration to the river. We collected and analyzed samples of Columbia River water for U and Sr isotopes in coordination with the ongoing sampling and monitoring of the river. The U and Sr isotopic data allow us to evaluate sources of U (e.g. natural background, Hanford related, agricultural runoff) and their relative contributions to the river's U budget. The data also provide constraints on the flux of contaminant U from the Hanford Site to the river. We analyzed two sample traverses across the Columbia, one near the Vernita Bridge, upstream from Hanford Site contamination, and a second about 5 km downstream of the Hanford Site. An island divides the downstream traverse into western (main channel) and eastern portions. Filtered (0.45 micron) water samples were analyzed for U isotopic composition (including 236U, one marker of spent U fuel) and U concentration, as well as 87Sr/86Sr and Sr concentration. The samples from the upstream traverse had no detectible 236U (236U/238U < 2x10-8), one marker of spent U fuel, natural 238U/235U, uniform (234U/238U, 87Sr/86Sr, U and Sr concentrations. In contrast, the downstream traverse showed variation in all of these parameters. Concentrations of U are 0.5 ppb to 1.2 ppb and are all well below the EPA MCL of 30 ppb for drinking water. In the western channel, measured 236U/238U is 3.4x10-5 to < 2x10-8, with a co-variation in 238U/235U toward enriched ratios. This correlation is consistent with the U isotopic compositions of a groundwater sample from the environs of a former

  5. Re-Introduction of Lower Columbia River Chum Salmon into Duncan Creek, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hillson, Todd D.

    2002-10-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) listed Lower Columbia River chum as threatened under the auspices of the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in March of 1999 (64 FR 14508, March 25, 1999). The listing was in response to reduction in abundance from historical levels of more than half a million returning adults to fewer than 10,000 spawners present day (Johnson et al. 1997). Harvest, loss of habitat, changes in flow regimes, riverbed movement and heavy siltation have been largely responsible for the decline in this species in the Columbia River. The timing of seasonal changes in river flow and water temperatures is perhaps the most critical factor in structuring the freshwater life history of chum salmon (Johnson et al. 1997). This is especially true of the population located directly below Bonneville Dam where hydropower operations can block access to spawning sites, dewater redds, strand fry, cause scour or fill of redds and increase sedimentation of spawning gravels. The recovery strategy for Lower Columbia River chum as outlined in the Hatchery Genetic Management Plan (HGMP) for the Grays River project has four main tasks. First, determine if remnant populations of Lower Columbia River chum salmon exist in Lower Columbia River tributaries. Second, if such populations exist, develop stock-specific recovery plans that would involve habitat restoration including the creation of spawning refugias, supplementation if necessary and a habitat and fish monitoring and evaluation plan. If chum have been extirpated from previously utilized streams, develop re-introduction plans that utilize appropriate genetic donor stock(s) of Lower Columbia River chum salmon and integrate habitat improvement and fry-to-adult survival evaluations. Third, reduce the extinction risk to Grays River chum salmon population by randomly capturing adults in the basin for use in a supplementation program and reintroduction of Lower Columbia River chum salmon into the Chinook River basin. The

  6. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary, Annual Report 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Roegner, Curtis; Thom, Ronald M.; Dawley, Earl M.; Whiting, Allan H.; Johnson, Gary E.; Sobocinski, Kathryn L.; Anderson, Michael G.; Ebberts, Blaine

    2005-12-15

    The restoration of wetland salmon habitat in the tidal portion of the Columbia River is occurring at an accelerating pace and is anticipated to improve habitat quality and effect hydrological reconnection between existing and restored habitats. Currently multiple groups are applying a variety of restoration strategies in an attempt to emulate historic estuarine processes. However, the region lacks both a standardized means of evaluating the effectiveness of individual projects as well as methods for determining the cumulative effects of all restoration projects on a regional scale. This project is working to establish a framework to evaluate individual and cumulative ecosystem responses to restoration activities in order to validate the effectiveness of habitat restoration activities designed to benefit salmon through improvements to habitat quality and habitat opportunity (i.e. access) in the Columbia River from Bonneville Dam to the ocean. The review and synthesis of approaches to measure the cumulative effects of multiple restoration projects focused on defining methods and metrics of relevance to the CRE, and, in particular, juvenile salmon use of this system. An extensive literature review found no previous study assessing the cumulative effects of multiple restoration projects on the fundamental processes and functions of a large estuarine system, although studies are underway in other large land-margin ecosystems including the Florida Everglades and the Louisiana coastal wetlands. Literature from a variety of scientific disciplines was consulted to identify the ways that effects can accumulate (e.g., delayed effects, cross-boundary effects, compounding effects, indirect effects, triggers and thresholds) as well as standard and innovative tools and methods utilized in cumulative effects analyses: conceptual models, matrices, checklists, modeling, trends analysis, geographic information systems, carrying capacity analysis, and ecosystem analysis. Potential

  7. Development of a Systemwide Program: Stepwise Implementation of a Predation Index, Predator Control Fisheries and Evaluation Plan in the Columbia River Basin, Volume 1, 1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, David L.

    1994-06-01

    Results of the second year are reported of a basinwide program to harvest northern squawfish in an effort to reduce mortality due to squawfish predation on juvenile salmonids during their migration from natal streams to the ocean. Six papers are included in this report. They are entitled: feasibility investigation of a commercial longline fishery for northern squawfish in the Columbia River downstream from Bonneville dam; evaluation of the northern squawfish sport-reward fishery in the Columbia and Snake Rivers; controlled angling for northern squawfish at selected dams on the Columbia and Snake Rivers in 1992; evaluation of harvest technology for squawfish control in Columbia River reservoirs; effectiveness of predator-removal for protecting juvenile fall chinook salmon released from Bonneville Hatchery; and Northern squawfish sport-reward payments.

  8. Radionuclides, Trace Metals, and Organic Compounds in Shells of Native Freshwater Mussels Along the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River: 6000 Years Before Present to Current Times

    SciTech Connect

    B. L. Tiller; T. E. Marceau

    2006-01-25

    This report documents concentrations of radionuclides, trace metals, and semivolatile organic compounds measured in shell samples of the western pearl shell mussel collected along the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River.

  9. Influence of multiple dam passage on survival of juvenile Chinook salmon in the Columbia River estuary and coastal ocean

    PubMed Central

    Rechisky, Erin L.; Welch, David W.; Porter, Aswea D.; Jacobs-Scott, Melinda C.; Winchell, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple dam passage during seaward migration is thought to reduce the subsequent survival of Snake River Chinook salmon. This hypothesis developed because juvenile Chinook salmon from the Snake River, the Columbia River’s largest tributary, migrate >700 km through eight hydropower dams and have lower adult return rates than downstream populations that migrate through only 3 or 4 dams. Using a large-scale telemetry array, we tested whether survival of hatchery-reared juvenile Snake River spring Chinook salmon is reduced in the estuary and coastal ocean relative to a downstream, hatchery-reared population from the Yakima River. During the initial 750-km, 1-mo-long migration through the estuary and coastal ocean, we found no evidence of differential survival; therefore, poorer adult returns of Snake River Chinook may develop far from the Columbia River. Thus, hydrosystem mitigation efforts may be ineffective if differential mortality rates develop in the North Pacific Ocean for reasons unrelated to dam passage. PMID:23576733

  10. Gas Supersaturation May Reduce the Survival of Yearling Chinook Salmon in the Lower Columbia River and Ocean Plume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brosnan, Ian; Welch, David; Scott, Melinda Jacobs

    2015-01-01

    Unusually high flows in the Columbia River in 2011 raised total dissolved gas (TDG) levels in the river above the 120 percent legal limit imposed to prevent harmful impacts to aquatic organisms. This provided a unique opportunity to evaluate the effect on smolt survival. In-river (IR) migrating juvenile yearling Chinook released at Bonneville Dam with acoustic tags during periods when TDG exceeded 120 percent received estimated maximum exposures of 134 TDG. Subsequent daily survival rates in the lower river and plume were reduced by 0.06 per day (SE equals 0.01) and 0.15 per day (SE equals 0.05) relative to IR migrant fish released when TDG was less than 120 percent. Transported smolts (T) released 10-13 kilometers below Bonneville Dam had lower maximum exposure levels (126 percent) and experienced no difference in daily survival rates relative to unexposed smolts. River temperature levels and trends in turbidity and disease prevalence between releases of high and low exposure smolts were not consistent with the observed effects on survival rates. We conclude that smolts may suffer from chronic effects of elevated TDG exposure while migrating through the Columbia River and plume. Consideration should be given to measuring these survival losses in an explicit experimental framework that isolates possible confounding factors.

  11. White sturgeon spawning areas in the lower Snake River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsley, M.J.; Kappenman, K.M.

    2000-01-01

    We documented 17 white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus spawning locations in the Snake River from the mouth to Lower Granite Dam (river km 0 to 173). Spawning locations were determined by the collection of fertilized eggs on artificial substrates or in plankton nets. We collected 245 eggs at seven locations in McNary Reservoir, 22 eggs at three locations in Ice Harbor Reservoir, 30 eggs from two locations in Lower Monumental Reservoir, and 464 eggs at five locations in Little Goose Reservoir. All 17 locations were in high water velocity areas and between 1.0 and 7.0 km downstream from a hydroelectric dam. The documentation of spawning areas is important because this habitat is necessary to maintain natural and viable populations.

  12. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations; White Sturgeon Spawning and Recruitment Evaluation, 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Paragamian, Vaughn L.; Kruse, Gretchen L.; Wakkinen, Virginia

    2001-11-01

    Sampling for adult Kootenai River white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus began in March and continued through April 1999. Forty-six adult sturgeon were captured with 4,091 hours of angling and set-lining effort, while an additional three adult sturgeon were captured during gillnetting for juveniles. Flows for Kootenai River white sturgeon spawning were expected to be high because the snow pack in the basin was estimated at 130% of normal, but runoff came very slowly. Discharge from Libby Dam from mid-March through mid-June was maintained at 113 m{sup 3}/s (4,000 cfs). Flows in the Kootenai River at Bonners Ferry during early April, including local inflow, were 227-255 m{sup 3}/s (8,000-9,000 cfs) but increased gradually in late April to a peak of 657 m{sup 3}/s (23,200 cfs). Flows subsided in early May to about 340 m{sup 3}/s (12,000 cfs), but rose to 1,031 m{sup 3}/s (36,370 cfs) by Mary 26 because of local runoff, and white sturgeon began spawning. However, flows subsided again to 373 m{sup 3}/s (13,200 cfs) June 11, 1999 and some female white sturgeon with transmitters began leaving the spawning reach. Water temperature ranged from about 8 C to 10 C (45 F to 50 F) during these two weeks. On June 13 (two weeks after sturgeon began spawning), spawning and incubation flows from Libby Dam began. The flow was brought up to 1,136 m{sup 3}/s (40,100 cfs) and temperature rose to about 11 C (52 F). They sampled for 3,387 mat days (one mat day is a single 24 h set) with artificial substrate mats and captured 184 white sturgeon eggs. The Middle Shorty's Island reach (river kilometer [rkm] 229.6-231.5) produced the most eggs (144), with 388 mat days of effort; the Refuge section (rkm 234.8 to 237.5) with 616 mat days of effort produced 23 eggs; and the Lower Shorty's section produced 19 eggs with 548 days of mat effort. No eggs were collected above the Refuge section (> rkm 240.5) with 988 mat days of effort. They do not believe flows for sturgeon spawning in 1999 were very

  13. Consumption processes and food web structure in the Columbia River Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simenstad, Charles A.; Small, Lawrence F.; David McIntire, C.

    Consumption processes at several trophic levels tend to coverage in the central (estuarine-mixing) region of the Columbia River estuary, where living and dentrital food resources are entrained within the energy null of the turbidity maximum zone. Primary consumers in this region are generalist and omnivorous feeders, capable of exploiting both autotrophic and heterotrophic food web pathways. In the presence of higher standing stocks of their prey resources, feeding by secondary and tertiary consumers is also concentrated, or more effective, in the estuarine mixing region of the estuary. During the 1980-1981 studies of the estuary, total consumer (metazoan) production averaged 5.5g C m -2 within the estuary. Of the estimated 15 x 10 3mt Cyy -1 attributed to primary consumption in the water column, 83% was the result of suspension-feeding pelagic zooplankton. In comparison to grazing on phytoplankton, it was estimated that approximately 84% of primary consumption in the water column was based on suspended detritus and, presumably, associated microbiota. Endemic primary,consumers, principally epibenthic crustaceans such as the calanoid copepod Eurytemora affinis, the harpacticoid copepod Scottolana canadensis, and the crangonid shrimp Crangon franciscorum, accounted for a high proportion of the consumption of suspended particles. Wertland herbivores inhabiting the estuary's extensive marshes, on the other hand, were estimated to account for only 2 to 17% of total estuarine primary consumption. Trophic linkages to secondary and tertiary consumers were more evenly apportioned among pelagic fishes, motile macroinvertebrates, and benthic infauna. High, comparatively unknown fluxes of migratory or wide-ranging tertiary consumers, such as piscivorous birds, seals and sea lions, made estimation of their annual consumption rates in the estuary highly tenuous. The physical processes of mixing and stratification, sediments accretion and erosion, and salinity intrusion appear to

  14. Genetic Variation in DNA of Coho Salmon from the Lower Columbia River : Final Report 1993.

    SciTech Connect

    Fobes, Stephen; Knudsen, Kathy; Allendorf, Fred

    1993-04-01

    The goal of this project was to develop techniques to provide the information needed to determine if Lower Columbia River coho salmon represent a 'species' under the Endangered Species Act. Our report features two new nuclear DNA approaches to the improved detection of genetic variation: (1) Studies of DNA-level genetic variation for two nuclear growth hormone genes; (2) Use of arbitrary DNA primers (randomly amplified polymorphic DNA, or 'RAPD' primers) to detect variation at large numbers of nuclear genes. We used the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify variable sections (introns) of two growth hormone genes (GH-I and G/f-Z) in several salmonid species. Coho salmon had three DNA length variants for G/-I intron C. Restriction analysis and sequencing provided valuable information about the mode of evolution of these DNA sequences. We tested segregation of the variants in captive broods of coho salmon, and demonstrated that they are alleles at a single Mendelian locus. Population studies using the GH-1 alleles showed highly significant frequency differences between Lower Columbia River and Oregon Coast coho salmon, and marginal differences among stocks within these regions. These new markers are adequately defined and tested to use in coho salmon population studies of any size. The nature of the variation at GH-1 (Variable Number Tandem Repeats, or 'VNTRs') suggests that more genetic variants will be found in coho salmon from other areas. GH-2 intron C also showed length variation in coho salmon, and this variation was found to be sex-linked. Because PCR methods require minute amounts of tissue, this discovery provides a technique to determine the gender of immature coho salmon without killing them. Chinook salmon had restriction patterns and sequence divergences similar to coho salmon. Thus, we expect that sex linkage of GH-2 alleles predates the evolutionary divergence of Pacific salmon species, and that gender testing with this system will work on the

  15. A Synthesis of Environmental and Plant Community Data for Tidal Wetland Restoration Planning in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary

    SciTech Connect

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Borde, Amy B.; Cullinan, Valerie I.

    2013-12-01

    This report reanalyzes and synthesizes previously existing environmental and plant community data collected by PNNL at 55 tidal wetlands and 3 newly restored sites in the lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE) between 2005 and 2011. Whereas data were originally collected for various research or monitoring objectives of five studies, the intent of this report is to provide only information that will have direct utility in planning tidal wetland restoration projects. Therefore, for this report, all tidal wetland data on plants and the physical environment, which were originally developed and reported by separate studies, were tabulated and reanalyzed as a whole. The geographic scope of the data collected in this report is from Bonneville Lock and Dam to the mouth of the Columbia River

  16. Magnitude-frequency and Spatial Distribution of Rockfalls in the White Canyon, British Columbia using Terrestrial LiDAR and Microseismic Monitoring Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Veen, M.

    2015-12-01

    Transportation corridors built along natural slopes are subject to frequent rockfall hazards, which can disrupt service and cause damage to infrastructure. Many of these areas exist along the Fraser-Thompson corridor of the CN rail line in Southern British Columbia, particularly in the White Canyon area near Lytton. Here the rail track is situated between the 500 m high slopes and the river, for 2.4 km. The frequency-magnitude relationship between these events and the percentage of rockfalls making it to track level are important components of hazard assessment for these slopes. Traditional methods of collecting rockfall data in this area involve visual inspection by maintenance personnel, however this is an onerous task for such a large slope with frequent rockfall activity, and therefore the rockfall record for this area is often lacking data. Since 2012, high-resolution terrestrial LiDAR (Light detection and ranging) data has been collected for the White Canyon area and analysis of change from sequential LiDAR scans provides detailed data that can't be obtained from traditional rockfall databases, including the magnitude and spatial distribution of rockfall events. While the LiDAR change detection can be useful in identifying rockfall volumes and source zones, it can be difficult to determine the end location of each rockfall and the exact timing of events, as scan data is usually collected over a period of several months. Recently, a microseismic monitoring system has been deployed over a section of the railway track and data is available on time and location of impact at the track level, which permits assessment of the number of rockfalls traversing the whole slope down to track level. This, in combination with data on rockfall magnitudes and source zones obtained from the LiDAR change detection can provide useful information for management of tracks in these hazardous settings and also provides data for calibration of rockfall modelling.

  17. 33 CFR 165.1315 - Safety Zones: Fireworks displays in the Captain of the Port Columbia River Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...′26″ N 120° 12′12″ W. (ii) Enforcement period. This safety zone is in effect from approximately 8:30 p... period. This safety zone is in effect from approximately 8:30 p.m. to approximately 11:30 p.m. for one..., Cascade Locks, OR: (i) Location. All waters of the Columbia River encompassed in a 500 foot radius...

  18. Estimation of ecologically significant circulation features of the Columbia River estuary and plume using a reduced-dimension Kalman filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolov, Sergey; Baptista, António M.; Zhang, Yinglong; Seaton, Charles

    2009-02-01

    A data assimilation method was used to estimate the variability of three ecologically significant features of the Columbia River estuary and plume: the size of the plume, the orientation of the plume, and the length of the salinity intrusion in the estuary. Our data assimilation method was based on a reduced-dimension Kalman filter that enables fast data assimilation of nonlinear dynamics in the estuary and plume. The assimilated data included measurements of salinity, temperature, and water levels at 13 stations in the estuary and at five moorings in the plume. Our experimental results showed that data assimilation played a significant role in controlling the magnitude and timing of dynamic events in the Columbia River estuary and plume, such as events of extreme salinity intrusion and events of regime transitions in the plume. Data assimilation also changed the response of the salinity intrusion length to variations in the Columbia River discharge, hence imposing a new dynamic on the simulated estuary. The validation of the assimilated solution with independent data showed that these corrections were likely realistic, because the assimilated model was closer to the true ocean than the original, non-assimilated model.

  19. Confirmatory chemical analyses and solid phase bioassays on sediment from the Columbia River Estuary at Tongue Point, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.S.; Word, J.Q.; Apts, C.W.; Barrows, M.E.; Cullinan, V.I.; Kohn, N.P.

    1988-12-01

    The Department of Economic Development, Ports Division, of the state of Oregon plans to develop a former ship supply and storage site near Tongue Point, Oregon, for commercial shipping. The development would require dredging the adjacent waterway to the Columbia River 40-foot channel to admit commercials vessels. The Portland District of the US Army Corps of Engineers requested the Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to conduct confirmatory solid-phase bioassays that would provide technical data for an evaluation of the potential environmental impact of ocean disposal of the dredged material. These confirmatory studies provided chemical and biological information required by ocean dumping regulations to determine suitability of Tongue Point sediments for ocean disposal. Sediment core samples were collected from Cathlamet Bay at Tongue Point in the upper Columbia River estuary. Sediment surface grab samples were collected at reference/control sites offshore from the mouth of the Columbia River (Disposal Site F) and at West Beach, Whidbey Island, Washington. The Tongue Point sediments were mixed into two composited batches. The MSL conducted solid-phase bioassays with these composites and reference sediments on four species of organisms.

  20. The Washington and Oregon mid-shelf silt deposit and its relation to the late Holocene Columbia River sediment budget

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolf, Stephen C.; Nelson, Hans; Hamer, Michael R.; Dunhill, Gita; Phillips, R. Lawrence

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to compile and analyze existing data which lend support to the development of a sediment budget for the Columbia River, coastal, and offshore regions of southwest Washington. This will contribute to the construction of a sediment budget model which will reflect sediment sources, depocenters, and the sediment contribution to each region. The Columbia River is the source of modern sediment for the beaches of southwest Washington. Development of the sediment budget is necessary to understand the long term effects that reduction in sediment supply has on present day areas of sediment erosion and accumulation in the region. Figure 1 describes the origin, distribution, and thickness of the Mid-Shelf Silt Deposit (MSSD) based on analysis of seismic data acquired between 1976-1980 (Wolf et al., 1997). Sediment volumes deposited during the past 5000 years were calculated for each of the physiographic areal compartments shown in Figure 2. Table 1 organizes the data from Figures 1 and 2 into tabular form. This table provides a representation of the percent volume and weight of sediment types which contribute to the estimated Columbia River sediment budget. The compartments shown in Figure 2 are color coordinated with Table 1.

  1. Evaluation of Salmon Spawning below the Four Lowermost Columbia River Dams, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David; Currie, Andrea

    2006-02-01

    Since FY 2000, scientists at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have conducted research to assess the extent of spawning by chum (Oncorhynchus keta) and fall Chinook (O. tshawytscha) salmon in the lower mainstem Columbia River. Their work supports a larger Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) project aimed at characterizing the physical habitat used by mainstem fall Chinook and chum salmon populations. Multiple collaborators in addition to PNNL are involved in the BPA project--counterparts include the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission (PSMFC), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW). Data resulting from the individual tasks each agency conducts are providing a sound scientific basis for developing strategies to operate the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) in ways that will effectively protect and enhance the chum and fall Chinook salmon populations--both listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. Fall Chinook salmon, thought to originate from Bonneville Hatchery, were first noted to be spawning downstream of Bonneville Dam by biologists from the WDFW in 1993. Known spawning areas include gravel beds on the Washington side of the river near Hamilton Creek and Ives Island. Limited spawning ground surveys were conducted in the area around Ives and Pierce islands during 1994 through 1997. Based on these surveys, fall Chinook salmon were believed to be spawning successfully in this area. In addition, chum salmon have been documented spawning downstream of Bonneville Dam. In FY 1999, BPA Project No. 1999-003 was initiated by the WDFW, ODFW, and the USFWS to characterize the variables associated with physical habitat used by mainstem fall Chinook and chum salmon populations and to better understand the effects of hydropower project operations on spawning and incubation. Pacific Northwest National

  2. 2004 Evaluation of Chum, Chinook and Coho Salmon Entrapment near Ives Island in the Columbia River; 2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Duston, Reed A.; Wilson, Jeremy

    2005-08-01

    From January to July of 2004, 33 entrapments and 56 stranding sites were examined on the Columbia River near Ives Island, downstream of Bonneville Dam. A total of 7,834 salmonids, made up of three species, were collected (Table 1). The fish sampled during this time were chinook salmon (85%), chum salmon (8%), and coho salmon (7%). The following analysis of the relationship between environmental factors and salmon placed at risk by river level fluctuations focuses on each of these three species of salmon.

  3. 2003 Evaluation of Chum, Chinook and Coho Salmon Entrapment near Ives Island in the Columbia River; 2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Duston, Reed A.; Wilson, Jeremy

    2004-09-01

    From January to July of 2003, 42 entrapments and 25 stranding sites were examined on the Columbia River near Ives Island, downstream of Bonneville Dam. A total of 6,122 salmonids, consisting of three different species, were collected at these sites (Table 1). The fish sampled during this time were chinook salmon (69%), chum salmon (7%), and coho salmon (24%). The following analysis of the relationship between environmental factors and salmon placed at risk by river level fluctuations focuses on each of these three salmon species.

  4. 2002 Evaluation of Chum, Chinook and Coho Salmon Entrapment near Ives Island in the Columbia River; 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Duston, Reed A.; Wilson, Jeremy

    2003-10-01

    From January to July of 2002, 79 entrapments and 22 stranding sites were examined on the Columbia River near Ives Island, downstream of Bonneville Dam. A total of 2,272 salmonids, consisting of three different species, were collected at these sites (Table 1). The fish sampled during this time were chinook salmon (49%), chum salmon (29%), and coho salmon (22%). The following analysis of the relationship between environmental factors and salmon placed at risk by river level fluctuations focuses on each of these three salmon species.

  5. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations; White Sturgeon Spawning and Recruitment Evaluation, 1996 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Paragamian, Vaughn L.

    1997-09-01

    Test flows for Kootenai River white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus spawning, scheduled for June 1996, were postponed until July. However, an estimated 126% snow pack and unusually heavy precipitation created conditions for sturgeon spawning that were similar to those occurring before construction of Libby Dam. Discharge in the Kootenai River at Bonners Ferry rose to nearly 1,204 m{sup 3}/s (42,500 cfs) during May and water temperature ranged from 5.8 C to 8.4 C (42 F to 47 F). Migration of adult white sturgeon into spawning areas occurred in late May during a rising hydrograph. Discharge and water temperature were rising and had reached approximately 1,077 m{sup 3}/s (38,000 cfs) and 8 C (46 F). Discharge at Bonners Ferry peaked at about 1,397 m{sup 3}/s (49,300 cfs) on June 5. A total of 348 eggs (and one egg shell) were collected with 106,787 h of mat effort during the flow events. The first white sturgeon eggs were collected on June 8 and continued through June 30. Staging of eggs and back-calculating to spawning dates indicated there were at least 18 spawning episodes between June 6 and June 25. Discharge on June 6 was 1,196 m{sup 3}/s (42,200 cfs) and decreased steadily to 850 m{sup 3}/s (30,000 cfs) by June 26. Although sturgeon spawned in the same reach of river that they had during 1994 and 1995, the majority of eggs were found significantly (P = 0.0001) farther upstream than 1994 and 1995 and this in turn may be related to elevation of Kootenay Lake.

  6. Transcription profiling in environmental diagnostics: health assessments in Columbia River basin steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Connon, Richard E; D'Abronzo, Leandro S; Hostetter, Nathan J; Javidmehr, Alireza; Roby, Daniel D; Evans, Allen F; Loge, Frank J; Werner, Inge

    2012-06-01

    The health condition of out-migrating juvenile salmonids can influence migration success. Physical damage, pathogenic infection, contaminant exposure, and immune system status can affect survival probability. The present study is part of a wider investigation of out-migration success in juvenile steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and focuses on the application of molecular profiling to assess sublethal effects of environmental stressors in field-collected fish. We used a suite of genes in O. mykiss to specifically assess responses that could be directly related to steelhead health condition during out-migration. These biomarkers were used on juvenile steelhead captured in the Snake River, a tributary of the Columbia River, in Washington, USA, and were applied on gill and anterior head kidney tissue to assess immune system responses, pathogen-defense (NRAMP, Mx, CXC), general stress (HSP70), metal-binding (metallothionein-A), and xenobiotic metabolism (Cyp1a1) utilizing quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology. Upon capture, fish were ranked according to visual external physical conditions into good, fair, poor, and bad categories; gills and kidney tissues were then dissected and preserved for gene analyses. Transcription responses were tissue-specific for gill and anterior head kidney with less significant responses in gill tissue than in kidney. Significant differences between the condition ranks were attributed to NRAMP, MX, CXC, and Cyp1a1 responses. Gene profiling correlated gene expression with pathogen presence, and results indicated that gene profiling can be a useful tool for identifying specific pathogen types responsible for disease. Principal component analysis (PCA) further correlated these responses with specific health condition categories, strongly differentiating good, poor, and bad condition ranks. We conclude that molecular profiling is an informative and useful tool that could be applied to indicate and monitor numerous population

  7. Observations of the Columbia River salt wedge and estuarine turbidity maximum using AUVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeil, C. L.; Shcherbina, A.; Litchendorf, T.; Sanford, T. B.; Martin, D.; Baptista, A. M.; Lopez, J.; Crump, B.

    2012-12-01

    We present detailed observations of the salt wedge and estuarine turbidity maxima (ETM) in the North Channel of the Columbia River estuary (OR, USA) under conditions of high river discharge during May 2012. Measurements were made using two REMUS-100 autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs; Hydroid, Inc.) equipped with SBE-49 CTDs (Seabird-Electronics, Inc.) for water temperature and salinity, upward/downward looking ADCPs (Teledyne RDI, Inc.) for currents, and ECO Puck triplets (WET Labs, Inc.) for optical backscatter measurement of turbidity. The acoustic backscatter intensity from the ADCP was also used as a proxy measurement for suspended sediments and was found to correlate quite well with the optical backscatter measurements. Daily forecasts of tidal currents in the estuary were used to simulate the AUV path in advance of deployment to aid data collection. Repeat AUV sections were made along and across the channel during flood tide. The turbidity and height above riverbed of the bottom boundary layer was observed to increase toward the deeper waters at the center of the channel. An ETM-like feature was observed ahead of the advancing salt wedge front with locally higher turbidity levels, presumably the result of flocculation and resuspension. To visualize better the repeat section measurements we made data movies. Each frame of the movie is our best estimate of a synoptic snapshot of along-section tracer distribution at a given point in time. These snapshots were created by re-location of non-synoptic AUV measurements to account for the advection of water parcels. An example data movie showing the intrusion of the salt wedge during the flood tide will be presented.

  8. Relationship of Caspian tern foraging ecology to nesting success in the Columbia River estuary, Oregon, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, S.K.; Roby, D.D.; Lyons, Donald E.; Collis, K.

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) and marine forage fishes in the diet of Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia) nesting in the Columbia River estuary has been established, but the relationship between diet composition, foraging distribution, and productivity of these birds has received little attention. We used radio-telemetry and on-colony observations to relate changes in off-colony distribution to patterns of colony attendance, diet composition, and productivity of adult terns nesting on East Sand Island during two years of different river and prey conditions. Average distance from the East Sand Island colony (located in the marine zone of the estuary) was 38% (6.6 km) greater in 2000 compared to 2001, associated with lower availability of marine forage fish near East Sand Island and lower prevalence of marine prey in tern diets. Colony attendance was much lower (37.0% vs. 62.5% of daylight hours), average trip duration was 40% longer (38.9 min), and nesting success was much lower (0.57 young fledged pair-1 vs. 1.40 young fledged pair-1) in 2000 compared to 2001. Higher proportions of juvenile salmonids in the diet were associated with relatively high use of the freshwater zone of the estuary by radio-tagged terns, which occurred prior to chick-rearing and when out-migrating salmonid smolts were relatively abundant. Lower availability of marine prey in 2000 apparently limited Caspian tern nesting success by markedly reducing colony attendance and lengthening foraging trips by nesting terns, thereby increasing chick mortality rates from predation, exposure, and starvation. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Relationship of Caspian tern foraging ecology to nesting success in the Columbia River estuary, Oregon, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Scott K.; Roby, Daniel D.; Lyons, Donald E.; Collis, Ken

    2007-07-01

    The prevalence of juvenile salmonids ( Oncorhynchus spp.) and marine forage fishes in the diet of Caspian terns ( Hydroprogne caspia) nesting in the Columbia River estuary has been established, but the relationship between diet composition, foraging distribution, and productivity of these birds has received little attention. We used radio-telemetry and on-colony observations to relate changes in off-colony distribution to patterns of colony attendance, diet composition, and productivity of adult terns nesting on East Sand Island during two years of different river and prey conditions. Average distance from the East Sand Island colony (located in the marine zone of the estuary) was 38% (6.6 km) greater in 2000 compared to 2001, associated with lower availability of marine forage fish near East Sand Island and lower prevalence of marine prey in tern diets. Colony attendance was much lower (37.0% vs. 62.5% of daylight hours), average trip duration was 40% longer (38.9 min), and nesting success was much lower (0.57 young fledged pair -1 vs. 1.40 young fledged pair -1) in 2000 compared to 2001. Higher proportions of juvenile salmonids in the diet were associated with relatively high use of the freshwater zone of the estuary by radio-tagged terns, which occurred prior to chick-rearing and when out-migrating salmonid smolts were relatively abundant. Lower availability of marine prey in 2000 apparently limited Caspian tern nesting success by markedly reducing colony attendance and lengthening foraging trips by nesting terns, thereby increasing chick mortality rates from predation, exposure, and starvation.

  10. Optics of the offshore Columbia River plume from glider observations and satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saldías, Gonzalo. S.; Kipp Shearman, R.; Barth, John A.; Tufillaro, Nicholas

    2016-04-01

    The Columbia River (CR) is the largest source of freshwater along the U.S. Pacific coast. The resultant plume is often transported southward and offshore forming a large buoyant feature off Oregon and northern California in spring-summer—the offshore CR plume. Observations from autonomous underwater gliders and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite imagery are used to characterize the optics of the offshore CR plume off Newport, Oregon. Vertical sections, under contrasting river flow conditions, reveal a low-salinity and warm surface layer of ˜20-25 m (fresher in spring and warmer in summer), high Colored Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) concentration, and backscatter, and associated with the base of the plume high chlorophyll fluorescence. Plume characteristics vary in the offshore direction as the warm and fresh surface layer thickens progressively to an average 30-40 m of depth 270-310 km offshore; CDOM, backscatter, and chlorophyll fluorescence decrease in the upper 20 m and increase at subsurface levels (30-50 m depth). MODIS normalized water-leaving radiance (nLw(λ)) spectra for CR plume cases show enhanced water-leaving radiance at green bands (as compared to no-CR plume cases) up to ˜154 km from shore. Farther offshore, the spectral shapes for both cases are very similar, and consequently, a contrasting color signature of low-salinity plume water is practically imperceptible from ocean color remote sensing. Empirical algorithms based on multivariate regression analyses of nLw(λ) plus SST data produce more accurate results detecting offshore plume waters than previous studies using single visible bands (e.g., adg(412) or nLw(555)).

  11. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Main Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Columbia River System Operation Review; United States. Bonneville Power Administration; United States. Army. Corps of Engineers. North Pacific Division; United States. Bureau of Reclamation. Pacific Northwest Region.

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) Final EIS addresses four actions: (a) need to develop coordinated strategy for managing the multiple uses of the Federal Columbia River system (System Operating Strategy [SOS]); (b) need to provide interested parties other than management agencies with a long-term role in system planning (Forum); (c) need to renew or change current Canadian Entitlement Allocation Agreements (CEAA); and (d) need to renegotiate and renew the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA). SOS alternatives analyzed are: (1) operation prior to Endangered Species Act listings of salmon stocks; (2) current operations (no action); (3) stable storage project operation; (4) natural river operation; (5) fixed drawdown; (6) operating strategies proposed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Marine Fisheries Service, State fisheries agencies, Native American tribes, and Federal operating agencies; and (7) Preferred Alternative. The seven Forum alternatives analyzed are: (1) decisionmaking by the SOR lead agencies (preferred alternative); (2) decisionmaking by SOR lead agencies and recommendations by an existing regional entity; (3) decisionmaking by SOR lead agencies and recommendations by a new regional entity; (4) decisionmaking by a Federal consultation forum; (5) decisionmaking by a new entity; (6) decisionmaking by one Federal operating agency; (7) decisionmaking by a Federal agency other than an operating agency. PNCA alternatives analyzed are: (1) no replacement contract; (2) contract to maximize regional power benefits; (3) roll over existing PNCA; (4) current PNCA with modified operating procedures (preferred alternative); (5) current PNCA with nonpower modifications. CEAA alternatives include: (1) no action (no replacement of current allocation agreements); (2) entitlement allocation: 55 percent Federal; 45 percent non-Federal; (3) entitlement allocation: 70 percent Federal, 30 percent non-Federal (preferred alternative); (4) no agreement.

  12. Deep-sea sedimentary record of the late Wisconsin cataclysmic floods from the Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brunner, C.A.; Normark, W.R.; Zuffa, G.G.; Serra, F.

    1999-01-01

    New results from Ocean Drilling Program Site 1037 and U.S. Geological Survey high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles confirm the great thickness, fast deposition rate, distant source, and convolute path of turbidites that fill the Escanaba Trough, the rift valley of the southernmost segment of the Gorda Ridge. Accelerator mass spectrometry 14C measurements provide the first direct dating of the Escanaba Trough turbidites, demonstrating an average deposition rate faster than 10 m/k.y. between 32 and 11 ka and as fast as 15 m/k.y. during the oxygen isotope stage 2 lowstand. In the upper 60 m of sediment, the petrology of turbidite sand beds, which are as much as 12 m thick, show that the dominant source for the turbidites is from the Columbia River, which is more than 800 km to the north, rather than from the much closer rivers of northern California. New high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles show that, except for areas of very recent volcanism, the entire Escanaba Trough below 3200 m water depth is floored by the turbidite sequence that was cored in the upper 60 m at Site 1037B. The ages of the upper 120 m of turbidites correspond with the ages of channeled scabland deposits associated with latest Quaternary jokulhlaups from glacial Lake Missoula. The age and source characteristics suggest that these megaturbidite beds in Escanaba Trough are most likely deposits formed by hyperpyenally generated turbidity currents as the largest of the Lake Missoula floods entered the sea.

  13. Columbia River Coordinated Information System (CIS); Data Catalog, 1992 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, Dick; Allen, Stan; Reece, Doug

    1993-05-01

    The Columbia River Coordinated Information system (CIS) Project started in 1989 to address regional data sharing. Coordinated exchange and dissemination of any data must begin with dissemination of information about those data, such as: what is available; where the data are stored; what form they exist in; who to contact for further information or access to these data. In Phase II of this Project (1991), a Data Catalog describing the contents of regional datasets and less formal data collections useful for system monitoring and evaluation projects was built to improve awareness of their existence. Formal datasets are described in a `Dataset Directory,` while collections of data are Used to those that collect such information in the `Data Item Directory.` The Data Catalog will serve regional workers as a useful reference which centralizes the institutional knowledge of many data contacts into a single source. Recommendations for improvement of the Catalog during Phase III of this Project include addressing gaps in coverage, establishing an annual maintenance schedule, and loading the contents into a PC-based electronic database for easier searching and cross-referencing.

  14. A plume-triggered delamination origin for the Columbia River flood basalt eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphreys, E.; Darold, A. P.

    2015-12-01

    From their initial eruptions in south-central Oregon, Columbia River basalt (CRB) volcanism propagated rapidly north, with the largest eruptions being ~300 km north of the Yellowstone hotspot track. We combine upper mantle seismic tomography, CRB eruption timing constraints, geochemical evolution of magmas, uplift history, and the tectonic context to construct a well-constrained model for the origin of the CRB eruptions. Arrival of the Yellowstone plume below south-central Oregon initiated a north-propagating rollback-style delamination of remnant Farallon lithosphere from the base of northern Oregon, enabled by ocean-lithosphere detachment as sills were emplacement near the (continental or oceanic) Moho. This drew Yellowstone asthenosphere to the north. When delamination propagated beneath the Cretaceous Wallowa pluton, its garnet-rich (dense) root foundered. Root foundering led to: pluton uplift (creating the Wallowa Mts); a mantle return flow that greatly amplified magmatic production; and assimilation of continental crust in the vicinity of a large magma chamber created by the evacuated pluton root. Thus, much of the CRB eruptive volume and history is attributed to lithospheric activity that was triggered by the arrival of mantle that was anomalously magmatically productive.

  15. Hydrogeology along the southern boundary of the Hanford Site between the Yakima and Columbia Rivers, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Liikala, T.L.

    1994-09-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) operations at the Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington, have generated large volumes of hazardous and radioactive wastes since 1944. Some of the hazardous wastes were discharged to the ground in the 1100 and 3000 Areas, near the city of Richland. The specific waste types and quantities are unknown; however, they probably include battery acid, antifreeze, hydraulic fluids, waste oils, solvents, degreasers, paints, and paint thinners. Between the Yakima and Columbia rivers in support of future hazardous waste site investigations and ground-water and land-use management. The specific objectives were to collect and review existing hydrogeologic data for the study area and establish a water-level monitoring network; describe the regional and study area hydrogeology; develop a hydrogeologic conceptual model of the unconfined ground-water flow system beneath the study area, based on available data; describe the flow characteristics of the unconfined aquifer based on the spatial and temporal distribution of hydraulic head within the aquifer; use the results of this study to delineate additional data needs in support of future Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Studies (RI/FS), Fate and Transport modeling, Baseline Risk Assessments (BRA), and ground-water and land-use management.

  16. Resident fish assemblages in shallow shorelines of a Columbia River impoundment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barfoot, C.A.; Gadomski, D.M.; Petersen, J.H.

    2002-01-01

    During May-September 1995, we replicated an earlier (1984-85) study of fishes in shoreline habitats of the John Day Reservoir, Columbia River, to investigate fish assemblage structure at several spatial and temporal scales. A total of 37,400 resident fishes representing 24 taxa was collected in 359 beach seine hauls. Fish catch composition during 1984 and 1985 was very similar, but was greatly different from catch in 1995. During 1984-1985, four native taxa (chiselmouth, northern pikeminnow, suckers, and sand rollers) constituted more than 90% of the combined main-channel catch, with introduced taxa comprising only 1.3% of the main-channel catch. In contrast, during 1995 only 37.7% of the main-channel catch comprised chiselmouth, northern pikeminnow, suckers, and sand rollers, while 33.9% were introduced taxa, primarily sunfishes and yellow perch. This shift in catch composition was greatest in the lower reservoir where the 1995 catch was 61% introduced taxa. Although changes in species composition of near-shore reservoir fish assemblages over the 10-yr period appeared to be substantial, we are unsure of annual variability since we have only one season of sampling for comparison with the earlier study. The differences we observed could be a long-term response to reservoir aging, a short-term reaction to annual differences in hydrologic and thermal regimes, or simply the naturally varying reproductive success of some species.

  17. Columbia River Stock Identification Study; Validation of Genetic Method, 1980-1981 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Milner, George B.; Teel, David J.; Utter, Fred M.

    1981-06-01

    The reliability of a method for obtaining maximum likelihood estimate of component stocks in mixed populations of salmonids through the frequency of genetic variants in a mixed population and in potentially contributing stocks was tested in 1980. A data base of 10 polymorphic loci from 14 hatchery stocks of spring chinook salmon of the Columbia River was used to estimate proportions of these stocks in four different blind'' mixtures whose true composition was only revealed subsequent to obtaining estimates. The accuracy and precision of these blind tests have validated the genetic method as a valuable means for identifying components of stock mixtures. Properties of the genetic method were further examined by simulation studies using the pooled data of the four blind tests as a mixed fishery. Replicated tests with samples sizes between 100 and 1,000 indicated that actual standard deviations on estimated contributions were consistently lower than calculated standard deviations; this difference diminished as sample size increased. It is recommended that future applications of the method be preceded by simulation studies that will identify appropriate levels of sampling required for acceptable levels of accuracy and precision. Variables in such studies include the stocks involved, the loci used, and the genetic differentiation among stocks. 8 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Infrastructure for collaborative science and societal applications in the Columbia River estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, António M.; Seaton, Charles; Wilkin, Michael P.; Riseman, Sarah F.; Needoba, Joseph A.; Maier, David; Turner, Paul J.; Kärnä, Tuomas; Lopez, Jesse E.; Herfort, Lydie; Megler, V. M.; McNeil, Craig; Crump, Byron C.; Peterson, Tawnya D.; Spitz, Yvette H.; Simon, Holly M.

    2015-12-01

    To meet societal needs, modern estuarine science needs to be interdisciplinary and collaborative, combine discovery with hypotheses testing, and be responsive to issues facing both regional and global stakeholders. Such an approach is best conducted with the benefit of data-rich environments, where information from sensors and models is openly accessible within convenient timeframes. Here, we introduce the operational infrastructure of one such data-rich environment, a collaboratory created to support (a) interdisciplinary research in the Columbia River estuary by the multi-institutional team of investigators of the Science and Technology Center for Coastal Margin Observation & Prediction and (b) the integration of scientific knowledge into regional decision making. Core components of the operational infrastructure are an observation network, a modeling system and a cyber-infrastructure, each of which is described. The observation network is anchored on an extensive array of long-term stations, many of them interdisciplinary, and is complemented by on-demand deployment of temporary stations and mobile platforms, often in coordinated field campaigns. The modeling system is based on finiteelement unstructured-grid codes and includes operational and process-oriented simulations of circulation, sediments and ecosystem processes. The flow of information is managed through a dedicated cyber-infrastructure, conversant with regional and national observing systems.

  19. Genomic and phenotypic differentiation among Methanosarcina mazei populations from Columbia River sediment

    PubMed Central

    Youngblut, Nicholas D; Wirth, Joseph S; Henriksen, James R; Smith, Maria; Simon, Holly; Metcalf, William W; Whitaker, Rachel J

    2015-01-01

    Methanogenic archaea are genotypically and phenotypically diverse organisms that are integral to carbon cycling in anaerobic environments. Owing to their genetic tractability and ability to be readily cultivated, Methanosarcina spp. have become a powerful model system for understanding methanogen biology at the cellular systems level. However, relatively little is known of how genotypic and phenotypic variation is partitioned in Methanosarcina populations inhabiting natural environments and the possible ecological and evolutionary implications of such variation. Here, we have identified how genomic and phenotypic diversity is partitioned within and between Methanosarcina mazei populations obtained from two different sediment environments in the Columbia River Estuary (Oregon, USA). Population genomic analysis of 56 M. mazei isolates averaging <1% nucleotide divergence revealed two distinct clades, which we refer to as ‘mazei-T' and ‘mazei-WC'. Genomic analyses showed that these clades differed in gene content and fixation of allelic variants, which point to potential differences in primary metabolism and also interactions with foreign genetic elements. This hypothesis of niche partitioning was supported by laboratory growth experiments that revealed significant differences in trimethylamine utilization. These findings improve our understanding of the ecologically relevant scales of genomic variation in natural systems and demonstrate interactions between genetic and ecological diversity in these easily cultivable and genetically tractable model methanogens. PMID:25756680

  20. Filter-separable constituents of groundwater from the Columbia River plateau

    SciTech Connect

    Seitz, M.G.; Boggs, S. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this procedure is to prepare groundwaters from the Columbia River basalt, northeastern Oregon, for batch partitioning experiments by concentration dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in water samples by ultrafiltration. Water samples were double-filtered through 0.4-..mu..m Nuclepore polycarbonate filters to remove particulates before beginning the ultrafiltration process. The results of these experiments do not indicate a consistent relation between the distribution of americium with coexisting basalt and groundwater and the DOC content of the groundwater at 25/sup 0/C, but there is some indication of increasing sorption of americium on basalt with increasing DOC at 90/sup 0/C. However, any simple interpretation of the effects of DOC on the sorption behavior of americium must be made with caution, as there are other variables in the chemistry of the groundwaters that may also have important controls on this process. Another important observation from this set of experiments is that ultrafiltration does not seem to be an effective means of concentrating DOC without affecting the other trace constituents of groundwaters. The observed fractionation of groundwater chemistry as a result of the ultrafiltration procedure is not yet understood. However, for further progress in experiments of this type, it may be necessary to develop an alternative means of concentrating organic compounds that would allow the maintenance of constant values of other trace constituents as an experimental control.

  1. Beach morphology monitoring in the Columbia River Littoral Cell: 1997-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruggiero, Peter; Eshleman, Jodi L.; Kingsley, Etienne; Thompson, David M.; Voigt, Brian; Kaminsky, George M.; Gelfenbaum, Guy

    2007-01-01

    This report describes methods used, data collected, and results of the Beach Morphology Monitoring Program in the Columbia River Littoral Cell (CRLC) from 1997 to 2005. A collaborative group primarily consisting of the US Geological Survey and the Washington State Department of Ecology performed this work. Beach Monitoring efforts consisted of collecting topographic and bathymetric horizontal and vertical position data using a Real Time Kinematic Differential Global Positioning System (RTK-DGPS). Sediment size distribution data was also collected as part of this effort. The monitoring program was designed to: 1) quantify the short- to medium-term (seasonal to interannual) beach change rates and morphological variability along the CRLC and assess the processes responsible for these changes; 2) collect beach state data (i.e., grain size, beach slope, and dune/sandbar height/position) to enhance the conceptual understanding of CRLC functioning and refine predictions of future coastal change and hazards; 3) compare and contrast the scales of environmental forcing and beach morphodynamics in the CRLC to other coastlines of the world; and 4) provide beach change data in a useful format to land use managers.

  2. Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation for the Federal Columbia River Estuary Program

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Tortorici, Cathy; Yerxa, Tracey; Leary, J.; Skalski, John R.

    2008-02-05

    The purpose ofthis document is to describe research, monitoring, and evaluation (RME) for the Federal Columbia River Estuary Program. The intent of this RME effort is to provide data and information to evaluate progress toward meeting program goals and objectives and support decision-making in the Estuary Program. The goal of the Estuary Program is to understand, conserve, and restore the estuary ecosystem to improve the performance of listed salmonid populations. The Estuary Program has five general objectives, designed to fulfill the program goal, as follows. 1. Understand the primary stressors affecting ecosystem controlling factors, such as ocean conditions and invasive species. 2. Conserve and restore factors controlling ecosystem structures and processes, such as hydrodynamics and water quality. 3. Increase the quantity and quality of ecosystem structures, i.e., habitats, juvenile salmonids use during migration through the estuary. 4. Maintain the food web to benefit salmonid performance. 5. Improve salmonid performance in terms of life history diversity, foraging success, growth, and survival. The goal of estuary RME is to provide pertinent and timely research and monitoring information to planners, implementers, and managers of the Estuary Program. In conclusion, the estuary RME effort is designed to meet the research and monitoring needs of the estuary Program using an adaptive management process. Estuary RME's success and usefulness will depend on the actual conduct of adaptive management, as embodied in the objectives, implrementation, data, reporting, and synthesis, evaluation, and decision-making described herein.

  3. Sluiceway Operations to Pass Juvenile Salmonids at The Dalles Dam, Columbia River, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Khan, Fenton; Skalski, J. R.; Klatte, Bernard A.

    2013-11-20

    Existing ice and trash sluiceways are commonly used to pass juvenile salmonids downstream at hydropower dams through a benign, non-turbine route. At The Dalles Dam on the Columbia River, managers undertook optimizing operations of sluiceway weirs to maximize survival of juvenile salmonids at the powerhouse. We applied fixed-location hydroacoustic methods to compare fish passage rates and sluiceway efficiencies for two weir configurations during 2004 and 2005: three weirs versus six weirs, located at the mid- versus east powerhouse, respectively. We also analyzed horizontal distributions of passage at the sluiceway and turbines and the effects of operating turbines beneath open sluiceway gates to provide supporting data relevant to operations optimization. Based on the findings, we recommend the following for long-term operations for the sluiceway at The Dalles Dam: open six rather than three sluiceway weirs to take advantage of the maximum hydraulic capacity of the sluiceway; open the three weirs above the western-most operating main turbine unit (MU) and the three weirs at MU 8 where turbine passage rates are relatively high; operate the turbine units below open sluiceway weirs as a standard procedure; operate the sluiceway 24 h/d year-round to maximize its benefits to juvenile salmonids; and use the same operations for spring and summer emigrants. These operational concepts are transferable to dams where sluiceway surface flow outlets are used protect downstream migrating fishes.

  4. Sluiceway Operations for Adult Steelhead Downstream Passage at The Dalles Dam, Columbia River, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Fenton; Royer, Ida M.; Johnson, Gary E.; Tackley, Sean C.

    2013-10-01

    This study evaluated adult steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss; fallbacks and kelts) downstream passage at The Dalles Dam in the Columbia River, USA, during the late fall, winter, and early spring months between 2008 and 2011. The purpose of the study was to determine the efficacy of operating the dam’s ice-and-trash sluiceway during non-spill months to provide a relatively safe, non-turbine, surface outlet for overwintering steelhead fallbacks and downstream migrating steelhead kelts. We applied the fixed-location hydroacoustic technique to estimate fish passage rates at the sluiceway and turbines of the dam. The spillway was closed during our sampling periods, which generally occurred in late fall, winter, and early spring. The sluiceway was highly used by adult steelhead (91–99% of total fish sampled passing the dam) during all sampling periods. Turbine passage was low when the sluiceway was not operated. This implies that lack of a sluiceway route did not result in increased turbine passage. However, when the sluiceway was open, adult steelhead used it to pass through the dam. The sluiceway may be operated during late fall, winter, and early spring to provide an optimal, non-turbine route for adult steelhead (fallbacks and kelts) downstream passage at The Dalles Dam.

  5. Evaluate Factors Limiting Columbia River Gorge Chum Salmon Populations; FY 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Uusitalo, Nancy M.

    2003-01-30

    Adult and juvenile chum salmon were monitored from October 2001 through September 2002 to evaluate factors limiting production. In 2001, 6 and 69 adult chum salmon were captured in the Hardy Creek and Hamilton Springs weirs, respectively. In 2001, 285 and 328 chum salmon carcasses were recovered during spawning ground surveys in Hardy Creek and Hamilton Springs, respectively. Twenty-eight fish captured in the mainstem Columbia River, Hamilton Springs, and Hardy Creek were implanted with radio tags and tracked via an array of fixed aerial, underwater antennas and a mobile tracking unit. Using the Area-Under-the-Curve program population estimates of adult chum salmon were 835 in Hardy Creek and 617 in Hamilton Springs. Juvenile chum salmon migration was monitored from March-June 2002. Total catches for Hardy Creek and Hamilton Springs were 103,315 and 140,220, respectively. Estimates of juvenile chum salmon emigration were 450,195 ({+-}21,793) in Hardy Creek and 561,462 ({+-}21,423) in Hamilton Springs.

  6. Surface energy and radiation budgets in a steppe ecosystem in the Upper Columbia River Gorge

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteman, C.D.; Allwine, K.J.; Bian, X.

    1994-08-01

    Measurements of radiation and surface energy budget components are presented for a semiarid grassland-steppe ecosystem in the Upper Columbia River Gorge (45{degrees}45`25.6 inches N, 120{degrees}01`39.3 inches W, 190 m) for June 2-27, 1991. Over this period, the ratio of sensible to latent heat flux (the Bowen ratio) averaged 5.0, and mean daily surface energy balance totals were: net radiation, 9.23; ground heat flux, 1.25; latent heat flux, 1.32; and sensible heat flux, 6.66 MJ m{sup {minus}2} d{sup {minus}1}, where the mean daily nonradiative fluxes were directed away from the surface, and the mean daily radiative flux was directed toward the surface. On clear days, the site received from 0.71 to 0.76 of the theoretical extraterrestrial solar radiation. Albedo over the 26-d period varied from 0.17 to 0.21. Daily and daytime average values of the components are summarized, and a plot is presented of the 30-min average values of all components for the entire period.

  7. Qualitative assessment of the impacts of proposed system operating strategies to resident fish within selected Columbia River Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Shreffler, D.K.; Geist, D.R.; Mavros, W.V.

    1994-01-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Bureau of Reclamation (BOR), and US Army Corps of Engineers (COE) are presently conducting the System Operation Review (SOR) for the Columbia River basin. The SOR began in 1990 and is expected to provide an operating strategy that will take into consideration multiple uses of the Columbia River system including navigation, flood control, irrigation, power generation, fish migration, fish and wildlife habitat, recreation, water supply, and water quality. This report provides descriptions of each of the non-modeled reservoirs and other specified river reaches. The descriptions focus on the distinct management goals for resident fish: biodiversity, species-specific concerns, and sport fisheries. In addition, this report provides a qualitative assessment of impacts to the resident fish within these reservoirs and river reaches from the 7 alternative system operating strategies. In addition to this introduction, the report contains four more sections. Section 2.0 provides the methods that were used. Reservoir descriptions appear in Section 3.0, which is a synthesis of our literature review and interviews with resident fish experts. Section 4.0 contains a discussion of potential impacts to fish within each of these reservoirs and river reaches from the 7 proposed system operating strategies. The references cited are listed in Section 5.0.

  8. Detections of Acoustic-Tagged Green Sturgeon in Baker Bay on the Lower Columbia River during September - November 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsley, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Acoustic transmitters implanted in green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris) captured in rivers in California were detected by acoustic receivers deployed within and around Baker Bay. The receivers were deployed at eight locations in the Bay and adjacent navigation channels of the Lower Columbia River during a period of anticipated channel dredging. Three of the transmitters detected were confirmed to have been implanted into green sturgeon in previous years; two were from the Sacramento River and one was from the Klamath River. The transmitters (fish) were within detection range of the receivers for only a short period, which is consistent with findings of earlier studies that green sturgeon make rapid and extensive intra-estuary movements.

  9. Migratory Behavior and Survival of Juvenile Salmonids in the Lower Columbia River, Estuary, and Plume in 2010

    SciTech Connect

    McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Skalski, John R.; Deters, Katherine A.; Ham, Kenneth D.; Townsend, Richard L.; Titzler, P. Scott; Hughes, Michael S.; Kim, Jin A.; Trott, Donna M.

    2011-09-01

    Uncertainty regarding the migratory behavior and survival of juvenile salmonids passing through the lower Columbia River and estuary after negotiating dams on the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) prompted the development and application of the Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS). The JSATS has been used to investigate the survival of juvenile salmonid smolts between Bonneville Dam (river kilometer (rkm) 236) and the mouth of the Columbia River annually since 2004. In 2010, a total of 12,214 juvenile salmonids were implanted with both a passive integrated transponder (PIT) and a JSATS acoustic transmitter. Using detection information from JSATS receiver arrays deployed on dams and in the river, estuary, and plume, the survival probability of yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead smolts tagged at John Day Dam was estimated form multiple reaches between rkm 153 and 8.3 during the spring. During summer, the survival probability of subyearling Chinook salmon was estimated for the same reaches. In addition, the influence of routes of passage (e.g., surface spill, deep spill, turbine, juvenile bypass system) through the lower three dams on the Columbia River (John Day, The Dalles, and Bonneville) on juvenile salmonid smolt survival probability from the dams to rkm 153 and then between rkm 153 and 8.3 was examined to increase understanding of the immediate and latent effects of dam passage on juvenile salmon survival. Similar to previous findings, survival probability was relatively high (>0.95) for most groups of juvenile salmonids from the Bonneville Dam tailrace to about rkm 50. Downstream of rkm 50 the survival probability of all species and run types we examined decreased markedly. Steelhead smolts suffered the highest mortality in this lower portion of the Columbia River estuary, with only an estimated 60% of the tagged fish surviving to the mouth of the river. In contrast, yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon smolts survived to the mouth

  10. Patterns in atmospheric circulation affect emission sources contributing to nitrogen deposition in the Columbia River Gorge, Pacific Northwest USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, S. M.; Chung, S. H.; Welker, J. M.; Harlow, B.; Evans, R. D.

    2014-12-01

    The Columbia River Gorge separating Oregon and Washington provides an ideal setting to investigate how atmospheric circulation patterns determine types of emission sources contributing to atmospheric deposition. Up-gorge and down-gorge atmospheric circulation patterns each provide a different suite of emission sources. Up-gorge airflow originates in the Portland-Vancouver metro area dominated by urban and industrial sources. Down-gorge patterns originate in the Columbia River basin, which is dominated by agricultural production. We tested the dependence of emission sources contributing to atmospheric deposition on circulation patterns by measuring the isotopic composition of nitrate (NO3-) in 2003-2004 precipitation samples from the WA98-Columbia River Gorge NADP & USNIP site. Circulation patterns were determined using back-trajectory analysis with the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model using the archived EDAS meteorological dataset. We observed a significant difference (P=0.01) between up-gorge and down-gorge patterns with mean δ15N-NO3- of +1.8 and -2.1‰ for up- and down-gorge, respectively. The differences observed between these two patterns is likely tied to the different emission sources of N found in these different geographic areas. The lower δ15N of down-gorge sources is due to the large amount of agricultural production in the Columbia River basin. Observed values for the up-gorge patterns likely result from industrial and fossil fuel emissions of NOx, the precursor of deposited NO3-, in the Portland-Vancouver area. The significantly greater amount of NO3- in precipitation from up-gorge patterns (0.72 mg/L) compared to down-gorge patterns (0.36 mg/L, P=0.01) supports the influence of urban sources rather than relatively clean marine air which characteristically has low amounts of NO3-. No significant differences are found in δ18Onitrate or Δ17Onitrate between the two patterns, suggesting that atmospheric chemistry

  11. Evaluation of the Contribution of Chinook Salmon Reared at Columbia River Hatcheries to the Pacific Salmon Fisheries, 1985 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Vreeland, Robert R.

    1985-10-01

    FY 1985 was the seventh year of an eight-year study to determine the distribution, contribution, and value of artificially propagated fall chinook on the Columbia River. Tagging of hatchery fall chinook was completed in FY81. Sampling of sport and commercial marine fisheries from Alaska through California, Columbia River fisheries, and Columbia River hatcheries and adjacent streams occurred in 1985 as planned. Returns of fall chinook to Columbia River facilities as of September 30, 1985 are 85,222. This return is already larger than three of the past five years. Estimated Catches of coded wire tagged salmonids are available through 1983 for all fisheries except Alaska in 1981 and Washington in 1983. Catch proportions by fishery for the 1978 brood are .01, .41, .34, .07, 0, and .17 for the Alaska, Canada, Washington, Oregon, California, and Columbia River fisheries respectively. The proportion of recoveries for the four age groups of 1978-brook fish caught are .05, .63, .30, .01 for the two-through five-year-old chinook respectively. Contributions to the fisheries per 1000 fish released for all hatcheries combined are 2.7 and 3.6 for the 1978 and 1979 broods respectively. Four years (1980 to 1983) are included in the contribution values for the 1978 brood and three years (1981 to 1983) for the 1970 brood. Spring Creek Hatchery has the greatest contribution to the fisheries of 8.3 and 12.8 fish per 1000 fish released for the 1978 and 1979 broods respectively. The Spring Creek contribution is followed by Stayton Pond, Abernathy, Bonneville and Big Creek at 6.5, 4.2, 2.9 and 2.6 respectively for the 1978 brood and Big Creek, Stayton Pond and Abernathy at 8.4, 6.7 and 4.7 respectively for the 1979 brood. Other facilities have contributions per 1000 releases of approximately 2 or less. These contributions are minimums since all possible fisheries and catch years are not yet included.

  12. Evolutionary responses by native species to major anthropogenic changes to their ecosystems: Pacific salmon in the Columbia River hydropower system.

    PubMed

    Waples, Robin S; Zabel, Richard W; Scheuerell, Mark D; Sanderson, Beth L

    2008-01-01

    The human footprint is now large in all the Earth's ecosystems, and construction of large dams in major river basins is among the anthropogenic changes that have had the most profound ecological consequences, particularly for migratory fishes. In the Columbia River basin of the western USA, considerable effort has been directed toward evaluating demographic effects of dams, yet little attention has been paid to evolutionary responses of migratory salmon to altered selective regimes. Here we make a first attempt to address this information gap. Transformation of the free-flowing Columbia River into a series of slack-water reservoirs has relaxed selection for adults capable of migrating long distances upstream against strong flows; conditions now favour fish capable of migrating through lakes and finding and navigating fish ladders. Juveniles must now be capable of surviving passage through multiple dams or collection and transportation around the dams. River flow patterns deliver some groups of juvenile salmon to the estuary later than is optimal for ocean survival, but countervailing selective pressures might constrain an evolutionary response toward earlier migration timing. Dams have increased the cost of migration, which reduces energy available for sexual selection and favours a nonmigratory life history. Reservoirs are a benign environment for many non-native species that are competitors with or predators on salmon, and evolutionary responses are likely (but undocumented). More research is needed to tease apart the relative importance of evolutionary vs. plastic responses of salmon to these environmental changes; this research is logistically challenging for species with life histories like Pacific salmon, but results should substantially improve our understanding of key processes. If the Columbia River is ever returned to a quasinatural, free-flowing state, remaining populations might face a Darwinian debt (and temporarily reduced fitness) as they struggle to

  13. Evolutionary responses by native species to major anthropogenic changes to their ecosystems: Pacific salmon in the Columbia River hydropower system.

    PubMed

    Waples, Robin S; Zabel, Richard W; Scheuerell, Mark D; Sanderson, Beth L

    2008-01-01

    The human footprint is now large in all the Earth's ecosystems, and construction of large dams in major river basins is among the anthropogenic changes that have had the most profound ecological consequences, particularly for migratory fishes. In the Columbia River basin of the western USA, considerable effort has been directed toward evaluating demographic effects of dams, yet little attention has been paid to evolutionary responses of migratory salmon to altered selective regimes. Here we make a first attempt to address this information gap. Transformation of the free-flowing Columbia River into a series of slack-water reservoirs has relaxed selection for adults capable of migrating long distances upstream against strong flows; conditions now favour fish capable of migrating through lakes and finding and navigating fish ladders. Juveniles must now be capable of surviving passage through multiple dams or collection and transportation around the dams. River flow patterns deliver some groups of juvenile salmon to the estuary later than is optimal for ocean survival, but countervailing selective pressures might constrain an evolutionary response toward earlier migration timing. Dams have increased the cost of migration, which reduces energy available for sexual selection and favours a nonmigratory life history. Reservoirs are a benign environment for many non-native species that are competitors with or predators on salmon, and evolutionary responses are likely (but undocumented). More research is needed to tease apart the relative importance of evolutionary vs. plastic responses of salmon to these environmental changes; this research is logistically challenging for species with life histories like Pacific salmon, but results should substantially improve our understanding of key processes. If the Columbia River is ever returned to a quasinatural, free-flowing state, remaining populations might face a Darwinian debt (and temporarily reduced fitness) as they struggle to

  14. Evaluation of Life History Diversity, Habitat Connectivity, and Survival Benefits Associated with Habitat Restoration Actions in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, Annual Report 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Johnson, Gary E.; Sather, Nichole K.; Skalski, John R.; Dawley, Earl M.; Coleman, Andre M.

    2010-08-01

    This report describes the 2009 research conducted under the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE or Corps) project EST-09-P-01, titled “Evaluation of Life History Diversity, Habitat Connectivity, and Survival Benefits Associated with Habitat Restoration Actions in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary.” The research was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Marine Science Laboratory and Hydrology Group, in partnership with the University of Washington, School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences, Columbia Basin Research, and Earl Dawley (NOAA Fisheries, retired). This Columbia River Fish Mitigation Program project, referred to as “Salmonid Benefits,” was started in FY 2009 to evaluate the state-of-the science regarding the ability to quantify the benefits to listed salmonids1 of habitat restoration actions in the lower Columbia River and estuary.

  15. Circulation, density distribution and neap-spring transitions in the Columbia River Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jay, David A.; Dungan Smith, J.

    This paper has two purposes. The first is to use tidal-monthly variations in the density and velocity fields and the salt and water transports as key to understanding the circulation of the Columbia River Estuary and other river estuaries. The Columbia River Estuary is a good natural laboratory in this regard, because the flushing time of the system (a few days) is short relative to the tidal month during all seasons. This allows the occurrence of distinct transitions from a strongly to a weakly stratified water column (and back) during the tidal month. Furthermore, because atmospheric processes are secondary to riverflow and tidal influence in determining the circulation, most of the energy in circulatory phenomena is confined to distinct tidal, tidal-monthly and seasonal frequency bands. Observations of salt transport and neap-spring transitions reported herein should provide important constraints on future theoretical studies of estuarine circulation. The second purpose is to describe the circulation and density field of the Columbia River Estuary as background for understanding the geologic and biological investigations discussed in other papers in this volume. Previous investigations have focused on seasonal variations in riverflow as governing the turbidity maximum and biological productivity. Studies reported in this volume show that tidal monthly variations in circulatory processes are of comparable importance. With regard to the velocity field, the influence of stratification causes the tidal flow to show the largest vertical variations in phase and amplitude in the lower estuary. The vertical distribution of the mean current is controlled by the ebb-flood asymmetry in the time-dependent flow, vertical mixing processes, the baroclinic pressure gradient, and interaction of the flow with topography. Net upstream bottom flow is weak or absent during periods of weak stratification; it is substantially only when the system is highly stratified. Net upstream

  16. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigation, 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Marcuson, Patrick E.; Wakkinen, Virginia; Kruse-Malle, Gretchen

    1995-07-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in concordance with Bonneville Power Administration provided a release of 1.48 billion cubic meters (1.2 MAF, million acre feet) of impounded water from Lake Koocanusa, Montana from June 1 to June 28, 1994. This release of water provided approximately 566 To/s (20 thousand cubic feet per second, kcfs) discharge in the Kootenai River at Bonners Ferry, Idaho. Between February and early April 1994, 15 adult sturgeon (10 females, 5 males) in late vitellogenic stage were captured and fitted with combinations of radio and sonic transmitters. A total of 31 sturgeon were monitored. Ten hatchery reared juvenile white sturgeon equipped with radio and sonic tags were released in pools down river of Kootenai Falls, Montana. All ten sturgeon had moved between 60 and 97 km (37.3 and 60.3 mi) down river of release sites within one month. Movements coincided with major flow peaking associated with hydropower production at Libby Dam, located upriver of the release site

  17. Paleosecular variation, geochemistry, correlation, and timing of Grande Ronde Basalt lava flows, Columbia River Basalt Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagstrum, J. T.; Sawlan, M. G.

    2013-12-01

    Co-located paleomagnetic and geochemical sampling of lava flows at eight sections within the Grande Ronde Basalt (GRB) was undertaken across the Columbia Plateau in WA and OR. The GRB represents roughly 87% (151,000 km3) of the Miocene Columbia River flood basalt province (174,000 km3) by volume (exclusive of the Steens Mountain Basalt), and recently published 40Ar/39Ar age estimates indicate that it was most likely emplaced within a time interval of less than 400 ka [Barry et al., Lithos 118(3), 213-222, 2010]. GRB flows include four stratigraphic magnetozones within the formation (R1, N1, R2, N2), and the sections currently sampled are mostly within the upper two magnetozones. Because Plateau GRB flows have undergone pervasive low-temperature alteration to varying degrees [see M. Sawlan's abstract, this meeting], particular care has been taken to collect the freshest available rock. Several new flow units have been identified, and similar, but unusual, paleomagnetic directions in stratigraphically adjacent flows of different chemical composition indicate, with high probability, that these flows were emplaced contemporaneously relative to the rate of geomagnetic paleosecular variation (PSV). Thus, several magma sources and their vent systems apparently operated nearly simultaneously and produced a stratigraphic framework in which compositionally distinct flows are intercalated. In addition, transitional directions have been found in flows near the N1/R2 and R2/N2 geomagnetic reversal boundaries, and an excursion to low inclinations occurred during emplacement of the Winter Water member (N2) flows. The detail and sequential nature of the PSV curve recovered from the upper GRB lava flows (R2 & N2) so far indicate extraordinarily rapid eruption of these flows. Comparison of the rate of change shown by our nascent PSV curve for the upper GRB with a recently published one for the Holocene of western North America [Hagstrum and Blinman, G3 11(6), 2010], which covers in

  18. Annual bed-elevation regime in the alluvial channel of Squamish River, southwestern British Columbia Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanford, S.D.; Seidl, M.A.; Ashley, G.M.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the annual regime of channel scour and fill by monitoring bed-elevation changes in a reach of Squamish River in southwestern British Columbia, Canada. Sonar surveys of 13 river cross-sections in a sandy gravel-bed single-channel study reach were repeated biweekly over a full hydrologic year (1995/6). The survey results show that bedload movement occurs as waves or pulses forming bedwaves that appear to maintain an overall coherence with movement downstream. These bedwaves propagate downstream by a mode here termed pulse scour and pulse fill, a process distinguished from the conventional mode of scour and fill commonly associated with flood events (here termed local scour and local fill). Bedwave celerity was estimated to be about 15.5 m d-1 corresponding to a bedwave residence time in the study reach of almost one hydrologic year. The total amount of local bed-elevation change ranged between 0.22 m and 2.41 m during the period of study. Analysis of the bed-elevation and flow data reveals that, because of the bedware phenomenon, there is no simple relation between the mean bed-elevation and discharge nor any strong linear correlation among cross-sectional behaviour. The bed-elevation data also suggest that complex changes to the bed within a cross-section are masked when the bed is viewed in one dimension, although no definitive trends in bed behaviour were found in the two-dimensional analysis. Although a weak seasonal effect is evident in this study, the bed-elevation regime is dominated by sediment supply-driven fluctuations in bedload transport occurring at timescales shorter than the seasonal fluctuation in discharge. The study also indicates that bed-elevation monitoring on Squamish River, and others like it, for purposes of detecting and measuring aggradation/degradation must take into account very considerable and normal channel-bed variability operating at timescales from hours to months. Copyright (C) 2000 John Wiley and

  19. Reconstruction of radionuclide concentrations in the Columbia River from Hanford, Washington to Portland, Oregon, January 1950--January 1971. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, W.H.; Gilmore, B.G.; Richmond, M.C.

    1994-01-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project, this report addresses the radioactivity in the Columbia River. The Columbia River received cooling-water effluent from the eight Hanford single-pass reactors and was the major pathway for waterborne radionuclides. The pathway began at the Hanford Site and continued downstream past the mouth of the Columbia River to the adjacent coastal and ocean areas. The objective of the HEDR Project`s Surface-Water Transport Task is to provide monthly average radionuclide concentrations in river water at specific locations along the Columbia River. These concentrations will be used in final estimates of radiation doses that individuals may have received from the Columbia River pathway. Under this task, a river hydraulic computer model was used to simulate transport of specific radionuclides from the Hanford reactors to Portland, Oregon. The model output consisted of monthly average water concentrations of radionuclides computed for 12 locations over 253 months (January 1950--January 1971). These water concentrations were forwarded to the staff of the Environmental Pathways and Dose Estimates Task for calculating dose estimates. The model used a source term input data file developed by the staff of the Source Terms Task which provided monthly average releases from each of the eight reactors, from January 1950 through January 1971. The Environmental Monitoring Task staff provided historical river monitoring data for use in validating computed water concentrations. The purpose of this report is to document the mathematical modeling required to reconstruct concentrations of radionuclides in Columbia River water. Modeling was required because available monitoring data are limited. The specific radionuclides considered are sodium-24, phosphorus-32, zinc-65, arsenic-76, and neptunium-239, determined by their relative contribution to dose for the river pathway (Napier 1993).

  20. 75 FR 55539 - Crooked Creek Reservoir Repair; White River National Forest, Eagle County, CO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-13

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Crooked Creek Reservoir Repair; White River National Forest, Eagle... Repair project on the Sopris Ranger District of the White River National Forest was published in the Federal Register (86 FR 24215). The Forest Service has decided to cancel the preparation of this EIS....

  1. Ecology of Juvenile Salmonids in Shallow Tidal Freshwater Habitats in the Vicinity of the Sandy River Delta, Lower Columbia River, 2007 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Sobocinski, Kathryn; Johnson, Gary; Sather, Nichole

    2008-03-17

    This document is the first annual report for the study titled 'Ecology of Juvenile Salmonids in Shallow Tidal Freshwater Habitats in the Vicinity of the Sandy River Delta in the Lower Columbia River'. Hereafter, we refer to this research as the Tidal Freshwater Monitoring (TFM) Study. The study is part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation effort developed by the Action Agencies (Bonneville Power Administration, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation) in response to obligations arising from the Endangered Species Act as a result of operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). The project is performed under the auspices of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council's Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. The goal of the 2007-2009 Tidal Freshwater Monitoring Study is to answer the following questions: In what types of habitats within the tidal freshwater area of the lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE; Figure 1) are yearling and subyearling salmonids found, when are they present, and under what environmental conditions?1 And, what is the ecological importance2 of shallow (0-5 m) tidal freshwater habitats to the recovery of Upper Columbia River spring Chinook salmon and steelhead and Snake River fall Chinook salmon? Research in 2007 focused mainly on the first question, with fish stock identification data providing some indication of Chinook salmon presence at the variety of habitat types sampled. The objectives and sub-objectives for the 2007 study were as follows: (1) Habitat and Fish Community Characteristics-Provide basic data on habitat and fish community characteristics for yearling and subyearling salmonids at selected sites in the tidal freshwater reach in the vicinity of the Sandy River delta. (1a) Characterize vegetation assemblage percent cover, conventional water quality, substrate composition, and beach slope at each of six sampling sites in various tidal freshwater habitat types. (1b) Determine fish

  2. Confluence of the White and Blue Nile Rivers at Khartoum, Sudan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Blue Nile River flowing from Lake Tana to the east and the larger White Nile River flowing from the Rift Valley region combine to form the Nile River at Khartoum, the capital city of Sudan (15.5N, 33.0E). The rivers normally flow out of phase as a result of the differing maximum precipitation periods of their watersheds. The differing flow periods allows longer use of the river for agriculture irrigation in the fields south of the city.

  3. Origin of Columbia River flood basalt controlled by propagating rupture of the Farallon slab.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lijun; Stegman, Dave R

    2012-02-15

    The origin of the Steens-Columbia River (SCR) flood basalts, which is presumed to be the onset of Yellowstone volcanism, has remained controversial, with the proposed conceptual models involving either a mantle plume or back-arc processes. Recent tomographic inversions based on the USArray data reveal unprecedented detail of upper-mantle structures of the western USA and tightly constrain geodynamic models simulating Farallon subduction, which has been proposed to influence the Yellowstone volcanism. Here we show that the best-fitting geodynamic model depicts an episode of slab tearing about 17 million years ago under eastern Oregon, where an associated sub-slab asthenospheric upwelling thermally erodes the Farallon slab, leading to formation of a slab gap at shallow depth. Driven by a gradient of dynamic pressure, the tear ruptured quickly north and south and within about two million years covering a distance of around 900 kilometres along all of eastern Oregon and northern Nevada. This tear would be consistent with the occurrence of major volcanic dikes during the SCR-Northern Nevada Rift flood basalt event both in space and time. The model predicts a petrogenetic sequence for the flood basalt with sources of melt starting from the base of the slab, at first remelting oceanic lithosphere and then evolving upwards, ending with remelting of oceanic crust. Such a progression helps to reconcile the existing controversies on the interpretation of SCR geochemistry and the involvement of the putative Yellowstone plume. Our study suggests a new mechanism for the formation of large igneous provinces.

  4. Petrophysical and geochemical properties of Columbia River flood basalt: Implications for carbon sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharova, Natalia V.; Goldberg, David S.; Sullivan, E. Charlotte; Herron, Michael M.; Grau, James A.

    2012-11-01

    This study presents borehole geophysical data and sidewall core chemistry from the Wallula Pilot Sequestration Project in the Columbia River flood basalt. The wireline logging data were reprocessed, core-calibrated and interpreted in the framework of reservoir and seal characterization for carbon dioxide storage. Particular attention is paid to the capabilities and limitations of borehole spectroscopy for chemical characterization of basalt. Neutron capture spectroscopy logging is shown to provide accurate concentrations for up to 8 major and minor elements but has limited sensitivity to natural alteration in fresh-water basaltic reservoirs. The Wallula borehole intersected 26 flows from 7 members of the Grande Ronde formation. The logging data demonstrate a cyclic pattern of sequential basalt flows with alternating porous flow tops (potential reservoirs) and massive flow interiors (potential caprock). The log-derived apparent porosity is extremely high in the flow tops (20-45%), and considerably overestimates effective porosity obtained from hydraulic testing. The flow interiors are characterized by low apparent porosity (0-8%) but appear pervasively fractured in borehole images. Electrical resistivity images show diverse volcanic textures and provide an excellent tool for fracture analysis, but neither fracture density nor log-derived porosity uniquely correlate with hydraulic properties of the Grande Ronde formation. While porous flow tops in these deep flood basalts may offer reservoirs with high mineralization rates, long leakage migration paths, and thick sections of caprock for CO2 storage, a more extensive multiwell characterization would be necessary to assess lateral variations and establish sequestration capacity in this reservoir.

  5. Giant Plagioclase "Mosaicrysts" and Other Textures in the Steens Basalt, Columbia River Flood Basalt Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grunder, A.; Moore, N. E.; Bohrson, W. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Steens Basalts (~16.7 Ma), the oldest and most mafic stage of Columbia River flood basalt volcanism, are known for lavas with conspicuous giant plagioclase laths (2 - 5 cm in diameter). Such flows are intercalated with ones that are nearly aphyric or that bear plagioclase (plag) phenocrysts of 0.5-2 cm. Addition textures are distinctive radial, snowflake plag clusters and sandwich glomerocrysts of plag, with olivine trapped between laths. These clusters and glomerocrysts are typically 1, but as large as 3 cm in diameter. Plag composition of all textural types is limited (An76-60). Plag dominates the phenocryst mode; rare flows, mainly low in the section, have olivine > plag and phenocrystic clinopyroxene occurs rarely, and mainly high in the section. Unlike the flows, dikes have few phenocrysts; giant laths are rare and the snowflake texture has not been observed. Giant plag laths are euhedral and make up a few percent to more than 50% of the rock. Many plag megacrysts are made of several plag crystals that form a mosaic, where the constituent crystals are crystallographically distinct and are overgrown with feldspar to make the crystal euhedral. We describe these composite megacrysts as "mosaicrysts". We are exploring magmatic conditions that would trigger oversaturation to spawn rapid growth yielding clusters and overgrowths that form mosaicrysts. Giant plagioclase basalts (so-called GPB) are also described for the Deccan and Emeishan flood basalt provinces attesting to similar magmatic processes. Plag laths typically define strong flow foliation at the flow base, have a swirled distribution in the flow core, and are sparse in the top. Some particularly crystal-rich flows (or sills) have an abrupt transition to a crystal-poor upper few decimeters of the several-m- thick flow. We interpret the crystal-poor top to be the expelled melt from crystal accumulation in the flow, which locally reinjects and is entrained in lower crystal mush.

  6. Risk analysis for the resident bald eagles of the lower Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Glaser, D.; Connolly, J.; Berghoffen, A.

    1995-12-31

    The resident bald eagles of the lower Columbia River have lower productivity and higher contaminant levels than other bald eagles of the Pacific Northwest. The primary population stressors are believed to be habitat loss, human disturbance, p,p{prime}DDE, PCBs, dioxins and furans. The primary effect of habitat loss is to reduce the carrying capacity of the region for nesting sites, and the primary effects of human disturbance and contamination by organic compounds are to reduce productivity. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the effects of all of, these potential stressors on the bald eagle population dynamics. A model of the population dynamics was developed. The model structure includes a physiologically-based toxicokinetic (PBTK) submodel to estimate the degree of contamination, which is linked via a toxicology submodel to a population dynamics submodel. The PBTK submodel is time-variable, incorporating species-specific bioenergetics, as well as contaminant assimilation and excretion rates for each compound of interest. Calculated body burdens and egg concentrations for each compound account for spatial and temporal variations in feeding habits and prey contaminant levels. The population submodel includes fecundity and survival information, as well as a limit to the number of breeding pairs (carrying capacity) and a population of non-breeding subadults and adults (floaters). Model simulations are performed in a Monte Carlo framework. Results include estimates of the persistence, resistance and resilience of the population: the probability of extinction, the relationship between magnitude of stress and change in population size, and the time course of recovery of a population following a reduction in stress.

  7. The effects of juvenile American shad planktivory on zooplankton production in Columbia River food webs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haskell, Craig A.; Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Rondorf, Dennis W.

    2013-01-01

    Columbia River reservoirs support a large population of nonnative American Shad Alosa sapidissima that consume the zooplankton that native fishes also rely on. We hypothesized that the unprecedented biomass of juvenile American Shad in John Day Reservoir is capable of altering the zooplankton community if these fish consume a large portion of the zooplankton production. We derived taxon-specific estimates of zooplankton production using field data and a production model from the literature. Empirical daily ration was estimated for American Shad and expanded to population-level consumption using abundance and biomass data from hydroacoustic surveys. Daphnia spp. production was high in early summer but declined to near zero by September as shad abundance increased. American Shad sequentially consumed Daphnia spp., copepods, and Bosmina spp., which tracked the production trends of these taxa. American Shad evacuation rates ranged from 0.09 to 0.24/h, and daily rations ranged from 0.008 to 0.045 g·g−1·d−1 (dry weight) over all years. We observed peak American Shad biomass (45.2 kg/ha) in 1994, and daily consumption (1.6 kg/ha) approached 30% (5.3 kg/ha) of zooplankton production. On average, American Shad consumed 23.6% of the available zooplankton production (range, <1–83%). The changes in the zooplankton community are consistent with a top-down effect of planktivory by American Shad associated with their unprecedented biomass and consumption, but the effects are likely constrained by temperature, nutrient flux, and the seasonal production patterns of zooplankton in John Day Reservoir. American Shad add to the planktivory exerted by other species like Neomysis mercedis to reduce the capacity of the reservoir to support other planktivorous fishes. The introduction of American Shad and other nonnative species will continue to alter the food web in John Day Reservoir, potentially affecting native fishes, including Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp.

  8. Local landscape predictors of maximum stream temperature and thermal sensitivity in the Columbia River Basin, USA.

    PubMed

    Chang, Heejun; Psaris, Mike

    2013-09-01

    Stream temperature regimes are important determinants of the health of lotic ecosystems, and a proper understanding of the landscape factors affecting stream temperatures is needed for water managers to make informed decisions. We analyzed spatial patterns of thermal sensitivity (response of stream temperature to changes in air temperature) and maximum stream temperature for 74 stations in the Columbia River basin, to identify landscape factors affecting these two indices of stream temperature regimes. Thermal sensitivity (TS) is largely controlled by distance to the Pacific Coast, base flow index, and contributing area. Maximum stream temperature (Tmax) is mainly controlled by base flow index, percent forest land cover, and stream order. The analysis of four different spatial scales--relative contributing area (RCA) scale, RCA buffered scale, 1 km upstream RCA scale, and 1 km upstream buffer scale--yield different significant factors, with topographic factors such as slope becoming more important at the buffer scale analysis for TS. Geographically weighted regression (GWR), which takes into account spatial non-stationary processes, better predicts the spatial variations of TS and Tmax with higher R(2) and lower residual values than ordinary least squares (OLS) estimates. With different coefficient values over space, GWR models explain approximately up to 62% of the variation in TS and Tmax. Percent forest land cover coefficients had both positive and negative values, suggesting that the relative importance of forest changes over space. Such spatially varying GWR coefficients are associated with land cover, hydroclimate, and topographic variables. OLS estimated regression residuals are positively autocorrelated over space at the RCA scale, while the GWR residuals exhibit no spatial autocorrelation at all scales. GWR models provide useful additional information on the spatial processes generating the variations of TS and Tmax, potentially serving as a useful tool

  9. Local landscape predictors of maximum stream temperature and thermal sensitivity in the Columbia River Basin, USA.

    PubMed

    Chang, Heejun; Psaris, Mike

    2013-09-01

    Stream temperature regimes are important determinants of the health of lotic ecosystems, and a proper understanding of the landscape factors affecting stream temperatures is needed for water managers to make informed decisions. We analyzed spatial patterns of thermal sensitivity (response of stream temperature to changes in air temperature) and maximum stream temperature for 74 stations in the Columbia River basin, to identify landscape factors affecting these two indices of stream temperature regimes. Thermal sensitivity (TS) is largely controlled by distance to the Pacific Coast, base flow index, and contributing area. Maximum stream temperature (Tmax) is mainly controlled by base flow index, percent forest land cover, and stream order. The analysis of four different spatial scales--relative contributing area (RCA) scale, RCA buffered scale, 1 km upstream RCA scale, and 1 km upstream buffer scale--yield different significant factors, with topographic factors such as slope becoming more important at the buffer scale analysis for TS. Geographically weighted regression (GWR), which takes into account spatial non-stationary processes, better predicts the spatial variations of TS and Tmax with higher R(2) and lower residual values than ordinary least squares (OLS) estimates. With different coefficient values over space, GWR models explain approximately up to 62% of the variation in TS and Tmax. Percent forest land cover coefficients had both positive and negative values, suggesting that the relative importance of forest changes over space. Such spatially varying GWR coefficients are associated with land cover, hydroclimate, and topographic variables. OLS estimated regression residuals are positively autocorrelated over space at the RCA scale, while the GWR residuals exhibit no spatial autocorrelation at all scales. GWR models provide useful additional information on the spatial processes generating the variations of TS and Tmax, potentially serving as a useful tool

  10. Petrophysical and Geochemical Properties of Columbia River Flood Basalt: Implications for Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Zakharova, Natalia V.; Goldberg, David S.; Sullivan, E. C.; Herron, Michael M.; Grau, Jim A.

    2012-11-02

    Abstract This study presents borehole geophysical data and sidewall core chemistry from the Wallula Pilot Sequestration Project in the Columbia River flood basalt. The wireline logging data were reprocessed, core-calibrated and interpreted in the framework of reservoir and seal characterization for carbon dioxide storage. Particular attention is paid to the capabilities and limitations of borehole spectroscopy for chemical characterization of basalt. Neutron capture spectroscopy logging is shown to provide accurate concentrations for up to 8 major and minor elements but has limited sensitivity to natural alteration in fresh-water basaltic reservoirs. The Wallula borehole intersected 26 flows from 7 members of the Grande Ronde formation. The logging data demonstrate a cyclic pattern of sequential basalt flows with alternating porous flow tops (potential reservoirs) and massive flow interiors (potential caprock). The log-derived apparent porosity is extremely high in the flow tops (20%-45%), and considerably overestimates effective porosity obtained from hydraulic testing. The flow interiors are characterized by low apparent porosity (0-8%) but appear pervasively fractured in borehole images. Electrical resistivity images show diverse volcanic textures and provide an excellent tool for fracture analysis, but neither fracture density nor log-derived porosity uniquely correlate with hydraulic properties of the Grande Ronde formation. While porous flow tops in these deep flood basalts may offer reservoirs with high mineralization rates, long leakage migration paths, and thick sections of caprock for CO2 storage, a more extensive multi- well characterization would be necessary to assess lateral variations and establish sequestration capacity in this reservoir.

  11. Variations of Carbon Isotopes during Shale Gas Production from the Horn River Basin, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norville, G.; Muehlenbachs, K.

    2014-12-01

    Chemical and stable isotope compositions of natural gases are key parameters for characterizing gas and hydrocarbon reservoirs. Produced gases were obtained from eight wells at multi-well pad sites located in the Horn River Basin (HRB), NE British Columbia. Shale gas wells were drilled and completed in the Devonian Muskwa, Otter Park and Evie Formations of the HRB, and gases collected as time series over short term (~50 days) and long term periods (~ 1250 days). δ13C of gases from HRB formations confirm high thermal maturity and the shale gases frequently showed partial or full isotope reversals among hydrocarbon components. A 10‰ variation in δ13C values of methane was observed during production. In general, during early phases of production shale gases appear enriched in 12C compared to gases sampled at later stages and δ13Cmethane values were approximately between -38‰ and -35‰ during times up to 50 days. The majority of cases of carbon isotope reversals between methane and ethane components of gases (δ13Cmethane > δ13Cethane) were observed at times greater than 100 days, while ethane and propane reversals were common throughout production. Gas production rates differed significantly among the sampled wells from ~ 50 to 400 e3m3/d. Higher rates were frequently associated with gases showing 12Cmethane enrichment. Subsequent to periods of well 'shut in' a change in the carbon isotope composition was detected with enrichment in 13Cmethane of gases. Carbon isotope signatures of produced gases likely reflect a combination of both the in-situ shale gas isotope signature as well as effects of isotope fractionation which may occur during transport through pores and fractures of the shale.

  12. Digital representation of the Washington state geologic map: a contribution to the Interior Columbia River Basin Ecosystem Management Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raines, Gary L.; Johnson, Bruce R.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the digital representation of the Washington state geologic map (Hunting and others, 1961). This report contains an explantion of why the data were prepared, a description of the digital data, and information on obtaining the digital files. This report is one in a series of digital maps, data files, and reports generated by the U.S. Geological Survey to provide geologic process and mineral resource information to the Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project (ICBEMP). The various digital maps and data files are being used in a geographic information system (GIS)-based ecosystem assessment including an analysis of diverse questions relating to past, present, and future conditions within the general area of the Columbia River Basin east of the Cascade Mountains.

  13. Operation Plans for Anadromous Fish Production Facilities in the Columbia River Basin : Annual Report 1995 : Volume III - Washington.

    SciTech Connect

    Colville Confederated Tribes; US Fish and Wildlife Service; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife; Yakama Indian Nation

    1996-06-01

    Beaver Creek Hatchery is located on the Elochoman River about 10 miles upstream from the river mouth. The Elochoman River is a north bank tributary of the lower Columbia River, just downstream of Cathlamet, Washington. The facility consists of 10 intermediate raceways, 20 raceways, (1) earthen rearing pond, (2) adult holding ponds, and a hatchery building with 60 troughs. It is staffed with 4 FTE`s. Water rights total 16,013 gpm from three sources: Elochoman River, Beaver Creek and a well. Beaver Creek water is gravity flow while the other two sources are pumped. The Elochoman River is used in summer and fall while Beaver Creek water is used from mid-November through mid-May. Filtered well water (1 cfs) is used to incubate eggs and for early rearing of fry. Water use in summer is about 5,800 gpm. Gobar Pond, a 0.93-acre earthen rearing pond located on Gobar Creek (Kalama River tributary), is operated as a satellite facility.

  14. Reconstruction of radionuclide concentrations in the Columbia River from Hanford, Washington to Portland, Oregon, January 1950--January 1971. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, W.H.; Gilmore, B.G.; Richmond, M.C.

    1994-05-01

    Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories conducted this study of the Columbia River for the Technical Steering Panel (TSP) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. The HEDR Project was established to estimate the radiation dose that individuals may have received from operations that began at the Hanford Site in 1944. The purpose of the study was to reconstruct concentrations of radionuclides in Columbia River water for estimating doses to humans from the river pathway.

  15. Effects of dam removal on Tule Fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the White Salmon River, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatten, James R.; Batt, Thomas R.; Skalicky, Joseph J.; Engle, Rod; Barton, Gary J.; Fosness, Ryan L.; Warren, Joe

    2016-01-01

    Condit Dam is one of the largest hydroelectric dams ever removed in the USA. Breached in a single explosive event in October 2011, hundreds-of-thousands of cubic metres of sediment washed down the White Salmon River onto spawning grounds of a threatened species, Columbia River tule fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. We investigated over a 3-year period (2010–2012) how dam breaching affected channel morphology, river hydraulics, sediment composition and tule fall Chinook salmon (hereafter ‘tule salmon’) spawning habitat in the lower 1.7 km of the White Salmon River (project area). As expected, dam breaching dramatically affected channel morphology and spawning habitat due to a large load of sediment released from Northwestern Lake. Forty-two per cent of the project area that was previously covered in water was converted into islands or new shoreline, while a large pool near the mouth filled with sediments and a delta formed at the mouth. A two-dimensional hydrodynamic model revealed that pool area decreased 68.7% in the project area, while glides and riffles increased 659% and 530%, respectively. A spatially explicit habitat model found the mean probability of spawning habitat increased 46.2% after dam breaching due to an increase in glides and riffles. Shifting channels and bank instability continue to negatively affect some spawning habitat as sediments continue to wash downstream from former Northwestern Lake, but 300 m of new spawning habitat (river kilometre 0.6 to 0.9) that formed immediately post-breach has persisted into 2015. Less than 10% of tule salmon have spawned upstream of the former dam site to date, but the run sizes appear healthy and stable. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  16. Multibeam Mapping of Active Slope Instability Features: Examples from the Fraser River and Squamish River Deltas, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, P. R.

    2004-12-01

    Multibeam mapping of the coastal waters of British Columbia has immensly improved our ability to identify and assess submarine landslide and tsunami hazard. This paper will present analysis of high-resolution images of slope instability features from two delta slopes where recent slope failure can be documented through repetitive multibeam mapping and/or comparison with previous single-beam hydrographic soundings. Numerous mass movement features characterize the slope of the Fraser River delta, all the recent features being located at the mouths of distributary channels. Engineering works have maintained the main channel in a fixed position since the 1930's, contributing to over-steepening of the slope and development of a network of submarine channels. Repetitive multibeam mapping shows that recent slope failures have occurred in numerous locations around the main channel lobe, some at the head of a large submarine channel system and others as isolated small failures that form the headwalls of small submarine channels. The scalloped morphology and association with channels, together with volume estimates derived from repetitive multibeam mapping, indicate that these features result from shallow, small volume liquefaction failures. Smaller scale, shallow slides are present on the very shallow water slope area adjacent to the channels, raising the possibility of groundwater seepage as an influence on slope stability. The slide masses from these failures are rapidly transformed into gravity flows that carve the submarine channels. Slides and channels of a similar scale are found at the mouth of a secondary distributary channel and an abandoned distributary channel. The multibeam imagery allows discrimination between recent slide features and relict features, the latter showing infilling or reworking by bottom currents. An area of undulatory seafloor, located on the flank of the main distributary channel lobe, has been cited as a possible creep displacement feature

  17. Trends in organic pollutants and lipids in juvenile Snake River spring Chinook salmon with different outmigrating histories through the Lower Snake and Middle Columbia Rivers.

    PubMed

    Arkoosh, Mary R; Strickland, Stacy; Van Gaest, Ahna; Ylitalo, Gina M; Johnson, Lyndal; Yanagida, Gladys K; Collier, Tracy K; Dietrich, Joseph P

    2011-11-01

    A three-year field study was conducted from 2006 to 2008 to monitor the spatial and temporal trends of organic pollutants in migrating juvenile Snake River spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) sampled from the Lower Snake and Middle Columbia River Basins. Specifically, hatchery-reared juvenile salmon were monitored as they navigated the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) by either transport barge (Barged) or remained in the river (In-River) from Lower Granite Dam to a terminal collection dam, either John Day Dam or Bonneville Dam. Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and organochlorine (OC) pesticides were detected in the bodies of both In-River and Barged salmon during the 2006, 2007 and 2008 outmigrating season. At the terminal dam, In-River fish had greater concentrations of persistent organic pollutants POPs than Barged salmon. Of the POPs detected, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) were found at the greatest concentrations in the salmon bodies. These elevated lipid-normalized concentrations in the In-River fish were due to lipid depletion in all years as well as increased exposure to POPs in some years as indicated by an increase in wet weight contaminant concentrations. Salmon were also exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as indicated by the phenanthrene (PHN) signal for biliary fluorescent aromatic compounds (FACs) at the hatcheries or prior to Lower Granite Dam. There were detectable levels of biliary FACs as fish migrated downstream or were barged to the terminal dam. Therefore, the potential exists for these organic pollutants and lipid levels to cause adverse effects and should be included as one of the variables to consider when examining the effects of the FCRPS on threatened and endangered juvenile salmon.

  18. Vibration-induced white finger among selected underground rock drillers in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Brubaker, R L; Mackenzie, C J; Hutton, S G

    1986-08-01

    Ninety-five rock drillers who used pneumatic hand-held drills were interviewed and tested. Thirty-seven were excluded because of factors predisposing to the appearance of white fingers other than exposure to industrial hand-drill vibration. Forty-five percent of the remaining 58 drillers suffered from periodic attacks of Raynaud's phenomenon. Symptoms were present in 25% of the drillers exposed for 1-5 years and in 80% of those exposed for greater than or equal to 16 years. Nine percent of the cases were classified as severe. The median latency for the onset of the blanching symptoms was 7.5 years. The prevalence of Raynaud's phenomenon was 4% among a reference group of 56 miners not exposed to hand vibration and corrected for possible predisposing factors. Objective evidence indicated delayed finger rewarming after a combination of digital ischemia and cooling in 75% of the drillers with blanching symptoms and 18% of the referents without symptoms. There was evidence of an increased frequency of vibration-induced white finger among current cigarette smokers. Weighted 4-h equivalent acceleration levels measured from the handles of 26 jack-leg and 13 stoper drills from the same mines as the miners ranged from 15 to 32 m/s2. These levels exceed recommended guidelines of the International Organization for Standardization.

  19. Quality and Behavior of Juvenile Salmonids in the Columbia River Estuary and Nearshore Ocean and Effects of the Ocean Environment on the Survival of Columbia River Juvenile Salmonids, 1989-1994 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, R.C.; Schiewe, Michael H.; Fisher, J.P.

    1989-05-01

    In response to this limited understanding of the factors responsible for the continuing decline of spring chinook salmon in the Columbia River, this research plan was developed. The overall goal of the proposed research is to investigate and identify relationships among smolt quality (measured in the hatchery and after recovery in the estuary and nearshore ocean), environmental conditions in the estuary and nearshore ocean during smolt migration, and long-term survival (as measured by adult returns to the hatchery of origin and contributions to the recreational, commercial, and tribal fisheries). 16 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. 2012 White Book, Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study

    SciTech Connect

    2013-06-06

    The White Book is a planning analysis produced by BPA that informs BPA of its load and resource conditions for sales and purchases. The White Book provides a 10-year look at the expected obligations and resources in the Federal system and PNW region. The White Book is used as a planning tool for the Columbia River Treaty (Treaty) studies, as an information tool for customers and regional interests, and as a publication of information utilized by other planning entities for their analyses. The White Book is not used to guide day-to-day operations of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) or determine BPA revenues or rates.