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Sample records for combined effects experiments

  1. Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) experiments data collection, analysis, and publication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, Terry N.; Alzmann, Melanie O.

    1992-01-01

    The Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) program experiments data collection, analysis, and publication activities are described. These activities were associated with both the satellite chemical release and a planned Puerto Rico sounding rocket campaign. To coordinate these activities, a working group meeting was organized and conducted.

  2. The Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) program: A unique series of scientific experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reasoner, David L.; Mccook, Morgan W. (Editor); Vaughan, William W. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The Defense Department and NASA have joined in a program to study the space environment which surrounds the earth and the effects of space radiation on modern satellite electronic systems. The Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) will carry an array of active experiments including chemical releases and a complement of sophisticated scientific instruments to accomplish these objectives. Other chemical release active experiments will be performed with sub-orbital rocket probes. The chemical releases will 'paint' the magnetic and electric fields of earthspace with clouds of glowing ions. Earthspace will be a laboratory, and the releases will be studied with an extensive network of ground-, aircraft-, and satellite-based diagnostic instruments. Some of the topics discussed include the following: the effects of earthspace; the need for active experiments; types of chemical releases; the CRRES program schedule; international support and coordinated studies; photographing chemical releases; information on locating chemical releases for observation by the amateur; and CRRES as a program.

  3. CRRES (Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite) SPACERAD plasma wave experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Roger R.; Gurnett, Donald A.

    1988-10-01

    This document discusses the Main Electronics Package, two Electric Field Preamps and Search Coil Magnetometer for the AFGL 701 SPACERAD instrumentation on the CRRES (Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite) project. This document discusses the scientific objectives and the importance of the Plasma Wave Experiment in the CRRES SPACERAD mission and describes the instrument design rational and the instrument development philosophy. This document also discusses the testing and operations of the experiment and contains a schematic drawing of the instrumentation electronics and lists of the schematics, drawings, and wiring diagrams that describe the as-built configuration of the Plasma Wave Experiment instrumentation. Problems encountered during the construction and testing of the instrument and their resolutions are discussed. Test results from already completed environmental and EMC/RFI tests have already been submitted to AFGL and to the Air Force Headquarters Space Division Space Test Program. The recertification of the calibration of the instrument is recommended in the near future under a new contract covering the re-delivery (necessitated due to the removal during the launch-delay storage period), pre-launch, and launch operations.

  4. Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) Experiment: Educational planning and coordination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, William W.; Alzmann, Melanie

    1991-01-01

    The efforts conducted to provide educational planning and development support for the Combined Release and Radiation Satellite (CRRES) Experiment are summarized. Activities regarding the scientific working group and workshop development are presented including the preparation of descriptive information on the CRRES Project.

  5. CRRES/SPACERAD (Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite/Space Radiation Effects Program) Experiment Descriptions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-24

    the Earth’s Magnetosphere, R.G. Johnson, Ed., TERRAPUB, Tokyo. 2. Balsiger , H., Geiss, J., and Young, D. T. (1983) The composition of thermal and hot...from the SCATHA spacecraft, in Energetic Ion Composition in the Earth’s Magnetosphere, R.G. Johnson, Ed., TERRAPUB, Tokyo. 7. Shelley, E.G., Balsiger , H...A., Hertzberg, E., Battel, S.J., Altwegg-Von Burg, K., and Balsiger , H. (1984) AMPTE/CCE hot plasma composition experiment (HPCE), submitted to IEEE

  6. The Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite program (CRRES): A unique series of scientific experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    CRRES is a program to study the space environment which surrounds Earth and the effects of space radiation on modern satellite electronic systems. The satellite will carry an array of active experiments including chemical releases and a complement of sophisticated scientific instruments to accomplish these objectives. Other chemical release active experiments will be performed with suborbital rocket probes. These chemical releases will paint the magnetic and electric fields in Earthspace with clouds of glowing ions. Earthspace will be a laboratory, and the releases will be studied with an extensive network of ground-, aircraft-, and satellite-based diagnostic instruments.

  7. The Combined Effects of Alcohol, Caffeine and Expectancies on Subjective Experience, Impulsivity and Risk-Taking

    PubMed Central

    Heinz, Adrienne J.; de Wit, Harriet; Lilje, Todd C.; Kassel, Jon D.

    2013-01-01

    Caffeinated alcoholic beverage (CAB) consumption is a rapidly growing phenomenon among young adults and is associated with a variety of health-risk behaviors. The current study examined whether either caffeinated alcohol or the expectation of receiving caffeinated alcohol altered affective, cognitive and behavioral outcomes hypothesized to contribute to risk behavior. Young adult social drinkers (N=146) participated in a single session where they received alcohol (peak Breath Alcohol Content = .088 g/dL, SD = .019; equivalent to about 4 standard drinks) and were randomly assigned to one of four further conditions 1) no caffeine, no caffeine expectancy, 2) caffeine and caffeine expectancy, 3) no caffeine but caffeine expectancy, 4) caffeine but no caffeine expectancy. Participants’ habitual CAB consumption was positively correlated with measures of impulsivity and risky behavior, independently of study drugs. Administration of caffeine (mean dose = 220 mg, SD = 38; equivalent to about 2.75 Red Bulls) in the study reduced subjective ratings of intoxication and reversed the decrease in desire to continue drinking, regardless of expectancy. Caffeine also reduced the effect of alcohol on inhibitory reaction time (faster incorrect responses). Participants not expecting caffeine were less attentive after alcohol, whereas participants expecting caffeine were not, regardless of caffeine administration. Alcohol decreased response accuracy in all participants except those who both expected and received caffeine. Findings suggest that CABs may elevate risk for continued drinking by reducing perceived intoxication, and by maintaining the desire to continue drinking. Simply expecting to consume caffeine may reduce the effects of alcohol on inattention, and either expecting or consuming caffeine may protect against other alcohol-related performance decrements. Caffeine, when combined with alcohol, has both beneficial and detrimental effects on mechanisms known to contribute to

  8. The combined effects of alcohol, caffeine, and expectancies on subjective experience, impulsivity, and risk-taking.

    PubMed

    Heinz, Adrienne J; de Wit, Harriet; Lilje, Todd C; Kassel, Jon D

    2013-06-01

    Caffeinated alcoholic beverage (CAB) consumption is a rapidly growing phenomenon among young adults and is associated with a variety of health-risk behaviors. The current study examined whether either caffeinated alcohol or the expectation of receiving caffeinated alcohol altered affective, cognitive, and behavioral outcomes hypothesized to contribute to risk behavior. Young adult social drinkers (N = 146) participated in a single session where they received alcohol (peak Breath Alcohol Content = .088 g/dL, SD = .019; equivalent to about four standard drinks) and were randomly assigned to one of four further conditions: 1) no caffeine, no caffeine expectancy, 2) caffeine and caffeine expectancy, 3) no caffeine but caffeine expectancy, 4) caffeine but no caffeine expectancy. Participants' habitual CAB consumption was positively correlated with measures of impulsivity and risky behavior, independently of study drugs. Administration of caffeine (mean dose = 220 mg, SD = 38; equivalent to about 2.75 Red Bulls) in the study reduced subjective ratings of intoxication and reversed the decrease in desire to continue drinking, regardless of expectancy. Caffeine also reduced the effect of alcohol on inhibitory reaction time (RT) (faster incorrect responses). Participants not expecting caffeine were less attentive after alcohol, whereas participants expecting caffeine were not, regardless of caffeine administration. Alcohol decreased response accuracy in all participants except those who both expected and received caffeine. Findings suggest that CABs may elevate risk for continued drinking by reducing perceived intoxication, and by maintaining the desire to continue drinking. Simply expecting to consume caffeine may reduce the effects of alcohol on inattention, and either expecting or consuming caffeine may protect against other alcohol-related performance decrements. Caffeine, when combined with alcohol, has both beneficial and detrimental effects on mechanisms known to

  9. Combined effects of pre-pulsing and target geometry on efficient EUV production from laser produced plasma experiments and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanein, A.; Sizyuk, T.; Sizyuk, V.; Harilal, S. S.

    2011-04-01

    Laser produced plasmas (LPP) is currently a promising source of an efficient extreme ultraviolet (EUV) photon source production for advanced lithography. Optimum laser pulse parameters with adjusted wavelength, energy, and duration for simple planar or spherical tin target can provide 2-3% conversion efficiency (CE) in laboratory experiments. These values are also in good agreement with modeling results. Additional effects such as targets with complex geometry and tin-doped targets using pre-pulsing of laser beams can significantly increase CE. Recent studies showed that such improvements in LPP system are due to reduction in laser energy losses by decreasing photons transmission (higher harmonic of Nd:YAG laser) or photons reflection (for CO2 laser). Optimization of target heating using pre-pulses or ablating low-density and nanoporous tin oxide can further improve LLP sources by creating more efficient plasma plumes and as a result increasing CE, the most important parameter for EUV sources. The second important challenge in developing LPP devices is to decrease fast ions and target debris to protect the optical collection system and increase its lifetime. We investigated the combined effects of pre-pulsing with various parameters and different target geometries on EUV conversion efficiency and on energetic ions production. The much higher reflectivity of CO2 laser from a tin target leads to two possible ways for system improvement using pre-pulses with shorter laser wavelengths or using more complex targets geometries with special grooves as developed previously by the authors.

  10. Effects of Practice on Task Architecture: Combined Evidence from Interference Experiments and Random-Walk Models of Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamienkowski, Juan E.; Pashler, Harold; Dehaene, Stanislas; Sigman, Mariano

    2011-01-01

    Does extensive practice reduce or eliminate central interference in dual-task processing? We explored the reorganization of task architecture with practice by combining interference analysis (delays in dual-task experiment) and random-walk models of decision making (measuring the decision and non-decision contributions to RT). The main delay…

  11. Effective Nutritional Supplement Combinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, Matt; Cribb, Paul J.

    Few supplement combinations that are marketed to athletes are supported by scientific evidence of their effectiveness. Quite often, under the rigor of scientific investigation, the patented combination fails to provide any greater benefit than a group given the active (generic) ingredient. The focus of this chapter is supplement combinations and dosing strategies that are effective at promoting an acute physiological response that may improve/enhance exercise performance or influence chronic adaptations desired from training. In recent years, there has been a particular focus on two nutritional ergogenic aids—creatine monohydrate and protein/amino acids—in combination with specific nutrients in an effort to augment or add to their already established independent ergogenic effects. These combinations and others are discussed in this chapter.

  12. The TRIPLE LUX-A Experiment for BIOLAB/ISS- Combined Effects of Microgravity and Cosmic Radiation on the Oxidative Burst of Mammalian Macrophageal Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, K.; Sromicki, J.; Hock, B.; Ullrich, O.

    2008-06-01

    Phagocytes, the prominent cells of innate immunity, are responsible for the removal of foreign invaders, apoptotic as well as cancer cells. In a flight experiment in the BIOLAB facility on the ISS we will investigate the combined effects of microgravity and cosmic radiation on the oxidative burst, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), of the macrophageal cell line NR8383. A chemiluminescence assay (luminol) is used to determine the amount of ROS during phagocytosis of zymosan in a kinetic approach. Ground control experiments for the TRIPLE LUX-A flight experiment on a fast rotating 2D clinostat showed that the selected cell line responds to simulated weightlessness by an increase of ROS production.

  13. Cell motility: Combining experiments with modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rappel, Wouter-Jan

    2013-03-01

    Cell migration and motility is a pervasive process in many biology systems. It involves intra-cellular signal transduction pathways that eventually lead to membrane extension and contraction. Here we describe our efforts to combine quantitative experiments with theoretical and computational modeling to gain fundamental insights into eukaryotic cell motion. In particular, we will focus on the amoeboid motion of Dictyostelium discoideum cells. This work is supported by the National Institutes of Health (P01 GM078586)

  14. A Combined Experimental and Computational Study to Examine Lateral Constraint Effects on Single-Slip Oriented Microcompression Experiments (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    anisotropic crystal plasticity FEM model was implemented using the commercial FEM program ABAQUS , in order to better understand the effect of the test...a local pile -up of dislocations at the surface. The magnitude of this disorientation is less than 0.5°. Also note the lack of activity on other

  15. The effects of 5-hydroxytryptophan in combination with different Fatty acids on gastrointestinal functions: a pilot experiment.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Helene; Mack, Isabelle; Kohler, Silke; Siegle, Stefanie; Rieber, Nicole; Zipfel, Stephan; Otto, Bärbel; Ritze, Yvonne; Bischoff, Stephan C; Enck, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background. Fat affects gastric emptying (GE). 5-Hydroxythryptophan (5-HTP) is involved in central and peripheral satiety mechanisms. Influence of 5-HTP in addition to saturated or monounsaturated fatty acids (FA) on GE and hormone release was investigated. Subjects/Methods. 24 healthy individuals (12f : 12m, 22-29 years, BMI 19-25.7 kg/m²) were tested on 4 days with either 5-HTP + short-chain saturated FA (butter), placebo + butter, 5-HTP + monounsaturated FA (olive oil), or placebo + olive oil in double-blinded randomized order. Two hours after FA/5-HTP or placebo intake, a (13)C octanoid acid test was conducted. Cortisol, serotonin, cholecystokinin (CCK), and ghrelin were measured, as were mood and GE. Results. GE was delayed with butter and was normal with olive (P < 0.05) but not affected by 5-HTP. 5-HTP supplementation did not affect serotonin levels. Food intake increased plasma CCK (F = 6.136; P < 0.05) irrespective of the FA. Ghrelin levels significantly decreased with oil/5-HTP (F = 9.166; P < 0.001). The diurnal cortisol profile was unaffected by FA or 5-HTP, as were ratings of mood, hunger, and stool urgency. Conclusion. Diverse FAs have different effects on GE and secretion of orexigenic and anorexigenic hormones. Supplementation of 5-HTP had no effect on plasma serotonin and central functions. Further studies are needed to explain the complex interplay.

  16. Combined Experiment Phase 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Butterfield, C.P.; Musial, W.P.; Simms, D.A.

    1992-10-01

    How does wind tunnel airfoil data differ from the airfoil performance on an operating horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT)? The National Renewable Energy laboratory has been conducting a comprehensive test program focused on answering this question and understanding the basic fluid mechanics of rotating HAWT stall aerodynamics. The basic approach was to instrument a wind rotor, using an airfoil that was well documented by wind tunnel tests, and measure operating pressure distributions on the rotating blade. Based an the integrated values of the pressure data, airfoil performance coefficients were obtained, and comparisons were made between the rotating data and the wind tunnel data. Care was taken to the aerodynamic and geometric differences between the rotating and the wind tunnel models. This is the first of two reports describing the Combined Experiment Program and its results. This Phase I report covers background information such as test setup and instrumentation. It also includes wind tunnel test results and roughness testing.

  17. The German ISS-Experiment Cellular Responses to Radiation in Space (CERASP): The Effects of Single and Combined Space Flight Conditions on Mammalian Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumstark-Khan, C.; Hellweg, C. E.; Arenz, A.

    The combined action of ionizing radiation and microgravity will continue to influence future space missions with special risks for astronauts on the Moon surface or for long duration missions to Mars Previous space flight experiments have reported additive neither sensitization nor protection as well as synergistic increased radiation effect under microgravity interactions of radiation and microgravity in different cell systems Although a direct effect of microgravity on enzymatic mechanisms can be excluded on thermo dynamical reasons modifications of cellular repair can not be excluded as such processes are under the control of cellular signal transduction systems which are controlled by environmental parameters presumably also by gravity DNA repair studies in space on bacteria yeast cells and human fibroblasts which were irradiated before flight gave contradictory results from inhibition of repair by microgravity to enhancement whereas others did not detect any influence of microgravity on repair At the Radiation Biology Department of the German Aerospace Center DLR recombinant bacterial and mammalian cell systems were developed as reporters for cellular signal transduction modulation by genotoxic environmental conditions The space experiment CERASP Cellular Responses to Radiation in Space to be performed at the International Space Station ISS will make use of such reporter cell lines thereby supplying basic information on the cellular response to radiation applied in microgravity One of the biological endpoints will be survival

  18. Evaluating the effects of buffer conditions and extremolytes on thermostability of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor using high-throughput screening combined with design of experiments.

    PubMed

    Ablinger, Elisabeth; Hellweger, Monika; Leitgeb, Stefan; Zimmer, Andreas

    2012-10-15

    In this study, we combined a high-throughput screening method, differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF), with design of experiments (DoE) methodology to evaluate the effects of several formulation components on the thermostability of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF). First we performed a primary buffer screening where we tested thermal stability of G-CSF in different buffers, pH values and buffer concentrations. The significance of each factor and the two-way interactions between them were studied by multivariable regression analysis. pH was identified as most critical factor regarding thermal stability. The most stabilizing buffer, sodium glutamate, and sodium acetate were determined for further investigations. Second we tested the effect of 6 naturally occurring extremolytes (trehalose, sucrose, ectoine, hydroxyectoine, sorbitol, mannitol) on the thermal stability of G-CSF, using a central composite circumscribed design. At low pH (3.8) and low buffer concentration (5 mM) all extremolytes led to a significant increase in thermal stability except the addition of ectoine which resulted in a strong destabilization of G-CSF. Increasing pH and buffer concentration led to an increase in thermal stability with all investigated extremolytes. The described systematic approach allowed to create a ranking of stabilizing extremolytes at different buffer conditions.

  19. The German ISS-experiment Cellular Responses to Radiation in Space (CERASP): The effects of single and combined space flight conditions on mammalian cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellweg, C. E.; Thelen, M.; Arenz, A.; Baumstark-Khan, C.

    survival of cells with damaged DNA. A third endpoint to be examined will be DNA damage induced by combined exposure to radiation and microgravity and its repair. In the current work, preparatory experiments for the space experiment CERASP were performed. For radiation exposure on the ISS, an artificial radiation source is necessary since long-term exposure to cosmic radiation of frozen cells for damage accumulation will not be feasible. The biological activity of the designated space radiation source, the β-emitter promethium-147, was evaluated. Different shielding scenarios according to the experiment and safety requirements were evaluated. As growth surface for the human embryonic kidney cells, polytetrafluoroethylene and polyolefin foils were tested. For protection issues, the shielding effect of titanium foils was evaluated. With the prototype Pm-147 radiation source, the requirements of CERASP can be fulfilled with cells growing on the polytetrafluoroethylene foil and titanium foils for safety issues. In this setting, β-rays activated NF-κB-dependent reporter gene expression in human embryonic kidney cells. Regarding cell survival and NF-κB activation, the Pm-147 radiation source meets the requirements of the space experiment CERASP.

  20. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) combined with cognitive training is a safe and effective modality for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease: clinical experience.

    PubMed

    Rabey, Jose Martin; Dobronevsky, Evgenia

    2016-12-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia among the elderly. Common treatments available and non-pharmacological interventions have their limitations, and new therapeutic approaches are critically needed. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive technique that generates an electric current-inducing modulation in cortical excitability. The previous clinical trials showed that combinations of rTMS and cognitive training (rTMS-COG), as provided by the NeuroAD medical device system, offer a novel, safe, and effective method improving mild-to-moderate AD patients. In this article, we present our experience with rTMS-COG treatment, in clinical settings, of 30 mild-to-moderate AD patients that received rTMS-COG commercial treatments in two clinics for 1-h daily sessions, 5 days per week, for 6 weeks (30 sessions). Five patients returned for a second treatment. ADAS-Cog and MMSE scores were measured pre- and post-treatments. The main analyses were conducted on patients who received 1 treatment (n = 30). Data received from the five returning patients were analyzed separately. The effect of rTMS-COG treatment was statistically significant regarding both ADAS-Cog (-2.4 point improvement, PV <0.001) and MMSE (+1.7 points improvement, PV <0.001) scores. About 80 % of patients gained some cognitive improvement following NeuroAD treatment, with more than 60 % improving by more than two points, for a minimum of 9 months. The Neuronix NeuroAD System was shown to be a safe and effective non-invasive modality for cognitive improvement of Alzheimer patients, with measurable outcomes lasting, in some of them, for up to 1 year, following completion of the 6-week daily intervention course (a carryover effect).

  1. Stress heterogeneities in anisotropic materials - their effect on dislocation fields and post-deformational recrystallization: Insights from combined experiments and numerical simulations of polycrystalline ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piazolo, S.; Montagnat, M.; Borthwick, V.; Evans, L.; Griera, A.; Grennerat, F.; Moulinec, H.; Wheeler, J.

    2014-12-01

    We present a coupled experimental and modeling approach to better understand the role of stress field heterogeneities on deformation and post-deformational behavior in material with a high viscoplastic anisotropy e.g. polycrystalline ice. We investigate: (1) Effect of stress heterogeneities on deformation behavior and microstructural development and, (2) effect of such microstructures on post-deformational recrystallization. (1) Full-field elasto-viscoplastic modelling (CraFT) is used to predict the local stress and strain field during transient creep in a polycrystalline ice sample. Modeling input includes the experimental starting microstructure and a validated slip system dependent flow law. EBSD measurements on selected areas are used to estimate the local dislocation field utilizing the Weighted Burgers Vector (WBV) analysis. Areas of local stress concentration correlate with triple junctions and grain boundaries, originating from strain incompatibilities between differently oriented grains. In these areas, the WBV analysis shows a non-negligible c-axis component that must be related to resolved shear stress in a prismatic plane, coherent with the predicted elevated stress levels. The resultant defect structure is necessary for the formation of the observed kink bands which have a well-defined crystallographic character, lattice distortions and subgrain development. (2) The microstructures arising from (1) significantly affect post-deformational behavior. Combined post-deformational annealing experiments and numerical simulations using the microdynamic modeling platform ELLE, allow prediction of the local microstructural evolution taking recovery within grains, grain boundary migration and nucleation into account. Results from this study, can explain several of the observed features in natural ice, and help to refine large scale models.

  2. Effect of combined external uniaxial stress and dc bias on the dielectric property of BaTiO3-based dielectrics in multilayer ceramic capacitor: thermodynamics and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Gang; Yue, Zhenxing; Sun, Tieyu; Gou, Huanlin; Li, Longtu

    2008-02-01

    The dielectric properties of (Nb, Y)-doped BaTiO3 in a multilayer ceramic capacitor (MLCC) under combined external uniaxial compressive stress and dc bias field were investigated at room temperature by using a modified Ginsburg-Landau-Devonshire thermodynamic theory and the dielectric measurement. It is found that although dc bias decreases the dielectric properties dominantly, the influence of the external uniaixial compressive stress should not be neglected. When applied along a direction perpendicular to the internal electrode layer in the MLCC, the external uniaixal compressive stress will strengthen the negative effect of dc bias. In contrast, the external uniaxial compressive stress along a direction parallel to the internal electrode layer in the MLCC will increase the dielectric permittivity under dc bias field, i.e. improve the ɛ-V response of the MLCC. Furthermore, although there is a difference between the calculated permittivity and the measured permittivity, the effects of the combined external uniaxial compressive stress and dc bias field on the dielectric permittivity described through two approaches are in good agreement.

  3. Effect of soil washing with only chelators or combining with ferric chloride on soil heavy metal removal and phytoavailability: Field experiments.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaofang; Wei, Zebin; Wu, Qitang; Li, Chunping; Qian, Tianwei; Zheng, Wei

    2016-03-01

    In a field experiment on multi-metal contaminated soil, we investigated the efficiency of Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu removal by only mixture of chelators (MC) or combining with FeCl3. After washing treatment, a co-cropping system was performed for heavy metals to be extracted by Sedum alfredii and to produce safe food from Zea mays. We analyzed the concentration of heavy metals in groundwater to evaluate the leashing risk of soil washing with FeCl3 and MC. Results showed that addition of FeCl3 was favorable to the removal of heavy metals in the topsoil. Metal leaching occurred mainly in rain season during the first co-cropping. The removal rates of Cd, Zn, Pb, and Cu in topsoil were 28%, 53%, 41%, and 21% with washing by FeCl3+MC after first harvest. The application of FeCl3 reduced the yield of S. alfredii and increased the metals concentration of Z. mays in first harvest. However, after amending soil, the metals concentration of Z. mays in FeCl3+MC treatment were similar to that only washing by MC. The grains and shoots of Z. mays were safe for use in feed production. Soil washing did not worsen groundwater contamination during the study period. But the concentration of Cd in groundwater was higher than the limit value of Standard concentrations for Groundwater IV. This study suggests that soil washing using FeCl3 and MC for the remediation of multi-metal contaminated soil is potential feasibility. However, the subsequent measure to improve the washed soil environment for planting crop is considered.

  4. Combined Steady-State and Dynamic Heat Exchanger Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luyben, William L.; Tuzla, Kemal; Bader, Paul N.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a heat-transfer experiment that combines steady-state analysis and dynamic control. A process-water stream is circulated through two tube-in-shell heat exchangers in series. In the first, the process water is heated by steam. In the second, it is cooled by cooling water. The equipment is pilot-plant size: heat-transfer areas…

  5. The effectiveness of detector combinations.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenghao; Gong, Weiguo; Nee, A Y C; Ong, S K

    2009-04-27

    In this paper, the performance improvement benefiting from the combination of local feature detectors for image matching and registration is evaluated. Possible combinations of five types of representative interest point detectors and region detectors are integrated into the testing framework. The performance is compared using the number of correspondences and the repeatability rate, as well as an original evaluation criterion named the Reconstruction Similarity (RS), which reflects not only the number of matches, but also the degree of matching error. It is observed that the combination of DoG extremum and MSCR outperforms any single detectors and other detector combinations in most cases. Furthermore, MDSS, a hybrid algorithm for accurate image matching, is proposed. Compared with standard SIFT and GLOH, its average RS rate exceeds more than 3.56%, and takes up even less computational time.

  6. In Silico Modeling of Hundred Thousand Experiments for Effective Selection of Ionic Liquid Phase Combinations in Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Nolvachai, Yada; Kulsing, Chadin; Marriott, Philip J

    2016-02-16

    The selection of the best column sets is one of the most tedious processes in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) where a multitude of choices of column sets could be employed for an individual sample analysis. We demonstrate analyte/stationary phase dependent selection approaches based on the linear solvation energy relationship (LSER), which is a reliable concept for the study of interaction mechanisms and retention prediction with a large database pool of columns and compounds. Good correlations between our predicted results, with experimental results reported in the literature, were obtained. The developed approaches were applied to the simulation of 157 920 individual experiments in GC × GC, focusing on the application of 30 nonionic liquid and 111 ionic liquid (IL) stationary phases for separation of some example sets of model compounds present in practical samples. The best column sets for each sample separation could then be extracted according to maximizing orthogonality, which estimates the quality of separation.

  7. Post-launch data analysis for the cosmic ray isotope experiment ONR-604 in the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, John A.; Garcia-Munoz, Moises

    1995-01-01

    Research was continued on the origins, acceleration mechanisms, and the propagation modes of the hierarchy of energetic charged particles found in a wide range of astrophysical settings, extending from the cosmic rays arriving from the depth of the galaxy to the energetic particles in the heliosphere and in the near earth environment. In particular this grant has been a vital support in the investigation of the particle radiations in the earth's magnetosphere. The ONR-604 instrument was launched in July 1990 aboard the CRRES spacecraft. The CRRES mission has been a joint program of NASA and the U.S. Air Force Space Test Program which has provided launch support and telemetry coverage. The spacecraft was placed into a low-inclination eccentric orbit with a period of approximately 10 hours, and thus measured charged particle fluxes in both interplanetary space and in the earth's trapped radiation. ONR-604 performed extremely well, both in interplanetary space and in the intense radiation belt environment. We were able to make detailed measurements of interplanetary fluxes and composition into L=4, or for more than 50% of the orbital period. Thus the experiment produced two valuable datasets, one set outside of L=4 for interplanetary studies, and one set inside of L=4 for radiation belt studies. The data returned by the University of Chicago ONR-604 instrument has been the base for 10 papers on magnetospheric and galactic energetic-particle research.

  8. Analysis of multiwavelength coherent beam combining effect.

    PubMed

    Kai, Han; Xiaojun, Xu; Zejin, Liu

    2012-12-01

    The combination effect of multiwavelength active coherent beam combination (CBC) is investigated theoretically. The dependence of the combination effect on the optical path control precision, spectral width, wavelength number, and channel number is revealed. In the case of small optical path variance, the combination effect approximately decreases in quadratic form with wavelength number N, spectral width Δν, and optical path variance σ increasing. In the case of large optical path variance, the combination effect is independent of the optical path variance and the spectral width. The larger the wavelength number is, the smaller the Strehl ratio expectation is, and it finally degenerates to the incoherent combination. The necessity of optical path control is discussed. This study is helpful for multiwavelength CBC system design and the combination effect estimation.

  9. [Experiences with polychemotherapy of acute leukemias in adults with special reference to the COAP combination].

    PubMed

    Gürtler, R; Raderecht, C

    1975-01-01

    The authors give a report on their experiences with polychemotherapy in 77 acute leukaemias in adults. On this occasion the COAP combination was identified to be well effective and to be an enrichment of therapy because of its low side effects.

  10. Effect of Triton X-100 on the removal of aqueous phenol by laccase analyzed with a combined approach of experiments and molecular docking.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Zeng, Zhuotong; Zeng, Guangming; Liu, Xuanming; Liu, Zhifeng; Chen, Ming; Liu, Lifeng; Li, Jianbing; Xie, Gengxin

    2012-09-01

    Effects of Triton X-100 on the removal of aqueous phenol catalyzed by laccase were studied. The optimal concentration of Triton X-100 was 155 μM to improve phenol removal when the concentrations of phenol and laccase were 50 mg/L and 0.05 mg/mL, respectively. Laccase activity was increased with Triton X-100 at concentrations from 31 to 930 μM and the highest increase was about 17% by 930 μM Triton X-100. The removal efficiencies of phenol with 155 μM Triton X-100 were 1.2, 1.6, 3.4, 4.5, and 5.7 fold those of the control after 6h when the initial concentrations of phenol were 50, 100, 200, 400 and 600 mg/L, respectively. Molecular docking method was used to analyze the interactions between laccase and substrates. Docking results showed that phenol formed hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions with laccase, whereas Triton X-100 formed hydrophobic interactions with laccase, which may increase the laccase activity and enhance phenol removal. The reaction of phenol removal was also characterized using UV spectra. The results indicated that the presence of low concentrations of Triton X-100 for phenol removal catalyzed by enzymes may be an alternative to the present phenol removal processes in water treatment or remediation.

  11. Tutorial: Defects in semiconductors—Combining experiment and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkauskas, Audrius; McCluskey, Matthew D.; Van de Walle, Chris G.

    2016-05-01

    Point defects affect or even completely determine physical and chemical properties of semiconductors. Characterization of point defects based on experimental techniques alone is often inconclusive. In such cases, the combination of experiment and theory is crucial to gain understanding of the system studied. In this tutorial, we explain how and when such comparison provides new understanding of the defect physics. More specifically, we focus on processes that can be analyzed or understood in terms of configuration coordinate diagrams of defects in their different charge states. These processes include light absorption, luminescence, and nonradiative capture of charge carriers. Recent theoretical developments to describe these processes are reviewed.

  12. Combined Use of Integral Experiments and Covariance Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmiotti, G.; Salvatores, M.; Aliberti, G.; Herman, M.; Hoblit, S. D.; McKnight, R. D.; Obložinský, P.; Talou, P.; Hale, G. M.; Hiruta, H.; Kawano, T.; Mattoon, C. M.; Nobre, G. P. A.; Palumbo, A.; Pigni, M.; Rising, M. E.; Yang, W.-S.; Kahler, A. C.

    2014-04-01

    In the frame of a US-DOE sponsored project, ANL, BNL, INL and LANL have performed a joint multidisciplinary research activity in order to explore the combined use of integral experiments and covariance data with the objective to both give quantitative indications on possible improvements of the ENDF evaluated data files and to reduce at the same time crucial reactor design parameter uncertainties. Methods that have been developed in the last four decades for the purposes indicated above have been improved by some new developments that benefited also by continuous exchanges with international groups working in similar areas. The major new developments that allowed significant progress are to be found in several specific domains: a) new science-based covariance data; b) integral experiment covariance data assessment and improved experiment analysis, e.g., of sample irradiation experiments; c) sensitivity analysis, where several improvements were necessary despite the generally good understanding of these techniques, e.g., to account for fission spectrum sensitivity; d) a critical approach to the analysis of statistical adjustments performance, both a priori and a posteriori; e) generalization of the assimilation method, now applied for the first time not only to multigroup cross sections data but also to nuclear model parameters (the "consistent" method). This article describes the major results obtained in each of these areas; a large scale nuclear data adjustment, based on the use of approximately one hundred high-accuracy integral experiments, will be reported along with a significant example of the application of the new "consistent" method of data assimilation.

  13. Combination Therapy for Acne Scarring: Personal Experience and Clinical Suggestions.

    PubMed

    Kroepfl, Lucija; Emer, Jason J

    2016-11-01

    Acne is one of the most prevalent skin conditions seen by dermatologists. The cosmetic sequelae of severe acne, including scarring and pigmentation, have a profound psychological impact on those in icted. Topical (eg, retinoids, antibiotics, dapsone, hydroxyacids) and oral treatments (eg, antibiotics and/or spironolactone) are often bene cial to control acne or in the instance of oral isotretinoin use, rid the acne permanently; however, these treatments have very little affect on the ultimate cosmetic outcome of the acne scarring and skin texture that results. Given the variety of scar types that can form and the variability of responses seen in various skin types and textures, treatment options are vast without appropriate guidelines for pathways that dictate best timing, combinations, and options in given clinical scenarios. Current treatment options include solo or combina- tions of energy-based (eg, laser, radiofrequency), chemical-based (eg, peels, TCA cross), surgical-based options (eg, subcision, punch excision), microneedling, and llers and/or fat injections. Most recently, fractional radiofrequency-based treatments have been used to improve acne scarring with less reported downtime as compared to lasers or chemical peels and the ability to treat darker or sensitive skin types with less risk of scarring or hyperpigmentation. In severe cystic ares, scarring treatments are often postposed till the acne is under control and in many instances this can limit the dermatologists ability to affect future cosmetic treatments. Based on personal experience of various clinical scenarios in a busy laser practice that treats a signi cant number of patients with acne scarring, fractional radiofrequency is an excellent choice for treating all forms of acne scars with minimal risk to patients, even those on concurrent treatments such as isotretinoin. Additionally, fractional radiofrequency can be used in combination with all other treatment options to speed the time to

  14. Effect of a fixed combination of nimodipine and betahistine versus betahistine as monotherapy in the long-term treatment of Ménière's disease: a 10-year experience.

    PubMed

    Monzani, D; Barillari, M R; Alicandri Ciufelli, M; Aggazzotti Cavazza, E; Neri, V; Presutti, L; Genovese, E

    2012-12-01

    Despite an abundance of long-term pharmacological treatments for recurrent vertigo attacks due to Ménière's disease, there is no general agreement on the their efficacy. We present the results of a retrospective study based on a 10-year experience with two long-term medical protocols prescribed to patients affected by Ménière's disease (diagnosed according to the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Committee on Hearing and Equilibrium guidelines) who completed treatments in the period 1999-2009. A total of 113 medical records were analysed; 53 patients received betahistine-dihydrochloride at on-label dosage (32 mg die) for six months, and 60 patients were treated with the same regimen and nimodipine (40 mg die) as an add-therapy during the same period. Nimodipine, a 1,4-dihydropyridine that selectively blocks L-type voltage-sensitive calcium channels, has previously been tested as a monotherapy for recurrent vertigo of labyrinthine origin in a multinational, double-blind study with positive results. A moderate reduction of the impact of vertigo on quality of life (as assessed by the Dizziness Handicap Inventory) was obtained in patients after therapy with betahistine (p < 0.05), but a more significant effect was achieved in patients treated by combined therapy (p < 0.005). In the latter group, better control of vertigo was seen with a greater reduction of frequency of attacks (p < 0.005). Both protocols resulted in a significant improvement of static postural control, although a larger effect on body sway area in all tests was obtained by the fixed combination of drugs. In contrast, no beneficial effect on either tinnitus annoyance (as assessed by the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory) and hearing loss (pure-tone average at 0.5, 1, 2, 3 kHz frequencies of the affected ear) was recorded in patients treated with betahistine as monotherapy (p > 0.05), whereas the fixed combination of betahistine and nimodipine was associated with a significant

  15. Virtual experiments: Combining realistic neutron scattering instrument and sample simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhi, E.; Hugouvieux, V.; Johnson, M. R.; Kob, W.

    2009-08-01

    A new sample component is presented for the Monte Carlo, ray-tracing program, McStas, which is widely used to simulate neutron scattering instruments. The new component allows the sample to be described by its material dynamic structure factor, which is separated into coherent and incoherent contributions. The effects of absorption and multiple scattering are treated and results from simulations and previous experiments are compared. The sample component can also be used to treat any scattering material which may be close to the sample and therefore contaminates the total, measured signal.

  16. Casimir experiments showing saturation effects

    SciTech Connect

    Sernelius, Bo E.

    2009-10-15

    We address several different Casimir experiments where theory and experiment disagree. First out is the classical Casimir force measurement between two metal half spaces; here both in the form of the torsion pendulum experiment by Lamoreaux and in the form of the Casimir pressure measurement between a gold sphere and a gold plate as performed by Decca et al.; theory predicts a large negative thermal correction, absent in the high precision experiments. The third experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between a metal plate and a laser irradiated semiconductor membrane as performed by Chen et al.; the change in force with laser intensity is larger than predicted by theory. The fourth experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between an atom and a wall in the form of the measurement by Obrecht et al. of the change in oscillation frequency of a {sup 87}Rb Bose-Einstein condensate trapped to a fused silica wall; the change is smaller than predicted by theory. We show that saturation effects can explain the discrepancies between theory and experiment observed in all these cases.

  17. Optical and control modeling for adaptive beam-combining experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Gruetzner, J.K.; Tucker, S.D.; Neal, D.R.; Bentley, A.E.; Simmons-Potter, K.

    1995-08-01

    The development of modeling algorithms for adaptive optics systems is important for evaluating both performance and design parameters prior to system construction. Two of the most critical subsystems to be modeled are the binary optic design and the adaptive control system. Since these two are intimately related, it is beneficial to model them simultaneously. Optic modeling techniques have some significant limitations. Diffraction effects directly limit the utility of geometrical ray-tracing models, and transform techniques such as the fast fourier transform can be both cumbersome and memory intensive. The authors have developed a hybrid system incorporating elements of both ray-tracing and fourier transform techniques. In this paper they present an analytical model of wavefront propagation through a binary optic lens system developed and implemented at Sandia. This model is unique in that it solves the transfer function for each portion of a diffractive optic analytically. The overall performance is obtained by a linear superposition of each result. The model has been successfully used in the design of a wide range of binary optics, including an adaptive optic for a beam combining system consisting of an array of rectangular mirrors, each controllable in tip/tilt and piston. Wavefront sensing and the control models for a beam combining system have been integrated and used to predict overall systems performance. Applicability of the model for design purposes is demonstrated with several lens designs through a comparison of model predictions with actual adaptive optics results.

  18. Combining Laboratory Experiments with Digital Tools to Do Scientific Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kluge, Anders

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study investigates the gap between a lab experiment and theory of science. Two groups of 4 students in 2 different classes in 11th grade (15-16 years old) are followed as they process results and experiences from a lab experiment using a digital environment. The experiment is as a part of a larger project about genes and cells,…

  19. Eigenvalue Detonation of Combined Effects Aluminized Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capellos, C.; Baker, E. L.; Nicolich, S.; Balas, W.; Pincay, J.; Stiel, L. I.

    2007-12-01

    Theory and performance for recently developed combined—effects aluminized explosives are presented. Our recently developed combined-effects aluminized explosives (PAX-29C, PAX-30, PAX-42) are capable of achieving excellent metal pushing, as well as high blast energies. Metal pushing capability refers to the early volume expansion work produced during the first few volume expansions associated with cylinder and wall velocities and Gurney energies. Eigenvalue detonation explains the observed detonation states achieved by these combined effects explosives. Cylinder expansion data and thermochemical calculations (JAGUAR and CHEETAH) verify the eigenvalue detonation behavior.

  20. Eigenvalue Detonation of Combined Effects Aluminized Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capellos, Christos; Baker, Ernest; Balas, Wendy; Nicolich, Steven; Stiel, Leonard

    2007-06-01

    This paper reports on the development of theory and performance for recently developed combined effects aluminized explosives. Traditional high energy explosives used for metal pushing incorporate high loading percentages of HMX or RDX, whereas blast explosives incorporate some percentage of aluminum. However, the high blast explosives produce increased blast energies, with reduced metal pushing capability due to late time aluminum reaction. Metal pushing capability refers to the early volume expansion work produced during the first few volume expansions associated with cylinder wall velocities and Gurney energies. Our Recently developed combined effects aluminized explosives (PAX-29C, PAX-30, PAX-42) are capable of achieving excellent metal pushing and high blast energies. Traditional Chapman-Jouguet detonation theory does not explain the observed detonation states achieved by these combined effects explosives. This work demonstrates, with the use of cylinder expansion data and thermochemical code calculations (JAGUAR and CHEETAH), that eigenvalue detonation theory explains the observed behavior.

  1. Developing Effective Undergraduate Research Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Michael; Ilie, Carolina C.

    2011-03-01

    Undergraduate research is a valuable educational tool for students pursuing a degree in physics, but these experiences can become problematic and ineffective if not handled properly. Undergraduate research should be planned as an immersive learning experience in which the student has the opportunity to develop his/her skills in accordance with their interests. Effective undergraduate research experiences are marked by clear, measurable objectives and frequent student-professor collaboration. These objectives should reflect the long and short-term goals of the individual undergraduates, with a heightened focus on developing research skills for future use. 1. Seymour, E., Hunter, A.-B., Laursen, S. L. and DeAntoni, T. (2004), ``Establishing the benefits of research experiences for undergraduates in the sciences: First findings from a three-year study''. Science Education, 88: 493--534. 2. Behar-Horenstein, Linda S., Johnson, Melissa L. ``Enticing Students to Enter Into Undergraduate Research: The Instrumentality of an Undergraduate Course.'' Journal of College Science Teaching 39.3 (2010): 62-70.

  2. Determining Molar Combining Ratios Using Radioisotopes--A Student Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sears, Jerry A.

    1976-01-01

    Outlines an experimental procedure in which an iodine radioisotope is used to determine molar combining ratios of lead and silver with the iodine. Tables and graphs show the definitive results that should be attainable. (CP)

  3. A Simulated Environment Experiment on Annoyance Due to Combined Road Traffic and Industrial Noises

    PubMed Central

    Marquis-Favre, Catherine; Morel, Julien

    2015-01-01

    Total annoyance due to combined noises is still difficult to predict adequately. This scientific gap is an obstacle for noise action planning, especially in urban areas where inhabitants are usually exposed to high noise levels from multiple sources. In this context, this work aims to highlight potential to enhance the prediction of total annoyance. The work is based on a simulated environment experiment where participants performed activities in a living room while exposed to combined road traffic and industrial noises. The first objective of the experiment presented in this paper was to gain further understanding of the effects on annoyance of some acoustical factors, non-acoustical factors and potential interactions between the combined noise sources. The second one was to assess total annoyance models constructed from the data collected during the experiment and tested using data gathered in situ. The results obtained in this work highlighted the superiority of perceptual models. In particular, perceptual models with an interaction term seemed to be the best predictors for the two combined noise sources under study, even with high differences in sound pressure level. Thus, these results reinforced the need to focus on perceptual models and to improve the prediction of partial annoyances. PMID:26197326

  4. Using a Balun Transformer Combiner for High Power Microwave Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, M. C.; Pesavento, P. V.

    2011-12-01

    A novel coaxial power combiner design has been duplicated that has distinct advantages over other combiner geometries that can handle high power. This design is being applied to combine four 3 kW power supplies to obtain a 10 kW, 5 MHz system for an ICRF antenna on HSX. In the past, Wilkinson type combiners have had limited application to high power systems because of the lack of non-inductive, high power, 100Ω balance loads. With this new design, standard 50Ω dummy loads can be used instead for the balance load. The cost is considerably lower than lumped element combiner designs which are dominated by capacitor costs. At such a relatively low frequency, a 3-dB quarter-wave coupled-line coupler becomes impractically long, and a conventional branch-line hybrid requires 35Ω-line, which is commercially unavailable. The balun combiner uses less transmission line than a ring hybrid and has good bandwidth characteristics even away from its best line impedance. Theoretical calculations and modeling were performed for line impedances from 65Ω to 75Ω. Measurements from a low-power test device show excellent agreement with theory, and construction of the high power system is underway.

  5. Using a Balun Transformer Combiner for High Power RF Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, M. C.; Pesavento, P. V.

    2011-10-01

    A novel coaxial power combiner design has been duplicated that has distinct advantages over other combiner geometries that can handle high power. This design is being applied to combine four 3 kW power supplies to obtain a 12 kW, 5 MHz system for an ICRF antenna on HSX. In the past, Wilkinson type combiners have had limited application to high power systems because of the lack of non-inductive, high power, 100 Ω balance loads. With this new design, standard 50 Ω dummy loads can be used instead for the balance load. The cost is considerably lower than lumped element combiner designs which are dominated by capacitor costs. At such a relatively low frequency, a 3-dB quarter-wave coupled-line coupler becomes impractically long, and a conventional branch-line hybrid requires 35 Ω-line, which is commercially unavailable. The balun combiner uses less transmission line than a ring hybrid and has good bandwidth characteristics even away from its best line impedance. Theoretical calculations and modeling were performed for line impedances from 65 Ω to 75 Ω. Measurements from a low-power test device show excellent agreement with theory, and construction of the high power system is underway. Work supported by US DOE under Contract No DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  6. Using a Balun Transformer Combiner for High Power Microwave Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, Michael C; Pesavento, Philip V

    2011-01-01

    A novel coaxial power combiner design has been duplicated that has distinct advantages over other combiner geometries that can handle high power. This design is being applied to combine four 3 kW power supplies to obtain a 10 kW, 5 MHz system for an ICRF antenna on HSX. In the past, Wilkinson type combiners have had limited application to high power systems because of the lack of non-inductive, high power, 100 Omega balance loads. With this new design, standard 50 Omega dummy loads can be used instead for the balance load. The cost is considerably lower than lumped element combiner designs which are dominated by capacitor costs. At such a relatively low frequency, a 3-dB quarter-wave coupled-line coupler becomes impractically long, and a conventional branch-line hybrid requires 35 Omega-line, which is commercially unavailable. The balun combiner uses less transmission line than a ring hybrid and has good bandwidth characteristics even away from its best line impedance. Theoretical calculations and modeling were performed for line impedances from 65 Omega to 75 Omega. Measurements from a low-power test device show excellent agreement with theory, and construction of the high power system is underway.

  7. Designing Effective Undergraduate Research Experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Severson, S.

    2010-12-01

    I present a model for designing student research internships that is informed by the best practices of the Center for Adaptive Optics (CfAO) Professional Development Program. The dual strands of the CfAO education program include: the preparation of early-career scientists and engineers in effective teaching; and changing the learning experiences of students (e.g., undergraduate interns) through inquiry-based "teaching laboratories." This paper will focus on the carry-over of these ideas into the design of laboratory research internships such as the CfAO Mainland internship program as well as NSF REU (Research Experiences for Undergraduates) and senior-thesis or "capstone" research programs. Key ideas in maximizing student learning outcomes and generating productive research during internships include: defining explicit content, scientific process, and attitudinal goals for the project; assessment of student prior knowledge and experience, then following up with formative assessment throughout the project; setting reasonable goals with timetables and addressing motivation; and giving students ownership of the research by implementing aspects of the inquiry process within the internship.

  8. Optimization of biomolecule separation by combining microscale filtration and design-of-experiment methods.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, Amir S; Kawka, Karina; Latulippe, David R

    2016-10-01

    There is considerable interest in developing microscale (i.e., high-throughput) methods that enable multiple filtration experiments to be run in parallel with smaller sample amounts and thus reduce the overall required time and associated cost to run the filtration tests. Previous studies to date have focused on simply evaluating the filtration capacity, not the separation performance. In this work, the stirred-well filtration (SWF) method was used in combination with design-of-experiment (DOE) methods to optimize the separation performance for three binary mixtures of bio-molecules: protein-protein, protein-polysaccharide, and protein-DNA. Using the parallel based format of the SWF method, eight constant-flux ultrafiltration experiments were conducted at once to study the effects of stirring conditions, permeate flux, and/or solution conditions (pH, ionic strength). Four separate filtration tests were conducted for each combination of process variables; in total, over 100 separate tests were conducted. The sieving coefficient and selectivity results are presented to match the DOE design format and enable a greater understanding of the effects of the different process variables that were studied. The method described herein can be used to rapidly determine the optimal combination of process factors that give the best separation performance for a range of membrane-based separations applications and thus obviate the need to run a large number of traditional lab-scale tests. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2131-2139. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Combining Laboratory Experiments with Digital Tools to Do Scientific Inquiry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kluge, Anders

    2014-09-01

    This qualitative study investigates the gap between a lab experiment and theory of science. Two groups of 4 students in 2 different classes in 11th grade (15-16 years old) are followed as they process results and experiences from a lab experiment using a digital environment. The experiment is as a part of a larger project about genes and cells, and this study concerns how the digital environment can support students' sensemaking. The study shows how the students only are left with 'how-to' skills before they engage in collaborative processing supported by their own picture from the experiment. The picture becomes a hub for interactive sensemaking and is extensively used for annotation and discussion. Four elements in the digital support are identified as crucial: an extendable point of reference, facilitation to compare and contrast, a pointer to standard science knowledge, and a structure to guide the students to significant issues. The study identifies where the digital support succeeds and fails in this process of sensemaking from a lab experiment.

  10. Combining Education and Work: Experiences in Asia and Oceania: Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    Although there is currently no national approach to career education in Australia, recent economic and labor trends have prompted the reconsideration of work experience and career education programs. Career education does not exist below secondary levels and prevocational training serves only as an introduction to extensive postsecondary technical…

  11. Combining Education and Work; Experiences in Asia and Oceania: Thailand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education, Bangkok (Thailand).

    Reflected in priorities of secondary vocational training, agricultural education, and nonformal short courses, Thailand's education policy of "productive work experience" helps solve the problems of those who have an incomplete general education, have negative work attitudes and habits, are untrained dropouts, or are vocationally trained…

  12. Combining Education and Work; Experiences in Asia and Oceania: Bangladesh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dacca Univ., Bangladesh. Inst. of Education and Research.

    Bangladesh stresses the importance of education responsive to the country's development needs and capable of producing, through formal or non-formal methods, skilled, employable manpower. Although no pre-vocational training exists, new curricula have introduced practical work experience in the primary schools and have integrated agriculture,…

  13. Combined oral contraceptives: acceptability and effective use.

    PubMed

    Kubba, A; Guillebaud, J

    1993-01-01

    With over 60 million users of 'the pill' worldwide, safety and efficacy remain the two most relevant issues to both the consumer and the research scientist. Safety of combined oral contraception (COC) has advanced appreciably. Lessons learned from cohort and case-control studies have been applied to the practical management of oral contraception use, based on screening, selection and regular monitoring of users. Most health risks of COCs appear to be dependent on the dose and potency (or biological impact) of the constituent steroids. While many of the non-contraceptive benefits of COCs are maintained when modern low dose preparations are used, most, if not all, of the adverse effects have been reduced progressively. Moreover the range of modern hormonal contraceptives has widened with the introduction of a new generation of 'selective' progestogens (Desogestrel, Norgestimate and Gestodene), which have minimal androgenicity. User failure of COCs is still high in many countries. The cause is a combination of poor compliance and anxiety about perceived adverse effects. Compliance can be enhanced by improving the quality of instruction in pill use. Fears of adverse effects of COCs may be allayed through education of users and providers, and sympathetic management of side effects.

  14. Phoenito experiments: combining the strengths of commercial crystallization automation.

    PubMed

    Newman, Janet; Pham, Tam M; Peat, Thomas S

    2008-11-01

    The use of crystallization robots for initial screening in macromolecular crystallization is well established. This paper describes how four general optimization techniques, growth-rate modulation, fine screening, seeding and additive screening, have been adapted for automation in a medium-throughput crystallization service facility. The use of automation for more challenging optimization experiments is discussed, as is a novel way of using both the Mosquito and the Phoenix nano-dispensing robots during the setup of a single crystallization plate. This dual-dispenser technique plays to the strengths of both machines.

  15. What contributes to the combined effect of a complex mixture?

    PubMed

    Altenburger, Rolf; Walter, Helge; Grote, Matthias

    2004-12-01

    The effect of a mixture of 10 compounds, which have previously been identified in an effect-directed analysis as potentially relevant for a specific contaminated riverine sediment (Brack et al. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 1999, 37, 164), were investigated for the underlying joint effect. Components identified in an organic sediment extract included several PAHs (benzo[ghi]fluoranthene, benz[a]anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, 2-phenylnaphthalene, anthracene, and phenanthrene) plus prometryn, N-phenyl-2-naphthylamine, and parathion-methyl. Experiments were performed using a one-generation algal bioassay with the unicellular green algae Scenedesmus vacuolatus as well as chlorophyll fluorescence quenching analysis to describe the effects of the components and mixtures thereof. Analysis of the mixture effects based on concentration-response modeling of the effect data reveals that indeed effect contributions of several components can be expected although the mixture ratio is not equitoxic and the individual components vary greatly with respect to biological effect. Comparing predicted and observed mixture effects, the combined effect may not be attributed to a joint narcotic effect of the mixture components. Evidently, some of the components act specifically and dissimilar and may therefore be best described in their combined effect by response addition while for others a similar mode of action seems plausible. Chlorophyll fluorescence quenching analysis supports to discriminate between prometryn, N-phenyl-2-naphthylamine, and PAHs. A joint model for calculating the combined effect using concentration addition for the suspected unspecifically acting components in algae (PAHs and parathion-methyl) and subsequently response addition for this group and the other components clearly improves the description of the observed combined effect. Allocation of effect contributions to specific components using toxic units or effect contributions lead to different judgments. The

  16. Combining experiments and simulations using the maximum entropy principle.

    PubMed

    Boomsma, Wouter; Ferkinghoff-Borg, Jesper; Lindorff-Larsen, Kresten

    2014-02-01

    A key component of computational biology is to compare the results of computer modelling with experimental measurements. Despite substantial progress in the models and algorithms used in many areas of computational biology, such comparisons sometimes reveal that the computations are not in quantitative agreement with experimental data. The principle of maximum entropy is a general procedure for constructing probability distributions in the light of new data, making it a natural tool in cases when an initial model provides results that are at odds with experiments. The number of maximum entropy applications in our field has grown steadily in recent years, in areas as diverse as sequence analysis, structural modelling, and neurobiology. In this Perspectives article, we give a broad introduction to the method, in an attempt to encourage its further adoption. The general procedure is explained in the context of a simple example, after which we proceed with a real-world application in the field of molecular simulations, where the maximum entropy procedure has recently provided new insight. Given the limited accuracy of force fields, macromolecular simulations sometimes produce results that are at not in complete and quantitative accordance with experiments. A common solution to this problem is to explicitly ensure agreement between the two by perturbing the potential energy function towards the experimental data. So far, a general consensus for how such perturbations should be implemented has been lacking. Three very recent papers have explored this problem using the maximum entropy approach, providing both new theoretical and practical insights to the problem. We highlight each of these contributions in turn and conclude with a discussion on remaining challenges.

  17. Reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering: combining simulation and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozak, Tomas; Vlcek, Jaroslav

    2016-09-01

    Reactive high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) has recently been used for preparation of various oxide films with high application potential, such as TiO2, ZrO2, Ta2O5, HfO2, VO2. Using our patented method of pulsed reactive gas flow control with an optimized reactive gas inlet, we achieved significantly higher deposition rates compared to typical continuous dc magnetron depositions. We have developed a time-dependent model of the reactive HiPIMS. The model includes a depth-resolved description of the sputtered target (featuring sputtering, implantation and knock-on implantation processes) and a parametric description of the discharge plasma (dissociation of reactive gas, ionization and return of sputtered atoms and gas rarefaction). The model uses a combination of experimental and simulation data as input. We have calculated the composition of the target and substrate for several deposition conditions. The simulations predict a reduced compound coverage of the target in HiPIMS compared to the continuous dc sputtering regime which explains the increased deposition rate. The simulations show that an increased dissociation of oxygen in a HiPIMS discharge is beneficial to achieve stoichiometric films on the substrate at high deposition rates.

  18. A Combined Anterior Pituitary Stimulation Test: Experience With 285 Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Alan N.; Valenta, Lubomir J.

    1987-01-01

    A pituitary reserve test was performed in 285 individuals. Eighteen were healthy volunteers without any endocrine disease, 25 suffered from a presumed hypothalamic abnormality, 22 from hypopituitarism, 10 from acromegaly, 65 from the amenorrhea-galactorrhea syndrome, 2 from Nelson's syndrome, 32 from borderline primary hypothyroidism, 15 from borderline hyperthyroidism, 20 were on chronic levothyroxine therapy for primary hypothyroidism, and 15 had severe uncorrected primary hypothyroidism. Sixteen postmenopausal women were also included, as well as 15 patients with idiopathic ovarian failure and six with ovarian dysgenesis. Twelve male patients with hypergonadotropic and 12 with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism were also examined. The pituitary reserve test consisted of intravenous administration of a mixture of the thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), and regular insulin. The following tests were obtained prior to the injection only (time 0): serum thyroxine (T4), tri-iodothyronine (T3), T3 resin uptake or thyroxine-binding globulin, total and free testosterone in men, estradiol and progesterone in women, and sex hormone binding globulin. At times 0, 20, 30, and 60 minutes, serum concentrations of the following compounds were obtained: glucose, adrenocorticotropic hormone, cortisol, growth hormone, prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone. Normal responses were established in a large number of cases. More or less typical patterns were demonstrated in the above-listed disease categories. Poor correlations between basal and stimulated values were observed, which emphasizes the diagnostic importance of the stimulation test. Maximum data were obtained using a combined test that has negligible morbidity, may be performed within an hour in an outpatient setting, and which examines the anterior pituitary function in a comprehensive fashion. PMID:3121862

  19. Recent Developments on ALICE (Accelerators and Lasers In Combined Experiments) at Daresbury Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Saveliev, Y M; Buckley, R K; Buckley, S R; Clarke, J A; Corlett, P A; Dunning, D J; Goulden, A R; Hill, S F; Jackson, F; Jamison, S P; Jones, J K; Jones, L B; Leonard, S; McIntosh, P A; McKenzie, J W; Middleman, K J; Militsyn, B L; Moss, A J; Muratori, B D; Orrett, J F; Pattalwar, S M; Phillips, P J; Scott, D J; Seddon, E A; Shepherd, B.J.A.; Smith, S L; Thompson, N; Wheelhouse, A E; Williams, P H; Harrison, P; Holder, D J; Holder, G M; Schofield, A L; Weightman, P; Williams, R L; Laundry, D; Powers, T; Priebe, G; Surman, M

    2010-05-01

    Progress made in ALICE (Accelerators and Lasers In Combined Experiments) commissioning and a summary of the latest experimental results are presented in this paper. After an extensive work on beam loading effects in SC RF linac (booster) and linac cavities conditioning, ALICE can now operate in full energy recovery mode at the bunch charge of 40pC, the beam energy of 30MeV and train lengths of up to 100us. This improved operation of the machine resulted in generation of coherently enhanced broadband THz radiation with the energy of several tens of uJ per pulse and in successful demonstration of the Compton Backscattering x-ray source experiment. The next steps in the ALICE scientific programme are commissioning of the IR FEL and start of the research on the first non-scaling FFAG accelerator EMMA. Results from both projects will be also reported.

  20. Combined Cycle Engine Large-Scale Inlet for Mode Transition Experiments: System Identification Rack Hardware Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Randy; Stueber, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    The System Identification (SysID) Rack is a real-time hardware-in-the-loop data acquisition (DAQ) and control instrument rack that was designed and built to support inlet testing in the NASA Glenn Research Center 10- by 10-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel. This instrument rack is used to support experiments on the Combined-Cycle Engine Large-Scale Inlet for Mode Transition Experiment (CCE? LIMX). The CCE?LIMX is a testbed for an integrated dual flow-path inlet configuration with the two flow paths in an over-and-under arrangement such that the high-speed flow path is located below the lowspeed flow path. The CCE?LIMX includes multiple actuators that are designed to redirect airflow from one flow path to the other; this action is referred to as "inlet mode transition." Multiple phases of experiments have been planned to support research that investigates inlet mode transition: inlet characterization (Phase-1) and system identification (Phase-2). The SysID Rack hardware design met the following requirements to support Phase-1 and Phase-2 experiments: safely and effectively move multiple actuators individually or synchronously; sample and save effector control and position sensor feedback signals; automate control of actuator positioning based on a mode transition schedule; sample and save pressure sensor signals; and perform DAQ and control processes operating at 2.5 KHz. This document describes the hardware components used to build the SysID Rack including their function, specifications, and system interface. Furthermore, provided in this document are a SysID Rack effectors signal list (signal flow); system identification experiment setup; illustrations indicating a typical SysID Rack experiment; and a SysID Rack performance overview for Phase-1 and Phase-2 experiments. The SysID Rack described in this document was a useful tool to meet the project objectives.

  1. Student Microwave Experiments Involving the Doppler Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, F. Neff; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Described is the use of the Doppler Effect with microwaves in the measurement of the acceleration due to gravity of falling objects. The experiments described add to the repertoire of quantitative student microwave experiments. (Author/DS)

  2. Cytotoxicity and therapeutic effect of irinotecan combined with selenium nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fuping; Yuan, Qing; Gao, Liang; Cai, Pengju; Zhu, Huarui; Liu, Ru; Wang, Yaling; Wei, Yueteng; Huang, Guodong; Liang, Jian; Gao, Xueyun

    2014-10-01

    Although chemotherapeutic drugs are widely applied for clinic tumor treatment, severe toxicity restricts their therapeutic efficacy. In this study, we reported a new form of selenium, selenium nanoparticles (Nano Se) which have significant lower toxicity and acceptable bioavailability. We investigated Nano Se as chemotherapy preventive agent to protect against toxicities of anticancer drug irinotecan and synergistically enhance the anti-tumor treatment effect in vitro and in vivo. The underlying mechanisms were also investigated. The combination of Nano Se and irinotecan showed increased cytotoxic effect with HCT-8 tumor cells likely by p53 mediated apoptosis. Nano Se inhibited growth of HCT-8 tumor cells partially through caspases mediated apoptosis. In vivo experiment showed Nano Se at a dose of 4 mg/kg/day significantly alleviated adverse effects induced by irinotecan (60 mg/kg) treatment. Nano Se alone treatment did not induce any toxic manifestations. The combination of Nano Se and irinotecan dramatically inhibited tumor growth and significantly induced apoptosis of tumor cells in HCT-8 cells xenografted tumor. Tumor inhibition rate was about 17.2%, 48.6% and 62.1% for Nano Se, irinotecan and the combination of Nano Se and irinotecan, respectively. The beneficial effects of Nano Se for tumor therapy were mainly ascribed to selectively regulating Nrf2-ARE (antioxidant responsive elements) pathway in tumor tissues and normal tissues. Our results suggest Nano Se is a promising selenium species with potential application in cancer treatment.

  3. Combining the Strong Drive Regime with Evaporative Cooling to Control Plasma Parameters in the ALPHA Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carruth, Celeste; Fajans, Joel; Alpha Collaboration

    2016-10-01

    To make antihydrogen at the ALPHA experiment at CERN, we need to produce antiproton and positron plasmas with consistent plasma parameters. We developed a technique that allows us to eliminate initial variations in the density and the number of particles by combining evaporative cooling and the strong drive regime. The strong drive regime is a non-neutral plasma regime driven by a rotating electric field, where the drive frequency synchronizes with the plasma rotation frequency; this controls the density. Evaporative cooling is a space-charge dominated effect where a potential well is completely filled with the space charge of a plasma and one side is lowered, which sets the on-axis potential. For cold non-neutral plasmas, the density and on-axis potential give a unique solution to the plasma parameters, so we want to simultaneously combine these two techniques. Experimental results using electron plasmas show this combination of techniques does an excellent job at producing plasmas with the same number of particles and densities from a wide range of initial conditions. Special thanks to the United States Department of Energy and to the ALPHA collaboration for supporting this research.

  4. Berkeley Experiments on Superfluid Macroscopic Quantum Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Packard, Richard

    2006-09-07

    This paper provides a brief history of the evolution of the Berkeley experiments on macroscopic quantum effects in superfluid helium. The narrative follows the evolution of the experiments proceeding from the detection of single vortex lines to vortex photography to quantized circulation in 3He to Josephson effects and superfluid gyroscopes in both 4He and 3He.

  5. Resolving octant degeneracy at LBL experiment by combining Daya Bay reactor setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bora, Kalpana; Dutta, Debajyoti

    2014-03-01

    Long baseline Experiment(LBL) have promised to be a very powerful experimental setup to study various issues related to Neutrinos. Some ongoing and planned LBL and medium baseline experiments are- T2K, MINOS, NOvA, LBNE, LBNO etc. But, the long baseline experiments are crippled due to presence of some parameter degeneracies, like the Octant -degeneracy. In this work, we first show the presence of Octant degeneracy in LBL experiments and then combine it with Daya Bay Reactor experiment at different values of CP violation phase. We show that the Octant degeneracy in LBNE can be resolved completely with this proposal.

  6. Generalizing Over Conditions by Combining the Multitrait Multimethod Matrix and the Representative Design of Experiments,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    MATRIX AND THE (0 REPRESENTATIVE DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS .4 Kenneth R. Hammond, Robert M. Hamm and Janet Grassia ) 13 LA.’I.7 A GENERALIZING OVER...CONDITIONS BY COMBINING THE MULTITKAIT MULTIMETHOD MATRIX AND THE 46_6 REPRESENTATIVE DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS Kenneth R. Hammond, Robert M. Hamm and Janet...and the Representative Design of Experiments 6. PERFORMINGOn. REPORT NUMER 7. AUTHOR(@) S. CONTRACT oR GRANT NUM6ER(s) Kenneth R. Hammond, Robert M

  7. The Felix experiments: measurements of electromagnetic effects

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, L.R.; Evans, K.; Gunderson, G.R.; Kim, S.; Knott, M.J.; McGhee, D.G.; Praey, W.F.; Wehrle, R.B.

    1985-07-01

    Three major series of experiments have been conducted with the FELIX facility at ANL. Experiments on the coupling between eddy currents and angular displacements of loops and plates in crossed constant and changing magnetic fields demonstrated that the coupling effects reduced the peak currents and deflections. These experiments were carried out by a team of investigators from Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) and ANL and are reported elsewhere. Experiments measuring eddy current effects in flat plates provided data to validate 2-D and 3-D eddy current computer codes. Experiments measuring eddy current effects in hollow cylinders with different ratios of thickness to diameter explored the limitations of using 2-D codes to model 3-D geometries. The plate and cylinder experiments are described in detail.

  8. FELIX experiments: measurements of electromagnetic effects

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, L.R.; Evans, K. Jr.; Gunderson, G.R.; Kim, S.; Knott, M.J.; McGhee, D.G.; Praeg, W.F.; Wehrle, R.B.

    1985-01-01

    Three major series of experiments have been conducted with the FELIX facility at ANL. Experiments on the coupling between eddy currents and angular displacements of loops and plates in crossed constant and changing magnetic fields demonstrated that the coupling effects reduced the peak currents and deflections. These experiments were carried out by a team of investigators from Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) and ANL and are reported elsewhere. Experiments measuring eddy current effects in flat plates provided data to validate 2-D and 3-D eddy current computer codes. Experiments measuring eddy current effects in hollow cylinders with different ratios of thickness to diameter explored the limitations of using 2-D codes to model 3-D geometries. The plate and cylinder experiments are described in detail.

  9. Effective discrepancy and numerical experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varet, Suzanne; Lefebvre, Sidonie; Durand, Gérard; Roblin, Antoine; Cohen, Serge

    2012-12-01

    Many problems require the computation of a high dimensional integral, typically with a few tens of input factors, with a low number of integrand evaluations. To avoid the curse of dimensionality, we reduce the dimension before applying the Quasi-Monte Carlo method. We will show how to reduce the dimension by computing approximate Sobol indices of the variables with a two-levels fractional factorial design. Then, we will use the Sobol indices to define the effective discrepancy, which turns out to be correlated with the QMC error and thus enables one to choose a good sequence for the integral estimation.

  10. Effectiveness of combined aircraft engine noise suppressors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaletskiy, Yu. D.

    2012-07-01

    We consider the design features of fan noise suppressors in application to air intakes and the bypass duct of a turbofan engine. A combined liner is developed that has increased acoustic efficiency in comparison to conventional honeycomb liner. We demonstrate the important role of the area of the sound-absorbing liner between fan Rotor and Stator ensuring significant noise reduction.

  11. Combined analysis of effective Higgs portal dark matter models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beniwal, Ankit; Rajec, Filip; Savage, Christopher; Scott, Pat; Weniger, Christoph; White, Martin; Williams, Anthony G.

    2016-06-01

    We combine and extend the analyses of effective scalar, vector, Majorana and Dirac fermion Higgs portal models of dark matter (DM), in which DM couples to the Standard Model (SM) Higgs boson via an operator of the form ODMH†H . For the fermion models, we take an admixture of scalar ψ ¯ψ and pseudoscalar ψ ¯ i γ5ψ interaction terms. For each model, we apply constraints on the parameter space based on the Planck measured DM relic density and the LHC limits on the Higgs invisible branching ratio. For the first time, we perform a consistent study of the indirect detection prospects for these models based on the WMAP7/Planck observations of the cosmic microwave background, a combined analysis of 15 dwarf spheroidal galaxies by Fermi-LAT and the upcoming Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). We also perform a correct treatment of the momentum-dependent direct search cross section that arises from the pseudoscalar interaction term in the fermionic DM theories. We find, in line with previous studies, that current and future direct search experiments such as LUX and XENON1T can exclude much of the parameter space, and we demonstrate that a joint observation in both indirect and direct searches is possible for high mass weakly interacting massive particles. In the case of a pure pseudoscalar interaction of a fermionic DM candidate, future gamma-ray searches are the only class of experiment capable of probing the high mass range of the theory.

  12. Effects of Emotional Experience in Lexical Decision

    PubMed Central

    Siakaluk, Paul D.; Newcombe, P. Ian; Duffels, Brian; Li, Eliza; Sidhu, David M.; Yap, Melvin J.; Pexman, Penny M.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has examined the effects of emotional experience (i.e., the ease with which words evoke emotion information) in semantic categorization (SCT), word naming, and Stroop tasks (Newcombe et al., 2012; Siakaluk et al., 2014; Moffat et al., 2015). However, to date there are no published reports on whether emotional experience influences performance in the lexical decision task (LDT). In the present study, we examined the influence of emotional experience in LDT using three different stimulus sets. In Experiment 1 we used a stimulus set used by both Kousta et al. (2009; Experiment 1) and Yap and Seow (2014) that is comprised of 40 negative, 40 positive, and 40 neutral words; in Experiment 2 we used a stimulus set comprised of 150 abstract nouns; and in Experiment 3 we used a stimulus set comprised of 373 verbs. We observed facilitatory effects of emotional experience in each of the three experiments, such that words with higher emotional experience ratings were associated with faster response latencies. These results are important because the influence of emotional experience: (a) is observed in stimulus sets comprised of different types of words, demonstrating the generalizability of the effect in LDT; (b) accounts for LDT response latency variability above and beyond the influences of valence and arousal, and is thus a robust dimension of conceptual knowledge; (c) suggests that a richer representation of emotional experience provides more reliable evidence that a stimulus is a word, which facilitates responding in LDT; and (d) is consistent with grounded cognition frameworks that propose that emotion information may be grounded in bodily experience with the world (Barsalou, 2003, 2009; Vigliocco et al., 2009). PMID:27555827

  13. Combining traditional anatomy lectures with e-learning activities: how do students perceive their learning experience?

    PubMed Central

    Wieser, Heike; Waldboth, Simone; Mischo-Kelling, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate how students perceived their learning experience when combining traditional anatomy lectures with preparatory e-learning activities that consisted of fill-in-the-blank assignments, videos, and multiple-choice quizzes. Methods A qualitative study was conducted to explore changes in study behaviour and perception of learning. Three group interviews with students were conducted and thematically analysed. Results Data was categorized into four themes: 1. Approaching the course material, 2. Understanding the material, 3. Consolidating the material, and 4. Perceived learning outcome.  Students appreciated the clear structure of the course, and reported that online activities encouraged them towards a first engagement with the material. They felt that they were more active during in-class sessions, described self-study before the end-of-term exam as easier, and believed that contents would remain in their memories for a longer time. Conclusions By adjusting already existing resources, lectures can be combined fairly easily and cost-effectively with preparatory e-learning activities. The creation of online components promote well-structured courses, can help minimize ‘student passivity’ as a characteristic element of lectures, and can support students in distributing their studies throughout the term, thus suggesting enhanced learning. Further research work should be designed to confirm the afore-mentioned findings through objective measurements of student learning outcomes. PMID:26897012

  14. Experiences of meaning in life: a combined qualitative and quantitative approach.

    PubMed

    Debats, D L; Drost, J; Hansen, P

    1995-08-01

    The present study investigates the relation of aspects of meaning in life with indices of psychological well-being by means of a combined qualitative and quantitative design. Content analysis of subjects' answers to open questions about personal experiences with meaning in life showed findings that are in line with phenomena that are reported in the literature. Meaningfulness was found to be strongly associated with contact with self, others and the world, whereas meaninglessness was associated with a state of alienation from self, others and the world. The Life Regard Index (LRI), an instrument designed to measure the construct of positive life regard, was found to be strongly associated with the interpersonal dimension of well-being. The exchange of both positive and negative feelings was associated with positive life regard. As predicted, effective coping with stressful life events in the past was associated with a current sense of meaningfulness as measured with the LRI. The findings support the clinical significance of the construct of meaning in life and add to the validity of the LRI. The strength and weakness of a combined qualitative and quantitative research approach are discussed.

  15. An application of a Hill-based response surface model for a drug combination experiment on lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Ning, Shaoyang; Xu, Hongquan; Al-Shyoukh, Ibrahim; Feng, Jiaying; Sun, Ren

    2014-10-30

    Combination chemotherapy with multiple drugs has been widely applied to cancer treatment owing to enhanced efficacy and reduced drug resistance. For drug combination experiment analysis, response surface modeling has been commonly adopted. In this paper, we introduce a Hill-based global response surface model and provide an application of the model to a 512-run drug combination experiment with three chemicals, namely AG490, U0126, and indirubin-3  ' -monoxime (I-3-M), on lung cancer cells. The results demonstrate generally improved goodness of fit of our model from the traditional polynomial model, as well as the original Hill model on the basis of fixed-ratio drug combinations. We identify different dose-effect patterns between normal and cancer cells on the basis of our model, which indicates the potential effectiveness of the drug combination in cancer treatment. Meanwhile, drug interactions are analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively. The distinct interaction patterns between U0126 and I-3-M on two types of cells uncovered by the model could be a further indicator of the efficacy of the drug combination.

  16. Weak measurement combined with quantum delayed-choice experiment and implementation in optomechanical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gang; Wang, Tao; Ye, Ming-Yong; Song, He-Shan

    2015-12-01

    Weak measurement [Y. Aharonov, D.Z. Albert, L. Vaidman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1351 (1988); C. Simon, E.S. Polzik, Phys. Rev. A 83, 040101(R) (2011)] combined with quantum delayed-choice experiment that use Controlled Hadamard gate instead of Hadamard gate in quantum networks give rise to a surprising amplification effect, i.e., counterintuitive negative amplification effect. We show that this effect is caused by the wave and particle behaviours of the system, and it can't be explained by a semiclassical wave theory [D. Suter, Phys. Rev. A 51, 45 (1995); J.C. Howell, D.J. Starling, P.B. Dixon, P.K. Vudyasetu, A.N. Jordan, Phys. Rev. A 81, 033813 (2010); N. Brunner, A. Acín, D. Collins, N. Gisin, V. Scarani, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 180402 (2003)] and by the statistical feature of preselection and postselection with disturbance [C. Ferrie, J. Combes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 120404 (2014)], due to the entanglement of the system and the ancilla in Controlled Hadamard gate. The generation mechanism with wave-particle duality in quantum mechanics lead us to a scheme for implementation of weak measurement in optomechanical system.

  17. Combination of Evidence for Effective Web Search

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    model. These methods are then combined to provide a strong baseline. Next we exper- iment with different pseudo relevance feedback strategies . We explore...bring in with queries for which Wikipedia is not suitable, we explored the following strategy . We only consider Wikipedia pages for expansion that appear...Wikipedia articles and the query (although we do set a maximum number of pages to be included). This strategy is compared with the baseline strategy , which

  18. Combined effects of radiation and trauma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messerschmidt, Otfried

    Injuries, caused by both whole-body irradiation and wounds or burns, have been relatively little studied. Possibly because many investigators think that these injuries are just modified radiation-induced diseases for which the same treatment principles are valid. Other authors had the impression that, for instance, the radiation burn trauma is a new kind of disease which differs significantly from either radiation syndrome alone or from burn disease. There are many experimental data on animals which suggest that the pathology of combined injuries differs significantly from that of radiation-induced disease or of thermal or mechanical traumas. Wounds or burns which, in general, do not cause septicaemia could become entrance ports for bacteria when animals are exposed to whole-body irradiation. Thrombocytopenia is the reason for hemorrhages in wounds. The susceptibility to shock is increased considerably in combined injuries and the formation of callus in the bone fractures is significantly delayed. The healing of wounds and burns in the initial phase of the radiation syndrome does not always differ from healing in the non-irradiated organism. However, a few days or weeks later very serious wound infections and hemorrhages can occur. The additional injuries almost always worsen the development and prognosis of radiation-induced disease. The recommended treatment for combined injuries will differ in many respects from the treatment of wounds and burns or the radiation syndrome.

  19. A Facile and Effective Chemiluminescence Demonstration Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohan, Arthur G.; Turro, Nicholas J.

    1974-01-01

    Describes a chemiluminescence system which can be used to demonstrate the effects of certain factors which affect the rate of reaction (temperature, concentration, catalysis, solvent, etc.), and to perform experiments relevant to the mechanism of the system. (SLH)

  20. Numerical simulation studies of the LBNL heavy-ion beam combiner experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Fawley, W.M.; Seidl, P.; Haber, I.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P.

    1997-01-01

    Transverse beam combining is a cost-saving option employed in many designs for heavy-ion inertial fusion energy drivers. A major area of interest, both theoretically and experimentally, is the resultant transverse phase space dilution during the beam merging process. Currently, a prototype combining experiment is underway at LBNL and we have employed a variety of numerical descriptions to aid in both the initial design of the experiment data. These range from simple envelope codes to detailed 2- and 3-D PIC simulations. We compare the predictions of the different numerical models to each other and to experimental data at different longitudinal positions.

  1. Continued development of the Combined Pulsed Neutron Experiment (CPNE) for lunar and planetary surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandler, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    Current progress is reported on the inelastic scattering, capture, and activation gamma ray portions of the Combined Pulsed Neutron Experiment (CPNE). Experiments are described which have enabled a reduction in weight of the experimental probe to 7.3 kg. Parametric studies are described which enabled the optimization of experimental parameters (e.g., gate time settings, neutron pulse rate, etc.). Estimated detection sensitivities using this light weight probe and the optimized experimental parameters are discussed.

  2. Dynamic Testing of the NASA Hypersonic Project Combined Cycle Engine Testbed for Mode Transition Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2011-01-01

    NASA is interested in developing technology that leads to more routine, safe, and affordable access to space. Access to space using airbreathing propulsion systems has potential to meet these objectives based on Airbreathing Access to Space (AAS) system studies. To this end, the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program (FAP) Hypersonic Project is conducting fundamental research on a Turbine Based Combined Cycle (TBCC) propulsion system. The TBCC being studied considers a dual flow-path inlet system. One flow-path includes variable geometry to regulate airflow to a turbine engine cycle. The turbine cycle provides propulsion from take-off to supersonic flight. The second flow-path supports a dual-mode scramjet (DMSJ) cycle which would be initiated at supersonic speed to further accelerate the vehicle to hypersonic speed. For a TBCC propulsion system to accelerate a vehicle from supersonic to hypersonic speed, a critical enabling technology is the ability to safely and effectively transition from the turbine to the DMSJ-referred to as mode transition. To experimentally test methods of mode transition, a Combined Cycle Engine (CCE) Large-scale Inlet testbed was designed with two flow paths-a low speed flow-path sized for a turbine cycle and a high speed flow-path designed for a DMSJ. This testbed system is identified as the CCE Large-Scale Inlet for Mode Transition studies (CCE-LIMX). The test plan for the CCE-LIMX in the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) 10- by 10-ft Supersonic Wind Tunnel (10x10 SWT) is segmented into multiple phases. The first phase is a matrix of inlet characterization (IC) tests to evaluate the inlet performance and establish the mode transition schedule. The second phase is a matrix of dynamic system identification (SysID) experiments designed to support closed-loop control development at mode transition schedule operating points for the CCE-LIMX. The third phase includes a direct demonstration of controlled mode transition using a closed loop control

  3. Effects of a Marathon Group Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treppa, Jerry A.; Fricke, Lawrence

    1972-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of a weekend marathon group experience on values of self-actualization and on the interpersonal dimnension of personality. Both experimental and control subjects showed significanly positive changes on posttest and follow-up scores. It was premature to believe that the positive effects of a marathon group…

  4. Combined Induction of Rubber-Hand Illusion and Out-of-Body Experiences.

    PubMed

    Olivé, Isadora; Berthoz, Alain

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of self-consciousness depends on several processes: those of body ownership, attributing self-identity to the body, and those of self-location, localizing our sense of self. Studies of phenomena like the rubber-hand illusion (RHi) and out-of-body experience (OBE) investigate these processes, respectively for representations of a body-part and the full-body. It is supposed that RHi only target processes related to body-part representations, while OBE only relates to full-body representations. The fundamental question whether the body-part and the full-body illusions relate to each other is nevertheless insufficiently investigated. In search for a link between body-part and full-body illusions in the brain we developed a behavioral task combining adapted versions of the RHi and OBE. Furthermore, for the investigation of this putative link we investigated the role of sensory and motor cues. We established a spatial dissociation between visual and proprioceptive feedback of a hand perceived through virtual reality in rest or action. Two experimental measures were introduced: one for the body-part illusion, the proprioceptive drift of the perceived localization of the hand, and one for the full-body illusion, the shift in subjective-straight-ahead (SSA). In the rest and action conditions it was observed that the proprioceptive drift of the left hand and the shift in SSA toward the manipulation side are equivalent. The combined effect was dependent on the manipulation of the visual representation of body parts, rejecting any main or even modulatory role for relevant motor programs. Our study demonstrates for the first time that there is a systematic relationship between the body-part illusion and the full-body illusion, as shown by our measures. This suggests a link between the representations in the brain of a body-part and the full-body, and consequently a common mechanism underpinning both forms of ownership and self-location.

  5. Interdisciplinary student health teams: combining medical education and service in a rural community-based experience.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, C B; Smith, C A; Butters, J M

    1997-01-01

    Several initiatives have been introduced over the years to address the maldistribution of health care professionals and to improve access to care for underserved rural populations. One of these is the sponsorship of community-based, service-oriented teams comprised of students from various health disciplines. This study investigated extramural training as a complement to traditional hospital-based experiences. The specific objective of the study was to determine the extent to which the nation's medical schools combine training with a rural community-based experience in the form of an interdisciplinary student health team program. In the fall of 1994, a 32-item questionnaire was mailed to the chief academic or clinical affairs administrators of the nation's 126 allopathic medical schools. A total of 104 (82.5%) medical schools responded to the survey. Eighty-six of the respondents (82.7%) reported some type of rural training or public service activity; 22 (21.2%) acknowledged the sponsorship of an interdisciplinary student health team program. Small rural communities, those with populations of 5,000 or fewer, were the focus of 76 percent of the reporting programs. Nearly two-thirds of the reporting programs were located in the South, the region with the nation's lowest physician-to-population ratio. The nursing and medical professions were most frequently represented, although a wide range of disciplines were identified as participating on the student health teams. Activities of the teams included both ambulatory care and community outreach services. The majority of the programs used team-building exercises to enhance team effectiveness. Extramural training programs offer students a realistic examination of the social, cultural, economic, and political forces that influence both individual and community health. Rural community-based programs, such as interdisciplinary student health teams, should be valued because they can strengthen the link between the sponsoring

  6. Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin and immunomodulatory drug combinations in multiple myeloma: rationale and clinical experience.

    PubMed

    Chanan-Khan, Asher Alban; Lee, Kelvin

    2007-04-01

    The availability of new agents for multiple myeloma (MM) provides an opportunity to further improve response rates through the development of new combination regimens. Such new agents include pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) and the immunomodulatory drugs thalidomide and lenalidomide, all of which have demonstrated efficacy and safety in the treatment of newly diagnosed and relapsed/refractory MM. Based on their complementary mechanisms of action and nonoverlapping toxicity profiles, PLD and the immunomodulatory drugs might provide incremental benefits when used in combined treatment regimens. Thus, they have been evaluated in clinical studies that combine PLD/vincristine/dexamethasone and thalidomide (DVd-T) or PLD/vincristine/dexamethasone and lenalidomide (DVd-R) as well as in a study combining bortezomib with PLD and thalidomide. Results of all these studies have included high overall response rates, with improved rates of complete/near complete response compared with similar regimens that do not include chemotherapy (ie, immunomodulatory drugs plus dexamethasone). This article provides the clinical rationale for the use of PLD in combination with immunomodulatory drugs to treat patients with MM and summarizes the clinical experience with these combinations to date. Notably, the early phase I/II study results have been sufficiently encouraging to warrant further investigation in additional large-scale, phase II/III studies. Future clinical trials should focus on determining the optimal dose and schedule for each of these agents when used in combination and whether the addition of other new agents provides an additional response benefit.

  7. Experience Effect in E-Learning Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Bing; Xu, WenXia; Ge, Jun

    This study is a productivity review on the literature gleaned from SSCI, SCIE databases concerning experience in E-Learning research. The result indicates that the number of literature productions on experience effect in ELearning research is still growing from 2005. The main research development country is Croatia, and from the analysis of the publication year, the number of papers is increasing to the peaking in 2010. And the main source title is British Journal of Educational Technology. In addition the subject area concentrated on Education & Educational Research. Moreover the research focuses on are mainly survey research and empirical research, in order to explore experience effect in E-Learning research. Also the limitations and future research of these research were discussed, so that the direction for further research work can be exploited

  8. Combined effects of bisphenol A and cadmium on growth and nitrate assimilation of soybean seedling roots.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhaoguo; Wang, Lihong; Wang, Qingqing; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2014-09-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) and cadmium (Cd) pollution exist simultaneously in many regions. However, little information is available regarding the combined effects of BPA and Cd pollution on plants. Plant roots are in direct contact with the soil, which is an important compartment of BPA and Cd. In the present study, the effects of combined BPA and Cd pollution on soybean seedling roots were evaluated in pot experiments. Combined treatment with BPA and Cd at low concentrations (1.5 mg/kg BPA and 0.2 mg/kg Cd) improved soybean seedling root growth. However, other combined BPA and Cd treatments, including combined treatment with BPA (Cd) at the low concentration and Cd (BPA) at the high concentration as well as combined treatment with BPA and Cd at the high concentration, inhibited soybean seedling root growth. The improvement or inhibition of soybean seedling root growth was greater in the combined BPA and Cd treatments than in single treatments. The effects of the combined BPA and Cd treatments on root growth resulted from changes in nitrate assimilation. In addition, the combined effects of BPA and Cd on the nitrate and ammonium contents in roots are discussed. The present research provides a basic understanding of the combined effects of BPA and Cd pollution on plant roots.

  9. Emerson Enhancement Effect: A New Student Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orr, Alan R.; Knudtson, Dan L.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the potential use, by students in cell biology and plant physiology, of isolated chloroplasts for determining the Emerson enhancement effect. The experiment designed to measure spectrophotometrically the photoreduction of a dye by illuminating chloroplasts with short- and long-wavelength light is presented. (HM)

  10. Experiments to Demonstrate Piezoelectric and Pyroelectric Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erhart, Jirí

    2013-01-01

    Piezoelectric and pyroelectric materials are used in many current applications. The purpose of this paper is to explain the basic properties of pyroelectric and piezoelectric effects and demonstrate them in simple experiments. Pyroelectricity is presented on lead zirconium titanate (PZT) ceramics as an electric charge generated by the temperature…

  11. International experience in addressing combined exposures: increasing the efficiency of assessment.

    PubMed

    Meek, M E Bette

    2013-11-16

    More efficient methodology for assessing the impact of combined exposures to multiple chemicals has been considered in a project of the World Health Organization (WHO) International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS). Recommendations regarding terminology and the status of development of the framework, its content, review and application are described. Evolving experience in its application is illustrated by example (polybrominated diphenyls) with special emphasis on the critical content of problem formulation, the role of predictive tools in grouping of chemicals for consideration and the importance of explicit delineation of relative uncertainty and sensitivity for tiered assessment. Priorities in increasing the efficiency of risk assessment not only for combined exposures, but more generally based on experience acquired in developing the framework and its application in case studies are identified and recommendations included.

  12. Combined effects of working environmental conditions in VDT work.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, K; Sasaki, H; Saito, T; Hosokawa, T; Kurasaki, M; Saito, K

    2001-04-15

    The combined effects of city noise and luminance of the computer display were evaluated from the changes in lymphocytes and mental activities of participants. Healthy male students were tested under the following four experimental conditions: (1) a calculating task on a video display terminal (VDT) with luminance of 90 cd m(-2) without city noise; (2) a calculating task on a VDT with luminance of 20 cd m(-2) without city noise; (3) a calculating task on a VDT with luminance of 90 cd m(-2) with city noise of 70 dB(A); and (4) a calculating task on a VDT with luminance of 20 cd m(-2) with city noise of 70 dB(A). A visual reaction test (VRT) was performed, and critical flicker fusion frequency (CFF), heart rate (HR), numbers of circulating white blood cells (WBCs), lymphocyte subsets and subjective symptoms of fatigue were measured (1) before; (2) just after; and (3) 30 min after each 60 min test. Subjective symptoms of fatigue significantly increased just after experiments conducted under the two noisy conditions. VRT and CFF showed significant changes in the case of the high-luminance display with noise. WBCs and neutrophils showed significant increases in the two quiet conditions. These results suggested that high luminance with noise had the most effect on subjective fatigue and mental activities.

  13. Combined Effect of Fluid and Pressure on Middle Ear Function

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Chenkai; Wood, Mark W.; Gan, Rong Z.

    2008-01-01

    In our previous studies, the effects of effusion and pressure on sound transmission were investigated separately. The aim of this study is to investigate the combined effect of fluid and pressure on middle ear function. An otitis media with effusion model was created by injecting saline solution and air pressure simultaneously into the middle ear of human temporal bones. Tympanic membrane displacement in response to 90 dB SPL sound input was measured by a laser vibrometer and the compliance of the middle ear was measured by a tympanometer. The movement of the tympanic membrane at the umbo was reduced up to 17 dB by the combination of fluid and pressure in the middle ear over the auditory frequency range. The fluid and pressure effects on the umbo movement in the fluid-pressure combination are not additive. The combined effect of fluid and pressure on the umbo movement is different compared with that of only fluid or pressure change in the middle ear. Negative pressure in fluid-pressure combination had more effect on middle ear function than positive pressure. Tympanometry can detect the middle ear pressure of the fluid-pressure combination. This study provides quantitative information for analysis of the combined effect of fluid and pressure on tympanic membrane movement. PMID:18162348

  14. Small scale thermal violence experiments for combined insensitive high explosive and booster materials

    SciTech Connect

    Rae, Philip J; Bauer, Clare L; Stennett, C; Flower, H M

    2010-01-01

    A small scale cook-off experiment has been designed to provide a violence metric for both booster and IHE materials, singly and in combination. The experiment has a simple, axisymmetric geometry provided by a 10 mm internal diameter cylindrical steel confinement up to 80 mm in length. Heating is applied from one end of the sample length creating pseudo 1-D heating profile and a thermal gradient across the sample(s). At the opposite end of the confinement to the heating block, a machined groove provides a point of rupture that generates a cylindrical fragment. The displacement of the external face of the fragment is detected by Heterodyne Velocimetry. Proof of concept experiments are reported focusing on HMX and TATB formulations, and are described in relation to confinement, ullage and heating profile. The development of a violence metric, based upon fragment velocity records is discussed.

  15. Paced mating behavior is affected by clitoral-vaginocervical lidocaine application in combination with sexual experience.

    PubMed

    Meerts, Sarah H; Strnad, Helen K; Schairer, Rosemary S

    2015-03-01

    The present study tested the effects of lidocaine anesthetic ointment applied to the vaginocervical (Experiment 1) or clitoral-vaginocervical (Experiment 2) areas on the display of paced mating behavior over the course of five weekly tests in ovariectomized, hormone-primed, Long-Evans rats. Experiment 3 tested whether rats that acquired sexual experience without ointment application would exhibit altered paced mating behavior on a fifth test under clitoral-vaginocervical lidocaine or vehicle application. Although rats in Experiment 1 and Experiment 2 exhibited shorter contact-return latencies after intromission and reduced likelihood of leaving the male compartment following mounts and intromissions after gaining sexual experience, only rats that received clitoral-vaginocervical lidocaine exhibited altered paced mating behavior relative to vehicle. Specifically, clitoral-vaginocervical lidocaine resulted in shorter contact-return latency to ejaculation and greater percentage of time with the male. Paced mating behavior of sexually experienced rats in Experiment 3 was not disrupted when tested after clitoral-vaginocervical lidocaine treatment. Together, these studies suggest that the sensory input during repeated mating encounters affects the pattern of paced mating behavior that develops with sexual experience.

  16. Effect of combined motor and spatial cues on mathematical reasoning: a polarity correspondence account.

    PubMed

    Verselder, Hélène; Freddi, Sébastien; Dru, Vincent

    2016-08-27

    We examined whether combined motor or spatial polarities could influence accuracy in two mathematical operations. Four experiments were conducted and showed that, when two corresponding polarities were activated, accuracy in multiplicative operations was greater than when non-corresponding polarities were activated, whereas no effect was found for additive operations. These results were established with motor cues (Left/Right and Arm Extension/Flexion, as behavioral approach-avoidance tendencies) and perceptual spatial cues (Left/Right and DOWN/UP cues). A polarity correspondence effect was established and proposed for multiplication. A combination of polarities was associated with a corresponding combination of numerical digits, assessed with mathematical operations, such as multiplication.

  17. Combined Induction of Rubber-Hand Illusion and Out-of-Body Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Olivé, Isadora; Berthoz, Alain

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of self-consciousness depends on several processes: those of body ownership, attributing self-identity to the body, and those of self-location, localizing our sense of self. Studies of phenomena like the rubber-hand illusion (RHi) and out-of-body experience (OBE) investigate these processes, respectively for representations of a body-part and the full-body. It is supposed that RHi only target processes related to body-part representations, while OBE only relates to full-body representations. The fundamental question whether the body-part and the full-body illusions relate to each other is nevertheless insufficiently investigated. In search for a link between body-part and full-body illusions in the brain we developed a behavioral task combining adapted versions of the RHi and OBE. Furthermore, for the investigation of this putative link we investigated the role of sensory and motor cues. We established a spatial dissociation between visual and proprioceptive feedback of a hand perceived through virtual reality in rest or action. Two experimental measures were introduced: one for the body-part illusion, the proprioceptive drift of the perceived localization of the hand, and one for the full-body illusion, the shift in subjective-straight-ahead (SSA). In the rest and action conditions it was observed that the proprioceptive drift of the left hand and the shift in SSA toward the manipulation side are equivalent. The combined effect was dependent on the manipulation of the visual representation of body parts, rejecting any main or even modulatory role for relevant motor programs. Our study demonstrates for the first time that there is a systematic relationship between the body-part illusion and the full-body illusion, as shown by our measures. This suggests a link between the representations in the brain of a body-part and the full-body, and consequently a common mechanism underpinning both forms of ownership and self-location. PMID:22675312

  18. Combining Digital Archives Content with Serious Game Approach to Create a Gamified Learning Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, D.-T.; Lin, C. L.; Tseng, C.-Y.

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents an interdisciplinary to develop content-aware application that combines game with learning on specific categories of digital archives. The employment of content-oriented game enhances the gamification and efficacy of learning in culture education on architectures and history of Hsinchu County, Taiwan. The gamified form of the application is used as a backbone to support and provide a strong stimulation to engage users in learning art and culture, therefore this research is implementing under the goal of "The Digital ARt/ARchitecture Project". The purpose of the abovementioned project is to develop interactive serious game approaches and applications for Hsinchu County historical archives and architectures. Therefore, we present two applications, "3D AR for Hukou Old " and "Hsinchu County History Museum AR Tour" which are in form of augmented reality (AR). By using AR imaging techniques to blend real object and virtual content, the users can immerse in virtual exhibitions of Hukou Old Street and Hsinchu County History Museum, and to learn in ubiquitous computing environment. This paper proposes a content system that includes tools and materials used to create representations of digitized cultural archives including historical artifacts, documents, customs, religion, and architectures. The Digital ARt / ARchitecture Project is based on the concept of serious game and consists of three aspects: content creation, target management, and AR presentation. The project focuses on developing a proper approach to serve as an interactive game, and to offer a learning opportunity for appreciating historic architectures by playing AR cards. Furthermore, the card game aims to provide multi-faceted understanding and learning experience to help user learning through 3D objects, hyperlinked web data, and the manipulation of learning mode, and then effectively developing their learning levels on cultural and historical archives in Hsinchu County.

  19. Maximizing Undergraduate Success By Combining Research Experiences with Outreach, Peer Mentoring and Professional Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, B. C.

    2014-12-01

    The C-MORE Scholars Program provides hands-on, closely mentored research experiences to University of Hawaii (UH) undergraduates during the academic year. Students majoring in the geosciences, especially underrepresented students, from all campuses are encouraged to apply. The academic-year research is complemented by outreach, professional development and summer internships. Combined, these experiences help students develop the skills, confidence and passion that are essential to success in a geoscience career. Research. All students enter the program as trainees, where they learn lab and field research methods, computer skills and science principles. After one year, they are encouraged to reapply as interns, where they work on their own research project. Students who have successfully completed their intern year can reapply as fellows, where they conduct an independent research project such as an honors thesis. Students present their research at a Symposium through posters (trainees) or talks (interns and fellows). Interns and fellows help organize program activities and serve as peer mentors to trainees.Multi-tiered programs that build a pathway toward graduation have been shown to increase student retention and graduation success. Outreach. Undergraduate researchers rarely feel like experts when working with graduate students and faculty. For students to develop their identity as scientists, it is essential that they be given the opportunity to assume the role as expert. Engaging students in outreach is a win-win situation. Students gain valuable skills and confidence in sharing their research with their local community, and the public gets to learn about exciting research happening at UH. Professional Development. Each month, the Scholars meet to develop their professional skills on a particular topic, such as outreach, scientific presentations, interviewing, networking, and preparing application materials for jobs, scholarships and summer REUs. Students are

  20. Dark matter effective field theory scattering in direct detection experiments

    DOE PAGES

    Schneck, K.

    2015-05-01

    We examine the consequences of the effective field theory (EFT) of dark matter–nucleon scattering for current and proposed direct detection experiments. Exclusion limits on EFT coupling constants computed using the optimum interval method are presented for SuperCDMS Soudan, CDMS II, and LUX, and the necessity of combining results from multiple experiments in order to determine dark matter parameters is discussed. We demonstrate that spectral differences between the standard dark matter model and a general EFT interaction can produce a bias when calculating exclusion limits and when developing signal models for likelihood and machine learning techniques. We also discuss the implicationsmore » of the EFT for the next-generation (G2) direct detection experiments and point out regions of complementarity in the EFT parameter space.« less

  1. Dark matter effective field theory scattering in direct detection experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Schneck, K.; Cabrera, B.; Cerdeno, D. G.; Mandic, V.; Rogers, H. E.; Agnese, R.; Anderson, A. J.; Asai, M.; Balakishiyeva, D.; Barker, D.; Basu Thakur, R.; Bauer, D. A.; Billard, J.; Borgland, A.; Brandt, D.; Brink, P. L.; Bunker, R.; Caldwell, D. O.; Calkins, R.; Chagani, H.; Chen, Y.; Cooley, J.; Cornell, B.; Crewdson, C. H.; Cushman, Priscilla B.; Daal, M.; Di Stefano, P. C.; Doughty, T.; Esteban, L.; Fallows, S.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Godfrey, G. L.; Golwala, S. R.; Hall, Jeter C.; Harris, H. R.; Hofer, T.; Holmgren, D.; Hsu, L.; Huber, M. E.; Jardin, D. M.; Jastram, A.; Kamaev, O.; Kara, B.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kennedy, A.; Leder, A.; Loer, B.; Lopez Asamar, E.; Lukens, W.; Mahapatra, R.; McCarthy, K. A.; Mirabolfathi, N.; Moffatt, R. A.; Morales Mendoza, J. D.; Oser, S. M.; Page, K.; Page, W. A.; Partridge, R.; Pepin, M.; Phipps, A.; Prasad, K.; Pyle, M.; Qiu, H.; Rau, W.; Redl, P.; Reisetter, A.; Ricci, Y.; Roberts, A.; Saab, T.; Sadoulet, B.; Sander, J.; Schnee, R. W.; Scorza, S.; Serfass, B.; Shank, B.; Speller, D.; Toback, D.; Upadhyayula, S.; Villano, A. N.; Welliver, B.; Wilson, J. S.; Wright, D. H.; Yang, X.; Yellin, S.; Yen, J. J.; Young, B. A.; Zhang, J.

    2015-05-01

    We examine the consequences of the effective eld theory (EFT) of dark matter-nucleon scattering or current and proposed direct detection experiments. Exclusion limits on EFT coupling constants computed using the optimum interval method are presented for SuperCDMS Soudan, CDMS II, and LUX, and the necessity of combining results from multiple experiments in order to determine dark matter parameters is discussed. We demonstrate that spectral di*erences between the standard dark matter model and a general EFT interaction can produce a bias when calculating exclusion limits and when developing signal models for likelihood and machine learning techniques. We also discuss the implications of the EFT for the next-generation (G2) direct detection experiments and point out regions of complementarity in the EFT parameter space.

  2. Dark matter effective field theory scattering in direct detection experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Schneck, K.; Cabrera, B.; Cerdeño, D. G.; Mandic, V.; Rogers, H. E.; Agnese, R.; Anderson, A. J.; Asai, M.; Balakishiyeva, D.; Barker, D.; Basu Thakur, R.; Bauer, D. A.; Billard, J.; Borgland, A.; Brandt, D.; Brink, P. L.; Bunker, R.; Caldwell, D. O.; Calkins, R.; Chagani, H.; Chen, Y.; Cooley, J.; Cornell, B.; Crewdson, C. H.; Cushman, P.; Daal, M.; Di Stefano, P. C. F.; Doughty, T.; Esteban, L.; Fallows, S.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Godfrey, G. L.; Golwala, S. R.; Hall, J.; Harris, H. R.; Hofer, T.; Holmgren, D.; Hsu, L.; Huber, M. E.; Jardin, D. M.; Jastram, A.; Kamaev, O.; Kara, B.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kennedy, A.; Leder, A.; Loer, B.; Lopez Asamar, E.; Lukens, P.; Mahapatra, R.; McCarthy, K. A.; Mirabolfathi, N.; Moffatt, R. A.; Morales Mendoza, J. D.; Oser, S. M.; Page, K.; Page, W. A.; Partridge, R.; Pepin, M.; Phipps, A.; Prasad, K.; Pyle, M.; Qiu, H.; Rau, W.; Redl, P.; Reisetter, A.; Ricci, Y.; Roberts, A.; Saab, T.; Sadoulet, B.; Sander, J.; Schnee, R. W.; Scorza, S.; Serfass, B.; Shank, B.; Speller, D.; Toback, D.; Upadhyayula, S.; Villano, A. N.; Welliver, B.; Wilson, J. S.; Wright, D. H.; Yang, X.; Yellin, S.; Yen, J. J.; Young, B. A.; Zhang, J.

    2015-05-18

    We examine the consequences of the effective field theory (EFT) of dark matter-nucleon scattering for current and proposed direct detection experiments. Exclusion limits on EFT coupling constants computed using the optimum interval method are presented for SuperCDMS Soudan, CDMS II, and LUX, and the necessity of combining results from multiple experiments in order to determine dark matter parameters is discussed. Here. we demonstrate that spectral differences between the standard dark matter model and a general EFT interaction can produce a bias when calculating exclusion limits and when developing signal models for likelihood and machine learning techniques. In conclusion, we discuss the implications of the EFT for the next-generation (G2) direct detection experiments and point out regions of complementarity in the EFT parameter space.

  3. Dark matter effective field theory scattering in direct detection experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Schneck, K.

    2015-05-01

    We examine the consequences of the effective field theory (EFT) of dark matter–nucleon scattering for current and proposed direct detection experiments. Exclusion limits on EFT coupling constants computed using the optimum interval method are presented for SuperCDMS Soudan, CDMS II, and LUX, and the necessity of combining results from multiple experiments in order to determine dark matter parameters is discussed. We demonstrate that spectral differences between the standard dark matter model and a general EFT interaction can produce a bias when calculating exclusion limits and when developing signal models for likelihood and machine learning techniques. We also discuss the implications of the EFT for the next-generation (G2) direct detection experiments and point out regions of complementarity in the EFT parameter space.

  4. Time resolved spin Seebeck effect experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Roschewsky, Niklas Schreier, Michael; Schade, Felix; Ganzhorn, Kathrin; Meyer, Sibylle; Geprägs, Stephan; Kamra, Akashdeep; Huebl, Hans; Goennenwein, Sebastian T. B.; Gross, Rudolf

    2014-05-19

    In this Letter, we present the results of transient thermopower experiments, performed at room temperature on yttrium iron garnet/platinum bilayers. Upon application of a time-varying thermal gradient, we observe a characteristic low-pass frequency response of the ensuing thermopower voltage with cutoff frequencies of up to 37 MHz. We interpret our results in terms of the spin Seebeck effect, and argue that small wavevector magnons are of minor importance for the spin Seebeck effect in our thin film hybrid structures.

  5. Combined experiment and theory approach in surface chemistry: Stairway to heaven?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Exner, Kai S.; Heß, Franziska; Over, Herbert; Seitsonen, Ari Paavo

    2015-10-01

    In this perspective we discuss how an intimate interaction of experiments with theory is able to deepen our insight into the catalytic reaction system on the molecular level. This strategy is illustrated by discussing various examples from our own research of surface chemistry and model catalysis. The particular examples were carefully chosen to balance the specific strength of both approaches - theory and experiment - and emphasize the benefit of this combined approach. We start with the determination of complex surface structures, where diffraction techniques in combination with theory are clear-cut. The promoter action of alkali metals in heterogeneous catalysis is rationalized with theory and experiment for the case of CO coadsorption. Predictive power of theory is limited as demonstrated with the apparent activity of chlorinated TiO2(110) in the oxidation of HCl: Even if we know all elementary reaction steps of a catalytic reaction mechanism, the overall kinetics may remain elusive and require the application kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. Catalysts are not always stable under reaction conditions and may chemically transform as discussed for the CO oxidation reaction over ruthenium. Under oxidizing reaction conditions ruthenium transforms into RuO2, a process which is hardly understood on the molecular level. Lastly we focus on electrochemical reactions. Here theory is clearly ahead since spectroscopic methods are not available to resolve the processes at the electrode surface.

  6. Effective Replays and Summarization of Virtual Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Ponto, Kevin; Kohlmann, Joe; Gleicher, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Direct replays of the experience of a user in a virtual environment are difficult for others to watch due to unnatural camera motions. We present methods for replaying and summarizing these egocentric experiences that effectively communicate the users observations while reducing unwanted camera movements. Our approach summarizes the viewpoint path as a concise sequence of viewpoints that cover the same parts of the scene. The core of our approach is a novel content dependent metric that can be used to identify similarities between viewpoints. This enables viewpoints to be grouped by similar contextual view information and provides a means to generate novel viewpoints that can encapsulate a series of views. These resulting encapsulated viewpoints are used to synthesize new camera paths that convey the content of the original viewers experience. Projecting the initial movement of the user back on the scene can be used to convey the details of their observations, and the extracted viewpoints can serve as bookmarks for control or analysis. Finally we present performance analysis along with two forms of validation to test whether the extracted viewpoints are representative of the viewers original observations and to test for the overall effectiveness of the presented replay methods. PMID:22402688

  7. Major Successes of Theory-and-Experiment-Combined Studies in Surface Chemistry and Heterogeneous Catalysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Somorjai, Gabor A.; Li, Yimin

    2009-11-21

    Experimental discoveries followed by theoretical interpretations that pave the way of further advances by experimentalists is a developing pattern in modern surface chemistry and catalysis. The revolution of modern surface science started with the development of surface-sensitive techniques such as LEED, XPS, AES, ISS and SIMS, in which the close collaboration between experimentalists and theorists led to the quantitative determination of surface structure and composition. The experimental discovery of the chemical activity of surface defects and the trends in the reactivity of transitional metals followed by the explanations from the theoretical studies led to the molecular level understanding of active sites in catalysis. The molecular level knowledge, in turn, provided a guide for experiments to search for new generation of catalysts. These and many other examples of successes in experiment-and-theory-combined studies demonstrate the importance of the collaboration between experimentalists and theorists in the development of modern surface science.

  8. Forecast constraints on inflation from combined CMB and gravitational wave direct detection experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Kuroyanagi, Sachiko; Gordon, Christopher; Silk, Joseph; Sugiyama, Naoshi

    2010-04-15

    We study how direct detection of the inflationary gravitational wave background constrains inflationary parameters and complements CMB polarization measurements. The error ellipsoids calculated using the Fisher information matrix approach with Planck and the direct detection experiment, Big Bang Observer (BBO), show different directions of parameter degeneracy, and the degeneracy is broken when they are combined. For a slow-roll parametrization, we show that BBO could significantly improve the constraints on the tensor-to-scalar ratio compared with Planck alone. We also look at a quadratic and a natural inflation model. In both cases, if the temperature of reheating is also treated as a free parameter, then the addition of BBO can significantly improve the error bars. In the case of natural inflation, we find that the addition of BBO could even partially improve the error bars of a cosmic variance-limited CMB experiment.

  9. Current pulse effects on cylindrical damage experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Kaul, Ann M; Rousculp, Christopher L

    2009-01-01

    A series of joint experiments between LANL and VNIIEF use a VNIIEF-designed helical generator to provide currents for driving a LANL-designed cylindrical spallation experimental load. Under proper driving conditions, a cylindrical configuration allows for a natural recollection of the damaged material. In addition, the damaged material is able to come to a complete stop due to its strength, avoiding application of further forces. Thus far, experiments have provided data about failure initiation of a well-characterized material (aluminum) in a cylindrical geometry, behavior of material recollected after damage from pressures in the damage initiation regime, and behavior of material recollected after complete failure. In addition to post-shot collection of the damaged target material for subsequent metallographic analysis, dynamic in-situ experimental diagnostics include velocimetry and transverse radial radiography. This paper will focus on the effects of tailoring the driving current pulse to obtain the desired data.

  10. Living Donor Liver Transplantation for Combined Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Cholangiocarcinoma: Experience of a Single Center.

    PubMed

    Chang, Cheng-Chih; Chen, Ying-Ju; Huang, Tzu-Hao; Chen, Chun-Han; Kuo, Fang-Ying; Eng, Hock-Liew; Yong, Chee-Chien; Liu, Yueh-Wei; Lin, Ting-Lung; Li, Wei-Feng; Lin, Yu-Hung; Lin, Chih-Che; Wang, Chih-Chi; Chen, Chao-Long

    2017-02-28

    BACKGROUND Because the outcome of liver transplantation for cholangiocarcinoma is often poor, cholangiocarcinoma is a contraindication for liver transplantation in most centers. Combined hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma is a rare type of primary hepatic malignancy containing features of hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma. Diagnosing combined hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma pre-operatively is difficult. Because of sparse research presentations worldwide, we report our experience with living donor liver transplantation for combined hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 710 patients underwent living donor liver transplantation at our institution from April 2006 to June 2014; 377 of them received transplantation because of hepatocellular carcinoma with University of California San Francisco (UCSF) staging criteria fulfilled pre-operatively. Eleven patients (2.92%) were diagnosed with combined hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma confirmed pathologically from explant livers; we reviewed these cases retrospectively. Long-term survival was compared between patients diagnosed with combined hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma and patients diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma. RESULTS The mean age of the patients in our series was 60.2 years, and the median follow-up period was 23.9 months. Four patients were diagnosed with a recurrence during the follow-up period, including one intra-hepatic and three extra-hepatic recurrences. Four patients died due to tumor recurrence. Except for patients with advanced-stage cancer, disease-free survival of patients with combined hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma compared with that of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma was 80% versus 97.2% in 1 year, and 46.7% versus 92.5% in 3 years (p<0.001), and overall survival was 90% versus 97.2% in 1 year, and 61.7% versus 95.1% in 3 years (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS

  11. Effect of crosstalk on combined beam characteristics in spectral beam combining systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lei; Wu, Zhen; Zhong, Zheqiang; Zhang, Bin

    2017-02-01

    In a spectral beam combining (SBC) system, crosstalk always happens because stray lights are inevitable due to fabrication errors of optical components and 'smile' effect of laser arrays. Two kinds of crosstalk, including the crosstalk generated between two adjacent emitters of the laser array (ad-crosstalk) and that generated between two non-adjacent emitters (non-ad-crosstalk), have been analyzed. The equivalent light of the crosstalk model has been proposed, and the propagation model of the SBC system with the crosstalk has been built up. On this basis, influences of above two kinds of the crosstalk on the combined beam have been numerically simulated and discussed in detail. The results show that the wavelength composition of the combined beam varies evidently owing to the existence of the crosstalk. With the increasing of the crosstalk intensity, the beam quality of the combined beam degrades, and the side lobes of intensity distribution of the combined beam become more and more obvious. Furthermore, the influence of the non-ad-crosstalk on the beam quality is more serious than that of the ad-crosstalk.

  12. Effects of combined neutron and gamma irradiation upon silicone foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bo; Wang, Pu-Cheng; Ao, Yin-Yong; Zhao, Yan; An, You; Chen, Hong-Bing; Huang, Wei

    2017-04-01

    The total dose effect of combined fast-neutron beam and 60Co γ-ray radiation on silicone foam in air and nitrogen were investigated, respectively. The results show that foam hardening occurs and crystallization of polymer matrix decreases with increasing dose. Gas chromatograph was used to identify the kinetics of volatile products generating, which generally increase with increasing total dose. The study indicates that combined neutron and gamma irradiation would influence silicone foam property obviously during the investigated dose range.

  13. The atmospheric neutral density experiment (ANDE) and modulating retroreflector in space (MODRAS): combined flight experiments for the space test program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholas, Andrew C.; Gilbreath, G. Charmaine; Thonnard, Stefan E.; Kessel, R. A.; Lucke, Robert; Sillman, C. P.

    2003-03-01

    The Atmospheric Neutral Density Experiment (ANDE) is a low cost mission proposed by the Naval Research Laboratory to demonstrate a method to monitor the thermospheric neutral density at an altitude of 400 km. The primary mission objective is to provide total neutral density along the orbit for improved orbit determination of resident space objects. The ANDE mission also serves as a test platform for a new space-to-ground optical communications technique, the Modulating Retro-reflector Array in Space (MODRAS) experiment. Both are sponsored in part by the Department of Defense Space Test Program. The mission consists of two spherical spacecraft fitted with retro-reflectors for satellite laser ranging (SLR). One spacecraft is completely passive; the other carries three active instruments; a miniature Wind And Temperature Spectrometer (WATS) to measure atmospheric composition, cross-track winds and neutral temperature; a Global Positioning Sensor (GPS); and a Thermal Monitoring System (TMS) to monitor the temperature of the sphere. A design requirement of the active satellite is to telemeter the data to the ground without external protrusions from the spherical spacecraft (i.e. an antenna). The active satellite will be fitted with the MODRAS system, which is an enabling technology for the ANDE mission. The MODRAS system consists of a set of multiple quantum well (MQW) modulating retro-reflectors coupled with an electronics package, which will telemeter data to the ground by modulating the reflected light from laser interrogation beam. This paper presents a mission overview and emphasis will be placed on the design, optical layout, performance, ground station, and science capabilities of the combined missions.

  14. Defining Effective Combinations of Immune Checkpoint Blockade and Oncolytic Virotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Juan J; Sampath, Padma; Hou, Weizhou; Thorne, Steve H

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Recent data from randomized clinical trials with oncolytic viral therapies and with cancer immunotherapies have finally recapitulated the promise these platforms demonstrated in pre-clinical models. Perhaps the greatest advance with oncolytic virotherapy has been the appreciation of the importance of activation of the immune response in therapeutic activity. Meanwhile, the understanding that blockade of immune checkpoints (with antibodies that block the binding of PD1 to PDL1 or CTLA4 to B7-2) is critical for an effective anti-tumor immune response has revitalized the field of immunotherapy. The combination of immune activation using an oncolytic virus and blockade of immune checkpoints is therefore a logical next step. Experimental Design Here we explore such combinations and demonstrate their potential to produce enhanced responses in mouse tumor models. Different combinations and regimens were explored in immunocompetent mouse models of renal and colorectal cancer. Bioluminescence imaging and immune assays were used to determine the mechanisms mediating synergistic or antagonistic combinations. Results Interaction between immune checkpoint inhibitors and oncolytic virotherapy was found to be complex, with correct selection of viral strain, antibody and timing of the combination being critical for synergistic effects. Indeed, some combinations produced antagonistic effects and loss of therapeutic activity. A period of oncolytic viral replication and directed targeting of the immune response against the tumor were required for the most beneficial effects, with CD8+ and NK, but not CD4+ cells mediating the effects. Conclusions These considerations will be critical in the design of the inevitable clinical translation of these combination approaches. PMID:26187615

  15. Combining stochastic models with experiments to understand the dynamics of monarch butterfly colonization.

    PubMed

    Drury, Kevin L S; Dwyer, Greg

    2005-12-01

    Stochastic models are of increasing importance in ecology but are usually only applied to observational data. Here we use a stochastic population model to combine experimental and observational data to understand the colonization of old fields by monarch butterflies Danaus plexippus. We experimentally tested for density dependence in oviposition rates when predators were excluded, and we measured predation rates under natural conditions. Significance tests on the resulting data showed that both oviposition and predation were density dependent but could not show how oviposition and mortality combine to determine egg densities in nature. We therefore used our data to calculate the Akaike Information Criterion to choose between a nested suite of stochastic models that differed in their oviposition and mortality terms. When we simply fit the models to the observational data, the best model assumed density independence in both oviposition and predation. When we instead first estimated the oviposition rate at low density from experimental data, however, the best model included density dependence in oviposition, and a model that included density dependence in both oviposition and predation performed nearly as well. This result is consistent with our experiments and suggests that experiments can enhance the usefulness of stochastic models in ecology.

  16. The Immersive Virtual Reality Experience: A Typology of Users Revealed Through Multiple Correspondence Analysis Combined with Cluster Analysis Technique.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Pedro J; Morais, Diogo; Gamito, Pedro; Oliveira, Jorge; Saraiva, Tomaz

    2016-03-01

    Immersive virtual reality is thought to be advantageous by leading to higher levels of presence. However, and despite users getting actively involved in immersive three-dimensional virtual environments that incorporate sound and motion, there are individual factors, such as age, video game knowledge, and the predisposition to immersion, that may be associated with the quality of virtual reality experience. Moreover, one particular concern for users engaged in immersive virtual reality environments (VREs) is the possibility of side effects, such as cybersickness. The literature suggests that at least 60% of virtual reality users report having felt symptoms of cybersickness, which reduces the quality of the virtual reality experience. The aim of this study was thus to profile the right user to be involved in a VRE through head-mounted display. To examine which user characteristics are associated with the most effective virtual reality experience (lower cybersickness), a multiple correspondence analysis combined with cluster analysis technique was performed. Results revealed three distinct profiles, showing that the PC gamer profile is more associated with higher levels of virtual reality effectiveness, that is, higher predisposition to be immersed and reduced cybersickness symptoms in the VRE than console gamer and nongamer. These findings can be a useful orientation in clinical practice and future research as they help identify which users are more predisposed to benefit from immersive VREs.

  17. Combining universal beauty and cultural context in a unifying model of visual aesthetic experience

    PubMed Central

    Redies, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    In this work, I propose a model of visual aesthetic experience that combines formalist and contextual aspects of aesthetics. The model distinguishes between two modes of processing. First, perceptual processing is based on the intrinsic form of an artwork, which may or may not be beautiful. If it is beautiful, a beauty-responsive mechanism is activated in the brain. This bottom–up mechanism is universal amongst humans; it is widespread in the visual brain and responsive across visual modalities. Second, cognitive processing is based on contextual information, such as the depicted content, the intentions of the artist or the circumstances of the presentation of the artwork. Cognitive processing is partially top–down and varies between individuals according to their cultural experience. Processing in the two channels is parallel and largely independent. In the general case, an aesthetic experience is induced if processing in both channels is favorable, i.e., if there is resonance in the perceptual processing channel (“aesthetics of perception”), and successful mastering in the cognitive processing channel (“aesthetics of cognition”). I speculate that this combinatorial mechanism has evolved to mediate social bonding between members of a (cultural) group of people. Primary emotions can be elicited via both channels and modulate the degree of the aesthetic experience. Two special cases are discussed. First, in a subset of (post-)modern art, beauty no longer plays a prominent role. Second, in some forms of abstract art, beautiful form can be enjoyed with minimal cognitive processing. The model is applied to examples of Western art. Finally, implications of the model are discussed. In summary, the proposed model resolves the seeming contradiction between formalist perceptual approaches to aesthetic experience, which are based on the intrinsic beauty of artworks, and contextual approaches, which account for highly individual and culturally dependent aspects of

  18. Combining universal beauty and cultural context in a unifying model of visual aesthetic experience.

    PubMed

    Redies, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    In this work, I propose a model of visual aesthetic experience that combines formalist and contextual aspects of aesthetics. The model distinguishes between two modes of processing. First, perceptual processing is based on the intrinsic form of an artwork, which may or may not be beautiful. If it is beautiful, a beauty-responsive mechanism is activated in the brain. This bottom-up mechanism is universal amongst humans; it is widespread in the visual brain and responsive across visual modalities. Second, cognitive processing is based on contextual information, such as the depicted content, the intentions of the artist or the circumstances of the presentation of the artwork. Cognitive processing is partially top-down and varies between individuals according to their cultural experience. Processing in the two channels is parallel and largely independent. In the general case, an aesthetic experience is induced if processing in both channels is favorable, i.e., if there is resonance in the perceptual processing channel ("aesthetics of perception"), and successful mastering in the cognitive processing channel ("aesthetics of cognition"). I speculate that this combinatorial mechanism has evolved to mediate social bonding between members of a (cultural) group of people. Primary emotions can be elicited via both channels and modulate the degree of the aesthetic experience. Two special cases are discussed. First, in a subset of (post-)modern art, beauty no longer plays a prominent role. Second, in some forms of abstract art, beautiful form can be enjoyed with minimal cognitive processing. The model is applied to examples of Western art. Finally, implications of the model are discussed. In summary, the proposed model resolves the seeming contradiction between formalist perceptual approaches to aesthetic experience, which are based on the intrinsic beauty of artworks, and contextual approaches, which account for highly individual and culturally dependent aspects of aesthetics.

  19. Highly Efficient Design-of-Experiments Methods for Combining CFD Analysis and Experimental Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Bernhard H.; Haller, Harold S.

    2009-01-01

    It is the purpose of this study to examine the impact of "highly efficient" Design-of-Experiments (DOE) methods for combining sets of CFD generated analysis data with smaller sets of Experimental test data in order to accurately predict performance results where experimental test data were not obtained. The study examines the impact of micro-ramp flow control on the shock wave boundary layer (SWBL) interaction where a complete paired set of data exist from both CFD analysis and Experimental measurements By combining the complete set of CFD analysis data composed of fifteen (15) cases with a smaller subset of experimental test data containing four/five (4/5) cases, compound data sets (CFD/EXP) were generated which allows the prediction of the complete set of Experimental results No statistical difference were found to exist between the combined (CFD/EXP) generated data sets and the complete Experimental data set composed of fifteen (15) cases. The same optimal micro-ramp configuration was obtained using the (CFD/EXP) generated data as obtained with the complete set of Experimental data, and the DOE response surfaces generated by the two data sets were also not statistically different.

  20. Combined Conventional and Endoscopic Microdebrider-Assisted Adenoidectomy: A Tertiary Centre Experience

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, S.B.; Priyadarshini, V.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Adenoidectomy is one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures in children. Conventional adenoidectomy is associated with incomplete adenoid tissue removal with persistence of symptoms. The advent of rigid nasal endoscopes, cold light source, fiber optics and powered instruments used in functional endoscopic sinus surgery helped in the development of endoscopic microdebrider-assisted adenoidectomy. Aim To establish the safety and efficacy of combined conventional and endoscopic microdebrider-assisted adenoidectomy procedure. Materials and Methods This is a prospective study of 60 child patients who underwent combined conventional and endoscopic microdebrider-assisted adenoidectomy. The study was conducted from September 2013 to September 2015. Only child patients with grade 3 and grade 4 Adenoid Hypertrophy (AH) was included in the study. At the end of conventional adenoidectomy and after combined procedure, the AH was graded again. Post-operative complications like neck pain, hypernasality and swallowing problems were noted. Their symptom score was reviewed before surgery and after one month and one year of surgery. The duration of surgery and amount of blood loss was recorded. Results By this technique, complete clearance of adenoid tissue was obtained in all 60 (100%) cases. The mean pre-operative symptom score for AH was 3.7, which improved to 0 after one month of combined conventional and endoscopic microdebrider-assisted adenoidectomy. All child patients were symptom-free at the end of one month and one year. The duration of conventional adenoidectomy was 5 minutes 12 seconds while total duration of the combined conventional and endoscopic microdebrider-assisted adenoidectomy was 14 minutes 45 seconds. There was no significant blood loss (15±3 ml approximately). There were no major complications in this study. Conclusion The combined approach of conventional curette along with endoscopic microdebrider-assisted adenoidectomy is a safe

  1. Synergistic drug combination effectively blocks Ebola virus infection.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; He, Shihua; Martínez-Romero, Carles; Kouznetsova, Jennifer; Tawa, Gregory; Xu, Miao; Shinn, Paul; Fisher, Ethan G; Long, Yan; Motabar, Omid; Yang, Shu; Sanderson, Philip E; Williamson, Peter R; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Qiu, Xiangguo; Zheng, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Although a group of FDA-approved drugs were previously identified with activity against Ebola virus (EBOV), most of them are not clinically useful because their human blood concentrations are not high enough to inhibit EBOV infection. We screened 795 unique three-drug combinations in an EBOV entry assay. Two sets of three-drug combinations, toremifene-mefloquine-posaconazole and toremifene-clarithromycin-posaconazole, were identified that effectively blocked EBOV entry and were further validated for inhibition of live EBOV infection. The individual drug concentrations in the combinations were reduced to clinically relevant levels. We identified mechanisms of action of these drugs: functional inhibitions of Niemann-Pick C1, acid sphingomyelinase, and lysosomal calcium release. Our findings identify the drug combinations with potential to treat EBOV infection.

  2. The Combined Radio Interferometry and COSMIC Experiment in Tomography (CRICKET) Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dymond, Kenneth; Coker, Clayton; Bernhardt, Paul; Cohen, Aaron; Crane, Patrick; Kassim, Namir; Lazio, Joseph; Weiler, Kurt; Watts, Christopher; Rickard, Lee J.; Taylor, Greg; Schinzel, Frank; Philstrom, Ylva; Close, Sigrid; Colestock, Patrick; Myers, Steve; Datta, Abirhup

    We report on the Combined Radio Interferometry and COSMIC Experiment in Tomography Campaign (CRICKET) held on September 15 and 17, 2007. The experiment used the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC also known as FORMOSAT-3) in conjunction with the Very Large Array radio telescope, located near Socorro, NM, to study the ionosphere from the global scale down to the regional scale. Each COSMIC satellite includes three instruments capable of measuring the ionosphere: the Tiny Ionospheric Photometer (TIP), a UV radiometer; the GPS Occultation experiment (GOX), a dual-frequency GPS occultation receiver; and the Tri-band Beacon (TBB), a three frequency coherently radiating radio beacon. These three instruments have been demonstrated to be a powerful means for characterizing the global-scale ionosphere. The VLA when deployed at its largest extent and while operating at 73.8 MHz is incredibly sensitive to relative total electron content variations of the regional ionosphere over about a 30-100 km diameter area. In this work, we concentrate on the first set of observations on September 15, 2007 at approximately 0830 UT. We have successfully married these heterogeneous data sets, using a tomographic data fusion approach, to produce a consistent ionospheric specification from the global scale down to the regional scale.

  3. Effects of Combined Opioids on Pain and Mood in Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Rech, Richard H.; Mokler, David J.; Briggs, Shannon L.

    2012-01-01

    The authors review the opioid literature for evidence of increased analgesia and reduced adverse side effects by combining mu-opioid-receptor (MOR) agonists, kappa-opioid-receptor (KOR) agonists, and nonselective low-dose-opioid antagonists (LD-Ant). We tested fentanyl (MOR agonist) and spiradoline (KOR agonist), singly and combined, against somatic and visceral pain models. Combined agonists induced additive analgesia in somatic pain and synergistic analgesia in visceral pain. Other investigators report similar effects and reduced tolerance and dependence with combined MOR agonist and KOR agonist. LD-Ant added to either a MOR agonist or KOR agonist markedly enhanced analgesia of either agonist. In accordance with other place-conditioning (PC) studies, our PC investigations showed fentanyl-induced place preference (CPP) and spiradoline-induced place aversion (CPA). We reduced fentanyl CPP with a low dose of spiradoline and reduced spiradoline CPA with a low dose of fentanyl. We propose combined MOR agonist, KOR agonist, and LD-Ant to produce superior analgesia with reduced adverse side effects, particularly for visceral pain. PMID:22550575

  4. Individual and combined effects of foods on Helicobacter pylori growth.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Jacqueline I; Salm, Nina; Hampton, Mark B; Wallace, Alison J

    2010-08-01

    Eradication of H. pylori can reduce the risk of non-cardia gastric cancer developing in infected humans. Thus, the consumption of foods that inhibit the growth of these bacteria may provide an alternative to current therapies that include antibiotics, proton pump inhibitors and/or bismuth salts. This study describes a simple broth dilution assay developed to screen a range of foods for their individual and combined effects on H. pylori growth. It was found that foods with measurable anti-H. pylori activity have an effect greater in combination than the sum of foods tested singly, and that this was most noticeable with a combination of broccoli sprouts and blackcurrant oil. The results suggest that food synergy should be considered in any nutraceutical approach to H. pylori infection.

  5. Fully liquid DTaP-IPV-Hib pediatric combination vaccine (Pediacel): a review of 18 years of clinical experience.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Donna L; Vidor, Emmanuel

    2014-08-01

    Safe and effective combination pediatric vaccines are necessary to simplify complex immunization schedules and to improve coverage and protection for children worldwide. We provide an overview of the 18 years of clinical and worldwide experience with DTaP-IPV-Hib (Pediacel(®)), a unique fully liquid pentavalent vaccine (diphtheria [D], tetanus [T], acellular pertussis, inactivated poliovirus [IPV], Haemophilus influenzae type b [Hib]). Pediacel has demonstrated good and lasting immunogenicity in many populations, with differing primary series and booster schedules, and with a variety of coadministered vaccines. The acellular pertussis antigens have proven efficacy and real-world effectiveness. Clinical and post-marketing studies confirm the safety of Pediacel. Pediacel can be used for primary series and toddler booster doses, as well as in mixed pediatric vaccine schedules.

  6. The design and experiment of a novel ultrasonic motor based on the combination of bending modes.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jipeng; Liu, Yingxiang; Liu, Junkao; Xu, Dongmei; Chen, Weishan

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a new-type linear ultrasonic motor which takes advantage of the combination of two orthogonal bending vibration modes. The proposed ultrasonic motor consists of eight pieces of PZT ceramic plates and a metal beam that includes two cone-shaped horns and a cylindrical driving foot. The finite element analyses were finished to verify the working principle of the proposed motor. The mode shapes of the motor were obtained by modal analysis; the elliptical trajectories of nodes on the driving foot were obtained by time-domain analysis. Based on the analyses, a prototype of the proposed motor was fabricated and measured. The mechanical output characteristics were obtained by experiments. The maximal velocity of the proposed motor is 735mm/s and the maximal thrust is 1.1N.

  7. Combined Experiment Phase 1. [Horizontal axis wind turbines: wind tunnel testing versus field testing

    SciTech Connect

    Butterfield, C.P.; Musial, W.P.; Simms, D.A.

    1992-10-01

    How does wind tunnel airfoil data differ from the airfoil performance on an operating horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) The National Renewable Energy laboratory has been conducting a comprehensive test program focused on answering this question and understanding the basic fluid mechanics of rotating HAWT stall aerodynamics. The basic approach was to instrument a wind rotor, using an airfoil that was well documented by wind tunnel tests, and measure operating pressure distributions on the rotating blade. Based an the integrated values of the pressure data, airfoil performance coefficients were obtained, and comparisons were made between the rotating data and the wind tunnel data. Care was taken to the aerodynamic and geometric differences between the rotating and the wind tunnel models. This is the first of two reports describing the Combined Experiment Program and its results. This Phase I report covers background information such as test setup and instrumentation. It also includes wind tunnel test results and roughness testing.

  8. Experiences in teleradiology using a combination of ATM and ISDN wide-area networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichelberg, Marco; Cordonnier, Emmanuel; Piqueras, Joachim; Hewett, Andrew J.; Jensch, Peter F.

    1996-05-01

    The current developments in the health care sector facilitate the deployment of telemedical applications which promise to decrease costs and improve treatment quality. The regular use of telemedicine as a means of exchanging knowledge and patient information over long distance requires a natural integration of human communication with all available information sources like imaging modalities and patient data. ATM and ISDN are network technologies which allow the transmission of both digital data and real-time information like video and speech and therefore recommend themselves for telemedical applications. In the future a heterogeneous infrastructure with ATM, ISDN and other network technologies can be expected, increasing the importance of `connectivity' among the network services. This contribution describes an application scenario for teleradiology using a combination of ATM and ISDN wide area networks and experiences with the experimental use of such a system.

  9. Combining clinical studies and analogue experiments to investigate cognitive mechanisms in posttraumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ehring, Thomas; Kleim, Birgit; Ehlers, Anke

    2013-01-01

    Research into cognitive mechanisms in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) typically comprises two types of studies. The first group of studies is conducted with survivors of traumatic events and assesses the association between PTSD and cognitive variables with questionnaires and/or information processing paradigms. In the second group of studies, healthy non-traumatized individuals are exposed to an analogue stressor (e.g., a stressful film) and cognitive variables of interest are usually experimentally manipulated to investigate their effects on analogue PTSD symptoms. This review illustrates how studies of trauma survivors and analogue studies with non-traumatized populations can be usefully combined. Two examples for this approach are presented: (1) research into the role of perceptual priming for trauma-related stimuli and (2) research into trauma-related rumination. The advantages and limitations of both types of studies are discussed and it is argued that a combination of both approaches is needed to investigate cognitive mechanisms in PTSD. PMID:23814633

  10. Aerodynamic Experiments of Small Scale Combined Cycle Engine in Various Mach Numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tani, Kouichiro; Kouchi, Toshinori; Kato, Kanenori; Sakuranaka, Noboru; Watanabe, Syuuichi

    A small model aerodynamic tests of the combined cycle engine were carried out to evaluate its performance in subsonic and supersonic conditions. In this regime of the flow speed, the combined cycle engine operates as an ejector-jet or ramjet. The nitrogen gas was exhausted as the substitution for the actual rocket gas. In a subsonic condition, there appeared local pressure rise at the kink point of the ramp, increasing the pressure drag. Both wall pressure and the pitot pressure distribution at the exit of the model suggested that the flow structure is “two-layered” ; one is subsonic induced air flow, and the other is the supersonic rocket exhaust. A slit was carved on the topwall inside the isolator section, expecting a better suction performance in the ejector-jet mode. The modification actually had an effect to enhance the lower limit of the rocket pressure at which the choking of the induced air is achieved.

  11. Combining data mining and machine learning for effective user profiling

    SciTech Connect

    Fawcett, T.; Provost, F.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the automatic design of methods for detecting fraudulent behavior. Much of the design is accomplished using a series of machine learning methods. In particular, we combine data mining and constructive induction with more standard machine learning techniques to design methods for detecting fraudulent usage of cellular telephones based on profiling customer behavior. Specifically, we use a rule-learning program to uncover indicators of fraudulent behavior from a large database of cellular calls. These indicators are used to create profilers, which then serve as features to a system that combines evidence from multiple profilers to generate high-confidence alarms. Experiments indicate that this automatic approach performs nearly as well as the best hand-tuned methods for detecting fraud.

  12. Discriminative and reinforcing stimulus effects of nicotine, cocaine, and cocaine + nicotine combinations in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Mello, Nancy K; Newman, Jennifer L

    2011-06-01

    Concurrent cigarette smoking and cocaine use is well documented. However, the behavioral pharmacology of cocaine and nicotine combinations is poorly understood, and there is a need for animal models to examine this form of polydrug abuse. The purpose of this study was twofold: first to assess the effects of nicotine on the discriminative stimulus effects of cocaine, and second, to study self-administration of nicotine/cocaine combinations in a novel polydrug abuse model. In drug discrimination experiments, nicotine increased the discriminative stimulus effects of low cocaine doses in two of three monkeys, but nicotine did not substitute for cocaine in any monkey. Self-administration of cocaine and nicotine alone, and cocaine + nicotine combinations was studied under a second-order fixed ratio 2, variable ratio 16 (FR2[VR16:S]) schedule of reinforcement. Cocaine and nicotine alone were self-administered in a dose-dependent manner. The combination of marginally reinforcing doses of cocaine and nicotine increased drug self-administration behavior above levels observed with the same dose of either cocaine or nicotine alone. These findings indicate that nicotine may increase cocaine's discriminative stimulus and reinforcing effects in rhesus monkeys, and illustrate the feasibility of combining cocaine and nicotine in a preclinical model of polydrug abuse. Further studies of the behavioral effects of nicotine + cocaine combinations will contribute to our understanding the pharmacology of dual nicotine and cocaine dependence, and will be useful for evaluation of new treatment medications.

  13. Artemisinin-based combination therapy in the treatment of uncomplicated malaria: review of recent regulatory experience at the European Medicines Agency

    PubMed Central

    Pelfrene, Eric; Pinheiro, Marie-Hélène; Cavaleri, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Malaria remains a major public health challenge with almost half of the world's population exposed to the risk of contracting the illness. Prompt, effective and well tolerated treatment remains one of the cornerstones in the disease management, with artemisinin-based combination therapy the recommended option for non-severe malaria in endemic areas with predominant Plasmodium falciparum infections. Recent experience has been obtained at the European Medicines Agency with regulatory approval of two such antimalarial fixed combination products. For these cases, two different regulatory pathways were applied. As such, the present contribution describes this experience, emphasising main differences and applicability offered by these regulatory choices. PMID:25855638

  14. Combining mesocosm and field experiments to predict invasive plant performance: a hierarchical Bayesian approach.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Chris H; Caughlin, T Trevor; Civitello, David J; Flory, S Luke

    2015-04-01

    Invasive plant fecundity underlies propagule pressure and ultimately range expansion. Predicting fecundity across large spatial scales, from regions to landscapes, is critical for understanding invasion dynamics and optimizing management. However, to accurately predict fecundity and other demographic processes, improved models that scale individual plant responses to abiotic drivers across heterogeneous environments are needed. Here we combine two experimental data sets to predict fecundity of a widespread and problematic invasive grass over large spatial scales. First, we analyzed seed production as a function of plant biomass in a small-scale mesocosm experiment with manipulated light levels. Then, in a field introduction experiment, we tracked plant performance across 21 common garden sites that differed widely in available light and other factors. We jointly analyzed these data using a Bayesian hierarchical model (BHM) framework to predict fecundity as a function of light in the field. Our analysis reveals that the invasive species is likely to produce sufficient seed to overwhelm establishment resistance, even in deeply shaded environments, and is likely seed-limited across much of its range. Finally, we extend this framework to address the general problem of how to scale up plant demographic processes and analyze the factors that control plant distribution and abundance at large scales.

  15. Interpersonal Coordination and Individual Organization Combined with Shared Phenomenological Experience in Rowing Performance: Two Case Studies.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Ludovic; Lardy, Julien; Bourbousson, Jérôme; Adé, David; Nordez, Antoine; Thouvarecq, Régis; Saury, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    The principal aim of this study was to examine the impact of variability in interpersonal coordination and individual organization on rowing performance. The second aim was to analyze crew phenomenology in order to understand how rowers experience their joint actions when coping with constraints emerging from the race. We conducted a descriptive and exploratory study of two coxless pair crews during a 3000-m rowing race against the clock. As the investigation was performed in an ecological context, we postulated that our understanding of the behavioral dynamics of interpersonal coordination and individual organization and the variability in performance would be enriched through the analysis of crew phenomenology. The behavioral dynamics of individual organization were assessed at kinematic and kinetic levels, and interpersonal coordination was examined by computing the relative phase between oar angles and oar forces and the difference in the oar force impulse of the two rowers. The inter-cycle variability of the behavioral dynamics of one international and one national crew was evaluated by computing the root mean square and the Cauchy index. Inter-cycle variability was considered significantly high when the behavioral and performance data for each cycle were outside of the confidence interval. Crew phenomenology was characterized on the basis of self-confrontation interviews and the rowers' concerns were then analyzed according to course-of-action methodology to identify the shared experiences. Our findings showed that greater behavioral variability could be either "perturbing" or "functional" depending on its impact on performance (boat velocity); the rowers experienced it as sometimes meaningful and sometimes meaningless; and their experiences were similar or diverging. By combining phenomenological and behavioral data, we explain how constraints not manipulated by an experimenter but emerging from the ecological context of a race can be associated with

  16. Interpersonal Coordination and Individual Organization Combined with Shared Phenomenological Experience in Rowing Performance: Two Case Studies

    PubMed Central

    Seifert, Ludovic; Lardy, Julien; Bourbousson, Jérôme; Adé, David; Nordez, Antoine; Thouvarecq, Régis; Saury, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    The principal aim of this study was to examine the impact of variability in interpersonal coordination and individual organization on rowing performance. The second aim was to analyze crew phenomenology in order to understand how rowers experience their joint actions when coping with constraints emerging from the race. We conducted a descriptive and exploratory study of two coxless pair crews during a 3000-m rowing race against the clock. As the investigation was performed in an ecological context, we postulated that our understanding of the behavioral dynamics of interpersonal coordination and individual organization and the variability in performance would be enriched through the analysis of crew phenomenology. The behavioral dynamics of individual organization were assessed at kinematic and kinetic levels, and interpersonal coordination was examined by computing the relative phase between oar angles and oar forces and the difference in the oar force impulse of the two rowers. The inter-cycle variability of the behavioral dynamics of one international and one national crew was evaluated by computing the root mean square and the Cauchy index. Inter-cycle variability was considered significantly high when the behavioral and performance data for each cycle were outside of the confidence interval. Crew phenomenology was characterized on the basis of self-confrontation interviews and the rowers' concerns were then analyzed according to course-of-action methodology to identify the shared experiences. Our findings showed that greater behavioral variability could be either “perturbing” or “functional” depending on its impact on performance (boat velocity); the rowers experienced it as sometimes meaningful and sometimes meaningless; and their experiences were similar or diverging. By combining phenomenological and behavioral data, we explain how constraints not manipulated by an experimenter but emerging from the ecological context of a race can be associated with

  17. Effect of combined treatments on viscosity of whey dispersions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camillo, A.; Sabato, S. F.

    2004-09-01

    Whey proteins, enriched protein fractions from milk, are of great interest as ingredients due to nutritional value associated with its functional properties. These proteins could have their structural properties improved when some treatments are applied, such as thermal and gamma irradiation or when some compounds are added. The current work aimed to study the viscometer behavior of whey dispersions submitted to two different combined treatments: (1) thermal plus irradiation and (2) thermal plus vacuum and N 2 plus irradiation. Dispersions of whey protein in water (5% and 8% protein (w/v) base) and containing proteins and glycerol at ratios 1:1 and 2:1 (protein:glycerol) were submitted to both combined treatments. The irradiation doses were 0, 5, 15 and 25 kGy. The viscosity of the two combined treatments and for four levels of absorbed doses is presented and the combined effects are discussed. The thermal treatment combined with gamma irradiation contributed to increase the viscosity as irradiation doses increases for both (5% and 8%) concentrations of proteins ( p<0.05). For protein and glycerol solutions, the irradiation dose seemed to result in a slightly increase. The vacuum applied before the irradiation showed a small contribution.

  18. Synergistic antitumor effect of puerarin combined with 5-fluorouracil on gastric carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xu-Feng; Yang, Zi-Rong; Wang, Jun; Lei, Xiao-Fei; Lv, Xiao-Guang; Dong, Wei-Guo

    2015-04-01

    Combination chemotherapy is a crucial method in the treatment of gastric cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory effects of puerarin and 5‑fluorouracil (5‑FU) on BGC‑823 gastric cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro growth inhibition of puerarin or 5‑FU alone or combined on BGC‑823 cells was determined using a cell counting kit 8 (CCK‑8) on living cells. Apoptotic morphological features and proteins expression levels were detected by Hoechst 33258 staining, an Annexin V/propidium iodide apoptosis kit and western blot analysis, respectively. Tumor xenografts were established in nude mice and the inhibitory effects and side effects were detected. Results of the CCK‑8, Hoechst 33258 staining and flow cytometry revealed that the combined treatment was more effective than the separate treatments. The tumor volume was 90.65% of that of the controls and the mean tumor weight was only 0.125 g at the end of the experiment in the combination group compared with the control group (0.822 g). In addition, it was determined that liver and renal toxicity did not increase in combined treatment. These findings showed that puerarin and 5‑FU produced a significant synergic effect on gastric cancer cells, while there was no increase in side effects.

  19. Radiofrequency Ablation Therapy Combined with Cementoplasty for Painful Bone Metastases: Initial Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Toyota, Naoyuki Naito, Akira; Kakizawa, Hideaki; Hieda, Masashi; Hirai, Nobuhiko; Tachikake, Toshihiro; Kimura, Tomoki; Fukuda, Hideki; Ito, Katsuhide

    2005-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of percutaneous radiofrequency (RF) ablation therapy combined with cementoplasty under computed tomography and fluoroscopic guidance for painful bone metastases. Seventeen adult patients with 23 painful bone metastases underwent RF ablation therapy combined with cementoplasty during a 2-year period. The mean tumor size was 52 x 40 x 59 mm. Initial pain relief, reduction of analgesics, duration of pain relief, recurrence rate of pain, survival rate, and complications were analyzed. The technical success rate was 100%. Initial pain relief was achieved in 100% of patients (n = 17). The mean VAS scores dropped from 63 to 24 (p < 0.001) (n = 8). Analgesic reduction was achieved in 41% (7 out of 17 patients). The mean duration of pain relief was 7.3 months (median: 6 months). Pain recurred in three patients (17.6%) from 2 weeks to 3 months. Eight patients died and 8 patients are still alive (a patient was lost to follow-up). The one-year survival rate was 40% (observation period: 1-30 months). No major complications occurred, but one patient treated with this combined therapy broke his right femur 2 days later. There was transient local pain in most cases, and a hematoma in the psoas muscle (n = 1) and a hematoma at the puncture site (n = 1) occurred as minor complications. Percutaneous RF ablation therapy combined with cementoplasty for painful bone metastases is effective and safe, in particular, for bulky tumors extending to extraosseous regions. A comparison with cementoplasty or RF ablation alone and their long-term efficacies is needed.

  20. Radiofrequency ablation therapy combined with cementoplasty for painful bone metastases: initial experience.

    PubMed

    Toyota, Naoyuki; Naito, Akira; Kakizawa, Hideaki; Hieda, Masashi; Hirai, Nobuhiko; Tachikake, Toshihiro; Kimura, Tomoki; Fukuda, Hideki; Ito, Katsuhide

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of percutaneous radiofrequency (RF) ablation therapy combined with cementoplasty under computed tomography and fluoroscopic guidance for painful bone metastases. Seventeen adult patients with 23 painful bone metastases underwent RF ablation therapy combined with cementoplasty during a 2-year period. The mean tumor size was 52 x 40 x 59 mm. Initial pain relief, reduction of analgesics, duration of pain relief, recurrence rate of pain, survival rate, and complications were analyzed. The technical success rate was 100%. Initial pain relief was achieved in 100% of patients (n=17). The mean VAS scores dropped from 63 to 24 (p<0.001) (n=8). Analgesic reduction was achieved in 41% (7 out of 17 patients). The mean duration of pain relief was 7.3 months (median: 6 months). Pain recurred in three patients (17.6%) from 2 weeks to 3 months. Eight patients died and 8 patients are still alive (a patient was lost to follow-up). The one-year survival rate was 40% (observation period: 1--30 months). No major complications occurred, but one patient treated with this combined therapy broke his right femur 2 days later. There was transient local pain in most cases, and a hematoma in the psoas muscle (n=1) and a hematoma at the puncture site (n=1) occurred as minor complications. Percutaneous RF ablation therapy combined with cementoplasty for painful bone metastases is effective and safe, in particular, for bulky tumors extending to extraosseous regions. A comparison with cementoplasty or RF ablation alone and their long-term efficacies is needed.

  1. Lasso adjustments of treatment effect estimates in randomized experiments

    PubMed Central

    Bloniarz, Adam; Liu, Hanzhong; Zhang, Cun-Hui; Sekhon, Jasjeet S.; Yu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    We provide a principled way for investigators to analyze randomized experiments when the number of covariates is large. Investigators often use linear multivariate regression to analyze randomized experiments instead of simply reporting the difference of means between treatment and control groups. Their aim is to reduce the variance of the estimated treatment effect by adjusting for covariates. If there are a large number of covariates relative to the number of observations, regression may perform poorly because of overfitting. In such cases, the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (Lasso) may be helpful. We study the resulting Lasso-based treatment effect estimator under the Neyman–Rubin model of randomized experiments. We present theoretical conditions that guarantee that the estimator is more efficient than the simple difference-of-means estimator, and we provide a conservative estimator of the asymptotic variance, which can yield tighter confidence intervals than the difference-of-means estimator. Simulation and data examples show that Lasso-based adjustment can be advantageous even when the number of covariates is less than the number of observations. Specifically, a variant using Lasso for selection and ordinary least squares (OLS) for estimation performs particularly well, and it chooses a smoothing parameter based on combined performance of Lasso and OLS. PMID:27382153

  2. Combined Effect of Ultrasound and Ozone on Bacteria in Water.

    PubMed

    Al-Hashimi, Amna M; Mason, Timothy J; Joyce, Eadaoin M

    2015-10-06

    The aim of this study is to assess the synergetic effect of combined ultrasound and ozone treatment on the biological disinfection of water on a large-scale application using viable plate counts and flow cytometry. Escherichia coli B bacteria in saline suspension was treated using a commercially available combined ultrasound and ozone system (USO3 (Ultrasonic Systems Gmbh)) for 16 min. Two analytical methods were used to assess the results in terms of live and dead cells in the bulk liquid: standard viable plate counting recorded in terms of colony forming units per milliliter and flow cytometry. In the latter case 1 mL of bacterial suspension was stained simultaneously with the fluorescent stains SYTO9 and propidium iodide (PI). Transmission electron microscopy was used to generate images identifying the biological effects of different treatments using ultrasound and ozone on bacterial cell walls. Results demonstrated that treatment with ozone alone (1 mg/L) resulted in a significant reduction (93%) in the number of live cells after 16 min treatment whereas ultrasound alone showed only a small reduction (24%). However, a combination of ozone and ultrasound showed a synergistic effect and enhanced the inactivation to 99% after 4 min. A combined ultrasound and ozone treatment of bacterial suspensions using a commercial system affords a promising method for water disinfection that is better than treatment using either method alone. Standard viable plate count analysis is normally used to assess the effectiveness of disinfection treatments; however flow cytometry proved to be a more sensitive method to determine the actual effects in terms of not only live and dead cells but also damaged cells. This type of analysis (cell damage) is difficult if not impossible to achieve using traditional plate counting methodology.

  3. Additive feeding inhibitory and aversive effects of naltrexone and exendin-4 combinations

    PubMed Central

    Liang, N-C; Bello, NT; Moran, TH

    2012-01-01

    Objective One developing strategy for obesity treatment has been to use combinations of differently acting pharmacotherapies to improve weight loss with fewer adverse effects. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the combination of naltrexone, an opioid antagonist acting on the reward system, and exendin-4, a glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) agonist, acting on satiety signaling, would produce larger reductions in food intake than either alone in rats. Because the anorectic potencies of both compounds have been associated with nausea and malaise, the influence of these drug combinations on the acquisition of a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) was also determined. Methods In Experiment 1, the acute anorectic effects of naltrexone (0.32–3.2 mg/kg; IP) and exendin-4 (1–10 µg/kg; IP) were assessed alone or in combination. Combinational doses were further investigated by the repeated daily administration of 1 mg/kg naltrexone + 3.2 µg/kg exendin-4 for 4 days. In Experiment 2, both compounds alone or in combination were used as unconditioned stimuli in a series of CTA tests. Results Naltrexone and exendin-4, alone or in combination, suppressed food intake in a dose dependent fashion, and the interaction on food intake between naltrexone and exendin-4 was additive. In the CTA paradigm, naltrexone (1 mg/Kg) alone did not support acquisition, whereas a CTA was evident with doses of Ex-4 (1 or 3.2 µg/Kg). Combinations of naltrexone and exendin-4 also resulted in a more rapid and robust acquisition of a CTA. Conclusion Given that the Nal and Ex-4 combination produces additive effects on not only food intake reduction but also food aversion learning, this specific drug combination does not have the benefit of minimizing the adverse effects associated with each individual drug. These data suggest that it is necessary to evaluate both the positive and adverse effects at early stages of combinational drug development. PMID:22310470

  4. Ambient Occlusion Effects for Combined Volumes and Tubular Geometry

    PubMed Central

    Schott, Mathias; Martin, Tobias; Grosset, A.V. Pascal; Smith, Sean T.; Hansen, Charles D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper details a method for interactive direct volume rendering that computes ambient occlusion effects for visualizations that combine both volumetric and geometric primitives, specifically tube-shaped geometric objects representing streamlines, magnetic field lines or DTI fiber tracts. The algorithm extends the recently presented the directional occlusion shading model to allow the rendering of those geometric shapes in combination with a context providing 3D volume, considering mutual occlusion between structures represented by a volume or geometry. Stream tube geometries are computed using an effective spline-based interpolation and approximation scheme that avoids self-intersection and maintains coherent orientation of the stream tube segments to avoid surface deforming twists. Furthermore, strategies to reduce the geometric and specular aliasing of the stream tubes are discussed. PMID:23559506

  5. Memory boosting effect of Citrus limon, Pomegranate and their combinations.

    PubMed

    Riaz, Azra; Khan, Rafeeq Alam; Algahtani, Hussein A

    2014-11-01

    Memory is greatly influenced by factors like food, stress and quality of sleep, hence present study was designed to evaluate the effect of Citrus limon and Pomegranate juices on memory of mice using Harvard Panlab Passive Avoidance response apparatus controlled through LE2708 Programmer. Passive avoidance is fear-motivated tests used to assess short or long-term memory of small animals, which measures latency to enter into the black compartment. Animals at MCLD showed highly significant and significant increase in latency to enter into the black compartment after 3 and 24 hours respectively than control, animals at HCLD showed significant increase in latency only after 3hours. Animals both at low and moderate doses of pomegranate showed significant increase in test latency after 3 hours, while animals at high dose showed highly significant and significant increase in latency after 3 and 24 hours respectively. There was highly significant and significant increase in latency in animals at CPJ-1 combination after 3 and 24 hours respectively; however animals received CPJ-2 combination showed significant increase in latency only after 3 hours as compare to control. These results suggest that Citrus limon and Pomegranate has phytochemicals and essential nutrients which boost memory, particularly short term memory. Hence it may be concluded that flavonoids in these juices may be responsible for memory enhancing effects and a synergistic effect is observed by CPJ-1 and CPJ-2 combinations.

  6. Combined effects of two antibiotic contaminants on Microcystis aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Zhang, Jian; Gao, Baoyu; Feng, Suping

    2014-08-30

    Combined toxicity of spiramycin and amoxicillin was tested in Microcystis aeruginosa. The respective 50% effective concentrations (EC50mix) expressed in toxic unit (TU) values were 1.25 and 1.83 for spiramycin and amoxicillin mixed at 1:7 and 1:1, suggesting an antagonistic interaction at the median effect level. Deviations from the prediction of concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA) models further indicated that combined toxicity of two antibiotics mixed at 1:1 varied from synergism to antagonism with increasing test concentration. Both the EC50mix of 0.86 (in TU value) and the deviation from two models manifested a synergistic interaction between spiramycin and amoxicillin mixed at 7:1. At an environmentally relevant concentration of 800ngL(-1), combined effect of mixed antibiotics on algal growth changed from stimulation to inhibition with the increasing proportion of higher toxic component (spiramycin). Chlorophyll-a content and expression levels of psbA, psaB, and rbcL varied in a similar manner as growth rate, suggesting a correlation between algal growth and photosynthesis under exposure to mixed antibiotics. The stimulation of microcystin-production by mixed antibiotics was related with the elevated expression of mcyB. The mixture of two target antibiotics with low proportion of spiramycin (<50%) could increase the harm of M. aeruginosa to aquatic environments by stimulating algal growth and production and release of microcystin-LR at their current contamination levels.

  7. CRRES combined radiation and release effects satellite program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giles, B. L. (Compiler); Mccook, M. A. (Compiler); Mccook, M. W. (Compiler); Miller, G. P. (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    The various regions of the magnetosphere-ionosphere system are coupled by flows of charged particle beams and electromagnetic waves. This coupling gives rise to processes that affect both technical and non-technical aspects of life on Earth. The CRRES Program sponsored experiments which were designed to produce controlled and known input to the space environment and the effects were measured with arrays of diagnostic instruments. Large amounts of material were used to modify and perturb the environment in a controlled manner, and response to this was studied. The CRRES and PEGSAT satellites were dual-mission spacecraft with a NASA mission to perform active chemical-release experiments, grouped into categories of tracer, modification, and simulation experiments. Two sounding rocket chemical release campaigns completed the study.

  8. [Study on combination components and effectiveness of Chinese traditional herbal formulas].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Guo, Li-li; Wang, Yong-yan

    2006-01-01

    Chinese herbal prescriptions enhance the clinical curative effect through the use of multi-composition formulas, and the combined use of several components from herbal extracts is an enhanced mode of formulae organization and compatibility. The research with the combination components is under the guidance of the traditional Chinese medical theory which apply medical therapy following syndrome differentiation. The purpose is to enhance drug safety, clinical suitability, and to use drugs with clearer ingredients and mechanisms of action, with more stable and controllable product quality for commercial production. So the study of combination components must establish the methodology of combining standard components, confirming the main components through trial design, removing the poisonous components, and ascertaining dosage and ratios of all the components used. The mode of combination component has three forms: the one from the combined use of prepared medicinal herbs, the one from directly combined use of components, and the one from the standard ingredient composition of single herb. These three forms strictly follow the mechanisms of multi-component and multi-target medical intervention. The significance of using combined effective components is to ensure the accuracy and safety of clinical dosage, enhance the clinical effectiveness, reduce the use of medicinal herbs, decrease the side-effects, and to promote modern Chinese medicines that have clear ingredients and mechanisms. Our study on the chemistry and pharmacology of Chinese herbs provided scientific foundation to the combination effective components. Nowadays the modern medicine is faced with the complicated disease spectra, meanwhile, the single-ingredient chemical drug is not able to achieve satisfactory curative effect. So there is a need to develop new medicine with effective combination components to meet new opportunities and challenges. Therefore, it has becomes a new mode of developing combined

  9. Frequency of Victimization Experiences and Well-Being Among Online, Offline, and Combined Victims on Social Online Network Sites of German Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Glüer, Michael; Lohaus, Arnold

    2015-01-01

    Victimization is associated with negative developmental outcomes in childhood and adolescence. However, previous studies have provided mixed results regarding the association between offline and online victimization and indicators of social, psychological, and somatic well-being. In this study, we investigated 1,890 German children and adolescents (grades 5–10, mean age = 13.9; SD = 2.1) with and without offline or online victimization experiences who participated in a social online network (SNS). Online questionnaires were used to assess previous victimization (offline, online, combined, and without), somatic and psychological symptoms, self-esteem, and social self-concept (social competence, resistance to peer influence, esteem by others). In total, 1,362 (72.1%) children and adolescents reported being a member of at least one SNS, and 377 students (28.8%) reported previous victimization. Most children and adolescents had offline victimization experiences (17.5%), whereas 2.7% reported online victimization, and 8.6% reported combined experiences. Girls reported more online and combined victimization, and boys reported more offline victimization. The type of victimization (offline, online, combined) was associated with increased reports of psychological and somatic symptoms, lower self-esteem and esteem by others, and lower resistance to peer influences. The effects were comparable for the groups with offline and online victimization. They were, however, increased in the combined group in comparison to victims with offline experiences alone. PMID:26734598

  10. Early and continuing effects of combined alpha and beta irradiation of the lung:

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, B.R.; Hahn, F.F.; Snipes, M.B.; Newton, G.J.; Eidson, A.F.; Mauderly, J.L.; Boecker, B.B.

    1988-03-01

    This report summarizes an inhalation exposure experiment that concerns early and continuing effects of combined alpha and beta irradiation of the lung of rats. Both morbidity at 18 months and mortality within 18 months after exposure were examined for rats exposed to the beta-emitter /sup 147/Pm, the alpha-emitter /sup 238/Pu, or both combined. The results were used to validate hazard-function models that were developed (1)for pulmonary functional morbidity at 18 months and (2) for lethality from radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis within 18 months. Both models were found to adequately predict the experimental observations after combined chronic alpha and beta irradiation of the lung. A relative biological effectiveness of approximately 7 was obtained for /sup 238/Pu alpha radiation compared to /sup 147/Pm beta radiation for both pulmonary functional morbidity and lethality from radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis. 12 refs., 16 figs., 11 tabs.

  11. A novel coil array for combined TMS/fMRI experiments at 3 T

    PubMed Central

    Navarro de Lara, Lucia I.; Windischberger, Christian; Kuehne, Andre; Woletz, Michael; Sieg, Jürgen; Bestmann, Sven; Weiskopf, Nikolaus; Strasser, Bernhard; Moser, Ewald

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To overcome current limitations in combined transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies by employing a dedicated coil array design for 3 Tesla. Methods The state‐of‐the‐art setup for concurrent TMS/fMRI is to use a large birdcage head coil, with the TMS between the subject's head and the MR coil. This setup has drawbacks in sensitivity, positioning, and available imaging techniques. In this study, an ultraslim 7‐channel receive‐only coil array for 3 T, which can be placed between the subject's head and the TMS, is presented. Interactions between the devices are investigated and the performance of the new setup is evaluated in comparison to the state‐of‐the‐art setup. Results MR sensitivity obtained at the depth of the TMS stimulation is increased by a factor of five. Parallel imaging with an acceleration factor of two is feasible with low g‐factors. Possible interactions between TMS and the novel hardware were investigated and were found negligible. Conclusion The novel coil array is safe, strongly improves signal‐to‐noise ratio in concurrent TMS/fMRI experiments, enables parallel imaging, and allows for flexible positioning of the TMS on the head while ensuring efficient TMS stimulation due to its ultraslim design. Magn Reson Med 74:1492–1501, 2015. © 2014 The Authors. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. PMID:25421603

  12. Experiment on signal filter combinations for the analysis of information from inertial measurement units in AOCS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pontuschka, Maurício N.; da Fonseca, Ijar M.; Melo, Marco A. A.

    2015-10-01

    The FDIR software subsystem may be part of the attitude and orbit control subsystem, AOCS. The AOCS quite often includes inertial navigation sensors being physically implemented by accelerometers and gyroscopes which provide electrical signals to the AOCS on-board software (OBSW) which, in its turn, generates the commands to the control actuators. In general, hardware like sensors and actuators present nonlinearities which sometimes make it difficult to properly interpret the output signals. In the scenario of space applications, filters are used to eliminate noise and to increase the reliability for the correct interpretation of those signals. In this paper we present a collection of filters used in inertial navigation subsystems enabling the fusion of data from sensors. Fundamentally, the filters are composed of the Kalman filter in its derivations. The filters can be used for state estimation of a system as well as for noise filtering. In this work the filters are configured with respect to their different orders of execution, their sampling rate, and their cutting-off frequency. The filter configurations can be changed by software so as to allow a flexible structure that can be adjusted for the best quality of output signal and consequently the best analysis of the satellite behaviour. The main purpose of this paper is to test the algorithm that combines several signal filters considered in this study. To accomplish this goal we developed an experiment encompassing an accelerometer and a wireless communication system so as to provide input signals to be filtered by the filtering algorithm.

  13. SUPERCONDUCTING COMBINED FUNCTION MAGNET SYSTEM FOR J-PARC NEUTRINO EXPERIMENT.

    SciTech Connect

    OGITSU, T.; AJIMA, Y.; ANERELLA, M.; ESCALLIER, J.; GANETIS, G.; GUPTA, R.; HAGEDOM, D.; HARRISON, M.; HIGASHI, N.; IWAMOTO, Y.; ICHIKAWA, A.; JAIN, A.; KIMURA, N.; KOBAYASHI, T.; MAKIDA, Y.; MURATORE, J.; NAKAMOTO, T.; OHHATA, H.; TAKASAKI, N.; TANAKA, K.; TERASHIMA, A.; YAMOMOTO, A.; OBANA, T.; PARKER, B.; WANDERER, P.

    2004-10-03

    The J-PARC Neutrino Experiment, the construction of which starts in JFY 2004, will use a superconducting magnet system for its primary proton beam line. The system, which bends the 50 GeV 0.75 MW proton beam by about 80 degrees, consists of 28 superconducting combined function magnets. The magnets utilize single layer left/right asymmetric coils that generate a dipole field of 2.6 T and a quadrupole field of 18.6 T/m with the operation current of about 7.35 kA. The system also contains a few conduction cooled superconducting corrector magnets that serve as vertical and horizontal steering magnets. All the magnets are designed to provide a physical beam aperture of 130 mm in order to achieve a large beam acceptance. Extensive care is also required to achieve safe operation with the high power proton beam. The paper summarizes the system design as well as some safety analysis results.

  14. Combined laparoscopic and transanal total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer: Initial experience and early results

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, Morten Holt; Ovesen, Henrik; Eriksen, Jens Ravn

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Incomplete specimens resulting in residual mesorectum in the patient and an increased risk of local recurrence remains a problem. We have introduced transanal-total mesorectal excision (Ta-TME) in our department to potentially overcome this problem due to more direct access to the lower pelvis in patients undergoing TME for rectal cancer and this article presents our initial experience with the new procedure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with a T1-T3 mid or low rectal cancer eligible for TME or intersphincteric abdominoperineal excision were selected for a combined transanal and transabdominal laparoscopic resection. The primary aim of the study was to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of the method with a special focus on the quality of the specimen. RESULTS: During a 9-month period, 11 patients were operated with this technique. All procedures resulted in complete or nearly complete specimen. We did, however, find the procedure technically demanding and experienced several complications with three anastomotic leaks (all with preserved intestinal continuity) and a urethral lesion. CONCLUSION: Ta-TME is feasible and might be the answer to obtaining good quality specimens and overcome some of the technical difficulties that can be encountered in the obese narrow male pelvis. The procedure however is technically demanding. PMID:28281474

  15. Designing Effective Research Experiences for Undergraduates (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones Whyte, P.; Dalbotten, D. M.

    2009-12-01

    The undergraduate research experience has been recognized as a valuable component of preparation for graduate study. As competition for spaces in graduate schools become more keen students benefit from a formal introduction to the life of a scholar. Over the last twenty years a model of preparing students for graduate study with the research experience as the base has been refined at the University of Minnesota. The experience includes assignment with a faculty member and a series of seminars that support the experience. The seminars cover topics to include academic writing, scholarly literature review, writing of the abstract, research subject protection protocols, GRE test preparation, opportunities to interact with graduate student, preparing the graduate school application, and preparation of a poster to demonstrate the results of the research. The next phase of the process is to determine the role of the undergraduate research experience in the graduate school admission process.

  16. Effects of Combined Rocuronium and Cisatracurium in Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Park, Woo Young; Lee, Kwang Ho; Lee, Young Bok; Kim, Myeong Hoon; Lim, Hyun Kyo; Choi, Jong Bum

    2017-01-01

    Background Laparoscopic upper abdominal surgery can cause spontaneous respiration due to diaphragmatic stimulation and intra-abdominal CO2 inflation. Therefore, sufficient muscle relaxation is necessary for a safe surgical environment. Methods We investigated if the combination of rocuronium and cisatracurium can counteract the delayed onset of cisatracurium’s action and delayed recovery of muscle relaxation and whether the dosage of rocuronium, which is metabolized hepatically, can be reduced. A total of 75 patients scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy with an American Society of Anesthesiology physical status I-II, in the age range of 20–60 years, and with a 20–30 kg/m2 body mass index were included in the study. Results The patients were divided into the following groups: combination group (Group RC, rocuronium 0.3 mg/kg and cisatracurium 0.05 mg/kg), rocuronium group (Group R, rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg), and cisatracurium group (Group C, cisatracurium 0.1 mg/kg), and the onset, 25% duration, recovery index, and addition/time ratio were measured. Patients in Group RC exhibited a significantly different addition/time ratio compared with patients in the other two groups (p = 0.003). Conclusion During laparoscopic cholecystectomy, the 95% effective dose of rocuronium in combination with cisatracurium is expected to provide a sufficient muscle relaxant effect. PMID:28261559

  17. The combined effects of atrazine and lead (Pb): relative microbial activities and herbicide dissipation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qinglin; Wang, Hui; Yang, Baoshan; He, Fei

    2014-04-01

    The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of single and combined pollution from different concentrations of atrazine (field rate, FR, 2.0 mg kg(-1) and 5 times FR, 10 mg kg(-1)) and lead (Pb) (300 mg kg(-1) and 600 mg kg(-1)) on enzyme activity, basal soil respiration (BSR), and net nitrogen (N) mineralization (NNM) in soil after exposure for 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. In addition, residual atrazine was measured in the samples of combined contamination. Results showed that the notable effects of either or both contaminants on the microbial activity and biological processes. Enzyme activity data demonstrated that the order of sensitivity to contamination was urease>invertase>catalase. BSR was strongly stimulated by atrazine/Pb at the early exposure (0-7 days for single contaminant and 7-14 days for combined contaminants). The stimulation effects on BSR were higher at low concentrations of the contamination (FR and Pb300). The combined treatments of 5FR+Pb600 inhibit BSR and NNM. Overall, the parameters associated with N cycling (urease and NNM) were more sensitive than others. Both Pb concentrations (300 and 600 mg/kg) had little influence on the dissipation of high concentrations of atrazine (5FR) during the 28-day-incubation. This study has provided useful information on potential ecotoxicology effects of combined contamination of atrazine and Pb on relative microbial biological process.

  18. Strength in numbers: Combining neck vibration and prism adaptation produces additive therapeutic effects in unilateral neglect

    PubMed Central

    Saevarsson, Styrmir; Kristjánsson, Árni; Halsband, Ulrike

    2010-01-01

    Unilateral neglect is a multifaceted disorder. Many authors have, for this reason, speculated that the best treatment for neglect will involve combinations of different therapeutic techniques. Two well known interventions, neck vibration (NV) and prism adaptation (PA), have often been considered to be among the most effective treatments for neglect. Here, two experiments were performed to explore possible additive benefits when these interventions are used in combination to treat chronic neglect. Both experimental groups received NV for 20 minutes, while the second group received simultaneous PA. The effects of treatment were measured with a time-restricted and feedback-based visual search task, which has previously been found to abolish the beneficial effects of PA, and with standard neglect tests. Baseline and intervention measures were performed on separate days. Findings for both groups indicated improved visual search following intervention, but the patients that underwent the combined intervention (NVPA) showed clear improvements on visual search based paper and pencil neglect tests unlike the NV-only group. Overall, our results suggest that PA strengthens the effects of NV and that feedback-based tasks do not abolish beneficial effects of PA, when NV is applied simultaneously. The results support the view that the most effective treatment for neglect will involve the combination of different treatments. PMID:20503132

  19. Combining solvent isotope effects with substrate isotope effects in mechanistic studies of alcohol and amine oxidation by enzymes.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Paul F

    2015-11-01

    Oxidation of alcohols and amines is catalyzed by multiple families of flavin- and pyridine nucleotide-dependent enzymes. Measurement of solvent isotope effects provides a unique mechanistic probe of the timing of the cleavage of the OH and NH bonds, necessary information for a complete description of the catalytic mechanism. The inherent ambiguities in interpretation of solvent isotope effects can be significantly decreased if isotope effects arising from isotopically labeled substrates are measured in combination with solvent isotope effects. The application of combined solvent and substrate (mainly deuterium) isotope effects to multiple enzymes is described here to illustrate the range of mechanistic insights that such an approach can provide. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Enzyme Transition States from Theory and Experiment.

  20. Discovery of multiple hidden allosteric sites by combining Markov state models and experiments.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Gregory R; Bolin, Eric R; Hart, Kathryn M; Maguire, Brendan C; Marqusee, Susan

    2015-03-03

    The discovery of drug-like molecules that bind pockets in proteins that are not present in crystallographic structures yet exert allosteric control over activity has generated great interest in designing pharmaceuticals that exploit allosteric effects. However, there have only been a small number of successes, so the therapeutic potential of these pockets--called hidden allosteric sites--remains unclear. One challenge for assessing their utility is that rational drug design approaches require foreknowledge of the target site, but most hidden allosteric sites are only discovered when a small molecule is found to stabilize them. We present a means of decoupling the identification of hidden allosteric sites from the discovery of drugs that bind them by drawing on new developments in Markov state modeling that provide unprecedented access to microsecond- to millisecond-timescale fluctuations of a protein's structure. Visualizing these fluctuations allows us to identify potential hidden allosteric sites, which we then test via thiol labeling experiments. Application of these methods reveals multiple hidden allosteric sites in an important antibiotic target--TEM-1 β-lactamase. This result supports the hypothesis that there are many as yet undiscovered hidden allosteric sites and suggests our methodology can identify such sites, providing a starting point for future drug design efforts. More generally, our results demonstrate the power of using Markov state models to guide experiments.

  1. Combined effect of sulfur dioxide and cold in exercising asthmatics.

    PubMed

    Linn, W S; Shamoo, D A; Vinet, T G; Spier, C E; Valencia, L M; Anzar, U T; Hackney, J D

    1984-01-01

    Twenty-four asthmatic volunteers were exposed to 0, 0.3, and 0.6 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO2) in purified background air at each of three temperatures--21 degrees, 7 degrees, and -6 degrees C--in a controlled-environment chamber. Relative humidity was approximately 80%. Exposures consisted of 5 min heavy exercise periods plus brief warmup and cooldown periods. Airway resistance, thoracic gas volume, and symptoms were measured immediately before and after exposure. For the group, increasing SO2 concentration and decreasing temperature were associated with statistically significant unfavorable effects on airway resistance and respiratory symptoms, as expected from previous findings. Effects of SO2 and cold usually appeared to combine in an additive or less-than-additive fashion; there was little evidence of synergism. Individuals' response patterns were variable: a few suggested synergism, but others suggested a mitigating effect of cold on the bronchoconstrictive response to SO2.

  2. Combining lived experience with the facilitation of enquiry-based learning: a 'trigger' for transformative learning.

    PubMed

    Stacey, G; Oxley, R; Aubeeluck, A

    2015-09-01

    What is known on the subject The values underpinning recovery-orientated practice are recited in the literature and influential in the content of mental health nurse education internationally. However, scepticism exists regarding the degree to which students' assimilate the principles of recovery into their practice due to the troublesome and challenging nature of learning at a transformational level, also known as threshold concept learning. Evaluation suggests that this combination of educational approaches positively influences students' prior understandings, beliefs and values in relation to the prospect for people with significant mental health problems to recover. The components of threshold concepts are useful as a deductive framework for the evaluation of educational initiatives which attempt to initiate transformative learning. While this forum clearly holds significant potential for student development, support and preparation is needed for both the student and the facilitator in order to enable the possibility of learning which influences attitudes, beliefs and practice. The aim of this paper is to discuss the potential for combining lived experience of mental distress with the facilitation of enquiry-based learning (EBL) to act as a trigger for transformative learning in the context of promoting the understanding of mental health 'recovery' in nurse education.The values underpinning recovery-orientated practice are recited in the literature and influential in mental health nurse education internationally. However, scepticism exists regarding the degree to which students assimilate into their practice. An open-ended was distributed to a cohort of pre-registration nursing students receiving the co-facilitated EBL (n = 112). Data demonstrated how the specific attributes of this educational approach were identified by students as impacting positively on ill-informed preconceptions, understanding of complex theory and their future practice. Results were

  3. A Framework for Successful Research Experiences in the Classroom: Combining the Power of Technology and Mentors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, Paige Valderrama; Stefanov, William L.; Willis, Kim; Runco, Susan; McCollum, Tim; Lindgren, Charles F.; Baker, Marshalyn; Mailhot, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Authentic research opportunities in the classroom are most impactful when they are student-driven and inquiry-based. These experiences are even more powerful when they involve technology and meaningful connections with scientists. In today's classrooms, activities are driven by state required skills, education standards, and state mandated testing. Therefore, programs that incorporate authentic research must address the needs of teachers. NASA's Expedition Earth and Beyond (EEAB) Program has developed a framework that addresses teacher needs and incorporates the use of technology and access to mentors to promote and enhance authentic research in the classroom. EEAB is a student involvement program that facilitates student investigations of Earth or planetary comparisons using NASA data. To promote student-led research, EEAB provides standards-aligned, inquiry-based curricular resources, an implementation structure to facilitate research, educator professional development, and ongoing support. This framework also provides teachers with the option to incorporate the use of technology and connect students with a mentor, both of which can enrich student research experiences. The framework is structured by a modeled 9-step process of science which helps students organize their research. With more schools gaining increased access to technology, EEAB has created an option to help schools take advantage of students' interest and comfort with technology by leveraging the use of available technologies to enhance student research. The use of technology not only allows students to collaborate and share their research, it also provides a mechanism for them to work with a mentor. This framework was tested during the 2010/2011 school year. Team workspaces hosted on Wikispaces for Educators allow students to initiate their research and refine their research question initially without external input. This allows teams to work independently and rely on the skills and interests of

  4. A Framework for Successful Research Experiences in the Classroom: Combining the Power of Technology and Mentors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graff, P. V.; Stefanov, W. L.; Willis, K.; Runco, S.; McCollum, T.; Lindgren, C. F.; Baker, M.; Mailhot, M.

    2011-12-01

    Authentic research opportunities in the classroom are most impactful when they are student-driven and inquiry-based. These experiences are even more powerful when they involve technology and meaningful connections with scientists. In today's classrooms, activities are driven by state required skills, education standards, and state mandated testing. Therefore, programs that incorporate authentic research must address the needs of teachers. NASA's Expedition Earth and Beyond (EEAB) Program has developed a framework that addresses teacher needs and incorporates the use of technology and access to mentors to promote and enhance authentic research in the classroom. EEAB is a student involvement program that facilitates student investigations of Earth or planetary comparisons using NASA data. To promote student-led research, EEAB provides standards-aligned, inquiry-based curricular resources, an implementation structure to facilitate research, educator professional development, and ongoing support. This framework also provides teachers with the option to incorporate the use of technology and connect students with a mentor, both of which can enrich student research experiences. The framework is structured by a modeled 9-step process of science which helps students organize their research. With more schools gaining increased access to technology, EEAB has created an option to help schools take advantage of students' interest and comfort with technology by leveraging the use of available technologies to enhance student research. The use of technology not only allows students to collaborate and share their research, it also provides a mechanism for them to work with a mentor. This framework was tested during the 2010/2011 school year. Team workspaces hosted on Wikispaces for Educators allow students to initiate their research and refine their research question initially without external input. This allows teams to work independently and rely on the skills and interests of

  5. Far-Ir Spectroscopy of Neutral Gas Phase Peptides: Signatures from Combined Experiments and Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahé, Jérôme; Gaigeot, Marie-Pierre; Bakker, Daniël; Jaeqx, Sander; Rijs, Anouk

    2016-06-01

    Within the past two decades, action vibrational spectroscopy has become an almost routine experimental method to probe the structures of molecules and clusters in the gas phase (neutral and ions). Such experiments are mainly performed in the 1000-4000 wn fingerprint regions. Though successful in many respects, these spectral domains can be however restrictive in the information provided, and sometimes reach limitations for unravelling structures without ambiguity. In a collaborative work with the group of Dr A.M. Rijs (FELIX laboratory, Radbout University, The Netherlands) we have launched a new strategy where the far-IR/Tera-Hertz domain (100-800 wn domain) is experimentally probed for neutral gas phase molecules. Our group in Paris apply finite temperature DFT-based molecular dynamics (DFT-MD) simulations in order to unravel the complex signatures arising in the far-IR domain, and provide an unambiguous assignment both of the structural conformation of the gas phase molecules (taking into account the experimental conditions) and an understanding of the spectral signatures/fingerprints. We will discuss our experimental and theoretical investigations on two neutral peptides in the 100-800 wn far-IR spectral domain, i.e. Z-Ala6 and PheGly dipeptide, that represent two systems which definitive conformational assignment was not possible without the far IR signatures. We will also present our very recent results on the Phe-X peptide series, where X stands for Gly, Ala, Pro, Val, Ser, Cys, combining experiments and DFT-MD simulations, providing a detailed understanding of the vibrational fingerprints in the far-IR domain. In all exemples, we will show how DFT-MD simulations is the proper theoretical tool to account for vibrational anharmonicities and mode couplings, of prime importance in the far-IR domain. References : J. Mahé, S. Jaeqx, A.M. Rijs, M.P. Gaigeot, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 17 :25905 (2015) S. Jaeqx, J. Oomens, A. Cimas, M.P. Gaigeot, A.M. Rijs, Angew

  6. Effective Control of Molds Using a Combination of Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Auyeung, Ariana; Casillas-Santana, Miguel Ángel; Martínez-Castañón, Gabriel Alejandro; Slavin, Yael N; Zhao, Wayne; Asnis, Jason; Häfeli, Urs O; Bach, Horacio

    2017-01-01

    Molds are filamentous fungi able to grow on a variety of surfaces, including constructed surfaces, food, rotten organic matter, and humid places. Mold growth is characterized by having an unpleasant odor in enclosed or non-ventilated places and a non-aesthetic appearance. They represent a health concern because of their ability to produce and release mycotoxins, compounds that are toxic to animals and humans. The aim of this study was to evaluate commercial nanoparticles (NPs) that can be used as an additive in coatings and paints to effectively control the growth of harmful molds. Four different NPs were screened for their antifungal activities against the mycotoxin producing mold strains Aspergillus flavus and A. fumigatus. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of the NPs were determined in broth media, whereas an agar diffusion test was used to assess the antimold activity on acrylic- and water-based paints. The cytotoxic activity and the inflammatory response of the NPs were also evaluated using the established human derived macrophage cell line THP-1. Results showed that a combination of mix metallic- and ZnO-NPs (50:10 μg/mL) effectively inhibited the fungal growth when exposed to fluorescent light. Neither cytotoxic effect nor inflammatory responses were recorded, suggesting that this combination can be safely used in humid or non-ventilated environments without any health concerns.

  7. Effective Control of Molds Using a Combination of Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Castañón, Gabriel Alejandro; Slavin, Yael N.; Zhao, Wayne; Asnis, Jason; Häfeli, Urs O.

    2017-01-01

    Molds are filamentous fungi able to grow on a variety of surfaces, including constructed surfaces, food, rotten organic matter, and humid places. Mold growth is characterized by having an unpleasant odor in enclosed or non-ventilated places and a non-aesthetic appearance. They represent a health concern because of their ability to produce and release mycotoxins, compounds that are toxic to animals and humans. The aim of this study was to evaluate commercial nanoparticles (NPs) that can be used as an additive in coatings and paints to effectively control the growth of harmful molds. Four different NPs were screened for their antifungal activities against the mycotoxin producing mold strains Aspergillus flavus and A. fumigatus. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of the NPs were determined in broth media, whereas an agar diffusion test was used to assess the antimold activity on acrylic- and water-based paints. The cytotoxic activity and the inflammatory response of the NPs were also evaluated using the established human derived macrophage cell line THP-1. Results showed that a combination of mix metallic- and ZnO-NPs (50:10 μg/mL) effectively inhibited the fungal growth when exposed to fluorescent light. Neither cytotoxic effect nor inflammatory responses were recorded, suggesting that this combination can be safely used in humid or non-ventilated environments without any health concerns. PMID:28122038

  8. Cardanol: toxicogenetic assessment and its effects when combined with cyclophosphamide

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Beatriz Ursinos Catelan; Meza, Alisson; Beatriz, Adilson; Pesarini, João Renato; de Carvalho, Pamela Castilho; Mauro, Mariana de Oliveira; Karaziack, Caroline Bilhar; Cunha-Laura, Andréa Luiza; Monreal, Antônio Carlos Duenhas; Matuo, Renata; de Lima, Dênis Pires; Oliveira, Rodrigo Juliano

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cardanol is an effective antioxidant and is a compound with antimutagenic and antitumoral activity. Here, we evaluated the genotoxic and mutagenic potential of saturated side chain cardanol and its effects in combination with cyclophosphamide in preventing DNA damage, apoptosis, and immunomodulation. Swiss mice were treated with cardanol (2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg) alone or in combination with cyclophosphamide (100 mg/kg). The results showed that cardanol is an effective chemopreventive compound, with damage reduction percentages that ranged from 18.9 to 31.76% in the comet assay and from 45 to 97% in the micronucleus assay. Moreover, cardanol has the ability to reduce the frequency of apoptosis induced by cyclophosphamide. The compound did not show immunomodulatory activity. A final interpretation of the data showed that, despite its chemoprotective capacity, cardanol has a tendency to induce DNA damage. Hence, caution is needed if this compound is used as a chemopreventive agent. Also, this compound is likely not suitable as an adjuvant in chemotherapy treatments that use cyclophosphamide. PMID:27303909

  9. Antihyperlipidemic effects of Citrus sinensis, Citrus paradisi, and their combinations

    PubMed Central

    Mallick, Neelam; Khan, Rafeeq Alam

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Hyperlipidemia, extensively contributes in the progression of coronary heart diseases and atherosclerosis, but may be managed through alterations in the nutritional pattern. Several studies show that diet rich in polyphenols and antioxidants have antiatherogenic effects. Citrus sinensis and Citrus paradisi are widely known for health benefits and have found to produce antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic effects, hence current research was planned to determine the hypolipidemic effects of C. sinensis and C. paradisi in rats receiving diet rich in cholesterol. Materials and Methods: All rats were divided into 11 groups each comprising 10 animals: Normal control group and hyperlipidemic control. C. sinensis treated three groups, C. paradisi treated three groups, C. sinensis and C. paradisi combination treated two groups, and group treated atorvastatin. All rats in the respective groups were treated orally with sterile water, juices, and standard drug for 8 weeks and lipid profile was estimated at the end of dosing. Results: Cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were decreased at all the three doses of C. sinensis and C. paradisi but rise in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) was only significant at 8 ml/kg, and 0.3 ml/kg, respectively. Animals received the combination doses of C. sinensis and C. paradisi also showed a highly significant fall in cholesterol, LDL, and TGs, however HDL level was significantly elevated by SPJ-2 combination. Conclusion: Results suggest that C. sinensis and C. paradisi possess antihyperlipidemic activity due to phytochemicals and other essential nutrients, hence may serve as cardioprotective by preventing thrombosis. PMID:27134462

  10. The development of a combined effects space simulation facility

    SciTech Connect

    Maldonado, Carlos A.; Lilly, Taylor C.; Ketsdever, Andrew D.

    2012-11-27

    An overview of the development of a facility to study the combined effects of the space environment on spacecraft is presented. The characterization of a magnetic filter plasma source and a low energy electron flood source for the simulation of the low Earth orbit plasma environment is discussed. Plasma diagnostics show that the magnetic filter plasma source provides streaming ion energies of approximately 5eV and can supply the appropriate density for LEO simulation. Additionally the low energy flood gun is shown to provide the appropriate density for LEO simulation as a function of altitude and solar activity.

  11. Cannabis Problem Experiences Among Users of the Tobacco-Cannabis Combination Known As Blunts

    PubMed Central

    Fairman, Brian J.

    2015-01-01

    Background In most of the world, cannabis smokers mix loose tobacco inside a joint, pipe, spliff, or cone. More recently, a ‘blunt’ formulation combines these two drugs by inserting cannabis into a hollowed-out cigar. Epidemiological research linking simultaneous use of these two drugs and the development of cannabis use disorders (CUD) remains unclear. This study estimates associations linking blunt smoking with levels and subtypes of cannabis problems. Methods Cross-sectional data on 27,767 past-year cannabis users were analyzed from the US National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) conducted from 2009–2012. Ten self-reported items of DSM-IV CUD features elicited a single latent trait of cannabis problem (CP) severity, which was then regressed on past-year blunt smoking and past-month blunt frequency measures within the context of a conceptual model. Differential item functioning (DIF) analysis evaluated potential bias in CP feature response by blunt smoking history. Results Past-year blunt smoking was associated with higher CP severity compared to cannabis users who did not smoke blunts. Days of blunt smoking in the past month also predicted higher CP severity than less frequent blunt use. Those smoking blunts experienced more subjectively felt tolerance and having spent more time obtaining or using cannabis, but were less likely to experience other problems, even at the same level of CP severity. Conclusions These findings suggest smoking blunts might promote the development of problematic cannabis use. Responses to cannabis problems differed by history of blunt smoking, possibly implicating an influence of tobacco on measurement of cannabis use disorders. PMID:25746234

  12. Space Weathering of airless bodies in the Solar System - Combining hypervelocity dust impacts with energetic irradiation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiege, K.; Bennett, C.; Guglielmino, M.; Orlando, T. M.; Trieloff, M.; Srama, R.

    2015-12-01

    The chemical and mineralogical characterization of meteorites and their parent asteroids provides us with information about the processes and conditions during the formation of the inner Solar System. However, linking meteorites to their parent bodies is problematic. Astronomical observations aim to reconstruct the surface properties of these bodies primarily by visible and infrared spectra, but space weathering severely modifies the optical, compositional and physical properties of thin surface layers and thus precludes proper identification of chemistry and mineralogy. The effects of space weathering have been experimentally studied mainly with respect to ion bombardment and sputtering. Other studies aimed to simulate the influence of micrometeoroid bombardment by using laser ablation techniques. However, there is sufficient evidence that laser ablation does not realistically lead to the same effects as produced during real micrometeorite impacts. We performed micrometeorite bombardment using a 2MV dust accelerator at the Institute for Space Systems at University of Stuttgart, Germany, capable of generating impact speeds up to 100 km s-1. These results are combined with energetic irradiation experiments at the Electron and Photon Induced Chemistry on Surfaces (EPICS) laboratory at Georgia Institute of Technology, USA. By simulating highly realistic irradiation conditions, we are able to investigate the processes of particle and solar wind irradiation on solid planetary surfaces and study the formation of e.g., nanophase iron in minerals, the effects on hydrous minerals regarding their volatile budgets, or possible OH-formation in nominally anhydrous minerals and relate these to their optical properties. Using a variety of minerals, this work aims to contribute to a better understanding of the general alteration mechanisms in space environments in dependence of weathering agent and available material. We here present the results of initial comparison analysis and

  13. Combination antitumor effect with central nervous system depressants on rat ascites hepatomas.

    PubMed

    Koshiura, R; Miyamoto, K; Sanae, F

    1980-02-01

    Combined effect of twenty-one central nervous system depressants with several antitumor agents was studied in the in vitro and in vivo experimental systems, using rat ascites hepatoma call lines, AH13 and AH44, sensitive and insensitive to alkylating agents, respectively. Reserpine remarkably enhanced the cytotoxic effect of 1-(gamma-chloropropyl)-2-chloromethylpiperidine hydrobromide (CAP-2) both on AH13 and AH44 cells. In the in vivo combined experiments, reserpine also synergistically enhanced the life-prolonging effect of CAP-2 on AH13-bearing rats and, although CAP-2 was not potent on the prolongation of life span of AH44-bearing rats and reserpine was also ineffective at the doses examined, the life span of tumor-bearing rats receiving the combined administration was apparently prolonged compared with control groups. Thus, there was a parallelism between in vitro and in vivo experiments. These findings suggested that the antitumor-enhancing effect of reserpine might be due to the direct action on the tumor cells, and a possible mechanism that reserpine inhibited the DNA damage-repairing activity of the cells was contradictory. Other mechanisms are also discussed.

  14. Effects of combined phytochemicals on skin tumorigenesis in SENCAR mice

    PubMed Central

    KOWALCZYK, MAGDALENA C.; JUNCO, JACOB J.; KOWALCZYK, PIOTR; TOLSTYKH, OLGA; HANAUSEK, MARGARET; SLAGA, THOMAS J.; WALASZEK, ZBIGNIEW

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine the effect of the combined action of phytochemicals on the early stages of skin tumorigenesis, i.e. initiation and promotion. We tested calcium D-glucarate (CG) given in the diet, while resveratrol (RES) and ursolic acid (UA) were applied topically. The 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-initiated, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-promoted multistage skin carcinogenesis model in SENCAR mice was used. Mice received one topical dose of DMBA, then after one month, two weekly doses of TPA for 14 weeks until sacrifice. RES or UA were applied 20 min prior to DMBA or TPA treatment and 2% dietary CG was given from 2 weeks prior to 2 weeks after the DMBA dose or continually beginning 2 weeks prior to the first dose of TPA. UA applied alone and in combination with CG during the promotion stage was the only inhibitor of tumor multiplicity and tumor incidence. A number of combinations reduced epidermal proliferation, but only UA and the combination UA+CG applied during promotion significantly reduced epidermal hyperplasia. DMBA/TPA application resulted in significant increases in c-jun and p50, which were reversed by a number of different treatments. DMBA/TPA treatment also strongly increased mRNA levels of inflammation markers COX-2 and IL-6. All anti-promotion treatments caused a marked decrease in COX-2 and IL-6 expression compared to the DMBA/TPA control. These results show that UA is a potent inhibitor of skin tumor promotion and inflammatory signaling and it may be useful in the prevention of skin cancer and other epithelial cancers in humans. PMID:23835587

  15. Effects of combined phytochemicals on skin tumorigenesis in SENCAR mice.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, Magdalena C; Junco, Jacob J; Kowalczyk, Piotr; Tolstykh, Olga; Hanausek, Margaret; Slaga, Thomas J; Walaszek, Zbigniew

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine the effect of the combined action of phytochemicals on the early stages of skin tumorigenesis, i.e. initiation and promotion. We tested calcium D-glucarate (CG) given in the diet, while resveratrol (RES) and ursolic acid (UA) were applied topically. The 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-initiated, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-promoted multistage skin carcinogenesis model in SENCAR mice was used. Mice received one topical dose of DMBA, then after one month, two weekly doses of TPA for 14 weeks until sacrifice. RES or UA were applied 20 min prior to DMBA or TPA treatment and 2% dietary CG was given from 2 weeks prior to 2 weeks after the DMBA dose or continually beginning 2 weeks prior to the first dose of TPA. UA applied alone and in combination with CG during the promotion stage was the only inhibitor of tumor multiplicity and tumor incidence. A number of combinations reduced epidermal proliferation, but only UA and the combination UA+CG applied during promotion significantly reduced epidermal hyperplasia. DMBA/TPA application resulted in significant increases in c-jun and p50, which were reversed by a number of different treatments. DMBA/TPA treatment also strongly increased mRNA levels of inflammation markers COX-2 and IL-6. All anti-promotion treatments caused a marked decrease in COX-2 and IL-6 expression compared to the DMBA/TPA control. These results show that UA is a potent inhibitor of skin tumor promotion and inflammatory signaling and it may be useful in the prevention of skin cancer and other epithelial cancers in humans.

  16. Effects of personal experience on self-protective behavior.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, N D

    1989-01-01

    This article seeks to further our understanding of self-protective behavior by examining the effects of a particularly powerful stimulus to action: personal experience. It reviews the effects of automobile accidents on seat belt use, criminal victimization other than rape on individual crime prevention efforts, natural hazards experience on both natural hazards preparedness and compliance with evacuation warnings, and myocardial infarction on smoking. Theories suggesting mechanisms that could link personal experience to behavior are described, and data concerning the effects of experience on some key variables in these theories are discussed. Tentative propositions are offered to resolve the many apparent discrepancies in this literature. These propositions concern the effects of experience on risk perceptions, the influence of experience on risk salience, the specificity of responses to victimization, and the duration of experience effects.

  17. Effect of combining soil solarization with certain nematicides on target and nontarget organisms and plant growth.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, J J; Lear, B; Devay, J E

    1987-10-01

    Field experiments compared pesticidal and plant growth effects of soil solarization, alone and in combination, with overall applications of several nematicides. Nematodes, including Meloidogyne incognita J2, that were targeted for control were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) by solarization, 1,3-dichloropropene (44 and 132 liter/ha), ethoprop (13.5 kg/ha), metham sodium (64 liter/ha), formaldehyde (111 liter/ha), and by solarization-nematicide combinations. Control of Pythium ultimum also was obtained by all of the treatments; however, none of the chemicals or combinations of chemicals and solarization controlled nematodes or P. ultimum significantly better than solarization alone. Numbers of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum cv. Acala SJ-2) seed-applied Trichoderma viride and Bacillus subtilis which colonized the plant rhizosphere were not affected. Yield of carrot and survival of cotton seedlings was sometimes increased by solarization and (or) chemical treatments. No significant phytotoxicity from soil treatments was found on cotton or carrot.

  18. Effective Teamwork: The EVA NBL Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crocker, Lori

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the experience of improving the operation of the ExtraVehiclar Activity (EVA) Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory as a team of NASA employees and contractors. It reviews specific recommendations to use in turning a struggling organization around as a NASA/contractor team

  19. Developing Effective Extension Agents: Experience Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goddu, Roland

    This paper is a description of the requirements placed on persons selected to fill the role of extension agents for the purpose of penetrating an educational environment, installing change in an educational organization, and completing tasks as a resource outside of the education establishment. These experience concerns are summarized by…

  20. Characteristics of Effective Clinical Teachers in Simulated Clinical Experiences Compared to Traditional Clinical Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sieh-Bliss, Selina

    2014-01-01

    While there is evidence in the literature measuring effective clinical teacher characteristics in traditional experiences, little is known of effective characteristics expected from clinical teachers during simulated clinical experiences. This study examined which clinical teaching behaviors and characteristics are perceived by nursing students'…

  1. Sofosbuvir and Simeprevir Combination Therapy for HCV Genotype 1 Infection: Results of a Single-Center VA Experience.

    PubMed

    Sclair, Seth N; Hernandez, Maria Del Pilar; Vance, Evan; Gilinski, Dani; Youtseff, Helen; Toro, Maribel; Antoine, Marie; Jeffers, Lennox J; Peyton, Adam

    2016-08-01

    Treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remains a priority in the veterans affairs (VA) health care system nationwide, as there is a high burden of liver disease due to HCV infection among US veterans. The combination of sofosbuvir and simeprevir was the first all-oral antiviral regimen used in clinical practice to treat veterans with HCV infection. In this study, we report a single-center experience showing both the feasibility and effectiveness of this all-oral combination to treat HCV genotype 1 infection. One hundred patients with HCV genotype 1 infection were treated between December 2013 and June 2014. Eighty-six patients were treated with sofosbuvir and simeprevir, with or without ribavirin, for 12 weeks; 12 patients were treated with sofosbuvir, pegylated interferon, and ribavirin for 12 weeks; and 2 patients were treated with sofosbuvir and ribavirin for 24 weeks. Overall, treatment was well tolerated and feasible, with compliance rates over 95% in patients treated with all-oral therapy. The sustained virologic response (SVR) rate for sofosbuvir and simeprevir (88.4%) was superior to the rate for sofosbuvir, pegylated interferon, and ribavirin (50.0%). Subgroup analysis showed diminished SVR rates in cirrhotic patients vs noncirrhotic patients. There were no significant differences in SVR when comparing treatment with or without ribavirin or among genotype subtypes. In conclusion, this study demonstrated excellent completion rates for all-oral treatment of veterans with chronic HCV infection. Additionally, treatment was highly effective, nearing a 90% cure rate. Thus, we recommend that the VA health care system continue to incorporate new HCV medications into its formulary so as to expand HCV treatment for US veterans.

  2. Sofosbuvir and Simeprevir Combination Therapy for HCV Genotype 1 Infection: Results of a Single-Center VA Experience

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Maria Del Pilar; Vance, Evan; Gilinski, Dani; Youtseff, Helen; Toro, Maribel; Antoine, Marie; Jeffers, Lennox J.; Peyton, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remains a priority in the veterans affairs (VA) health care system nationwide, as there is a high burden of liver disease due to HCV infection among US veterans. The combination of sofosbuvir and simeprevir was the first all-oral antiviral regimen used in clinical practice to treat veterans with HCV infection. In this study, we report a single-center experience showing both the feasibility and effectiveness of this all-oral combination to treat HCV genotype 1 infection. One hundred patients with HCV genotype 1 infection were treated between December 2013 and June 2014. Eighty-six patients were treated with sofosbuvir and simeprevir, with or without ribavirin, for 12 weeks; 12 patients were treated with sofosbuvir, pegylated interferon, and ribavirin for 12 weeks; and 2 patients were treated with sofosbuvir and ribavirin for 24 weeks. Overall, treatment was well tolerated and feasible, with compliance rates over 95% in patients treated with all-oral therapy. The sustained virologic response (SVR) rate for sofosbuvir and simeprevir (88.4%) was superior to the rate for sofosbuvir, pegylated interferon, and ribavirin (50.0%). Subgroup analysis showed diminished SVR rates in cirrhotic patients vs noncirrhotic patients. There were no significant differences in SVR when comparing treatment with or without ribavirin or among genotype subtypes. In conclusion, this study demonstrated excellent completion rates for all-oral treatment of veterans with chronic HCV infection. Additionally, treatment was highly effective, nearing a 90% cure rate. Thus, we recommend that the VA health care system continue to incorporate new HCV medications into its formulary so as to expand HCV treatment for US veterans. PMID:27917084

  3. Design of Biomass Gasification and Combined Heat and Power Plant Based on Laboratory Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haydary, Juma; Jelemenský, Ľudovít

    Three types of wooden biomass were characterized by calorimetric measurements, proximate and elemental analysis, thermogravimetry, kinetics of thermal decomposition and gas composition. Using the Aspen steady state simulation, a plant with the processing capacity of 18 ton/h of biomass was modelled based on the experimental data obtained under laboratory conditions. The gasification process has been modelled in two steps. The first step of the model describes the thermal decomposition of the biomass based on a kinetic model and in the second step, the equilibrium composition of syngas is calculated by the Gibbs free energy of the expected components. The computer model of the plant besides the reactor model includes also a simulation of other plant facilities such as: feed drying employing the energy from the process, ash and tar separation, gas-steam cycle, and hot water production heat exchangers. The effect of the steam to air ratio on the conversion, syngas composition, and reactor temperature was analyzed. Employment of oxygen and air for partial combustion was compared. The designed computer model using all Aspen simulation facilities can be applied to study different aspects of biomass gasification in a Combined Heat and Power plant.

  4. Potential effect of fiddler crabs on organic matter distribution: A combined laboratory and field experimental approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natálio, Luís F.; Pardo, Juan C. F.; Machado, Glauco B. O.; Fortuna, Monique D.; Gallo, Deborah G.; Costa, Tânia M.

    2017-01-01

    Bioturbators play a key role in estuarine environments by modifying the availability of soil elements, which in turn may affect other organisms. Despite the importance of bioturbators, few studies have combined both field and laboratory experiments to explore the effects of bioturbators on estuarine soils. Herein, we assessed the bioturbation potential of fiddler crabs Leptuca leptodactyla and Leptuca uruguayensis in laboratory and field experiments, respectively. We evaluated whether the presence of fiddler crabs resulted in vertical transport of sediment, thereby altering organic matter (OM) distribution. Under laboratory conditions, the burrowing activity by L. leptodactyla increased the OM content in sediment surface. In the long-term field experiment with areas of inclusion and exclusion of L. uruguayensis, we did not observe influence of this fiddler crab in the vertical distribution of OM. Based on our results, we suggest that small fiddler crabs, such as the species used in these experiments, are potentially capable of alter their environment by transporting sediment and OM but such effects may be masked by environmental drivers and spatial heterogeneity under natural conditions. This phenomenon may be related to the small size of these species, which affects how much sediment is transported, along with the way OM interacts with biogeochemical and physical processes. Therefore, the net effect of these burrowing organisms is likely to be the result of a complex interaction with other environmental factors. In this sense, we highlight the importance of performing simultaneous field and laboratory experiments in order to better understanding the role of burrowing animals as bioturbators.

  5. The Strategy of Combining Antidepressants in the Treatment of Major Depression: Clinical Experience in Spanish Outpatients

    PubMed Central

    Martín-López, Luis M.; Rojo, Jose E.; Gibert, Karina; Martín, Juan Carlos; Sperry, Lyli; Duñó, Lurdes; Bulbena, Antonio; Vallejo, Julio

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. The combination of antidepressants is a useful tool in the treatment of major depression, especially in cases where there is a partial response to antidepressant monotherapy. However, the use of this strategy is a matter of controversy, and its frequency of use in clinical practice is not clear. The aim of our study is to assess the use of antidepressants combination in Spain by reviewing three databases used between 1997 and 2001. Methods. Databases pertain to patients who are study subjects of major depression treatment. These databases are a result of studies performed in Spain and in which 550 psychiatrists participated. The total studied sample was comprised of N = 2, 842 patients, aged over 18, fitting DSM-IV criteria for Major Depressive Episode. The percentage of patients who received more than one antidepressant and the types of combinations used was described. Subsequently, a comparative study between the group which received a combination of antidepressants (N = 64) and the group which received antidepressant monotherapy (N = 775) was performed. Results. 27.1% of patients were on antidepressive monotherapy treatment, and 2.2% were on combination therapy. In the comparison of patients on combination therapy and monotherapy, there were significant differences only in episode duration (P = 0.001). The most frequent combinations are SSRIs and tricyclic antidepressants. The active principle most widely combined is fluoxetine. Conclusions. The prevalence of use of antidepressant combination therapy is 2.2% of the global sample and 8.3% of treated patients. Other than duration of the depressive episode, no clinical characteristics exclusive to patients who received combination rather than monotherapy were found. Our study found that the most frequent combination is SSRIs + TCAs, also being the most studied. PMID:21738865

  6. Synergistic DNA-damaging effect in multiple myeloma with the combination of zalypsis, bortezomib and dexamethasone.

    PubMed

    López-Iglesias, Ana-Alicia; González-Méndez, Lorena; San-Segundo, Laura; Herrero, Ana B; Hernández-García, Susana; Martín-Sánchez, Montserrat; Gutiérrez, Norma C; Paíno, Teresa; Avilés, Pablo; Mateos, María-Victoria; San-Miguel, Jesús F; Garayoa, Mercedes; Ocio, Enrique M

    2017-01-01

    Despite new advances in multiple myeloma treatment and the consequent improvement in overall survival, most patients relapse or become refractory to treatment. This suggests that new molecules and combinations that may further inhibit important survival pathways for these tumor cells are needed. In this context, zalypsis is a novel compound, derived from marine organisms, with a powerful preclinical anti-myeloma effect based on the sensitivity of malignant plasma cells to DNA-damage induction; and it has already been tested in a phase I/II clinical trial in multiple myeloma. We hypothesized that the addition of this compound to the combination of bortezomib plus dexamethasone may improve efficacy with acceptable toxicity. The triple combination demonstrated strong synergy and higher efficacy compared with double combinations; not only in vitro, but also ex vivo and, especially, in in vivo experiments. The triple combination triggers cell death, mainly through a synergistic induction of DNA damage and a decrease in the nuclear localization of nuclear factor kappa B. Our findings support the clinical evaluation of this combination for relapsed and refractory myeloma patients.

  7. Synergistic DNA-damaging effect in multiple myeloma with the combination of zalypsis, bortezomib and dexamethasone

    PubMed Central

    López-Iglesias, Ana-Alicia; González-Méndez, Lorena; San-Segundo, Laura; Herrero, Ana B.; Hernández-García, Susana; Martín-Sánchez, Montserrat; Gutiérrez, Norma C.; Paíno, Teresa; Avilés, Pablo; Mateos, María-Victoria; San-Miguel, Jesús F.; Garayoa, Mercedes; Ocio, Enrique M.

    2017-01-01

    Despite new advances in multiple myeloma treatment and the consequent improvement in overall survival, most patients relapse or become refractory to treatment. This suggests that new molecules and combinations that may further inhibit important survival pathways for these tumor cells are needed. In this context, zalypsis is a novel compound, derived from marine organisms, with a powerful preclinical anti-myeloma effect based on the sensitivity of malignant plasma cells to DNA-damage induction; and it has already been tested in a phase I/II clinical trial in multiple myeloma. We hypothesized that the addition of this compound to the combination of bortezomib plus dexamethasone may improve efficacy with acceptable toxicity. The triple combination demonstrated strong synergy and higher efficacy compared with double combinations; not only in vitro, but also ex vivo and, especially, in in vivo experiments. The triple combination triggers cell death, mainly through a synergistic induction of DNA damage and a decrease in the nuclear localization of nuclear factor kappa B. Our findings support the clinical evaluation of this combination for relapsed and refractory myeloma patients. PMID:27540138

  8. Effects of combined UV and chlorine treatment on chloroform formation from triclosan.

    PubMed

    Ben, Weiwei; Sun, Peizhe; Huang, Ching-Hua

    2016-05-01

    The co-exposure to UV irradiation and free chlorine may occur in certain drinking water and wastewater treatment systems. This study investigated the effects of simultaneous low pressure ultraviolet (LPUV) irradiation and free chlorination on the formation of chloroform from triclosan which is a commonly used antibacterial agent. Different treatment systems (i.e., combined UV/chlorine, UV alone, and chlorine alone) were applied to examine the degradation of triclosan and formation of chloroform. The fate of representative intermediates, including chlorinated triclosan, dechlorinated triclosan intermediates and 2,4-dichlorophenol, were tracked to deduce the effect of combined UV/chlorine on the transformation of chloroform formation precursors. The relation between intermediates degradation and chloroform formation was investigated in depth by conducting stepwise experiments with UV and chlorine in different sequences. Results indicate that the combined UV/chlorine notably enhanced the chloroform formation from triclosan. From the reaction mechanism perspective the combined UV/chlorine, where the direct photolysis may play an important role, could accelerate the decay of intermediates and facilitate the generation of productive chloroform precursors. The radicals had modest influence on the degradation of triclosan and intermediates and partly hindered the formation of chloroform. These results emphasize the necessity of considering disinfection by-products formation in the application of combined UV/chlorine technology during water treatment.

  9. Combined effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus and β-cyclodextrin on serum cholesterol in pigs.

    PubMed

    Alonso, L; Fontecha, J; Cuesta, P

    2016-01-14

    A total of twenty-four Yorkshire gilt pigs of 6-7 weeks of age were used in a 2×2 factorial experiment to determine the individual and combined effects of the inclusion of two dietary factors (cholesterol rich, 3% β-cyclodextrin (BCD) and Lactobacillus acidophilus cultures) on total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels in blood serum. Pigs were assigned randomly to treatment groups (n 6). Total serum cholesterol concentrations decreased after 3 weeks in all the experimental treatment groups, including diets with BCD, L. acidophilus or both. Similar trends were observed for serum LDL-cholesterol concentrations among the experimental treatments. No statistically significant differences from the control group were observed in either total serum cholesterol or LDL-cholesterol concentrations (P<0·05) for each of the individual treatment groups: BCD or L. acidophilus. However, significant differences in total serum cholesterol concentrations were observed when comparing the combined treatment group (BCD and L. acidophilus) with the control group, which consisted of a basal diet and sterile milk. The combined treatment group exhibited 17·9% lower total serum cholesterol concentration after 3 weeks. Similar significant differences were observed when comparing the combined effect experimental group with the control group after 3 weeks. The combined treatment group exhibited 27·9% lower serum LDL-cholesterol concentrations.

  10. Effects of experience on fetal voice recognition.

    PubMed

    Kisilevsky, Barbara S; Hains, Sylvia M J; Lee, Kang; Xie, Xing; Huang, Hefeng; Ye, Hai Hui; Zhang, Ke; Wang, Zengping

    2003-05-01

    The ability of human fetuses to recognize their own mother's voice was examined. Sixty term fetuses were assigned to one of two conditions during which they were exposed to a tape recording of their mother or a female stranger reading a passage. Voice stimuli were delivered through a loudspeaker held approximately 10 cm above the maternal abdomen and played at an average of 95 dB SPL. Each condition consisted of three 2-min periods: no stimulus, voice (mother or stranger), and no stimulus. Fetal heart rate increased in response to the mother's voice and decreased in response to the stranger's; both responses were sustained for 4 min. The finding of differential behavior in response to a familiar versus a novel voice provides evidence that experience influences fetal voice processing. It supports an epigenetic model of speech perception, presuming an interaction between genetic expression of neural development and species-specific experience.

  11. [Hygienic evaluation of the combined effect of electromagnetic fields and pesticides in experimental conditions].

    PubMed

    Chernykh, A M

    2003-01-01

    The paper deals with the evaluation of combined effects of some natural and anthropogenic factors that are typical of the Kursk magnetic anomaly region by means of dispersion analysis in the experiments on albino rats and mice. The resultant signs were the indices of animal deaths, nonspecific protective factors, immune responses, changes in body weight, etc. A higher geomagnetic field can modify the biological effects of exposure to agricultural chemicals. The combined effects of a static electromagnetic field with induction of 300 microT to 0.3 T and of chlorpyrifos at various concentrations (0.1, 1, 50, and 100 mg/kg) were found to potentiate the toxic properties of the pesticide. The proportion of the potentiation effects increased as the intensity of the studied factors rose. The dispersion analysis established a predominant role of chlorpyrifos in the combined effects of the factors on the death of animals, serum complementary activity, antibody- and rosette-forming cells of the spleen and other lymphoid organs. The role of a static electromagnetic field is prevalent in the formation of effects of the intensity and completeness of phagocytosis.

  12. Relative potencies and combination effects of steroidal estrogens in fish.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, Karen L; Cummings, Rob I; Hutchinson, Thomas H; Scholze, Martin; Brighty, Geoff; Sumpter, John P; Tyler, Charles R

    2003-03-15

    The natural steroids estradiol-17beta (E2) and estrone (E1) and the synthetic steroid ethynylestradiol-17alpha (EE2) have frequently been measured in waters receiving domestic effluents. All of these steroids bind to the estrogen receptor(s) and have been shown to elicit a range of estrogenic responses in fish at environmentally relevant concentrations. At present, however, no relative potency estimates have been derived for either the individual steroidal estrogens or their mixtures in vivo. In this study the estrogenic activity of E2, E1, and EE2, and the combination effects of a mixture of E2 and EE2 (equi-potent fixed-ratio mixture), were assessed using vitellogenin induction in a 14-day in vivo juvenile rainbow trout screening assay. Median effective concentrations, relative to E2, for induction of vitellogenin were determined from the concentration-response curves and the relative estrogenic potencies of each of the test chemicals calculated. Median effective concentrations were between 19 and 26 ng L(-1) for E2, 60 ng L(-1) for E1, and between 0.95 and 1.8 ng L(-1) for EE2, implying that EE2 was approximately 11 to 27 times more potent than E2, while E2 was 2.3 to 3.2 times more potent than E1. The median effective concentration, relative to E2, for the binary mixture of E2 and EE2 was 15 ng L(-1) (comprising 14.4 ng L(-1) E2 and 0.6 ng L(-1) EE2). Using the model of concentration addition it was shown that this activity of the binary mixture could be predicted from the activity of the individual chemicals. The ability of each individual steroid to contribute to the overall effect of a mixture, even at individual no-effect concentrations, combined with the high estrogenic potency of the steroids, particularly the synthetic steroid EE2, emphasizes the need to consider the total estrogenic load of these chemicals in our waterways.

  13. Natural experiments to study the effects of early experience: progress and limitations.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Thomas G

    2003-01-01

    Questions concerning the long-term effects of early experience on psychological development in humans continue to stir up controversy. There are, at present, great diversity and contradictions among extant conceptual models and inadequate data to resolve these differences. Limited opportunities to use experimental approaches and the inherent restrictions of observational approaches in research on humans implies that alternative research designs are needed. This article examines the use of "natural experiments" as a method for testing hypotheses concerning the effects of early experience on psychological development. The benefits and limitations of using natural experiments are reviewed and several case illustrations are considered.

  14. Characteristics of Single/Double-Effect Combination Absorption Refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimijima, Shinji; Waragai, Shisei; Uekusa, Tsuneo; Nakao, Masaki; Kawai, Sunao

    In recent years, co-generation system with fuel cell occupies the attention of the world from a standpoint of the environmental protection and the effective utilization of the energy. Since the waste heat of phosphoric acid fuel cell is recovered in two forms of steam (0.6 [MPa]) and hot water (65∼90 [°C]), this type of absorption refrigerator is driven by two heat sources. In this paper, we inquire the result of the experiment intented for this absorption refrigerator the standard cooling capacity of which is 35[kW]. It is recognized that there is a mutual intervention when the supply condition of steam pressure is changed. Also the effects of hot water temperature, cooling water temperature and chilled water temperature for the performance of this absorption refrigerator is clarified. As a result, the effectiveness of using steam and hot water simultaneously in year-round operation is shown. Furthermore, it is clarified that the utilization of the low boiling temperature medium as the heat transfer medium for air-conditioner is effective.

  15. Combined effects of caffeine and nicotine on cardiovascular hemodynamics in canine model.

    PubMed

    Jain, A C; Mehta, M C; Billie, M

    1997-05-01

    The independent effects of caffeine and nicotine on cardiodynamics are well documented, but combined effects of both are not reported. Initially, in phase I, 18 experiments were performed to study the dose-response curve of both the drugs. In phases II and III, 13 mongrel dogs were subjected to 30 experiments. In phase II, caffeine, 5 mg/kg, was given i.v. followed by nicotine, 50 micrograms/kg, and in phase III, the sequence of drug administration was reversed to study the effects on hemodynamics. In phase II, caffeine did not show significant changes in all the cardiovascular parameters, but nicotine administration after caffeine produced marked significant synergistic excitatory effects: the rate of increase of the first derivative of left ventricular pressure (dP/dt) increased from 1,101 +/- 111 to 3,194 +/- 872 (p < 0.003). In phase III, nicotine significantly increased heart rate, mean arterial pressures; left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP); and pulmonary artery, pulmonary capillary wedge, and right atrial pressures. Nicotine increased dP/dt (964 +/- 182 to 1,639 +/- 60 mm Hg/s; p < 0.004). The excitatory effects of nicotine were attenuated by administration of caffeine (dP/dt, 918 +/- 140 reduced to 715 +/- 144 mm Hg/s; p < 0.04). Caffeine and nicotine, alone, caused nonsignificant and significant increases in hemodynamics, respectively. In combination, caffeine + nicotine administration produced significant synergistic excitatory effects in dogs. On the other hand, the nicotine + caffeine combination caused attenuation by caffeine of the excitatory effects produced by nicotine.

  16. Combined effect of boron and salinity on water transport

    PubMed Central

    del Carmen Martínez-Ballesta, Maria; Bastías, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Boron toxicity is an important disorder that can limit plant growth on soils of arid and semi arid environments throughout the world. Although there are several reports about the combined effect of salinity and boron toxicity on plant growth and yield, there is no consensus about the experimental results. A general antagonistic relationship between boron excess and salinity has been observed, however the mechanisms for this interaction is not clear and several options can be discussed. In addition, there is no information, concerning the interaction between boron toxicity and salinity with respect to water transport and aquaporins function in the plants. We recently documented in the highly boron- and salt-tolerant the ecotype of Zea mays L. amylacea from Lluta valley in Northern Chile that under salt stress, the activity of specific membrane components can be influenced directly by boron, regulating the water uptake and water transport through the functions of certain aquaporin isoforms. PMID:19704850

  17. Scaling and root planing effectiveness: the effect of root surface access and operator experience.

    PubMed

    Brayer, W K; Mellonig, J T; Dunlap, R M; Marinak, K W; Carson, R E

    1989-01-01

    This study investigated two variables associated with scaling and planning (S&RP): operator experience level and root surface access. One hundred and fourteen periodontally involved, single-rooted teeth designated for extraction were randomly distributed among four operators of various experience levels for either an open or closed session of S&RP. Immediately after treatment, the teeth were extracted, washed, and scored for residual calculus in a blind manner. Results showed that there was no difference in S&RP effectiveness for experience level or type of procedure in shallow (1-3 mm) pockets. However, in moderate (4-6 mm) and deep (greater than 6 mm) periodontal pockets, S&RP combined with an open flap procedure was more effective than S&RP alone for both experience levels. Also, the more experienced operators produced a significantly greater number of calculus-free root surfaces than the less experienced operators in periodontal pockets with moderate and deep probing depths. Clinical application of these results suggests that surgical access is associated with thorough surface debridement in periodontal pockets with moderate-to-advanced probing depths. However, more experienced operators could be expected to render more effective soft surface debridement.

  18. Breakfast glycaemic index and exercise: combined effects on adolescents' cognition.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Simon B; Bandelow, Stephan; Nute, Maria L; Morris, John G; Nevill, Mary E

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the combined effects of breakfast glycaemic index (GI) and a mid-morning bout of exercise on adolescents' cognitive function. Participants were randomly allocated to a high or low GI breakfast group in a mixed research design, where each participant completed two experimental trials (exercise and resting). Forty-two adolescents (12.4±0.5 years old), undertook a bout of exercise (ten repeats of level one of the multi-stage fitness test; exercise trial) or continued to rest (resting trial) following consumption of either a high or low GI breakfast. A battery of cognitive function tests (visual search test, Stroop test and Sternberg paradigm) was completed 30 min before and 45 min following the exercise. Average heart rate during exercise was 170±15 beats·min(-1). On the complex level of the Stroop test, response times improved across the morning following the low GI breakfast on both the exercise and resting trials, though the improvement was greatest on the exercise trial. However, response times only improved on the resting trial following the high GI breakfast (p=0.012). On the 5 letter level of the Sternberg paradigm, response times improved across the morning following the low GI breakfast (regardless of exercise) and only on the exercise trial following the high GI breakfast (p=0.019). The findings of the present study suggest that the combined effects of breakfast GI and exercise in adolescents depend upon the component of cognitive function examined. A low GI breakfast and mid-morning bout of exercise were individually beneficial for response times on the Sternberg paradigm, whereas they conferred additional benefits for response times on the Stroop test.

  19. Combining a photocatalyst with microtopography to develop effective antifouling materials.

    PubMed

    Vucko, M J; Poole, A J; Sexton, B A; Glenn, F L; Carl, C; Whalan, S; de Nys, R

    2013-01-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane surfaces textured with a square-wave linear grating profile (0, 20, 200, 300 and 600 μm), and embedded with a range of photocatalytic titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticle loadings (3.75, 7.5, 11.25 and 15 wt.%), were used to test the combined efficacy of these technologies as antifouling materials. Settlement of the fouling bryozoan species Bugula neritina was quantified in the laboratory under two intensities of UV light. The lowest settlement rates were observed on 20 μm surfaces. However, texture effects were not as critical to larval settlement as the presence of TiO2. In conjunction with UV light, TiO2 completely inhibited larval metamorphosis even at the lowest loading (3.75 wt.%) and the lowest intensity of UV light (24 W m(-2)). Recruitment of B. neritina was also quantified in field trials and showed similar results to laboratory assays. The lowest recruitment was observed on 20 and 200 μm surfaces, with recruitment being significantly lower on all surfaces containing TiO2. Therefore for B. neritina, although all TiO2 loadings were effective, 3.75 wt.% can be used as a minimum inhibitory concentration to deter larval settlement and the addition of a 20 μm texture further increases the deterrent effect.

  20. The Combined Effects of Ethanol and Amphetamine Sulfate on Performance of Human Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Lolita; Taylor, Jack D.; Nash, Charles W.; Cameron, Donald F.

    1966-01-01

    The combined effects of ethanol and amphetamine on the performance of selected tests were evaluated. No differences were shown between the effects of ethanol-amphetamine and ethanol-lactose on the performance of balance, skipping, Minnesota manipulation, Purdue peg board, Maudsley Personality Inventory, pursuit rotor or digit span tests; but ethanol plus amphetamine produced less impairment of performance of coding, mental addition, and trail making tests than did ethanol plus a placebo. Ethanol increased the errors in performance of the Wonderlic Personnel Test, but the simultaneous administration of amphetamine did not reduce this effect. Conversely, amphetamine reduced the test-retest reliability of the Wonderlic Personnel Test, but alcohol appeared to counteract this effect of amphetamine. These experiments indicate that, when ethanol and amphetamine are used together, each drug modifies some of the effects produced by the other in a manner that cannot be predicted on the assumption that a depressant versus stimulant competition is operative. PMID:5324976

  1. The Timing and Quality of Early Experiences Combine to Shape Brain Architecture. Working Paper #5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The foundations of brain architecture are established early in life through a continuous series of dynamic interactions in which environmental conditions and personal experiences have a significant impact on how genetic predispositions are expressed. Because specific experiences affect specific brain circuits during specific developmental…

  2. Combined effects of copper, desiccation, and frost on the viability of earthworm cocoons

    SciTech Connect

    Holmstrup, M.; Petersen, B.F. |; Larsen, M.M.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of heavy metal pollution on earthworms have been extensively studied, but no studies have examined how earthworms react if they are simultaneously exposed to metal pollution and climatic stress. This question has been addressed in a laboratory study where cocoons of Aporrectodea caliginosa and Dendrobaena octaedra were initially exposed to copper in aqueous solutions of copper chloride and thereafter exposed to realistic degrees of either desiccation or frost. Earthworm embryos absorbed copper in amounts comparable to concentrations found in various tissues of earthworms from metal-polluted soils. Desiccation and copper exposure in combination had synergistic effects on survival rates for both species. For example, at full saturation, the NOEC (the highest tested concentration with no statistically significant effect) for copper of A. caliginosa was 12 mg/L, whereas at 97% relative humidity it was only 6 mg/L. Frost and copper exposure in combination also showed synergistic effects in some experiments. No cocoons of A. caliginosa exposed to 20 mg copper/L were viable after exposure to {minus}3 C but at 0 C viability was as high as 95%. The same tendency was seen in D. octaedra but not as clearly as in A/. caliginosa. A change of the environmental conditions (moisture, temperature) to increasing severity caused a shift in the statistically derived NOEC toward lower critical values of copper. The involvement of combination effects in ecotoxicological tests could therefore improve risk assessment of soil-polluting compounds.

  3. Optical signatures of molecular dissymmetry: Combining theory with experiments to address stereochemical puzzles

    PubMed Central

    Mukhopadhyay, Parag; Wipf, Peter; Beratan, David N.

    2009-01-01

    Conspectus Modern chemistry emerged from the quest to describe the three-dimensional structure of molecules: van’t Hoff’s tetravalent carbon placed symmetry and dissymmetry at the heart of chemistry. In this Account, we explore how modern theory, synthesis, and spectroscopy can be used in concert to elucidate the symmetry and dissymmetry of molecules and their assemblies. Chiroptical spectroscopy—including optical rotatory dispersion (ORD), electronic circular dichroism (ECD), vibrational circular dichroism (VCD), and Raman optical activity (ROA)—measures the response of dissymmetric structures to electromagnetic radiation. This response can in turn reveal the arrangement of atoms in space, but deciphering the molecular information encoded in chiroptical spectra requires an effective theoretical approach. Although important correlations between ECD and molecular stereochemistry have existed for some time, a battery of accurate new theoretical methods that link a much wider range of chiroptical spectroscopies to structure have emerged over the last decade. The promise of this field is considerable: theory and spectroscopy can assist in assigning the relative and absolute configurations of complex products, in revealing the structure of non-covalent aggregates, in defining metrics for molecular diversity based upon polarization response, and in designing chirally imprinted nanomaterials. The physical organic chemistry of chirality is fascinating in its own right: defining atomic and group contributions to optical rotation (OR) is now possible. Although the common expectation is that chiroptical response is determined solely by a chiral solute’s electronic structure in a given environment, chiral imprinting effects on the surrounding medium and molecular assembly can, in fact, dominate the chiroptical signatures. The theoretical interpretation of chiroptical markers is challenging because the optical properties are subtle, which results from the strong

  4. Optical signatures of molecular dissymmetry: combining theory with experiments to address stereochemical puzzles.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Parag; Wipf, Peter; Beratan, David N

    2009-06-16

    Modern chemistry emerged from the quest to describe the three-dimensional structure of molecules: van't Hoff's tetravalent carbon placed symmetry and dissymmetry at the heart of chemistry. In this Account, we explore how modern theory, synthesis, and spectroscopy can be used in concert to elucidate the symmetry and dissymmetry of molecules and their assemblies. Chiroptical spectroscopy, including optical rotatory dispersion (ORD), electronic circular dichroism (ECD), vibrational circular dichroism (VCD), and Raman optical activity (ROA), measures the response of dissymmetric structures to electromagnetic radiation. This response can in turn reveal the arrangement of atoms in space, but deciphering the molecular information encoded in chiroptical spectra requires an effective theoretical approach. Although important correlations between ECD and molecular stereochemistry have existed for some time, a battery of accurate new theoretical methods that link a much wider range of chiroptical spectroscopies to structure have emerged over the past decade. The promise of this field is considerable: theory and spectroscopy can assist in assigning the relative and absolute configurations of complex products, revealing the structure of noncovalent aggregates, defining metrics for molecular diversity based on polarization response, and designing chirally imprinted nanomaterials. The physical organic chemistry of chirality is fascinating in its own right: defining atomic and group contributions to optical rotation (OR) is now possible. Although the common expectation is that chiroptical response is determined solely by a chiral solute's electronic structure in a given environment, chiral imprinting effects on the surrounding medium and molecular assembly can, in fact, dominate the chiroptical signatures. The theoretical interpretation of chiroptical markers is challenging because the optical properties are subtle, resulting from the strong electric dipole and the weaker electric

  5. Combined effect of noise and vibration produced by high-speed trains on annoyance in buildings.

    PubMed

    Lee, Pyoung Jik; Griffin, Michael J

    2013-04-01

    The effects of noise and vibration on annoyance in buildings during the passage of a nearby high-speed train have been investigated in a laboratory experiment with recorded train noise and 20 Hz vibration. The noises included the effects of two types of façade: windows-open and windows-closed. Subjects were exposed to six levels of noise and six magnitudes of vibration, and asked to rate annoyance using an 11-point numerical scale. The experiment consisted of four sessions: (1) evaluation of noise annoyance in the absence of vibration, (2) evaluation of total annoyance from simultaneous noise and vibration, (3) evaluation of noise annoyance in the presence of vibration, and (4) evaluation of vibration annoyance in the absence of noise. The results show that vibration did not influence ratings of noise annoyance, but that total annoyance caused by combined noise and vibration was considerably greater than the annoyance caused by noise alone. The noise annoyance and the total annoyance caused by combined noise and vibration were associated with subject self-ratings of noise sensitivity. Two classical models of total annoyance due to combined noise sources (maximum of the single source annoyance or the integration of individual annoyance ratings) provided useful predictions of the total annoyance caused by simultaneous noise and vibration.

  6. Combined effects of silver nanoparticles and 17α-ethinylestradiol on the freshwater mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum.

    PubMed

    Völker, Carolin; Gräf, Tonya; Schneider, Ilona; Oetken, Matthias; Oehlmann, Jörg

    2014-09-01

    Ecotoxicological studies have shown that nanosilver is among the most toxic nanomaterials to aquatic organisms. However, research has so far focused on the determination of acute effects. Combined effects of nanosilver with other substances have not yet been studied in aquatic organisms. The present study aimed to investigate the chronic toxicity of nanosilver as well as the potential of nanosilver to influence the effects of co-occurring substances on the freshwater mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum. In 28-day chronic toxicity experiments, the effects of nanosilver on the reproduction of P. antipodarum were assessed. In order to evaluate the influence of nanosilver on other substances, 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) was chosen as model compound due to the well-characterized effects on P. antipodarum. In addition to effects on reproduction, exposure to nanosilver and EE2 was monitored by determining the expression of estrogen-responsive transcripts (estrogen receptor and vitellogenin encoding genes). Exposure to nanosilver decreased the reproduction of P. antipodarum (EC10: 5.57 μg l(-1); EC50: 15.0 μg l(-1)). Exposure to EE2 significantly stimulated the embryo production at 25 ng l(-1). The presence of nanosilver led to increased EE2 effects at EE2 concentrations that had no influence on reproduction when applied in absence of nanosilver. In contrast, combined exposure to nanosilver decreased EE2 effects at concentrations that stimulated reproduction and the expression of estrogen responsive genes when applied in the absence of nanosilver. This is the first study demonstrating an influence of nanosilver on the effects of co-contaminants on aquatic organisms. The study further highlights the need for chronic experiments to properly assess environmental risks of nanosilver and their effects on co-occurring contaminants.

  7. Shaking Table Experiment of Trampoline Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoi, S.; Kunugi, T.; Fujiwara, H.

    2010-12-01

    It has been widely thought that soil response to ground shaking do not experience asymmetry in ground motion. An extreme vertical acceleration near four times gravity was recorded during the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi earthquake at IWTH25 station. This record is distinctly asymmetric in shape; the waveform envelope amplitude is about 1.6 times larger in the upward direction compared to the downward direction. To explain this phenomenon, Aoi et al. (2008) proposed a simple model of a mass bouncing on a trampoline. In this study we perform a shaking table experiment of a soil prototype to try to reproduce the asymmetric ground motion and to investigate the physics of this asymmetric behavior. A soil chamber made of an acrylic resin cylinder with 200 mm in diameter and 500 mm in height was tightly anchored to the shaking table and vertically shaken. We used four different sample materials; Toyoura standard sands, grass beads (particle size of 0.1 and 0.4 mm) and sawdust. Sample was uniformly stacked to a depth of 450 mm and, to measure the vertical motions, accelerometers was installed inside the material (at depths of 50, 220, and 390 mm) and on the frame of the chamber. Pictures were taken from a side by a high speed camera (1000 frames/sec) to capture the motions of particles. The chamber was shaken by sinusoidal wave (5, 10, and 20 Hz) with maximum amplitudes from 0.1 to 4.0 g. When the accelerations roughly exceeded gravity, for all samples, granular behaviors of sample materials became dominant and the asymmetric motions were successfully reproduced. Pictures taken by the high speed camera showed that the motions of the particles are clearly different from the motion of the chamber which is identical to the sinusoidal motion of the shaking table (input motion). Particles are rapidly flung up and freely pulled down by gravity, and the downward motion of the particles is slower than the upward motion. It was also observed that the timing difference of the falling motions

  8. Combining Computer Game-Based Behavioural Experiments With High-Density EEG and Infrared Gaze Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Yoder, Keith J.; Belmonte, Matthew K.

    2010-01-01

    Experimental paradigms are valuable insofar as the timing and other parameters of their stimuli are well specified and controlled, and insofar as they yield data relevant to the cognitive processing that occurs under ecologically valid conditions. These two goals often are at odds, since well controlled stimuli often are too repetitive to sustain subjects' motivation. Studies employing electroencephalography (EEG) are often especially sensitive to this dilemma between ecological validity and experimental control: attaining sufficient signal-to-noise in physiological averages demands large numbers of repeated trials within lengthy recording sessions, limiting the subject pool to individuals with the ability and patience to perform a set task over and over again. This constraint severely limits researchers' ability to investigate younger populations as well as clinical populations associated with heightened anxiety or attentional abnormalities. Even adult, non-clinical subjects may not be able to achieve their typical levels of performance or cognitive engagement: an unmotivated subject for whom an experimental task is little more than a chore is not the same, behaviourally, cognitively, or neurally, as a subject who is intrinsically motivated and engaged with the task. A growing body of literature demonstrates that embedding experiments within video games may provide a way between the horns of this dilemma between experimental control and ecological validity. The narrative of a game provides a more realistic context in which tasks occur, enhancing their ecological validity (Chaytor & Schmitter-Edgecombe, 2003). Moreover, this context provides motivation to complete tasks. In our game, subjects perform various missions to collect resources, fend off pirates, intercept communications or facilitate diplomatic relations. In so doing, they also perform an array of cognitive tasks, including a Posner attention-shifting paradigm (Posner, 1980), a go/no-go test of motor

  9. Combining computer game-based behavioural experiments with high-density EEG and infrared gaze tracking.

    PubMed

    Yoder, Keith J; Belmonte, Matthew K

    2010-12-16

    Experimental paradigms are valuable insofar as the timing and other parameters of their stimuli are well specified and controlled, and insofar as they yield data relevant to the cognitive processing that occurs under ecologically valid conditions. These two goals often are at odds, since well controlled stimuli often are too repetitive to sustain subjects' motivation. Studies employing electroencephalography (EEG) are often especially sensitive to this dilemma between ecological validity and experimental control: attaining sufficient signal-to-noise in physiological averages demands large numbers of repeated trials within lengthy recording sessions, limiting the subject pool to individuals with the ability and patience to perform a set task over and over again. This constraint severely limits researchers' ability to investigate younger populations as well as clinical populations associated with heightened anxiety or attentional abnormalities. Even adult, non-clinical subjects may not be able to achieve their typical levels of performance or cognitive engagement: an unmotivated subject for whom an experimental task is little more than a chore is not the same, behaviourally, cognitively, or neurally, as a subject who is intrinsically motivated and engaged with the task. A growing body of literature demonstrates that embedding experiments within video games may provide a way between the horns of this dilemma between experimental control and ecological validity. The narrative of a game provides a more realistic context in which tasks occur, enhancing their ecological validity (Chaytor & Schmitter-Edgecombe, 2003). Moreover, this context provides motivation to complete tasks. In our game, subjects perform various missions to collect resources, fend off pirates, intercept communications or facilitate diplomatic relations. In so doing, they also perform an array of cognitive tasks, including a Posner attention-shifting paradigm (Posner, 1980), a go/no-go test of motor

  10. Hydrogeochemical tool to identify salinization or freshening of coastal aquifers determined from combined field work, experiments, and modeling.

    PubMed

    Russak, Amos; Sivan, Orit

    2010-06-01

    This study proposes a hydrogeochemical tool to distinguish between salinization and freshening events of a coastal aquifer and quantifies their effect on groundwater characteristics. This is based on the chemical composition of the fresh-saline water interface (FSI) determined from combined field work, column experiments with the same sediments, and modeling. The experimental results were modeled using the PHREEQC code and were compared to field data from the coastal aquifer of Israel. The decrease in the isotopic composition of the dissolved inorganic carbon (delta(13)C(DIC)) of the saline water indicates that, during seawater intrusion and coastal salinization, oxidation of organic carbon occurs. However, the main process operating during salinization or freshening events in coastal aquifers is cation exchange. The relative changes in Ca(2+), Sr(2+), and K(+) concentrations during salinization and freshening events are used as a reliable tool for characterizing the status of a coastal aquifer. The field data suggest that coastal aquifers may switch from freshening to salinization on a seasonal time scale.

  11. Neuronal Effects of Sugammadex in combination with Rocuronium or Vecuronium

    PubMed Central

    Aldasoro, Martin; Jorda, Adrian; Aldasoro, Constanza; Marchio, Patricia; Guerra-Ojeda, Sol; Gimeno-Raga, Marc; Mauricio, Mª Dolores; Iradi, Antonio; Obrador, Elena; Vila, Jose Mª; Valles, Soraya L.

    2017-01-01

    Rocuronium (ROC) and Vecuronium (VEC) are the most currently used steroidal non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking (MNB) agents. Sugammadex (SUG) rapidly reverses steroidal NMB agents after anaesthesia. The present study was conducted in order to evaluate neuronal effects of SUG alone and in combination with both ROC and VEC. Using MTT, CASP-3 activity and Western-blot we determined the toxicity of SUG, ROC or VEC in neurons in primary culture. SUG induces apoptosis/necrosis in neurons in primary culture and increases cytochrome C (CytC), apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), Smac/Diablo and Caspase 3 (CASP-3) protein expression. Our results also demonstrated that both ROC and VEC prevent these SUG effects. The protective role of both ROC and VEC could be explained by the fact that SUG encapsulates NMB drugs. In BBB impaired conditions it would be desirable to control SUG doses to prevent the excess of free SUG in plasma that may induce neuronal damage. A balance between SUG, ROC or VEC would be necessary to prevent the risk of cell damage. PMID:28367082

  12. Fading of Bromophenol Blue: A Combined Synthesis and Spectrophotometric Kinetics Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winans, Randall; Brown, Charles Allan

    1975-01-01

    Describes a general chemistry level kinetics experiment requiring three 3-hour laboratory periods. Data analyses can be accomplished with graphical techniques or a non-linear least squares computer program. (MLH)

  13. Effects of combined electromyostimulation and gymnastics training in prepubertal girls.

    PubMed

    Deley, Gaëlle; Cometti, Carole; Fatnassi, Anaïs; Paizis, Christos; Babault, Nicolas

    2011-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of a 6-week combined electromyostimulation (EMS) and gymnastic training program on muscle strength and vertical jump performance of prepubertal gymnasts. Sixteen young women gymnasts (age 12.4 ± 1.2 yrs) participated in this study, with 8 in the EMS group and the remaining 8 as controls. EMS was conducted on knee extensor muscles for 20 minutes 3 times a week during the first 3 weeks and once a week during the last 3 weeks. Gymnasts from both groups underwent similar gymnastics training 5-6 times a week. Isokinetic torque of the knee extensors was determined at different eccentric and concentric angular velocities ranging from -60 to +240° per second. Jumping ability was evaluated using squat jump (SJ), counter movement jump (CMJ), reactivity test, and 3 gymnastic-specific jumps. After the first 3 weeks of EMS, maximal voluntary torque was increased (+40.0 ± 10.0%, +35.3 ± 11.8%, and +50.6 ± 7.7% for -60, +60, and +240°s⁻¹, respectively; p < 0.05), as well as SJ, reactivity test and specific jump performances (+20.9 ± 8.3%, +20.4 ± 26.2% and +14.9 ± 17.2% respectively; p < 0.05). Six weeks of EMS were necessary to improve the CMJ (+10.1 ± 10.0%, p < 0.05). Improvements in jump ability were still maintained 1 month after the end of the EMS training program. To conclude, these results first demonstrate that in prepubertal gymnasts, a 6-week EMS program, combined with the daily gymnastic training, induced significant increases both in knee extensor muscle strength and nonspecific and some specific jump performances.

  14. The combined effects of elevated carbon dioxide and ozone on crop systems

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.E.; Heagle, A.S.; Shafer, S.R.; Heck, W.W. |

    1994-12-31

    Concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and ozone (O{sub 3}) in the troposphere have risen in the last century due to industrialization. Current levels of tropospheric O{sub 3} suppress growth of crops and other plants, and O{sub 3} concentrations may continue to rise with changes in global climate. On the other hand, projected increases in atmospheric concentrations of CO{sub 2} in the next 50 to 100 years are expected to cause significant increases in growth of most species. Since elevated concentrations of these gases will co-occur, it is important to understand their joint action. Until recently, however, the combined effects of O{sub 3} and CO{sub 2} have received little attention. Most publications on combined CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} effects have described experiments conducted in greenhouse or controlled-environment facilities. To date, data on responses of agricultural species to the combined gases have come from experiments with radish, tomato, white clover, tobacco, or wheat. In most cases, CO{sub 2} stimulated and O{sub 3} suppressed growth of the plant tissues studied, and CO{sub 2} usually attenuated development of O{sub 3}-induced visible injury. Some data have indicated a tendency for CO{sub 2}, in concentrations up to double the current ambient level, to attenuate effects of O{sub 3} on growth, but statistical analyses of such data often have not supported such a conclusion. In this paper, the results of a recent field experiment with soybean are reported, and the results are compared to other similar research with elevated atmospheric concentrations of both O{sub 3} and CO{sub 2}.

  15. Effects of Experience on Preference between Forced and Free Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ono, Koichi

    2004-01-01

    Preference between forced choice and free choice in concurrent-chain schedules of reinforcement was investigated in pigeons after exposure to particular combinations of terminal links. In Experiment 1, in which terminal links always ended with reinforcers, one of three pairs of terminal links was arranged as preexposure: (a) both terminal links…

  16. Enalapril and atenolol in essential hypertension: attenuation of hypotensive effects in combination.

    PubMed

    Wing, L M; Chalmers, J P; West, M J; Russell, A E; Morris, M J; Cain, M D; Bune, A J; Southgate, D O

    1988-01-01

    In 16 patients with essential hypertension the effects of enalapril 20 mg once daily were compared with those of atenolol 50 mg once daily, with the two drugs in combination and with placebo using a double-blind cross-over design with allocation of treatment order by randomised Latin squares. For each patient there were four treatment phases, each of four weeks duration, which together comprised a 2 x 2 factorial experiment. All blood pressure parameters were reduced in the three active treatment phases compared to placebo (p less than 0.001). Supine blood pressures (group means) were 171/97 (placebo), 147/85 (enalapril), 154/84 (atenolol) and 144/78 (enalapril plus atenolol) (S.E.M. +/- 2/+/- 1-ANOVA), and standing blood pressures were 170/105 (placebo), 146/92 (enalapril), 154/92 (atenolol) and 147/86 (enalapril plus atenolol) (S.E.M. +/- 3/+/- 1). In the combination phase there was an additional hypotensive response but the potential fully additive effects of the two agents were attenuated by 30-50%. The mechanism of the attenuated hypotensive effect of the combined agents has not been determined. Plasma atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) concentration was doubled in the presence of atenolol (P less than 0.01) suggesting that ANP may contribute to the hypotensive effect of the beta-blocker.

  17. The combined effect of resveratrol and diphenyleneiodonium on irradiation-induced injury to the hematopoietic system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junling; Han, Xiaodan; Huang, Song; Lu, Lu; Li, Deguan; Meng, Aimin

    2017-02-01

    Both resveratrol(Res) and diphenyleneiodonium(DPI) have been shown to have radioprotective effects on hematopoietic system injury. However, the cooperative effect of Res and DPI are unknown. In this study, we explored the radioprotective effect of the combination of Res and DPI both in vitro and in vivo. Our results showed that the combined treatment of Res and DPI was more effective in protecting irradiated BMMNCs in terms of cell viability, colony-forming ability, and reconstitution ability in vitro compared with Res or DPI treatment alone. However, in mice, the combination of Res and DPI had no enhanced protection on 4Gy total body irradiation (TBI)-induced hematopoietic system injury, including TBI-induced myelosuppression, induction of the splenic index, and increases in HSC/HPC numbers and the colony-forming ability of BMCs,compared to Res or DPI alone. An exception was the number of BMCs. These studies illustrated the inconsistency between experiments carried out in vitro and in vivo and suggest an interaction between Res or DPI in vivo.

  18. Utilizing Urban Environments for Effective Field Experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacAvoy, S. E.; Knee, K.

    2014-12-01

    Research surveys suggest that students are demanding more applied field experiences from their undergraduate environmental science programs. For geoscience educators at liberal arts colleges without field camps, university vehicles, or even geology departments, getting students into the field is especially rewarding - and especially challenging. Here, we present strategies that we have used in courses ranging from introductory environmental science for non-majors, to upper level environmental methods and geology classes. Urban locations provide an opportunity for a different type of local "field-work" than would otherwise be available. In the upper-level undergraduate Environmental Methods class, we relied on a National Park area located a 10-minute walk from campus for most field exercises. Activities included soil analysis, measuring stream flow and water quality parameters, dendrochronology, and aquatic microbe metabolism. In the non-majors class, we make use of our urban location to contrast water quality in parks and highly channelized urban streams. Here we share detailed lesson plans and budgets for field activities that can be completed during a class period of 2.5 hours with a $75 course fee, show how these activities help students gain quantitative competency, and provide student feedback about the classes and activities.

  19. Effects of tramadol, clonazepam, and their combination on brain mitochondrial complexes.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Tarek Mostafa; Ghaffar, Hamdy M Abdel; El Husseiny, Rabee M R

    2015-12-01

    The present study is an unsubstantiated qualitative assessment of the abused drugs-tramadol and clonazepam. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether the effects of tramadol, clonazepam, and their combination on mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) complexes were influential at therapeutic or at progressively increasing doses. The study comprised of a total of 70 healthy male rats, aged 3 months. According to the drug intake regimen, animals were divided into seven groups: control, tramadol therapeutic, clonazepam therapeutic, combination therapeutic, tramadol abuse, clonazepam abuse, and combination abuse group. At the end of the experiment, brain mitochondrial ETC complexes (I, II, III, and IV) were evaluated. Histopathological examinations were also performed on brain tissues. The results showed that groups that received tramadol (therapeutic and abuse) suffered from weight loss. Tramadol abuse group and combination abuse group showed significant decrease in the activities of I, III, and IV complexes but not in the activity of complex II. In conclusion, tramadol but not clonazepam has been found to partially inhibit the activities of respiratory chain complexes I, III, and IV but not the activity of complex II and such inhibition occurred only at doses that exceeded the maximum recommended adult human daily therapeutic doses. This result explains the clinical and histopathological effects of tramadol, such as seizures and red neurons (marker for apoptosis), respectively.

  20. Clinical outcomes of surgically resected combined small cell lung cancer: a two-institutional experience

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chao; Yang, Haitang; Zhao, Heng; Lang, Baoping; Yu, Xiangdong; Xiao, Peng

    2017-01-01

    Background The combined small cell lung cancer (c-SCLC) was rare and its clinicopathological characteristics had not been thoroughly described. The aim of this study was to determine prognostic factors and survival in c-SCLC patients. Methods Clinical records of patients with c-SCLC who underwent surgery between January 2009 and December 2013 in two institutions were retrospectively reviewed. Results Ninety-seven patients were identified. The most common pathology was combined SCLC and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC, N=46), followed by combined SCLC and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (N=32), combined SCLC and adenocarcinoma (AC) (N=12), and combined SCLC and adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC) (N=7). The overall survival (OS) rates of the entire cohort were 42.4% and 35.2% at 3 and 5 years, respectively. Multivariate analysis identified sex [female vs. male, hazards ratio (HR) =0.38; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.19–0.79; P=0.010], age (<53 vs. >53 years, HR =0.28; 95% CI: 0.09–0.81; P=0.019), performance status (<2 vs. >2, HR =0.08; 95% CI: 0.02–0.32; P<0.001), combined non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) components (LCNEC vs. non-LCNEC, HR =3.00; 95% CI: 1.03–8.76; P=0.045), adjuvant therapy (yes vs. no, HR =0.33; 95% CI: 0.17–0.67; P=0.002) as significantly prognostic factors of OS in patients with complete resection and lymphadenectomy. Conclusions The mixed NSCLC components within c-SCLCs had a significant influence on the survival. Compared with surgery alone, adjuvant therapy was associated with significantly improved survival in patients with complete resection and lymphadenectomy. PMID:28203418

  1. DESIGN OF SUPERCONDUCTING COMBINED FUNCTION MAGNETS FOR THE 50 GEV PROTON BEAM LINE FOR THE J-PARC NEUTRINO EXPERIMENT.

    SciTech Connect

    WANDERER,P.; ET AL.

    2003-06-15

    Superconducting combined function magnets will be utilized for the 50GeV-750kW proton beam line for the J-PARC neutrino experiment and an R and D program has been launched at KEK. The magnet is designed to provide a combined function with a dipole field of 2.59 T and a quadrupole field of 18.7 T/m in a coil aperture of 173.4 mm. A single layer coil is proposed to reduce the fabrication cost and the coil arrangement in the 2-D cross-section results in left-right asymmetry. This paper reports the design study of the magnet.

  2. Biological effect of an alternating electric field on cell proliferation and synergistic antimitotic effect in combination with ionizing radiation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Ho; Kim, Ye Jin; Song, Hyo Sook; Jeong, Youn Kyoung; Lee, Ji Young; Sung, Jiwon; Yoo, Seung Hoon; Yoon, Myonggeun

    2016-01-01

    Alternating electric fields at an intermediate frequency (100~300 kHz), referred to as tumour-treating fields (TTF), are believed to interrupt the process of mitosis via apoptosis and to act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Although the existence of an antimitotic effect of TTF is widely known, the proposed apoptotic mechanism of TTF on cell function and the efficacy of TTF are controversial issues among medical experts. To resolve these controversial issues, a better understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms of TTF on cell function and the differences between the effects of TTF alone and in combination with other treatment techniques is essential. Here, we report experimental evidence of TTF-induced apoptosis and the synergistic antimitotic effect of TTF in combination with ionizing radiation (IR). For these experiments, two human Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells (U373 and U87) were treated either with TTF alone or with TTF followed by ionizing radiation (IR). Cell apoptosis, DNA damage, and mitotic abnormalities were quantified after the application of TTF, and their percentages were markedly increased when TTF was combined with IR. Our experimental results also suggested that TTF combined with IR synergistically suppressed both cell migration and invasion, based on the inhibition of MMP-9 and vimentin. PMID:27556699

  3. Epigenetic effects of early developmental experiences.

    PubMed

    Gudsnuk, Kathryn M A; Champagne, Frances A

    2011-12-01

    Early-life adversity can affect brain development and behavior. Emerging evidence from studies on both humans and rodents suggests that epigenetic mechanisms may play a critical role in shaping our biology in response to the quality of the environment. This article highlights the research findings suggesting that prenatal maternal stress, postnatal maternal care, and infant neglect/abuse can lead to epigenetic variation, which may have long-term effects on stress responsivity, neuronal plasticity, and behavior.

  4. General Framework for Effect Sizes in Cluster Randomized Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanHoudnos, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    Cluster randomized experiments are ubiquitous in modern education research. Although a variety of modeling approaches are used to analyze these data, perhaps the most common methodology is a normal mixed effects model where some effects, such as the treatment effect, are regarded as fixed, and others, such as the effect of group random assignment…

  5. Newborn screening for severe combined immunodeficiency; the Wisconsin experience (2008-2011).

    PubMed

    Verbsky, James W; Baker, Mei W; Grossman, William J; Hintermeyer, Mary; Dasu, Trivikram; Bonacci, Benedetta; Reddy, Sreelatha; Margolis, David; Casper, James; Gries, Miranda; Desantes, Ken; Hoffman, Gary L; Brokopp, Charles D; Seroogy, Christine M; Routes, John M

    2012-02-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency is a life-threatening primary immune deficiency characterized by low numbers of naïve T cells. Early diagnosis and treatment of this disease decreases mortality. In 2008, Wisconsin began newborn screening of infants for severe combined immunodeficiency and other forms of T-cell lymphopenia by the T-cell receptor excision circle assay. In total, 207,696 infants were screened. Seventy-two infants had an abnormal assay. T-cell numbers were normal in 38 infants, abnormal in 33 infants, and not performed in one infant, giving a positive predictive value for T-cell lymphopenia of any cause of 45.83% and a specificity of 99.98%. Five infants with severe combined immunodeficiency/severe T-cell lymphopenia requiring hematopoietic stem cell transplantation or other therapy were detected. In summary, the T-cell receptor excision circle assay is a sensitive and specific test to identify infants with severe combined immunodeficiency and severe T-cell lymphopenia that leads to life-saving therapies such as hematopoietic stem cell transplantation prior to the acquisition of severe infections.

  6. "Trying to Keep up": The Experience of Combining Full-Time VET with Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Maintaining a healthy work-life relationship is important for the health and wellbeing of individuals and families. This is also true for students studying in vocational education and training (VET) who face increasing pressure to combine study and work. The intersecting commitments of work, life and study create a range of demands for…

  7. Effects of Electrostimulation and Plyometric Training Program Combination on Jump Height in Teenage Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-López, Emilio J.; Benito-Martínez, Elisa; Hita-Contreras, Fidel; Lara-Sánchez, Amador; Martínez-Amat, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of eight-week (2 days/week) training periods of plyometric exercises (PT) and neuromuscular electrostimulation (EMS) on jump height in young athletes. Squat jump (SJ), counter movement jump (CMJ) and drop jump (DJ) were performed to assess the effects of the training protocols 98 athletes (100 & 200m and 100m & 110m hurdles) voluntarily took part in this study, 51 males (52%) and 47 females (48%), 17.91 ± 1.42 years old, and 5.16 ± 2.56 years of training experience. The participants were randomly assigned to four different groups according to the frequency and the timing of the stimulation. Analysis of covariance was used to analyze the effects of every training program on jump height. Our findings suggest that compared to control (Plyometrics (PT) only), the combination of 150Hz EMS + PT simultaneously combined in an 8 week (2days/week) training program, we could observe significant jump height improvements in the different types of strength: explosive, explosive-elastic, and explosive-elastic-reactive. The combination of PT after ≤ 85 Hz EMS did not show any jump height significant increase in sprinters. In conclusion, an eight week training program (with just two days per week) of EMS combined with plyometric exercises has proven useful for the improvement of every kind of vertical jump ability required for sprint and hurdles disciplines in teenage athletes. Key points The combined use of high frequency electromyostimulation and plyometric training 2 days/week in an 8 week training program produce significant improvements in jump height in teenage athletes. A high-frequency (≥ 150 Hz) EMS and its simultaneous application with PT can significantly contribute to the improvement of the three different types of strength manifestations (explosive, explosive-elastic and explosive-elastic-reactive strength). An alternate training with different stimulation frequencies [85Hz EMS/ PT combination and 150Hz EMS

  8. Combined effects of phosphorus nutrition and elevated carbon dioxide concentration on chlorophyll fluorescence, photosynthesis, and nutrient efficiency of cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To examine the combined effects of phosphorus nutrition and CO2 on photosynthetic and chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) processes, and nutrient utilization and uptake, two controlled environment experiments were conducted using 0.20, 0.05 and 0.01 mM external phosphate (Pi) nutrition each at ambient and...

  9. Comparing and Combining the Effectiveness of Latent Semantic Indexing and the Ordinary Vector Space Model for Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lochbaum, Karen E.; Streeter, Lynn A.

    1989-01-01

    Describes experiments that compared a new method for automatically analyzing semantic structures in text by statistical means with the standard vector space model. Findings indicate that combining both methods improved performance over either alone. The effects of other experimental variables on retrieval performance (term weighting, suffix…

  10. Microwave influence on the isolated heart function: II. Combined effect of radiation and some drugs.

    PubMed

    Pakhomov, A G; Dubovick, B V; Degtyariov, I G; Pronkevich, A N

    1995-01-01

    The combined effects of microwave radiation and some drugs were studied in an isolated frog auricle preparation. The experiments established that exposure to pulse-modulated 915 MHz microwaves for up to 40 min had no effect on either the rate or the amplitude of spontaneous auricle twitches, unless the average absorbed power was high enough to produce preparation heating. Treatment of the preparation with saline containing (0.6-3.0) 10(-5) M of propranolol or (0.5-1.5) 10(-7) M of atropine altered neither its pacemaker nor its contractile functions; these drugs also had no effect when they were combined with nonthermal microwave irradiation. Caffeine (1 mM) strongly increased the average heart power, which was calculated as the product of twitch rate and amplitude. The caffeine effect appeared to be significantly augmented (by about 15%, P < 0.02) under exposure to burst-type pulsed microwaves (pulse width, 1.5 msec; pause, 2.5 msec; 8 pulses/burst, 16 bursts/s; average SAR, 8-10 W/kg). By itself, this modulation was not effective; the heating of the preparation and saline during exposure was approximately 0.1 degrees C, which could not account for the detected changes. The experimental results demonstrate that caffeine treatment increases the microwave sensitivity of the frog auricle preparation and reveals primarily subthreshold, nonthermal microwave effect.

  11. The combined toxicological effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles and bisphenol A on zebrafish embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jun; Lin, Bencheng; Hu, Chuanlu; Zhang, Huashan; Lin, Zhiqing; Xi, Zhuge

    2014-08-01

    Environmental pollutants co-exist and exhibit interaction effects that are different from those associated with a single pollutant. As one of the more commonly manufactured nanomaterials, titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) are most likely to bind to other contaminants in water. In this paper, we aimed to study the combined toxicological effects of TiO2-NPs and bisphenol A (BPA) on organism. First, in vitro adsorption experiments were conducted to determine the adsorptive interaction between TiO2-NPs and BPA. Second, zebrafish embryo toxicity tests were performed to monitor for changes in the toxicological effects associated with the two chemicals. The study results demonstrated that adsorptive interactions exist between the two chemicals and increased toxicity effects which included an advanced toxicological effect time, decreased survival, increased morphological abnormalities, and delayed embryo hatching. Also, we suggest that the mode of combined action has a synergistic effect. Based on this, we postulate that concomitant exposure to TiO2-NPs and BPA increased BPA bioavailability and uptake into cells and organisms. Further studies are required to understand the mechanisms of interactions of this mixture.

  12. Microwave influence on the isolated heart function. 2: Combined effect of radiation and some drugs

    SciTech Connect

    Pakhomov, A.G.; Dubovick, B.V.; Degtyariov, I.G.; Pronkevich, A.N.

    1995-09-01

    The combined effects of microwave radiation and some drugs were studied in an isolated frog auricle preparation. The experiments established that exposure to pulse-modulated 915 Mhz microwaves for up to 40 min had no effect on either the rate or the amplitude of spontaneous auricle twitches, unless the average absorbed power was high enough to produce preparation heating. Treatment of the preparation with saline containing (0.6--3.0) 10{sup {minus}5} M of propranolol or (0.5--1.5) 10{sup {minus}7} M of atropine altered neither its pacemaker nor its contractile functions; these drugs also had no effect when they were combined with nonthermal microwave irradiation. Caffeine (1 mM) strongly increased the average heart power, which was calculated as the product of twitch rate ad amplitude. The caffeine effect appeared to be significantly augmented (by about 15%, P<0.02) under exposure to burst-type pulsed microwaves (pulse width, 1.5 msec; pause, 2.5 msec; 8 pulses/burst, 16 bursts/s; average SAR, 8--10 W/kg). By itself, this modulation was not effective; the heating of the preparation and saline during exposure was approximately 0.1 C, which could not account for the detected changes. The experimental results demonstrate that caffeine treatment increases the microwave sensitivity of the frog auricle preparation and reveals primarily subthreshold, nonthermal microwave effect.

  13. The combined toxicological effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles and bisphenol A on zebrafish embryos

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Environmental pollutants co-exist and exhibit interaction effects that are different from those associated with a single pollutant. As one of the more commonly manufactured nanomaterials, titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) are most likely to bind to other contaminants in water. In this paper, we aimed to study the combined toxicological effects of TiO2-NPs and bisphenol A (BPA) on organism. First, in vitro adsorption experiments were conducted to determine the adsorptive interaction between TiO2-NPs and BPA. Second, zebrafish embryo toxicity tests were performed to monitor for changes in the toxicological effects associated with the two chemicals. The study results demonstrated that adsorptive interactions exist between the two chemicals and increased toxicity effects which included an advanced toxicological effect time, decreased survival, increased morphological abnormalities, and delayed embryo hatching. Also, we suggest that the mode of combined action has a synergistic effect. Based on this, we postulate that concomitant exposure to TiO2-NPs and BPA increased BPA bioavailability and uptake into cells and organisms. Further studies are required to understand the mechanisms of interactions of this mixture. PMID:25177222

  14. Noise effects on reproduction— animal experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takigawa, H.; Sakamoto, H.; Murata, M.; Matsumura, Y.

    1988-12-01

    Noise effects on fetal development were observed in animals. While the copulatory function was not affected, birth rate decreased when the animals were exposed to noise. An increased number of stunted fetuses was observed when the animals were intermittently exposed. However, malformations in the fetuses increased with exposure to both intermittent and continuous noise. Two phases of hormonal change were observed in connection with noise exposure. One is the initial response phase, characterized by the increment of 11-OHCS in the adrenal gland. The other is the end phenomena phase, characterized by a disorder in central control. It is discussed that the disturbance of fetal development by exposure to noise is related to these changes in the hormonal condition.

  15. Combined effects of cadmium and zinc on a Lake Michigan zooplankton community

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, J.S.; Mellinger, D.L.; Parker, J.I.

    1981-01-01

    Two 3-week experiments with small enclosures were conducted in situ in northeastern Green Bay, Lake Michigan, to compare the effects of separate and combined additions of cadmium and zinc on the zooplankton community. The radioisotopes /sup 109/Cd and /sup 65/Zn were used as tracers to determine the sorption of cadmium and zinc by different particle size fractions. Separate additions of 2 ..mu..g Cd/L or 100 ..mu..g Zn/L, as well as combined additions of 2 ..mu..g Cd/L + 100 ..mu..g Zn/L or 1 ..mu..g Cd/L + 50 ..mu..g Zn/L, caused significant reductions of total crustacean density, species diversity, two community similarity indices, and final dissolved oxygen concentration. The effects of separate additions of 100 ..mu..g Zn/L were generally more pronounced than those of 2 ..mu..g Cd/L, but were similar to those of approx.5..mu..g Cd/L. The effects of combined additions of 2 ..mu..g Cd/L + 100 ..mu..g Zn/L were not significantly different from those of 100 ..mu..g Zn/L alone and were primarily due to zinc because it reduced cadmium uptake by the plankton (10-85 ..mu..m and >85 ..mu..m fractions). The effects of combined additions of 1 ..mu..g Cd/L + 50 ..mu..g Zn/L probably were also mainly due to zinc. The overall results of this study suggest that less than a ten-fold increase in the concentration of zinc in Lake Michigan (presently approx.5 ..mu..g/L) could have pronounced effects on the plankton community.

  16. Mind the Gap. Combining Theory and Practice in a Field Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turunen, Tuija A.; Tuovila, Seija

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we describe a collegial case study conducted in one Finnish university during the last field experience in a primary school teacher education program and discuss pedagogy of supervision from university supervisors' perspectives. The aim of the study was to clarify the role of university supervisors and try out a collegial…

  17. Combining Education and Work; Experiences in Asia and Oceania: New Zealand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Zealand National Commission for UNESCO, Wellington.

    New Zealand is committed to reducing unemployment by providing its youth with more skills and appropriate job opportunities. In line with this policy are recommendations to introduce vocational elements into general education and increase secondary level work experience programs in keeping with the detailed legal, labor, and safety guidelines…

  18. A first experiment on local combination of EGM2008 data and GOCE grids at satellite altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatti, A.; Pavlis, N. K.; Reguzzoni, M.; Sanso, F.

    2012-12-01

    The GOCE satellite of the European Space Agency (ESA), thanks to a low orbit and a very sophisticated gradiometer, is observing the Earth gravitational field with the highest level of accuracy and resolution ever reached by any geodetic missions. Although lower than other satellites, the GOCE orbit altitude of about 250 km inevitably limits the maximum achievable resolution of the estimated gravitational field; to overcome this limitations a combination with other sources of data is then necessary. One of the most informative and accurate spherical harmonic global models of the Earth gravitational field is EGM2008. It has been developed by a least squares combination between of the ITG-GRACE03S model (with its associated error covariance matrix) and a 5'x5' grid of free-air gravity anomalies. Therefore this model seems to be suitable for a combination with the newer GOCE data. The classical approach to merge these two types of information is a direct combination of the spherical harmonic coefficients coming from the satellite-only model and EGM2008. The possible drawbacks of this approach are the following: 1. Every GOCE-only spherical harmonic global model need a certain level of regularization (e.g. to deal with polar gaps) acting on a subset of coefficients but more or less affecting the estimated field all over the world. 2. The EGM2008 error description is based on publicly available coefficient variances or, at most, on a block diagonal covariance matrix when coefficients are sorted order by order; this implies that the corresponding geographical error is latitude dependent, which is an approximation far from reality. The main goal of this work is to try to overcome these limitations by computing local grids at ground level from GOCE data and EGM2008 grids. With this approach the GOCE information used is not yet regularized to produce a global model and EGM2008 could be weighted taking into account the actual geographic distribution of the error (e.g. the

  19. Aerosol effects and corrections in the Halogen Occultation Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hervig, Mark E.; Russell, James M., III; Gordley, Larry L.; Daniels, John; Drayson, S. Roland; Park, Jae H.

    1995-01-01

    The eruptions of Mt. Pinatubo in June 1991 increased stratospheric aerosol loading by a factor of 30, affecting chemistry, radiative transfer, and remote measurements of the stratosphere. The Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) instrument on board Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) makes measurements globally for inferring profiles of NO2, H2O, O3, HF, HCl, CH4, NO, and temperature in addition to aerosol extinction at five wavelengths. Understanding and removing the aerosol extinction is essential for obtaining accurate retrievals from the radiometer channels of NO2, H2O and O3 in the lower stratosphere since these measurements are severely affected by contaminant aerosol absorption. If ignored, aerosol absorption in the radiometer measurements is interpreted as additional absorption by the target gas, resulting in anomalously large mixing ratios. To correct the radiometer measurements for aerosol effects, a retrieved aerosol extinction profile is extrapolated to the radiometer wavelengths and then included as continuum attenuation. The sensitivity of the extrapolation to size distribution and composition is small for certain wavelength combinations, reducing the correction uncertainty. The aerosol corrections extend the usable range of profiles retrieved from the radiometer channels to the tropopause with results that agree well with correlative measurements. In situations of heavy aerosol loading, errors due to aerosol in the retrieved mixing ratios are reduced to values of about 15, 25, and 60% in H2O, O3, and NO2, respectively, levels that are much less than the correction magnitude.

  20. Drug combination may be highly effective in recurrent ovarian cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Significant improvement with the use of a combination drug therapy for recurrent ovarian cancer was reported at the annual meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology meeting in Chicago. The trial compared the activity of a combination of the dru

  1. Parotid Gland Function After Radiotherapy: The Combined Michigan and Utrecht Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Dijkema, Tim; Raaijmakers, Cornelis P.J.; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Roesink, Judith M.; Braam, Petra M.; Houweling, Anette C.; Moerland, Marinus A.; Eisbruch, Avraham; Terhaard, Chris H.J.

    2010-10-01

    Purpose: To analyze the combined and updated results from the University of Michigan and University Medical Center Utrecht on normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) of the parotid gland 1 year after radiotherapy (RT) for head-and-neck (HN) cancer. Patients and Methods: A total of 222 prospectively analyzed patients with various HN malignancies were treated with conventional and intensity-modulated RT. Stimulated individual parotid gland flow rates were measured before RT and 1 year after RT using Lashley cups at both centers. A flow ratio <25% of pretreatment was defined as a complication. The data were fitted to the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman model. Results: A total of 384 parotid glands (Michigan: 157; Utrecht: 227 glands) was available for analysis 1 year after RT. Combined NTCP analysis based on mean dose resulted in a TD{sub 50} (uniform dose leading to 50% complication probability) of 39.9 Gy and m (steepness of the curve) of 0.40. The resulting NTCP curve had good qualitative agreement with the combined clinical data. Mean doses of 25-30 Gy were associated with 17-26% NTCP. Conclusions: A definite NTCP curve for parotid gland function 1 year after RT is presented, based on mean dose. No threshold dose was observed, and TD{sub 50} was equal to 40 Gy.

  2. Effects of early parenteral iron combined erythropoietin in preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Linxia; Tang, Qingya; Zhu, Wenying; Zhang, Haiyan; Zhu, Yuefang; Wang, Hua

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Backgroud: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of early parenteral iron supplementation combined erythropoietin for prevention of anemia in preterm infants. Methods: In total, 96 preterm infants were randomly assigned to 3 groups: a control group receiving standard parenteral nutrition (group 1: n = 31), an iron-supplemented group (group 2: IS, n = 33), and an iron-supplemented combined erythropoietin group (group 3: IS+EPO, n = 32). The primary objective was to assess hemoglobin (Hb) levels. The secondary objectives included assessment of red blood cell counts (RBC), mean cell volume (MCV), serum iron, ferritin, percentages of reticulocyte (RET), total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and oxidative stress, which was assessed by measuring plasma levels of malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase at baseline and at 2 weeks. The blood routine indices including Hb, RBC, MCV, and percentages of RET were measured at corrected age of 1 and 3 months. Results: At 2 weeks of life, the percentages of reticulocyte in group 2 and group 3 were significantly higher than those in group 1 (2.1±0.4, 2.5±0.3, and 1.7±0.3, respectively, P < 0.001, P<0.001), whereas TIBC were significantly lower than those in group 1 (36.7±4.6, 36.0±4.7, and 41.6 ± 5.2 respectively, P = 0.011, P = 0.006). There were no significant differences in RBC counts, the levels of hemoglobin, ferritin, malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase among the 3 groups at 2weeks of life. RBC, Hb, MCV, body weight, body length, and head circumference at a corrected age of 1 month did not differ among 3 groups. At corrected age of 3months, more infants in the control group had abnormal Hb and MCV levels (Hb levels: 114.3 ± 21.3, 123.7 ± 31.6, and 125.1 ± 21.2, P = 0.021, P = 0.034, respectively; MCV: 74.1 ± 3.5, 78.3 ± 4.7 and 79.1 ± 5.2, P = 0.017, P = 0.012, respectively), whereas cases of oral iron, cases of breastfeeding

  3. Combined effects of ionizing radiation and cycloheximide on gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Woloschak, G.E.; Felcher, P.; Chang-Liu, Chin-Mei

    1993-11-01

    Experiments were done to determine the effects of ionizing radiation exposure on expression of genes following exposure of Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells to the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide (including such genes as {beta}-actin, c-fos, H4-histone, c-myc, c-jun, Rb, and p53). Results revealed that when ionizing radiations (either fission-spectrum neutrons or {gamma}-rays) were administered 15 min following the cycloheximide treatment of SHE cells, the radiation exposure reduced cycloheximide-mediated gene induction for most of the induced genes studied (c-fos, H4-histone, c-jun) In addition, dose-rate differences were found when radiation exposure most significantly inhibited the cycloheximide response. Our results suggest (1) that ionizing radiation does not act as a general protein synthesis inhibitor and (2) that the presence of a labile (metastable) protein is required for the maintenance of transcription and mRNA accumulation following radiation exposure, especially for radiation administered at high dose-rates.

  4. Combined effect of water and KOH on rapeseed oil methanolysis.

    PubMed

    Kwiecien, Jirí; Hájek, Martin; Skopal, Frantisek

    2010-05-01

    This paper deals with the effect of water and catalyst (KOH) amount on the quantity and quality of transesterification products of rapeseed oil by methanol, the methyl ester phase (i.e. yield, conversion), and the side-product, the glycerol phase (i.e. density, viscosity, the mass fraction of glycerol, esters, soaps). The dependencies were described by statistical models. The transesterification was carried out at constant reaction conditions (90 min reaction time, 400 rpm, 60 degrees Celsius). Twelve experiments with the independent factors, amount of potassium hydroxide (0.65-0.9 mg per gram of oil) and total amount of water (0.24-1.42 mg per gram of oil) naturally present in the reaction components or formed by the neutralisation reaction of free fatty acids and of added water. The data were analyzed by linear regression with respect to regression triplet (complex critical analysis of the model, data and regression method). The analysis resulted in a set of linear and/or quadratic models consisting of statistically proven terms at a statistical significance level of 0.05 and demonstrated that ester in the glycerol phase increases with increasing amount of soaps.

  5. Diving experience and emotional factors related to the psychomotor effects of nitrogen narcosis.

    PubMed

    Biersner, R J; Hall, D A; Linaweaver, P G; Neuman, T S

    1978-08-01

    Simple and complex psychomotor performance were tested among 21 Navy divers under normal conditions and during nitrogen narcosis in simulated dives to 170 ft of sea water. Complex psychomotor performance was impaired significantly during narcosis, while simple psychomotor performance remained essentially normal. Differences between baseline scores for complex psychomotor performance (pre- and post-dive combined) and scores obtained from the two combined testing sessions administered during narcosis were correlated with official Navy records of diving experience and self-reported moods. None of the diving experience measures was associated significantly with these difference scores. The moods of Fatigue and Happiness were, however, correlated significantly with impairment. These results indicate that, although previous experience with nitrogen narcosis and diving tasks do not mediate the performance effects of nitrogen narcosis, the complex psychomotor effects nitrogen narcosis are related to emotional traits.

  6. Combined effects of temperature, pressure, and co-solvents on the polymerization kinetics of actin.

    PubMed

    Rosin, Christopher; Estel, Kathrin; Hälker, Jessica; Winter, Roland

    2015-05-18

    In vivo studies have shown that the cytoskeleton of cells is very sensitive to changes in temperature and pressure. In particular, actin filaments get depolymerized when pressure is increased up to several hundred bars, conditions that are easily encountered in the deep sea. We quantitatively evaluate the effects of temperature, pressure, and osmolytes on the kinetics of the polymerization reaction of actin by high-pressure stopped-flow experiments in combination with fluorescence detection and an integrative stochastic simulation of the polymerization process. We show that the compatible osmolyte trimethylamine-N-oxide is not only able to compensate for the strongly retarding effect of chaotropic agents, such as urea, on actin polymerization, it is also able to largely offset the deteriorating effect of pressure on actin polymerization, thereby allowing biological cells to better cope with extreme environmental conditions.

  7. Effects of First Occasion Test Experience on Longitudinal Cognitive Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2013-01-01

    Effects of additional test experience on longitudinal change in 5 cognitive abilities was examined in a sample of healthy adults ranging from 18 to 80 years of age. Participants receiving experience with parallel versions of the cognitive tests on the first occasion had more positive cognitive change an average of 2.5 years later than participants…

  8. Test Experience Effects in Longitudinal Comparisons of Adult Cognitive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salthouse, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    It is widely recognized that experience with cognitive tests can influence estimates of cognitive change. Prior research has estimated experience effects at the level of groups by comparing the performance of a group of participants tested for the second time with the performance of a different group of participants at the same age tested for the…

  9. Parents' Child Care Experience: Effects of Sex and Parity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilpin, Andrew R.; Glanville, Bradley B.

    1985-01-01

    Surveyed 94 couples to determine effects on child care experience associated with gender, parity, and various other demographic variables. As expected, women had higher scores than men. Experience was a linear function of parity for men, but not for women, and was unrelated to attitudes toward women. Implications for child care responsibility are…

  10. Status of the Combined-Cycle Engine Large-Scale Inlet Mode Transition Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, John W.; Saunders, J. Dave

    2011-01-01

    The Large-Scale Inlet Mode Transition (LIMX) experiment is currently being conducted in the 10x10 foot supersonic wind tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The experiment has involved the efforts of a team for over four years to get to the first phase of testing, which is examining the aerodynamic characteristics of the inlet. The LIMX inlet involves dual flowpaths: one to provide flow to a turbine engine and one to provide flow to a dual-mode ramjet/scramjet. A rotating splitter cowl can close off the turbine flowpath, which would occur as the propulsion system transitions from turbine power to ramjet/scramjet power at Mach 4. The first phase of the experiment will simulate the turbine and ramjet/scramjet flows using cold pipes with flow rates controlled by mass-flow plugs. Much of the testing will characterize the performance of the turbine flowpath (total pressure recovery and distortion at the engine face location) as factors such as bleed rates and configuration and vortex generators are varied during the inlet mode transition. The performance of the inlet will also be examined at off-design Mach numbers (2.5-3.0) and at angle-of-attack.

  11. Bronchoscopy for foreign body aspiration and effects of nebulized albuterol and budesonide combination

    PubMed Central

    Akcora, Bulent; Celikkaya, Mehmet Emin; Ozer, Cahit

    2017-01-01

    Objective: A foreign body aspiration in the tracheobronchial tree is a dangerous medical condition in the childhood period. Although rigid bronchoscopy is a safe procedure, it may cause complications. The aim of this study was to present our bronchoscopy experience and to evaluate the efficacy of pre-operative administration of nebulized albuterol and budesonide combination for reducing intra-operative complications in foreign body aspirated cases. Methods: In this retrospective study our pediatric cases in which a foreign body was removed from tracheobronchial tree in last 8 years were analyzed. After excluding the patients who needed emergent and negative bronchoscopies, the remaining clinically stable 84 patients were compared for the effects of preoperative administration of nebulized albuterol and budesonide combination on bronchoscopy complications. Results: There were 51 boys (60.3%) and 33 girls (39.7%). There were 38 children in the non-nebulized group and 46 children in the nebulized group. We found that the combined albuterol and budesonide nebulization decrease complications such as arterial oxygen desaturation (p<0.05), and bronchospasm (p<0.05) during the bronchoscopic intervention. Conclusion: Preoperative nebulization of albuterol and budesonide combination may decrease perioperative complications of bronchoscopy. PMID:28367177

  12. Effectiveness of dereverberation, feature transformation, discriminative training methods, and system combination approach for various reverberant environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachioka, Yuuki; Narita, Tomohiro; Watanabe, Shinji

    2015-12-01

    The recently released REverberant Voice Enhancement and Recognition Benchmark (REVERB) challenge includes a reverberant automatic speech recognition (ASR) task. This paper describes our proposed system based on multi-channel speech enhancement preprocessing and state-of-the-art ASR techniques. For preprocessing, we propose a single-channel dereverberation method with reverberation time estimation, which is combined with multichannel beamforming that enhances direct sound compared with the reflected sound. In addition, this paper also focuses on state-of-the-art ASR techniques such as discriminative training of acoustic models including the Gaussian mixture model, subspace Gaussian mixture model, and deep neural networks, as well as various feature transformation techniques. Although, for the REVERB challenge, it is necessary to handle various acoustic environments, a single ASR system tends to be overly tuned for a specific environment, which degrades the performance in the mismatch environments. To overcome this mismatch problem with a single ASR system, we use a system combination approach using multiple ASR systems with different features and different model types because a combination of various systems that have different error patterns is beneficial. In particular, we use our discriminative training technique for system combination that achieves better generalization by making systems complementary with the modified discriminative criteria. Experiments show the effectiveness of these approaches, reaching 6.76 and 18.60 % word error rates on the REVERB simulated and real test sets. These are 68.8 and 61.5 % relative improvements over the baseline.

  13. Combined effects of cadmium and zinc on a Lake Michigan zooplankton community

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, J.S.; Mellinger, D.L.; Parker, J.I.

    1981-11-01

    Two 3-week experiments with small enclosures were conducted in situ in northeastern Green Bay, Lake Michigan, to compare the effects of separate and combined additions of cadmium and zinc on the zooplankton community. The radioisotopes /sup 109/Cd and /sup 65/Zn were used as tracers to determine the sorption of cadmium and zinc by different particle size fractions. Separate additions of 2 ..mu..g Cd/L or 100 ..mu..g Zn/L, as well as combined additions of 2 ..mu..g Cd/L + 100 ..mu.. Zn/L or 1 ..mu..g Cd/L + 50 ..mu..g Zn/L, caused significant reductions of total crustacean density, species diversity, two community similarity indices, and final dissolved oxygen concentration. The effects of separate additions of 100 ..mu..g Zn/L were generally more pronounced than those of 2 ..mu..g Cd/L, but were similar to those of approx. =5 ..mu..g Cd/L. The effects of combined additions of 2 ..mu..g Cd/L + 100 ..mu..g Zn/L were not significantly different from those of 100 ..mu..g Zn/L alone and were primarily due to zinc because it reduced cadmium uptake by the plankton (10-85 ..mu..m and >85 ..mu.. fractions). The effects of combined additions of 1 ..mu..g Cd/L + 50 ..mu..g Zn/L probably were also mainly due to zinc. The overall results of this study suggest that less than a ten-fold increase in the concentration of zinc in Lake Michigan.

  14. Combining three mild stresses in Drosophila melanogaster flies does not have a more positive effect on resistance to a severe cold stress than combining two mild stresses.

    PubMed

    Le Bourg, Éric

    2017-04-01

    Among other positive effects, mild stresses can increase resistance to severe stresses. Previous studies combining two mild stresses showed that when each mild stress had positive effects their combination had more positive effects than each mild stress. The present study tested whether combining three mild stresses could still provide positive additive effects, or whether this combination has negative effects because it is no longer a mild stress but rather a strong stress with negative effects. Flies were subjected to either fasting, hypergravity for one or two weeks, or cold shocks, to combinations of two or of the three mild stresses, and survival to a severe cold stress was observed at 13 or 20 days of age. Positive effects of each mild stress and of combining two stresses could be observed, but combining the three stresses provided a similar survival or a lower survival than the combination of two stresses. Thus, combining three stresses was not more efficient than combining two stresses.

  15. Second neoplasms in patients with Hodgkin's disease following combined modality therapy--the Yale experience

    SciTech Connect

    Koletsky, A.J.; Bertino, J.R.; Farber, L.R.; Prosnitz, L.R.; Kapp, D.S.; Fischer, D.; Portlock, C.S.

    1986-03-01

    From 1969 to 1982, 183 patients with previously untreated stages IIIB and IV Hodgkin's disease and relapsing Hodgkin's disease after radiation therapy were treated with combination chemotherapy plus low-dose irradiation (CRT). One hundred fifty patients who achieved a complete response (CR) were analyzed for risk of developing a second neoplasm. Median follow-up has been 8.3 years. Actuarial survival of all patients is 74% at 10 years with a relapse-free survival of 68%. An additional 24 patients with stage IIIA disease were also treated with CRT. There were 22 CRs at risk who were analyzed. Median follow-up has been 3+ years with an actuarial survival of 90% at five years and a relapse-free survival of 83%. Second neoplasms have developed in 14 of 172 patients at risk: acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANLL; five patients); aggressive histology non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL; three patients); and a variety of solid neoplasms (six patients). Time to second neoplasm diagnosis after initial treatment ranged from 12 to 141 months. Five patients were older than 40 years. At the time of diagnosis of the second malignancy, 11 patients were free of Hodgkin's disease (for 36 to 141 months) and three were receiving therapy for recurrent Hodgkin's disease. The 10-year actuarial risk (%) of developing ANLL was 5.9 +/- 2.8; for NHL, the risk was 3.5 +/- 2.4, and for solid neoplasms, 5.8 +/- 3.0. Our results suggest that combination chemotherapy plus low-dose irradiation does not appear to significantly increase the risk of developing second neoplasms above that already reported for combination chemotherapy when administered as either initial or salvage treatment of Hodgkin's disease.

  16. Estimates of effects of residual acceleration on USML-1 experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study effort was to develop analytical models to describe the effects of residual accelerations on the experiments to be carried on the first U.S. Microgravity Lab mission (USML-1) and to test the accuracy of these models by comparing the pre-flight predicted effects with the post-flight measured effects. After surveying the experiments to be performed on USML-1, it became evident that the anticipated residual accelerations during the USML-1 mission were well below the threshold for most of the primary experiments and all of the secondary (Glovebox) experiments and that the only set of experiments that could provide quantifiable effects, and thus provide a definitive test of the analytical models, were the three melt growth experiments using the Bridgman-Stockbarger type Crystal Growth Furnace (CGF). This class of experiments is by far the most sensitive to low level quasi-steady accelerations that are unavoidable on space craft operating in low earth orbit. Because of this, they have been the drivers for the acceleration requirements imposed on the Space Station. Therefore, it is appropriate that the models on which these requirements are based are tested experimentally. Also, since solidification proceeds directionally over a long period of time, the solidified ingot provides a more or less continuous record of the effects from acceleration disturbances.

  17. Combined liver and kidney transplantation: Our experience and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Halemani, Kusuma Ramachandra; Bhadrinath, N

    2017-01-01

    Increased awareness of organ donation has increased the availability of deceased donors, and it has boosted the opportunities for treating patients with multiple organ dysfunction. Simultaneously replacing two organs gives advantages of single surgery, lower immunosuppression dose and better survival than when one organ alone is transplanted. We present reports of management of three cases of combined liver and kidney transplantation (CLKT) from deceased donors. Based on management of these cases we discuss the importance of CLKT and anaesthetic concerns during such complex procedures. PMID:28216707

  18. Combined models for data from in vitro-in vivo correlation experiments.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Tom; Rossenu, Stefaan; Dunne, Adrian; Molenberghs, Geert; Straetemans, Roel; Bijnens, Luc

    2008-01-01

    A method is presented to describe the in vitro-in vivo correlation (IVIVC) of an extended release drug formulation. This extended release drug product is overencapsulated with immediate release material. The heterogeneity of the capsule is modelled using a combined model of an extended release and an immediate release pharmacokinetic profile. Whereas an IVIVC is conventionally performed using a two-stage procedure, the model uses a one-stage convolution-based method. The method is applied to a Galantamine controlled release formulation, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. The average percentage prediction error indicated a good fit of the new model.

  19. Effects of attention on visual experience during monocular rivalry.

    PubMed

    Reavis, Eric A; Kohler, Peter J; Caplovitz, Gideon P; Wheatley, Thalia P; Tse, Peter U

    2013-05-03

    There is a long-running debate over the extent to which volitional attention can modulate the appearance of visual stimuli. Here we use monocular rivalry between afterimages to explore the effects of attention on the contents of visual experience. In three experiments, we demonstrate that attended afterimages are seen for longer periods, on average, than unattended afterimages. This occurs both when a feature of the afterimage is attended directly and when a frame surrounding the afterimage is attended. The results of these experiments show that volitional attention can dramatically influence the contents of visual experience.

  20. Effects of attention on visual experience during monocular rivalry

    PubMed Central

    Reavis, Eric A.; Kohler, Peter J.; Caplovitz, Gideon P.; Wheatley, Thalia P.; Tse, Peter U.

    2013-01-01

    There is a long-running debate over the extent to which volitional attention can modulate the appearance of visual stimuli. Here we use monocular rivalry between afterimages to explore the effects of attention on the contents of visual experience. In three experiments, we demonstrate that attended afterimages are seen for longer periods, on average, than unattended afterimages. This occurs both when a feature of the afterimage is attended directly and when a frame surrounding the afterimage is attended. The results of these experiments show that volitional attention can dramatically influence the contents of visual experience. PMID:23499978

  1. Trading experience modulates anterior insula to reduce the endowment effect

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Lester C. P.; Ye, Karen J.; Asai, Kentaro; Ertac, Seda; List, John A.; Nusbaum, Howard C.; Hortaçsu, Ali

    2016-01-01

    People often demand a greater price when selling goods that they own than they would pay to purchase the same goods—a well-known economic bias called the endowment effect. The endowment effect has been found to be muted among experienced traders, but little is known about how trading experience reduces the endowment effect. We show that when selling, experienced traders exhibit lower right anterior insula activity, but no differences in nucleus accumbens or orbitofrontal activation, compared with inexperienced traders. Furthermore, insula activation mediates the effect of experience on the endowment effect. Similar results are obtained for inexperienced traders who are incentivized to gain trading experience. This finding indicates that frequent trading likely mitigates the endowment effect indirectly by modifying negative affective responses in the context of selling. PMID:27482098

  2. Spelling in adults: the combined influences of language skills and reading experience.

    PubMed

    Burt, Jennifer S

    2006-09-01

    One hundred and twelve university students completed 7 tests assessing word-reading accuracy, print exposure, phonological sensitivity, phonological coding and knowledge of English morphology as predictors of spelling accuracy. Together the tests accounted for 71% of the variance in spelling, with phonological skills and morphological knowledge emerging as strong predictors of spelling accuracy for words with both regular and irregular sound-spelling correspondences. The pattern of relationships was consistent with a model in which, as a function of the learning opportunities that are provided by reading experience, phonological skills promote the learning of individual word orthographies and structural relationships among words.

  3. Effect of combined treatment with diuretics and gabapentin on convulsive threshold in mice.

    PubMed

    Łukawski, Krzysztof; Swiderska, Grajyna; Czuczwar, Stanisław J

    2013-01-01

    Research data show that diuretics can have anticonvulsant properties. This study examined effects of ethacrynic acid, a loop diuretic, and hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide-type diuretic, on the anticonvulsant activity of gabapentin, a newer antiepileptic drug, in the maximal electroshock seizure threshold test in mice. Diuretics were administered intraperitoneally (ip.) both acutely (single dose) and chronically (once daily for seven days). Electroconvulsions were produced by an alternating current (50 Hz, 500 V, 0.2 s stimulus duration) delivered via ear-clip electrodes by a generator. Additionally, the influence of combined treatment with the diuretics and gabapentin on motor performance in the chimney test has been assessed. In the current study, ethacrynic acid at the chronic dose of 12.5 mg/kg and the single dose of 100 mg/kg did not affect the anticonvulsant activity of gabapentin. Similarly, hydrochlorothiazide (100 mg/kg), both in acute and chronic experiments, had no effect on the gabapentin action. On the other hand, in the chimney test, the combined treatment with ethacrynic acid (100 mg/kg) and gabapentin (50 mg/kg) significantly impaired motor performance in mice. Based on the current preclinical findings, it can be suggested that the diuretics should not affect the anticonvulsant action of gabapentin in epileptic patients. However, the combination of ethacrynic acid with gabapentin may cause neurotoxicity.

  4. CRRES: The combined release and radiation effects satellite program directory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Layman, Laura D.; Miller, George P.

    1992-01-01

    As a result of natural processes, plasma clouds are often injected into the magnetosphere. These chemical releases can be used to study many aspects of such injections. When a dense plasma is injected into the inner magnetosphere, it is expected to take up the motion of the ambient plasma. However, it has been observed in previous releases at moderate altitudes that the cloud preserved its momentum for some time following the release and that parts of the cloud peeled off from the main cloud presumable due to the action of an instability. As one moves outward into the magnetosphere, the mirror force becomes less dominant and the initial conditions following a release are dominated by the formation of a diamagnetic cavity since the initial plasma pressure from the injected Ba ions is greater than the magnetic field energy density. A previous high-altitude release (31,300 km) showed this to be the case initially, but at later times there was evidence for acceleration of the Ba plasma to velocities corresponding to 60,000 K. This effect is not explained. This series of experiments is therefore designed to inject plasma clouds into the magnetosphere under widely varying conditions of magnetic field strength and ambient plasma density. In this way the coupling of injected clouds to the ambient plasma and magnetic field, the formation of striations due to instabilities, and possible heating and acceleration of the injected Ba plasma can be studied over a wide range of magnetosphere parameters. Adding to the scientific yield will be the availability of measurements for the DOD/SPACERAD instruments which can monitor plasma parameters, electric and magnetic fields, and waves before, during and after the releases.

  5. Synergic Effect of Genistein and Daidzein on UVB-Induced DNA Damage: An Effective Photoprotective Combination

    PubMed Central

    Iovine, Barbara; Iannella, Maria Luigia; Gasparri, Franco; Monfrecola, Giuseppe; Bevilacqua, Maria Assunta

    2011-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory effects and antioxidant activities of individual isoflavones are well established although little is known about the photoprotective effect of their combination. The aim of this study was to investigate the photoprotective effects of different concentrations of genistein and daidzein individually or combined. We measured the expression levels of the cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) and growth arrest and DNA-damage inducible (Gadd45) genes, which are involved in inflammation and DNA repair, respectively, in BJ-5ta human skin fibroblasts irradiated with 60 mJ/cm2 UVB. We also determined the cellular response to UVB-induced DNA damage by Comet assay. We report that genistein and daidzein when administered combined, and at a specific concentration and ratio, exerted a synergistic photoprotective effect that was greater than the effect obtained with each isoflavone alone. The results reported herein suggest that low concentrations of genistein and daidzein combined may be good candidate ingredients for protective agents against UV-induced photodamage. PMID:21785564

  6. Synergic Effect of Genistein and Daidzein on UVB-Induced DNA Damage: An Effective Photoprotective Combination.

    PubMed

    Iovine, Barbara; Iannella, Maria Luigia; Gasparri, Franco; Monfrecola, Giuseppe; Bevilacqua, Maria Assunta

    2011-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory effects and antioxidant activities of individual isoflavones are well established although little is known about the photoprotective effect of their combination. The aim of this study was to investigate the photoprotective effects of different concentrations of genistein and daidzein individually or combined. We measured the expression levels of the cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) and growth arrest and DNA-damage inducible (Gadd45) genes, which are involved in inflammation and DNA repair, respectively, in BJ-5ta human skin fibroblasts irradiated with 60 mJ/cm(2) UVB. We also determined the cellular response to UVB-induced DNA damage by Comet assay. We report that genistein and daidzein when administered combined, and at a specific concentration and ratio, exerted a synergistic photoprotective effect that was greater than the effect obtained with each isoflavone alone. The results reported herein suggest that low concentrations of genistein and daidzein combined may be good candidate ingredients for protective agents against UV-induced photodamage.

  7. Combined effects of depleted uranium and ionising radiation on zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Ng, C Y P; Pereira, S; Cheng, S H; Adam-Guillermin, C; Garnier-Laplace, J; Yu, K N

    2015-11-01

    In the environment, living organisms are exposed to a mixture of stressors, and the combined effects are deemed as multiple stressor effects. In the present work, the authors studied the multiple stressor effect in embryos of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) from simultaneous exposure to alpha particles and depleted uranium (DU) through quantification of apoptotic signals at 24 h post-fertilisation (hpf) revealed by vital dye acridine orange staining. In each set of experiments, dechorionated zebrafish embryos were divided into 4 groups, each having 10 embryos: Group (C) in which the embryos did not receive any further treatment; Group (IU) in which the embryos received an alpha-particle dose of 0.44 mGy at 5 hpf and were then exposed to 100 µg l(-1) of DU from 5 to 6 hpf; Group (I) in which the embryos received an alpha-particle dose of 0.44 mGy at 5 hpf and Group (U) in which the dechorionated embryos were exposed to 100 µg l(-1) of DU from 5 to 6 hpf. The authors confirmed that an alpha-particle dose of 0.44 mGy and a DU exposure for 1 h separately led to hormetic and toxic effects assessed by counting apoptotic signals, respectively, in the zebrafish. Interestingly, the combined exposure led to an effect more toxic than that caused by the DU exposure alone, so effectively DU changed the beneficial effect (hormesis) brought about by alpha-particle irradiation into an apparently toxic effect. This could be explained in terms of the promotion of early death of cells predisposed to spontaneous transformation by the small alpha-particle dose (i.e. hormetic effect) and the postponement of cell death upon DU exposure.

  8. A new method for weakening the combined effect of residual errors on multibeam bathymetric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jianhu; Yan, Jun; Zhang, Hongmei; Zhang, Yuqing; Wang, Aixue

    2014-12-01

    Multibeam bathymetric system (MBS) has been widely applied in the marine surveying for providing high-resolution seabed topography. However, some factors degrade the precision of bathymetry, including the sound velocity, the vessel attitude, the misalignment angle of the transducer and so on. Although these factors have been corrected strictly in bathymetric data processing, the final bathymetric result is still affected by their residual errors. In deep water, the result usually cannot meet the requirements of high-precision seabed topography. The combined effect of these residual errors is systematic, and it's difficult to separate and weaken the effect using traditional single-error correction methods. Therefore, the paper puts forward a new method for weakening the effect of residual errors based on the frequency-spectrum characteristics of seabed topography and multibeam bathymetric data. Four steps, namely the separation of the low-frequency and the high-frequency part of bathymetric data, the reconstruction of the trend of actual seabed topography, the merging of the actual trend and the extracted microtopography, and the accuracy evaluation, are involved in the method. Experiment results prove that the proposed method could weaken the combined effect of residual errors on multibeam bathymetric data and efficiently improve the accuracy of the final post-processing results. We suggest that the method should be widely applied to MBS data processing in deep water.

  9. The combined effects of reverberation and noise on speech intelligibility by cochlear implant listeners

    PubMed Central

    Hazrati, Oldooz; Loizou, Philipos C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to assess the individual effect of reverberation and noise, as well as their combined effect, on speech intelligibility by cochlear implant (CI) users. Design Sentence stimuli corrupted by reverberation, noise, and reverberation + noise are presented to 11 CI listeners for word identification. They are tested in two reverberation conditions (T60 = 0.6 s, 0.8 s), two noise conditions (SNR = 5 dB, 10 dB), and four reverberation + noise conditions. Study sample Eleven CI users participated. Results Results indicated that reverberation degrades speech intelligibility to a greater extent than additive noise (speech-shaped noise), at least for the SNR levels tested. The combined effects were greater than those introduced by either reverberation or noise alone. Conclusions The effect of reverberation on speech intelligibility by CI users was found to be larger than that by noise. The results from the present study highlight the importance of testing CI users in reverberant conditions, since testing in noise-alone conditions might underestimate the difficulties they experience in their daily lives where reverberation and noise often coexist. PMID:22356300

  10. [Effects of combined application of biogas residues and chemical fertilizers on greenhouse tomato's growth and its fruit yield and quality].

    PubMed

    Xie, Jing-huan; Chen, Gang; Yuan, Qiao-xia; Lin, Gui-ying; Wang, Zhi-shan; Guo, Cong-ying; Zhong, Hui

    2010-09-01

    With randomized block design, a field experiment was conducted in greenhouse to study the effects of combined application of biogas residues and chemical fertilizers on the tomato growth and its fruit yield and quality. The combined application of biogas residues and chemical fertilizers benefited the tomato growth and its fruit yield and quality. The yield of the combined application of 60% biogas residues and 40% chemical fertilizers were higher than the other treatments. The fruit quality under the application of 60% biogas residue and 40% chemical fertilizers also improved significantly, with the Vc content (91.09 mg x kg(-1)) and total sugar content being 21.32 mg x kg(-1) and 2.13% higher than the control, respectively. Among the test fertilization combinations, 60% biogas residue combined with 40% chemical fertilizers was the best one for greenhouse tomato's growth and its fruit yield and quality.

  11. Experience and Grouping Effects when Handling Non-Normal Situations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, Anna C.

    2004-01-01

    Currently, most of the displays in control rooms can be categorized as status, alerts/procedures, or control screens. With the advent and use of CRTs and the associated computing power available to compute and display information, it is now possible to combine these different elements of information and control onto a single display. An experiment was conducted to determine which, if any, of these functions should be collocated in order to better handle simple anticipated non-normal system events. The results indicated that there are performance benefits and subject preferences to combining all the information onto one screen or combining the status and alert/procedure information onto one screen and placing the controls in another area. The results indicated that operators quickly modify their display preferences to the display configuration most recently used.

  12. The combined effect of anthracene and cadmium on photosynthetic activity of three Desmodesmus (Chlorophyta) species.

    PubMed

    Pokora, Wojciech; Tukaj, Zbigniew

    2010-09-01

    Individual toxicity of heavy metals (HM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) to plants living in water bodies is well-documented. In view of frequent joint occurrence of these compounds in the environment, plants are subjected to damage from their combined action. Cadmium and anthracene can generate production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We have recently detected elevated activity of Fe- and Mn-SOD isoforms, indicating chloroplast and mitochondrion as the main sites of combined toxicity of HM and PAH. In the present paper, short-term (1-24 h) experiments on the mechanism of combined toxicity of anthracene and cadmium to the photosynthesis of three Desmodesmus species are reported. Inhibition, stimulation or no effect on the oxygen evolution was observed following the treatment with the contaminants when applied either separately or jointly. The response pattern was both strongly species- and time-dependent. In contrast, the photosynthetic activity of cells, expressed by chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, was substantially unaffected, since no effect or, in several cases, a slight stimulation of PS II quantum efficiency (Phi PS II) were noted. A characteristic relationship between the SOD activity and the qN values was observed. The treatment of Desmodesmus cells with anthracene or cadmium had either no effect or slightly enhanced either the SOD activity or the qN value, whereas the mixture of the contaminants resulted in a multifold increase in both the SOD activity and the qN values. The results suggest that chloroplasts of algae are well protected against the combined action of the two contaminants the toxicity of which should be attributed to nucleocytoplasmic compartments and reproductive processes of the cell cycle.

  13. Experiment and computation: a combined approach to study the van der Waals complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surin, L. A.

    2016-12-01

    A review of recent results on the millimetre-wave spectroscopy of weakly bound van der Waals complexes, mostly those which contain H2 and He, is presented. In our work, we compared the experimental spectra to the theoretical bound state results, thus providing a critical test of the quality of the M-H2 and M-He potential energy surfaces (PESs) which are a key issue for reliable computations of the collisional excitation and de-excitation of molecules (M = CO, NH3, H2O) in the dense interstellar medium. The intermolecular interactions with He and H2 play also an important role for high resolution spectroscopy of helium or para-hydrogen clusters doped by a probe molecule (CO, HCN). Such experiments are directed on the detection of superfluid response of molecular rotation in the He and p-H2 clusters.

  14. Unlikely Combination of Experiments With a Novel High-Voltage CIGS Photovoltaic Array: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    del Cueto, J. A.; Sekulic, B. R.

    2006-05-01

    A new high-voltage array comprising bipolar strings of copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) photovoltaic (PV) modules was inaugurated in 2005. It is equipped with a unique combination of tests, which likely have never before been deployed simultaneously within a single array: full current-voltage (I-V) traces, high-voltage leakage current measurements, and peak-power tracking or temporal stepped-bias profiling. The array nominally produces 1 kW power at 1 sun. The array's electrical characteristics are continuously monitored and controlled with a programmable electronic load interfaced to a data acquisition system (DAS), that also records solar and meteorological data. The modules are mounted with their frames electrically isolated from earth ground, in order to facilitate measurement of the leakage currents that arise between the high voltage bias developed in the series-connected cells and modules and their mounting frames. Because the DAS can perform stepped biasing of the array as a function of time, synchronous detection of the leakage current data with alternating bias is available. Leakage current data and their dependence on temperature and voltage are investigated. Array power data are analyzed across a wide range of varying illuminations and temperatures from the I-V traces. Array performance is also analyzed from an energy output perspective using peak-power tracking data.

  15. Interfacial activation of Candida antarctica lipase B: combined evidence from experiment and simulation

    PubMed Central

    Zisis, Themistoklis; Freddolino, Peter L.; Turunen, Petri; van Teeseling, Muriel C. F.

    2015-01-01

    Lipase immobilization is frequently used for altering the catalytic properties of these industrially used enzymes. Many lipases bind strongly to hydrophobic surfaces where they undergo interfacial activation. Candida antarctica lipase B (CalB), one of the most commonly used biocatalysts, is frequently discussed as an atypical lipase lacking interfacial activation. Here we show that CalB displays an enhanced catalytic rate for large, bulky substrates when adsorbed to a hydrophobic interface composed of densely packed alkyl chains. We attribute this increased activity of more than 7-fold to a conformational change that yields a more open active site. This hypothesis is supported by molecular dynamics simulations that show a high mobility for a small ‘lid’ (helix α5) close to the active site. Molecular docking calculations confirm that a highly open conformation of this helix is required for binding large, bulky substrates and that this conformation is favored in a hydrophobic environment. Taken together, our combined approach provides clear evidence for the interfacial activation of CalB on highly hydrophobic surfaces. In contrast to other lipases, however, the conformational change only affects large, bulky substrates, leading to the conclusion that CalB acts like an esterase for small substrates and as a lipase for substrates with large alcohol substituents. PMID:26346632

  16. Tsunami-induced boulder transport - combining physical experiments and numerical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oetjen, Jan; Engel, Max; May, Simon Matthias; Schüttrumpf, Holger; Brueckner, Helmut; Prasad Pudasaini, Shiva

    2016-04-01

    Coasts are crucial areas for living, economy, recreation, transportation, and various sectors of industry. Many of them are exposed to high-energy wave events. With regard to the ongoing population growth in low-elevation coastal areas, the urgent need for developing suitable management measures, especially for hazards like tsunamis, becomes obvious. These measures require supporting tools which allow an exact estimation of impact parameters like inundation height, inundation area, and wave energy. Focussing on tsunamis, geological archives can provide essential information on frequency and magnitude on a longer time scale in order to support coastal hazard management. While fine-grained deposits may quickly be altered after deposition, multi-ton coarse clasts (boulders) may represent an information source on past tsunami events with a much higher preservation potential. Applying numerical hydrodynamic coupled boulder transport models (BTM) is a commonly used approach to analyse characteristics (e.g. wave height, flow velocity) of the corresponding tsunami. Correct computations of tsunamis and the induced boulder transport can provide essential event-specific information, including wave heights, runup and direction. Although several valuable numerical models for tsunami-induced boulder transport exist (e. g. Goto et al., 2007; Imamura et al., 2008), some important basic aspects of both tsunami hydrodynamics and corresponding boulder transport have not yet been entirely understood. Therefore, our project aims at these questions in four crucial aspects of boulder transport by a tsunami: (i) influence of sediment load, (ii) influence of complex boulder shapes other than idealized rectangular shapes, (iii) momentum transfers between multiple boulders, and (iv) influence of non-uniform bathymetries and topographies both on tsunami and boulder. The investigation of these aspects in physical experiments and the correct implementation of an advanced model is an urgent need

  17. Evaluation of the Reinforcing Effect of Quetiapine, Alone and in Combination with Cocaine, in Rhesus Monkeys.

    PubMed

    Brutcher, Robert E; Nader, Susan H; Nader, Michael A

    2016-02-01

    There are several case reports of nonmedicinal quetiapine abuse, yet there are very limited preclinical studies investigating quetiapine self-administration. The goal of this study was to investigate the reinforcing effects of quetiapine alone and in combination with intravenous cocaine in monkeys. In experiment 1, cocaine-experienced female monkeys (N = 4) responded under a fixed-ratio (FR) 30 schedule of food reinforcement (1.0-g banana-flavored pellets), and when responding was stable, quetiapine (0.003-0.1 mg/kg per injection) or saline was substituted for a minimum of five sessions; there was a return to food-maintained responding between doses. Next, monkeys were treated with quetiapine (25 mg, by mouth, twice a day) for approximately 30 days, and then the quetiapine self-administration dose-response curve was redetermined. In experiment 2, male monkeys (N = 6) self-administered cocaine under a concurrent FR schedule with food reinforcement (three food pellets) as the alternative to cocaine (0.003-0.3 mg/kg per injection) presentation. Once choice responding was stable, the effects of adding quetiapine (0.03 or 0.1 mg/kg per injection) to the cocaine solution were examined. In experiment 1, quetiapine did not function as a reinforcer, and chronic quetiapine treatment did not alter these effects. In experiment 2, cocaine choice increased in a dose-dependent fashion. The addition of quetiapine to cocaine resulted in increases in low-dose cocaine choice and number of cocaine injections in four monkeys, while not affecting high-dose cocaine preference. Thus, although quetiapine alone does not have abuse potential, there was evidence of enhancement of the reinforcing potency of cocaine. These results suggest that the use of quetiapine in cocaine-addicted patients should be monitored.

  18. Special Education and Direct Instruction: An Effective Combination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinder, Diane; Kubina, Richard; Marchand-Martella, Nancy E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper considers the unique and successful combination of using Direct Instruction programs with special education populations. The introduction establishes the need for valid, scientifically based materials. Next is a description of studies using Direct Instruction with students who have high-incidence disabilities. Thirty-seven studies were…

  19. Optimizing matching and analysis combinations for estimating causal effects

    PubMed Central

    Colson, K. Ellicott; Rudolph, Kara E.; Zimmerman, Scott C.; Goin, Dana E.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.; Laan, Mark van der; Ahern, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Matching methods are common in studies across many disciplines. However, there is limited evidence on how to optimally combine matching with subsequent analysis approaches to minimize bias and maximize efficiency for the quantity of interest. We conducted simulations to compare the performance of a wide variety of matching methods and analysis approaches in terms of bias, variance, and mean squared error (MSE). We then compared these approaches in an applied example of an employment training program. The results indicate that combining full matching with double robust analysis performed best in both the simulations and the applied example, particularly when combined with machine learning estimation methods. To reduce bias, current guidelines advise researchers to select the technique with the best post-matching covariate balance, but this work finds that such an approach does not always minimize mean squared error (MSE). These findings have important implications for future research utilizing matching. To minimize MSE, investigators should consider additional diagnostics, and use of simulations tailored to the study of interest to identify the optimal matching and analysis combination. PMID:26980444

  20. Acute Effect of Different Combined Stretching Methods on Acceleration and Speed in Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Amiri-Khorasani, Mohammadtaghi; Calleja-Gonzalez, Julio; Mogharabi-Manzari, Mansooreh

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effect of different stretching methods, during a warm-up, on the acceleration and speed of soccer players. The acceleration performance of 20 collegiate soccer players (body height: 177.25 ± 5.31 cm; body mass: 65.10 ± 5.62 kg; age: 16.85 ± 0.87 years; BMI: 20.70 ± 5.54; experience: 8.46 ± 1.49 years) was evaluated after different warm-up procedures, using 10 and 20 m tests. Subjects performed five types of a warm-up: static, dynamic, combined static + dynamic, combined dynamic + static, and no-stretching. Subjects were divided into five groups. Each group performed five different warm-up protocols in five non-consecutive days. The warm-up protocol used for each group was randomly assigned. The protocols consisted of 4 min jogging, a 1 min stretching program (except for the no-stretching protocol), and 2 min rest periods, followed by the 10 and 20 m sprint test, on the same day. The current findings showed significant differences in the 10 and 20 m tests after dynamic stretching compared with static, combined, and no-stretching protocols. There were also significant differences between the combined stretching compared with static and no-stretching protocols. We concluded that soccer players performed better with respect to acceleration and speed, after dynamic and combined stretching, as they were able to produce more force for a faster execution.

  1. Acute Effect of Different Combined Stretching Methods on Acceleration and Speed in Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Calleja-Gonzalez, Julio; Mogharabi-Manzari, Mansooreh

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effect of different stretching methods, during a warm-up, on the acceleration and speed of soccer players. The acceleration performance of 20 collegiate soccer players (body height: 177.25 ± 5.31 cm; body mass: 65.10 ± 5.62 kg; age: 16.85 ± 0.87 years; BMI: 20.70 ± 5.54; experience: 8.46 ± 1.49 years) was evaluated after different warm-up procedures, using 10 and 20 m tests. Subjects performed five types of a warm-up: static, dynamic, combined static + dynamic, combined dynamic + static, and no-stretching. Subjects were divided into five groups. Each group performed five different warm-up protocols in five non-consecutive days. The warm-up protocol used for each group was randomly assigned. The protocols consisted of 4 min jogging, a 1 min stretching program (except for the no-stretching protocol), and 2 min rest periods, followed by the 10 and 20 m sprint test, on the same day. The current findings showed significant differences in the 10 and 20 m tests after dynamic stretching compared with static, combined, and no-stretching protocols. There were also significant differences between the combined stretching compared with static and no-stretching protocols. We concluded that soccer players performed better with respect to acceleration and speed, after dynamic and combined stretching, as they were able to produce more force for a faster execution. PMID:28149355

  2. Combining computation and experiment to accelerate the discovery of new hydrogen storage materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, Donald

    2009-03-01

    The potential of emerging technologies such as fuel cells (FCs) and photovoltaics for environmentally-benign power generation has sparked renewed interest in the development of novel materials for high density energy storage. For applications in the transportation sector, the demands placed upon energy storage media are especially stringent, as a potential replacement for fossil-fuel-powered internal combustion engines -- namely, the proton exchange membrane FC -- utilizes hydrogen as a fuel. Although hydrogen has about three times the energy density of gasoline by weight, its volumetric energy density (even at 700 bar) is roughly a factor of six smaller. Consequently, the safe and efficient storage of hydrogen has been identified as one of the key materials-based challenges to realizing a transition to FC vehicles. This talk will present an overview of recent efforts at Ford aimed at developing new materials for reversible, solid state hydrogen storage. A tight coupling between first-principles modeling and experiments has greatly accelerated our efforts, and several examples illustrating the benefits of this approach will be presented.

  3. Combining experiment and theory to elucidate the role of supercritical water in sulfide decomposition.

    PubMed

    Kida, Yuko; Class, Caleb A; Concepcion, Anthony J; Timko, Michael T; Green, William H

    2014-05-28

    The cleavage of C-S linkages plays a key role in fuel processing and organic geochemistry. Water is known to affect these processes, and several hypotheses have been proposed, but the mechanism has been elusive. Here we use both experiment and theory to demonstrate that supercritical water reacts with intermediates formed during alkyl sulfide decomposition. During hexyl sulfide decomposition in supercritical water, pentane and CO + CO2 were detected in addition to the expected six carbon products. A multi-step reaction sequence for hexyl sulfide reacting with supercritical water is proposed which explains the surprising products, and quantum chemical calculations provide quantitative rates that support the proposed mechanism. The key sequence is cleavage of one C-S bond to form a thioaldehyde via radical reactions, followed by a pericyclic addition of water to the C[double bond, length as m-dash]S bond to form a geminal mercaptoalcohol. The mercaptoalcohol decomposes into an aldehyde and H2S either directly or via a water-catalyzed 6-membered ring transition state. The aldehyde quickly decomposes into CO plus pentane by radical reactions. The time is ripe for quantitative modelling of organosulfur reaction kinetics based on modern quantum chemistry.

  4. Combined immunodeficiencies: twenty years experience from a single center in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Patiroglu, Turkan; Hershfield, Michael; van der Burg, Mirjam

    2016-01-01

    Combined immunodeficiencies (CIDs) include a group of inherited monogenic disorders. CIDs are characterized by defective cellular and humoral immunities that lead to severe infections. CIDs can be classified according to immunologic phenotypes as T–B–NK– CID, T–B–NK+ CID, T–B+NK– CID and T–B+NK+ CID. In a 20-year period, from 1994 to 2014, a total of 40 CID patients were diagnosed at the Pediatric Immunology of Erciyes University Medical Faculty in Kayseri, Turkey. The gender ratio (F/M) was 3/5. The median age at the onset of symptoms was 2 months (range, 15 days – 15 years). Of the 14 T–B–NK– CIDs, 6, 2 (siblings), 1, 1 and 4 had a mutation in the ADA, PNP, Artemis, RAG1 genes and unknown genetic diagnosis respectively. Of the 15 T–B–NK+ CIDs, 3, 2 (siblings) and 10 had a mutation in the RAG1, XLF/Cernunnos genes and unknown genetic diagnosis respectively. Of the 9 T–B+NK– CIDs, 2 siblings, 1, 1 and 5 had a mutation in the ZAP70, IL2RG, DOCK8 genes and unknown genetic diagnosis respectively. Of the 2 T–B+NK+ CIDs, 2 had a mutation in the MAGT1 and ZAP70 genes respectively. Of the 40 CIDs, 26 (65%) were died and 14 (35%) are alive. Eight patients received HSCT (hematopoietic stem cell transplantation) with 62.5% survival rate. As a result, patients presented with severe infections in the first months of life have to be examined for CIDs. Shortening time of diagnosis would increase chance of HSCT as life-saving treatment in the CID patients. PMID:27095930

  5. Experience with the combination of dutasteride and tamsulosin in the long-term management of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Chughtai, Bilal; Elterman, Dean S; Lee, Richard; Te, Alexis E; Kaplan, Steven A

    2012-10-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) commonly affect older men. These bothersome symptoms can lead to a decreased quality of life. Currently, two classes of drugs - α-adrenergic blockers and 5α-reductase inhibitors - are prescribed to treat LUTS secondary to BPH. Due to their different mechanisms of action, these medications work in a synergistic manner. Trials of combination therapy have been conducted to assess its effect compared with monotherapy. Current data support combination therapy in men with moderately enlarged prostates and moderate to severe symptoms.

  6. Experience with the combination of dutasteride and tamsulosin in the long-term management of benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Chughtai, Bilal; Elterman, Dean S.; Lee, Richard; Te, Alexis E.

    2012-01-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) commonly affect older men. These bothersome symptoms can lead to a decreased quality of life. Currently, two classes of drugs – α-adrenergic blockers and 5α-reductase inhibitors – are prescribed to treat LUTS secondary to BPH. Due to their different mechanisms of action, these medications work in a synergistic manner. Trials of combination therapy have been conducted to assess its effect compared with monotherapy. Current data support combination therapy in men with moderately enlarged prostates and moderate to severe symptoms. PMID:23024707

  7. Workspace design for crane cabins applying a combined traditional approach and the Taguchi method for design of experiments.

    PubMed

    Spasojević Brkić, Vesna K; Veljković, Zorica A; Golubović, Tamara; Brkić, Aleksandar Dj; Kosić Šotić, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Procedures in the development process of crane cabins are arbitrary and subjective. Since approximately 42% of incidents in the construction industry are linked to them, there is a need to collect fresh anthropometric data and provide additional recommendations for design. In this paper, dimensioning of the crane cabin interior space was carried out using a sample of 64 crane operators' anthropometric measurements, in the Republic of Serbia, by measuring workspace with 10 parameters using nine measured anthropometric data from each crane operator. This paper applies experiments run via full factorial designs using a combined traditional and Taguchi approach. The experiments indicated which design parameters are influenced by which anthropometric measurements and to what degree. The results are expected to be of use for crane cabin designers and should assist them to design a cabin that may lead to less strenuous sitting postures and fatigue for operators, thus improving safety and accident prevention.

  8. Fiber-optic combined FPI/FBG sensors for monitoring of radiofrequency thermal ablation of liver tumors: ex vivo experiments.

    PubMed

    Tosi, Daniele; Macchi, Edoardo Gino; Braschi, Giovanni; Cigada, Alfredo; Gallati, Mario; Rossi, Sandro; Poeggel, Sven; Leen, Gabriel; Lewis, Elfed

    2014-04-01

    We present a biocompatible, all-glass, 0.2 mm diameter, fiber-optic probe that combines an extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometry and a proximal fiber Bragg grating sensor; the probe enables dual pressure and temperature measurement on an active 4 mm length, with 40 Pa and 0.2°C nominal accuracy. The sensing system has been applied to monitor online the radiofrequency thermal ablation of tumors in liver tissue. Preliminary experiments have been performed in a reference chamber with uniform heating; further experiments have been carried out on ex vivo porcine liver, which allowed the measurement of a steep temperature gradient and monitoring of the local pressure increase during the ablation procedure.

  9. Cost of increasing access to artemisinin combination therapy: the Cambodian experience

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Shunmay; Van Damme, Wim; Socheat, Duong; White, Nicholas J; Mills, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Background Malaria-endemic countries are switching antimalarial drug policy from cheap ineffective monotherapies to artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) for the treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria and the global community are considering setting up a global subsidy to fund their purchase. However, in order to ensure that ACTs are correctly used and are accessible to the poor and remote communities who need them, specific interventions will be necessary and the additional costs need to be considered. Methods This paper presents an incremental cost analysis of some of these interventions in Cambodia, the first country to change national antimalarial drug policy to an ACT of artesunate and mefloquine. These costs include the cost of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), the cost of blister-packaging the drugs locally and the costs of increasing access to diagnosis and treatment to remote communities through malaria outreach teams (MOTs) and Village Malaria Workers (VMW). Results At optimum productive capacity, the cost of blister-packaging cost under $0.20 per package but in reality was significantly more than this because of the low rate of production. The annual fixed cost (exclusive of RDTs and drugs) per capita of the MOT and VMW schemes was $0.44 and $0.69 respectively. However because the VMW scheme achieved a higher rate of coverage than the MOT scheme, the cost per patient treated was substantially lower at $5.14 compared to $12.74 per falciparum malaria patient treated. The annual cost inclusive of the RDTs and drugs was $19.31 for the MOT scheme and $11.28 for the VMW scheme given similar RDT positivity rates of around 22% and good provider compliance to test results. Conclusion In addition to the cost of ACTs themselves, substantial additional investments are required in order to ensure that they reach the targeted population via appropriate delivery systems and to ensure that they are used appropriately. In addition, differences in local conditions, in

  10. Combined radiochemotherapy for organ preservation in head and neck cancer: review of literature and personal experience.

    PubMed

    Marmiroli, L; Ausili-Cèfaro, G; Nardone, L; Fiorentino, G; Genovesi, D; Salvi, G

    1997-01-01

    Combined radiochemotherapy is the most common method aimed at improving the rate of clinical response in advanced head and neck cancer. Complete clinical remission may correspond to a significant percentage in organ and/or function preservation. In 1992 a protocol of concomitant radiochemotherapy with continuous infusion of carboplatin for 14 consecutive days at the daily dose of 30 mg/m2 and concomitant radiotherapy with conventional fractionation (1.8 Gy to a total 65-70Gy) was started. Over a 3-year period, 56 patients with advanced head and neck cancer, were treated. In view of organ preservation, 26 patients of this series, though with considerable extent of the disease at diagnosis, were considered candidates for radical surgery: oral cavity 9 patients; oropharynx 9 patients; larynx/hypopharynx 8 patients. A single patient was stage I (hypopharynx); most patients were stage III (7) and IV (17 = 65%); T4 20%, N3 23%. 17/20 patients (70%) showed complete clinical response, 6 partial clinical response with a single non responder (overall response 95%). A patient underwent total glossectomy followed by local recurrence and another patient underwent pharyngolaryngectomy also followed by recurrence. After a mean follow-up from 22 to 60 months, 9 patients were still free of disease (37.5%). Median duration of complete response was 25.6 months. Overall median survival was 26.7 months: 38 months in responders. 2-year survival of patients with complete response was 59%. As for organ preservation, at present 6 over 18 patients (33%) with tumor of the oral cavity or oropharynx and 3 patients with tumors of larynx/hypopharynx have preserved organ and function. As for complete responders, 54.5% of those with tumors of oral cavity or oropharynx and 50% of those with tumors of larynx/hypopharynx, have preserved anatomy and function after at least 2-year follow-up. To-date, in follow-up controls relevant late toxicity has not been observed, showing that to the positive

  11. Synergistic Effects of Linderanolide B Combined with Arbutin, PTU or Kojic Acid on Tyrosinase Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Hseu, You-Cheng; Cheng, Kuo-Chen; Lin, Yi-Chieh; Chen, Chung-Yi; Chou, Hsin-Yu; Ma, Dik-Lung; Leung, Chung-Hang; Wen, Zhi-Hong; Wang, Hui-Min D

    2015-01-01

    Melanin uncontrollable accumulation is a serious social problem to not only women, but also men, and causes pigment over-expression disorders such as freckles, melasma or pigmented acne scars. The synergism is used widely in medication, and the effectiveness makes the drug applications more valuable. Within this experiment, three well-known compounds were chosen: kojic acid, 1-phenyl-2-thiourea (PTU) and arbutin, and they were combined individually with our substance linderanolide B, which is purified from Cinnamomum subavenium. Hence, deciphering the synergistic action of possible whitening agents was the goal of this study. The tyrosinase activity, melanin content, and the combination index (CI) values were observed in B16F10 cells, in addition, the consequences were detected by isobologram analysis. We discovered that certain melanin inhibitors showed synergistic properties when they were combined together to suppress tyrosinase activities. As a result, linderanolide B has a potential synergy on tyrosinase inhibition, and it can be used widely in cosmetic and medication industries.

  12. Effects of combining microbial and chemical insecticides on mortality of the Pecan Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Cottrell, Ted E; Wood, Bruce W

    2011-02-01

    The pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn), is a key pest of pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch]. Current control recommendations are based on chemical insecticide applications. Microbial control agents such as the entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) and the fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin occur naturally in southeastern U.S. pecan orchards and have shown promise as alternative control agents for C. caryjae. Conceivably, the chemical and microbial agents occur simultaneously within pecan orchards or might be applied concurrently. The objective of this study was to determine the interactions between two chemical insecticides that are used in commercial C. caryae control (i.e., carbaryl and cypermethrin applied below field rates) and the microbial agents B. bassiana and S. carpocapsae. In laboratory experiments, pecan weevil larval or adult mortality was assessed after application of microbial or chemical treatments applied singly or in combination (microbial + chemical agent). The nature of interactions (antagonism, additivity, or synergy) in terms of weevil mortality was evaluated over 9 d (larvae) or 5 d (adults). Results for B. bassiana indicated synergistic activity with carbaryl and antagonism with cypermethrin in C. caryae larvae and adults. For S. carpocapsae, synergy was detected with both chemicals in C. caryae larvae, but only additive effects were detected in adult weevils. Our results indicate that the chemical-microbial combinations tested are compatible with the exception of B. bassiana and cypermethrin. In addition, combinations that exhibited synergistic interactions may provide enhanced C. caryae control in commercial field applications; thus, their potential merits further exploration.

  13. Sibling socialization: the effects of stressful life events and experiences.

    PubMed

    Conger, Katherine J; Stocker, Clare; McGuire, Shirley

    2009-01-01

    Stressful life events and experiences may disrupt the typical day-to-day interactions between sisters and brothers that provide the foundation of sibling socialization. This chapter examines four experiences that may affect patterns of sibling interaction: parental marital conflict, parental divorce and remarriage, foster care placement, and a sibling's developmental disability. We propose a model to guide future research on sibling socialization in distressed families and special populations in which qualities of the sibling relationship moderate the effects of stressful life experiences on child and family adjustment.

  14. Effectiveness of metal-metal and metal-organic compound combinations against Plutella xylostella: implications for plant elemental defense.

    PubMed

    Jhee, Edward M; Boyd, Robert S; Eubanks, Micky D

    2006-02-01

    Plants that contain elevated foliar metal concentrations can be categorized as accumulators or, if the accumulation is extreme, hyperaccumulators. The defense hypothesis suggests that these plants may be defended against folivore attack, and recent research has indicated that metal concentrations at or below the accumulator range may be defensively effective. This experiment explored the toxicity of four metals hyper-accumulated by plants (Cd, Ni, Pb, and Zn) and asked if combinations of metals, or metals and organic chemicals, might broaden the defensive effectiveness of metals. Metals were used alone and in certain metal + metal (Zn plus Ni, Pb, or Cd) and metal + organic defensive chemical (Ni plus tannic acid, atropine, or nicotine) combinations. Artificial diet amended with these treatments was fed to larvae of the crucifer specialist herbivore Plutella xylostella. Combinations of metals and metals + organic chemicals significantly decreased survival and pupation rates, compared to single treatments, for at least some concentrations in every experiment. Effects of combinations were additive rather than synergistic or antagonistic. Because Zn enhanced the toxicity of other metals and Ni enhanced the toxicity of organic defensive chemicals, our findings suggest that the defensive effects of metals are more widespread among plants than previously believed. They also support the hypothesis that herbivore defense may have led to the evolution of metal hyper-accumulation by increasing the preexisting defensive effects of metals at accumulator levels in plants.

  15. Combined effect of noise and vibration on passenger acceptance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leatherwood, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    An extensive research program conducted at NASA Langley Research Center to develop a comprehensive model of passenger comfort response to combined noise and vibration environments has been completed. This model was developed for use in the prediction and/or assessment of vehicle ride quality and as a ride quality design tool. The model has the unique capability to transform individual elements of vehicle interior noise and vibration into subjective units and combining the subjective units to produce a total subjective discomfort index as well as the other useful subjective indices. This paper summarizes the basic approach used in the development of the NASA ride comfort model, presents some of the more fundamental results obtained, describes several application of the model to operational vehicles, and discusses a portable, self-contained ride quality meter system that is a direct hardware/software implementation of the NASA comfort algorithm.

  16. Synergetic effect of combined pretreatment for energy efficient biogas generation.

    PubMed

    Kannah, R Yukesh; Kavitha, S; Rajesh Banu, J; Yeom, Ick Tae; Johnson, M

    2017-05-01

    Physiochemical disintegration of waste activated biosolids (WAB) through thermochemical (TC) pretreatment requires high energy and cost for efficient energy generation. Therefore in the present study, an attempt has been made to enhance the biodegrdability and to minimize the operational cost of TC pretreatment by combining it with ozonation. A higher solubilization of about 30.4% was achieved at lesser energy input of about 141.02kJ/kgTS and a ozone dosage of about 0.0012mgO3/mgSS through this combined thermo chemo ozone (TCO3) pretreatment. The methane production potential (0.32gCOD/gCOD) of TCO3 pretreatment was comparatively higher than the (0.19gCOD/gCOD) TC pretreatment. The energetic analysis and economic assessment of the proposed method of pretreatment can possibly reduces the energy requirement of TC pretreatment with a positive net profit of about 35.49$/ton of biosolids.

  17. The combined and second exposure effect of copper (II) and chlortetracycline on fresh water algae, Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Microcystis aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lei; Wu, Yixiao; Ding, Huijun; Zhang, Weihao

    2015-07-01

    In the experiment, Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Microcystis aeruginosa were chosen to test the individual, combined and second exposure effect of Cu(2+) and chlortetracycline (CTC). The 96 h EC50s of each test were calculated, with the ranges of 0.972-15.6 μmol/L (Cu(2+)), 29.5-102.5 μmol/L (CTC), 14.4-78.9 μmol/L (mixture). The combined toxicities were evaluated with toxicity units (TU) method. The toxicity of complex of Cu(2+) and chlortetracycline was analyzed using concentration addition (CA) model. In the initial test, the combined effect of the two substances was partly additive to C. pyrenoidosa and antagonistic to M. aeruginosa, while in the second exposure test, the combined effect was synergistic to both algae. The biochemical indicators measured in the experiment included chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm), MDA content, SOD activity and content of soluble proteins. When under combined stress, the biochemical features of both algae were significantly different between the initial test and the second exposure test.

  18. Combining computational models, semantic annotations and simulation experiments in a graph database

    PubMed Central

    Henkel, Ron; Wolkenhauer, Olaf; Waltemath, Dagmar

    2015-01-01

    Model repositories such as the BioModels Database, the CellML Model Repository or JWS Online are frequently accessed to retrieve computational models of biological systems. However, their storage concepts support only restricted types of queries and not all data inside the repositories can be retrieved. In this article we present a storage concept that meets this challenge. It grounds on a graph database, reflects the models’ structure, incorporates semantic annotations and simulation descriptions and ultimately connects different types of model-related data. The connections between heterogeneous model-related data and bio-ontologies enable efficient search via biological facts and grant access to new model features. The introduced concept notably improves the access of computational models and associated simulations in a model repository. This has positive effects on tasks such as model search, retrieval, ranking, matching and filtering. Furthermore, our work for the first time enables CellML- and Systems Biology Markup Language-encoded models to be effectively maintained in one database. We show how these models can be linked via annotations and queried. Database URL: https://sems.uni-rostock.de/projects/masymos/ PMID:25754863

  19. Combining computational models, semantic annotations and simulation experiments in a graph database.

    PubMed

    Henkel, Ron; Wolkenhauer, Olaf; Waltemath, Dagmar

    2015-01-01

    Model repositories such as the BioModels Database, the CellML Model Repository or JWS Online are frequently accessed to retrieve computational models of biological systems. However, their storage concepts support only restricted types of queries and not all data inside the repositories can be retrieved. In this article we present a storage concept that meets this challenge. It grounds on a graph database, reflects the models' structure, incorporates semantic annotations and simulation descriptions and ultimately connects different types of model-related data. The connections between heterogeneous model-related data and bio-ontologies enable efficient search via biological facts and grant access to new model features. The introduced concept notably improves the access of computational models and associated simulations in a model repository. This has positive effects on tasks such as model search, retrieval, ranking, matching and filtering. Furthermore, our work for the first time enables CellML- and Systems Biology Markup Language-encoded models to be effectively maintained in one database. We show how these models can be linked via annotations and queried. Database URL: https://sems.uni-rostock.de/projects/masymos/

  20. Effect of caspofungin and micafungin in combination with farnesol against Candida parapsilosis biofilms.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Renátó; Bozó, Aliz; Gesztelyi, Rudolf; Domán, Marianna; Kardos, Gábor; Nagy, Fruzsina; Tóth, Zoltán; Majoros, László

    2016-04-01

    The in vitro activities of caspofungin and micafungin were determined with and without farnesol against Candida parapsilosis biofilms. Drug interactions were examined using the XTT colorimetric assay-based broth microdilution chequerboard method. Drug-drug interactions were assessed utilising the FICI, Bliss independence models and time-kill experiments. Median sessile MICs of five C. parapsilosis clinical isolates ranged between 32-256 mg/L, 16-512 mg/L and >300 μM for caspofungin, micafungin and farnesol, respectively. Median MICs for caspofungin and micafungin in combination with farnesol showed 8-64- and 4-64-fold decreases, respectively. Paradoxical growth noticed with both echinocandins was eliminated by farnesol. Based on FICIs for sessile clinical isolates, synergism was observed for caspofungin (range of median FICIs, 0.155-0.5) and micafungin (range of median FICIs, 0.093-0.5). Concordantly, MacSynergy analysis and global fitting of non-linear regression based on a Bliss independence models also showed synergism for caspofungin and micafungin. In line with FICI findings and the Bliss independence model, synergistic interactions were confirmed by time-kill experiments. The metabolic activity of fungal cells was significantly inhibited by caspofungin+farnesol at all three tested combinations (4 mg/L+75 μM, 8 mg/L+75 μM and 16 mg/L+75 μM) between 3 and 24 h compared with the control (P<0.05-0.001). Significant inhibition was observed for micafungin+farnesol between 3 and 12h (P<0.001) but not at 24 h. Despite the favourable effect of farnesol in combination with echinocandins, further in vivo studies are needed to confirm its therapeutic advantage in catheter-associated infections caused by C. parapsilosis.

  1. Testing of the NASA Hypersonics Project Combined Cycle Engine Large Scale Inlet Mode Transition Experiment (CCE LlMX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, J. D.; Stueber, T. J.; Thomas, S. R.; Suder, K. L.; Weir, L. J.; Sanders, B. W.

    2012-01-01

    Status on an effort to develop Turbine Based Combined Cycle (TBCC) propulsion is described. This propulsion technology can enable reliable and reusable space launch systems. TBCC propulsion offers improved performance and safety over rocket propulsion. The potential to realize aircraft-like operations and reduced maintenance are additional benefits. Among most the critical TBCC enabling technologies are: 1) mode transition from turbine to scramjet propulsion, 2) high Mach turbine engines and 3) TBCC integration. To address these TBCC challenges, the effort is centered on a propulsion mode transition experiment and includes analytical research. The test program, the Combined-Cycle Engine Large Scale Inlet Mode Transition Experiment (CCE LIMX), was conceived to integrate TBCC propulsion with proposed hypersonic vehicles. The goals address: (1) dual inlet operability and performance, (2) mode-transition sequences enabling a switch between turbine and scramjet flow paths, and (3) turbine engine transients during transition. Four test phases are planned from which a database can be used to both validate design and analysis codes and characterize operability and integration issues for TBCC propulsion. In this paper we discuss the research objectives, features of the CCE hardware and test plans, and status of the parametric inlet characterization testing which began in 2011. This effort is sponsored by the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Hypersonics project

  2. Application and effectiveness of prophylactic devices in model experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kakurin, L. I.

    1977-01-01

    Material is presented for evaluating the effectiveness of prophylactic devices intended for maintaining: a relatively high functional level of the cardiovascular system; the nerve and muscle apparatus; and the water and salt status. The effects of the following are analyzed: physical training, lower body negative pressure, regulation of water and salt consumption, pharmacological preparations, and a combination of these. The author points out the need for further research.

  3. Constructal thermodynamics combined with infrared experiments to evaluate temperature differences in cells

    PubMed Central

    Lucia, Umberto; Grazzini, Giuseppe; Montrucchio, Bartolomeo; Grisolia, Giulia; Borchiellini, Romano; Gervino, Gianpiero; Castagnoli, Carlotta; Ponzetto, Antonio; Silvagno, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate differences in energy flows between normal and immortalized cells when these distinct biological systems are exposed to environmental stimulation. These differences were considered using a constructal thermodynamic approach, and were subsequently verified experimentally. The application of constructal law to cell analysis led to the conclusion that temperature differences between cells with distinct behaviour can be amplified by interaction between cells and external fields. Experimental validation of the principle was carried out on two cellular models exposed to electromagnetic fields. By infrared thermography we were able to assess small changes in heat dissipation measured as a variation in cell internal energy. The experimental data thus obtained are in agreement with the theoretical calculation, because they show a different thermal dispersion pattern when normal and immortalized cells are exposed to electromagnetic fields. By using two methods that support and validate each other, we have demonstrated that the cell/environment interaction can be exploited to enhance cell behavior differences, in particular heat dissipation. We propose infrared thermography as a technique effective in discriminating distinct patterns of thermal dispersion and therefore able to distinguish a normal phenotype from a transformed one. PMID:26100383

  4. Effects of feeding condensed distillers solubles and crude glycerin alone or in combination on finishing beef cattle performance, carcass characteristics, and in vitro fermentation.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding condensed distillers solubles (DS) and crude glycerin alone or in combination on performance of finishing beef cattle and in vitro fermentation. In both experiments, dietary treatments consisted of a steam flaked corn (SFC) based diet...

  5. Mild hypothermia combined with neural stem cell transplantation for hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy: neuroprotective effects of combined therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lin; Jiang, Feng; Li, Qifeng; He, Xiaoguang; Ma, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Neural stem cell transplantation is a useful treatment for ischemic stroke, but apoptosis often occurs in the hypoxic-ischemic environment of the brain after cell transplantation. In this study, we determined if mild hypothermia (27–28°C) can increase the survival rate of neural stem cells (1.0 × 105/μL) transplanted into neonatal mice with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Long-term effects on neurological functioning of the mice were also examined. After mild hypothermia combined with neural stem cell transplantation, we observed decreased expression levels of inflammatory factor nuclear factor-kappa B and apoptotic factor caspase-3, reduced cerebral infarct volumes, increased survival rate of transplanted cells, and marked improvements in neurological function. Thus, the neuroprotective effects of mild hypothermia combined with neural stem cell transplantation are superior to those of monotherapy. Moreover, our findings suggest that the neuroprotective effects of mild hypothermia combined with neural stem cell transplantation on hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy are achieved by anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic mechanisms. PMID:25422635

  6. Evaluating the Separate and Combined Effects of Positive and Negative Reinforcement on Task Compliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouxsein, Kelly J.; Roane, Henry S.; Harper, Tara

    2011-01-01

    Positive and negative reinforcement are effective for treating escape-maintained destructive behavior. The current study evaluated the separate and combined effects of these contingencies to increase task compliance. Results showed that a combination of positive and negative reinforcement was most effective for increasing compliance. (Contains 1…

  7. Evaluating the separate and combined effects of positive and negative reinforcement on task compliance.

    PubMed

    Bouxsein, Kelly J; Roane, Henry S; Harper, Tara

    2011-01-01

    Positive and negative reinforcement are effective for treating escape-maintained destructive behavior. The current study evaluated the separate and combined effects of these contingencies to increase task compliance. Results showed that a combination of positive and negative reinforcement was most effective for increasing compliance.

  8. [Experience of application of multimodal combined spinal-epidural anesthesia during operative interventions for abdominal cavity tumors in children].

    PubMed

    Dmutriiev, D V

    2014-10-01

    The investigations were conducted in 44 children, operated on for abdominal cavity tumors and tumors of ovaries. In patients of the first group a combined spinal-epidural analgesia and a continuous intravenous phentanyl infusion were applied; while in the second group--the intravenous continuous infusion of phentanyl. Conduction of a multimodal analgesia have had reduced significantly a negative outcomes of insufficient analgesia in children and secured an effective analgesia after traumatic operations.

  9. Effective combination of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and minocycline in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common inflammatory demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS). Minocycline ameliorates the clinical severity of MS and exhibits antiinflammatory, neuroprotective activities, and good tolerance for long-term use, whereas it is toxic to the CNS. Recently, the immunomodulation and neuroprotection capabilities of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) were shown in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In this study, we evaluated whether the combination of hBM-MSCs and a low-dose minocycline could produce beneficial effects in EAE mice. Methods The sensitivity of hBM-MSCs to minocycline was determined by an established cell-viability assay. Minocycline-treated hBM-MSCs were also characterized with flow cytometry by using MSC surface markers and analyzed for their multiple differentiation capacities. EAE was induced in C57BL/6 mice by using immunization with MOG35-55. Immunopathology assays were used to detect the inflammatory cells, demyelination, and neuroprotection. Interferon gamma (IFN-γ)/tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-4 (IL-4)/interleukin-10 (IL-10), the hallmark cytokines that direct Th1 and Th2 development, were detected with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). terminal dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining was performed to elucidate the cell apoptosis in the spinal cords of EAE mice. Results Minocycline did not affect the viability, surface phenotypes, or differentiation capacity of hBM-MSCs, while minocycline affected the viability of astrocytes at a high dose. In vivo efficacy experiments showed that combined treatment, compared to the use of minocycline or hBM-MSCs alone, resulted in a significant reduction in clinical scores, along with attenuation of inflammation, demyelination, and neurodegeneration. Moreover, the combined treatment with hBM-MSCs and minocycline enhanced the immunomodulatory effects, which suppressed proinflammatory

  10. Combining SEBAL model and NMCGA algorithm for the estimation of effective soil hydraulic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Y.; Mohanty, B. P.; Ines, A. M.

    2009-12-01

    Remote sensing data provide valuable information in many hydrological and meteological models. In this study, NMCGA developed by Ines and Mohanty (2008, Parameter Conditioning with a Noisy Monte Carlo Genetic Algorithm for Estimating Effective Soil Hydraulic properties from Space, Water Resources Research) is combined with the SEBAL model to integrate an ET component for quantifying the effective hydraulic properties using the pixel-based soil moisture and ET datasets. Three numerical experiments are conducted for different scenarios: 1) a free-draining homogeneous soil column using ET, SM and SM+ET, 2) a homogenous column under the SM and SM+ET conditions with a shallow water table depth of -100 cm, and 3) validation of the combined NMCGA-ET at different hydroclimatic field conditions. The results of Case 1 examined under hypothetical conditions (from the UNSODA database) suggest that the combined NMCGA-ET improves the optimized solutions (theta(h) and K(h)) better than those of NMCGA alone, although K(h) will have small uncertainties, and will respond well to (deep) soil moisture dynamics in the unsaturated zone. The results in Case 2 are evident in that an ET component contributes to the reduction of uncertainties inherent in a shallow water table. In Case 3, the application of the combined NMCGA-ET is evaluated at the Walnut Creek, Iowa and Brown, Illinois, sites. The correlation (R2) and MBE under the SM+ET condition are identified as better than those of only using the SM condition at all sites. However, the results at the Brown site using the direct soil moisture estimation method (neutron probe technique) are estimated to be better than those at the WC sites. Nevertheless, the results estimated at the WC sites correspond well with the pixel-based observed values of soil moisture as well (R2 > 0.77). From these findings, it is demonstrated that the combined NMCGA-ET performs better than the NMCGA for quantifying effective soil hydraulic properties based on

  11. The combined effect of step-feed and recycling on RBC performance.

    PubMed

    Ayoub, G M; Saikaly, P

    2004-07-01

    The effect of step-feed and recycling on the efficiency of treatment in rotating biological contractors (RBCs) was investigated. Experiments were conducted on a RBC system consisting of two three-stage units. The two units were operated in parallel, one unit as a control with a single feed point and the other in a step-feed mode. Seven experimental runs were conducted, using a simple synthetic wastewater, in which hydraulic loading rates were maintained constant at about 0.094 m3/m2d and variable COD concentrations (800-1200 mg/L), NH3-N concentrations (104-116 mg/L), step-feed ratios (60/40 and 70/30), and recirculation modes. Results indicate that improvements in the treatment efficiencies of RBC systems may be attained by operating the system in a step feed mode as compared to a single point feed mode. Further improvements may also be obtained by inducing effluent recirculation to the inlet stage. In both cases, levels of improvement have shown to be more pronounced for NH3-N removals and DO residual concentrations as compared to COD removals. The combined effect of step feed and recirculation of system effluent on NH3-N removal efficiencies is appreciable. Comparing removal efficiencies between the control, step feed and the combined step-feed/recirculation modes shows an increase of about 26%. For COD removals, the effect is not that pronounced as the results for the combined modes of operation indicate a limited increase in overall removal efficiency of about 3%. Supplementing step feed by a recircutation system also markedly improved DO residuals in stages 1 and 2 and to a lower extent in stage 3 of the system. Changing the ratio in the step feed system from 60/40% to 70/30% exhibited a slight improvement in NH3-N removal efficiencies as well as improved residual DO concentrations but very limited effect on COD removals. The use of a simple synthetic wastewater in the experiments may limit extrapolation of the findings to actual operation.

  12. Combinational effects of sulfomethoxazole and copper on soil microbial community and function.

    PubMed

    Liu, Aiju; Cao, Huansheng; Yang, Yan; Ma, Xiaoxuan; Liu, Xiao

    2016-03-01

    Sulfonamides and Cu are largely used feed additives in poultry farm. Subsequently, they are spread onto agricultural soils together with contaminated manure used as fertilizer. Both sulfonamides and Cu affect the soil microbial community. However, an interactive effect of sulfonamides and Cu on soil microorganisms is not well understood. Therefore, a short-time microcosm experiment was conducted to investigate the interaction of veterinary antibiotic sulfomethoxazole (SMX) and Cu on soil microbial structure composition and functions. To this end, selected concentrations of SMX (0, 5, and 50 mg kg(-1)) and Cu (0, 300, and 500 mg kg(-1)) were combined, respectively. Clear dose-dependent effects of SMX on microbial biomass and basal respiration were determined, and these effects were amplified in the presence of additional Cu. For activities of soil enzymes including β-glucosidase, urease, and protease, clear reducing effects were determined in soil samples containing 5 or 50 mg kg(-1) of SMX, and the interaction of SMX and Cu was significant, particularly in soil samples containing 50 mg kg(-1) SMX or 500 mg kg(-1) Cu. SMX amendments, particularly in combination with Cu, significantly reduced amounts of the total, bacterial, and fungal phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) in soil. Moreover, the derived ratio of bacteria to fungi decreased significantly with incremental SMX and Cu, and principal component analysis of the PLFAs showed that soil microbial composition was significantly affected by SMX interacted with Cu at 500 mg kg(-1). All of these results indicated that the interaction of SMX and Cu was synergistic to amplify the negative effect of SMX on soil microbial biomass, structural composition, and even the enzymatic function.

  13. Synergistic effect of sequential or combined use of ozone and UV radiation for the disinfection of Bacillus subtilis spores.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yeon Jung; Oh, Byung Soo; Kang, Joon-Wun

    2008-03-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the inactivation efficiency or synergy of combined ozone and UV processes (combined ozone/UV process) or sequential processes (ozone-UV, UV-ozone) compared with individual unit processes and to investigate the specific roles of ozone, UV and the hydroxyl radical, which is formed as an intermediate in the combined ozone/UV process. The Bacillus subtilis spore, which has often been used as a surrogate microorganism for Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts, was used as a target microorganism. Compared to individual unit processes with ozone or UV, the inactivation of B. subtilis spores by the combined ozone/UV process was enhanced under identical conditions. To investigate the specific roles of ozone and UV in the combined ozone/UV process, sequential ozone-UV and UV-ozone processes were tested for degrees of inactivation. Additionally, the experiment was performed in the presence and absence of tert-butyl alcohol, which acted as a hydroxyl radical scavenger to assess the role of inactivation by the hydroxyl radical in the combined ozone/UV process. Among the five candidate processes, the greatest synergistic effect was observed in the combined ozone/UV process. From the comparison of five candidate processes, the hydroxyl radical and ozone were each determined to significantly enhance the overall inactivation efficiency in the combined ozone/UV process.

  14. Combining paleo-data and modern exclosure experiments to assess the impact of megafauna extinctions on woody vegetation

    PubMed Central

    Bakker, Elisabeth S.; Gill, Jacquelyn L.; Johnson, Christopher N.; Vera, Frans W. M.; Sandom, Christopher J.; Asner, Gregory P.; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2016-01-01

    Until recently in Earth history, very large herbivores (mammoths, ground sloths, diprotodons, and many others) occurred in most of the World’s terrestrial ecosystems, but the majority have gone extinct as part of the late-Quaternary extinctions. How has this large-scale removal of large herbivores affected landscape structure and ecosystem functioning? In this review, we combine paleo-data with information from modern exclosure experiments to assess the impact of large herbivores (and their disappearance) on woody species, landscape structure, and ecosystem functions. In modern landscapes characterized by intense herbivory, woody plants can persist by defending themselves or by association with defended species, can persist by growing in places that are physically inaccessible to herbivores, or can persist where high predator activity limits foraging by herbivores. At the landscape scale, different herbivore densities and assemblages may result in dynamic gradients in woody cover. The late-Quaternary extinctions were natural experiments in large-herbivore removal; the paleoecological record shows evidence of widespread changes in community composition and ecosystem structure and function, consistent with modern exclosure experiments. We propose a conceptual framework that describes the impact of large herbivores on woody plant abundance mediated by herbivore diversity and density, predicting that herbivore suppression of woody plants is strongest where herbivore diversity is high. We conclude that the decline of large herbivores induces major alterations in landscape structure and ecosystem functions. PMID:26504223

  15. Numerical Predictions of Wind Turbine Power and Aerodynamic Loads for the NREL Phase II and IV Combined Experiment Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duque, Earl P. N.; Johnson, Wayne; vanDam, C. P.; Chao, David D.; Cortes, Regina; Yee, Karen

    1999-01-01

    Accurate, reliable and robust numerical predictions of wind turbine rotor power remain a challenge to the wind energy industry. The literature reports various methods that compare predictions to experiments. The methods vary from Blade Element Momentum Theory (BEM), Vortex Lattice (VL), to variants of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RaNS). The BEM and VL methods consistently show discrepancies in predicting rotor power at higher wind speeds mainly due to inadequacies with inboard stall and stall delay models. The RaNS methodologies show promise in predicting blade stall. However, inaccurate rotor vortex wake convection, boundary layer turbulence modeling and grid resolution has limited their accuracy. In addition, the inherently unsteady stalled flow conditions become computationally expensive for even the best endowed research labs. Although numerical power predictions have been compared to experiment. The availability of good wind turbine data sufficient for code validation experimental data that has been extracted from the IEA Annex XIV download site for the NREL Combined Experiment phase II and phase IV rotor. In addition, the comparisons will show data that has been further reduced into steady wind and zero yaw conditions suitable for comparisons to "steady wind" rotor power predictions. In summary, the paper will present and discuss the capabilities and limitations of the three numerical methods and make available a database of experimental data suitable to help other numerical methods practitioners validate their own work.

  16. Combining paleo-data and modern exclosure experiments to assess the impact of megafauna extinctions on woody vegetation.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Elisabeth S; Gill, Jacquelyn L; Johnson, Christopher N; Vera, Frans W M; Sandom, Christopher J; Asner, Gregory P; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2016-01-26

    Until recently in Earth history, very large herbivores (mammoths, ground sloths, diprotodons, and many others) occurred in most of the World's terrestrial ecosystems, but the majority have gone extinct as part of the late-Quaternary extinctions. How has this large-scale removal of large herbivores affected landscape structure and ecosystem functioning? In this review, we combine paleo-data with information from modern exclosure experiments to assess the impact of large herbivores (and their disappearance) on woody species, landscape structure, and ecosystem functions. In modern landscapes characterized by intense herbivory, woody plants can persist by defending themselves or by association with defended species, can persist by growing in places that are physically inaccessible to herbivores, or can persist where high predator activity limits foraging by herbivores. At the landscape scale, different herbivore densities and assemblages may result in dynamic gradients in woody cover. The late-Quaternary extinctions were natural experiments in large-herbivore removal; the paleoecological record shows evidence of widespread changes in community composition and ecosystem structure and function, consistent with modern exclosure experiments. We propose a conceptual framework that describes the impact of large herbivores on woody plant abundance mediated by herbivore diversity and density, predicting that herbivore suppression of woody plants is strongest where herbivore diversity is high. We conclude that the decline of large herbivores induces major alterations in landscape structure and ecosystem functions.

  17. Interaction effects of mercury-pesticide combinations towards a cyanobacterium

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, G.W.

    1985-05-01

    The present study supplies interaction data for combinations of mercuric ion (supplied as mercuric chloride), atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine), and permethrin (3-phenoxybenzyl-(1RS)-cis,trans-3-(2,2-dichloro-vinyl)-2,2-dimethyl cyclopropanecarboxylate) when tested towards growth of the cyanobacterium (blue-green alga) Anabaena inaequalis. Mercury is one of the most important heavy metal pollutants and has been widely used in toxicology research. Atrazine is the most heavily used pesticide in the United States and its residues are widely distributed in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Permethrin is an important insecticide with expanding markets and is presently being evaluated for its environmental impact. A. inaequalis has been used extensively in this laboratory in previous interaction studies.

  18. Combining virtual reality and multimedia techniques for effective maintenance training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLin, David M.; Chung, James C.

    1996-02-01

    This paper describes a virtual reality (VR) system developed for use as part of an integrated, low-cost, stand-alone, multimedia trainer. The trainer is used to train National Guard personnel in maintenance and trouble-shooting tasks for the M1A1 Abrams tank, the M2A2 Bradley fighting vehicle and the TOW II missile system. The VR system features a modular, extensible, object-oriented design which consists of a training monitor component, a VR run time component, a model loader component, and a set of domain-specific object behaviors which mimic the behavior of objects encountered in the actual vehicles. The VR system is built from a combination of off-the-shelf commercial software and custom software developed at RTI.

  19. The relationship between pediatric combination vaccines and market effects.

    PubMed

    Behzad, Banafsheh; Jacobson, Sheldon H; Jokela, Janet A; Sewell, Edward C

    2014-06-01

    We explored market factors that affect pediatric combination vaccine uptake in the US public-sector pediatric vaccine market. We specifically examined how Pediarix and Pentacel earned a place in the 2009-2012 lowest overall cost formulary. Direct competition between Pediarix and Pentacel is driven by the indirect presence of the Merck Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine and the Recommended Childhood Immunization Schedule requirement for a hepatitis B birth dose. The resulting analysis suggests that Pentacel would never have earned a place in the lowest overall cost formulary for 2009-2012 federal contract prices for any cost of an injection unless the Merck H influenzae type b advantage was ignored and the hepatitis B birth dose administration cost was recognized by health care providers in designing the lowest overall cost formularies.

  20. The Relationship Between Pediatric Combination Vaccines and Market Effects

    PubMed Central

    Behzad, Banafsheh; Jokela, Janet A.; Sewell, Edward C.

    2014-01-01

    We explored market factors that affect pediatric combination vaccine uptake in the US public-sector pediatric vaccine market. We specifically examined how Pediarix and Pentacel earned a place in the 2009–2012 lowest overall cost formulary. Direct competition between Pediarix and Pentacel is driven by the indirect presence of the Merck Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine and the Recommended Childhood Immunization Schedule requirement for a hepatitis B birth dose. The resulting analysis suggests that Pentacel would never have earned a place in the lowest overall cost formulary for 2009–2012 federal contract prices for any cost of an injection unless the Merck H influenzae type b advantage was ignored and the hepatitis B birth dose administration cost was recognized by health care providers in designing the lowest overall cost formularies. PMID:24825198

  1. Bioinsecticide and leaf litter combination increases oviposition and reduces adult recruitment to create an effective ovitrap for Culex mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Bellile, Katie G; Vonesh, James R

    2016-06-01

    Mosquito egg traps, aquatic habitats baited with oviposition attractant and insecticide, are important tools for surveillance and control efforts in integrated vector management programs. The bioinsecticide Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) is increasingly used as an environmentally friendly alternative to chemical insecticides and the combination of Bti with a simple oviposition attractant like leaf litter to create an effective egg trap seems appealing. However, previous research suggests that Bti may itself alter oviposition, and that leaf litter may dramatically reduce Bti toxicity. Here we present results from field experiment designed to link the effects of litter and Bti on mosquito oviposition habitat selection and post-colonization survival to production of adult mosquitoes. Tripling litter increased Culex spp. oviposition nearly nine-fold, while Bti had no effect on oviposition. Neither factor altered egg survival, thus larval abundance reflected the effects of litter on oviposition. Both Bti and litter reduced larval survival by ∼60%. We found no evidence that increased litter reduced Bti toxicity. Adult production was dependent upon both litter and Bti. In the absence of Bti, effects of litter on oviposition translated into three-fold more adults. However, in the presence of Bti, initial increases in oviposition were erased by the combined negative effects of Bti and litter on post-colonization survival. Thus, our study provides field evidence that combined litter and Bti application creates an effective ovitrap. This combined treatment had the highest oviposition and the lowest survival, and thus removed the greatest number of mosquitoes from the landscape.

  2. Effects of acid rain, alone and in combination with gaseous pollutants, on growth and yield of crop plants

    SciTech Connect

    Shriner, D.S.; Johnston, J.W. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Greenhouse, growth chamber, and field experiments were conducted to determine the response of crop plants to levels of acidity in simulated rain. The major objectives were: to determine the levels of acidity in rain that alter crop productivity; to evaluate varietal differences in crop response; and to determine the response of crop plants to the combined stress of acid rain and gaseous pollutants, primarily ozone. Results showed additive effects rather than synergistic ones.

  3. Internship Experiences for Aspiring Principals: Student Perceptions and Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christian, Ginger R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate East Tennessee State University graduate student perceptions on the effectiveness of internship experiences as students explored the implementation of ISLLC Standards and the role of mentor support as they prepared for the principalship. The participating university for this study is…

  4. Polymer Photooxidation: An Experiment to Demonstrate the Effect of Additives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Norman S.; McKellar, John F.

    1979-01-01

    This undergraduate experiment shows that the inclusion of an appropriate additive can have a very marked effect on the physical properties of a polymer. The polymer used is polypropylene and the additives are 2-hydroxy-4-octyloxy-benzophenone and benzophenone. (BB)

  5. Chemical release and radiation effects experiment advanced planning and coordination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, William W.; Alzmann, Melanie

    1991-01-01

    The efforts conducted to provide assessments and planning support for the Chemical Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) Experiments are summarized. Included are activities regarding scientific working group and workshop development including the preparation of descriptive information on the CRRES Project.

  6. Is the Hawthorne Effect in Educational Experiments a Chimera?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauernfeind, Robert H.; Olson, Carl J.

    1973-01-01

    Reports on an experimental study designed to investigate the relationship between two factors commonly regarded as components of the Hawthorne Effect on pupil performance and on intellectual task. These factors are (1) direct cue, or awareness of experimentation, as represented by an announcement that pupils were the subjects of an experiment; and…

  7. Greenhouse Effect Detection Experiment (GEDEX). Selected data sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Lola M.; Warnock, Archibald, III

    1992-01-01

    This CD-ROM contains selected data sets compiled by the participants of the Greenhouse Effect Detection Experiment (GEDEX) workshop on atmospheric temperature. The data sets include surface, upper air, and/or satellite-derived measurements of temperature, solar irradiance, clouds, greenhouse gases, fluxes, albedo, aerosols, ozone, and water vapor, along with Southern Oscillation Indices and Quasi-Biennial Oscillation statistics.

  8. Combinations of Effective Leadership Styles in Victorian State High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badcock, A. M.

    1980-01-01

    The main finding of this investigation is that the effectiveness of the educational system could be increased through the provision of task-oriented leadership to schools having an unfavorable atmosphere. (Author/IRT)

  9. Combined effects of defoliation and water stress on pine growth and non-structural carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Jacquet, Jean-Sébastien; Bosc, Alexandre; O'Grady, Anthony; Jactel, Hervé

    2014-04-01

    Climate change is expected to increase both pest insect damage and the occurrence of severe drought. There is therefore a need to better understand the combined effects of biotic and abiotic damage on tree growth in order to predict the multi-factorial effect of climate change on forest ecosystem productivity. Indeed, the effect of stress interactions on tree growth is an increasingly important topic that greatly lacks experiments and data, and it is unlikely that the impact of combined stresses can be extrapolated from the outcomes of studies that focused on a single stress. We developed an original manipulative study under real field conditions where we applied artificial defoliation and induced water stress on 10-year-old (∼10 m high) maritime pine trees (Pinus pinaster Ait.). Tree response to combined stresses was quantitatively assessed following tree secondary growth and carbohydrate pools. Such a design allowed us to address the crucial question of combined stresses on trees under stand conditions, sharing soil supplies with neighboring trees. Our initial hypotheses were that (i) moderate defoliation can limit the impact of water stress on tree growth through reduced transpiration demand by a tree canopy partly defoliated and that (ii) defoliation results in reduced non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) pools, affecting tree tolerance to drought. Our results showed additive effects of defoliation and water stress on tree growth and contradict our initial hypothesis. Indeed, under stand conditions, we found that partial defoliation does not limit the impact of water stress through reduced transpiration. Our study also highlighted that, even if NSC in all organs were affected by defoliation, tree response to water stress was not triggered. We found that stem NSC were maintained or increased during the entire growing season, supporting literature-based hypotheses such as an active maintenance of the hydraulic system or another limiting resource for tree growth

  10. Combined effects of selected Penicillium mycotoxins on in vitro proliferation of porcine lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Bernhoft, Aksel; Keblys, Modestas; Morrison, Ellen; Larsen, Hans Jørgen S; Flåøyen, Arne

    2004-11-01

    The in vitro effect of combinations of the Penicillium mycotoxins citrinin (CIT), cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), ochratoxin A (OTA), patulin (PAT), penicillic acid (PIA) and roquefortine C (RQC) on mitogen induced lymphocyte proliferation was determined using purified lymphocytes from six piglets. Dose-response curves for each mycotoxin and mycotoxin combinations were generated. The combined effects of toxin pairs based on IC20 were illustrated in isobole diagrams and statistically calculated. OTA and CIT elicited a synergistic effect. Four toxin pairs elicited additive effects, four pairs less-than-additive effects and six pairs independent effects. Thus, the majority of toxin pairs tested produced lower combined effects than an additive effect. The results indicate that the sum effect of all toxins is less than that from the summation of concentrations of the individual compounds, adjusted for differences in potencies.

  11. Suppressing magnetization exchange effects in stimulated-echo diffusion experiments.

    PubMed

    Pagès, Guilhem; Dvinskikh, Sergey V; Furó, István

    2013-09-01

    Exchange of nuclear magnetization between spin pools, either by chemical exchange or by cross-relaxation or both, has a significant influence on the signal attenuation in stimulated-echo-type pulsed field gradient experiments. Hence, in such cases the obtained molecular self-diffusion coefficients can carry a large systematic error. We propose a modified stimulated echo pulse sequence that contains T2-filters during the z-magnetization store period. We demonstrate, using a common theoretical description for chemical exchange and cross-relaxation, that these filters suppress the effects of exchange on the diffusional decay in that frequent case where one of the participating spin pools is immobile and exhibits a short T2. We demonstrate the performance of this experiment in an agarose/water gel. We posit that this new experiment has advantages over other approaches hitherto used, such as that consisting of measuring separately the magnetization exchange rate, if suitable by Goldman-Shen type experiments, and then correcting for exchange effects within the framework of a two-site exchange model. We also propose experiments based on selective decoupling and applicable in systems with no large T2 difference between the different spin pools.

  12. Antibacterial effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles combined with ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seil, Justin T.; Webster, Thomas J.

    2012-12-01

    Using Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), the present study investigated the antibacterial effect of ZnO nanoparticles both in the absence and presence of ultrasound stimulation. While the antibacterial effect of control nanoparticle chemistries (Al2O3) alone was either weak or unobservable under the conditions tested, the antibacterial effect of ZnO alone was significant, providing over a four log reduction (equivalent to antibiotics) compared to no treatment after just 8 h. The antibacterial effect was enhanced as ZnO particle diameter decreased. Specifically, when testing the antibacterial effect against bacteria populations relevant to infection, a 500 μg ml-1 dose of zinc oxide nanoparticles with a diameter of 20 nm reduced S. aureus populations by four orders of magnitude after 8 and 24 h, compared to control groups with no nanoparticles. This was accomplished without the use of antibiotics, to which bacteria are developing a resistance anyway. The addition of ultrasound stimulation further reduced the number of viable colony-forming units present in a planktonic cell suspension by 76% compared to nanoparticles alone. Lastly, this study provided a mechanism for how ZnO nanoparticles in the presence of ultrasound decrease bacteria functions by demonstrating greater hydrogen peroxide generation by S. aureus compared to controls. These results indicated that small-diameter ZnO nanoparticles exhibited strong antibacterial properties that can be additionally enhanced in the presence of ultrasound and, thus, should be further studied for a wide range of medical device anti-infection applications.

  13. Antibacterial effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles combined with ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Seil, Justin T; Webster, Thomas J

    2012-12-14

    Using Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), the present study investigated the antibacterial effect of ZnO nanoparticles both in the absence and presence of ultrasound stimulation. While the antibacterial effect of control nanoparticle chemistries (Al(2)O(3)) alone was either weak or unobservable under the conditions tested, the antibacterial effect of ZnO alone was significant, providing over a four log reduction (equivalent to antibiotics) compared to no treatment after just 8 h. The antibacterial effect was enhanced as ZnO particle diameter decreased. Specifically, when testing the antibacterial effect against bacteria populations relevant to infection, a 500 μg ml(-1) dose of zinc oxide nanoparticles with a diameter of 20 nm reduced S. aureus populations by four orders of magnitude after 8 and 24 h, compared to control groups with no nanoparticles. This was accomplished without the use of antibiotics, to which bacteria are developing a resistance anyway. The addition of ultrasound stimulation further reduced the number of viable colony-forming units present in a planktonic cell suspension by 76% compared to nanoparticles alone. Lastly, this study provided a mechanism for how ZnO nanoparticles in the presence of ultrasound decrease bacteria functions by demonstrating greater hydrogen peroxide generation by S. aureus compared to controls. These results indicated that small-diameter ZnO nanoparticles exhibited strong antibacterial properties that can be additionally enhanced in the presence of ultrasound and, thus, should be further studied for a wide range of medical device anti-infection applications.

  14. Modelling combined effects of nutrients and toxicants in a branch of the Rhine Delta

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, P.R.G.; Nijs, A.C.M. de; Aldenberg, T.

    1995-12-31

    A model is presented in which fate and effects of both nutrients and toxicants are combined at the level of phytoplankton and zooplankton in a river system including its sedimentation area. Within water quality modelling emphasis has been on either eutrophication or on toxic fates. Eutrophication research mainly focuses on the relationship between nutrients and water quality parameters. Ecotoxicological studies on the other hand aim either at describing fate of toxic substances or estimating biological effects on or below organism level on the basis of dose-effect experiments. However, an integrated approach linking fate and effects of nutrients and toxic substances on the ecosystem level is demanded to understand the behavior of natural systems exposed to a mix of compounds. The model describes a branch of the river Rhine, the river IJssel, with its sedimentation areas, lake Ketelmeer and lake IJsselmeer, which have suffered severely from high inputs of both nutrients and heavy metals in the past. Only from the seventies onward international sanitation programs have significantly improved the situation. Despite the improvements further actions are required because the problems of high chlorophyll levels as well as high loading of metals remain. It is shown that nutrients may induce an increase in phytoplankton biomass due to less efficient zooplankton grazing. Model results show that in order to change the present state of eutrophication also the input of xenobiotic substances affecting the zooplankton must be decreased.

  15. Combined effects of drought and the fungicide tebuconazole on aquatic leaf litter decomposition.

    PubMed

    Pesce, Stéphane; Zoghlami, Olfa; Margoum, Christelle; Artigas, Joan; Chaumot, Arnaud; Foulquier, Arnaud

    2016-04-01

    Loss of biodiversity and altered ecosystem functioning are driven by the cumulative effects of multiple natural and anthropogenic stressors affecting both quantity and quality of water resources. Here we performed a 40-day laboratory microcosm experiment to assess the individual and combined effects of drought and the model fungicide tebuconazole (TBZ) on leaf litter decomposition (LLD), a fundamental biogeochemical process in freshwater ecosystems. Starting out from a worst-case scenario perspective, leaf-associated microbial communities were exposed to severe drought conditions (four 5-day drought periods alternated with 4-day immersion periods) and/or a chronic exposure to TBZ (nominal concentration of 20μgL(-1)). We assessed the direct effects of drought and fungicide on the structure (biomass, diversity) and activity (extracellular enzymatic potential) of fungal and bacterial assemblages colonizing leaves. We also investigated indirect effects on the feeding rates of the amphipod Gammarus fossarum on leaves previously exposed to drought and/or TBZ contamination. Results indicate a stronger effect of drought stress than fungicide contamination under the experimental conditions applied. Indeed, the drought stress strongly impacted microbial community structure and activities, inhibiting the LLD process and leading to cascading effects on macroinvertebrate feeding. However, despite the lack of significant effect of TBZ applied alone, the effects of drought on microbial functions (i.e., decrease in LLD and in enzymatic activities) and on Gammarus feeding rates were more pronounced when drought and TBZ stresses were applied together. In a perspective of ecological risk assessment and ecosystem management for sustainability, these findings stress the need for deeper insight into how multiple stressors can affect the functioning of aquatic ecosystems and associated services.

  16. The ACCEND program: a combined BS and MS program in environmental engineering that includes co-operative work experience.

    PubMed

    Bishop, P L; Keener, T C; Kukreti, A R; Kowel, S T

    2004-01-01

    Environmental engineering education has rapidly expanded in recent years and new teaching methods are needed. Many professionals and educators believe that a MS degree in environmental engineering should be the minimum in order to practice the profession, along with practical training. This paper describes an innovative program being offered at the University of Cincinnati that combines an integrated BS in civil engineering and an MS in environmental engineering with extensive practical co-operative education (co-op) experience, all within a five-year period. The program includes distance learning opportunities during the co-op periods. The result is a well-trained graduate who will receive higher pay and more challenging career opportunities, and who will have developed professionalism and maturity beyond that from traditional engineering programs.

  17. Instrumentation for fast-scan cyclic voltammetry combined with electrophysiology for behavioral experiments in freely moving animals

    PubMed Central

    Takmakov, Pavel; McKinney, Collin J.; Carelli, Regina M.; Wightman, R. Mark

    2011-01-01

    Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry is a unique technique for sampling dopamine concentration in the brain of rodents in vivo in real time. The combination of in vivo voltammetry with single-unit electrophysiological recording from the same microelectrode has proved to be useful in studying the relationship between animal behavior, dopamine release and unit activity. The instrumentation for these experiments described here has two unique features. First, a 2-electrode arrangement implemented for voltammetric measurements with the grounded reference electrode allows compatibility with electrophysiological measurements, iontophoresis, and multielectrode measurements. Second, we use miniaturized electronic components in the design of a small headstage that can be fixed on the rat's head and used in freely moving animals. PMID:21806203

  18. Lumacaftor alone and combined with ivacaftor: preclinical and clinical trial experience of F508del CFTR correction.

    PubMed

    Brewington, John J; McPhail, Gary L; Clancy, John P

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein (CFTR), leading to significant morbidity and mortality. CFTR is a chloride and bicarbonate channel at the epithelial cell membrane. The most common CFTR mutation is F508del, resulting in minimal CFTR at the plasma membrane. Current disease management is supportive, whereas an ultimate goal is to develop therapies to restore CFTR activity. We summarize experience with lumacaftor, a small molecule that increases F508del-CFTR levels at the plasma membrane. Lumacaftor in combination with ivacaftor, a modulator of CFTR gating defects, improves clinical outcome measures in patients homozygous for the F508del mutation. Lumacaftor represents a significant advancement in the treatment of biochemical abnormalities in CF. Further development of CFTR modulators will improve upon current therapies, although it remains unclear whether this approach will provide therapies for all CFTR mutations.

  19. Instrumentation for fast-scan cyclic voltammetry combined with electrophysiology for behavioral experiments in freely moving animals.

    PubMed

    Takmakov, Pavel; McKinney, Collin J; Carelli, Regina M; Wightman, R Mark

    2011-07-01

    Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry is a unique technique for sampling dopamine concentration in the brain of rodents in vivo in real time. The combination of in vivo voltammetry with single-unit electrophysiological recording from the same microelectrode has proved to be useful in studying the relationship between animal behavior, dopamine release and unit activity. The instrumentation for these experiments described here has two unique features. First, a 2-electrode arrangement implemented for voltammetric measurements with the grounded reference electrode allows compatibility with electrophysiological measurements, iontophoresis, and multielectrode measurements. Second, we use miniaturized electronic components in the design of a small headstage that can be fixed on the rat's head and used in freely moving animals.

  20. Monitoring the distribution of surfactants in the stratum corneum by combined ATR-FTIR and tape-stripping experiments.

    PubMed

    Hoppel, Magdalena; Holper, Evelyn; Baurecht, Dieter; Valenta, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Combined ATR-FTIR (attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared) spectroscopy and tape-stripping experiments in vitro on porcine ear skin were used to investigate the spatial distribution of different surfactants in the stratum corneum (SC). To reveal a possible connection between the size of the formed micelles and skin penetration, dynamic light-scattering measurements of the aqueous surfactant solutions were also taken. Compared to an alkyl polyglycoside and sucrose laurate, a deeper skin penetration of the anionic surfactants sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) und sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES) could be related to a smaller size of the formed micelles. Beside the differences in spatial distribution, a link between the physical presence of anionic surfactants in the SC and a decrease of skin hydration was found. Furthermore, the incorporation of SDS and SLES into the SC, even after a brief, consumer-orientated washing procedure with commercially available hair shampoos, was confirmed.

  1. Combined effects of alcohol and distraction on driving performance.

    PubMed

    Rakauskas, Michael E; Ward, Nicholas J; Boer, Erwin R; Bernat, Edward M; Cadwallader, Meredith; Patrick, Christopher J

    2008-09-01

    Although alcohol and distraction are often cited as significant risk factors for traffic crashes, most research has considered them in isolation. It is therefore necessary to consider the interactions between alcohol and distraction impairment sources, especially when examining the relationship between behavior and crash risk. In a driving simulator, the primary goal was to maintain a safe headway to a lead vehicle and the secondary goal was to maintain stable lane position. All participants engaged in distractions that represented different levels of resource competition and half of the participants consumed alcohol (target BAC 0.08 g/dl). Specific comparisons were made between sober driving while distracted and driving intoxicated without distraction. Distraction tasks produced more changes in driving behavior than did alcohol for both longitudinal (primary) and lateral (secondary) driving goals. Alcohol impairment was evident only in relation to lateral driving performance, however there was an amplification of impairment when alcohol and distraction conditions were combined. Distraction resulted in a general level of impairment across all driving goals, whereas participants with alcohol appeared to shed secondary driving goals to "protect" primary driving goals. Drivers' strategies to cope with alcohol (and distraction) may not be sufficient to offset the increased crash risk.

  2. Toxic effects of individual and combined effects of BTEX on Euglena gracilis.

    PubMed

    Peng, Cheng; Lee, Jong-Wha; Sichani, Homa Teimouri; Ng, Jack C

    2015-03-02

    BTEX is a group of volatile organic compounds consisting of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes. Environmental contamination of BTEX can occur in the groundwater with their effects on the aquatic organisms and ecosystem being sparsely studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxic effects of individual and mixed BTEX on Euglena gracilis (E. gracilis). We examined the growth rate, morphological changes and chlorophyll contents in E. gracilis Z and its mutant SMZ cells treated with single and mixture of BTEX. BTEX induced morphological change, formation of lipofuscin, and decreased chlorophyll content of E. gracilis Z in a dose response manner. The toxicity of individual BTEX on cell growth and chlorophyll inhibition is in the order of xylenes>ethylbenzene>toluene>benzene. SMZ was found more sensitive to BTEX than Z at much lower concentrations between 0.005 and 5 μM. The combined effect of mixed BTEX on chlorophyll contents was shown to be concentration addition (CA). Results from this study suggested that E. gracilis could be a suitable model for monitoring BTEX in the groundwater and predicting the combined effects on aqueous ecosystem.

  3. Silver nanoparticles and electroporation: Their combinational effect on Leishmania major.

    PubMed

    Dolat, Elham; Rajabi, Omid; Salarabadi, Samaneh Soudmand; Yadegari-Dehkordi, Sajedeh; Sazgarnia, Ameneh

    2015-12-01

    Leishmaniasis is an emerging and uncontrolled disease. The use of routine drugs has been limited due to proven side effects and drug resistance. Interestingly, novel approaches such as nanotechnology have been applied as a therapeutic modality. Silver nanoparticles have shown antileishmanial effects but because of their nonspecific and toxic effects on normal cells, their use has been limited. On the other hand, it has been demonstrated that electric pulses induce electropores on cell membranes resulting in higher entrance of certain molecules into cells. There is a hypothesis proposing that use of electroporation and silver nanoparticles simultaneously can induce greater accumulation of particles in infected cells, besides higher toxicity. In this study, after applying electric pulses with different concentrations of silver nanoparticles (SNPs), cell survival rate was determined by standard viability assays. On the basis of these data, 2 μg/ml of SNPs and 700 V/cm with 100 μs duration of electroporation were selected as the non-lethal condition. Promastigotes and infected macrophage cells received both treatments and the survival percentage and Infection Index were calculated. In parasites and cells receiving both treatments, higher toxicity was observed in comparison to each treatment given individually, showing a synergic effect on promastigotes. Therefore, application of electric pulses could overcome limitations in using the antileishmanial properties of silver nanoparticles.

  4. Spatial and spectral effects in subcritical system pulsed experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Dulla, S.; Nervo, M.; Ravetto, P.; Carta, M.

    2013-07-01

    Accurate neutronic models are needed for the interpretation of pulsed experiments in subcritical systems. In this work, the extent of spatial and spectral effects in the pulse propagation phenomena is investigated and the analysis is applied to the GUINEVERE experiment. The multigroup cross section data is generated by the Monte Carlo SERPENT code and the neutronic evolution following the source pulse is simulated by a kinetic diffusion code. The results presented show that important spatial and spectral aspects need to be properly accounted for and that a detailed energy approach may be needed to adequately capture the physical features of the system to the pulse injection. (authors)

  5. Radiographic evaluation of occlusal caries: effect of training and experience.

    PubMed

    Lazarchik, D A; Firestone, A R; Heaven, T J; Filler, S J; Lussi, A

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate what effect differing levels of didactic education and clinical experience have on the ability to diagnose occlusal caries from radiographs. Freshman and senior dental students and dental school faculty were asked to evaluate bitewing radiographs for the presence of occlusal caries and for a recommendation for restorative treatment. The agreement between histologic and radiographic diagnosis was assessed by calculating sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and interexaminer agreement. It was concluded that dental students and faculty did differ in their abilities to evaluate radiographs for occlusal caries, and that education and clinical experience especially affected interexaminer agreement.

  6. Estimating two-loop radiative effects in the MOLLER experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksejevs, A. G.; Barkanova, S. G.; Zykunov, V. A.; Kuraev, E. A.

    2013-07-15

    Within the on-shell renormalization scheme, two-loop electroweak corrections to the parityviolating polarization asymmetry in the reaction e{sup -}e{sup -} {yields} e{sup -}e{sup -}({gamma}, {gamma}{gamma}) were estimated for the MOLLER experiment at JLab. The infrared divergence and the imaginary part of the amplitude were taken completely under control. Relevant compact expressions obtained by using asymptotic methods are free from unphysical parameters and are convenient for analysis and for numerical estimations. A numerical analysis revealed a significant scale of two-loop effects and the need for taking them into account in the MOLLER experiment.

  7. Neuroprotective effects of yoga practice: age-, experience-, and frequency-dependent plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Villemure, Chantal; Čeko, Marta; Cotton, Valerie A.; Bushnell, M. Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Yoga combines postures, breathing, and meditation. Despite reported health benefits, yoga’s effects on the brain have received little study. We used magnetic resonance imaging to compare age-related gray matter (GM) decline in yogis and controls. We also examined the effect of increasing yoga experience and weekly practice on GM volume and assessed which aspects of weekly practice contributed most to brain size. Controls displayed the well documented age-related global brain GM decline while yogis did not, suggesting that yoga contributes to protect the brain against age-related decline. Years of yoga experience correlated mostly with GM volume differences in the left hemisphere (insula, frontal operculum, and orbitofrontal cortex) suggesting that yoga tunes the brain toward a parasympatically driven mode and positive states. The number of hours of weekly practice correlated with GM volume in the primary somatosensory cortex/superior parietal lobule (S1/SPL), precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), hippocampus, and primary visual cortex (V1). Commonality analyses indicated that the combination of postures and meditation contributed the most to the size of the hippocampus, precuneus/PCC, and S1/SPL while the combination of meditation and breathing exercises contributed the most to V1 volume. Yoga’s potential neuroprotective effects may provide a neural basis for some of its beneficial effects. PMID:26029093

  8. The Importance of Being First: Exploring Priority and Diversity Effects in a Grassland Field Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Weidlich, Emanuela W. A.; von Gillhaussen, Philipp; Delory, Benjamin M.; Blossfeld, Stephan; Poorter, Hendrik; Temperton, Vicky M.

    2017-01-01

    Diversity of species and order of arrival can have strong effects on ecosystem functioning and community composition, but these two have rarely been explicitly combined in experimental setups. We measured the effects of both species diversity and order of arrival on ecosystem function and community composition in a grassland field experiment, thus combining biodiversity and assembly approaches. We studied the effect of order of arrival of three plant functional groups (PFGs: grasses, legumes, and non-leguminous forbs) and of sowing low and high diversity seed mixtures (9 or 21 species) on species composition and aboveground biomass. The experiment was set up in two different soil types. Differences in PFG order of arrival affected the biomass, the number of species and community composition. As expected, we found higher aboveground biomass when sowing legumes before the other PFGs, but this effect was not continuous over time. We did not find a positive effect of sown diversity on aboveground biomass (even if it influenced species richness as expected). No interaction were found between the two studied factors. We found that sowing legumes first may be a good method for increasing productivity whilst maintaining diversity of central European grasslands, although the potential for long-lasting effects needs further study. In addition, the mechanisms behind the non-continuous priority effects we found need to be further researched, taking weather and plant-soil feedbacks into account. PMID:28119707

  9. The Importance of Being First: Exploring Priority and Diversity Effects in a Grassland Field Experiment.

    PubMed

    Weidlich, Emanuela W A; von Gillhaussen, Philipp; Delory, Benjamin M; Blossfeld, Stephan; Poorter, Hendrik; Temperton, Vicky M

    2016-01-01

    Diversity of species and order of arrival can have strong effects on ecosystem functioning and community composition, but these two have rarely been explicitly combined in experimental setups. We measured the effects of both species diversity and order of arrival on ecosystem function and community composition in a grassland field experiment, thus combining biodiversity and assembly approaches. We studied the effect of order of arrival of three plant functional groups (PFGs: grasses, legumes, and non-leguminous forbs) and of sowing low and high diversity seed mixtures (9 or 21 species) on species composition and aboveground biomass. The experiment was set up in two different soil types. Differences in PFG order of arrival affected the biomass, the number of species and community composition. As expected, we found higher aboveground biomass when sowing legumes before the other PFGs, but this effect was not continuous over time. We did not find a positive effect of sown diversity on aboveground biomass (even if it influenced species richness as expected). No interaction were found between the two studied factors. We found that sowing legumes first may be a good method for increasing productivity whilst maintaining diversity of central European grasslands, although the potential for long-lasting effects needs further study. In addition, the mechanisms behind the non-continuous priority effects we found need to be further researched, taking weather and plant-soil feedbacks into account.

  10. Anticonvulsive and neuroprotective effects of synergetic combination of phenytoin and gastrodin on the convulsion induced by penicillin in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ziqi; Lin, Yanzhu; Zheng, Hongyi; He, Yuzhong; Xu, Haohua; Zhang, Siheng; Weng, Wen; Li, Wei; Zhu, Linyan; Yang, Haifeng

    2015-08-01

    Phenytoin (PHT) is a commonly prescribed first-line antiepileptic drug. However, long-term administration of PHT can cause memory loss and balance disturbance. Gastrodin (GD) is the major bioactive component in Tianma and has sedative, anticonvulsive, memory strengthening, and neuroprotective effects. To combine the two drugs seems attractive; however, little was known about the efficacy of combination therapy. In this study, convulsive attack was successfully induced by penicillin. Isobolographic analysis, memory and balance behavior test, histopathological examination, and Western blot analysis were used to investigate whether the combination therapy of GD and PHT can enhance anticonvulsive effect and reduce the side effects associated with PHT. The GD alone (950.60 mg/kg) and the PHT alone (45.50 mg/kg) could produce an anticonvulsive effect, while comparable effect could be produced by PHT : GD = 1 : 50 (8.59 : 429.27 mg/kg), which reduce the dose of PHT by 81% and GD by 55%. After the chronic anticonvulsive experiments of 16 days, the balance disturbance and short-/long-term memory loss were observed in the PHT group, while the PHT + GD therapy can protect the normal balance and memory function. The neuron morphology of hippocampus was preserved, and the number of surviving neurons after combination therapy was more than the model group. The amount of NF-κB (p65) expression was increased in combination group. All above suggested the potential of the combination of PHT and GD enhances the anticonvulsive effect and the neuroprotective effect and reduces the PHT-associated memory and balance disturbance. The PHT + GD strategy would provide new possibilities as a novel promising methodology to treat epileptic patients.

  11. Diffusion in Altered Tonalite Sample Using Time Domain Diffusion Simulations in Tomographic Images Combined with Lab-scale Diffusion Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voutilainen, M.; Sardini, P.; Togneri, L.; Siitari-Kauppi, M.; Timonen, J.

    2010-12-01

    In this work an effect of rock heterogeneity on diffusion was investigated. Time domain diffusion simulations were used to compare behavior of diffusion in homogeneous and heterogeneous 3D media. Tomographic images were used as heterogeneous rock media. One altered tonalite sample from Sievi, Finland, was chosen as test case for introduced analysis procedure. Effective diffusion coefficient of tonalite sample was determined with lab-scale experiments and the same coefficient was used also for homogeneous media. Somewhat technically complicated mathematical solution for analysis of through diffusion experiment is shortly described. Computed tomography (CT) is already quite widely used in many geological, petrological, and paleontological applications when the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the material is of interest, and is an excellent method for gaining information especially about its heterogeneity, grain size, or porosity. In addition to offering means for quantitative characterization, CT provides a lot of qualitative information [1]. A through -diffusion laboratory experiment using radioactive tracer was fitted using the Time Domain Diffusion (TDD) method. This rapid particle tracking method allows simulation of the heterogeneous diffusion based on pore-scale images and local values of diffusivities [2]. As a result we found out that heterogeneity has only a small effect to diffusion coefficient and in-diffusion profile for used geometry. Also direction dependency was tested and was found to be negligible. Whereas significant difference between generally accepted value and value obtained from simulations for constant m in Archie’s law was found. [1] Voutilainen, M., Siitari-Kauppi, M., Sardini, P., and Timonen, J., (2010). On pore-space characterization of an altered tonalite by X-ray µCT and the 14C-PMMA method (in progress). [2] Sardini, P., Robinet, J., Siitari-Kauppi, M., Delay, F., and Hellmuth, K-H, (2007). On direct simulation of heterogeneous

  12. Combined Effects of Wakes and Jet Pulsing on Film Cooling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    water as a refer- ence. Constant current cold- wire and constant temperature hot - wire anemometry were used to measure flow temperature and velocity...Temperature measurements were made using an infrared camera, thermocouples, and constant current (cold wire ) anemometry . The local film cooling effectiveness...and heat transfer coefficient were de- termined from the measured temperatures. Phase locked flow temperature fields were determined from cold- wire

  13. Combined Effects of Wakes and Jet Pulsing on Film Cooling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-01

    water as a refer- ence. Constant current cold- wire and constant temperature hot - wire anemometry were used to measure flow temperature and velocity...Temperature measurements were made using an infrared camera, thermocouples, and constant current (cold wire ) anemometry . The local film cooling effectiveness...and heat transfer coefficient were de- termined from the measured temperatures. Phase locked flow temperature fields were determined from cold- wire

  14. FMRI group analysis combining effect estimates and their variances

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gang; Saad, Ziad S.; Nath, Audrey R.; Beauchamp, Michael S.; Cox, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    Conventional functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) group analysis makes two key assumptions that are not always justified. First, the data from each subject is condensed into a single number per voxel, under the assumption that within-subject variance for the effect of interest is the same across all subjects or is negligible relative to the cross-subject variance. Second, it is assumed that all data values are drawn from the same Gaussian distribution with no outliers. We propose an approach that does not make such strong assumptions, and present a computationally efficient frequentist approach to FMRI group analysis, which we term mixed-effects multilevel analysis (MEMA), that incorporates both the variability across subjects and the precision estimate of each effect of interest from individual subject analyses. On average, the more accurate tests result in higher statistical power, especially when conventional variance assumptions do not hold, or in the presence of outliers. In addition, various heterogeneity measures are available with MEMA that may assist the investigator in further improving the modeling. Our method allows group effect t-tests and comparisons among conditions and among groups. In addition, it has the capability to incorporate subject-specific covariates such as age, IQ, or behavioral data. Simulations were performed to illustrate power comparisons and the capability of controlling type I errors among various significance testing methods, and the results indicated that the testing statistic we adopted struck a good balance between power gain and type I error control. Our approach is instantiated in an open-source, freely distributed program that may be used on any dataset stored in the universal neuroimaging file transfer (NIfTI) format. To date, the main impediment for more accurate testing that incorporates both within- and cross-subject variability has been the high computational cost. Our efficient implementation makes this approach

  15. Landscape effects on soundscape experience in city parks.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiang; Kang, Jian; Luo, Tao; Behm, Holger

    2013-06-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyse the effects of various landscape factors on soundscape perception in city parks. This was based on the experience, which was supposed to reflect soundscape perception, of 580 users of five city parks in Xiamen, China. Visual and functional landscape characteristics were analysed in relation to experienced occurrence of and preference for individual sounds, as well as overall soundscape preference. The results suggest that landscape factors have more significant effects on experienced occurrence of individual sounds than preference for individual sounds. However, landscape effects on overall soundscape preference depend more on preferences for individual sounds. The effects of visual landscape on the perception of individual sounds could be more important in natural sounds than in artificial sounds, and more in experienced occurrence of than preference for individual sounds; for functional landscape the effects are reversed. In general, visual landscape effects on the perception of individual sounds are more significant than functional landscape effects, especially on experienced occurrence of individual sounds. Taking all factors into account, only the two landscape factors are highly correlated with the overall soundscape preference, with coefficient values of 0.325 and 0.204, respectively. Overall, the results reveal the close relationship between landscape and soundscape experience in real contexts, and that visual and functional aspects should be considered in terms of creating a better soundscape during park design and management processes. The analysis of users' social, demographical and behavioural factors such as age, visit frequency and length of stay, in relation to the soundscape experience, has also shown significant effects.

  16. Effects of correlated noise on the full-spectrum combining and complex-symbol combining arraying techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vazirani, P.

    1995-01-01

    The process of combining telemetry signals received at multiple antennas, commonly referred to as arraying, can be used to improve communication link performance in the Deep Space Network (DSN). By coherently adding telemetry from multiple receiving sites, arraying produces an enhancement in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) over that achievable with any single antenna in the array. A number of different techniques for arraying have been proposed and their performances analyzed in past literature. These analyses have compared different arraying schemes under the assumption that the signals contain additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) and that the noise observed at distinct antennas is independent. In situations where an unwanted background body is visible to multiple antennas in the array, however, the assumption of independent noises is no longer applicable. A planet with significant radiation emissions in the frequency band of interest can be one such source of correlated noise. For example, during much of Galileo's tour of Jupiter, the planet will contribute significantly to the total system noise at various ground stations. This article analyzes the effects of correlated noise on two arraying schemes currently being considered for DSN applications: full-spectrum combining (FSC) and complex-symbol combining (CSC). A framework is presented for characterizing the correlated noise based on physical parameters, and the impact of the noise correlation on the array performance is assessed for each scheme.

  17. Effects of Drugs and Drug Combinations in Pigeons Trained to Discriminate among Pentobarbital, Dizocilpine, a Combination of These Drugs, and Saline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillan, D. E.; Wessinger, William D.; Li, Mi

    2009-01-01

    Drugs with multiple actions can have complex discriminative-stimulus properties. An approach to studying such drugs is to train subjects to discriminate among drug combinations and individual drugs in the combination so that all of the complex discriminative stimuli are present during training. In the current experiments, a four-choice procedure…

  18. Persistent asymmetrical priority effects in a California grassland restoration experiment.

    PubMed

    Werner, Chhaya M; Vaughn, Kurt J; Stuble, Katharine L; Wolf, Kristina; Young, Truman P

    2016-09-01

    The order of species arrival can dramatically alter the trajectory of community development. While there is experimental evidence that priority effects can be important drivers of community structure early on, the persistence and duration of these effects is unclear. Here we report on a community assembly experiment in which a mix of four native grasses and a mix of four native forbs were planted on their own, together, or with one-year priority over the other guild. We found positive effects of priority for both grasses and forbs in the initial years of the experiment. However, 6-8 yr after planting, the effectiveness of priority treatments were mixed. Some species became rare, persisting only in treatments in which they had been given priority; others continued to maintain high cover and exhibit a strong positive signal of priority effects; still others remained common but no longer showed a signature of the initial priority effects; and finally, some species became locally extinct across all experimental plots. Grass priority over forbs was strong and persistent, but not forb priority over grasses. Our results demonstrate that the long-term benefits of temporal priority can persist for at least 8 yr for some, but not all species, and these continued effects result in distinct community composition. Manipulating the trajectory of community assembly through priority in seeding has potential as a useful tool for restoration.

  19. Combined Effects of Energy Development and Disease on Greater Sage-Grouse

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Rebecca L.; Tack, Jason D.; Naugle, David E.; Mills, L. Scott

    2013-01-01

    Species of conservation concern are increasingly threatened by multiple, anthropogenic stressors which are outside their evolutionary experience. Greater sage-grouse are highly susceptible to the impacts of two such stressors: oil and gas (energy) development and West Nile virus (WNv). However, the combined effects of these stressors and their potential interactions have not been quantified. We used lek (breeding ground) counts across a landscape encompassing extensive local and regional variation in the intensity of energy development to quantify the effects of energy development on lek counts, in years with widespread WNv outbreaks and in years without widespread outbreaks. We then predicted the effects of well density and WNv outbreak years on sage-grouse in northeast Wyoming. Absent an outbreak year, drilling an undeveloped landscape to a high permitting level (3.1 wells/km2) resulted in a 61% reduction in the total number of males counted in northeast Wyoming (total count). This was similar in magnitude to the 55% total count reduction that resulted from an outbreak year alone. However, energy-associated reductions in the total count resulted from a decrease in the mean count at active leks, whereas outbreak-associated reductions resulted from a near doubling of the lek inactivity rate (proportion of leks with a last count = 0). Lek inactivity quadrupled when 3.1 wells/km2 was combined with an outbreak year, compared to no energy development and no outbreak. Conservation measures should maintain sagebrush landscapes large and intact enough so that leks are not chronically reduced in size due to energy development, and therefore vulnerable to becoming inactive due to additional stressors. PMID:23940732

  20. Combined effects of energy development and disease on greater sage-grouse.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Rebecca L; Tack, Jason D; Naugle, David E; Mills, L Scott

    2013-01-01

    Species of conservation concern are increasingly threatened by multiple, anthropogenic stressors which are outside their evolutionary experience. Greater sage-grouse are highly susceptible to the impacts of two such stressors: oil and gas (energy) development and West Nile virus (WNv). However, the combined effects of these stressors and their potential interactions have not been quantified. We used lek (breeding ground) counts across a landscape encompassing extensive local and regional variation in the intensity of energy development to quantify the effects of energy development on lek counts, in years with widespread WNv outbreaks and in years without widespread outbreaks. We then predicted the effects of well density and WNv outbreak years on sage-grouse in northeast Wyoming. Absent an outbreak year, drilling an undeveloped landscape to a high permitting level (3.1 wells/km²) resulted in a 61% reduction in the total number of males counted in northeast Wyoming (total count). This was similar in magnitude to the 55% total count reduction that resulted from an outbreak year alone. However, energy-associated reductions in the total count resulted from a decrease in the mean count at active leks, whereas outbreak-associated reductions resulted from a near doubling of the lek inactivity rate (proportion of leks with a last count = 0). Lek inactivity quadrupled when 3.1 wells/km² was combined with an outbreak year, compared to no energy development and no outbreak. Conservation measures should maintain sagebrush landscapes large and intact enough so that leks are not chronically reduced in size due to energy development, and therefore vulnerable to becoming inactive due to additional stressors.

  1. Methods and Issues for the Combined Use of Integral Experiments and Covariance Data: Results of a NEA International Collaborative Study

    SciTech Connect

    Palmiotti, Giuseppe; Salvatores, Massimo

    2014-04-01

    The Working Party on International Nuclear Data Evaluation Cooperation (WPEC) of the Nuclear Science Committee under the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA/OECD) established a Subgroup (called “Subgroup 33”) in 2009 on “Methods and issues for the combined use of integral experiments and covariance data.” The first stage was devoted to producing the description of different adjustment methodologies and assessing their merits. A detailed document related to this first stage has been issued. Nine leading organizations (often with a long and recognized expertise in the field) have contributed: ANL, CEA, INL, IPPE, JAEA, JSI, NRG, IRSN and ORNL. In the second stage a practical benchmark exercise was defined in order to test the reliability of the nuclear data adjustment methodology. A comparison of the results obtained by the participants and major lessons learned in the exercise are discussed in the present paper that summarizes individual contributions which often include several original developments not reported separately. The paper provides the analysis of the most important results of the adjustment of the main nuclear data of 11 major isotopes in a 33-group energy structure. This benchmark exercise was based on a set of 20 well defined integral parameters from 7 fast assembly experiments. The exercise showed that using a common shared set of integral experiments but different starting evaluated libraries and/or different covariance matrices, there is a good convergence of trends for adjustments. Moreover, a significant reduction of the original uncertainties is often observed. Using the a–posteriori covariance data, there is a strong reduction of the uncertainties of integral parameters for reference reactor designs, mainly due to the new correlations in the a–posteriori covariance matrix. Furthermore, criteria have been proposed and applied to verify the consistency of differential and integral data used in the adjustment. Finally, recommendations are given

  2. Mixing-to-eruption timescales: an integrated model combining numerical simulations and high-temperature experiments with natural melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montagna, Chiara; Perugini, Diego; De Campos, Christina; Longo, Antonella; Dingwell, Donald Bruce; Papale, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    Arrival of magma from depth into shallow reservoirs and associated mixing processes have been documented as possible triggers of explosive eruptions. Quantifying the timing from beginning of mixing to eruption is of fundamental importance in volcanology in order to put constraints about the possible onset of a new eruption. Here we integrate numerical simulations and high-temperature experiment performed with natural melts with the aim to attempt identifying the mixing-to-eruption timescales. We performed two-dimensional numerical simulations of the arrival of gas-rich magmas into shallow reservoirs. We solve the fluid dynamics for the two interacting magmas evaluating the space-time evolution of the physical properties of the mixture. Convection and mingling develop quickly into the chamber and feeding conduit/dyke. Over time scales of hours, the magmas in the reservoir appear to have mingled throughout, and convective patterns become harder to identify. High-temperature magma mixing experiments have been performed using a centrifuge and using basaltic and phonolitic melts from Campi Flegrei (Italy) as initial end-members. Concentration Variance Decay (CVD), an inevitable consequence of magma mixing, is exponential with time. The rate of CVD is a powerful new geochronometer for the time from mixing to eruption/quenching. The mingling-to-eruption time of three explosive volcanic eruptions from Campi Flegrei (Italy) yield durations on the order of tens of minutes. These results are in perfect agreement with the numerical simulations that suggest a maximum mixing time of a few hours to obtain a hybrid mixture. We show that integration of numerical simulation and high-temperature experiments can provide unprecedented results about mixing processes in volcanic systems. The combined application of numerical simulations and CVD geochronometer to the eruptive products of active volcanoes could be decisive for the preparation of hazard mitigation during volcanic unrest.

  3. Combined effects of space flight factors and radiation on humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, P.; Pecaut, M. J.; Fleshner, M.; Clarkson, T. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The probability that a dose of ionizing radiation kills a cell is about 10,000 times the probability that the cell will be transformed to malignancy. On the other hand, the number of cells killed required to significantly impact health is about 10,000 times the number that must be transformed to cause a late malignancy. If these two risks, cell killing and malignant transformation, are about equal, then the risk that occurs during a mission is more significant than the risk that occurs after a mission. The latent period for acute irradiation effects (cell killing) is about 2-4 weeks; the latent period for malignancy is 10-20 years. If these statements are approximately true, then the impact of cell killing on health in the low-gravity environment of space flight should be examined to establish an estimate of risk. The objective of this study is to synthesize data and conclusions from three areas of space biology and environmental health to arrive at rational risk assessment for radiations received by spacecraft crews: (1) the increased physiological demands of the space flight environment; (2) the effects of the space flight environment on physiological systems; and (3) the effects of radiation on physiological systems. One physiological system has been chosen: the immune response and its components, consisting of myeloid and lymphoid proliferative cell compartments. Best-case and worst-case scenarios are considered. In the worst case, a doubling of immune-function demand, accompanied by a halving of immune capacity, would reduce the endangering dose to a crew member to around 1 Gy.

  4. Combined Effects of Agitation, Macromolecular Crowding, and Interfaces on Amyloidogenesis*

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chiu Fan; Bird, Sarah; Shaw, Michael; Jean, Létitia; Vaux, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Amyloid formation and accumulation is a hallmark of protein misfolding diseases and is associated with diverse pathologies including type II diabetes and Alzheimer's disease (AD). In vitro, amyloidogenesis is widely studied in conditions that do not simulate the crowded and viscous in vivo environment. A high volume fraction of most biological fluids is occupied by various macromolecules, a phenomenon known as macromolecular crowding. For some amyloid systems (e.g. α-synuclein) and under shaking condition, the excluded volume effect of macromolecular crowding favors aggregation, whereas increased viscosity reduces the kinetics of these reactions. Amyloidogenesis can also be catalyzed by hydrophobic-hydrophilic interfaces, represented by the air-water interface in vitro and diverse heterogeneous interfaces in vivo (e.g. membranes). In this study, we investigated the effects of two different crowding polymers (dextran and Ficoll) and two different experimental conditions (with and without shaking) on the fibrilization of amyloid-β peptide, a major player in AD pathogenesis. Specifically, we demonstrate that, during macromolecular crowding, viscosity dominates over the excluded volume effect only when the system is spatially non homogeneous (i.e. an air-water interface is present). We also show that the surfactant activity of the crowding agents can critically influence the outcome of macromolecular crowding and that the structure of the amyloid species formed may depend on the polymer used. This suggests that, in vivo, the outcome of amyloidogenesis may be affected by both macromolecular crowding and spatial heterogeneity (e.g. membrane turn-over). More generally, our work suggests that any factors causing changes in crowding may be susceptibility factors in AD. PMID:22988239

  5. Effective Design of Multifunctional Peptides by Combining Compatible Functions

    PubMed Central

    Diener, Christian; Garza Ramos Martínez, Georgina; Moreno Blas, Daniel; Castillo González, David A.; Corzo, Gerardo; Castro-Obregon, Susana; Del Rio, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Multifunctionality is a common trait of many natural proteins and peptides, yet the rules to generate such multifunctionality remain unclear. We propose that the rules defining some protein/peptide functions are compatible. To explore this hypothesis, we trained a computational method to predict cell-penetrating peptides at the sequence level and learned that antimicrobial peptides and DNA-binding proteins are compatible with the rules of our predictor. Based on this finding, we expected that designing peptides for CPP activity may render AMP and DNA-binding activities. To test this prediction, we designed peptides that embedded two independent functional domains (nuclear localization and yeast pheromone activity), linked by optimizing their composition to fit the rules characterizing cell-penetrating peptides. These peptides presented effective cell penetration, DNA-binding, pheromone and antimicrobial activities, thus confirming the effectiveness of our computational approach to design multifunctional peptides with potential therapeutic uses. Our computational implementation is available at http://bis.ifc.unam.mx/en/software/dcf. PMID:27096600

  6. Effect of a combination of green and blue monochromatic light on broiler immune response.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ziqiang; Cao, Jing; Wang, Zixu; Dong, Yulan; Chen, Yaoxing

    2014-09-05

    Our previous study suggested that green light or blue light would enhance the broiler immune response; this study was conducted to evaluate whether a combination of green and blue monochromatic light would result in improved immune response. A total of 192 Arbor Acre male broilers were exposed to white light, red light, green light, and blue light from 0 to 26 days. From 27 to 49 days, half of the broilers in green light and blue light were switched to blue light (G-B) and green light (B-G), respectively. The levels of anti-Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and anti-bovine serum albumin (BSA) IgG in G-B group were elevated by 11.9-40.3% and 17.4-48.7%, respectively, compared to single monochromatic lights (P<0.05). Moreover, the proliferation of peripheral blood T and B lymphocytes and the IL-2 concentration in the G-B groups increased by 10.4-36.2%, 10.0-50.0% and 24.7-60.3% (P<0.05), respectively, compared with the single monochromatic light groups. However, the serum TNF-α concentration in the G-B group was reduced by 3.64-40.5% compared to other groups, and no significant difference was found between the G-B and B-G groups in any type of detection index at the end of the experiment. These results suggested that the combination of G-B and B-G monochromatic light could effectively enhance the antibody titer, the proliferation index of lymphocytes and alleviate the stress response in broilers. Therefore, the combination of green and blue monochromatic light can improve the immune function of broilers.

  7. Atomic oxygen effects on LDEF experiment AO171

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, Ann F.; Kamenetzky, Rachel R.; Finckenor, Miria M.; Norwood, Joseph K.

    1993-01-01

    The Solar Array Materials Passive Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Experiment (SAMPLE), AO171, contained in total approximately 100 materials and materials processes with a 300 specimen complement. With the exception of experiment solar cell and solar cell modules, all test specimens were weighed before flight, thus allowing an accurate determination of mass loss as a result of space exposure. Since almost all of the test specimens were thermal vacuum baked before flight, the mass loss sustained can be attributed principally to atomic oxygen attack. The atomic oxygen effects observed and measured in five classes of materials is documented. The atomic oxygen reactivity values generated for these materials are compared to those values derived for the same materials from exposures on short term shuttle flights. An assessment of the utility of predicting long term atomic oxygen effects from short term exposures is given. This experiment was located on Row 8 position A which allowed all experiment materials to be exposed to an atomic oxygen fluence of 6.93 x 10(exp 21) atoms/cm(sup 2) as a result of being positioned 38 degrees off the RAM direction.

  8. Synergistic effects of DL111-IT in combination with mifepristone and misoprostol on termination of early pregnancy in preclinical studies.

    PubMed

    He, Qiao-jun; Yang, Bo; Wang, Wei-fang; Wu, Hong-Hai; Fang, Rui-ying

    2003-10-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness and acute toxicity of DL111-IT combined with mifepristone (RU486) and misoprostol (MISO) on early pregnancy termination. In the pregnant rats experiments, the ED(50) values of RU486 in two-drug combinations were 0.16 (combined with DL111-IT) and 0.40 (combined with MISO) mg x kg(-1) x d(-1), while in three-drug combination treatment group (DL111-IT 9.0 mg x kg(-1) (combination treatment with MISO 0.10 mg x kg(-1) + RU486 0.05 mg x kg(-1) (effective doses) + high dosages of DL111-IT (0.05-0.10 mg x kg(-1)). DL111-IT induced pregnant rat uterine contraction in vitro, and the contractive efficacy was 60% of that induced by MISO. Multiple intramuscular injections of DL111-IT in vivo could significantly enhance the MISO-stimulated uterine contractions of pregnant rats in vitro. DL111-IT 600 mg x kg(-1) or RU486 1000 mg x kg(-1) induced pigeon vomiting, with latent periods of 32.3 +/- 12.0 min and 50.4 +/- 16.0 min, respectively. In three-drug combination group, the latent period of vomiting was significantly extended to 86.3 +/- 36.2 min. MISO also significantly decreased the frequency of vomiting within 4 h after administration of DL111-IT and RU486. In the experiment of mice acute toxicity, the LD(50) values and 95% confidence limit of DL111-IT (i.p.) alone and in combination with RU486 and MISO were 1379.4 (1278.2-1514.7) mg x kg(-1) and 1574.1 (1407.8-1762.7) mg x kg(-1), respectively. There was no significant difference. All data suggested that DL111-IT in combination with RU486 and MISO significantly increased the effect on early pregnancy termination without increasing acute toxicity compared to the treatment of DL111-IT alone, and this combination may be a promising

  9. [Effect of combined therapeutic methods on healing of periodontal vertical bone defects in regenerative surgery].

    PubMed

    Dori, Ferenc

    2009-03-15

    Several methods are available to enhance the healing and regeneration of periodontal tissues after surgical therapy of intrabony defects. The main indications for the use of combined regenerative procedures are the extent and morphology of the osseous lesions. The six studies of the present dissertation focused on the clinical effect of different barrier techniques, bone substitutes, enamel matrix derivatives and a growth factors containing adjuvant used in various combinations on the healing of severe periodontal intrabony impairments. Synthetic, xenogenetic and autologous materials were used in these randomized clinical studies. Mechanical barriers (polytetrafluoroethylene and collagen membranes) for GTR, biological barriers/enamel matrix proteins (EMD), synthetic (beta-TCP) and xenogeneic (NBM) bone grafts and autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) were combined in the test and control groups of the trials. The main clinical variable was the clinical attachment level (CAL) and the subsidiary one was the probing pocket depth (PPD), estimated at baseline and after one year. The summation of the results after the statistical analysis takes cognizance of the followings: a) Each of the eleven regenerative methods evaluated (ten combined procedures) leads to significant CAL gain and PPD decrease. b) Using beta-TCP or NBM with EMD or with PRP+GTR and GTR's, the difference between the parameters of the test and control groups were not statistically significant. c) It was confirmed in four studies that the addition of PRP to graft materials has not increased significantly the positive outcomes independent of the type of barrier or graft. d) Adding platelet-rich plasma to natural bone mineral, no benefit was observed from the point of view of the clinical variables. e) The polypeptide proteins of the platelet-rich plasma do not enhance the clinical regenerative effect of enamel matrix proteins. In conclusion, the option of the periodontal surgeons between these methods

  10. Combined effect of betaine and trehalose on osmotic tolerance of Escherichia coli in mineral salts medium.

    PubMed

    Miller, E N; Ingram, L O

    2007-02-01

    In mineral salts medium, supplementing with betaine in combination with increased production of endogenous osmoprotectant from a second copy of the trehalose biosynthetic genes (otsBA) improved growth of E. coli and increased the MIC for xylose, glucose, sodium lactate and NaCl. With these compounds, this combination was more effective than either betaine or trehalose alone. With succinate, this combination was no more effective than betaine alone. Neither approach improved tolerance to ethanol. A combination of betaine and increased trehalose may improve strain productivity for many bioproducts by promoting growth in the presence of high sugar concentrations.

  11. Art, Meet Chemistry; Chemistry, Meet Art: Case Studies, Current Literature, and Instrumental Methods Combined to Create a Hands-On Experience for Nonmajors and Instrumental Analysis Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nivens, Delana A.; Padgett, Clifford W.; Chase, Jeffery M.; Verges, Katie J.; Jamieson, Deborah S.

    2010-01-01

    Case studies and current literature are combined with spectroscopic analysis to provide a unique chemistry experience for art history students and to provide a unique inquiry-based laboratory experiment for analytical chemistry students. The XRF analysis method was used to demonstrate to nonscience majors (art history students) a powerful…

  12. Effect of noscapine and vincristine combination on demyelination and cell proliferation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hiser, Laree; Herrington, Betty; Lobert, Sharon

    2008-08-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is a common, dose-limiting side effect of vincristine, a frontline therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Combination chemotherapy that reduces the neurotoxicity without compromising the efficacy of vincristine would improve patient outcomes. We performed in vitro studies using a combination of microtubule-binding antimitotics, noscapine and vincristine. In cell cultures containing neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes, vincristine caused demyelination as shown by transmission electron microscopy. A combination of vincristine and noscapine protected against demyelination. Human acute lymphoblastic and acute myelogenous leukemia cell lines CCRF-CEM and HL-60, respectively, were used to determine the antiproliferative effect of this novel drug combination. Vincristine and noscapine decreased cell proliferation with IC(50) concentrations of 1 nM and 20 microM, respectively. Analysis of dose-effect relationships using isobolograms and combination indices demonstrated that noscapine acts synergistically with vincristine. Thus, noscapine is a promising candidate for use with vincristine to decrease neurotoxicity and enhance antineoplastic effectiveness.

  13. Combined ideal and kinetic effects on reversed shear Alfven eigenmodes

    SciTech Connect

    Gorelenkov, N. N.; Kramer, G. J.; Nazikian, R.

    2011-10-15

    A reversed shear Alfven eigenmodes (RSAEs) theory has been developed for reversed magnetic field shear plasmas when the safety factor minimum, q{sub min}, is at or above a rational value. The modes we study are known sometimes as either the bottom of the frequency sweep or the down sweeping RSAEs. We show that, strictly speaking, the ideal MHD theory is not compatible with the eigenmode solution in the reversed shear plasma with q{sub min} above integer values. Corrected by a special analytic finite Larmor radius (FLR) condition, MHD dispersion of these modes nevertheless can be developed. Numerically, MHD structure can serve as a good approximation for the RSAEs.The large radial scale part of the analytic RSAE solution can be obtained from ideal MHD and expressed in terms of the Legendre functions. The kinetic equation with FLR effects for the eigenmode is solved numerically and agrees with the analytic solutions. Properties of RSAEs and their potential implications for plasma diagnostics are discussed.

  14. Unexpected antitumorigenic effect of fenbendazole when combined with supplementary vitamins.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ping; Dang, Chi V; Watson, Julie

    2008-11-01

    Diet containing the anthelminthic fenbendazole is used often to treat rodent pinworm infections because it is easy to use and has few reported adverse effects on research. However, during fenbendazole treatment at our institution, an established human lymphoma xenograft model in C.B-17/Icr-prkdcscid/Crl (SCID) mice failed to grow. Further investigation revealed that the fenbendazole had been incorporated into a sterilizable diet supplemented with additional vitamins to compensate for loss during autoclaving, but the diet had not been autoclaved. To assess the role of fenbendazole and supplementary vitamins on tumor suppression, 20 vendor-supplied 4-wk-old SCID mice were assigned to 4 treatment groups: standard diet, diet plus fenbendazole, diet plus vitamins, and diet plus both vitamins and fenbendazole. Diet treatment was initiated 2 wk before subcutaneous flank implantation with 3 x 107 lymphoma cells. Tumor size was measured by caliper at 4-d intervals until the largest tumors reached a calculated volume of 1500 mm3. Neither diet supplemented with vitamins alone nor fenbendazole alone caused altered tumor growth as compared with that of controls. However, the group supplemented with both vitamins and fenbendazole exhibited significant inhibition of tumor growth. The mechanism for this synergy is unknown and deserves further investigation. Fenbendazole should be used with caution during tumor studies because it may interact with other treatments and confound research results.

  15. Effective management of combined renewable energy resources in Tajikistan.

    PubMed

    Karimov, Khasan S; Akhmedov, Khakim M; Abid, Muhammad; Petrov, Georgiy N

    2013-09-01

    Water is needed mostly in summer time for irrigation and in winter time for generation of electric power. This results in conflicts between downstream countries that utilize water mostly for irrigation and those upstream countries, which use water for generation of electric power. At present Uzbekistan is blocking railway connection that is going to Tajikistan to interfere to transportation of the equipment and materials for construction of Rogun hydropower plant. In order to avoid conflicts between Tajikistan and Uzbekistan a number of measures for the utilization of water resources of the trans-boundary Rivers Amu-Darya and Sir-Darya are discussed. In addition, utilization of water with the supplement of wind and solar energy projects for proper and efficient management of water resources in Central Asia; export-import exchanges of electric energy in summer and winter time between neighboring countries; development of small hydropower project, modern irrigation system in main water consuming countries and large water reservoir hydropower projects for control of water resources for hydropower and irrigation are also discussed. It is also concluded that an effective management of water resources can be achieved by signing Water treaty between upstream and downstream countries, first of all between Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. In this paper management of water as renewable energy resource in Tajikistan and Central Asian Republics are presented.

  16. Foscarnet, zidovudine and dolutegravir combination efficacy and tolerability for late stage HIV salvage therapy: A case-series experience.

    PubMed

    Delory, Tristan; Papot, Emmanuelle; Rioux, Christophe; Charpentier, Charlotte; Auge-Courtoi, Claire; Michard, Florence; Peytavin, Gilles; Descamps, Diane; Matheron, Sophie; Yazdanpanah, Yazdan

    2016-07-01

    Salvage therapy including foscarnet (PFA), zidovudine (ZDV) and an optimized background ART (OBT) has been shown to be effective in patients with advanced HIV infection, and no therapeutic options. Dolutegravir (DTG) may offer a more active combination. Objective was to describe efficacy and tolerability of PFA-ZDV-DTG containing regimen. In our cohort, we identified patients who: (i) had plasma HIV-1 RNA load (pVL) >50 c/ml (>100 for HIV-2) on combination ART (cART); (ii) had at least 1 PI/r, 1 NRTI, 1 NNRTI (for HIV-1), and at least 1 raltegravir resistance mutations; (iii) were naive to DTG; and (iv) initiated on a PFA-ZDV-DTG containing-regimen with 48 weeks (W48) of follow-up. Out of 5 patients, 2 were infected with HIV-2. At PFA-ZDV-DTG initiation, CD4 cell count was (/mm(3) ) of 64, 40, 10, in HIV-1, and 37, 199, in HIV-2 infected patients; and pVL (log10 c/ml) of 4.8, 5.1, 4.4, in HIV-1, and 3.6, 4.2, in HIV-2 infected patients, respectively. Median OBT genotypic sensitivity score was 1.5 [1-2]. PFA was discontinued in one patient, due to an acute renal failure. At W48, one HIV-1 infected patient had a pVL <50 c/ml and two <200 c/ml; the two HIV-2 infected patients had pVL >100 c/ml. No lack of treatment adherence was observed. In treatment experienced HIV-infected patients, failing cART and without other therapeutic options, a PFA-ZDV-DTG combination therapy could be effective. Renal adverse events should be monitored.

  17. Modelling the effect of shear strength on isentropic compression experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, Stuart; Howell, Peter; Ockendon, John; Ockendon, Hilary

    2017-01-01

    Isentropic compression experiments (ICE) are a way of obtaining equation of state information for metals undergoing violent plastic deformation. In a typical experiment, millimetre thick metal samples are subjected to pressures on the order of 10 - 102 GPa, while the yield strength of the material can be as low as 10-2 GPa. The analysis of such experiments has so far neglected the effect of shear strength, instead treating the highly plasticised metal as an inviscid compressible fluid. However making this approximation belies the basic elastic nature of a solid object. A more accurate method should strive to incorporate the small but measurable effects of shear strength. Here we present a one-dimensional mathematical model for elastoplasticity at high stress which allows for both compressibility and the shear strength of the material. In the limit of zero yield stress this model reproduces the hydrodynamic models currently used to analyse ICEs. Numerical solutions of the governing equations will then be presented for problems relevant to ICEs in order to investigate the effects of shear strength compared with a model based purely on hydrodynamics.

  18. The Effects of Latarjet Reconstruction on Glenohumeral Instability in the Presence of Combined Bony Defects

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ronak M.; Walia, Piyush; Gottschalk, Lionel; Jones, Morgan H.; Fening, Stephen D.; Miniaci, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Recurrent glenohumeral instability is often a result of underlying bony defects in the glenoid and/or humeral head. Anterior glenoid augmentation with a bone block (i.e. Latarjet) has been recommended for glenoid bone loss in the face of recurrent instability. However, no study has investigated the effect of Latarjet augmentation in the setting of both glenoid and humeral head defects (Hill-Sachs Defects (HSD)). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stability achieved through a Latarjet procedure in the presence of combined bony defects. Our hypothesis was that Latarjet augmentation would increase shoulder stability for glenoid defects with small HSD, but have limited success in cases with large concomitant HSD. Methods: Eighteen fresh-frozen cadaveric specimens were tested at combinations of glenohumeral abduction (ABD) angles of 20°, 40°, and 60° and external rotation (ER) angles of 0°, 40°, and 80°. Each experiment applied a 50N medial load on the humerus to replicate the static load of soft tissues, and then simulated anterior dislocation by translating the glenoid in an anterior direction. Translational distance and medial-lateral displacement of the humeral head, along with horizontal reaction forces, were recorded for every trial. Specimens were tested in an intact condition (no defect), different combinations of defects, and with Latarjet augmentation. The Latarjet was performed for 20% and 30% glenoid defects by transferring the specimen’s coracoid process anterior to the glenoid flush with the articulating surface. Results: Results are summarized in Fig. 1. The vertical axis represents the normalized distance to dislocation with respect to the values of the intact joint. The horizontal axis represents the varying sizes and combinations of bony defects. Latarjet augmentation improved stability for every combination of bony defects. At 20° ABD, 0°ER, and 20% glenoid defect size, the percentage of intact translation did not

  19. The Effects of Latarjet Reconstruction on Glenohumeral Instability in the Presence of Combined Bony Defects

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ronak Maneklal; Walia, Piyush; Gottschalk, Lionel; Jones, Morgan H.; Fening, Stephen D.; Miniaci, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Recurrent glenohumeral instability is often as a result of underlying bony defects in the glenoid and/or humeral head. Anterior glenoid augmentation with a bone block (i.e. Latarjet) has been recommended for glenoid bone loss in the face of recurrent instability. However, no study has investigated the effect of Latarjet augmentation in the setting of both glenoid and humeral head defects (Hill-Sachs Defects (HSD)). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stability achieved through a Latarjet procedure in the presence of combined bony defects. Methods: Eighteen fresh-frozen cadaveric specimens were tested at all combinations of glenohumeral abduction (ABD) angles of 20°, 40°, and 60° and three external rotation (ER) levels (0°, 40°, and 80°). Each experiment comprised of anterior dislocation by translating the glenoid under a 50N medial load applied on the humerus, simulating the static load of soft tissues. Translational distance and medial-lateral displacement of the humeral head, along with horizontal reaction forces were recorded for every trial. Specimens were tested in an intact condition (no defect), different combinations of defects, and with Latarjet augmentation. The Latarjet was performed for 20% and 30% glenoid defects by transferring the specimen's coracoid process anterior to the glenoid flush with the articulating surface. Four different humeral head defects were created of sizes 6%, 19%, 31%, and 44% of humeral diameter. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed with statistical significance set at p <0.05. Results: Results are summarized in Fig. 1. The vertical axis represents the normalized distance to dislocation with respect to the values of the intact joint. The horizontal axis represents the varying sizes and combinations of bony defects. At 20° ABD and 0°ER, increasing HSD size did not affect percentage of intact translation with a constant glenoid defect of 20% before and after Latarjet

  20. A simple and effective first optical image processing experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Dale W.

    2007-06-01

    Optical image processing experiments can contribute to an understanding of optical diffraction and lens image formation. We are trying to discover a highly effective way of introducing lens imaging and related topics, light scattering, point sources, spatially coherent light, and image processing, in a laboratory-based holography-centered introductory optics course serving a mixture of physics, chemistry, and science education sophomores and juniors. As an early experiment in this course, a microscope slide bearing opaque stick-on letters forming a word such as PAL is back-lighted by a point source of laser light. The surround for the letter A is transparent, while the surround for the letters P and L is made translucent with Scotch MAGICTM tape. A 20-cm focal length converging lens forms a bright image of PAL on a screen, and also an image of the laser point source in a (transform) plane between the lens and the screen. Students are startled when they see that they can choose to pass only the image of the letter "A" or only the images of "P" and "L," by very simple manipulations in the transform plane. The interpretation of these experiments is challenging for some students, and the experiments can lead to a significant amount of discussion. Useful explanatory ray diagrams will be presented. Many demonstrations of optical image processing require long focal length lenses and precise manipulation of somewhat complex passing/blocking filters. In contrast these experiments are easy to set up and easy to perform. Students can fabricate the required objects in a matter of minutes. The use of zero-order laser light helps students discover the essential simplicity of the ideas underlying image processing. The simultaneous presence of both scattered (spatially incoherent) and not scattered (spatially coherent) laser light is thought provoking. Current explorations to further develop these and other closely-related experiments will also be described.

  1. Reducing conflicts between motor vehicles and pedestrians: the separate and combined effects of pavement markings and a sign prompt.

    PubMed Central

    Huybers, Sherry; Van Houten, Ron; Malenfant, J E Louis

    2004-01-01

    The effects of a symbolic "yield here to pedestrians" sign and advance yield pavement markings on pedestrian/motor vehicle conflicts, motorists' yielding behavior, and the distance motorists' yield in advance of crosswalks were evaluated at multilane crosswalks at uncontrolled T intersections. In Experiment 1, the sign, when used alone, reduced pedestrian/motor vehicle conflicts and increased motorist yielding distance. The use of fluorescent yellow-green sheeting as the background of the sign did not increase the effectiveness of the sign. Further reductions in pedestrian/motor vehicle conflicts and further increases in yielding distance were associated with the addition of advance yield pavement markings. In Experiment 2, advance yield pavement markings, when used alone, were as effective in reducing pedestrian/motor vehicle conflicts and increasing yielding distance as the sign combined with pavement markings. These data suggest that the pavement markings were the essential component for reducing conflicts and increasing yielding distance. PMID:15669404

  2. Combined Measurement of the Higgs Boson Mass in p p Collisions at √{s }=7 and 8 TeV with the ATLAS and CMS Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abolins, M.; Abouzeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Affolder, A. A.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alio, L.; Alison, J.; Alkire, S. P.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Altheimer, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Álvarez Piqueras, D.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amadio, B. T.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anders, J. K.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Arabidze, G.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arduh, F. A.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnal, V.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Auerbach, B.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Axen, B.; Ayoub, M. K.; Azuelos, G.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Bacci, C.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Balek, P.; Balestri, T.; Balli, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S. P.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnes, S. L.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Bassalat, A.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batista, S. J.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beacham, J. B.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, M.; Becker, S.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, J. K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bender, M.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beresford, L.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Beringer, J.; Bernard, C.; Bernard, N. R.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besana, M. I.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia Bylund, O.; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bevan, A. J.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao de Mendizabal, J.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blanco, J. E.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boehler, M.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borroni, S.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brazzale, S. F.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, L.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, K.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Britzger, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Brown, J.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Bryngemark, L.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A. G.; Buda, S. I.; Budagov, I. A.; Buehrer, F.; Bugge, L.; Bugge, M. K.; Bulekov, O.; Bullock, D.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burghgrave, B.; Burke, S.; Burmeister, I.; Busato, E.; Büscher, D.; Büscher, V.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C. P.; Butler, J. M.; Butt, A. I.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Butti, P.; Buttinger, W.; Buzatu, A.; Buzykaev, R.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cairo, V. M.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calandri, A.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Caloba, L. P.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camarda, S.; Camarri, P.; Cameron, D.; Caminada, L. M.; Caminal Armadans, R.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Campoverde, A.; Canale, V.; Canepa, A.; Cano Bret, M.; Cantero, J.; Cantrill, R.; Cao, T.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Cardarelli, R.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, S.; Carquin, E.; Carrillo-Montoya, G. D.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Casolino, M.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castelli, A.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N. 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C.; Shi, X.; Shipsey, I.; Silvers, D.; Sun, J.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Xu, L.; Zablocki, J.; Parashar, N.; Stupak, J.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Chen, Z.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Guilbaud, M.; Li, W.; Michlin, B.; Northup, M.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Rorie, J.; Tu, Z.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Eshaq, Y.; Ferbel, T.; Galanti, M.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Goldenzweig, P.; Han, J.; Harel, A.; Hindrichs, O.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Petrillo, G.; Verzetti, M.; Demortier, L.; Arora, S.; Barker, A.; Chou, J. 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G.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Janjam, R.; Johns, W.; Maguire, C.; Mao, Y.; Melo, A.; Sheldon, P.; Snook, B.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Xu, Q.; Arenton, M. W.; Boutle, S.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Li, H.; Lin, C.; Neu, C.; Wolfe, E.; Wood, J.; Xia, F.; Clarke, C.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C.; Lamichhane, P.; Sturdy, J.; Belknap, D. A.; Carlsmith, D.; Cepeda, M.; Christian, A.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Duric, S.; Friis, E.; Gomber, B.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Lanaro, A.; Levine, A.; Long, K.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Perry, T.; Pierro, G. A.; Polese, G.; Ross, I.; Ruggles, T.; Sarangi, T.; Savin, A.; Sharma, A.; Smith, N.; Smith, W. H.; Taylor, D.; Woods, N.; Atlas Collaboration

    2015-05-01

    A measurement of the Higgs boson mass is presented based on the combined data samples of the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the CERN LHC in the H →γ γ and H →Z Z →4 ℓ decay channels. The results are obtained from a simultaneous fit to the reconstructed invariant mass peaks in the two channels and for the two experiments. The measured masses from the individual channels and the two experiments are found to be consistent among themselves. The combined measured mass of the Higgs boson is mH=125.09 ±0.21 (stat)±0.11 (syst) GeV .

  3. Combined Measurement of the Higgs Boson Mass in pp Collisions at sqrt[s]=7 and 8 TeV with the ATLAS and CMS Experiments.

    PubMed

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Yi, K; Anderson, I; Barnett, B A; Blumenfeld, B; Fehling, D; Feng, L; Gritsan, A V; Maksimovic, P; Martin, C; Nash, K; Osherson, M; Swartz, M; Xiao, M; Xin, Y; Baringer, P; Bean, A; Benelli, G; Bruner, C; Gray, J; Kenny, R P; Majumder, D; Malek, M; Murray, M; Noonan, D; Sanders, S; Stringer, R; Wang, Q; Wood, J S; Chakaberia, I; Ivanov, A; Kaadze, K; Khalil, S; Makouski, M; Maravin, Y; Saini, L K; Skhirtladze, N; Svintradze, I; Toda, S; Lange, D; Rebassoo, F; Wright, D; Anelli, C; Baden, A; Baron, O; Belloni, A; Calvert, B; Eno, S C; Ferraioli, C; Gomez, J A; Hadley, N J; Jabeen, S; Kellogg, R G; Kolberg, T; Kunkle, J; Lu, Y; Mignerey, A C; Pedro, K; Shin, Y H; Skuja, A; Tonjes, M B; Tonwar, S C; Apyan, A; Barbieri, R; Baty, A; Bierwagen, K; Brandt, S; Busza, W; Cali, I A; Di Matteo, L; Gomez Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; Gulhan, D; Innocenti, G M; Klute, M; Kovalskyi, D; Lai, Y S; Lee, Y-J; Levin, A; Luckey, P D; Mcginn, C; Niu, X; Paus, C; Ralph, D; Roland, C; Roland, G; Stephans, G S F; Sumorok, K; Varma, M; Velicanu, D; Veverka, J; Wang, J; Wang, T W; Wyslouch, B; Yang, M; Zhukova, V; Dahmes, B; Finkel, A; Gude, A; Hansen, P; Kalafut, S; Kao, S C; Klapoetke, K; Kubota, Y; Lesko, Z; Mans, J; Nourbakhsh, S; Ruckstuhl, N; Rusack, R; Tambe, N; Turkewitz, J; Acosta, J G; Oliveros, S; Avdeeva, E; Bloom, K; Bose, S; Claes, D R; Dominguez, A; Fangmeier, C; Gonzalez Suarez, R; Kamalieddin, R; Keller, J; Knowlton, D; Kravchenko, I; Lazo-Flores, J; Meier, F; Monroy, J; Ratnikov, F; Siado, J E; Snow, G R; Alyari, M; Dolen, J; George, J; Godshalk, A; Iashvili, I; Kaisen, J; Kharchilava, A; Kumar, A; Rappoccio, S; Alverson, G; Barberis, E; Baumgartel, D; Chasco, M; Hortiangtham, A; Massironi, A; Morse, D M; Nash, D; Orimoto, T; Teixeira De Lima, R; Trocino, D; Wang, R-J; Wood, D; Zhang, J; Hahn, K A; Kubik, A; Mucia, N; Odell, N; Pollack, B; Pozdnyakov, A; Schmitt, M; Stoynev, S; Sung, K; Trovato, M; Velasco, M; Won, S; Brinkerhoff, A; Dev, N; Hildreth, M; Jessop, C; Karmgard, D J; Kellams, N; Lannon, K; Lynch, S; Marinelli, N; Meng, F; Mueller, C; Musienko, Y; Pearson, T; Planer, M; Ruchti, R; Smith, G; Valls, N; Wayne, M; Wolf, M; Woodard, A; Antonelli, L; Brinson, J; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Flowers, S; Hart, A; Hill, C; Hughes, R; Kotov, K; Ling, T Y; Liu, B; Luo, W; Puigh, D; Rodenburg, M; Winer, B L; Wulsin, H W; Driga, O; Elmer, P; Hardenbrook, J; Hebda, P; Koay, S A; Lujan, P; Marlow, D; Medvedeva, T; Mooney, M; Olsen, J; Palmer, C; Piroué, P; Quan, X; Saka, H; Stickland, D; Tully, C; Werner, J S; Zuranski, A; Barnes, V E; Benedetti, D; Bortoletto, D; Gutay, L; Jha, M K; Jones, M; Jung, K; Kress, M; Leonardo, N; Miller, D H; Neumeister, N; Primavera, F; Radburn-Smith, B C; Shi, X; Shipsey, I; Silvers, D; Sun, J; Svyatkovskiy, A; Wang, F; Xie, W; Xu, L; Zablocki, J; Parashar, N; Stupak, J; Adair, A; Akgun, B; Chen, Z; Ecklund, K M; Geurts, F J M; Guilbaud, M; Li, W; Michlin, B; Northup, M; Padley, B P; Redjimi, R; Roberts, J; Rorie, J; Tu, Z; Zabel, J; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Eshaq, Y; Ferbel, T; Galanti, M; Garcia-Bellido, A; Goldenzweig, P; Han, J; Harel, A; Hindrichs, O; Khukhunaishvili, A; Petrillo, G; Verzetti, M; Demortier, L; Arora, S; Barker, A; Chou, J P; Contreras-Campana, C; Contreras-Campana, E; Duggan, D; Ferencek, D; Gershtein, Y; Gray, R; Halkiadakis, E; Hidas, D; Hughes, E; Kaplan, S; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, R; Lath, A; Panwalkar, S; Park, M; Salur, S; Schnetzer, S; Sheffield, D; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Thomassen, P; Walker, M; Foerster, M; Riley, G; Rose, K; Spanier, S; York, A; Bouhali, O; Castaneda Hernandez, A; Dalchenko, M; De Mattia, M; Delgado, A; Dildick, S; Eusebi, R; Flanagan, W; Gilmore, J; Kamon, T; Krutelyov, V; Montalvo, R; Mueller, R; Osipenkov, I; Pakhotin, Y; Patel, R; Perloff, A; Roe, J; Rose, A; Safonov, A; Tatarinov, A; Ulmer, K A; Akchurin, N; Cowden, C; Damgov, J; Dragoiu, C; Dudero, P R; Faulkner, J; Kunori, S; Lamichhane, K; Lee, S W; Libeiro, T; Undleeb, S; Volobouev, I; Appelt, E; Delannoy, A G; Greene, S; Gurrola, A; Janjam, R; Johns, W; Maguire, C; Mao, Y; Melo, A; Sheldon, P; Snook, B; Tuo, S; Velkovska, J; Xu, Q; Arenton, M W; Boutle, S; Cox, B; Francis, B; Goodell, J; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Li, H; Lin, C; Neu, C; Wolfe, E; Wood, J; Xia, F; Clarke, C; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C; Lamichhane, P; Sturdy, J; Belknap, D A; Carlsmith, D; Cepeda, M; Christian, A; Dasu, S; Dodd, L; Duric, S; Friis, E; Gomber, B; Hall-Wilton, R; Herndon, M; Hervé, A; Klabbers, P; Lanaro, A; Levine, A; Long, K; Loveless, R; Mohapatra, A; Ojalvo, I; Perry, T; Pierro, G A; Polese, G; Ross, I; Ruggles, T; Sarangi, T; Savin, A; Sharma, A; Smith, N; Smith, W H; Taylor, D; Woods, N

    2015-05-15

    A measurement of the Higgs boson mass is presented based on the combined data samples of the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the CERN LHC in the H→γγ and H→ZZ→4ℓ decay channels. The results are obtained from a simultaneous fit to the reconstructed invariant mass peaks in the two channels and for the two experiments. The measured masses from the individual channels and the two experiments are found to be consistent among themselves. The combined measured mass of the Higgs boson is m_{H}=125.09±0.21 (stat)±0.11 (syst) GeV.

  4. Effects of iron and boron combinations on the suppression of Fusarium wilt in banana

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xian; Wang, Min; Ling, Ning; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

    2016-01-01

    The effects of mineral nutrient on banana wilt disease, which are the result of a competitive relationship between host plants and pathogens, can affect the interactions of plants with microorganisms. To investigate the mineral nutrient effect, hydroponic experiments were conducted in glasshouse containing combinations of low, medium, and high iron (Fe) and boron (B) concentrations, followed by pathogen inoculation. High Fe and B treatment significantly reduced the disease index and facilitated plants growth. With increasing Fe and B concentrations, more Fe and B accumulated in plants. High Fe and B treatment dramatically reduced the Fusarium oxysporum conidial germination rate and fungal growth compared with the other two treatments, contributing to decreased numbers of the pathogen on infected plants. Furthermore, High Fe and B treatment decreased the fusaric acid production of F. oxysporum in vitro and also increased the mannitol content of the plants, which in turn decreased the phytotoxin production of infected plants and finally reduced the disease index due to the virulence factor of phytotoxin. Taken together, these results indicate that Fe and B play a multifunctional role in reducing the severity of diseases by affecting the growth of F. oxysporum and the responses between plants and pathogens. PMID:27941854

  5. Analysis of pressure distributions on combinations of cylinders due to the effect of wind loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Kapil; Saha, Anup; Islam, Md. Quamrul; Ali, Mohammad

    2016-07-01

    With the rapid growth of population, design and construction of taller buildings are being emphasized now-a-days. Especially the design of the group of tall buildings is economic to take care of the housing problem of the huge population. As buildings become taller, effect of wind on them also increases. In this research work, experiments have been conducted to investigate the wind effect on a combination of pentagonal and hexagonal cylinders. The test was conducted in an open circuit wind tunnel at a Reynolds number of Re = 4.22 × 104 based on the face width of the cylinder across the flow direction in a uniform flow velocity of 13.5 m/s. A pentagonal cylinder was placed in the upstream and another two hexagonal cylinders were in the downstream. The transverse and longitudinal spacing between the cylinders were varied and the surface static pressures at the different locations of the cylinders were measured with the help of inclined multi-manometers. From the measured values of surface static pressures, pressure coefficients were calculated. Due to the non-dimensional analysis, the results may be applied directly for engineering problems regarding wind loads around a group of skyscrapers, chimneys, towers, oil rigs or marine structures.

  6. Effects of Combined Stressing on the Electrical Properties of Film and Ceramic Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Overton, Eric; Hammoud, Ahmad N.; Baumann, Eric D.; Myers, Ira T.

    1994-01-01

    Advanced power systems which generate, control, and distribute electrical power to many large loads are a requirement for future space exploration missions. The development of high temperature insulating materials and power components constitute a key element in systems which are lightweight, efficient, and are capable of surviving the hostile space environment. In previous work, experiments were carried out to evaluate film and ceramic capacitors for potential use in high temperature applications. The effects of thermal stressing, in air and without electrical bias, on the electrical properties of the capacitors as a function of thermal aging up to 12 weeks were determined. In this work, the combined effects of thermal aging and electrical stresses on the properties of teflon film and ceramic power capacitors were examined. The ceramic capacitors were thermally aged for 35 weeks and the teflon capacitors for 15 weeks at 200 C under full electrical bias and were characterized, on a weekly basis, in terms of their capacitance stability and electrical loss in the frequency range of 50 Hz to 100 kHz. DC leakage current measurements were also obtained. The results obtained represent the influence that short-term thermal aging and electrical bias have on the electrical properties of the power capacitors characterized.

  7. Combined density functional/polarizable continuum model study of magnetochiral birefringence: can theory and experiment be brought to agreement?

    PubMed

    Jansík, Branislav; Rizzo, Antonio; Frediani, Luca; Ruud, Kenneth; Coriani, Sonia

    2006-12-21

    The magnetic-field-induced axial birefringence (magnetochirality) of five closed-shell chiral molecules (three substituted oxiranes, carvone, and limonene) is studied at the density functional theory level using Becke's 3-parameter Lee-Yang-Parr functional and frequency-dependent quadratic response theory. The influence of the environment and the conformational distribution on the property is also studied. The environment effects are described by the polarizable continuum model in its integral-equation formulation. The effect of the conformational distribution is investigated by performing calculations on several conformers-for carvone and limonene-followed by Boltzmann averaging. The calculated values for the magnetochiral birefringence are compared to previous ab initio results and experimental data where available. The refined model presented here brings the ab initio values closer to experiment. Still, disagreements remain in some cases and it appears difficult to resolve these discrepancies.

  8. Combined density functional/polarizable continuum model study of magnetochiral birefringence: Can theory and experiment be brought to agreement?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansík, Branislav; Rizzo, Antonio; Frediani, Luca; Ruud, Kenneth; Coriani, Sonia

    2006-12-01

    The magnetic-field-induced axial birefringence (magnetochirality) of five closed-shell chiral molecules (three substituted oxiranes, carvone, and limonene) is studied at the density functional theory level using Becke's 3-parameter Lee-Yang-Parr functional and frequency-dependent quadratic response theory. The influence of the environment and the conformational distribution on the property is also studied. The environment effects are described by the polarizable continuum model in its integral-equation formulation. The effect of the conformational distribution is investigated by performing calculations on several conformers—for carvone and limonene—followed by Boltzmann averaging. The calculated values for the magnetochiral birefringence are compared to previous ab initio results and experimental data where available. The refined model presented here brings the ab initio values closer to experiment. Still, disagreements remain in some cases and it appears difficult to resolve these discrepancies.

  9. The combinational effect of vincristine and berberine on growth inhibition and apoptosis induction in hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling; Wei, Dandan; Han, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Wei; Fan, Chengzhong; Zhang, Jie; Mo, Chunfen; Yang, Ming; Li, Junhong; Wang, Zhe; Zhou, Qin; Xiao, Hengyi

    2014-04-01

    The use of vincristine, a known antitumor agent, in hepatoma therapy is limited particularly because of its toxic effect. Meanwhile, berberine has drawn increasing attention to its antineoplastic effect in recent years. In view of the advantages of combinational drug treatment reported in anti-cancer chemotherapy, we evaluated the effects of co-treatment of vincristine and berberine on hepatic carcinoma cell lines in this study. We find that combinational usage of these two drugs can significantly induce cell growth inhibition and apoptosis even under a concentration of vincristine barely showing cytotoxicity in the same cells when used alone. The underlying mechanism about this combinational effect was addressed in this study by monitoring the signals related to mitochondrial function, apoptotic pathway and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Our results suggest a new value of berberine as a potential adjuvant agent in cancer chemotherapy and provide a hopeful approach for developing hepatoma therapy by utilizing the combinational effect of vincristine and berberine.

  10. The effects of combined cover crop termination and planting in a cotton no-till system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One method to save resources while positively impacting the environment is combining agricultural field operations. In no-till systems, cover crop termination and cash crop planting can be performed simultaneously utilizing a tractor as a single power source. A no-till field experiment merging cover...

  11. Psychotherapeutic Treatment in Combination with Relaxation in a Flotation Tank: Effects on "Burn-Out Syndrome"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kjellgren, Anette; Buhrkall, Hanne; Norlander, Torsten

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this study was to investigate experiences gained from treatment combining relaxation in flotation tank with psychotherapy for sufferers from "burn-out syndrome". Six people participated in a ten week program. They were all interviewed; the data were analyzed using the Empirical Phenomenological Psychological method. Five…

  12. Persisting effect of prior experience of change blindness.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kohske; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2008-01-01

    Most cognitive scientists know that an airplane tends to lose its engine when the display is flickering. How does such prior experience influence visual search? We recorded eye movements made by vision researchers while they were actively performing a change-detection task. In selected trials, we presented Rensink's familiar 'airplane' display, but with changes occurring at locations other than the jet engine. The observers immediately noticed that there was no change in the location where the engine had changed in the previous change-blindness demonstration. Nevertheless, eye-movement analyses indicated that the observers were compelled to look at the location of the unchanged engine. These results demonstrate the powerful effect of prior experience on eye movements, even when the observers are aware of the futility of doing so.

  13. The Combined Effect of Instruction and Monitor in Improving Pronunciation of Potential English Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Qian; Fu, Zunwei

    2011-01-01

    The role that instruction and monitor can play in improvement of pronunciation has long been a focus of argument among linguists and researchers. It is assumed that their combination will result in positive effect. An empirical study is carried out and it is confirmed that their combination contributes greatly to the improvement of pronunciation…

  14. Effects of Two Combined Methods on the Teaching of Basic Astronomy Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korur, Fikret; Enil, Gizem; Göçer, Gizem

    2016-01-01

    The authors mainly aimed to investigate the following question: Are there any significant effects of the first combined method of a conceptual change approach with refutation text, worksheets, and activities with respect to the second combined method of a conceptual change approach with conceptual texts, presentations, and activities on students'…

  15. Integrated assessment of coronary anatomy and myocardial perfusion using a retractable SPECT camera combined with 64-slice CT: initial experience.

    PubMed

    Thilo, Christian; Schoepf, U Joseph; Gordon, Leonie; Chiaramida, Salvatore; Serguson, Jill; Costello, Philip

    2009-04-01

    We evaluated a prototype SPECT system integrated with multidetector row CT (MDCT) for obtaining complementary information on coronary anatomy and hemodynamic lesion significance. Twenty-five consecutive patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) underwent routine SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). All patients also underwent repeat MPI with a mobile SPECT unit which could be attached to a 64-slice MDCT system. Coronary CT angiography (cCTA) was performed without repositioning the patient. Investigational MPI was compared with routine MPI for detection of myocardial perfusion defects (PD). Two observers diagnosed presence or absence of CAD based on MPI alone, cCTA alone, and based on combined MPI and cCTA with fused image display. In 22/24 patients investigative MPI corresponded with routine MPI (r = 0.80). Stenosis >or= 50% at cCTA was detected in 6/24 patients. Six out of 24 patients had PD at regular MPI. Three of these six patients had no significant stenosis at cCTA. Three out of 19 patients with normal MPI studies had significant stenosis at cCTA. Our initial experience indicates that the integration of SPECT MPI with cCTA is technically feasible and enables the comprehensive evaluation of coronary artery anatomy and myocardial perfusion with a single instrumental setup.

  16. Neutral Loss Ion Mapping Experiment Combined with Precursor Mass List and Dynamic Exclusion for Screening Unstable Malonyl Glucoside Conjugates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Min; Zhou, Zhe; Yao, Shuai; Li, Shangrong; Yang, Wenzhi; Jiang, Baohong; Liu, Xuan; Wu, Wanying; Qv, Hua; Guo, De-an

    2016-01-01

    Malonates are one type of the acylation conjugates and found abundantly in ginseng and soybean. Malonyl conjugates of ginsenosides and isoflavone glycosides were often considered as the characteristic components to evaluate various species and different forms of ginseng and soybean products because of their thermal instability. Another famous isoflavonoid-rich leguminous traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), named Puerarin lobata (Gegen), has also been reported to contain malonyl daidzin and malonyl genistin. However, the conjugates were found to present in very low amount and particularly unstable in the negative ion mode scan using LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization (ESI). In order to screen and characterize the malonyl conjugates in Gegen, a specific method was designed and developed combining neutral loss ion mapping (NLIM) experiment and precursor mass list (PL) triggered data dependent acquisition (DDA). Along with the activation of dynamic exclusion (DE), the method was proven to be specific and efficient for searching the malonate derivatives from Gegen. Two samples were examined by the established method. A total of 66 compounds were found, and 43 of them were malonates of isoflavone glycoside. Very few compounds were reported previously in Gegen. The results are helpful to understand the constituents of Gegen with more insight. The study not only provided a method for analyzing the malonyl conjugates from complex matrices but also explored a way to trace other low amount components in TCMs.

  17. The combination of docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil in advanced gastric cancer: a single-institution experience.

    PubMed

    Ben Aharon, Irit; Purim, Ofer; Kundel, Yulia; Brenner, Ronen; Gordon, Noa; Sulkes, Aaron; Brenner, Baruch

    2012-03-01

    The addition of docetaxel to cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil was shown to confer a survival benefit in patients with advanced gastric cancer (one; AGC), although with increased toxicity. We hereby report our experience with the use of docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil (DCF). Data on all consecutive patients who received first-line treatment with DCF at our institute were analyzed retrospectively. Twenty-three patients were included. The median age was 63 years. Patients received an average of 10 cycles (range, 1-24). All experienced grade ≥3 toxicity, requiring hospitalization in 35%. There was one toxic death. The median progression-free and overall survival rates were 10.0 and 12.8 months, respectively; the 2-year and 3-year survival rates were 22 and 17%, respectively. The DCF regimen is indeed associated with substantial toxicity, although manageable. Nevertheless, the observed benefit was remarkable compared with any previous report on chemotherapy in AGC, and should therefore represent a valid treatment option in AGC and a platform for future combinations.

  18. Clinical experience with lenalidomide alone or in combination with rituximab in indolent B-cell and mantle cell lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Ruan, J; Shah, B; Martin, P; Schuster, S J

    2016-07-01

    Lenalidomide is an oral immunomodulatory drug with significant activity in indolent B-cell and mantle cell lymphomas. Lenalidomide has a manageable safety profile whether administered as a single agent or in combination with rituximab. The combination of lenalidomide with rituximab, known as the 'R(2)' regimen, enhances efficacy over what has been shown with monotherapy and has demonstrated activity in patients considered resistant to rituximab. Tolerability of these regimens has been consistent among studies. Asymptomatic neutropenia is the most common grade 3/4 adverse event, typically managed by dose interruption, followed by dose reduction once neutrophils have recovered. Nonhematologic toxicities (e.g. fatigue) are generally low-grade, manageable with concomitant treatment, and/or lenalidomide dose modification. More frequent with R(2), immune-related symptoms such as rash and tumor flare are important to recognize as lenalidomide-associated treatment effects in patients with lymphoma who require supportive care and potential dose modifications. Severe tumor flare reactions with painful lymphadenopathy are not typically observed outside of chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma. Venous thromboembolism is uncommon in lymphomas, though prophylaxis is recommended. The general safety profile, differences between lenalidomide monotherapy and R(2) treatment, and optimal strategies for managing adverse events are discussed here.

  19. Effect of pH on the Heat-Induced Denaturation and Renaturation of Green Fluorescent Protein: A Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Rosa V.; Sola, Hilda M.; Torres, Juan C.; Torres, Rafael E.; Guzman, Ernick E.

    2013-01-01

    A fluorescence spectroscopy experiment is described where students integrated biochemistry and instrumental analysis, while characterizing the green fluorescent protein excitation and emission spectra in terms of its phenolic and phenolate chromophores. Students studied the combined effect of pH and temperature on the protein's fluorescence,…

  20. Cooperative inhibitory effect of sinomenine combined with 5-fluorouracil on esophageal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Yang, Zi-Rong; Dong, Wei-Guo; Zhang, Ji-Xiang; Guo, Xu-Feng; Song, Jia; Qiu, Shi

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the inhibitory effects of sinomenine (SIN) combined with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) on esophageal carcinoma in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: Esophageal carcinoma (Eca-109) cells were cultured in DMEM. The single or combined growth inhibition effects of SIN and 5-FU on the Eca-109 cells were examined by measuring the absorbance of CCK-8 dye in living cells. Hoechst 33258 staining and an Annexin V/PI apoptosis kit were used to detect the percentage of cells undergoing apoptosis. Western blotting was used to investigate the essential mechanism underlying SIN and 5-FU-induced apoptosis. SIN at 25 mg/kg and 5-FU at 12 mg/kg every 3 d, either combined or alone, was injected into nude mice and tumor growth inhibition and side effects of the drug treatment were observed. RESULTS: SIN and 5-FU, both in combination and individually, significantly inhibited the proliferation of Eca-109 cells and induced obvious apoptosis. Furthermore, the combined effects were greater than those of the individual agents (P < 0.05). Annexin V/PI staining and Hoechst 33258 staining both indicated that the percentage of apoptotic cells induced by SIN and 5-FU combined or alone were significantly different from the control (P < 0.05). The up-regulation of Bax and down-regulation of Bcl-2 showed that the essential mechanism of apoptosis induced by SIN and 5-FU occurs via the mitochondrial pathway. SIN and 5-FU alone significantly inhibited the growth of tumor xenografts in vivo, and the combined inhibition rate was even higher (P < 0.05). During the course of chemotherapy, no obvious side effects were observed in the liver or kidneys. CONCLUSION: The combined effects of SIN and 5-FU on esophageal carcinoma were superior to those of the individual compounds, and the drug combination did not increase the side effects of chemotherapy. PMID:24363520

  1. Combined effects of lanthanum (III) chloride and acid rain on photosynthetic parameters in rice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lihong; Wang, Wen; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2014-10-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) pollution and acid rain are environmental issues, and their deleterious effects on plants attract worldwide attention. These two issues exist simultaneously in many regions, especially in some rice-growing areas. However, little is known about the combined effects of REEs and acid rain on plants. Here, the combined effects of lanthanum chloride (LaCl3), one type of REE salt, and acid rain on photosynthesis in rice were investigated. We showed that the combined treatment of 81.6 μM LaCl3 and acid rain at pH 4.5 increased net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatic conductance (Gs), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), Hill reaction activity (HRA), apparent quantum yield (AQY) and carboxylation efficiency (CE) in rice. The combined treatment of 81.6 μM LaCl3 and acid rain at pH 3.5 began to behave toxic effects on photosynthesis (decreasing Pn, Gs, HRA, AQY and CE, and increasing Ci), and the maximally toxic effects were observed in the combined treatment of 2449.0 μM LaCl3 and acid rain at pH 2.5. Moreover, the combined effects of LaCl3 and acid rain on photosynthesis in rice depended on the growth stage of rice, with the maximal effects occurring at the booting stage. Furthermore, the combined treatment of high-concentration LaCl3 and low-pH acid rain had more serious effects on photosynthesis in rice than LaCl3 or acid rain treatment alone. Finally, the combined effect of LaCl3 and acid rain on Pn in rice resulted from the changes in stomatic (Gs, Ci) and non-stomatic (HRA, AQY and CE) factors.

  2. Effects of simulated acid rain, EDTA, or their combination, on migration and chemical fraction distribution of extraneous metals in Ferrosol.

    PubMed

    Wen, Fang; Hou, Hong; Yao, Na; Yan, Zengguang; Bai, Liping; Li, Fasheng

    2013-01-01

    A laboratory repacked soil-leaching column experiment was conducted to study the effects of simulated acid rain or EDTA by themselves or in combination, on migration and chemical speciation distribution of Pb and its alternative rare metals including Ag, Bi, In, Sb, and Sn. Experimental results demonstrate that leaching with simulated acid rain promoted the migration of Bi, In and Pb, and their migration reached down to 8 cm in the soil profile, no enhancement of Sb, Ag or Sn migration was observed. Addition of EDTA significantly enhanced the migration of all six metals, especially Bi, In and Pb. The migration of metals was in the order Pb>Bi>In>Sb>Sn>Ag. The individual and combined effects of acid rain and EDTA increased the environmental risk of metals, by increasing the soluble content of metals in soil solutions and the relative distribution of the exchangeable fraction. Leaching risks of Bi, In and Pb were higher than other three metals.

  3. Effect of missed combined hormonal contraceptives on contraceptive effectiveness: a systematic review☆

    PubMed Central

    Zapata, Lauren B.; Steenland, Maria W.; Brahmi, Dalia; Marchbanks, Polly A.; Curtis, Kathryn M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Combined hormonal contraceptives (CHCs) are popular methods of reversible contraception in the United States, but adherence remains an issue as reflected in their lower rates of typical use effectiveness. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate evidence on the effect of missed CHCs on pregnancy rates as well as surrogate measures of contraceptive effectiveness (e.g., ovulation, follicular development, changes in hormone levels, cervical mucus quality). Study Design We searched the PubMed database for peer-reviewed articles published in any language from database inception through April 2012. We included studies that examined measures of contraceptive effectiveness during cycles with extended hormone-free intervals or nonadherence (e.g., omission of pills, delayed patch replacement) on days not adjacent to the hormone-free interval. We used standard abstract forms and grading systems to summarize and assess the quality of the evidence. Results The search strategy identified 1387 articles, of which 26 met our study selection criteria. There is wide variability in the amount of follicular development and risk of ovulation among women who extended the pill-free interval to 8–14 days; in general, the risk of ovulation was low, and among women who did ovulate, cycles were usually abnormal (i.e., low progesterone levels, small follicles and/or poor cervical mucus) (Level I, good, indirect to Level II-3, fair, indirect). Studies of women who missed one to four consecutive pills or 1–3 consecutive days of delay before patch replacement at times other than adjacent to the hormone-free interval reported little follicular activity and low risk of ovulation (Level I, fair, indirect to Level II-3, poor, indirect). Studies comparing 30 mcg versus 20 mcg mc ethinyl estradiol pills showed more follicular activity when 20 mcg ethinyl estradiol pills were missed (Level I, good, indirect). Conclusion Most of the studies in this evidence base relied on

  4. Effect of lauric arginate, nisin Z, and a combination against several food-related bacteria.

    PubMed

    Pattanayaiying, Rinrada; H-Kittikun, Aran; Cutter, Catherine N

    2014-10-01

    The effects of lauric arginate (LAE) and nisin Z, alone or in combination, on cell damage were investigated against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes and Brochothrix thermosphacta, by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations, efflux of potassium and phosphate ions, and growth inhibition. A combination of LAE with nisin Z caused severe and dramatic changes in the cytoplasmic membrane and cell lysis of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The combination treatment also caused significant potassium and phosphate ion leakage of E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes and B. thermosphacta, when compared with other treatments: 16.62±1.05, 50.35±0.81 and 45.47±1.15mg/L of potassium ion and 122.66±8.81, 97.96±3.31 and 26.47±13.97mg/L of phosphate ion after treatment for 6h, respectively. Bacteria were reduced by approximately 7log10CFU/mL within the first hour of treatment and then cells were unable to grow for the remainder of the experiment. Treatment with LAE alone resulted in changes in cellular morphology, coagulation of the cytoplasm, and low level leakage of potassium and phosphate ions in all bacteria tested. Treatment of L. monocytogenes and B. thermosphacta with nisin Z (320AU/mL of final concentration) resulted in the formation of membrane channels and leakage of potassium and phosphate ions at rather high levels; but the bacteriocin was not effective against E. coli O157:H7. LAE or nisin Z reduced growth of both L. monocytogenes and B. thermosphacta by approximately 7log10CFU/mL. Conversely, E. coli O157:H7 was not inhibited by treatments with nisin Z, but decreased by approximately 4.45log10CFU/mL after treatment with LAE. These findings provide additional information on the mode of action of these compounds on bacterial populations.

  5. Inhibitory effect and mechanism of acarbose combined with gymnemic acid on maltose absorption in rat intestine

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Hong; Wang, Le Feng; Imoto, Toshiaki; Hiji, Yasutake

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To compare the combinative and individual effect of acarbose and gymnemic acid (GA) on maltose absorption and hydrolysis in small intestine to determine whether nutrient control in diabetic care can be improved by combination of them. METHODS: The absorption and hydrolysis of maltose were studied by cyclic perfusion of intestinal loops in situ and motility of the intestine was recorded with the intestinal ring in vitro using Wistar rats. RESULTS: The total inhibitory rate of maltose absorption was improved by the combination of GA (0.1 g/L-1.0 g/L) and acarbose (0.1 mmol/L-2.0 mmol/L) throughout their effective duration (P < 0.05, U test of Mann-Whitney), although the improvement only could be seen at a low dosage during the first hour. With the combination, inhibitory duration of acarbose on maltose absorption was prolonged to 3 h and the inhibitory effect onset of GA was fastened to 15 min. GA suppressed the intestinal mobility with a good correlation (r = 0.98) to the inhibitory effect of GA on maltose absorption and the inhibitory effect of 2 mmol/L (high dose) acarbose on maltose hydrolysis was dual modulated by 1 g/L GA in vivo indicating that the combined effects involved the functional alteration of intestinal barriers. CONCLUSION: There are augmented effects of acarbose and GA, which involve pre-cellular and paracellular barriers. Diabetic care can be improved by employing the combination. PMID:11819725

  6. Combining natural experiments in source lithology with laboratory tumbling to quantify sediment resistance to comminution and its role in downstream fining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyeler, J. D.; Sklar, L. S.; Riebe, C. S.

    2012-12-01

    Mountain rivers convey sediment from alpine headwaters through valleys to basins, providing both erosive tools for fluvial incision and protective alluvial cover depending on sediment supply. It is widely observed that particles reduce in size during fluvial transport, directly influencing bed sediment grain size distributions and thus channel morphology, habitat quality, and the sedimentary record of climatic and tectonic effects on landscapes. However it is difficult to quantify the contribution of comminution to downstream fining of bed material due to the confounding effects of sediment resupply from hillslopes and sorting by size selective transport. Here we take advantage of natural experiments where lithologic contacts create discrete upstream source areas of particular rock types, such that downstream of the contact we can exclude hillslope resupply and isolate the evolution of grain size distributions due to particle breakdown. Where the upstream source area supplies two or more rock types of differing durability, we can use the relationship between lab measurements of size reduction and tensile strength to distinguish in the field between sorting and particle comminution. We are applying this approach in the Sierra Nevada of California, where plutonic and metamorphic bedrock vary in durability and outcrop in favorable configurations for this natural experiment. For all rock types in this study, we measure rock tensile strength in the laboratory with Brazilian tensile splitting tests and quantify comminution as exponential mass loss coefficients from barrel tumbling experiments. In the field we measure size reduction of bed material through pebble counts by rock type, which are combined with downstream travel distances for a field estimate of sediment fining rates. We then compare field results with laboratory strength measurements and tumbling abrasion coefficients to estimate field size reduction due solely to comminution. Our field and lab results will

  7. Responses of wheat and rice to factorial combinations of ambient and elevated CO2 and temperature in FACE experiments.

    PubMed

    Cai, Chuang; Yin, Xinyou; He, Shuaiqi; Jiang, Wenyu; Si, Chuanfei; Struik, Paul C; Luo, Weihong; Li, Gang; Xie, Yingtian; Xiong, Yan; Pan, Genxing

    2016-02-01

    Elevated CO2 and temperature strongly affect crop production, but understanding of the crop response to combined CO2 and temperature increases under field conditions is still limited while data are scarce. We grew wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.) under two levels of CO2 (ambient and enriched up to 500 μmol mol(-1) ) and two levels of canopy temperature (ambient and increased by 1.5-2.0 °C) in free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) systems and carried out a detailed growth and yield component analysis during two growing seasons for both crops. An increase in CO2 resulted in higher grain yield, whereas an increase in temperature reduced grain yield, in both crops. An increase in CO2 was unable to compensate for the negative impact of an increase in temperature on biomass and yield of wheat and rice. Yields of wheat and rice were decreased by 10-12% and 17-35%, respectively, under the combination of elevated CO2 and temperature. The number of filled grains per unit area was the most important yield component accounting for the effects of elevated CO2 and temperature in wheat and rice. Our data showed complex treatment effects on the interplay between preheading duration, nitrogen uptake, tillering, leaf area index, and radiation-use efficiency, and thus on yield components and yield. Nitrogen uptake before heading was crucial in minimizing yield loss due to climate change in both crops. For rice, however, a breeding strategy to increase grain number per m(2) and % filled grains (or to reduce spikelet sterility) at high temperature is also required to prevent yield reduction under conditions of global change.

  8. First indication of LPM effect in LHCf, an LHC experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prete, M. Del

    2016-11-01

    The Large Hadron Collider forward (LHCf) experiment is dedicated to the measurement of very forward neutral particle production in the high energy hadron-hadron collisions at LHC. The aim of the experiment is to improve the cosmic ray air shower development models and its setup gives an important opportunity to directly measure the Landau Pomeranchunk Migdal (LPM) effect in heavy absorber. This work presents the analysis for LPM effect on data taken in 2010 and 2013 at √s = 7 TeV and √sNN = 5.02 TeV respectively. We study the interactions of gamma, mainly produced by π0 decay, in one of the calorimeter pairs of LHCf. This is composed by 16 Tungsten layers as absorbers and 16 plastic scintillators for energy measurements (Arm2). We use three parameters to describe the mean shower profile with respect the photon mean energy. The results are compared with Epics MonteCarlo simulation with LPM active and inactive models, shows a first evidence of LPM effect.

  9. Effects of Combining Methylphenidate and a Classroom Token System in Modifying Hyperactive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Donald E.

    1975-01-01

    The combined effects of methylphenidate (Ritalin) and a token reinforcement program in controlling the classroom behavior of 16 hyperactive, institutionalized retarded youngsters (9- to 15-years-old) was investigated. (Author)

  10. Effect of combinations of marketed human anthelmintic drugs against Trichuris muris in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are responsible for a huge public health burden, however treatment options are limited. The discovery and development of novel efficacious drugs or drug combinations for the treatment of STH infections therefore has a high research priority. Methods We studied drug combination effects using the main standard anthelmintics, albendazole, mebendazole, levamisole, pyrantel pamoate and ivermectin in the Trichuris muris model. Drug combinations were first tested in vitro and additive and synergistic combinations investigated further in vivo in female mice using ratios based on the ED50 of the respective drugs. Results In vitro all 10 combinations of the standard anthelmintics tested against T. muris revealed synergistic behavior. We identified three drug combinations in vivo as strongly synergistic, namely mebendazole-ivermectin (Combination index (CI)=0.16), mebendazole-levamisole (CI=0.17) and albendazole-mebendazole (CI=0.23). For albendazole-ivermectin, moderate synergism was observed (CI=0.81) and for albendazole-levamisole a nearly additive effect was documented (CI=0.93) in vivo. Five combinations (albendazole-pyrantel pamoate, mebendazole-pyrantel pamoate, levamisole-pyrantel pamoate, levamisole-ivermectin and pyrantel pamoate-ivermectin) were antagonistic in vivo. Conclusion Our results strengthen the evidence that combination chemotherapy might play a role in the treatment of Trichuris infections. Albendazole-mebendazole should be studied in greater detail in preclinical studies. PMID:23231753

  11. Precision Magnetometry and Systematic Effects in the Nab Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, Jason; Nab Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Nab experiment will determine the electron-neutrino correlation parameter a with a precision of δa / a =10-3 and the Fierz interference term b to δb = 3 ×10-3 in unpolarized neutron β decay. A long asymmetric spectrometer is optimized to achieve fast proton momentum longitudinalization and the required narrow proton momentum response function. A reliable relation of the measured proton TOF to a requires detailed knowledge of the effective proton pathlength, which imposes requirements on the precision of the magnetic fields in the Nab spectrometer. The Nab magnetometry goals, associated systematics, and some initial results will be discussed.

  12. Protective effects of combined β-caryophyllene and silymarin against ketoprofen-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Kelany, Mohamed Elsayed; Abdallah, Mohamed Abdelmohsen

    2016-07-01

    Ketoprofen (Ket), widely utilized in treatment of many inflammatory disorders, is found to induce liver toxicity especially with overdose. This study aimed to evaluate the possible protective effects of concomitant β-caryophyllene (Cary) and silymarin (Sily) against Ket-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Forty adult male albino rats were divided into 5 groups (each n = 8): the control group received distilled water for 6 weeks; the Ket-treated group received distilled water for 5 weeks and Ket in a dose of 8 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) p.o. for the 6th week; the Cary + Ket treated group received Cary in a dose of 200 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) orally for 6 weeks and Ket for the 6th week; the Sily + Ket treated group received Sily in the dose of 150 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) for 6 weeks and Ket for the 6th week; and the Cary + Sily + Ket treated group received Sily and Cary for 6 weeks and Ket for the 6th week. At end of the experiment, serum ALT, AST, and albumin and liver total antioxidant capacity (t.TAC) and malondialdehyde (t.MDA) were measured in all rats. Ket increased serum ALT and AST and t.MDA and decreased t.TAC. Cary and Sily improved these changes. Combined Cary and Sily restored these liver changes to nearly normal. Combined Cary and Sily is hepatoprotective, with the ability to scavenge oxidants against Ket-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

  13. The In Vitro Antimicrobial Effects of Lavandula angustifolia Essential Oil in Combination with Conventional Antimicrobial Agents

    PubMed Central

    de Rapper, Stephanie; Viljoen, Alvaro

    2016-01-01

    The paper focuses on the in vitro antimicrobial activity of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (lavender) essential oil in combination with four commercial antimicrobial agents. Stock solutions of chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, nystatin, and fusidic acid were tested in combination with L. angustifolia essential oil. The antimicrobial activities of the combinations were investigated against the Gram-positive bacterial strain Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538) and Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27858) and Candida albicans (ATCC 10231) was selected to represent the yeasts. The antimicrobial effect was performed using the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) microdilution assay. Isobolograms were constructed for varying ratios. The most prominent interaction was noted when L. angustifolia essential oil was combined with chloramphenicol and tested against the pathogen P. aeruginosa (ΣFIC of 0.29). Lavendula angustifolia essential oil was shown in most cases to interact synergistically with conventional antimicrobials when combined in ratios where higher volumes of L. angustifolia essential oil were incorporated into the combination. PMID:27891157

  14. Effect of adherend steel strength on static and fatigue strength of adhesive/rivet combined joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imanaka, Makoto; Haraga, Kosuke; Nishikawa, Tetsuya

    1992-02-01

    Adhesive/rivet combined bonding has attracted special interest recently as a joining technique of high-strength steel because of its high joint efficiency. In this study, the effects of steel strength on the tensile and fatigue strength of adhesive/rivet combined and adhesive joints were investigated. In addition, the stress distributions of these joints were analyzed by finite-element methods, taking into consideration the plastic deformation of adherend steels. With the increase of steel strength, the tensile strength of combined and adhesive joints increased and tensile strength was improved by the combination with the rivet. However, irrespective of the steel strength, the fatigue strength of combined and adhesive joints was constant and the fatigue strength of the combined joint was similar to that of the adhesive joint. These findings could be explained from the difference of stress distribution between static and fatigue load conditions.

  15. Drink Refusal Training as Part of a Combined Behavioral Intervention: Effectiveness and Mechanisms of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witkiewitz, Katie; Donovan, Dennis M.; Hartzler, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Many trials have demonstrated the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral interventions for alcohol dependence, yet few studies have examined why particular treatments are effective. This study was designed to evaluate whether drink refusal training was an effective component of a combined behavioral intervention (CBI) and whether change…

  16. Combining Temporal-Envelope Cues across Channels: Effects of Age and Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Souza, Pamela E.; Boike, Kumiko T.

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the ability to combine temporal-envelope information across frequency channels. Three areas were addressed: (a) the effects of hearing loss, (b) the effects of age and (c) whether such effects increase with the number of frequency channels. Twenty adults aged 23-80 years with hearing loss ranging from mild to…

  17. Long-term follow-up in adult living donors for combined liver/bowel transplant in pediatric recipients: a single center experience.

    PubMed

    Ghafari, Jamie L; Bhati, Chandra; John, Eunice; Tzvetanov, Ivo G; Testa, Giuliano; Jeon, Hoonbae; Oberholzer, Jose; Benedetti, Enrico

    2011-06-01

    Pediatric candidates for combined liver/bowel transplant (LBTx) experience a very high mortality on the cadaver waiting list. Our transplant center has successfully used adult living donors to treat pediatric candidates for LBTx. We report the long-term follow-up of this unique cohort of organ donors. The charts of six adult donors for LBTx performed between 2004 and 2007 were reviewed. All the pertinent clinical data were carefully reviewed and integrated with phone interviews of all donors. A total of six children (average age 13.5 months) received living donor LBTx. Average follow-up for the donors was 42 months (range 29-51). The donors' median age was 25 yr (19-32); five women and one man. The average median hospital stay was nine days. There were no peri-operative complications. At present all donors remain in good health. Three of the five mothers became pregnant after donation. Five of the six children are currently alive and well whereas one died with functioning grafts six months post-transplant due to plasmoblastic lymphoma. Living donor LBTx is an effective therapy for combined hepatic and intestinal failure in children less than five yr. The donor operation can be performed with minimal morbidity.

  18. Nuclear Quantum Effects in Water and Aqueous Systems: Experiment, Theory, and Current Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Ceriotti, Michele; Fang, Wei; Kusalik, Peter; Mckenzie, Ross; Michaelides, Angelos; Morales, Miguel A.; Markland, Thomas

    2016-04-06

    Nuclear quantum effects influence the structure and dynamics of hydrogen bonded systems, such as water, which impacts their observed properties with widely varying magnitudes. This review highlights the recent significant developments in the experiment, theory and simulation of nuclear quantum effects in water. Novel experimental techniques, such as deep inelastic neutron scattering, now provide a detailed view of the role of nuclear quantum effects in water’s properties. These have been combined with theoretical developments such as the introduction of the competing quantum effects principle that allows the subtle interplay of water’s quantum effects and their manifestation in experimental observables to be explained. We discuss how this principle has recently been used to explain the apparent dichotomy in water’s isotope effects, which can range from very large to almost nonexistent depending on the property and conditions. We then review the latest major developments in simulation algorithms and theory that have enabled the efficient inclusion of nuclear quantum effects in molecular simulations, permitting their combination with on-the-fly evaluation of the potential energy surface using electronic structure theory. Finally, we identify current challenges and future opportunities in the area.

  19. Nuclear Quantum Effects in Water and Aqueous Systems: Experiment, Theory, and Current Challenges

    DOE PAGES

    Ceriotti, Michele; Fang, Wei; Kusalik, Peter; ...

    2016-04-06

    Nuclear quantum effects influence the structure and dynamics of hydrogen bonded systems, such as water, which impacts their observed properties with widely varying magnitudes. This review highlights the recent significant developments in the experiment, theory and simulation of nuclear quantum effects in water. Novel experimental techniques, such as deep inelastic neutron scattering, now provide a detailed view of the role of nuclear quantum effects in water’s properties. These have been combined with theoretical developments such as the introduction of the competing quantum effects principle that allows the subtle interplay of water’s quantum effects and their manifestation in experimental observables tomore » be explained. We discuss how this principle has recently been used to explain the apparent dichotomy in water’s isotope effects, which can range from very large to almost nonexistent depending on the property and conditions. We then review the latest major developments in simulation algorithms and theory that have enabled the efficient inclusion of nuclear quantum effects in molecular simulations, permitting their combination with on-the-fly evaluation of the potential energy surface using electronic structure theory. Finally, we identify current challenges and future opportunities in the area.« less

  20. Nuclear Quantum Effects in Water and Aqueous Systems: Experiment, Theory, and Current Challenges.

    PubMed

    Ceriotti, Michele; Fang, Wei; Kusalik, Peter G; McKenzie, Ross H; Michaelides, Angelos; Morales, Miguel A; Markland, Thomas E

    2016-07-13

    Nuclear quantum effects influence the structure and dynamics of hydrogen-bonded systems, such as water, which impacts their observed properties with widely varying magnitudes. This review highlights the recent significant developments in the experiment, theory, and simulation of nuclear quantum effects in water. Novel experimental techniques, such as deep inelastic neutron scattering, now provide a detailed view of the role of nuclear quantum effects in water's properties. These have been combined with theoretical developments such as the introduction of the principle of competing quantum effects that allows the subtle interplay of water's quantum effects and their manifestation in experimental observables to be explained. We discuss how this principle has recently been used to explain the apparent dichotomy in water's isotope effects, which can range from very large to almost nonexistent depending on the property and conditions. We then review the latest major developments in simulation algorithms and theory that have enabled the efficient inclusion of nuclear quantum effects in molecular simulations, permitting their combination with on-the-fly evaluation of the potential energy surface using electronic structure theory. Finally, we identify current challenges and future opportunities in this area of research.

  1. Tamping effects and confinement time in NIF experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y. M.; Cheng, B.; Kwan, T. J. T.; Merrill, F.; Cerjan, C.; Batha, S. H.

    2015-11-01

    Tamper is expected to play an important role in inertial confinement fusion capsule experiments performed at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). It is expected to increase the confinement time of thermonuclear burning (TN) in the hot spot. In this work, we study the dependence of the capsule performance with respect to the density ratio of the pusher to the hot fuel at the cold-hot interface numerically through LASNEX simulations in one-dimension. Our study shows that the dependence of the capsule performance (neutron yield) with respect to the square root of the density ratio is not linear: the sharper the interface, the higher the tamping effect and neutron yields. Our analysis indicates that the tamping factor in both NIC and NIF experiments has not been appreciable and the tamping factor