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Sample records for combine harvesters

  1. Multi-mechanism vibration harvester combining inductive and piezoelectric mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin, Anthony; Priya, Shashank

    2012-04-01

    With increasing demand for wireless sensor nodes in automobile, aircraft and rail applications, the need for energy harvesters has been growing. In these applications, energy harvesters provide a more robust and inexpensive power solution than batteries. In order to enhance the power density of existing energy harvesters, a variety of multimodal energy harvesting techniques have been proposed. Multi-modal energy harvesters can be categorized as: (i) Multi-Source Energy Harvester (MSEH), (ii) Multi-Mechanism Energy Harvester (MMEH), and (iii) Single Source Multi-Mode Energy Harvester (S2M2EH). In this study, we focus on developing MMEH which combines the inductive and piezoelectric mechanisms. The multi-mechanism harvester was modeled using FEM techniques and theoretically analyzed to optimize the performance and reduce the overall shape and size similar to that of AA battery. The theoretical model combining analytical and FEM modeling techniques provides the system dynamics and output power for specific generator and cymbal geometry at various source conditions. In the proposed design, a cylindrical tube contains a magnetic levitation cavity where a center magnet oscillates through a copper coil. Piezoelectric cymbal transducers were mounted on the top and bottom sections of the cylindrical shell. In response to the external vibrations, electrical energy was harvested from the relative motion between magnet and coil through Faraday's effect and from the piezoelectric material through the direct piezoelectric effect. Experimental results validate the predictions from theoretical model and show the promise of multimodal harvester for powering wireless sensor nodes in automobile, aircraft, and rail applications.

  2. Combined Euler column vibration isolation and energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, R. B.; McDowell, M. D.

    2017-05-01

    A new device that combines vibration isolation and energy harvesting is modeled, simulated, and tested. The vibration isolating portion of the device uses post-buckled beams as its spring elements. Piezoelectric film is applied to the beams to harvest energy from their dynamic flexure. The entire device operates passively on applied base excitation and requires no external power or control system. The structural system is modeled using the elastica, and the structural response is applied as forcing on the electric circuit equation to predict the output voltage and the corresponding harvested power. The vibration isolation and energy harvesting performance is simulated across a large parameter space and the modeling approach is validated with experimental results. Experimental transmissibilities of 2% and harvested power levels of 0.36 μW are simultaneously demonstrated. Both theoretical and experimental data suggest that there is not necessarily a trade-off between vibration isolation and harvested power. That is, within the practical operational range of the device, improved vibration isolation will be accompanied by an increase in the harvested power as the forcing frequency is increased.

  3. Combine harvester monitor system based on wireless sensor network

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A measurement method based on Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) was developed to monitor the working condition of combine harvester for remote application. Three JN5139 modules were chosen for sensor data acquisition and another two as a router and a coordinator, which could create a tree topology netwo...

  4. A Movable Combined Water Treatment Facility for Rainwater Harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Liao, L.

    2003-12-01

    Alarming water shortage and increased water scarcity world wide has led to increased interests in alternative water sources. Rainwater harvesting is one of them which is getting more and more attention. There is a huge potential for generalization and extension of rainwater harvesting system as an alternative water supply. This is especially important for arid and semi-arid regions where the water shortage blocks further social, economical development. Earlier laboratory experiments and field study showed that harvested rainwater requires treatments of different degrees in order to meet the WHO drinking water standards. The main focus of this study is to ascertain the quality of stored rainwater for drinking purposes with emphasis on water disinfection and pollutants removal. A movable, low-cost, fully functional small scale treatment facility is proposed and tested under simulated field condition. A number of actual and potential hazardous pollutants were identified in the collected water samples together with laboratory test. The corresponding water purification procedure and fresh-keeping methods are discussed. The final proposal of this movable facility needs to be further examined to achieve optimal combined treatment efficiency.

  5. Harvesting

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Since the introduction of the first successful mechanical harvester, mechanized cotton harvest has continued to decrease the cost and man hours required to produce a bale of cotton. Cotton harvesting in the US is completely mechanized and is accomplished by two primary machines, the spindle picker a...

  6. Harvesting

    Treesearch

    John R. Jones; Wayne D. Shepperd

    1985-01-01

    Harvesting is the removal of produce from the forest for utilization. It includes cutting, any further initial processing, such as topping and trimming, and extraction (Ford-Robertson 1971). Commercial intermediate cutting, such as commercial thinning, as well as regeneration cutting are included. Harvesting and the income that it produces sometimes is regarded as an...

  7. Harvesting

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The spindle picker and brush-roll stripper are the two machines used to harvest cotton produced in the United States. Adoption of each harvester type is dictated by regional differences in regard to production environment, production practices, cultivar, and yield. The spindle picker is a selectiv...

  8. High School Harvest: Combining Food Service Training and Institutional Procurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conner, David; Estrin, Hans; Becot, Florence

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses High School Harvest (HSH), an Extension educator-led project in five Vermont schools to provide students with job training and food system education and to provide lightly processed produce to school lunch programs. One hundred and twenty-one students participated, logging 8,752 hours growing, harvesting, and processing…

  9. High School Harvest: Combining Food Service Training and Institutional Procurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conner, David; Estrin, Hans; Becot, Florence

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses High School Harvest (HSH), an Extension educator-led project in five Vermont schools to provide students with job training and food system education and to provide lightly processed produce to school lunch programs. One hundred and twenty-one students participated, logging 8,752 hours growing, harvesting, and processing…

  10. Hybrid acoustic energy harvesting using combined electromagnetic and piezoelectric conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Farid Ullah; Izhar

    2016-02-01

    This paper reports a novel hybrid acoustic energy harvester. The harvester utilizes both the electromagnetic and piezoelectric conversion mechanisms simultaneously to convert the ambient acoustical noise into electrical power for self-powered wireless sensor nodes. The proposed harvester is comprised of a Helmholtz resonator, two magnets mounted on a piezoelectric plate, and a wound coil located under the magnets. The harvester is characterized both under harmonic and real random acoustical excitations. In-lab, under harmonic acoustical excitation at a sound pressure level of 130 dB and frequency of 2.1 kHz, an optimum power of 2.86 μW (at 114 Ω optimum load) is obtained from electromagnetic conversion and 50 μW (at 1000 Ω optimum load) is generated by the piezoelectric harvester's part. Moreover, in real acoustical environment of a domestic electric generator the peak voltages of 40 and 123 mV are produced by the electromagnetic and piezoelectric portions of the acoustic energy harvester.

  11. Remote Fault Information Acquisition and Diagnosis System of the Combine Harvester Based on LabVIEW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jin; Wu, Pei; Xu, Kai

    Most combine harvesters have not be equipped with online fault diagnosis system. A fault information acquisition and diagnosis system of the Combine Harvester based on LabVIEW is designed, researched and developed. Using ARM development board, by collecting many sensors' signals, this system can achieve real-time measurement, collection, displaying and analysis of different parts of combine harvesters. It can also realize detection online of forward velocity, roller speed, engine temperature, etc. Meanwhile the system can judge the fault location. A new database function is added so that we can search the remedial measures to solve the faults and also we can add new faults to the database. So it is easy to take precautions against before the combine harvester breaking down then take measures to service the harvester.

  12. Blockage fault diagnosis method of combine harvester based on BPNN and DS evidence theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jin; Xu, Kai; Wang, Yifan; Wang, Kun; Wang, Shuqing

    2017-01-01

    According to the complexity and the lack of intelligent analysis method of combine harvester blockage fault , this paper puts forward a method , based on the combination of BP neural network (BPNN)and DS evidence theory , for combine harvester blockage fault diagnosis. Choosing cutting table auger, conveyer trough, threshing cylinder and grain conveying auger as the study, this paper divides the condition of combine harvester into four categories, namely, normal, slightly blocking, blockage, severe blockage, which being as an identification framework for DS evidence theory. BP neural network is used for analysing speed information of monitoring points and distributing basic probability for each proposition in the identification framework. Dempster combination rule converged information at different time to obtain diagnostic results.Test results show that this method can timely and accurately judge the work state of combine harvester, the blocking fault warning time will be increased to 2 seconds and the success probability of blocking fault warning reach more than 90%.

  13. Development and application of remote video monitoring system for combine harvester based on embedded Linux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jin; Wang, Yifan; Wang, Xuelei; Wang, Yuehong; Hu, Rui

    2017-01-01

    Combine harvester usually works in sparsely populated areas with harsh environment. In order to achieve the remote real-time video monitoring of the working state of combine harvester. A remote video monitoring system based on ARM11 and embedded Linux is developed. The system uses USB camera for capturing working state video data of the main parts of combine harvester, including the granary, threshing drum, cab and cut table. Using JPEG image compression standard to compress video data then transferring monitoring screen to remote monitoring center over the network for long-range monitoring and management. At the beginning of this paper it describes the necessity of the design of the system. Then it introduces realization methods of hardware and software briefly. And then it describes detailedly the configuration and compilation of embedded Linux operating system and the compiling and transplanting of video server program are elaborated. At the end of the paper, we carried out equipment installation and commissioning on combine harvester and then tested the system and showed the test results. In the experiment testing, the remote video monitoring system for combine harvester can achieve 30fps with the resolution of 800x600, and the response delay in the public network is about 40ms.

  14. Combining dissimilar materials at nanometer scale for energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Nobuhiko P.

    2010-04-01

    The development of next-generation energy resources that are reliable and economically/environmentally acceptable is a key to harnessing and providing the resources essential for the life of mankind. Our research focuses on the development of novel semiconductor platforms that would significantly benefit energy harvesting, in particular, from light and heat. In these critical applications, traditional semiconductor solid-state devices, such as photovoltaic (PV) and thermoelectric (TE) devices based on a stack of single-crystal semiconductor thin films or single-crystal bulk semiconductor have several drawbacks, for instance; scalability-limits arise when ultra-large-scale implementation is envisioned for PV devices and performance-limits arise for TE devices in which the interplay of both electronic and phonon systems is important. In our research, various types of nanometer-scale semiconductor structures (e.g., nanowires and nanoparticles) coupled to or embedded within a micrometer-scale semiconductor structure (i.e., semiconductor nanomicrometer hybrid platforms) are explored to build a variety of non-conventional PV and TE devices. Two core projects are to develop semiconductor nano-micrometer hybrid platforms based on (1) an ensemble of single-crystal semiconductor nanowires connected to non-single-crystal semiconductor surfaces and (2) semimetallic nanoparticles embedded within a single-crystal semiconductor. The semiconductor nano-micrometer hybrid platforms are studied within the context of their basic electronic, optical, and thermal properties, which will be further assessed and validated by comparison with theoretical approaches to draw comprehensive pictures of physicochemical properties of these semiconductor platforms.

  15. Calculation method of reliability on combine harvester transmission belt by considering dynamic stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Zhuohuai; Li, Liang; Wu, Chongyou

    2017-06-01

    Transmission belt is one of the most likely to fail parts of combine harvester, which affecting the machine reliability seriously. Dynamic strength occurs along with vibration during the operation and must be taken into account when calculating reliability, especially in harsh working environment like harvesting. However, the existing calculation method of reliability on combine harvester transmission belt didn’t take the dynamic strength into account. In this research, a reliability calculation method was proposed based on the dynamic analysis of transmission belt. The nonlinear dynamic equation was built using string and beam model. Through the equation, relationship between belt speed and dynamic stress was deduced. Considering dynamic stress and regarding uncertain parameters as random uncertain parameters, reliability calculation model was built. Finally, an example was presented and the above mentioned dynamic reliability calculation method was simulated to verify the theoretical analysis in this paper and tested by the Monte-Carlo method.

  16. Mode shape combination in a two-dimensional vibration energy harvester through mass loading structural modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharpes, Nathan; Abdelkefi, Abdessattar; Abdelmoula, Hichem; Kumar, Prashant; Adler, Jan; Priya, Shashank

    2016-07-01

    Mode shapes in the design of mechanical energy harvesters, as a means of performance increase, have been largely overlooked. Currently, the vast majority of energy harvester designs employ some variation of a single-degree-of-freedom cantilever, and the mode shapes of such beams are well known. This is especially true for the first bending mode, which is almost exclusively the chosen vibration mode for energy harvesting. Two-dimensional beam shapes (those which curve, meander, spiral, etc., in a plane) have recently gained research interest, as they offer freedom to modify the vibration characteristics of the harvester beam for achieving higher power density. In this study, the second bending mode shape of the "Elephant" two-dimensional beam shape is examined, and its interaction with the first bending mode is evaluated. A combinatory mode shape created by using mass loading structural modification to lower the second bending modal frequency was found to interact with the first bending mode. This is possible since the first two bending modes do not share common areas of displacement. The combined mode shape is shown to produce the most power of any of the considered mode shapes.

  17. Mode shape combination in a two-dimensional vibration energy harvester through mass loading structural modification

    SciTech Connect

    Sharpes, Nathan; Kumar, Prashant; Abdelkefi, Abdessattar; Abdelmoula, Hichem; Adler, Jan; Priya, Shashank

    2016-07-18

    Mode shapes in the design of mechanical energy harvesters, as a means of performance increase, have been largely overlooked. Currently, the vast majority of energy harvester designs employ some variation of a single-degree-of-freedom cantilever, and the mode shapes of such beams are well known. This is especially true for the first bending mode, which is almost exclusively the chosen vibration mode for energy harvesting. Two-dimensional beam shapes (those which curve, meander, spiral, etc., in a plane) have recently gained research interest, as they offer freedom to modify the vibration characteristics of the harvester beam for achieving higher power density. In this study, the second bending mode shape of the “Elephant” two-dimensional beam shape is examined, and its interaction with the first bending mode is evaluated. A combinatory mode shape created by using mass loading structural modification to lower the second bending modal frequency was found to interact with the first bending mode. This is possible since the first two bending modes do not share common areas of displacement. The combined mode shape is shown to produce the most power of any of the considered mode shapes.

  18. Study on fault diagnosis and load feedback control system of combine harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ying; Wang, Kun

    2017-01-01

    In order to timely gain working status parameters of operating parts in combine harvester and improve its operating efficiency, fault diagnosis and load feedback control system is designed. In the system, rotation speed sensors were used to gather these signals of forward speed and rotation speeds of intermediate shaft, conveying trough, tangential and longitudinal flow threshing rotors, grain conveying auger. Using C8051 single chip microcomputer (SCM) as processor for main control unit, faults diagnosis and forward speed control were carried through by rotation speed ratio analysis of each channel rotation speed and intermediate shaft rotation speed by use of multi-sensor fused fuzzy control algorithm, and these processing results would be sent to touch screen and display work status of combine harvester. Field trials manifest that fault monitoring and load feedback control system has good man-machine interaction and the fault diagnosis method based on rotation speed ratios has low false alarm rate, and the system can realize automation control of forward speed for combine harvester.

  19. Noise exposed of the operators of combine harvesters with and without a cab.

    PubMed

    Sümer, Sarp Korkut; Say, Sait M; Ege, Fikri; Sabanci, Alaettin

    2006-11-01

    A considerable number of the combine harvesters in Turkey are rather old and used without cabs resulting in unhealthy working conditions for their operators. Noise is one of the detrimental factors. This study deals with determining and comparing the noise exposed on the operators of the combines with and without a cab used for wheat harvesting in Turkey. The sound pressure levels (dB) at octave band center frequencies (31.5-8000Hz) and the sound levels (dBA) at the ear level of the operators were measured on 37 different combine harvesters with four different makes and different years from 1976 to 2001. Fifteen of the combines were without a cab, another 15 had original cabs while remaining seven combines had cabs mounted on them after manufacturing. The sound pressure levels were in a decreasing trend from the lower frequencies to higher frequencies. This trend was more noticeable for the combines with original cab and with the cab mounted after manufacturing compared to the ones without cab. The use of a cab was more effective in the insulation of the noise at the medium and higher frequencies, which have more bothersome effect compared to the lower frequencies. The sound pressure levels were 75-102dB and 46-89dB at low (31.5-500Hz) and high (500-8000Hz) frequencies for all combines, respectively. The sound pressure levels at the frequency of 4000Hz at which the human ear is most sensitive were 6-17dB lower for the combines with the cabs mounted after manufacturing and 9-28dB lower for the ones with the original cabs compared to the combines without cab. The sound levels were 85-90, 81-83, and 76-81dBA for the combines without cab, with cab mounted after manufacturing, and with original cab, respectively. The study showed that the use of a cab was useful in the insulation of the noise, particularly at higher frequencies. In addition, it protects the operator from the factors having detrimental effects on the working efficiency such as high temperature and dusty

  20. Design of control system of combine harvester louver sieve angle based on ARM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jin; Cai, Yangyang; Chen, Xuan; Wang, Xuelei; Wang, Shuqing

    2017-01-01

    In view of the disadvantages of the traditional control methods of combine harvester louver sieve, an electronic control system of louver sieve is designed to replace the traditional mechanical regulation structure, and it changes the old way of manipulating louver sieve. In order to achieve the goal control effect more accurately and quickly, the fuzzy adaptive PID control method and the key control design method based on the finite state machine is proposed during the control process. The tests show that the control system can reach louver sieve electric control goals, and can obtain accurate and stable control effect.

  1. Combined use of nitrogen and coatings to improve the quality of mechanically harvested Manzanilla olives.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Eva; Sánchez, Antonio H; Romero, Concepción; Brenes, Manuel

    2015-03-15

    The combined effect of an edible coating and a nitrogen atmosphere on the quality of Manzanilla olives mechanically harvested and processed as Spanish-style green olives was assessed. The percentage of olives free of any brown spots ranged between 35-50%, 10-25% and 50-65% for fruit directly processed, storage under nitrogen and coated and storage under nitrogen respectively. Moreover, olives stored in the open air developed brown spots due to the oxidation of oleuropein. By contrast, the anoxic conditions prevented oleuropein from undergoing enzymatic oxidation but not from its enzymatic hydrolysis. Hence, the phenolic derivative HyEDA was formed in olives stored under nitrogen, and this substance was rapidly oxidized in the open air to give rise to brown spots although to a lesser extent in the coated fruit. Therefore, the postharvest storage of coated olives under nitrogen can be a good method to prevent bruise damage in mechanically harvested fruit. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Combined harvesting of a stage structured prey-predator model incorporating cannibalism in competitive environment.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Kunal; Das, Kunal; Kar, Tapan Kumar

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a prey-predator system with stage structure for predator. The proposed system incorporates cannibalism for predator populations in a competitive environment. The combined fishing effort is considered as control used to harvest the populations. The steady states of the system are determined and the dynamical behavior of the system is discussed. Local stability of the system is analyzed and sufficient conditions are derived for the global stability of the system at the positive equilibrium point. The existence of the Hopf bifurcation phenomenon is examined at the positive equilibrium point of the proposed system. We consider harvesting effort as a control parameter and subsequently, characterize the optimal control parameter in order to formulate the optimal control problem under the dynamic framework towards optimal utilization of the resource. Moreover, the optimal system is solved numerically to investigate the sustainability of the ecosystem using an iterative method with a Runge-Kutta fourth-order scheme. Simulation results show that the optimal control scheme can achieve sustainable ecosystem. Results are analyzed with the help of graphical illustrations.

  3. Electrostatic vibration energy harvester with combined effect of electrical nonlinearities and mechanical impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basset, P.; Galayko, D.; Cottone, F.; Guillemet, R.; Blokhina, E.; Marty, F.; Bourouina, T.

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents an advanced study including the design, characterization and theoretical analysis of a capacitive vibration energy harvester. Although based on a resonant electromechanical device, it is intended for operation in a wide frequency band due to the combination of stop-end effects and a strong biasing electrical field. The electrostatic transducer has an interdigited comb geometry with in-plane motion, and is obtained through a simple batch process using two masks. A continuous conditioning circuit is used for the characterization of the transducer. A nonlinear model of the coupled system ‘transduce-conditioning circuit’ is presented and analyzed employing two different semi-analytical techniques together with precise numerical modelling. Experimental results are in good agreement with results obtained from numerical modelling. With the 1 g amplitude of harmonic external acceleration at atmospheric pressure, the system transducer-conditioning circuit has a half-power bandwidth of more than 30% and converts more than 2 µW of the power of input mechanical vibrations over the range of 140 and 160 Hz. The harvester has also been characterized under stochastic noise-like input vibrations.

  4. Combining light-harvesting with detachability in high-efficiency thin-film silicon solar cells.

    PubMed

    Ram, Sanjay K; Desta, Derese; Rizzoli, Rita; Bellettato, Michele; Lyckegaard, Folmer; Jensen, Pia B; Jeppesen, Bjarke R; Chevallier, Jacques; Summonte, Caterina; Larsen, Arne Nylandsted; Balling, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Efforts to realize thin-film solar cells on unconventional substrates face several obstacles in achieving good energy-conversion efficiency and integrating light-management into the solar cell design. In this report a technique to circumvent these obstacles is presented: transferability and an efficient light-harvesting scheme are combined for thin-film silicon solar cells by the incorporation of a NaCl layer. Amorphous silicon solar cells in p-i-n configuration are fabricated on reusable glass substrates coated with an interlayer of NaCl. Subsequently, the solar cells are detached from the substrate by dissolution of the sacrificial NaCl layer in water and then transferred onto a plastic sheet, with a resultant post-transfer efficiency of 9%. The light-trapping effect of the surface nanotextures originating from the NaCl layer on the overlying solar cell is studied theoretically and experimentally. The enhanced light absorption in the solar cells on NaCl-coated substrates leads to significant improvement in the photocurrent and energy-conversion efficiency in solar cells with both 350 and 100 nm thick absorber layers, compared to flat-substrate solar cells. Efficient transferable thin-film solar cells hold a vast potential for widespread deployment of off-grid photovoltaics and cost reduction.

  5. Harvesting Mechanical and Thermal Energy by Combining ZnO Nanowires and NiTi Shape Memory Alloy

    DOE PAGES

    Radousky, Harry; Qian, Fang; An, Yonghao; ...

    2017-02-19

    In the expanding world of small scale energy harvesting, the ability to combine thermal and mechanical harvesting is growing ever more important. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of using ZnO nanowires to harvest both mechanical and low-quality thermal energy in simple, scalable devices. These devices were fabricated on kapton films and used ZnO nanowires with the same growth direction to assure alignment of the piezoelectric potentials of all of the wires. Mechanical harvesting from these devices was demonstrated using a periodic application of force, modeling the motion of the human body. Tapping the device from the top of the devicemore » with a wood stick, for example yielded an Open Circuit Voltage (OCV) of 0.2 - 4 V, which is in an ideal range for device applications. In order to demonstrate thermal harvesting from low quality heat sources, a commercially available Nitinol (Ni-Ti alloy) foil was attached to the nanowire piezoelectric device to create a compound thermoelectric. When bent at room temperature and then heated to 50°C, the Nitinol foil was restored to its original flat shape, which yielded an output voltage of nearly 1 V from the ZnO nanowire device.« less

  6. Possible combined effects of climate change, deforestation, and harvesting on the epiphyte Catopsis compacta: a multidisciplinary approach

    PubMed Central

    del Castillo, Rafael F; Trujillo-Argueta, Sonia; Rivera-García, Raul; Gómez-Ocampo, Zaneli; Mondragón-Chaparro, Demetria

    2013-01-01

    Climate change, habitat loss, and harvesting are potential drivers of species extinction. These factors are unlikely to act on isolation, but their combined effects are poorly understood. We explored these effects in Catopsis compacta, an epiphytic bromeliad commercially harvested in Oaxaca, Mexico. We analyzed local climate change projections, the dynamics of the vegetation patches, the distribution of Catopsis in the patches, together with population genetics and demographic information. A drying and warming climate trend projected by most climate change models may contribute to explain the poor forest regeneration. Catopsis shows a positive mean stochastic population growth. A PVA reveals that quasi-extinction probabilities are not significantly affected by the current levels of harvesting or by a high drop in the frequency of wet years (2%) but increase sharply when harvesting intensity duplicates. Genetic analyses show a high population genetic diversity, and no evidences of population subdivision or a past bottleneck. Colonization mostly takes place on hosts at the edges of the fragments. Over the last 27 years, the vegetation cover has being lost at a 0.028 years−1 rate, but fragment perimeter has increased 0.076 years−1. The increases in fragment perimeter and vegetation openness, likely caused by climate change and logging, appear to increase the habitat of Catopsis, enhance gene flow, and maintain a growing and highly genetically diverse population, in spite of harvesting. Our study evidences conflicting requirements between the epiphytes and their hosts and antagonistic effects of climate change and fragmentation with harvesting on a species that can exploit open spaces in the forest. A full understanding of the consequences of potential threatening factors on species persistence or extinction requires the inspection of the interactions of these factors among each other and their effects on both the focus species and the species on which this species

  7. Possible combined effects of climate change, deforestation, and harvesting on the epiphyte Catopsis compacta: a multidisciplinary approach.

    PubMed

    Del Castillo, Rafael F; Trujillo-Argueta, Sonia; Rivera-García, Raul; Gómez-Ocampo, Zaneli; Mondragón-Chaparro, Demetria

    2013-10-01

    Climate change, habitat loss, and harvesting are potential drivers of species extinction. These factors are unlikely to act on isolation, but their combined effects are poorly understood. We explored these effects in Catopsis compacta, an epiphytic bromeliad commercially harvested in Oaxaca, Mexico. We analyzed local climate change projections, the dynamics of the vegetation patches, the distribution of Catopsis in the patches, together with population genetics and demographic information. A drying and warming climate trend projected by most climate change models may contribute to explain the poor forest regeneration. Catopsis shows a positive mean stochastic population growth. A PVA reveals that quasi-extinction probabilities are not significantly affected by the current levels of harvesting or by a high drop in the frequency of wet years (2%) but increase sharply when harvesting intensity duplicates. Genetic analyses show a high population genetic diversity, and no evidences of population subdivision or a past bottleneck. Colonization mostly takes place on hosts at the edges of the fragments. Over the last 27 years, the vegetation cover has being lost at a 0.028 years(-1) rate, but fragment perimeter has increased 0.076 years(-1). The increases in fragment perimeter and vegetation openness, likely caused by climate change and logging, appear to increase the habitat of Catopsis, enhance gene flow, and maintain a growing and highly genetically diverse population, in spite of harvesting. Our study evidences conflicting requirements between the epiphytes and their hosts and antagonistic effects of climate change and fragmentation with harvesting on a species that can exploit open spaces in the forest. A full understanding of the consequences of potential threatening factors on species persistence or extinction requires the inspection of the interactions of these factors among each other and their effects on both the focus species and the species on which this species

  8. Combining ability for tolerance to pre-harvest sprouting in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) affects wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yield and end-use product quality leading to massive economic losses. Red wheat cultivars are typically more resistant to PHS than white wheat. The objective of this study was to identify red wheat genotypes capable of donating genes f...

  9. Simple and Efficient System for Combined Solar Energy Harvesting and Reversible Hydrogen Storage.

    PubMed

    Li, Lu; Mu, Xiaoyue; Liu, Wenbo; Mi, Zetian; Li, Chao-Jun

    2015-06-24

    Solar energy harvesting and hydrogen economy are the two most important green energy endeavors for the future. However, a critical hurdle to the latter is how to safely and densely store and transfer hydrogen. Herein, we developed a reversible hydrogen storage system based on low-cost liquid organic cyclic hydrocarbons at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. A facile switch of hydrogen addition (>97% conversion) and release (>99% conversion) with superior capacity of 7.1 H2 wt % can be quickly achieved over a rationally optimized platinum catalyst with high electron density, simply regulated by dark/light conditions. Furthermore, the photodriven dehydrogenation of cyclic alkanes gave an excellent apparent quantum efficiency of 6.0% under visible light illumination (420-600 nm) without any other energy input, which provides an alternative route to artificial photosynthesis for directly harvesting and storing solar energy in the form of chemical fuel.

  10. Influence of combined fundamental potentials in a nonlinear vibration energy harvester

    PubMed Central

    Podder, Pranay; Mallick, Dhiman; Amann, Andreas; Roy, Saibal

    2016-01-01

    Ambient mechanical vibrations have emerged as a viable energy source for low-power wireless sensor nodes aiming the upcoming era of the ‘Internet of Things’. Recently, purposefully induced dynamical nonlinearities have been exploited to widen the frequency spectrum of vibration energy harvesters. Here we investigate some critical inconsistencies between the theoretical formulation and applications of the bistable Duffing nonlinearity in vibration energy harvesting. A novel nonlinear vibration energy harvesting device with the capability to switch amidst individually tunable bistable-quadratic, monostable-quartic and bistable-quartic potentials has been designed and characterized. Our study highlights the fundamentally different large deflection behaviors of the theoretical bistable-quartic Duffing oscillator and the experimentally adapted bistable-quadratic systems, and underlines their implications in the respective spectral responses. The results suggest enhanced performance in the bistable-quartic potential in comparison to others, primarily due to lower potential barrier and higher restoring forces facilitating large amplitude inter-well motion at relatively lower accelerations. PMID:27874033

  11. Influence of combined fundamental potentials in a nonlinear vibration energy harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podder, Pranay; Mallick, Dhiman; Amann, Andreas; Roy, Saibal

    2016-11-01

    Ambient mechanical vibrations have emerged as a viable energy source for low-power wireless sensor nodes aiming the upcoming era of the ‘Internet of Things’. Recently, purposefully induced dynamical nonlinearities have been exploited to widen the frequency spectrum of vibration energy harvesters. Here we investigate some critical inconsistencies between the theoretical formulation and applications of the bistable Duffing nonlinearity in vibration energy harvesting. A novel nonlinear vibration energy harvesting device with the capability to switch amidst individually tunable bistable-quadratic, monostable-quartic and bistable-quartic potentials has been designed and characterized. Our study highlights the fundamentally different large deflection behaviors of the theoretical bistable-quartic Duffing oscillator and the experimentally adapted bistable-quadratic systems, and underlines their implications in the respective spectral responses. The results suggest enhanced performance in the bistable-quartic potential in comparison to others, primarily due to lower potential barrier and higher restoring forces facilitating large amplitude inter-well motion at relatively lower accelerations.

  12. Self powered sensing by combining novel sensor architectures with energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedekar, Vishwas Narayan

    consumption of health monitoring and magnetic field sensors, bottom -- up design of structural health monitoring and magnetic field sensors was investigated. A MWCNT/SiCN nanotube template was developed that exhibits piezoresistive effect. Next, a novel nanotube morphology "nanoNecklace" was synthesized that consists of BaTiO 3 (BTO) nanoparticles decorated along the surface of SiCN. Monolayer coating of SiCN on MWCNT serves two purposes: (i) modifies the surface wetting characteristics, and (ii) enhances the piezoresistive effect. Investigation of the mechanisms that provide periodic arrangement of BTO on nanotube surface was conducted using HRTEM and contact angle measurements. Next, we tried to modify the surface wetting characteristics of MWCNTs in order to get a full coating of BTO nanoparticles. The SiCN/MWCNT approach was further extended to fabricate magnetoelectric nanowire based sensors designs. In this approach a SiCN-NT template was coated with BTO and CoFe2O4 (CFO) nanoparticles. Microstructural studies indicated the presence of piezoelectric (BTO) as well as magnetic (CFO) material on the nanotube surface. In order to power the sensors from mechanical vibrations, we investigated two different techniques, (i) piezoelectric and (ii) inductive. An analytical model for energy harvesting from bimorph transducer was developed which was confirmed by experimental measurements. The results show that power density of bimorph transducer can be enhanced by increasing the magnitude of product (d.g), where d is the piezoelectric strain constant and g is the piezoelectric voltage constant. Under inductive energy harvesting, we designed and fabricated a small scale harvester that was integrated inside a pen commonly carried by humans to harvest vibration energy. Inductive energy harvesting was selected in order to achieve high power at lower frequencies. The prototype cylindrical harvester was found to generate 3mW at 5 Hz and 1mW at 3.5 Hz operating under displacement

  13. A Proposal for Automatic Fruit Harvesting by Combining a Low Cost Stereovision Camera and a Robotic Arm

    PubMed Central

    Font, Davinia; Pallejà, Tomàs; Tresanchez, Marcel; Runcan, David; Moreno, Javier; Martínez, Dani; Teixidó, Mercè; Palacín, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes the development of an automatic fruit harvesting system by combining a low cost stereovision camera and a robotic arm placed in the gripper tool. The stereovision camera is used to estimate the size, distance and position of the fruits whereas the robotic arm is used to mechanically pickup the fruits. The low cost stereovision system has been tested in laboratory conditions with a reference small object, an apple and a pear at 10 different intermediate distances from the camera. The average distance error was from 4% to 5%, and the average diameter error was up to 30% in the case of a small object and in a range from 2% to 6% in the case of a pear and an apple. The stereovision system has been attached to the gripper tool in order to obtain relative distance, orientation and size of the fruit. The harvesting stage requires the initial fruit location, the computation of the inverse kinematics of the robotic arm in order to place the gripper tool in front of the fruit, and a final pickup approach by iteratively adjusting the vertical and horizontal position of the gripper tool in a closed visual loop. The complete system has been tested in controlled laboratory conditions with uniform illumination applied to the fruits. As a future work, this system will be tested and improved in conventional outdoor farming conditions. PMID:24984059

  14. A proposal for automatic fruit harvesting by combining a low cost stereovision camera and a robotic arm.

    PubMed

    Font, Davinia; Pallejà, Tomàs; Tresanchez, Marcel; Runcan, David; Moreno, Javier; Martínez, Dani; Teixidó, Mercè; Palacín, Jordi

    2014-06-30

    This paper proposes the development of an automatic fruit harvesting system by combining a low cost stereovision camera and a robotic arm placed in the gripper tool. The stereovision camera is used to estimate the size, distance and position of the fruits whereas the robotic arm is used to mechanically pickup the fruits. The low cost stereovision system has been tested in laboratory conditions with a reference small object, an apple and a pear at 10 different intermediate distances from the camera. The average distance error was from 4% to 5%, and the average diameter error was up to 30% in the case of a small object and in a range from 2% to 6% in the case of a pear and an apple. The stereovision system has been attached to the gripper tool in order to obtain relative distance, orientation and size of the fruit. The harvesting stage requires the initial fruit location, the computation of the inverse kinematics of the robotic arm in order to place the gripper tool in front of the fruit, and a final pickup approach by iteratively adjusting the vertical and horizontal position of the gripper tool in a closed visual loop. The complete system has been tested in controlled laboratory conditions with uniform illumination applied to the fruits. As a future work, this system will be tested and improved in conventional outdoor farming conditions.

  15. Combined micro- and nano-scale surface textures for enhanced near-infrared light harvesting in silicon photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chia-Hua; Yu, Peichen; Hsu, Min-Hsiang; Tseng, Ping-Cheng; Chang, Wei-Lun; Sun, Wen-Ching; Hsu, Wei-Chih; Hsu, Shih-Hsin; Chang, Yia-Chung

    2011-03-01

    As silicon photovoltaics evolve towards thin-wafer technologies, efficient optical absorption for the near-infrared wavelengths has become particularly challenging. In this work, we present a solution that employs combined micro- and nano-scale surface textures to increase light harvesting in the near-infrared for crystalline silicon photovoltaics, and discuss the associated antireflection and scattering mechanisms. The surface textures are achieved by uniformly depositing a layer of indium-tin-oxide nanowhiskers on micro-grooved silicon substrates using electron-beam evaporation. The nanowhiskers facilitate optical transmission in the near-infrared by functioning as impedance matching layers with effective refractive indices gradually varying from 1 to 1.3. Materials with such unique refractive index characteristics are not readily available in nature. As a result, the solar cell with combined textures achieves over 90% external quantum efficiencies for a broad wavelength range of 460-980 nm, which is crucial to the development of advanced thin-substrate silicon solar cells.

  16. Proteomic analysis of peach fruit during ripening upon post-harvest heat combined with 1-MCP treatment.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Li; Zhang, Li; Shi, Yun; Lu, Zhaoxin; Yu, Zhifang

    2014-02-26

    Regulation of peach fruit ripening by heat combined with 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) was studied by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time of Flight tandem Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF). Proteins from peach fruits after harvest (CK) and treated by heat combined with 1-MCP (HM) were then stored at room temperature for 0, 1, 3 and 5days. Among the identified 42 protein spots, the differential abundant proteins belonged to pathways of defense and response (35.71%), energy and metabolism (30.95%), ripening and senescence (14.29%), cell structure (14.29%) and protein fate (4.76%). Compared with separate heat or 1-MCP treatment, pectinesterase inhibitor (PEI) and heat shock protein (HSP) appeared, and abscisic stress ripening-like protein (ASR) disappeared after the treatment, while HM specifically increased the abundances of glutathione peroxidase (GPX), peroxiredoxin, calmodulin, and decreased those of cytosolic malate dehydrogenase, d-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and glutamine synthetase. HM treatment protected fruit cells by enhancing the capabilities of stress response and defense, inhibiting substance and energy metabolism, limiting cell calcium loss. The results suggest that the self-defense capability of peach fruit was boosted by HM treatment. This study is informative in exploring the influences of HM on peach fruit ripening by demonstrating that 1-MCP and heat functioned synergistically. To analyze the functions of differentially expressed proteins and to elucidate the response of early-maturing melting peach fruit (cv. Huiyulu) during ripening, we herein, for the first time, studied the effects of HM treatment on involved protein profiles by a proteomic approach with 2-DE and MALDI-TOF/TOF. This study successfully verified that HM functioned synergistically rather than simply superimposed on the proteome level. In addition, this study explains the molecular mechanism regarding peach fruit

  17. Structure Optimization of a Grain Impact Piezoelectric Sensor and Its Application for Monitoring Separation Losses on Tangential-Axial Combine Harvesters

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Zhenwei; Li, Yaoming; Zhao, Zhan; Xu, Lizhang

    2015-01-01

    Grain separation losses is a key parameter to weigh the performance of combine harvesters, and also a dominant factor for automatically adjusting their major working parameters. The traditional separation losses monitoring method mainly rely on manual efforts, which require a high labor intensity. With recent advancements in sensor technology, electronics and computational processing power, this paper presents an indirect method for monitoring grain separation losses in tangential-axial combine harvesters in real-time. Firstly, we developed a mathematical monitoring model based on detailed comparative data analysis of different feeding quantities. Then, we developed a grain impact piezoelectric sensor utilizing a YT-5 piezoelectric ceramic as the sensing element, and a signal process circuit designed according to differences in voltage amplitude and rise time of collision signals. To improve the sensor performance, theoretical analysis was performed from a structural vibration point of view, and the optimal sensor structural has been selected. Grain collide experiments have shown that the sensor performance was greatly improved. Finally, we installed the sensor on a tangential-longitudinal axial combine harvester, and grain separation losses monitoring experiments were carried out in North China, which results have shown that the monitoring method was feasible, and the biggest measurement relative error was 4.63% when harvesting rice. PMID:25594592

  18. Structure optimization of a grain impact piezoelectric sensor and its application for monitoring separation losses on tangential-axial combine harvesters.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zhenwei; Li, Yaoming; Zhao, Zhan; Xu, Lizhang

    2015-01-14

    Grain separation losses is a key parameter to weigh the performance of combine harvesters, and also a dominant factor for automatically adjusting their major working parameters. The traditional separation losses monitoring method mainly rely on manual efforts, which require a high labor intensity. With recent advancements in sensor technology, electronics and computational processing power, this paper presents an indirect method for monitoring grain separation losses in tangential-axial combine harvesters in real-time. Firstly, we developed a mathematical monitoring model based on detailed comparative data analysis of different feeding quantities. Then, we developed a grain impact piezoelectric sensor utilizing a YT-5 piezoelectric ceramic as the sensing element, and a signal process circuit designed according to differences in voltage amplitude and rise time of collision signals. To improve the sensor performance, theoretical analysis was performed from a structural vibration point of view, and the optimal sensor structural has been selected. Grain collide experiments have shown that the sensor performance was greatly improved. Finally, we installed the sensor on a tangential-longitudinal axial combine harvester, and grain separation losses monitoring experiments were carried out in North China, which results have shown that the monitoring method was feasible, and the biggest measurement relative error was 4.63% when harvesting rice.

  19. Harvesting in seasonal environments.

    PubMed

    Xu, Cailin; Boyce, Mark S; Daley, Daryl J

    2005-06-01

    Most harvest theory is based on an assumption of a constant or stochastic environment, yet most populations experience some form of environmental seasonality. Assuming that a population follows logistic growth we investigate harvesting in seasonal environments, focusing on maximum annual yield (M.A.Y.) and population persistence under five commonly used harvest strategies. We show that the optimal strategy depends dramatically on the intrinsic growth rate of population and the magnitude of seasonality. The ordered effectiveness of these alternative harvest strategies is given for different combinations of intrinsic growth rate and seasonality. Also, for piecewise continuous-time harvest strategies (i.e., open/closed harvest, and pulse harvest) harvest timing is of crucial importance to annual yield. Optimal timing for harvests coincides with maximal rate of decline in the seasonally fluctuating carrying capacity. For large intrinsic growth rate and small environmental variability several strategies (i.e., constant exploitation rate, linear exploitation rate, and time-dependent harvest) are so effective that M.A.Y. is very close to maximum sustainable yield (M.S.Y.). M.A.Y. of pulse harvest can be even larger than M.S.Y. because in seasonal environments population size varies substantially during the course of the year and how it varies relative to the carrying capacity is what determines the value relative to optimal harvest rate. However, for populations with small intrinsic growth rate but subject to large seasonality none of these strategies is particularly effective with M.A.Y. much lower than M.S.Y. Finding an optimal harvest strategy for this case and to explore harvesting in populations that follow other growth models (e.g., involving predation or age structure) will be an interesting but challenging problem.

  20. Stripper harvesting

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cotton produced in the High Plains of Texas, Oklahoma, and Kansas and the Blackland, Coastal bend, and Rolling Plains regions of Texas is harvested using brush roll stripper type harvesters. These machines were developed to harvest cotton characterized by low yield, tight boll conformation, and shor...

  1. Right ventricular systolic pressure measurements in combination with harvest of lung and immune tissue samples in mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Chi; Park, Sung-Hyun; Hoffman, Carol; Philip, Cecil; Robinson, Linda; West, James; Grunig, Gabriele

    2013-01-16

    The function of the right heart is to pump blood through the lungs, thus linking right heart physiology and pulmonary vascular physiology. Inflammation is a common modifier of heart and lung function, by elaborating cellular infiltration, production of cytokines and growth factors, and by initiating remodeling processes. Compared to the left ventricle, the right ventricle is a low-pressure pump that operates in a relatively narrow zone of pressure changes. Increased pulmonary artery pressures are associated with increased pressure in the lung vascular bed and pulmonary hypertension. Pulmonary hypertension is often associated with inflammatory lung diseases, for example chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or autoimmune diseases. Because pulmonary hypertension confers a bad prognosis for quality of life and life expectancy, much research is directed towards understanding the mechanisms that might be targets for pharmaceutical intervention. The main challenge for the development of effective management tools for pulmonary hypertension remains the complexity of the simultaneous understanding of molecular and cellular changes in the right heart, the lungs and the immune system. Here, we present a procedural workflow for the rapid and precise measurement of pressure changes in the right heart of mice and the simultaneous harvest of samples from heart, lungs and immune tissues. The method is based on the direct catheterization of the right ventricle via the jugular vein in close-chested mice, first developed in the late 1990s as surrogate measure of pressures in the pulmonary artery. The organized team-approach facilitates a very rapid right heart catheterization technique. This makes it possible to perform the measurements in mice that spontaneously breathe room air. The organization of the work-flow in distinct work-areas reduces time delay and opens the possibility to simultaneously perform physiology experiments and harvest immune, heart and lung tissues. The

  2. Tree harvesting

    SciTech Connect

    Badger, P.C.

    1995-12-31

    Short rotation intensive culture tree plantations have been a major part of biomass energy concepts since the beginning. One aspect receiving less attention than it deserves is harvesting. This article describes an method of harvesting somewhere between agricultural mowing machines and huge feller-bunchers of the pulpwood and lumber industries.

  3. INFINITY harvest

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-05-07

    Lauren Lombard from Benjamin E. Mays Preparatory School in New Orleans enjoys lettuce she helped to harvest at the INFINITY at NASA Stennis Space Center facility May 7, 2012. The Louisiana students assisted in the first harvest of lettuce from the Controlled Environment Agriculture unit, which uses an aeroponic process that involves no soil and advance LED lighting techniques

  4. INFINITY harvest

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-05-07

    Shania Etheridge from Benjamin E. Mays Preparatory School in New Orleans shows off the head of lettuce she harvested at the INFINITY at NASA Stennis Space Center facility May 7, 2012. The Louisiana students assisted in the first harvest of lettuce from the Controlled Environment Agriculture unit, which uses an aeroponic process that involves no soil and advance LED lighting techniques.

  5. Stump Harvesting

    Treesearch

    Dana. Mitchell

    2009-01-01

    Increased use of forest fuel requires larger and larger procurement areas. Inclusion of stump material within the shorter distances could make this unusual source of biomass more economical to harvest. Land clearing activities are also helping to raise interest in stump harvesting. Processing stump material for biomass is an alternative...

  6. Combining light-harvesting and charge separation in a self-assembled artificial photosynthetic system based on perylenediimide chromophores.

    PubMed

    Rybtchinski, Boris; Sinks, Louise E; Wasielewski, Michael R

    2004-10-06

    Self-assembly of robust perylenediimide chromophores is used to produce an artificial light-harvesting antenna structure that in turn induces self-assembly of a functional special pair that undergoes ultrafast, quantitative charge separation. The structure consists of four 1,7-(3',5'-di-tert-butylphenoxy)perylene-3,4:9,10-perylene-3,4:9,10-bis(carboximide) (PDI) molecules attached to a single 1,7-bis(pyrrolidin-1-yl)perylene-3,4:9,10-perylene-3,4:9,10-bis(carboximide) (5PDI) core, which self-assembles to form (5PDI-PDI4)2 in toluene. The system is characterized using both structural methods (NMR, SAXS, mass spectroscopy, and GPC) and photophysical methods (UV-vis, time-resolved fluorescence, and femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy). Energy transfer from (PDI)2 to (5PDI)2 occurs with tau = 21 ps, followed by excited-state symmetry breaking of 1*(5PDI)2 to produce 5PDI*+-5PDI*- quantitatively with tau = 7 ps. The ion pair recombines with tau = 420 ps. Electron transfer occurs only in the dimeric system and does not occur in the disassembled monomer, thus mimicking both antenna and special pair function in photosynthesis.

  7. A combination of genome-wide association and transcriptome analysis reveals candidate genes controlling harvest index-related traits in Brassica napus

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Kun; Xiao, Zhongchun; Jian, Hongju; Peng, Liu; Qu, Cunmin; Fu, Minglian; He, Bin; Tie, Linmei; Liang, Ying; Xu, Xingfu; Li, Jiana

    2016-01-01

    Harvest index (HI), the ratio of seed mass to total biomass of the aboveground plant parts, is an important trait for harvestable yield of crops. Unfortunately, HI of Brassica napus is lower than that of other economically important crops. To identify candidate genes associated with high HI, a genome-wide association study of HI and four HI-related traits was conducted with 520 B. napus accessions cultivated in both Yunnan and Chongqing. We detected 294 single nucleotide polymorphisms significantly associated with the abovementioned traits, including 79 SNPs that affected two or more traits. Differentially expressed genes between extremely high- and low-HI accessions were identified in 8 tissues at two cultivated regions. Combination of linkage disequilibrium and transcriptome analyses revealed 33 functional candidate genes located within the confidence intervals of significant SNPs associated with more than one trait, such as SHOOT GRAVITROPISM 5 (Bna.SGR5), ATP-CITRATE LYASE A-3 (Bna.ACLA-3) and CAROTENOID CLEAVAGE DIOXYGENASE 1 (Bna.CCD1), their orthologs in the Arabidopsis thaliana have been shown to play key roles in photosynthesis, inflorescence, and silique development. Our results provide insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying establishment of high-HI B. napus and lay a foundation for characterization of candidate genes aimed at developing high-HI B. napus varieties. PMID:27811979

  8. INFINITY harvest

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-05-07

    Janice Hueschen of Innovative Imaging & Research Corp. at Stennis Space Center helps students from Benjamin E. Mays Preparatory School in New Orleans harvest lettuce at the INFINITY at NASA Stennis Space Center facility May 7, 2012. The Louisiana students assisted in the first harvest of lettuce from the Controlled Environment Agriculture unit, which uses an aeroponic process that involves no soil and advance LED lighting techniques.

  9. Plerixafor on-demand combined with chemotherapy and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor: significant improvement in peripheral blood stem cells mobilization and harvest with no increase in costs.

    PubMed

    Milone, Giuseppe; Martino, Massimo; Spadaro, Andrea; Leotta, Salvatore; Di Marco, Annalia; Scalzulli, Potito; Cupri, Alessandra; Di Martina, Valentina; Schinocca, Elena; Spina, Eleonora; Tripepi, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    To date, no prospective study on Plerixafor 'on-demand' in combination with chemotherapy and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) has been reported. We present an interim analysis of the first prospective study in which Plerixafor was administered on-demand in patients affected by multiple myeloma and lymphoma who received high dose cyclophosphamide or DHAP (dexamethasone, cytarabine, cisplatin) plus G-CSF to mobilize peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC). One hundred and two patients were evaluable for response. A cohort of 240 patients receiving the same mobilizing chemotherapy was retrospectively studied. Failure to mobilize CD34(+) cells in peripheral blood was reduced by 'on-demand' strategy compared to conventional mobilization; from 13·0 to 3·0% (P = 0·004). Failure to harvest CD34(+) cells 2 × 10(6) /kg decreased from 20·9 to 4·0% (P = 0·0001). The on-demand Plerixafor strategy also resulted in a lower rate of mobilization failure (P = 0·03) and harvest failure (P = 0·0008) when compared to a 'bias-adjusted set of controls'. Evaluation of economic costs of the two strategies showed that the overall cost of the two treatments were comparable when salvage mobilizations were taken into account. When in combination with cyclophosphamide or DHAP plus G-CSF, the 'on-demand' use of Plerixafor showed, in comparison to conventionally treated patients, a significant improvement in mobilization of PBSC with no increase in overall cost.

  10. On-combine, multi-sensor data collection for post-harvest assessment of environmental stress in wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    On-combine yield monitors are widely used in precision agriculture for locating areas within fields where yields are reduced. However, the crop yield variability can be better interpreted by utilizing grain protein maps to reveal the factors limiting yield. The objective of this study was to devel...

  11. Magnetoelectric Energy Harvesting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-20

    magnetic fields therethrough. A piezoelectric material capable of a phase transition and a magnetostrictive material capable of a structural change...housing and the combination of the piezoelectric and magnetostrictive materials. Electrical contacts are positioned on the piezoelectric material. A...mechanical energy harvesting device and more particularly relates to such a device that has a magnetostrictive and piezoelectric component. (2

  12. INFINITY harvest

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-05-07

    The Controlled Environment Agriculture unit at the INFINITY at NASA Stennis Space Center visitor center and museum grows butterhead lettuce using an aeroponic process that involves no soil and advance LED lighting techniques. Students from Benjamin E. Mays Preparatory School in New Orleans helped to harvest the first crop of lettuce during a visit to the facility May 7, 2012.

  13. INFINITY harvest

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-05-07

    Students from Benjamin E. Mays Preparatory School in New Orleans enjoyed a hands-on experience at the INFINITY at NASA Stennis Space Center facility May 7, 2012. The Louisiana students assisted in the first harvest of lettuce from the Controlled Environment Agriculture unit, which uses an aeroponic process that involves no soil and advance LED lighting techniques.

  14. Cotton Harvesting

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cotton harvesting is performed in the US using either a spindle picker or brush-roll stripper. This presentation discusses the environmental, economic, geographic, and cultivar specific reasons behind a grower's choice to use either machine. The development of each machine system was discussed. A...

  15. 1972 Oregon timber harvest.

    Treesearch

    J.D. Jr. Lloyd

    1973-01-01

    The 1972 Oregon timber harvest of 9.6 billion board feet was 602 million board feet (6.7 percent) above the 1971 harvest. Western Oregon's harvest rose 8 percent and eastern Oregon's harvest rose 2 percent.

  16. 1971 Oregon timber harvest.

    Treesearch

    Brian R. Wall

    1972-01-01

    The 1971 Oregon timber harvest of 9.03 billion board feet was the highest since 1969 when 9.15 billion board feet was harvested. The 1971 total harvest was 13.1 percent above the 1970 figure. Western Oregon's harvest rose 11-5 percent, and eastern Oregon's harvest rose 18.6 percent.

  17. Switchgrass harvest and storage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The feedstock characteristics of the conversion platform will influence the optimal harvest and post harvest management practices for switchgrass. However, many of the harvest management practices are tied to plant phenology and will be similar across platforms. Proper harvest and storage of switchg...

  18. 1975 Oregon timber harvest.

    Treesearch

    J.D. Jr. Lloyd

    1976-01-01

    The 1975 Oregon timber harvest declined to its lowest level since 1961 with a harvest of 7.37 billion board feet, 991 million board feet (11.9 percent) below the 1974 harvest. The harvest was down in both western Oregon (823 million board feet, 13.2 percent) and eastern Oregon (168 million board feet, 7.7 percent). For the first time since 1961, the harvest on private...

  19. 7 CFR 1221.12 - Harvest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.12 Harvest. Harvest means combining or threshing sorghum for grain and/or severing the stalks from the land with...

  20. 7 CFR 1221.12 - Harvest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.12 Harvest. Harvest means combining or threshing sorghum for grain and/or severing the stalks from the land with...

  1. 7 CFR 1221.12 - Harvest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.12 Harvest. Harvest means combining or threshing sorghum for grain and/or severing the stalks from the land with...

  2. 7 CFR 1221.12 - Harvest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.12 Harvest. Harvest means combining or threshing sorghum for grain and/or severing the stalks from the land with...

  3. 7 CFR 1221.12 - Harvest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.12 Harvest. Harvest means combining or threshing sorghum for grain and/or severing the stalks from the land with...

  4. A combined treatment of ionomycin with ethanol improves blastocyst development of bovine oocytes harvested from stored ovaries and microinjected with spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Abdalla, H; Shimoda, M; Hirabayashi, M; Hochi, S

    2009-09-01

    Regardless of the presence of sperm-borne oocyte-activating factors, activation of bovine oocytes with exogenous activation stimuli is required for further development after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). The current study was designed to develop a new activation regimen for improving the blastocyst yield after ICSI of bovine oocytes harvested from ovaries stored at 10 to 12 degrees C for 24h. After ICSI, oocytes were treated with 5microM ionomycin for 5 min, 7% ethanol for 5 or 10min, ionomycin followed by ethanol (5 or 10 min), ionomycin followed by 10 microg/mL cycloheximide for 5h, or ionomycin followed by 1.9 mM 6-dimethylaminopurine for 3h. Across the activation regimens, the cleavage rates of ICSI oocytes (45% to 77%) were higher than those of parthenogenetically activated oocytes (11% to 21%; P<0.05). Activating the ICSI oocytes with ionomycin plus ethanol improved the blastocyst yield (29% to 30%) compared with that of nontreated oocytes (12%; P<0.05), but the other regimens did not improve the blastocyst yield (9% to 18%; P>0.05). Higher blastocyst yields were due to increasing the proportion of ICSI oocytes that passed through the early postfertilization events until cleavage. None of the regimens have any adverse effect on the quality of the blastocysts regarding the total cell number or the proportion of the inner cell mass cells. Thus, a new activation regimen using two triggers for single calcium increase effectively improved blastocyst yield after bovine ICSI using oocytes harvested from stored ovaries.

  5. Harvesting wood for energy.

    Treesearch

    Rodger A. Arola; Edwin W. Miyata

    1981-01-01

    Illustrates the potential of harvesting wood for industrial energy, based on the results of five harvesting studies. Presents information on harvesting operations, equipment costs, and productivity. Discusses mechanized thinning of hardwoods, clearcutting of low-value stands and recovery of hardwood tops and limbs. Also includes basic information on the physical and...

  6. 1969 Washington timber harvest.

    Treesearch

    Brian R. Wall

    1970-01-01

    Washington's timber harvest increased slightly in 1969 to a 40-year high of 7 billion board feet. This is slightly below the record timber harvest of 7.38 billion board feet established in 1829. Private timberland owners in western Washington increased their production 10.9 percent, accounting for most of the increase in the 1969 total harvest. In eastern...

  7. 1971 Washington timber harvest.

    Treesearch

    Brian R. Wall

    1972-01-01

    Washington's 1971 timber harvest of 6.45 billion board feet was nearly the same as the 1970 harvest level. The total timber harvest on public lands increased nearly 4 percent with a 30-percent increase in eastern Washington more than offsetting a 5-percent decline in western Washington. Part of the increase in eastern Washington reflects salvage of a large volume...

  8. Triple Hybrid Energy Harvesting Interface Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uluşan, H.; Chamanian, S.; Pathirana, W. M. P. R.; Zorlu, Ö.; Muhtaroğlu, A.; Külah, H.

    2016-11-01

    This study presents a novel triple hybrid system that combines simultaneously generated power from thermoelectric (TE), vibration-based electromagnetic (EM) and piezoelectric (PZT) harvesters for a relatively high power supply capability. In the proposed solution each harvesting source utilizes a distinct power management circuit that generates a DC voltage suitable for combining the three parallel supplies. The circuits are designed and implemented in 180 nm standard CMOS technology, and are terminated with a schottky diode to avoid reverse current flow. The harvested AC signal from the EM harvester is rectified with a self-powered AC-DC doubler, which utilizes active diode structures to minimize the forward- bias voltage drop. The PZT interface electronics utilizes a negative voltage converter as the first stage, followed by synchronous power extraction and DC-to-DC conversion through internal switches, and an external inductor. The ultra-low voltage DC power harvested by the TE generator is stepped up through a charge-pump driven by an LC oscillator with fully- integrated center-tapped differential inductors. Test results indicate that hybrid energy harvesting circuit provides more than 1 V output for load resistances higher than 100 kΩ (10 μW) where the stand-alone harvesting circuits are not able to reach 1 V output. This is the first hybrid harvester circuit that simultaneously extracts energy from three independent sources, and delivers a single DC output.

  9. A New Grain Harvesting System for Single Pass Grain Harvest, Biomass Collection, Crop Residue Sizing and Grain Segregation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A cereal grain harvesting system is introduced that combines existing technologies in a unique way to improve cereal grain harvest performance, profitability and efficiently collect biomass. The harvesting system is comprised of three machines – one to gather the crop and prepare the residue for no...

  10. A New Grain Harvesting System for Single-Pass Grain Harvest, Biomass Collection, Crop Residue Sizing, and Grain Segregation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A cereal grain harvesting system is introduced that combines existing technologies in a unique way to improve cereal grain harvest performance, profitability and efficiently collect biomass. The harvesting system is comprised of three machines – one to gather the crop and prepare the residue for no...

  11. EDITORIAL Solar harvest Solar harvest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-12-01

    into the charge transport mechanism and trap distribution in these composites [3]. An advantage of investigating solar cell technology based on organic materials rather than silicon is that silicon photovoltaics requires high-purity silicon, whereas the material demands of organic technology are not nearly so strict. Work by researchers in Denmark and Germany highlights the simplicity and tolerance to ambient conditions of organic photovoltaic fabrication in the demonstration of a nanostructured polymer solar cell made from a thermocleavable polymer material and zinc oxide nanoparticles. All the manipulations during device preparation could be carried out in air at around 20 °C and 35% humidity [4]. A possible route to enhancing cell performance is through the improvment of the transport efficiency. Researchers in Taiwan demonstrate how effectively this can be implemented in a hybrid device comprising TiO2 nanorods and poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV) [5]. In addition, inorganic semiconductor nanocrystals that have tunable optical bandgaps can be combined with organic semiconductors for the fabrication of hybrid photovoltaic devices with broad spectral sensitivity. A collaboration of researchers in the UK and the US has now developed a near-infrared sensitive hybrid photovoltaic system with PbS nanocrystals and C60. The reported improvement in device performance is attributed to increased carrier mobility of the PbS nanocrystal film [6]. In this issue, Patrick G Nicholson and Fernando A Castro from the National Physical Laboratory in the UK present a topical review on the principles and techniques for the characterization of organic photovoltaics [7]. The review presents a comprehensive picture of the current state-of-the-art understanding of the working mechanisms behind organic solar cells, and also describes electronic morphological considerations relevant to optimizing the devices, as well as different nanoscale techniques for

  12. Broadband pendulum energy harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Changwei; Wu, You; Zuo, Lei

    2016-09-01

    A novel electromagnetic pendulum energy harvester with mechanical motion rectifier (MMR) is proposed and investigated in this paper. MMR is a mechanism which rectifies the bidirectional swing motion of the pendulum into unidirectional rotation of the generator by using two one-way clutches in the gear system. In this paper, two prototypes of pendulum energy harvester with MMR and without MMR are designed and fabricated. The dynamic model of the proposed MMR pendulum energy harvester is established by considering the engagement and disengagement of the one way clutches. The simulation results show that the proposed MMR pendulum energy harvester has a larger output power at high frequencies comparing with non-MMR pendulum energy harvester which benefits from the disengagement of one-way clutch during pendulum vibration. Moreover, the proposed MMR pendulum energy harvester is broadband compare with non-MMR pendulum energy harvester, especially when the equivalent inertia is large. An experiment is also conducted to compare the energy harvesting performance of these two prototypes. A flywheel is attached at the end of the generator to make the disengagement more significant. The experiment results also verify that MMR pendulum energy harvester is broadband and has a larger output power at high frequency over the non-MMR pendulum energy harvester.

  13. Ultrasound acoustic wave energy transfer and harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahab, Shima; Leadenham, Stephen; Guillot, François; Sabra, Karim; Erturk, Alper

    2014-04-01

    This paper investigates low-power electricity generation from ultrasound acoustic wave energy transfer combined with piezoelectric energy harvesting for wireless applications ranging from medical implants to naval sensor systems. The focus is placed on an underwater system that consists of a pulsating source for spherical wave generation and a harvester connected to an external resistive load for quantifying the electrical power output. An analytical electro-acoustic model is developed to relate the source strength to the electrical power output of the harvester located at a specific distance from the source. The model couples the energy harvester dynamics (piezoelectric device and electrical load) with the source strength through the acoustic-structure interaction at the harvester-fluid interface. Case studies are given for a detailed understanding of the coupled system dynamics under various conditions. Specifically the relationship between the electrical power output and system parameters, such as the distance of the harvester from the source, dimensions of the harvester, level of source strength, and electrical load resistance are explored. Sensitivity of the electrical power output to the excitation frequency in the neighborhood of the harvester's underwater resonance frequency is also reported.

  14. 1967 Oregon timber harvest.

    Treesearch

    Brian R. Wall

    1968-01-01

    Oregon's timber harvest was 8.4 billion board feet in 1967, 6.3 percent below the 1966 harvest. The total private harvest declined 7 percent in 1967 with a 153-million-board-foot (4.3-percent) decrease in western Oregon and a 138-million-board-foot (22.7-percent) drop in eastern Oregon. Forest industries had the greatest decline in production of all owners; their...

  15. 1968 Oregon timber harvest.

    Treesearch

    Brian R. Wall

    1969-01-01

    Oregon's 1968 timber harvest of 9.74 billion board feet was the largest since 1952, when a record 9.80 billion board feet was produced. Public agencies' harvests increased 25.0 percent in western Oregon and 4.1 percent in eastern Oregon for a total increase of 19.1 percent, 864.9 million board feet above the public harvest in 1967. National Forests had the...

  16. 1969 Oregon timber harvest.

    Treesearch

    Brian R. Wall

    1970-01-01

    The 1969 Oregon timber harvest of 9.15 billion board feet was 6.1 percent below the 1968 16-year peak of 9.74 billion board feet. In western Oregon, the 1969 harvest was down 9.1 percent with public production and private production off 10.8 and 7.2 percent, respectively. By contrast, log harvest in eastern Oregon rose 5 percent, with private production up 13.2 percent...

  17. 1968 Washington timber harvest.

    Treesearch

    Brian R. Wall

    1969-01-01

    Washington's 1968 timber harvest of 6.97 billion board feet was the largest since 1929 when a record 7.38 billion board feet was produced. Private harvests increased 16.5 percent in western Washington and 15.7 percent in eastern Washington for an average increase of 16.5 percent, 45.5 million board feet above the private harvest in 1967. Forest industries in...

  18. 1966 Washington timber harvest.

    Treesearch

    Brian R. Wall

    1967-01-01

    The 1966 Washington timber harvest of 6.1 billion board feet was 6.8 percent below the 1965 level. This was the first decline since 1961. In part, the lower harvest in 1966 was due to completion of salvage logging of the 1962 blowdown. The volume of dead timber salvaged in 1966 was only 6 percent of the total, compared with 15 percent in 1965. The live timber harvest...

  19. 1973 Washington timber harvest.

    Treesearch

    J.D. Jr. Lloyd

    1974-01-01

    Washington's 1973 timber harvest increased 730 million board feet (10.3 percent) above the 1972 harvest to set a record at 7.81 billion board feet. The previous record set in 1929 was 7.38 billion board feet. Nearly all the increase for the State was in western Washington where the harvest was 700 million board feet (11.9 percent) greater than the previous year....

  20. 1967 Washington timber harvest.

    Treesearch

    Brian R. Wall

    1968-01-01

    Washington's 1967 timber harvest declined to 5.9 billion board feet, 2.3 percent below the 1966 harvest. The cut on public lands remained about the same as in 1966 with a 6.7-percent increase in public cut in eastern Washington, offsetting a 2.2-percent decrease in western Washington. The Indian lands had the greatest increase in harvest, up 35 million board feet...

  1. 1970 Washington timber harvest.

    Treesearch

    Brian R. Wall

    1971-01-01

    Washington's 1970 timber harvest of 6.46 billion board feet was 7.8 percent below the near record harvest of 7 billion board feet established in 1969. Timber harvests on all public lands declined 13 percent with a 9.0-percent reduction in western Washington and a 22.9-percent drop in eastern Washington. State lands led the decline in public production with a 142-...

  2. 1966 Oregon timber harvest.

    Treesearch

    Brian R. Wall

    1967-01-01

    The 1966 Oregon timber harvest totaled 8.9 billion board feet, 5 percent less than the harvest in 1965. During 1966, the total public timber harvest declined 10 percent to 4.8 billion board feet. The uncut volume of public timber under contract at the end of 1966 was 7.6 billion board feet, up 1.3 billion board feet from 1965's year end total. National Forest...

  3. Photosynthetic Light-Harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pullerits, T.; Polivka, T.; Sundström, V.

    Photosynthetic organisms utilize (bacterio) chlorophylls and carotenoids as main light-harvesting pigments. In this chapter, we review bacteriochlorophyll light-harvesting in photosynthetic purple bacteria; we discuss intra- and intercomplex energy transfer processes as well as energy trapping by reaction centers. From the viewpoint of light-harvesting, in most organisms carotenoids are accessory pigments absorbing in the blue-green region of the solar spectrum, where chlorophylls and bacteriochlorophylls have weak absorption. Here, we discuss carotenoid light-harvesting in a pigment-protein complex having carotenoids as main lightharvesting pigment, the peridinin chlorophyll protein (PCP).

  4. Harvesting the radial artery

    PubMed Central

    Osterday, Robert M.; Brodman, Richard F.

    2013-01-01

    The radial artery (RA) has emerged as an important arterial graft for coronary bypass surgery. With improving five-year patency rates and increasing uptake, great attention has been focused on the optimal conduit harvesting technique. We herein present our approach to RA harvesting. Prerequisites of a successful harvest include adherence to important anatomical landmarks, protection of the sensory innervation to the volar forearm, and meticulous handling of the RA branches. Regardless of the harvesting methodology chosen, adherence to a “no-touch” technique will optimize the patency and durability of the RA conduit. PMID:23977633

  5. Nonlinear piezomagnetoelastic harvester array for broadband energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadrashta, Deepesh; Yang, Yaowen

    2016-08-01

    This article proposes an array of nonlinear piezomagnetoelastic energy harvesters (NPEHs) for scavenging electrical energy from broadband vibrations with low amplitudes (<2 m/s2). The array consists of monostable NPEHs combined to generate useful power output (˜100 μW) over wide bandwidth. The nonlinearity in each of the NPEHs is induced by the magnetic interaction between an embedded magnet in the tip mass of cantilever and a fixed magnet clamped to the rigid platform. The dynamic responses of two NPEHs, one with attractive configuration and the other with repulsive configuration, are combined to achieve a bandwidth of 3.3 Hz at a power level of 100 μW. A parametric study is carried out to obtain the gap distances between the magnets to achieve wide bandwidth. Experiments are performed to validate the proposed idea, the theoretical predictions, and to demonstrate the advantage of array of NPEHs over the array of linear piezoelectric energy harvesters (LPEHs). The experiments have clearly shown the advantage of NPEH array over its linear counterpart under both harmonic and random excitations. Approximately, 100% increase in the operation bandwidth is achieved by the NPEH array at harmonic excitation level of 2 m/s2. The NPEH array exhibits up to 80% improvement in the accumulated energy under random excitation when compared with the LPEH array. Furthermore, the performance of NPEH array with series and parallel connections between the individual harvesters using standard AC/DC interface circuits is also investigated and compared with its linear counterpart.

  6. The economic impact of timber harvesting practices on NIPF properties in West Virginia

    Treesearch

    Stuart A. Moss; Eric. Heitzman

    2013-01-01

    Post-harvest inventories were performed on 90 timber harvests conducted on nonindustrial private forest (NIPF) properties in West Virginia. Each harvest was evaluated based on a combination of residual stocking level, proportion of the residual stand in acceptable growing stock, and damage to the residual trees. Four post-harvest stands representative of good or poor...

  7. 1970 Oregon timber harvest.

    Treesearch

    Brian R. Wall

    1971-01-01

    The 1970 Oregon timber harvest of 7.98 billion board feet was the lowest recorded since the recession year of 1961 when 7.41 billion board feet of timber was produced. The 1970 log production figure was 12.8 percent below the 1969 harvest, the second consecutive year of declining production in Oregon.

  8. 1976 Washington timber harvest.

    Treesearch

    J.D. Jr. Lloyd

    1978-01-01

    The 1976 Washington timber harvest of 6.97 billion board feet was up 12.7 percent from the 8-year low experienced in 1975. Harvest increased about the same percentage in both eastern and western Washington. Production from all owner groups rose except non-industrial private and other Federal (see table headings on page 2).

  9. Rainwater Harvesting and Dengue.

    PubMed

    Arceivala, Soli

    2014-01-01

    As a retired Environmental Health Chief (UN/WHO SEAsia Region) I got involved in rainwater harvesting in India through my Rotary Club a few years ago and my recent experiences have prompted the following observations. I find rainwater harvesting has three specific dangers to public health which get overlooked each year in our anxiety to meet drinking water shortages in our cities.

  10. 1965 Washington timber harvest.

    Treesearch

    Brian R. Wall

    1966-01-01

    Washington's timber harvest increased for the fourth consecutive year in 1965 to 6.5 billion board feet. This 4-percent increase was not as great as the 15 percent experienced in 1964. The total timber harvest reached the highest level since 1929, with most of the increased production occurring in western Washington.

  11. 1974 Washington timber harvest.

    Treesearch

    J.D. Jr. Lloyd

    1976-01-01

    The 1974 timber harvest of 6.88 billion board feet declined 933 million board feet (11.9 percent) below the record 1973 harvest. Decreases occurred in almost all owner groups. In western Washington the decline was 856 million board feet (13.0 percent). In eastern Washington the decline was 76 million board feet (6.3 percent).

  12. 1965 Oregon timber harvest.

    Treesearch

    Brian R. Wall

    1966-01-01

    Oregon maintained its high level of timber harvest in 1965 with an output of 9.4 billion board feet. This was the first time since 1926 that production remained unchanged in 2 consecutive years. The harvest from private lands remained stable at 4 billion feet, or 43 percent of the total. Forest industry's cut declined 2 percent (83 million board feet) from 1964,...

  13. 1964 Washington timber harvest.

    Treesearch

    Brian R. Wall

    1965-01-01

    The 1964 timber harvest was 6.2 billion board feet—an increase of 15 percent over 1963 (table 1). Total timber harvest for both western Washington and the State reached the highest level since 1929. A new all-time high in production was also recorded for eastern Washington—1 billion board feet.

  14. Maple Sugar Harvesting/Wild Rice Harvesting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minneapolis Public Schools, MN.

    Comprised of two separate booklets, this resource unit assists elementary teachers in explaining how the Ojibwe people harvest maple sugar and wild rice. The first booklet explains the procedure of tapping the maple trees for sap, preparation for boiling the sap, and the three forms the sugar is made into (granulated, "molded," and…

  15. Combining PLS regression with portable NIR spectroscopy to on-line monitor quality parameters in intact olives for determining optimal harvesting time.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Espinosa, Antonio J

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a systematized method for predicting water content, fat content and free acidity in olive fruits by on-line NIR Spectroscopy combined with chemometric techniques (PCA, LDA and PLSR). Three cultivar varieties of Olea europaea - Hojiblanca cv., Picual cv. and Arbequina cv. - were monitored. Five olive cultivation areas of Southern Spain (Andalucia) and Southern Portugal (Alentejo) were studied in 2011 and 2012. 465 olive samples were collected during the ripening process (non-mature olives) and compared with other 203 samples of mature olives collected at the final ripening stage. NIR spectra were measured directly in the olive fruits in the wavelength region from 1000 to 2300 nm in reflectance mode. The reference analyses were performed on the olive paste by oven drying for the moisture, by mini-Soxhlet extraction for the fat content and by acid titration of the oil extracted from the olive paste. Calibrations and predictive models were developed by Partial Least Square Regression (PLSR) previous Principal Component and Linear Discriminant analyses (PCA and LDA) were employed as exploratory and clean-up tools of data sets. The final models obtained for the total samples showed acceptable statistics of prediction with R(2)=0.88, RMSEV%=4.88 and RMSEP%=4.98 for water content, R(2)=0.76, RMSECV%=19.5 and RMSEP%=20.0 for fat content and R(2)=0.83, RMSECV%=36.8 and RMSEP%=38.8 for free acidity. Regression coefficients were better for only one maturity state (ripe period) than for olive fruit with different composition (ripening period). All models obtained were applied to predict LQPs on a new set of samples with satisfactory results, a good prediction potential of the models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Power Harvesting from Rotation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicone, Carmen; Feng, Z. C.

    2008-01-01

    We show the impossibility of harvesting power from rotational motions by devices attached to the rotating object. The presentation is suitable for students who have studied Lagrangian mechanics. (Contains 2 figures.)

  17. Vibrational energy harvesting by exploring structural benefits and nonlinear characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Chongfeng; Jing, Xingjian

    2017-07-01

    Traditional energy harvesters are often of low efficiency due to very limited energy harvesting bandwidth, which should also be enough close to the ambient excitation frequency. To overcome this difficulty, some attempts can be seen in the literature typically with the purposes of either increasing the energy harvesting bandwidth with a harvester array, or enhancing the energy harvesting bandwidth and peak with nonlinear coupling effect etc. This paper presents an alternative way which can achieve tuneable resonant frequency (from high frequency to ultralow frequency) and improved energy harvesting bandwidth and peak simultaneously by employing special structural benefits and advantageous displacement-dependent nonlinear damping property. The proposed energy harvesting system employs a lever systems combined with an X-shape supporting structure and demonstrates very adjustable stiffness and unique nonlinear damping characteristics which are very beneficial for energy harvesting. It is shown that the energy harvesting performance of the proposed system is directly determined by several easy-to-tune structural parameters and also by the relative displacement in a special nonlinear manner, which provides a great flexibility and/or a unique tool for tuning and improving energy harvesting efficiency via matching excitation frequencies and covering a broader frequency band. This study potentially provides a new insight into the design of energy harvesting systems by employing structural benefits and geometrical nonlinearities.

  18. 1977 Washington timber harvest.

    Treesearch

    J.D. Jr. Lloyd

    1979-01-01

    After a near record output in 1976, Washington log production declined 5.4 percent in 1977 to 6.59 billion board feet. Western Washington production was 415 million board feet lower than in 1976; eastern Washington, 36 million board feet higher. The private harvest was 62 percent of the total, the lowest in 4 years. For the past 15 years, the harvest from the western...

  19. [Accidents affecting potato harvesters].

    PubMed

    Hansen, J U

    1993-09-27

    During industrialization in agriculture, many farming machines have been introduced. It is well-known that farming is a dangerous workplace and that farm machinery cause many serious accidents every year. Four cases of accidents with potato harvesters are discussed. In three of four cases the farmers were injured while cleaning the machine without stopping it, which probably was the main cause of the accidents. Farmers are in general not careful enough when using farm machinery. Every year, farmers in Denmark are severely invalided in accidents with potato harvesters. A strategy to lower the accidents is proposed: 1. Information of farmers, farmer schools, machine constructors and importers about mechanisms of injury. 2. A better education of farmers in using potato harvesters (and other farming machines). 3. Better fencing of the potato harvesters. 4. If possibly constructional changes in the potato harvesters so things will not get stuck, or so that the machine will stop if things stuck. 5. Installation of switches on potato harvesters, which can be reached from all positions, stopping the machines immediately, or a remote switch control carried by the farmer.

  20. Quantitative determination and evaluation of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis with different harvesting times using UPLC-UV-MS and FT-IR spectroscopy in combination with partial least squares discriminant analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuan-Gui; Zhang, Ji; Zhao, Yan-Li; Zhang, Jin-Yu; Wang, Yuan-Zhong

    2016-12-09

    A rapid method was developed and validated by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectroscopy with ultraviolet detection (UPLC-UV-MS) for simultaneous determination of paris saponin I, paris saponin II, paris saponin VI and paris saponin VII. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) based on UPLC and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was employed to evaluate Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis (PPY) at different harvesting times. Quantitative determination implied that the various contents of bioactive compounds with different harvesting times may lead to different pharmacological effects; the average content of total saponins for PPY harvested at 8 years was higher than that from other samples. The PLS-DA of FT-IR spectra had a better performance than that of UPLC for discrimination of PPY from different harvesting times.

  1. The Effect of Urban Sprawls on Timber Harvesting

    Treesearch

    Stephen A. Barlow; Ian A Munn; David A. Cleaves; David L. Evans

    1998-01-01

    In Mississippi and Alabama, urban population growth is pushing development into rural areas. To study the impact of urbanization on timber harvesting, census and forest inventory data were combined in a geographic information system, and a logistic regression model was used to estimate the relationship between several variables and harvest probabilities....

  2. Veg-01 Plant Harvest

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-10

    Commander Steve Swanson harvests plants for the VEG-01 investigation. He is harvesting them on the Maintenance Work Area (MWA) in the Node 2/Harmony. The Veg-01 hardware validation test investigation utilizes the Veggie facility on ISS. This investigation will assess on-orbit function and performance of the Veggie,and focus on the growth and development of Outredgeous Lettuce (Lactuca sativa ) seedlings in the spaceflight environment and the effects of the spaceflight environment on composition of microbial flora on the Veggie-grown plants and the Veggie facility. Lettuce plants are harvested on-orbit, frozen at <-80oC and returned to the ground for post-flight evaluation. Microbial sampling swabs will be taken of the Veggie facility and plant material, frozen and returned to the ground for environmental microbiological examination. Rooting pillows and water sample syringes will also be returned for microbial sampling and root analysis.

  3. Light harvesting arrays

    DOEpatents

    Lindsey, Jonathan S.

    2002-01-01

    A light harvesting array useful for the manufacture of devices such as solar cells comprises: (a) a first substrate comprising a first electrode; and (b) a layer of light harvesting rods electrically coupled to the first electrode, each of the light harvesting rods comprising a polymer of Formula I: X.sup.1.paren open-st.X.sup.m+1).sub.m (I) wherein m is at least 1, and may be from two, three or four to 20 or more; X.sup.1 is a charge separation group (and preferably a porphyrinic macrocycle, which may be one ligand of a double-decker sandwich compound) having an excited-state of energy equal to or lower than that of X.sup.2, and X.sup.2 through X.sup.m+1 are chromophores (and again are preferably porphyrinic macrocycles).

  4. An autoparametric energy harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kecik, K.; Borowiec, M.

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents a numerical study of an autoparametric system composed of two elements: a pendulum and an excited nonlinear oscillator. Owing to an inertial coupling between the two elements, different types of motion are possible, from periodic to chaotic. This study examines a linear induction of an energy harvester depending on the pendulum motion. The harvester consists of a cylindrical permanent magnet mounted on a rotor and of four windings fixed to the housing as a stator. When the pendulum is rotating or swinging, the converter is generating energy due to magnetic induction. In this paper, a method utilizing parametrical resonance for harvesting energy from low frequency vibrations is studied. The authors compare energy induced by different types of pendulum motion: swinging, rotation and chaotic dynamics. Additionally, voltage values for different parameters of excitation are estimated.

  5. Energy harvesting and wireless energy transmission for embedded sensor nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farinholt, Kevin; Taylor, Stuart; Miller, Nathan; Sifuentes, Wilfredo; Moro, Erik; Park, Gyuhae; Farrar, Charles; Flynn, Eric; Mascarenas, David; Todd, Michael

    2009-03-01

    In this paper, we present experimental investigations using energy harvesting and wireless energy transmission to operate embedded structural health monitoring sensor nodes. The goal of this study is to develop sensing systems that can be permanently embedded within a host structure without the need for an on-board power source. With this approach the required energy will be harvested from the ambient environment, or periodically delivered by a RF energy source to supplement conventional harvesting approaches. This approach combines several transducer types to harvest energy from multiple sources, providing a more robust solution that does not rely on a single energy source. Both piezoelectric and thermoelectric transducers are considered as energy harvesters to extract the ambient energy commonly available on civil structures such as bridges. Methods of increasing the efficiency, energy storage medium, target applications and the integrated use of energy harvesting sources with wireless energy transmission will be discussed.

  6. How Quantum Coherence Assists Photosynthetic Light Harvesting

    PubMed Central

    Strümpfer, J; Şener, M; Schulten, K

    2012-01-01

    This perspective examines how hundreds of pigment molecules in purple bacteria cooperate through quantum coherence to achieve remarkable light harvesting efficiency. Quantum coherent sharing of excitation, which modifies excited state energy levels and combines transition dipole moments, enables rapid transfer of excitation over large distances. Purple bacteria exploit the resulting excitation transfer to engage many antenna proteins in light harvesting, thereby increasing the rate of photon absorption and energy conversion. We highlight here how quantum coherence comes about and plays a key role in the photosynthetic apparatus of purple bacteria. PMID:22844553

  7. Kenaf harvest decision matrix or how should I harvest kenaf?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The correct harvest method for kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L., Malvaceae) is dependent on many factors, including production location, equipment availability, storage options, processing plans, plant utilization, and economics. Since its first domestication, kenaf has consistently been hand-harveste...

  8. Experimental evaluation of population trend and harvest composition in a Wyoming cougar population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, C.R.; Lindzey, F.G.

    2005-01-01

    Cougar (Puma concolor) management has been hindered by inability to identify population trends. We documented changes in sex and age of harvested cougars during an experimentally induced reduction in population size and subsequent recovery to better understand the relationship between sex-age composition and population trend in exploited populations. The cougar population in the Snowy Range, southeast Wyoming, was reduced by increased harvest (treatment phase) from 58 independent cougars (>1 year old) (90% CI = 36-81) in the autumn of 1998 to 20 by the spring of 2000 (mean exploitation rate = 43%) and then increased to 46 by spring 2003 following 3 years of reduced harvests (mean exploitation rate = 18%). Pretreatment harvest composition was 63% subadults (1.0-2.5 years old), 23% adult males, and 14% adult females (2 seasons; n = 22). A reduction in subadult harvest, an initial increase followed by a reduction in adult male harvest, and a steady increase in adult female harvest characterized harvest composition trends during the treatment phase. Harvest composition was similar at high and low densities when harvest was light, but proportion of harvested subadult males increased at low density as they replaced adult males removed during the treatment period (high harvest). While sex ratio of harvested cougars alone appears of limited value in identifying population change, when combined with age class the 2 appear to provide an index to population change. Composition of the harvest can be applied to adaptively manage cougar populations where adequate sex and age data are collected from harvested animals.

  9. Pepper harvest technology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Peppers (Capsicum spp.) include a diverse collection of cultivars produced for a wide variety of end uses. This specialty crop and its processing industry are in the midst of a dual transition driven by labor cost and unavailability. Production and post-harvest processing is either converting to m...

  10. PEPPER HARVESTER DEVELOPMENT

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Peppers (Capsicum spp.) include a diverse collection of cultivars produced for a wide variety of end uses. This specialty crop and its processing industry are in the midst of a transition driven by labor cost and unavailability. Production and post-harvest processing is either converting to mechan...

  11. 1972 Washington timber harvest.

    Treesearch

    J.D. Jr. Lloyd

    1973-01-01

    Washington's 1972 timber harvest increased 629 million board feet to 7.08 billion board feet, 9.8 percent above 1971. This was the highest level of production since 1929 when the record was established at 7.38 billion board feet.

  12. 1975 Washington timber harvest.

    Treesearch

    J.D. Jr. Lloyd

    1977-01-01

    In 1975, the Washington timber harvest declined for the 2d year to 6.2 billion board feet, 10 percent below 1974, and the lowest level in 8 years. The decrease, which occurred on almost all ownerships, amounted to 561 million board feet in western Washington and 130 million board feet in eastern Washington.

  13. Adaptive vibration energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrens, Sam; Ward, John; Davidson, Josh

    2007-04-01

    By scavenging energy from their local environment, portable electronic devices such as mobile phones, radios and wireless sensors can achieve greater run-times with potentially lower weight. Vibration energy harvesting is one such approach where energy from parasitic vibrations can be converted into electrical energy, through the use of piezoelectric and electromagnetic transducers. Parasitic vibrations come from a range of sources such as wind, seismic forces and traffic. Existing approaches to vibration energy harvesting typically utilise a rectifier circuit, which is tuned to the resonant frequency of the harvesting structure and the dominant frequency of vibration. We have developed a novel approach to vibration energy harvesting, including adaption to non-periodic vibrations so as to extract the maximum amount of vibration energy available. Experimental results of an experimental apparatus using off-the-shelf transducer (i.e. speaker coil) show mechanical vibration to electrical energy conversion efficiencies of 27 - 34%. However, simulations of a more electro-mechanical efficient and lightly damped transducer show conversion efficiencies in excess of 80%.

  14. Harvesting and utilization

    Treesearch

    A. Seki; D.L. Sirois; T. Kamen

    1982-01-01

    This xction explains the harvesting system selected. based upon topography, soil condition, and tree size. It is a highly mechmized, capital intensive system which includes tracked feller-bunchers to cut and bunch the trees. and trucked forwarders to transport the bunched trees to a whole tree chipper. The chips will be loaded into vans and transported to a designated...

  15. Thermal energy harvesting plasmonic based chemical sensors.

    PubMed

    Karker, Nicholas; Dharmalingam, Gnanaprakash; Carpenter, Michael A

    2014-10-28

    Detection of gases such as H2, CO, and NO2 at 500 °C or greater requires materials with thermal stability and reliability. One of the major barriers toward integration of plasmonic-based chemical sensors is the requirement of multiple components such as light sources and spectrometers. In this work, plasmonic sensing results are presented where thermal energy is harvested using lithographically patterned Au nanorods, replacing the need for an external incident light source. Gas sensing results using the harvested thermal energy are in good agreement with sensing experiments, which used an external incident light source. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to reduce the wavelength parameter space from 665 variables down to 4 variables with similar levels of demonstrated selectivity. The combination of a plasmonic-based energy harvesting sensing paradigm with PCA analysis offers a novel path toward simplification and integration of plasmonic-based sensing methods.

  16. On energy harvesting for augmented tags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allane, Dahmane; Duroc, Yvan; Andia Vera, Gianfranco; Touhami, Rachida; Tedjini, Smail

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, the harmonic signals generated by UHF RFID chips, usually considered as spurious effects and unused, are exploited. Indeed, the harmonic signals are harvested to feed a supplementary circuitry associated with a passive RFID tag. Two approaches are presented and compared. In the first one, the third-harmonic signal is combined with an external 2.45-GHz Wi-Fi signal. The integration is done in such a way that the composite signal boosts the conversion efficiency of the energy harvester. In the second approach, the third-harmonic signal is used as the only source of a harvester that energizes a commercial temperature sensor associated with the tag. The design procedures of the two "augmented-tag" approaches are presented. The performance of each system is simulated with ADS software, and using Harmonic Balance tool (HB), the results obtained in simulation and measurements are compared also. xml:lang="fr"

  17. Piezoelectric monolayers as nonlinear energy harvesters.

    PubMed

    López-Suárez, Miquel; Pruneda, Miguel; Abadal, Gabriel; Rurali, Riccardo

    2014-05-02

    We study the dynamics of h-BN monolayers by first performing ab-initio calculations of the deformation potential energy and then solving numerically a Langevine-type equation to explore their use in nonlinear vibration energy harvesting devices. An applied compressive strain is used to drive the system into a nonlinear bistable regime, where quasi-harmonic vibrations are combined with low-frequency swings between the minima of a double-well potential. Due to its intrinsic piezoelectric response, the nonlinear mechanical harvester naturally provides an electrical power that is readily available or can be stored by simply contacting the monolayer at its ends. Engineering the induced nonlinearity, a 20 nm2 device is predicted to harvest an electrical power of up to 0.18 pW for a noisy vibration of 5 pN.

  18. Energy harvesting from an autoparametric vibration absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zhimiao; Hajj, Muhammad R.

    2015-11-01

    The combined control and energy harvesting characteristics of an autoparametric vibration absorber consisting of a base structure subjected to the external force and a cantilever beam with a tip mass are investigated. The piezoelectric sheets are attached to the cantilever beam to convert the vibrations of the base structure into electrical energy. The coupled nonlinear representative model is developed by using the extended Hamiton’s principle. The effects of the electrical load resistance on the frequency and damping ratio of the cantilever beam are analyzed. The impacts of the external force and load resistance on the structural displacements of the base structure and the beam and on the level of harvested energy are determined. The results show that the initial conditions have a significant impact on the system’s response. The relatively high level of energy harvesting is not necessarily accompanied with the minimum displacements of the base structure.

  19. Harvesting equipment to reduce particulate matter emissions from almond harvest.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, William B

    2013-01-01

    Almond harvest accounts for an estimated 12 Gg of PM10 emissions in California each harvest season. Emissions from three new, "low-dust" almond harvesters (Exact Harvest Systems E4000; Flory Industries 8550; Weiss-McNair 9800 California Special) and one exhaust abatement device (Joe DiAnna, Clean Air Concept) were compared to those from a conventional harvester operating in the same orchard. Emissions of TSP and PM10 trended lower for all new harvesters and were significantly lower for most harvesters (alpha < 0.10). Significant reductions in PM2.5 emissions were observed from two harvesters as well. Fractionation analysis was not conducted on nut samples collected in the second year of the project, but differences observed in the composition of material that would be delivered to the huller between the Exact E4000 and conventional harvesters were functionally insignificant. The results of these tests imply that new harvest technologies are able to reduce PM10 emissions from one of the largest sources in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) of California without affecting product quality. As such, use of these new harvesters should be considered a conservation measure that would help the SJV Air Pollution Control District (SJVAPCD) meet the requirements of their PM10 maintenance plan. The results of this research indicate that new harvesting technologies have the potential to substantially reduce PM emissions from almond harvest operations over traditional harvester designs without negatively affecting product quality. As such, use of these new harvesters could aid the SJVAPCD in maintaining its attainment status for PM10 and should be considered as candidate conservation management practices for producers.

  20. Impact of harvesting and atmospheric pollution on nutrient depletion of eastern US hardwood forests

    Treesearch

    M.B. Adams; J.A. Burger; A.B. Jenkins; L. Zelazny

    2000-01-01

    The eastern hardwood forests of the US may be threatened by the changing atmospheric chemistry and by changes in harvesting levels. Many studies have documented accelerated base cation losses with intensive forest harvesting. Acidic deposition can also alter nutrient cycling in these forests. The combination of increased harvesting, shorter rotations, and more...

  1. Advancements in Cotton Harvesting Research

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cotton harvesting research within USDA ARS is focused on improving harvest productivity, cotton quality, and producer profitability. In recent years, our work has encompassed efforts to improve both spindle picker and brush-roll stripper harvesting systems. Specifically, work with cotton pickers i...

  2. Green Chile Pepper Harvest Mechanization

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pungent green chile (genus /Capsicum/, also spelled chili) is a large, fragile fruit growing on berry shrubs. Chile is harvested by hand to maximize yields and minimize fruit damage. Labor for hand harvesting chile is increasingly costly and difficult to obtain. Harvest mechanization is viewed as...

  3. Nanoparticles: potential biomarker harvesters.

    PubMed

    Geho, David H; Jones, Clinton D; Petricoin, Emanuel F; Liotta, Lance A

    2006-02-01

    A previously untapped bank of information resides within the low molecular weight proteomic fraction of blood. Intensive efforts are underway to harness this information so that it can be used for early diagnosis of diseases such as cancer. The physicochemical malleability and high surface areas of nanoparticle surfaces make them ideal candidates for developing biomarker harvesting platforms. Given the variety of engineering strategies afforded through nanoparticle technologies, a significant goal is to tailor nanoparticle surfaces to selectively bind a subset of biomarkers, sequestering them for later study using high sensitivity proteomic tests. To date, applications of nanoparticles have largely focused on imaging systems and drug delivery vectors. As such, biomarker harvesting is an underutilized application of nanoparticle technology and is an area of nanotechnology research that will likely undergo substantial growth.

  4. Harvesting contaminants from liquid

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, John T.; Hunter, Scott R.

    2016-05-31

    Disclosed are examples of apparatuses for evaporative purification of a contaminated liquid. In each example, there is a vessel for storing the contaminated fluid. The vessel includes a surface coated with a layer of superhydrophobic material and the surface is at least partially in contact with the contaminated liquid. The contaminants do not adhere to the surface as the purified liquid evaporates, thus allowing the contaminants to be harvested.

  5. Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Caliò, Renato; Rongala, Udaya Bhaskar; Camboni, Domenico; Milazzo, Mario; Stefanini, Cesare; de Petris, Gianluca; Oddo, Calogero Maria

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the state of the art in piezoelectric energy harvesting. It presents the basics of piezoelectricity and discusses materials choice. The work places emphasis on material operating modes and device configurations, from resonant to non-resonant devices and also to rotational solutions. The reviewed literature is compared based on power density and bandwidth. Lastly, the question of power conversion is addressed by reviewing various circuit solutions. PMID:24618725

  6. Social and biophysical variation in regional timber harvest regimes.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Jonathan R; Canham, Charles D; Morreale, Luca; Kittredge, David B; Butler, Brett

    2017-04-01

    include live-tree basal area, forest type, and distance from roads. Just as with natural disturbance regimes, harvest regimes are predictable in terms of their frequency, intensity, and dispersion; and like their natural counterparts, these variables are determined by several important dimensions of environmental context. But in contrast to natural disturbance regimes, the important dimensions of context for harvesting include a combination of social and biophysical variables. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  7. Analytical model for nonlinear piezoelectric energy harvesting devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neiss, S.; Goldschmidtboeing, F.; Kroener, M.; Woias, P.

    2014-10-01

    In this work we propose analytical expressions for the jump-up and jump-down point of a nonlinear piezoelectric energy harvester. In addition, analytical expressions for the maximum power output at optimal resistive load and the 3 dB-bandwidth are derived. So far, only numerical models have been used to describe the physics of a piezoelectric energy harvester. However, this approach is not suitable to quickly evaluate different geometrical designs or piezoelectric materials in the harvester design process. In addition, the analytical expressions could be used to predict the jump-frequencies of a harvester during operation. In combination with a tuning mechanism, this would allow the design of an efficient control algorithm to ensure that the harvester is always working on the oscillator's high energy attractor.

  8. Managing harvest and habitat as integrated components

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osnas, Erik; Runge, Michael C.; Mattsson, Brady J.; Austin, Jane E.; Boomer, G. S.; Clark, R. G.; Devers, P.; Eadie, J. M.; Lonsdorf, E. V.; Tavernia, Brian

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, several important initiatives in the North American waterfowl management community called for an integrated approach to habitat and harvest management. The essence of the call for integration is that harvest and habitat management affect the same resources, yet exist as separate endeavours with very different regulatory contexts. A common modelling framework could help these management streams to better understand their mutual effects. Particularly, how does successful habitat management increase harvest potential? Also, how do regional habitat programmes and large-scale harvest strategies affect continental population sizes (a metric used to express habitat goals)? In the ensuing five years, several projects took on different aspects of these challenges. While all of these projects are still on-going, and are not yet sufficiently developed to produce guidance for management decisions, they have been influential in expanding the dialogue and producing some important emerging lessons. The first lesson has been that one of the more difficult aspects of integration is not the integration across decision contexts, but the integration across spatial and temporal scales. Habitat management occurs at local and regional scales. Harvest management decisions are made at a continental scale. How do these actions, taken at different scales, combine to influence waterfowl population dynamics at all scales? The second lesson has been that consideration of the interface of habitat and harvest management can generate important insights into the objectives underlying the decision context. Often the objectives are very complex and trade-off against one another. The third lesson follows from the second – if an understanding of the fundamental objectives is paramount, there is no escaping the need for a better understanding of human dimensions, specifically the desires of hunters and nonhunters and the role they play in conservation. In the end, the compelling question is

  9. Evaluation of mechanical tomato harvesting using wireless sensors.

    PubMed

    Arazuri, Silvia; Arana, Ignacio; Jaren, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    The harvesting of processing tomatoes is fully mechanised and it is well known that during harvest, fruits are subjected to mechanical stress causing physical injuries, including skin punctures, pulp and cell rupture. Some wireless sensors have been used for research during recent years with the main purpose of reducing the quality loss of tomato fruits by diminishing the number and intensity of impacts. In this study the IRD (impact recorder device) sensor was used to evaluate several tomato harvesters. The specific objectives were to evaluate the impacts during mechanical harvest using a wireless sensor, to determine the critical points at which damage occurs, and to assess the damage levels. Samples were taken to determine the influence of mechanical harvest on texture, or on other quality characteristics including percentage of damages. From the obtained data it has been possible to identify the critical points where the damages were produced for each one of the five harvester models examined. The highest risk of damage was in zone 1 of the combine--from the cutting system to the colour selector--because the impacts were of higher intensity and hit less absorbing surfaces than in zone 2--from colour selector to discharge. The shaker and exit from the shaker are two of the harvester elements that registered the highest intensity impacts. By adjusting, in a specific way each harvester model, using the results from this research, it has been possible to reduce the tomato damage percentage from 20 to 29% to less than 10%.

  10. Development and Analysis of SRIC Harvesting Systems

    Treesearch

    Bryce J. Stokes; Bruce R. Hartsough

    1993-01-01

    This paper reviews several machine combinations for harvesting short-rotation, intensive-culture (SRIC) plantations. Productivity and cost information for individual machines was obtained from published sources. Three felling and skidding systems were analyzed for two stands, a 7.6-cm (3-in) average d.b.h. sycamore and a 15.2-cm (6-in) average d.b.h. eucalyptus. The...

  11. An energy harvesting bracelet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhiyi; Tang, Jianhong; Zhang, Xin; Yu, Zhicheng

    2017-07-01

    An energy harvesting bracelet (EHB) based on two mutually exclusive circular motion permanent magnetic movers is demonstrated, which is able to capture energy through the natural motions of the wearer's wrist. The EHB can transform the translational motion in any orientation except the axial into the rotational motion of the movers, which passes through four coil transducers and induces significantly large electro-motive forces across the coils. A prototype EHB is shown to produce power that can charge a capacitor with 470 μF 25 V up to more than 0.81 V during at most 132 ms from any single excitations.

  12. Veg-01 Plant Harvest

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-10

    ISS040-E-009116 (10 June 2014) --- In the International Space Station?s Harmony node, NASA astronaut Steve Swanson, Expedition 40 commander, harvests a crop of red romaine lettuce plants that were grown from seed inside the station?s Veggie facility, a low-cost plant growth chamber that uses a flat-panel light bank for plant growth and crew observation. For the Veg-01 experiment, researchers are testing and validating the Veggie hardware, and the plants will be returned to Earth to determine food safety.

  13. Veg-01 Plant Harvest

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-10

    ISS040-E-009124 (10 June 2014) --- In the International Space Station?s Harmony node, NASA astronaut Steve Swanson, Expedition 40 commander, harvests a crop of red romaine lettuce plants that were grown from seed inside the station?s Veggie facility, a low-cost plant growth chamber that uses a flat-panel light bank for plant growth and crew observation. For the Veg-01 experiment, researchers are testing and validating the Veggie hardware, and the plants will be returned to Earth to determine food safety.

  14. Veg-01 Plant Harvest

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-10

    ISS040-E-009125 (10 June 2014) --- In the International Space Station?s Harmony node, NASA astronaut Steve Swanson, Expedition 40 commander, harvests a crop of red romaine lettuce plants that were grown from seed inside the station?s Veggie facility, a low-cost plant growth chamber that uses a flat-panel light bank for plant growth and crew observation. For the Veg-01 experiment, researchers are testing and validating the Veggie hardware, and the plants will be returned to Earth to determine food safety.

  15. Light harvesting dendrimers.

    PubMed

    Nantalaksakul, Arpornrat; Reddy, D Raghunath; Bardeen, Christopher J; Thayumanavan, S

    2006-01-01

    Tree-like dendrimers with decreasing number of chromophores from periphery to core is an attractive candidate for light-harvesting applications. Numerous dendritic designs with different kinds of light-collecting chromophores at periphery and an energy-sink at the core have been demonstrated with high energy transfer efficiency. These building blocks are now being developed for several applications such as light-emitting diodes, frequency converters and other photonic devices. This review outlines the efforts that are based on both conjugated and non-conjugated dendrimers.

  16. Veg-03 Ground Harvest

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-12-05

    Inside the Veggie flight laboratory in the Space Station Processing Facility at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, a research scientist harvests a portion of the 'Outredgeous' red romaine lettuce from the Veg-03 ground control unit. The purpose of the ground Veggie system is to provide a control group to compare against the lettuce grown in orbit on the International Space Station. Veg-03 will continue NASA’s deep space plant growth research to benefit the Earth and the agency’s journey to Mars.

  17. Veg-03 Ground Harvest

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-12-05

    Inside the Veggie flight laboratory in the Space Station Processing Facility at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, Matthew Romeyn, a NASA Pathways intern from the University of Edinburgh in Scotland, harvests a portion of the 'Outredgeous' red romaine lettuce from the Veg-03 ground control unit. The purpose of the ground Veggie system is to provide a control group to compare against the lettuce grown in orbit on the International Space Station. Veg-03 will continue NASA’s deep space plant growth research to benefit the Earth and the agency’s journey to Mars.

  18. Multi-source energy harvester power management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlichting, Alexander D.; Tiwari, Rashi; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2011-03-01

    Much of the work on improving energy harvesting systems currently focuses on tasks beyond geometric optimization and has shifted to using complex feedback control circuitry. While the specific technique and effectiveness of the circuits have varied, an important goal is still out of reach for many desired applications: to produce sufficient and sustained power. This is due in part to the power requirements of the control circuits themselves. One method for increasing the robustness and versatility of energy harvesting systems which has started to receive some attention would be to utilize multiple energy sources simultaneously. If some or all of the present energy sources were harvested, the amount of constant power which could be provided to the system electronics would increase dramatically. This work examines two passive circuit topologies, parallel and series, for combining multiple piezoelectric energy harvesters onto a single storage capacitor using an LTspice simulation. The issue of the relative phase between the two piezoelectric signals is explored to show that the advantages of both configurations are significantly affected by increased relative phase values.

  19. A hybrid nonlinear vibration energy harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wei; Towfighian, Shahrzad

    2017-06-01

    Vibration energy harvesting converts mechanical energy from ambient sources to electricity to power remote sensors. Compared to linear resonators that have poor performance away from their natural frequency, nonlinear vibration energy harvesters perform better because they use vibration energy over a broader spectrum. We present a hybrid nonlinear energy harvester that combines bi-stability with internal resonance to increase the frequency bandwidth. A two-fold increase in the frequency bandwidth can be obtained compared to a bi-stable system with fixed magnets. The harvester consists of a piezoelectric cantilever beam carrying a movable magnet facing a fixed magnet. A spring allows the magnet to move along the beam and it provides an extra stored energy to further increase the amplitude of vibration acting as a mechanical amplifier. An electromechanically coupled mathematical model of the system is presented to obtain the dynamic response of the cantilever beam, the movable magnet and the output voltage. The perturbation method of multiple scales is applied to solve these equations and obtain approximate analytical solutions. The effects of various system parameters on the frequency responses are investigated. The numerical approaches of the long time integration (Runge-Kutta method) and the shooting technique are used to verify the analytical results. The results of this study can be used to improve efficiency in converting wasted mechanical vibration to useful electrical energy by broadening the frequency bandwidth.

  20. Economic Impact of Harvesting Corn Stover under Time Constraint: The Case of North Dakota

    DOE PAGES

    Maung, Thein A.; Gustafson, Cole R.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the impact of stochastic harvest field time on profit maximizing potential of corn cob/stover collection in North Dakota. Three harvest options are analyzed using mathematical programming models. Our findings show that under the first corn grain only harvest option, farmers are able to complete harvesting corn grain and achieve maximum net income in a fairly short amount of time with existing combine technology. However, under the second simultaneous corn grain and cob (one-pass) harvest option, farmers generate lower net income compared to the net income of the first option. This is due to the slowdown in combinemore » harvest capacity as a consequence of harvesting corn cobs. Under the third option of separate corn grain and stover (two-pass) harvest option, time allocation is the main challenge and our evidence shows that with limited harvest field time available, farmers find it optimal to allocate most of their time harvesting grain and then proceed to harvest and bale stover if time permits at the end of harvest season. The overall findings suggest is that it would be more economically efficient to allow a firm that is specialized in collecting biomass feedstock to participate in cob/stover harvest business.« less

  1. Stand, Harvest, and Equipment Interactions in Simulated Harvesting Prescriptions

    Treesearch

    Jingxin Wang; W. Dale Greene; Bryce J. Stokes

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated potential interactions of stand type, harvesting method, and equipment in an experiment using interactive simulation. We examined three felling methods (chain saw, feller-buncher, harvester) and two extraction methods (grapple skidder and forwarder) performing clearcuts, sheltenvood cuts, and single-tree selection cuts in both an uneven-aged natural stand...

  2. Learning and adaptation in the management of waterfowl harvests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Fred A.

    2011-01-01

    A formal framework for the adaptive management of waterfowl harvests was adopted by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in 1995. The process admits competing models of waterfowl population dynamics and harvest impacts, and relies on model averaging to compute optimal strategies for regulating harvest. Model weights, reflecting the relative ability of the alternative models to predict changes in population size, are used in the model averaging and are updated each year based on a comparison of model predictions and observations of population size. Since its inception the adaptive harvest program has focused principally on mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), which constitute a large portion of the U.S. waterfowl harvest. Four competing models, derived from a combination of two survival and two reproductive hypotheses, were originally assigned equal weights. In the last year of available information (2007), model weights favored the weakly density-dependent reproductive hypothesis over the strongly density-dependent one, and the additive mortality hypothesis over the compensatory one. The change in model weights led to a more conservative harvesting policy than what was in effect in the early years of the program. Adaptive harvest management has been successful in many ways, but nonetheless has exposed the difficulties in defining management objectives, in predicting and regulating harvests, and in coping with the tradeoffs inherent in managing multiple waterfowl stocks exposed to a common harvest. The key challenge now facing managers is whether adaptive harvest management as an institution can be sufficiently adaptive, and whether the knowledge and experience gained from the process can be reflected in higher-level policy decisions.

  3. Sunflower production, harvesting, drying and storage

    SciTech Connect

    Hofman, V.; Berglund, D.; Hellevang, K.

    1982-01-01

    Sunflower, produced for its edible oil, has recently evolved as an important cash crop for the Dakotas and Minnesota. This oilseed crop has increased from 81,000 hectares in the mid-1960's to over 1,620,000 hectares in 1981. Over 90% of the sunflower crop planted in the United States is of oilseed varieties. Sunflower tends to fit well in small grain cropping rotation. Sunflower is planted after small grains in the spring and harvested in the fall, following small grain harvest. Planting of sunflower is recommended from May 20 to May 31. Soil temperature should be between 4/sup 0/C and 10/sup 0/C for germinaton. Diseases occurring in sunflower can greatly reduce yield and hinder harvest operations. A sunflower crop is normally ready for harvest about 120 days after planting. Combines suitable for treshing small gains can be adapted to harvest sunflower. Sunflower can be dried in conventional crop dryers; bin, batch and continuous flow dryers have been used successfully. Sunflower dries easily due to the relatively small amount of water removed. Drying temperatures up to 104/sup 0/C do not have an adverse affect on the oil percentage or fatty acid composition of oil type sunflower. A serious fire hazard exists when drying sunflower. The storage of sunflower is similar to any other crop. The recommended storage moisture content is 8% for oil seeds and 10% for confectionary. Cooling the sunflower seed greatly increases the storability and decreases insect damage. Sunflower should be cooled to about 0/sup 0/C which nearly stops microbial activity. The sunflower should be checked at least weekly. 9 figures, 1 table. (DP)

  4. Engineering High-Fidelity Residue Separations for Selective Harvest

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin L. Kenney; Christopher T. Wright; Reed L. Hoskinson; J. Rochard Hess; David J. Muth, Jr.

    2006-07-01

    Composition and pretreatment studies of corn stover and wheat stover anatomical fractions clearly show that some corn and wheat stover anatomical fractions are of higher value than others as a biofeedstock. This premise, along with soil sustainability and erosion control concerns, provides the motivation for the selective harvest concept for separating and collecting the higher value residue fractions in a combine during grain harvest. This study recognizes the analysis of anatomical fractions as theoretical feedstock quality targets, but not as practical targets for developing selective harvest technologies. Rather, practical quality targets were established that identified the residue separation requirements of a selective harvest combine. Data are presented that shows that a current grain combine is not capable of achieving the fidelity of residue fractionation established by the performance targets. However, using a virtual engineering approach, based on an understanding of the fluid dynamics of the air stream separation, the separation fidelity can be significantly improved without significant changes to the harvester design. A virtual engineering model of a grain combine was developed and used to perform simulations of the residue separator performance. The engineered residue separator was then built into a selective harvest test combine, and tests performed to evaluate the separation fidelity. Field tests were run both with and without the residue separator installed in the test combine, and the chaff and straw residue streams were collected during harvest of Challis soft white spring wheat. The separation fidelity accomplished both with and without the residue separator was quantified by laboratory screening analysis. The screening results showed that the engineered baffle separator did a remarkable job of effecting high-fidelity separation of the straw and chaff residue streams, improving the chaff stream purity and increasing the straw stream yield.

  5. Uncertainty in age-specific harvest estimates and consequences for white-tailed deer management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collier, B.A.; Krementz, D.G.

    2007-01-01

    age classes. Thus, we suggest that using harvest proportions for management planning and evaluation should be viewed with caution. In addition, we recommend that managers focus more attention on estimation of age-specific harvest rates, and modeling approaches which combine harvest rates with information from harvested individuals to further increase their ability to effectively manage deer populations under selective harvest programs. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Harvesting to get a Eucalyptus coppice crop

    Treesearch

    Thomas F. Geary

    1983-01-01

    Coppicing of eucalypts saves replanting after harvesting, but plan for coppice before planting seedlings. Select a species that coppices in the planned season of harvest; plan spacing and harvesting methods so that harvesting will not damage stumps; plan coppice management. Best coppice is produced by spring harvest with chain saws, low stumps, no bark or root damage,...

  7. The Spindle Type Cotton Harvester

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The spindle type cotton picker was commercialized during the mid 1900’s and is currently produced by two US agricultural equipment manufacturers, John Deere and CaseIH. Picking is the predominate machine harvest method used throughout the US and world. Harvesting efficiency of a spindle type cotton ...

  8. Quantum physics of photosynthetic light-harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damjanovic, Ana

    2001-12-01

    Absorption of light by light harvesting complexes and transfer of electronic excitation to the photosynthetic reaction center (RC) constitutes the primary step of photosynthesis, i.e., the light harvesting process. A model for an atomic level structure of a so-called photosynthetic unit of the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides has been established recently. The photosynthetic unit (PSU) of purple bacterium combines a nanometric assembly of three protein complexes: (i)the photosynthetic reaction center, (ii)a ring-shaped light harvesting complex LH-I, and (iii)multiple copies of a similar complex, LH-II. The model describes in detail the organization of pigments involved in primary light absorption and excitation transfer: a hierarchy of ring- shaped chlorophyll-carotenoid aggregates which surround four centrally located chlorophylls of the photosynthetic reaction center. This thesis presents a quantum- mechanical description of the light harvesting process in the PSU, based on the atomic level model. Excitation transfer rates for various excitation transfer steps have been determined through Fermi's golden rule. To describe electronic excitations of the strongly coupled chlorophyll aggregate in LH-II, an effective Hamiltonian has been established. This Hamiltonian has further been extended to describe also the LH-II --> LH-II --> LH-I --> RC cascade of excitation transfer. The results suggest that, in the absence of disorder, the electronic excitations in LH-II are coherently delocalizaed over the ring, and that such excitonic states speed up the light-harvesting process. Influence of thermal disorder on exciton coherence has been studied by means of a combined molecular dynamics/quantum chemistry approach. The results indicate a significant loss of coherence due to thermal effects. Excitation transfer between carotenoids and chlorophylls has been investigated in two light-harvesting complexes; LH-II of the purple bacterium Rhodospirillum

  9. Electrochemically driven mechanical energy harvesting

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sangtae; Choi, Soon Ju; Zhao, Kejie; Yang, Hui; Gobbi, Giorgia; Zhang, Sulin; Li, Ju

    2016-01-01

    Efficient mechanical energy harvesters enable various wearable devices and auxiliary energy supply. Here we report a novel class of mechanical energy harvesters via stress–voltage coupling in electrochemically alloyed electrodes. The device consists of two identical Li-alloyed Si as electrodes, separated by electrolyte-soaked polymer membranes. Bending-induced asymmetric stresses generate chemical potential difference, driving lithium ion flux from the compressed to the tensed electrode to generate electrical current. Removing the bending reverses ion flux and electrical current. Our thermodynamic analysis reveals that the ideal energy-harvesting efficiency of this device is dictated by the Poisson's ratio of the electrodes. For the thin-film-based energy harvester used in this study, the device has achieved a generating capacity of 15%. The device demonstrates a practical use of stress-composition–voltage coupling in electrochemically active alloys to harvest low-grade mechanical energies from various low-frequency motions, such as everyday human activities. PMID:26733282

  10. Electrochemically driven mechanical energy harvesting.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangtae; Choi, Soon Ju; Zhao, Kejie; Yang, Hui; Gobbi, Giorgia; Zhang, Sulin; Li, Ju

    2016-01-06

    Efficient mechanical energy harvesters enable various wearable devices and auxiliary energy supply. Here we report a novel class of mechanical energy harvesters via stress-voltage coupling in electrochemically alloyed electrodes. The device consists of two identical Li-alloyed Si as electrodes, separated by electrolyte-soaked polymer membranes. Bending-induced asymmetric stresses generate chemical potential difference, driving lithium ion flux from the compressed to the tensed electrode to generate electrical current. Removing the bending reverses ion flux and electrical current. Our thermodynamic analysis reveals that the ideal energy-harvesting efficiency of this device is dictated by the Poisson's ratio of the electrodes. For the thin-film-based energy harvester used in this study, the device has achieved a generating capacity of 15%. The device demonstrates a practical use of stress-composition-voltage coupling in electrochemically active alloys to harvest low-grade mechanical energies from various low-frequency motions, such as everyday human activities.

  11. Electrochemically driven mechanical energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sangtae; Choi, Soon Ju; Zhao, Kejie; Yang, Hui; Gobbi, Giorgia; Zhang, Sulin; Li, Ju

    2016-01-01

    Efficient mechanical energy harvesters enable various wearable devices and auxiliary energy supply. Here we report a novel class of mechanical energy harvesters via stress-voltage coupling in electrochemically alloyed electrodes. The device consists of two identical Li-alloyed Si as electrodes, separated by electrolyte-soaked polymer membranes. Bending-induced asymmetric stresses generate chemical potential difference, driving lithium ion flux from the compressed to the tensed electrode to generate electrical current. Removing the bending reverses ion flux and electrical current. Our thermodynamic analysis reveals that the ideal energy-harvesting efficiency of this device is dictated by the Poisson's ratio of the electrodes. For the thin-film-based energy harvester used in this study, the device has achieved a generating capacity of 15%. The device demonstrates a practical use of stress-composition-voltage coupling in electrochemically active alloys to harvest low-grade mechanical energies from various low-frequency motions, such as everyday human activities.

  12. A pilot study of cytoreductive chemotherapy combined with infusion of additional peripheral blood stem cells reserved at time of harvest for transplantation in case of relapsed hematologic malignancies after allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplant.

    PubMed

    Kim, J G; Sohn, S K; Kim, D H; Lee, N Y; Suh, J S; Lee, K S; Lee, K B

    2004-01-01

    Reharvesting leukocytes from donors for a donor leukocyte infusion (DLI) is inconvenient and occasionally impossible in case of unrelated donors. It is well known that the effect of a growth factor-primed DLI is comparable to that of a nonprimed DLI. In total, 42 patients with hematologic malignancies and a high risk of relapse were allocated, on an intent-to-treat basis, a peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) from HLA-matched sibling donors, and then at the time of harvest, additional peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) were also reserved for a therapeutic primed DLI in case of relapse. In all, 12 patients who relapsed after allogeneic PBSCT were treated with mainly cytarabine-based chemotherapy followed by a cryopreserved PBSC infusion. The median dose of CD3+ and CD34+ cells for the primed DLIs was 1.43 x 10(8)/kg and 4.75 x 10(6)/kg, respectively. Six of the 12 relapsed patients exhibited a complete response after the primed DLI, plus their 1-year survival rate was 33%. The new development or progression of graft-versus-host disease after a primed DLI was observed in 50% of the patients. Overall, the survival at 1 year was 16.7%. Accordingly, the induction of a graft-versus-leukemia effect through a primed DLI, using additional PBSCs reserved at the original time of harvest, would appear to be feasible for patients with relapsed hematologic malignancies. Furthermore, this approach is also more convenient for donors.

  13. Breeding, Early-Successional Bird Response to Forest Harvests for Bioenergy.

    PubMed

    Grodsky, Steven M; Moorman, Christopher E; Fritts, Sarah R; Castleberry, Steven B; Wigley, T Bently

    2016-01-01

    Forest regeneration following timber harvest is a principal source of habitat for early-successional birds and characterized by influxes of early-successional vegetation and residual downed woody material. Early-successional birds may use harvest residues for communication, cover, foraging, and nesting. Yet, increased market viability of woody biomass as bioenergy feedstock may intensify harvest residue removal. Our objectives were to: 1) evaluate effects of varying intensities of woody biomass harvest on the early-successional bird community; and (2) document early-successional bird use of harvest residues in regenerating stands. We spot-mapped birds from 15 April- 15 July, 2012-2014, in six woody biomass removal treatments within regenerating stands in North Carolina (n = 4) and Georgia (n = 4), USA. Treatments included clearcut harvest followed by: (1) traditional woody biomass harvest with no specific retention target; (2) 15% retention with harvest residues dispersed; (3) 15% retention with harvest residues clustered; (4) 30% retention with harvest residues dispersed; (5) 30% retention with harvest residues clustered; and (6) no woody biomass harvest (i.e., reference site). We tested for treatment-level effects on breeding bird species diversity and richness, early-successional focal species territory density (combined and individual species), counts of breeding birds detected near, in, or on branches of harvest piles/windrows, counts of breeding bird behaviors, and vegetation composition and structure. Pooled across three breeding seasons, we delineated 536 and 654 territories and detected 2,489 and 4,204 birds in the North Carolina and Georgia treatments, respectively. Woody biomass harvest had limited or short-lived effects on the early-successional, breeding bird community. The successional trajectory of vegetation structure, rather than availability of harvest residues, primarily drove avian use of regenerating stands. However, many breeding bird species

  14. Breeding, Early-Successional Bird Response to Forest Harvests for Bioenergy

    PubMed Central

    Grodsky, Steven M.; Moorman, Christopher E.; Fritts, Sarah R.; Castleberry, Steven B.; Wigley, T. Bently

    2016-01-01

    Forest regeneration following timber harvest is a principal source of habitat for early-successional birds and characterized by influxes of early-successional vegetation and residual downed woody material. Early-successional birds may use harvest residues for communication, cover, foraging, and nesting. Yet, increased market viability of woody biomass as bioenergy feedstock may intensify harvest residue removal. Our objectives were to: 1) evaluate effects of varying intensities of woody biomass harvest on the early-successional bird community; and (2) document early-successional bird use of harvest residues in regenerating stands. We spot-mapped birds from 15 April– 15 July, 2012–2014, in six woody biomass removal treatments within regenerating stands in North Carolina (n = 4) and Georgia (n = 4), USA. Treatments included clearcut harvest followed by: (1) traditional woody biomass harvest with no specific retention target; (2) 15% retention with harvest residues dispersed; (3) 15% retention with harvest residues clustered; (4) 30% retention with harvest residues dispersed; (5) 30% retention with harvest residues clustered; and (6) no woody biomass harvest (i.e., reference site). We tested for treatment-level effects on breeding bird species diversity and richness, early-successional focal species territory density (combined and individual species), counts of breeding birds detected near, in, or on branches of harvest piles/windrows, counts of breeding bird behaviors, and vegetation composition and structure. Pooled across three breeding seasons, we delineated 536 and 654 territories and detected 2,489 and 4,204 birds in the North Carolina and Georgia treatments, respectively. Woody biomass harvest had limited or short-lived effects on the early-successional, breeding bird community. The successional trajectory of vegetation structure, rather than availability of harvest residues, primarily drove avian use of regenerating stands. However, many breeding bird

  15. High-efficiency integrated piezoelectric energy harvesting systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hande, Abhiman; Shah, Pradeep

    2010-04-01

    This paper describes hierarchically architectured development of an energy harvesting (EH) system that consists of micro and/or macro-scale harvesters matched to multiple components of remote wireless sensor and communication nodes. The micro-scale harvesters consist of thin-film MEMS piezoelectric cantilever arrays and power generation modules in IC-like form to allow efficient EH from vibrations. The design uses new high conversion efficiency thin-film processes combined with novel cantilever structures tuned to multiple resonant frequencies as broadband arrays. The macro-scale harvesters are used to power the collector nodes that have higher power specifications. These bulk harvesters can be integrated with efficient adaptive power management circuits that match transducer impedance and maximize power harvested from multiple scavenging sources with very low intrinsic power consumption. Texas MicroPower, Inc. is developing process based on a composition that has the highest reported energy density as compared to other commercially available bulk PZT-based sensor/actuator ceramic materials and extending it to thin-film materials and miniature conversion transducer structures. The multiform factor harvesters can be deployed for several military and commercial applications such as underground unattended sensors, sensors in oil rigs, structural health monitoring, supply chain management, and battlefield applications such as sensors on soldier apparel, equipment, and wearable electronics.

  16. Fall Harvest in Kazakhstan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    September 22, the autumnal equinox, marks the beginning of fall in the Northern Hemisphere, but the fall harvest begins early in the harsh continental climate of eastern Kazakhstan. By September 9, 2013, when the Operational Land Imager (OLI) on the Landsat 8 satellite acquired this image, several fields were already harvested and bare. Others were dark green with pasture grasses or ripening crops. The fields fill the contours of the land, running long and narrow down mountain valleys and spreading in large squares over the plains. Agriculture is an important segment of the economy in Kazakhstan: the country’s dry climate is ideal for producing high quality wheat for export. However, 61 percent of the country’s agricultural land is pasture for livestock. The area shown in this image, far eastern Kazakhstan near the Chinese border, is a minor wheat-growing region and may also produce sunflowers, barley, and other food crops. An artifact of Soviet-era collective farms, most of the farms in Kazakhstan are large, covering more than 5,000 hectares (12,500 acres). Some of the larger fields in the image reflect the big business side of agriculture. However, family farms and small agriculture businesses account for 35 percent of the country’s agricultural production, and some of these are visible as well, particularly in the uneven hills and mountains. Nearly all agriculture in Kazakhstan is rain fed. Farmers in this region have designed their fields to take advantage of rain flowing down hills, allowing the natural shape of the land to channel water to crops. The effect is a mosaic of green and tan with tones matching the natural vegetation in the mountains to the north. NASA Earth Observatory image by Jesse Allen using Landsat data from the U.S. Geological Survey. Caption by Holli Riebeek. Instrument: Landsat 8 - OLI More info: 1.usa.gov/16IZ047 NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth

  17. Scaling prospects in mechanical energy harvesting with piezo nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardila, Gustavo; Hinchet, Ronan; Mouis, Mireille; Montès, Laurent

    2013-07-01

    The combination of 3D processing technologies, low power circuits and new materials integration makes it conceivable to build autonomous integrated systems, which would harvest their energy from the environment. In this paper, we focus on mechanical energy harvesting and discuss its scaling prospects toward the use of piezoelectric nanostructures, able to be integrated in a CMOS environment. It is shown that direct scaling of present MEMS-based methodologies would be beneficial for high-frequency applications only. For the range of applications which is presently foreseen, a different approach is needed, based on energy harvesting from direct real-time deformation instead of energy harvesting from vibration modes at or close to resonance. We discuss the prospects of such an approach based on simple scaling rules Contribution to the Topical Issue “International Semiconductor Conference Dresden-Grenoble - ISCDG 2012”, Edited by Gérard Ghibaudo, Francis Balestra and Simon Deleonibus.

  18. Effects of harvesting on spatial and temporal diversity of carbon stocks in a boreal forest landscape

    PubMed Central

    Ter-Mikaelian, Michael T; Colombo, Stephen J; Chen, Jiaxin

    2013-01-01

    Carbon stocks in managed forests of Ontario, Canada, and in harvested wood products originated from these forests were estimated for 2010–2100. Simulations included four future forest harvesting scenarios based on historical harvesting levels (low, average, high, and maximum available) and a no-harvest scenario. In four harvesting scenarios, forest carbon stocks in Ontario's managed forest were estimated to range from 6202 to 6227 Mt C (millions of tons of carbon) in 2010, and from 6121 to 6428 Mt C by 2100. Inclusion of carbon stored in harvested wood products in use and in landfills changed the projected range in 2100 to 6710–6742 Mt C. For the no-harvest scenario, forest carbon stocks were projected to change from 6246 Mt C in 2010 to 6680 Mt C in 2100. Spatial variation in projected forest carbon stocks was strongly related to changes in forest age (r = 0.603), but had weak correlation with harvesting rates. For all managed forests in Ontario combined, projected carbon stocks in combined forest and harvested wood products converged to within 2% difference by 2100. The results suggest that harvesting in the boreal forest, if applied within limits of sustainable forest management, will eventually have a relatively small effect on long-term combined forest and wood products carbon stocks. However, there was a large time lag to approach carbon equality, with more than 90 years with a net reduction in stored carbon in harvested forests plus wood products compared to nonharvested boreal forest which also has low rates of natural disturbance. The eventual near equivalency of carbon stocks in nonharvested forest and forest that is harvested and protected from natural disturbance reflects both the accumulation of carbon in harvested wood products and the relatively young age at which boreal forest stands undergo natural succession in the absence of disturbance. PMID:24198936

  19. Effects of harvesting on spatial and temporal diversity of carbon stocks in a boreal forest landscape.

    PubMed

    Ter-Mikaelian, Michael T; Colombo, Stephen J; Chen, Jiaxin

    2013-10-01

    Carbon stocks in managed forests of Ontario, Canada, and in harvested wood products originated from these forests were estimated for 2010-2100. Simulations included four future forest harvesting scenarios based on historical harvesting levels (low, average, high, and maximum available) and a no-harvest scenario. In four harvesting scenarios, forest carbon stocks in Ontario's managed forest were estimated to range from 6202 to 6227 Mt C (millions of tons of carbon) in 2010, and from 6121 to 6428 Mt C by 2100. Inclusion of carbon stored in harvested wood products in use and in landfills changed the projected range in 2100 to 6710-6742 Mt C. For the no-harvest scenario, forest carbon stocks were projected to change from 6246 Mt C in 2010 to 6680 Mt C in 2100. Spatial variation in projected forest carbon stocks was strongly related to changes in forest age (r = 0.603), but had weak correlation with harvesting rates. For all managed forests in Ontario combined, projected carbon stocks in combined forest and harvested wood products converged to within 2% difference by 2100. The results suggest that harvesting in the boreal forest, if applied within limits of sustainable forest management, will eventually have a relatively small effect on long-term combined forest and wood products carbon stocks. However, there was a large time lag to approach carbon equality, with more than 90 years with a net reduction in stored carbon in harvested forests plus wood products compared to nonharvested boreal forest which also has low rates of natural disturbance. The eventual near equivalency of carbon stocks in nonharvested forest and forest that is harvested and protected from natural disturbance reflects both the accumulation of carbon in harvested wood products and the relatively young age at which boreal forest stands undergo natural succession in the absence of disturbance.

  20. Ocean Wave Energy Harvesting Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    coupled to a suitable buoy platform. 2. The approach of designing a device which meets the requirements for mounting on dogfish and generating...used on the tail of a marine life such as dogfish to harvest energy as it swims. The output power can be used to trickle charge battery packs to power...to be mounted to a dogfish to harvest energy from its motion. Due to the small fish size (approximate 40-50 inches, 25 pounds), the device was

  1. Alternate biomass harvesting systems using conventional equipment

    Treesearch

    Bryce J. Stokes; William F. Watson; I. Winston Savelle

    1985-01-01

    Three harvesting methods were field tested in two stand types. Costs and stand utilization rates were developed for a conventional harvesting system, without energy wood recovery; a two-pass roundwood and energy wood system; and a one-pass system that harvests roundwood and energy wood. The systems harvested 20-acre test blocks in two pine pulpwood plantations and in a...

  2. Harvesting small stems -- A Southern USA perspective

    Treesearch

    William F. Watson; Bryce J. Stokes

    1989-01-01

    Operations that harvest small stems using conventional equipment are discussed. A typical operation consists of rubber-tired feller-bunchers with shear heads, rubber-tired grapple skidders, and in-woods chippers. These systems harvest the small stems either in a pre-harvest, postharvest, or integrated-harvest method.

  3. Comparison of modern cotton harvest systems on irrigated cotton: Harvester performance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Harvester performance, fiber quality, and harvest system costs are important considerations when comparing cotton harvesting systems. Harvester performance was measured as a function of time-in-motion, harvest efficiency, foreign matter content of seed cotton, and lint turnout at the gin at seven ir...

  4. Monsoon Harvests: The Socio-Ecohydrology of Agricultural Rainwater Harvesting and Groundwater Depletion in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, N. B.; Hora, T.; Van Meter, K. J.

    2016-12-01

    Rainwater harvesting (RWH), the small-scale collection and storage of runoff for irrigated agriculture, is recognized as a sustainable strategy for ensuring food security, especially in monsoonal landscapes in the developing world. In south India, these strategies have been used for millennia to mitigate problems of water scarcity. However, in the past 100 years many traditional RWH systems have fallen into disrepair due to increasing dependence on groundwater. This dependence has contributed to an accelerated decline in groundwater resources, which has in turn led to increased efforts at the state and national levels to revive older RWH systems. Critical to the success of such efforts is an improved understanding of how these ancient systems function in contemporary landscapes with extensive groundwater pumping and shifted climatic regimes. Here, we use a combination of data analyses and modeling to quantify the coupled natural and human controls on the spatiotemporal trajectories of groundwater depletion and rainwater harvesting in monsoonal India.

  5. A Hip Implant Energy Harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pancharoen, K.; Zhu, D.; Beeby, S. P.

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents a kinetic energy harvester designed to be embedded in a hip implant which aims to operate at a low frequency associated with body motion of patients. The prototype is designed based on the constrained volume available in a hip prosthesis and the challenge is to harvest energy from low frequency movements (< 1 Hz) which is an average frequency during free walking of a patient. The concept of magnetic-force-driven energy harvesting is applied to this prototype considering the hip movements during routine activities of patients. The magnetic field within the harvester was simulated using COMSOL. The simulated resonant frequency was around 30 Hz and the voltage induced in a coil was predicted to be 47.8 mV. A prototype of the energy harvester was fabricated and tested. A maximum open circuit voltage of 39.43 mV was obtained and the resonant frequency of 28 Hz was observed. Moreover, the power output of 0.96 μW was achieved with an optimum resistive load of 250Ω.

  6. Harvesting cost model for small trees in natural stands in the interior northwest.

    Treesearch

    Bruce R. Hartsough; Xiaoshan Zhang; Roger D. Fight

    2001-01-01

    Realistic logging cost models are needed for long-term forest management planning. Data from numerous published studies were combined to estimate the costs of harvesting small trees in natural stands in the Interior Northwest of North America. Six harvesting systems were modeled. Four address gentle terrain: manual log-length, manual whole-tree, mechanized whole-tree,...

  7. Tree production in desert regions using effluent and water harvesting

    Treesearch

    Martin M. Karpiscak; Gerald J. Gottfried

    2000-01-01

    Treated municipal effluent combined with water harvesting can be used for land restoration and enhancing the growth of important riparian tree species. Paired studies in Arizona are assessing the potential of growing trees using mixtures of effluent and potable water. Trees are grown in the field and in containers. Initial results from the field show high survival for...

  8. Assessing soil impacts related to forest harvest operations

    Treesearch

    E.A. Carter; John M. III. Grace

    2011-01-01

    Three studies conducted in Alabama evaluated impacts associated with a clear cut harvest in three physiographic regions. Machine impacts were assessed via tabulation of soil disturbance classes, measurement of bulk density and soil strength, or a combination of the two. Soil disturbance classes were similar among all locations with untrafficked areas comprising...

  9. Ascorbate metabolism in harvested broccoli.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Fumie; Kato, Masaya; Hyodo, Hiroshi; Ikoma, Yoshinori; Sugiura, Minoru; Yano, Masamichi

    2003-11-01

    The ascorbate content declined rapidly in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) florets, but not in the stem tissue, during post-harvest senescence. Ascorbate peroxidase (APX), ascorbate oxidase (AO), l-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase (GLDH), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDAR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), and glutathione reductase (GR) were investigated in gene expression after harvest in both florets and the stem tissue of broccoli. Cytosolic gene expressions (BO-APX 1, BO-APX 2, BO-AO, BO-MDAR 2, and BO-GR) were stimulated actively in broccoli florets after harvest. By contrast, it was observed that mRNA levels of chloroplastic APX, BO-sAPX and BO-tbAPX, had decreased by 12 h after harvest in broccoli florets, suggesting that the active oxygen species (AOS) scavenging system in chloroplasts was largely abolished in florets during the early hours of the post-harvest period. In addition, gene expressions in GLDH and other chloroplastic enzymes such as BO-MDAR 1 and BO-DHAR decreased rapidly within 24 h after harvest. Ethylene treatment had no effect on the ascorbate level and the expression of all genes investigated. The expressions of BO-GLDH and chloroplastic genes (BO-sAPX, BO-tbAPX, BO-MDAR 1, and BO-DHAR) mRNA were suppressed by treatment with methyl jasmonate (MJ) and abscisic acid (ABA) and were accompanied by the acceleration of ascorbate degradation. These data suggest that ascorbate metabolism tends to be inactivated in chloroplasts by transcriptional regulation, but not in the cytosol, when ascorbate decreases under stress conditions.

  10. A magnetically sprung vibration harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantinou, P.; Mellor, P. H.; Wilcox, P. D.

    2010-04-01

    The use of energy harvesting systems is becoming a more prominent research topic in supplying energy to wireless sensor nodes. The paper will present an analytical 'toolbox' for designing and modeling a vibration energy harvester where the moving mass is suspended magnetically. Calculations from the presented model and measurements from a prototype are compared, and the presence of system non-linearities is shown and discussed. The use of the magnetic suspension and its equivalent hardening spring suspension leads to the system's non-linearity, demonstrating a broad band response and 'jump' phenomenon characteristic. The benefits of these are discussed and the system's performance is compared with those from literature, showing similarity.

  11. Advanced Plant Habitat Test Harvest

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-24

    Arabidopsis thaliana plants are seen inside the growth chamber of the Advanced Plant Habitat (APH) Flight Unit No. 1 prior to harvest of half the plants. The harvest is part of an ongoing verification test of the APH unit, which is located inside the International Space Station Environmental Simulator in NASA Kennedy Space Center's Space Station Processing Facility. The APH undergoing testing at Kennedy is identical to one on the station and uses red, green and broad-spectrum white LED lights to grow plants in an environmentally controlled chamber. The seeds grown during the verification test will be grown on the station to help scientists understand how these plants adapt to spaceflight.

  12. Power management for energy harvesting wireless sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arms, S. W.; Townsend, C. P.; Churchill, D. L.; Galbreath, J. H.; Mundell, S. W.

    2005-05-01

    The objective of this work was to demonstrate smart wireless sensing nodes capable of operation at extremely low power levels. These systems were designed to be compatible with energy harvesting systems using piezoelectric materials and/or solar cells. The wireless sensing nodes included a microprocessor, on-board memory, sensing means (1000 ohm foil strain gauge), sensor signal conditioning, 2.4 GHz IEEE 802.15.4 radio transceiver, and rechargeable battery. Extremely low power consumption sleep currents combined with periodic, timed wake-up was used to minimize the average power consumption. Furthermore, we deployed pulsed sensor excitation and microprocessor power control of the signal conditioning elements to minimize the sensors" average contribution to power draw. By sleeping in between samples, we were able to demonstrate extremely low average power consumption. At 10 Hz, current consumption was 300 microamps at 3 VDC (900 microwatts); at 5 Hz: 400 microwatts, at 1 Hz: 90 microwatts. When the RF stage was not used, but data were logged to memory, consumption was further reduced. Piezoelectric strain energy harvesting systems delivered ~2000 microwatts under low level vibration conditions. Output power levels were also measured from two miniature solar cells; which provided a wide range of output power (~100 to 1400 microwatts), depending on the light type & distance from the source. In summary, system power consumption may be reduced by: 1) removing the load from the energy harvesting & storage elements while charging, 2) by using sleep modes in between samples, 3) pulsing excitation to the sensing and signal conditioning elements in between samples, and 4) by recording and/or averaging, rather than frequently transmitting, sensor data.

  13. Developing recreational harvest regulations for an unexploited lake trout population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lenker, Melissa A; Weidel, Brian C.; Jensen, Olaf P.; Solomon, Christopher T.

    2016-01-01

    Developing fishing regulations for previously unexploited populations presents numerous challenges, many of which stem from a scarcity of baseline information about abundance, population productivity, and expected angling pressure. We used simulation models to test the effect of six management strategies (catch and release; trophy, minimum, and maximum length limits; and protected and exploited slot length limits) on an unexploited population of Lake Trout Salvelinus namaycush in Follensby Pond, a 393-ha lake located in New York State’s Adirondack Park. We combined field and literature data and mark–recapture abundance estimates to parameterize an age-structured population model and used the model to assess the effects of each management strategy on abundance, catch per unit effort (CPUE), and harvest over a range of angler effort (0–2,000 angler-days/year). Lake Trout density (3.5 fish/ha for fish ≥ age 13, the estimated age at maturity) was similar to densities observed in other unexploited systems, but growth rate was relatively slow. Maximum harvest occurred at levels of effort ≤ 1,000 angler-days/year in all the scenarios considered. Regulations that permitted harvest of large postmaturation fish, such as New York’s standard Lake Trout minimum size limit or a trophy size limit, resulted in low harvest and high angler CPUE. Regulations that permitted harvest of small and sometimes immature fish, such as a protected slot or maximum size limit, allowed high harvest but resulted in low angler CPUE and produced rapid declines in harvest with increases in effort beyond the effort consistent with maximum yield. Management agencies can use these results to match regulations to management goals and to assess the risks of different management options for unexploited Lake Trout populations and other fish species with similar life history traits.

  14. Harvesting the Ocean: Teachers' Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caton, Albert, Ed.; And Others

    This teaching guide is designed for use with three units of study (presented in separate booklets titled "The Ocean,""The Harvest," and "Using the Sea Wisely"). The multidisciplinary units contain teaching and learning resources designed to provide: students with learning experiences using a variety of thinking…

  15. Nanofluidics for giant power harvesting.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Chen, Xiaodong

    2013-07-22

    Nanochannels for power generation: The confinement of fluid motion in a single boron nitride nanotube can provide an efficient means of power harvesting owing to the osmotically driven streaming current under a salt concentration difference (see picture). Devices based on this principle may open a new avenue in the exploration for new sources of renewable energy.

  16. Harvest Moon at NASA Goddard

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-09-18

    September's Harvest Moon as seen around NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. According to folklore, every full Moon has a special name.  There's the Wolf Moon, the Snow Moon, the Worm Moon,  the Sprouting Grass Moon,  the Flower Moon,  the Strawberry Moon, the Thunder Moon,  the Sturgeon Moon, the Harvest Moon, the Hunter's Moon, the Beaver Moon, and the Long Night's Moon. Each name tells us something about the season or month in which the full Moon appears.

This month's full Moon is the Harvest Moon. More about the Harvest Moon from NASA: Science http://1.usa.gov/16lb1eZ Credit: NASA/Goddard/Debbie Mccallum NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  17. Harvest Moon at NASA Goddard

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-09-20

    September's Harvest Moon as seen around NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. According to folklore, every full Moon has a special name.  There's the Wolf Moon, the Snow Moon, the Worm Moon,  the Sprouting Grass Moon,  the Flower Moon,  the Strawberry Moon, the Thunder Moon,  the Sturgeon Moon, the Harvest Moon, the Hunter's Moon, the Beaver Moon, and the Long Night's Moon. Each name tells us something about the season or month in which the full Moon appears.

This month's full Moon is the Harvest Moon. More about the Harvest Moon from NASA: Science http://1.usa.gov/16lb1eZ Credit: NASA/Goddard/Debbie Mccallum NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  18. Harvesting the Ocean: Teachers' Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caton, Albert, Ed.; And Others

    This teaching guide is designed for use with three units of study (presented in separate booklets titled "The Ocean,""The Harvest," and "Using the Sea Wisely"). The multidisciplinary units contain teaching and learning resources designed to provide: students with learning experiences using a variety of thinking…

  19. Fluid flow nozzle energy harvesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Walkemeyer, Phillip; Winn, Tyler; Tosi, Luis Phillipe; Colonius, Tim

    2015-04-01

    Power generation schemes that could be used downhole in an oil well to produce about 1 Watt average power with long-life (decades) are actively being developed. A variety of proposed energy harvesting schemes could be used to extract energy from this environment but each of these has their own limitations that limit their practical use. Since vibrating piezoelectric structures are solid state and can be driven below their fatigue limit, harvesters based on these structures are capable of operating for very long lifetimes (decades); thereby, possibly overcoming a principle limitation of existing technology based on rotating turbo-machinery. An initial survey [1] identified that spline nozzle configurations can be used to excite a vibrating piezoelectric structure in such a way as to convert the abundant flow energy into useful amounts of electrical power. This paper presents current flow energy harvesting designs and experimental results of specific spline nozzle/ bimorph design configurations which have generated suitable power per nozzle at or above well production analogous flow rates. Theoretical models for non-dimensional analysis and constitutive electromechanical model are also presented in this paper to optimize the flow harvesting system.

  20. Sustainable Corn Stover Harvest Strategies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Corn stover has been identified as an important initial source of biomass for conversion to ethanol and other biofuels. This poster presentation outlines on-going cooperative research being conducted near Ames, IA. Our university partner is responsible for developing the one-pass harvester and our I...

  1. Harvest Moon at NASA Goddard

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    September's Harvest Moon as seen around NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. According to folklore, every full Moon has a special name. There's the Wolf Moon, the Snow Moon, the Worm Moon, the Sprouting Grass Moon, the Flower Moon, the Strawberry Moon, the Thunder Moon, the Sturgeon Moon, the Harvest Moon, the Hunter's Moon, the Beaver Moon, and the Long Night's Moon. Each name tells us something about the season or month in which the full Moon appears. This month's full Moon is the Harvest Moon. More about the Harvest Moon from NASA: Science 1.usa.gov/16lb1eZ Credit: NASA/Goddard/Debbie Mccallum NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  2. Spreadsheet Analysis of Harvesting Systems

    Treesearch

    R.B. Rummer; B.L. Lanford

    1987-01-01

    Harvesting systems can be modeled and analyzed on microcomputers using commercially available "spreadsheet" software. The effect of system or external variables on the production rate or system cost can be evaluated and alternative systems can be easily examined. The tedious calculations associated with such analyses are performed by the computer. For users...

  3. Fluid Flow Nozzle Energy Harvesters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Walkenmeyer, Phillip; Winn, Tyler; Tosi, Luis Phillipe; Colonius, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Power generation schemes that could be used downhole in an oil well to produce about 1 Watt average power with long-life (decades) are actively being developed. A variety of proposed energy harvesting schemes could be used to extract energy from this environment but each of these has their own limitations that limit their practical use. Since vibrating piezoelectric structures are solid state and can be driven below their fatigue limit, harvesters based on these structures are capable of operating for very long lifetimes (decades); thereby, possibly overcoming a principle limitation of existing technology based on rotating turbo-machinery. An initial survey identified that spline nozzle configurations can be used to excite a vibrating piezoelectric structure in such a way as to convert the abundant flow energy into useful amounts of electrical power. This paper presents current flow energy harvesting designs and experimental results of specific spline nozzle/ bimorph design configurations which have generated suitable power per nozzle at or above well production analogous flow rates. Theoretical models for non-dimensional analysis and constitutive electromechanical model are also presented in this paper to optimize the flow harvesting system.

  4. Safety and health perceptions and concerns of custom harvesters.

    PubMed

    Steffen, R W; Frazier, K W; Watson, D G; Harrison, T V

    2007-11-01

    This study elicited the perceptions and concerns of custom harvesters regarding safety and health issues faced in their operations, self-perceived knowledge of selected regulations, and self-perceived ability to train employees on the safe operation of equipment. The average age of custom harvesters' (CH) employees was 22 to 25 years (47.2%). The most common length of the harvest season was 5 to 6 months (70.9%). The most common responses to length of work day were 9 to 11 hours (34.5%) and 12 to 14 hours (54.5%). In general, CH ranked combine operation experience as most important when hiring employees. The CH felt inexperience was the leading contributor to lost-time incidents. They were most concerned about DOT regulations and Worker's Compensation rules, but also felt they had a good knowledge of those areas.

  5. Carbon Nanotube Passive Intermodulation Device for Nonlinear Energy Harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerner, Mitchell; Perez, Israel; Rockway, John

    2014-03-01

    The navy is interested in designing RF front-ends for receivers to handle high power jammers and other strong interferers. Instead of blocking that energy or dissipating it as heat in filters or amplifiers, this project investigates re-directing that energy for harvesting and storage. The approach is based on channelizing a high power jamming signal into a passive intermodulation device to create intermodulation products in sub-band frequencies, which could then be harvested for energy. The intermodulation device is fabricated using carbon nanotube transistors and such devices can be modified by creating chemical defects in the sidewalls of the nanotubes and locally gating the devices with a slowly varying electric field. These effects controllably enhance the hysteretic non-linearity in the transistors IV behavior. Combining these components with a RF energy harvester on the back-end should optimize the re-use of inbound jamming energy while maximizing the utility of standard back end radio components.

  6. Can We Sustainably Harvest Ivory?

    PubMed

    Lusseau, David; Lee, Phyllis C

    2016-11-07

    Despite the 1989 ivory trade ban, elephants continue to be killed to harvest their tusks for ivory. Since 2008, this poaching has increased to unprecedented levels driven by consumer demand for ivory products. CITES is now considering the development of a legal ivory trade [1, 2]. The proposal relies on three assumptions: (1) harvest regulation will cease all illegal activities, (2) defined sustainable quotas can be enforced, and (3) we can define meaningful sustainable quotas that come close to the current demand. We know that regulation of harvest does not stop illegal takes. Despite whaling regulation after World War II, illegal whaling continued for decades [3]. The introduction of wolf culls in the US actually increased poaching activities [4], and one-off ivory sales in 1999 and 2008 did nothing to halt elephant poaching. Governance issues over the ivory supply chains, including stockpiling, make enforcing quotas challenging, if not impossible [5, 6]. We have not yet adequately assessed what could be a sustainable ivory yield. To do so, we develop a compartmental model composed of a two-sex age-structured demographic model and an ivory production and harvest model. We applied several offtake and quota strategies to define how much ivory could be sustainably harvested. We found that the sustainability space is very small. Only 100 to 150 kg of ivory could be removed from a reference population of 1,360 elephants, levels well below the current demand. Our study shows that lifting the ivory ban will not address the current poaching challenge. We should instead focus on reducing consumer demand. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Harvest prediction in `Algerie' loquat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hueso, Juan J.; Pérez, Mercedes; Alonso, Francisca; Cuevas, Julián

    2007-05-01

    Plant phenology is in great measure driven by air temperature. To forecast harvest time for ‘Algerie’ loquat accurately, the growing degree days (GDD) needed from bloom to ripening were determined using data from nine seasons. The methods proposed by Zalom et al. (Zalom FG, Goodell PB, Wilson LT, Barnett WW, Bentley W, Degree-days: the calculation and use of heat units in pest management, leaflet no 21373, Division Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California 10 pp, 1983) were compared as regards their ability to estimate heat summation based on hourly records. All the methods gave remarkably similar results for our cultivation area, although the double-sine method showed higher performance when temperatures were low. A base temperature of 3°C is proposed for ‘Algerie’ loquat because it provides a coefficient of variation in GDD among seasons of below 5%, and because of its compatibility with loquat growth. Based on these determinations, ‘Algerie’ loquat requires 1,715 GDD from bloom to harvest; under our conditions this heat is accumulated over an average of 159 days. Our procedure permits the ‘Algerie’ harvest date to be estimated with a mean error of 4.4 days (<3% for the bloom-harvest period). GDD summation did not prove superior to the use of the number of calendar days for predicting ‘Algerie’ harvest under non-limiting growing conditions. However, GDD reflects the developmental rate in water-stressed trees better than calendar days. Trees under deficit irrigation during flower development required more time and more heat to ripen their fruits.

  8. Harvest prediction in 'Algerie' loquat.

    PubMed

    Hueso, Juan J; Pérez, Mercedes; Alonso, Francisca; Cuevas, Julián

    2007-05-01

    Plant phenology is in great measure driven by air temperature. To forecast harvest time for 'Algerie' loquat accurately, the growing degree days (GDD) needed from bloom to ripening were determined using data from nine seasons. The methods proposed by Zalom et al. (Zalom FG, Goodell PB, Wilson LT, Barnett WW, Bentley W, Degree-days: the calculation and use of heat units in pest management, leaflet no 21373, Division Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California 10 pp, 1983) were compared as regards their ability to estimate heat summation based on hourly records. All the methods gave remarkably similar results for our cultivation area, although the double-sine method showed higher performance when temperatures were low. A base temperature of 3 degrees C is proposed for 'Algerie' loquat because it provides a coefficient of variation in GDD among seasons of below 5%, and because of its compatibility with loquat growth. Based on these determinations, 'Algerie' loquat requires 1,715 GDD from bloom to harvest; under our conditions this heat is accumulated over an average of 159 days. Our procedure permits the 'Algerie' harvest date to be estimated with a mean error of 4.4 days (<3% for the bloom-harvest period). GDD summation did not prove superior to the use of the number of calendar days for predicting 'Algerie' harvest under non-limiting growing conditions. However, GDD reflects the developmental rate in water-stressed trees better than calendar days. Trees under deficit irrigation during flower development required more time and more heat to ripen their fruits.

  9. Magnetoelastic energy harvester for structural health monitoring applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essink, Brittany C.; Hobeck, Jared D.; Owen, Robert B.; Inman, Daniel J.

    2015-04-01

    Research presented in this paper focuses on the experimental and theoretical analysis of a compact, nonlinear, broadband energy harvesting device. Cantilevered structure zigzag beams have been shown to have natural frequencies orders of magnitudes lower than traditional cantilever beam geometries of the same size. Literature has also demonstrated that a cantilever beam harvester design combined with a magnetic field introduces nonlinearities in the response which can increase bandwidth of the device. Current energy harvester designs are relatively large in size, are most efficient at high frequencies, or only useful for narrowband linear operation. The proposed research introduces a zigzag geometry beam used in conjunction with a magnetic field to create a compact device capable of low frequency broadband energy harvesting. Experimental results are shown comparing both the linear and nonlinear energy harvesting capabilities of the zigzag structures. Experimental results are the focus of this paper, however, analytical expressions for the fundamental mode shape, natural frequency, and electromechanical coupling are presented for the linear lumped parameter system. A physics based magnetic force model for the nonlinear system is also proposed.

  10. Harvesting electrical energy from carbon nanotube yarn twist.

    PubMed

    Kim, Shi Hyeong; Haines, Carter S; Li, Na; Kim, Keon Jung; Mun, Tae Jin; Choi, Changsoon; Di, Jiangtao; Oh, Young Jun; Oviedo, Juan Pablo; Bykova, Julia; Fang, Shaoli; Jiang, Nan; Liu, Zunfeng; Wang, Run; Kumar, Prashant; Qiao, Rui; Priya, Shashank; Cho, Kyeongjae; Kim, Moon; Lucas, Matthew Steven; Drummy, Lawrence F; Maruyama, Benji; Lee, Dong Youn; Lepró, Xavier; Gao, Enlai; Albarq, Dawood; Ovalle-Robles, Raquel; Kim, Seon Jeong; Baughman, Ray H

    2017-08-25

    Mechanical energy harvesters are needed for diverse applications, including self-powered wireless sensors, structural and human health monitoring systems, and the extraction of energy from ocean waves. We report carbon nanotube yarn harvesters that electrochemically convert tensile or torsional mechanical energy into electrical energy without requiring an external bias voltage. Stretching coiled yarns generated 250 watts per kilogram of peak electrical power when cycled up to 30 hertz, as well as up to 41.2 joules per kilogram of electrical energy per mechanical cycle, when normalized to harvester yarn weight. These energy harvesters were used in the ocean to harvest wave energy, combined with thermally driven artificial muscles to convert temperature fluctuations to electrical energy, sewn into textiles for use as self-powered respiration sensors, and used to power a light-emitting diode and to charge a storage capacitor. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  11. Optimizing efficiency of energy harvesting by macro-fiber composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Lihua; Yang, Yaowen; Li, Hongyun

    2008-12-01

    The decreasing energy consumption of today's portable electronics has invoked the possibility of energy harvesting from ambient environment for self power supply. One common and simple method for energy harvesting is to utilize the direct piezoelectric effect. Compared to traditional piezoelectric materials such as lead zirconate titanate (PZT), macro-fiber composites (MFC) are featured in their flexibility of large deformation. However, the energy generated by MFC is still far smaller than that required by electronics at present. In this paper, an energy harvesting system prototype with MFC patches bonded to a cantilever beam is fabricated and tested. A finite element analysis (FEA) model is established to estimate the output voltage of MFC harvester. The energy accumulation procedure in the capacitor is simulated by using the electronic design automation (EDA) software. The simulation results are validated by the experimental ones. Subsequently, the electrical properties of MFC as well as the geometry configurations of the cantilever beam and MFC are parametrically studied by combining the FEA and EDA simulations for optimal energy harvesting efficiency.

  12. The consequences of balanced harvesting of fish communities

    PubMed Central

    Jacobsen, Nis S.; Gislason, Henrik; Andersen, Ken H.

    2014-01-01

    Balanced harvesting, where species or individuals are exploited in accordance with their productivity, has been proposed as a way to minimize the effects of fishing on marine fish communities and ecosystems. This calls for a thorough examination of the consequences balanced harvesting has on fish community structure and yield. We use a size- and trait-based model that resolves individual interactions through competition and predation to compare balanced harvesting with traditional selective harvesting, which protects juvenile fish from fishing. Four different exploitation patterns, generated by combining selective or unselective harvesting with balanced or unbalanced fishing, are compared. We find that unselective balanced fishing, where individuals are exploited in proportion to their productivity, produces a slightly larger total maximum sustainable yield than the other exploitation patterns and, for a given yield, the least change in the relative biomass composition of the fish community. Because fishing reduces competition, predation and cannibalism within the community, the total maximum sustainable yield is achieved at high exploitation rates. The yield from unselective balanced fishing is dominated by small individuals, whereas selective fishing produces a much higher proportion of large individuals in the yield. Although unselective balanced fishing is predicted to produce the highest total maximum sustainable yield and the lowest impact on trophic structure, it is effectively a fishery predominantly targeting small forage fish. PMID:24307676

  13. 29 CFR 780.1014 - Harvesting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... harvest evergreens and other forest products to be used in making the wreath. The word harvesting means the removal of evergreens and other forest products from their growing positions in the woods...

  14. 29 CFR 780.1014 - Harvesting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... harvest evergreens and other forest products to be used in making the wreath. The word harvesting means the removal of evergreens and other forest products from their growing positions in the woods...

  15. 29 CFR 780.1014 - Harvesting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... harvest evergreens and other forest products to be used in making the wreath. The word harvesting means the removal of evergreens and other forest products from their growing positions in the woods...

  16. 29 CFR 780.1014 - Harvesting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... harvest evergreens and other forest products to be used in making the wreath. The word harvesting means the removal of evergreens and other forest products from their growing positions in the woods...

  17. 29 CFR 780.1014 - Harvesting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... harvest evergreens and other forest products to be used in making the wreath. The word harvesting means the removal of evergreens and other forest products from their growing positions in the woods...

  18. Nyala and Bushbuck II: A Harvesting Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, Temple H.; Greeff, Johanna C.

    1999-01-01

    Adds a cropping or harvesting term to the animal overpopulation model developed in Part I of this article. Investigates various harvesting strategies that might suggest a solution to the overpopulation problem without actually culling any animals. (ASK)

  19. Nyala and Bushbuck II: A Harvesting Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, Temple H.; Greeff, Johanna C.

    1999-01-01

    Adds a cropping or harvesting term to the animal overpopulation model developed in Part I of this article. Investigates various harvesting strategies that might suggest a solution to the overpopulation problem without actually culling any animals. (ASK)

  20. Harvesting microalgal biomass using submerged microfiltration membranes.

    PubMed

    Bilad, M R; Vandamme, D; Foubert, I; Muylaert, K; Vankelecom, Ivo F J

    2012-05-01

    This study was performed to investigate the applicability of submerged microfiltration as a first step of up-concentration for harvesting both a freshwater green algae species Chlorella vulgaris and a marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum using three lab-made membranes with different porosity. The filtration performance was assessed by conducting the improved flux step method (IFM) and batch up-concentration filtrations. The fouling autopsy of the membranes was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The cost analysis was estimated based on the data of a related full-scale submerged membrane bioreactor (MBR). Overall results suggest that submerged microfiltration for algal harvesting is economically feasible. The IFM results indicate a low degree of fouling, comparable to the one obtained for a submerged MBR. By combining the submerged microfiltration with centrifugation to reach a final concentration of 22% w/v, the energy consumption to dewater C. vulgaris and P. tricornutum is 0.84 kW h/m(3) and 0.91 kW h/m(3), respectively.

  1. A Nonlinear Energy Sink with Energy Harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremer, Daniel

    The transfer of energy between systems is a natural process, manifesting in many different ways. In engineering transferable energy can be considered wanted or unwanted. Specifically in mechanical systems, energy transfer can occur as unwanted vibrations, passing from a source to a receiver. In electrical systems, energy transfer can be desirable, where energy from a source may be used elsewhere. This work proposes a method to combine the two, converting unwanted mechanical energy into useable electrical energy. A nonlinear energy sink (NES) is a vibration absorber that passively localizes vibrational energy, removing mechanical energy from a primary system. Consisting of a mass-spring-damper such that the stiffness is essentially nonlinear, a NES can localize vibrational energy from a source and dissipate it through damping. Replacing the NES mass with a series of magnets surrounded by coils fixed to the primary mass, the dissipated energy can be directly converted to electrical energy. A NES with energy harvesting properties is constructed and introduced. The system parameters are identified, with the NES having an essentially cubic nonlinear stiffness. A transduction factor is quantified linking the electrical and mechanical systems. An analytic analysis is carried out studying the transient and harmonically excited response of the system. It is found that the energy harvesting does not reduce the vibrational absorption capabilities of the NES. The performance of the system in both transient and harmonically excited responses is found to be heavily influenced by input energies. The system is tested, with good match to analytic results.

  2. Proso Millet Harvest: A Comparison of Conventional Harvest and Direct Harvest with a Stripper Header

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This research was conducted to determine if proso millet can be harvested with a stripper header. Stripper headers use extremely fast rotating metal teeth to rip the seed off the plant and leave the majority of residue standing in the field as opposed to cutting off the entire plant and running tha...

  3. Energy harvesting devices for harvesting energy from terahertz electromagnetic radiation

    DOEpatents

    Novack, Steven D.; Kotter, Dale K.; Pinhero, Patrick J.

    2012-10-09

    Methods, devices and systems for harvesting energy from electromagnetic radiation are provided including harvesting energy from electromagnetic radiation. In one embodiment, a device includes a substrate and one or more resonance elements disposed in or on the substrate. The resonance elements are configured to have a resonant frequency, for example, in at least one of the infrared, near-infrared and visible light spectra. A layer of conductive material may be disposed over a portion of the substrate to form a ground plane. An optical resonance gap or stand-off layer may be formed between the resonance elements and the ground plane. The optical resonance gap extends a distance between the resonance elements and the layer of conductive material approximately one-quarter wavelength of a wavelength of the at least one resonance element's resonant frequency. At least one energy transfer element may be associated with the at least one resonance element.

  4. Energy harvesting devices for harvesting energy from terahertz electromagnetic radiation

    DOEpatents

    Novack, Steven D.; Kotter, Dale K.; Pinhero, Patrick J.

    2012-10-09

    Methods, devices and systems for harvesting energy from electromagnetic radiation are provided including harvesting energy from electromagnetic radiation. In one embodiment, a device includes a substrate and one or more resonance elements disposed in or on the substrate. The resonance elements are configured to have a resonant frequency, for example, in at least one of the infrared, near-infrared and visible light spectra. A layer of conductive material may be disposed over a portion of the substrate to form a ground plane. An optical resonance gap or stand-off layer may be formed between the resonance elements and the ground plane. The optical resonance gap extends a distance between the resonance elements and the layer of conductive material approximately one-quarter wavelength of a wavelength of the at least one resonance element's resonant frequency. At least one energy transfer element may be associated with the at least one resonance element.

  5. NMR-Based Metabolomic Study on Isatis tinctoria: Comparison of Different Accessions, Harvesting Dates, and the Effect of Repeated Harvesting.

    PubMed

    Guldbrandsen, Niels; Kostidis, Sarantos; Schäfer, Hartmut; De Mieri, Maria; Spraul, Manfred; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros; Mikros, Emmanuel; Hamburger, Matthias

    2015-05-22

    Isatis tinctoria is an ancient dye and medicinal plant with potent anti-inflammatory and antiallergic properties. Metabolic differences were investigated by NMR spectroscopy of accessions from different origins that were grown under identical conditions on experimental plots. For these accessions, metabolite profiles at different harvesting dates were analyzed, and single and repeatedly harvested plants were compared. Leaf samples were shock-frozen in liquid N2 immediately after being harvested, freeze-dried, and cryomilled prior to extraction. Extracts were prepared by pressurized liquid extraction with ethyl acetate and 70% aqueous methanol. NMR spectra were analyzed using a combination of different methods of multivariate data analysis such as principal component analysis (PCA), canonical analysis (CA), and k-nearest neighbor concept (k-NN). Accessions and harvesting dates were well separated in the PCA/CA/k-NN analysis in both extracts. Pairwise statistical total correlation spectroscopy (STOCSY) revealed unsaturated fatty acids, porphyrins, carbohydrates, indole derivatives, isoprenoids, phenylpropanoids, and minor aromatic compounds as the cause of these differences. In addition, the metabolite profile was affected by the repeated harvest regime, causing a decrease of 1,5-anhydroglucitol, sucrose, unsaturated fatty acids, porphyrins, isoprenoids, and a flavonoid.

  6. Effect of Phragmites japonicus harvest frequency and timing on dry matter yield and nutritive value.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Takashi S T; Irbis, Chagan; Kumagai, Hajime; Wang, Pengyun; Li, Kunzhi; Inamura, Tatsuya

    2017-02-01

    Phragmites is a cosmopolitan perennial emergent macrophyte that is distributed worldwide. In recent years, Phragmites has attracted attention for its potential use as roughage. Given the increasing demand for feed and the number of constructed wetlands (CWs) vegetated with Phragmites, Phragmites is expected to play an important role in roughage production. Thus, it is vital to understand the effects of harvest timing and frequency on dry matter yield, nutritive value, and nitrogen (N) removal to establish appropriate vegetation management. In two CWs in Southwest China, four treatments with different harvesting frequencies were evaluated in monospecific areas of P. japonicus. The four treatments included no harvest, single harvest at 6 months, two harvests at 2 and 4 months, and three harvests at 2, 4, and 6 months. A sharp decline in the total digestible nutrients (TDN) concentration and the rate of increase in dry matter (DM) yield was associated with the heading timings, and the seasonal variations in TDN were likely influenced by carbohydrate accumulation in the stems. The three harvest treatment contributed to substantially improve the N and DM yields without decreasing the nutritive value but negatively affected the growth in the following year. Therefore, not only the combinations of harvest timing and frequency but also other management practices, including partial harvesting, may be needed to optimize CW performance and roughage production.

  7. Ergonomic evaluation and comparison of wood harvesting systems in Northwest Russia.

    PubMed

    Gerasimov, Yuri; Sokolov, Anton

    2014-03-01

    A comparison of 14 currently applicable wood harvesting systems was assessed with respect to ergonomic point of view. For this purpose, the research method, based on the Hodges-Lehmann rule and the integrated work-severity rate of single machinery, was developed for ergonomic evaluation of cut-to-length, tree-length and full-tree harvesting systems. Altogether, about 130 different parameters of 36 units of equipment that impact on the ergonomics and work conditions were measured and estimated in interviews undertaken directly at forestry harvesting workplaces in 15 logging companies in the Republic of Karelia, Northwest Russia. Then the results were compared to the effective norms, and the degree of compliance with the stipulated values was determined. The estimates obtained for the degree of compliance were combined. This permits a direct comparison of the workload on forestry harvesting workers such as operators, lumberjacks and choker setters. In many respects, the current ergonomic standard is standard, except for the operators of cable skidders, chainsaws and choker settings. Visibility and work postures were considered to be the most critical features influencing the operator's performance. Problems still exist, despite the extensive development of cabs. The best working conditions in terms of harvesting systems were provided by "harvester + forwarder" in cut-to-length harvesting, and "feller-buncher + grapple skidder" in full-tree harvesting. The motor-manual tree-length harvesting performed with cable skidders showed the worst results in terms of ergonomics.

  8. Harmonic Scalpel versus electrocautery and surgical clips in head and neck free-flap harvesting.

    PubMed

    Dean, Nichole R; Rosenthal, Eben L; Morgan, Bruce A; Magnuson, J Scott; Carroll, William R

    2014-06-01

    We sought to determine the safety and utility of Harmonic Scalpel-assisted free-flap harvesting as an alternative to a combined electrocautery and surgical clip technique. The medical records of 103 patients undergoing radial forearm free-flap reconstruction (105 free flaps) for head and neck surgical defects between 2006 and 2008 were reviewed. The use of bipolar electrocautery and surgical clips for division of small perforating vessels (n = 53) was compared to ultrasonic energy (Harmonic Scalpel; Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio) (n = 52) free-tissue harvesting techniques. Flap-harvesting time was reduced with the use of the Harmonic Scalpel when compared with electrocautery and surgical clip harvest (31.4 vs. 36.9 minutes, respectively; p = 0.06). Two patients who underwent flap harvest with electrocautery and surgical clips developed postoperative donor site hematomas, whereas no donor site complications were noted in the Harmonic Scalpel group. Recipient site complication rates for infection, fistula, and hematoma were similar for both harvesting techniques (p = 0.77). Two flap failures occurred in the clip-assisted radial forearm free-flap harvest group, and none in the Harmonic Scalpel group. Median length of hospitalization was significantly reduced for patients who underwent free-flap harvest with the Harmonic Scalpel when compared with the other technique (7 vs. 8 days; p = 0.01). The Harmonic Scalpel is safe, and its use is feasible for radial forearm free-flap harvest.

  9. Harvesting systems for the northern forest hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Chris B. LeDoux

    2011-01-01

    This monograph is a summary of research results and environmental compliance measures for timber harvesting operations. Data are presented from the Northern Research Station's forest inventory and analysis of 20 states in the northern forest hardwoods. Harvesting systems available in the region today are summarized. Equations for estimating harvesting costs are...

  10. 25 CFR 163.12 - Harvesting restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Harvesting restrictions. 163.12 Section 163.12 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.12 Harvesting restrictions. (a) Harvesting timber on commercial forest land...

  11. 25 CFR 163.12 - Harvesting restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Harvesting restrictions. 163.12 Section 163.12 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.12 Harvesting restrictions. (a) Harvesting timber on commercial forest land...

  12. 25 CFR 163.12 - Harvesting restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Harvesting restrictions. 163.12 Section 163.12 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.12 Harvesting restrictions. (a) Harvesting timber on commercial forest land...

  13. 25 CFR 163.12 - Harvesting restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Harvesting restrictions. 163.12 Section 163.12 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.12 Harvesting restrictions. (a) Harvesting timber on commercial forest land...

  14. 25 CFR 163.12 - Harvesting restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Harvesting restrictions. 163.12 Section 163.12 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.12 Harvesting restrictions. (a) Harvesting timber on commercial forest land...

  15. Forest products harvested in Hawaii - 1967

    Treesearch

    Herbert L. Wick

    1968-01-01

    A survey of the primary forest products harvested in Hawaii in 1967 showed a total value of $334,000, a 24 percent increase over the value in the 1958 survey. Compared with the earlier survey, the volume of sawlogs and treefern harvested has gone up while the volume of fuelwood and posts harvested has declined.

  16. Water Harvesting II: Working toward Being Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farenga, Stephen J.; Ness, Daniel; Craven, John A.

    2008-01-01

    As you have read in the previous "After the Bell" column, water harvesting is a process of diverting and collecting rainwater. One of the main reasons to harvest rainwater is to reduce the demand on local sources of water. The objective of the harvesting procedure is to gather water from a weather event that is usually lost as runoff and either…

  17. Water Harvesting II: Working toward Being Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farenga, Stephen J.; Ness, Daniel; Craven, John A.

    2008-01-01

    As you have read in the previous "After the Bell" column, water harvesting is a process of diverting and collecting rainwater. One of the main reasons to harvest rainwater is to reduce the demand on local sources of water. The objective of the harvesting procedure is to gather water from a weather event that is usually lost as runoff and either…

  18. Integration of Biomass Harvesting and Site Preparation

    Treesearch

    Bryce J. Stokes; William F. Watson

    1986-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the costs of various site preparation methods with various levels of harvesting Site impacts, soil compaction and disturbance were examined. Three hawesting methods rare evaluated in pine pulpwood plantation and pine sawtimber stands. The harvesting methods tested were (1) conventional - harvesting all roundwood. (2) two-pass - first...

  19. Fundamental Limits to Nonlinear Energy Harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haji Hosseinloo, Ashkan; Turitsyn, Konstantin

    2015-12-01

    Linear and nonlinear vibration energy harvesting has been the focus of considerable research in recent years. However, fundamental limits on the harvestable energy of a harvester subjected to an arbitrary excitation force and different constraints is not yet fully understood. Understanding these limits is not only essential for an assessment of the technology potential, but it also provides a broader perspective on the current harvesting mechanisms and guidance in their improvement. Here, we derive the fundamental limits on the output power of an ideal energy harvester for arbitrary excitation waveforms and build on the current analysis framework for the simple computation of this limit for more sophisticated setups. We show that the optimal harvester maximizes the harvested energy through a mechanical analog of a buy-low-sell-high strategy. We also propose a nonresonant passive latch-assisted harvester to realize this strategy for an effective harvesting. It is shown that the proposed harvester harvests energy more effectively than its linear and bistable counterparts over a wider range of excitation frequencies and amplitudes. The buy-low-sell-high strategy also reveals why the conventional bistable harvester works well at low-frequency excitation.

  20. Approaches to automated protein crystal harvesting

    SciTech Connect

    Deller, Marc C. Rupp, Bernhard

    2014-01-28

    Approaches to automated and robot-assisted harvesting of protein crystals are critically reviewed. While no true turn-key solutions for automation of protein crystal harvesting are currently available, systems incorporating advanced robotics and micro-electromechanical systems represent exciting developments with the potential to revolutionize the way in which protein crystals are harvested.

  1. Evaluation of modern cotton harvest systems on irrigated cotton: harvester performance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Picker and stripper harvest systems were evaluated on production-scale irrigated cotton on the High Plains of Texas over three harvest seasons. Observations on harvester performance, including time-in-motion, harvest loss, seed cotton composition, and turnout, were conducted at seven locations with...

  2. Toward a semi-mechanical harvesting platform system for harvesting blueberries with fresh-market quality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Major concerns related to harvesting blueberries for fresh market with over-the-row (OTR) harvesters are that the quality of the fruit harvested with OTR machines is generally low and ground loss is excessive. Machine-harvested blueberries have more internal bruise and usually soften rapidly in col...

  3. 76 FR 68263 - Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ... Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 92 Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska During the 2012 Season; Proposed Rule #0;#0...-1231-9BPP-L2] RIN 1018-AX55 Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for...

  4. Carbon and nitrogen pools and mineralization rates in boreal forest soil after stump harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaarakka, Lilli; Hyvönen, Riitta; Strömgren, Monika; Palviainen, Marjo; Persson, Tryggve; Olsson, Bengt A.; Helmisaari, Heljä-Sisko

    2016-04-01

    The use of forest-derived biomass has steadily increased in the Finland and Sweden during the past decades. Thus, more intensive forest management practices are becoming more common in the region, such as whole-tree harvesting, both above- and belowground. Stump harvesting causes a direct removal of carbon (C) in the form of biomass from the stand and can cause extensive soil disturbance, which in turn can result in increased C mineralization. In this study, the effects of stump harvesting on soil C and nitrogen (N) mineralization, and soil surface disturbance were studied at two different clear-felled Norway spruce (Picea abies) stands in Central Finland. The treatments were conventional stem-only harvesting combined with mounding (WTH) and stump harvesting (i.e. complete tree harvesting) combined with mounding (WTH+S). Logging residues were removed from all study sites. Soil samples down to a depth of 20 cm were systematically collected from the different soil disturbance surfaces (undisturbed soil, the mounds and the pits) 12-13 years after final harvest. Soil samples were incubated in the laboratory to determine the C and N mineralization rates. In addition, total C and N pools were estimated for each disturbance class and soil layer. Soil C and N pools were lower following stump harvesting, however, no statistically significant treatment effect was detected. Instead, C mineralization responses to treatment intensity was site-specific. C/N-ratio and organic matter content were significantly affected by harvest intensity. The observed changes in C and N pools appear to be related to the intrinsic variation of the surface disturbance and soil characteristics, and harvesting per se, rather than treatment intensity. Long-term studies are however needed to draw long-term conclusions whether stump harvesting significantly changes soil C and nutrient dynamics.

  5. Advanced Plant Habitat Test Harvest

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-24

    John "JC" Carver, a payload integration engineer with NASA Kennedy Space Center's Test and Operations Support Contract, uses a FluorPen to measure the chlorophyll fluorescence of Arabidopsis thaliana plants inside the growth chamber of the Advanced Plant Habitat (APH) Flight Unit No. 1. Half the plants were then harvested. The harvest is part of an ongoing verification test of the APH unit, which is located inside the International Space Station Environmental Simulator in Kennedy's Space Station Processing Facility. The APH undergoing testing at Kennedy is identical to one on the station and uses red, green and broad-spectrum white LED lights to grow plants in an environmentally controlled chamber. The seeds grown during the verification test will be grown on the station to help scientists understand how these plants adapt to spaceflight.

  6. Advanced Plant Habitat Test Harvest

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-24

    John "JC" Carver, a payload integration engineer with NASA Kennedy Space Center's Test and Operations Support Contract, harvests half the Arabidopsis thaliana plants inside the growth chamber of the Advanced Plant Habitat (APH) Flight Unit No. 1. The harvest is part of an ongoing verification test of the APH unit, which is located inside the International Space Station Environmental Simulator in Kennedy's Space Station Processing Facility. The APH undergoing testing at Kennedy is identical to one on the station and uses red, green and broad-spectrum white LED lights to grow plants in an environmentally controlled chamber. The seeds grown during the verification test will be grown on the station to help scientists understand how these plants adapt to spaceflight.

  7. Advanced Plant Habitat Test Harvest

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-24

    John "JC" Carver, a payload integration engineer with NASA Kennedy Space Center's Test and Operations Support Contract, opens the door to the growth chamber of the Advanced Plant Habitat (APH) Flight Unit No. 1 for a test harvest of half of the Arabidopsis thaliana plants growing within. The harvest is part of an ongoing verification test of the APH unit, which is located inside the International Space Station Environmental Simulator in Kennedy's Space Station Processing Facility. The APH undergoing testing at Kennedy is identical to one on the station and uses red, green and broad-spectrum white LED lights to grow plants in an environmentally controlled chamber. The seeds grown during the verification test will be grown on the station to help scientists understand how these plants adapt to spaceflight.

  8. Advanced Plant Habitat Test Harvest

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-24

    John "JC" Carver, a payload integration engineer with NASA Kennedy Space Center's Test and Operations Support Contract, places Arabidopsis thaliana plants harvested from the Advanced Plant Habitat (APH) Flight Unit No. 1 into a Mini ColdBag that quickly freezes the plants. The harvest is part of an ongoing verification test of the APH unit, which is located inside the International Space Station Environmental Simulator in Kennedy's Space Station Processing Facility. The APH undergoing testing at Kennedy is identical to one on the station and uses red, green and broad-spectrum white LED lights to grow plants in an environmentally controlled chamber. The seeds grown during the verification test will be grown on the station to help scientists understand how these plants adapt to spaceflight.

  9. Advanced Plant Habitat Test Harvest

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-24

    John "JC" Carver, a payload integration engineer with NASA Kennedy Space Center's Test and Operations Support Contract, places Arabidopsis thaliana plants harvested from the Advanced Plant Habitat (APH) Flight Unit No. 1 into an Ultra-low Freezer chilled to -150 degrees Celsius. The harvest is part of an ongoing verification test of the APH unit, which is located inside the International Space Station Environmental Simulator in Kennedy's Space Station Processing Facility. The APH undergoing testing at Kennedy is identical to one on the station and uses red, green and broad-spectrum white LED lights to grow plants in an environmentally controlled chamber. The seeds grown during the verification test will be grown on the station to help scientists understand how these plants adapt to spaceflight.

  10. Principles of thermoacoustic energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avent, A. W.; Bowen, C. R.

    2015-11-01

    Thermoacoustics exploit a temperature gradient to produce powerful acoustic pressure waves. The technology has a key role to play in energy harvesting systems. A time-line in the development of thermoacoustics is presented from its earliest recorded example in glass blowing through to the development of the Sondhauss and Rijke tubes to Stirling engines and pulse-tube cryo-cooling. The review sets the current literature in context, identifies key publications and promising areas of research. The fundamental principles of thermoacoustic phenomena are explained; design challenges and factors influencing efficiency are explored. Thermoacoustic processes involve complex multi-physical coupling and transient, highly non-linear relationships which are computationally expensive to model; appropriate numerical modelling techniques and options for analyses are presented. Potential methods of harvesting the energy in the acoustic waves are also examined.

  11. Study on Drive System of Hybrid Tree Harvester

    PubMed Central

    Xiaozhen, Zhang; Chengjun, Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid tree harvester with a 60 kW diesel engine combined with a battery pile could be a “green” forest harvesting and transportation system. With the new design, the diesel engine maintains a constant engine speed, keeping fuel consumption low while charging the batteries that drive the forwarder. As an additional energy saving method, the electric motors work as generators to charge the battery pile when the vehicle moves downhill. The vehicle is equipped with six large wheels providing high clearance over uneven terrain while reducing ground pressure. Each wheel is driven via a hub gear by its own alternating current motor, and each of the three wheel pairs can be steered independently. The combination of the diesel engine and six electric motors provides plenty of power for heavy lifting and pulling. The main component parameters of the drive system are calculated and optimized with a set of dynamics and simulated with AVL Cruise software. The results provide practical insights for the fuel tree harvester and are helpful to reduce the structure and size of the tree harvester. Advantage Environment provides information about existing and future products designed to reduce environmental impacts. PMID:28634596

  12. Study on Drive System of Hybrid Tree Harvester.

    PubMed

    Rong-Feng, Shen; Xiaozhen, Zhang; Chengjun, Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid tree harvester with a 60 kW diesel engine combined with a battery pile could be a "green" forest harvesting and transportation system. With the new design, the diesel engine maintains a constant engine speed, keeping fuel consumption low while charging the batteries that drive the forwarder. As an additional energy saving method, the electric motors work as generators to charge the battery pile when the vehicle moves downhill. The vehicle is equipped with six large wheels providing high clearance over uneven terrain while reducing ground pressure. Each wheel is driven via a hub gear by its own alternating current motor, and each of the three wheel pairs can be steered independently. The combination of the diesel engine and six electric motors provides plenty of power for heavy lifting and pulling. The main component parameters of the drive system are calculated and optimized with a set of dynamics and simulated with AVL Cruise software. The results provide practical insights for the fuel tree harvester and are helpful to reduce the structure and size of the tree harvester. Advantage Environment provides information about existing and future products designed to reduce environmental impacts.

  13. Looped energy harvester for human motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geisler, M.; Boisseau, S.; Gasnier, P.; Willemin, J.; Gobbo, C.; Despesse, G.; Ait-Ali, I.; Perraud, S.

    2017-10-01

    The development of energy harvesters for smart wearables is a challenging topic, with a difficult combination of ergonomics constraints, lifetime and electrical requirements. In this work, we focus on an inertial inductive structure, composed of a magnetic ball circulating inside a closed-loop guide and converting the kinetic energy of the user’s limbs into electricity during the run. A specific induction issue related to the free self-rotation of the ball is underlined and addressed using a ferromagnetic ‘rail’ component. From a 2 g moving ball, a 5 cm-diameter 21 cm3 prototype generated up to 4.8 mW of average power when worn by someone running at 8 km h‑1. This device is demonstrated to charge a 2.4 V NiMH battery and supply an acceleration and temperature Wireless Sensor Node at 20 Hz.

  14. Effects of harvesting flowers from shrubs on the persistence and abundance of wild shrub populations at multiple spatial extents.

    PubMed

    Cabral, Juliano Sarmento; Bond, William J; Midgley, Guy F; Rebelo, Anthony G; Thuiller, Wilfried; Schurr, Frank M

    2011-02-01

    Wildflower harvesting is an economically important activity of which the ecological effects are poorly understood. We assessed how harvesting of flowers affects shrub persistence and abundance at multiple spatial extents. To this end, we built a process-based model to examine the mean persistence and abundance of wild shrubs whose flowers are subject to harvest (serotinous Proteaceae in the South African Cape Floristic Region). First, we conducted a general sensitivity analysis of how harvesting affects persistence and abundance at nested spatial extents. For most spatial extents and combinations of demographic parameters, persistence and abundance of flowering shrubs decreased abruptly once harvesting rate exceeded a certain threshold. At larger extents, metapopulations supported higher harvesting rates before their persistence and abundance decreased, but persistence and abundance also decreased more abruptly due to harvesting than at smaller extents. This threshold rate of harvest varied with species' dispersal ability, maximum reproductive rate, adult mortality, probability of extirpation or local extinction, strength of Allee effects, and carrying capacity. Moreover, spatial extent interacted with Allee effects and probability of extirpation because both these demographic properties affected the response of local populations to harvesting more strongly than they affected the response of metapopulations. Subsequently, we simulated the effects of harvesting on three Cape Floristic Region Proteaceae species and found that these species reacted differently to harvesting, but their persistence and abundance decreased at low rates of harvest. Our estimates of harvesting rates at maximum sustainable yield differed from those of previous investigations, perhaps because researchers used different estimates of demographic parameters, models of population dynamics, and spatial extent than we did. Good demographic knowledge and careful identification of the spatial extent

  15. Forage Harvest and Transport Costs

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, J.; Downing, M.; Turhollow, A.

    1998-12-01

    An engineering-economic approach is used to calculate harvest, in-field transport, and over-the-road transport costs for hay as bales and modules, silage, and crop residues as bales and modules. Costs included are equipment depreciation interest; fuel, lube, and oil; repairs; insurance, housing, and taxes; and labor. Field preparation, pest control, fertilizer, land, and overhead are excluded from the costs calculated Equipment is constrained by power available, throughput or carrying capacity, and field speed.

  16. Timber harvest in interior Alaska.

    Treesearch

    Tricia L. Wurtz; Robert A. Ott; John C. Maisch

    2006-01-01

    The most active period of timber harvesting in the history of Alaska's interior occurred nearly a century ago (Roessler 1997). The beginning of this era was the year 1869, when steam-powered, stern-wheeled riverboats first operated on the Yukon River (Robe 1943). Gold was discovered in Alaska in the 40-Mile River area in 1886, a find that was overshadowed 10 years...

  17. Review of magnetostrictive vibration energy harvesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Zhangxian; Dapino, Marcelo J.

    2017-10-01

    The field of energy harvesting has grown concurrently with the rapid development of portable and wireless electronics in which reliable and long-lasting power sources are required. Electrochemical batteries have a limited lifespan and require periodic recharging. In contrast, vibration energy harvesters can supply uninterrupted power by scavenging useful electrical energy from ambient structural vibrations. This article reviews the current state of vibration energy harvesters based on magnetostrictive materials, especially Terfenol-D and Galfenol. Existing magnetostrictive harvester designs are compared in terms of various performance metrics. Advanced techniques that can reduce device size and improve performance are presented. Models for magnetostrictive devices are summarized to guide future harvester designs.

  18. Motorcycle waste heat energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlichting, Alexander D.; Anton, Steven R.; Inman, Daniel J.

    2008-03-01

    Environmental concerns coupled with the depletion of fuel sources has led to research on ethanol, fuel cells, and even generating electricity from vibrations. Much of the research in these areas is stalling due to expensive or environmentally contaminating processes, however recent breakthroughs in materials and production has created a surge in research on waste heat energy harvesting devices. The thermoelectric generators (TEGs) used in waste heat energy harvesting are governed by the Thermoelectric, or Seebeck, effect, generating electricity from a temperature gradient. Some research to date has featured platforms such as heavy duty diesel trucks, model airplanes, and automobiles, attempting to either eliminate heavy batteries or the alternator. A motorcycle is another platform that possesses some very promising characteristics for waste heat energy harvesting, mainly because the exhaust pipes are exposed to significant amounts of air flow. A 1995 Kawasaki Ninja 250R was used for these trials. The module used in these experiments, the Melcor HT3-12-30, produced an average of 0.4694 W from an average temperature gradient of 48.73 °C. The mathematical model created from the Thermoelectric effect equation and the mean Seebeck coefficient displayed by the module produced an average error from the experimental data of 1.75%. Although the module proved insufficient to practically eliminate the alternator on a standard motorcycle, the temperature data gathered as well as the examination of a simple, yet accurate, model represent significant steps in the process of creating a TEG capable of doing so.

  19. Autotransplantation donor tooth site harvesting using piezosurgery.

    PubMed

    Ylikontiola, Leena P; Sándor, George K

    2016-01-01

    The harvesting of a tooth as a candidate for tooth autotransplantation requires that the delicate dental tissues around the tooth be minimally traumatized. This is especially so for the periradicular tissues of the tooth root and the follicular tissues surrounding the crown. The aim of this report is to describe the use of piezosurgery as an attempt at morbidity reduction in the harvesting of teeth for autotransplantation. A piezosurgical handpiece and its selection of tips were easily adapted to allow the harvesting and delivery of teeth for autotransplantation purposes. Twenty premolar teeth were harvested using a piezosurgical device. The harvested teeth were subsequently successfully autotransplanted. All twenty teeth healed in a satisfactory manner without excessive mobility or ankyloses. Piezosurgery avoids some of the traumatic aspects of harvesting teeth and removing bone which are associated with thermal damage from the use of conventional rotary instruments or saws. Piezosurgery can be adapted to facilitate the predictable harvesting of teeth for autotransplantation purposes.

  20. Comparisons of Nutrient Pools After Timber Harvests on the Oak Dominated Sandy Soils of Northwest Wisconsin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, K.; Rathsack, B.; Bockheim, J.

    2010-12-01

    Increasing biomass removal from harvested sites increases the potential for nutrient insufficiencies in already nutrient-poor sandy locations. Assessing the size of each nutrient pool under different harvesting conditions is essential to determine if regrowth is sustainable on sandy soils after increased harvesting intensity. Nutrient pools were assessed on five oak-dominated sites containing two soil orders: Spodosols and Entisols. On each site four plots were established, each plot with a different harvest treatment: unharvested control, whole-tree harvest where all aboveground biomass was removed during the leaf-off season, less than 10cm diameter removal, which correlated to conventional harvests in Wisconsin whereby branches and tops less than 10cm were left on the site, and less than 5cm diameter harvest which was a harvest that allowed for extra biomass to be removed but still left some on site. Mineral soil, non-woody forest floor, woody forest floor, several sizes of coarse woody detritus and live woody and shrub vegetation were sampled and analyzed for available nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium. Using this data we compared nutrient pools from within each site to determine the effects that different harvesting techniques had on the nutrient pools in the same soil series. Nutrients of each harvest treatment were also compared to the same harvest treatment on other sites, to determine the effects of soil type on nutrient pools. As a final part of this project, all the nutrient pools on each plot were combined to create a total ecosystem pool for each harvest treatment. Labile mineral soil accounted for a large proportion of the ecosystem nutrient pools, especially for calcium. Live vegetation in the control plots were also significant contributors to each of the examined nutrients, while woody forest floor and coarse woody detritus were more minor contributors. The ecosystem nutrient pool was largest in the control plots for all

  1. Harvesting systems and costs for short rotation poplar

    Treesearch

    B. Rummer; D. Mitchell

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this review is to compare the cost of coppice and longer rotation poplar harvesting technology. Harvesting technology for short rotation poplar has evolved over the years to address both coppice harvest and single-stem harvest systems. Two potential approaches for coppice harvesting are modified forage harvesters and modified mulcher-balers. Both of...

  2. Wireless energy transmission to supplement energy harvesters in sensor network applications

    SciTech Connect

    Farinholt, Kevin M; Taylor, Stuart G; Park, Gyuhae; Farrar, Charles R

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a method for coupling wireless energy transmission with traditional energy harvesting techniques in order to power sensor nodes for structural health monitoring applications. The goal of this study is to develop a system that can be permanently embedded within civil structures without the need for on-board power sources. Wireless energy transmission is included to supplement energy harvesting techniques that rely on ambient or environmental, energy sources. This approach combines several transducer types that harvest ambient energy with wireless transmission sources, providing a robust solution that does not rely on a single energy source. Experimental results from laboratory and field experiments are presented to address duty cycle limitations of conventional energy harvesting techniques, and the advantages gained by incorporating a wireless energy transmission subsystem. Methods of increasing the efficiency, energy storage medium, target applications and the integrated use of energy harvesting sources with wireless energy transmission will be discussed.

  3. Chaos control applied to piezoelectric vibration-based energy harvesting systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, W. O. V.; De Paula, A. S.; Savi, M. A.; Inman, D. J.

    2015-11-01

    Chaotic behavior presents intrinsic richness due to the existence of an infinity number of unstable periodic orbits (UPOs). The possibility of stabilizing these periodic patterns with a small amount of energy makes this kind of response interesting to various dynamical systems. Energy harvesting has as a goal the use of available mechanical energy by promoting a conversion into electrical energy. The combination of these two approaches may establish autonomous systems where available environmental mechanical energy can be employed for control purposes. Two different goals can be defined as priority, allowing a change between them: vibration reduction and energy harvesting enhancement. This work deals with the use of harvested energy to perform chaos control. Both control actuation and energy harvesting are induced employing piezoelectric materials, in a simultaneous way. A bistable piezomagnetoelastic structure subjected to harmonic excitations is investigated as a case study. Numerical simulations show situations where it is possible to perform chaos control using only the energy generated by the harvesting system.

  4. A comparison of power output from linear and nonlinear kinetic energy harvesters using real vibration data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beeby, Stephen P.; Wang, Leran; Zhu, Dibin; Weddell, Alex S.; Merrett, Geoff V.; Stark, Bernard; Szarka, Gyorgy; Al-Hashimi, Bashir M.

    2013-07-01

    The design of vibration energy harvesters (VEHs) is highly dependent upon the characteristics of the environmental vibrations present in the intended application. VEHs can be linear resonant systems tuned to particular frequencies or nonlinear systems with either bistable operation or a Duffing-type response. This paper provides detailed vibration data from a range of applications, which has been made freely available for download through the Energy Harvesting Network’s online data repository. In particular, this research shows that simulation is essential in designing and selecting the most suitable vibration energy harvester for particular applications. This is illustrated through C-based simulations of different types of VEHs, using real vibration data from a diesel ferry engine, a combined heat and power pump, a petrol car engine and a helicopter. The analysis shows that a bistable energy harvester only has a higher output power than a linear or Duffing-type nonlinear energy harvester with the same Q-factor when it is subjected to white noise vibration. The analysis also indicates that piezoelectric transduction mechanisms are more suitable for bistable energy harvesters than electromagnetic transduction. Furthermore, the linear energy harvester has a higher output power compared to the Duffing-type nonlinear energy harvester with the same Q factor in most cases. The Duffing-type nonlinear energy harvester can generate more power than the linear energy harvester only when it is excited at vibrations with multiple peaks and the frequencies of these peaks are within its bandwidth. Through these new observations, this paper illustrates the importance of simulation in the design of energy harvesting systems, with particular emphasis on the need to incorporate real vibration data.

  5. Harvest and dynamics of duck populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sedinger, James S.; Herzog, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    The role of harvest in the dynamics of waterfowl populations continues to be debated among scientists and managers. Our perception is that interested members of the public and some managers believe that harvest influences North American duck populations based on calls for more conservative harvest regulations. A recent review of harvest and population dynamics of North American mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) populations (Pöysä et al. 2004) reached similar conclusions. Because of the importance of this issue, we reviewed the evidence for an impact of harvest on duck populations. Our understanding of the effects of harvest is limited because harvest effects are typically confounded with those of population density; regulations are typically most liberal when populations are greatest. This problem also exists in the current Adaptive Harvest Management Program (Conn and Kendall 2004). Consequently, even where harvest appears additive to other mortality, this may be an artifact of ignoring effects of population density. Overall, we found no compelling evidence for strong additive effects of harvest on survival in duck populations that could not be explained by other factors.

  6. Internal resonance and low frequency vibration energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wei; Towfighian, Shahrzad

    2017-09-01

    A nonlinear vibration energy harvester with internal resonance is presented. The proposed harvester consists of two cantilevers, each with a permanent magnet on its tip. One cantilever has a piezoelectric layer at its base. When magnetic force is applied this two degrees-of-freedom nonlinear vibration system shows the internal resonance phenomenon that broadens the frequency bandwidth compared to a linear system. Three coupled partial differential equations are obtained to predict the dynamic behavior of the nonlinear energy harvester. The perturbation method of multiple scales is used to solve equations. Results from experiments done at different vibration levels with varying distances between the magnets validate the mathematical model. Experiments and simulations show the design outperforms the linear system by doubling the frequency bandwidth. Output voltage for frequency response is studied for different system parameters. The optimal load resistance is obtained for the maximum power in the internal resonance case. The results demonstrate that a design combining internal resonance and magnetic nonlinearity improves the efficiency of energy harvesting.

  7. Pyroelectric energy harvesting using liquid-based switchable thermal interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Cha, G; Ju, YS

    2013-01-15

    The pyroelectric effect offers an intriguing solid-state approach for harvesting ambient thermal energy to power distributed networks of sensors and actuators that are remotely located or otherwise difficult to access. There have been, however, few device-level demonstrations due to challenges in converting spatial temperature gradients into temporal temperature oscillations necessary for pyroelectric energy harvesting. We demonstrate the feasibility of a device concept that uses liquid-based thermal interfaces for rapid switching of the thermal conductance between a pyroelectric material and a heat source/sink and can thereby deliver high output power density. Using a thin film of a pyroelectric co-polymer together with a macroscale mechanical actuator, we operate pyroelectric thermal energy harvesting cycles at frequencies close to 1 Hz. Film-level power densities as high as 110 mW/cm(3) were achieved, limited by slow heat diffusion across a glass substrate. When combined with a laterally interdigitated electrode array and a MEMS actuator, the present design offers an attractive option for compact high-power density thermal energy harvesters. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Myocardial Cell Pattern on Piezoelectric Nanofiber Mats for Energy Harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Wang, X.; Zhao, H.; Du, Y.

    2014-11-01

    The paper presents in vitro contractile myocardial cell pattern on piezoelectric nanofiber mats with applications in energy harvesting. The cell-based energy harvester consists of myocardial cell sheet and a PDMS substrate with a PVDF nanofiber mat on. Experimentally, cultured on specifically distributed nanofiber mats, neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes are characterized with the related morphology and contraction. Previously, we have come up with the concept of energy harvesting from heart beating using piezoelectric material. A bio-hybrid energy harvester combined living cardiomyocytes, PDMS polymer substrate and piezoelectric PVDF film with the electrical output of peak current 87.5nA and peak voltage 92.3mV. However, the thickness of the cardiomyocyte cultured on a two-dimensional substrate is much less than that of the piezoelectric film. The Micro Contact Printing (μCP) method used in cell pattern on the PDMS thin film has tough requirement for the film surface. As such, in this paper we fabricated nanofiber-constructed PDMS thin film to realize cell pattern due to PVDF nanofibers with better piezoelectricity and microstructures of nanofiber mats guiding cell distribution. Living cardiomyocytes patterned on those distributed piezoelectric nanofibers with the result of the same distribution as the nanofiber pattern.

  9. Innovative thermal energy harvesting for future autonomous applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monfray, Stephane

    2013-12-01

    As communicating autonomous systems market is booming, the role of energy harvesting will be a key enabler. As example, heat is one of the most abundant energy sources that can be converted into electricity in order to power circuits. Harvesting systems that use wasted heat open new ways to power autonomous sensors when the energy consumption is low, or to create systems of power generators when the conversion efficiency is high. The combination of different technologies (low power μ-processors, μ-batteries, radio, sensors...) with new energy harvesters compatible with large varieties of use-cases with allow to address this booming market. Thanks to the conjunction of ultra-low power electronic development, 3D technologies & Systems in Package approaches, the integration of autonomous sensors and electronics with ambient energy harvesting will be achievable. The applications are very wide, from environment and industrial sensors to medical portable applications, and the Internet of things may also represent in the future a several billions units market.

  10. Flow Energy Piezoelectric Bimorph Nozzle Harvester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Walkemeyer, Phillip E. (Inventor); Hall, Jeffrey L. (Inventor); Lee, Hyeong Jae (Inventor); Colonius, Tim (Inventor); Tosi, Phillipe (Inventor); Kim, Namhyo (Inventor); Sun, Kai (Inventor); Corbett, Thomas Gary (Inventor); Arrazola, Alvaro Jose (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A flow energy harvesting device having a harvester pipe includes a flow inlet that receives flow from a primary pipe, a flow outlet that returns the flow into the primary pipe, and a flow diverter within the harvester pipe having an inlet section coupled to the flow inlet, a flow constriction section coupled to the inlet section and positioned at a midpoint of the harvester pipe and having a spline shape with a substantially reduced flow opening size at a constriction point along the spline shape, and an outlet section coupled to the constriction section. The harvester pipe may further include a piezoelectric structure extending from the inlet section through the constriction section and point such that the fluid flow past the constriction point results in oscillatory pressure amplitude inducing vibrations in the piezoelectric structure sufficient to cause a direct piezoelectric effect and to generate electrical power for harvesting.

  11. Short-term impacts of energy wood harvesting on ectomycorrhizal fungal communities of Norway spruce saplings

    PubMed Central

    Huusko, Karoliina; Tarvainen, Oili; Saravesi, Karita; Pennanen, Taina; Fritze, Hannu; Kubin, Eero; Markkola, Annamari

    2015-01-01

    The increased demand for harvesting energy wood raises questions about its effects on the functioning of the forest ecosystems, soil processes and biodiversity. Impacts of tree stump removal on ectomycorrhizal fungal (EMF) communities of Norway spruce saplings were studied with 454-pyrosequencing in a 3-year field experiment replicated in 3 geographical areas. This is possibly the most thorough investigation of EMF communities associated with saplings grown on sites subjected to energy wood harvesting. To separate impacts of tree stump and logging residue removal on EMF and plant variables, we used three harvesting treatments with increasing complexity from patch mounding alone (P) to patch mounding combined with logging residue removal (RP), and patch mounding combined with both logging residue and stump removal (SRP). Saplings grown in uncut forests (F) served as references for harvesting treatments. A majority of sequences (>92%) and operational taxonomic units (OTUs, 55%) were assigned as EMF. EMF OTU richness, fungal community composition or sapling growth did not differ between harvesting treatments (P, RP and SRP), while EMF OTU richness, diversity and evenness were highest and sapling growth lowest in the undisturbed reference forests (F). The short study period may partially explain the similarities in fungal and sapling variables in different harvesting treatments. In conclusion, our results indicate that neither stump removal nor logging residue removal have significant additional negative impacts on EMF communities or growth of Norway spruce saplings in the short-term compared with the impacts of more conventional harvesting methods, including clear cutting and patch mounding. PMID:25171334

  12. Pyroelectric Energy Harvesting: Model and Experiments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-01

    ARL-TR-7663 ● MAY 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Pyroelectric Energy Harvesting: Model and Experiments by Felisa Sze and...Do not return it to the originator. ARL-TR-7663 ● MAY 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Pyroelectric Energy Harvesting: Model...2016 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 07/2015–02/2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Pyroelectric Energy Harvesting: Model and

  13. Recovery and diversity of the forest shrub community 38 years after biomass harvesting in the northern Rocky Mountains

    Treesearch

    Woongsoon Jang; Christopher R. Keyes; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the long-term impact of biomass utilization on shrub recovery, species composition, and biodiversity 38 years after harvesting at Coram Experimental Forest in northwestern Montana. Three levels of biomass removal intensity (high, medium, and low) treatments combined with prescribed burning treatment were nested within three regeneration harvest...

  14. Rooftop level rainwater harvesting system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traboulsi, Hayssam; Traboulsi, Marwa

    2015-05-01

    Unfortunately, in Lebanon and other countries in the Middle East region, water becomes scarcer than ever before, and over the last decades the demand on domestic water has increased due to population and economic growth. Although rainwater harvesting is considered to be a safe and reliable alternative source for domestic water, the inconvenience or impracticalities related to the cost and space needed for the construction of ground or underground storage tanks makes this practice not widely common in rural areas and rarely implemented in urban cities. This paper introduces a new technique to rainwater harvesting which can be easily used in both rural and urban areas: it collects and stores rainwater directly in tanks already installed on building roofs and not necessarily in special ground or underground ones. If widely adopted in Lebanon, this technique could help in: (1) collecting around 23 MCM (70 % of the current deficit in the domestic water supply) of rainwater and thus increasing the available water per m2 of building by 0.4 m3 per year, (2) saving around 7 % of the amount of electric energy usually needed to pump water from an aquifer well and ground or underground tank, and (3) considerably reducing the rate of surface runoff of rainwater at the coastal zones where rainwater is not captured at all and goes directly to the sea.

  15. Rooftop level rainwater harvesting system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traboulsi, Hayssam; Traboulsi, Marwa

    2017-05-01

    Unfortunately, in Lebanon and other countries in the Middle East region, water becomes scarcer than ever before, and over the last decades the demand on domestic water has increased due to population and economic growth. Although rainwater harvesting is considered to be a safe and reliable alternative source for domestic water, the inconvenience or impracticalities related to the cost and space needed for the construction of ground or underground storage tanks makes this practice not widely common in rural areas and rarely implemented in urban cities. This paper introduces a new technique to rainwater harvesting which can be easily used in both rural and urban areas: it collects and stores rainwater directly in tanks already installed on building roofs and not necessarily in special ground or underground ones. If widely adopted in Lebanon, this technique could help in: (1) collecting around 23 MCM (70 % of the current deficit in the domestic water supply) of rainwater and thus increasing the available water per m2 of building by 0.4 m3 per year, (2) saving around 7 % of the amount of electric energy usually needed to pump water from an aquifer well and ground or underground tank, and (3) considerably reducing the rate of surface runoff of rainwater at the coastal zones where rainwater is not captured at all and goes directly to the sea.

  16. Synthetic polymers for solar harvesting.

    PubMed

    Ghiggino, Kenneth P; Bell, Toby D M; Hooley, Emma N

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic polymers incorporating appropriate chromophores can act as light harvesting antennae for artificial photosynthetic systems. The photophysical processes occurring in a polymer based on phenylene vinylene have been investigated at the single chain level and in bulk solution to study energy transfer processes. Most single chains of an alternating copolymer of 2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene and 1,4-phenylene vinylene (alt-co-MEH-PPV) dispersed in a transparent polymer matrix act as single chromophore emitters demonstrating that energy transfer is an efficient process in these polymers. However for individual polymer chains there are fluctuations in emission intensity ('blinking') and shifts in emission spectra, decay lifetimes and emission dipole orientation occurring on a time-scale of tens of seconds. Fluorescence blinking also occurs on a sub-millisecond time-scale and follows exponential kinetics, whereas the longer blinking is better described by a power law. These observations can be interpreted as arising from environmental relaxation processes and/or changes in the emitter and demonstrate the wide distribution of photophysical behaviours that can be observed among the individual molecules of a polymer sample. The relevance of these studies to the application of polymer materials for solar harvesting is highlighted.

  17. Apparatus and method for harvesting woody plantations

    DOEpatents

    Eggen, D.L.

    1988-11-15

    A tree harvester for harvesting felled trees includes a wheel mounted wood chipper which moves toward the butt ends of the tree stems to be processed. The harvester includes a plurality of rotating alignment discs in front of the chipper. These discs align the tree stems to be processed with the mouth of the chipper. A chipper infeed cylinder is rotatably mounted between the discs and the front end of the chipper, and lifts the tree stem butts up from the ground into alignment with the chipper inlet port. The chips discharge from the chipper and go into a chip hopper which moves with the tree harvester. 8 figs.

  18. Apparatus and method for harvesting woody plantations

    DOEpatents

    Eggen, David L.

    1988-11-15

    A tree harvester for harvesting felled trees includes a wheel mounted wood chipper which moves toward the butt ends of the tree stems to be processed. The harvester includes a plurality of rotating alignment discs in front of the chipper. These discs align the tree stems to be processed with the mouth of the chipper. A chipper infeed cylinder is rotatably mounted between the discs and the front end of the chipper, and lifts the tree stem butts up from the ground into alignment with the chipper inlet port. The chips discharge from the chipper and go into a chip hopper which moves with the tree harvester.

  19. Vibration energy harvester optimization using artificial intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadas, Z.; Ondrusek, C.; Kurfurst, J.; Singule, V.

    2011-06-01

    This paper deals with an optimization study of a vibration energy harvester. This harvester can be used as autonomous source of electrical energy for remote or wireless applications, which are placed in environment excited by ambient mechanical vibrations. The ambient energy of vibrations is usually on very low level but the harvester can be used as alternative source of energy for electronic devices with an expected low level of power consumption of several mW. The optimized design of the vibration energy harvester was based on previous development and the sensitivity of harvester design was improved for effective harvesting from mechanical vibrations in aeronautic applications. The vibration energy harvester is a mechatronic system which generates electrical energy from ambient vibrations due to precision tuning up generator parameters. The optimization study for maximization of harvested power or minimization of volume and weight are the main goals of our development. The optimization study of such complex device is complicated therefore artificial intelligence methods can be used for tuning up optimal harvester parameters.

  20. The cost of silage harvest and transport systems for herbaceous crops

    SciTech Connect

    Turhollow, A.; Downing, M.; Butler, J.

    1996-12-31

    Some of the highest yielding herbaceous biomass crops are thick- stemmed species. Their relatively high moisture content necessitates they be handled and stored as silage rather than hay bales or modules. This paper presents estimated costs of harvesting and transporting herbaceous crops as silage. Costs are based on an engineering- economic approach. Equipment costs are estimated by combining per hour costs with the hours required to complete the operation. Harvest includes severing, chopping, and blowing stalks into a wagon or truck.

  1. Spatial and temporal variation in harvest probabilities for American black duck

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Christian; Cumming, Steven G; McIntire, Eliot JB

    2015-01-01

    Assessing spatial variation in waterfowl harvest probabilities from banding data is challenging because reporting and recovery probabilities have distinct spatial patterns that covary temporally with harvesting regulations, hunter effort, and reporting methods. We analyzed direct band recovery data from American black ducks banded on the Canadian breeding grounds from 1970 through 2010. Data were registered to a 1-degree grid and analyzed using hierarchical logistic regression models with spatially correlated errors to estimate the annual probabilities of band recovery and the proportion of individuals recovered in Canada. Probability of harvest was estimated from these values, in combination with independent estimates of reporting probabilities in Canada and the USA. Model covariates included estimates of hunting effort and factors for harvest regulation and band reporting methods. Both the band recovery processes and the proportion of individuals recovered in Canada had significant spatial structure. Recovery probabilities were highest in southern Ontario, along the Saint Lawrence River in Quebec, and in Nova Scotia. Black ducks breeding in Nova Scotia and southern Quebec were harvested predominantly in Canada. Recovery probabilities for juveniles were correlated with hunter effort, while the adult recoveries were weakly correlated with the implementation of stricter harvest regulations in the early 1980s. Mean harvest probability decreased in the northern portion of the survey area but remained stable or even increased in the south. Harvest probabilities for juveniles in 2010 exceeded 20% in southern Quebec and the Atlantic provinces. Our results demonstrate fine-scale variation in harvest probabilities for black duck on the Canadian breeding ground. In particular, harvest probabilities should be closely monitored along the Saint Lawrence River system and in the Atlantic provinces to avoid overexploitation. PMID:26045951

  2. Harvesting costs and environmental impacts associated with skyline yarding shelterwood harvests and thinning in Appalachian hardwoods

    Treesearch

    J. E. Baumgras; C. B. LeDoux; J. R. Sherar

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate the potential for moderating the visual impact and soil disturbance associated with timber harvesting on steep-slope hardwood sites, thinning and shelterwood harvests were conducted with a skyline yarding system. Operations were monitored to document harvesting production, residual stand damage, soil disturbance, and visual quality. Yarding costs for...

  3. The effects of shelterwood harvesting on oak regeneration two years after harvest in southern Ohio

    Treesearch

    James D. Downs; Roger A. Williams; Joni A. Downs

    2011-01-01

    This research examines the effects of two intensities of shelterwood harvesting (reduction of stocking levels to 50 and 70 percent of full stocking) on oak regeneration in southeastern Ohio 2 years after harvest. The main goal of this study is to develop an understanding of the relationship between residual stocking (harvesting intensity) and the successful release of...

  4. A new harvest operation cost model to evaluate forest harvest layout alternatives

    Treesearch

    Mark M. Clark; Russell D. Meller; Timothy P. McDonald; Chao Chi Ting

    1997-01-01

    The authors develop a new model for harvest operation costs that can be used to evaluate stands for potential harvest. The model is based on felling, extraction, and access costs, and is unique in its consideration of the interaction between harvest area shapes and access roads. The scientists illustrate the model and evaluate the impact of stand size, volume, and road...

  5. Harvesting Costs For Mechanized Thinning Systems In Slash Pine Plantations

    Treesearch

    James E. Granskog

    1978-01-01

    Harvesting costs of four tree harvester systems are estimated for row thinning slash pine plantations. Systems incorporating a full-tree type harvester had lower harvesting costs per cord than shortwood and tree-length harvester systems in 15-year-old plantations.

  6. Can corals be harvested sustainably?

    PubMed

    Harriott, Vicki J

    2003-03-01

    The international trade in corals has been identified as a potential cause of localized depletion of coral populations in the major coral-exporting countries. The international coral trade is regulated by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES) agreement, which requires that export of corals is not detrimental to the species. The primary coral importing regions (USA and Europe) have threatened to limit or ban coral imports unless sustainable practices can be demonstrated. The spatial and temporal scale at which sustainability is defined is important in evaluating sustainability, e.g. at geological, regional or local scales. Other major issues are: the ecology of the target species; management options including provision of no-take areas; and the potential for coral culture. Implementation of practices that enhance ecological sustainability in the coral harvest fishery is possible, but may be difficult in some developing countries because of limited natural-resource management capacity.

  7. Harvesting microalgae grown on wastewater.

    PubMed

    Udom, Innocent; Zaribaf, Behnaz H; Halfhide, Trina; Gillie, Benjamin; Dalrymple, Omatoyo; Zhang, Qiong; Ergas, Sarina J

    2013-07-01

    The costs and life cycle impacts of microalgae harvesting for biofuel production were investigated. Algae were grown in semi-continuous culture in pilot-scale photobioreactors under natural light with anaerobic digester centrate as the feed source. Algae suspensions were collected and the optimal coagulant dosages for metal salts (alum, ferric chloride), cationic polymer (Zetag 8819), anionic polymer (E-38) and natural coagulants (Moringa Oleifera and Opuntia ficus-indica cactus) were determined using jar tests. The relative dewaterability of the algae cake was estimated by centrifugation. Alum, ferric chloride and cationic polymer could all achieve >91% algae recovery at optimal dosages. Life cycle assessment (LCA) and cost analysis results revealed that cationic polymer had the lowest cost but the highest environmental impacts, while ferric chloride had the highest cost and lowest environmental impacts. Based on the LCA results, belt presses are the recommended algae dewatering technology prior to oil extraction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Light Harvesting for Organic Photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Hedley, Gordon J; Ruseckas, Arvydas; Samuel, Ifor D W

    2017-01-25

    The field of organic photovoltaics has developed rapidly over the last 2 decades, and small solar cells with power conversion efficiencies of 13% have been demonstrated. Light absorbed in the organic layers forms tightly bound excitons that are split into free electrons and holes using heterojunctions of electron donor and acceptor materials, which are then extracted at electrodes to give useful electrical power. This review gives a concise description of the fundamental processes in photovoltaic devices, with the main emphasis on the characterization of energy transfer and its role in dictating device architecture, including multilayer planar heterojunctions, and on the factors that impact free carrier generation from dissociated excitons. We briefly discuss harvesting of triplet excitons, which now attracts substantial interest when used in conjunction with singlet fission. Finally, we introduce the techniques used by researchers for characterization and engineering of bulk heterojunctions to realize large photocurrents, and examine the formed morphology in three prototypical blends.

  9. Light Harvesting for Organic Photovoltaics

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The field of organic photovoltaics has developed rapidly over the last 2 decades, and small solar cells with power conversion efficiencies of 13% have been demonstrated. Light absorbed in the organic layers forms tightly bound excitons that are split into free electrons and holes using heterojunctions of electron donor and acceptor materials, which are then extracted at electrodes to give useful electrical power. This review gives a concise description of the fundamental processes in photovoltaic devices, with the main emphasis on the characterization of energy transfer and its role in dictating device architecture, including multilayer planar heterojunctions, and on the factors that impact free carrier generation from dissociated excitons. We briefly discuss harvesting of triplet excitons, which now attracts substantial interest when used in conjunction with singlet fission. Finally, we introduce the techniques used by researchers for characterization and engineering of bulk heterojunctions to realize large photocurrents, and examine the formed morphology in three prototypical blends. PMID:27951633

  10. New processes harvest farm energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-10-07

    Three facilities in New York, Connecticut and Arkansas installed by Energy Harvest, a Washington D.C. subsidiary of Sheaffer and Roland (Chicago), will produce gas from cattle and poultry wastes to be used primarily to generate electricity. It is estimated that there is a potential market for three million installations in the U.S. with a 1 quad total energy yield. The three facilities are part of a growing effort to develop new energy sources. Various systems under development are mentioned including a glass-fiber cover digester in Harford, N.Y. costing $15,000 that can generate power for less than 3 cents/kwh and the University of Missouri's scaled up version that can produce 3,500 cubic feet/day of methane at 4 cents/kwh.

  11. Virtual Engineering Approach to Developing Selective Harvest Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin L. Kenney; Christopher T. Wright

    2005-07-01

    Agricultural crop residues (e.g., straw and stover) are a current focus for bioenergy feedstocks, with new technologies being developed to improve the economics of bioenergy production. Among the emerging technologies focused on feedstock engineering is the selective harvest concept. Due to the complexity of the biomass separations required for addressing the challenges and requirements of selective harvest, high fidelity models and advanced experimental methods that allow observation and measurement of the physical system are needed. These models and methods were developed and include computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling to simulate the cleaning shoe of a grain combine and a particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique to quantitatively and qualitatively characterize the cleaning shoe performance. While these techniques alone can be sufficient engineering and analysis tools for developing selective harvest technologies, this paper presents a new methodology, Virtual Engineering (VE), that integrates the CFD and PIV data into a virtual environment, where the data is coupled with the geometric model of a grain combine to provide a virtual representation of the cleaning shoe performance. Using VE visualization capabilities, the CFD and PIV data can be viewed in the context of the physical system for an interactive evaluation of characteristics and performance. This paper also discusses the concepts of additional VE tools that are being developed to provide necessary visualization, simulation and integration functionality.

  12. Setting analyst: A practical harvest planning technique

    Treesearch

    Olivier R.M. Halleux; W. Dale Greene

    2001-01-01

    Setting Analyst is an ArcView extension that facilitates practical harvest planning for ground-based systems. By modeling the travel patterns of ground-based machines, it compares different harvesting settings based on projected average skidding distance, logging costs, and site disturbance levels. Setting Analyst uses information commonly available to consulting...

  13. Linking harvest choices to timber supply

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; David N. Wear

    2000-01-01

    Aggregate timber supply by ownership was investigated for a small region by applying stand-level harvest choice models to a representative sample of stands and then aggregating to regional totals using the area-frame of the forest survey. Timber harvest choices were estimated as probit models for three ownership categories in coastal plain southern pine stands of North...

  14. Applying new technologies to transform blueberry harvesting

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The growth of the blueberry industry in the past three decades has been remarkable. However, labor shortage for hand harvesting, increasingly high labor costs, and low harvest efficiencies are becoming bottlenecks for sustainable development of the fresh market blueberry production. In this study ...

  15. Improved harvesting systems for wet sites

    Treesearch

    Bryce J. Stokes; Alvin Schilling

    1997-01-01

    Environmentally acceptable and economical forest operations are needed for sustainable management of forest resources. Improved methods for harvesting and transporting timber are especially needed for wet sites. As the demand for hardwood lumber continues to increase, improved and alternative methods are needed to ensure acceptance of timber harvesting for the wet site...

  16. Forest products harvested in Hawaii-1969

    Treesearch

    Robert E. Burgan; Jr. Wesley H.C. Wong

    1971-01-01

    Primary forest products harvested in Hawaii in 1969 were valued at $331,000-a $3,000 drop from the value of the harvest surveyed in 1967. Sawlogs and veneer logs were the most important products. Koa and robusta eucalyptus were the primary sawlog species. Albizia and robusta eucalyptus provided most of the veneer logs.

  17. West Virginia harvest and utilization study, 2008

    Treesearch

    Jan Wiedenbeck; Shawn. Grushecky

    2014-01-01

    Thirty active harvesting operations were part of a harvest and utilization study conducted in West Virginia in 2008. Data were collected on roundwood product and residue yields obtained from trees of different sizes, species, and qualities. This study was modeled after studies conducted on a regular and frequent basis by the Forest Inventory and Analysis unit in the...

  18. Dielectric loss against piezoelectric power harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Junrui; Shu-Hung Chung, Henry; Liao, Wei-Hsin

    2014-09-01

    Piezoelectricity is one of the most popular electromechanical transduction mechanisms for constructing kinetic energy harvesting systems. When a standard energy harvesting (SEH) interface circuit, i.e., bridge rectifier plus filter capacitor, is utilized for collecting piezoelectric power, the previous literature showed that the power conversion can be well predicted without much consideration for the effect of dielectric loss. Yet, as the conversion power gets higher by adopting power-boosting interface circuits, such as synchronized switch harvesting on inductor (SSHI), the neglect of dielectric loss might give rise to deviation in harvested power estimation. Given the continuous progress on power-boosting interface circuits, the role of dielectric loss in practical piezoelectric energy harvesting (PEH) systems should receive attention with better evaluation. Based on the integrated equivalent impedance network model, this fast track communication provides a comprehensive study on the susceptibility of harvested power in PEH systems under different conditions. It shows that, dielectric loss always counteracts piezoelectric power harvesting by causing charge leakage across piezoelectric capacitance. In particular, taking corresponding ideal lossless cases as references, the counteractive effect might be aggravated under one of the five conditions: larger dielectric loss tangent, lower vibration frequency, further away from resonance, weaker electromechanical coupling, or using power-boosting interface circuit. These relationships are valuable for the study of PEH systems, as they not only help explain the role of dielectric loss in piezoelectric power harvesting, but also add complementary insights for material, structure, excitation, and circuit considerations towards holistic evaluation and design for practical PEH systems.

  19. Effective kinetic energy harvesting via structural instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haji Hosseinloo, Ashkan; Turitsyn, Konstantin

    2017-04-01

    Vibration energy harvesting has been shown as a promising power source for many small-scale applications mainly because of the considerable reduction in the energy consumption of the electronics, ease of fabrication and implementation of smart materials at small scale, and scalability issues of the conventional batteries. However, conventional energy harvesters are not quite robust to changes in excitation or system parameters, suffer from narrow bandwidth, and are very inefficient at small scale for low frequency harvesting. In addition, they have a low power to volume ratio. To remedy the robustness issues, improve their effectiveness, and increase their power density, we propose to exploit structural instabilities, in particular instabilities in multi-layered composites which are inherently non-resonant. The induced large strains as a result of the structural instability could be exploited to give rise to large strains in an attached piezoelectric layer to generate charge and, hence, energy. The regular high-strain morphological patterns occur throughout the whole composite structure that in turn enable harvesting at a larger volume compared to conventional harvesters; hence, harvesting via structural instabilities can significantly improve the harvested power to volume ratio. In this study, we focus on harvesting from wrinkling type of instabilities.

  20. Harvesting, storing, and shipping [Chapter 13

    Treesearch

    Thomas D. Landis; Tara Luna

    2009-01-01

    Plants are ready for harvest and delivery to clients after they have reached target specifications (see Chapter 2, The Target Plant Concept) and have been properly hardened (see Chapter 12, Hardening). Originally, nursery stock was grown in soil in fields; nursery managers would "lift" those seedlings out of the ground to harvest them. That traditional...

  1. Rubber finger stripper harvester for green chile

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Harvest mechanization as a system requires modifying or creating new components including cultivars, production practices, and harvest, transportation and processing plant machinery. New Mexican chile is one of the last segments of the pepper industry to still rely on hand labor. This paper reports ...

  2. Effective energy harvesting from a single electrode based triboelectric nanogenerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Navjot; Bahadur, Jitendra; Panwar, Vinay; Singh, Pushpendra; Rathi, Keerti; Pal, Kaushik

    2016-12-01

    The arch-shaped single electrode based triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) is fabricated using thin film of reduced graphene oxide nanoribbons (rGONRs) with polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) polymer used as binder to effectively convert mechanical energy into electrical energy. The incorporation of rGONRs in PVDF polymer enhances average surface roughness of rGONRs/PVDF thin film. With the combination of the enhancement of average roughness and production of functional groups, which indicate improve charge storage capacity of prepared film. Furthermore, the redox peaks obtained through cyclic voltammetry were identified more in rGONRs/PVDF composite in comparison to pristine rGONRs to confirm charge transfer capability of film. Herein, the output performance was discussed experimentally as well as theoretically, maximum voltage was obtained to be 0.35 V. The newly designed TENG to harvest mechanical energy and opens up many new avenues of research in the energy harvesting applications.

  3. Adoption of safety eyewear among citrus harvesters in rural Florida.

    PubMed

    Monaghan, Paul F; Bryant, Carol A; McDermott, Robert J; Forst, Linda S; Luque, John S; Contreras, Ricardo B

    2012-06-01

    The community-based prevention marketing program planning framework was used to adapt an evidence-based intervention to address eye injuries among Florida's migrant citrus harvesters. Participant-observer techniques, other direct observations, and individual and focus group interviews provided data that guided refinement of a safety eyewear intervention. Workers were attracted to the eyewear's ability to minimize irritation, offer protection from trauma, and enable work without declines in productivity or comfort. Access to safety glasses equipped with worker-designed features reduced the perceived barriers of using them; deployment of trained peer-leaders helped promote adoption. Workers' use of safety glasses increased from less than 2% to between 28% and 37% in less than two full harvesting seasons. The combination of formative research and program implementation data provided insights for tailoring an existing evidence-based program for this occupational community and increase potential for future dissemination and worker protection.

  4. Blueberry estimated harvest from seven new cultivars: fruit and anthocyanins.

    PubMed

    Scalzo, Jessica; Stevenson, David; Hedderley, Duncan

    2013-08-15

    This study compares the yields, weights and anthocyanin contents of fruit from a group of seven new cultivars released from the New Zealand blueberry breeding programme and selected for the longest possible combined harvest season. The measured factors were primarily influenced by cultivar, and seasonal variations had relatively minor effects. The late-ripening cultivars 'Velluto Blue' and 'Centra Blue' had the highest fruit yields, anthocyanin contents and estimated total anthocyanin harvestable from a given area. 'Blue Moon' and 'Sky Blue' had the largest fruit sizes. The early-ripening cultivars 'Blue Bayou', 'Blue Moon' and 'Sunset Blue' had the lowest anthocyanin contents. The yield, fruit size and total anthocyanin content results obtained from any single year were highly correlated with the average of the three years, which makes pursuing the evaluation for these traits from a single year and at an early stage of plant development a practical proposition. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effective energy harvesting from a single electrode based triboelectric nanogenerator

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Navjot; Bahadur, Jitendra; Panwar, Vinay; Singh, Pushpendra; Rathi, Keerti; Pal, Kaushik

    2016-01-01

    The arch-shaped single electrode based triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) is fabricated using thin film of reduced graphene oxide nanoribbons (rGONRs) with polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) polymer used as binder to effectively convert mechanical energy into electrical energy. The incorporation of rGONRs in PVDF polymer enhances average surface roughness of rGONRs/PVDF thin film. With the combination of the enhancement of average roughness and production of functional groups, which indicate improve charge storage capacity of prepared film. Furthermore, the redox peaks obtained through cyclic voltammetry were identified more in rGONRs/PVDF composite in comparison to pristine rGONRs to confirm charge transfer capability of film. Herein, the output performance was discussed experimentally as well as theoretically, maximum voltage was obtained to be 0.35 V. The newly designed TENG to harvest mechanical energy and opens up many new avenues of research in the energy harvesting applications. PMID:27958317

  6. Stacked and folded piezoelectrets for vibration-based energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sessler, G. M.; Pondrom, P.; Zhang, X.

    2016-08-01

    Vibration-based energy harvesting with piezoelectrets can be significantly improved by using multiple layers of these materials. In particular, folding or stacking of piezoelectrets or a combination of these methods results in increased power output of the energy harvesters. The possibilities of these procedures are explored, together with the effect of seismic mass, resonance frequency, and terminating resistance. It is found that with seismic masses of about 20 g and using radiation-crosslinked polypropylene (IXPP) as a piezoelectret, power outputs of up to 80 µW can be achieved for an acceleration of 1 g. Expected dependencies of generated power on frequency, folding and stacking parameters, in particular number of layers, and on seismic mass, are confirmed.

  7. Validation of energy harvest modeling for X14 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finot, Marc; MacDonald, Bob; Lance, Tamir

    2012-10-01

    Skyline Solar has developed a second generation medium concentration photovoltaic system with an optical concentration of around 14. The energy harvest model based on the first generation system has been updated and improved using field data. The model combines a bottom-up modeling approach based on performance of subcomponents such as mirrors and cells with a top-down approach based on measuring the system output under different environmental conditions. Improvement of the model includes the effect of non-uniformity of the light on the panel. The predicted energy ratio (ratio between the observed energy and expected energy) has been measured over a 10-month period and shows monthly variability below 2%, resulting in high confidence level for the mean of the expected energy harvest.

  8. Efficient thermal energy harvesting using nanoscale magnetoelectric heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etesami, S. R.; Berakdar, J.

    2016-02-01

    Thermomechanical cycles with a ferroelectric working substance convert heat to electrical energy. As shown here, magnetoelectrically coupled ferroelectric/ferromagnetic composites (also called multiferroics) allow for an efficient thermal energy harvesting at room temperature by exploiting the pyroelectric effect. By virtue of the magnetoelectric coupling, external electric and magnetic fields can steer the operation of these heat engines. Our theoretical predictions are based on a combination of Landau-Khalatnikov-Tani approach (with a Ginzburg-Landau-Devonshire potential) to simulate the ferroelectric dynamics coupled to the magnetic dynamics. The latter is treated via the electric-polarization-dependent Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. By performing an adapted Olsen cycle we show that a multiferroic working substance is potentially much more superior to the sole ferroelectrics, as far as the thermal energy harvesting using pyroelectric effect is concerned. Our proposal holds promise not only for low-energy consuming devices but also for cooling technology.

  9. A vibration energy harvester using diamagnetic levitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palagummi, S.; Yuan, F. G.

    2013-04-01

    In this paper a novel electromagnetic vibration type energy harvester which uses a diamagnetic levitation system is conceptualized, designed, fabricated, and tested. The harvester uses two diamagnetic plates made of pyrolytic graphite between which a cylindrical magnet levitates passively. Two archimedean spiral coils are placed in grooves which are engraved in the pyrolytic graphite plates, used to convert the mechanical energy into electrical energy efficiently. The geometric configurations of coils are selected based on the field distribution of the magnet to enhance the efficiency of the harvester. A thorough theoretical analysis is done to compare with the experiment results. At an input power of 103.45 μW and at a frequency of 2.7 Hz, the harvester generated a power of 0.744 μW at an efficiency of 0.72 %. Both theoretical and experimental results show that this new energy harvesting system is efficient and can capture low frequency broadband spectra.

  10. [Harvesting microalgae via flocculation: a review].

    PubMed

    Wan, Chun; Zhang, Xiaoyue; Zhao, Xinqing; Bai, Fengwu

    2015-02-01

    Microalgae have been identified as promising candidates for biorefinery of value-added molecules. The valuable products from microalgae include polyunsaturated fatty acids and pigments, clean and sustainable energy (e.g. biodiesel). Nevertheless, high cost for microalgae biomass harvesting has restricted the industrial application of microalgae. Flocculation, compared with other microalgae harvesting methods, has distinguished itself as a promising method with low cost and easy operation. Here, we reviewed the methods of microalgae harvesting using flocculation, including chemical flocculation, physical flocculation and biological flocculation, and the progress and prospect in bio-flocculation are especially focused. Harvesting microalgae via bio-flocculation, especially using bio-flocculant and microalgal strains that is self-flocculated, is one of the eco-friendly, cost-effective and efficient microalgae harvesting methods.

  11. Nanocrystalline ribbons for energy harvesting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiriac, H.; Å¢ibu, M.; Lupu, N.; Skorvanek, I.; Óvári, T.-A.

    2014-05-01

    An energy harvesting device based on nanocrystalline ribbons, able to convert mechanical vibrations to electrical energy, is presented. Such an energy harvesting device having embedded wireless microsensors can provide continuous monitoring of machines or infrastructure health without using service personnel in different areas with high risks. A multilayer core based on magnetic nanocrystalline ribbons was implemented to build the coil for an electromagnetic energy harvesting device with superior characteristics (voltage and power) compared to piezoelectric or pure magnetostrictive devices. Two different configurations were realized and tested for the energy harvester: vibrating core and vibrating magnets. The highest power density achieved for our harvesters using nanocrystalline ribbons is 45 mW/cm3 at 1 g (resonant frequency 47 Hz) and seems to be among the highest reported in literature.

  12. Sperm harvesting and post-mortem fatherhood.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Timothy F

    1995-10-01

    The motives and consequences of harvesting sperm from brain dead males for the purpose of effecting post mortem fatherhood are examined. I argue that sperm harvesting and post mortem fatherhood raise no harms of a magnitude that would justify forbidding the practice outright. Dead men are not obviously harmed by the practice; children need not be harmed by this kind of birth; and the practice enlarges rather than diminishes the reproductive choices of surviving partners. Certain ethical and legal issues nevertheless require attention. As a matter of consistency with other harvesting protocols, there ought to be a mechanism for respecting the wishes of men who when alive do not wish to become fathers post mortem. Mechanisms governing entitlement to harvest and use sperm will also be required. I note that the law is unlikely to recognize the paternity of children born from harvested sperm, though there may be reasons to recognize that paternity in some instances.

  13. Multilayer ferroelectret-based energy harvesting insole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Z.; Zhu, D.; Beeby, S. P.

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports a flexible energy harvesting insole made of multilayer ferroelectrets, and demonstrates that this insole can power a wireless signal transmission. We have previously studied the energy harvesting characteristics of single and 10-layer ferroelectrets under compressive forces with quantified amplitudes and frequencies. In this work, we fabricate a flexible insole using multilayer ferroelectrets, and increase the number of layers from 10 up to 80, then use this insole to harvest energy from footsteps. We use this insole to power a commercial ZigBee wireless transmitter, and successfully demonstrate that an 8-bit data transmission can be solely powered by the energy harvested from this insole for every 3 to 4 footsteps. It confirms the anticipation from our previous work that the multilayer ferroelectrets are capable of powering the start-up and transmission of a low-power chipset, and shows a potential of using this energy harvesting insole in wearable applications.

  14. A Hybrid Indoor Ambient Light and Vibration Energy Harvester for Wireless Sensor Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hua; Yue, Qiuqin; Zhou, Jielin; Wang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    To take advantage of applications where both light and vibration energy are available, a hybrid indoor ambient light and vibration energy harvesting scheme is proposed in this paper. This scheme uses only one power conditioning circuit to condition the combined output power harvested from both energy sources so as to reduce the power dissipation. In order to more accurately predict the instantaneous power harvested from the solar panel, an improved five-parameter model for small-scale solar panel applying in low light illumination is presented. The output voltage is increased by using the MEMS piezoelectric cantilever arrays architecture. It overcomes the disadvantage of traditional MEMS vibration energy harvester with low voltage output. The implementation of the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) for indoor ambient light is implemented using analog discrete components, which improves the whole harvester efficiency significantly compared to the digital signal processor. The output power of the vibration energy harvester is improved by using the impedance matching technique. An efficient mechanism of energy accumulation and bleed-off is also discussed. Experiment results obtained from an amorphous-silicon (a-Si) solar panel of 4.8 × 2.0 cm2 and a fabricated piezoelectric MEMS generator of 11 × 12.4 mm2 show that the hybrid energy harvester achieves a maximum efficiency around 76.7%. PMID:24854054

  15. Maximizing direct current power delivery from bistable vibration energy harvesting beams subjected to realistic base excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Quanqi; Harne, Ryan L.

    2017-04-01

    Effective development of vibration energy harvesters is required to convert ambient kinetic energy into useful electrical energy as power supply for sensors, for example in structural health monitoring applications. Energy harvesting structures exhibiting bistable nonlinearities have previously been shown to generate large alternating current (AC) power when excited so as to undergo snap-through responses between stable equilibria. Yet, most microelectronics in sensors require rectified voltages and hence direct current (DC) power. While researchers have studied DC power generation from bistable energy harvesters subjected to harmonic excitations, there remain important questions as to the promise of such harvester platforms when the excitations are more realistic and include both harmonic and random components. To close this knowledge gap, this research computationally and experimentally studies the DC power delivery from bistable energy harvesters subjected to such realistic excitation combinations as those found in practice. Based on the results, it is found that the ability for bistable energy harvesters to generate peak DC power is significantly reduced by introducing sufficient amount of stochastic excitations into an otherwise harmonic input. On the other hand, the elimination of a low amplitude, coexistent response regime by way of the additive noise promotes power delivery if the device was not originally excited to snap-through. The outcomes of this research indicate the necessity for comprehensive studies about the sensitivities of DC power generation from bistable energy harvester to practical excitation scenarios prior to their optimal deployment in applications.

  16. From boots to buoys: promises and challenges of dielectric elastomer energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornbluh, Roy D.; Pelrine, Ron; Prahlad, Harsha; Wong-Foy, Annjoe; McCoy, Brian; Kim, Susan; Eckerle, Joseph; Low, Tom

    2011-04-01

    Dielectric elastomers offer the promise of energy harvesting with few moving parts. Power can be produced simply by stretching and contracting a relatively low-cost rubbery material. This simplicity, combined with demonstrated high energy density and high efficiency, suggests that dielectric elastomers are promising for a wide range of energy harvesting applications. Indeed, dielectric elastomers have been demonstrated to harvest energy from human walking, ocean waves, flowing water, blowing wind, and pushing buttons. While the technology is promising, there are challenges that must be addressed if dielectric elastomers are to be a successful and economically viable energy harvesting technology. These challenges include developing materials and packaging that sustains long lifetime over a range of environmental conditions, design of the devices that stretch the elastomer material, as well as system issues such as practical and efficient energy harvesting circuits. Progress has been made in many of these areas. We have demonstrated energy harvesting transducers that have operated over 5 million cycles. We have also shown the ability of dielectric elastomer material to survive for months underwater while undergoing voltage cycling. We have shown circuits capable of 78% energy harvesting efficiency. While the possibility of long lifetime has been demonstrated at the watt level, reliably scaling up to the power levels required for providing renewable energy to the power grid or for local use will likely require further development from the material through to the systems level.

  17. A hybrid indoor ambient light and vibration energy harvester for wireless sensor nodes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hua; Yue, Qiuqin; Zhou, Jielin; Wang, Wei

    2014-05-19

    To take advantage of applications where both light and vibration energy are available, a hybrid indoor ambient light and vibration energy harvesting scheme is proposed in this paper. This scheme uses only one power conditioning circuit to condition the combined output power harvested from both energy sources so as to reduce the power dissipation. In order to more accurately predict the instantaneous power harvested from the solar panel, an improved five-parameter model for small-scale solar panel applying in low light illumination is presented. The output voltage is increased by using the MEMS piezoelectric cantilever arrays architecture. It overcomes the disadvantage of traditional MEMS vibration energy harvester with low voltage output. The implementation of the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) for indoor ambient light is implemented using analog discrete components, which improves the whole harvester efficiency significantly compared to the digital signal processor. The output power of the vibration energy harvester is improved by using the impedance matching technique. An efficient mechanism of energy accumulation and bleed-off is also discussed. Experiment results obtained from an amorphous-silicon (a-Si) solar panel of 4.8 × 2.0 cm2 and a fabricated piezoelectric MEMS generator of 11 × 12.4 mm2 show that the hybrid energy harvester achieves a maximum efficiency around 76.7%.

  18. HARVEST, a longitudinal patient record summarizer

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, Jamie S; Tanenbaum, Jessica S; Lipsky Gorman, Sharon; Liu, Connie; Schmitz, Eric; Hashorva, Dritan; Ervits, Artem; Vawdrey, David; Sturm, Marc; Elhadad, Noémie

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe HARVEST, a novel point-of-care patient summarization and visualization tool, and to conduct a formative evaluation study to assess its effectiveness and gather feedback for iterative improvements. Materials and methods HARVEST is a problem-based, interactive, temporal visualization of longitudinal patient records. Using scalable, distributed natural language processing and problem salience computation, the system extracts content from the patient notes and aggregates and presents information from multiple care settings. Clinical usability was assessed with physician participants using a timed, task-based chart review and questionnaire, with performance differences recorded between conditions (standard data review system and HARVEST). Results HARVEST displays patient information longitudinally using a timeline, a problem cloud as extracted from notes, and focused access to clinical documentation. Despite lack of familiarity with HARVEST, when using a task-based evaluation, performance and time-to-task completion was maintained in patient review scenarios using HARVEST alone or the standard clinical information system at our institution. Subjects reported very high satisfaction with HARVEST and interest in using the system in their daily practice. Discussion HARVEST is available for wide deployment at our institution. Evaluation provided informative feedback and directions for future improvements. Conclusions HARVEST was designed to address the unmet need for clinicians at the point of care, facilitating review of essential patient information. The deployment of HARVEST in our institution allows us to study patient record summarization as an informatics intervention in a real-world setting. It also provides an opportunity to learn how clinicians use the summarizer, enabling informed interface and content iteration and optimization to improve patient care. PMID:25352564

  19. Glossary of Terms Used in Timber Harvesting and Forest Engineering

    Treesearch

    Bryce J. Stokes; Colin Ashmore; Cynthia L. Rawlins; Donald L. Sirois

    1989-01-01

    Provides definitions for 1,026 words and terms used in timber harvesting and forest engineering, with an emphasis on temrs related to timber harvesting operations. Terminology dealing with basic forestry, harvesting equipment, and economics is stressed.

  20. Montana's 1988 fuelwood harvest. Forest Service Resource Bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    McLain, W.H.

    1990-10-01

    The report highlights the 1988 harvest of fuelwood in Montana by Commercial fuelwood harvesters and those cutting for home consumption. It lists a directory of commercial fuelwood harvesters and describes the methods of data collection and compilation.

  1. Rain-induced spring wheat harvest losses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, A.; Black, A. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    When rain or a combination of rain and high humidity delay wheat harvest, losses can occur in grain yield and/or grain quality. Yield losses can result from shattering, from reduction in test weight, and in the case of windrowed grain, from rooting of sprouting grain at the soil: windrow contact. Losses in grain quality can result from reduction in test weight and from sprouting. Sprouting causes a degradation of grain proteins and starches, hence flour quality is reduced, and the grain price deteriorates to the value of feed grain. Although losses in grain yield and quality are rain-induced, these losses do not necessarily occur because a standing or windrowed crop is wetted by rain. Spike water concentration in hard red spring wheat must be increased to about 45-49% before sprouting is initiated in grain that has overcome dormancy. The time required to overcome this dormancy after the cultivar has dried to 12 to 14% water concentration differs with hard red spring cultivars. The effect of rain on threshing-ready standing and windrowed hard red spring wheat grain yeild and quality was evaluated. A goal was to develop the capability to forecast the extent of expected loss of grain yield and quality from specific climatic events that delay threshing.

  2. Single Pass Multi-component Harvester

    SciTech Connect

    Reed Hoskinson; J. Richard Hess

    2004-08-01

    Abstract. In order to meet the U. S. government’s goal of supplementing the energy available from petroleum by increasing the production of energy from renewable resources, increased production of bioenergy has become one of the new goals of the United States government and our society. U.S. Executive Orders and new Federal Legislation have mandated changes in government procedures and caused reorganizations within the government to support these goals. The Biomass Research and Development Initiative is a multi-agency effort to coordinate and accelerate all U.S. Federal biobased products and bioenergy research and development. The Initiative is managed by the National Biomass Coordination Office, which is staffed by both the DOE and the USDA. One of the most readily available sources of biomass from which to produce bioenergy is an agricultural crop residue, of which straw from small grains is the most feasible residue with which to start. For the straw residue to be used its collection must be energy efficient and its removal must not impact the sustainability of the growing environment. In addition, its collection must be economically advantageous to the producer. To do all that, a single pass multi-component harvester system is most desirable. Results from our first prototype suggest that current combines probably do adequate threshing and that a separate chassis can be developed that does additional separation and that is economically feasible.

  3. Development and analysis of SRIC harvesting systems

    SciTech Connect

    Stokes, B.J.; Hartsough, B.R.

    1993-12-31

    This paper reviews several machine combinations for harvesting short-rotation, intensive-culture (SRIC) plantations. Productivity and cost information for individual machines was obtained from published sources. Three felling and skidding systems were analyzed for two stands, a 7.6-cm (3-in) average d.b.h. sycamore and a 15.2-cm (6-in) average d.b.h. eucalyptus. The analyses assumed that whole trees were chipped at roadside. Costs and production were summarized for each system. The systems were: (1) Continuous-travel feller-buncher, skidder, and chipper; (2) 3-wheel feller-buncher, skidder, and chipper; (3) chainsaw, skidder, and chipper. In the 7.6-cm stand, system productivities were 9.9, 7.3, and 7.5 BDLT/SMH, and costs were $20.9, $20.8, and $18.0 per BDLT for the three systems, respectively. System production rates for the 15.2-cm stand were 24.3, 10.2, and 12.5 BDLT/SMH, and costs were $8.7, $10.9, and $13.2 for systems 1, 2 and 3, respectively.

  4. A Self-Powered Hybrid Energy Scavenging System Utilizing RF and Vibration Based Electromagnetic Harvesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uluşan, H.; Gharehbaghi, K.; Zorlu, Ö.; Muhtaroğlu, A.; Külah, H.

    2015-12-01

    This study presents a novel hybrid system that combines the power generated simultaneously by a vibration-based Electromagnetic (EM) harvester and a UHF band RF harvester. The novel hybrid scavenger interface uses a power management circuit in 180 nm CMOS technology to step-up and to regulate the combined output. At the first stage of the system, the RF harvester generates positive DC output with a 7-stage threshold compensated rectifier, while the EM harvester generates negative DC output with a self-powered AC/DC negative doubler circuit. At the second stage, the generated voltages are serially added, stepped-up with an on-chip charge pump circuit, and regulated to a typical battery voltage of 3 V. Test results indicate that the hybrid operation enables generation of 9 μW at 3 V output for a wide range of input stimulations, which could not be attained with either harvesting mode by itself. Moreover the hybrid system behaves as a typical battery, and keeps the output voltage stable at 3 V up to 18 μW of output power. The presented system is the first battery-like harvester to our knowledge that generates energy from two independent sources and regulates the output to a stable DC voltage.

  5. Peptide-Modulated Self-Assembly of Chromophores toward Biomimetic Light-Harvesting Nanoarchitectonics.

    PubMed

    Zou, Qianli; Liu, Kai; Abbas, Manzar; Yan, Xuehai

    2016-02-10

    Elegant self-assembling complexes by the combination of proteins/peptides with functional chromophores are decisively responsible for highly efficient light-harvesting and energy transfer in natural photosynthetic systems. Mimicking natural light-harvesting complexes through synthetic peptides is attractive due to their advantanges of programmable primary structure, tunable self-assembly architecture and easy availability in comparison to naturally occuring proteins. Here, an overview of recent progresses in the area of biomimetic light-harvesting nanoarchitectonics based on peptide-modulated self-assembly of chromophores is provided. Adjusting the organization of chromophores, either by creating peptide-chromophore conjugates or by the non-covalent assembly of peptides and chromophores are highlighted. The light-harvesting properties, especially the energy transfer of the biomimetic complexes are critically discussed. The applications of such complexes in the mineralization of inorganic nanoparticles, generation of molecular hydrogen and oxygen, and photosynthesis of bioactive molecules are also included.

  6. Rainwater harvesting state regulations and technical resources

    SciTech Connect

    Loper, Susan A.

    2015-06-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted in-depth research of state-level rainwater harvesting regulations for the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) to help federal agencies strategically identify locations conducive to rainwater harvesting projects. Currently, rainwater harvesting is not regulated by the federal government but rather it is up to individual states to regulate the collection and use of rainwater. There is no centralized information on state-level regulations on rainwater harvesting maintained by a federal agency or outside organization. To fill this information gap, PNNL performed detailed internet searches for each state, which included state agencies, universities, Cooperative Extension Offices, city governments, and related organizations. The state-by-state information on rainwater harvesting regulations was compiled and assembled into an interactive map that is color coded by state regulations. The map provides a visual representation of the general types of rainwater harvesting policies across the country as well as general information on the state programs if applicable. The map allows the user to quickly discern where rainwater harvesting is supported and regulated by the state. This map will be available on the FEMP website by September 2015.

  7. Approaches to automated protein crystal harvesting

    PubMed Central

    Deller, Marc C.; Rupp, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    The harvesting of protein crystals is almost always a necessary step in the determination of a protein structure using X-ray crystallographic techniques. However, protein crystals are usually fragile and susceptible to damage during the harvesting process. For this reason, protein crystal harvesting is the single step that remains entirely dependent on skilled human intervention. Automation has been implemented in the majority of other stages of the structure-determination pipeline, including cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and data collection. The gap in automation between crystallization and data collection results in a bottleneck in throughput and presents unfortunate opportunities for crystal damage. Several automated protein crystal harvesting systems have been developed, including systems utilizing microcapillaries, microtools, microgrippers, acoustic droplet ejection and optical traps. However, these systems have yet to be commonly deployed in the majority of crystallography laboratories owing to a variety of technical and cost-related issues. Automation of protein crystal harvesting remains essential for harnessing the full benefits of fourth-generation synchrotrons, free-electron lasers and microfocus beamlines. Furthermore, automation of protein crystal harvesting offers several benefits when compared with traditional manual approaches, including the ability to harvest microcrystals, improved flash-cooling procedures and increased throughput. PMID:24637746

  8. Autotransplantation donor tooth site harvesting using piezosurgery

    PubMed Central

    Ylikontiola, Leena P.; Sándor, George K.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The harvesting of a tooth as a candidate for tooth autotransplantation requires that the delicate dental tissues around the tooth be minimally traumatized. This is especially so for the periradicular tissues of the tooth root and the follicular tissues surrounding the crown. The aim of this report is to describe the use of piezosurgery as an attempt at morbidity reduction in the harvesting of teeth for autotransplantation. Methods: A piezosurgical handpiece and its selection of tips were easily adapted to allow the harvesting and delivery of teeth for autotransplantation purposes. Results: Twenty premolar teeth were harvested using a piezosurgical device. The harvested teeth were subsequently successfully autotransplanted. All twenty teeth healed in a satisfactory manner without excessive mobility or ankyloses. Conclusions: Piezosurgery avoids some of the traumatic aspects of harvesting teeth and removing bone which are associated with thermal damage from the use of conventional rotary instruments or saws. Piezosurgery can be adapted to facilitate the predictable harvesting of teeth for autotransplantation purposes. PMID:27563612

  9. Post-harvest proteomics and food security.

    PubMed

    Pedreschi, Romina; Lurie, Susan; Hertog, Maarten; Nicolaï, Bart; Mes, Jurriaan; Woltering, Ernst

    2013-06-01

    To guarantee sufficient food supply for a growing world population, efforts towards improving crop yield and plant resistance should be complemented with efforts to reduce post-harvest losses. Post-harvest losses are substantial and occur at different stages of the food chain in developed and developing countries. In recent years, a substantially increasing interest can be seen in the application of proteomics to understand post-harvest events. In the near future post-harvest proteomics will be poised to move from fundamental research to aiding the reduction of food losses. Proteomics research can help in reducing food losses through (i) identification and validation of gene products associated to specific quality traits supporting marker-assisted crop improvement programmes, (ii) delivering markers of initial quality that allow optimisation of distribution conditions and prediction of remaining shelf-life for decision support systems and (iii) delivering early detection tools of physiological or pathogen-related post-harvest problems. In this manuscript, recent proteomics studies on post-harvest and stress physiology are reviewed and discussed. Perspectives on future directions of post-harvest proteomics studies aiming to reduce food losses are presented. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Ultra-wide bandwidth improvement of piezoelectric energy harvesters through electrical inductance coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelmoula, H.; Abdelkefi, A.

    2015-11-01

    The design and analysis of innovative ultra-wide bandwidth piezoelectric energy harvesters are deeply investigated. An electrical inductance is considered in the harvester's circuit to be connected in series or parallel to a load resistance. A lumped-parameter model is used to model the electromechanical response of the harvester when subjected to harmonic excitations. A linear comprehensive analysis is performed to investigate the effects of an electrical inductance on the coupled frequencies and damping of the harvester. It is shown that including an electrical inductance connected in series or in parallel to an electrical load resistance can result in the appearance of a second coupled frequency of electrical type. The results show that the inclusion of an inductance may give the opportunity to tune one of the coupled frequencies of mechanical and electrical types to the available excitation frequency in the environment. Using the gradient method, an optimization analysis is then performed to determine the optimum values of the electrical inductance and load resistance that maximize the harvested power. It is demonstrated that, for each excitation frequency, there is a combination of optimum values of the electrical inductance and resistance in such a way an optimum constant value of the harvested power is found. Numerical analysis is then performed to show the importance of considering an additional inductance in the harvester's circuitry in order to design broadband energy harvesters. The results show that the presence of the second coupled frequency of electrical type due to the inductance gives the possibility to design optimal broadband inductive-resistive piezoelectric energy harvesters with minimum displacement due to shunt damping effect.

  11. Enhanced PVDF film for multi energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karunarathna, Ranmunige Nadeeka

    PVDF is a very important piezoelectric polymer material which has a promising range of applications in a variety of fields such as acoustic sensors and transducers, electrical switches, medical instrumentation, artificial sensitive skin in robotics, automotive detection on roads, nondestructive testing, structural health monitoring and as a biocampatible material. In this research cantilever based multi energy harvester was developed to maximize the power output of PVDF sensor. Nano mixture containing ferrofluid (FF) and ZnO nano particles were used to enhance the piezoelectric output of the sensor. The samples were tested under different energy conditions to observe the behavior of nano coated PVDF film under multi energy conditions. Composition of the ZnO and FF nano particles were changed by weight, in order to achieve the optimal composition of the nano mixture. Light energy, vibration energy, combined effect of light and vibration energy, and magnetic effect were used to explore the behavior of the sensor. The sensor with 60% ZnO and 40% FF achieved a maximum power output of 10.7 microwatts when it is under the combined effect of light and vibration energy. Which is nearly 16 times more power output than PVDF sensor. When the magnetic effect is considered the sensor with 100% FF showed the highest power output of 11.2 microwatts which is nearly 17 times more power output than pure PVDF. The effective piezoelctric volume of the sensor was 0.017 cm3. In order to explore the effect of magnetic flux, cone patterns were created on the sensor by means of a external magnetic field. Stability of the cones generated on the sensor played a major role in generated power output.

  12. Isotope Harvesting Opportunities at FRIB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrissey, David

    2017-01-01

    The fragmentation of fast heavy ion beams now at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) and in the future at the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) under construction produce an unprecedentedly broad spectrum of radionuclides but only a small fraction are used in the on-line rare-isotope program. Projectile fragmentation facilities provide an electromagnetically purified beam of a single projectile fragment for nuclear physics experiments ranging from low energy astrophysics, through nuclear structure studies, to probing fundamental symmetries. By augmenting the NSCL and FRIB production facilities with complimentary collection and purification of discarded ions, called isotope harvesting with chemical purification, many other nuclides will become available for off-line experiments in parallel with the primary experiment. A growing user community has established a list of key target isotopes and is working with the FRIB design team to allow inclusion of necessary equipment in the future. An overview of the possibilities and the techniques will be presented in this talk. Supported by Office of Science, US DOE and Michigan State University.

  13. ESTIMATING THE DISTRIBUTION OF HARVESTED ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Habitat suitability models are used to forecast how environmental change may affect the abundance or distribution of species of interest. The development of habitat suitability models may be used to estimate the vulnerability of this valued ecosystem good to natural or anthropogenic stressors. Using natural history information, rule-based habitat suitability models were constructed in a GIS for two recreationally harvested bivalve species (cockles Clinocardium nuttallii; softshells Mya arenaria) common to NE Pacific estuaries (N. California to British Columbia). Tolerance limits of each species were evaluated with respect to four parameters that are easy to sample: salinity, depth, sediment grain size, and the presence of bioturbating burrowing shrimp and were determined through literature review. Spatially-explicit habitat maps were produced for Yaquina and Tillamook estuaries (Oregon) using environmental data from multiple studies ranging from 1960 to 2012. Suitability of a given location was ranked on a scale of 1-4 (lowest to highest) depending on the number of variables that fell within a bivalve’s tolerance limits. The models were tested by comparison of the distribution of each suitability class to the observed distribution of bivalves reported in benthic community studies (1996-2012). Results showed that the areas of highest habitat suitability (value=4) within our model contained the greatest proportion of bivalve observations and highest popula

  14. Thermal Energy Harvesting from Wildlife

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woias, P.; Schule, F.; Bäumke, E.; Mehne, P.; Kroener, M.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we present the measurement of temperature differences between the ambient air and the body temperature of a sheep (Heidschnucke) and its applicability for thermoelectric energy harvesting from livestock, demonstrated via the test of a specially tailored TEG system in a real-life experiment. In three measurement campaigns average temperature differences were found between 2.5 K and 3.5 K. Analytical models and FEM simulations were carried out to determine the actual thermal resistance of the sheep's fur from comparisons with the temperature measurements. With these data a thermoelectric (TEG) generator was built in a thermally optimized housing with adapted heats sink. The whole TEG system was mounted to a collar, including a data logger for recording temperature and TEG voltage. First measurements at the neck of a sheep were accomplished, with a calculated maximal average power output of 173 μW at the TEG. Taking the necessity of a low-voltage step-up converter into account, an electric output power of 54 μW is available which comes close to the power consumption of a low-power VHF tracking system.

  15. Energy harvesting via ferrofluidic induction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monroe, J. G.; Vasquez, Erick S.; Aspin, Zachary S.; Fairley, John D.; Walters, Keisha B.; Berg, Matthew J.; Thompson, Scott M.

    2015-05-01

    A series of experiments were conducted to investigate and characterize the concept of ferrofluidic induction - a process for generating electrical power via cyclic oscillation of ferrofluid (iron-based nanofluid) through a solenoid. Experimental parameters include: number of bias magnets, magnet spacing, solenoid core, fluid pulse frequency and ferrofluid-particle diameter. A peristaltic pump was used to cyclically drive two aqueous ferrofluids, consisting of 7-10 nm iron-oxide particles and commercially-available hydroxyl-coated magnetic beads (~800 nm), respectively. The solutions were pulsated at 3, 6, and 10 Hz through 3.2 mm internal diameter Tygon tubing. A 1000 turn copper-wire solenoid was placed around the tube 45 cm away from the pump. The experimental results indicate that the ferrofluid is capable of inducing a maximum electric potential of approximately +/- 20 μV across the solenoid during its cyclic passage. As the frequency of the pulsating flow increased, the ferro-nanoparticle diameter increased, or the bias magnet separation decreased, the induced voltage increased. The type of solenoid core material (copper or plastic) did not have a discernible effect on induction. These results demonstrate the feasibility of ferrofluidic induction and provide insight into its dependence on fluid/flow parameters. Such fluidic/magneto-coupling can be exploited for energy harvesting and/or conversion system design for a variety of applications.

  16. Robotic hair harvesting system: a new proposal.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiang; Nakazawa, Toji; Yasuda, Ryuya; Kobayashi, Etsuko; Sakuma, Ichiro; Liao, Hongen

    2011-01-01

    Follicular Unit Extraction (FUE) has become a popular hair transplanting method for solving male-pattern baldness problem. Manually harvesting hairs one by one, however, is a tedious and time-consuming job to doctors. We design an accurate hair harvesting robot with a novel and efficient end-effector which consists of one digital microscope and a punch device. The microscope is first employed to automatically localize target hairs and then guides the punch device for harvesting after shifting. The end-effector shows average bias and precision of 0.014 mm by virtue of a rotary guidance design for the motorized shifting mechanism.

  17. The effects of harvest on waterfowl populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooch, Evan G.; Guillemain, Matthieu; Boomer, G Scott; Lebreton, Jean-Dominique; Nichols, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Overall, there is substantial uncertainty about system dynamics, about the impacts of potential management and conservation decisions on those dynamics, and how to optimise management decisions in the presence of such uncertainties. Such relationships are unlikely to be stationary over space or time, and selective harvest of some individuals can potentially alter life history allocation of resources over time – both of which will potentially influence optimal harvest strategies. These sources of variation and uncertainty argue for the use of adaptive approaches to waterfowl harvest management.

  18. Hybrid piezoelectric energy harvesting transducer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Tian-Bing (Inventor); Jiang, Xiaoning (Inventor); Su, Ji (Inventor); Rehrig, Paul W. (Inventor); Hackenberger, Wesley S. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A hybrid piezoelectric energy harvesting transducer system includes: (a) first and second symmetric, pre-curved piezoelectric elements mounted separately on a frame so that their concave major surfaces are positioned opposite to each other; and (b) a linear piezoelectric element mounted separately on the frame and positioned between the pre-curved piezoelectric elements. The pre-curved piezoelectric elements and the linear piezoelectric element are spaced from one another and communicate with energy harvesting circuitry having contact points on the frame. The hybrid piezoelectric energy harvesting transducer system has a higher electromechanical energy conversion efficiency than any known piezoelectric transducer.

  19. The relation of harvesting intensity to changes in soil, soil water, and stream chemistry in a northern hardwood forest, Catskill Mountains, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Siemion, Jason; Burns, Douglas A.; Murdoch, Peter S.; Germain, Rene H.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that clearcutting of northern hardwood forests mobilizes base cations, inorganic monomeric aluminum (Alim), and nitrate (NO3--N) from soils to surface waters, but the effects of partial harvests on NO3--N have been less frequently studied. In this study we describe the effects of a series of partial harvests of varying proportions of basal area removal (22%, 28% and 68%) on Alim, calcium (Ca2+), and NO3--N concentrations in soil extracts, soil water, and surface water in the Catskill Mountains of New York, USA. Increases in NO3--N concentrations relative to pre-harvest values were observed within a few months after harvest in soils, soil water, and stream water for all three harvests. Increases in Alim and Ca2+ concentrations were also evident in soil water and stream water over the same time period for all three harvests. The increases in Alim, Ca2+, and NO3--N concentrations in the 68% harvest were statistically significant as measured by comparing the 18-month pre-harvest period with the 18-month post-harvest period, with fewer significant responses in the two harvests of lowest intensity. All three solutes returned to pre-harvest concentrations in soil water and stream water in the two lowest intensity harvests in 2–3 years compared to a full 3 years in the 68% harvest. When the results of this study were combined with those of a previous nearby clearcut and 40% harvest, the post-harvest increases in NO3--N concentrations in stream water and soil water suggest a harvesting level above which the relation between concentration and harvest intensity changes; there was a greater change in concentration per unit change in harvest intensity when basal area removal was greater than 40%. These results indicate that the deleterious effects on aquatic ecosystems previously demonstrated for intensive harvests in northern hardwood forests of northeastern North America that receive high levels of atmospheric N deposition can be greatly

  20. Physicochemical approach to freshwater microalgae harvesting with magnetic particles.

    PubMed

    Prochazkova, Gita; Podolova, Nikola; Safarik, Ivo; Zachleder, Vilem; Branyik, Tomas

    2013-12-01

    Magnetic harvesting of microalgal biomass provides an attractive alternative to conventional methods. The approach to this issue has so far been pragmatic, focused mainly on finding cheap magnetic agents in combination with harvestable microalgae species. The aim of this work was to study experimentally and theoretically the mechanisms leading to cell-magnetic agent attachment/detachment using real experiments and predictions made by colloidal adhesion (XDLVO) model. Two types of well defined magnetic beads (MBs) carrying ion exchange functional groups (DEAE - diethylaminoethyl and PEI - polyethylenimine) were studied in connection with microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris). Optimal harvesting efficiencies (>90%) were found for DEAE and PEI MBs, while efficient detachment was achieved only for DEAE MBs (>90%). These findings were in accordance with the predictions by XDLVO model. Simultaneously there was found a discrepancy between the XDLVO prediction and the poor detachment of PEI MBs from microalgal surface. This can be ascribed to an additional interaction (probably covalent bonds) between PEI and algal surface, which the XDLVO model is unable to capture given by its non-covalent nature. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Optimal design of permeable fiber network structures for fog harvesting.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyoo-Chul; Chhatre, Shreerang S; Srinivasan, Siddarth; Cohen, Robert E; McKinley, Gareth H

    2013-10-29

    Fog represents a large untapped source of potable water, especially in arid climates. Numerous plants and animals use textural and chemical features on their surfaces to harvest this precious resource. In this work, we investigate the influence of the surface wettability characteristics, length scale, and weave density on the fog-harvesting capability of woven meshes. We develop a combined hydrodynamic and surface wettability model to predict the overall fog-collection efficiency of the meshes and cast the findings in the form of a design chart. Two limiting surface wettability constraints govern the re-entrainment of collected droplets and clogging of mesh openings. Appropriate tuning of the wetting characteristics of the surfaces, reducing the wire radii, and optimizing the wire spacing all lead to more efficient fog collection. We use a family of coated meshes with a directed stream of fog droplets to simulate a natural foggy environment and demonstrate a five-fold enhancement in the fog-collecting efficiency of a conventional polyolefin mesh. The design rules developed in this work can be applied to select a mesh surface with optimal topography and wetting characteristics to harvest enhanced water fluxes over a wide range of natural convected fog environments.

  2. Structural Optimization of Triboelectric Nanogenerator for Harvesting Water Wave Energy.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Li Min; Chen, Xiangyu; Han, Chang Bao; Tang, Wei; Zhang, Chi; Xu, Liang; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-12-22

    Ocean waves are one of the most abundant energy sources on earth, but harvesting such energy is rather challenging due to various limitations of current technologies. Recently, networks formed by triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) have been proposed as a promising technology for harvesting water wave energy. In this work, a basic unit for the TENG network was studied and optimized, which has a box structure composed of walls made of TENG composed of a wavy-structured Cu-Kapton-Cu film and two FEP thin films, with a metal ball enclosed inside. By combination of the theoretical calculations and experimental studies, the output performances of the TENG unit were investigated for various structural parameters, such as the size, mass, or number of the metal balls. From the viewpoint of theory, the output characteristics of TENG during its collision with the ball were numerically calculated by the finite element method and interpolation method, and there exists an optimum ball size or mass to reach maximized output power and electric energy. Moreover, the theoretical results were well verified by the experimental tests. The present work could provide guidance for structural optimization of wavy-structured TENGs for effectively harvesting water wave energy toward the dream of large-scale blue energy.

  3. Increasing the potential of agricultural water harvesting in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvine, Brian; Kirkby, Mike; Woldearegay, Kifle

    2014-05-01

    The WAHARA project aims to increase the potential of water harvesting in Africa. The WAHARA project draws on expertise and field data from four study sites in Ethiopia, Tunisia, Burkina Faso and Zambia. The project is transdisciplinary working closely with stakeholders to ensure that the water harvesting technologies selected and tested meet their needs. The effectiveness of WH technologies will be assessed under different environmental and socio-economic conditions. Each study site offers a number of WH technologies and aim to trial technologies from other study sites. The results from the study sites will inform the adaptation of the PESERA model and the potential of WH for the whole of Africa This presentation highlights the climate range in which the field trials are being carried out and the technologies being trialed in northern Ethiopia. Conceptual models for each technology are considered and incorporated into the PESERA model. The model is applied for the study site with both field based and catchment based technologies being assessed. The transferability and potential of individual and combined technologies will be considered across climate gradients and soil type for Africa. A quick assessment tool has been developed and offers an initial assessment of water harvesting potential. The tool can be used to quickly assess which kinds of WHT could be used in specific areas in Africa and is available to interested parties.

  4. Laser scanning measurements on trees for logging harvesting operations.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yili; Liu, Jinhao; Wang, Dian; Yang, Ruixi

    2012-01-01

    Logging harvesters represent a set of high-performance modern forestry machinery, which can finish a series of continuous operations such as felling, delimbing, peeling, bucking and so forth with human intervention. It is found by experiment that during the process of the alignment of the harvesting head to capture the trunk, the operator needs a lot of observation, judgment and repeated operations, which lead to the time and fuel losses. In order to improve the operation efficiency and reduce the operating costs, the point clouds for standing trees are collected with a low-cost 2D laser scanner. A cluster extracting algorithm and filtering algorithm are used to classify each trunk from the point cloud. On the assumption that every cross section of the target trunk is approximate a standard circle and combining the information of an Attitude and Heading Reference System, the radii and center locations of the trunks in the scanning range are calculated by the Fletcher-Reeves conjugate gradient algorithm. The method is validated through experiments in an aspen forest, and the optimized calculation time consumption is compared with the previous work of other researchers. Moreover, the implementation of the calculation result for automotive capturing trunks by the harvesting head during the logging operation is discussed in particular.

  5. Laser Scanning Measurements on Trees for Logging Harvesting Operations

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yili; Liu, Jinhao; Wang, Dian; Yang, Ruixi

    2012-01-01

    Logging harvesters represent a set of high-performance modern forestry machinery, which can finish a series of continuous operations such as felling, delimbing, peeling, bucking and so forth with human intervention. It is found by experiment that during the process of the alignment of the harvesting head to capture the trunk, the operator needs a lot of observation, judgment and repeated operations, which lead to the time and fuel losses. In order to improve the operation efficiency and reduce the operating costs, the point clouds for standing trees are collected with a low-cost 2D laser scanner. A cluster extracting algorithm and filtering algorithm are used to classify each trunk from the point cloud. On the assumption that every cross section of the target trunk is approximate a standard circle and combining the information of an Attitude and Heading Reference System, the radii and center locations of the trunks in the scanning range are calculated by the Fletcher-Reeves conjugate gradient algorithm. The method is validated through experiments in an aspen forest, and the optimized calculation time consumption is compared with the previous work of other researchers. Moreover, the implementation of the calculation result for automotive capturing trunks by the harvesting head during the logging operation is discussed in particular. PMID:23012543

  6. Plasmonic Enhancement Mechanisms in Solar Energy Harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cushing, Scott K.

    Semiconductor photovoltaics (solar-to-electrical) and photocatalysis (solar-to-chemical) requires sunlight to be converted into excited charge carriers with sufficient lifetimes and mobility to drive a current or photoreaction. Thin semiconductor films are necessary to reduce the charge recombination and mobility losses, but thin films also limit light absorption, reducing the solar energy conversion efficiency. Further, in photocatalysis, the band edges of semiconductor must straddle the redox potentials of a photochemical reaction, reducing light absorption to half the solar spectrum in water splitting. Plasmonics transforms metal nanoparticles into antennas with resonances tuneable across the solar spectrum. If energy can be transferred from the plasmon to the semiconductor, light absorption in the semiconductor can be increased in thin films and occur at energies smaller than the band gap. This thesis investigates why, despite this potential, plasmonic solar energy harvesting techniques rarely appear in top performing solar architectures. To accomplish this goal, the possible plasmonic enhancement mechanisms for solar energy conversion were identified, isolated, and optimized by combining systematic sample design with transient absorption spectroscopy, photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic testing, and theoretical development. Specifically, metal semiconductor nanostructures were designed to modulate the plasmon's scattering, hot carrier, and near field interactions as well as remove heating and self-catalysis effects. Transient absorption spectroscopy then revealed how the structure design affected energy and charge carrier transfer between metal and semiconductor. Correlating this data with wavelength-dependent photoconversion efficiencies and theoretical developments regarding metal-semiconductor interactions identified the origin of the plasmonic enhancement. Using this methodology, it has first been proven that three plasmonic enhancement routes are

  7. Quasiperiodic energy harvesting in a forced and delayed Duffing harvester device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghouli, Zakaria; Hamdi, Mustapha; Lakrad, Faouzi; Belhaq, Mohamed

    2017-10-01

    This paper studies quasiperiodic vibration-based energy harvesting in a forced nonlinear harvester device in which time delay is inherently present. The harvester consists of a delayed Duffing-type oscillator subject to a harmonic excitation and coupled to a piezoelectric circuit. We consider the case of a monostable system and we use perturbation techniques to approximate quasiperiodic responses and the corresponding averaged power amplitudes near the primary resonance. The influence of different system parameters on the performance of the quasiperiodic vibration-based energy harvesting is examined and the optimal performance of the harvester device in term of time delay parameters is studied. It is shown that in the considered harvester system the induced large-amplitude quasiperiodic vibrations can be used to extract energy over broadband of excitation frequencies away from the resonance, thereby avoiding hysteresis and instability near the resonance.

  8. Developing index maps of water-harvest potential in Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senay, G.B.; Verdin, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    The food security problem in Africa is tied to the small farmer, whose subsistence farming relies heavily on rain-fed agriculture. A dry spell lasting two to three weeks can cause a significant yield reduction. A small-scale irrigation scheme from small-capacity ponds can alleviate this problem. This solution would require a water harvest mechanism at a farm level. In this study, we looked at the feasibility of implementing such a water harvest mechanism in drought prone parts of Africa. A water balance study was conducted at different watershed levels. Runoff (watershed yield) was estimated using the SCS curve number technique and satellite derived rainfall estimates (RFE). Watersheds were delineated from the Africa-wide HYDRO-1K digital elevation model (DEM) data set in a GIS environment. Annual runoff volumes that can potentially be stored in a pond during storm events were estimated as the product of the watershed area and runoff excess estimated from the SCS Curve Number method. Estimates were made for seepage and net evaporation losses. A series of water harvest index maps were developed based on a combination of factors that took into account the availability of runoff, evaporation losses, population density, and the required watershed size needed to fill a small storage reservoir that can be used to alleviate water stress during a crop growing season. This study presents Africa-wide water-harvest index maps that could be used for conducting feasibility studies at a regional scale in assessing the relative differences in runoff potential between regions for the possibility of using ponds as a water management tool. ?? 2004 American Society of Agricultural Engineers.

  9. An effective technique of scrotal harvest.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, R L; Ryan, C M; Tompkins, R G

    1993-01-01

    In male patients with extensive burns, the scrotum is often spared and is potentially a very useful donor site. We describe a technique that simplifies scrotal harvest and facilitates the procurement of clinically useful amounts of split-thickness skin.

  10. Piezoelectric energy harvesting computer controlled test bench.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Rodriguez, M; Jiménez, F J; de Frutos, J; Alonso, D

    2016-09-01

    In this paper a new computer controlled (C.C.) laboratory test bench is presented. The patented test bench is made up of a C.C. road traffic simulator, C.C. electronic hardware involved in automating measurements, and test bench control software interface programmed in LabVIEW™. Our research is focused on characterizing electronic energy harvesting piezoelectric-based elements in road traffic environments to extract (or "harvest") maximum power. In mechanical to electrical energy conversion, mechanical impacts or vibrational behavior are commonly used, and several major problems need to be solved to perform optimal harvesting systems including, but no limited to, primary energy source modeling, energy conversion, and energy storage. It is described a novel C.C. test bench that obtains, in an accurate and automatized process, a generalized linear equivalent electrical model of piezoelectric elements and piezoelectric based energy store harvesting circuits in order to scale energy generation with multiple devices integrated in different topologies.

  11. Innovative Harvesting Systems In Bottomland Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Bryce J. Stokes; Robert B. Rummer

    1997-01-01

    Current and innovative machines and systems for harvesting bottomland hardwoods are described. Four systems are evaluated for production and costs: (1) grapple skidder, (2) clambunkskidder, (3) tree-length forwarder, and (4) shovel logging.

  12. Red alder harvesting opportunities in western Oregon.

    Treesearch

    Donald R. Gedney

    1990-01-01

    This report presents statistics on the present distribution and ownership of merchantable stands of red alder in western Oregon and the character of these stands as they affect harvesting opportunities.

  13. Piezoelectric energy harvesting computer controlled test bench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez-Rodriguez, M.; Jiménez, F. J.; de Frutos, J.; Alonso, D.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper a new computer controlled (C.C.) laboratory test bench is presented. The patented test bench is made up of a C.C. road traffic simulator, C.C. electronic hardware involved in automating measurements, and test bench control software interface programmed in LabVIEW™. Our research is focused on characterizing electronic energy harvesting piezoelectric-based elements in road traffic environments to extract (or "harvest") maximum power. In mechanical to electrical energy conversion, mechanical impacts or vibrational behavior are commonly used, and several major problems need to be solved to perform optimal harvesting systems including, but no limited to, primary energy source modeling, energy conversion, and energy storage. It is described a novel C.C. test bench that obtains, in an accurate and automatized process, a generalized linear equivalent electrical model of piezoelectric elements and piezoelectric based energy store harvesting circuits in order to scale energy generation with multiple devices integrated in different topologies.

  14. Piezoelectric and electromagnetic respiratory effort energy harvesters.

    PubMed

    Shahhaidar, Ehsaneh; Padasdao, Bryson; Romine, R; Stickley, C; Boric-Lubecke, Olga

    2013-01-01

    The movements of the torso due to normal breathing could be harvested as an alternative, and renewable power source for an ultra-low power electronic device. The same output signal could also be recorded as a physiological signal containing information about breathing, thus enabling self-powered wearable biosensors/harvesters. In this paper, the selection criteria for such a biosensor, optimization procedure, trade-offs, and challenges as a sensor and harvester are presented. The empirical data obtained from testing different modules on a mechanical torso and a human subject demonstrated that an electromagnetic generator could be used as an unobtrusive self-powered medical sensor by harvesting more power, offering reasonable amount of output voltage for rectification purposes, and detecting respiratory effort.

  15. Characterization of Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting MEMS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    OF PIEZOELECTRIC ENERGY HARVESTING MEMS by Ryan D. Johnson December 2015 Thesis Advisor: Dragoslav Grbovic Co-Advisor: Fabio Alves THIS...Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CHARACTERIZATION OF PIEZOELECTRIC ENERGY HARVESTING MEMS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Ryan D. Johnson 7...DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) Energy conservation and increased efficiency lie at the forefront of defense missions, capabilities

  16. Vibration energy harvesting by magnetostrictive material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Yuan, F. G.

    2008-08-01

    A new class of vibration energy harvester based on magnetostrictive material (MsM), Metglas 2605SC, is designed, developed and tested. It contains two submodules: an MsM harvesting device and an energy harvesting circuit. Compared to piezoelectric materials, the Metglas 2605SC offers advantages including higher energy conversion efficiency, longer life cycles, lack of depolarization and higher flexibility to survive in strong ambient vibrations. To enhance the energy conversion efficiency and alleviate the need of a bias magnetic field, Metglas ribbons are transversely annealed by a strong magnetic field along their width direction. To analyze the MsM harvesting device a generalized electromechanical circuit model is derived from Hamilton's principle in conjunction with the normal mode superposition method based on Euler-Bernoulli beam theory. The MsM harvesting device is equivalent to an electromechanical gyrator in series with an inductor. In addition, the proposed model can be readily extended to a more practical case of a cantilever beam element with a tip mass. The energy harvesting circuit, which interfaces with a wireless sensor and accumulates the harvested energy into an ultracapacitor, is designed on a printed circuit board (PCB) with plane dimension 25 mm × 35 mm. It mainly consists of a voltage quadrupler, a 3 F ultracapacitor and a smart regulator. The output DC voltage from the PCB can be adjusted within 2.0-5.5 V. In experiments, the maximum output power and power density on the resistor can reach 200 µW and 900 µW cm-3, respectively, at a low frequency of 58 Hz. For a working prototype under a vibration with resonance frequency of 1.1 kHz and peak acceleration of 8.06 m s-2 (0.82 g), the average power and power density during charging the ultracapacitor can achieve 576 µW and 606 µW cm-3, respectively, which compete favorably with piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters.

  17. Manual harvesting of high population Leucaena stands

    SciTech Connect

    Pecson, R.D.; Van Den Beldt, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    Five-year-old giant Leucaena leucocephala, planted at spacing 1x0.5 m, were harvested using bolos (Filipino machetes) and chainsaws. For felling alone, chainsaws took 35% less time than bolos. For the total harvest including delimbing and hauling an average 20 m to the edge of the stand, chainsaws took 20% less time than bolos. Assuming chainsaws are economically viable, it may be advisable to fell with chainsaws in advance of bolo teams that buck and haul. 2 references.

  18. An implantable fluidic vibrational energy harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, S.; Takahashi, T.; Kumemura, M.; Fujita, H.; Toshiyoshi, H.

    2016-11-01

    Targeting implantable medical devices such as respiratory pace-maker, we have developed a proof-of-concept level energy harvester device that could earn electric power of 44 μW/cm2 by the fluidic motion in a PDMS microchannel placed on a silicon substrate with built-in permanent electrical charges or so-called electrets. The motion of the working fluid will be operated by the heart beat or breathing as a final shape of the energy harvesting system.

  19. Hybrid energy harvesting using active thermal backplane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Lee, Dong-Gun

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the concept of a new hybrid energy harvesting system by combing solar cells with magneto-thermoelectric generator (MTG, i.e., thermal energy harvesting). The silicon solar cell can easily reach high temperature under normal operating conditions. Thus the heated solar cell becomes rapidly less efficient as the temperature of solar cell rises. To increase the efficiency of the solar cell, air or water-based cooling system is used. To surpass conventional cooling devices requiring additional power as well as large working space for air/water collectors, we develop a new technology of pairing an active thermal backplane (ATB) to solar cell. The ATB design is based on MTG technology utilizing the physics of the 2nd order phase transition of active ferromagnetic materials. The MTG is cost-effective conversion of thermal energy to electrical energy and is fundamentally different from Seebeck TEG devices. The ATB (MTG) is in addition to being an energy conversion system, a very good conveyor of heat through both conduction and convection. Therefore, the ATB can provide dual-mode for the proposed hybrid energy harvesting. One is active convective and conductive cooling for heated solar cell. Another is active thermal energy harvesting from heat of solar cell. These novel hybrid energy harvesting device have potentially simultaneous energy conversion capability of solar and thermal energy into electricity. The results presented can be used for better understanding of hybrid energy harvesting system that can be integrated into commercial applications.

  20. Harvesting Vibrational Energy Using Material Work Functions

    PubMed Central

    Varpula, Aapo; Laakso, Sampo J.; Havia, Tahvo; Kyynäräinen, Jukka; Prunnila, Mika

    2014-01-01

    Vibration energy harvesters scavenge energy from mechanical vibrations to energise low power electronic devices. In this work, we report on vibration energy harvesting scheme based on the charging phenomenon occurring naturally between two bodies with different work functions. Such work function energy harvester (WFEH) is similar to electrostatic energy harvester with the fundamental distinction that neither external power supplies nor electrets are needed. A theoretical model and description of different operation modes of WFEHs are presented. The WFEH concept is tested with macroscopic experiments, which agree well with the model. The feasibility of miniaturizing WFEHs is shown by simulating a realistic MEMS device. The WFEH can be operated as a charge pump that pushes charge and energy into an energy storage element. We show that such an operation mode is highly desirable for applications and that it can be realised with either a charge shuttle or with switches. The WFEH is shown to give equal or better output power in comparison to traditional electrostatic harvesters. Our findings indicate that WFEH has great potential in energy harvesting applications. PMID:25348004

  1. Energy harvesting for dielectric elastomer sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Iain A.; Illenberger, Patrin; O'Brien, Ben M.

    2016-04-01

    Soft and stretchy dielectric elastomer (DE) sensors can measure large strains on robotic devices and people. DE strain measurement requires electric energy to run the sensors. Energy is also required for information processing and telemetering of data to phone or computer. Batteries are expensive and recharging is inconvenient. One solution is to harvest energy from the strains that the sensor is exposed to. For this to work the harvester must also be wearable, soft, unobtrusive and profitable from the energy perspective; with more energy harvested than used for strain measurement. A promising way forward is to use the DE sensor as its own energy harvester. Our study indicates that it is feasible for a basic DE sensor to provide its own power to drive its own sensing signal. However telemetry and computation that are additional to this will require substantially more power than the sensing circuit. A strategy would involve keeping the number of Bluetooth data chirps low during the entire period of energy harvesting and to limit transmission to a fraction of the total time spent harvesting energy. There is much still to do to balance the energy budget. This will be a challenge but when we succeed it will open the door to autonomous DE multi-sensor systems without the requirement for battery recharge.

  2. Study on Pyroelectric Harvesters with Various Geometry.

    PubMed

    Siao, An-Shen; Chao, Ching-Kong; Hsiao, Chun-Ching

    2015-08-11

    Pyroelectric harvesters convert time-dependent temperature variations into electric current. The appropriate geometry of the pyroelectric cells, coupled with the optimal period of temperature fluctuations, is key to driving the optimal load resistance, which enhances the performance of pyroelectric harvesters. The induced charge increases when the thickness of the pyroelectric cells decreases. Moreover, the induced charge is extremely reduced for the thinner pyroelectric cell when not used for the optimal period. The maximum harvested power is achieved when a 100 μm-thick PZT (Lead zirconate titanate) cell is used to drive the optimal load resistance of about 40 MΩ. Moreover, the harvested power is greatly reduced when the working resistance diverges even slightly from the optimal load resistance. The stored voltage generated from the 75 μm-thick PZT cell is less than that from the 400 μm-thick PZT cell for a period longer than 64 s. Although the thinner PZT cell is advantageous in that it enhances the efficiency of the pyroelectric harvester, the much thinner 75 μm-thick PZT cell and the divergence from the optimal period further diminish the performance of the pyroelectric cell. Therefore, the designers of pyroelectric harvesters need to consider the coupling effect between the geometry of the pyroelectric cells and the optimal period of temperature fluctuations to drive the optimal load resistance.

  3. Study on Pyroelectric Harvesters with Various Geometry

    PubMed Central

    Siao, An-Shen; Chao, Ching-Kong; Hsiao, Chun-Ching

    2015-01-01

    Pyroelectric harvesters convert time-dependent temperature variations into electric current. The appropriate geometry of the pyroelectric cells, coupled with the optimal period of temperature fluctuations, is key to driving the optimal load resistance, which enhances the performance of pyroelectric harvesters. The induced charge increases when the thickness of the pyroelectric cells decreases. Moreover, the induced charge is extremely reduced for the thinner pyroelectric cell when not used for the optimal period. The maximum harvested power is achieved when a 100 μm-thick PZT (Lead zirconate titanate) cell is used to drive the optimal load resistance of about 40 MΩ. Moreover, the harvested power is greatly reduced when the working resistance diverges even slightly from the optimal load resistance. The stored voltage generated from the 75 μm-thick PZT cell is less than that from the 400 μm-thick PZT cell for a period longer than 64 s. Although the thinner PZT cell is advantageous in that it enhances the efficiency of the pyroelectric harvester, the much thinner 75 μm-thick PZT cell and the divergence from the optimal period further diminish the performance of the pyroelectric cell. Therefore, the designers of pyroelectric harvesters need to consider the coupling effect between the geometry of the pyroelectric cells and the optimal period of temperature fluctuations to drive the optimal load resistance. PMID:26270666

  4. Seed harvesting is influenced by associational effects in mixed seed neighbourhoods, not just by seed density

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ostoja, Steven M.; Schupp, Eugene W.; Durham, Susan; Klinger, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    Rodents frequently forage in a density-dependent manner, increasing harvesting in patches with greater seed densities. Although seldom considered, seed harvesting may also depend on the species identities of other individuals in the seed neighbourhood. When the seed harvest of a focal species increases in association with another seed species, the focal species suffers from Associational Susceptibility. In contrast, if seeds of the focal species are harvested less when in association with a second species, the focal species benefits from Associational Resistance.To evaluate density dependence and associational effects among seeds in mixtures, we conducted seed removal experiments using a completely additive design patterned after a two-species competition experiment using seeds of either Achnatherum hymenoides(Indian ricegrass), Leymus cinereus (basin wildrye) or Pseudoroegneria spicata (bluebunch wheatgrass), all native perennial grasses, combined with seeds of Bromus tectorum(cheatgrass), a non-native annual grass. The experiment involved placing five fixed quantities of the native seeds mixed with five fixed quantities of B. tectorum seeds in a factorial design, resulting in 35 seed mixture combinations. The seed-eating rodent community at our study sites, in order of abundance, is composed of Peromyscus maniculatus (North American deer mouse), Dipodomys ordii (Ord's kangaroo rat) and Perognathus parvus (Great Basin pocket mouse).Native seed harvesting was density dependent, with a greater proportion of seeds being harvested as density increased. In the mixed density model, the presence of B. tectorumdid not affect harvest of any of the native species' seeds when analysed individually. However, when all three native species were analysed together, increasing quantities of B. tectorum resulted in reduced harvest of native seeds, demonstrating weak but significant Associational Resistance. In contrast, harvest of B. tectorum seeds increased

  5. Production economics of harvesting young hardwood stands in central Appalachia

    Treesearch

    Yaoxiang Li; Jingxin Wang; Gary W. Miller; Joe McNeel

    2004-01-01

    Three harvesting systems of chainsaw/cable skidder, fell-buncher/grapple skidder, and harvester/forwarder were simulated in harvesting three hardwood stands of 30 to 50 years old in central Appalachia. Stands were generated by using a stand generator and harvesting prescriptions included clearcut, shelterwood cut, selective cut, diameter limit cut, and crop tree...

  6. Utah`s 1992 fuelwood harvest. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    McLain, W.H.

    1997-01-01

    Highlights the 1992 harvest of fuelwood in Utah by commercial fuelwood harvesters and those cutting for home consumption. Presents harvest volumes by species, county, and owner. Contains a list of commercial fuelwood harvesters and describes methods of data collection and compilation.

  7. Idaho`s 1990 fuelwood harvest. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    McLain, W.H.

    1996-02-01

    Highlights the 1990 harvest of fuelwood in Idaho by commercial fuelwood harvesters and those cutting for home consumption. Presents harvest volumes by species, county, and owner. Lists a directory of commercial fuelwood harvesters and describes the methods of data collection and compilation.

  8. Comparisons of two methods of harvesting biomass for energy

    Treesearch

    W.F. Watson; B.J. Stokes; I.W. Savelle

    1986-01-01

    Two harvesting methods for utilization of understory biomass were tested against a conventional harvesting method to determine relative costs. The conventional harvesting method tested removed all pine 6 inches diameter at breast height (DBH) and larger and hardwood sawlogs as tree length logs. The two intensive harvesting methods were a one-pass and a two-pass method...

  9. New Hampshire recreational oyster harvesters: profile, perceptions, and attitudes

    Treesearch

    Alberto B. Manalo; Bruce E. Lindsay; George E. Frick

    1992-01-01

    A survey of holders of a 1989 New Hampshire oyster-harvesting license revealed that recreational oyster harvesting is pursued mostly by older men. The 1988 closing of some parts of Great Bay to oyster harvesting resulted in license holders' taking one fewer trip and taking about six minutes longer to harvest one bushel of oysters in 1989. The average annual...

  10. Trends in Harvest Cost in New Hampshire: 1964 to 1983

    Treesearch

    Donald F. Dennis; Susan B. Remington; Susan B. Remington

    1987-01-01

    Timber harvesting costs for New Hampshire from 1964 to 1983 were examined. During this period, real harvesting costs for sawtimber decreased at an average annual rate of 1.2 percent, while stumpage prices increased. Real harvesting costs for pulpwood declined at a 0.8 percent average annual rate. Harvest cost data for fuelwood were available only for 1973 to 1983....

  11. Jungle Giants: Assessing Sustainable Harvesting in a Difficult-to-Survey Species (Python reticulatus).

    PubMed

    Natusch, Daniel J D; Lyons, Jessica A; Mumpuni; Riyanto, Awal; Shine, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Sustainability of wildlife harvests is critical but difficult to assess. Evaluations of sustainability typically combine modelling with the measurement of underlying abundances. For many taxa harvested in developing countries, however, abundances are near-impossible to survey and a lack of detailed ecological information impedes the reliability of models. In such cases, repeated surveys of the attributes of harvested individuals may provide more robust information on sustainability. If the numbers, sizes and other demographic attributes of animals taken for the commercial trade do not change over biologically significant time intervals (decades), there is a prima facie case that the harvest is indeed sustainable. Here, we report the results of examinations of > 4,200 reticulated pythons (Python reticulatus) taken for the commercial leather industry in northern and southern Sumatra, Indonesia. The numbers, mean body sizes, clutch sizes, sizes at maturity and proportion of giant specimens have not decreased between our first surveys (1995) and repeat surveys (2015). Thus, despite assumptions to the contrary, the harvest appears to be sustainable. We use our data to inform the design of future monitoring programs for this species. Our study underpins the need for robust science to inform wildlife trade policy and decision-making, and urges wildlife managers to assess sustainability of difficult-to-survey terrestrial wildlife by drawing inferences directly from the harvest itself.

  12. Jungle Giants: Assessing Sustainable Harvesting in a Difficult-to-Survey Species (Python reticulatus)

    PubMed Central

    Natusch, Daniel J. D.; Lyons, Jessica A.; Mumpuni; Riyanto, Awal; Shine, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Sustainability of wildlife harvests is critical but difficult to assess. Evaluations of sustainability typically combine modelling with the measurement of underlying abundances. For many taxa harvested in developing countries, however, abundances are near-impossible to survey and a lack of detailed ecological information impedes the reliability of models. In such cases, repeated surveys of the attributes of harvested individuals may provide more robust information on sustainability. If the numbers, sizes and other demographic attributes of animals taken for the commercial trade do not change over biologically significant time intervals (decades), there is a prima facie case that the harvest is indeed sustainable. Here, we report the results of examinations of > 4,200 reticulated pythons (Python reticulatus) taken for the commercial leather industry in northern and southern Sumatra, Indonesia. The numbers, mean body sizes, clutch sizes, sizes at maturity and proportion of giant specimens have not decreased between our first surveys (1995) and repeat surveys (2015). Thus, despite assumptions to the contrary, the harvest appears to be sustainable. We use our data to inform the design of future monitoring programs for this species. Our study underpins the need for robust science to inform wildlife trade policy and decision-making, and urges wildlife managers to assess sustainability of difficult-to-survey terrestrial wildlife by drawing inferences directly from the harvest itself. PMID:27391138

  13. Accounting for tagging-to-harvest mortality in a Brownie tag-recovery model by incorporating radio-telemetry data.

    PubMed

    Buderman, Frances E; Diefenbach, Duane R; Casalena, Mary Jo; Rosenberry, Christopher S; Wallingford, Bret D

    2014-04-01

    The Brownie tag-recovery model is useful for estimating harvest rates but assumes all tagged individuals survive to the first hunting season; otherwise, mortality between time of tagging and the hunting season will cause the Brownie estimator to be negatively biased. Alternatively, fitting animals with radio transmitters can be used to accurately estimate harvest rate but may be more costly. We developed a joint model to estimate harvest and annual survival rates that combines known-fate data from animals fitted with transmitters to estimate the probability of surviving the period from capture to the first hunting season, and data from reward-tagged animals in a Brownie tag-recovery model. We evaluated bias and precision of the joint estimator, and how to optimally allocate effort between animals fitted with radio transmitters and inexpensive ear tags or leg bands. Tagging-to-harvest survival rates from >20 individuals with radio transmitters combined with 50-100 reward tags resulted in an unbiased and precise estimator of harvest rates. In addition, the joint model can test whether transmitters affect an individual's probability of being harvested. We illustrate application of the model using data from wild turkey, Meleagris gallapavo, to estimate harvest rates, and data from white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, to evaluate whether the presence of a visible radio transmitter is related to the probability of a deer being harvested. The joint known-fate tag-recovery model eliminates the requirement to capture and mark animals immediately prior to the hunting season to obtain accurate and precise estimates of harvest rate. In addition, the joint model can assess whether marking animals with radio transmitters affects the individual's probability of being harvested, caused by hunter selectivity or changes in a marked animal's behavior.

  14. Accounting for tagging-to-harvest mortality in a Brownie tag-recovery model by incorporating radio-telemetry data

    PubMed Central

    Buderman, Frances E; Diefenbach, Duane R; Casalena, Mary Jo; Rosenberry, Christopher S; Wallingford, Bret D

    2014-01-01

    The Brownie tag-recovery model is useful for estimating harvest rates but assumes all tagged individuals survive to the first hunting season; otherwise, mortality between time of tagging and the hunting season will cause the Brownie estimator to be negatively biased. Alternatively, fitting animals with radio transmitters can be used to accurately estimate harvest rate but may be more costly. We developed a joint model to estimate harvest and annual survival rates that combines known-fate data from animals fitted with transmitters to estimate the probability of surviving the period from capture to the first hunting season, and data from reward-tagged animals in a Brownie tag-recovery model. We evaluated bias and precision of the joint estimator, and how to optimally allocate effort between animals fitted with radio transmitters and inexpensive ear tags or leg bands. Tagging-to-harvest survival rates from >20 individuals with radio transmitters combined with 50–100 reward tags resulted in an unbiased and precise estimator of harvest rates. In addition, the joint model can test whether transmitters affect an individual's probability of being harvested. We illustrate application of the model using data from wild turkey, Meleagris gallapavo, to estimate harvest rates, and data from white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, to evaluate whether the presence of a visible radio transmitter is related to the probability of a deer being harvested. The joint known-fate tag-recovery model eliminates the requirement to capture and mark animals immediately prior to the hunting season to obtain accurate and precise estimates of harvest rate. In addition, the joint model can assess whether marking animals with radio transmitters affects the individual's probability of being harvested, caused by hunter selectivity or changes in a marked animal's behavior. PMID:24834339

  15. Accounting for tagging-to-harvest mortality in a Brownie tag-recovery model by incorporating radio-telemetry data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buderman, Frances E.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Casalena, Mary Jo; Rosenberry, Christopher S.; Wallingford, Bret D.

    2014-01-01

    The Brownie tag-recovery model is useful for estimating harvest rates but assumes all tagged individuals survive to the first hunting season; otherwise, mortality between time of tagging and the hunting season will cause the Brownie estimator to be negatively biased. Alternatively, fitting animals with radio transmitters can be used to accurately estimate harvest rate but may be more costly. We developed a joint model to estimate harvest and annual survival rates that combines known-fate data from animals fitted with transmitters to estimate the probability of surviving the period from capture to the first hunting season, and data from reward-tagged animals in a Brownie tag-recovery model. We evaluated bias and precision of the joint estimator, and how to optimally allocate effort between animals fitted with radio transmitters and inexpensive ear tags or leg bands. Tagging-to-harvest survival rates from >20 individuals with radio transmitters combined with 50–100 reward tags resulted in an unbiased and precise estimator of harvest rates. In addition, the joint model can test whether transmitters affect an individual's probability of being harvested. We illustrate application of the model using data from wild turkey, Meleagris gallapavo,to estimate harvest rates, and data from white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, to evaluate whether the presence of a visible radio transmitter is related to the probability of a deer being harvested. The joint known-fate tag-recovery model eliminates the requirement to capture and mark animals immediately prior to the hunting season to obtain accurate and precise estimates of harvest rate. In addition, the joint model can assess whether marking animals with radio transmitters affects the individual's probability of being harvested, caused by hunter selectivity or changes in a marked animal's behavior.

  16. Evaluation of harvest and information needs for North American sea ducks.

    PubMed

    Koneff, Mark D; Zimmerman, Guthrie S; Dwyer, Chris P; Fleming, Kathleen K; Padding, Paul I; Devers, Patrick K; Johnson, Fred A; Runge, Michael C; Roberts, Anthony J

    2017-01-01

    Wildlife managers routinely seek to establish sustainable limits of sport harvest or other regulated forms of take while confronted with considerable uncertainty. A growing body of ecological research focuses on methods to describe and account for uncertainty in management decision-making and to prioritize research and monitoring investments to reduce the most influential uncertainties. We used simulation methods incorporating measures of demographic uncertainty to evaluate risk of overharvest and prioritize information needs for North American sea ducks (Tribe Mergini). Sea ducks are popular game birds in North America, yet they are poorly monitored and their population dynamics are poorly understood relative to other North American waterfowl. There have been few attempts to assess the sustainability of harvest of North American sea ducks, and no formal harvest strategy exists in the U.S. or Canada to guide management. The popularity of sea duck hunting, extended hunting opportunity for some populations (i.e., special seasons and/or bag limits), and population declines have led to concern about potential overharvest. We used Monte Carlo simulation to contrast estimates of allowable harvest and observed harvest and assess risk of overharvest for 7 populations of North American sea ducks: the American subspecies of common eider (Somateria mollissima dresseri), eastern and western populations of black scoter (Melanitta americana) and surf scoter (M. perspicillata), and continental populations of white-winged scoter (M. fusca) and long-tailed duck (Clangula hyemalis). We combined information from empirical studies and the opinions of experts through formal elicitation to create probability distributions reflecting uncertainty in the individual demographic parameters used in this assessment. Estimates of maximum growth (rmax), and therefore of allowable harvest, were highly uncertain for all populations. Long-tailed duck and American common eider appeared to be at high

  17. Evaluation of harvest and information needs for North American sea ducks

    PubMed Central

    Dwyer, Chris P.; Fleming, Kathleen K.; Padding, Paul I.; Devers, Patrick K.; Johnson, Fred A.; Runge, Michael C.; Roberts, Anthony J.

    2017-01-01

    Wildlife managers routinely seek to establish sustainable limits of sport harvest or other regulated forms of take while confronted with considerable uncertainty. A growing body of ecological research focuses on methods to describe and account for uncertainty in management decision-making and to prioritize research and monitoring investments to reduce the most influential uncertainties. We used simulation methods incorporating measures of demographic uncertainty to evaluate risk of overharvest and prioritize information needs for North American sea ducks (Tribe Mergini). Sea ducks are popular game birds in North America, yet they are poorly monitored and their population dynamics are poorly understood relative to other North American waterfowl. There have been few attempts to assess the sustainability of harvest of North American sea ducks, and no formal harvest strategy exists in the U.S. or Canada to guide management. The popularity of sea duck hunting, extended hunting opportunity for some populations (i.e., special seasons and/or bag limits), and population declines have led to concern about potential overharvest. We used Monte Carlo simulation to contrast estimates of allowable harvest and observed harvest and assess risk of overharvest for 7 populations of North American sea ducks: the American subspecies of common eider (Somateria mollissima dresseri), eastern and western populations of black scoter (Melanitta americana) and surf scoter (M. perspicillata), and continental populations of white-winged scoter (M. fusca) and long-tailed duck (Clangula hyemalis). We combined information from empirical studies and the opinions of experts through formal elicitation to create probability distributions reflecting uncertainty in the individual demographic parameters used in this assessment. Estimates of maximum growth (rmax), and therefore of allowable harvest, were highly uncertain for all populations. Long-tailed duck and American common eider appeared to be at high

  18. Evaluation of harvest and information needs for North American sea ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koneff, Mark D.; Zimmerman, Guthrie S.; Dwyer, Chris P.; Fleming, Kathleen K.; Padding, Paul I.; Devers, Patrick K.; Johnson, Fred A.; Runge, Michael C.; Roberts, Anthony J.

    2017-01-01

    Wildlife managers routinely seek to establish sustainable limits of sport harvest or other regulated forms of take while confronted with considerable uncertainty. A growing body of ecological research focuses on methods to describe and account for uncertainty in management decision-making and to prioritize research and monitoring investments to reduce the most influential uncertainties. We used simulation methods incorporating measures of demographic uncertainty to evaluate risk of overharvest and prioritize information needs for North American sea ducks (Tribe Mergini). Sea ducks are popular game birds in North America, yet they are poorly monitored and their population dynamics are poorly understood relative to other North American waterfowl. There have been few attempts to assess the sustainability of harvest of North American sea ducks, and no formal harvest strategy exists in the U.S. or Canada to guide management. The popularity of sea duck hunting, extended hunting opportunity for some populations (i.e., special seasons and/or bag limits), and population declines have led to concern about potential overharvest. We used Monte Carlo simulation to contrast estimates of allowable harvest and observed harvest and assess risk of overharvest for 7 populations of North American sea ducks: the American subspecies of common eider (Somateria mollissima dresseri), eastern and western populations of black scoter (Melanitta americana) and surf scoter (M. perspicillata), and continental populations of white-winged scoter (M. fusca) and long-tailed duck (Clangula hyemalis). We combined information from empirical studies and the opinions of experts through formal elicitation to create probability distributions reflecting uncertainty in the individual demographic parameters used in this assessment. Estimates of maximum growth (rmax), and therefore of allowable harvest, were highly uncertain for all populations. Long-tailed duck and American common eider appeared to be at high

  19. Harvesting electricity from human hair.

    PubMed

    Tulachan, Brindan; Singh, Sushil K; Philip, Deepu; Das, Mainak

    2016-01-01

    continuously hydrating the polymer with water vapor, we prolonged the process. If this interesting aspect of polymer is exploited further and fine tuned, then it will open new avenues for development of sophisticated polymer-based systems, which could be used to harvest electricity from waste heat.

  20. Modeling the Effects of Harvest Alternatives on Mitigating Oak Decline in a Central Hardwood Forest Landscape.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen J; He, Hong S; Spetich, Martin A; Shifley, Stephen R; Thompson Iii, Frank R; Fraser, Jacob S

    2013-01-01

    Oak decline is a process induced by complex interactions of predisposing factors, inciting factors, and contributing factors operating at tree, stand, and landscape scales. It has greatly altered species composition and stand structure in affected areas. Thinning, clearcutting, and group selection are widely adopted harvest alternatives for reducing forest vulnerability to oak decline by removing susceptible species and declining trees. However, the long-term, landscape-scale effects of these different harvest alternatives are not well studied because of the limited availability of experimental data. In this study, we applied a forest landscape model in combination with field studies to evaluate the effects of the three harvest alternatives on mitigating oak decline in a Central Hardwood Forest landscape. Results showed that the potential oak decline in high risk sites decreased strongly in the next five decades irrespective of harvest alternatives. This is because oak decline is a natural process and forest succession (e.g., high tree mortality resulting from intense competition) would eventually lead to the decrease in oak decline in this area. However, forest harvesting did play a role in mitigating oak decline and the effectiveness varied among the three harvest alternatives. The group selection and clearcutting alternatives were most effective in mitigating oak decline in the short and medium terms, respectively. The long-term effects of the three harvest alternatives on mitigating oak decline became less discernible as the role of succession increased. The thinning alternative had the highest biomass retention over time, followed by the group selection and clearcutting alternatives. The group selection alternative that balanced treatment effects and retaining biomass was the most viable alternative for managing oak decline. Insights from this study may be useful in developing effective and informed forest harvesting plans for managing oak decline.

  1. Microalgae harvesting and processing: a literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Shelef, G.; Sukenik, A.; Green, M.

    1984-08-01

    The objective of this report is to present a discussion of the literature review performed on methods of harvesting microalgae. There is no single best method of harvesting microalgae. The choice of preferable harvesting technology depends on algae species, growth medium, algae production, end product, and production cost benefit. Algae size is an important factor since low-cost filtration procedures are presently applicable only for harvesting fairly large microalgae. Small microalgae should be flocculated into larger bodies that can be harvested by one of the methods mentioned above. However, the cells' mobility affects the flocculation process, and addition of nonresidual oxidants to stop the mobility should be considered to aid flocculation. The decision between sedimentation or flotation methods depends on the density difference between the algae cell and the growth medium. For oil-laden algae with low cell density, flotation technologies should be considered. Moreover, oxygen release from algae cells and oxygen supersaturation conditions in growth medium support the use of flotation methods. If high-quality algae are to be produced for human consumption, continuous harvesting by solid ejecting or nozzle-type disc centrifuges is recommended. These centrifuges can easily be cleaned and sterilized. They are suitable for all types of microalgae, but their high operating costs should be compared with the benefits from their use. Another basic criterion for selecting the suitable harvesting procedure is the final algae paste concentration required for the next process. Solids requirements up to 30% can be attained by established dewatering processes. For more concentrated solids, drying methods are required. The various systems for algae drying differ both in the extent of capital investment and the energy requirements. Selection of the drying method depends on the scale of operation and the use for which the dried product is intended.

  2. Analog self-powered harvester achieving switching pause control to increase harvested energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makihara, Kanjuro; Asahina, Kei

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a self-powered analog controller circuit to increase the efficiency of electrical energy harvesting from vibrational energy using piezoelectric materials. Although the existing synchronized switch harvesting on inductor (SSHI) method is designed to produce efficient harvesting, its switching operation generates a vibration-suppression effect that reduces the harvested levels of electrical energy. To solve this problem, the authors proposed—in a previous paper—a switching method that takes this vibration-suppression effect into account. This method temporarily pauses the switching operation, allowing the recovery of the mechanical displacement and, therefore, of the piezoelectric voltage. In this paper, we propose a self-powered analog circuit to implement this switching control method. Self-powered vibration harvesting is achieved in this study by attaching a newly designed circuit to an existing analog controller for SSHI. This circuit aims to effectively implement the aforementioned new switching control strategy, where switching is paused in some vibration peaks, in order to allow motion recovery and a consequent increase in the harvested energy. Harvesting experiments performed using the proposed circuit reveal that the proposed method can increase the energy stored in the storage capacitor by a factor of 8.5 relative to the conventional SSHI circuit. This proposed technique is useful to increase the harvested energy especially for piezoelectric systems having large coupling factor.

  3. Tropical forest harvesting and taxation: a dynamic model of harvesting behavior under selective extraction systems

    Treesearch

    Robert F. Conrad; Malcolm Gillis; D. Evan Mercer

    2005-01-01

    A dynamic model of selective harvesting in multi-species,multi-age tropical forests is developed. Forests are predicted to exhibit different optimal harvesting profiles depending on the nature of their joint cost functions and own or cross-species stock effects. The model is applied to the controversy about incentives produced by various taxes. The impacts of specific...

  4. 75 FR 3888 - Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 92 RIN 1018-AW67 Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska During the 2010 Season AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... Wildlife Service, are reopening the public comment period on our proposed rule to establish migratory bird...

  5. Investigation into the use of picker harvesters on the High Plains of Texas: harvest parameters

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Over a fourth of the cotton bales in the U.S. since 2002 have been produced in Texas, with most coming from the High Plains region. Due to the harsh weather conditions of the region, most cotton on the High Plains is of more storm-proof varieties that are harvested using stripper harvesters. Unlike ...

  6. Following the fate of harvest-damaged trees 13 years after harvests

    Treesearch

    Randy G. Jensen; John M. Kabrick

    2014-01-01

    Logging damage to residual trees during harvest operations can reduce the future volume, quality, and value of wood products. Timber harvests in 1996 on the Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project (MOFEP) provided a rare opportunity to follow the fate of trees wounded by felling or by skidding with rubber-tired skidders.

  7. Ecological impacts of energy-wood harvests: lessons from whole-tree harvesting and natural disturbance

    Treesearch

    Alaina L. Berger; Brian Palik; Anthony W. D' Amato; Shawn Fraver; John B. Bradford; Keith Nislow; David King; Robert T. Brooks

    2013-01-01

    Recent interest in using forest residues and small-diameter material for biofuels is generating a renewed focus on harvesting impacts and forest sustainability. The rich legacy of research from whole-tree harvesting studies can be examined in light of this interest. Although this research largely focused on consequences for forest productivity, in particular carbon and...

  8. Double synchronized switch harvesting (DSSH): a new energy harvesting scheme for efficient energy extraction.

    PubMed

    Lallart, Mickaël; Garbuio, Lauric; Petit, Lionel; Richard, Claude; Guyomar, Daniel

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents a new technique for optimized energy harvesting using piezoelectric microgenerators called double synchronized switch harvesting (DSSH). This technique consists of a nonlinear treatment of the output voltage of the piezoelectric element. It also integrates an intermediate switching stage that ensures an optimal harvested power whatever the load connected to the microgenerator. Theoretical developments are presented considering either constant vibration magnitude, constant driving force, or independent extraction. Then experimental measurements are carried out to validate the theoretical predictions. This technique exhibits a constant output power for a wide range of load connected to the microgenerator. In addition, the extracted power obtained using such a technique allows a gain up to 500% in terms of maximal power output compared with the standard energy harvesting method. It is also shown that such a technique allows a fine-tuning of the trade-off between vibration damping and energy harvesting.

  9. A hydrostatic pressure-cycle energy harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafer, Michael W.; Hahn, Gregory; Morgan, Eric

    2015-04-01

    There have been a number of new applications for energy harvesting with the ever-decreasing power consumption of microelectronic devices. In this paper we explore a new area of marine animal energy harvesting for use in powering tags known as bio-loggers. These devices record data about the animal or its surroundings, but have always had limited deployment times due to battery depletion. Reduced solar irradiance below the water's surface provides the impetus to explore other energy harvesting concepts beyond solar power for use on marine animals. We review existing tag technologies in relation to this application, specifically relating to energy consumption. Additionally, we propose a new idea for energy harvesting, using hydrostatic pressure changes as a source for energy production. We present initial testing results of a bench-top model and show that the daily energy harvesting potential from this technology can meet or exceed that consumed by current marine bio-logging tags. The application of this concept in the arena of bio-logging technology could substantially increase bio-logger deployment lifetimes, allowing for longitudinal studies over the course of multiple breeding and/or migration cycles.

  10. Triboelectric Nanogenerators for Blue Energy Harvesting.

    PubMed

    Khan, Usman; Kim, Sang-Woo

    2016-07-26

    Blue energy in the form of ocean waves offers an enormous energy resource. However, it has yet to be fully exploited in order to make it available for the use of mankind. Blue energy harvesting is a challenging task as the kinetic energy from ocean waves is irregular in amplitude and is at low frequencies. Though electromagnetic generators (EMGs) are well-known for harvesting mechanical kinetic energies, they have a crucial limitation for blue energy conversion. Indeed, the output voltage of EMGs can be impractically low at the low frequencies of ocean waves. In contrast, triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) are highly suitable for blue energy harvesting as they can effectively harvest mechanical energies from low frequencies (<1 Hz) to relatively high frequencies (∼kHz) and are also low-cost, lightweight, and easy to fabricate. Several important steps have been taken by Wang's group to develop TENG technology for blue energy harvesting. In this Perspective, we describe some of the recent progress and also address concerns related to durable packaging of TENGs in consideration of harsh marine environments and power management for an efficient power transfer and distribution for commercial applications.

  11. An energy harvesting type ultrasonic motor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guangqing; Xu, Wentan; Gao, Shuaishuai; Yang, Binqiang; Lu, Guoli

    2017-03-01

    An energy harvesting type ultrasonic motor is presented in this work. The novel motor not only can drive and/or position the motion mechanism, but also can harvest and convert the vibration-induced energy of the stator into electric energy to power small electronic devices. In the new motor, the stator is a sandwich structure of two PZT rings and an elastic metal body. The PZT ring bonded on the bottom surface is used to excite the stator metal body to generate a traveling wave with converse piezoelectric effect, and the other PZT ring bonded on top surface is used to harvest and convert the vibration-induced energy of the stator into electric energy with direct piezoelectric effect. Finite element method is adopted to analyze the vibration characteristics and the energetic characteristic. After the fabrication of a prototype, the mechanical output and electric energy output abilities are measured. The maximum no-load speed and maximum output torque of the prototype are 117rpm and 0.65Nm at an exciting voltage with amplitude of 134 Vp-p and frequency of 40kHz, and the maximum harvesting output power of per sector area of the harvesting PZT is 327mW under an optimal equivalent load resistance of 6.9kΩ.

  12. Energy harvesting from hydraulic pressure fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunefare, K. A.; Skow, E. A.; Erturk, A.; Savor, J.; Verma, N.; Cacan, M. R.

    2013-02-01

    State-of-the-art hydraulic hose and piping systems employ integral sensor nodes for structural health monitoring to avoid catastrophic failures. Energy harvesting in hydraulic systems could enable self-powered wireless sensor nodes for applications such as energy-autonomous structural health monitoring and prognosis. Hydraulic systems inherently have a high energy intensity associated with the mean pressure and flow. Accompanying the mean pressure is the dynamic pressure ripple, which is caused by the action of pumps and actuators. Pressure ripple is a deterministic source with a periodic time-domain behavior conducive to energy harvesting. An energy harvester prototype was designed for generating low-power electricity from pressure ripples. The prototype employed an axially-poled off-the-shelf piezoelectric stack. A housing isolated the stack from the hydraulic fluid while maintaining a mechanical coupling allowing for dynamic-pressure-induced deflection of the stack. The prototype exhibited an off-resonance energy harvesting problem since the fundamental resonance of the piezoelectric stack was much higher than the frequency content of the pressure ripple. The prototype was designed to provide a suitable power output for powering sensors with a maximum output of 1.2 mW. This work also presents electromechanical model simulations and experimental characterization of the piezoelectric power output from the pressure ripple in terms of the force transmitted into the harvester.

  13. Flat inductors for human motion energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blums, Juris; Terlecka, Galina; Gornevs, Ilgvars; Vilumsone, Ausma

    2013-05-01

    The human motion energy harvesting is under investigation. The aim of this investigation: to develop electromagnetic human motion energy harvester that will consist only from flat elements and is integrable into the apparel. Main parts of the developed human motion energy harvester are flat, spiral-shaped inductors. Voltage pulses in such flat inductors can be induced during the motion of a permanent magnet along it. Due to the flat structure, inductors can be completely integrated into the parts of the clothes and it is not necessary to keep empty place for the movement of the magnet, as in usual electromagnetic harvesters. The prototype of the clothing, jacket with integrated electromagnetic human motion energy harvester with flat inductors is tested. The theoretical model for the induction of the electromotive force due to the magnet's movement is created for the basic shapes (round, rhombic, square) of the inductive elements and the results (shape of voltage pulse and generated energy) of the calculations are in a good qualitative and quantitative coincidence with an experimental research.

  14. Acquiring geographical data with web harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dramowicz, K.

    2016-04-01

    Many websites contain very attractive and up to date geographical information. This information can be extracted, stored, analyzed and mapped using web harvesting techniques. Poorly organized data from websites are transformed with web harvesting into a more structured format, which can be stored in a database and analyzed. Almost 25% of web traffic is related to web harvesting, mostly while using search engines. This paper presents how to harvest geographic information from web documents using the free tool called the Beautiful Soup, one of the most commonly used Python libraries for pulling data from HTML and XML files. It is a relatively easy task to process one static HTML table. The more challenging task is to extract and save information from tables located in multiple and poorly organized websites. Legal and ethical aspects of web harvesting are discussed as well. The paper demonstrates two case studies. The first one shows how to extract various types of information about the Good Country Index from the multiple web pages, load it into one attribute table and map the results. The second case study shows how script tools and GIS can be used to extract information from one hundred thirty six websites about Nova Scotia wines. In a little more than three minutes a database containing one hundred and six liquor stores selling these wines is created. Then the availability and spatial distribution of various types of wines (by grape types, by wineries, and by liquor stores) are mapped and analyzed.

  15. Wind-driven pyroelectric energy harvesting device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Mengying; Zabek, Daniel; Bowen, Chris; Abdelmageed, Mostafa; Arafa, Mustafa

    2016-12-01

    Pyroelectric materials have recently received attention for harvesting waste heat owing to their potential to convert temperature fluctuations into useful electrical energy. One of the main challenges in designing pyroelectric energy harvesters is to provide a means to induce a temporal heat variation in a pyroelectric material autonomously from a steady heat source. To address this issue, we propose a new form of wind-driven pyroelectric energy harvester, in which a propeller is set in rotational motion by an incoming wind stream. The speed of the propeller’s shaft is reduced by a gearbox to drive a slider-crank mechanism, in which a pyroelectric material is placed on the slider. Thermal cycling is obtained as the reciprocating slider moves the pyroelectric material across alternative hot and cold zones created by a stationary heat lamp and ambient temperature, respectively. The open-circuit voltage and closed-circuit current are investigated in the time domain at various wind speeds. The device was experimentally tested under wind speeds ranging from 1.1 to 1.6 m s-1 and charged an external 100 nF capacitor through a signal conditioning circuit to demonstrate its effectiveness for energy harvesting. Unlike conventional wind turbines, the energy harvested by the pyroelectric material is decoupled from the wind flow and no mechanical power is drawn from the transmission; hence the system can operate at low wind speeds (<2 m s-1).

  16. Ecological impacts of energy-wood harvests: lessons from whole-tree harvesting and natural disturbance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berger, Alaina L.; Palik, Brian; D'Amato, Anthony W.; Fraver, Shawn; Bradford, John B.; Nislow, Keith H.; King, David; Brooks, Robert T.

    2013-01-01

    Recent interest in using forest residues and small-diameter material for biofuels is generating a renewed focus on harvesting impacts and forest sustainability. The rich legacy of research from whole-tree harvesting studies can be examined in light of this interest. Although this research largely focused on consequences for forest productivity, in particular carbon and nutrient pools, it also has relevance for examining potential consequences for biodiversity and aquatic ecosystems. This review is framed within a context of contrasting ecosystem impacts from whole-tree harvesting because it represents a high level of biomass removal. Although whole-tree harvesting does not fully use the nonmerchantable biomass available, it indicates the likely direction and magnitude of impacts that can occur through energy-wood harvesting compared with less-intensive conventional harvesting and to dynamics associated with various natural disturbances. The intent of this comparison is to gauge the degree of departure of energy-wood harvesting from less intensive conventional harvesting. The review of the literature found a gradient of increasing departure in residual structural conditions that remained in the forest when conventional and whole-tree harvesting was compared with stand-replacing natural disturbance. Important stand- and landscape-level processes were related to these structural conditions. The consequence of this departure may be especially potent because future energy-wood harvests may more completely use a greater range of forest biomass at potentially shortened rotations, creating a great need for research that explores the largely unknown scale of disturbance that may apply to our forest ecosystems.

  17. The economics of a mechanized multiproduct harvesting system for stand conversion of northern hardwoods.

    Treesearch

    John A. Sturos; Edwin S. Miyata; Helmuth M. Steinhilb; Robert M. Barron

    1983-01-01

    Describes chip and saw log yields, production, costs, and potential profits of clearcutting, down to a 2-inch diameter, a northern hardwood poletimber stand by a conventional whole-tree harvesting system and three sawtimber stands by several combinations of whole-tree chipping and saw log recovery.

  18. Determining landscape-level carbon emissions from historically harvested forest products

    Treesearch

    Sean Healey; Todd Morgan; Jon Songster; Jason. Brandt

    2009-01-01

    Resources have been developed in the literature to enable landowners to estimate the carbon sequestration timeline of forest products derived from their land. These tools were used here to estimate sequestration and emissions related to harvests carried out in Ravalli County from 1945 to 2007. This county-level accounting of product carbon release can later be combined...

  19. Detrimental soil disturbance associated with timber harvest systems on National Forests in the Northern Region

    Treesearch

    Derrick Reeves; Deborah Page-Dumroese; Mark Coleman

    2011-01-01

    Maintaining site productivity on forested lands within the National Forest System is a Federal mandate. To meet this mandate, soil conditions on timber harvest units within the Northern Region of the USDA Forest Service cannot exceed a threshold of 15% areal extent of detrimental soil disturbance (DSD; defined as a combination of compaction, puddling, rutting, burning...

  20. Spatially-varied erosion modeling using WEPP for timber harvested and burned hillslopes

    Treesearch

    Peter R. Robichaud; T. M. Monroe

    1997-01-01

    Spatially-varied hydrologic surface conditions exist on steep hillslopes after timber harvest operation and site preparation burning treatments. Site preparation burning creates low- and high-severity burn surface conditions or disturbances. In this study, a hillslope was divided into multiple combinations of surface conditions to determine how their spatial...

  1. Proso Millet Yield and Residue Mass Following Direct Harvest with a Stripper-header

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) (PM) is an important crop for dryland agricultural rotations in the central Great Plains. The crop is traditionally swathed prior to combining to promote uniform drying of the panicle and to minimize seed shattering losses. Direct harvesting of PM with a stripper ...

  2. Proso millet yield and residue mass following direct harvest with a stripper-header

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) (PM) is an important crop for dryland agricultural rotations in the central Great Plains. The crop is traditionally swathed prior to combining to promote uniform drying of the panicle and to minimize seed shattering losses. Direct harvesting of PM with a stripper ...

  3. Methods for monitoring emissions and removals from forest harvesting for timber and fuelwood: Lessons from Guyana

    Treesearch

    Sandra Brown

    2013-01-01

    Two methodologies for estimating net emissions from forest harvesting practices (for timber and possibly fuel) are presented: (1) a standard approach of using medium resolution imagery to monitor the expansion of logging infrastructure into non-logged areas for activity data combined with ground plots and the stock-change method for emission factors; and (2) a...

  4. 78 FR 3503 - Standards for the Growing, Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ... January 16, 2013 Part II Department of Health and Human Services Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 1, 16, 106, Et al. Standards for the Growing, Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human... Human Food; Draft Qualitative Risk Assessment of Risk of Activity/Food Combinations for Activities...

  5. Energy harvesting devices, systems, and related methods

    DOEpatents

    Kotter, Dale K.

    2016-10-18

    Energy harvesting devices include a substrate and a plurality of resonance elements coupled to the substrate. Each resonance element is configured to collect energy in the visible and infrared light spectra and to reradiate energy having a wavelength in the range of about 0.8 .mu.m to about 0.9 .mu.m. The resonance elements are arranged in groups of two or more resonance elements. Systems for harvesting electromagnetic radiation include a substrate, a plurality of resonance elements including a conductive material carried by the substrate, and a photovoltaic material coupled to the substrate and to at least one resonance element. The resonance elements are arranged in groups, such as in a dipole, a tripole, or a bowtie configuration. Methods for forming an energy harvesting device include forming groups of two or more discrete resonance elements in a substrate and coupling a photovoltaic material to the groups of discrete resonance elements.

  6. High elaeophorosis prevalence among harvested Colorado moose.

    PubMed

    LeVan, Ivy K; Fox, Karen A; Miller, Michael W

    2013-07-01

    Infection with Elaeophora schneideri, a filarial parasite, occurs commonly in mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), but seemingly less so in moose (Alces alces). Of 109 carotid artery samples from moose harvested throughout Colorado, USA, in 2007, 14 (13%; 95% binomial confidence interval [bCI]=7-21%) showed gross and 91 (83%; 95% bCI=75-90%) showed histologic evidence of elaeophorosis. Although neither blindness nor other clinical signs associated with elaeophorosis were reported among the harvested moose we examined, the pervasiveness of this parasite may motivate further study of the potential effects of elaeophorosis on moose survival and population performance in the southern Rocky Mountains. Our data suggest histopathology may be more sensitive than gross examination in detecting elaeophorosis in harvested moose.

  7. Solar cells incorporating light harvesting arrays

    DOEpatents

    Lindsey, Jonathan S.; Meyer, Gerald J.

    2003-07-22

    A solar cell incorporates a light harvesting array that comprises: (a) a first substrate comprising a first electrode; and (b) a layer of light harvesting rods electrically coupled to the first electrode, each of the light harvesting rods comprising a polymer of Formula I: ##EQU1## wherein m is at least 1, and may be from two, three or four to 20 or more; X.sup.1 is a charge separation group (and preferably a porphyrinic macrocycle, which may be one ligand of a double-decker sandwich compound) having an excited-state of energy equal to or lower than that of X.sup.2 ; and X.sup.2 through X.sup.m+1 are chromophores (and again are preferably porphyrinic macrocycles).

  8. Mandatory urban rainwater harvesting: learning from experience.

    PubMed

    Gabe, Jeremy; Trowsdale, Sam; Mistry, Diveshkumar

    2012-01-01

    Rainwater harvesting is effectively mandated in several urban areas of New Zealand. To understand the costs and benefits of rainwater harvesting from an end-user perspective, semistructured interviews were conducted with 14 homeowners in northern Auckland affected by these regulations. Residents report differences in four aspects of urban rainwater infrastructure - security of supply, water quality, the learning process and financial costs - that could represent key values for public acceptance. When responses are examined from the perspective of experience that has built empirical knowledge, participants explained how their satisfaction with rainwater harvesting increased over time. We hypothesise that for those lacking experience, urban rainwater consumption is a function of empirical knowledge and has initially rising marginal utility. Regulation that recognises the costs of social learning is likely to be a more effective pathway towards maximising the social benefits associated with integrated urban water management.

  9. Performance comparison of implantable piezoelectric energy harvesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Changki; Radziemski, Leon J.; Clark, William W.

    2008-03-01

    This paper presents experimental results that demonstrate energy generating performance of circular piezoelectric diaphragm harvesters for use in implantable medical devices. The piezoelectric energy generators are designed to transfer internal biomechanical forces into electrical energy that can be stored and used to power other in vivo devices. Such energy harvesters can eliminate complicated procedures for replacement of batteries in active implants by possibly increasing the longevity or capacity of batteries. Experimental results indicated that the PZT circular diaphragm harvesters generated enough power to meet requirements for specific implantable medical devices. It is also found that edge condition, thickness of bonding layer, and a degree of symmetry in fabrication for the unimorph circular diaphragms affect the energy generating performance significantly.

  10. Solar cells incorporating light harvesting arrays

    DOEpatents

    Lindsey, Jonathan S.; Meyer, Gerald J.

    2002-01-01

    A solar cell incorporates a light harvesting array that comprises: (a) a first substrate comprising a first electrode; and (b) a layer of light harvesting rods electrically coupled to the first electrode, each of the light harvesting rods comprising a polymer of Formula I: X.sup.1.paren open-st.X.sup.m+1).sub.m (I) wherein m is at least 1, and may be from two, three or four to 20 or more; X.sup.1 is a charge separation group (and preferably a porphyrinic macrocycle, which may be one ligand of a double-decker sandwich compound) having an excited-state of energy equal to or lower than that of X.sup.2 ; and X.sup.2 through X.sup.m+1 are chromophores (and again are preferably porphyrinic macrocycles).

  11. Flexible energy harvesting from hard piezoelectric beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delnavaz, Aidin; Voix, Jérémie

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents design, multiphysics finite element modeling and experimental validation of a new miniaturized PZT generator that integrates a bulk piezoelectric ceramic onto a flexible platform for energy harvesting from the human body pressing force. In spite of its flexibility, the mechanical structure of the proposed device is simple to fabricate and efficient for the energy conversion. The finite element model involves both mechanical and piezoelectric parts of the device coupled with the electrical circuit model. The energy harvester prototype was fabricated and tested under the low frequency periodic pressing force during 10 seconds. The experimental results show that several nano joules of electrical energy is stored in a capacitor that is quite significant given the size of the device. The finite element model is validated by observing a good agreement between experimental and simulation results. the validated model could be used for optimizing the device for energy harvesting from earcanal deformations.

  12. Harvesting of microalgae by bio-flocculation.

    PubMed

    Salim, Sina; Bosma, Rouke; Vermuë, Marian H; Wijffels, René H

    2011-10-01

    The high-energy input for harvesting biomass makes current commercial microalgal biodiesel production economically unfeasible. A novel harvesting method is presented as a cost and energy efficient alternative: the bio-flocculation by using one flocculating microalga to concentrate the non-flocculating microalga of interest. Three flocculating microalgae, tested for harvesting of microalgae from different habitats, improved the sedimentation rate of the accompanying microalga and increased the recovery of biomass. The advantages of this method are that no addition of chemical flocculants is required and that similar cultivation conditions can be used for the flocculating microalgae as for the microalgae of interest that accumulate lipids. This method is as easy and effective as chemical flocculation which is applied at industrial scale, however in contrast it is sustainable and cost-effective as no costs are involved for pre-treatment of the biomass for oil extraction and for pre-treatment of the medium before it can be re-used.

  13. Subwavelength resonant antennas enhancing electromagnetic energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oumbe Tekam, Gabin; Ginis, Vincent; Seetharamdoo, Divitha; Danckaert, Jan

    2016-04-01

    In this work, an electromagnetic energy harvester operating at microwave frequencies is designed based on a cut- wire metasurface. This metamaterial is known to contain a quasistatic electric dipole resonator leading to a strong resonant electric response when illuminated by electromagnetic fields.1 Starting from an equivalent electrical circuit, we analytically design the parameters of the system to tune the resonance frequency of the harvester at the desired frequency band. Subsequently, we compare these results with numerical simulations, which have been obtained using finite elements numerical simulations. Finally, we optimize the design by investigating the best arrangement for energy harvesting by coupling in parallel and in series many single layers of cut-wire metasurfaces. We also discuss the implementation of different geometries and sizes of the cut-wire metasurface for achieving different center frequencies and bandwidths.

  14. Water flow energy harvesters for autonomous flowmeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisseau, Sebastien; Duret, Alexandre-Benoit; Perez, Matthias; Jallas, Emmanuel; Jallas, Eric

    2016-11-01

    This paper reports on a water flow energy harvester exploiting a horizontal axis turbine with distributed magnets of alternate polarities at the rotor periphery and air coils outside the pipe. The energy harvester operates down to 1.2L/min with an inlet section of 20mm of diameter and up to 25.2mW are provided at 20L/min in a 2.4V NiMH battery through a BQ25504 power management circuit. The pressure loss induced by the insertion of the energy harvester in the hydraulic circuit and by the extraction of energy has been limited to 0.05bars at 30L/min, corresponding to a minor loss coefficient of KEH=3.94.

  15. Mitigation strategies for Campylobacter spp. in broiler at pre-harvest and harvest level.

    PubMed

    Klein, Günter; Jansen, Wiebke; Kittler, Sophie; Reich, Felix

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to other foodborne zoonotic agents an elimination of Campylobacter spp. from animal production, especially poultry production, seems not to be feasible. Therefore mitigation strategies focus on reduction of the Campylobacter spp. concentration in primary production and further minimalisation during processing. In primary production biosecurity measures (incl. hygiene barriers and restricted access) are the methods applied most commonly and most effectively so far. Experimental approaches and few field trials also showed that bacteriophages, electrolyzed oxidizing water, organic acids or medium chain fatty acids (applied via drinking water) are also effective in reducing Campylobacter prevalence and/or concentration However this reduction cannot be transferred in all cases to the situation in the slaughterhouse. Therefore additional measures have to be taken in account in the slaughterhouse to prevent cross-contamination. Logistic or scheduled slaughter can prevent cross-contamination but cannot further reduce Campylobacter concentration. Process parameters like elevated scalding temperature can contribute to such a reduction, but may also alter the product quality. Therefore no single pre- or harvest measure is sufficient for the reduction of Campylobacter concentration, but a combination of measures in both production levels is needed.

  16. Management of health risks associated with oysters harvested from a norovirus contaminated area, Ireland, February-March 2010.

    PubMed

    Doré, B; Keaveney, S; Flannery, J; Rajko-Nenow, P

    2010-05-13

    Oysters from a harvesting area responsible for outbreaks of gastroenteritis were relaid at a clean seawater site and subsequently depurated in tanks of purified seawater at elevated temperatures. This combined treatment reduced norovirus levels to those detected prior to the outbreak. On the basis of norovirus monitoring the sale of treated oysters was permitted although the harvest area remained closed for direct sale of oysters. No reports of illness have been associated with the consumption of treated oysters.

  17. The effects of harvest regulations on behaviors of duck hunters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haugen, Matthew T.; Powell, Larkin A.; Vrtiska, Mark P.; Pope, Kevin L.

    2015-01-01

    Uncertainty exists as to how duck harvest regulations influence waterfowl hunter behavior. We used the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s Parts Collection Survey to examine how harvest regulations affected behaviors of Central Flyway duck hunters. We stratified hunters into ranked groups based on seasonal harvest and identified three periods (1975–1984, 1988–1993, 2002–2011) that represented different harvest regulations (moderate, restrictive, and liberal, respectively; season length and daily bag limits smallest in restrictive seasons and largest in liberal seasons). We examined variability of seven measures of duck hunter behaviors across the periods: days harvesting ducks, daily harvest, hunter mobility, mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) selectivity, gender selectivity, daily female mallard harvest, and timing of harvest. Hunters reported harvesting ducks on more days, at a higher efficiency, and in slightly more counties during liberal seasons relative to restrictive and moderate seasons. We provide evidence to suggest that future regulation change will affect hunter behaviors.

  18. [Optimum harvest study of Gentiana crassicaulis in Ludian].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yu; Chen, Xing-Fu; Zou, Yuan-Feng; Song, Jiu-Hua; Yang, Wen-Yu; Cheng, Tao

    2014-07-01

    The paper is aimed to study the difference in yield and quality at different harvest time and determine the optimum harvest of planting Gentiana in Ludian traditional harvest period. The authors analyzed the variation in fresh weight, dry weight, dry discount rate, length, diameter, volume and the content of gentiopicroside, loganin acid, alcohol-soluble extract and total ash and made a comprehensive appraisal of yield, appearance quality and intrinsic quality by gray relational distance ideal Comprehensive Evaluation method. The results showed that there is a big difference in yield and quality both 2-year-old and 3-year-old Gentiana harvested in traditional harvest period and the comprehensive evaluation more better when harvested more later. It can be seen, Gentiana harvested the later had a better yield and quality in Ludian traditional harvest period. The harvest of Gentiana can be appropriate delayed depending on the particular circumstances of production.

  19. Integrated actuation and energy harvesting in prestressed piezoelectric synthetic jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mane, Poorna

    With the looming energy crisis compounded by the global economic downturn there is an urgent need to increase energy efficiency and to discover new energy sources. An approach to solve this problem is to improve the efficiency of aerodynamic vehicles by using active flow control tools such as synthetic jet actuators. These devices are able to reduce fuel consumption and streamlined vehicle design by reducing drag and weight, and increasing maneuverability. Hence, the main goal of this dissertation is to study factors that affect the efficiency of synthetic jets by incorporating energy harvesting into actuator design using prestressed piezoelectric composites. Four state-of-the-art piezoelectric composites were chosen as active diaphragms in synthetic jet actuators. These composites not only overcome the inherent brittle and fragile nature of piezoelectric materials but also enhance domain movement which in turn enhances intrinsic contributions. With these varying characteristics among different types of composites, the intricacies of the synthetic jet design and its implementation increases. In addition the electrical power requirements of piezoelectric materials make the new SJA system a coupled multiphysics problem involving electro-mechanical and structural-fluid interactions. Due to the nature of this system, a design of experiments approach, a method of combining experiments and statistics, is utilized. Geometric and electro-mechanical factors are investigated using a fractional factorial design with peak synthetic jet velocity as a response variable. Furthermore, energy generated by the system oscillations is harvested with a prestressed composite and a piezo-polymer. Using response surface methodology the process is optimized under different temperatures and pressures to simulate harsh environmental conditions. Results of the fractional factorial experimental design showed that cavity dimensions and type of signal used to drive the synthetic jet actuator

  20. Particulate residue separators for harvesting devices

    DOEpatents

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Kenney, Kevin L.; Wright, Christopher T.; Hess, John R.

    2010-06-29

    A particulate residue separator and a method for separating a particulate residue stream may include a plenum borne by a harvesting device, and have a first, intake end and a second, exhaust end; first and second particulate residue air streams which are formed by the harvesting device and which travel, at least in part, along the plenum and in a direction of the second, exhaust end; and a baffle assembly which is located in partially occluding relation relative to the plenum, and which substantially separates the first and second particulate residue air streams.

  1. Methyl Jasmonate and 1-Methylcyclopropene Treatment Effects on Quinone Reductase Inducing Activity and Post-Harvest Quality of Broccoli

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Kang Mo; Choi, Jeong Hee; Kim, Hyoung Seok; Kushad, Mosbah M.; Jeffery, Elizabeth H.; Juvik, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Effect of pre-harvest methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and post-harvest 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatments on broccoli floret glucosinolate (GS) concentrations and quinone reductase (QR, an in vitro anti-cancer biomarker) inducing activity were evaluated two days prior to harvest, at harvest and at 10, 20, and 30 days of post-harvest storage at 4 °C. MeJA treatments four days prior to harvest of broccoli heads was observed to significantly increase floret ethylene biosynthesis resulting in chlorophyll catabolism during post-harvest storage and reduced product quality. Post-harvest treatment with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), which competitively binds to protein ethylene receptors, maintained post-harvest floret chlorophyll concentrations and product visual quality in both control and MeJA-treated broccoli. Transcript abundance of BoPPH, a gene which is responsible for the synthesis of pheophytinase, the primary enzyme associated with chlorophyll catabolism in broccoli, was reduced by 1-MCP treatment and showed a significant, negative correlation with floret chlorophyll concentrations. The GS, glucobrassicin, neoglucobrassicin, and gluconasturtiin were significantly increased by MeJA treatments. The products of some of the GS from endogenous myrosinase hydrolysis [sulforaphane (SF), neoascorbigen (NeoASG), N-methoxyindole-3-carbinol (NI3C), and phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC)] were also quantified and found to be significantly correlated with QR. Sulforaphane, the isothiocyanate hydrolysis product of the GS glucoraphanin, was found to be the most potent QR induction agent. Increased sulforaphane formation from the hydrolysis of glucoraphanin was associated with up-regulated gene expression of myrosinase (BoMyo) and the myrosinase enzyme co-factor gene, epithiospecifier modifier1 (BoESM1). This study demonstrates the combined treatment of MeJA and 1-MCP increased QR activity without post-harvest quality loss. PMID:24146962

  2. Methyl jasmonate and 1-methylcyclopropene treatment effects on quinone reductase inducing activity and post-harvest quality of broccoli.

    PubMed

    Ku, Kang Mo; Choi, Jeong Hee; Kim, Hyoung Seok; Kushad, Mosbah M; Jeffery, Elizabeth H; Juvik, John A

    2013-01-01

    Effect of pre-harvest methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and post-harvest 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatments on broccoli floret glucosinolate (GS) concentrations and quinone reductase (QR, an in vitro anti-cancer biomarker) inducing activity were evaluated two days prior to harvest, at harvest and at 10, 20, and 30 days of post-harvest storage at 4 °C. MeJA treatments four days prior to harvest of broccoli heads was observed to significantly increase floret ethylene biosynthesis resulting in chlorophyll catabolism during post-harvest storage and reduced product quality. Post-harvest treatment with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), which competitively binds to protein ethylene receptors, maintained post-harvest floret chlorophyll concentrations and product visual quality in both control and MeJA-treated broccoli. Transcript abundance of BoPPH, a gene which is responsible for the synthesis of pheophytinase, the primary enzyme associated with chlorophyll catabolism in broccoli, was reduced by 1-MCP treatment and showed a significant, negative correlation with floret chlorophyll concentrations. The GS, glucobrassicin, neoglucobrassicin, and gluconasturtiin were significantly increased by MeJA treatments. The products of some of the GS from endogenous myrosinase hydrolysis [sulforaphane (SF), neoascorbigen (NeoASG), N-methoxyindole-3-carbinol (NI3C), and phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC)] were also quantified and found to be significantly correlated with QR. Sulforaphane, the isothiocyanate hydrolysis product of the GS glucoraphanin, was found to be the most potent QR induction agent. Increased sulforaphane formation from the hydrolysis of glucoraphanin was associated with up-regulated gene expression of myrosinase (BoMyo) and the myrosinase enzyme co-factor gene, epithiospecifier modifier1 (BoESM1). This study demonstrates the combined treatment of MeJA and 1-MCP increased QR activity without post-harvest quality loss.

  3. Design and Simulation of Bistable Microsystem with Frequency-up conversion effect for Electrostatic Energy Harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vysotskyi, Bogdan; Parrain, Fabien; Lefeuvre, Elie; Leroux, Xavier; Aubry, Denis; Gaucher, Philippe

    2016-10-01

    This work is dedicated for the study of energy harvesters implemented in form of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) used to harvest ambient vibrations for powering standalone electronic devices. The previewed application is to power a leadless pacemaker with mechanical energy of the heartbeat, which requires the amount of power typically more than 1μW. The target of the presented article is to combine the effect of bistability and nonlinear coupling by electrostatic effect in order to achieve the high value of bandwidth at the low frequency under the low accelerations. Such system is expected to bring high power density performance. This study is performed mostly by numerical simulation.

  4. Influence and optimization of the electrodes position in a piezoelectric energy harvesting flag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piñeirua, Miguel; Doaré, Olivier; Michelin, Sébastien

    2015-06-01

    Fluttering piezoelectric plates may harvest energy from a fluid flow by converting the plate's mechanical deformation into electric energy in an output circuit. This work focuses on the influence of the arrangement of the piezoelectric electrodes along the plate's surface on the energy harvesting efficiency of the system, using a combination of experiments and numerical simulations. A weakly nonlinear model of a plate in axial flow, equipped with a discrete number of piezoelectric patches is derived and confronted to experimental results. Numerical simulations are then used to optimize the position and dimensions of the piezoelectric electrodes. These optimal configurations can be understood physically in the limit of small and large electromechanical coupling.

  5. Broadband magnetic levitation-based nonlinear energy harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nammari, Abdullah; Doughty, Seth; Savage, Dustin; Weiss, Leland; Jaganathan, Arun; Bardaweel, Hamzeh

    2016-05-01

    In this work, development of a broadband nonlinear electromagnetic energy harvester is described. The energy harvester consists of a casing housing stationary magnets, a levitated magnet, oblique mechanical springs, and a coil. Magnetic and oblique springs introduce nonlinear behavior into the energy harvester. A mathematical model of the proposed device is developed and validated. The results show good agreement between model and experiment. The significance of adding oblique mechanical springs to the energy harvester design is investigated using the model simulation. The results from the model suggest that adding oblique springs to the energy harvester will improve the performance and increase the frequency bandwidth and amplitude response of the energy harvester.

  6. Autonomous grain combine control system

    DOEpatents

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Kenney, Kevin L.; Lucas, James R.; Prickel, Marvin A.

    2013-06-25

    A system for controlling a grain combine having a rotor/cylinder, a sieve, a fan, a concave, a feeder, a header, an engine, and a control system. The feeder of the grain combine is engaged and the header is lowered. A separator loss target, engine load target, and a sieve loss target are selected. Grain is harvested with the lowered header passing the grain through the engaged feeder. Separator loss, sieve loss, engine load and ground speed of the grain combine are continuously monitored during the harvesting. If the monitored separator loss exceeds the selected separator loss target, the speed of the rotor/cylinder, the concave setting, the engine load target, or a combination thereof is adjusted. If the monitored sieve loss exceeds the selected sieve loss target, the speed of the fan, the size of the sieve openings, or the engine load target is adjusted.

  7. A Five-Year Assessment of Corn Stover Harvest in Central Iowa, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas L. Karlen; Stuart J. Birell; J. Richard Hess

    2011-11-01

    Sustainable feedstock harvest strategies are needed to ensure bioenergy production does not irreversibly degrade soil resources. The objective for this study was to document corn (Zea mays L.) grain and stover fraction yields, plant nutrient removal and replacement costs, feedstock quality, soil-test changes, and soil quality indicator response to four stover harvest strategies for continuous corn and a corn-soybean [Glycine max. (L.) Merr.] rotation. The treatments included collecting (1) all standing plant material above a stubble height of 10 cm (whole plant), (2) the upper-half by height (ear shank upward), (3) the lower-half by height (from the 10 cm stubble height to just below the earshank), or (4) no removal. Collectable biomass from Treatment 2 averaged 3.9 ({+-}0.8) Mg ha{sup -1} for continuous corn (2005 through 2009), and 4.8 ({+-}0.4) Mg ha{sup -1} for the rotated corn (2005, 2007, and 2009). Compared to harvesting only the grain, collecting stover increased the average N-P-K removal by 29, 3 and 34 kg ha{sup -1} for continuous corn and 42, 3, and 34 kg ha{sup -1} for rotated corn, respectively. Harvesting the lower-half of the corn plant (Treatment 3) required two passes, resulted in frequent plugging of the combine, and provided a feedstock with low quality for conversion to biofuel. Therefore, Treatment 3 was replaced by a 'cobs-only' harvest starting in 2009. Structural sugars glucan and xylan accounted for up to 60% of the chemical composition, while galactan, arabinan, and mannose constituted less than 5% of the harvest fractions collected from 2005 through 2008. Soil-test data from samples collected after the first harvest (2005) revealed low to very low plant-available P and K levels which reduced soybean yield in 2006 after harvesting the whole-plant in 2005. Average continuous corn yields were 21% lower than rotated yields with no significant differences due to stover harvest. Rotated corn yields in 2009 showed some significant differences

  8. Mobilization and harvesting of peripheral blood stem cells.

    PubMed

    Moog, Rainer

    2006-05-01

    The use of peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) as a source of hematopoietic stem cells is steadily increasing and has nearly supplanted bone marrow. The present article reviews mobilization and collection of PBSC as well as its side effects. Specialized harvesting strategies such as large volume leukapheresis (LVL) and pediatric PBSC collection are included in this overview. Under steady state conditions, less than 0.05% of the white blood cells (WBC) are CD34+ cells. Chemotherapy results in a 5-15-fold increase of PBSC. Combining chemotherapy and growth factors increases CD34+ cells up to 6% of WBC. In the allogeneic setting, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor is used alone for PBSC mobilization. Several factors affect the mobilization of PBSC: age, gender, type of growth factor, dose of the growth factor and in the autologous setting, patient's diagnosis, chemotherapy regimen and number of previous chemotherapy cycles or radiation. Harvesting of PBSC can be performed with various blood cell separators using continuous or discontinuous flow technique. Continuous flow separators allow the processing of more blood compared with intermittent flow devices resulting in higher yields of CD34+ cells for transplantation. LVL can be used to increase the CD34+ yield in patients with low CD34+ pre-counts. Processing of more blood in LVL is achieved by an increase of the blood flow rate and an altered anticoagulation regimen. Specialized strategies were developed for pediatric PBSC collection considering the main limiting factors, extracorporeal volume and vascular access. Adverse events in PBSC collection can be subdivided in apheresis associated and mobilization associated side effects. Citrate reactions due to hypocalcemia are frequent during apheresis, especially in pediatric PBSC collection and LVL. Thrombocytopenia is often observed in patients after termination of apheresis due to platelet loss during PBSC harvesting. Muscle and bone pain are frequent adverse events

  9. The Single Pass Multi-component Harvester

    SciTech Connect

    Reed Hoskinson; John R. Hess

    2004-08-01

    collection must be economically advantageous to the producer. To do all that, a single pass multi-component harvester system is most desirable. Results from our first prototype suggest that current combines probably do adequate threshing and that a separate chassis can be developed that does additional separation and that is economically feasible.

  10. Scavenging vibration energy from seismically isolated bridges using an electromagnetic harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Qiuchen; Loong, Chengning; Chang, Chih-Chen; Dimitrakopoulos, Elias G.

    2014-04-01

    The increasing worldwide efforts in securing renewable energy sources increase incentive for civil engineers to investigate whether the kinetic energy associated with the vibration of larger-scale structures can be harvested. Such a research remains challenging and incomplete despite that hundreds of related articles have been published in the last decade. Base isolation is one of the most popular means of protecting a civil engineering structure against earthquake forces. Seismic isolation hinges on the decoupling of the structure from the shaking ground, hence protecting the structure from stress and damage during an earthquake excitation. The low stiffness isolator inserted between the structure and the ground dominates the response leading to a structural system of longer vibration period. As a consequence of this period shift, the spectral acceleration is reduced, but higher response displacements are produced. To mitigate this side effect, usually isolators are combined with the use of additional energy dissipation. In this study, the feasibility of scavenging the need-to-be dissipated energy from the isolator installed in a seismically isolated bridge using an electromagnetic (EM) energy harvester is investigated. The EM energy harvester consists of an energy harvesting circuit and a capacitor for energy storage. A mathematical model for this proposed EM energy harvester is developed and implemented on an idealized base-isolated single-degree-of-freedom system. The effect of having this EM energy harvester on the performance of this seismic isolated system is analyzed and discussed. The potential of installing such an EM energy harvester on a seismically isolated bridge is also addressed.

  11. Post-harvest field manipulations to conserve waste rice for waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stafford, J.D.; Kaminski, R.M.; Reinecke, K.J.; Kurtz, M.E.; Manley, S.W.

    2005-01-01

    Rice seeds escaping collection by combines during harvest (hereafter, waste rice) provide quality forage for migrating and wintering waterfowl in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV) and other rice growing regions in the United States. Recent sample surveys across the MAV have revealed abundance of waste rice in fields declined an average of 71% between harvest and late autumn. Thus, we evaluated the ability of common post-harvest, field-management practices to conserve waste rice for waterfowl until early winter via controlled experiments in Mississippi rice test plots in 2001 and 2003 and analyses of data from MAV-wide surveys of waste rice in rice production fields in 2000-2002. Our experiments indicated test plots with burned rice stubble that were not flooded during autumn contained more waste rice than other treatments in 2001 (P?0.10). Waste-rice abundance in test plots did not differ among postharvest treatments in 2003 (P = 0.97). Our analyses of data from the MAV sample surveys did not detect differences in abundance of waste rice among fields burned, rolled, disked, or left in standing stubble post-harvest (P?0.04; Bonferroni corrected critical ( a= 0.017). Because results from test-plot experiments were inconclusive, we based our primary inference regarding best post-harvest treatments on patterns of rice abundance identified from the MAV surveys and previously documented environmental and agronomic benefits of managing harvested rice fields for wintering waterfowl. Therefore, we recommend leaving standing stubble in rice fields after harvest as a preliminary beneficial management practice. We suggest future research evaluate potential of postharvest practices to conserve waste rice for waterfowl and reduce straw in production rice fields managed for wintering waterfowl throughout the MAV.

  12. How myristyltrimethylammonium bromide enhances biomass harvesting and pigments extraction from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yun; Lai, YenJung Sean; Eustance, Everett; Straka, Levi; Zhou, Chen; Xia, Siqing; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2017-09-21

    Myristyltrimethylammonium bromide (MTAB) is a cationic surfactant used to improve biomass harvesting and pigment extraction form microalgae, but the mechanisms underlying its effectiveness are poorly defined. We document the mechanisms for enhanced harvesting and pigment extraction for the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 using measurements from flow cytometer, zeta potential, release of soluble components, and microscopy. Harvesting efficiency increased as the MTAB/Biomass dose increased from 0 to 40%. A low MTAB dose (≤ 8%) mainly brought about coagulation and flocculation, which led to aggregation that improved harvesting, but 40% MTAB had the highest harvesting efficiency, 62%. Adding MTAB above a MTAB/Biomass dose of 8% also increased cell-membrane permeability, which allowed the solvent (ethyl acetate) to pass into the cells and resulted in a large increase in extraction efficiency of pigments: An MTAB/Biomass ratio of 60% for 180 min achieved the highest extraction efficiencies of chlorophyll and carotenoids, 95% and 91%, respectively. Combining harvesting and extraction performances with results from flow cytometry, zeta potential, release of soluble components, and microscopy lead to the following mechanistic understandings. MTAB dose from 8% to 40% solubilized EPS, which lowered the biomass's negative charge, but caused breakup of the large aggregates. An increase of cell permeability also in this stage allowed ethyl acetate to pass into the cells and achieve better pigment extraction. MTAB >40% led to cell lysis and a large increase in soluble organics, but complete cell lysis was not required to achieve the maximum extraction efficiency. The MTAB/Biomass % ratio for optimizing harvest efficiency and pigment extraction lay in the range of 40%-60%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Harvesting Atlantic Cod under Climate Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oremus, K. L.

    2016-12-01

    Previous literature links the growth of a fishery to climate variability. This study uses an age-structured bioeconomic model to compare optimal harvest in the Gulf of Maine Atlantic cod fishery under a variable climate versus a static climate. The optimal harvest path depends on the relationship between fishery growth and the interest rate, with higher interest rates dictating greater harvests now at the cost of long-term stock sustainability. Given the time horizon of a single generation of fishermen under assumptions of a static climate, the model finds that the economically optimal management strategy is to harvest the entire stock in the short term and allow the fishery to collapse. However, if the biological growth of the fishery is assumed to vary with climate conditions, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation, there will always be pulses of high growth in the stock. During some of these high-growth years, the growth of the stock and its economic yield can exceed the growth rate of the economy even under high interest rates. This implies that it is not economically optimal to exhaust the New England cod fishery if NAO is included in the biological growth function. This finding may have theoretical implications for the management of other renewable yet exhaustible resources whose growth rates are subject to climate variability.

  14. Recovery efficiency of whole-tree harvesting

    Treesearch

    Bryce J. Stokes; William F. Watson

    1988-01-01

    The recovery of total tree biomass and most components of a stand is a practical economic and management alternative to tree-length harvesting. First, the increased utilization of woody biomass provides additional revenues from the site. Second, the removal and utilization of the stems and crowns reduces site preparation costs and makes tree planting easier. Third,...

  15. Attitudes toward Posthumous Harvesting and Reproduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hans, Jason D.

    2008-01-01

    Attitudes toward posthumous harvesting of reproductive material and beliefs about medical professionals' obligation to assist were examined using a multiple segment factorial vignette survey design with 407 randomly selected respondents from a southern state. Attitudes and beliefs were primarily shaped by the vignette couple's marital status,…

  16. Machine rates for selected forest harvesting machines

    Treesearch

    R.W. Brinker; J. Kinard; Robert Rummer; B. Lanford

    2002-01-01

    Very little new literature has been published on the subject of machine rates and machine cost analysis since 1989 when the Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station Circular 296, Machine Rates for Selected Forest Harvesting Machines, was originally published. Many machines discussed in the original publication have undergone substantial changes in various aspects, not...

  17. Carbon sequestration in harvested wood products

    Treesearch

    K. Skog

    2013-01-01

    Carbon is continuously cycled among these storage pools and between forest ecosystems and the atmosphere as a result of biological processes in forests (e.g., photosynthesis, respiration, growth, mortality, decomposition, and disturbances such as fires or pest outbreaks) and anthropogenic activities (e.g., harvesting, thinning, clearing, and replanting). As trees...

  18. 50 CFR 654.21 - Harvest limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STONE CRAB FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO Management Measures § 654.21 Harvest limitations. (a) Claw size. No person may remove from a stone crab in or from the management area, or possess... stone crabs. An egg-bearing stone crab in or from the management area must be returned immediately to...

  19. 50 CFR 654.21 - Harvest limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STONE CRAB FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO Management Measures § 654.21 Harvest limitations. (a) Claw size. No person may remove from a stone crab in or from the management area...-bearing stone crabs. An egg-bearing stone crab in or from the management area must be returned immediately...

  20. Endovascular vein harvest: systemic carbon dioxide absorption.

    PubMed

    Maslow, Andrew M; Schwartz, Carl S; Bert, Arthur; Hurlburt, Peter; Gough, Jeffrey; Stearns, Gary; Singh, Arun K

    2006-06-01

    Endovascular vein harvest (EDVH) requires CO(2) insufflation to expand the subcutaneous space, allowing visualization and dissection of the saphenous vein. The purpose of this study was to assess the extent of CO(2) absorption during EDVH. Prospective observational study. Single tertiary care hospital. Sixty patients (30 EDVH and 30 open-vein harvest) undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Hemodynamic, procedural, and laboratory data were collected prior to (baseline), during, and at it the conclusion (final) of vein harvesting. Data were also collected during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Data were compared by using t tests, analysis of variance, and correlation statistics when needed. There were significant increases in arterial CO(2) (PaCO(2), 35%) and decreases in pH (1.35%) during EDVH. These were associated with increases in heart rate, mean blood pressure, and cardiac output. Within the EDVH group, greater elevations (>10 mmHg) in PaCO2 were more likely during difficult harvest procedures, and these patients exhibited greater increase in heart rate. Elevated CO(2) persisted during CPB, requiring higher systemic gas flows and greater use of phenylephrine to maintain desired hemodynamics. EDVH was associated with systemic absorption of CO(2). Greater absorption was more likely in difficult procedures and was associated with greater hemodynamic changes requiring medical therapy.

  1. 50 CFR 300.112 - Harvesting permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... issued a harvesting permit do not require a separate permit, but are covered by the permit issued the... against the launching vessel. (2) Permits issued under this section do not authorize vessels or persons... mammals. No marine mammals may be taken in the course of commercial fishing operations unless the...

  2. 50 CFR 300.112 - Harvesting permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... issued a harvesting permit do not require a separate permit, but are covered by the permit issued the... against the launching vessel. (2) Permits issued under this section do not authorize vessels or persons... mammals. No marine mammals may be taken in the course of commercial fishing operations unless the...

  3. Mechanized systems for harvesting eastern hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Chris B. LeDoux

    2010-01-01

    In the central Appalachian region, hardwoods traditionally have been harvested by chainsaw felling with trees and logs extracted from the forest to landings by rubber-tired skidders, bulldozers, and crawler tractors. In recent years, mechanized systems that include feller bunchers and cut-to-length (CTL) processors coupled with forwarders and clambunk and grapple...

  4. Leveraging OAI Harvesting To Disseminate Theses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suleman, Hussein; Fox, Edward A.

    2003-01-01

    The Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (NDLTD), supports the production and archiving of electronic theses and dissertations. While working with the Open Archives Initiative (OAI) to develop and test the metadata harvesting standard, the authors set up and actively maintain a central NDLTD metadata collection and multiple user…

  5. 50 CFR 300.112 - Harvesting permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ensure stable recruitment. (3) Cause changes or increase the risk of changes in the marine ecosystem that..., the effects of associated activities on the marine ecosystem and of the effects of environmental... REGULATIONS Antarctic Marine Living Resources § 300.112 Harvesting permits. (a) General. (1) Every...

  6. 50 CFR 300.112 - Harvesting permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ensure stable recruitment. (3) Cause changes or increase the risk of changes in the marine ecosystem that..., the effects of associated activities on the marine ecosystem and of the effects of environmental... REGULATIONS Antarctic Marine Living Resources § 300.112 Harvesting permits. (a) General. (1) Every...

  7. 50 CFR 300.112 - Harvesting permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ensure stable recruitment. (3) Cause changes or increase the risk of changes in the marine ecosystem that..., the effects of associated activities on the marine ecosystem and of the effects of environmental... REGULATIONS Antarctic Marine Living Resources § 300.112 Harvesting permits. (a) General. (1) Every...

  8. 50 CFR 622.225 - Harvest limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Coral, Coral Reefs, and Live/Hard Bottom Habitats of the South Atlantic Region § 622.225 Harvest limitations... over naturally occurring reef outcrops, limestone ledges, coral reefs, or vegetated areas. (B) Must...

  9. 50 CFR 622.75 - Harvest limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Coral and Coral Reefs of the Gulf of Mexico § 622.75 Harvest limitations. (a) Aquacultured live rock. In the Gulf... aquaculture site— (A) May not be placed over naturally occurring reef outcrops, limestone ledges, coral...

  10. 50 CFR 622.225 - Harvest limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Coral, Coral Reefs, and Live/Hard Bottom Habitats of the South Atlantic Region § 622.225 Harvest limitations... over naturally occurring reef outcrops, limestone ledges, coral reefs, or vegetated areas. (B) Must...

  11. 50 CFR 622.75 - Harvest limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Coral and Coral Reefs of the Gulf of Mexico § 622.75 Harvest limitations. (a) Aquacultured live rock. In the Gulf... aquaculture site— (A) May not be placed over naturally occurring reef outcrops, limestone ledges, coral...

  12. Erosional consequences of timber harvesting: An appraisal

    Treesearch

    R. M. Rice; J. S. Rothacher; W. F. Megahan

    1972-01-01

    Abstract - This paper summarizes our current understanding of the effects of timber harvesting on erosion. Rates of erosion on mountain watersheds vary widely but the relative importance of different types of erosion and the consequences of disturbances remain fairly consistent. Therefore these conclusions seem to be valid for most circumstances: Most of man's...

  13. Vibration energy harvesting for unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anton, Steven R.; Inman, Daniel J.

    2008-03-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are a critical component of many military operations. Over the last few decades, the evolution of UAVs has given rise to increasingly smaller aircraft. Along with the development of smaller UAVs, termed mini UAVs, has come issues involving the endurance of the aircraft. Endurance in mini UAVs is problematic because of the limited size of the fuel systems that can be incorporated into the aircraft. A large portion of the total mass of many electric powered mini UAVs, for example, is the rechargeable battery power source. Energy harvesting is an attractive technology for mini UAVs because it offers the potential to increase their endurance without adding significant mass or the need to increase the size of the fuel system. This paper investigates the possibility of harvesting vibration and solar energy in a mini UAV. Experimentation has been carried out on a remote controlled (RC) glider aircraft with a 1.8 m wing span. This aircraft was chosen to replicate the current electric mini UAVs used by the military today. The RC glider was modified to include two piezoelectric patches placed at the roots of the wings and a cantilevered piezoelectric beam installed in the fuselage to harvest energy from wing vibrations and rigid body motions of the aircraft, as well as two thin film photovoltaic panels attached to the top of the wings to harvest energy from sunlight. Flight testing has been performed and the power output of the piezoelectric and photovoltaic devices has been examined.

  14. Timber harvests in Alaska: 1910-2006

    Treesearch

    Allen M. Brackley; Richard W. Haynes; Susan J. Alexander

    2009-01-01

    This publication provides estimates of total softwood harvest, by owner, for Alaska for 1910-2006. This information is a mix of reported and estimated data. These data are being used to develop assumptions needed in forest planning by both public and private forest managers.

  15. Florida harvest and utilization study, 2008

    Treesearch

    James W. Bentley; Tony G. Johnson

    2009-01-01

    In 2008, a harvest and utilization study was conducted on 82 operationsthroughout Florida. There were 2,114 total trees measured: 1,670 or79 percent were softwood, while 444 or 21 percent were hardwood. Resultsfrom this study showed that 85 percent of the total softwood volumemeasured was...

  16. Virginia harvest and utilization study, 2007

    Treesearch

    James W. Bentley; Tony G. Johnson

    2009-01-01

    In 2007, a harvest and utilization study was conducted on 81 operationsthroughout Virginia. There were 2,016 total trees measured; 1,086 or54 percent were softwood, while 930 or 46 percent were hardwood. Resultsfrom this study showed that 86 percent of the total softwood volumemeasured was...

  17. 3-dimensional fabrication of soft energy harvesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, Thomas; Walters, Peter; Rossiter, Jonathan; O'Brien, Benjamin; Anderson, Iain

    2013-04-01

    Dielectric elastomer generators (DEG) provide an opportunity to harvest energy from low frequency and aperiodic sources. Because DEG are soft, deformable, high energy density generators, they can be coupled to complex structures such as the human body to harvest excess mechanical energy. However, DEG are typically constrained by a rigid frame and manufactured in a simple planar structure. This planar arrangement is unlikely to be optimal for harvesting from compliant and/or complex structures. In this paper we present a soft generator which is fabricated into a 3 Dimensional geometry. This capability will enable the 3-dimensional structure of a dielectric elastomer to be customised to the energy source, allowing efficient and/or non-invasive coupling. This paper demonstrates our first 3 dimensional generator which includes a diaphragm with a soft elastomer frame. When the generator was connected to a self-priming circuit and cyclically inflated, energy was accumulated in the system, demonstrated by an increased voltage. Our 3D generator promises a bright future for dielectric elastomers that will be customised for integration with complex and soft structures. In addition to customisable geometries, the 3D printing process may lend itself to fabricating large arrays of small generator units and for fabricating truly soft generators with excellent impedance matching to biological tissue. Thus comfortable, wearable energy harvesters are one step closer to reality.

  18. Systemic nicotine exposure in tobacco harvesters.

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, A; Benowitz, N L; Muzi, G; Eisner, M D; Filiberto, S; Fantozzi, P; Montanari, L; Abbritti, G

    2001-01-01

    Several epidemics of nicotine intoxication have been described among tobacco harvesters; however, little is known about nicotine absorption under typical working conditions. To assess systemic nicotine absorption during a regular working shift, the authors performed an observational field study. Included in the study were 10 healthy, nonsmoking, female tobacco harvesters and a control group of 5 healthy, nonsmoking, female hospital workers. Nicotine and cotinine were measured in sequential samples of blood and urine during a regular workshift. Blood nicotine levels rose from a nadir value of 0.79 +/- 0.12 ng/ml to a peak value of 3.45 +/- 0.84 ng/ml (p < .05 [Tukey's modified t test]) in the exposed group. In the control group, levels were stable at 0.1 +/- 0.1 ng/ml (p < .01). Moreover, the mean blood nicotine level measured 3 mo following the end of exposure in 6 of 10 exposed subjects was 0.24 +/- 0.12 ng/ml (p < .01). Corresponding higher values of urine nicotine and urine cotinine were observed in the exposed versus control group (comparative p values were < .01 and < .05, respectively). Overall, tobacco harvesters absorbed approximately 0.8 mg of nicotine daily. Given that nicotine can induce adverse health effects, the authors believe that prevention of nicotine absorption in tobacco harvesters should be sought and that workers should be informed about occupational risks.

  19. 50 CFR 640.21 - Harvest limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPINY LOBSTER FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Management Measures § 640.21 Harvest limitations. (a) Berried lobsters. A berried (egg-bearing) spiny lobster or slipper lobster in or from the EEZ must be returned immediately to the water unharmed. If found in a trap in...

  20. 50 CFR 640.21 - Harvest limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPINY LOBSTER FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Management Measures § 640.21 Harvest limitations. (a) Berried lobsters. A berried (egg-bearing) spiny lobster in or... berried spiny lobster may not be retained in the trap. A berried spiny lobster in or from the EEZ may...

  1. 50 CFR 640.21 - Harvest limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPINY LOBSTER FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Management Measures § 640.21 Harvest limitations. (a) Berried lobsters. A berried (egg-bearing) spiny lobster or slipper lobster in or from the EEZ must be returned immediately to the water unharmed. If found in a...

  2. Harvesting the High-Hanging Fruit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenton, Jay D.

    2014-01-01

    For many years, higher education institutions have been harvesting the low-hanging fruit when it comes to budget reductions and adjustments. Easier changes have often been made--such as cutting administration, using more adjunct faculty, contracting out inefficient or non effective auxiliary operations and so forth. Until recently such strategies,…

  3. Short rotation forestry harvesting - systems and costs

    Treesearch

    Bruce R. Hartsough; Bryce J. Stokes

    1997-01-01

    Single stem short rotation plantations in the United States are largely dedicated to pulp production, with fuel as a secondary product. There are very limited plantings for fuel production, and others where the primary purpose is treatment of various wastewater's. All production harvesting of single stem plantations is conducted with conventional forestry...

  4. A New Technique for Conchal Cartilage Harvest

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joon Young; Jeong, Ji Won

    2017-01-01

    The goal of auricular cartilage harvest is to obtain a sufficient amount for reconstruction and to minimize the change in ear shape. The cartilage can be harvested by a posterior or anterior approach, and each method has advantages and disadvantages. The posterior approach presents the advantage of scar concealment, but there are limits to the amount of cymba cartilage that may be harvested. In contrast, the anterior approach may cause a noticeable scar. However, as cartilage is collected, the anterior approach provides a view that facilitates the preservation ear structure. In addition, it is possible to obtain a greater amount of cartilage. From January 2014 to December 2015, we harvested auricular cartilage graft material in 17 patients. To prevent the development of trapdoor scars or linear scar contracture, short incisions were made on the superior border of the cymba and cavum. Two small and narrow incisions were made, resulting in suboptimal exposure of the surgical site, which heightens the potential for damaging the cartilage when using existing tools. To minimize this, the authors used a newly invented ball-type elevator. All patients recovered without complications after surgery and reported satisfaction with the shape of the ear. PMID:28352607

  5. Harvesting the High-Hanging Fruit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenton, Jay D.

    2014-01-01

    For many years, higher education institutions have been harvesting the low-hanging fruit when it comes to budget reductions and adjustments. Easier changes have often been made--such as cutting administration, using more adjunct faculty, contracting out inefficient or non effective auxiliary operations and so forth. Until recently such strategies,…

  6. Energy harvesting wireless piezoelectric resonant force sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, Mehdi

    The piezoelectric energy harvester has become a new powering option for some low-power electronic devices such as MEMS (Micro Electrical Mechanical System) sensors. Piezoelectric materials can collect the ambient vibrations energy and convert it to electrical energy. This thesis is intended to demonstrate the behavior of a piezoelectric energy harvester system at elevated temperature from room temperature up to 82°C, and compares the system's performance using different piezoelectric materials. The systems are structured with a Lead Magnesium Niobate-Lead Titanate (PMN-PT) single crystal patch bonded to an aluminum cantilever beam, Lead Indium Niobate-Lead Magnesium Niobate-Lead Titanate (PIN-PMN-PT) single crystal patch bonded to an aluminum cantilever beam and a bimorph cantilever beam which is made of Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT). The results of this experimental study show the effects of the temperature on the operation frequency and output power of the piezoelectric energy harvesting system. The harvested electrical energy has been stored in storage circuits including a battery. Then, the stored energy has been used to power up the other part of the system, a wireless resonator force sensor, which uses frequency conversion techniques to convert the sensor's ultrasonic signal to a microwave signal in order to transmit the signal wirelessly.

  7. Human Motion Energy Harvesting for AAL Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ylli, K.; Hoffmann, D.; Becker, P.; Willmann, A.; Folkmer, B.; Manoli, Y.

    2014-11-01

    Research and development into the topic of ambient assisted living has led to an increasing range of devices that facilitate a person's life. The issue of the power supply of these modern mobile systems however has not been solved satisfactorily yet. In this paper a flat inductive multi-coil harvester for integration into the shoe sole is presented. The device is designed for ambient assisted living (AAL) applications and particularly to power a self-lacing shoe. The harvester exploits the horizontal swing motion of the foot to generate energy. Stacks of opposing magnets move through a number of equally spaced coils to induce a voltage. The requirement of a flat structure which can be integrated into the shoe sole is met by a reduced form factor of the magnet stack. In order to exploit the full width of the shoe sole, supporting structures are used to parallelize the harvester and therefore increase the number of active elements, i.e. magnets and coils. The development and characterization of different harvester variations is presented with the best tested design generating an average power of up to 2.14 mW at a compact device size of 75 × 41.5 × 15 mm3 including housing.

  8. Economics of residue harvest: Regional partnership evaluation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Economic analyses on the viability of corn (Zea mays, L.) stover harvest for bioenergy production have largely been based on simulation modeling. While some studies have utilized field research data, most field-based analyses have included a limited number of sites and a narrow geographic distributi...

  9. Energy budget for an energywood harvesting system

    Treesearch

    W.F. Watson; D.E. Miller; B.J. Stokes; M.L. Broussard

    1987-01-01

    The fuel and energy requirements for alternative energywood harvesting operations were determined from field operations. Comparisons were made among the total energy requirements including transportation for conventional operation and one- and two-pass energywood operations. The two-pass energywood operation requlred more energy per green ton than the other operations...

  10. Harvesting considerations for ecosystem restoration projects

    Treesearch

    Dana Mitchell; John. Klepac

    2014-01-01

    There is a need to identify and develop cost effective harvesting systems for ecosystem restoration projects. In the Western United States, pinyon-juniper woodlands are expanding into sagebrush and rangeland ecosystems. In many areas, this growth negatively impacts water, wildlife habitat, biodiversity, and other resources. In other areas, such as Texas and Oklahoma,...

  11. Assessment of bias in US waterfowl harvest estimates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Padding, Paul I.; Royle, J. Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Context. North American waterfowl managers have long suspected that waterfowl harvest estimates derived from national harvest surveys in the USA are biased high. Survey bias can be evaluated by comparing survey results with like estimates from independent sources. Aims. We used band-recovery data to assess the magnitude of apparent bias in duck and goose harvest estimates, using mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and Canada geese (Branta canadensis) as representatives of ducks and geese, respectively. Methods. We compared the number of reported mallard and Canada goose band recoveries, adjusted for band reporting rates, with the estimated harvests of banded mallards and Canada geese from the national harvest surveys. Weused the results of those comparisons to develop correction factors that can be applied to annual duck and goose harvest estimates of the national harvest survey. Key results. National harvest survey estimates of banded mallards harvested annually averaged 1.37 times greater than those calculated from band-recovery data, whereas Canada goose harvest estimates averaged 1.50 or 1.63 times greater than comparable band-recovery estimates, depending on the harvest survey methodology used. Conclusions. Duck harvest estimates produced by the national harvest survey from 1971 to 2010 should be reduced by a factor of 0.73 (95% CI = 0.71–0.75) to correct for apparent bias. Survey-specific correction factors of 0.67 (95% CI = 0.65–0.69) and 0.61 (95% CI = 0.59–0.64) should be applied to the goose harvest estimates for 1971–2001 (duck stamp-based survey) and 1999–2010 (HIP-based survey), respectively. Implications. Although this apparent bias likely has not influenced waterfowl harvest management policy in the USA, it does have negative impacts on some applications of harvest estimates, such as indirect estimation of population size. For those types of analyses, we recommend applying the appropriate correction factor to harvest estimates.

  12. Two degrees of freedom piezoelectric vibration energy harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Liu, Shengsheng; Cao, Junyi; Zhou, Shengxi; Lin, Jing

    2016-04-01

    Recently, vibration energy harvesting from surrounding environments to power wearable devices and wireless sensors in structure health monitoring has received considerable interest. Piezoelectric conversion mechanism has been employed to develop many successful energy harvesting devices due to its simple structure, long life span, high harvesting efficiency and so on. However, there are many difficulties of microscale cantilever configurations in energy harvesting from low frequency ambient. In order to improve the adaptability of energy harvesting from ambient vibrations, a two degrees of freedom (2-DOF) magnetic-coupled piezoelectric energy harvester is proposed in this paper. The electromechanical governing models of the cantilever and clamped hybrid energy harvester are derived to describe the dynamic characteristics for 2-DOF magnetic-coupled piezoelectric vibration energy harvester. Numerical simulations based on Matlab and ANSYS software show that the proposed magnetically coupled energy harvester can enhance the effective operating frequency bandwidth and increase the energy density. The experimental voltage responses of 2-DOF harvester under different structure parameters are acquired to demonstrate the effectiveness of the lumped parameter model for low frequency excitations. Moreover, the proposed energy harvester can enhance the energy harvesting performance over a wider bandwidth of low frequencies and has a great potential for broadband vibration energy harvesting.

  13. Nano Icy Moons Propellant Harvester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanWoerkom, Michael (Principal Investigator)

    2017-01-01

    As one of just a few bodies identified in the solar system with a liquid ocean, Europa has become a top priority in the search for life outside of Earth. However, cost estimates for exploring Europa have been prohibitively expensive, with estimates of a NASA Flagship class orbiter and lander approaching $5 billion. ExoTerra's NIMPH offers an affordable solution that can not only land, but return a sample from the surface to Earth. NIMPH combines solar electric propulsion (SEP) technologies being developed for the asteroid redirect mission and microsatellite electronics to reduce the cost of a full sample return mission below $500 million. A key to achieving this order-of-magnitude cost reduction is minimizing the initial mass of the system. The cost of any mission is directly proportional to its mass. By keeping the mission within the constraints of an Atlas V 551 launch vehicle versus an SLS, we can significantly reduce launch costs. To achieve this we reduce the landed mass of the sample return lander, which is the largest multiplier of mission mass, and shrink propellant mass through high efficiency SEP and gravity assists. The NIMPH projects first step in reducing landed mass focuses on development of a micro-In Situ Resource Utilization (micro-ISRU) system. ISRU allows us to minimize landed mass of a sample return mission by converting local ice into propellants. The project reduces the ISRU system to a CubeSat-scale package that weighs just 1.74 kg and consumes just 242 W of power. We estimate that use of this ISRU vs. an identical micro-lander without ISRU reduces fuel mass by 45 kg. As the dry mass of the lander grows for larger missions, these savings scale exponentially. Taking full advantage of the micro-ISRU system requires the development of a micro-liquid oxygen-liquid hydrogen engine. The micro-liquid oxygen-liquid hydrogen engine is tailored for the mission by scaling it to match the scale of the micro-lander and the low gravity of the target moon

  14. Energy harvesting from aperiodic low-frequency motion using reverse electrowetting.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Tsung-Hsing; Taylor, J A; Krupenkin, T N

    2017-07-01

    Mechanical energy harvesting can provide a promising alternative to electrochemical batteries, which are currently widely utilized to power mobile electronics. In this work we present a theoretical analysis of a recently proposed method of mechanical energy harvesting, which combines a reverse electrowetting phenomenon with the fast self-oscillating process of bubble growth and collapse. We investigate the details of the bubble dynamics and analyze the dependence of the energy generation process on the system parameters. The results demonstrate that self-oscillation frequencies of several kHz are possible, which can lead to very high power generation densities in excess of 10(4) W m(-2). The obtained results indicate the possibility of high-power energy harvesting from mechanical energy sources with very low frequencies, well below 1 Hz.

  15. Mixed-organic-cation perovskite photovoltaics for enhanced solar-light harvesting.

    PubMed

    Pellet, Norman; Gao, Peng; Gregori, Giuliano; Yang, Tae-Youl; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad K; Maier, Joachim; Grätzel, Michael

    2014-03-17

    Hybrid organic-inorganic lead halide perovskite APbX3 pigments, such as methylammonium lead iodide, have recently emerged as excellent light harvesters in solid-state mesoscopic solar cells. An important target for the further improvement of the performance of perovskite-based photovoltaics is to extend their optical-absorption onset further into the red to enhance solar-light harvesting. Herein, we show that this goal can be reached by using a mixture of formamidinium (HN=CHNH3 (+), FA) and methylammonium (CH3 NH3 (+), MA) cations in the A position of the APbI3 perovskite structure. This combination leads to an enhanced short-circuit current and thus superior devices to those based on only CH3 NH3 (+). This concept has not been applied previously in perovskite-based solar cells. It shows great potential as a versatile tool to tune the structural, electrical, and optoelectronic properties of the light-harvesting materials.

  16. Sustainable urban water supply in south India: Desalination, efficiency improvement, or rainwater harvesting?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Veena; Gorelick, Steven M.; Goulder, Lawrence

    2010-10-01

    Indian megacities face severe water supply problems owing to factors ranging from growing population to high municipal pipe leakage rates; no Indian city provides 24/7 water supply. Current approaches to addressing the problem have been "utility centric," overlooking the significance of decentralized activities by consumers, groundwater extraction via private wells, and aquifer recharge by rainwater harvesting. We propose a framework that makes it possible to evaluate a wider range of centralized and decentralized policies than previously considered. The framework was used to simulate water supply and demand in a simulation model of Chennai, India. Three very different policies, supply augmentation, efficiency improvement, and rainwater harvesting, were evaluated using the model. The model results showed that none of the three policies perfectly satisfied our criteria of efficiency, reliability, equity, financial viability, and revenue generation. Instead, a combination of rainwater harvesting and efficiency improvement best meets these criteria.

  17. Harvesting microalgal biomass using a magnetically induced membrane vibration (MMV) system: filtration performance and energy consumption.

    PubMed

    Bilad, M R; Discart, V; Vandamme, D; Foubert, I; Muylaert, K; Vankelecom, Ivo F J

    2013-06-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effectiveness of submerged microfiltration to harvest both a marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum and a Chlorella vulgaris in a recently developed magnetically induced membrane vibrating (MMV) system. We assess the filtration performance by conducting the improved flux step method (IFM), fed-batch concentration filtrations and membrane fouling autopsy using two lab-made membranes with different porosity. The full-scale energy consumption was also estimated. Overall results suggest that the MMV offers a good fouling control and the process was proven to be economically attractive. By combining the membrane filtration (15× concentration) with centrifugation to reach a final concentration of 25% w/v, the energy consumption to harvest P. tricornutum and C. vulgaris was, respectively, as low as 0.84 and 0.77kWh/m(3), corresponding to 1.46 and 1.39 kWh/kg of the harvested biomass.

  18. Transient characteristics and stability analysis of standing wave thermoacoustic-piezoelectric harvesters.

    PubMed

    Nouh, Mostafa; Aldraihem, Osama; Baz, Amr

    2014-02-01

    Standing wave thermoacoustic-piezoelectric (TAP) energy harvesters convert thermal energy, such as solar or waste heat energy, directly into electrical energy without the need for any moving components. The input thermal energy generates a steep temperature gradient along a porous medium called "stack." At a critical threshold of the temperature gradient, self-sustained acoustic waves are developed inside an acoustic resonator. The associated pressure fluctuations impinge on a piezoelectric diaphragm, placed at the end of the resonator, to generate electricity. The behavior of this multi-field system is modeled using the electrical analogy approach. The developed model combines the descriptions of the acoustic resonator and the stack with the characteristics of the piezoelectric diaphragm. The equivalent electric network is analyzed to determine the system's stability and predict the temperature gradient necessary to developing self-sustained oscillations inside the harvester. The developed network is utilized also to investigate the transient performance of the harvester by employing the network theory and Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis software package. The established stability boundaries are validated against the predictions of the root locus technique. Furthermore, the obtained results are compared with experimental results extracted from testing a prototype of the harvester. The developed approach presents an innovative tool for the design of TAP energy harvesters.

  19. An Energy Aware Adaptive Sampling Algorithm for Energy Harvesting WSN with Energy Hungry Sensors.

    PubMed

    Srbinovski, Bruno; Magno, Michele; Edwards-Murphy, Fiona; Pakrashi, Vikram; Popovici, Emanuel

    2016-03-28

    Wireless sensor nodes have a limited power budget, though they are often expected to be functional in the field once deployed for extended periods of time. Therefore, minimization of energy consumption and energy harvesting technology in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are key tools for maximizing network lifetime, and achieving self-sustainability. This paper proposes an energy aware Adaptive Sampling Algorithm (ASA) for WSN with power hungry sensors and harvesting capabilities, an energy management technique that can be implemented on any WSN platform with enough processing power to execute the proposed algorithm. An existing state-of-the-art ASA developed for wireless sensor networks with power hungry sensors is optimized and enhanced to adapt the sampling frequency according to the available energy of the node. The proposed algorithm is evaluated using two in-field testbeds that are supplied by two different energy harvesting sources (solar and wind). Simulation and comparison between the state-of-the-art ASA and the proposed energy aware ASA (EASA) in terms of energy durability are carried out using in-field measured harvested energy (using both wind and solar sources) and power hungry sensors (ultrasonic wind sensor and gas sensors). The simulation results demonstrate that using ASA in combination with an energy aware function on the nodes can drastically increase the lifetime of a WSN node and enable self-sustainability. In fact, the proposed EASA in conjunction with energy harvesting capability can lead towards perpetual WSN operation and significantly outperform the state-of-the-art ASA.

  20. Novel technique for laparoscopic harvesting of latissimus dorsi flap with prosthesis implantation for breast reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shuman; Tang, Peng; Chen, Xianchun; Yang, Xi; Pan, Qinwen; Gui, Yu; Chen, Li

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Backgroud: An important drawback of the traditional technique for harvesting latissimus dorsi (LD) myocutaneous flap is a long, posterior donor-site incision. Current techniques involve endoscopic or robotic harvesting via a combined approach of open and closed surgery, which necessitates an open axillary incision and the use of special retractors. In this paper, we introduce a fully enclosed laparoscopic technique for harvesting LD flap (LDF) using only 3 small trocar ports. This technique eliminates the need for axillary and donor-site incisions and specialized retractors and considerably reduces the incision size. Methods: We performed laparoscopic harvesting of LDF with prosthesis implantation for immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) after nipple-sparing mastectomy in 2 patients with malignant breast neoplasm who wished to avoid a long scar on the back. Results: IBR using this technique was uneventful in both cases, without any donor-site complications or flap failure. Both patients were satisfied with the esthetic results of the procedure, especially the absence of a visible scar on the back. Conclusion: Enclosed laparoscopic harvesting of LDF is simpler and less invasive than the traditional methods. These preliminary results warrant further evaluation in a larger population to validate the benefits of this technique. PMID:27861385

  1. Folded Spring and Mechanically Switching SSHI for High Performance Miniature Piezoelectric Vibration Energy Harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asanuma, H.; Okubo, H.; Komatsuzaki, T.; Iwata, Y.

    2016-11-01

    To downsize the clamp area and increase the output power of the harvester, we developed a miniature piezoelectric vibration energy harvester with combining a Z-shaped folded spring and a mechanically-switching SSHI (synchronized switch harvesting on inductor). The overall harvester size is 4×2×3 cm3. The FEM analysis revealed that the output power increases and the value of the 1st and 2nd resonance frequencies move closer as the angle of the Z-shaped spring decreases, therefore, the smaller angle would be more promising. The experimental results showed that the maximum output power of our harvester for the 1st (20.2 Hz) and 2nd (53.0 Hz) resonance frequencies at the applied acceleration of 4.9 m/s2 are 088 and 0.98 mW, respectively. The reason for a marked enhancement of the output power for the 2nd resonance frequency is attributed to the vertical movement of the 2nd vibrational mode which applies larger mechanical stress to the piezo ceramic and achieves better electrical contact between the tip of the Z-shaped spring and the spring plunger.

  2. Big bluestem and switchgrass feedstock harvest timing: Nitrous oxide response to feedstock harvest timing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and big bluestem (Andropogon gerdardii Vitman) are potential bioenergy feedstocks. Feedstock storage limitations, labor constraints for harvest, and environmental benefits provided by perennials are rationales for developing localized perennial feedstock as an alter...

  3. Evaluating energy sorghum harvest thresholds and tillage cropping systems to offset negative environmental impacts and harvesting equipment-induced soil compaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meki, M. N.; Snider, J. L.; Kiniry, J. R.; Raper, R. L.; Rocateli, A. C.

    2011-12-01

    fields. The presentation will provide long-term insights into the sustainability of the proposed interventions with regards to 'safe' harvest thresholds, feedstock yields, SOC storage and rate of change, and sediment and nutrient (N&P) losses. Model calibration and validation datasets have already been compiled from rainfed and irrigated energy sorghum field studies conducted in Arkansas and Alabama during the years: 2008 to 2010. We compiled energy sorghum crop parameters based on data extracted from the literature, expert judgment and field experiments. Simulations will be made for combinations of biomass harvest rates, tillage systems, weather, soil type, and dryland production over a 51-year time series (1960-2010).

  4. Effects of seedbed preparation, irrigation, and water harvesting on seedling emergence at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Winkel, V.K.; Ostler, W.K.; Gabbert, W.D.; Lyon, G.E.

    1993-10-01

    Approximately 800 hectares on the US Department of Energy Nevada Test Site and vicinity are contaminated with plutonium. As part of a cleanup effort, both the indigenous vegetation and the top 5--10 cm of soil may be removed, and the soil may or may not be replaced. Technologies must be developed to stabilize and revegetate these lands. A study was developed to determine adaptable plant species, methods to prepare seedbeds for direct seeding and water harvesting, and proper irrigation rates. Plots were cleared of indigenous vegetation, and then prepared with various seedbed/water harvesting treatments including, pitting, land imprinting, and mulching. Other plots were treated with large water harvesting structures. Three irrigation treatments were superimposed over the seedbed/water harvesting treatments. Seedling emergence data was collected, and the treatment combinations compared. Supporting meteorological and soil data were collected with an automatic data-logger. Specific data included soil water data from all treatment combinations, precipitation, and air temperature. Irrigation did extend the period of available water approximately two to three weeks, but in a year of above average precipitation, this extension did not generally aid germination and emergence of seeded species, and only slightly increased densities of species from the native seedbank. With the exception of increased shrub seedling densities in desert strips, there were no strong seedbed preparation/water harvesting treatment effects. In years of above-average rainfall, mulching and water harvesting treatments, and irrigation may not be necessary to insure adequate germination and emergence of adapted perennial grasses, forbs, and shrubs in the Mojave/Great Basin Transition Desert.

  5. Isolation, identification, and biocontrol of antagonistic bacterium against Botrytis cinerea after tomato harvest.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jun-Feng; Sun, Chang-Qing

    2017-06-03

    Tomato is one of the most important vegetables in the world. Decay after harvest is a major issue in the development of tomato industry. Currently, the most effective method for controlling decay after harvest is storage of tomato at low temperature combined with usage of chemical bactericide; however, long-term usage of chemical bactericide not only causes pathogen resistance but also is harmful for human health and environment. Biocontrol method for the management of disease after tomato harvest has great practical significance. In this study, antagonistic bacterium B-6-1 strain was isolated from the surface of tomato and identified as Enterobacter cowanii based on morphological characteristics and physiological and biochemical features combined with sequence analysis of 16SrDNA and ropB gene and construction of dendrogram. Effects of different concentrations of antagonistic bacterium E. cowanii suspension on antifungal activity after tomato harvest were analyzed by mycelium growth rate method. Results revealed that antifungal activity was also enhanced with increasing concentrations of antagonistic bacterium; inhibitory rates of 1×10(5) colony-forming units (cfu)/mL antagonistic bacterial solution on Fusarium verticillioides, Alternaria tenuissima, and Botrytis cinerea were 46.31%, 67.48%, and 75.67%, respectively. By using in vivo inoculation method, it was further confirmed that antagonistic bacterium could effectively inhibit the occurrence of B. cinerae after tomato harvest, biocontrol effect of 1×10(9)cfu/mL zymotic fluid reached up to 95.24%, and antagonistic bacterium E. cowanii has biocontrol potential against B. cinerea after harvest of fruits and vegetables. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Life Cycle Assessment of Domestic and Agricultural Rainwater Harvesting Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    To further understanding of the environmental implications of rainwater harvesting and its water savings potential relative to conventional U.S. water delivery infrastructure, we present a method to perform life cycle assessment of domestic rainwater harvesting (DRWH) and agricul...

  7. HARVEST STATES GRAIN COOPERATIVES, SUPERIOR WISCONSIN; CONSTRUCTED OVER VARIOUS DATES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HARVEST STATES GRAIN COOPERATIVES, SUPERIOR WISCONSIN; CONSTRUCTED OVER VARIOUS DATES BEGINNING IN 1942; LEFT SLIP (HUGHITT AVENUE) RIGHT SLIP (TOWER AVENUE) - Cenex-Harvest States Grain Cooperatives, Dock Street between Hughitt Avenue & Tower Avenue slips, Superior, Douglas County, WI

  8. Life Cycle Assessment of Domestic and Agricultural Rainwater Harvesting Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    To further understanding of the environmental implications of rainwater harvesting and its water savings potential relative to conventional U.S. water delivery infrastructure, we present a method to perform life cycle assessment of domestic rainwater harvesting (DRWH) and agricul...

  9. Robust Tomato Recognition for Robotic Harvesting Using Feature Images Fusion.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuanshen; Gong, Liang; Huang, Yixiang; Liu, Chengliang

    2016-01-29

    Automatic recognition of mature fruits in a complex agricultural environment is still a challenge for an autonomous harvesting robot due to various disturbances existing in the background of the image. The bottleneck to robust fruit recognition is reducing influence from two main disturbances: illumination and overlapping. In order to recognize the tomato in the tree canopy using a low-cost camera, a robust tomato recognition algorithm based on multiple feature images and image fusion was studied in this paper. Firstly, two novel feature images, the  a*-component image and the I-component image, were extracted from the L*a*b* color space and luminance, in-phase, quadrature-phase (YIQ) color space, respectively. Secondly, wavelet transformation was adopted to fuse the two feature images at the pixel level, which combined the feature information of the two source images. Thirdly, in order to segment the target tomato from the background, an adaptive threshold algorithm was used to get the optimal threshold. The final segmentation result was processed by morphology operation to reduce a small amount of noise. In the detection tests, 93% target tomatoes were recognized out of 200 overall samples. It indicates that the proposed tomato recognition method is available for robotic tomato harvesting in the uncontrolled environment with low cost.

  10. Hybrid energy harvesting systems, using piezoelectric elements and dielectric polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornogolub, Alexandru; Cottinet, Pierre-Jean; Petit, Lionel

    2016-09-01

    Interest in energy harvesting applications has increased a lot during recent years. This is especially true for systems using electroactive materials like dielectric polymers or piezoelectric materials. Unfortunately, these materials despite multiple advantages, present some important drawbacks. For example, many dielectric polymers demonstrated high energy densities; they are cheap, easy to process and can be easily integrated in many different structures. But at the same time, dielectric polymer generators require an external energy supply which could greatly compromise their autonomy. Piezoelectric systems, on the other hand, are completely autonomous and can be easily miniaturized. However, most common piezoelectric materials present a high rigidity and are brittle by nature and therefore their integration could be difficult. This paper investigates the possibility of using hybrid systems combining piezoelectric elements and dielectric polymers for mechanical energy harvesting applications and it is focused mainly on the problem of electrical energy transfer. Our objective is to show that such systems can be interesting and that it is possible to benefit from the advantages of both materials. For this, different configurations were considered and the problem of their optimization was addressed. The experimental work enabled us to prove the concept and identify the main practical limitations.

  11. Energy harvester array using piezoelectric circular diaphragm for rail vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Huang, Rong-Jin; Huang, Chuan-Jun; Li, Lai-Feng

    2014-12-01

    Generating electric energy from mechanical vibration using a piezoelectric circular membrane array is presented in this paper. The electrical characteristics of the functional array consisted of three plates with varies tip masses are examined under dynamic conditions. With an optimal load resistor of 11 kΩ, an output power of 21.4 mW was generated from the array in parallel connection at 150 Hz under a pre-stress of 0.8 N and a vibration acceleration of 9.8 m/s2. Moreover, the broadband energy harvesting using this array still can be realized with different tip masses. Three obvious output power peaks can be obtained in a frequency spectra of 110 Hz to 260 Hz. The results show that using a piezoelectric circular diaphragm array can increase significantly the output of energy compared with the use of a single plate. And by optimizing combination of tip masses with piezoelectric elements in array, the frequency range can be tuned to meet the broadband vibration. This array may possibly be exploited to design the energy harvesting for practical applications such as future high speed rail.

  12. Interplay between phononic bandgaps and piezoelectric microstructures for energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonella, Stefano; To, Albert C.; Liu, Wing Kam

    2009-03-01

    The paper introduces a multifunctional structural design combining superior mechanical wave filtering properties and energy harvesting capabilities. The proposed concept is based on the ability of most periodic structures to forbid elastic waves from propagating within specific frequency ranges known as phononic bandgaps. The bandgap density and the resulting filtering effect are dramatically enhanced through the introduction of a microstructure consisting of stiff inclusions which resonate at specific frequencies and produce significant strain and energy localization. Energy harvesting is achieved as a result of the conversion of the localized kinetic energy into electrical energy through the piezoelectric effect featured by the material in the microstructure. The idea is illustrated through the application to hexagonal truss-core honeycombs featuring periodically distributed stiff cantilever beams provided with piezoelectric electrodes. The multifunctional capability results from the localized oscillatory phenomena exhibited by the cantilevers for excitations falling in the neighborhood of the bending fundamental frequencies of the beams. This application is of particular interest for advanced aerospace and mechanical engineering applications where distinct capabilities are simultaneously pursued and weight containment represents a critical design constraint. The scalability of the analysis suggests the possibility to miniaturize the design to the microscale for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) applications such as self-powered microsystems and wireless sensors.

  13. Low power interface IC's for electrostatic energy harvesting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempitiya, Asantha

    interest where the storage capacitor can be optimized to produce almost 70% of the ideal power taken as the power harvested with synchronous converters when neglecting the power consumption associated with synchronizing control circuitry. Theoretical predictions are confirmed by measurements on an asynchronous EHC implemented with a macro-scale electrostatic converter prototype. Based on the preceding analysis, the design of a novel ultra low power electrostatic integrated energy harvesting circuit is proposed for efficient harvesting of mechanical energy. The fundamental challenges of designing reliable low power sensing circuits for charge constrained electrostatic energy harvesters with capacity to self power its controller and driver stages are addressed. Experimental results are presented for a controller design implemented in AMI 0.7muM high voltage CMOS process using a macro-scale electrostatic converter prototype. The EHC produces 1.126muW for a power investment of 417nW with combined conduction and controller losses of 450nW which is a 20-30% improvement compared to prior art on electrostatic EHCs operating under charge constrain. Inherently dual plate variable capacitors harvest energy only during half of the mechanical cycle with the other half unutilized for energy conversion. To harvest mechanical energy over the complete mechanical vibration cycle, a low power energy harvesting circuit (EHC) that performs charge constrained synchronous energy conversion on a tri-plate variable capacitor for maximizing energy conversion is proposed. The tri-plate macro electrostatic generator with capacitor variation of 405pF to 1.15nF and 405pF to 1.07nF on two complementary adjacent capacitors is fabricated and used in the characterization of the designed EHC. The integrated circuit fabricated in AMI 0.7muM high voltage CMOS process, produces a total output power of 497nW to a 10muF reservoir capacitor from a 98Hz vibration signal. In summary, the thesis lays out the

  14. Critical evaluation and modeling of algal harvesting using dissolved air flotation. DAF Algal Harvesting Modeling

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Xuezhi; Hewson, John C.; Amendola, Pasquale; ...

    2014-07-14

    In our study, Chlorella zofingiensis harvesting by dissolved air flotation (DAF) was critically evaluated with regard to algal concentration, culture conditions, type and dosage of coagulants, and recycle ratio. Harvesting efficiency increased with coagulant dosage and leveled off at 81%, 86%, 91%, and 87% when chitosan, Al3+, Fe3+, and cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) were used at dosages of 70, 180, 250, and 500 mg g-1, respectively. The DAF efficiency-coagulant dosage relationship changed with algal culture conditions. In evaluating the influence of the initial algal concentration and recycle ratio revealed that, under conditions typical for algal harvesting, we found that itmore » is possible that the number of bubbles is insufficient. A DAF algal harvesting model was developed to explain this observation by introducing mass-based floc size distributions and a bubble limitation into the white water blanket model. Moreover, the model revealed the importance of coagulation to increase floc-bubble collision and attachment, and the preferential interaction of bubbles with larger flocs, which limited the availability of bubbles to the smaller sized flocs. The harvesting efficiencies predicted by the model agree reasonably with experimental data obtained at different Al3+ dosages, algal concentrations, and recycle ratios. Based on this modeling, critical parameters for efficient algal harvesting were identified.« less

  15. Critical evaluation and modeling of algal harvesting using dissolved air flotation. DAF Algal Harvesting Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xuezhi; Hewson, John C.; Amendola, Pasquale; Reynoso, Monica; Sommerfeld, Milton; Chen, Yongsheng; Hu, Qiang

    2014-07-14

    In our study, Chlorella zofingiensis harvesting by dissolved air flotation (DAF) was critically evaluated with regard to algal concentration, culture conditions, type and dosage of coagulants, and recycle ratio. Harvesting efficiency increased with coagulant dosage and leveled off at 81%, 86%, 91%, and 87% when chitosan, Al3+, Fe3+, and cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) were used at dosages of 70, 180, 250, and 500 mg g-1, respectively. The DAF efficiency-coagulant dosage relationship changed with algal culture conditions. In evaluating the influence of the initial algal concentration and recycle ratio revealed that, under conditions typical for algal harvesting, we found that it is possible that the number of bubbles is insufficient. A DAF algal harvesting model was developed to explain this observation by introducing mass-based floc size distributions and a bubble limitation into the white water blanket model. Moreover, the model revealed the importance of coagulation to increase floc-bubble collision and attachment, and the preferential interaction of bubbles with larger flocs, which limited the availability of bubbles to the smaller sized flocs. The harvesting efficiencies predicted by the model agree reasonably with experimental data obtained at different Al3+ dosages, algal concentrations, and recycle ratios. Based on this modeling, critical parameters for efficient algal harvesting were identified.

  16. High relative humidity pre-harvest reduces post-harvest proliferation of Salmonella in tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Marvasi, Massimiliano; Giurcanu, Mihai C; Hochmuth, George J; Speybroeck, Niko; Havelaar, Arie H; Teplitski, Max

    2017-09-01

    Outbreaks of human illness caused by enteric pathogens such as Salmonella are increasingly linked to the consumption of fruits and vegetables. Knowledge on the factors affecting Salmonella proliferation on fresh produce therefore becomes increasingly important to safeguard public health. Previous experiments showed a limited impact of pre-harvest production practices on Salmonella proliferation on tomatoes, but suggested a significant effect of harvest time. We explored the data from two previously published and one unpublished experiment using regression trees, which allowed overcoming the interpretational difficulties of classical statistical models with higher order interactions. We assessed the effect of harvest time by explicitly modeling the climatic conditions at harvest time and by performing confirmatory laboratory experiments. Across all datasets, regression trees confirmed the dominant effect of harvest time on Salmonella proliferation, with humidity-related factors emerging as the most important underlying climatic factors. High relative humidity the week prior to harvest was consistently associated with lower Salmonella proliferation. A controlled lab experiment confirmed that tomatoes containing their native epimicrobiota supported significantly lower Salmonella proliferation when incubated at higher humidity prior to inoculation. The complex interactions between environmental conditions and the native microbiota of the tomato crop remain to be fully understood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Energy Harvesting From Low Frequency Applications Using Piezoelectric Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Huidong; Tian, Chuan; Deng, Zhiqun

    2014-11-06

    This paper reviewed the state of research on piezoelectric energy harvesters. Various types of harvester configurations, piezoelectric materials, and techniques used to improve the mechanical-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency were discussed. Most of the piezoelectric energy harvesters studied today have focused on scavenging mechanical energy from vibration sources due to their abundance in both natural and industrial environments. Cantilever beams have been the most studied structure for piezoelectric energy harvester to date because of the high responsiveness to small vibrations.

  18. Relationship Between Site Disturbance and Forest Harvesting Equipment Traffic

    Treesearch

    Tim McDonald; Emily Carter; Steve Taylor; John Tobert

    1998-01-01

    A study was done to evaluate the use of global positioning systems (GPS) to track the position of forest harvesting equipment and use the information to assess site impacts. GPS units were attached to tree-length harvesting machinery in two clearcuts (1 feller-buncher, 2 skidders). Position of the equipment was recorded at 2-second intervals throughout the harvest of...

  19. Social and biophysical variation in regional timber harvest regimes

    Treesearch

    Jonathan R. Thompson; Charles D. Canham; Luca Morreale; David B. Kittredge; Brett Butler

    2017-01-01

    In terms of adult tree mortality, harvesting is the most prevalent disturbance in northeastern United States forests. Previous studies have demonstrated that stand structure and tree species composition are important predictors of harvest. We extend this work to investigate how social factors further influence harvest regimes. By coupling the Forest Inventory and...

  20. Estimating and validating harvesting system production through computer simulation

    Treesearch

    John E. Baumgras; Curt C. Hassler; Chris B. LeDoux

    1993-01-01

    A Ground Based Harvesting System Simulation model (GB-SIM) has been developed to estimate stump-to-truck production rates and multiproduct yields for conventional ground-based timber harvesting systems in Appalachian hardwood stands. Simulation results reflect inputs that define harvest site and timber stand attributes, wood utilization options, and key attributes of...

  1. 50 CFR 680.21 - Crab harvesting cooperatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Crab harvesting cooperatives. 680.21... ZONE OFF ALASKA Management Measures § 680.21 Crab harvesting cooperatives. This section governs the formation and operation of crab harvesting cooperatives. The regulations in this section apply only to crab...

  2. 50 CFR 680.21 - Crab harvesting cooperatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Crab harvesting cooperatives. 680.21... ZONE OFF ALASKA Management Measures § 680.21 Crab harvesting cooperatives. This section governs the formation and operation of crab harvesting cooperatives. The regulations in this section apply only to crab...

  3. 50 CFR 680.21 - Crab harvesting cooperatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Crab harvesting cooperatives. 680.21... ZONE OFF ALASKA Management Measures § 680.21 Crab harvesting cooperatives. This section governs the formation and operation of crab harvesting cooperatives. The regulations in this section apply only to crab...

  4. 50 CFR 680.21 - Crab harvesting cooperatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Crab harvesting cooperatives. 680.21... ZONE OFF ALASKA Management Measures § 680.21 Crab harvesting cooperatives. This section governs the formation and operation of crab harvesting cooperatives. The regulations in this section apply only to crab...

  5. 50 CFR 680.21 - Crab harvesting cooperatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Crab harvesting cooperatives. 680.21... ZONE OFF ALASKA Management Measures § 680.21 Crab harvesting cooperatives. This section governs the formation and operation of crab harvesting cooperatives. The regulations in this section apply only to crab...

  6. 50 CFR 20.20 - Migratory Bird Harvest Information Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Migratory Bird Harvest Information Program... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Taking § 20.20 Migratory Bird Harvest... information will be used to provide a sampling frame for the national Migratory Bird Harvest Survey. Response...

  7. 50 CFR 20.20 - Migratory Bird Harvest Information Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Migratory Bird Harvest Information Program... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Taking § 20.20 Migratory Bird Harvest... information will be used to provide a sampling frame for the national Migratory Bird Harvest Survey. Response...

  8. Research and simulation of anti - rollover technology of harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shizhuang; Cao, Shukun

    2017-09-01

    The structural characteristics of our country’s corn harvester are narrow-track, high centroid and existence of eccentric distance, so rollover accident is easily to occur when going up and down the hills mountainous and hilly regions for complex terrain. In the previous paper, we introduced the Hydro-Pneumatic Suspension to prevent the roller of the harvester, and took ADAMS simulation on the left and right roller, and obtained that the use of Hydro-Pneumatic Suspension can improve the side angle of the harvester for 5°. At the same time, we continue to use the Hydro-Pneumatic Suspension as the key part of the anti-roller system of the harvester. In the uphill and downhill case of the harvester, we respectively simulated the anti-roller performance on the traditional harvester and the harvester installing the Hydro-Pneumatic Suspension. Finally, we got that the anti-roller angle of the harvester installed Hydro-Pneumatic Suspension is obviously higher than the traditional harvester, which indicates that the anti-rollover performance of the harvester installed Hydro-Pneumatic Suspension is better than the traditional harvester. The data obtained from this experiment will provide technical support for the following structure optimization of the harvester.

  9. 50 CFR 622.383 - Limited harvest species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Limited harvest species. 622.383 Section... Migratory Pelagic Resources (Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic) § 622.383 Limited harvest species. (a... species is harvested by a vessel operating under a commercial vessel permit. The operator of a vessel that...

  10. Simulating cut-to-length harvesting operations in Appalachian hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Jingxin Wang; Chris B. LeDoux; Yaoxiang Li

    2005-01-01

    Cut-to-length (CTL) harvesting systems involving small and large harvesters and a forwarder were simulated using a modular computer simulation model. The two harvesters simulated were a modified John Deere 988 tracked excavator with a single grip sawhead and a Timbco T425 based excavator with a single grip sawhead. The forwarder used in the simulations was a Valmet 524...

  11. Evaluating timber harvesting impacts on wildlife habitat suitability using FOREX

    Treesearch

    Chris B. LeDoux

    1997-01-01

    Precommercial, commercial, and final harvesting operations can impact wildlife habitat suitability by altering the vegetation composition on a given site. Harvesting operations remove trees and many times provide the necessary perturbation to trigger successional conditions different from those that existed prior to the harvest. Although these new successional changes...

  12. PRESTO: online calculation of carbon in harvested wood products

    Treesearch

    Coeli M. Hoover; Sarah J. Beukema; Donald C.E. Robinson; Katherine M. Kellock; Diana A. Abraham

    2014-01-01

    Carbon stored in harvested wood products is recognized under international carbon accounting protocols, and some crediting systems may permit the inclusion of harvested wood products when calculating carbon sequestration. For managers and landowners, however, estimating carbon stored in harvested wood products may be difficult. PRESTO (PRoduct EStimation Tool Online)...

  13. Nonlinear restoring force of spring with stopper for ferroelectric dipole electret-based electrostatic vibration energy harvesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asanuma, H.; Hara, M.; Oguchi, H.; Kuwano, H.

    2016-07-01

    Previously, we succeeded in developing a new electret [termed a ferroelectric dipole electret (FDE)] having an extremely high electric field using a polarized ferroelectric material. However, the pull-in, in which an oscillator sticks to the FDE under its strong electrostatic force, poses a problem for practical vibration energy harvesters. In this study, we propose use of nonlinear restoring force of a spring with a stopper in order to prevent pull-in for FDE-based vibration energy harvesters. The spring with a stopper was designed using a finite element method (FEM) analysis such that the restoring force of the spring will exceed the electrostatic force of the FDE. The proposed harvester combines the FDE and the spring successfully, and generated electricity without the pull-in. It also showed the highest figure of merit of output power and wide frequency band when compared with other available electret-based vibration energy harvesters.

  14. An age-structured population model for horseshoe crabs in the Delaware Bay area to assess harvest and egg availability for shorebirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweka, J.A.; Smith, D.R.; Millard, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this simulation study was to create an age-structured population model for horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphenols) in the Delaware Bay region using best available estimates of age-specific mortality and recent harvest levels. Density dependence was incorporated using a spatial model relating egg mortality with abundance of spawning females. Combinations of annual female harvest (0, 50, 100, and 200 thousand), timing of female harvest (before or after spawning), and three levels of density-dependent egg mortality were simulated. The probability of the population increasing was high (> 80%) with low and medium egg mortality and harvest less than 200 thousand females per year. Under the high egg mortality case, the probability of the population increasing was < 50% regardless of harvest. Harvest occurring after spawning increased the probability of population growth. The number of eggs available to shorebirds was highest when egg mortality was lowest and female abundance was at its highest levels. Although harvest and egg mortality influenced population growth and food availability to shorebirds, sensitivity and elasticity analyses showed that early-life stage mortality, age 0 mortality in particular, was the most important parameter for population growth. Our modeling results indicate areas where further research is needed and suggest effective management will involve a combination of harvest management and actions to increase early juvenile survival. ?? 2007 Estuarine Research Federation.

  15. Ten years of recreational diving fatalities in the United States and Canada: harvesters vs non-harvesters.

    PubMed

    Rowley, Brittany M; Buzzacott, Peter; Denoble, Petar J

    2016-07-01

    Adult male recreational diver fatalities (n = 698) in North America from 2004 to 2013 were examined. Compared with non-harvesters, boat (86 vs 59%), solo (26 vs 13%) and night diving (10 vs 3%) were more common among harvesters. Of the divers who were low-on or out-of air, 20% were harvesters and 11% non-harvesters (OR = 2.0, P = 0.03).

  16. Biomechanical energy harvesting from human motion: theory, state of the art, design guidelines, and future directions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Biomechanical energy harvesting from human motion presents a promising clean alternative to electrical power supplied by batteries for portable electronic devices and for computerized and motorized prosthetics. We present the theory of energy harvesting from the human body and describe the amount of energy that can be harvested from body heat and from motions of various parts of the body during walking, such as heel strike; ankle, knee, hip, shoulder, and elbow joint motion; and center of mass vertical motion. Methods We evaluated major motions performed during walking and identified the amount of work the body expends and the portion of recoverable energy. During walking, there are phases of the motion at the joints where muscles act as brakes and energy is lost to the surroundings. During those phases of motion, the required braking force or torque can be replaced by an electrical generator, allowing energy to be harvested at the cost of only minimal additional effort. The amount of energy that can be harvested was estimated experimentally and from literature data. Recommendations for future directions are made on the basis of our results in combination with a review of state-of-the-art biomechanical energy harvesting devices and energy conversion methods. Results For a device that uses center of mass motion, the maximum amount of energy that can be harvested is approximately 1 W per kilogram of device weight. For a person weighing 80 kg and walking at approximately 4 km/h, the power generation from the heel strike is approximately 2 W. For a joint-mounted device based on generative braking, the joints generating the most power are the knees (34 W) and the ankles (20 W). Conclusions Our theoretical calculations align well with current device performance data. Our results suggest that the most energy can be harvested from the lower limb joints, but to do so efficiently, an innovative and light-weight mechanical design is needed. We also compared the

  17. Adaptive harvest management for the Svalbard population of pink-footed geese: 2015 progress summary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Fred A.; Madsen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    This document describes progress to date on the development of an adaptive harvest management strategy for maintaining the Svalbard population of pink‐footed geese (Anser brachyrhynchus) near their agreed target level (60,000) by providing for sustainable harvests in Norway and Denmark. This report provides an assessment of the most recent monitoring information (1991-2014) and its implications for the harvest management strategy, and it is an update of an initial assessment for 2013-2015 (see http://pinkfootedgoose.aewa.info/). By combining varying hypotheses about survival and reproduction, a suite of nine models have been developed that represent a wide range of possibilities concerning the extent to which demographic rates are density dependent or independent. Current updated model weights suggest little evidence for density-dependent survival and reproduction, suggesting that the population may have recently experienced a release from density-dependent mechanisms, corresponding to the period of most rapid growth in population size. The optimal harvest strategy for the 2013–2015 hunting seasons prescribed a harvest quota of 15,000 per year. The harvest in the 2014 hunting season was 14,991, compared to 11,081 in 2013, mostly due to an increase in harvest in Denmark during January 2015. The percentage of young in the fall of 2014 was 10.3%, which is lower than average. The observed population size of 59,000 in May 2015 was much lower than expected. For the 2015 hunting season, observed population size and temperature days suggest that an emergency closure should be considered. In the event a harvest of 15,000 is maintained, predicted population size in May 2016 is 51,700 (95% CL: 41,600-64,300), based on observed TempDays = 9 in May 2015 and the most recent model weights. On the other hand, if the season were closed this year, we would expect a population size of 66,700 (95% CL: 53,600-82,900) in May 2016. A total harvest of 6,700 would be expected to result

  18. Traditional plant harvesting in contemporary fragmented and urban landscapes.

    PubMed

    Wehi, Priscilla M; Wehi, William L

    2010-04-01

    Ecosystem fragmentation and destruction can lead to restrictive administration policies on traditional harvesting by indigenous peoples from remaining ecosystem tracts. In New Zealand, concerns about endangered species and governmental policies that focus on species and ecosystem preservation have resulted in severely curtailed traditional harvesting rights. Although provision has been made for limited gathering of traditional plants from government-administered conservation lands, it is unclear how much harvesting is undertaken on these lands and elsewhere and what this harvest might consist of. We interviewed seven expert Maori elders from the Waikato, New Zealand, to identify plant species they currently harvested and from where. We compared these data with the data we collected on permits issued for plant collecting on conservation lands in the same region. We sought to gain information on indigenous plant harvesting to determine the extent of permitted harvesting from conservation lands in the Waikato and to identify issues that might affect plant harvesting and management. Elders identified 58 species they harvest regularly or consider culturally important; over 50% of these species are harvested for medicinal use. Permit data from 1996 to 2006 indicated no apparent relationship between species of reported cultural significance and the number of permits issued for each of these species. Currently, few plant species are harvested from conservation lands, although some unofficial harvesting occurs. Elders instead reported that medicinal plants are frequently collected from urban and other public areas. They reported that plant species used for dyeing, carving, and weaving are difficult to access. Elders also discussed concerns such as spraying of roadsides, which resulted in the death of medicinal species, and use of commercial hybrids in urban planning. Local government may have an increasingly important role in supporting native traditions through urban

  19. Quantum Chemical Studies of Light Harvesting.

    PubMed

    Curutchet, Carles; Mennucci, Benedetta

    2017-01-25

    The design of optimal light-harvesting (supra)molecular systems and materials is one of the most challenging frontiers of science. Theoretical methods and computational models play a fundamental role in this difficult task, as they allow the establishment of structural blueprints inspired by natural photosynthetic organisms that can be applied to the design of novel artificial light-harvesting devices. Among theoretical strategies, the application of quantum chemical tools represents an important reality that has already reached an evident degree of maturity, although it still has to show its real potentials. This Review presents an overview of the state of the art of this strategy, showing the actual fields of applicability but also indicating its current limitations, which need to be solved in future developments.

  20. Dielectric elastomer energy harvesting undergoing polarization saturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liwu; Luo, Xiaojian; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong

    2012-04-01

    Mechanical energy can be converted into electrical energy by using a dielectric elastomer generator. The elastomer is susceptible to various models of failure, including electrical breakdown, electromechanical instability, loss of tension, and rupture by stretching. The models of failure define a cycle of maximal energy that can be converted. On the other hand, when subjected to voltage, the charge will be induced on a dielectric elastomer. When the voltage is small, the charge increases with the voltage. Along with the continuously increase of voltage, when the charge approaches a certain value, it would become saturated. This paper develops a thermodynamic model of dielectric elastomers undergoing polarization saturation. We studied the typical failure model with three variables of Gent Model silicone energy harvester and obtained an analytical solution of the constitutive equation of dielectric elastomer undergoing polarization saturation. These results can be used to facilitate the design and manufacture of dielectric elastomer energy harvesters.