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Sample records for combined oral contraception

  1. Combined oral contraceptives: health benefits beyond contraception.

    PubMed

    Caserta, D; Ralli, E; Matteucci, E; Bordi, G; Mallozzi, M; Moscarini, M

    2014-09-01

    It has been recognized for over 50 years that combined oral contraceptives (COCs) are also capable of offering health benefits beyond contraception through the treatment and prevention of several gynaecological and medical disorders. During the last years a constant attention was given to the adverse effects of COCs, whereas their non-contraceptive benefits were underestimated. To date, most women are still unaware of the therapeutic uses of hormonal contraceptives, while on the contrary there is an extensive and constantly increasing of these non-contraceptive health benefits. This review summarizes the conditions of special interest for physicians, including dysmenorrhoea, menorrhagia, hyperandrogenism (acne, hirsutism, polycystic ovary syndrome), functional ovarian cysts, endometriosis, premenstrual syndrome, myomas, pelvic inflammatory disease, bone mineral density, benign breast disease and endometrial/ovarian and colorectal cancer. The benefits of COCs in rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, menstrual migraine and in perimenopause have also been treated for more comprehensive information. Using COCs specifically for non-contraceptive indications is still outside the product licence in the majority of cases. We strongly believe that these aspects are not of minor relevance and they deserve a special consideration by health providers and by the mass media, which have the main responsibility in the diffusion of scientific information. Thus, counseling and education are necessary to help women make well-informed health-care decisions and it is also crucial to increase awareness among general practitioners and gynaecologists.

  2. Choosing a combined oral contraceptive pill

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Mary; Black, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Summary The combined oral contraceptive pill is an effective contraceptive method which can also offer other benefits. However, other contraceptive options should be discussed. If the pill is the chosen method, prescribe a pill with the lowest effective dose of oestrogen and progestogen. Pills containing levonorgestrel or norethisterone in combination with ethinyloestradiol 35 microgram or less are considered first-line. They are effective if taken correctly, have a relatively low risk of venous thromboembolism, and are listed on the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme. The pill is usually taken in a monthly cycle. Some women may prefer an extended pill regimen with fewer or no inactive pills. PMID:26648603

  3. Use of combined oral contraceptives and headaches.

    PubMed

    Simonienė, Diana; Vanagienė, Virginija; Zilaitienė, Birutė; Vanagas, Tadas

    2011-01-01

    The study was designed to examine the certain patterns of combined oral contraceptive use in women of childbearing potential and evaluate the relationship between the use of combined oral contraceptives and headaches, bad habits, type of work, and concomitant diseases. In total, 194 randomly selected women aged 18 to 40 years who visited a gynecologist for preventive gynecological examination were surveyed. Respondents were categorized as combined oral contraceptive users (n=116; study group) and nonusers (n=78; control group). An anonymous questionnaire developed by the authors of this study and a standardized scale called the Migraine Disability Assessment Scale (MIDAS) were used for the survey. A multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated a significantly higher prevalence of combined oral contraceptive use in women older than 20 years (odds ratio, 6.0; 95% CI, 2.6-14), better educated women (odds ratio, 5.7; 95% CI, 2.1-15.2), and women reporting a steady sexual partner (odds ratio, 4.0; 95% CI, 1.5-11.0). Relationship between headaches and use of combined oral contraceptives as well as other factors were analyzed in a group of 178 respondents; the rest 16 respondents reported not having headaches at all. The prevalence of reported minimal-to-mild and moderate-to-severe impact of headaches on daily activities did not differ significantly between the study and control groups, women with and without bad habits, and white-collar and blue-collar groups (P>0.05). However, women with concomitant diseases significantly more often reported moderate-to-severe impact on daily activities due to headaches (P<0.01). Differences in impact of headaches on daily activities between women using combined oral contraceptives containing 20 or less μg of ethinylestradiol and 30 or more μg of ethinylestradiol did not differ significantly. The prevalence of combined oral contraceptive use was higher in women older than 20 years, better educated women, and women reporting

  4. Combined oral contraceptives: acceptability and effective use.

    PubMed

    Kubba, A; Guillebaud, J

    1993-01-01

    With over 60 million users of 'the pill' worldwide, safety and efficacy remain the two most relevant issues to both the consumer and the research scientist. Safety of combined oral contraception (COC) has advanced appreciably. Lessons learned from cohort and case-control studies have been applied to the practical management of oral contraception use, based on screening, selection and regular monitoring of users. Most health risks of COCs appear to be dependent on the dose and potency (or biological impact) of the constituent steroids. While many of the non-contraceptive benefits of COCs are maintained when modern low dose preparations are used, most, if not all, of the adverse effects have been reduced progressively. Moreover the range of modern hormonal contraceptives has widened with the introduction of a new generation of 'selective' progestogens (Desogestrel, Norgestimate and Gestodene), which have minimal androgenicity. User failure of COCs is still high in many countries. The cause is a combination of poor compliance and anxiety about perceived adverse effects. Compliance can be enhanced by improving the quality of instruction in pill use. Fears of adverse effects of COCs may be allayed through education of users and providers, and sympathetic management of side effects.

  5. The combined oral contraceptive pill -- recent developments, risks and benefits.

    PubMed

    Dragoman, Monica V

    2014-08-01

    The introduction of the birth control pill as an effective, coitally-independent method of contraception was a public health milestone of the last century. Over time, combined oral contraception (COC) formulations and pill-taking regimens have evolved with improved safety and tolerability while maintaining contraceptive efficacy. In addition to protection against pregnancy, use of combined oral contraception confers a number of significant non-contraceptive benefits to users. COC use is also associated with well-studied risks. Common side effects are generally self-limiting and improve with increasing duration of use while serious adverse events, including venous thromboembolism, are rare among healthy COC users. Contraceptive decision-making should include consideration of both the risks and benefits of a given method versus the real consequences of unintended pregnancy.

  6. Influence of combined oral contraceptives on the periodontal condition

    PubMed Central

    DOMINGUES, Roberta Santos; FERRAZ, Bruna Fidêncio Rahal; GREGHI, Sebastião Luiz Aguiar; de REZENDE, Maria Lúcia Rubo; PASSANEZI, Euloir; SANT'ANA, Adriana Campos Passanezi

    2012-01-01

    Most studies investigating the impact of oral contraceptives have been performed some years ago, when the level of sexual hormones was greater than the actual formulations. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of current combined oral contraceptives (COC) on periodontal tissues, correlating the clinical parameters examined with the total duration of continuous oral contraceptive intake. Material and methods Twenty-five women (19-35 years old) taking combined oral contraceptives for at least 1 year were included in the test group. The control group was composed by 25 patients at the same age range reporting no use of hormone-based contraceptive methods. Clinical parameters investigated included pocket probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), sulcular bleeding index (SBI) and plaque index (Pl.I). Data were statistically evaluated by unpaired t test, Pearson's correlation test and Spearman's correlation test. Results The test group showed increased PD (2.228±0.011 x 2.154±0.012; p<0.0001) and SBI (0.229±0.006 x 0.148±0.005, p<0.0001) than controls. No significant differences between groups were found in CAL (0.435±0.01 x 0.412±0.01; p=0.11). The control group showed greater Pl.I than the test group (0.206±0.007 x 0.303±0.008; p<0.0001). No correlation between the duration of oral contraceptive intake, age and periodontal parameters was observed. Conclusions These findings suggest that the use of currently available combined oral contraceptives can influence the periodontal conditions of the patients, independently of the level of plaque accumulation or total duration of medication intake, resulting in increased gingival inflammation. PMID:22666846

  7. Female sexual dysfunction with combined oral contraceptive use.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jean Jasmin M L; Tan, Thiam Chye; Ang, Seng Bin

    2017-06-01

    Combined oral contraceptive pills (COCs) remain one of the most popular forms of contraception to prevent unwanted pregnancy in women. While it is known that COCs can cause sexual dysfunction in women, there is currently no recommendation to screen for sexual function before and after initiation of COCs. We propose that, based on the evidence available, assessment of sexual function should be done at initiation of COCs, as well as at regular intervals thereafter. This would allow COC-related sexual dysfunction to be managed early, such as by switching the patient to newer-generation COCs or other forms of contraception. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association.

  8. Phototoxic reaction to a combined oral contraceptive (levonorgestrel/ethinylestradiol).

    PubMed

    Richarz, N A; Aguilera, J; Castillo, G; Fuente, M J; Ferrándiz, C; Carrascosa, J M

    2017-09-13

    We present the case of a phototoxic skin reaction due to the regular intake of a combined oral contraceptive (levonorgestrel/ethinylestradiol). Upon spectrophotometer testing, we demonstrated high absorption in the UV-B region of the solar spectrum of the combined product (Ovoplex®), especially for the estrogen compound (ethinylestradiol).

  9. Ziprasidone and the pharmacokinetics of a combined oral contraceptive

    PubMed Central

    Muirhead, G J; Harness, J; Holt, P R; Oliver, S; Anziano, R J

    2000-01-01

    Aims To determine whether multiple doses of ziprasidone alter the steady-state pharmacokinetics of the component steroids, ethinyloestradiol and levonorgestrel, of an oral contraceptive; to evaluate the tolerability of a co-administered combined oral contraceptive and ziprasidone; and to compare plasma concentrations of prolactin in subjects taking a combined oral contraceptive with placebo or ziprasidone. Methods Nineteen women taking a combined oral contraceptive (ethinyloestradiol 30 µg day−1 and levonorgestrel 150 µg day−1) were enrolled into a double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-way crossover study. They received ziprasidone 40 mg day−1 in two divided daily doses or placebo for 8 days (days 8–15) in one of two 21 day treatment periods separated by a 7 day washout period. Venous blood samples were collected immediately before and up to 24 h after the morning dose of oral contraceptive and ziprasidone or placebo on day 15 of each 21 day treatment period. These were assayed for ethinyloestradiol and levonorgestrel and the resulting data used to derive pharmacokinetic data for these steroids. Additional samples were collected immediately before and 4 h after the morning dose of oral contraceptive and ziprasidone or placebo on day 15 of each 21 day treatment period for prolactin assay. All observed and volunteered adverse events were recorded throughout the study. Results The mean AUC(0,24 h), Cmax and tmax for ethinyloestradiol and the mean AUC(0,24 h) and Cmax for levonorgestrel during ziprasidone co-administration were not statistically significantly different from corresponding values occurring during placebo co-administration. The tmax for levonorgestrel was approximately 0.5 h longer. Concomitant therapy with a combined oral contraceptive and ziprasidone did not result in adverse events not previously seen with either preparation alone. Conclusions The findings of this study suggest that, based on pharmacokinetic and tolerability data, ziprasidone

  10. Combined oral contraceptives: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Kiley, Jessica; Hammond, Cassing

    2007-12-01

    Millions of women use birth control pills for contraceptive and noncontraceptive reasons. Although there have been reports of rare adverse events, birth control pills do offer well-documented health benefits, including a decrease in the risk of ovarian and endometrial carcinoma. In addition, manufacturers continue to modify birth control pills to reduce side effects and medical risks.

  11. Oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Maclennan, A H

    1987-12-01

    Over 60 million women use highly efficient and safe modern combined oral contraceptives (OCs) every day. A women who takes the oral contraceptive for 5 years before the age of 30 will actually live 12 days longer, although a woman taking the pill for the 1st time for 5 years after the age of 30 will have her life span reduced on the average by 80 days. OC related morbidity and mortality mostly occur in women over 35 who smoke. Combined low dose OCs are safe for women who do not smoke, at least to 45 years of age and probably to the menopause. The prescription of OCs is also safe to the young adolescent. The pill does not interfere with maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary ovarian axis and does not increase the incidence of amenorrhoea, oligomenorrhoea or infertility in later life. Patients with contraindications to estrogen therapy are excluded from OC use (history of thromboembolism, major heart disease, liver disease, breast cancer). Low-dose (30-35 mcg estrogen-containing monophasic or triphasic) pills are recommended. Combined oral contraceptives contain either ethinyl estradiol (1.7 to 2 times more potent) or mestranol. After absorption the progestagens, norethisterone acetate, ethynodiol diacetate and lynoestrenol are all metabolized to norethisterone. The progestagen-only pill has about a 2% failure rate and poorer cycle control than the combined pill, but it lacks estrogenic, progestagenic and androgenic side effects. This pill is suitable for the lactating mother, for smokers over 35, for hypertensive patients, and for those with a history of thrombosis. The efficacy of the progestagen-only pill is restored in 3 days of pill taking. Postcoital contraception is an alternative: treatment can be given for at least 72 hours after intercourse. The Yuzpe method calls for the patient to take 2 combined oral contraceptive tablets containing levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol (Eugynon or Ovral) followed by a further 2 tablets 12 hours later. This regimen

  12. Oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Ellsworth, A J; Leversee, J H

    1990-09-01

    Management of oral contraception requires an understanding of the relationships between the method's effectiveness, noncontraceptive benefits, and hormonal adverse effects. The new multiphasic combinations or OCs containing 35 micrograms of ethinyl estradiol and 0.5-1.0 mg of norethindrone or equivalent result in a maximum combination of efficacy and safety for the patient with minimal annoying problems for the patient and the prescriber. Patient education regarding early warning symptoms of adverse effects, breakthrough bleeding, and lack of withdrawal bleeding adds an additional margin of safety and reduces patient questions and uncertainties.

  13. [Serious adverse effect of combined oral contraceptive pills among teenagers].

    PubMed

    Nylander, Malin Chatarina; Clausen, Helle V

    2014-06-23

    PubMed-search found studies investigating adverse effects of combined oral contraceptive pills (COC) among teenagers. Four studies found a small negative impact of COC on acquisition of bone mineral density. COC is associated with elevated risk of venous thrombotic events (VTE), especially during the first year of usage. VTE risk increases with EE dose and progestin of 3rd and 4th generation. There are several difficulties in studying COC use in teenagers: high dropout rates, ethical considerations and many different COC formulas.

  14. Oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Oesterheld, Jessica R; Cozza, Kelly; Sandson, Neil B

    2008-01-01

    Nearly 50 years ago, the introduction of Enovid (norethynodrel 10 microg and mestranol 150 microg), which provided convenient and reliable contraception, revolutionized birth control. Reports of interactions between oral contraceptives (OCs) and other drugs began to trickle into the literature. At first, these drug interactions appeared to be random and unrelated. Increased understanding of P450 enzymes and phase II reactions of sulfation and glucuronidation has permitted preliminary categorization and assessment of the clinical relevance of these drug interactions.

  15. Lifetime cancer risk and combined oral contraceptives: the Royal College of General Practitioners' Oral Contraception Study.

    PubMed

    Iversen, Lisa; Sivasubramaniam, Selvaraj; Lee, Amanda J; Fielding, Shona; Hannaford, Philip C

    2017-06-01

    Oral contraceptives have been used by hundreds of millions of women around the world. Important questions remain regarding the very long-term cancer risks that are associated with oral contraception. Despite previous research, important questions remain about the safety of these contraceptives: (1) How long do endometrial, ovarian, and colorectal cancer benefits persist? (2) Does combined oral contraceptive use during the reproductive years produce new cancer risks later in life? (3) What is the overall balance of cancer among past users as they enter the later stages of their lives? The purpose of this study was to examine the very long-term cancer risks or benefits associated with the use of combined oral contraceptives, including the estimated overall life-time balance. The 46,022 women who were recruited to the UK Royal College of General Practitioners' Oral Contraception Study in 1968 and 1969 were observed for up to 44 years. Directly standardized rates of specific and any cancer were calculated for "ever" and "never" users of combined oral contraceptives; data were standardized for age, parity, social class, and smoking. Attributable risk and preventive fraction percentages were calculated. Poisson regression that adjusted for the same variables was used to estimate incidence rate ratios between ever and never users and to examine effects by time since last oral contraceptive use. There were 4661 ever users with at least 1 cancer during 884,895 woman-years of observation and 2341 never users with at least 1 cancer during 388,505 woman-years of observation. Ever use of oral contraceptives was associated with reduced colorectal (incidence rate ratio, 0.81; 99% confidence interval, 0.66-0.99), endometrial (incidence rate ratio, 0.66; 99% confidence interval, 0.48-0.89), ovarian (incidence rate ratio, 0.67; 99% confidence interval, 0.50-0.89), and lymphatic and hematopoietic cancer (incidence rate ratio, 0.74; 99% confidence interval, 0.58-0.94). An increased

  16. Oral contraceptives in migraine.

    PubMed

    Allais, Gianni; Gabellari, Ilaria Castagnoli; De Lorenzo, Cristina; Mana, Ornella; Benedetto, Chiara

    2009-03-01

    Combined oral contraceptives are a safe and highly effective method of birth control, but they can also raise problems of clinical tolerability and/or safety in migraine patients. It is now commonly accepted that, in migraine with aura, the use of combined oral contraceptives is always contraindicated, and that their intake must also be suspended by patients suffering from migraine without aura if aura symptoms appear. The newest combined oral contraceptive formulations are generally well tolerated in migraine without aura, and the majority of migraine without aura sufferers do not show any problems with their use; nevertheless, the last International Classification of Headache Disorders identifies at least two entities evidently related to the use of combined oral contraceptives: exogenous hormone-induced headache and estrogen-withdrawal headache. As regards the safety, even if both migraine and combined oral contraceptive intake are associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke, migraine without aura per se is not a contraindication for combined oral contraceptive use. Other risk factors (tobacco use, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, obesity and diabetes) must be carefully considered when prescribing combined oral contraceptives in migraine without aura patients, in particular in women aged over 35 years. Furthermore, the exclusion of a hereditary thrombophilia and of alterations of coagulative parameters should precede any decision of combined oral contraceptive prescription in migraine patients.

  17. Mothers' attitude to the use of a combined oral contraceptive pill by their daughters for menstrual disorders or contraception.

    PubMed

    Yiu, K W; Chan, S Sc; Chung, T Kh

    2017-04-01

    Mothers' attitude may affect use of combined oral contraceptive pills by their daughters. We explored Chinese mothers' knowledge of and attitudes towards the use of combined oral contraceptive pills by their daughters for menstrual disorders or contraception, and evaluate the factors affecting their attitude. This survey was conducted from October 2012 to March 2013, and recruited Chinese women who attended a gynaecology clinic or accompanied their daughter to a gynaecology clinic, and who had one or more daughters aged 10 to 18 years. They completed a 41-item questionnaire to assess their knowledge of and attitude towards use of the combined oral contraceptive pills by their daughters. The demographic data of the mothers and their personal experience in using the pills were also collected. A total of 300 women with a mean age of 45.2 (standard deviation, 5.0) years completed the questionnaire. Only 58.3% of women reported that they had knowledge about the combined oral contraceptive pills; among them, a majority (63.3%) reported that their source of knowledge came from medical professionals. Of a total possible score of 22, their mean knowledge score for risk, side-effects, benefits, and contra-indications to use of combined oral contraceptive pills was only 5.0 (standard deviation, 4.7). If the medical recommendation to use an oral contraceptive was to manage their daughter's dysmenorrhoea, menorrhagia, acne, or contraception needs, 32.0%, 39.3%, 21.0% and 29.7%, respectively would accept this advice. Women who were an ever-user of combined oral contraceptive pills or who were more knowledgeable about combined oral contraceptives had a higher acceptance rate. Chinese women had a low acceptance level of using combined oral contraceptive pills as a legitimate treatment for their daughters. This was associated with lack of knowledge or a high degree of uncertainty about their risks and benefits. It is important that health caregivers provide up-to-date information

  18. Misconceptions about the side effects of combined oral contraceptive pills.

    PubMed

    Küçük, Mert; Aksu, Hilmiye; Sezer, Selda Demircan

    2012-04-01

    Although combined oral contraceptive pills (COCPs) are one of the most commonly used methods of contraception in western countries, they are taken by only a minority of sexually active women in Turkey. The purpose of this research has been to define women's specific misconceptions with regard to the side effects of COCPs. This descriptive and cross-sectional research was conducted on 418 reproductive aged women who agreed to participate. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews with a questionnaire which assessed socio-demographic characteristics and women's beliefs about the side effects of COCPs. It is observed that 45.2% believed that the pills cause weight gain. Another 7.9% of the cases held the belief that COCPs cause cancer. A group of 13.4% of the subjects thought that COCPs lead to infertility, 28.7% believed that they cause headache, 41.1% believed that they cause acne and/or an increase in body hair, and 11.7% were afraid that they cause a decrease in libido. The present study has shown that misconceptions about the side effects of COCPs were considerably prevalent among this cohort group of Turkish women. Healthcare professionals have the potential of playing an important role in dispersing these misconceptions.

  19. Acceptability of the combined oral contraceptive pill among Hong Kong women.

    PubMed

    Lo, S St; Fan, S Ys

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the motivators and barriers to the use of the combined oral contraceptive pill among Hong Kong women. The Family Planning Association of Hong Kong commissioned the ESDlife to launch an online survey and invited its female members aged 18 to 45 years who had used contraceptives in the past 12 months to participate in this survey. The online survey was posted on the ESDlife website between April 2015 and May 2015. Measurements included contraceptive choice, and motivators and barriers to the use of a combined oral contraceptive pill. A total of 1295 eligible women with a median age of 32 years participated in this survey. In the past 12 months, 76.1% of them used a male condom, 20.9% practised coitus interruptus, 16.2% avoided coitus during the unsafe period, and 12.6% took a combined oral contraceptive pill. These women chose a combined oral contraceptive for convenience, effectiveness, and menstrual regulation, though 60.9% had stopped the pills because they were worried about side-effects, experienced side-effects, or consistently forgot to take the pills. Some women had never tried a combined oral contraceptive pill because they feared side-effects, they were satisfied with their current contraceptive method, or pill-taking was inconvenient. The combined oral contraceptive pill is underutilised by Hong Kong women compared with those in many western countries. A considerable proportion of respondents expressed concern about actual or anticipated side-effects. This suggests that there remains a great need for doctors to dispel the underlying myths and misconceptions about the combined oral contraceptive pill.

  20. Selection of steroid combinations for oral contraceptives of maximum benefit.

    PubMed

    Stubblefield, P G

    1986-09-01

    Low-dose oral contraceptives differ in the specific progestin component. Our review of available animal and human data revealed differences between the progestins as to their potencies for estrogenic, anti-estrogenic, androgenic and progesterone effects. Ideally, oral contraceptive formulations should have the minimal effective dose, sufficient to prevent pregnancy but with the fewest metabolic changes. The risk of cardiovascular disease may be predicted by changes in the composition and amount of circulating lipoproteins. Progestins with significant androgenic potency can lower high-density lipoprotein2; that is a possible adverse effect. Randomized, blind, comparative trials of the new multiphasic preparations are needed to determine which ones truly cause the fewest metabolic changes that might be of clinical significance.

  1. Headache induced by the use of combined oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Allais, Gianni; Gabellari, Ilaria Castagnoli; Airola, Gisella; Borgogno, Paola; Schiapparelli, Paola; Benedetto, Chiara

    2009-05-01

    Although combined oral contraceptives (COCs) are a safe and highly effective method of birth control, they may also give rise to problems of clinical tolerability in migraine patients. Indeed, headache is among the most common side effects reported with the use of COCs, frequently leading to their being discontinued. The latest International Classification of Headache Disorders identified at least two entities evidently related to the use of COCs, i.e., exogenous hormone-induced headache and estrogen-withdrawal headache. As to the former, the newest formulations of COCs are generally well tolerated by migraine without aura patients, but can worsen headache in migraine with aura patients. Headache associated with COCs, generally, tends to improve as their use continues. However, although it is not yet clear if there is an association between headache and the composition of COCs (both in the type and amount of hormones), it has been observed that the incidence of headache during COC use seems greater if migraine is associated with menstrual trigger. The estrogen-withdrawal headache is a headache that generally appears within the first 5 days after cessation of estrogen use and resolves within 3 days, even if in some cases it may appear on the sixth or seventh day after pill suspension and lasts more than 3 days.

  2. Combined oral contraceptives in polycystic ovary syndrome - indications and cautions.

    PubMed

    Bozdag, Gurkan; Yildiz, Bulent Okan

    2013-01-01

    Combined oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) have been used in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) for the treatment of menstrual disorders, acne and hirsutism. Despite years of their use and broad clinical experience, there are still ongoing doubts concerning their implications for the cardiovascular system and carbohydrate metabolism both in the general population and women with PCOS. In the general population, the risk of venous thromboembolism is reported to be increased. However, arterial thrombotic events seem to require concomitant risk factors to appear during administration of OCPs. In terms of carbohydrate metabolism, available data do not consistently suggest an increased risk of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or conversion of IGT to type 2 diabetes mellitus, in spite of some subtle fluctuations in glucose and insulin levels. In subgroup analyses of epidemiological studies in the general population, there is no finding indicating an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and related mortality in premenopausal women with PCOS. There is no significant alteration in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism after use of OCP in PCOS either. The absence of further cardiometabolic risk with OCP use in PCOS might suggest some unproven preventive alterations in this patient population.

  3. Combined oral contraceptives and body weight: do oral contraceptives cause weight gain? A primate model.

    PubMed

    Edelman, A; Jensen, J T; Bulechowsky, M; Cameron, J

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if oral contraceptive (OC) use affects body weight, body composition and metabolism in primates. Reproductive-age female rhesus monkeys of normal and obese BMI were studied to document baseline weight stability, then treated continuously with an OC (dosed to achieve equivalent human serum levels for a 30 µg ethinyl estradiol/150 µg levonorgestrel preparation) for 237 days. Monkeys were monitored for changes in body weight, levels of physical activity (measured by a triaxial Actical accelerometer), food/caloric intake, percent body fat (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, DEXA) and metabolism (24 h metabolic rate and serum metabolic substrate and hormone concentrations). All 10 monkeys completed the study protocol with no adverse events. While body weight (-0.73% change) and percent body fat (-1.78% change) of the normal BMI group did not significantly decrease from baseline, obese monkeys showed a significant decrease in body weight (-8.58% change, P < 0.01) and percent body fat (-12.13% change P = 0.02) with OC treatment. In both the obese (P = 0.03) and the normal BMI (P = 0.01) groups, there was a significant increase in basal metabolic rate with OC use. No changes were seen in food intake, activity level or % lean muscle mass with OC use for either BMI-based group. Overall, OC use appears to cause a slight increase in basal metabolic rate in female monkeys, leading to a decrease in body weight and percent body fat in obese individuals.

  4. Oral contraceptives combined with interferon β in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    De Giglio, Laura; Barletta, Valeria T.; Marinelli, Fabiana; Angelis, Floriana De; Gallo, Valentina; Pagano, Veronica A.; Marini, Stefano; Piattella, Maria C.; Tomassini, Valentina; Pantano, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To test the effect of oral contraceptives (OCs) in combination with interferon β (IFN-β) on disease activity in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Methods: One hundred fifty women with RRMS were randomized in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive IFN-β-1a subcutaneously (SC) only (group 1), IFN-β-1a SC plus ethinylstradiol 20 μg and desogestrel 150 μg (group 2), or IFN-β-1a SC plus ethinylestradiol 40 μg and desogestrel 125 μg (group 3). The primary endpoint was the cumulative number of combined unique active (CUA) lesions on brain MRI at week 96. Secondary endpoints included MRI and clinical and safety measures. Results: The estimated number of cumulative CUA lesions at week 96 was 0.98 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.81–1.14) in group 1, 0.84 (95% CI 0.66–1.02) in group 2, and 0.72 (95% CI 0.53–0.91) in group 3, with a decrease of 14.1% (p = 0.24) and 26.5% (p = 0.04) when comparing group 1 with groups 2 and 3, respectively. The number of patients with no gadolinium-enhancing lesions was greater in group 3 than in group 1 (p = 0.03). No significant differences were detected in other secondary endpoints. IFN-β or OC discontinuations were equally distributed across groups. Conclusions: Our results translate the observations derived from experimental models to patients, supporting the anti-inflammatory effects of OCs with high-dose estrogens, and suggest possible directions for future research. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class II evidence that in women with RRMS, IFN-β plus ethinylstradiol and desogestrel decreases the cumulative number of active brain MRI lesions compared with IFN-β alone. PMID:26140279

  5. Combined Oral Contraceptive Pills: Profile of Acceptors in a Tertiary Hospital in South-South Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Abasiattai, A M; Utuk, M N; Ojeh, S O; Eyo, U E

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Combined oral contraceptive pills were the first contraceptive method to provide sexual freedom of choice for women through reliable, personal and private control of fertility. They are the most widely used hormonal contraceptives and also the most popular non-surgical method of contraception. OBJECTIVE: To review the profile of acceptors of combined oral contraceptive pills at the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, Uyo. METHODOLOGY: An 8 year review of all clients that accepted combined oral contraceptive pills in the family planning clinic. RESULTS: There were 1,146 new contraceptive acceptors during the period of study out of which 309 (27.9%) accepted the pills. Majority of the clients were between 20 and 29 years of age (54.0%), were multiparous (72.8%), Christians (99.7%) and 61.2% had tertiary level education. Two hundred and fifty-five women (82.5%) desired to use combined oral contraceptive pills to space births while 7.8% wanted to limit child bearing. There was a high discontinuation rate among the women (45.0%) and out of these 87.9% of the clients changed to other contraceptive methods. All the clients commenced their pills within seven days of menstruation and only the low dose monophasic preparations were available in the family planning unit and thus were given to the clients. CONCLUSION: Women who accept to initiate combined oral contraceptive pills in our center are young, well educated, multiparous women who want to space their pregnancies. However, due to the high discontinuation rate among the clients, there is need for further studies evaluating reasons for the high discontinuation rate, exploring interactions between clients and providers' and also providers' attitude towards combined pills in our environment.

  6. [Oral combined contraception: is there any difference between ethinyl-estradiol and estradiol?].

    PubMed

    Trémollieres, F

    2012-02-01

    Estradiol 17-β, which is the natural estrogen in women, offers an alternative to ethinyl-estradiol to be used in combined oral contraceptives. Thanks to its biochemical structure, estradiol has a far lesser impact on the synthesis of hepatic proteins than ethinyl-estradiol, which is likely to result in a better metabolic and vascular profile. However and until lately, the different clinical trials that had investigated estradiol-containing oral contraceptives were limited by bleeding disturbances, with breakthrough and irregular bleeding and higher rates of discontinuation. Development of anti-gonadotropic progestins with a potent endometrial activity is likely to make possible their combination with estradiol in oral contraceptives. The objective of this current review is to provide an overview of the development of combined oral contraceptives containing natural estrogen from the respective biochemical and pharmacological characteristics of ethinyl-estradiol and estradiol.

  7. A Comparison of Second and Third Generations Combined Oral Contraceptive Pills’ Effect on Mood

    PubMed Central

    Shahnazi, Mahnaz; Farshbaf Khalili, Azizeh; Ranjbar Kochaksaraei, Fatemeh; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Gaza Banoi, Kamal; Nahaee, Jila; Bayati Payan, Somayeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Most women taking combined oral contraceptives (COCs) are satisfied with their contraceptive method. However, one of the most common reasons reported for discontinuation of combined oral contraceptives (COCs) is mood deterioration. Objectives: This study aimed to compare effects of the second and third generation oral contraceptive pills on the mood of reproductive women. Materials and Methods: This randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial was conducted in reproductive women at health centers in Tehran, Iran. Participants were randomized into the second and third generation oral contraceptive groups. Positive and negative moods were recorded using positive affect, negative affect scale (PANAS) tools at the end the second and fourth months of the study. Data analysis was carried out using ANOVA and P Values < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Statistically significant difference was seen in positive and negative mood changes in women receiving contraceptive pills. The second generation oral contraceptive pills resulted in a decrease in positive mood (95% CI: 43.39 to 38.32 in second month and 43.39 to 26.05 in four month) and increase in negative mood (95% CI: 14.23 to 22.04 in second month and 14.23 to 32.26 in four month - P < 0.001), but the third generation led to an increase in positive mood (95% CI: 22.42 to 25.60 in second month and 22.42 to 33.87 in four month) and decrease in negative mood (95% CI: 36.78 to 31.97 in second month and 36.78 to 22.65 in four month - P < 0.001). Conclusions: Third generation combined oral contraceptive pills have a better effect on mood in women in reproductive ages than the second generation pills. It can be recommended as a proper combined oral contraceptive in Iran. PMID:25389478

  8. Oxidative Stress in Female Athletes Using Combined Oral Contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Cauci, Sabina; Buligan, Cinzia; Marangone, Micaela; Francescato, Maria Pia

    2016-12-01

    Oxidative stress in female athletes is understudied. We investigated oxidative stress in sportswomen of different disciplines according to combined oral contraceptive (OC) use and lifestyle/alimentary habits. Italian sportswomen (n = 144; mean age 23.4 ± 4.2 years; body mass index 21.2 ± 2.2 kg m(-2); sport activity 9.2 ± 4.1 h week(-1)) were analyzed; 48 % were volleyball players, 12.5 % soccer players, 10.4 % track-and-field sports, and followed by other disciplines' athletes. Oxidative stress was evaluated by free oxygen radical test (FORT) assessing blood hydroperoxides and free oxygen radical defense (FORD) assay evaluating antioxidant capacity in OC users (n = 42) compared to non-OC users. Elevated oxidative stress levels (≥310 FORT units) were found in 92.9 % of OC users and in 23.5 % of non-OC users (crude OR = 42, 95 % CI 12-149, p < 0.001; adjusted OR = 60, 95 % CI 11-322, p < 0.001). Continuous values of hydroperoxides were twofold higher in OC users versus non-OC users (median 484 versus 270 FORT units, p < 0.001) and were inversely related to FORD units in OC users (p = 0.01). Hydroperoxides were not associated with weekly hours of exercise. In OC users, lifestyle/alimentary habits were not correlated to hydroperoxides. In non-OC users only, hydroperoxide values were positively correlated with weight and BMI and inversely correlated with chocolate and fish consumption. The markedly elevated oxidative stress we revealed in OC-user athletes could be detrimental to physical activity and elevate cardiovascular risk (as thromboembolism). Further research is needed to extend our results, to clarify the biochemical pathways leading to increased hydroperoxides (mainly lipid peroxides) and reduced antioxidant defense, and to elucidate the potential effects on athletic performance. OC use should be considered when developing gender-focused strategies against oxidative stress.

  9. Combined oral contraceptive pills for treatment of acne.

    PubMed

    Arowojolu, Ayodele O; Gallo, Maria F; Lopez, Laureen M; Grimes, David A

    2012-06-13

    Acne is a common skin disorder among women. Although no uniform approach to the management of acne exists, combination oral contraceptives (COCs), which contain an estrogen and a progestin, often are prescribed for women. To determine the effectiveness of combined oral contraceptives (COCs) for the treatment of facial acne compared to placebo or other active therapies. In January 2012, we searched for randomized controlled trials of COCs and acne in the computerized databases of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, POPLINE, and LILACS. We also searched for clinical trials in ClinicalTrials.gov and the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (Aug 2011). For the initial review, we wrote to researchers to seek any unpublished or published trials that we might have missed. We considered randomized controlled trials reported in any language that compared the effectiveness of a COC containing an estrogen and a progestin to placebo or another active therapy for acne in women. We extracted data on facial lesion counts, both total and specific (i.e., open or closed comedones, papules, pustules and nodules); acne severity grades; global assessments by the clinician or the participant, and discontinuation due to adverse events. Data were entered and analyzed in RevMan. For continuous data, we calculated the mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence interval (CI). For dichotomous data, we calculated the Peto odds ratio (OR) and 95% CI. The review includes 31 trials with 12,579 participants. Of 24 comparisons made, 6 compared a COC to placebo, 17 different COCs, and 1 compared a COC to an antibiotic. Of nine placebo-controlled trials with data for analysis, all showed COCs reduced acne lesion counts, severity grades and self-assessed acne compared to placebo. A levonorgestrel-COC group had fewer total lesion counts (MD -9.98; 95% CI -16.51 to -3.45), inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesion counts, and were more likely to

  10. Combined oral contraceptive pills for treatment of acne.

    PubMed

    Arowojolu, Ayodele O; Gallo, Maria F; Lopez, Laureen M; Grimes, David A

    2012-07-11

    Acne is a common skin disorder among women. Although no uniform approach to the management of acne exists, combination oral contraceptives (COCs), which contain an estrogen and a progestin, often are prescribed for women. To determine the effectiveness of combined oral contraceptives (COCs) for the treatment of facial acne compared to placebo or other active therapies. In January 2012, we searched for randomized controlled trials of COCs and acne in the computerized databases of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, POPLINE, and LILACS. We also searched for clinical trials in ClinicalTrials.gov and the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (Aug 2011). For the initial review, we wrote to researchers to seek any unpublished or published trials that we might have missed. We considered randomized controlled trials reported in any language that compared the effectiveness of a COC containing an estrogen and a progestin to placebo or another active therapy for acne in women. We extracted data on facial lesion counts, both total and specific (i.e., open or closed comedones, papules, pustules and nodules); acne severity grades; global assessments by the clinician or the participant, and discontinuation due to adverse events. Data were entered and analyzed in RevMan. For continuous data, we calculated the mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence interval (CI). For dichotomous data, we calculated the Peto odds ratio (OR) and 95% CI. The review includes 31 trials with 12,579 participants. Of 24 comparisons made, 6 compared a COC to placebo, 17 different COCs, and 1 compared a COC to an antibiotic. Of nine placebo-controlled trials with data for analysis, all showed COCs reduced acne lesion counts, severity grades and self-assessed acne compared to placebo. A levonorgestrel-COC group had fewer total lesion counts (MD -9.98; 95% CI -16.51 to -3.45), inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesion counts, and were more likely to

  11. Oral steroid contraception.

    PubMed

    Sech, Laura A; Mishell, Daniel R

    2015-11-01

    Oral steroid contraception is a popular method of family planning worldwide. Over the past several decades, this method of contraception has changed significantly by decreasing the estrogen dose, changing the progestin component, and reducing the hormone free interval. Despite the popularity of oral steroid contraception, there has been much criticism regarding the associated risks of venous thromboembolism and stroke. Despite these established, yet uncommon risks, oral steroid contraception has many important health benefits. This review highlights the available formulations of oral contraceptives along with their evidence-based associated risks and benefits. Highlights regarding future directions for development of novel oral contraceptives are also addressed.

  12. New contraceptive eligibility checklists for provision of combined oral contraceptives and depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate in community-based programmes.

    PubMed Central

    Stang, A.; Schwingl, P.; Rivera, R.

    2000-01-01

    Community-based services (CBS) have long used checklists to determine eligibility for contraceptive method use, in particular for combined oral contraceptives (COCs) and the 3-month injectable contraceptive depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA). As safety information changes, however, checklists can quickly become outdated. Inconsistent checklists and eligibility criteria often cause uneven access to contraceptives. In 1996, WHO produced updated eligibility criteria for the use of all contraceptive methods. Based on these criteria, new checklists for COCs and DMPA were developed. This article describes the new checklists and their development. Several rounds of expert review produced checklists that were correct, comprehensible and consistent with the eligibility requirements. Nevertheless, field-testing of the checklists revealed that approximately half (48%) of the respondents felt that one or more questions still needed greater comprehensibility. These findings indicated the need for a checklist guide. In March 2000, WHO convened a meeting of experts to review the medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use. The article reflects also the resulting updated checklist. PMID:10994285

  13. Contraindications to combined oral contraceptives among over-the-counter compared with prescription users.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Daniel; White, Kari; Hopkins, Kristine; Amastae, Jon; Shedlin, Michele; Potter, Joseph E

    2011-03-01

    To compare the estimated proportion of contraindications to combined oral contraceptives between women who obtained combined oral contraceptives in U.S. public clinics compared with women who obtained combined oral contraceptives over the counter (OTC) in Mexican pharmacies. We recruited a cohort of 501 women who were residents of El Paso, Texas, who obtained OTC combined oral contraceptives in Mexico and 514 women who obtained combined oral contraceptives from family planning clinics in El Paso. Based on self-report of World Health Organization category 3 and 4 contraindications and interviewer-measured blood pressure, we estimated the proportion of contraindications and, using multivariable-adjusted logistic regression, identified possible predictors of contraindications. The estimated proportion of any category 3 or 4 contraindication was 18%. Relative contraindications (category 3) were more common among OTC users (13% compared with 9% among clinic users, P=.006). Absolute contraindications (category 4) were not different between the groups (5% for clinic users compared with 7% for OTC users, P=.162). Hypertension was the most prevalent contraindication (5.6% of clinic users and 9.8% of OTC users). After multivariable adjustment, OTC users had higher odds of having contraindications compared with clinic users (odds ratio [OR] 1.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11-2.29). Women aged 35 years or older (OR 5.30, 95% CI 3.59-7.81) and those with body mass index 30.0 or more (OR 2.24, 95% CI 1.40-3.56) also had higher odds of having contraindications. Relative combined oral contraceptive contraindications are more common among OTC users in this setting. Progestin-only pills might be a better candidate for the first OTC product given their fewer contraindications.

  14. The role of combined oral contraceptives in the management of acne and seborrhea.

    PubMed

    del Marmol, V; Teichmann, A; Gertsen, K

    2004-06-01

    Acne and seborrhea (or facial oiliness) are related androgenic skin disorders which affect a high proportion of women after menarche. They can have a negative effect on psychological well-being and social life. Androgens play an important role in the pathogenesis of acne through the stimulation of sebum secretion, increasing sebaceous gland size and possibly through follicular hyperkeratinization. Conversely, estrogens decrease sebum production by suppressing gonadotropin release and androgen production and increasing sex hormone binding globulin production. One of the treatment options for these conditions is hormonal therapy, especially for women who require contraception. The effect of combined oral contraceptives in androgenic skin disorders depends on their estrogen:progestogen balance and on the antiestrogenic activity of the progestogen component. Improved understanding of what women value about oral contraceptives suggests that the choice of product should be tailored as much as possible to the individual. Several combined oral contraceptives containing new-generation progestogens (e.g. desogestrel, gestodene) or progestational antiandrogens (e.g. cyproterone acetate, chlormadinone acetate) have demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of women with acne, although comparisons between trials are difficult because of differing endpoints. Seborrhea has been less well studied, but the few studies that are available show an improvement in women with this condition using combined oral contraceptives.

  15. [Effect of combined hormonal oral contraception on the somatic and psychic status of women of reproductive age].

    PubMed

    Vertkin, A L; Nosova, A V

    2012-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the topical problem of maintaining somatic and psychic health of the women of reproductive age by rational pregnancy planning and prevention of abortions by modern methods of contraception including combined oral hormonal contraception. Unfortunately, this approach is rarely employed in this country (5-6%). Results of retrospective analysis of medical documentation, clinical efficacy and safety of modern combined oral hormonal contraception are presented.

  16. Estimate of Venous Thromboembolism and Related-Deaths Attributable to the Use of Combined Oral Contraceptives in France

    PubMed Central

    Tricotel, Aurore; Raguideau, Fanny; Collin, Cédric; Zureik, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the number of venous thromboembolic events and related-premature mortality (including immediate in-hospital lethality) attributable to the use of combined oral contraceptives in women aged 15 to 49 years-old between 2000 and 2011 in France. Methods French data on sales of combined oral contraceptives and on contraception behaviours from two national surveys conducted in 2000 and 2010 were combined to estimate the number of exposed women according to contraceptives generation and age. Absolute risk of first time venous thromboembolism in non-users of hormonal contraception and increased risk of thromboembolism in users vs. non-users of hormonal contraception were estimated on the basis of literature data. Finally, immediate in-hospital lethality due to pulmonary embolism and premature mortality due to recurrent venous thromboembolism were estimated from the French national database of hospitalisation and literature data. Results In France, more than four million women are daily exposed to combined oral contraceptives. The mean annual number of venous thromboembolic events attributable to their use was 2,529 (778 associated to the use of first- and second-generation contraceptives and 1,751 to the use of third- and fourth-generation contraceptives), corresponding to 20 premature deaths (six with first- and second-generation contraceptives and fourteen with third- and fourth-generation contraceptives), of which there were eight to nine immediate in-hospital deaths. As compared to the use of first- and second-generation contraceptives, exposure to third- and fourth-generation contraceptives led to a mean annual excess of 1,167 venous thromboembolic events and nine premature deaths (including three immediate in-hospital deaths). Conclusions Corrective actions should be considered to limit exposure to third- and fourth-generation contraceptives, and thus optimise the benefit-risk ratio of combined oral contraception. PMID:24751717

  17. Effect of combined oral contraceptives on glycosylated haemoglobin.

    PubMed Central

    Oakley, N; Rostron, W

    1982-01-01

    Glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA), was measured in 164 Caucasian women aged 20-40 years who were using: (1) barrier contraceptive methods; (2) contraceptive pills with 30 micrograms ethinyloestradiol and 150 micrograms laevo-norgestrel; (3) contraceptive pills with 30-35 micrograms ethinyloestradiol and 0.5-1 mg norethisterone. Mean +/- 1 s.d. values for the three groups were 7.64 +/- 0.69, 7.56 +/- 0.56 and 7.27 +/- 0.74 respectively. Groups (1) and (2) did not differ significantly from one another but the mean value for group (3) was significantly lower than for the other groups (P less than 0.01). Age, percentage ideal body weight and smoking did not influence HbA, but the value was higher for parous than for nulliparous women (P = 0.02). These findings can be explained in terms of the known effects of oestrogens and progestogens on fasting blood glucose. PMID:7069693

  18. Oral contraceptives: current status.

    PubMed

    Burkman, R T

    2001-03-01

    During the past four decades, oral contraceptives have remained a safe and effective method of birth control. Reductions in the estrogen and progestin dosages have significantly decreased the incidence of cardiovascular complications. The association between oral contraceptives and breast cancer appears to be primarily because of detection bias or possibly a promotional effect. Despite the changes in formulation, the problems related to side effects have not been totally solved. Because compliance and successful use is strongly affected by side effects, improvement in this area is probably the biggest challenge faced by developers of oral contraceptives. It is also clear that there are a growing number of significant noncontraceptive benefits that accrue in oral contraceptive users. Unfortunately, many women do not know about these benefits. Thus, one of the issues that providers need to continue to address is how to provide better information about oral contraceptives and contraception in general to patients.

  19. The evolution of combined oral contraception: improving the risk-to-benefit ratio.

    PubMed

    Burkman, Ronald; Bell, Carrie; Serfaty, David

    2011-07-01

    Since its introduction in 1960, the combined oral contraceptive (COC) pill has become one of the most widely and frequently used methods of contraception worldwide. Although highly effective, early COC formulations were associated with significant adverse effects and unacceptable cardiovascular risk. Improvements in tolerability and safety have been achieved, without compromises in effectiveness, primarily via hormone dosage reductions and the development of several new progestins. Multiphasic COCs and extended-/continuous-cycle COCs have also been introduced, although the clinical advantages of these formulations vs. traditional COCs have yet to be established. Inclusion of natural estrogens such as estradiol valerate and 17β-estradiol with selective progestins in new combinations that maintain good cycle control is the most recent evolutionary step designed to improve COC tolerability and safety. Vigorous research needs to continue to help guarantee that the unmet need for safe and effective contraception is satisfied in future generations.

  20. Oral Contraceptive Pill and PCOS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Gynecology Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health PCOS: The Oral Contraceptive Pill Posted under Health Guides . ... of oral contraceptive pills for young women with PCOS? Regular and Lighter Periods: Oral contraceptive pills can ...

  1. Danger signals and the combined oral contraceptive pill.

    PubMed

    Williams, H

    1999-12-01

    The COCP is a safe form of contraception for the majority of women. The challenge is to identify the women who have risk factors that make the use of COCP less safe. This approach is summarised by a recent consensus statement from an international conference on evidence based prescribing of COCPs. This states that 'current evidence suggests only two prerequisites for the safe provision of COCPs: a careful personal and family medical history with particular attention to cardiovascular risk factors, and an accurate blood pressure measurement'.

  2. Oral contraception and sexuality.

    PubMed

    Dennerstein, L; Burrows, G

    1976-05-22

    A search of the literature has been carried out to determined how oral contraceptives affect sexuality in women. Some studies featured a high incidence of loss of libido. This could perhaps be attributed to preparations containing progestational compounds. However, no adequate double-blind trial has confirmed this observation. Some psychological and pharmacological aspects of contraceptions are discussed. More research is needed to ascertain why women often lose their sexual interest when taking oral contraceptives.

  3. Migraine and oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Mousa, G Y

    1982-10-01

    Migraine is a common complaint in optometric practice. Three cases of migrainous patients taking oral contraceptives are presented in this report. The role of oral contraceptives in triggering a migraine attack and possibly elevating the risk of a stroke in a patient with migraine is discussed. The counseling an optometrist can provide in such cases in discussed.

  4. Noncontraceptive benefits of the estradiol valerate/dienogest combined oral contraceptive: a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Nappi, Rossella E; Serrani, Marco; Jensen, Jeffrey T

    2014-01-01

    Combined oral contraceptives formulated to include estradiol (E2) have recently become available for the indication of pregnancy prevention. A combined estradiol valerate and dienogest pill (E2V/DNG), designed to be administered using an estrogen step-down and a progestin step-up regimen over 26 days of active treatment followed by 2 days of placebo (26/2-day regimen), has also undergone research to assess the potential for additional noncontraceptive benefits. Randomized, placebo-controlled studies have demonstrated that E2V/DNG is an effective treatment for heavy menstrual bleeding – a reduction in median menstrual blood loss approaching 90% occurs after 6 months of treatment. To date, E2V/DNG is the only oral contraceptive approved for this indication. Comparator studies have also demonstrated a reduction in hormone withdrawal-associated symptoms in users of E2V/DNG compared with a conventional 21/7-day regimen of ethinylestradiol/levonorgestrel. Other potential noncontraceptive benefits associated with E2V/DNG, like improvement in dysmenorrhea, sexual function, and quality of life, are comparable with those associated with other combined oral contraceptives and are discussed further in this review. PMID:25120376

  5. Oral contraceptives and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Friedman, G D

    1977-01-01

    A variety of studies have noted that the use of oral contraceptives generally leads to mild increases in blood pressure which are usually reversible when the medication is discontinued. Representative data from the Walnut Creek Contraceptive Drug Study and the Royal College of General Practitioners Study concerning the magnitude of excess risk and relation to duration of use and pull content are shown. Preliminary data from women, aged 25-34 years, taking multiphasic health checkups in Oakland and San Francisco, suggest that black as well as white women are susceptible to this side effect of oral contraceptives. A method is given for estimating the proportion of hypertensives among a population of young women that is attributable to oral contraceptive use. Although the risk of pull-induced hypertension is small for the average user, oral contraceptives appear to be an important identifiable cause of hypertension in samples of women studied.

  6. Age at onset of multiple sclerosis is correlated to use of combined oral contraceptives and childbirth before diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Holmqvist, Per; Hammar, Mats; Landtblom, Anne-Marie; Brynhildsen, Jan

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether age of onset of multiple sclerosis is related to use of combined oral contraceptives and/or timing of childbirth. The results showed that use of combined oral contraceptives and childbirth before the first multiple sclerosis symptom was correlated to a higher mean age at the onset of the disease. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Influence of transdermal rotigotine on ovulation suppression by a combined oral contraceptive

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Marina; Elshoff, Jan-Peer; Andreas, Jens-Otto; Müller, Louise Ischen; Horstmann, Rolf

    2009-01-01

    AIMS To assess the influence of the transdermally applied dopamine agonist rotigotine on ovulation suppression by a combined oral contraceptive (0.03 mg ethinyloestradiol and 0.15 mg levonorgestrel) in a randomized, double-blind crossover study in 40 healthy females. METHODS Treatment A consisted of the combined oral contraceptive for 28 days plus rotigotine for the first 13 days (2 mg (24 h)−1 on days 1–3, 3 mg (24 h)−1 maintenance dose thereafter). During treatment B, subjects received matching placebo patches instead of rotigotine. Pharmacodynamic parameters (progesterone, oestradiol, luteinizing hormone, and follicle stimulating hormone serum concentrations), pharmacokinetic parameters for ethinyloestradiol/levonorgestrel and rotigotine, and safety and tolerability of the treatment were assessed. RESULTS Progesterone serum concentrations remained below 2 ng ml−1 in all subjects during the luteal phase. Median serum concentrations of all other pharmacodynamic parameters were similar during both treatments. Pharmacokinetic parameters Cmax,ss and AUC(0,24 h)ss at steady state were similar with or without co-administration of rotigotine for both ethinyloestradiol and levonorgestrel with geometric mean ratios close to 1 and 90% confidence intervals within the acceptance range of bioequivalence (0.8, 1.25): Cmax,ss 1.05 (0.93, 1.19), AUC(0,24 h)ss 1.05 (0.9, 1.22) for ethinyloestradiol; Cmax,ss 1.01 (0.96, 1.06), AUC(0,24 h)ss 0.98 (0.95, 1.01) for levonorgestrel. Mean plasma concentrations of unconjugated rotigotine remained stable throughout the patch-on period (day 13). CONCLUSIONS Concomitant administration of 3 mg (24 h)−1 transdermal rotigotine had no impact on the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of a combined oral contraceptive containing 0.03 mg ethinyloestradiol and 0.15 mg levonorgestrel, suggesting that the dopamine agonist does not influence contraception efficacy. PMID:19740396

  8. Potencies of oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Edgren, R A; Sturtevant, F M

    1976-08-15

    Oral contraceptives are combinations of estrogens and progestogens or, in the case of the mini-pills, progestogens alone. With specific test procedures in laboratory animals or human subjects, it is possible to assign potency evaluations to the components relative to the progestational, estrogenic, or antiestrogenic activities of the progestogen or to the estrogenic potencies of the estrogenic component. It might even be possible to quantify the synergistic effects of the estrogen on the progestational agent. Unfortunately, however, it is impossible now to amalgamate such assay results into single estimates of the potencies of the combinations (either the combination products per se or the combination tablets of sequential products). For example, an over-all estrogenic potency of a combination preparation would involve the integration of contributions form the estrogen itself plus the estrogenic products of metabolism of the progestogen minus the antagonistic effect of the progestational agent, if any. These factors cannot now be quantified independently, much less merged into a single figure of clinical significance. Further, even if it were possible to produce such an estimate, it is unlikely that the evaluation would be meaningful in relation to any putative side effect or adverse reaction, i.e., the alleged thrombogenic effects of oral contraceptives cannot currently be related directly to any measure of potency that will allow prediction of these clinical conditions from laboratory models. Any evaluation of the potential of a given contraceptive to produce a specific side effect will depend upon data generated with specific regard to that adverse reaction and the individual product in question.

  9. Therapeutic, prophylactic, untoward, and contraceptive effects of combined oral contraceptives: catholic teaching, natural law, and the principle of double effect when deciding to prescribe and use.

    PubMed

    Casey, Murray Joseph; Salzman, Todd A

    2014-01-01

    Combined oral contraceptives (COC) have been demonstrated to have significant benefits for the treatment and prevention of disease. These medications also are associated with untoward health effects, and they may be directly contraceptive. Prescribers and users must compare and weigh the intended beneficial health effects against foreseeable but unintended possible adverse effects in their decisions to prescribe and use. Additionally, those who intend to abide by Catholic teachings must consider prohibitions against contraception. Ethical judgments concerning both health benefits and contraception are approached in this essay through an overview of the therapeutic, prophylactic, untoward, and contraceptive effects of COC and discussion of magisterial and traditional Catholic teachings from natural law. Discerning through the principle of double effect, proportionate reason, and evidence gathered from the sciences, medical and moral conclusions are drawn that we believe to be fully compliant with good medicine and Catholic teaching.

  10. Effect of progestin vs. combined oral contraceptive pills on lactation: A double-blind randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Espey, Eve; Ogburn, Tony; Leeman, Larry; Singh, Rameet; Schrader, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Objective To estimate the effect of progestin-only vs. combined hormonal contraceptive pills on rates of breastfeeding continuation in postpartum women. Secondary outcomes include infant growth parameters, contraceptive method continuation and patient satisfaction with breastfeeding and contraceptive method. Methods In this randomized controlled trial, postpartum breastfeeding women who desired oral contraceptives were assigned to progestin-only vs. combined hormonal contraceptive pills. At two and eight weeks postpartum, participants completed in-person questionnaires that assessed breastfeeding continuation and contraceptive use. Infant growth parameters including weight, length and head circumference were assessed at eight weeks postpartum. Telephone questionnaires assessing breastfeeding, contraceptive continuation and satisfaction were completed at 3-7 weeks and 4 and 6 months. Breastfeeding continuation was compared between groups using Cox proportional hazards regression. Differences in baseline demographic characteristics and in variables between the two intervention groups were compared using chi-square tests, Fisher’s Exact test, or two-sample t-tests as appropriate. Results Breastfeeding continuation rates, contraceptive continuation, and infant growth parameters did not differ between users of progestin-only and combined hormonal contraceptive pills. Infant formula supplementation and maternal perception of inadequate milk supply were associated with decreased rates of breastfeeding in both groups. Conclusions Choice of combined or progestin-only birth control pills administered two weeks postpartum did not adversely affect breastfeeding continuation. PMID:22143258

  11. Extended regimen combined oral contraception: A review of evolving concepts and acceptance by women and clinicians

    PubMed Central

    Nappi, Rossella E.; Kaunitz, Andrew M.; Bitzer, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: The clinical utility of extended regimen combined oral contraceptives (COCs) is increasingly being recognised. Our objective was to understand the attitudes of women and clinicians about the use of these regimens. We present the rationale for extended regimen COCs from a historical perspective, and trace their evolution and growing popularity in light of their clinical benefits. We conclude by offering potential strategies for counselling women about extended regimen COC options. Methods: We conducted a MEDLINE search to identify and summarise studies of extended regimen COCs, focusing on attitudes of women and clinicians regarding efficacy, safety/tolerability and fewer scheduled bleeding episodes and other potential benefits. Results: The body of contemporary literature on extended regimen COCs suggests that their contraceptive efficacy is comparable to that of conventional 28-day (i.e., 21/7) regimens. For women seeking contraception that allows infrequent scheduled bleeding episodes, particularly those who suffer from hormone withdrawal symptoms and cyclical symptoms (e.g., headache, mood changes, dysmenorrhoea, heavy menstrual bleeding), extended regimen COCs are an effective and safe option. Although satisfaction with extended regimen COCs in clinical trials is high, misperceptions about continuous hormone use may still limit the widespread acceptance of this approach. Conclusions: Despite the widespread acceptance among clinicians of extended regimen COCs as an effective and safe contraceptive option, these regimens are underused, likely due to a lack of awareness about their availability and utility among women. Improved patient education and counselling regarding the safety and benefits of extended regimen COCs may help women make more informed contraceptive choices. PMID:26572318

  12. History of oral contraception.

    PubMed

    Dhont, Marc

    2010-12-01

    On the 50th birthday of the pill, it is appropriate to recall the milestones which have led to its development and evolution during the last five decades. The main contraceptive effect of the pill being inhibition of ovulation, it may be called a small miracle that this drug was developed long before the complex regulation of ovulation and the menstrual cycle was elucidated. Another stumbling block on its way was the hostile climate with regard to contraception that prevailed at the time. Animal experiments on the effect of sex steroids on ovulation, and the synthesis of sex steroids and orally active analogues were the necessary preliminaries. We owe the development of oral contraceptives to a handful of persons: two determined feminists, Margaret Sanger and Katherine McCormick; a biologist, Gregory Pincus; and a gynaecologist, John Rock. Soon after the introduction of the first pills, some nasty and life-threatening side effects emerged, which were due to the high doses of sex steroids. This led to the development of new preparations with reduced oestrogen content, progestins with more specific action, and alternative administration routes. Almost every decade we have witnessed a breakthrough in oral contraception. Social and moral objections to birth control have gradually disappeared and, notwithstanding some pill scares, oral contraceptives are now one of the most used methods of contraception. Finally, all's well that ends well: recent reports have substantiated the multiple noncontraceptive health benefits paving the way for a bright future for this 50-year-old product.

  13. Pharmacokinetic overview of ethinyl estradiol dose and bioavailability using two transdermal contraceptive systems and a standard combined oral contraceptive

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Birte; Reinecke, Isabel; Schuett, Barbara; Merz, Martin; Zurth, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the relative bioavailability of ethinyl estradiol (EE) and gestodene (GSD) after application of a novel transdermal contraceptive patch vs. a standard combined oral contraceptive (COC) pill (study 1), and to evaluate the pharmacokinetics (PK) of EE after application of the EE/GSD patch compared with an EE/norelgestromin (NGMN) patch (study 2). Materials: Participants were healthy, non-obese women aged 18 – 45 years (study 1) or 18 – 35 years (study 2). Compositions of study treatments were as follows: 0.55 mg EE/2.1 mg GSD (EE/GSD patch); 0.02 mg EE/0.075 mg GSD (standard COC); 0.6 mg EE/6 mg NGMN (EE/NGMN patch). Methods: In study 1, which consisted of 3 treatment periods (each followed by 7 patch- or pill-free days), treatments were administered in one of two randomized orders: either P–M–E (EE/GSD patch (P) every 7 days for 28 days → COC (M) once-daily for 21 days → two 7-day patch-wearing periods followed by one 10-day patch-wearing phase (E)), or the same treatments administered in sequence M–P–E. For study 2, participants received either the EE/GSD patch or EE/NGMN patch for seven treatment cycles (one patch per week for 3 weeks followed by a 7-day patch-free interval). Results: In study 1, average daily exposure to EE was similar for treatments P and M; the mean daily area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) ratio of treatment P vs. treatment M for EE was 1.06 (90% confidence interval (CI): 0.964 – 1.16), indicating average daily delivery similar to oral administration of 0.019 – 0.023 mg EE. For unbound GSD, average daily exposure was lower for treatment P vs. treatment M. The mean AUC ratio of treatment P vs. treatment M for unbound GSD was 0.820 (90% CI: 0.760 – 0.885), indicating average daily delivery from the patch of 0.057 – 0.066 mg GSD. Prolonged patch wearing did not result in a distinct decline in GSD and EE serum concentrations. In study 2, AUC at steady state (AUC0–168,ss

  14. Serum resistin levels in women taking combined oral contraceptives containing desogestrel or gestodene.

    PubMed

    Rechberger, Tomasz; Tomaszewski, Jacek; Pieprzowska-Białek, Anna; Kulik-Rechberger, Beata; Skorupski, Paweł

    2004-06-01

    Resistin is a hormone secreted by adipose tissue that could be involved in the development of insulin resistance. Previous studies confirmed that endogenous sex steroids may influence serum resistin concentration in women. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of combined oral contraceptives containing desogestrel or gestodene on circulating levels of resistin. Fifty-three women were enrolled in the study. Thirteen patients received 20 microg ethinylestradiol/150 microg desogestrel, 15 women were treated with 20 microg ethinylestradiol/75 microg gestodene, 11 with 30 microg ethinylestradiol/150 microg desogestrel and 14 with 30 microg ethinylestradiol/75 microg gestodene. Blood samples for estimation of serum resistin and insulin levels were drawn before administration of oral contraceptive and after 6 cycles of therapy. We found that serum resistin level remained unchanged in women receiving ethinylestradiol/desogestrel and was reduced in women treated with formulations containing gestodene. We conclude that ethinylestradiol combined with desogestrel or gestodene is unlikely to induce insulin resistance through resistin pathway.

  15. Fasting plasma lipids, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins in Nigerian women using combined oral and progestin-only injectable contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Oyelola, O O

    1993-05-01

    Fasting plasma lipid, lipoprotein, and apolipoprotein (apo) profiles were determined in Nigerian women using a low-dose combined oral (Lo-Feminal + Fe) (n = 18), a progestin-only injectable (Depo-Provera) (n = 16) contraceptives and matched controls (n = 18). The mean of plasma total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, apo B and Lp(a) were significantly higher (p < 0.01) in women using contraceptives than the controls. The mean of total and LDL-cholesterol and apo B were also significantly higher in the oral contraceptive users than those on progestin-only injectables. Furthermore, the mean of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk indices, total/HDL-cholesterol (p < 0.05) and LDL/HDL-cholesterol (p < 0.01), were significantly higher in women on oral contraceptives than the controls. There were no statistically significant differences between the indices in the women using progestin-only injectables and the controls. Based on this finding, it is concluded that the use of steroidal contraceptives is associated with alterations of lipid and apolipoprotein profiles in Nigerian women and that the use of low-dose combined oral contraceptives may be associated with an increased CVD risk.

  16. Deep vein thrombosis in a woman taking oral combined contraceptive pills.

    PubMed

    Piparva, Kiran G; Buch, Jatin G

    2011-07-01

    Oral combined contraceptive pill (OCCP) is popular as birth control pills. Like all other drugs, they are not free from risks. Women taking certain types of OCCP have higher risk of developing deep vein thrombosis (DVT). A 29 year old married woman had taken OCCP for 3.5 months, developed deep vein thrombosis of left leg. Hereditary and acquired causes of DVT were excluded. She was treated with parenteral and oral anticoagulants simultaneously and was advised to discontinue OCCP. Initially the risk of blood clot was believed to be due to dose of estrogen but recent study relates it to the type of progesterone involved in OCCP. Thus, it is still a matter of debate, whether to associate risk of DVT to the amount of estrogen alone or also to the type of progestin. Apart from careful selection of patients, one should also look for the risk of venous thromboembolism irrespective of type of OCCP prescribed.

  17. Oral contraceptives: a reassessment.

    PubMed

    Derman, R

    1989-09-01

    Cardiovascular risks attributable to oral contraceptive use may now be subdivided into those that appear to be secondary to the estrogen component, i.e., venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and those linked to the progestin component, i.e., small vessel disease including myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular accident. It appears that venous risk is attributable to subtle changes in clotting factors, while arterial risk may be secondary to changes in glucose and lipid metabolism. In order to determine which women are at greatest risk from oral contraceptive use, Spellacy et al. has developed a risk scoring form that aids in the screening process. After excluding women with an absolute contraindication to pill use, women at greatest risk for cardiovascular disease related to oral contraceptive use are those with a family history of hyperlipidemia, gestational or overt diabetics, hypertensives, and smokers over the age of 35. The gradual reduction by manufacturers of the steroid content of oral contraceptives appears to have lessened the incidence of adverse effects. Our current knowledge of risk factors permits the clinician to reduce exposure to oral contraceptive-related mortality by as much as 86 per cent. As we continue to search for ways to reduce risk among oral contraceptive users, it is important to note that more than 25 per cent of women are still taking formulations containing 50 micrograms of estrogen. It becomes the responsibility of the practicing physician to "step-down" these patients to lower-dose preparations such as the multiphasics. Such preparations also represent optimal therapy for first-time pill users.

  18. Knowledge and attitudes of Latin American gynecologists regarding unplanned pregnancy and use of combined oral contraceptives

    PubMed Central

    Bahamondes, Luis; Lira-Plascencia, Josefina; Martin, Ricardo; Marin, Victor; Makuch, Maria Y

    2015-01-01

    Background Unintended pregnancy is a public health problem and unmet medical need worldwide. It is estimated that in the year 2012, almost 213 million pregnancies occurred, and the global pregnancy rate decreased only slightly from 2008 to 2012. It was also estimated that 85 million pregnancies (40% of all pregnancies) were unintended and that 38% ended in an unintended birth. Objectives To assess knowledge and attitudes of Latin American (LA) obstetricians and gynecologists (OBGYNs) regarding unintended pregnancies and aspects of combined oral contraceptive (COC) use. Methods A survey was conducted during a scientific meeting about contraception in 2014, in which OBGYNs from 12 LA countries who provide attention in contraception were invited to respond to a multiple-choice questionnaire to assess their knowledge and attitudes regarding unplanned pregnancy and some aspects regarding COC use. Results A total of 210 OBGYNs participated in the study. Their knowledge regarding COC failure was low. The participants reported they believed that their patients habitually forgot to take a pill and that their patients did not know what to do in these situations. They were aware of the benefits of COC use; however, they were less prone to prescribe COCs for the purpose of protecting against ovarian and endometrial cancer, and one-quarter of them had doubts about the association between COC use and cancer risk. Conclusion The interviewed LA OBGYNs showed some flaws in terms of knowledge of COC failure rates and the non-contraceptive benefits and risks of COCs. To adequately counsel their patients regarding COC intake, OBGYNs must be updated regarding all aspects of COC use. PMID:25999766

  19. [Oral contraceptives (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Kopera, H

    1976-11-26

    A short review of the endocrinological basis of reproduction in the female is followed by a critical survey of the oral contraceptive methods in current use. The composition of the preparations, their use, their biological and use-effectiveness and mode of action are discussed.The importance is emphasized of complying with the basic principles of drug testing in the evaluation of effects of oral contraceptiveson health. Other effects than merely the contraceptive actions of these preparations are described in detail, including not only the undesirable, frequently neglected, yet very important beneficial effects on the drug-users, their children and families.

  20. An investigation into the effect of tenidap sodium on the pharmacokinetics of a combined oral contraceptive

    PubMed Central

    Coates, P. E.; Mesure, R.

    1995-01-01

    1 The effects of tenidap sodium and placebo on the pharmacokinetics of a combined oral contraceptive (Microgynon 30®) were evaluated in 18 healthy premenopausal women in a double-blind, cross-over study lasting two menstrual cycles. 2 Tenidap (120 mg day-1) or placebo was given for 11 days, starting within 4 days of menstruation and Microgynon 30®, containing levonorgestrel (150 μg) and ethinyloestradiol (30 μg), was administered on day 10 of tenidap therapy. 3 The mean maximum plasma levonorgestrel concentrations (Cmax), time to Cmax (tmax) and area under the plasma time-concentration curves (AUC(0,t)) did not differ between subjects given tenidap or placebo. The Cmax, tmax and AUC(0,t) values for ethinyloestradiol did not differ between tenidap and placebo recipients. Only the ethinyloestradiol Cmax showed a significant difference (P = 0.02) between menstrual cycles 1 and 2 (252.9 pg ml-1 and 271.3 pg ml-1, respectively). 4 Co-administration of tenidap and Microgynon 30® was well tolerated and no subject withdrew from the study because of side-effects. There were no side-effects considered to be related to tenidap and no clinically significant laboratory abnormalities were considered to be related to treatment. 5 The results of the study suggest that the pharmacokinetics of the oestrogen and progestin components of the oral contraceptive Microgynon 30® are unlikely to be affected by concomitant administration of tenidap. PMID:7547095

  1. Ethinyl estradiol and 17β-estradiol in combined oral contraceptives: pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Stanczyk, Frank Z; Archer, David F; Bhavnani, Bhagu R

    2013-06-01

    The need to seek improved combined oral contraceptive (COC) efficacy, with fewer health risks and better acceptability, has been ongoing since the introduction of COCs more than 50 years ago. New progestin formulations combined with lower doses of ethinyl estradiol (EE), the predominant estrogenic component of COCs, have reduced the incidence of venous thromboembolism and other negative outcomes of COC treatment. Previous attempts to use endogenous 17β-estradiol (E₂) instead of EE were limited primarily by poor cycle control. The recent introduction of E₂-based formulations has renewed interest to determine if there are potential benefits of using E₂ in COCs. These formulations have been shown to have similar efficacy and cycle control as EE-based COCs. This review provides a brief summary of the pharmacology of EE and E₂, including metabolism, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, as well as adverse effects of these estrogens.

  2. Economic Evaluations of Thrombophilia Screening Prior to Prescribing Combined Oral Contraceptives: A Systematic and Critical Review.

    PubMed

    Vernon, Erin; Hiedemann, Bridget; Bowie, Bonnie H

    2017-03-13

    Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) increase the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), particularly among women with inherited clotting disorders. The World Health Organization classifies combined hormonal contraception as an "unacceptable health risk" for women with thrombogenic mutations but advises against universal thrombophilia screening before prescribing COCs given the low prevalence of thrombophilia and high screening costs. Through the lens of lifetime costs and benefits, this paper systematically and critically reviews all published economic evaluations of thrombophilia screening prior to prescribing COCs. We searched relevant databases for economic evaluations of thrombophilia screening before prescribing COCs. After extracting the key study characteristics and economic variables, we evaluated each article using the Quality of Health Economic Studies (QHES) and the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) instruments. Seven economic evaluations of thrombophilia screening before prescribing COCs met our inclusion criteria. Only the two economic evaluations focusing exclusively on selective screening exceeded the 75-point threshold for high-quality economic studies based on the QHES instrument, whereas only one of these exceeded the 85% CHEERS threshold. Only three of the seven economic evaluations performed sensitivity analysis on key parameters. Most studies underestimated the benefits of thrombophilia screening by comparing one-time costs of genetic screening against benefits per person-year, thus implicitly assuming a 1-year duration of COC use, neglecting the long-term implications of VTE and/or neglecting the lifetime benefits of awareness of inherited thrombophilia. Our review highlights the lack of methodologically rigorous economic evaluations of universal thrombophilia screening before prescribing COCs.

  3. Antibiotics and oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    DeRossi, Scott S; Hersh, Elliot V

    2002-10-01

    With the exception of rifampin-like drugs, there is a lack of scientific evidence supporting the ability of commonly prescribed antibiotics, including all those routinely employed in outpatient dentistry, to either reduce blood levels and/or the effectiveness of oral contraceptives. To date, all clinical trials studying the effects of concomitant antibiotic therapy (with the exception of rifampin and rifabutin) have failed to demonstrate an interaction. Like all drugs, oral contraceptives are not 100% effective with the failure rate in the typical United States population reported to be as high as 3%. It is thus possible that the case reports of unintended pregnancies during antibiotic therapy may simply represent the normal failure rate of these drugs. Considering that both drug classes are prescribed frequently to women of childbearing potential, one would expect a much higher rate of oral contraceptive failure in this group of patients if a true drug:drug interaction existed. On the other hand, if the interaction does exist but is a relatively rare event, occurring in, say, 1 in 5000 women, clinical studies such as those described in this article would not detect the interaction. The pharmacokinetic studies of simultaneous antibiotic and oral contraceptive ingestion, and the retrospective studies of pregnancy rates among oral contraceptive users exposed to antibiotics, all suffer from one potential common weakness, i.e., their relatively small sample size. Sample sizes in the pharmacokinetic trials ranged from 7 to 24 participants, whereas the largest retrospective study of pregnancy rates still evaluated less than 800 total contraceptive users. Still, the incidence of such a rare interaction would not differ from the accepted normal failure rate of oral contraceptive therapy. The medico-legal ramifications of what looks like at best a rare interaction remains somewhat "murky." On one hand, we have medico-legal experts advising the profession to exercise caution

  4. Combined oral contraceptive synergistically activates mineralocorticoid receptor through histone code modifications.

    PubMed

    Igunnu, Adedoyin; Seok, Young-Mi; Olatunji, Lawrence A; Kang, Seol-Hee; Kim, Inkyeom

    2015-12-15

    Clinical studies have shown that the use of combined oral contraceptive in pre-menopausal women is associated with fluid retention. However, the molecular mechanism is still elusive. We hypothesized that combined oral contraceptive (COC) ethinyl estradiol (EE) and norgestrel (N) synergistically activates mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) through histone code modifications. Twelve-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with olive oil (control), a combination of 0.1µg EE and 1.0µg N (low COC) or 1.0µg EE and 10.0µg N (high COC) as well as 0.1 or 1.0µg EE and 1.0 or 10.0µg N daily for 6 weeks. Expression of MR target genes in kidney cortex was determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. MR was quantified by western blot. Recruitment of MR and RNA polymerase II (Pol II) on promoters of target genes as well as histone code modifications was analyzed by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Treatment with COC increased renal cortical expression of MR target genes such as serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (Sgk-1), glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (Gilz), epithelial Na(+)channel (Enac) and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase subunit α1 (Atp1a1). Although COC increased neither serum aldosterone nor MR expression in kidney cortex, it increased recruitment of MR and Pol II in parallel with increased H3Ac and H3K4me3 on the promoter regions of MR target genes. However, treatment with EE or N alone did not affect renal cortical expression of Sgk-1, Gilz, Enac or Atp1a1. These results indicate that COC synergistically activates MR through histone code modifications.

  5. Continuous combination oral contraceptive pills to eliminate withdrawal bleeding: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Miller, Leslie; Hughes, James P

    2003-04-01

    To compare bleeding profiles of a traditional 28-day oral contraceptive pill cycle with continuous administration. After a 28-day run-in cycle, women were randomized to either 28-day cycles (21 active pills and a pill-free week) or continuous use of the same 20 microg ethinyl estradiol/100 microg levonorgestrel formulation for 12 study cycles (336 days). The number of bleeding and spotting days were measured by daily diary. A subset underwent cycle 1 (n = 16), and nine (n = 14) pelvic ultrasound and endometrial histology sampling. Blood pressure, weight, hemoglobin, and adverse events were measured at revisit. The sample size with 80% power to detect a 67% reduction in bleeding days required 27 subjects in each arm. Of the 79 subjects randomized, 28 (70%) of the 28-day cycle and 32 (82%) of the continuous-use subjects completed the entire study (P =.6). With continuous use, 49%, 68%, and 88% of women reported no bleeding during cycles 2, 6, and 12, respectively. Amenorrhea or infrequent bleeding was present in 68% of continuous users during cycles 1-3 and increased to 88% during cycles 10-12. Spotting during cycle days 1-21 increased initially with continuous use but reduced over time, and by 9 months was less than the spotting reported by cyclic users. Adverse events, blood pressure, weight, and hemoglobin findings were similar between groups. Extension of the 28-day oral contraceptive cycle to continuous use with a low-estrogen dose combination oral birth control pill resulted in significantly fewer bleeding days.

  6. Use of combined oral contraceptives: retrospective study in Isfahan, Islamic Republic of Iran.

    PubMed

    Savabi-Esfahany, M; Fadaei, S; Yousefy, A

    2006-01-01

    We carried out a retrospective cross-sectional study on 500 women in Isfahan who started taking combined oral contraceptives (COCs) during the period 21 March 1995-20 March 1997. The cumulative continuation rate fell from 77% to 12% over 60 months. The most common reason for discontinuation was side-effects. There was a significant correlation between side-effects and cumulative COC continuation rate (P < 0.05). The lowest rate was seen in women reporting nausea or vomiting. Women who are interested in COCs should receive extensive counselling about the possible side-effects and should be helped to find a method of birth control suited to their temperament and physiology.

  7. Evaluation of a combined oral contraceptive pill in black Zimbabwean women.

    PubMed

    Kasule, J; Mbizvo, M; Makuyana, D; Masona, D

    1991-12-01

    A prospective exploratory study was carried out on lipid metabolism (41 women); as well as efficacy, acceptability and safety on another 190 women who all were using a combined oral contraceptive pill (OC) containing 30 micrograms Ethinyl oestradiol and 150mg Desogestrel (Marvelon) over a period of twelve months. The 41 women had blood analysis of triglycerides, cholesterol and high density lipoproteins (HDL) before treatment and at each of follow-up visits scheduled at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months following admission. Triglycerides, cholesterol and HDL levels were computed and there were no significant changes in any of the measured levels except HDL which was increased. No pregnancy was reported in one year of use in both groups. Cycle control was good, with a very low incidence of breakthrough bleeding and spotting being reported. The pill did not affect body weight and blood pressure significantly. It was concluded that the Marvelon formulation does not have adverse effect on lipid metabolism and is an efficacious and well tolerated contraceptive amongst Zimbabwean women.

  8. A combined oral contraceptive affects mucosal SHIV susceptibility factors in a pigtail macaque model

    PubMed Central

    Ostergaard, Sharon Dietz; Butler, Katherine; Ritter, Jana M.; Johnson, Ryan; Sanders, Jeanine; Powell, Nathaniel; Lathrop, George; Zaki, Sherif R.; McNicholl, Janet M.; Kersh, Ellen N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Injectable hormonal contraception may increase women’s risk of HIV acquisition, and can affect biological risk factors in animal models of HIV. We established, for the first time, a model to investigate whether combined oral contraceptives (COC) alter SHIV susceptibility in macaques. Methods Seven pigtail macaques were administered a monophasic levonorgestrel (LNG)/ethinyl estradiol (EE) COC at 33% or 66% of the human dose for 60 days. Menstrual cycling, vaginal epithelial thickness and other SHIV susceptibility factors were monitored for a mean of 18 weeks. Results Mean vaginal epithelial thicknesses was 290.8 μm at baseline and 186.2 μm during COC (p=0.0141, Mann Whitney test). Vaginal pH decreased from 8.5 during to 6.5 post- treatment (0.0176 two-tailed t-test). Measured microflora was unchanged. Conclusions COC caused thinning of the vaginal epithelium and vaginal pH changes, which may increase SHIV susceptibility. 0.033 mg LNG + 0.0066 mg EE appeared effective in suppressing ovulation. PMID:25536296

  9. History (of oral contraceptives).

    PubMed

    1978-02-01

    This article summarizes the interest and research in oral contraceptives, with particular attention given to recent discoveries in the field. Development of the present day pill was impossible until scientific discoveries of female ovarian hormones during pregnancy. Scientific work in the 1920s identified the 2 hormones, estrogen and progesterone, and scientists showed that use of the 2 together influenced ovulation and eased dysmenorrhea. It was not until 1944 that a scientist produced progesterone from a plant steroid; today synthetic steroids are available. Margaret Sanger, a pioneer in the American Family Planning Movement, financed and encouraged early human volunteer trials and later clinical trials with contraceptive pills. By 1957, the pills were approved by the FDA for use in treating menstrual disorders. In January 1962, they were released on the market as contraceptives. By 1976-77, the pill was used by 80-100 million women around the world. A dated table summarizes the information in the article in a timetable fashion.

  10. Extended cycle combined oral contraceptives and prophylactic frovatriptan during the hormone-free interval in women with menstrual-related migraines.

    PubMed

    Coffee, Andrea L; Sulak, Patricia J; Hill, Alexandria J; Hansen, Darci J; Kuehl, Thomas J; Clark, Jeffrey W

    2014-04-01

    Migraine headaches are a significant problem for American women with many of them suffering from headaches around the time of their menstrual cycle. Women taking oral contraceptives in the standard 21/7 cycle regimen often suffer from headaches around the time of the hormone free intervals (HFIs) as well. Extended oral contraceptive regimens have been shown to decrease the frequency, but not eliminate these headaches. This study is a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study of participants with menstrual-related migraines (MRMs) who were initiated on extended combined oral contraceptives and given frovatriptan prophylactically during HFIs. Participants having spontaneous menstrual cycles or taking daily combined oral contraceptives in a 21/7 regimen with MRMs were placed on a contraceptive containing levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol. Analyses compared headache scores during pre-study baseline cycles to those in a 168-day extended regimen with placebo versus frovatriptan treatments during HFIs. Daily headache scores decreased (p=0.034) from 1.29 ± 0.10 during pre-study cycles to 1.10 ± 0.14 during extended combined oral contraceptive use. Frovatriptan blocked the increase in headache score over the placebo during HFIs. However, following the withdrawal of frovatriptan, headache scores increased (p>0.01) despite resuming combined oral contraceptive use. Extended combined oral contraceptive regimen reduces MRM severity. Frovatriptan prevents headaches during HFIs, but is associated with new headache symptoms when withdrawn.

  11. Evaluation of the coagulation profile among oral and vaginal combined hormonal contraceptive users using sonoclot coagulation analyzer.

    PubMed

    Brandy, Kyle R; Meyer, Rachel M; Luo, Xianghua; Rao, Gundu H; Datta, Yvonne H; Divani, Afshin A

    2012-11-01

    Combined hormonal contraceptives possess an inherent risk of thrombus-related events. The purpose of this study is to elucidate alterations in the coagulation profile among young women using combined oral contraceptive (COC) or combined vaginal contraceptive (CVC) compared to a normal, healthy, female control group using the Sonoclot coagulation analyzer. We enrolled 159 participants (64 control individuals, 51 COC users, and 44 CVC users). Each participant completed a survey of medical history, family medical history, and lifestyle choices. Citrated venous whole blood was collected and analyzed using the Sonoclot coagulation analyzer. After adjusting for age, race, alcohol consumption, sleeping habits, and family history of cardiovascular disease, and stroke, we observed COC and CVC users had mostly similar coagulation profiles except when compared to the control, and COC and CVC users had an elevated glass bead peak signal while COC users had a shorter peak time.

  12. Randomized comparison of bleeding patterns in women using a combined contraceptive vaginal ring or a low-dose combined oral contraceptive on a menstrually signaled regimen.

    PubMed

    Weisberg, Edith; Merki-Feld, Gabriele S; McGeechan, Kevin; Fraser, Ian S

    2015-02-01

    To compare bleeding patterns for 12 months continuous use of a contraceptive ring [contraceptive vaginal ring (CVR)] and pill [combined oral contraceptive (COC)] on a menstrually signaled regimen and the effectiveness of 4 days "treatment withdrawal" to stop bleeding. Women, 66 to each group, were randomized to continuous use of a CVR (15 mcg ethinyl estradiol/150 mcg etonogestrel) or a low-dose pill (20 mcg ethinyl estradiol/100 mcg levonorgestrel) for 360 days on a menstrually signaled regimen. Bleeding/spotting days, daily use of ring or pill, was recorded. Endpoint was the total number of bleeding/spotting days for each method over four 90-day reference periods (RP) plus the analysis of bleeding patterns using modified World Health Organization criteria. There was a reduction in the mean (±S.D.) number of bleeding/spotting days from RP1 (CVR 14.2±10; pill 16.6±10.9) to RP4 (CVR 8.8±9.6; pill 8.8±9.1). Fifteen percent of CVR and 4% COC users experienced amenorrhea or infrequent bleeding throughout the study. Amenorrhea increased over time (RP1 vs. RP4: CVR 10% vs. 21% and COC 2% vs. 30%). Compliance with the menstrually signaled regimen was poor. Ceasing hormones for 4 days stopped a bleeding episode within 5 days in the majority of episodes and many stopped spontaneously. Bleeding patterns with continuous use of the CVR and COC are similar and improve over 1 year of use. The unpredictability, but short duration, of bleeding episodes should be stressed during counseling. This information for clinicians and women about breakthrough bleeding patterns with use of a CVR or combined pill over 12 months using a menstrually signaled regimen will give women an indication of what to expect with continuous use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Lack of Pharmacokinetic Interactions Between Macitentan and a Combined Oral Contraceptive in Healthy Female Subjects.

    PubMed

    Hurst, Noémie; Pellek, Matthias; Dingemanse, Jasper; Sidharta, Patricia N

    2016-06-01

    Macitentan, a dual endothelin receptor antagonist used in pulmonary arterial hypertension, induces cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A at supratherapeutic concentrations in vitro. Most combined oral hormonal contraceptives (OCs) are CYP3A substrates and their efficacy can be affected by CYP3A inducers. This randomized crossover study assessed possible pharmacokinetic (PK) interactions between macitentan and an OC containing ethinyl estradiol and norethindrone (or norethisterone). Twenty-six healthy women received a single oral dose of OC alone (reference) and concomitantly with 10 mg macitentan at steady state (test). No PK interaction was concluded if the 90% confidence intervals (CIs) of geometric mean ratios (GMRs; test/reference) of the peak plasma concentration (Cmax ) and the exposure from 0 to infinity (AUC0 - ∞ ) to the OC components were within the equivalence limits of 0.8 to 1.25. Cmax and AUC0-∞ of the OC were within the equivalence limits. For ethinyl estradiol, GMRs (90%CIs) of Cmax and AUC0-∞ were 0.92 (0.85-0.99) and 0.95 (0.90-0.99). For norethindrone, these values were 1.02 (0.95-1.09) and 1.04 (0.98-1.09), respectively. Overall, study treatments were well tolerated. No major changes from baseline in safety parameters were reported in either treatment. Macitentan does not affect the PK of OCs. © 2015, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  14. Oral contraceptive agents.

    PubMed

    Shearman, R P

    1986-02-17

    The history of the development of oral contraceptives (OCs) has been a progressive reduction in dosage to what is now probably the lowest does that is compatible with the desired therapeutic effect -- to inhibit ovluation. Yet, controversy and argument continue. A table lists the OCs that are available in Australia. Many of these preparations, although having different trade names, have an identical composition. Since the withdrawal of sequential OCs from the Australian market, there are only 2 generic types. These are the progestogen only (mini) OCs, which consist of either 30 mcg of levonorgestrel or 350 mcg of norethisterone given at the same time every day; and the combined OCs, which contain an estrogen and a progestogen. In the last 12 months, some of the older high-dose OCs have been withdrawn, and it seems likely that further withdrawals will follow. Only 2 estrogens are used in the formulation of the OC, but there is a greater variety of progestogens. Ethinyl estradiol is used in most preparations. A small minority of OCs contain mestranol, the 3-methyl ether of ethinyl estradiol. Currently, there are only 4 OC agents that are available in Australia that contain mestranol and 2 of these contain the high doses of 100 mcg. Fundamentally, there are 2 types of progestogens -- those that contain, or are metabolized to, norethisterone and those that contain norgestrel or its close relative, desogestrel. With the exception of the norgestrel group and desogestrel, all other progestins, including norethisterone itself, are effective in vivo after they have been metablized to norethisterone. Mestranol is effective in humans after demethylation to ethinyl estradiol. In the norgesterel group, since d-norgestrel is inert endocrinologically, 250 mcg of levonorgestrel and 500 mcg of dl-norgestrel are equivalent. Levonorgestrel and desogestrel are of approximately equal potency. With the combined OC agents, the overwhelming mechanism of action is by the inhibition of the

  15. The effect of combined oral contraceptives and age on dysmenorrhoea: an epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Lindh, Ingela; Ellström, Agneta Andersson; Milsom, Ian

    2012-03-01

    Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) are widely advocated as treatment for primary dysmenorrhoea, but their efficacy has been questioned in a Cochrane review. The aim of this study was to evaluate COCs and the influence of age on the severity of dysmenorrhoea. Postal questionnaires regarding weight/height, contraception, pregnancy history and other reproductive health factors were sent to random samples of 19-year-old women born in 1962 (n = 656), 1972 (n = 780) and 1982 (n = 666) resident in the city of Gothenburg in 1981, 1991 and 2001. The responders were assessed again 5 years later at the age of 24 years. Current severity of dysmenorrhoea was measured on each occasion by a verbal multidimensional scoring system (VMS) and by a visual analogue scale (VAS). The severity of dysmenorrhoea was lower (P< 0.0001) in COC users compared with non-users. In a longitudinal analysis of the severity of dysmenorrhoea, COC use and increasing age, independently of each other, were associated with the severity of dysmenorrhoea (COC use, VMS score: a reduction of 0.3 units/VAS: a reduction of 9 mm, both P< 0.0001; increasing age, VMS score: a reduction of 0.1 units per 5 years, P< 0.0001/VAS: a reduction of 5 mm per 5 years, P< 0.0001). Childbirth also reduced the severity of dysmenorrhoea (VAS, P< 0.01 with a reduction of 7 mm). Women from the 82-cohort reported a greater severity of dysmenorrhoea compared with the 62 and 72 cohorts at both 19 and 24 years of age. In this longitudinal case-control study, COC use and increasing age, independent of each other, reduced the severity of dysmenorrhoea. COC use reduced the severity of dysmenorrhoea more than increasing age and childbirth. There was a trend over time regarding the severity of dysmenorrhoea where women from the 82-cohort reported a greater severity of dysmenorrhoea compared with the 62 and 72 cohorts.

  16. Potencies of oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Chihal, H J; Peppler, R D; Dickey, R P

    1978-02-01

    This letter is a response to the discussion by Edgren and Sturtevant (125:1029, 1976) on potencies of oral contraceptives (OCs). It is agreed that the results of studies in animal models on OC potencies may not necessarily reflect true potencies in human subjects, however, these animal models do allow the evaluation of the biological effects and interactions of the components of OCs. Data obtained in animal studies are acknowledged to be valuable aids in the study of human diseases. Likewise, mouse uterine response to contraceptive steroids is 1 criterion to be used in evaluating steroid potency. As previously reported, the importance of the mouse uterine response is that the contribution of the progestin component to the total estrogenic potency of the OC is demonstrated.

  17. Different combined oral contraceptives and the risk of venous thrombosis: systematic review and network meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Stegeman, Bernardine H; de Bastos, Marcos; Rosendaal, Frits R; van Hylckama Vlieg, A; Helmerhorst, Frans M; Stijnen, Theo

    2013-01-01

    Objective To provide a comprehensive overview of the risk of venous thrombosis in women using different combined oral contraceptives. Design Systematic review and network meta-analysis. Data sources PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Academic Search Premier, and ScienceDirect up to 22 April 2013. Review methods Observational studies that assessed the effect of combined oral contraceptives on venous thrombosis in healthy women. The primary outcome of interest was a fatal or non-fatal first event of venous thrombosis with the main focus on deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism. Publications with at least 10 events in total were eligible. The network meta-analysis was performed using an extension of frequentist random effects models for mixed multiple treatment comparisons. Unadjusted relative risks with 95% confidence intervals were reported. The requirement for crude numbers did not allow adjustment for potential confounding variables. Results 3110 publications were retrieved through a search strategy; 25 publications reporting on 26 studies were included. Incidence of venous thrombosis in non-users from two included cohorts was 1.9 and 3.7 per 10 000 woman years, in line with previously reported incidences of 1-6 per 10 000 woman years. Use of combined oral contraceptives increased the risk of venous thrombosis compared with non-use (relative risk 3.5, 95% confidence interval 2.9 to 4.3). The relative risk of venous thrombosis for combined oral contraceptives with 30-35 µg ethinylestradiol and gestodene, desogestrel, cyproterone acetate, or drospirenone were similar and about 50-80% higher than for combined oral contraceptives with levonorgestrel. A dose related effect of ethinylestradiol was observed for gestodene, desogestrel, and levonorgestrel, with higher doses being associated with higher thrombosis risk. Conclusion All combined oral contraceptives investigated in this analysis were

  18. Effects of combination oral contraceptives on strength development in women athletes.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Andrew W; Hetzler, Ronald K; Villanueva, Richard J; Stickley, Christopher D; Kimura, Iris F

    2008-09-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of combination oral contraceptive agents (OCAs) on strength and torque production in collegiate women softball and water polo athletes who participated in a 12-week strength development program. A double-blind research design was used to mask subjects to the main outcome of interest. Thirty-one women collegiate softball and water polo players were divided into experimental (OCA users, n = 13), and control (non-OCA users, n = 18) groups. All subjects participated in the same supervised 12-week preseason strength development program. One-repetition maximum bench press (1RMBP), 10-repetition maximum leg extension (10RMLE), isokinetic peak torque bench press (IKBP), and isokinetic peak torque leg extension (IKLE) data were collected at weeks 0 (pre-test), 4, 8, and 12 (post-test). Significant increases in strength and torque production over time were identified regardless of group for 1RMBP, 10RMLE, and IKLE. No significant differences in IKBP torque production occurred during the 12-week strength training program. No significant differences in 1RMBP, 10RMLE, IKBP, or IKLE occurred between the OCA users and the non-OCA users groups. It was concluded that, within the limitations of the study, the use of combination OCAs did not provide sufficient androgenic effect to increase strength gains beyond the stimulus of the training protocol.

  19. Efficacy and safety of combined ethinyl estradiol/drospirenone oral contraceptives in the treatment of acne.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jerry Kl; Ediriweera, Chemanthi

    2010-08-09

    Acne is a common disorder affecting the majority of adolescents and often extends into adulthood. The central pathophysiological feature of acne is increased androgenic stimulation and/or end-organ sensitivity of pilosebaceous units leading to sebum hypersecretion and infundibular hyperkeratinization. These events lead to Propionibacterium acnes proliferation and subsequent inflammation. Hormonal therapy, including combined oral contraceptives (OCs), can attenuate the proximate androgenic trigger of this sequence. For many women, hormonal therapy is a rational option for acne treatment as it may be useful across the spectrum of severity. Drospirenone (DRSP) is a unique progestin structurally related to spironolactone with progestogenic, antimineralocorticoid, and antiandrogenic properties. It is available in 2 combined OC preparations (30 μg EE/3 mg DRSP; Yasmin(®) in a 21/7 regimen; and 20 μg EE/3 mg DRSP; Yaz(®) in a 24/4 regimen). These preparations are bereft of the fluid retentional side effects typical of other progestins and their safety has been demonstrated in large epidemiological studies in which no increased risk of vascular thromboembolic disease or arrhythmias was observed. In acne, the efficacy of DRSP-containing OCs has been shown in placebo-controlled superiority trials and in active-comparator non-inferiority trials.

  20. Choosing the appropriate oral contraceptive.

    PubMed

    Langer, A; Devanesan, M; Pelosi, M A

    1978-06-01

    The estrogen and progestin in most oral contraceptives, regardless of amounts, can produce undesirable side effects in any woman. The convenience and effectiveness, however, make oral contraceptives an excellent birth control method for the correctly screened patient. The use of relatively small doses of estrogen combined with a progestin complementary to the estrogenic, progestogenic, and androgenic needs of the patient will reduce the risk of side effects. Above the 50 ug estrogen level there is significantly higher risk of pulmonary embolism, venous thrombosis, and cerebral thrombosis. Hypertension, depression and hepatic disorders are other potential side effects. Less serious complications are breakthrough bleeding, likely caused by low level estrogen dosage and amenorrhea. Progestogenic effects include sustained noncyclic weight gain and amenorrhea. Prescribing these agents necessitates adequate follow-up and willingness to alter the prescription.

  1. Depressive Symptoms and Oral Contraceptives

    PubMed Central

    Herzberg, Brenda N.; Johnson, Anthony L.; Brown, Susannah

    1970-01-01

    Of 261 women who completed a self-rating scale for measuring depression, 168 were taking oral contraceptives and 93 were using physical methods of contraception. Of the group of women taking oral contraceptives 6·6% were more severely depressed than any of the control group. There was a significant variation in the depth of depression related to the day of the menstrual cycle in the control group. This association was not found in the oral contraceptive group, where premenstrual depression was limited to the one or two days preceding menstruation. Women taking a contraceptive containing lynoestrenol 2·5 mg. and mestranol 0·075 mg. showed a significantly increased incidence of pessimism, feelings of dissatisfaction, crying, and tension, compared with women taking other oral contraceptives and the control group. PMID:5475818

  2. Adolescents and oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Sanfilippo, J S

    1991-01-01

    Oral contraceptive (OC) options for adolescents are provides. Clarification for those desiring a birth control method is necessary and the benefits of decreased acne and dysmenorrhea with low dose OCs should be stressed along with the importance of compliance. A community effort is suggested to communicate the sexual and contraceptive alternatives, including abstinence and outercourse (sexual stimulation to orgasm without intercourse). Attention is given to concerns associated with teenage sexual activity, prevention of adolescent pregnancy, contraceptive options for the adolescent patient, adolescent attitudes toward birth control OCs, management of the adolescent OC user, manipulation of steroid components of OCs to respond to adolescent concerns, and other hormonal contraceptive options such as minipills or abstinence. The text is supplemented with tables: the % of US women by single years of age for 1971, 1976, 1979, and 1982; comparative pregnancy and abortion rates for the US and 5 other countries; federal cost for teen childbearing; adolescent nonhormonal contraceptive methods (advantages, disadvantages, and retail cost); checklist to identify those at risk for noncompliance with OCs; hormonal side effects of OCs; risks from OCs to adolescents; and benefits of OCs. Concern about adolescent pregnancy dates back to Aristotle. A modern profile shows girls form single-parent families are sexually active at an earlier age, adolescent mothers produce offspring who repeat the cycle, victims of sexual abuse are more likely to be sexually active, and teenagers in foster care are 4 times more likely to be sexually active and 8 times more likely to become pregnant. Prevention involves a multifaceted approach. OCs are the most appropriate contraceptive choice for adolescents. Frequency of intercourse is closely associated with OC use after approximately 15 months of unprotected sexual activity. At risk for noncompliance variables are scales of personality development

  3. Efficacy of Combined Contraceptive Vaginal Ring Versus Oral Contraceptive Pills in Achieving Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Ovarian Axis Suppression in Egg Donor In Vitro Fertilization Cycles

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Robin Lynn; Halvorson, Lisa Marie; Carr, Bruce Richard; Doody, Kathleen Marie; Doody, Kevin John

    2013-01-01

    Background Our study compares the efficacy of the combined contraceptive vaginal ring to oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) for hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis suppression in egg donor in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles. Methods Our retrospective cohort study includes patients from the Center for Assisted Reproduction (CARE) in Bedford, Texas undergoing IVF cycles as egg donors from January 2003 through December 2009. Twenty-five and thirty-nine women were treated with OCPs and the combined contraceptive vaginal ring, respectively. Statistical analyses were performed using the SigmaStat Software package (Systat, Chicago, IL). Data were analyzed by t or Mann-whitney test and Chi-square of Fisher exact test. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results Prior to gonadotropin initiation, endometrial thickness and serum estradiol were 5.6±2.6 mm and 33.6±19.9 pg/ml in the OCP group and 6.0±2.4 mm and 36.6±24.3 pg/ml in the combined contraceptive vaginal ring group, respectively (p=0.49 and p=0.33). Average serum FSH and LH were 1.7±1.9 and 1.7±2.5 mIU/ml in the OCP group and 1.7±1.6 and 1.2±1.4 mIU/ml in the combined contraceptive vaginal ring group, respectively (p=0.45 and p=0.95). No significant differences were found for gonadotropin requirement, peak estradiol, maximal endometrial thickness, number of oocytes retrieved, number of normally fertilized embryos, number of cryopreserved embryos, or live birth rates. Conclusion The combined contraceptive vaginal ring is effective for HPO axis suppression in egg donor IVF cycles and associated with cycle characteristics similar to those observed with OCP treatment. The combined contraceptive vaginal ring may provide an important advantage over OCPs due to improved patient compliance. PMID:24551576

  4. Pharmacokinetic interaction study between riociguat and the combined oral contraceptives levonorgestrel and ethinylestradiol in healthy postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Frey, Reiner; Unger, Sigrun; van der Mey, Dorina; Becker, Corina; Saleh, Soundos; Wensing, Georg; Mück, Wolfgang

    2016-03-01

    Female patients requiring treatment for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) are advised to avoid pregnancy because of the high associated mortality rate. Oral contraception is one of the main methods of preventing pregnancy in this context, mandating pharmacokinetic and safety studies for new agents in this setting. Riociguat is a soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator approved for treatment of PAH and inoperable and persistent or recurrent chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. This single-center, randomized, nonblinded study involving healthy postmenopausal women investigated the effect of riociguat on plasma concentrations of levonorgestrel (0.15 mg) and ethinylestradiol (0.03 mg) in a combined oral contraceptive. Treatment A was a single oral tablet of levonorgestrel-ethinylestradiol. In treatment B, subjects received 2.5 mg riociguat 3 times daily for 12 days. On the eighth day, they also received a single oral tablet of levonorgestrel-ethinylestradiol. Subjects received both regimens in a crossover design. There was no change in area under the plasma concentration-time curves of levonorgestrel or ethinylestradiol or maximum concentration in plasma (C max) of levonorgestrel during combined administration versus levonorgestrel-ethinylestradiol alone. A 20% increase in the C max of ethinylestradiol was noted during coadministration; this is not anticipated to adversely impact the contraceptive efficacy or to require any dose adjustment for ethinylestradiol. Plasma concentrations and exposures of riociguat were within the expected range and were not influenced by coadministration with levonorgestrel-ethinylestradiol. Combined treatment was safe and well tolerated. In conclusion, riociguat did not change the exposure to levonorgestrel or ethinylestradiol relative to oral contraceptive administered alone.

  5. Pharmacokinetic interaction study between riociguat and the combined oral contraceptives levonorgestrel and ethinylestradiol in healthy postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Unger, Sigrun; van der Mey, Dorina; Becker, Corina; Saleh, Soundos; Wensing, Georg; Mück, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Female patients requiring treatment for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) are advised to avoid pregnancy because of the high associated mortality rate. Oral contraception is one of the main methods of preventing pregnancy in this context, mandating pharmacokinetic and safety studies for new agents in this setting. Riociguat is a soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator approved for treatment of PAH and inoperable and persistent or recurrent chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. This single-center, randomized, nonblinded study involving healthy postmenopausal women investigated the effect of riociguat on plasma concentrations of levonorgestrel (0.15 mg) and ethinylestradiol (0.03 mg) in a combined oral contraceptive. Treatment A was a single oral tablet of levonorgestrel-ethinylestradiol. In treatment B, subjects received 2.5 mg riociguat 3 times daily for 12 days. On the eighth day, they also received a single oral tablet of levonorgestrel-ethinylestradiol. Subjects received both regimens in a crossover design. There was no change in area under the plasma concentration–time curves of levonorgestrel or ethinylestradiol or maximum concentration in plasma (Cmax) of levonorgestrel during combined administration versus levonorgestrel-ethinylestradiol alone. A 20% increase in the Cmax of ethinylestradiol was noted during coadministration; this is not anticipated to adversely impact the contraceptive efficacy or to require any dose adjustment for ethinylestradiol. Plasma concentrations and exposures of riociguat were within the expected range and were not influenced by coadministration with levonorgestrel-ethinylestradiol. Combined treatment was safe and well tolerated. In conclusion, riociguat did not change the exposure to levonorgestrel or ethinylestradiol relative to oral contraceptive administered alone. PMID:27162633

  6. Types of combined oral contraceptives used by U.S. women

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Kelli Stidham; Trussell, James

    2012-01-01

    Background We sought to estimate the prevalence of types of combined oral contraceptives (COC) used among U.S. women. Study Design We analyzed interview-collected data from 12,279 women ages 15–44 years participating in the National Survey of Family Growth, 2006–2010. Analyses focused on COC use overall, by pill type, across sociodemographics and health factors. Results The prevalence of current COC use (88 different brands) was 17%. The majority of COC-users used earlier formulation COCs: ≥30 mcg (67%) versus <30 mcg estrogen (33%), monophasic (67%) versus multiphasic (33%) dosages, and traditional 21/7 (88%) versus extended/other cycle regimens (12%) regimens; Norgestimate (32%) and norethindrone (20%) were the most commonly used progestins. Sociodemographic, gynecological and health risk factors were associated with type of COC use. Conclusion Further investigation of specific COC use and of the factors associated with types of pills used among U.S. women at the population level is needed. PMID:22770787

  7. Dose finding in a low-dose 21-day combined oral contraceptive containing gestodene.

    PubMed

    Lüdicke, F; Sullivan, H; Spona, J; Elstein, M

    2001-10-01

    An open label, non-comparative study was carried out in 22 women over a total of five cycles. After an untreated cycle, oral administration of 20 microg ethinyl estradiol (EE) with 50 microg gestodene (GST) (tablets taken daily for 21 days with a break of 7 days) was commenced, and three treatment cycles were followed by an untreated follow-up control cycle. The ability of this formulation to inhibit ovulation and suppress ovarian activity was assessed by using hormonal parameters and ultrasound. One ovulation occurred during treatment. Luteinized unruptured follicles were observed in three cases in the second treatment cycle and in one case during the third treatment cycle. Follicle-like structures larger than 13 mm associated with a serum estradiol level of more than 30 pg/mL were noted in 19% of the women in the first treatment cycle. The rate of active follicle-like structures was 43% in the second treatment cycle and 28% in the third treatment cycle. The results were compared with previously reported findings of a preparation containing 20 microg EE and 75 microg GST. With regard to ovarian grading and endogenous hormone secretion, considerably more residual ovarian activity, with all parameters examined, was found in the 20 microg EE and 50 microg GST preparation compared to the 20 microg EE and 75 microg GST preparation. It was concluded that the 20 microg EE and 50 microg GST preparation administered for 21 days does not meet the requirements of a combined oral contraceptive with respect to ovulation inhibition.

  8. Noncontraceptive use of oral combined hormonal contraceptives in polycystic ovary syndrome-risks versus benefits.

    PubMed

    Dokras, Anuja

    2016-12-01

    The use of steroid sex hormones for noncontraceptive benefits has been endorsed by several medical societies. In women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), hormonal contraceptives are first-line therapy for concurrent treatment of menstrual irregularity, acne, and hirsutism. The association of PCOS with obesity, diabetes, and dyslipidemia frequently brings up the debate regarding risks versus benefits of hormonal contraceptives in this population. In women with PCOS, the lack of large-scale studies evaluating the risks with varying doses of ethinyl estradiol, types of progestins, and presence of confounding factors such as obesity, smoking, and other cardiometabolic comorbidities is a significant limitation in these deliberations. Although it is important to assess the absolute risk for major morbidities including cardiovascular events, currently, there are a paucity of long-term data for these outcomes in PCOS. Most of the current studies do not suggest an increase in risk of prediabetes/diabetes, clinically significant dyslipidemia, inflammatory changes, or depressive/anxiety symptoms with oral contraceptive pill use. Screening of women with PCOS for cardiometabolic and psychiatric comorbidities is routinely recommended. This information should be used by health care providers to individualize the choice of hormonal contraceptive treatment, adequately counsel patients regarding risks and benefits, and formulate an appropriate follow-up plan.

  9. Oral contraception following abortion

    PubMed Central

    Che, Yan; Liu, Xiaoting; Zhang, Bin; Cheng, Linan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Oral contraceptives (OCs) following induced abortion offer a reliable method to avoid repeated abortion. However, limited data exist supporting the effective use of OCs postabortion. We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis in the present study reported immediate administration of OCs or combined OCs postabortion may reduce vaginal bleeding time and amount, shorten the menstruation recovery period, increase endometrial thickness 2 to 3 weeks after abortion, and reduce the risk of complications and unintended pregnancies. A total of 8 major authorized Chinese and English databases were screened from January 1960 to November 2014. Randomized controlled trials in which patients had undergone medical or surgical abortions were included. Chinese studies that met the inclusion criteria were divided into 3 groups: administration of OC postmedical abortion (group I; n = 1712), administration of OC postsurgical abortion (group II; n = 8788), and administration of OC in combination with traditional Chinese medicine postsurgical abortion (group III; n = 19,707). In total, 119 of 6160 publications were included in this analysis. Significant difference was observed in group I for vaginal bleeding time (P = 0.0001), the amount of vaginal bleeding (P = 0.03), and menstruation recovery period (P < 0.00001) compared with the control groups. Group II demonstrated a significant difference in vaginal bleeding time (P < 0.00001), the amount of vaginal bleeding (P = 0.0002), menstruation recovery period (P < 0.00001), and endometrial thickness at 2 (P = 0.003) and 3 (P < 0.00001) weeks postabortion compared with the control group. Similarly, a significant difference was observed in group III for reducing vaginal bleeding time (P < 0.00001) and the amount of vaginal bleeding (P < 0.00001), shortening the menstruation recovery period (P < 0.00001), and increasing endometrial thickness 2 and 3 weeks after surgical abortion (P < 0

  10. [Evolution of the Hungarian oral contraceptives].

    PubMed

    Seregély, G

    1992-11-01

    Author gives a review of the development of Hungarian oral contraceptives from the beginning to the present status. He describes the three main historical phases that means the high-dose combined pills, the low-dose compositions and the most modern two- and three-phasic preparations. Besides, he mentions the monohormonal mini-pills and the so-called postcoital pill, too. He refers to the fact that the Hungarian pharmaceutical research followed truly the international development in oral contraception, too.

  11. Clinical Trial of a Combination of Lynestrenol and Mestranol (Lyndiol) as an Oral Contraceptive Agent

    PubMed Central

    Rice-Wray, Edris; Becerra, Carmen; Esquivel, Julio; Maqueo, Manuel

    1966-01-01

    Contraception with lynestrenol-mestranol (Lyndiol) was studied in 332 Mexican women during a period of two and one-half years. Side effects were minimal or transient. No pregnancies occurred in those who took the medication according to instructions. The women were followed with yearly pelvic examinations and Papanicolaou smears, serial endometrial biopsies and extensive studies of blood, liver and glandular function. Complete ophthalmological studies were done on 30 patients. No clinical or laboratory evidence of harmful effects could be demonstrated. Return to ovulation (using pregnanediol excretion and endometrial biopsies as parameters) occurred in all of 22 women studied in the first three post-treatment cycles. Eight posttreatment pregnancies and the resulting offspring were normal. The first post-treatment cycle, as with other oral contraceptives, was unpredictable and tended to be prolonged. It varied in length from 22 to 60 days. ImagesFig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:5332557

  12. Non-Contraceptive Benefits of Oral Hormonal Contraceptives

    PubMed Central

    Schindler, Adolf E

    2012-01-01

    Abstract It is becoming evident that oral hormonal contraceptives-besides being well established contraceptives-seem to become important medications for many functional or organic disturbances. So far, clinical effectiveness has been shown for treatment as well as prevention of menstrual bleeding disorders and menstrual-related pain symptoms. Also this is true for premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and premenstrual disphoric disorder (PMDD). Particular oral contraceptives (OCs) containing anti-androgenic progestogens were shown to be effective medications for treatment of androgenisation symptoms (seborrhea, acne, hirsutism, alopecia). Through perfect suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis OCs have proven to be effective in elimination of persistent follicular cysts. Endometriosis/adenomyosis related pain symptoms are well handled similar to other drugs like Gonadotropine Releasing Hormone agonists but are less expensive, with less side effects, and possibility to be used for longer periods of time. This is also true for myoma. Pelvic inflammatory disease, rheumatoid arthritis, menstrual migraine, and onset of multiple sclerosis are prevented or delayed. Bone density is preserved and asthma symptoms improved. Endometrial hyperplasia and benign breast disease can be controlled. There is definitely a significant impact on risk reduction regarding endometrial, ovarian, and colon cancers. In conclusion, it needs to be recognized that oral combined hormonal contraceptives (estrogen/ progestogen combination) are - besides being reliable forms of contraception - are cost-effective medications for many medical disorders in women. Therefore, these contraceptives drugs are important for female and global health and should be used in clinical practice. PMID:23853619

  13. Cardiovascular disease and combined oral contraceptives: reviewing the evidence and balancing the risks.

    PubMed

    Farley, T M; Meirik, O; Collins, J

    1999-01-01

    Cardiovascular risks have been a concern since combined oral contraceptives (OCs) were first introduced. In the past four years new, mostly reassuring information on the safety of modern, low oestrogen dose OCs has become available. However, in 1995 the new information showed higher venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk for OCs containing desogestrel and gestodene compared with levonorgestrel- or norethindrone-containing OCs. The controversial responses by national authorities, their scientific and public health merits were hotly debated and many considered the differences in risk small and resulted from bias and/or confounding. We discuss these arguments and conclude they lack empirical support or cannot account for the 2-fold increased risk. The risk of ischaemic stroke and myocardial infarction (MI) associated with low oestrogen dose OCs are very small in women without cardiovascular risk factors, while increased risk of haemorrhagic stroke is confined to women >35 years of age. Applying the most recent risks to models of OC-attributable events and deaths, OC-attributable mortality in women <35 years is estimated to be <3 per million users annually, rising to about 10 per million users annually among smokers. In the context of external cause mortality (about 90 per million women of reproductive age annually in the UK) such risks appear small. Over the age of 35 years, OC-attributable mortality is a more important concern, particularly among smokers. In the absence of any appreciable OC-attributable mortality in young healthy women, the additional VTE risk for third compared with second generation OCs should be considered when women choose which OC to use.

  14. Use of simulated patients to evaluate combined oral contraceptive dispensing practices of community pharmacists.

    PubMed

    Obreli-Neto, Paulo Roque; Pereira, Leonardo Régis Leira; Guidoni, Camilo Molino; de Oliveira Baldoni, André; Marusic, Srecko; de Lyra-Júnior, Divaldo Pereira; de Almeida, Kelsen Luis; Pazete, Ana Claudia Montolezi; do Nascimento, Janaina Dutra; Kos, Mitja; Girotto, Edmarlon; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura

    2013-01-01

    Combined oral contraceptive (COC) use is the most commonly used reversible method of birth control. The incorrect use of COCs is frequent and one of the most common causes of unintended pregnancies. Community pharmacists (CPs) are in a strategic position to improve COC use because they are the last health professional to interact with patients before drug use. To evaluate the COC dispensing practices of CPs in a developing country. A cross-sectional study was conducted in community pharmacies of Assis and Ourinhos microregions, Brazil, between June 1, 2012, and October 30, 2012. Four simulated patients (SPs) (with counseled audio recording) visited community pharmacies with a prescription for Ciclo 21(®) (a COC containing ethinyl estradiol 30 mcg + levonorgestrel 15 mcg). The audio recording of every SP visit was listened to independently by 3 researchers to evaluate the COC dispensing practice. The percentage of CPs who performed a screening for safe use of COCs (i.e., taking of patients' medical and family history, and measuring of blood pressure) and provided counseling, as well as the quality of the screening and counseling, were evaluated. Of the 185 CPs contacted, 41 (22.2%) agreed to participate in the study and finished the study protocol. Only 3 CPs asked the SP a question (1 question asked by each professional), and all of the questions were closed-ended, viz., "do you smoke?" (n = 2) and "what is your age?" (n = 1). None of the CPs measured the patient's blood pressure. Six CPs provided counseling when dispensing COCs (drug dosing, 5 CPs; possible adverse effects, 2 CPs), and one CP provided counseling regarding both aspects. The CPs evaluated did not dispense COC appropriately and could influence in the occurrence of negatives therapeutic outcomes such as adverse effects and treatment failure.

  15. Use of Simulated Patients to Evaluate Combined Oral Contraceptive Dispensing Practices of Community Pharmacists

    PubMed Central

    Obreli-Neto, Paulo Roque; Pereira, Leonardo Régis Leira; Guidoni, Camilo Molino; Baldoni, André de Oliveira; Marusic, Srecko; de Lyra-Júnior, Divaldo Pereira; de Almeida, Kelsen Luis; Pazete, Ana Claudia Montolezi; do Nascimento, Janaina Dutra; Kos, Mitja; Girotto, Edmarlon; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura

    2013-01-01

    Background Combined oral contraceptive (COC) use is the most commonly used reversible method of birth control. The incorrect use of COCs is frequent and one of the most common causes of unintended pregnancies. Community pharmacists (CPs) are in a strategic position to improve COC use because they are the last health professional to interact with patients before drug use. Objective To evaluate the COC dispensing practices of CPs in a developing country. Method A cross-sectional study was conducted in community pharmacies of Assis and Ourinhos microregions, Brazil, between June 1, 2012, and October 30, 2012. Four simulated patients (SPs) (with counseled audio recording) visited community pharmacies with a prescription for Ciclo 21® (a COC containing ethinyl estradiol 30 mcg + levonorgestrel 15 mcg). The audio recording of every SP visit was listened to independently by 3 researchers to evaluate the COC dispensing practice. The percentage of CPs who performed a screening for safe use of COCs (i.e., taking of patients’ medical and family history, and measuring of blood pressure) and provided counseling, as well as the quality of the screening and counseling, were evaluated. Results Of the 185 CPs contacted, 41 (22.2%) agreed to participate in the study and finished the study protocol. Only 3 CPs asked the SP a question (1 question asked by each professional), and all of the questions were closed-ended, viz., “do you smoke?” (n = 2) and “what is your age?” (n = 1). None of the CPs measured the patient’s blood pressure. Six CPs provided counseling when dispensing COCs (drug dosing, 5 CPs; possible adverse effects, 2 CPs), and one CP provided counseling regarding both aspects. Conclusion The CPs evaluated did not dispense COC appropriately and could influence in the occurrence of negatives therapeutic outcomes such as adverse effects and treatment failure. PMID:24324584

  16. Venous thromboembolism and desogestrel- or gestodene-containing combination oral contraceptives: what are the facts?

    PubMed

    1996-04-01

    The UK's prescription drug regulatory agency warned the public and health care providers about the possible increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) among users of the combined oral contraceptives (OCs) containing desogestrel or gestodene. Data from three large not-yet-published studies served as the basis for the warning. The studies found about a 2-fold increased risk of VTE for these OC users when compared to users of OCs with other progestins. Yet the observational studies are subject to inherent biases (e.g., hospitalized cases and selection bias), which may explain the increased risk. Assuming the increased risk to be true, the risk of VTE is still lower than that linked to pregnancy (30 vs. 60 VTE cases per 100,000). The risk of VTE for users of OCs containing older progestins is about 15 VTE cases and that among healthy, nonpregnant, nonusers is about 4 VTE cases. The mortality risk associated with VTE among users of OCs containing desogestrel or gestodene is 1-1.5 deaths/1 million woman-years. The US Food and Drug Administration has examined the data and has concluded that the risk is not high enough to justify switching to other OCs or stopping use of OCs containing desogestrel or gestodene. It recommends that users of the OCs in question discuss the OCs with their providers and make an informed choice based on the benefits and risks and individual preferences. It might consider changes in labeling, but not pulling the OCs off the market. In Germany, women aged less than 30 were temporarily advised not to begin use of desogestrel- or gestodene-containing OCs. Women using them were advised to continue their use, however. The European Union announced that bias or chance could account for the findings and thus did not recommend changes in prescribing desogestrel- or gestodene-containing OCs.

  17. Discriminant analysis of the metabolic effects of a new combined contraceptive vaginal ring containing Nestorone/EE vs. a second-generation oral contraceptive containing levonorgestrel/EE.

    PubMed

    Rad, Mandana; Burggraaf, Jacobus; de Kam, Marieke L; Cohen, Adam F; Kluft, Cornelis

    2012-09-01

    Discriminant analysis (DA) was performed on data of two combined hormonal contraceptives (CHC) differing in estrogen ratio to explore whether a combination of variables rather than a single variable distinguishes CHCs better. Data were used of a parallel study in premenopausal women treated for three cycles (21 days on, 7 days off) with a contraceptive vaginal ring delivering Nestorone and ethinyl estradiol (EE) or an oral contraceptive containing levonorgestrel and EE. DA was performed on the change from baseline (CFB) and the end-of-treatment values at 3 months for lipids, sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG), C-reactive protein, angiotensinogen, blood pressure and hemostasis variables, and on the hemostasis variables only. For the complete set, the CFB for factor VII (FVII), SHBG and plasminogen (PLG), or end-of-treatment SHBG- and FVII level discriminated the treatments best. Maximal discrimination for the hemostasis data was by CFB for FVII and PLG or end-of-treatment FVII level. DA identifies differences between CHCs and may provide information on the factors associated with thrombotic risk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Peripheral arterial disease in a female using high-dose combined oral contraceptive pills.

    PubMed

    Pallavee, P; Samal, Sunita; Samal, Rupal

    2013-01-01

    The association between oral contraceptive (OC) pills and vascular diseases is well-known, although, the present generation of pills is considered to be relatively safer in this regard. Hormonal treatment for severe abnormal uterine bleeding is usually considered after ruling out malignancy, when such bleeding is resistant to all other forms of treatment. We report a case of severe peripheral arterial disease in a female, who had been on high-dose OC pills for an extended period of time for severe uterine bleeding.

  19. The interaction of phenytoin and carbamazepine with combined oral contraceptive steroids.

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, P; Chadwick, D J; Martin, C; Tjia, J; Back, D J; Orme, M

    1990-01-01

    Patients taking oral contraceptive steroids (OCS) are known to suffer contraceptive failure while taking anticonvulsants such as phenobarbitone, phenytoin and carbamazepine. We have studied the single dose kinetics of ethinyloestradiol (EE2); 50 micrograms, and levonorgestrel (Ng); 250 micrograms in groups of women before and 8-12 weeks after starting therapy with phenytoin (n = 6) and carbamazepine (n = 4). The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) was measured over a 24 h period for each steroid and significant reductions were seen with both anticonvulsants. Phenytoin reduced the AUC for EE2 from 806 +/- 50 (mean +/- s.d.) to 411 +/- 132 pg ml-1 h (P less than 0.05) and for Ng from 33.6 +/- 7.8 to 19.5 +/- 3.8 ng ml-1 h (P less than 0.05). Carbamazepine reduced the AUC for EE2 from 1163 +/- 466 to 672 +/- 211 pg ml-1 h (P less than 0.05) and for Ng from 22.9 +/- 9.4 to 13.8 +/- 5.8 ng ml-1 h (P less than 0.05). These changes are compatible with the known enzyme inducing effects of phenytoin and carbamazepine. Patients taking these anticonvulsants will need to be given increased doses of OCS (equivalent to 50-100 micrograms EE2 daily) to achieve adequate contraceptive effects. PMID:2126946

  20. No interacting influence of lavender oil preparation silexan on oral contraception using an ethinyl estradiol/levonorgestrel combination.

    PubMed

    Heger-Mahn, Doris; Pabst, Günther; Dienel, Angelika; Schläfke, Sandra; Klipping, Christine

    2014-12-01

    Silexan is an oral Lavender oil preparation with proven anxiolytic efficacy. Given the high prevalence of anxiety and restlessness in younger women, oral contraceptives and Silexan will likely be co-administered. A double-blind, randomised, 2-period crossover study was performed to investigate the effects of Silexan on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of Microgynon(®), a combination oral contraceptive containing ethinyl estradiol 0.03 mg (EE) and levonorgestrel 0.15 mg (LNG) in healthy, fertile, adult females. During 2 consecutive cycles of 28 days, oral contraception was given for 21 days combined with 1 × 160 mg/day Silexan or placebo. Plasma concentration-time profiles of EE and LNG were obtained on day 18 ± 1 up to 24 h after dosing. The primary outcome measure was the area under the concentration-time curve over a dosing interval of τ = 24 h (AUCτ) for EE and LNG plasma levels. An interaction with Silexan was formally excluded if the 90 % confidence interval for the AUCτ ratio during co-administration with Silexan or placebo was included within the range of 0.80-1.25. Secondary outcomes included EE and LNG peak concentration (C max) and time to C max (t max), follicle size, endometrial thickness, the Hoogland score, and serum levels of estradiol, progesterone, and sex hormone-binding globulin. A total of 24 women (mean age 27.3 years; mean body mass index 22.2 kg/m(2)) participated. The confidence intervals for the EE and LNG AUCτ and C max ratios fell within the pre-specified limits, indicating no interaction (point estimates [Silexan/placebo] AUCτ EE 0.97, LNG 0.94; C max EE 0.99, LNG 0.96). For LNG, t max was slightly delayed. No secondary outcome indicated any impairment of contraceptive efficacy. Co-administration of Silexan did not affect the efficacy of a combination oral contraceptive containing EE and LNG and was well tolerated.

  1. Effect of exenatide on the pharmacokinetics of a combination oral contraceptive in healthy women: an open-label, randomised, crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Kothare, Prajakti A; Seger, Mary E; Northrup, Justin; Mace, Kenneth; Mitchell, Malcolm I; Linnebjerg, Helle

    2012-03-19

    Consistent with its effect on gastric emptying, exenatide, an injectable treatment for type 2 diabetes, may slow the absorption rate of concomitantly administered oral drugs resulting in a decrease in maximum concentration (Cmax). This study evaluated the drug interaction potential of exenatide when administered adjunctively with oral contraceptives, given their potential concomitant use. This trial evaluated the effect of exenatide co-administration on single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of a combination oral contraceptive (ethinyl estradiol [EE] 30 μg, levonorgestrel [LV] 150 μg [Microgynon 30®]). Thirty-two healthy female subjects participated in an open-label, randomised, crossover trial with 3 treatment periods (oral contraceptive alone, 1 hour before exenatide, 30 minutes after exenatide). Subjects received a single dose of oral contraceptive on Day 8 of each period and QD doses on Days 10 through 28. During treatment periods of concomitant usage, exenatide was administered subcutaneously prior to morning and evening meals at 5 μg BID from Days 1 through 4 and at 10 μg BID from Days 5 through 22. Single- (Day 8) and multiple-dose (Day 22) pharmacokinetic profiles were assessed for each treatment period. Exenatide did not alter the bioavailability nor decrease daily trough concentrations for either oral contraceptive component. No substantive changes in oral contraceptive pharmacokinetics occurred when oral contraceptive was administered 1 hour before exenatide. Single-dose oral contraceptive administration 30 minutes after exenatide resulted in mean (90% CI) Cmax reductions of 46% (42-51%) and 41% (35-47%) for EE and LV, respectively. Repeated daily oral contraceptive administration 30 minutes after exenatide resulted in Cmax reductions of 45% (40-50%) and 27% (21-33%) for EE and LV, respectively. Peak oral contraceptive concentrations were delayed approximately 3 to 4 hours. Mild-to-moderate nausea and vomiting were the most common adverse events

  2. Effect of exenatide on the pharmacokinetics of a combination oral contraceptive in healthy women: an open-label, randomised, crossover trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Consistent with its effect on gastric emptying, exenatide, an injectable treatment for type 2 diabetes, may slow the absorption rate of concomitantly administered oral drugs resulting in a decrease in maximum concentration (Cmax). This study evaluated the drug interaction potential of exenatide when administered adjunctively with oral contraceptives, given their potential concomitant use. Methods This trial evaluated the effect of exenatide co-administration on single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of a combination oral contraceptive (ethinyl estradiol [EE] 30 μg, levonorgestrel [LV] 150 μg [Microgynon 30®]). Thirty-two healthy female subjects participated in an open-label, randomised, crossover trial with 3 treatment periods (oral contraceptive alone, 1 hour before exenatide, 30 minutes after exenatide). Subjects received a single dose of oral contraceptive on Day 8 of each period and QD doses on Days 10 through 28. During treatment periods of concomitant usage, exenatide was administered subcutaneously prior to morning and evening meals at 5 μg BID from Days 1 through 4 and at 10 μg BID from Days 5 through 22. Single- (Day 8) and multiple-dose (Day 22) pharmacokinetic profiles were assessed for each treatment period. Results Exenatide did not alter the bioavailability nor decrease daily trough concentrations for either oral contraceptive component. No substantive changes in oral contraceptive pharmacokinetics occurred when oral contraceptive was administered 1 hour before exenatide. Single-dose oral contraceptive administration 30 minutes after exenatide resulted in mean (90% CI) Cmax reductions of 46% (42-51%) and 41% (35-47%) for EE and LV, respectively. Repeated daily oral contraceptive administration 30 minutes after exenatide resulted in Cmax reductions of 45% (40-50%) and 27% (21-33%) for EE and LV, respectively. Peak oral contraceptive concentrations were delayed approximately 3 to 4 hours. Mild-to-moderate nausea and vomiting were the

  3. Progestin-Only Oral Contraceptives

    MedlinePlus

    ... oral contraceptives are a very effective method of birth control, but they do not prevent the spread of ... on another day, use a backup method of birth control (such as a condom and/or a spermicide) ...

  4. Effectiveness and acceptability of progestogens in combined oral contraceptives – a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Kulier, Regina; Helmerhorst, Frans M; Maitra, Nandita; Gülmezoglu, A Metin

    2004-01-01

    Background The progestogen component of oral contraceptives (OCs) has undergone changes since it was recognized that their chemical structure can influence the spectrum of minor adverse and beneficial effects. Methods The objective of this review was to evaluate currently available low-dose OCs containing ethinylestradiol and different progestogens in terms of contraceptive effectiveness, cycle control, side effects and continuation rates. The Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched. Randomized trials reporting clinical outcomes were considered for inclusion and were assessed for methodological quality and validity. Results Twenty–two trials were included in the review. Eighteen were sponsored by pharmaceutical companies and in only 5 there was an attempt for blinding. Most comparisons between different interventions included one to three trials, involving usually less than 500 women. Discontinuation was less with second-generation progestogens compared to first–generation (RR 0.79; 95% CI 0.69–0.91). Cycle control appeared to be better with second-compared to first-generation progestogens for both, mono-and triphasic preparations (RR 0.69; 95% CI 0.52–0.91) and (RR 0.61; 95% CI 0.43–0.85), respectively. Intermenstrual bleeding was less with third- compared to second-generation pills (RR 0.71; 95% CI 0.55–0.91). Contraceptive effectiveness of gestodene (GSD) was comparable to that of levonorgestrel (LNG), and had similar pattern of spotting, breakthrough bleeding and absence of withdrawal bleeding). Drospirenone (DRSP) was similar compared to desogestrel (DSG) regarding contraceptive effectiveness, cycle control and side effects. Conclusion The third- and second-generation progestogens are preferred over first generation in all indices of acceptability. Current evidence suggests that GSD is comparable to LNG in terms of contraceptive effectiveness and for most cycle control indices. GSD is also comparable to DSG

  5. Types of progestogens in combined oral contraception: effectiveness and side-effects.

    PubMed

    Lawrie, Theresa A; Helmerhorst, Frans M; Maitra, Nandita K; Kulier, Regina; Bloemenkamp, Kitty; Gülmezoglu, A Metin

    2011-05-11

    The progestogen component of combined oral contraceptives (COC) has undergone changes since it was first recognised that it's chemical structure could influence the spectrum of minor adverse and beneficial effects. The major determinants of effectiveness are compliance and continuation which may be influenced by cycle control and common side effects. The rationale of this review is to provide a systematic comparison of COCs containing the progestogens currently in use worldwide. To compare currently available low-dose COCs containing ethinyl estradiol and different progestogens in terms of contraceptive effectiveness, cycle control, side effects and continuation rates. A search of PubMed, LILACS, EMBASE, Popline, CINAHL and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases was conducted in September 2010 to update the 2004 review. Randomised trials reporting clinical outcomes were considered for inclusion. We excluded studies comparing monophasic with multiphasic pills, crossover trials, trials in which the difference in total content of ethinyl estradiol between preparations exceeded 105 µg per cycle and those comparing continuous dosing regimens. Two reviewers independently assessed methodological quality, applied inclusion criteria and extracted data. Thirty trials with a total of 13,923 participants were included, generating 16 comparisons. Overall the quality of trials was low. Only four trials were double-blind. At least twenty-three trials were sponsored by pharmaceutical companies. There was less discontinuation with second-generation compared with first-generation monophasic progestogens (3 trials, 2,709 women, Relative Risk (RR) 0.76, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.67-0.86); this remained significant when only double-blind trials were considered (812 women, RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.66-0.94).Women using monophasic COC's containing third-generation progestogens were less likely to discontinue than the second-generation group (3 trials, 1,815 women, RR

  6. Venous thromboembolic disease in users of low-estrogen combined estrogen-progestin oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Sidney, Stephen; Petitti, Diana B; Soff, Gerald A; Cundiff, Deborah L; Tolan, Kimberly K; Quesenberry, Charles P

    2004-07-01

    To assess the relationship between venous thromboembolic disease (VTE) and use of low-estrogen dose (<50 microg) combined estrogen-progestin oral contraceptives (OC) and three thrombosis-related gene mutations in a United States population. This case-control study was conducted in 1998-2000 among women ages 15-44 years who were members of the Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program [KPMCP] (Northern and Southern California). Cases were women with incident VTE; about three times as many women frequency matched for age were randomly selected as controls from the KPMCP membership in the same years. Data were collected in a 1 h face-to-face interview; blood was drawn to extract DNA to test for gene polymorphisms. The analysis data set comprised 196 cases (mean age 35.3 years) and 746 controls (mean age 36.2 years). The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for VTE associated with current OC use was 4.07 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.77-6.00). The OR associated with OC use was higher for women who were obese than in the nonobese (p = 0.01 for likelihood test for interaction) and in women without predisposing medical conditions (p = 0.02 for interaction). The adjusted OR for VTE was 7.10 (95% CI: 2.33-21.61) in women with factor V Leiden (G1691A) mutation, 2.83 (95% CI: 0.70-11.63) in women with prothrombin G20210A mutation and 0.26 (95% CI: 0.10-0.65) in women with the MTHFR C677T mutation. The OR for VTE in OC users with factor V Leiden mutation (11.32) was elevated more than in OC users without the mutation (3.20) and women with the mutation who were non-OC users (8.42), but confidence intervals overlapped. The risk of VTE is increased in users of low-estrogen OC formulations. Obese women appear to be at greater risk of VTE when using OCs.

  7. Combining oral contraceptives with a natural nuclear factor-kappa B inhibitor for the treatment of endometriosis-related pain

    PubMed Central

    Maia, Hugo; Haddad, Clarice; Casoy, Julio

    2014-01-01

    Endometriosis is a chronic disease in which a persistent state of heightened inflammation is maintained by nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation. The progestins present in oral contraceptives are potent inhibitors of NF-κB translocation to cell nuclei, while Pycnogenol® (Pinus pinaster) acts by blocking post-translational events. In this study, the effects of Pycnogenol on pain scores were investigated in patients with endometriosis using oral contraceptives containing either gestodene or drospirenone in extended regimens. Pain scores were determined using a visual analog scale before and after 3 months of treatment. Oral contraceptives, used alone (groups 1 and 3) or in association with Pycnogenol (groups 2 and 4), resulted in significant decreases in pain scores after 3 months of treatment; however, this reduction was significantly greater in the groups using oral contraceptives + Pycnogenol (groups 2 and 4) compared with those using oral contraceptives alone (groups 1 and 3). In the groups using oral contraceptives alone, 50% of patients became pain-free by the end of the third month of treatment. These results suggest that Pycnogenol increases the efficacy of oral contraceptives for the treatment of endometriosis-related pain. PMID:24379702

  8. Oral contraceptives and exercise.

    PubMed

    Mostardi, R A; Woebkenberg, N R; Jarrett, M T

    1980-01-01

    A laboratory study was undertaken with volunteer females (aged 20-25) to determine the effect of OCs (oral contraceptives) on hematologic and metabolic variables during exercise. 5 of the women studied were naturally cycling and 7 were taking OCs. The women worked at 2 workloads on a bicycle ergometer at 50% and 90% of their maximal aerobic capacity during 3 different phases of their menstrual cycle. There was no better time of the month for doing the 50% or the 90% workload in either group. Heartrate for the OC group was significantly higher at the 50% maximal capacity. Results of the test indicate tha women on OCs have somewhat reduced cardiac efficiency and are ventilating more to carry out a given amount of work when compared to women who are naturally cycling. Possible explanations for the higher heart rate are put forward. The main limitation of the study is that the subject numbers involved are small and the number of cycles studied is also small.

  9. The Combined Influence of Oral Contraceptives and Human Papillomavirus Virus on Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Efird, Jimmy T.; Toland, Amanda E.; Lea, C. Suzanne; Phillips, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    The vast majority of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) will occur in those with fair complexion, tendency to burn, and high ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure. Organ transplant recipients also are an important population at great risk for CSCC. An association has been reported between oral contraceptive (OC) use, human papillomavirus virus (HPV) and cervical cancer, and there could be a similar association for CSCC. The cutaneous HPV β-E6 protein, a close cousin of the transformative E6 protein underlying anogenital cancers, has been shown to inhibit apoptosis in response to UVR damage and stimulate morphologic transformation in rodent fibroblast cell lines. Furthermore, OC use has been shown to enhance HPV transcription and may contribute to CSCC risk through this pathway. PMID:21499554

  10. Oral contraceptives and cancer.

    PubMed

    Edgren, R A

    1991-01-01

    Concerns over the safety of oral contraceptives (OCs) have led to numerous empirical studies of the relationship of OC use to normal pregnancy outcomes, pituitary effects, cardiovascular accidents, and cancer. The article reviews some of the results of studies on the effects of OC use on ovarian, uterine, cervical, and breast cancer and on hepatic cancer and melanomas. Reference is made to direct study results rather than to reviews of studies, although it is noted that the critical reviews of Goldzieher and Realini reflect appropriate critiques of the validity of the methods employed in the analysis of cancers as well as cardiovascular risks. Concern is raised for meta-analysis of pooled data. In spite of the 30 years of research on OCs there is no definitive answer to the question of cause and effect. The epidemiological articles reviewed do not meet the standards of critical editorial review boards of experimental journals; confirmation of findings is also lacking. Studies suggesting increased risks as well as those showing positive benefits are questionable. The conclusion reached is that OCs protect against ovarian and uterine cancers and do not cause mammary, cervical, or liver cancer or melanoma. This conclusion is based on inconclusive data. The conclusion on hepatic cancer is that the 3 retrospective case control studies and anecdotal reports are flawed in design, and little confidence can be placed on such a limited number of cases. Malignant melanoma conclusions are that the data are inconsistent and hover around a risk of one for long-term OC-users. There is no increased risk related to OC-use. Ovarian cancer risk seems to be decreased in about 40% of OC-users. Endometrial cancer risk seems to be decreased, except for the sequential contraceptive Oracon which is associated with increased risk. Decreased risk is related to length of usage and continues after stoppage. Cervical carcinoma results appear to confirm the finding that prolonged OC use slightly

  11. Expression profiles of antimicrobial peptides in the genital tract of women using progesterone intrauterine devices versus combined oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Introini, Andrea; Kaldensjö, Tove; Hirbod, Taha; Röhl, Maria; Tjernlund, Annelie; Andersson, Sonia; Broliden, Kristina

    2014-11-01

    Sex hormones can influence the immune defenses of the female genital tract (FGT) and its susceptibility to infections. Here we investigated the effect of different hormonal contraceptives on the production of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in different compartments of the female genital mucosa (FGM), secretions and tissue. Cervicovaginal secretions (CVS) and ectocervical tissue samples obtained from women using progesterone intrauterine devices (pIUD) (n = 23) and combined oral contraceptives (COC) (n = 23) were analyzed for the expression and in situ localization of HNP1-3, BD-2, LL-37, SLPI and trappin-2 by ELISA, real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Women using COC had significantly lower mRNA levels of BD-2 and trappin-2 in ectocervical tissue than pIUD users. The two groups showed no differences in CVS concentration, as well as similar in situ expression patterns in ectocervical tissue, of all five AMPs. The use of hormonal contraceptives influences AMP expression differently in genital secretions compared to ectocervical tissue. This suggests that the impact of sex hormones on local immune defenses varies in different compartments of the FGM, and likely in different locations across the FGT. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. [Mercilon - the optimal oral contraceptive].

    PubMed

    Rachev, E; Damianov, L; Kolarov, G; Novachkov, V; Ivanov, S

    2000-01-01

    The authors review the effect of the oral contraceptive Mercilon on menstrual cycle, contraceptive efficacy, lipid profile, safety profile and adverse effects in a group of 32 women, included in the survey. The results of the trial show excellent contraceptive effect with Pearl Index of 0.00 and good control over the menstrual cycle. No negative or unfavorable effects were seen on the lipid profile as well as on the liver kidney and coangulant system function. Minor side effects were seen in only 5% of the patients.

  13. Oral contraceptives and endocrine changes*

    PubMed Central

    Lucis, O. J.; Lucis, R.

    1972-01-01

    In groups of women taking oral contraceptives and in control groups of women, the serum levels of cortisol, protein-bound iodine, and total thyroxine were measured together with the T3 binding index. The daily excretion in the urine of free cortisol, 17-hydroxycorticosteroids, 17-ketosteroids, pregnanediol, pregnanetriol, total oestrogens, total catecholamines, and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymandelic acid was also assayed. The frequency distribution of the values obtained indicates that oral contraceptives have a marked influence on the endocrine environment. The smallest deviations were observed in urinary excretion of total catecholamines and of 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymandelic acid. In some individuals the hormone assays were continued throughout the menstrual cycle. The morning and afternoon levels of serum cortisol tended to increase during the period when the oral contraceptive was being taken. PMID:4538188

  14. Pharmacokinetics of Oral Combination Contraceptive Drugs Containing Ethinyl Estradiol and Levonorgestrel in Healthy Female Chinese Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Xin, X; Wu, Y; Liu, X; Sun, C; Geng, T; Ding, L

    2016-02-01

    A new combination contraceptive tablet containing 0.02 mg ethinyl estradiol (EE) and 0.10 mg levonorgestrel (LNG) with potential advantages has been developed in China. This study was aimed to describe the pharmacokinetic characteristics of this new combination contraceptive tablet in female Chinese volunteers. This study was designed as phase I, open-label, and one-sequence clinical trial. 12 healthy nonpregnant female Chinese volunteers received a single dose (1 tablet) and multiple dose (1 tablet per day) administration for 21 consecutive days under fasting condition. Blood samples were analyzed with 2 validated LC-MS/MS methods for EE and LNG, respectively. After the single dose administration, the C max of EE and LNG were 44.76±18.64 pg/mL and 2.256±1.008 ng/mL, respectively. The steady-state condition of EE was achieved on the 6(th) day after the beginning of the multiple dose administration, while the steady-state condition of LNG was achieved on the 21(st) day. For EE, the mean MRT 0-72 and t 1/2 increased by 40.2 and 30.6%, meanwhile the mean Cl/F and Vd/F decreased by 18.5 and 29.1%, respectively from Day 1 to Day 24. For LNG, the mean MRT 0-72 increased by 27.1%, while the mean Cl/F and Vd/F decreased by 62.4 and 86.3%, respectively from Day 1 to Day 24. The t 1/2 remained unchanged for LNG. The exposure of LNG significantly increased with repeated dosing, but that of EE just slightly increased. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Oral contraceptives and liver function

    PubMed Central

    Hargreaves, Tom

    1969-01-01

    Oral contraceptives can cause liver damage and jaundice but this is very rare in women in the United Kingdom. The drugs are contraindicated where there is a history of recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and acute or chronic disturbance of liver function which can be congenital or acquired. It is not yet known whether the oestrogenic or progestogenic components of oral contraceptives cause the hepatic abnormalities. The available data suggest that neither oestrogens nor progestogens in low doses impair hepatic excretory processes. The full implications of the continued administration of oestrogens and progestogens for many years on liver proteins are not yet known.

  16. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic consequences of the co-administration of lamotrigine and a combined oral contraceptive in healthy female subjects

    PubMed Central

    Sidhu, Jagdev; Job, Sarah; Singh, Sunita; Philipson, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Aims To assess the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects of co-administration of a combined oral contraceptive (ethinyloestradiol plus levonorgestrel) and lamotrigine. Methods Over a period of 130 days, healthy female subjects took lamotrigine (titrated up to 300 mg day−1) and the combined oral contraceptive, either individually or as co-therapy. Plasma ethinyloestradiol and levonorgestrel concentrations were measured in the presence and absence of lamotrigine, and serum lamotrigine concentrations were measured in the presence and absence of the combined oral contraceptive. Serum concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), progesterone, oestradiol and sex hormone binding globulin were also determined. Results Of the 22 enrolled subjects, 16 had evaluable pharmacokinetic data. The mean (90% CI) ratios of lamotrigine area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h (AUC(0,24 h)) and maximum observed concentration (Cmax) of lamotrigine when it was given with the combined oral contraceptive and during monotherapy were 0.48 (0.44, 0.53) and 0.61 (0.57, 0.66), respectively. Ethinyloestradiol pharmacokinetics were unchanged by lamotrigine, the mean combined oral contraceptive + lamotrigine : combined oral contraceptive alone ratios (90% CI) of the AUC(0,24 h) and Cmax of levonorgestrel were 0.81 (0.76, 0.86) and 0.88 (0.82, 0.93), respectively. FSH and LH concentrations were increased (by 4.7-fold and 3.4-fold, respectively) in the presence of lamotrigine, but the low serum progesterone concentrations suggested that suppression of ovulation was maintained. Intermenstrual bleeding was reported by 7/22 (32%) of subjects during co-administration of lamotrigine and combined oral contraceptive. Conclusions A clinically relevant pharmacokinetic interaction was observed during co-administration of a combined oral contraceptive and lamotrigine. A dosage adjustment for lamotrigine may need to be considered when these agents are co

  17. Residual ovarian activity during oral steroid contraception.

    PubMed

    van Heusden, A M; Fauser, B C J M

    2002-01-01

    Steroid drugs with contraceptive properties have been available in the clinical setting for over four decades and are still subject to improvement. Estrogens, progestins and anti-progestins have been used alone or in various combinations, regimens and routes of administration to favour the balance between efficacy and undesirable effects. One of the most important changes in this respect is the gradual lowering of steroid dosage in commercially available contraceptives. Current steroid contraceptive pills still achieve the goal of suppression of pituitary-ovarian activity, but the margins for error are minimal. In this review the available data on modes of action and the effects on suppressing pituitary-ovarian activity by different forms of oral contraception are reassessed. Although pregnancy rates provide a crude measure of contraceptive efficacy, no benchmark for pituitary-ovarian inhibition is available to test the suppressive potential of contraceptive drugs. Consequently, many studies provide incomplete and/or incomparable results. For the further study of those forms of steroid contraception that rely predominantly on suppression of ovarian activity, prevention of dominant follicles selection should be the objective.

  18. Menstrual reduction with extended use of combination oral contraceptive pills: randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Miller, L; Notter, K M

    2001-11-01

    To compare a traditional 28-day cycle to an extended 49-day cycle of the 30 microg ethinyl estradiol (E2)/300 microg norgestrel monophasic birth control pill regimen. Ninety subjects randomized to either 28-day cycles with 21 active pills or 49-day cycles with 42 active pills for a prospective open label trial over four 84-day reference periods or trimesters. Bleeding, pill taking, and symptom diaries were completed. The sample size with 80% power to detect a 40% reduction in bleeding days required 24 subjects in each arm. Of the 90 women, 24 subjects (54.5%) on the 28-day cycle and 29 (63%) on the 49-day cycle completed the entire study (P =.41). There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in demographics or continuation rates. There was a significant reduction in bleeding days in the experimental arm beginning in the first trimester (28-day = 10.9, 49-day = 6.4 mean days of bleeding, P <.001) and continuing to the fourth trimester (28-day = 11.3, 49-day = 5.8 mean days, P =.005). The number of spotting days was similar between both schedules in the first trimester (28-day = 4.8, 49-day = 3.7 mean days, P =.24) and continued into the fourth trimester (28-day = 3.4, 49-day = 2.9 mean days, P =.30). Annual expenditure for hygiene products was significantly less for extended use subjects (28-day = $41.45, 49-day = $17.54 spent, P <.001). Extension of the 28-day oral contraceptive (OC) cycle to a 49-day cycle resulted in fewer bleeding days and no increase in mean spotting days or bleeding episodes.

  19. Oral contraceptives in the treatment of acne.

    PubMed

    Tan, J K; Degreef, H

    2001-02-01

    Oral contraceptives (OCs) can reduce acne by lowering the production of adrenal and ovarian androgens, by inhibiting 5-alpha-reductase, which in turn, reduces the levels of dihydrotestosterone, and by stimulating sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), thus reducing the levels of free testosterone. In newer OCs, such as Tricyclen and Diane-35, the progestin component is minimally androgenic and anti-androgenic respectively, thereby enhancing the favorable profile of these products in the treatment of hyperandrogenic disorders, including acne. The efficacy of these agents and their long-term safety profile supports their use in various grades of acne in females: * As adjunctive therapy to topical agents for women with mild non-scarring acne desiring oral contraception * As primary therapy for patients with moderate non-scarring acne in combination with topical therapy and systemic antibiotics * As one of two preferred methods of contraception in patients with scarring and severe inflammatory acne being treated with systemic isotretinoin.

  20. Effect of two kinds of different combined oral contraceptives use on bone mineral density in adolescent women.

    PubMed

    Gai, Ling; Jia, Yifang; Zhang, Meihua; Gai, Ping; Wang, Sumei; Shi, Hong; Yu, Xiaojie; Liu, Yonghong

    2012-10-01

    Steroid hormonal contraceptives are highly effective and widely used. Most studies have shown a negative effect of combined oral contraceptives (COCs) on the bone mineral density (BMD) of adolescents. The study was conducted to compare BMD among users of ethinylestradiol/desogestrel, users of ethinylestradiol/cyproterone acetate and nonhormonal control subjects in women aged 16-18 years. The study included 450 women 16-18 years of age. One hundred fifty women were using ethinylestradiol/desogestrel, 150 women were using ethinylestradiol/cyproterone acetate, and 150 women were using nonhormonal contraception as control subjects. BMD ofthe lumbar spine and femoral neck was obtained using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and mean BMD changes in COCs users and nonusers were compared. At 24 months of treatment, lumbar spine and femoral neck mean BMD values in women (n=127) who used ethinylestradiol/desogestrel were slightly lower compared with baseline, but these effects did not reach statistical significance (p=.837 and p=.630, respectively). The mean lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD values in women (n=134) who used ethinylestradiol/cyproterone acetate were slightly higher compared with baseline, but there was no statistical significance (p=.789 and p=.756, respectively). The increases in mean percent change in lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD in the ethinylestradiol/cyproterone acetate group were less than those in the control group (1.88% vs. 0.30% and 0.98% vs. 0.49%, respectively). There were no significant differences in mean BMD of the lumbar spine and femoral neck between the users of ethinylestradiol/desogestrel or ethinylestradiol/cyproterone acetate and nonusers (p>.05). Our study indicates that 2 years of COCs therapy had no significant effect on bone density in adolescents, but it remains unknown whether therapy longer than 2 years has a significant adverse effect on the attainment of peak bone mass. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of combined oral contraceptives, depot medroxyprogesterone acetate and the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system on the vaginal microbiome.

    PubMed

    Brooks, J Paul; Edwards, David J; Blithe, Diana L; Fettweis, Jennifer M; Serrano, Myrna G; Sheth, Nihar U; Strauss, Jerome F; Buck, Gregory A; Jefferson, Kimberly K

    2017-04-01

    Prior studies suggest that the composition of the vaginal microbiome may positively or negatively affect susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and bacterial vaginosis (BV). Some female hormonal contraceptive methods also appear to positively or negatively influence STI transmission and BV. Therefore, changes in the vaginal microbiome that are associated with different contraceptive methods may explain, in part, effects on STI transmission and BV. We performed a retrospective study of 16S rRNA gene survey data of vaginal samples from a subset of participants from the Human Vaginal Microbiome Project at Virginia Commonwealth University. The subset included 682 women who reported using a single form of birth control that was condoms, combined oral contraceptives (COCs), depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) or the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS). Women using COCs [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.29, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.13-0.64] and DMPA (aOR 0.34, 95% CI 0.13-0.89), but not LNG-IUS (aOR 1.55, 95% CI 0.72-3.35), were less likely to be colonized by BV-associated bacteria relative to women who used condoms. Women using COCs (aOR 1.94, 95% CI 1.25-3.02) were more likely to be colonized by beneficial H2O2-producing Lactobacillus species compared with women using condoms, while women using DMPA (aOR 1.09, 95% CI 0.63-1.86) and LNG-IUS (aOR 0.74, 95% CI 0.48-1.15) were not. Use of COCs is significantly associated with increased vaginal colonization by healthy lactobacilli and reduced BV-associated taxa. COC use may positively influence gynecologic health through an increase in healthy lactobacilli and a decrease in BV-associated bacterial taxa. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Vitamin A, Pregnancy, and Oral Contraceptives

    PubMed Central

    Wild, Jennifer; Schorah, C. J.; Smithells, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    It has been shown that women receiving oral contraceptives have increased levels of serum vitamin A. High vitamin A levels may constitute a teratogenic hazard and it has been suggested that women who conceive soon after discontinuing oral contraceptive therapy may be especially at risk to this hazard. We have confirmed a significant increase in vitamin A levels in women taking oral contraceptives. During early pregnancy there is no significant difference in vitamin A levels between women who have recently been taking oral contraceptives and those who have not. We have been unable to show that either taking oral contraceptives shortly before pregnancy or a high vitamin A level during the first trimester of pregnancy, comparable to that of a woman taking oral contraceptives, has any detrimental effect on the outcome of pregnancy. It seems unlikely that women who conceive soon after discontinuing oral contraception run any teratogenic risk from increased vitamin A levels. PMID:4812394

  3. Effect of eslicarbazepine acetate on the pharmacokinetics of a combined ethinylestradiol/levonorgestrel oral contraceptive in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Falcão, Amilcar; Vaz-da-Silva, Manuel; Gama, Helena; Nunes, Teresa; Almeida, Luís; Soares-da-Silva, Patrício

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the effect of once-daily (QD) eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) 800 mg and 1,200 mg administration on pharmacokinetics of a combined ethinylestradiol/levonorgestrel oral contraceptive (OC) in women of childbearing potential. Two two-way, crossover, two-period, randomized, open-label studies were performed in 20 healthy female subjects, each. In one period (ESL+OC period), subjects received ESL 800 mg QD in one study and ESL 1200 mg QD in the other study, for 15 days; concomitantly with the Day 14 ESL dose, an oral single dose of 30 μg ethinylestradiol and 150 μg levonorgestrel was administered. In the other period (OC alone), a single dose of 30 μg ethinylestradiol and 150 μg levonorgestrel was administered. Three weeks or more separated the periods. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test for differences between pharmacokinetic parameters of 30 μg ethinylestradiol and 150 μg levonorgestrel following ESL+OC and OC alone, and 90% confidence intervals (90%CI) for the ESL+OC/OC alone geometric mean ratio (GMR) were calculated. ESL significantly decreased the systemic exposure to both ethinylestradiol and levonorgestrel. GMR (90%CI) for AUC0-24 of ethinylestradiol were 68% (64%; 71%) following 1,200 mg ESL and 75% (71%; 79%) following 800 mg ESL. GMR (90%CI) for AUC0-24 of levonorgestrel were 76% (68%; 86%) following 1,200 mg ESL and 89% (82%; 97%) following 800 mg ESL. A clinically relevant dose-dependent effect of ESL administration on the pharmacokinetics of ethinylestradiol and levonorgestrel was observed. Therefore, to avoid inadvertent pregnancy, women of childbearing potential should use other adequate methods of contraception during treatment with ESL, and, in case ESL treatment is discontinued, until CYP3A4 activity returns to normal. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Recent innovations in oral contraception.

    PubMed

    Cremer, Miriam; Phan-Weston, Scarlett; Jacobs, Adam

    2010-03-01

    Traditional forms of oral contraception contain 21 days of hormone-containing pills and 7 days of placebo during the hormone-free interval (HFI). Since 2003, the Food and Drug Administration has approved 24/4, 84/7, and 365-day regimens. These regimens shorten the HFI in an attempt to decrease bleeding and menstrual-associated side effects. Safety and efficacy of these regimens is comparable with traditional 21/7 dosing. Extended regimens are associated with high patient satisfaction. Bleeding patterns are similar or shorter in women using extended regimens, along with improvement in menstrual symptoms. One of the new formulations contains the new progestin drospirenone, which has antimineralocorticoid and antiandrogenic properties. This review summarizes the data about new formulations of oral contraception available in the United Sates and also provides a summary of the current literature on drospirenone.

  5. Effect of zonisamide on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a combination ethinyl estradiol-norethindrone oral contraceptive in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Sue G; Dai, Yuqing

    2004-12-01

    Several antiepileptic drugs have clinically significant pharmacokinetic interactions with oral contraceptives (OCs) that may result in contraceptive failure. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of zonisamide on the pharmacokinetics of the individual components of a combination OC (ethinyl estradiol [EE] 0.035 mg and norethindrone [NOR] 1 mg) and on pharmacodynamic variables that may be increased in the event of reduced contraceptive efficacy (concentrations of serum luteinizing hormone [LH], follicle-stimulating hormone [FSH], and progesterone). This was a single-center, open-label, 1-sequence, crossover study. Healthy, premenopausal women received the combination OC for three 28-day cycles (combination OC for 21 days, followed by placebo for 7 days). Following stabilization on the OC during the first cycle, blood was collected during cycle 2 for the determination of serum EE and NOR profiles (day 14) and serum LH, FSH, and progesterone concentrations (days 13-15). Starting on day 15 of cycle 2, zonisamide was administered orally at 100 mg/d and titrated to a target dose of 400 mg/d. EE and NOR profiles and serum LH, FSH, and progesterone concentrations were obtained again in cycle 3 (in the presence of zonisamide) and compared with those from cycle 2 (in the absence of zonisamide). Thirty-seven healthy premenopausal women (mean age, 26.1 years [range, 18-51 years]; mean body weight, 65.5 kg [range, 50.4-93.1 kg]; mean height, 165.8 cm [range, 152.4-182.9 cm]) received > or =1 dose of zonisamide. Of the 33 subjects (89.2%) who completed the study, 26 (78.8%) underwent titration to a stable zonisamide dose of 400 mg/d. For EE, the mean (SD) AUC over a 24-hour dosing interval (AUC(tau)) was 1139 (317) pg.h/mL in cycle 2 and 1143 (312) pg.h/mL in cycle 3; the mean C(max) in the respective cycles was 133 (39) and 141 (46) pg/mL. For NOR, the corresponding values were 140 (48) and 159 (46) ng.h/mL for AUC(tau) and 21 (5.4) and 23 (6.7) ng/mL for C(max). The

  6. Efficacy and safety of the contraceptive vaginal ring (NuvaRing) compared with a combined oral contraceptive in Chinese women: a 1-year randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Fan, Guang Sheng; Ren, Mulan; Di, Wen; Su, Ping; Chang, Qin; Wu, Shuying; Qin, Yun; Korver, Tjeerd; Marintcheva-Petrova, Maya; Yacik, Carol; McCrary Sisk, Christine; Wang, Guoqin

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of the monthly vaginal ring (NuvaRing; 15 μg ethinylestradiol [EE] and 120 μg etonogestrel per day) compared with a monophasic (21/7) combined oral contraceptive (COC) containing 30 μg EE and 3 mg drospirenone in healthy Chinese women aged 18-40 years. This was a phase III, open-label, randomised multicentre trial conducted in China. Participants received NuvaRing or COC for 13 cycles (3 weeks of ring/pill treatment followed by a 1-week ring-free/pill-free period). Contraceptive efficacy was assessed by in-treatment pregnancies and expressed by the Pearl Index (PI; number of pregnancies/100 woman-years of use). Cycle control was assessed by unscheduled (breakthrough) and absence of scheduled (withdrawal) bleeding events. Safety and tolerability were assessed throughout the study. Participants were randomised either to the NuvaRing (n = 732) or to the COC (n = 214); 588 (82.4%) and 182 (78.4%) participants, respectively, completed the study. There were 10 in-treatment pregnancies in the NuvaRing group (PI 1.92; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.92, 3.53) and five in the COC group (PI 3.12; 95% CI 1.01, 7.29). Breakthrough bleeding/spotting ranged from 18.6% (Cycle 1) to 4.2% (Cycle 11) for NuvaRing and from 21.6% (Cycle 1) to 7.9% (Cycle 11) for COC. Absence of withdrawal bleeding ranged from 8.6% (Cycle 1) to 3.0% (Cycle 11) for NuvaRing and from 14.6% (Cycle 1) to 6.4% (Cycle 5) for COC. For NuvaRing and COC, respectively, 26.6% and 25.0% of participants had treatment-related adverse events, and 7.0% and 9.1% discontinued the study as a result. Once-monthly NuvaRing is efficacious and safe for use in Chinese women.

  7. Multinational, multicentre, randomised, open-label study evaluating the impact of a 91-day extended regimen combined oral contraceptive, compared with two 28-day traditional combined oral contraceptives, on haemostatic parameters in healthy women

    PubMed Central

    Paoletti, Anna Maria; Volpe, Annibale; Chiovato, Luca; Howard, Brandon; Weiss, Herman; Ricciotti, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the impact of a 91-day extended regimen combined oral contraceptive (150 μg levonorgestrel [LNG]/30 μg ethinylestradiol [EE] for 84 days, followed by 10 μg EE for seven days [Treatment 1]) compared with two traditional 21/7 regimens (21 days 150 μg LNG/30 μg EE [Treatment 2] or 150 μg desogestrel [DSG]/30 μg EE [Treatment 3], both with seven days’ hormone free), on several coagulation factors and thrombin formation markers. Methods Randomised, open-label, parallel-group comparative study involving healthy women (18–40 years). The primary endpoint was change from baseline in prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 (F1 + 2) levels over six months. Results A total of 187 subjects were included in the primary analysis. In all groups, mean F1 + 2 values were elevated after six months of treatment. Changes were comparable between Treatments 1 and 2 (least squares mean change: 170 pmol/L and 158 pmol/L, respectively) but noticeably larger after Treatment 3 (least squares mean change: 592 pmol/L). The haemostatic effects of Treatment 1 were comparable to those of Treatment 2 and noninferior to those of Treatment 3 (lower limit of 95% confidence interval [− 18.3 pmol/L] > − 130 pmol/L). Conclusions The LNG/EE regimens had similar effects on F1 + 2. Noninferiority was demonstrated between extended regimen LNG/EE and DSG/EE. PMID:24923685

  8. Increased apparent oral clearance of valproic acid during intake of combined contraceptive steroids in women with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Galimberti, Carlo Andrea; Mazzucchelli, Iolanda; Arbasino, Carla; Canevini, Maria Paola; Fattore, Cinzia; Perucca, Emilio

    2006-09-01

    To determine potential changes in total and unbound serum valproic acid (VPA) concentrations at steady-state during a cycle of intake of combined hormonal contraceptive (HC) steroids. Blood samples were collected from nine women stabilized on VPA monotherapy on two separate randomized occasions: (i) at the end of the 4- to 7-day HC-free interval, and (ii) on the last day of the HC intake period. Trough concentrations of VPA in serum and serum ultrafiltrates were determined by fluorescence polarization immunoassay. In all women, total and unbound VPA concentrations were higher during the HC-free interval than during HC intake (means +/- SD: 425 +/- 184 vs. 350 +/- 145 micromol/L, respectively, for total VPA, p = 0.002, and 55 +/- 37 vs. 39 +/- 25 micromol/L, respectively, for unbound VPA, p = 0.005). Compared with the HC-free interval, HC intake was associated with a mean 21.5% increase in VPA total apparent oral clearance (from 8.0 +/- 5.2 to 9.7 +/- 6.4 ml/h/kg, p = 0.01) and a 45.2 % increase in VPA unbound apparent oral clearance (from 79 +/- 81 to 115 +/- 121 ml/h/kg, p = 0.029). The apparent oral clearance of total and unbound VPA increases during the HC intake period compared with the HC-free interval, probably due to induction of glucuronosyltransferase by ethinylestradiol. The magnitude of the change varies across individuals, being potentially clinically relevant in some cases. Serum VPA concentrations should be monitored when adding or discontinuing HC steroids, and possibly during the on-off intervals of a HC cycle.

  9. Oral contraceptives and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Johnson, K H; Millard, P S

    1996-10-01

    The Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer conducted a meta-analysis of data from 10 cohort and 44 case-control studies of the association between combined oral contraceptive (OC) use and breast cancer. 53,297 women with breast cancer and 100,239 women with no breast cancer from 25 countries worldwide were studied. Current OC users faced a 24% increased risk of developing breast cancer (confidence interval = 1.15-1.33). This risk fell steadily after cessation and reached 0 at 10 years and thereafter. Use of OCs with higher doses were associated with a greater risk of breast cancer than medium or low-dose OCs. The number of excess cancers in women while using OCs and up to 10 years after OC cessation stood at 0.5/10,000 women 16-19 years old, 1.5/10,000 women 20-24 years old, and 4.7/10,000 women 25-29 years old. The elevated risk of developing breast cancer did not differ by country of origin, ethnic background, reproductive history, or family history of breast cancer. OC users had less clinically advanced breast cancer than never-users who had breast cancer. This finding plus the moderate reduced risk of breast cancer more than 10 years after OC cessation suggest that OCs may effect earlier diagnosis of existing breast cancer instead of causing new breast cancers. The findings of this meta-analysis along with a plausible biologic mechanism (estrogen stimulates breast cancer cells) suggest a causal relationship between OC use and breast cancer. They also indicate that the risk is small, decreases with time, and is lower among low-dose OC users. It is reassuring that the breast cancers found among OC users is less clinically advanced than those found in never-users.

  10. Efficacy of Acupuncture versus Combined Oral Contraceptive Pill in Treatment of Moderate-to-Severe Dysmenorrhea: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sriprasert, Intira; Suerungruang, Suparerk; Athilarp, Porntip; Matanasarawoot, Anuchart; Teekachunhatean, Supanimit

    2015-01-01

    This open-label randomized controlled trial was designed to compare the efficacy of acupuncture and combined oral contraceptive (COC) pill in treating moderate-to-severe primary dysmenorrhea. Fifty-two participants were randomly assigned to receive either acupuncture (n = 27) or COC (n = 25) for three menstrual cycles. Mefenamic acid was prescribed as a recue analgesic drug with both groups. The statistical approach used for efficacy and safety assessments was intention-to-treat analysis. By the end of the study, both treatments had resulted in significant improvement over baselines in all outcomes, that is, maximal dysmenorrhea pain scores, days suffering from dysmenorrhea, amount of rescue analgesic used, and quality of life assessed by SF-36 questionnaire. Over the three treatment cycles, COC caused greater reduction in maximal pain scores than acupuncture, while improvements in the remaining outcomes were comparable. Responders were defined as participants whose maximal dysmenorrhea pain scores decreased at least 33% below their baseline. Response rates following both interventions at the end of the study were not statistically different. Acupuncture commonly caused minimal local side effects but did not cause any hormone-related side effects as did COC. In conclusion, acupuncture is an alternative option for relieving dysmenorrhea, especially when COC is not a favorable choice. PMID:26346199

  11. Women's ability to self-screen for contraindications to combined oral contraceptive pills in Tanzanian drug shops.

    PubMed

    Chin-Quee, Dawn; Ngadaya, Esther; Kahwa, Amos; Mwinyiheri, Thomas; Otterness, Conrad; Mfinanga, Sayoki; Nanda, Kavita

    2013-10-01

    To estimate the accuracy of self-screening for contraindications to combined oral contraceptive pills (COCs) and to estimate the proportion of women with contraindications to hormonal methods among those using drug shops in Tanzania. Trained nurses interviewed 1651 women aged 18-39 years who self-screened for contraindications to COCs with the help of a poster at drug shops in Tanzania. Nurse assessment of the women served as the gold standard for comparison with self-assessment. Blood pressure was also measured onsite. Nurses reported that 437 (26.5%) women were not eligible to use COCs, compared with 485 (29.4%) according to self-report. Overall, 133 (8.1%) women who said that they were eligible were deemed ineligible by nurses. The rate of ineligibility was artificially high owing to participant and nurse assessments that were incorrectly based on adverse effects of pill use and cultural reasons, and because of the sampling procedure, which intercepted women regardless of their reasons for visiting the drug shop. Adjusted rates of ineligibility were 8.6% and 12.7%, respectively, according to nurse and participant assessment. Both nurses and women underestimated the prevalence of hypertension in the present group. Self-screening among women in rural and peri-urban Tanzania with regard to contraindications to COC use was comparable to assessment by trained nurses. © 2013.

  12. Risk factors for venous thromboembolism in women under combined oral contraceptive. The PILl Genetic RIsk Monitoring (PILGRIM) Study.

    PubMed

    Suchon, Pierre; Al Frouh, Fadi; Henneuse, Agathe; Ibrahim, Manal; Brunet, Dominique; Barthet, Marie-Christine; Aillaud, Marie-Françoise; Venton, Geoffroy; Alessi, Marie-Christine; Trégouët, David-Alexandre; Morange, Pierre-Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Identifying women at risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a major public health issue. The objective of this study was to identify environmental and genetic determinants of VTE risk in a large sample of women under combined oral contraceptives (COC). A total of 968 women who had had one event of VTE during COC use were compared to 874 women under COC but with no personal history of VTE. Clinical data were collected and a systematic thrombophilia screening was performed together with ABO blood group assessment. After adjusting for age, family history, and type and duration of COC use, main environmental determinants of VTE were smoking (odds ratio [OR] =1.65, 95% confidence interval [1.30-2.10]) and a body mass index higher than 35 kg.m⁻² (OR=3.46 [1.81-7.03]). In addition, severe inherited thrombophilia (OR=2.13 [1.32-3.51]) and non-O blood groups (OR=1.98 [1.57-2.49]) were strong genetic risk factors for VTE. Family history poorly predicted thrombophilia as its prevalence was similar in patients with or without first degree family history of VTE (29.3% vs 23.9%, p=0.09). In conclusion, this study confirms the influence of smoking and obesity and shows for the first time the impact of ABO blood group on the risk of VTE in women under COC. It also confirms the inaccuracy of the family history of VTE to detect inherited thrombophilia.

  13. Effect of a combined oral contraceptive containing 20 microg ethinyl estradiol and 75 microg gestodene on hemostatic parameters.

    PubMed

    Aldrighi, José Mendes; De Campos, Luis Salvoni Carneiro; Eluf Gebara, Otávio Celso; Petta, Carlos Alberto; Bahamondes, Luis

    2006-01-01

    The effects of a combined oral contraceptive (COC) containing 20 microg ethinyl estradiol (EE) and 75 microg gestodene (GSD) on prothrombin activity (PA), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT), platelet number, fibrinogen, antithrombin III (ATIII), protein C, protein S and D-dimer were evaluated over 6 months in 23 young, healthy women. Laboratory assessments were performed prior to initiation of COC use (pretreatment) and after 3 and 6 months of use. Results showed no significant changes in fibrinogen, protein C, ATIII or D-dimer during COC use, compared with pretreatment values. The increase in platelet count, decreases in protein S level, PA and APTT, and the prolongation of TT were significant. In conclusion, the use of a COC containing 20 microg EE and 75 microg GSD did not cause any significant changes in the hemostatic parameters studied that could be suggestive of a higher prothrombotic risk. Further studies with a larger sample size are necessary in order to obtain conclusive data.

  14. Oral contraceptive compliance during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Serfaty, D

    1997-06-17

    A review of the available literature suggests that adolescent lack of compliance with oral contraceptives (OCs) is a multifactorial problem that requires a multifactorial solution. Because of their lack of experience with contraception, higher frequency of intercourse, higher intrinsic fertility, and pattern of frequent stopping or switching of methods, adolescents experience higher OC failure rates than do adult women. Adolescents also are more likely to forget to take the pill or to discontinue due to side effects, without consulting their physician. A survey of European young women identified contraceptive protection without weight gain as the most necessary change in OCs. Adolescents must be counseled not to miss a single pill, observe the pill-free interval, take phasic formulations in the right order, and use a back-up method in case of diarrhea and vomiting or when certain medications (e.g., antibiotics and anti-epileptics) are used concurrently, and be informed of steps to take in the event of side effects and unprotected intercourse. The quality of the counseling appears to be more important to compliance than the quantity of information provided. Pharmacists should complete the counseling initiated by the physician and explain prescription use. The most significant predictor of consistent OC use is the adolescent's motivation.

  15. A randomized comparative trial of a combined oral contraceptive and azelaic acid to assess their effect on sleep quality in adult female acne patients.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Rachel Gimenes; da Rocha, Marco Alexandre Dias; Hirotsu, Camila; Hachul, Helena; Bagatin, Edileia; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica Levy

    2015-12-01

    Several studies have reported an increase in the prevalence of adult female acne. This subtype of acne presents particular characteristics, and can be triggered by several factors such as smoking, stress, the use of oily cosmetics and even by poor sleep. Sleep quality is related to well-being and the maintenance of body homeostasis. In addition, several skin diseases present a bidirectional relationship with sleep, demonstrating an important connection between skin and the central nervous system. With this in mind, we aimed to compare the effect of two types of treatment for adult female acne (azelaic acid or a combined oral contraceptive) on sleep quality and on concentrations of stress hormones. Also, we proposed to assess the correlation of sleep and hormonal parameters with acne severity. In order to do this, 32 women underwent a clinical evaluation, completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire and had their blood collected for hormone assays. These procedures were performed at baseline and after 6 months of treatment. At baseline there were no differences between the groups in terms of body mass index, age, acne severity and hormone concentrations. Results showed that both treatments demonstrated effectiveness but that women treated with azelaic acid presented a better sleep quality after the treatment compared to baseline and to the group treated with the combined oral contraceptive. The combined oral contraceptive group presented an increase in cortisol and a decrease in free testosterone concentration in relation to baseline. These data suggest that both azelaic acid and combined oral contraceptive are effective in the treatment of adult female acne but, azelaic acid seems to be a more suitable option for those women who may benefit from a better subjective sleep quality.

  16. Use of combined oral contraceptives and risk of venous thromboembolism: nested case-control studies using the QResearch and CPRD databases

    PubMed Central

    Coupland, Carol; Hippisley-Cox, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between use of combined oral contraceptives and risk of venous thromboembolism, taking the type of progestogen into account. Design Two nested case-control studies. Setting General practices in the United Kingdom contributing to the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD; 618 practices) and QResearch primary care database (722 practices). Participants Women aged 15-49 years with a first diagnosis of venous thromboembolism in 2001-13, each matched with up to five controls by age, practice, and calendar year. Main outcome measures Odds ratios for incident venous thromboembolism and use of combined oral contraceptives in the previous year, adjusted for smoking status, alcohol consumption, ethnic group, body mass index, comorbidities, and other contraceptive drugs. Results were combined across the two datasets. Results 5062 cases of venous thromboembolism from CPRD and 5500 from QResearch were analysed. Current exposure to any combined oral contraceptive was associated with an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (adjusted odds ratio 2.97, 95% confidence interval 2.78 to 3.17) compared with no exposure in the previous year. Corresponding risks associated with current exposure to desogestrel (4.28, 3.66 to 5.01), gestodene (3.64, 3.00 to 4.43), drospirenone (4.12, 3.43 to 4.96), and cyproterone (4.27, 3.57 to 5.11) were significantly higher than those for second generation contraceptives levonorgestrel (2.38, 2.18 to 2.59) and norethisterone (2.56, 2.15 to 3.06), and for norgestimate (2.53, 2.17 to 2.96). The number of extra cases of venous thromboembolism per year per 10 000 treated women was lowest for levonorgestrel (6, 95% confidence interval 5 to 7) and norgestimate (6, 5 to 8), and highest for desogestrel (14, 11 to 17) and cyproterone (14, 11 to 17). Conclusions In these population based, case-control studies using two large primary care databases, risks of venous thromboembolism associated with combined oral

  17. [Health risks of oral contraceptives].

    PubMed

    Meier, Christoph R

    2011-06-01

    Oral contraceptives (OC) are either composed of a combination of an estrogen derivative (usually ethinly estradiol) and a progestogen, or they contain a progestogen only. OC are characterized by a high effectiveness and have a low failure rate if taken correctly. Most women tolerate OC relatively well, but adverse effects do occur which are driven by the estrogen dose as well as by the type of progestogen. The most frequently reported adverse effects are nausea or vomiting, breast tenderness, headache or inbalanced mood, but these unwanted side effects are often transient. The fear of weight gain of many OC users is not necessarily supported by data from studies which report relatively little differences in body mass index on average during OC use. Nevertheless, substantial weight gain can occur in individual women. The widely discussed fear of breast cancer is also not justified, and the risk of developing ovarian or endometrial cancer is reduced for women who use OC on a regular basis. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is the adverse effect with the greatest potential for serious harm if pulmonary embolism develops. This rare, but potentially dangerous adverse effect of OC has been discussed emotionally for many years and keeps attracting a lot of public interest. VTE is rare in young women, but the VTE risk is increased two- to sixfold for OC users as compared to non-users. The VTE risk increases with increasing estrogen dose, is highest in the first year of use, and is higher for OC from the third generation (containing desogestrel, gestodene or norgestimate) than for OC from the second generation (containing levonorgestrel) or than for the progestogen-only pill. According to most studies, OC containing the progestogens drospirenone or cyproterone acetate are similar with regard to VTE risks than OC from the third generation. Individual genetic susceptibility affecting the clotting system plays a major role in the risk of developing VTE in combination with OC, and

  18. Effect of the ethinylestradiol/levonorgestrel combined oral contraceptive on the activity of cytochrome P4503A in obese women

    PubMed Central

    Edelman, Alison; Munar, Myrna; Elman, Miriam R; Koop, Dennis; Cherala, Ganesh

    2012-01-01

    AIM(S) While it is known that CYP3A4/5 activity is decreased with combined oral contraceptive (COC) use and obesity suppresses CYP expression, the combined effects of obesity and COC use on CYP3A4/5 activity are unclear. Therefore, our aim was to examine the effect of COC usage on CYP3A4/5 activity in obese women. METHODS Thirty-four, obese (body mass index, BMI > 30 kg m−2) women of reproductive age (18–35 years old) were placed on a COC pill containing 20 µg ethinylestradiol/100 µg levonorgestrel for 21 days starting at the onset of menses. A midazolam pharmacokinetic study was conducted prior to initiation and after 21 days of COC treatment. Serial blood samples were collected and plasma concentrations of midazolam were measured using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using a non-compartmental method. RESULTS Midazolam clearance, a surrogate measure of CYP3A4/5 activity, was significantly decreased upon COC use (63.3 l h−1vs. 53.9 l h−1, P < 0.05). A median decrease of 5.6 l h−1 (95% CI −4.1, 13.3 l h−1) was observed. However, the magnitude of change was similar to that reported in women with normal BMI. CONCLUSIONS Although we hypothesized that obesity might amplify the impact on CYP3A4/5 activity in COC users, we found that this was not the case. This finding is reassuring regarding potential additional drug−drug interactions in obese COC users as CYP3A4/5 is a major enzyme in the metabolism of many marketed drugs. PMID:22299599

  19. Effect of the ethinylestradiol/levonorgestrel combined oral contraceptive on the activity of cytochrome P4503A in obese women.

    PubMed

    Edelman, Alison; Munar, Myrna; Elman, Miriam R; Koop, Dennis; Cherala, Ganesh

    2012-09-01

    While it is known that CYP3A4/5 activity is decreased with combined oral contraceptive (COC) use and obesity suppresses CYP expression, the combined effects of obesity and COC use on CYP3A4/5 activity are unclear. Therefore, our aim was to examine the effect of COC usage on CYP3A4/5 activity in obese women. Thirty-four, obese (body mass index, BMI > 30 kg m(-2)) women of reproductive age (18-35 years old) were placed on a COC pill containing 20 µg ethinylestradiol/100 µg levonorgestrel for 21 days starting at the onset of menses. A midazolam pharmacokinetic study was conducted prior to initiation and after 21 days of COC treatment. Serial blood samples were collected and plasma concentrations of midazolam were measured using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using a non-compartmental method. Midazolam clearance, a surrogate measure of CYP3A4/5 activity, was significantly decreased upon COC use (63.3 l h(-1) vs. 53.9 l h(-1), P < 0.05). A median decrease of 5.6 l h(-1) (95% CI -4.1, 13.3 l h(-1)) was observed. However, the magnitude of change was similar to that reported in women with normal BMI. Although we hypothesized that obesity might amplify the impact on CYP3A4/5 activity in COC users, we found that this was not the case. This finding is reassuring regarding potential additional drug-drug interactions in obese COC users as CYP3A4/5 is a major enzyme in the metabolism of many marketed drugs. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  20. Oral contraceptive marketing in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Bamgboye, E A; Ladipo, O A

    1992-10-01

    The demographic transition in Nigeria is gradually moving towards the second stage. There is clear evidence of a declining mortality but the fertility rate remains exceptionally high. A realistic approach towards reducing fertility rate is the use of oral contraceptive. This study assesses the distribution system of oral contraceptive in Ibadan, the second largest city in Nigeria. The findings revealed that the people are aware of modern oral contraceptives as they purchase them freely at chemist shops. But effective distribution is hampered by existing channels and high costs. A local source recommended is the proprietary medicine stores, often at convenient locations to the potential users of contraceptives. The current cost which is between $1.3 and $19.5 per couple-years of protection is exorbitant, consuming 0.5-7.8% of the gross annual income of the average individual. Therefore, the government should subsidize the prices of oral contraceptives, to facilitate freedom from the tyranny of excessive fertility.

  1. Comparison of combined hormonal vaginal ring with ultralow-dose combined oral contraceptive pills in the management of heavy menstrual bleeding: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, N; Gupta, M; Kriplani, A; Bhatla, N; Singh, N

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare combined hormonal vaginal ring with ultralow-dose combined oral contraceptive (COC) pills in management of heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB). Fifty patients were randomised into Group I: vaginal ring (n = 25) and group II: COC pills (n = 25). Menstrual blood loss (MBL) was assessed at baseline, 1, 3 and 6 months (while on treatment) and at 9 months (3 months after stopping therapy). There was significant reduction in baseline pictorial blood loss assessment chart (PBAC) score from 440 ± 188 (Mean ± SD) to 178 ± 95, 139 ± 117, 112 ± 84 and 120 ± 108 in group I and from 452 ± 206 to 204 ± 152, 179 ± 125, 176 ± 164 and 202 ± 167 in group II at 1, 3, 6 and 9 months, respectively (p = 0.001). Reduction in MBL was 72% and 62% at 6 months and up to 71% and 55% at 9 months in group I and group II, respectively (p = 0.001). Reduction in MBL with ring was greater at higher baseline PBAC score but lesser in patients with fibroid > 2 cm. Combined vaginal hormonal treatment for HMB is as effective as oral hormonal therapy, with minor and transient side effects and persistence of response after cessation of therapy.

  2. Combined oral contraceptive and nitric oxide synthesis inhibition synergistically causes cardiac hypertrophy and exacerbates insulin resistance in female rats.

    PubMed

    Olatunji, Lawrence A; Olaniyi, Kehinde S; Usman, Taofeek O; Abolarinwa, Bilikis A; Achile, Caleb J; Kim, In-Kyeom

    2017-03-20

    Combined oral contraceptive (COC) use or inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis has been shown to cause hypertension and insulin resistance. However, the concomitant effects of COC and NO deficiency on the heart and glucose regulation are not well known. We therefore hypothesized that COC treatment during NO deficiency would lead to the development of cardiac hypertrophy that is associated with aggravated glucose deregulation, pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic biomarkers. Eight-week-old female Wistar rats were randomly allotted into control, NO deficient (N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester: L-NAME; 20.0mg/kg b.w.), COC-treated (1.0μg ethinylestradiol+5.0μg levonorgestrel, p.o) and L-NAME+COC-treated groups. The animals were treated daily for 6 weeks. Systolic blood pressure was estimated by tail-cuff plethysmography, insulin resistance (IR) and β-cell function were estimated by homeostatic model of assessment (HOMA-IR and HOMA-β). Pro-inflammatory (C-reactive protein; CRP and uric acid) and pro-fibrotic (plasminogen activator inhibitor-1; PAI-1) biomarkers were estimated in the plasma. Cardiac histological examination was also done. Results show that COC or L-NAME treatments led to increased blood pressure, HOMA-IR, impaired β-cell function, PAI-1, CRP and uric acid, without significant effect on cardiac mass. L-NAME+COC-treated group had significantly higher blood pressure, HOMA-IR, impaired β-cell function, PAI-1, CRP and cardiac mass than COC- or L-NAME-treated groups. Histological examination validated that COC use during NO deficiency causes cardiac hypertrophy. The present study demonstrates that COC treatment and NO deficiency synergistically causes cardiac hypertrophy that is associated with aggravated glucose deregulation, atherogenic dyslipidemia, pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic markers.

  3. The effect of combination oral contraceptives on smoking-related symptomatology during short-term smoking abstinence.

    PubMed

    Hinderaker, Katie; Allen, Alicia M; Tosun, Nicole; al'Absi, Mustafa; Hatsukami, Dorothy; Allen, Sharon S

    2015-02-01

    Although an estimated 25% of premenopausal smokers report using oral contraceptives (OC), little is known about how OC use may influence smoking cessation. The purpose of this study was to examine the difference in smoking-related symptomatology during acute smoking abstinence between women on a standardized combination OC (Tri-Sprintec(™)) compared to women not on OCs (no-OC). Participants were women aged 18-40 who smoked ≥5 cigarettes/day and reported regular menstrual cycles. Using a controlled cross-over design, participants completed two six-day testing weeks: Low Progesterone Week (LPW; Follicular (F) phase in no-OC or 1st week of pills in OC) and High Progesterone Week (HPW; Luteal (L) phase in no-OC or 3rd week of pills in OC). Each testing week included daily assessment of symptomatology and biochemical confirmation of smoking status. During smoking abstinence, the OC group (n=14) reported significantly lower levels of positive affect (21.56±7.12 vs. 24.57±6.46; β=3.63, p=0.0323) than the no-OC group (n=28). Further significant interactions between group and testing week were observed as follows: Smoking satisfaction was higher during LPW in the OC group (LPW: 4.29±1.30 vs. HPW: 4.10±1.37) but higher during HPW in the no-OC group (LPW: 3.91±1.30 vs. HPW: 4.23±1.30; β=-0.5499, p<0.0001). Similar interactions were noted in negative affect and psychological reward of smoking. These results suggest that women on OCs may have different patterns of smoking-related symptomatology during short-term smoking abstinence as compared to women not on OCs. Additional work is needed to examine how this may affect smoking cessation efforts.

  4. Headache, migraine and oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    Many physicians will not provide oral contraceptives (OCs) to women with a history of migraine due to concerns about increasing the risk of a cerebrovascular accident. The World Health Organization's revised medical eligibility criteria indicate that only women with serious migraine that includes focal neurologic symptoms should be cautioned against OC use. This article reviews the research evidence on headache, migraine, and OCs. The recent literature suggests that healthy, nonsmoking women using low-dose OCs (35 mcg of estrogen or less) have no increased risk of stroke. Although the presence of diabetes, hypertension, and/or migraine appears to be associated with an increased risk of cerebral thromboembolism, the use of OCs does not synergistically add to the risk. It is important, however, for physicians to differentiate between tension headaches, migraines with aura (classic migraine), and migraines without aura (common migraine). Women with classic migraine should avoid OCs if an alternative method of contraception can be used. Common migraine is not a contraindication to OC use, although the frequency and severity of headaches during OC use should be monitored. OC discontinuation should be discontinued, at least temporarily, if previously existing migraine suddenly worsens, headaches that are qualitatively different than the type usually experienced by the patient occur, headaches wake a patient from sleep, or double vision or loss of vision occur.

  5. Exposure to combined oral contraceptives and risk of venous thromboembolism: a protocol for nested case–control studies using the QResearch and the CPRD databases

    PubMed Central

    Vinogradova, Yana; Coupland, Carol; Hippisley-Cox, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Many studies have found an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) associated with the use of combined hormonal contraceptives, but various methodologies have been used in the study design relating to definition of VTE event and the selection of appropriate cases for analysis. This study will focus on common oral hormonal contraceptives, including compositions with cyproterone because of their contraceptive effect and will perform a number of sensitivity analyses to compare findings with previous studies. Methods and analysis 2 nested case–control studies will be based on the general population using records from UK general practices within the QResearch and Clinical Practice Research Datalink databases. Cases will be female patients aged 15–49 with primary VTE diagnosed between 2001 and 2013. Each case will be matched by age, year of birth and practice to five female controls, who are alive and registered with the practice at the time of diagnosis of the case (index date). Exposure to different hormonal contraceptives will be defined as at least one prescription for that contraceptive in the year before the index date. The effects of duration and the length of any gap since last use will also be investigated. Conditional logistic regression will be applied to calculate ORs adjusted for smoking, ethnicity, comorbidities and use of other medications. Possible indications for prescribing hormonal contraceptives, such as menstrual disorders, acne or hirsutism will be included in the analyses as confounding factors. A number of sensitivity analyses will be carried out. Ethics and dissemination The initial protocol has been reviewed and approved by ISAC (Independent Scientific Advisory Committee) for Medicine and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency Database Research. The project has also been reviewed by QResearch and meets the requirements of the Trent Research Ethics Committee. The results will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. PMID

  6. Should oral contraceptives be available without prescription?

    PubMed

    Trussell, J; Stewart, F; Potts, M; Guest, F; Ellertson, C

    1993-08-01

    In this paper, it is argued that oral contraceptives should be available without prescription. Prescription status entails heavy costs, including the dollar, time, and psychological costs of visiting a physician to obtain a prescription, the financial and human costs of unintended pregnancies that result from the obstacle to access caused by medicalization of oral contraceptives, and administrative costs to the health care system. After a review and evaluation of the reasons for strict medical control of oral contraceptives in the United States, safety concerns anticipated in response to the proposal discussed here are addressed. Also, concerns that prescription status is necessary for efficacious use are evaluated. It is concluded that neither safety nor efficacy considerations justify prescription status for oral contraceptives. Revised package design and patient labeling could allow women to screen themselves for contraindications, to educate themselves about danger signs, and to use oral contraceptives safely and successfully. Several alternatives to providing oral contraceptives by prescription with current package design and labeling and selling them over the counter are suggested; the proposals discussed would make these safe and effective contraceptives easier to obtain and to use.

  7. Should oral contraceptives be available without prescription?

    PubMed Central

    Trussell, J; Stewart, F; Potts, M; Guest, F; Ellertson, C

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, it is argued that oral contraceptives should be available without prescription. Prescription status entails heavy costs, including the dollar, time, and psychological costs of visiting a physician to obtain a prescription, the financial and human costs of unintended pregnancies that result from the obstacle to access caused by medicalization of oral contraceptives, and administrative costs to the health care system. After a review and evaluation of the reasons for strict medical control of oral contraceptives in the United States, safety concerns anticipated in response to the proposal discussed here are addressed. Also, concerns that prescription status is necessary for efficacious use are evaluated. It is concluded that neither safety nor efficacy considerations justify prescription status for oral contraceptives. Revised package design and patient labeling could allow women to screen themselves for contraindications, to educate themselves about danger signs, and to use oral contraceptives safely and successfully. Several alternatives to providing oral contraceptives by prescription with current package design and labeling and selling them over the counter are suggested; the proposals discussed would make these safe and effective contraceptives easier to obtain and to use. PMID:8342715

  8. Comparison of efficacy of metformin and oral contraceptive combination of ethinyl estradiol and drospirenone in polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Suvarna, Yashasvi; Maity, Nivedita; Kalra, Pramila; Shivamurthy, MC

    2016-01-01

    Objective The 2013 Endocrine Society guidelines state that hormonal contraceptives should be used for treating both menstrual irregularity and hirsutism in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Metformin should be reserved for the treatment of women presenting with only menstrual irregularity because it has limited benefits in treating hyperandrogenism associated with PCOS. A high prevalence of insulin resistance is noted among the South Asians, and these guidelines may not hold good for this population. Thus, this study was conducted to investigate and compare the effects of metformin and an oral contraceptive containing drospirenone on menstrual pattern, body mass index, serum testosterone levels, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) levels at baseline to 6 months of therapy in the treatment groups. Material and Methods This was a prospective observational study that was conducted over a year in patients visiting the Endocrinology outpatient department at a tertiary care center in a south Indian city. Forty-six subjects diagnosed with PCOS as per the Rotterdam criteria were included. They received either metformin twice daily or an oral contraceptive containing drospirenone once daily as a monthly regimen for 6 months. Results Metformin regularized menstrual cycles in 72% of patients who were followed up at 6 months. No significant difference was observed between the two treatment groups with respect to decreasing the body mass index, serum testosterone levels, and DHEAS levels (p=0.40, p=0.65, and p=0.22, respectively). Conclusion Metformin is effective in regularizing menstrual cycles, decreasing body mass index, and treating hyperandrogenism in Indian women diagnosed with PCOS. PMID:27026772

  9. Physician attitudes toward over the counter availability for oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Howard, David L; Wall, Jeffrey; Strickland, Julie L

    2013-12-01

    To assess physician attitude towards making oral contraceptives available over the counter in the United States (US). We assessed physician attitudes towards a transition from prescription only to over-the-counter availability (rx-OTC) for oral contraceptive pills by disseminating an electronic survey directed primarily to residents training in Obstetrics and Gynecology (OBGYN) and Family Practice in the US. An overwhelming majority of 638 respondents (71 %) were against an rx-OTC switch for combined oral contraceptives and among this subset of respondents the primary concern was safety (92.3 %). Overall, respondents were evenly divided on the issue of an rx-OTC switch for progestin-only-pills but of those who opposed, 73.2 % cited safety as their primary concern. For progestin-only-pills female respondents were more likely to support OTC availability. Most OBGYN and Family Practice residents opposed to OTC availability for oral contraceptives cite safety as their primary concern. Considering the abundant evidence as to the overall safety of oral contraceptives, especially progestin-only-pills, there appears to be a knowledge deficit among OBGYN and Family Practice residents regarding the safety of oral contraceptives.

  10. Semaglutide, a Once-Weekly Human GLP-1 Analog, Does Not Reduce the Bioavailability of the Combined Oral Contraceptive, Ethinylestradiol/Levonorgestrel

    PubMed Central

    Kapitza, Christoph; Nosek, Leszek; Jensen, Lene; Hartvig, Helle; Jensen, Christine B; Flint, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The effect of semaglutide, a once-weekly human glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analog in development for type 2 diabetes (T2D), on the bioavailability of a combined oral contraceptive was investigated. Postmenopausal women with T2D (n = 43) on diet/exercise ± metformin received ethinylestradiol (0.03 mg)/levonorgestrel (0.15 mg) once daily for 8 days before (semaglutide-free) and during (steady-state 1.0 mg) semaglutide treatment (subcutaneous once weekly; dose escalation: 0.25 mg 4 weeks; 0.5 mg 4 weeks; 1.0 mg 5 weeks). Bioequivalence of oral contraceptives was established if 90%CI for the ratio of pharmacokinetic parameters during semaglutide steady-state and semaglutide-free periods was within prespecified limits (0.80–1.25). The bioequivalence criterion was met for ethinylestradiol area under the curve (AUC0–24 h) for semaglutide steady-state/semaglutide-free; 1.11 (1.06–1.15). AUC0–24 h was 20% higher for levonorgestrel at semaglutide steady-state vs. semaglutide-free (1.20 [1.15–1.26]). Cmax was within bioequivalence criterion for both contraceptives. Reductions (mean ± SD) in HbA1c (–1.1 ± 0.6%) and weight (–4.3 ± 3.1 kg) were observed. Semaglutide pharmacokinetics were compatible with once-weekly dosing; the semaglutide dose and dose-escalation regimen were well tolerated. Adverse events, mainly gastrointestinal, were mild to moderate in severity. Asymptomatic increases in mean amylase and lipase were observed. Three subjects had elevated alanine aminotransferase levels ≥3x the upper limit of normal during semaglutide/oral contraceptive coadministration, which were reported as adverse events, but resolved during follow-up. Semaglutide did not reduce the bioavailability of ethinylestradiol and levonorgestrel. PMID:25475122

  11. Long term effects of oral contraception.

    PubMed

    Koetsawang, S; Chiemprasert, T; Premyodhin, M

    1972-01-01

    This study attempts to assess the long-term effects of oral contraceptives on Asian women. At the Family Planning Clinic, Siniray Hospital, Thailand, 181 of the more than 800 women who had used oral contraceptives for more than 4 years prior to May 31, 1971, were studied. All had completed premedical examinations before beginning the drugs. In addition to being studied for changes in body weight, blood pressure, hematocrit, liver function, thyroid function, oral glucose tolerance, and blood urea nitrogen, they were interviewed on their experience with oral contraception. Most were between ages 25-29 years, had only primary education, were housewives, and more than half were in the lower income group. Living children ranged from 1 to 10 with 52.5% having 4 or more. They had been started on a variety or oral contraceptives but in the last 2 years all were given Ovral (norgestrel .5 mg with ethinyl estradiol .05 mg). A total of 10,830 cycles were recorded. Only 9 requested anotehr method. Culdoscopic tubal sterilization was done on 6 and 3 discontinued because they wanted to get pregnant. All had heard rumors of adverse effects but few believed them because 89.3% had no adverse effects. 81.2% said they were in better physical and mental condition because of absence of pregnancy and a majority reported better socioeconomic status. Neurotic complaints were noted in 6.1%. Libido was unchanged in a majority, decreased in a few, but rarely increased. Weight gain of 2.5 kg or more was present in 68%. Slight increase in blood pressure was noted in 17.1%, mostly in those starting with increased pressure. Hematocrit values changed only slightly may have been due to other causes. Liver function tests showed prolonged bromsulphthalein retention in a considerable number. Thyroid function tests were normal except for increased TBG level in 17.8%. Carbohydrate metabolism remained normal in all but a few. Pretreatment glucose tolerance tests not been recorded. Normal findings were

  12. Effects on hemostasis after two-year use of low dose combined oral contraceptives with gestodene or levonorgestrel.

    PubMed

    Prasad, R N; Koh, S C; Viegas, O A; Ratnam, S S

    1999-01-01

    We studied 67 healthy women who were randomly allocated to receive third generation gestodene (Gynera) or second generation levonorgestrel (Microgynon 30) combination of low-dose estrogen oral contraceptives (OCs) for their hemostatic effects over 2 years. Hemostatic changes were apparent within 3 months of OC use. Hematocrit (Hct) was not affected, but hemoglobin (Hb) concentration decreased by 18 months. Shortened prothrombin time (PT) and activated plasma thromboplastin time (APTT) were associated with elevated fibrinogen within the 12-month use of both OCs. Factor VII was reduced only in Micro 30 during the 18 months of use. Enhanced thrombin-antithrombin (TAT)-complex level was seen at 18 months of Gynera use. Prothrombin fragment1+2 (F1+2) rise was seen at 3 months with Micro 30. Reduced antithrombin III (ATIII) activity was seen at 18 months with Gynera and at 24 months with Micro 30. Increased protein C activity was seen at 3 months and reduced protein S occurred at 18 months of Gynera use. Tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) activity was enhanced for 6 months in both OCs with raised D-dimer levels for 12 months with Gynera and 6 months with Micro 30. Decreased t-PA antigen was seen at 18 months and decreased urokinaselike plasminogen activator (u-PA) antigen occurred throughout the 24 months of both OCs use. Enhanced u-PA activity was only seen in Gynera users. Elevated plasminogen levels were apparent throughout both OCs use. PAI-1 levels were significantly decreased with Micro 30. With Gynera, the decreased PAI-1 activity was seen only at 18 months and PAI-1 antigen at 12 months. No change in platelets and von Willebrand factor (vWF) were seen in long-term OC use except that beta-thromboglobulin (beta-TG) showed decreased trends reaching statistical significance by 18 and 24 months of Micro 30 use and by 24 months of Gynera use. A further significant decrease in beta-TG, u-PA antigen, ATIII, and protein S levels were seen 3 months after pill stoppage

  13. Vitamins and oral contraceptive use.

    PubMed

    Wynn, V

    1975-03-08

    Reports concerning the interaction between steroidal contraceptives (the combined pill) and vitamins indicate that in users the mean serum-vitamin-A level is raised and the mean serum-vitamin-B2 (riboflavine), vitamin-B6 (pyridoxine), vitamine-C, folic-acid, and vitamin-B12 levels are reduced. Other vitamins have been insufficiently studied for comment. Biochemical evidence of co-enzyme deficiency has been reported for vitamin B2, vitamin B6, and folic acid. Clinical effects due to vitamin deficiency have been described for vitamin B6--namely, depression and impaired glucose tolerance. Folic-acid deficiency with megaloblastic anaemia has been reported in only 21 cases.

  14. Body mass index does not affect the efficacy or bleeding profile during use of an ultra-low-dose combined oral contraceptive.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Steven T; Pappadakis, Jennifer; Archer, David F

    2016-01-01

    Safe and effective contraceptive options for obese women are becoming more important due to the obesity epidemic within the United States. This study evaluated the impact of body mass index (BMI) on efficacy, safety and bleeding patterns during use of an ultra-low-dose combined oral contraceptive (COC). Data are from a Phase 3 clinical efficacy and safety study of an ultra-low-dose COC containing 1.0-mg norethindrone acetate and 10-mcg ethinyl estradiol. Pearl Indices, adverse events and bleeding profile were calculated for BMI ranges of <25, 25-30 and >30 kg/m(2). Of the 1581 participants included in the analysis, 28.3% were overweight, and 18.0% were obese. For women aged 18-45 years, the Pearl Indices were 2.49, 2.32 and 1.89 for women with a BMI <25, 25-30 and >30 kg/m(2), respectively. The ultra-low dose of ethinyl estradiol did not impact scheduled bleeding or intensity of bleeding, but we observed a slight decline in amenorrhea and slight increase in unscheduled bleeding in obese women compared with other BMI categories. Our analysis of an ultra-low-dose COC did not find clinically important differences in contraceptive failure rates, adverse events or bleeding profile with increasing BMI. Our analysis of an ultra-low ethinyl estradiol dose COC did not find clinically important differences in contraceptive failure rates, adverse events or bleeding profile with increasing BMI. An ultra-low-dose COC provides another safe and effective contraceptive option for obese women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Budd-Chiari syndrome: combination of genetic defects and the use of oral contraceptives leading to hypercoagulability.

    PubMed

    Minnema, M C; Janssen, H L; Niermeijer, P; de Man, R A

    2000-09-01

    A young female, who had been in excellent health and had used third-generation oral contraceptives, was admitted to hospital because of abdominal pain and ascites. Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) was diagnosed by radiographic and histological examination. Tests for myeloproliferative disease, deficiency of coagulation inhibitors and paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria were negative. DNA investigation showed a double heterozygous defect: the Arg506Gln mutation in the factor V gene (factor V Leiden) and G20210A nucleotide substitution in the prothrombin gene. This double defect was also found in the patient's father, who had never experienced an episode of venous thromboembolism. Genetic and acquired thrombogenic risk factors are being detected increasingly in patients with BCS. With the discovery of new genetic defects leading to hypercoagulabiulity an increasing number of patients with serious thrombotic manifestations, such as BCS, will exhibit concurrence of hereditary and acquired risk factors for thrombosis.

  16. Oral Contraceptive Estrogen Content and Adverse Effects

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Margaret; Ramcharan, Savitri

    1987-01-01

    The 1985 Health and Welfare Canada Report on Oral Contraceptives recommended oral contraceptives (OCs) containing 30-35 mcg of estrogen rather than 50 mcg as the preferred dosage for contraception. Many family physicians may regard these guidelines as mandatory when prescribing OCs, because of a presumption that pills of 50-mcg estrogen content carry a higher risk of disease. In this article, the epidemiologic evidence pertaining to a dose-response relationship between the estrogen dose of oral contraceptives and disease is critically reviewed. The review indicates that there is no incontrovertible evidence to support such a relationship. Implications of the recommendations in the Report for physicians and patients are discussed. PMID:21263837

  17. Oral contraceptives and liver cancer.

    PubMed

    1997-11-01

    To date, nine case-control studies conducted in developed countries have identified an association between oral contraceptives (OCs) and liver cancer. The most recent population-based data from both developed and developing countries failed to confirm such an association, however. A study conducted by the World Health Organization in eight developing countries (Chile, China, Colombia, Israel, Kenya, Nigeria, Philippines, and Thailand), in which 122 women with liver cancer were matched with 802 controls, found no elevated risk for OC users compared with never-users (relative risk, 0.7; 95% confidence interval, 0.4-1.2). This study is particularly significant since it was conducted in countries where hepatitis B virus infection, an important risk factor for primary liver cancer, is widespread. In addition, population mortality data from the US, UK, Japan, and Sweden have failed to document increases in liver cancer cases coincident with increases in OC use. Given that population statistics can detect changes on the magnitude of a 40-50% decrease in the risk of ovarian and endometrial cancer related to OC use, they should be able to detect increases of two to 20 times the risk of liver cancer. The increased risk of liver cancer found in the case-control studies may reflect bias resulting from the small size of these studies.

  18. Newer oral contraceptives and the risk of venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Walker, A M

    1998-03-01

    Research on the relationship between venous thromboembolism and the progestagen content of combined oral contraceptives has pointed to an increase in risk associated with products containing desogestrel and gestodene. Although many biases must have been at play in these nonexperimental studies, the errors that have been suggested and examined are not of a sufficient magnitude to account for the observed results. The most plausible explanation of the available data is that combined oral contraceptives containing desogestrel and gestodene carry a very small risk of venous thromboembolism, which exceeds the even smaller risk carried by products containing levonorgestrel. The position of norgestimate is uncertain.

  19. Pharmacologic considerations for patients taking oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Hassan, T

    1987-03-01

    This is a brief review of the theoretical and known drug reactions with oral contraceptives. There are at least 6 possible types of drug reactions that may affect the action of oral contraceptives, not including malabsorption related to changes in intestinal motility or flora. Ampicillin is an example of an antibiotic that may cause diarrhea, thereby reducing absorption of pill steroids. The steroids in orals are subject to enterohepatic circulation, which is in turn affected by the gut flora. Antibiotics known to suppress gut flora include: penicillins, cephalosporins, tetracyclines, sulfas, neomycin and erythromycin. Although controlled clinical trials of antibiotic intake with oral contraception have not shown significant interactions, anecdotal reports of pill failures have been published. The other important drug interaction affecting contraception by orals is enhanced hepatic degradation, as seen with rifampicin. Other drugs such as cimetidine, MAO-inhibitor antidepressants, chloramphenicol, influenza or BCG vaccine, isoniazid, warfarin, metronidazole and disulfiram may delay steroid metabolism and possibly increase side effects. When prescribing drugs it is important to realize that certain drugs decrease oral contraceptive concentrations: antibiotics anticonvulsants, griseofulvin, purgatives and rifampicin.

  20. Effect of antibiotics on oral contraceptive efficacy.

    PubMed

    Zachariasen, R D

    1991-09-01

    It is estimated that there are currently 10 million women in the United States who are taking oral contraceptives on a daily basis. Although the actual number is not known, it is also estimated that a large number of these same women are on concomitant drug therapy. In recent years, there has been a number of published reports linking a loss of contraceptive efficacy with the concurrent administration of other drugs, including antibiotics. Because of the common practice of prescribing antibiotics in dentistry, oral healthcare providers should be aware of the possibility of oral contraceptive failure with antibiotic treatment. Since it is often the dental hygienist who interviews patients and assists them in completing their health questionnaire, she or he can play an important role in educating and counseling these patients in possible drug interactions. This article reviews the published incidence of oral contraceptive/antibiotic interaction, along with a discussion of the possible mechanisms by which this interaction occurs. Recommendations are also presented for the oral health management of women taking oral contraceptives and other prescribed drugs.

  1. The effect of combined oral contraception on testosterone levels in healthy women: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Y.; Eijkemans, M.J.C.; Coelingh Bennink, H.J.T.; Blankenstein, M.A.; Fauser, B.C.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) reduce levels of androgen, especially testosterone (T), by inhibiting ovarian and adrenal androgen synthesis and by increasing levels of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). Although this suppressive effect has been investigated by numerous studies over many years, to our knowledge no systematic review concerning this issue had been performed. This systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of COCs on concentrations of total T, free T and SHBG in healthy women and to evaluate differences between the various types of COCs (e.g. estrogen dose, type of progestin) and the assays used to assess total T and free T. METHODS A review of the literature was performed using database searches (MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Clinical Trials) and all publications (from inception date until July 2012) investigating the effect of COCs on androgen levels in healthy women were considered eligible for selection. Three reviewers were involved in study selection, data extraction and critical appraisal. For the meta-analysis, data on total T, free T and SHBG were extracted and combined using random effects analysis. Additional subgroup analyses were performed to evaluate differences between the various types of COCs (e.g. estrogen dose, type of progestin) and the assays used to assess total T or free T. RESULTS A total of 151 records were identified by systematic review and 42 studies with a total of 1495 healthy young women (age range: 18–40 years) were included in the meta-analysis. All included studies were experimental studies and 21 were non-comparative. Pooling of the results derived from all the included papers showed that total T levels significantly decreased during COC use [mean difference (MD) (95% confidence interval, CI) −0.49 nmol/l (−0.55, −0.42); P < 0.001]. Significantly lower levels of free T were also found [relative change (95% CI) 0.39 (0.35, 0.43); P < 0

  2. The possible role of enterohepatic cycling on bioavailability of norethisterone and gestodene in women using combined oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Elomaa, K; Ranta, S; Tuominen, J; Lähteenmäki, P

    2001-01-01

    Using steady-state conditions we aimed to test if administration of oral activated charcoal affects the bioavailability of norethisterone acetate (NET Ac) and gestodene (GEST) by inhibiting their enterohepatic recirculation. Thirteen volunteers received, in a randomized order, Minulet (75 microg GEST and 30 microg ethinylestradiol [EE(2)]) and Econ/30 (1 mg NET Ac and 30 microg EE(2)), each for 4 months. Serum GEST and norethisterone (NET) levels were evaluated with respect to C(max,) t(max) and 24-h area under the curve (AUC(0-24h)) in the middle of the control (3rd) cycle and the charcoal treatment (4th) cycle during both pill treatments. No statistically significant difference was seen in any of the aforementioned variables between the control and charcoal treatment cycles of either pill. Neither was a difference seen in the bioavailability of GEST and NET as evaluated by the ratios of two 24-h AUCs calculated in the control and charcoal cycles of each pill treatment (p = 0.29). The results suggest that enterohepatic circulation of GEST and NET is not of clinical importance. We conclude that women on oral contraceptives can take activated charcoal for the treatment of diarrhea when administered 3 h after and at least 12 h before pill intake.

  3. The Current Status of Oral Contraceptives: Progress and Recent Innovations.

    PubMed

    Golobof, Alexandra; Kiley, Jessica

    2016-05-01

    Millions of women in the United States and abroad use oral contraceptive pills. These popular contraceptives are the most common reversible birth control method in the United States, and a wide variety of pills are available for prescription. Oral contraceptives provide safe and effective protection against pregnancy and offer several noncontraceptive benefits. Over the years, advances in the laboratory and knowledge gained through epidemiologic data promoted the development of new contraceptive preparations. Generations of oral contraceptives emerged over time, containing lower doses of estrogens and new and novel progestins. The current review discusses the clinical characteristics of oral contraceptives, with emphasis on basic pharmacology and the evolution of various contraceptive formulations and regimens.

  4. Effect of saxagliptin on the pharmacokinetics of the active components of Ortho-Cyclen(®), a combined oral contraceptive containing ethinyl estradiol and norgestimate, in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Upreti, V V; Hsiang, C B; Li, L; Xu, X; LaCreta, F P; Boulton, D W

    2012-12-01

    Saxagliptin (Onglyza™) is a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) inhibitor for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus. This open-label, randomized, two-way crossover study in 20 healthy female subjects investigated the effect of saxagliptin on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of the active components of a combined oral contraceptive (COC). Subjects received either COC (Ortho-Cyclen(®)) once daily (QD) for 21 days, then 5 mg saxagliptin QD + COC QD for 21 days, or vice versa. Coadministration of saxagliptin and COC did not alter the steady-state PK of the primary active oestrogen (ethinyl estradiol) or progestin (norelgestromin) COC components. The area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) and peak plasma concentration (Cmax) of an active metabolite of norelgestromin (norgestrel) were increased by 13 and 17%, respectively, a magnitude that was not considered clinically meaningful. Coadministration of saxagliptin and COC in this study was generally well-tolerated. Saxagliptin can be co-prescribed with an oestrogen/progestin combination for women taking oral contraceptive.

  5. The risks of oral contraceptive pills.

    PubMed

    Pymar, H C; Creinin, M D

    2001-12-01

    Oral contraceptive pills have been associated with increased risk for myocardial infarction, stroke, and venous thromboembolism. Studies have been published recently that suggest that these risks are minimal in appropriately chosen low-risk women. Stroke is a very uncommon event in childbearing women, occurring in approximately 11 per 100,000 women over 1 year. Thus, even a doubling of this risk with oral contraceptive pills would have minimal effect on attributable risk. The estimated risk of myocardial infarction associated with oral contraceptive pill use in nonsmokers is 3 per million women over 1 year. The estimated risk of venous thromboembolism attributable to oral contraceptive pills is less than 3 per 10,000 women per year. Additionally, the literature suggests that there may be an increased risk of breast cancer associated with long-term oral contraceptive pill use in women under the age of 35. However, because the incidence of breast cancer is so low in this population, the attributable risk of breast cancer from birth control pill use is small.

  6. A new estradiol-dienogest oral contraceptive marks "The Pill's" 50th anniversary.

    PubMed

    Keder, Lisa M

    2011-01-01

    Oral contraceptive pills were first approved by the Food and Drug Administration 50 years ago. Discovery of the physiology of reproduction and demonstration of the ability to inhibit ovulation with ovarian extracts laid the early groundwork for the development of contraceptives. Later, characterization of the hormones controlling ovulation and synthesis of progestins allowed production of oral contraceptives. Modern estrogen and progestin pills have undergone significant changes since their initial introduction. New formulations have been developed, doses have been lowered, and extended use introduced. The Food and Drug Administration has recently approved a new oral contraceptive containing estradiol valerate and dienogest. This pill contains an orally active estradiol in combination with a progestin with strong endometrial activity. The decreasing estrogen dose combined with an increasing progestin dose decreases the risk of break through bleeding when compared to previous estradiol valerate formulations. The contraceptive efficacy and a tolerability of this new pill are similar to currently marketed low dose combined estrogen-progestin oral contraceptives.

  7. Oral Contraceptives and Increased Formation of Soluble Fibrin

    PubMed Central

    Pilgeram, L. O.; Ellison, J.; Bussche, G. Von Dem

    1974-01-01

    Soluble fibrin was measured weekly for two months in 12 normal women and in 12 women on combined oestrogen-progestogen therapy (Ortho-Novin, Norinyl, Enavid, Ovral, Ovulen, Demulen). Plasma soluble fibrin concentration in women on oral contraceptives showed an increase of 97·2% (P <0·001) above that of normal women. In three cases, where each woman on the oral contraceptive served as her own control, stopping medication led to a return to normal of the plasma content of soluble fibrin. PMID:4414937

  8. Oral contraception for women of middle age.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Xiangyan; Mueck, Alfred O

    2015-11-01

    Women at middle age have decreased fertility and their pregnancies are higher risk. Combined oral contraceptives (COC) are effective but confer increased risk of age-related diseases, especially cardiovascular diseases. These risks are lower, however, with progestogen-only pills (POP). Therefore, other than the levonorgestrel intrauterine device (LNG-IUD), POP are usually the first choice, even though they do often lead to bleeding problems, which are already frequent in the perimenopause. However, the main risk of COC, venous thromboembolism, seems not to be relevant in (non-hospitalized) Chinese women and perhaps also other Asian women. COC may therefore be in fact a better choice than POP for these groups. In contrast to POP and IUDs, they have a variety of benefits especially important for middle-aged women, including a large decrease of the risk of ovarian, endometrial and colorectal cancer, an improvement in bleeding irregularities, a reduction of climacteric symptoms and some protection against bone loss. Further research is needed into individualized and safe contraception that takes into account ethnicity, as well as other factors.

  9. Effect of vitamin B6 on the side effects of a low-dose combined oral contraceptive.

    PubMed

    Villegas-Salas, E; Ponce de León, R; Juárez-Perez, M A; Grubb, G S

    1997-04-01

    Analogous to recommendations for treatment of side effects of early pregnancy and premenstrual syndrome, use of vitamin B6 has been recommended for the treatment of side effects of oral contraceptive (OC) use. A randomized, triple-blinded controlled trial of 124 women was done to evaluate the effect of taking 150 mg of vitamin B6 daily for 30 days on the severity of nausea, headache, vomiting, dizziness, depression, and irritability associated with the initiation of low-dose (30 micrograms norgestrel and 30 micrograms ethinyl estradiol) OG use. The severity of the symptoms was measured on a scale from 0 to 3 (not present to severe), and was evaluated at one month after admission. The two treatment groups (vitamin B, and placebo) had comparable baseline characteristics. From admission to follow up, there was a decrease in the severity of all symptoms in both groups. There was no statistically significant difference in the reductions found in the vitamin B6 and the placebo groups, although reductions in the severity of headache and dizziness were greater in the B6 group. The decrease in the severity of all OC side effects can be explained more by a placebo effect than by a marginal pharmacological effect of the vitamin B6.

  10. Semaglutide, a once-weekly human GLP-1 analog, does not reduce the bioavailability of the combined oral contraceptive, ethinylestradiol/levonorgestrel.

    PubMed

    Kapitza, Christoph; Nosek, Leszek; Jensen, Lene; Hartvig, Helle; Jensen, Christine B; Flint, Anne

    2015-05-01

    The effect of semaglutide, a once-weekly human glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analog in development for type 2 diabetes (T2D), on the bioavailability of a combined oral contraceptive was investigated. Postmenopausal women with T2D (n = 43) on diet/exercise ± metformin received ethinylestradiol (0.03 mg)/levonorgestrel (0.15 mg) once daily for 8 days before (semaglutide-free) and during (steady-state 1.0 mg) semaglutide treatment (subcutaneous once weekly; dose escalation: 0.25 mg 4 weeks; 0.5 mg 4 weeks; 1.0 mg 5 weeks). Bioequivalence of oral contraceptives was established if 90%CI for the ratio of pharmacokinetic parameters during semaglutide steady-state and semaglutide-free periods was within prespecified limits (0.80-1.25). The bioequivalence criterion was met for ethinylestradiol area under the curve (AUC0-24 h ) for semaglutide steady-state/semaglutide-free; 1.11 (1.06-1.15). AUC0-24 h was 20% higher for levonorgestrel at semaglutide steady-state vs. semaglutide-free (1.20 [1.15-1.26]). Cmax was within bioequivalence criterion for both contraceptives. Reductions (mean ± SD) in HbA1c (-1.1 ± 0.6%) and weight (-4.3 ± 3.1 kg) were observed. Semaglutide pharmacokinetics were compatible with once-weekly dosing; the semaglutide dose and dose-escalation regimen were well tolerated. Adverse events, mainly gastrointestinal, were mild to moderate in severity. Asymptomatic increases in mean amylase and lipase were observed. Three subjects had elevated alanine aminotransferase levels ≥3x the upper limit of normal during semaglutide/oral contraceptive coadministration, which were reported as adverse events, but resolved during follow-up. Semaglutide did not reduce the bioavailability of ethinylestradiol and levonorgestrel. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  11. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis associated with a combined contraceptive ring.

    PubMed

    Fugate, Jennifer E; Robinson, Maisha T; Rabinstein, Alejandro A; Wijdicks, Eelco F M

    2011-03-01

    Combined contraceptive vaginal rings are used as an alternative to oral contraceptives with a purported advantage of allowing lower hormonal doses, and thus potentially confer a lower venous thromboembolism risk. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) has not been previously described in association with use of a combined contraceptive ring. A 32-year-old white woman presented with severe headache progressively worsening over days and subsequently developed acute left sided hemiplegia and sensory loss. Brain imaging revealed acute right parietal cortical infarction and extensive CVST. Evaluation for primary thrombophilia was unrevealing. The sole hypercoagulable risk factor identified was use of a vaginal contraceptive ring. The patient was anticoagulated and demonstrated marked clinical improvement. We report the first described case of CVST associated with use of a vaginal contraceptive ring. CVST should be recognized as a potentially fatal complication related to this therapy.

  12. Venous and arterial thrombosis during oral contraceptive use: risks and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Tanis, Bea C; Rosendaal, Frits R

    2003-02-01

    Since the introduction of oral contraceptives, their use has been associated with an increased risk of both venous and arterial thrombosis. Pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction, and stroke are serious disorders with a considerable risk of mortality. Because worldwide over 100 million women use oral contraceptives, issues of drug safety are of great importance. The risk of venous thrombosis during low-dose oral contraceptive use is three- to sixfold increased compared with that of nonusers. The association is not only attributed to the estrogen component of the pill: the risk is twice as high for desogestrel and gestodene (third generation) containing oral contraceptives as for levonorgestrel (second generation) containing oral contraceptives. The risk of venous thrombosis is highest in the first year of use and in women with genetic or acquired risk factors for thrombosis. Both venous or arterial thrombosis are unrelated to duration of use or past use of combined oral contraceptives. The risk of myocardial infarction and stroke during low-dose oral contraceptive use is two- to fivefold increased relative to that of nonusers. The risk of arterial thrombosis induced by oral contraceptive use is more pronounced in smokers and women with hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia. All types of thrombosis have strongly age-dependent incidences, and therefore in absolute figures the risks and effects of risk factors increase with age. The lowering of the estrogen dose in combined oral contraceptives from 50 microg to 20-30 microg in the last decade did not clearly reduce the risk of venous thrombosis, myocardial infarction, stroke, or peripheral arterial disease. For stroke and peripheral arterial disease no difference in risk was found between second and third generation oral contraceptives. For myocardial infarction study results are conflicting, and a small benefit of third- over second-generation oral contraceptives cannot be ruled out. However, this is

  13. [Oral contraception and circulatory risks].

    PubMed

    Wingrave, S J

    1984-10-01

    The longterm prospective study of health effects of oral contraceptives (OCs) conducted by the Royal College of General Practitioners compared 23,000 OC users with 23,000 controls matched for age and marital status. As of 1981, 55 deaths attributable to circulatory problems had occurred in ever-users of OCs, ciompared to 10 in controls, giving a relative risk of 4.2 for OC users. No relation was found between duration of use and mortality risk among users, although mortality risks were greater at all durations of use than for nonusers. Parity was related to mortality risk among users but not among controls. The most significant factors affecting the relation between pill use and circulatory risk were age and smoking. Among users who smoked, the risk ratios were 3.4 for those aged 25-34, 4.2 for those aged 35-44, 7.4 for those aged 45 and over, and 5.1 for the entire group. Among nonsmoking pill users, the ratios were 1.6 for those aged 25-34, 3.3 for those aged 35-44, 4.6 for those 45 and over, and 3.2 for the total sample. Among smokers, the rates of excess deaths were 1 in 10,000 for users aged 15-34, 1 in 2000 for those aged 35-44, and 1 in550 for those aged 45 and over. Among nonsmokers, the rates were 1 in 50,000 users for those aged 25-34, 1 in 6700 for those aged 35-44, and 1 in 2500 for those aged 45 and over. The majority of deaths were attributed to ischemic cardiac problems and to sub-arachnoid hemorrhages, and risks appeared to be elevated in former as well as current users. The total incidence of circulatory effects in former users appears to be elevated only for cerebrovascular disorders, but the suggestion of residual effects requires further study before conclusions can be drawn. Smokers who developed cardiovascular or cerebrovascular problems were at 2-3 times greater risk of dying than were other women. The percentages of fatal cases of ischemic heart and cerebrovascular diseases were 22.8% among ever-users who smoked, 10.9% among controls who

  14. Low dose oestrogen combined oral contraception and risk of pulmonary embolism, stroke, and myocardial infarction in five million French women: cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Dalichampt, Marie; Raguideau, Fanny; Ricordeau, Philippe; Blotière, Pierre-Olivier; Rudant, Jérémie; Alla, François; Zureik, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the risk of pulmonary embolism, ischaemic stroke, and myocardial infarction associated with combined oral contraceptives according to dose of oestrogen (ethinylestradiol) and progestogen. Design Observational cohort study. Setting Data from the French national health insurance database linked with data from the French national hospital discharge database. Participants 4 945 088 women aged 15-49 years, living in France, with at least one reimbursement for oral contraceptives and no previous hospital admission for cancer, pulmonary embolism, ischaemic stroke, or myocardial infarction, between July 2010 and September 2012. Main outcome measures Relative and absolute risks of first pulmonary embolism, ischaemic stroke, and myocardial infarction. Results The cohort generated 5 443 916 women years of oral contraceptive use, and 3253 events were observed: 1800 pulmonary embolisms (33 per 100 000 women years), 1046 ischaemic strokes (19 per 100 000 women years), and 407 myocardial infarctions (7 per 100 000 women years). After adjustment for progestogen and risk factors, the relative risks for women using low dose oestrogen (20 µg v 30-40 µg) were 0.75 (95% confidence interval 0.67 to 0.85) for pulmonary embolism, 0.82 (0.70 to 0.96) for ischaemic stroke, and 0.56 (0.39 to 0.79) for myocardial infarction. After adjustment for oestrogen dose and risk factors, desogestrel and gestodene were associated with statistically significantly higher relative risks for pulmonary embolism (2.16, 1.93 to 2.41 and 1.63, 1.34 to 1.97, respectively) compared with levonorgestrel. Levonorgestrel combined with 20 µg oestrogen was associated with a statistically significantly lower risk than levonorgestrel with 30-40 µg oestrogen for each of the three serious adverse events. Conclusions For the same dose of oestrogen, desogestrel and gestodene were associated with statistically significantly higher risks of pulmonary embolism but not arterial

  15. An Oral Contraceptive Drug Interaction Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradstreet, Thomas E.; Panebianco, Deborah L.

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on a two treatment, two period, two treatment sequence crossover drug interaction study of a new drug and a standard oral contraceptive therapy. Both normal theory and distribution-free statistical analyses are provided along with a notable amount of graphical insight into the dataset. For one of the variables, the decision on…

  16. An Oral Contraceptive Drug Interaction Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradstreet, Thomas E.; Panebianco, Deborah L.

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on a two treatment, two period, two treatment sequence crossover drug interaction study of a new drug and a standard oral contraceptive therapy. Both normal theory and distribution-free statistical analyses are provided along with a notable amount of graphical insight into the dataset. For one of the variables, the decision on…

  17. A multicentre, open-label, randomised phase III study comparing a new levonorgestrel intrauterine contraceptive system (LNG-IUS 8) with combined oral contraception in young women of reproductive age.

    PubMed

    Borgatta, Lynn; Buhling, Kai J; Rybowski, Sarah; Roth, Katrin; Rosen, Kimberly

    2016-10-01

    To compare user satisfaction and adverse events (AEs) with a levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS 8; average levonorgestrel release rate approximately 8 μg/24 h over the first year [total content 13.5 mg]) and a 30 μg ethinyl estradiol/3 mg drospirenone (EE/DRSP) combined oral contraceptive (COC) in a population of young women. Nulliparous and parous women (aged 18-29 years) with regular menstrual cycles (21-35 days) were randomised to LNG-IUS 8 or EE/DRSP for 18 months. The primary endpoint was the overall user satisfaction rate at month 18/end of study visit. Overall, 279 women were randomised to LNG-IUS 8 with attempted placement and 281 women were randomised to EE/DRSP and took ≥1 pill; the mean age was 23.7 and 23.9 years, and 77.4% and 73.3% were nulliparous, respectively. At month 18/end of study, 82.1% and 81.9% of women, respectively, reported being 'very satisfied' or 'satisfied' with their treatment; however, significantly more LNG-IUS 8 users reported a preference to continue their treatment post-study (66.2% vs 48.8%; p = 0.0001). There were two pregnancies (one ectopic pregnancy, one spontaneous abortion) reported in the LNG-IUS 8 group and six (three live births, two spontaneous abortions, one induced abortion) in the EE/DRSP group. LNG-IUS 8 and EE/DRSP were associated with similarly high user satisfaction rates. However, LNG-IUS 8 users were significantly more likely to prefer to continue their contraceptive method post-study, indicating that a levonorgestrel intrauterine system is an appealing contraceptive option for young women.

  18. Oral contraceptives and the prothrombin time.

    PubMed

    Pangrazzi, J; Roncaglioni, M C; Donati, M B

    1980-02-02

    Dr. De Teresa and others reported that mean prothrombin time ratio of 12 patients on long-term anticoagulation with warfarin was significantly higher when they were also taking oral contraceptives (OCs). A study of prothrombin complex activity was recently conducted in female rats treated with an estrogen-progestogen combination (lynestrenol 5 mg; mestranol 0.3 mg/kg body weight) which resulted in a 100% infertility in this species. After 1 treatment for only 1 estral cycle, OC-treated rats had a significantly longer Normotest clotting time (37.7+ or-0.5 sec) than control rats (31.0+or-0.4); the difference was even more notable after 10 cycles. Although this finding has not been reported in women on OCs, it may be that the estrogen-induced "lability" of the prothrombin complex occurs in humans only in special conditions, such as anticoagulation. Alternatively, liver dysfunction occurring among women on OCs may be responsible for reduced metabolism of warfarin, contributing to the effectiveness of the anticoagulation. Further pharmacology studies should be done to clarify the interaction between OCs and oral anticoagulants.

  19. [Myocardial infarction associated with oral contraceptive use, smoking and elevated cholesterol level in a young patient].

    PubMed

    Krasznai, Zsuzsa; Tóth, Péter

    2011-09-04

    Oral hormonal contraceptives are the safest methods for young patients to avoid unwanted pregnancy. They are well accepted and have certain beneficial effects; however, physicians should pay attention to risk factors even when applied in young age. Obesity, dyslipidemia, smoking and oral contraceptive pills alone or in combination may lead to serious adverse events. Authors present a young woman who developed acute myocardial infarction in association with several unconsidered risk factors including the use of contraceptive pills.

  20. Oral contraceptives and vitamins: a review.

    PubMed

    Larsson-Cohn, U

    1975-01-01

    The literature concerning the influence of estrogen-containing oral contraceptives on vitamins is reviewed. The appearance of an elevated plasma concentration of vitamin A is probably without clinical importance, while there seems to be a clear connection between disturbances of vitamin B6 metabolism and mental symptoms. Low levels of folic acid and vitamin B12 have also been noted. Despite this, it is very rare that hematologic abnormalities develop during hormonal contraception. A reduced concentration of vitamin C in plasma and blood corpuscles has been reported. The clinical significance of these alterations is unknown.

  1. Low dosage progestagen as an oral contraceptive: a clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Whyte, J. C.; Pooransingh, C. S.

    1973-01-01

    A low dose of an oral progestagen (norethindrone 0.35 mg. daily) was used as a contraceptive agent in a group of 70 women. The average period of use was 16.7 months; it was over two years in 21 subjects. Eight patients withdrew from the trial because of excessive or irregular bleeding. The incidence of side effects was lower than with the combined type of contraceptive preparations. Of the six pregnancies that occurred, only two could be attributed to failure of the method. PMID:4730201

  2. Oral contraceptive pills: considerations for the adolescent patient.

    PubMed

    Cromwell, P F; Daley, A M

    2000-01-01

    Combined oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) are the most commonly prescribed method of birth control for adolescents. This article presents an overview of OCP pharmacology and summarizes the different types of OCPs. The initial patient evaluation and subsequent care are described, with a focus on management plans specific to adolescents. Emergency contraception, an alternative use of OCPs, is described as well. A thorough knowledge of OCPs and an appreciation of adolescent-specific management plans will enhance nurse practitioners' skills in preventing pregnancy in their adolescent patients.

  3. Do oral contraceptives increase epileptic seizures?

    PubMed

    Reddy, Doodipala Samba

    2017-02-01

    Hormonal contraceptives are used by over 100 million people worldwide. Recently, there has been an emerging interest in studying the potential impact of oral contraceptives (OCs) on certain neurological conditions. It has been suspected for some time that hormonal birth control increases seizure activity in women with epilepsy, but there is little supportive data. Areas covered: Literature from PubMed and online sources was analyzed with respect to hormonal contraception and epilepsy or seizures. New evidence indicates that OCs can cause an increase in seizures in women with epilepsy. The epilepsy birth control registry, which surveyed women with epilepsy, found that those using hormonal contraceptives self-reported 4.5 times more seizures than those that did not use such contraceptives. A preclinical study confirmed these outcomes wherein epileptic animals given ethinyl estradiol, the primary component of OCs, had more frequent seizures that are more likely to be resistant. Expert commentary: OC pills may increase seizures in women with epilepsy and such refractory seizures are more likely to cause neuronal damage in the brain. Thus, women of child bearing age with epilepsy should consider using non-hormonal forms of birth control to avoid risks from OC pills. Additional research into the mechanisms and prospective clinical investigation are needed.

  4. Effect of oral and vaginal hormonal contraceptives on inflammatory blood biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Divani, Afshin A; Luo, Xianghua; Datta, Yvonne H; Flaherty, James D; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela

    2015-01-01

    The use of combined hormonal contraceptives has been reported to increase the level of C-reactive protein (CRP). We assessed the effect of hormonal contraceptive use on inflammatory cytokines including CRP, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, soluble tumor necrosis factor (sTNF), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and soluble CD40 ligand. We used 79 female subjects (19 to 30 years old) who were combined oral contraceptives users (n = 29), combined vaginal contraceptive users (n = 20), and nonusers (n = 30) with CRP values of ≤1 (n = 46) or ≥3 (n = 33). Information on medical history, physical activities, and dietary and sleeping habits were collected. Both oral and vaginal contraceptive users had higher levels of CRP (P < 0.0001), compared to nonusers. Only oral contraceptive users exhibited elevated sCD40L (P < 0.01). When comparing the groups with CRP ≤ 1 and CRP ≥ 3, levels of IL-6 and sTNF-RI were positively correlated with CRP among oral contraceptive users. We did not observe the same elevation for other inflammatory biomarkers for the CRP ≥ 3 group among vaginal contraceptive users. The clear cause of elevation in CRP level due to the use of different hormonal contraceptive formulations and methods is not well understood. Longitudinal studies with larger sample size are required to better assess the true cause of CRP elevation among hormonal contraceptive users.

  5. Effect of Oral and Vaginal Hormonal Contraceptives on Inflammatory Blood Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Divani, Afshin A.; Luo, Xianghua; Datta, Yvonne H.; Flaherty, James D.; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela

    2015-01-01

    The use of combined hormonal contraceptives has been reported to increase the level of C-reactive protein (CRP). We assessed the effect of hormonal contraceptive use on inflammatory cytokines including CRP, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, soluble tumor necrosis factor (sTNF), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and soluble CD40 ligand. We used 79 female subjects (19 to 30 years old) who were combined oral contraceptives users (n = 29), combined vaginal contraceptive users (n = 20), and nonusers (n = 30) with CRP values of ≤1 (n = 46) or ≥3 (n = 33). Information on medical history, physical activities, and dietary and sleeping habits were collected. Both oral and vaginal contraceptive users had higher levels of CRP (P < 0.0001), compared to nonusers. Only oral contraceptive users exhibited elevated sCD40L (P < 0.01). When comparing the groups with CRP ≤ 1 and CRP ≥ 3, levels of IL-6 and sTNF-RI were positively correlated with CRP among oral contraceptive users. We did not observe the same elevation for other inflammatory biomarkers for the CRP ≥ 3 group among vaginal contraceptive users. The clear cause of elevation in CRP level due to the use of different hormonal contraceptive formulations and methods is not well understood. Longitudinal studies with larger sample size are required to better assess the true cause of CRP elevation among hormonal contraceptive users. PMID:25861161

  6. [Emergency oral contraception policy: the Peruvian experience].

    PubMed

    Pretell-Zárate, Eduardo A

    2013-07-01

    Emergency oral contraception is part of the sexual and reproductive rights of women. In 2001, this health policy was incorporated into the Rules of the National Family Planning Program of the Ministry of Health, primarily to prevent unwanted pregnancy and its serious consequences, induced abortion and the high associated maternal mortality rate, which are major public health problems. Scientific research has confirmed that the main mechanism of action of levonorgestrel, component of emergency oral contraception (EOC) is to inhibit or delay ovulation, preventing fertilization of the egg; additionally, it increases the thickening of the cervical mucus, making the sperm migration more difficult. No study has found endometrial abnormalities that may interfere with the implantation of the fertilized egg or embryo development of an implanted egg. However, despite the support of medical science and legal backing, the EOC is available only to users with economic resources, but its use has not been fully implemented in public sector services, due to obstacles created by groups opposed to contraception under claim of an alleged abortive effect that has already been ruled out scientifically. This article describes the administrative experience and legal confrontations between groups of power that prevent the proper implementation of an emergency contraception policy in Peru.

  7. [Emotional changes under oral contraceptives].

    PubMed

    Prill, H J; Heister, R

    1971-02-05

    278 women on the pill were investigated by means of a questionnaire concerning emotional instability associated with the therapy. The majority reported emotional changes, although 90% did not consider these changes to interfere significantly in their lives. The chief complaints were emotional instability (40.3%), increased need for sleep (39.5%), diminished personal drive (22%), moodiness (26.5%), increased appetite (33.2%), and decreased libido (34.7%). Emotional instability and lack of drive were found to increase with prolonged treatment, in contrast to the general assumption that side effects of the pill decrease or disappear after the 1st few cycles of treatment. The reported emotional symptoms could be due to increased activity of monoamino-oxidase; changes in the enzyme and steroid metabolism system may also play a role. For these patients preparations with low progesterone dosages, sequential treatments, or other contraceptive methods are recommended.

  8. Effects on hemostatic variables of desogestrel- and gestodene-containing oral contraceptives in comparison with levonorgestrel-containing oral contraceptives: a review.

    PubMed

    Winkler, U H

    1998-09-01

    In some studies third-generation oral contraceptives have been reported to be associated with a higher risk of venous thromboembolism than are second-generation oral contraceptives, whereas recent, more refined studies have not confirmed this. The reasons for the alleged differences are under discussion, and differential effects on hemostasis have been proposed. Eighteen studies comparing second- and third-generation oral contraceptives with respect to their effects on hemostasis were analyzed. Significant changes from baseline were reported for many variables with both second- and third-generation oral contraceptives without significant between-group differences. Also, in a combined analysis of nonsignificant changes, no consistent pattern of change emerged for any marker, with the exception of higher factor VII levels associated with third-generation oral contraceptives. However, factor VII is not related to venous thromboembolism risk. In addition, 1 cross-sectional study with an unvalidated assay reported a higher ratio of activated protein C sensitivity with third-generation oral contraceptives. Only 2 components of the hemostatic system (factor VII and activated protein C sensitivity ratio) emerged as potentially differentially affected by second- and third-generation oral contraceptives; the association with venous thromboembolism risk is questionable in the former case and unknown in the latter.

  9. Pancreatitis, multiple infarcts and oral contraception

    PubMed Central

    Foster, M. E.; Powell, D. E. B.

    1975-01-01

    The fact that oral contraceptives may predispose to thrombosis is not disputed, although its frequency is still debated. Any reliable assessment of the prevalence of this complication must in the main depend on careful statistical studies of well controlled groups, because the isolated case may well be coincidental when conditions such as coronary thrombosis, cerebral thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism are not extreme rarities in adult women. However, occasionally the clinical and pathological findings are so striking that they afford compelling evidence. The patient to be described presented with clinical features of pancreatitis that did not initially suggest an association with oral contraception. A hitherto undescribed state of multiple infarcts was found at post-mortem. This also illustrates the way in which the official figures for thrombotic complications can be underestimated. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:1197171

  10. Loss of oral contraceptive efficacy by concurrent antibiotic administration.

    PubMed

    Zachariasen, R D

    1994-01-01

    There are approximately 10 million women in the United States who are currently taking oral contraceptives on a daily basis. Although the actual number is not known, it is also estimated that a large number of these same women are on concomitant drug therapy. In recent years there have been a number of published reports linking a loss of contraceptive efficacy with the concurrent administration of other drugs, including antibiotics. Whereas the actual risk of drug interaction between antibiotics and oral contraceptives is yet unknown, it is important that women who are on oral contraceptive therapy be aware of possible contraceptive failure. This article reviews the published incidence of oral contraceptive/antibiotic interaction, along with a discussion of the possible mechanisms by which this interaction occurs. Recommendations are also presented for the health management of women taking oral contraceptives and other prescribed drugs.

  11. Erythema nodosum and oral contraceptive therapy.

    PubMed

    Winkelman, R K

    1978-04-03

    A generalized erythema nodosum developed in a 17 year old girl receiving oral contraceptive therapy, which was immediately discontinued. The erythema failed to respond to tetracycline, potassium iodide or prednisone therapy (partially successful), and recurred 6 times, usually just before menstruation. The recommended therapy is bed rest, salicylates and 10 cm roller elastic bandages. No medication can help in the face of unrestricted physical activity.

  12. Efficacy and safety of metformin or oral contraceptives, or both in polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Young-Mo; Choi, Eun Joo

    2015-01-01

    Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrinopathy that affects approximately 10% of reproductive-aged women throughout their lives. Women with PCOS present with heterogeneous symptoms including ovulatory dysfunction, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries. Therefore, lifelong individualized management should be considered. Pharmacological agents commonly used to manage the symptoms are metformin and oral contraceptive pills. Although these medications have been beneficial in treating PCOS symptoms, their efficacy and safety are still not entirely elucidated. This study aimed to report the efficacy and safety of metformin, oral contraceptives, or their combination in the treatment of PCOS and to define their specific individual roles. Methods A literature search of original studies published in PubMed and Scopus was conducted to identify studies comparing metformin with oral contraceptives or evaluating the combination of both in PCOS. Results Eight clinical trials involving 313 patients were examined in the review. The intervention dosage of metformin ranged from 1,000 to 2,000 mg/d and that of oral contraceptives was ethinylestradiol 35 µg and cyproterone acetate 2 mg. Lower body mass index was observed with regimens including metformin, but increased body mass index was observed in monotherapy with oral contraceptives. Administration of metformin or oral contraceptives, especially as monotherapy, had a negative effect on lipid profiles. In addition, there are still uncertainties surrounding the effects of metformin or oral contraceptives in the management of insulin level, although they improved total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin levels. In the included studies, significant side effects due to metformin or oral contraceptives were not reported. Conclusion The clinical trials suggest that metformin or oral contraceptives are at least patient convenient, efficacious, and safe for the treatment of PCOS. However, well

  13. Communication about Contraception and Knowledge of Oral Contraceptives amongst Norwegian High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Thomas; Skjeldestad, Finn Egil

    2003-01-01

    Examines communication about contraception and specific knowledge of oral contraceptives (OCs) in a sample of Norwegian high school students. More females than males discussed contraception at least monthly. Discussions were predominantly held with peers and not adults. Females were far more knowledgeable about OCs than males. The most significant…

  14. Communication about Contraception and Knowledge of Oral Contraceptives amongst Norwegian High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Thomas; Skjeldestad, Finn Egil

    2003-01-01

    Examines communication about contraception and specific knowledge of oral contraceptives (OCs) in a sample of Norwegian high school students. More females than males discussed contraception at least monthly. Discussions were predominantly held with peers and not adults. Females were far more knowledgeable about OCs than males. The most significant…

  15. Does structured counselling influence combined hormonal contraceptive choice?

    PubMed Central

    Merckx, Mireille; Donders, Gilbert G; Grandjean, Pascale; Van de Sande, Tine; Weyers, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of structured counselling on women's contraceptive decisions and to evaluate gynaecologists’ perceptions of comprehensive contraceptive counselling. Methods Belgian women (18–40 years old) who were considering using a combined hormonal contraceptive (CHC) were counselled by their gynaecologists about available CHCs (combined oral contraceptive [COC], transdermal patch, vaginal ring), using a comprehensive leaflet. Patients and gynaecologists completed questionnaires that gathered information on the woman's pre- and post-counselling contraceptive choice, her perceptions, and the reasons behind her post-counselling decision. Results The gynaecologists (N = 121) enrolled 1801 eligible women. Nearly all women (94%) were able to choose a method after counselling (53%, 5%, and 27% chose the COC, the patch, and the ring, respectively). Counselling made many women (39%) select a different method: patch use increased from 3% to 5% (p < 0.0001); ring use tripled (from 9% to 27%, p < 0.0001). Women who were undecided before counselling most often opted for the method their gynaecologist recommended, irrespective of counselling. Conclusion Counselling allows most women to select a contraceptive method; a sizeable proportion of them decide on a method different from the one they initially had in mind. Gynaecologists’ preferences influenced the contraceptive choices of women who were initially undecided regarding the method to use. PMID:22066890

  16. Bleeding pattern and cycle control with estetrol-containing combined oral contraceptives: results from a phase II, randomised, dose-finding study (FIESTA).

    PubMed

    Apter, Dan; Zimmerman, Yvette; Beekman, Louise; Mawet, Marie; Maillard, Catherine; Foidart, Jean-Michel; Coelingh Bennink, Herjan J T

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to assess vaginal bleeding patterns and cycle control of oral contraceptives containing estetrol (E4) combined with either drospirenone (DRSP) or levonorgestrel (LNG). An open-label, multicentre, randomised, dose-finding study lasting six cycles in healthy women aged 18-35 years was used. Four treatments (15 mg or 20 mg E4, combined with either 3 mg DRSP or 150 mcg LNG) were administered in a 24/4-day regimen. A marketed dosing regimen of estradiol valerate with dienogest (E2V/DNG) served as reference since it contains (like E4) a natural oestrogen. A total of 396 women were randomised, of whom 389 received study medication, and 316 completed the study. By cycle 6, the frequencies of unscheduled bleeding and/or spotting and absence of withdrawal bleeding were the lowest in the 15 mg E4/DRSP group (33.8% and 3.5%, respectively). In the E2V/DNG reference group, these frequencies were 47.8% and 27.1%, respectively. By cycle 6, the frequency of women with absence of withdrawal bleeding was <20% for all E4 treatment groups: 3.5-3.8% combined with DRSP and 14.0-18.5% combined with LNG. By cycle 6, unscheduled intracyclic bleeding was reported by <20% of women in the 20 mg E4/LNG group (18.9%) and in the 15 mg E4/DRSP group (16.9%). This study showed that, of the four treatment modalities investigated, the 15 mg E4/DRSP combination has the most favourable bleeding pattern and cycle control. Due to its favourable bleeding pattern and cycle control, the 15 mg E4/DRSP combination is the preferred combination for further phase III clinical development. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [The risk of breast cervical, endometrial and ovarian cancer in oral contraceptive users].

    PubMed

    Veljković, Milena; Veljković, Slavimir

    2010-01-01

    Oral contraceptives, mainly combined monophasic pills, are widely used by young women who expect their physicians to prescribe them safe drugs which will not harm their health and which will simplify their life. Numerous epidemiologic studies have been performed to determine the relation between oral contraceptive use and the development of neoplasms. An increased incidence of breast cancer has occurred simultaneously with the growing use of oral contraceptives. The possibility of a link between the oral contraceptive use and breast cancer has led to intensive research, but studies have provided inconsistent results causing confusion among clinicians. It was noticed that the risk of breast cancer was slightly elevated in current and recent young oral contraceptives users. That finding could be influenced by a detection bias or could be due to the biologic effect of the pills. The absolute number of additional breast cancer cases will be very small because of low baseline incidence of the disease in young women. Oral contraceptives probably promote growth of the already existing cancer, they are probably promoters not initiators of breast cancer. The available data do not provide a conclusive answer that is needed. Numerous factors may influence the development of cervical cancer. The evidence suggests that current and recent oral contraceptive users have an increased risk of cervical cancer which decline after discontinuation of the application of medication. Oral contraceptives might increase the biological vulnerability of the cervix. Cervical cancer develops slowly over a long time period and can be effectivelv prevented by periodic cervical screening. Fortunately, oral contraceptives do not mask abnormal cervical citology. Conclusions regarding invasive cervical cancer and oral contraceptive use are not definitive but if there is any increased risk, it is low. In oral contraceptive users the endometrium is almost under the influence of progestin component which

  18. [Headache and oral contraceptives (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Farias Da Silva, W; Benicio, G

    1978-01-01

    175 patients using oral contraceptives (OCs) for periods from 2 months-6 years were studied. A survey was made of the secondary effects of the treatment. Among the total group, 101 of them had not presented headache before the use of contraceptives, and the remaining 75 patients had previously complained of chronic headaches which were considered due to different etiologies. 50 patients from the group without previous headache claimed that OC treatment marked the initiation of the headaches. 25 had vascular headaches and 25 had tension headaches. Among the 75 patients included in the other group as complainers of chronic headache prior to treatment, 30 had a worsening of the symptoms after use of the OCs. The authors compare their results with those referred to in the literature. (author's)

  19. Effects of Administration of Fostamatinib on Blood Concentrations of an Oral Contraceptive in Healthy Female Subjects

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-02-17

    Scientific Terminology Rheumatoid Arthritis, Healthy Female Volunteers, Pharmacokinetics, Oral Contraceptive, Drug-drug Interaction; Laymen Terminology Level of Oral Contraceptive in Blood, Oral Contraceptive, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Drug -Drug Interaction

  20. Activity of the pituitary-ovarian axis in the pill-free interval during use of low-dose combined oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    van Heusden, A M; Fauser, B C

    1999-04-01

    This study was performed to evaluate pituitary-ovarian recovery in the pill-free interval during use of three low-dose combined oral contraceptives (COC). Either the estrogen component or the progestin component was comparable in the study groups, to evaluate their relative influence. Serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and estradiol (E2) levels were measured and follicle number and size estimated by transvaginal sonography daily during the 7-day pill-free interval in 44 healthy volunteers using three different low-dose oral contraceptives. Healthy volunteers were enrolled using 20 micrograms ethinyl estradiol (EE) + 75 micrograms gestodene (GSD) (Harmonet, Wyeth-Lederle; n = 15), 20 micrograms EE + 150 micrograms desogestrel (DSG) (Mercilon, Organon n = 17), or 30 micrograms EE + 150 micrograms DSG (Marvelon, Organon, n = 12) given according to the usual regimen of one tablet daily during 3 weeks and 1 week pill-free interval. No ovulations were observed. Pituitary hormones were not statistically significantly different at the beginning of the pill-free interval between the study groups. FSH concentrations were significantly higher at the end of the pill-free interval in the 30 micrograms EE group compared with both 20 micrograms EE groups (7.0 [0.6-12.4] IU/L vs 4.9 [1.4-6.1] IU/L and 4.5 [2.4-7.4] IU/L; p = 0.001). In both 20 micrograms EE groups, a single persistent follicle (24 and 28 mm) was present in one subject. Follicle diameters were statistically significantly smaller at the beginning and at the end of the pill-free period in the 30 micrograms EE group compared with both 20 micrograms EE study groups. Dominant follicles (defined as follicle diameter > or = 10 mm) were observed at the end of the pill-free interval in both 20 micrograms EE groups (in 27% and 18% of women, respectively) but not in the 30 micrograms EE group. Finally, the area-under-the-curve for E2 was statistically significantly lower in the 30 micrograms

  1. Stress, serotonergic function, and mood in users of oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Tuiten, A; Panhuysen, G; Koppeschaar, H; Fekkes, D; Pijl, H; Frölich, M; Krabbe, P; Everaerd, W

    1995-01-01

    The relationship between stress and changes in insulin levels, plasma ratio of tryptophan to other large neutral amino acids (LNAAs), mood, and food intake was investigated in women taking monophasic oral contraceptives containing progestagens. Subjects experiencing high levels of stress displayed significant decreases of insulin and tryptophan to other LNAAs ratios, before and after the consumption of a standard meal during the pill-free period as compared with the period of pill use. The decline of the tryptophan to other LNAAs ratio was accompanied by worsening of mood. In a control group of subjects experiencing low levels of stress there was no relationship between insulin and tryptophan to other LNAAs ratio, nor between tryptophan to other LNAAs ratio and mood. These results suggest that the combination of stress and alterations in sex hormones may be responsible for mood changes during the pill-free period in women taking oral contraceptives.

  2. Combined hormonal contraceptive (CHC) use among obese women and contraceptive effectiveness: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Dragoman, Monica V; Simmons, Katharine B; Paulen, Melissa E; Curtis, Kathryn M

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate from the literature whether combined hormonal contraception (CHC), including combined oral contraception pills (COCs), transdermal patch, vaginal ring or combined injectables, have different effectiveness or failure rates by body weight or body mass index (BMI). We searched PubMed and the Cochrane Library databases for all articles in all languages published between inception and February 2016, for evidence relevant to body weight or BMI, CHC use and contraceptive effectiveness. The quality of each individual study was assessed using the system for evaluating evidence developed by the United States Preventive Services Task Force. From 2874 articles, we identified 15 reports for inclusion, all of fair to poor quality. Fourteen studies measured the association of obesity status and contraceptive failure among COC users. Three fair quality and one poor quality study reported increased COC failure among a heterogeneous population of overweight and obese women compared with normal weight women, while eight fair quality and two poor quality studies did not find an association. Two fair quality studies reported on contraceptive transdermal patches. One pooled analysis described a higher proportion of pregnancies among women using the patch who weighed ≥90 kg; another secondary analysis suggested BMI>30 was associated with increased failure. No studies directly compared contraceptive effectiveness using the combined vaginal ring or combined injectable. Current available evidence addressing the risk of CHC failure in obese compared to normal weight women is limited to fair and poor quality studies. Studies of COCs show mixed results, though absolute differences in COC failure by body weight and BMI are small. Based on limited evidence, it appears that increasing body weight and BMI may contribute to decreasing contraceptive patch effectiveness. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. [Oral contraceptive pill and thrombotic risk: epidemiological studies].

    PubMed

    Fruzzetti, F; Perini, D; Spirito, N; Manca, R

    2012-12-01

    The venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a rare event during childbearing age and during the assumption of combined oral contraceptive. The absolute risk of VTE in users of combined oral contraceptives is 20-30 per 100000 women years. A number of case-control studies published in recent years have shown an apparent increase in the risk of VTE among users of oral contraceptives (OCs) containing desogestrel, gestodene, drospirenone and cyproterone, relative to the use of levonorgestrel. The data derived from these recent studies is of borderline statistical significance because any important factors are not considered to evaluate the real correlation between the assumption of OCs and risk of venous thromboembolism. Among the factors that should be considered, there are: EE dose, duration of use, coexistance of other risk factors of venous thromboembolism (age, BMI, familiarity, surgical interventions) and other prescription bias. The lack of these factors is likely to contribute to the increased risk of venous thromboembolism observed in users of third-generation OCs when compared to that in users of second-generation OCs. To date, because of the inadequacy of epidemiological studies, the data about the correlation between OCs and TVE, are not conclusive and it will be necessary to carry out other studies to clarify this debating point, definitively.

  4. Effects of a monophasic combined oral contraceptive containing nomegestrol acetate and 17β-oestradiol in comparison to one containing levonorgestrel and ethinylestradiol on markers of endocrine function

    PubMed Central

    Ågren, Ulla M; Anttilat, Marjatta; Mäenpää-Liukko, Kristiina; Rantala, Maija-Liisa; Rautiainen, Hilkka; Sommer, Werner F; Mommers, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To compare the effects of two monophasic combined oral contraceptives, containing either nomegestrol acetate/17β-oestradiol (NOMAC/E2) or levonorgestrel/ ethinylestradiol (LNG/EE) on endocrine function, androgens, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). Methods Randomised, open-label, multi-centre trial involving 121 healthy women, aged 18-50 years old. Participants received NOMAC/E2 (2.5 mg/1.5 mg) in a 24/4-day regimen (n = 60) or LNG/EE (150 μg/30 μg) in a 21/7-day regimen (n = 61) for six cycles. The primary outcome was the change from baseline to cycle 6 in markers of adrenal and thyroid function, androgens, and SHBG. Results Total cortisol, corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), and thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) increased from baseline in both groups, with significantly greater increases in the LNG/EE group. No relevant changes from baseline or differences between the groups were observed for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (T4). Androgens and androgen precursors decreased from baseline in both groups, with significantly greater decreases in the LNG/EE group (except for free testosterone). A greater increase in SHBG was observed with NOMAC/E2 than with LNG/EE. Conclusions NOMAC/E2 has significantly less influence on markers of adrenal and thyroid function and androgens than LNG/EE. The clinical relevance of these findings requires further study. PMID:21942708

  5. Effect of combined oral contraceptive use on serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels and ultrasound parameters in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Namli Kalem, Müberra; Hizli, Deniz; Kamalak, Zeynep; Kösüs, Aydin; Kösüs, Nermin; Turhan, Nilgün; Kafali, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    To investigate if there is an effect of combined oral contraceptive (COC) use on serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] levels in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). PCOS was defined by the 2003 Rotterdam criteria. All patients with PCOS were treated with a COC containing 0.035 mg ethinylestradiol and 2 mg cyproterone acetate for 6 months. Serum 25(OH)D levels, HOMA-IR, ovarian volume and antral follicule count were measured before and after the treatment. The median 25(OH)D levels were 9.40 (range 4.40-24.50) μg/l and 7.00 (5.00-13.50) μg/l before and after COC use, respectively. Serum 25(OH)D levels decreased after the treatment; however, the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.055). This study seems to be the first prospective trial revealing the effect of COC use on serum 25(OH)D levels in women with PCOS. Although the decrease in serum 25(OH)D levels in patients with PCOS with the use of COC alone, did not reach to statistically significance level after 6 months treatment with COC.

  6. Bone mineral density in a cohort of adolescents during use of norethisterone enanthate, depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate, or combined oral contraceptives and after discontinuation of norethisterone enanthate

    PubMed Central

    Beksinska, Mags E; Kleinschmidt, Immo; Smit, Jenni A; Farley, Timothy M M

    2013-01-01

    Background Depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), norethisterone enanthate (NET-EN) and combined oral contraceptives (COCs) have been shown to have a negative effect on bone mineral density (BMD) in adolescents. The aim of this study was to investigate BMD in 15-to 19-year-old new users of DMPA, NET-EN and COCs. Study Design This 5-year longitudinal study followed-up new users of DMPA (n=115), NET-EN (n=115), and COCs (n=116), and 144 nonuser controls. BMD was measured at the distal radius using dual x-ray absorptiometry. Results BMD increased in all groups (annual percent increase: nonusers, 1.49%; DMPA, 1.39%; NET-EN, 1.03%; COCs, 0.84%) during follow-up (p<0.001). There was evidence for lower BMD increases per annum in NET-EN (p=.050) and COC (p=.010) users compared to nonusers but no difference between DMPA and nonusers (p=.76). In 14 NET-EN discontinuers, an overall reduction of 0.61% per year BMD was followed upon cessation by an increase of 0.69% per year (p=.066). Conclusion This study suggests that BMD increases in adolescents may be less in NET-EN and COC users; however, recovery of BMD in NET-EN users was found in the small sample of adolescents followed post-discontinuation. PMID:19341845

  7. Use of and access to oral and injectable contraceptives in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Farias, Mareni Rocha; Leite, Silvana Nair; Tavares, Noemia Urruth Leão; Oliveira, Maria Auxiliadora; Arrais, Paulo Sergio Dourado; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Pizzol, Tatiane da Silva Dal; Luiza, Vera Lucia; Ramos, Luiz Roberto; Mengue, Sotero Serrate

    2016-01-01

    contraceptives from SUS. Monophasic combined oral contraceptives were the most frequently reported (71.6%) and low-level levonorgestrel + ethinylestradiol combination accounted for 38.7% of them. The most frequently reported medicines are included in the Relação Nacional de Medicamentos Essenciais (RENAME – National List of Essential Medicines. CONCLUSIONS Most women aged 15 to 49 who reported using contraceptives had access to the medicine and use monophasic combined oral contraceptives of appropriate efficiency and safety purchased by direct payment, mainly from retail pharmacies. PMID:27982384

  8. [Venous thromboembolic disease and oral contraceptives].

    PubMed

    Overgaard, K; Hauch, O; Lidegaard, O

    1986-09-08

    Ever since 1961, there has been discussion on possible thromboembolic effects from the use of oral contraceptives. The purpose of this Danish study was to determine if birth-control pill users did have an increased risk of venous thromboembolic disease (VTD), including deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. In previous research, morbidity from VTD has been found to show a great variance, as high as 1/330 woman years in 1 study to as low as 1/5,000 woman years in another. In these studies no significant difference was found between users and non-users of oral contraceptives. Only in 1 study was there found to be increased morbidity from VTD among pill users: 1/5,200 woman years, compared with 1/35,000 woman years for non-pill users. As a possible explanation of the pill's effect, several studies have demonstrated a rise in certain coagulation factors, increased fibrinogen and lowered antithrombin III. In the present study, medical records of all women aged 34 or under who had been referred to a Copenhagen hospital between 1981 and 1983 for treatment of phlebographic-or lungescintographic-confirmed VTD were investigated. After controlling for exclusion factors, there remained 35 test subjects between the ages of 16 and 34 (median age 22). Of the 22 cases of known etiology, 16 suffered from iatrogenic VTD. Of 13 women who suffered from VTD of unknown etiology, 69% were pill users, compared with only 29% (a significant difference) in a background-population interview study conducted in Denmark during 1983. With a known disposition to VTD, oral-contraceptive usage meant a relative risk of 0.9 for developing the disease, which figure conforms well with other cited research (in which the risk factor varied from 0.4 to 3.8).

  9. Patient counseling women using oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Dominguez, Celia E

    2007-06-01

    Oral contraceptives (OCs) are the most widely used form of reversible birth control in the United States. However, incorrect and/or inconsistent use may result in increased failure rates and unintended pregnancies, which present a significant cost burden to the health care system and HMOs. One of the best mechanisms to improve outcomes is through high-quality clinician-patient communication. Managed care organizations may benefit from encouraging their providers to counsel and educate patients on the proper use of OCs, as this may reduce unnecessary follow-up visits, lower the number of unintended pregnancies, and increase patient satisfaction with their health care.

  10. Effects of combined oral contraceptive ethinylestradiol (30 microg) and dienogest (2 mg) on carbohydrate metabolism during 1 year of conventional or extended-cycle use.

    PubMed

    Wiegratz, I; Stahlberg, S; Manthey, T; Sänger, N; Mittmann, K; Palombo-Kinne, E; Mellinger, U; Lange, E; Kuhl, H

    2010-05-01

    The effects of extended regimens of combined oral contraceptives (COCs) on carbohydrate metabolism are largely unknown. The present study compared the effects of a COC containing 30 microg ethinylestradiol and 2 mg dienogest (EE/DNG) in conventional and extended-cycle regimen over 1 year. Parameters of carbohydrate metabolism were measured in 59 women treated with EE/DNG either conventionally (13 cycles of 21+7 days) or in extended-cycle regimen (4 cycles of 84+7 days). Blood samples were taken in a control cycle, and at 3 and 12 months of treatment. The mean levels of HbA1c and fasting glucose levels remained stable in both conventional and extended-regimen of EE/DNG. The mean levels of fasting insulin and C-peptide underwent comparable increases in both regimens, suggesting a similar readjustment of glucose metabolism via slightly increased insulin secretion. For both regimens, the response to the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) showed a slightly impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance at 3 months. These changes improved or returned to baseline at 12 months. Accordingly, the mean index for insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, HOMA-IR) increased and the mean insulin sensitivity index [ISI (composite)] decreased modestly in both groups. The present study demonstrates that there are no statistically significant differences between the effects of conventional and extended-cycle treatment on carbohydrate metabolism over 1 year of treatment. In general, the effects of both regimens were moderate and mostly transient.

  11. Evaluation of smartphone oral contraceptive reminder applications.

    PubMed

    Gal, Noga; Zite, Nikki B; Wallace, Lorraine S

    2015-01-01

    Oral contraceptives (OCs) are the most widely used contraceptive method among women of reproductive age in the United States (US). Routine download and use of health-related smartphone applications (apps) continues to increase. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of English-language, smartphone-platform OC reminder apps currently available for download in the US. During June-July 2013, official Internet-based, mobile app platforms for the two major smartphone operating systems in the US-Android (Google Play Store) and iPhone (iTunes)-were searched. "Birth control," "the pill," and "contraception" were entered into the search-bar of each Smartphone store. Apps were assessed for the following: cost, health care professionals' involvement in app development, reminder mechanisms, and functionality. Of the 39 unique OC reminder apps meeting inclusion criteria, 7 (18%) did not operate as intended when downloaded. Most apps functioned without an Internet connection (97%) and included pop-up notifications (84%). Certain app features overcome common causes of missing an alarm, and hypothetically, may minimize likelihood of an OC user missing a daily pill. Health care providers should inform users of potential pitfalls and advise them that an OC reminder app should be not be used as a sole reminder method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Striae distensae of augmented breasts after oral contraceptive therapy.

    PubMed

    Har-Shai, Y; Barak, A; Taran, A; Weissman, A

    1999-02-01

    A case of striae distensae (SD) of bilateral augmented breasts following oral contraceptive therapy is presented. Striae maturation and the prevention of additional skin marks was achieved with immediate cessation of oral contraceptive pill therapy and long-term daily topical application of tretinoin cream. It is suggested that patients who are candidates for breast augmentation surgery should be informed of the possible risk of developing SD if they are taking or planning to take the contraceptive pill.

  13. Fibrin formation and dissolution in women receiving oral contraceptive drugs.

    PubMed

    Ball, A P; McKee, P A

    1977-04-01

    Factors affecting fibrin formation and dissolution were compared for 15 women taking combined oral contraceptives and 15 women using nonpharmacological methods of birth control. The two groups were matched for age, body weight, time of blood collection, and day in menstrual cycle; none of the women was receiving other drugs known to affect the blood coagulation or fibrinolytic parameters measured in this study. Fibrinogen concentrations tended to be higher in the experimental group; the degree of fibrinogen degradation, number of fibrin cross-links, and levels of factor XIII and plasminogen were the same for both group. There were significant reductions in antithrombin activity, the euglobulin lysis time, and fibrinolytic inhibitor level in women using oral contraceptives. An estrogen dose effect was suggested for fibrinogen concentration and the degree of antithrombin activity. The increased fibrinolytic activity and decreased fibrinolytic inhibitor levels are consistent with in vitro observations that antithrombin also inhibits plasmin activity. Thus while oral contraceptive-induced depression of antithrombin III could possibly predispose to thrombosis by diminishing the inhibition of the serine protease clotting factors, the concomitant decreased level of plasmin inhibition might balance the system by favoring thrombolysis as well as the digestion and inactivation of certain clotting factors by plasmin.

  14. [Lipids, lipoproteins, arterial accidents and oral contraceptives].

    PubMed

    Bakir, R; Hilliquin, P

    1986-01-01

    This work reviews lipoprotein metabolism and relationships to atherosclerosis, examines the nature of arterial accidents and lipid modifications that occur with oral contraceptive (OC) use, and assesses the practical consequences for OC prescription. Cholesterol, triglycerides, and phospholipids are not soluble in aqueous milieus, and their transport in plasma is provided by macromolecules comprising a protein part and a lipid part. 5 types of these lipoproteins are distinguished by their relative richness in lipids and protein and by the nature of their proteins. The chylomicrons carry exogenous triglycerides to the peripheral tissues and cholesterol of dietary origin to the liver. Very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol is secreted by the liver and transports triglycerides and cholesterol of endogenous origin. Low denisty lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol originates in the degradation of VLDL cholesterol and transports cholesterol to the cells. High density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol is secreted by the liver and intestines or formed in the course of degradation of chylomicrons and VLDL cholesterol. Its role is to carry excess cholesterol in the peripheral tissues to the liver for elimination in the bile. Cholesterol thus follows 2 different pathways in the body: a path from the liver to the peripheral cells, whose markers are LDL and VLDL cholesterol and the plasma apoprotein B, and a path of return of excess cholesterol from the tissues and especially the arteries to the liver, marked by HDL cholesterol and the plasma apoprotein A. Only a proper balance between the 2 flows can prevent an excess of cholesterol in the arteries and the consequent constitution of atherosclerotic lesions. LDL and to a lesser extent VLDL cholesterol are strongly and positively correlated to atherogenic risk, while HDL cholesterol is negatively correlated to risk, independently of other risk factors. Arterial accidents occurring with OC use do not seem to be atheromatous in

  15. Affective and Physical Changes Associated with Oral Contraceptive Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiener, Alane L.; And Others

    Although investigations of the physiological effects of oral contraceptives suggest that affective changes may accompany their use, empirical documentation of these effects has not been consistent. This study examined physiological and affective changes accompanying use of a low-dosage oral contraceptive while controlling for possible expectancy…

  16. Affective and Physical Changes Associated with Oral Contraceptive Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiener, Alane L.; And Others

    Although investigations of the physiological effects of oral contraceptives suggest that affective changes may accompany their use, empirical documentation of these effects has not been consistent. This study examined physiological and affective changes accompanying use of a low-dosage oral contraceptive while controlling for possible expectancy…

  17. Estrogen potency of oral contraceptive pills.

    PubMed

    Chihal, H J; Peppler, R D; Dickey, R P

    1975-01-01

    The estrogen potencies of 9 oral contraceptive pills, Enovid-E, Enovid-5, Ovulen, Demulen, Norinyl+80, Norinyl+50, Ovral, Norlestrin 1 mg. and Norlestrin 2.5 mg., were determined by bioassay. Relative estrogen potency was determined by analysis of variance. Enovid-5, the most estrogenic compound, had a potency of 4.88 compared to ethinyl estradiol, 50 mcg. equal 1.00; Ovral, the least estrogenic compound, had a potency of 0.81, a sixfold difference. Estrogen potencies at a fractional dose of 0.00155 correlate with reports of the incidence of minor side effects and thromboembolic disease. The effect of progestins on estrogen potency was purely additive (norgestrel and norethynodrel), purely antagonistic, or additive at low concentrations and antagonistic at high concentrations (norethindrone, norethindrone acetate, and ethynodiol diacetate). These results suggest that pills with a greater margin of safety might be developed by utilizing greater ratios of progestin to estrogen. In addition, differences in relative estrogen potency of oral contraceptive pills may be used as a basis for better clinical selection.

  18. [Oral contraception in 1983 (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Castadot, R G

    1982-11-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated new benefits of pill use, reduced risks associated with the minipill, and the possibility of screening out high risk women. The minipill is as effective as other formulations except in cases of chronic malnutrition or concomitant use of antibiotics or anticonvulsives. Oral contraceptives (OCs) frequently lessen menstrual problems. They prevent functional cysts in the ovaries, and reduce the incidence of benign breast tumors and the relative risk of developing ovarian cancer after 3 years of use. Combined OCs reduce the risk of endometrial cancer although sequentials increase it. OCs offer protection against salpingitis and other pelvic infections, against tubal pregnancies, and against chronic rheumatoid arthritis. Minipills appear to be less frequently associated with bothersome side effects than other OCs. The most significant risk of OCs is of death due to thrombo emboli of venous origin, myocardial ischemia, cerebrovascular accidents, and hypertension in women over 35, particularly those who smoke heavily. In 1981 the 2 British studies reported a reduced risk from these causes compared to results published in 1977. Estrogens are clearly responsible for some of the complications, apparently due to a weakening of the fibrinolytic systems, but progestagens or estrogen-progestagen combinations are also implicated. Arterial hypertension and cerebral and cardiac accidents appear to be due to the effect of progestagens on arterial tension, glucose metabolism, and the level of high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Risks of some liver diseases are elevated in pill users, but the question of tumors of the pituitary is not yet resolved. The incidence of uterine cancer appears to be elevated in pill users although the association is obscured by other factors. Some evidence exists of an association between estrogen-progestagen formulations and melanoma. No increase in abortion or fetal malformations except possibly an increase in twin

  19. Effects of a monophasic combined oral contraceptive containing nomegestrol acetate and 17β-oestradiol compared with one containing levonorgestrel and ethinylestradiol on haemostasis, lipids and carbohydrate metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Ågren, Ulla M; Anttilat, Marjatta; Mäenpää-Liukko, Kristiina; Rantala, Maija-Liisa; Rautiainen, Hilkka; Sommer, Werner F; Mommers, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To compare the effects of a combined oral contraceptive (COC) containing nomegestrol acetate and 17β-oestradiol (NOMAC/E2) on haemostasis, lipids, carbohydrate metabolism, C-reactive protein (CRP) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) with those of a COC containing levonorgestrel and ethinylestradiol (LNG/EE). Methods In a randomised, open-label study, 121 healthy women, 18-50 years of age, were randomly assigned to receive NOMAC/E2 (2.5 mg/1.5 mg) in a 24/4-day regimen (n = 60) or LNG/EE (150 μg/30 μg) in a 21/7-day regimen (n = 61) for six cycles. The primary outcome was the change from baseline to cycle 6 for all indices. Results All parameters were similar at baseline between the two groups. Over six cycles, NOMAC/E2 had less effect on most haemostatic indices than LNG/EE. Lipids were essentially unchanged with NOMAC/E2, whereas with LNG/EE high-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides slightly increased. NOMAC/E2 induced negligible changes in glucose and insulin parameters, in contrast to LNG/EE. A much smaller increase in CRP was observed with NOMAC/E2 than with LNG/EE. NOMAC/E2 was associated with a greater increase in SHBG. Conclusions The monophasic COC NOMAC/E2 had less influence on haemostasis, lipids and carbohydrate metabolism than the COC LNG/EE. PMID:22066891

  20. Oral contraceptive labeling disclosure of possible benefits.

    PubMed

    1982-02-17

    Oral contraceptive (OC) labeling disclosure of possible benefits from use of the products, was recommended by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Fertility and Maternal Health Drugs Advisory Committee at its February 11 meeting. Committee member Howard Orr, Centers for Disease Control, noting the emphasis on cautionary and warning statements contained in current OC labeling maintained: "Women should make informed decisions and this is the other half. The package insert must include the benefits information." The recommendation by the committee represents a shift in the approach to what constitutes proper labeling for OC products. Since first approved, the drugs have never carried a discussion of benefits on their labels. "A number of additional benefits from OCs--other than contraception--have emerged from the large number of studies recorded in the literature on OC use," Ron Nelson, White Memorial Medical Center, stated. "Studies cited a more regular and lighter menstrual flow, resulting in less blood loss and lower iron deficiency and anemia in contraceptive pill users, and dysmenorrhea and premenstrual tension have been sifnificantly reduced." "Ovarian cysts and pelvic inflammatory disease occurred less frequently in pill users than in controls," Nelson continued, "and the incidence of fibrocystic disease of the breast were less. There are some instances where OCs may incur protection against the development of ovarian cancer, endometrial cancer, and rheumatoid arthritis." Orr added: "I think there are 2 good studies that show almost a total elimination of ectopic pregnancy with women who took the pill. Given that now there's an epidemic of the disease going around, I think it's worth adding." The committee was asked by FDA last November to recommend changes in the current physician and patient OC labeling. FDA's Solomon Sobel, MD, Endocrine and Metabolic Drugs Division, told the committee that an agency subcommittee would review the recommendations

  1. Oral contraceptives, human papillomavirus and cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    La Vecchia, Carlo; Boccia, Stefania

    2014-03-01

    Oncogenic human papillomavirus is the key determinant of cervical cancer, but other risk factors interact with it to define individual risk. Among these, there is oral contraceptive (OC) use. A quantitative review of the link between OCs and cervical cancer was performed. Long-term (>5 year) current or recent OC use has been related to an about two-fold excess risk of cervical cancer. Such an excess risk, however, levels off after stopping use, and approaches unity 10 or more years after stopping. The public health implications of OC use for cervical cancer are limited. In any case, such implications are greater in middle-income and low-income countries, as well as in central and eastern Europe and Latin America, where cervical cancer screening and control remain inadequate.

  2. Compliance and oral contraceptives: a review.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, M J; Burnhill, M S; Waugh, M S; Grimes, D A; Hillard, P J

    1995-09-01

    Compliance difficulties are more common among oral contraceptive (OC) users than generally appreciated by clinicians, in part because unintended pregnancy is a relatively infrequent consequence and in part because more common manifestations such as spotting and bleeding may not be recognized as resulting from poor compliance. While improving compliance is a shared responsibility of patients, clinicians, and manufacturers, the clinician is the focal point for these efforts. Counseling must be individualized, which requires knowledge of factors that predict compliance and an understanding of the patient's decision-making process as it relates to medications. Most OC compliance research has focused on adolescents, where predictors of poor compliance include multiple sex partners, low evaluation of personal health, degree of concern about pregnancy, and previous abortion. Good compliance has been linked with patient satisfaction with the clinician, the absence of certain side effects, establishing a regular daily routine to take OCs, and reading information distributed with OC packaging.

  3. Oral contraceptive pills and clinical otosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Podoshin, L; Gertner, R; Fradis, M; Feiglin, H; Eibschitz, I; Sharf, M; Reiter, A

    1978-01-01

    Clinical otosclerosis is a familial disease which is more frequent among women in their reproductive years. The condition usuallly is aggravated by pregnancy. Endocrinologic variables may influence the time of onset and the course of the disease. It is suspected that oral contraceptives (OCs) might stimulate the onset of the disease. Six hundred nulliparous women between the ages of 16 and 30, who used a variety of OCs for 12-36 months, were examined. The hearing of these women was thoroughly investigated. The first audiometric examination of the 600 women revealed three cases (0.5%) of clinical otosclerosis. This incidence is equal to that of the population as a whole, but lower than the incidence found in previously parous women. Audiometric examinations were normal in the remaining 597 women, and repeated examinations revealed no new cases of clinical otosclerosis, despite continuous OC use.

  4. Comparative study on the acceptability of two modern monophasic oral contraceptive preparations: 30 microgram ethinyl estradiol combined with 150 microgram desogestrel or 75 microgram gestodene.

    PubMed

    Zichella, L; Sbrignadello, C; Tomassini, A; Di Lieto, A; Montoneri, C; Zarbo, G; Mancone, M; Pietrobattista, P; Bertoli, G; Perrone, G

    1999-01-01

    Cycle control and tolerability of two monophasic oral contraceptive pills containing 30 microg ethinyl estradiol (EE) with either 150 microg desogestrel (DSG) or 75 microg gestodene (GSD) were compared in women starting oral contraception. A minimum of 200 healthy women at risk for pregnancy were to be treated for a total of 6 cycles per patient in a prospective, randomized open parallel-group multicenter trial. Two hundred and forty-one subjects were randomized, 115 to DSG/EE and 126 to GSD/EE. Compliance to the study preparation was high (around 95%) in both groups and no pregnancies occurred during the study. Cycle control was excellent; there were no differences between the two groups with regard to incidence of spotting and breakthrough bleeding or duration and intensity of withdrawal bleeding. Side-effects were mild and in general comparable in the two groups. Both at baseline and during treatment, a higher proportion of women taking GSD/EE complained about breast tenderness. This resulted in more early withdrawals because of breast tenderness in the GSD/EE group. It was concluded that monophasic DSG/EE and GSD/EE are equally effective, have similar cycle control and both are generally well tolerated.

  5. Unique effects on hepatic function, lipid metabolism, bone and growth endocrine parameters of estetrol in combined oral contraceptives

    PubMed Central

    Mawet, Marie; Maillard, Catherine; Klipping, Christine; Zimmerman, Yvette; Foidart, Jean-Michel; Coelingh Bennink, Herjan J.T.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Estetrol (E4) is a natural estrogen produced by the human fetal liver. In combination with drospirenone (DRSP) or levonorgestrel (LNG), E4 blocks ovulation and has less effect on haemostatic biomarkers in comparison with ethinylestradiol (EE) combined with DRSP. This study evaluates the impact of several doses of E4/DRSP and E4/LNG on safety parameters such as liver function, lipid metabolism, bone markers and growth endocrine parameters. Methods This was a dose-finding, single-centre, controlled study performed in healthy women aged 18 to 35 years with a documented pretreatment ovulatory cycle. Participants received 5 mg or 10 mg E4/3 mg DRSP; 5 mg, 10 mg or 20 mg E4/150 μg LNG; or 20 μg EE/3 mg DRSP as a comparator for three consecutive cycles in a 24/4-day regimen. Changes from baseline to end of treatment in liver parameters, lipid metabolism, bone markers and growth endocrinology were evaluated. Results A total of 109 women were included in the study. Carrier proteins were minimally affected in the E4/DRSP and E4/LNG groups, in comparison with the EE/DRSP group, where a significant increase in sex hormone-binding globulin was observed. Similarly, minor effects on lipoproteins were observed in the E4 groups, and the effects on triglycerides elicited by the E4 groups were significantly lower than those in the EE/DRSP group. No imbalances in bone markers were observed in any groups. No alterations in insulin-like growth factor were observed in the E4 groups. Conclusions E4-containing combinations have a limited effect on liver function, lipid metabolism, and bone and growth endocrine parameters. Chinese Abstract 摘要 目的 雌四醇(E4)是来源于人胎儿肝脏的天然雌激素。雌四醇与屈螺酮(DRSP)或左炔诺孕酮(LNG)配伍的复方口服避孕药制剂,能够抑制排卵,同时相较于炔雌醇(EE)与屈螺酮配伍制剂,它对凝血功能的各项指标影响较小。本研究的目的是为了评估不同

  6. Cancer of the breast and reproductive tract in relation to use of oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Schlesselman, J J

    1989-07-01

    Effects of oral contraception on cancers of the female breast and reproductive tract are critically reviewed from human studies reported since 1980. The cumulative risk of breast cancer through 59 years of age appears to bear no relationship to oral contraceptive (OC) use whatsoever. Studies restricted to women under age 45, however, raise concern about a possible adverse effect from OC use before a first-term pregnancy. A duration-related protective effect against endometrial cancer occurs from use of combined OCs. The risk is reduced by about 40% with 2 years of use, and by about 60% with 4 or more years of oral contraception. Oral contraception in excess of 3 years protects against ovarian cancer. Four years of use confers a 50% reduction in risk and 7 or more years of use confers a 60%-80% reduction in ovarian cancer risk. Studies of cervical dysplasia and carcinoma in situ suggest elevated risks with 2 or more years of OC use, although results are difficult to interpret in view of numerous factors that might distort the findings. The risk of invasive cervical cancer appear to be unaffected by up to 5 years of oral contraception. Beyond this, there is evidence suggesting an elevated risk which approaches a 2-fold increase at 10 years of use. Cancers of the vagina and fallopian tube are extremely rare. Their risks have yet to be characterized in relation to oral contraception.

  7. Gestodene: a review of its pharmacology, potency and tolerability in combined contraceptive preparations.

    PubMed

    Stanczyk, Frank Z; Archer, David F

    2014-04-01

    Combined progestin-estrogen pills are an established and reliable contraceptive option used by women worldwide. Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) containing the progestins--gestodene, desogestrel or norgestimate--were developed to minimize androgenic side effects and are considered an effective, well-tolerated contraceptive option. Gestodene achieves contraceptive efficacy with the lowest dose of any progestin in a COC, and has an established and favorable short- and long-term tolerability profile. In this review we present an overview of the pharmacology, potency and tolerability of gestodene.

  8. Oral contraceptives and the risk of thrombosis and atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Barton, Matthias; Dubey, Raghvendra K; Traupe, Tobias

    2002-03-01

    Oral contraceptives containing synthetic oestrogens have been used successfully as birth control for > 40 years and are currently prescribed to > 100 million women worldwide. Several new progestins have been introduced and the third generation of progestins has now been available for two decades. Oral contraceptives are prescribed over a prolonged period of time and therefore substantially impact on hormonal, metabolic and plasmatic functions. Oral contraceptives increase the risk for venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, particularly if associated with confounding factors, such as genetic predisposition, smoking, hypertension or obesity. The risk of developing coronary artery disease is also increased in users with cardiovascular risk factors. This article discusses mechanistic and clinical issues and reviews the need for novel approaches targeting the considerable side effects in order to reduce cardiovascular morbidity in women using oral contraceptives.

  9. Oral Contraception: A Survey of College Women's Concerns and Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Robin G.; Beck, Kenneth H.

    1989-01-01

    Results are reported from a study which examined attitudes, experiences, and concerns of college women (N=237) regarding oral contraception. Implications of the findings for health educators are discussed. (IAH)

  10. Megaloblastic anemia in a vegetarian taking oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Green, J D

    1975-02-01

    A case is reported of megaloblastic anemia resulting from folate deficiency in a vegetarian who had been taking oral contraceptives for eight years. A brief report of the pertinent literature is included,

  11. [Oral contraceptives: recent safety studies (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Edgren, R A

    1983-09-01

    Considerable research evidence now exists to suggest that the risks of oral contraceptive (OC) use were seriously overestimated in earlier work. Because experimentation in medicine is never possible in the rigorous sense in which it is employed in basic sciences, other sources of information must be substituted. Information on the dangers of OC use has come from anecdotal reports, retrospective case control studies, prospective cohort studies, and statistical analyses of deaths, each source being associated with specific problems of interpretation. Recent findings of the Royal College of General Practitioners, the Walnut Creek Study, and the Oxford Study have suggested a lowered incidence of malignant neoplasms in OC than in IUD or diaphragm users; a reduced incidence of breast cancer although the relationship did not consistently achieve statistical significance, and a reduced incidence of ovarian and endometrial cancer. The risks of cervical cancer among OC users appeared slightly higher but disappeared when sexual behavior was controlled. Despite much concern with the possibility of postpill amenorrhea and perhaps sterility among women discontinuing OC use, it now appears that after 2 years there is no difference in the fertility of women who have discontinued use of OCs, IUDs, or diaphragms. Use of OCs as a contraceptive before pregnancy does not appear to be associated with fetal malformations, spontaneous abortion, or perinatal mortality, and the inadvertent use of OCs in early pregnancy is apparently associated with only a very slight risk of anomalies. Recent studies of cardiovascular disease risks indicate that the relative risks of cardiovascular disease among OC users have been greatly exaggerated, especially when smoking is taken into account. Various studies of mortality data have failed to establish a link between OC use and excess mortality from cardiovascular disease.

  12. Combined oral contraceptives plus spironolactone compared with metformin in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a one-year randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Alpañés, Macarena; Álvarez-Blasco, Francisco; Fernández-Durán, Elena; Luque-Ramírez, Manuel; Escobar-Morreale, Héctor F

    2017-11-01

    We aimed to compare a combined oral contraceptive (COC) plus the antiandrogen spironolactone with the insulin sensitizer metformin in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We conducted a randomized, parallel, open-label, clinical trial comparing COC (30 μg of ethinylestradiol and 150 μg of desogestrel) plus spironolactone (100 mg/day) with metformin (850 mg b.i.d.) for one year in women with PCOS (EudraCT2008-004531-38). The composite primary outcome included efficacy (amelioration of hirsutism, androgen excess and menstrual dysfunction) and cardiometabolic safety (changes in the frequencies of disorders of glucose tolerance, dyslipidemia and hypertension). A complete anthropometric, biochemical, hormonal and metabolic evaluation was conducted every three months and data were submitted to intention-to-treat analyses. Twenty-four patients were assigned to COC plus spironolactone and 22 patients to metformin. Compared with metformin, COC plus spironolactone caused larger decreases in hirsutism score (mean difference 4.6 points, 95% CI: 2.6-6.7), total testosterone (1.1 nmol/L, 0.4-1.7), free testosterone (25 pmol/L, 12-39), androstenedione (5.5 nmol/L, 1.8-9.2) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (2.7 μmol/L, 1.4-4.0). Menstrual dysfunction was less frequent with COC plus spironolactone (OR: 0.06, 95% CI: 0.02-0.23). No differences were found in frequencies of abnormal glucose tolerance (OR: 1.7, 95% CI: 0.7-4.4), dyslipidemia (OR: 0.6, 95% CI: 0.2-1.8) or hypertension (OR: 0.3, 95% CI: 0.5-2.0). No major adverse events occurred and biochemical markers were similarly safe with both treatments. COC plus spironolactone was more effective than metformin for symptoms of PCOS showing similar safety and overall neutral effects on cardiometabolic risk factors. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  13. A systematic review of cost-effectiveness analysis of screening interventions for assessing the risk of venous thromboembolism in women considering combined oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Ademi, Zanfina; Sutherland, C Simone; Van Stiphout, Joris; Michaud, Jöelle; Tanackovic, Goranka; Schwenkglenks, Matthias

    2017-09-16

    Use of combined oral contraceptives (COCs) by women increases the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), which can have a major impact on an individuals' quality of life. VTE is also associated with an increase in healthcare costs. Our aim was to systematically review cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) considering any screening for risk of VTE in women using COCs. The quality of reporting in each study was assessed, a summary of results was prepared, and the key drivers of cost effectiveness in each of the eligible CEAs were identified. A search strategy using MeSH terms was performed in MEDLINE, Embase, the Centre for Review and Dissemination (CRD) database including the Economic Evaluation Database from the UK National Health Service, and Cochrane reviews. Two reviewers independently screened and determined the final articles, and a third reviewer resolved any discrepancies. Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards was used to assess the quality of reporting in terms of perspective, effectiveness measures, model structure, cost, time-horizon and discounting. Four publications (three from Europe, one from the United States) were eligible for inclusion in the review. According to current criteria, relevant elements were sometimes not captured and the sources of epidemiological and effectiveness data used in the CEAs were of limited quality. The studies varied in terms of type of costs assessed, country settings, model assumptions and uncertainty around input parameters. Key drivers of CEAs were sensitivity and specificity of the test, incidence rate of VTE, relative risk of prophylaxis, and costs of the test. The reviewed studies were too dissimilar to draw a firm conclusion on cost-effectiveness analysis about universal and selective screening in high-risk groups. The new emerging diagnostic tools for identifying women at risk of developing VTE, that are more predictive and less costly, highlight the need for more studies that apply the latest

  14. A history of oral contraception: from evolution to revolution.

    PubMed

    1995-09-01

    Women throughout the world and throughout time have ingested substances such as mercury, diluted copper ore, and various noxious solutions in the mistaken belief that these substances would prevent pregnancy. The era of modern contraception began in 1937 with the discovery that the administration of progesterone could halt ovulation in rabbits. During the next decade, work proceeded on finding an easy and less expensive way to synthesize progesterone and to develop the synthetic estrogens mestranol and ethinyl estradiol. Initial trials in humans proved that these hormones could prevent ovulation. In 1950, with support from Margaret Sanger and Katharine Dexter McCormick, Gregory Goodwin Pincus developed the first oral contraceptive (OC), which consisted of supplemental progestin and 0.5 mg norethindrone. In the early 1990s, the Ortho Pharmaceutical Corporation introduced an OC that combined the synthetic progesterone norgestimate and 35 mcg of ethinyl estradiol. By 1988, several noncontracepting health benefits of the OC were recognized, including decreased rates of ovarian cancer, endometrial cancer, pelvic inflammatory disease, ovarian cysts, benign breast disease, iron deficiency anemia, and dysmenorrhea. These health benefits outweigh risks even in nonsmoking women over 40. In the US, 80% of women have used the OC at one time, and they are using this most popular form of reversible contraception longer than ever.

  15. Misconceptions about oral contraception pills among adolescents and physicians.

    PubMed

    Hamani, Y; Sciaki-Tamir, Y; Deri-Hasid, R; Miller-Pogrund, T; Milwidsky, A; Haimov-Kochman, R

    2007-12-01

    Limited access to contraception and poor compliance are the major reasons for unintended pregnancy in adolescence. This study was designed to compare knowledge of the combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP) in teenage users and non-users. We speculated that consultations between COCP users and their physicians would dispel misconceptions. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken in public clinics affiliated with an academic center. High school-educated female adolescents aged 14-20 years opting for contraception (n = 254) and Israeli physicians (n = 114) specializing in Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Endocrinology participated in the study. Information about past or present COCP use and views of the COCP were recorded by employing a ten-question YES/NO self-completion questionnaire, designed by the researchers. The prevalence of incorrect beliefs was exceedingly high in the whole adolescent study group and relatively high among the physicians. The prevalence of incorrect beliefs was comparable between COCP users and non-users, regarding the 10 misconceptions investigated. The duration of COCP use did not influence the prevalence of misconceptions about the pill. Age did not serve as a confounding factor for all misconceptions. Lack of informative communication between COCP-prescribing physicians and users and mistaken knowledge of the caring physicians may contribute to adolescent ignorance of the COCP. Focusing on adolescent-specific disbeliefs could lead to construction of better educational programs in schools and clinics.

  16. Menstrual nirvana: amenorrhea through the use of continuous oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Edelman, Alison

    2002-12-01

    Medically induced amenorrhea has been used successfully in women who have medical conditions that worsen during menstruation. Menstrual suppression through the use of continuous oral contraceptives has been proven to be safe, effective, and extremely acceptable to women. Women without medical indications for menstrual suppression may find medically induced amenorrhea to be a significant improvement in their quality of life. Greater satisfaction with use of oral contraception may encourage compliance and increase the prevalence of pill-related health benefits.

  17. Oral contraceptive risks: a realistic appraisal.

    PubMed

    Bressler, R; Durand, J L

    1979-10-01

    Reports regarding the question of whether oral contraceptive (OC) use enhances the risk of cancer or one of several serious cardiovascular disorders, i.e., thromboembolic disease, stroke, and myocardial infarction are reviewed. In 1974 the Royal College of General Practitioners (RCGP) issued an interim report of a large prospective study involving 46,000 women. The study found a 5-fold increase in the risk of deep venous thrombosis among women taking OCs. Laboratory studies have tried to establish a direct causal relationship between OC use and altered hemostatis. In review of these studies, Bingel and Benoit reported an increased incidence of thromboembolism in OC users with blood group A. Other hemostatic alterations in OC users were also noted. Other investigators have examined the effect of OCs on antithrombin 3. In 1 study, the inhibitory activity of antithrombin 3 on factor X was significantly reduced among 57 women using the combined OCs, but there was no substantial difference in the quantity of antithrombin 3 in these women as compared with 48 women in the control group. In 1 retrospective case control study of 60 surgical patients with complications of pulmonary embolism or venous thrombosis, the risk of postoperative thromboembolism was 6.7 times greater in OC users than in 97 well matched surgical controls. The RCGP study showed that the risk of cerebrovascular disease in women using OCs was 4 times greater than in nonusers. This finding was substantiated by the Boston-based Collaborative Group for the Study of Stroke in Young Women, which observed a 2-fold increase in risk for all types of stroke among OC users. Several studies have demonstrated that serum lipids are higher in women who use OCs than in those who do not, with estrogen being implicated as the cause of the elevation. Other studies have attempted to link serum lipid elevations to myocardial infarction, but the association is unclear. Both epidemiological and laboratory studies have

  18. Comparison of serum and cervical mucus hormone levels during hormone-free interval of 24/4 vs. 21/7 combined oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Fels, Heather; Steward, Rachel; Melamed, Alexander; Granat, Anna; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Mishell, Daniel R

    2013-06-01

    This study analyzes levels of progesterone, estradiol, norethindrone (NET) and ethinyl estradiol (EE) in serum and levels of NET in cervical mucus on the last day of the hormone-free interval (HFI) in users of 24/4 [norethindrone acetate (NETA)/EE-24] vs. 21/7 (NETA/EE-21) regimens. This was a randomized controlled, crossover, equivalency trial. Subjects were randomized to receive NETA/EE-24 or NETA/EE-21 for 2 months and then switched between study drugs. Blood and cervical mucus samples were obtained on Days 12-16 and on the last day of the HFI. From April 2010 to November 2011, 32 subjects were enrolled with 18 subjects completing all study visits. There were no statistically significant differences in either day 12-16 (p=.54) or last hormone-free day (p=.33) cervical mucus NET concentrations between the regimens. On the last day of the HFI, median serum progesterone levels did not differ significantly; however, users of NETA/EE-24 had higher levels of serum NET (p<.001) and users of NETA/EE-21 had higher levels of serum estradiol (p=.01). This data supports the fact that inhibition of the pituitary-ovarian axis occurs during oral contraceptive use and during the HFI. We demonstrated that a reduced HFI of 4 days resulted in better suppression of the ovarian hormone production, thereby reducing the risk of ovulation and potential contraceptive failure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Oral contraceptives and antibiotics: important considerations for dental practice.

    PubMed

    Gibson, J; McGowan, D A

    This paper considers the possible interactions between oral contraceptive pills and antibiotics, in the context of modern dental practice. A review of the literature on such interactions leads to the conclusion that current national guidelines on the use of alternative contraceptive measures during a course of broad spectrum antibiotics in women also using the oral contraceptive pill should be emphasised and encouraged as part of good clinical practice. A patient information leaflet may be considered as a useful way of presenting such advice to female patients.

  20. The identification, selection and use of oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Flowers, C E; Griffith, S F

    1975-01-01

    Facts about oral contraceptives and their use are provided for the practcing generalist and specialist. Identification of oral contraceptives is given in chart form including company, name, contents, pill color, number in pack and special markings. Section 2 entitled "facts that may be helpful in prescribing or changing the prescription of oral contraceptives" includes potency of progestins and estrogens and symptoms indicating excessive or deficient progestin and estrogen activity. Contraindications such as migraine headaches, epilepsy, hepatic disease, renal disease and hypertension are among the reasons for obtaining a complete family history prior to prescription of oral contraceptives. This information provides the basis for choice of contraception tailored to the individual. A 100 pound 17 year old with a normal menstrual history and with adequate estrogen production would be safest with a medication low in estrogen and progestin. An older heavier woman with prolonged menstruation and cramps would require a pill which is potent in progestins since these are excellent for causing endometrium regression and vascular reduction. Length of time on oral c ontraceptives depends upon the patient's general health. If responding well to contraceptives the patient should continue to use them because 1) the body is programmed for lengthy periods of ovulation suppression; 2) the patient becomes accustomed to infertility and 3) too many unplanned pregnancies occur during rest intervals. Complaints of nausea, migraine headaches, change in libido, chloasma or thrombophlebitis determine the termination of the drug.

  1. [Oral contraception and induced depressive states].

    PubMed

    Richou, H; Hug, R

    1974-06-01

    Cultural, psychological, and biochemical explanations for depression in users of oral contraceptives are discussed. The suppression of taboos against sexuality cannot be expected to bring about instant psychological adjustment, as shown by the large numbers of women who are afraid to take the pill or who develop psychosomatic disorders and depression. Incidence of depression as reported in the literature ranges from 5% to 45%. Some authors attribute psychogenic causes for depression associated with the pill, such as temporary castration, instant sexual liberation, or womens' undeniable maternal instinct. Others present evidence for biochemical causes of depression. General explanations for pill-related depression include imbalance of hypothalamic amines and consequently of releasing factor, prolactin-inhibiting factor, decreased brain serotonin due to inhibition of tryptophan hydroxylase by progestagens, or diminished brain biogenic amines because of lowered pyridoxal levels. From clinical work with neuroleptic drugs it is known that drugs, stress, or anxiety can disturb the biochemical balance and result in amenorrhea. High progestin levels may be responsible for premenstrual anxiety and headaches.

  2. 21 CFR 310.501 - Patient package inserts for oral contraceptives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... comparing the effectiveness of oral contraceptives to other methods of contraception. (4) A boxed warning... indications in addition to contraception that are identified in the professional labeling for the drug...

  3. 21 CFR 310.501 - Patient package inserts for oral contraceptives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... comparing the effectiveness of oral contraceptives to other methods of contraception. (4) A boxed warning... indications in addition to contraception that are identified in the professional labeling for the drug...

  4. 21 CFR 310.501 - Patient package inserts for oral contraceptives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... comparing the effectiveness of oral contraceptives to other methods of contraception. (4) A boxed warning... indications in addition to contraception that are identified in the professional labeling for the drug...

  5. 21 CFR 310.501 - Patient package inserts for oral contraceptives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... comparing the effectiveness of oral contraceptives to other methods of contraception. (4) A boxed warning... indications in addition to contraception that are identified in the professional labeling for the drug...

  6. 21 CFR 310.501 - Patient package inserts for oral contraceptives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... comparing the effectiveness of oral contraceptives to other methods of contraception. (4) A boxed warning... indications in addition to contraception that are identified in the professional labeling for the drug...

  7. Oral Health and Oral Contraceptive - Is it a Shadow behind Broad Day Light? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Patthi, Basavaraj; Singla, Ashish; Gupta, Ritu; Dhama, Kuldeep; Niraj, Lav Kumar; Kumar, Jishnu Krishna; Prasad, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Oral contraceptives are one of the risk factors for gingival disease. Oral contraceptives can affect the proliferation of cell, growth and differentiation of tissues in the periodontium. Nowadays recent research has suggested that the newer generation oral contraceptives have less influence on gingival diseases. Aim The purpose of this study was to systematically review the effect of oral contraceptives on periodontium. Materials and Methods A literature review was performed; PubMed, PubMed Central and Cochrane Library, Embase, Google Scholar were searched from 1970 up to December 2015 to identify appropriate studies. Results Out of the total 94 titles appeared 13 articles fulfilled the criteria and were selected for the review. Two articles which were hand searched and one article which was through e-mail was also included. The hormones progesterone and estrogen have direct impact on immune system of the body and thus, affect the pattern and rate of collagen production in the gingiva. Furthermore, the review also shows that longer duration usage of oral contraceptive could lead to poorer oral hygiene status, gingival inflammation and increased susceptibility to periodontal disease. Conclusion There are relatively few studies evaluating the effect of oral contraceptives on periodontium. It was found that oral contraceptives have a marked effect on periodontium. The gingival changes after use of oral contraceptives are pronounced in the first few months and with the passage of time these changes get enhanced. PMID:28050520

  8. Use of Oral Contraceptives for Management of Acne Vulgaris: Practical Considerations in Real World Practice.

    PubMed

    Harper, Julie C

    2016-04-01

    Acne vulgaris may be effectively treated with combination oral contraceptive pills (COCs) in women. COCs may be useful in any woman with acne in the absence of known contraindications. When prescribing a COC to a woman who also desires contraception, the risks of the COC are compared with the risks associated with pregnancy. When prescribing a COC to a woman who does not desire contraception, the risks of the COC must be weighed against the risks associated with acne. COCs may take 3 cycles of use to show an effect in acne lesion count reductions.

  9. Contraception

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Sharon; Hansen, Lisa; Mann, Janice; Sevigny, Cathy; Wong, Thomas; Roache, Marlene

    2004-01-01

    Health Issue Contraception choices affect the long-term sexual health and fertility of women and men. Data from the 1998 Canadian Contraception Study and the 2000/2001 Canadian Community Health Survey were assessed for measures of contraceptive use and familiarity with various methods among Canadian women. Key Findings The oral contraceptive (OC) pill is the dominant method of contraception for Canadian women. Canadian women demonstrate high awareness of the benefits of condom use, but 75% are unaware of the female condom. Among youth, condom use drops as OC use increases. Contraception use in sexually active females aged 15–17 is fairly high, but use is inconsistent. Sexually active adolescent females report high awareness of emergency contraception but poor knowledge of the time frame within which it is most effective. Women aged 35–44 are more familiar with and likely to choose sterilization than younger women. There has also been a shift away from tubal ligation in favour of vasectomies. Data Gaps and Recommendations National data to guide policy and program development are limited. More data are needed on contraception use among males, and factors affecting accessibility, adherence and negotiation of choice. The importance of dual protection, and correct and consistent use of the chosen contraceptive method must be communicated to younger Canadians, as well as health care providers and educators. All women of reproductive age should be made aware of emergency contraception methods and increased efforts on sexual health promotion and education are required. Further research is essential to develop expanded contraceptive choices. PMID:15345088

  10. Estrogen-free oral hormonal contraception: benefits of the progestin-only pill.

    PubMed

    de Melo, Nilson Roberto

    2010-09-01

    Although combined oral contraceptives (COCs) are commonly used and highly effective in preventing pregnancy, they may not be suitable for some women. COC use is associated with increased rates of cardiovascular events and is not recommended in nonbreastfeeding women in the immediate postpartum period or in breastfeeding women during the initial 6 months of breastfeeding. Moreover, estrogen-related adverse effects, such as headache, are common. Estrogen-free progestin-only pills (POPs) are a valuable option in women who prefer to take an oral hormonal contraceptive, but are ineligible for, or choose not to use, COCs. Although some POPs have been associated with lower contraceptive effectiveness than COCs, the POP containing desogestrel has shown similar contraceptive effectiveness to COCs. The most commonly reported complaints in women using all POPs are bleeding problems. Counseling women interested in using POPs about the variable bleeding patterns associated with this method may improve compliance and acceptance.

  11. Treatment of acne with oral contraceptives: criteria for pill selection.

    PubMed

    Koulianos, G T

    2000-10-01

    Combination oral contraceptives (OCs) (those that contain estrogen and progestin) are widely used in the treatment of acne because they modify an excessively androgenic hormonal environment and can decrease lesions. Dermatologists' knowledge of the most appropriate OC may be hampered by an incomplete understanding of these agents, misleading promotion, and confusion surrounding the new generation of OCs. Despite reports attributing significance to the degree of androgenicity of the progestin components of OCs, in vitro and animal bioassays of androgenicity have little clinical relevance. Because all of today's low-dose combination OCs are estrogen dominant, they are equally beneficial in women with androgenic conditions such as acne. Use of the OC containing the lowest dose of each hormone, consistent with the patient's needs, can enhance compliance by preventing or limiting common early-cycle side effects (e.g., nausea/vomiting, breast tenderness, weight gain, headache), while providing acne improvement.

  12. Factors affecting the enterohepatic circulation of oral contraceptive steroids.

    PubMed

    Orme, M L; Back, D J

    1990-12-01

    Oral contraceptive steroids may undergo enterohepatic circulation, but it is relevant for only estrogens, because these compounds can be directly conjugated in the liver. Animal studies show convincing evidence of the importance of the enterohepatic circulation, but studies in humans are much less convincing. The importance of the route and the rate of metabolism of ethinyl estradiol are reviewed. Some antibiotics have been reported anecdotally to reduce the efficacy of oral contraceptive steroids, but controlled studies have not confirmed this observation. Although gut flora are altered by oral antibiotics, the blood levels of ethinyl estradiol are not reduced, and one antibiotic at least (cotrimoxazole) enhances the activity of ethinyl estradiol.

  13. Ovarian size and vascularization as assessed by three-dimensional grayscale and power Doppler ultrasound in asymptomatic women 20-39 years old using combined oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Jokubkiene, Ligita; Sladkevicius, Povilas; Valentin, Lil

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate ovarian volume, number and volume of antral follicles, and ovarian power Doppler vascular indices as assessed by three-dimensional (3D) transvaginal grayscale and power Doppler ultrasound in women using combined oral contraceptives (COC). Two hundred thirteen gynecologically asymptomatic women 20-39 years old using COC were examined with transvaginal 3D grayscale and power Doppler ultrasound on cycle day 4-8 (first cycle day is first day of withdrawal bleeding). We used a Voluson E8 ultrasound system with a 6-12-MHz transvaginal transducer. Ovarian volume, number and volume of antral follicles ≥2 mm, vascularization index (VI), flow index (FI) and vascularization flow index (VFI) were calculated using the virtual organ computer-aided analysis (VOCAL™) and sonography-based automated volume calculation (SonoAVC™) software. Results are described separately for women with follicles 2.0-10.0 mm and for those with at least one follicle >10.0 mm for two age groups: 20-29 years (n=166) and 30-39 years (n=47). Results are also compared between women on monophasic (n=151) and triphasic (n=59) COC, and between women using COC with older (n=110) and newer (n=100) progestins and different doses of estrogen. One hundred eighty-nine (89%) women had follicles 2.0-10.0 mm, and 24 (11%) had follicle(s) >10.0 mm. The proportion of women with follicle(s) >10.0 mm did not differ between women with different types of COC. In women with follicles 2.0-10.0 mm, the right ovary was larger (mean difference 0.5 cm(3) [95% confidence interval 0.22-0.82]) and contained more follicles (mean difference 1.5 [0.52-2.56]) than the left one in the age group 20-29 years. The same differences between the right and left ovary were seen in women 30-39 years old, but they were not statistically significant. In both ovaries, the number of antral follicles 2.0-10.0 mm [median (range)] was significantly higher in women 20-29 than in those 30-39 years old [11 (2

  14. Oral contraceptives and colorectal cancer risk: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, E; Vecchia, C La; Balducci, A; Chatenoud, L; Franceschi, S; Negri, E

    2001-01-01

    Several studies have suggested an inverse association between use of combined oral contraceptives (OC) and the risk of colorectal cancer and here we present a meta-analysis of published studies. Articles considered were epidemiological studies published as full papers in English up to June 2000 that included quantitative information on OC use. The pooled relative risks (RR) of colorectal cancer for ever OC use from the 8 case-control studies was 0.81 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.69–0.94), and the pooled estimate from the 4 cohort studies was 0.84 (95% CI: 0.72–0.97). The pooled estimate from all studies combined was 0.82 (95% CI: 0.74–0.92), without apparent heterogeneity. Duration of use was not associated with a decrease in risk, but there was some indication that the apparent protection was stronger for women who had used OCs more recently (RR = 0.46; 95% CI: 0.30–0.71). A better understanding of this potential relation may help informed choice of contraception. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11237397

  15. Intrauterine devices: an effective alternative to oral hormonal contraception.

    PubMed

    2009-06-01

    (1) Intrauterine devices (IUDs) are placed in the uterine cavity with the objective of providing long-term contraception, mainly by preventing fertilisation. The best-known IUDs contain copper, but there is also an IUD delivering levonorgestrel, a progestin; (2) How effective are these devices, and what are their adverse effects? To answer these questions, we analysed the literature using the standard Prescrire methodology; (3) T-shaped copper IUDs, with a copper surface area of 380 mm2 on 3 arms, and the levonorgestrel-releasing device, have similar contraceptive efficacy as combined oral contraceptives that are used correctly. In contrast, IUDs are more effective than oral contraception used incorrectly; (4) Among IUD users, there are on average about 6 pregnancies per 1000 woman-years. There is less experience with the levonorgestrel IUD which seems to be at least as effective as copper IUDs; (5) The rare intrauterine pregnancies that occur in women using an IUD generally end in miscarriage. About 25% of these pregnancies end in a live birth if the device is left in place, compared to about 90% if the device is removed; (6) Ectopic pregnancies are rarer in IUD users than in women who do not use contraception. However, about one in 20 pregnancies that occur in women using an IUD is ectopic; (7) The IUD is expelled in about 5% to 10% of cases within 5 years, and expulsion recurs in about 30% of these women; (8) Problems such as difficult insertion, pain, bleeding and syncope are reported in less than 1.5% of cases overall; (9) Uterine perforation during insertion is rare, occurring in 0.6 to 16 cases per 1000 insertions, regardless of the type of IUD. The risk of perforation is higher when the IUD is inserted less than 4 to 6 weeks after delivery or elective abortion; (10) During the first 3 months after insertion, the risk of pelvic infection is slightly higher than in the general population, especially in women with pre-existing asymptomatic Chlamydia

  16. Chlamydia trachomatis and oral contraceptive use: a quantitative review.

    PubMed Central

    Cottingham, J; Hunter, D

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--Chlamydia trachomatis is now recognised as a major sexually transmitted disease; oral contraceptive use is rapidly increasing particularly in developing countries. There are thus important public health implications of the many reports that isolation of C trachomatis is more frequent among users of oral contraceptives. The aim of this analysis was to assess the strength and consistency of this association by summarising published studies between 1972 and 1990. DESIGN--Studies identified were grouped according to whether they were prospective or case-control studies. Data were extracted and pooled estimates of the unadjusted odds ratios were made for all studies, as well as for sub-groups defined by an index of study quality, background prevalence of C trachomatis, and the contraceptive comparison being made. LOCATION--Studies in the analysis were mainly conducted in Europe and North America; the meta-analysis was done at the Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA. RESULTS--The pooled estimated unadjusted odds ratio for 29 case-control studies examined was 1.93 (95% CI, 1.77-2.11), indicating an almost twofold increased risk of chlamydial infection for oral contraceptive users. Neither study quality nor prevalence of C trachomatis modified this risk. When compared to the use of barrier contraceptives, however, the risk of infection for women using oral contraceptives increased to 2.91 (95% CI, 1.86-4.55). The pooled estimated protective effect of barrier methods in these studies was 0.34 (95% CI, 0.22-0.54). CONCLUSIONS--Cross-study comparisons of the relationship between oral contraceptive use and chlamydial infection are limited by the design and analysis of many component studies which did not control for confounding factors such as sexual behaviour and age. The almost twofold risk of increased chlamydial infection for oral contraceptive users, supported by the findings of two prospective studies, however, points to the importance of

  17. Colonic Crohn's disease and use of oral contraception.

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, J M; Cockel, R; Allan, R N; Hawker, P C; Dawson, J; Elias, E

    1984-01-01

    The prevalence of use of oral contraception before the onset of disease was established in 100 consecutive women attending follow up clinics for inflammatory bowel disease. A significant excess of women with Crohn's disease confined to the colon had taken oral contraceptives in the year before developing symptoms (10/16 (63%] compared with women with small-intestinal Crohn's disease (12/49 (24%); p less than 0.02) and women with ulcerative colitis (3/35 (9%); p less than 0.0005). When the patient groups were matched for age and year of onset of disease usage of oral contraception before the onset of disease was still more common among women with isolated colonic Crohn's disease (9/12, 75%) than among those with ulcerative colitis (2/12 (17%); p less than 0.02) and was also more common than would be expected from reported figures for oral contraception in England and Wales (31.4% of women aged under 41; p less than 0.005). A survey of current patient records showed that isolated colonic disease was at least twice as common among women with Crohn's disease (63/218, 29%) compared with men (25/181, 14%; p less than 0.001). These data support the suggestion made previously that oral contraceptives may predispose to a colitis that resembles colonic Crohn's disease. PMID:6421392

  18. Factors affecting the association of oral contraceptives and ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Cramer, D W; Hutchison, G B; Welch, W R; Scully, R E; Knapp, R C

    1982-10-21

    We investigated the relation between epithelial ovarian cancer and the use of oral contraceptives in a case-control study of 144 white women under the age of 60 who had ovarian cancer and 139 white women under 60 who were selected from the general population. We observed a decreased risk for ovarian cancer associated with the use of oral contraceptives in subjects 40 through 59 years of age at the time of the study. The relative risk, adjusted for parity, was 0.11, with 95 per cent confidence limits of 0.04 to 0.33. In contrast to the findings in older women, a decreased risk for ovarian cancer associated with oral-contraceptive use was not found in women under 40. In this group, the adjusted relative risk associated with any use of oral contraceptives was 1.98, with 95 per cent confidence limits of 0.74 to 5.27. The lowest risk for ovarian cancer associated with the use of oral contraceptives was observed in older parous subjects and in women who had discontinued use more than 10 years previously.

  19. An Ethinyl Estradiol-Levonorgestrel Containing Oral Contraceptive Does Not Alter Cytochrome P4502C9 In Vivo Activity

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Jacob; Maslen, Cheryl; Edelman, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Oral contraceptives have been in wide use for more than 50 years. Levonorgestrel, a commonly employed progestin component of combined oral contraceptives, was implicated in drug–drug interactions mediated via CYP2C9. Although in vitro studies refuted this interaction, there are no confirmatory in vivo studies. In the current study, we examined the phenotypic status of CYP2C9 using low-dose (125 mg) tolbutamide before and after oral contraceptive use in reproductive age women. Blood was collected 24 hours after the tolbutamide oral dose was administered, plasma was isolated, and tolbutamide concentration (C24) was measured using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. The natural logarithm of tolbutamide C24, a metric for CYP2C9 phenotype, was found to be equivalent (within 80%–125% equivalency boundaries) before and after oral contraceptive use. In conclusion, levonorgestrel-containing oral contraceptives, the most commonly used form of oral contraception, do not affect the status of the CYP2C9 enzyme. This suggests that it is safe to coadminister levonorgestrel-containing oral contraceptives and CYP2C9 substrates, which include a wide array of drugs. PMID:24368832

  20. An ethinyl estradiol-levonorgestrel containing oral contraceptive does not alter cytochrome P4502C9 in vivo activity.

    PubMed

    Cherala, Ganesh; Pearson, Jacob; Maslen, Cheryl; Edelman, Alison

    2014-03-01

    Oral contraceptives have been in wide use for more than 50 years. Levonorgestrel, a commonly employed progestin component of combined oral contraceptives, was implicated in drug-drug interactions mediated via CYP2C9. Although in vitro studies refuted this interaction, there are no confirmatory in vivo studies. In the current study, we examined the phenotypic status of CYP2C9 using low-dose (125 mg) tolbutamide before and after oral contraceptive use in reproductive age women. Blood was collected 24 hours after the tolbutamide oral dose was administered, plasma was isolated, and tolbutamide concentration (C24) was measured using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The natural logarithm of tolbutamide C24, a metric for CYP2C9 phenotype, was found to be equivalent (within 80%-125% equivalency boundaries) before and after oral contraceptive use. In conclusion, levonorgestrel-containing oral contraceptives, the most commonly used form of oral contraception, do not affect the status of the CYP2C9 enzyme. This suggests that it is safe to co-administer levonorgestrel-containing oral contraceptives and CYP2C9 substrates, which include a wide array of drugs.

  1. Effect of mavoglurant (AFQ056), a selective mGluR5 antagonist, on the pharmacokinetics of a combined oral contraceptive containing ethinyl estradiol and levonorgestrel in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Sivasubramanian, Rama; Chakraborty, Abhijit; Rouzade-Dominguez, Marie-Laure; Neelakantham, Srikanth; Jakab, Annamaria; Mensinga, Tjeert; Legangneux, Eric; Woessner, Ralph; Ufer, Mike

    2015-07-01

    To compare the pharmacokinetics (PKs) of a combination oral contraceptive (OC) when given alone or concomitantly with the selective metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 antagonist mavoglurant (AFQ056). This open-label, fixed-sequence, two-period study included 30 healthy female subjects aged 18-40 years. In period 1, a single oral dose of an OC containing 30 μg ethinyl estradiol (EE)/150 μg levonorgestrel (LNG) was administered alone. In period 2, the OC was administered with a clinically relevant multiple dose of mavoglurant 100 mg b.i.d. under steady-state conditions. Plasma concentrations of EE and LNG were measured up to 72 hours post administration, and the PK parameters Cmax and AUClast were estimated using noncompartmental methods. The geometric mean ratios of EE Cmax and AUClast obtained with and without mavoglurant were 0.97 (90% confidence interval (CI): 0.90-1.06) and 0.94 (90% CI: 0.86-1.03), respectively. The corresponding Cmax and AUClast for LNG were 0.81 (90% CI: 0.75-0.87) and 0.68 (90% CI: 0.63-0.73), respectively. In conclusion, EE PK was unchanged, whereas Cmax and AUClast of LNG were 19% and 32% lower, respectively, when given with mavoglurant Further investigation regarding the impact on contraceptive efficacy is warranted.

  2. Oral contraceptives as anti-androgenic treatment of acne.

    PubMed

    Lemay, André; Poulin, Yves

    2002-07-01

    Although acne is seldom associated with high serum levels of androgens, it has been shown that female acne patients have definite increases in ovarian and adrenal androgen levels when compared to appropriate controls. As shown in several pilot and in multiple open and comparative studies, oral contraceptives (OCs) are effective in causing a significant regression of mild to moderate acne. These results have been confirmed by multicentre randomized trials where low-dose OCs did not cause side effects different from those of the placebo-controlled group. The beneficial effect of OCs is related to a decrease in ovarian and adrenal androgen precursors; to an increase in sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), which limits free testosterone; and to a decrease in 3a-androstenediol glucuronide conjugate, the catabolite of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) formed in peripheral tissues. The estrogen-progestin combination containing cyproterone acetate (CPA) is particularly effective in treating acne, since this progestin also has a direct peripheral anti-androgenic action in blocking the androgen receptor. Only two open studies and one randomized study on small numbers of patients have reported some efficacy of spironolactone used alone or in combination with an OC in the treatment of acne. The new non-steroidal anti-androgens flutamide and finasteride are being evaluated for the treatment of hirsutism. Oral antibiotics are prescribed to patients with inflammatory lesions, where they are effective in decreasing the activity of microbes, the activity of microbial enzymes, and leukocyte chemotaxis. Concomitant intake of an OC and an antibiotic usually prescribed for acne does not impair the contraceptive efficacy of the OC. A second effective contraceptive method should be used whenever there would be decreased absorption or efficacy of the OC (digestive problems, breakthrough bleeding), lack of compliance and use of a type or dose of antibiotic different from that usually prescribed

  3. Combined oral contraceptive containing drospirenone does not modify 24-h ambulatory blood pressure but increases heart rate in healthy young women: prospective study.

    PubMed

    Cagnacci, Angelo; Ferrari, Serena; Napolitano, Antonella; Piacenti, Ilaria; Arangino, Serenella; Volpe, Annibale

    2013-09-01

    Hypertension is a primary cardiovascular risk factor. Oral contraceptives (OCs) may increase blood pressure and cardiovascular events. We evaluated whether an OC containing ethynylestradiol (EE) in association with the spironolactone-derived progestin drospirenone (DRSP) influences 24-h ambulatory blood pressure of normotensive women. Twenty-four-hour blood pressure was measured every 30 min by an ambulatory blood pressure device in 18 normotensive healthy women prior to and after 6 months of use of an OC containing 30 mcg EE and 3 mg DRSP. OC induced no modification in 24-h, nighttime and daytime blood pressure. Heart rate increased about 4 beats/min in the 24-h (p<.05) and daytime (p<.02) measurements. In normotensive women, an OC containing 30 mcg EE plus 3 mg DRSP does not modify blood pressure, and significantly increases 24-h and daytime heart rate. These data suggest a neutral effect on hypertension-associated cardiovascular risk and point out an unreported effect on heart rate of which cause and effect require further evaluation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Risk of fatal pulmonary embolism with oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Poulter, N R

    2000-06-17

    This commentary addresses the New Zealand study (case report) of a fatal pulmonary embolism (PE) associated with oral contraceptive (OC) use by L. Parkin and colleagues. The study significantly adds to the knowledge on the relationship between fatal PE and OC use, because most of the evidence up to now has related to nonfatal venous thromboembolic events (VTE). Several areas of the study, however, are criticized. These include the method used, definition, and the adjustment of data. However, these criticisms have been offered explanations in this commentary. It is noted that data from the study indicated that OCs containing desogestrel or gestodene are associated with higher risks of fatal PE than are those containing levonorgestrel. This is consistent with most previous studies comparing the effects of second-generation progestogens on VTE. Overall, data support previous pragmatic recommendations that second-generation pills, which contain levonorgestrel, are the combined OCs of choice.

  5. Effect of oral contraceptives on sebum excretion rate.

    PubMed Central

    Pye, R J; Meyrick, G; Pye, M J; Burton, J L

    1977-01-01

    Oral contraceptives containing a high dose of oestrogen reduce the sebum excretion rate (SER) and improve acne vulgaris, but more progestogenic preparations may exacerbate acne. The effect on the SER of several oral contraceptives with varying progestogenic potencies was studied in 81 women. The predominantly progestogenic pills (Eugynon 30, Gynovlar) produced no significant change in SER, whereas the rate in women taking a more oestrogenic pill (Minovlar) was significantly reduced compared with the rate in controls. Progestogens therefore do not exacerbate acne by inducing seborrhoea, but in the doses we studied they nullified the inhibitory effect of oestrogens on the sebaceous glands. Acne-prone women who require an oral contraceptive should be given a predominantly oestrogenic preparation. PMID:145268

  6. Oral contraceptives and venous thromboembolism: pill scares and public health.

    PubMed

    Reid, Robert L

    2011-11-01

    Post-marketing surveillance of combined oral contraceptives (COCs) for rare complications such as venous thromboembolism (VTE) presents unique challenges. Prospective studies, which are costly and time consuming, have to date been undertaken by only a few contraceptive manufacturers willing to commit to full evaluation of product safety. Often such studies are conducted with the approval of regulatory authorities as a precondition for marketing. Alternatively, independent investigators with access to large databases have conducted retrospective studies to compare the incidence of VTE between new and older products. Such studies, however, run the risk of erroneous conclusions if they cannot ensure comparable risk profiles for users of these different products. Often database studies are unable to access information on important confounders, and medical records may not be available to validate the actual diagnosis of VTE. "Pill scares" generated following publication and media dissemination of worrisome findings, when the conclusions are in doubt and not corroborated by stronger prospective study designs, are frequently damaging to public health. From a review of recent publications on the VTE risk with drospirenone-containing COCs, it can be concluded that the best quality evidence does not support a difference in risk between users of COCs containing drospirenone and those of COCs containing levonorgestrel.

  7. Oral Contraceptives and Multiple Sclerosis/Clinically Isolated Syndrome Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Hellwig, Kerstin; Chen, Lie H.; Stancyzk, Frank Z.; Langer-Gould, Annette M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The incidence of multiple sclerosis (MS) is rising in women. Objective To determine whether the use of combined oral contraceptives (COCs) are associated with MS risk and whether this varies by progestin content. Methods We conducted a nested case-control study of females ages 14–48 years with incident MS or clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) 2008–2011 from the membership of Kaiser Permanente Southern California. Controls were matched on age, race/ethnicity and membership characteristics. COC use up to ten years prior to symptom onset was obtained from the complete electronic health record. Results We identified 400 women with incident MS/CIS and 3904 matched controls. Forty- percent of cases and 32% of controls had used COCs prior to symptom onset. The use of COCs was associated with a slightly increased risk of MS/CIS (adjusted OR = 1.52, 95%CI = 1.21–1.91; p<0.001). This risk did not vary by duration of COC use. The association varied by progestin content being more pronounced for levenorgestrol (adjusted OR = 1.75, 95%CI = 1.29–2.37; p<0.001) than norethindrone (adjusted OR = 1.57, 95%CI = 1.16–2.12; p = 0.003) and absent for the newest progestin, drospirenone (p = 0.95). Conclusions Our findings should be interpreted cautiously. While the use of some combination oral contraceptives may contribute to the rising incidence of MS in women, an unmeasured confounder associated with the modern woman’s lifestyle is a more likely explanation for this weak association. PMID:26950301

  8. Reduced serum cholecystokinin and increase in body fat during oral contraception.

    PubMed

    Hirschberg, A L; Byström, B; Carlström, K; von Schoultz, B

    1996-02-01

    This investigation was undertaken to explore a possible role of the "satiety peptide" cholecystokinin and some other gastrointestinal hormones for changes in appetite and weight during oral contraception. Ten young healthy women attending a youth health care center for contraceptive counseling volunteered for the study. A standardized meal test was used for recordings of appetite and gastrointestinal hormone response before and after 5 months of treatment with a monophasic combined oral contraceptive. Body fat was calculated from measurements of skin-fold thickness. Oral contraceptives caused a suppression of basal levels of serum cholecystokinin, which was correlated to an increase in body fat. Meal-related response of cholecystokinin and appetite were not affected. Serum levels of gastrin and insulin were also unchanged, whereas triglycerides and postprandial glucose levels were elevated. The results suggest a role of cholecystokinin in regulation of body composition. Cholecystokinin stimulates the release of insulin and stimulates lipolysis in adipose tissue. Reduced cholecystokinin levels may, therefore, be related to mild impairment of glucose tolerance and promote body fat storage during oral contraception.

  9. Oral Contraceptive Pill Alters Acute Dietary Protein-Induced Thermogenesis in Young Women.

    PubMed

    Duhita, Maharani Retna; Schutz, Yves; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Dulloo, Abdul G; Miles-Chan, Jennifer L

    2017-09-01

    There is much interest in the role of dietary protein for weight control. However, there remains a need to characterize individual determinants of the thermogenic effects of protein. This study aimed to investigate the influence of menstrual cycle phase and the combined, monophasic oral contraceptive pill on the thermogenic response to a standardized high-protein (HP) versus normal-protein (NP) meal. Following an overnight fast, resting energy expenditure (EE) was measured in 16 healthy young women (8 taking and 8 not taking the pill) and 8 men for 30 minutes pre ingestion and 3 hours post ingestion of a NP (11%) or HP (24%) meal. There was no effect of menstrual phase or contraceptive pill use on fasting EE or NP response. However, HP increased EE significantly more than NP in women not taking the oral contraceptive pill and in men, but not in women taking the pill. This study shows an absence of the greater thermic effect of HP versus NP in women taking the oral contraceptive pill and has important implications regarding the effectiveness of HP for body weight regulation in women. With current obesity treatment/prevention strategies remaining largely ineffective, understanding the relationship between oral contraceptive pill use and protein-induced thermogenesis may enable the successful recalibration of existing dietary recommendations. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  10. Our knowledge of drug interactions with oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Seregély, G

    1989-01-01

    In the introduction the author points out the importance, mechanism and consequence of interactions between oral contraceptives and other drugs. The interactions between certain drugs with different pharmacological action and the contraceptive tablets which decrease or increase the contraceptive effect as well as the drugs whose effect may be influenced by the contraceptive tablets have been discussed. Cases in which only a few data refer to, or no clinical proof supports interaction, are also mentioned. According to interactions observed until present in women taking Anteovin, the recommended measures to be taken in these cases have been described. Finally it has been emphasized that the knowledge of interactions between drugs is just as important in family planning counselling as is when prescribing other drug treatments.

  11. Effects of the Menstrual Cycle and Oral Contraception on Singers' Pitch Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La, Filipa M. B.; Sundberg, Johan; Howard, David M.; Sa-Couto, Pedro; Freitas, Adelaide

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Difficulties with intonation and vibrato control during the menstrual cycle have been reported by singers; however, this phenomenon has not yet been systematically investigated. Method: A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial assessing effects of the menstrual cycle and use of a combined oral contraceptive pill (OCP) on pitch…

  12. Effects of the Menstrual Cycle and Oral Contraception on Singers' Pitch Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La, Filipa M. B.; Sundberg, Johan; Howard, David M.; Sa-Couto, Pedro; Freitas, Adelaide

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Difficulties with intonation and vibrato control during the menstrual cycle have been reported by singers; however, this phenomenon has not yet been systematically investigated. Method: A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial assessing effects of the menstrual cycle and use of a combined oral contraceptive pill (OCP) on pitch…

  13. Myocardial infarction and stroke in young women: what is the impact of oral contraceptives?

    PubMed

    Lewis, M A

    1998-09-01

    Recent discussions have centered on the small apparent risk increase for venous thromboembolism found with newer oral contraceptives (third-generation oral contraceptives containing the progestins desogestrel and gestodene) compared with older oral contraceptives (second-generation). This article reviews the studies addressing the association between oral contraceptive use and thromboembolic conditions affecting the arterial system, ischemic stroke, and myocardial infarction. Differences are found between a US database study, which showed no risk of ischemic stroke or myocardial infarction associated with low-dose oral contraceptive use, and the European studies, which showed oral contraceptive use in general to be associated with increased risks of ischemic stroke and myocardial infarction. The European studies showed no difference between oral contraceptive generations with respect to the occurrence of ischemic stroke; however, the risk of myocardial infarction associated with oral contraceptive use was consistently lower for third- than for second-generation oral contraceptives. Although there seems to be no differential risk of ischemic stroke associated with oral contraceptive generations, third-generation oral contraceptives appear to be consistently associated with no excess risk of myocardial infarction. In all instances, however, cardiovascular risk factors other than oral contraceptive use play the predominant role in the occurrence of ischemic stroke and myocardial infarction.

  14. Interaction of St John's wort with low-dose oral contraceptive therapy: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Pfrunder, Arabelle; Schiesser, Monika; Gerber, Simone; Haschke, Manuel; Bitzer, Johannes; Drewe, Juergen

    2003-01-01

    Aims Breakthrough bleeding or even unwanted pregnancies have been reported in women during concomitant therapy with oral contraceptives and St John's wort extract. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of St John's wort extract on oral contraceptive therapy with respect to ovarian activity, breakthrough bleeding episodes and the pharmacokinetics of ethinyloestradiol and 3-ketodesogestrel. Methods Eighteen healthy females were treated with a low-dose oral contraceptive (0.02 mg ethinyloestradiol, 0.150 mg desogestrel) alone (control cycle) or combined with 300 mg St John's wort extract given twice daily (cycle A) or three times daily (cycle B). Ovarian activity was assessed by measuring follicle maturation and serum oestradiol and progesterone concentrations. The number of breakthrough bleeding episodes and the pharmacokinetics of ethinyloestradiol and 3-ketodesogestrel were assessed under steady-state conditions. Results During concomitant administration of low-dose oral contraceptive and St John's wort, there was no significant change in follicle maturation, serum oestradiol or progesterone concentrations when compared with oral contraceptive treatment alone. However, significantly more subjects reported intracyclic bleeding during cycles A (13/17 (77%), P < 0.015) and cycle B (15/17 (88%), P < 0.001) than with oral contraceptives alone (6/17 (35%)). The AUC(0,24 h) and Cmax of ethinyloestradiol remained unchanged during all study cycles, whereas the AUC(0,24 h) and Cmax of 3-ketodesogestrel decreased significantly from 31.2 ng ml−1 h to 17.7 ng ml−1 h (43.9%; 95% confidence interval (CI) −49.3, −38.5, P = 0.001) and from 3.6 ng ml −1 to 3.0 ng ml −1(17.8%; CI −29.9, −5.7, P = 0.005), respectively, during cycle A and by 41.7% (CI −47.9, −35.6; P = 0.001) and by 22.8% (CI −31.2, −13.3; P < 0.001) during cycle B respectively, compared with the control cycle. Conclusions There was no evidence of ovulation during low

  15. Emergency contraception.

    PubMed

    2012-12-01

    Despite significant declines over the past 2 decades, the United States continues to have teen birth rates that are significantly higher than other industrialized nations. Use of emergency contraception can reduce the risk of pregnancy if used up to 120 hours after unprotected intercourse or contraceptive failure and is most effective if used in the first 24 hours. Indications for the use of emergency contraception include sexual assault, unprotected intercourse, condom breakage or slippage, and missed or late doses of hormonal contraceptives, including the oral contraceptive pill, contraceptive patch, contraceptive ring (ie, improper placement or loss/expulsion), and injectable contraception. Adolescents younger than 17 years must obtain a prescription from a physician to access emergency contraception in most states. In all states, both males and females 17 years or older can obtain emergency contraception without a prescription. Adolescents are more likely to use emergency contraception if it has been prescribed in advance of need. The aim of this updated policy statement is to (1) educate pediatricians and other physicians on available emergency contraceptive methods; (2) provide current data on safety, efficacy, and use of emergency contraception in teenagers; and (3) encourage routine counseling and advance emergency-contraception prescription as 1 part of a public health strategy to reduce teen pregnancy. This policy focuses on pharmacologic methods of emergency contraception used within 120 hours of unprotected or underprotected coitus for the prevention of unintended pregnancy. Emergency contraceptive medications include products labeled and dedicated for use as emergency contraception by the US Food and Drug Administration (levonorgestrel and ulipristal) and the "off-label" use of combination oral contraceptives.

  16. [Place of persistence trouble during oral contraception and subsequent use of emergency contraception].

    PubMed

    Jamin, C; Lachowsky, M

    2015-10-01

    In order to improve the understanding of hormonal contraceptive failures, this study evaluates the persistence of oral contraception and the use of emergency contraception (EC) during persistence incidents. We made the hypothesis of the existence of a strong link between the risk of unplanned pregnancies and these two parameters. In this study, we also evaluated women's perception of EC in order to elucidate the reasons of EC insufficient use. One survey was carried out on Internet on a representative sample of women, aged 16-45. In this survey, 3775 French women were interviewed (source-population). We defined a target population of 2415 fertile women who had heterosexual intercourse during the last 12 months, and a population of 760 women at risk of unintended pregnancy who had unprotected sexual intercourse during the last 12 months(risk-population). A little more than 30% of the target population, meaning 20% of the source-population (n=745) stopped their contraceptive method temporarily for an average time of two months. Almost 60% of women had a risk of unwanted pregnancy during this period without contraception, which is 59% of the risk-population. Only 20% of women among the population at risk used EC. The main reasons given for EC insufficient use were the misperception of the risk of pregnancy, the lack of knowledge about EC and its way of use. For the first time, this survey shows that 13% of women (of the source population) decide to stop temporarily their contraceptive method for an average time of two months per year. Fifty-nine percent of unplanned pregnancy situations are due to this poor contraception persistence. Although there is a need to reduce the risk of women being at risk, it seems also highly desirable to overcome the consequences of this poor persistence. Giving information about EC and a systematic prescription during contraception consultations would lead to an increased use of EC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights

  17. Effect of missed combined hormonal contraceptives on contraceptive effectiveness: a systematic review☆

    PubMed Central

    Zapata, Lauren B.; Steenland, Maria W.; Brahmi, Dalia; Marchbanks, Polly A.; Curtis, Kathryn M.

    2015-01-01

    surrogate measures of pregnancy risk and ranged in quality. For studies providing indirect evidence on the effects of missed CHCs, it is unclear how differences in surrogate measures correspond to pregnancy risk. Fewer studies examined the transdermal patch and vaginal ring than combined oral contraceptives. PMID:23083527

  18. Laryngeal Aerodynamics Associated with Oral Contraceptive Use: Preliminary Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorham-Rowan, Mary; Fowler, Linda

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine possible differences in laryngeal aerodynamic measures during connected speech associated with oral contraceptive (OC) use. Eight women taking an OC, and eight others not taking an OC, participated in the study. Three trials of syllable /p[subscript alpha] /repetitions were obtained using a…

  19. Laryngeal Aerodynamics Associated with Oral Contraceptive Use: Preliminary Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorham-Rowan, Mary; Fowler, Linda

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine possible differences in laryngeal aerodynamic measures during connected speech associated with oral contraceptive (OC) use. Eight women taking an OC, and eight others not taking an OC, participated in the study. Three trials of syllable /p[subscript alpha] /repetitions were obtained using a…

  20. Oral Contraceptives and Bone Health in Female Runners

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    that a history of stress fractures, lower bone mass, lower dietary calcium intake, younger chronological age, younger age at menarche, and possibly a... history of irregular menstrual periods were associated with an increased risk. 15. SUBJECT TERMS bone mass, oral contraceptives, physical activity...year decrease). Although not statistically significant, a history of irregular menstrual periods was also associated with increased rate of stress

  1. A combined oral contraceptive containing 3-mg drospirenone/ 20-microg ethinyl estradiol in the treatment of acne vulgaris: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluating lesion counts and participant self-assessment.

    PubMed

    Lucky, Anne W; Koltun, William; Thiboutot, Diane; Niknian, Minoo; Sampson-Landers, Carole; Korner, Paul; Marr, Joachim

    2008-08-01

    This study compared the efficacy of a low-dose combined oral contraceptive (COC) containing 3-mg drospirenone and 20-microg ethinyl estradiol (3-mg DRSP/20-microg EE) administered in a 24-day active pill/4-day inert pill (24/4) regimen and placebo in women with moderate acne vulgaris during 6 treatment cycles. A total of 534 participants were randomized and dispensed study medication (n = 266 [3-mg DRSP/20-microg EE 24/4 regimen COC group]; n = 268 [placebo group]). Women of reproductive age were eligible for inclusion in the study. Treatment with the 3-mg DRSP/20-microg EE 24/4 regimen COC was associated with a greater reduction from baseline to end point in individual lesion counts (papules, pustules, open and closed comedones) compared with placebo. The mean nodule count remained essentially constant throughout the study and was low in both treatment groups. There was a significantly higher probability that a participant had an improved assessment on the investigator's overall improvement rating scale (odds ratio [OR], 4.02; 95% CI [confidence interval], 2.29-7.31; P < .0001) and participant's overall self-assessment rating scale (OR, 2.82; 95% CI, 1.60-5.13; P = .0005) in the 3-mg DRSP/20-microg EE 24/4 regimen COC group than in the placebo group. The COC 3-mg DRSP/20-microg EE 24/4 regimen is a suitable option for women with moderate acne vulgaris who require contraception.

  2. Oral contraceptives and gynecologic cancer: an update for the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Kaunitz, A M

    1992-10-01

    The most recent statistical evidence confirms a protective effect of oral contraceptive use against ovarian and endometrial cancers. Studies of the association between oral contraceptive use and cervical cancer continue to be hampered by confounding factors; however, results suggest that the overall risk of invasive cervical neoplasia is not increased. Although the association between oral contraceptive use and breast cancer remains controversial, existing data strongly suggest that overall risk of breast cancer is not increased by the use of oral contraceptives. In most candidates for oral contraceptive use, the benefits greatly outweigh the risks.

  3. Factors affecting pituitary gonadotropin function in users of oral contraceptive steroids.

    PubMed

    Scott, J A; Brenner, P F; Kletzky, O A; Mishell, D R

    1978-04-01

    In order to determine whether certain factors influence the direct pituitary suppressive effect of contraceptive steroid, 50 subjects who had used various formulations of oral contraceptive steroids for periods of time ranging from one to nine years were stimulated with 50 microgram of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) during the last week of oral contraceptive ingestion. The response of lutinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) was compared to the results obtained in nine control subjects with regard to: (1) age of subject. (2) type of contraceptive formulation used, and (3) length of use. Prestimulation levels of LH and FSH, respectively, were significantly decreased in 37 (74 per cent) and 42 (84 per cent) of the subjects. Following GnRH stimulation, peak responses of serum LH and FSH, respectively, were also significantly lower than those in the control subjects in 40 (80 per cent) and 45 (90 per cent of the subjects. The degree of suppression of pituitary gonadotropins, both before and after GnRH administration was significantly correlated with the type of steroid formulation used, being greatest with a combination of d-norgestrel and ethinyl estradiol. No correlation was found with length of use of oral contraceptives or age of the subjects.

  4. Association of oral contraceptive use, other contraceptive methods, and infertility with ovarian cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Tworoger, Shelley S; Fairfield, Kathleen M; Colditz, Graham A; Rosner, Bernard A; Hankinson, Susan E

    2007-10-15

    Although oral contraceptives are protective for ovarian cancer, it is unclear how long this protection persists. The authors prospectively assessed this question as well as associations of other, less studied contraceptive methods (tubal ligation, rhythm method, diaphragm, condoms, intrauterine device, foam, spousal vasectomy) and infertility with ovarian cancer risk among 107,900 participants in the US Nurses' Health Study. During 28 years of follow-up (1976-2004), 612 cases of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer were confirmed. Duration of oral contraceptive use was inversely associated with risk (p-trend = 0.02), but no clear trend was observed for years since last use. However, for women using oral contraceptives for >5 years, the rate ratio for ovarian cancer for 20 years since last use (rate ratio (RR) = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.61, 1.39). Tubal ligation (RR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.50, 0.87) was associated with decreased ovarian cancer risk, whereas intrauterine device use (RR = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.08, 2.85) and infertility (RR = 1.36, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.75) were associated with an increased risk. Results suggest that the beneficial effect of oral contraceptives on ovarian cancer risk attenuates after 20 years since last use. Furthermore, tubal ligation, intrauterine device use, and infertility were associated with ovarian cancer risk.

  5. Low-dose oral contraceptives: progestin potency, androgenicity, and atherogenic potential.

    PubMed

    Ellis, J

    1986-01-01

    The effects of oral contraceptives and estrogen replacement drugs on blood lipids that affect cardiovascular disease (atherogenic effects) are reviewed by comparing their androgenicity and progestin potency. Although early oral contraceptives with high doses of estrogen were indicted for increasing risk of thromboembolic disorders and heart attacks, today's pills low in estrogen still bear the same risk for cardiovascular events. A brief explanation of the lipoproteins is presented, emphasizing the importance of High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) in protecting against heart disease and stroke. Menstruating women have naturally high HDL. The estrogen in oral contraceptives and postmenopausal estrogen replacements increases HDL as much as 30%, while decreasing LDL, the component carrying most of the cholesterol. It seems that the progestin in oral contraceptives will lower HDL, and studies show that this action is related to androgenicity and dose of the progestin. Progestins such as levonorgestrel and norgestrel are more androgenic, while norethynodrel, ethynodiol diacetate and norethindrone are less so. When used in combination with estrogens, progestins are less androgenic, but when used alone, the androgenic and atherogenic effects dominate. The lower the estrogen dose in the combination, say around 20-35 mcg ethinyl estradiol, the more atherogenic the progestin. These actions are confirmed theoretically by measurements of sex hormone binding globulin, a blood protein that reflects estrogen activity, as well as by epidemiologic studies in Sweden and Great Britain, where rates of heart attack and stroke in pill users remain as high as they were when pills contained high doses of estrogen.

  6. Hormonal contraception decreases bacterial vaginosis but oral contraception may increase candidiasis: implications for HIV transmission.

    PubMed

    van de Wijgert, Janneke H H M; Verwijs, Marijn C; Turner, Abigail Norris; Morrison, Charles S

    2013-08-24

    A 2012 WHO consultation concluded that combined oral contraception (COC) does not increase HIV acquisition in women, but the evidence for depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) is conflicting. We evaluated the effect of COC and DMPA use on the vaginal microbiome because current evidence suggests that any deviation from a 'healthy' vaginal microbiome increases women's susceptibility to HIV. We conducted a systematic review and reanalysed the Hormonal Contraception and HIV Acquisition (HC-HIV) study. Vaginal microbiome outcomes included bacterial vaginosis by Nugent scoring, vaginal candidiasis by culture or KOH wet mount and microbiome compositions as characterized by molecular techniques. Our review of 36 eligible studies found that COC and DMPA use reduce bacterial vaginosis by 10-20 and 18-30%, respectively. The HC-HIV data showed that COC and DMPA use also reduce intermediate microbiota (Nugent score of 4-6) by 11% each. In contrast, COC use (but not DMPA use) may increase vaginal candidiasis. Molecular vaginal microbiome studies (n=4) confirm that high oestrogen levels favour a vaginal microbiome composition dominated by 'healthy' Lactobacillus species; the effects of progesterone are less clear and not well studied. DMPA use does not increase HIV risk by increasing bacterial vaginosis or vaginal candidiasis. COC use may predispose for vaginal candidiasis, but is not believed to be associated with increased HIV acquisition. However, the potential role of Candida species, and vaginal microbiome imbalances other than bacterial vaginosis or Candida species, in HIV transmission cannot yet be ruled out. Further in-depth molecular studies are needed.

  7. The state of hormonal contraception today: benefits and risks of hormonal contraceptives: combined estrogen and progestin contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Shulman, Lee P

    2011-10-01

    Discussion of effective birth control methods can be a challenging process for clinicians because the adoption and consistent use of contraception may be influenced by patients' fears, myths, and misperceptions. Over the years, new progestins have been included in combination contraceptives or are used alone to provide effective contraception as well as to decrease androgenic side effects and ameliorate the symptoms of premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Alternative delivery systems and regimens have also been introduced to improve tolerability and continuance and convenience of use. This is a review of estrogen and progestin combinations and their effects.

  8. Speech Articulation of Low-Dose Oral Contraceptive Users.

    PubMed

    Meurer, Eliséa Maria; Fontoura, Giana Valeria Fagundez; Corleta, Helena von Eye; Capp, Edison

    2015-11-01

    In the female life cycle, hormonal fluctuations may result in impaired verbal efficiency and vocal worsening during the premenstrual phase. Oral contraceptives may interfere with vocal range. Voice, resonance, and articulation variations clarify speech content. To investigate the phonoarticulatory sounds produced by oral contraceptive users aged between 20 and 30 years. This is a cross-sectional study. Our study included four groups of women (n = 66): two groups used low-dose oral contraceptives and two groups did not use any oral contraceptives. Questionnaires and sound records were used. Acoustic analysis was performed using the Computerized Speech Laboratory program, Model 4341 (Kay Elemetrics Corp, Lincoln Park, New Jersey). The statistical analysis of the SPPS database, version 13.0, was performed by means of generalized estimating equation. In the groups that did not use oral contraceptives, sustained vowel tones were more acute in the two phases and cycles of women older than 25 years (w/oOC1, 175 ± 74 to 190 ± 55 Hz; w/oOC2, 194 ± 56 to 210 ± 32 Hz). At the midfollicular phase (Fph) and midluteal phase (Lph) of the two cycles, the speed of the speech was slower in this group (w/oOC1: Fph, 5.3 ± 1.6/s and Lph, 5.4 ± 1.4/s; w/oOC2: Fph, 4.5 ± 1.7/s and Lph, 4.8 ± 1.1/s). In both groups that used oral contraceptives, there was a higher modulation frequency in the sentences when compared with nonusers (OC1, 33 ± 10 Hz; w/oOC1, 28 ± 10 Hz; OC2, 34 ± 10 Hz; w/oOC2, 27 ± 10 Hz). Vocal intensity was closer between the OC1 (62 ± 4 dB), w/oOC1 (61 ± 3 dB), and OC2 (63 ± 4 dB) groups when compared with the w/oOC2 (67 ± 6 dB) group. We demonstrated hormonal influences on speech articulation of contraceptive users and nonusers. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cryptogenic Cerebral Embolism in Women Taking Oral Contraceptives

    PubMed Central

    Enzell, Karin; Lindemalm, Gunnar

    1973-01-01

    Fourteen women taking oral contraceptives were admitted during a five-year period because of acute cerebrovascular lesions. A diagnosis of major cerebral embolism was established in four of them. No source of embolism was found, and thorough investigation failed to reveal any predisposing illness. Cerebral embolism was a probable diagnosis in several of the remaining 10 patients. A comparison was made with the strokes occurring in women not taking contraceptive pills in corresponding age groups. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3 PMID:4758486

  10. Pulmonary embolus, oral contraceptives, and a clinical search.

    PubMed

    Maharry, J M

    1970-01-01

    At the Presbyterian Intercommunity Hospital, Whittier, California, 120 cases of pulmonary emboli occurred from 1959 through 1968. During this time there were 124,000 admissions and more than 20,000 live births. 51 of the pulmonary embolic cases were female; 25 were of childbearing age. 10 of these showed relationship to the use of oral contraceptives. 6 of them received oral contraceptives after pulmonary embolism without apparent aggravation or recurrence of thromboembolic disease. 2 of the 10 were taking birth control pills at the time they underwent hysterectomy. A pulmonary embolus followed each operation. 2 more were taking the pills and experienced pulmonary embolism without evidence of any predisposing cause. Short case summaries of the 10 are given, all of whom are living and well. Improvement of diagnosis by lung scanning shows that pulmonary embolism is more prevalent and less serious than previously believed. As thrombotic disease is considered a recurring disorder, its relationship to steroid contraceptives has not been totally substantiated. It is concluded that a history of such disease does not necessarily contraindicate the use of oral contraceptives. Following discussion, the author quotes an FDA claim that women who take birth control pills develop thrombo-phlebitis 3 times as frequently as women who do not. He notes that, even according to these Food and Drug Administration statistics, a woman could take the pills for 30 years without as much danger from thrombo-phlebitis as from a single pregnancy.

  11. [A clinical case of young, oral combined contraceptive using women, heterozygous carrier of the Factor V (Leiden) which revealed thrombosis of the left internal jugular vein and brain ischemia with cerebral infarction and ischemic stroke].

    PubMed

    Kovachev, S; Ramshev, K; Ramsheva, Z; Ivanov, A; Ganovska, A

    2013-01-01

    Thrombophilia is associated with increased risks of venous thrombosis in women taking oral contraceptive preparations. Universal thrombophilia screening in women prior to prescribing oral contraceptive preparations is not supported by current evidence. The case is presented of a 23 year-old women with a personal history of interruption and on the same day started with oral contraceptive (0.03 microg ethynil estradiol - 0.075 microg gestodene), which due on a 18 pill/day to acute headache, increasing vomiting and speaking defects. Physical/neurologic/gynecologic examinations observed a normal status. The MRI and CT revealed thrombosis of the left internal jugular vein and brain ischemia with cerebral infarction and ischemic stroke. The acute therapy of thrombotic findings was accompanied with many tests. The thrombophilia PCR-Real time - test finds heterozygous carrier of the Factor V (Leiden). This case shows the need of large prospective studies that should be undertaken to refine the risks and establish the associations of thrombophilias with venous thrombosis among contraceptive users. The key to a prompt diagnosis is to know the risk factors. The relative value of a thrombophilia screening programme before contraceptive using needs to be established.

  12. Oral contraception in women with mild thrombophilia: what have we learned recently?

    PubMed

    Blanco-Molina, Ángeles

    2012-10-01

    Mild thrombophilias include heterozygous forms of Factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A mutation and high levels of factor VIII. These defects are responsible for only a moderate increase of venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk compared with strong thrombophilias (antithrombin III, protein C and protein S deficiencies and homozygous forms of factor V Leiden and G20210A prothrombin mutation). Combined oral contraceptives increase the VTE risk in women in a fertile age, and in a far more important way in thrombophilia carrier women. Universal screening of thrombophilia test before the use of combined oral contraceptives is not recommended. However, selective VTE-history based screening is associated with a better cost-effectiveness, especially in asymptomatic relatives of carriers of strong thrombophilia. Currently, combined oral contraceptives are discouraged in women with any thrombophilic defects. The VTE risk is higher during pregnancy and postpartum period compared to hormonal contraceptive use period in women with mil thrombophilia. For this reason, a careful election of an alternative birth control method is necessary in these women.

  13. Cardiovascular risk and the use of oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Kaminski, Pawel; Szpotanska-Sikorska, Monika; Wielgos, Miroslaw

    2013-01-01

    The use of combined oral contraceptives (COCs) is associated with approximately 2-fold and over 4-fold increased relative risks of arterial and venous thromboembolic events, respectively. The highest risk of venous thromboembolism occurs in the first year of use (OR: 4.17) and is reduced to 2.76 over baseline risk after 4 years of therapy. The risk of myocardial infarction does not correlate to the length of therapy and disappears after treatment termination. Most of women, using COCs, have low absolute cardiovascular risks and benefits outweigh the risk associated with this method of birth control. However, in some cases, COCs may be contraindicated due to excessively increased cardiovascular risks. Current users of COCs, older than 35 years, appear to show an estimated 2.5-fold and 10-fold increased risk of venous thromboembolism in comparison to younger than 35 years COCs non-users and users, respectively. COCs users, who are current smokers, have 10-fold increased risk of myocardial infarction, whereas the risk of stroke increases nearly 3-fold. The presence of poorly controlled hypertension is associated with approximately 3-fold increased risks of myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke, while the risk of haemorrhagic stroke rises 15-fold. In women suffering from hypertension, discontinuation of COCs may improve blood pressure control. Women, who had their blood pressure measured before COCs use, have 2-2.5-fold decreased risk of myocardial infarction and ischaemic stroke. In women with multiple cardiovascular risk factors the use of progestogen-only contraceptives (POCs) should be considered. POC therapy is associated with substantially less risk of cardiovascular events than COCs.

  14. Erythema multiforme limited to the oral mucosa in a teenager on oral contraceptive therapy.

    PubMed

    Jawetz, Robert E; Elkin, Avigayil; Michael, Lisa; Jawetz, Sheryl A; Shin, Helen T

    2007-10-01

    Erythema multiforme has been linked to numerous drugs and infectious agents. A link to oral contraceptive use has been reported in the past in the adult population but thus far has not been reported in children or adolescents. We report the case of an 18-yr-old female who developed oral erosions consistent with erythema multiforme two and a half weeks after initiating therapy with an oral contraceptive agent. A thorough examination for other inciting factors was negative, and the lesions slowly resolved over the course of 3 weeks. This case illustrates that erythema multiforme should be considered in the differential diagnosis of adolescents with oral erosions who have been prescribed oral contraceptives.

  15. Pharmacists' counseling on oral contraceptives: A theory informed analysis.

    PubMed

    Amin, Mohamed E K; Chewning, Betty

    2016-01-01

    Providing correct and complete counseling on the use of oral contraceptives (OCs) is central to securing the autonomy of women in child-bearing age and is a powerful, proven tool of social change. Pharmacists in many developing countries such as Egypt are involved in dispensing and at times prescribing pharmaceuticals, including oral contraceptives that are readily available without a prescription. To predict Egyptian community pharmacists' counseling on oral contraceptives while utilizing a theoretical framework guided by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). A cross-sectional, self-administered survey was completed by a random sample of community pharmacists in Alexandria, Egypt to determine their attitudes and behaviors regarding counseling on OCs. Multiple regression was used to predict self-reported counseling on oral contraceptives as a function of the TPB-related constructs and six other factors - "perceived importance of profit from dispensing OCs on pharmacy revenue," "number of hours worked," "age," "gender," "pharmacy practice degree" and "marital status" of the pharmacist. Of the 181 pharmacists invited to complete the survey, 168 (93%) participated. Pharmacists indicated they talked to a slightly higher proportion of women about the importance of taking OCs at the same time daily than about topics such as which day to start taking OCs, side effects and what to do when a dose of OCs was missed. Pharmacists' reported counseling on oral contraceptives was positively associated with their perception that women welcomed pharmacist initiated OC counseling (β = 0.315, P < 0.001), perceived adequacy of time available to counsel women on OCs (β = 0.290, P = 0.003) and the perceived number of women who asked for their help in selecting an OC without providing a prescription in the past week (β = 0.160, P = 0.018). Pharmacists reported that women's welcoming pharmacists initiating OC counseling was associated with the pharmacists' reported percent

  16. Oral contraceptives: effect of folate and vitamin B12 metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Shojania, A. M.

    1982-01-01

    Women who use oral contraceptives have impaired folate metabolism as shown by slightly but significantly lower levels of folate in the serum and the erythrocytes and an increased urinary excretion of formiminoglutamic acid. The vitamin B12 level in their serum is also significantly lower than that of control groups. However, there is no evidence of tissue depletion of vitamin B12 associated with the use of oral contraceptives. The causes and clinical significance of the impairment of folate and vitamin B12 metabolism in these women is discussed in this review of the literature. Clinicians are advised to ensure that women who shop taking "the pill" because they wish to conceive have adequate folate stores before becoming pregnant. PMID:7037144

  17. A New and Practical Oral Contraceptive Agent: Norethindrone with Mestranol

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, J. H.; Smith, G. G.

    1963-01-01

    The usefulness of a new oral contraceptive compound containing norethindrone 5 mg. and mestranol 0.075 mg. (Ortho-Novum) was studied. One hundred and seventeen private patients used this preparation for a total of 998 menstrual cycles. There were no pregnancies. Side effects were minimal and caused few (11 patients) to discontinue use. The most significant of these was weight gain and a premenstrual tension syndrome including nausea, breakthrough bleeding and skin effects. Other symptoms were minor and easily controlled. Instruction in use of the preparation is easy. Patient acceptance is excellent. Possible masculinizing effects, liver damage, or harmful effects on the uterus were checked specifically by laboratory evaluation; no significant abnormal findings were noted. This appears to be an effective oral contraceptive which is well accepted by the patient and which produced no serious side effects as used in this study. PMID:14027723

  18. The risks of venous thromboembolic disease among German women using oral contraceptives: a database study.

    PubMed

    Farmer, R D; Todd, J C; Lewis, M A; MacRae, K D; Williams, T J

    1998-02-01

    This study investigated the risk of venous thromboembolic disease (VTE) between second and third generation combined oral contraceptives, using the German MediPlus database of patient records. Women studied included 42 patients between the ages of 18 and 49 years, with a diagnosis of VTE treated with an anticoagulant, who were exposed to an oral contraceptive (OC). Four controls per patient (168), matched by year of birth and exposure to an OC on the even day, were identified. More women were users of second generation than third generation OC, and none were using progestogen-only pills. There was no significant difference between patients and control subjects with respect to the type of OC used on the event day (unadjusted odds ratio for third versus second generation users was 0.77; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.38-1.57). There was no significant age difference between second and third generation users among patients or control subjects. Between January 1 and the event date, there was no significant difference between the patients and control subjects in terms of the number of oral contraceptive prescriptions, number of consultations for psychotherapeutic complaints, or mixed physical and psychotherapeutic consultations; however, patients did demonstrate significantly more consultations for purely physical complaints compared with control subjects (p < 0.0001). There were no significant consultation differences between patients with pulmonary emboli (n = 6) and other VTE patients (n = 36). No significant differences with respect to VTE risk between users of second and third generation oral contraceptives were found in this study. Consultations (physical) for patients were higher than for control subjects before the VTE event. If consultation rate relates to the general health status of a person, this might indicate that VTE risk is higher among women of poorer health, but that this is not related to the type of progestogen in the oral contraceptive that they use.

  19. Evaluation of emotional reactions to oral contraceptive use.

    PubMed

    Kane, F J

    1976-12-15

    A review of available clinical studies indicates that 10 to 40 per cent of oral contraceptive users may suffer mild to moderate depression syndromes. Clinical and animal data indicate that a variety of mechanisms may be involved, including alterations in folate, pyridoxine, and vitamine B12 metabolism, as well as related effects on biogenic amine metabolism. Interactive effects may result, such as impairment of usual coping mechnisms and psychological defenses by altered central nervous system function.

  20. Oral contraceptives and the cobalamin (vitamin B12) metabolism.

    PubMed

    Hjelt, K; Brynskov, J; Hippe, E; Lundström, P; Munck, O

    1985-01-01

    The mean concentrations of serum (S)-cobalamin (vitamin B12) and S-unsaturated B12 binding capacity (UBBC) were significantly decreased in 101 women (mean age: 30.4 years) taking oral contraceptives (OC) of the combination type, compared to 113 controls. OC users more frequently showed decreased concentrations of S-cobalamin (less than 200 pmol/l) than did their controls. However, the incidence of particularly low concentrations (less than 150 pmol/l) in OC users was not increased. To study a possible dose-dependent effect, 27 women (mean age: 50.5 years) given high-dose estrogen preparations (1-4 mg estrogen) were compared with 31 controls. The two groups showed no difference with regard to S-cobalamin, but the mean S- and plasma-UBBC levels were significantly decreased in the high-dose estrogen group. 12 OC users with decreased S-cobalamin (less than 200 pmol/l), 9 OC users with normal S-cobalamin and 10 controls were studied more intensively. The mean hemoglobin concentration was significantly decreased in those OC users having decreased S-cobalamin. On the contrary, the absorption and excretion of radiolabeled cobalamin and the concentrations of erythrocyte-folate, S-iron and -transferrin did not show any difference between the groups, and all results were normal, by and large. No characteristic changes in plasma volume were found. It is concluded that routine measurement of S-cobalamin in women taking OC is not justified.

  1. Hypertriglyceridemic Pancreatitis Caused by the Oral Contraceptive Agent Estrostep.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Mary; Mitchell, Jennifer; Simsovits, Debra; Gasperino, James

    2015-07-01

    Norethindrone acetate/ethinyl estradiol (Estrostep; Warner Chilcott, Rockaway, New Jersey) is an "estrophasic" type of oral contraceptive, which combines a continuous low progestin dose with a gradually increasing estrogen dose. In clinical trials, this medication failed to produce clinically significant changes in serum lipid levels. We report a case of severe hypertriglyceridemia-induced acute pancreatitis in a 24-year-old woman caused by Estrostep, occurring nearly 10 years after she began using the drug. The patient was admitted to the medical intensive care unit (ICU) for aggressive volume resuscitation and management of severe electrolyte abnormalities. Laboratory studies obtained on admission indicated severe hypertriglyceridemia (2,200 mg/dL), hyponatremia (120 mEq/L), and hypocalcemia (0.78 mmol/L). Amylase and lipase levels were also elevated (193 and 200 U/L, respectively). Ranson score calculated after 48 hours of admission was 4, and her Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) IV score was 35. Treatment included an insulin infusion, ω-3 fatty acid esters, and gemfibrozil. The insulin infusion reduced serum triglyceride levels by 50% after 1 day of treatment and to 355 mg/dL by day 7 of her ICU course. We believe that this is the first reported case of severe, acute hypertriglyceridemia-induced pancreatitis caused by this medication. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Laryngeal aerodynamics associated with oral contraceptive use: preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Gorham-Rowan, Mary; Fowler, Linda

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine possible differences in laryngeal aerodynamic measures during connected speech associated with oral contraceptive (OC) use. Eight women taking an OC, and eight others not taking an OC, participated in the study. Three trials of syllable /p/repetitions were obtained using a circumferentially vented face mask and small translabial tube. All participants were recorded on or near days 7 and 14 of their menstrual cycle. Subglottal pressure (P(SG)) and average airflow rates were obtained to determine laryngeal airway resistance. Glottal airflow measures of peak flow, minimum flow, alternating flow, as well as relative sound level (RSL) were obtained. P(SG) was obtained from the pressure peak associated with/p/. All airflow parameters and RSL were obtained from the vowel portion. No significant differences were found related to day of recording or OC use, indicating that OC use does not significantly affect laryngeal airflow regulation. The reader will better understand the effects of hormones and oral contraceptives on the female voice, as well as the specific changes in vocal function that may occur in conjunction with the use of oral contraceptives.

  3. Effects of oral contraceptives on body fluid regulation.

    PubMed

    Stachenfeld, N S; Silva, C; Keefe, D L; Kokoszka, C A; Nadel, E R

    1999-09-01

    To test the hypothesis that estrogen reduces the operating point for osmoregulation of arginine vasopressin (AVP), thirst, and body water balance, we studied nine women (25 +/- 1 yr) during 150 min of dehydrating exercise followed by 180 min of ad libitum rehydration. Subjects were tested six different times, during the early-follicular (twice) and midluteal (twice) menstrual phases and after 4 wk of combined [estradiol-norethindrone (progestin), OC E + P] and 4 wk of norethindrone (progestin only, OC P) oral contraceptive administration, in a randomized crossover design. Basal plasma osmolality (P(osm)) was lower in the luteal phase (281 +/- 1 mosmol/kgH(2)O, combined means, P < 0.05), OC E + P (281 +/- 1 mosmol/kgH(2)O, P < 0.05), and OC P (282 +/- 1 mosmol/kgH(2)O, P < 0. 05) than in the follicular phase (286 +/- 1 mosmol/kgH(2)O, combined means). High plasma estradiol concentration lowered the P(osm) threshold for AVP release during the luteal phase and during OC E + P [x-intercepts, 282 +/- 2, 278 +/- 2, 276 +/- 2, and 280 +/- 2 mosmol/kgH(2)O, for follicular, luteal (combined means), OC E + P, and OC P, respectively; P < 0.05, luteal phase and OC E + P vs. follicular phase] during exercise dehydration, and 17beta-estradiol administration lowered the P(osm) threshold for thirst stimulation [x-intercepts, 280 +/- 2, 279 +/- 2, 276 +/- 2, and 280 +/- 2 mosmol/kgH(2)O for follicular, luteal, OC E + P, and OC P, respectively; P < 0.05, OC E + P vs. follicular phase], without affecting body fluid balance. When plasma 17beta-estradiol concentration was high, P(osm) was low throughout rest, exercise, and rehydration, but plasma arginine vasopressin concentration, thirst, and body fluid retention were unchanged, indicating a lowering of the osmotic operating point for body fluid regulation.

  4. Women's satisfaction with Norplant as compared with oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Eilers, G M; Swanson, T K

    1994-06-01

    In Wisconsin, 115 Norplant users and 148 oral contraceptive (OC) users, all of whom attended the university-administered family medicine residency training clinic in Eau Claire between May, 1991, and February, 1993, returned questionnaires as part of a study to examine satisfaction with their chosen contraceptive and its benefits and side effects. Most women were satisfied with their contraceptive method (60% for Norplant users and 72% for OC users). OC users were more likely to use their method again than were Norplant users (88% vs. 63%; p .001). Even though most women would recommend their method to a friend, OC users were more likely to do so than Norplant users (97% vs. 74%; p .001). Irregular bleeding was more common among Norplant users than among OC users (73% vs. 34%; p .001). OC users were more likely to feel that OCs caused less bleeding and less cramping than did Norplant users (72% vs. 30% and 60% vs. 30%, respectively; p .001). They were less likely to complain of acne (7% vs. 29%; p .001), weight gain (33% vs. 49%; p .04), and bleeding irregularities (8% vs. 60%; p .001) than Norplant users. Overall, both Norplant and OC users were satisfied with their current contraceptive method, but satisfaction was lower and side effects were more common among Norplant users.

  5. Continuous or extended cycle vs. cyclic use of combined hormonal contraceptives for contraception.

    PubMed

    Edelman, Alison; Micks, Elizabeth; Gallo, Maria F; Jensen, Jeffrey T; Grimes, David A

    2014-07-29

    The avoidance of menstruation through continuous or extended (greater than 28 days) administration of combination hormonal contraceptives (CHCs) has gained legitimacy through its use in treating endometriosis, dysmenorrhea, and menstruation-associated symptoms. Avoidance of menstruation through extended or continuous use of CHCs for reasons of personal preference may have additional advantages to women, including improved compliance, greater satisfaction, fewer menstrual symptoms, and less menstruation-related absenteeism from work or school. To determine the differences between continuous or extended-cycle CHCs (pills, patch, ring) in regimens of greater than 28 days of active hormone compared with traditional cyclic dosing (21 days of active hormone and 7 days of placebo, or 24 days of active hormones and 4 days of placebo). Our hypothesis was that continuous or extended-cycle CHCs have equivalent efficacy and safety but improved bleeding profiles, amenorrhea rates, adherence, continuation, participant satisfaction, and menstrual symptoms compared with standard cyclic CHCs. We searched computerized databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PUBMED, EMBASE, POPLINE, LILACS) for trials using continuous or extended CHCs (oral contraceptives, contraceptive ring and patch) during the years 1966 to 2013. We also searched the references in review articles and publications identified for inclusion in the protocol. Investigators were contacted regarding additional references. All randomized controlled trials in any language comparing continuous or extended-cycle (greater than 28 days of active hormones) versus traditional cyclic administration (21 days of active hormones and 7 days of placebo, or 24 days of active hormones and 4 days of placebo) of CHCs for contraception. Titles and abstracts identified from the literature searches were assessed for potential inclusion. Data were extracted onto data collection forms and then entered into RevMan 5. Peto

  6. An update on new orally administered contraceptives for women.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Anita L

    2015-01-01

    The focus in contraception is shifting from oral contraceptives to more effective methods, such as implants and intrauterine devices. Generics are favored by third-party payors. As a result, potentially exciting developments in branded pills to increase safety or to reduce side effects may have gone unnoticed. This article reviews the features of each of the four new oral contraceptives that have been introduced in the United States and/or Europe in the last few years. The motivation for the development of each product is outlined as is its efficacy, safety, tolerability and the noncontraceptive applications that have been explored are described. The hypothesis that using estradiol in place of ethinyl estradiol would reduce the risk of venous thromboembolism is still to be proven. However, the stronger progestogens used in these formulations may offer other tangible benefits for selected women. The new products for extended cycle pill use may have less impact. The flexible regimen can be adopted using any pill, but the approved product does provide convenience to patients. Cost will continue to be the determining factor in the acceptance of these new products, unless substantial health benefits can be conclusively proven.

  7. It's all about money: oral contraception alters neural reward processing.

    PubMed

    Bonenberger, Martina; Groschwitz, Rebecca C; Kumpfmueller, Daniela; Groen, Georg; Plener, Paul L; Abler, Birgit

    2013-12-04

    Mating preferences in phases of the natural menstrual cycle with a low probability to conceive have been associated with lower interest in characteristics promising genetic benefits but increased search for safety and future security. We hypothesized that this effect would also be evident under oral contraception and may therefore alter neural processing of monetary rewards as a proxy for potential safety. Our aim was to assess the activation of reward-related brain areas using a monetary incentive task in women with functional MRI (fMRI). We compared fMRI activation of 12 young women taking oral contraceptives with 12 women with a natural hormonal cycle in their follicular phase during the expectation of monetary rewards. Women under hormonal contraception who have already shown decreased anterior insula activation upon erotic stimulation in a previous study of the same sample now showed enhanced activation during monetary reward expectation in the anterior insula/inferior lateral prefrontal cortex (t=2.84; P<0.05) relative to young normal cycling women in the follicular phase. Our finding supports the notion that the switch in mating preferences related to different hormonal states in women is mirrored by a switch in the stimulus-dependent excitability of reward-related brain regions. Beyond highlighting hormonal effects on reward processing, our data underline the importance of monitoring hormonal states in fMRI research in women.

  8. [The CHOICE study (Contraceptive Health Research Of Informed Choice Experience)--an educational research program for Polish women planning combined hormonal contraceptives use].

    PubMed

    Tomaszewski, Jacek; Paszkowski, Tomasz; Debski, Romuald; Kotarski, Jan; Skrzypulec-Plinta, Violetta; Spaczyński, Robert Z; Pawelczyk, Leszek

    2012-06-01

    The aim of the study was to develop an optimal educational model for contraceptive counseling, to analyze conditions influencing choice of hormonal contraception, to study patients' opinions on present, planned and proposed contraceptive methods and to link these data with socioeconomic and demographic conditions. One thousand eight hundred fifty women (mean age 26.8 +/- 5.9 yrs) willing to use hormonal contraception were presented with essential information on combined hormonal contraception and asked to fill the anonymous questionnaire investigating factors influencing contraceptive choice and patients' opinion on alternative forms of birth regulation. The study was conducted in selected 185 centers in Poland and was a part of a larger survey (CHOICE) conducted on 11 216 women in Europe and Israel. Majority of the studied women were in stable relationship (85,5%), had higher or incomplete higher education (54.8%) and permanent job (54%). The purpose of the visit was to start/change contraception (64.2%), a routine gynecologic check-up (36.7%) or the need for a prescription for the continued contraceptive medication (18.7%). The most commonly used contraceptive methods were oral contraceptive pills (OCP 38.7%) and condom (24.9%). Majority of women highly valued contraceptive counseling and more than 90% were eager to get familiarized with information leaflets. Before the counseling majority of subjects stated that were convinced to use OCP (52.7%; major advantages named: easy to use, favorable bleeding profile, amelioration of menstrual discomfort, comfortable, discrete) and contraceptive patch (22%; major advantages named: applied once a week, comfortable, simple, low risk for noncompliance, favorable bleeding profile). After the counseling there was an increase in proportion of women interested in contraceptive hormonal ring (by 19%; major advantages named: applied once a month, comfortable, very low risk for noncompliance, high efficacy and positive

  9. A survey of bonobo (Pan paniscus) oral contraceptive pill use in North American zoos.

    PubMed

    Agnew, Mary K; Asa, Cheryl S; Clyde, Victoria L; Keller, Dominique L; Meinelt, Audra

    2016-09-01

    Contraception is an essential tool in reproductive management of captive species. The Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) Reproductive Management Center (RMC) gathers data on contraception use and provides recommendations. Although apes have been given oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) for at least 30 years, there have been no published reports with basic information on why the pill is administered, formulations and brands used, and effects on physiology and behavior. Here, we report survey results characterizing OCP use in bonobos (Pan paniscus) housed in North American zoos, as well as information accumulated in the RMC's Contraception Database. Of 26 females treated, there have been no failures and nine reversals. The most commonly administered OCP formulation in bonobos contained ethinyl estradiol (EE) 35 μg/norethindrone 1 mg. Few females on combined oral contraceptives (COCs) were given a continuous active pill regimen; a hormone-free interval of at least 5 days was allowed in most. Crushing the pill and mixing with juice or food was common. Females on COCs seldom experienced breakthrough estrus or bleeding, while these conditions were sometimes observed for females on continuous COCs. All females on COCs exhibited some degree of perineal swelling, with a mean score of 3 or 3+ most commonly reported. Behavioral changes included less sexual behavior, dominant females becoming subordinate, and a negative effect on mood. No appreciable change in weight was noted. Taken together, these results indicate that OCPs are an effective and reversible contraceptive option for bonobos that can be used by zoos and sanctuaries to limit reproduction. Zoo Biol. 35:444-453, 2016. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Proteomic analysis of testis biopsies in men treated with injectable testosterone undecanoate alone or in combination with oral levonorgestrel as potential male contraceptive.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yugui; Zhu, Hui; Zhu, Yefei; Guo, Xuejiang; Huo, Ran; Wang, Xinghai; Tong, Jiansun; Qian, Lixin; Zhou, Zuomin; Jia, Yue; Lue, Yan-He; Hikim, Amiya Sinha; Wang, Christina; Swerdloff, Ronald S; Sha, Jiahao

    2008-09-01

    Treatment with injectable testosterone undecanoate (TU) alone or in combination with oral levonorgestrel (LNG) resulted in marked decreases in sperm concentrations. In this study, we used proteomic analyses to examine the cellular/molecular events occurring in the human testis after TU or TU + LNG treatment. We conducted a global proteomic analysis of the human testicular biopsies before and at 2 weeks after TU alone or TU + LNG treatment. Proteins showing significant changes in expression were identified and analyzed. As a result, 17 and 46 protein spots were found with significant differential expression after the treatment with TU alone and TU + LNG, respectively. TU treatment changed the expression of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K), proteasome inhibitor PI31 subunit (PSMF1), and superoxide dismutase [Mn] mitochondrial precursor (SOD2). These proteins inhibit "assembly", induce cell death, and promote compensatory "cell survival" in the testis. After TU + LNG treatment, "proliferation/cell survival" and "apoptosis/death" were the predominant responses in the testis. TU + LNG treatment inhibited the expression of Prolyl 4-hydroxylase beta subunit (P4HB) and Annexin A2 (Annexin II). These proteins are involved in apoptosis and cell proliferation, respectively. TU + LNG treatment also enhanced the expression of SOD2 and Parvalbumin alpha (Pvalb). These two proteins may protect testicular cells against apoptosis/death and promote cell survival. In conclusion, TU and TU + LNG treatments suppress spermatogenesis through different pathways by changing the expression of different proteins. hnRNP K, PSMF1, SOD2, P4HB, Annexin II, and Pvalb, are key proteins that may be early molecular targets responsible for spermatogenesis suppression induced by hormone treatment.

  11. Seizure facilitating activity of the oral contraceptive ethinyl estradiol.

    PubMed

    Younus, Iyan; Reddy, Doodipala Samba

    2016-03-01

    Contraceptive management is critical in women with epilepsy. Although oral contraceptives (OCs) are widely used by many women with epilepsy, little is known about their impact on epileptic seizures and epileptogenesis. Ethinyl estradiol (EE) is the primary component of OC pills. In this study, we investigated the pharmacological effect of EE on epileptogenesis and kindled seizures in female mice using the hippocampus kindling model. Animals were stimulated daily with or without EE until generalized stage 5 seizures were elicited. EE treatment significantly accelerated the rate of epileptogenesis. In acute studies, EE caused a significant decrease in the afterdischarge threshold and increased the incidence and severity of seizures in fully-kindled mice. In chronic studies, EE treatment caused a greater susceptibility to kindled seizures. Collectively, these results are consistent with moderate proconvulsant-like activity of EE. Such excitatory effects may affect seizure risk in women with epilepsy taking OC pills.

  12. The Emotional Responses of Married Women Receiving Oral Contraceptives

    PubMed Central

    Ringrose, C. A. Douglas

    1965-01-01

    One hundred women taking oral contraceptives were questioned concerning their opinions about personal and sociological effects of this method of conception control. Fifty-three per cent reported improved coital satisfaction while 4% noted the opposite effect. Libido was increased in 22% and decreased in 13%. One woman in five believed that an increase in premarital and extramarital sexual activity would take place in the general population as a result of tablet-induced infertility. The problem of population control is discussed. It is paradoxical that the incidence of unplanned pregnancies continues to increase despite the availability of completely reliable conception control. This reflects present inability to communicate contraceptive knowledge to the appropriate people. PMID:14292887

  13. Safety, efficacy and patient satisfaction with continuous daily administration of levonorgestrel/ethinylestradiol oral contraceptives

    PubMed Central

    Benagiano, Giuseppe; Carrara, Sabina; Filippi, Valentina

    2009-01-01

    The progestational steroid norgestrel was synthesized and tested between 1960 and 1965 through an international cooperation between Wyeth, USA and Schering, Berlin. It is a mixture of two “enantiomers,” with only one form (designated as levonorgestrel) biologically active. When taken orally, it is rapidly absorbed, not subjected to a “first-pass” effect and is approximately 90% bioavailable, with a circulating half-life around 15 hours. Its contraceptive action is exerted at the central (hypothalamic) and peripheral (cervical mucus and endometrium) levels. Levonorgestrel (LNG), alone or in combination with ethinyl estradiol (EE), is the most widely employed contraceptive progestin: it is used in combined oral contraceptives, progestogen-only pills, long-acting contraceptive implants, intrauterine contraceptive systems and in emergency contraception. It is also the steroid of choice for new oral contraceptive regimens aimed at reducing the frequency of bleeding episodes. This novel approach, already tried more than 30 years ago, gained interest around the year 2000 when surveys of women’s attitudes toward monthly menstrual bleeding started to show a major change: more and more women declared that they would welcome a hormonal contraceptive method that reduced bleeding episodes to 4, 2 or even 1 per year. At this point, while the debate on the significance and “usefulness” of menstruation went on, attention focused on new regimens. The first new modality consisted of changing the 7-day medication-free interval, either shortening it to fewer than 7 days, or by the administration of low-dose estrogens during the interval between packages. Then, continuous administration regimens started to be investigated. This, however, did not happen suddenly, since, in specific situations, doctors had for years empirically utilized various continuous administration regimens. The first extended-cycle oral contraceptive regimen introduced in clinical practice is an 84

  14. Safety, efficacy and patient satisfaction with continuous daily administration of levonorgestrel/ethinylestradiol oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Benagiano, Giuseppe; Carrara, Sabina; Filippi, Valentina

    2009-11-03

    The progestational steroid norgestrel was synthesized and tested between 1960 and 1965 through an international cooperation between Wyeth, USA and Schering, Berlin. It is a mixture of two "enantiomers," with only one form (designated as levonorgestrel) biologically active. When taken orally, it is rapidly absorbed, not subjected to a "first-pass" effect and is approximately 90% bioavailable, with a circulating half-life around 15 hours. Its contraceptive action is exerted at the central (hypothalamic) and peripheral (cervical mucus and endometrium) levels. Levonorgestrel (LNG), alone or in combination with ethinyl estradiol (EE), is the most widely employed contraceptive progestin: it is used in combined oral contraceptives, progestogen-only pills, long-acting contraceptive implants, intrauterine contraceptive systems and in emergency contraception. It is also the steroid of choice for new oral contraceptive regimens aimed at reducing the frequency of bleeding episodes. This novel approach, already tried more than 30 years ago, gained interest around the year 2000 when surveys of women's attitudes toward monthly menstrual bleeding started to show a major change: more and more women declared that they would welcome a hormonal contraceptive method that reduced bleeding episodes to 4, 2 or even 1 per year. At this point, while the debate on the significance and "usefulness" of menstruation went on, attention focused on new regimens. The first new modality consisted of changing the 7-day medication-free interval, either shortening it to fewer than 7 days, or by the administration of low-dose estrogens during the interval between packages. Then, continuous administration regimens started to be investigated. This, however, did not happen suddenly, since, in specific situations, doctors had for years empirically utilized various continuous administration regimens. The first extended-cycle oral contraceptive regimen introduced in clinical practice is an 84-day regimen that

  15. Patterns of Oral Contraceptive Pill-taking and Condom Use among Adolescent Contraceptive Pill Users

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Jennifer L.; Shew, Marcia L.; Tu, Wanzhu; Ofner, Susan; Ott, Mary A.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Imperfect oral contraceptive pill (OCP) regimen adherence may impair contraceptive effectiveness. The purpose of this study was to describe daily adherence patterns of OCP use, to analyze OCP protection on an event level basis, and to examine pill-taking and condom use during method transitions. Methods Women (n = 123, ages 14–17 years) completed quarterly interviews to classify OCP method choice into four categories: stable, initiated, stopped, and discordant use. Within each OCP category, daily diaries were used to assess occurrence of coitus, condom use, and patterns of day-to-day OCP use (i.e., consecutive days of OCP use reported with no more than two consecutive days of nonuse). A coital event was OCP protected if pills were used on both the day of the coitus and the day preceding. Results There were 123 participants who reported at least some OCP use in 210 diary periods (average diary length = 75.5 days). Fifty-three participants categorized as stable users reported 87 diary periods: the average interval of consecutive OCP use in this group was 32.5 days. Among stable users, only 45% of coital events were associated with both OCP and condom use. Over one-fifth of coital events in all groups were protected by no method of contraception. Conclusion Dual use of OCP and barrier contraception remains an elusive goal. The time during OCP adoption or discontinuation is often unprotected by condoms. However, concurrent missed pills and condom nonuse increase pregnancy and infection risk even among stable OCP users. Understanding motivation for method usage may improve education and prevention techniques. PMID:16919800

  16. Combined hormonal contraceptives: prescribing patterns, compliance, and benefits versus risks

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Combined hormonal contraceptives [combined oral contraceptives (COCs)] have been available for over 50 years and the impact of this invention may not be overestimated. Today over 100 million women are current users and in Western Europe and the United States approximately 80% of women of fertile ages can be considered as ever-users. Over the years several drawbacks have been identified and media alarms on risks are frequently presented, resulting in suboptimal compliance and low compliance and continuation rates. Poor compliance and discontinuation is a big problem and is not generally identified by prescribers. During ideal use COCs offer very good protection against unwanted pregnancies, however there is a big problem with compliance and continuation and thus the ‘real-life’ efficacy is much lower. Reasons for poor compliance include side effects and fear of side effects and it is crucial that the prescriber gives the individual woman thorough and balanced information on the benefits and risks. Most well known is the increased risk of venous thromboembolism, but also an elevated risk of arterial thrombosis and several types of cancer has been reported. The risk estimates are low but according to the large number of users a substantial number of extra cases will occur. However, use of COCs also offers several additional health benefits with significant impact on morbidity and quality of life. COC use is associated with a substantial decrease in the risk of ovarian cancer, endometrial cancer and colorectal cancer. Moreover, COCs are a major option of treatment for women suffering from heavy menstrual bleeding and dysmenorrhea as well as hirsutism and acne vulgaris. The net effect of the additional health effects of COC- use may very well be positive, i.e. a slight increase in life expectancy. PMID:25360241

  17. Over-the-Counter Access to Oral Contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    Making oral contraceptives (OCs) available over the counter (OTC) could help to reduce the high rate of unintended pregnancy in the United States. Surveys show widespread support for OTC access to OCs among US women. Studies indicate that women can accurately use checklists to identify contraindications to OCs. Continuation is as good or better among OTC users compared with women using OCs obtained by prescription. Women and clinicians have expressed concerns related to making OCs available OTC. These concerns can be addressed by existing data or through research required by the Food and Drug Administration as part of the application to make OCs available OTC.

  18. No effect of oral contraceptives on the metabolism of levetiracetam.

    PubMed

    Sabers, Anne; Christensen, Jacob

    2011-08-01

    The effect on clearance of levetiracetam (LEV) was estimated in women with epilepsy of childbearing potential using oral contraceptives (OCs). The estimated clearance (plasma concentration/daily dose) was 39 nmol/L/mg (range 14-88 nmol/L/mg) among women who did not use OC (n=30) and 38 nmol/L/mg (range 18-103 nmol/L/mg) among OC users (n=23) (p=0.8). In conclusion, combing LEV and OCs seems safe from a pharmacokinetic perspective.

  19. [Specificities of the epileptic women (oral contraceptives, pregnancy)].

    PubMed

    Dupont, Sophie

    2011-03-01

    The enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drugs such as carbamazepine, phenytoin, barbiturates, oxcarbazepine do not allow oral contraceptives. The pregnancy must be planned. Every patient in childbearing age should be informed by her practitioner. The rule is to optimize the antiepileptic treatment before the pregnancy: less drugs, less dosages. This optimization will depend on the epileptic syndrome and the nature of the treatment. Valproate of sodium should be avoided, if possible, during pregnancy. Preconceptional supplementation by folic acid should be considered. Antiepileptic drugs monitoring is required during pregnancy. Natural delivery with peridural anaesthesiology is mandatory. The breast feeding must be considered individually. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Estimating systemic exposure to ethinyl estradiol from an oral contraceptive.

    PubMed

    Westhoff, Carolyn L; Pike, Malcolm C; Tang, Rosalind; DiNapoli, Marianne N; Sull, Monica; Cremers, Serge

    2015-05-01

    This study was conducted to compare single-dose pharmacokinetics of ethinyl estradiol in an oral contraceptive with steady-state values and to assess whether any simpler measures could provide an adequate proxy of the "gold standard" 24-hour steady-state area under the curve (AUC) value. Identification of a simple, less expensive measure of systemic ethinyl estradiol exposure would be useful for larger studies that are designed to assess the relationship between an individual's ethinyl estradiol exposure and side-effects. We collected 13 samples over 24 hours for pharmacokinetic analysis on days 1 and 21 of the first cycle of a monophasic oral contraceptive that contained 30 μg ethinyl estradiol and 150 μg levonorgestrel in 17 nonobese healthy white women. We also conducted an abbreviated single-dose 9-sample pharmacokinetic analysis after a month washout. Ethinyl estradiol was measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. We compared results of a full 13-sample steady-state pharmacokinetic analysis with results that had been calculated with the use of fewer samples (9 or 5) and after the single doses. We calculated Pearson correlation coefficients to evaluate the relationships between these estimates of systemic ethinyl estradiol exposure. The AUC, maximum, and 24-hour values were similar after the 2 single oral contraceptive doses (AUC; r=0.92). The steady-state 13-sample 24-hour AUC value was correlated highly with the average 9-sample AUC value after the 2 single doses (r=0.81; P=.0002). This correlation remained the same if the number of single-dose samples was reduced to 4, taken at time 1, 2.5, 4, and 24 hours. The 24-hour value at steady-state was correlated highly with the 24-hour steady-state AUC value (r=0.92; P<.0001). The average of the 24-hour values after the 2 single doses was also correlated quite highly with the steady-state AUC value (r=0.72; P=.0026). Limited blood sampling, including results from 2 single doses, gave highly

  1. ESTIMATING SYSTEMIC EXPOSURE TO ETHINYL ESTRADIOL FROM AN ORAL CONTRACEPTIVE

    PubMed Central

    WESTHOFF, Carolyn L.; PIKE, Malcolm C.; TANG, Rosalind; DINAPOLI, Marianne N.; SULL, Monica; CREMERS, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to compare single-dose pharmacokinetics of ethinyl estradiol in an oral contraceptive to steady-state values, and to assess whether any simpler measures could provide an adequate proxy of the ‘gold standard’ 24-hour steady-state area-under-the-curve. Identifying a simple, less expensive, measure of systemic ethinyl estradiol exposure would be useful for larger studies designed to assess the relationship between an individual’s ethinyl estradiol exposure and her side effects. Study Design We conducted a 13 samples over 24 hours pharmacokinetic analysis on day 1 and day 21 of the first cycle of a monophasic oral contraceptive containing 30 mcg ethinyl estradiol and 150 mcg levonorgestrel in 17 non-obese healthy white women. We also conducted an abbreviated single dose 9-sample pharmacokinetic analysis after a month washout. Ethinyl estradiol was measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. We compared results of full 13-sample steady-state pharmacokinetic analysis with results calculated using fewer samples (9 or 5) and following the single doses. We calculated Pearson correlation coefficients to evaluate the relationships between these estimates of systemic ethinyl estradiol exposure. Results The area-under-the-curve, maximum (Cmax), and 24-hour (C24) values were similar following the two single oral contraceptive doses (area-under-the-curve, r = 0.92). The steady-state 13-sample 24-hour area-under-the-curve was highly correlated with the average 9-sample area-under-the-curve after the two single doses (r = 0.81, p = 0.0002). This correlation remained the same if the number of samples was reduced to 4, taken at time 1, 2.5, 4 and 24 hours. The C24 at steady-state was highly correlated with the 24-hour steady-state area-under-the-curve (r = 0.92, p < 0.0001). The average of the C24 values following the two single doses was also quite highly correlated with the steady-state area-under-the-curve (r = 0.72, p = 0

  2. Oral contraceptives can cause falsely low vitamin B(12) levels.

    PubMed

    Gardyn, J; Mittelman, M; Zlotnik, J; Sela, B A; Cohen, A M

    2000-01-01

    Serum vitamin B(12) radioimmunoassays may give falsely low results in patients with folate deficiency, multiple myeloma, megadose of vitamin C and following radioisotope organ scan. We evaluated 10 consecutive healthy women on oral contraceptives (OC) who had falsely low vitamin B(12) levels, as reflected by normal urine methylmalonic acid and plasma homocysteine. After 1-month cessation of OCs, vitamin B(12) returned to the normal range in all women. Transcobalamin I (TCI) blood level was decreased in 60% of patients. OCs may cause temporary low vitamin B(12) blood levels of no clinical significance that can be associated with low TCI levels

  3. Active E-rosette formation in women taking oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Satoh, P S; Fleming, W E; Johnston, K A; Ozmun, J M

    1977-01-06

    On the assumption that the number of E-rosettable lymphocytes (active T lymphocytes) is an index of cell-mediated immunity, rosette assays were performed at early cycle and at midcycle for 6 women taking oral contraceptives (OCs) for 1-4 years. OC subjects at midcycle had 21.4% active rosette-forming lymphocytes as compared with 14.1% in controls (p less than .05). The 2 youngest subjects had higher values during the early cycle. These results imply the possibility of hormonal regulation of human T-cell activity.

  4. Use of and access to oral and injectable contraceptives in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Farias, Mareni Rocha; Leite, Silvana Nair; Tavares, Noemia Urruth Leão; Oliveira, Maria Auxiliadora; Arrais, Paulo Sergio Dourado; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Pizzol, Tatiane da Silva Dal; Luiza, Vera Lucia; Ramos, Luiz Roberto; Mengue, Sotero Serrate

    2016-12-01

    combined oral contraceptives were the most frequently reported (71.6%) and low-level levonorgestrel + ethinylestradiol combination accounted for 38.7% of them. The most frequently reported medicines are included in the Relação Nacional de Medicamentos Essenciais (RENAME - National List of Essential Medicines. Most women aged 15 to 49 who reported using contraceptives had access to the medicine and use monophasic combined oral contraceptives of appropriate efficiency and safety purchased by direct payment, mainly from retail pharmacies. Analisar a prevalência do uso atual de contraceptivos orais e injetáveis por mulheres brasileiras, segundo variáveis demográficas, socioeconômicas e aspectos relacionados ao acesso a esses medicamentos. Estudo transversal, analítico, baseado nos dados da Pesquisa Nacional sobre Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos (PNAUM), de base populacional e amostra probabilística, realizada entre setembro/2013 e fevereiro/2014, em 20.404 domicílios urbanos brasileiros. A prevalência foi calculada a partir do relato das mulheres de 15 a 49 anos, não grávidas, sobre o uso de contraceptivos orais ou contraceptivos injetáveis. As variáveis independentes foram sexo, idade, escolaridade, nível socioeconômico, região geográfica e situação conjugal. Também foram analisados acesso, fontes de financiamento, fontes de obtenção e medicamentos citados. As análises estatísticas consideraram intervalos de confiança de 95% (IC95%) e teste Qui-quadrado de Pearson para avaliação da significância estatística das diferenças entre os grupos, considerando o nível de significância de 5%. A prevalência de uso de contraceptivos orais (CO) foi 28,2% e de contraceptivos injetáveis (CI), 4,5%. A prevalência de contraceptivos orais foi maior no Sul (37,5%) e menor no Norte (15,7%). Para contraceptivos injetáveis não houve diferença entre as regiões. O acesso foi maior para as usuárias de contraceptivos orais (90

  5. Treatment with liraglutide--a once-daily GLP-1 analog--does not reduce the bioavailability of ethinyl estradiol/levonorgestrel taken as an oral combination contraceptive drug.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Lisbeth V; Vouis, Jan; Hindsberger, Charlotte; Zdravkovic, Milan

    2011-12-01

    Liraglutide is a once-daily human GLP-1 analog for treatment of type 2 diabetes. Like other GLP-1 analogs, liraglutide delays gastric emptying, which could potentially affect absorption of concomitantly administered oral drugs. This study investigated the effect of liraglutide on the pharmacokinetics of the components of an oral contraceptive (ethinyl estradiol/levonorgestrel). Postmeno-pausal healthy women (n = 21) were included. A single dose of this contraceptive was administered. Blood samples for ethinyl estradiol/levonorgestrel measurements were drawn until 74 hours post dosing of the contraceptive during liraglutide and placebo treatments. The 90% confidence interval (CI) of the ratio of the area under the curve (AUC) (1.06; 90% CI, 0.99-1.13) for ethinyl estradiol (during liraglutide and placebo) was within defined limits, demonstrating equivalence. The 90% CI for the ratio of AUC for levonorgestrel was not fully contained within the limits (1.18; 90% CI, 1.04-1.34) (levonorgestrel AUC was 18% greater with liraglutide vs placebo). However, equivalence was demonstrated for levonorgestrel AUC(0-t) (1.15; 90% CI, 1.06-1.24). Equivalence was not demonstrated for maximum concentration (C(max)); values for ethinyl estradiol and levonorgestrel C(max) were 12% and 13% lower with liraglutide versus placebo, respectively. Both reached C(max) ~1.5 hours later with liraglutide. No clinically relevant reduction in bioavailability of ethinyl estradiol/levonorgestrel occurred.

  6. Peculiar observations in measuring testosterone in women treated with oral contraceptives supplemented with dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA).

    PubMed

    Heijboer, Annemieke C; Zimmerman, Yvette; de Boer, Theo; Coelingh Bennink, Herjan; Blankenstein, Marinus A

    2014-03-20

    Total testosterone is considered to be decreased during the use of combined oral contraceptives. There is, however, considerable concern about the quality of testosterone assays, especially at low levels. We aimed to confirm testosterone levels measured by direct radioimmunoassay in a recent clinical trial with a state-of-the-art LC-MSMS method. Surplus specimens with known testosterone levels collected during the study (Clinical Trial Registration number ISRCTN06414473) were reanalyzed with an LC-MSMS method. This method was compared to another LC-MSMS method that had shown to concur excellently to a reference method. Follow-up experiments were designed to explain the results. In contrast to our expectation, LC-MSMS measurements did not corroborate the data obtained by radioimmunoassay. Subsequent experiments showed that this could be attributed to a strong dependency of the radioimmunoassay on SHBG. Testosterone results (n = 198) obtained by direct radioimmunoassay showed a negative correlation to SHBG levels (r = -0.676; p<0.001). By contrast, testosterone results obtained by LC-MSMS were not related to SHBG (r = 0.100; NS). In conclusion, our results indicate that total testosterone measurements during oral contraceptive use are unreliable when performed with assays sensitive to the SHBG concentration. The discrepancy with the literature can most likely be explained by the sensitivity of the immunoassay used to SHBG. Given the sharp increase in SHBG during the use of many oral contraceptives, total testosterone may not decrease, whereas its bioavailability, estimated by free testosterone levels, will be diminished. Studies aiming at restoration of testosterone homeostasis during oral contraception need to take this into account. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Oral Contraceptive Use and Psychiatric Disorders in a Nationally Representative Sample of Women

    PubMed Central

    Cheslack-Postava, Keely; Keyes, Katherine M.; Lowe, Sarah R.; Koenen, Karestan C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Examine the association between oral contraceptive use (any current use, duration and type) and major depression disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and panic disorder (PD) in a nationally representative sample of women in the United States. Methods Data were drawn from 1,105 women aged 20–39 in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys from 1999 to 2004. The associations between self-reported use of oral contraceptives in the past year and DSM-IV diagnosed and sub-threshold MDD, GAD, and PD in the past year were assessed comparing oral contraceptive users to all non-users, former users and former long-term users. Results Women using oral contraceptives had a lower past-year prevalence of all disorders assessed, other than sub-threshold MDD. When adjusted for confounders, women using oral contraceptives in the past year had significantly lower odds of sub-threshold PD, compared to former users (OR=0.34, 95% C.I. 0.14–0.84). Effects estimates were strongest for monophasic (versus multiphasic) oral contraceptive users. Conclusions Hormonal contraceptive use was associated with reduced risk of subthreshold PD. A potential mental health benefit of hormonal contraceptives has substantial public health implications; prospective longitudinal studies are needed to confirm whether hormonal contraceptive use improves mental health. PMID:25113319

  8. Oral contraceptives cause evolutionarily novel increases in hormone exposure

    PubMed Central

    Lovett, Jennie L.; Chima, Margo A.; Wexler, Juliana K.; Arslanian, Kendall J.; Friedman, Andrea B.; Yousif, Chantal B.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background and objectives: In the evolutionary past, women spent most of their reproductive lives either pregnant or in lactational amenorrhea, and rarely menstruated. The current pattern of frequent menses, and the associated increase in endogenous hormonal exposure, has been implicated in the current breast cancer epidemic. It is not known, however, whether oral contraceptives further increase, or actually decrease, hormonal exposure over one menstrual cycle. Here, we examined variation in hormonal exposure across seven oral contraceptive (OC) formulations, and produced the first quantitative comparison of exogenous versus endogenous hormone exposure. Methodology: Data from 12 studies of serum estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) were aggregated to create a composite graph of endogenous hormone levels over one menstrual cycle in European or American women (age 19–40 years). Pharmacokinetic package insert data, also from Western women, were used to calculate exposures for hormones in seven different OC formulations. Endogenous and exogenous hormone levels were compared after adjusting for the relative binding affinity (RBA) of progestin to the progesterone receptor and ethinyl estradiol (EE) to the estrogen receptor. Results: After adjusting for RBA, median ethinyl estradiol exposure across 28 days in the OCs was 11.4 nmol/l, similar to median E2 exposure. One formulation, however, was 40% higher in ethinyl estradiol exposure relative to median endogenous estradiol. Median exposure from progestins in OCs (1496 nmol/l) was 4-fold higher than the median endogenous exposure from P4 (364 nmol/l). Exposure from OC progestins ranged from one sixtieth to 8-fold median endogenous P4 over 28 days. Conclusions and implications: Given that breast cancer risk increases with hormonal exposure, our finding that four widely prescribed formulations more than quadruple progestin exposure relative to endogenous progesterone exposure is cause for concern. As not all

  9. [ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES AND MOOD/SEXUAL DISORDERS IN WOMEN].

    PubMed

    Sirakov, M; Tomova, E

    2015-01-01

    Oral contraceptives are used since more than 50 years and are very popular due to offering more than 99% confidence in preventing pregnancy. Over 100 million women worldwide use oral contraceptives. In the UK 27% of women between 16 and 49 y. use pills. In the United States they are about 30%, in Germany - 40%, and in The Netherlands - 60%. According to a study by B. Pehlivanov, 2008, in Bulgaria only 4% of women use OC. (1) Despite the convenience and security, in the U.S.A. 29% of women taking OC interrupt prematurely their use (2), while the percentage of adolescents appears to be higher (3) Earlier studies of the reasons for refusal of OC focus on their influence on the menstrual cycle, as well as on some physical side effects such as the appearance of hair growth, weight gain, bloating etc. They paid very little attention to their impact on mood and sexual behavior of women (4). Newer studies suggest that the side effects associated with mood and sexual behavior proved more powerful factor leading to early termination of the use of OC (5). This paper is a review of the literature and evaluation of the facts presented in studies from different countries. They found a high incidence of symptoms such as anxiety, susceptibility to stress, mood changes, incl. depression, anxiety, increased irritability and affection of sexual desire of women. (6) There are many indications that OC-users are at increased risk of suicide and mental illnesses. (9).

  10. Lipid profile of women using oral contraceptive pills.

    PubMed

    Naz, F; Jyoti, S; Akhtar, N; Afzal, M; Siddique, Y H

    2012-10-01

    Oral contraceptives (OCs) are the most popular type of birth control pills. The study was designed to examine the biochemical changes which occur due to the use of oral contraceptive pills (OCs). The study was based on the questionnaire for having the information of any reproductive history fasting, age, health, nature of menstrual cycle, bleeding, disease etc and blood profiling for biochemical analysis of the women includes high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG). Lipid profiling was carried out by using a commercially available diagnostic test kits. SPSS was used to analyze the data. The results showed statistically significant differences among users of OCs compared to non-users. Total cholesterol (242.92 +/- 2.842 mg dL(-1)), HDL-C (58.65 +/- 1.098 mg dL(-1)), LDL-C (115.84 +/- 1.266 mg dL(-1)) and triglycerides (105.56 +/- 2.341 mg dL(-1)) were significantly higher compared to the non-users (Total cholesterol 218.49 +/- 1.762, HDL-C 48.17 +/- 0.543, LDL-C 100.321 +/- 0.951 and triglycerides 83.77 +/- 2.299 mg dL(-1)). The result suggests that OCs increase the level of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG).

  11. Effects of Oral Contraceptive Use on Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Gray, Aaron M; Gugala, Zbigniew; Baillargeon, Jacques G

    2016-04-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament injuries often incur major consequences for athletes. Elevated estrogen levels are likely increase the risk for injury. This risk may be partially or fully mitigated by the use of oral contraceptives. The purpose of this study was to determine if women undergoing anterior cruciate ligament surgical reconstruction were less likely to use oral contraceptives than matched noninjured population. This is a case-control study utilizing national insurance claims data from 2002 TO 2012. Participants included women age 15-39 yr. Cases were defined as those receiving surgical reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament between 2002 and 2012. Controls were matched 3/1 to cases. Exposure to oral contraceptives was defined as the presence of any prescription fill for oral contraceptives during the previous 12 months to index date. Conditional multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios for the use of oral contraceptives. Women age 15-19 yr undergoing surgical repair of the anterior cruciate ligament were 18% less likely to use oral contraceptives than matched controls (adjusted odds ratio, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.75-0.91; P < 0.0001). Cases among two older age groups, 25-29 and 30-34 yr, were more likely to use oral contraceptives than controls with adjusted odds ratios of 1.15 (95% CI, 1.02-1.30; P < 0.05) and 1.16 (95% CI, 1.04-1.31; P < 0.05), respectively. The use of oral contraceptives potentially modifies anterior cruciate ligament injury risk in young women. Despite reports that athletes, who are more prone to anterior cruciate ligament injury, use oral contraceptives at about twice the rate of nonathletes, these data suggest that women ages 15-19 yr undergoing anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction used oral contraceptives at a lower rate than the general population.

  12. Effects of a combined oral contraceptive containing oestradiol valerate/dienogest on hormone withdrawal-associated symptoms: results from the multicentre, randomised, double-blind, active-controlled HARMONY II study.

    PubMed

    Macìas, G; Merki-Feld, G S; Parke, S; Mellinger, U; Serrani, M

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this multicentre, randomised, double-blind study was to compare a combined oral contraceptive (COC) containing oestradiol valerate/dienogest (E2V/DNG) administered in a dynamic dosing regimen with a monophasic COC containing ethinyloestradiol/levonorgestrel (EE/LNG), with regard to their ability to reduce the frequency and intensity of headache and pelvic pain in women with hormone withdrawal-associated symptoms (HWAS). Women aged 18-50 years received E2V/DNG in an oestrogen step-down and progestin step-up regimen (26/2 regimen; n = 223) or EE 20 μg/LNG 100 μg (21/7 regimen; n = 218) over six cycles. Headache and pelvic pain were assessed using a visual analogue scale (VAS) during cycle days 22-28. Rescue medication use was also assessed. E2V/DNG was superior to EE/LNG with regard to reducing the frequency and intensity of headache and pelvic pain from baseline to cycle 6 (change from baseline in the average of the three highest VAS values [mean ± standard deviation]: 47.7 ± 29.4 vs 34.5 ± 25.7 mm, respectively; p < 0.0001). The use of rescue medication was also significantly reduced with E2V/DNG compared with EE/LNG (p < 0.05). E2V/DNG may be a good option for women who experience HWAS with traditional 21/7-day regimen COCs.

  13. Estradiol valerate and dienogest: a novel four-phasic oral contraceptive pill effective for pregnancy prevention and treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding.

    PubMed

    Micks, Elizabeth; Jensen, Jeffrey T

    2011-09-01

    Estradiol valerate and dienogest have been combined to create a novel four-phasic oral contraceptive pill effective for both pregnancy prevention and treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding. This formulation represents the only oral contraceptive pill available in the USA containing an estrogen component that is biologically active as the endogenous estrogen 17β-estradiol. This medication was developed out of efforts to replace the most common estrogen in contraceptive pills, ethinyl estradiol, which is known to be a potent inducer of hepatic protein synthesis. Estradiol valerate has been available since the 1970s in oral and injectable forms indicated for the treatment of menopausal climacteric symptoms. Dienogest has been used in other oral contraceptive pills for over 10 years. Previous attempts to develop an oral contraceptive pill with natural estradiol or estradiol valerate were unsuccessful due to poor cycle control. A novel dynamic-dosing regimen was devised to improve the bleeding pattern. This medication has been shown in several clinical trials to have good contraceptive efficacy and cycle control. Recent studies have also demonstrated that this medication is effective for the treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding. However, compared with other oral contraceptive pills, this medication is associated with a higher frequency of absent withdrawal bleeding. Furthermore, the dynamic dosing regimen requires relatively complex instructions for users who miss pills.

  14. Procedures to improve prescribing and dispensing of oral contraceptives at an academic medical center.

    PubMed

    Rafie, Sally; Choy, Karla A

    2012-02-01

    An initiative to improve procedures and safeguards for inpatient oral contraceptive use at an academic medical center is described. A retrospective chart review was conducted to determine patterns of oral contraceptive use and potential areas for quality improvement. During the six-month period covered by the chart review, a total of 95 oral contraceptive orders were placed for 55 patients, mainly for continuation of home contraception (24% of cases) and other indications unrelated to the patients' primary diagnoses, such as menorrhagia (23% of cases); more than 1 in 5 (22%) of those orders were for non-formulary products, and about 35% of the prescribed regimens called for multiple daily dosages. The evaluation also focused on pharmacy procedures for stocking and dispensing oral contraceptives, as well as procedures for processing oral contraceptive orders through the computerized prescriber-order-entry (CPOE) system. In addition to discrepancies in the numbers and types of oral contraceptive products on the formulary and in pharmacy inventories, the review identified suboptimal CPOE controls and dispensing practices that posed an undue risk of nurse confusion and administration errors. Pursuant to the evaluation, a number of system and procedural changes were recommended, approved by the medical center's pharmacy and therapeutics committee, and implemented. A review of existing processes for the use of oral contraceptives led to the identification of several strategies to improve prescribing and dispensing practices. Strategies to improve medication safety included reducing the number of oral contraceptive products on the formulary, modifying the CPOE system to restrict ordering to formulary products, dispensing only tablets that contain active drug, and repackaging oral contraceptives in unit dose form.

  15. Pharmacists' knowledge and interest in developing counseling skills relating to oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Amin, Mohamed E K

    2016-04-01

    Possessing correct therapeutic information on oral contraceptives is an important prerequisite for the provision of sound advice to women who are using these products. This study examines Egyptian pharmacists' knowledge of pharmacotherapeutic aspects of oral contraceptives as well as interest in developing skills in providing counseling on oral contraceptive pills. Community pharmacies throughout Alexandria, Egypt. A cross-sectional survey was self-administered by a random sample of community pharmacists in Alexandria, Egypt. Five multiple choice questions likely to arise when counseling women on oral contraceptives were constructed. Questions covered compatibility with breastfeeding, precautions, health risks and managing missed pills of oral contraceptives. Using ordered logistic regression, a model was estimated to predict pharmacists' interest in developing skills in providing counseling on oral contraceptives. Pharmacists' aggregate scores for knowledge questions and pharmacists' interest in developing skills in providing counseling on oral contraceptive pills. Of the 181 approached pharmacists, 92 % participated. Twenty one pharmacists (13 %) did not know the correct answer to any question, 122 (73 %) answered one-two correctly, 23 (14 %) answered three-four correctly. No pharmacist answered all five questions correctly. For pharmacists' interest in developing skills in providing counseling on oral contraceptives, the percentage values for answers were: not interested at all (10.2 %), slightly interested (27.0 %), somewhat interested (23.4 %), interested (30.0 %) and extremely interested (9.6 %). Pharmacists' interest in developing skills in providing counseling on oral contraceptives was significantly associated with the number of women who requested advice from the pharmacists on oral contraceptives (OR 1.54, CI 1.24-1.91). In terms of the learning method of preference, percentage values for answers were: attending a workshop (4 %), online course (18

  16. [Oral contraceptives and the internal ecology of women].

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Y

    1974-11-01

    This review of the general effects of oral contraceptives includes mode of action, criteria for severity of side effects, discussion of the most important side effects, and possible drug interactions; each topic is outlined in tables. Pills work by inhibiting ovulation, altering cervical mucus, and suppressing the endometrium. Criteria for severity of side effects are 1) increased incidence in the population, 2) change in the woman's current or future life bearing on her health or 3) that of her offspring, and 4) irreversible changes. Accordingly, the most important probelms are amenorrhea or "oversuppression syndrome," more common in nulliparas and those taking depot contraceptives; abortion due to severe malformation of the embryo within 6 months of stopping the pill; hyperplasia of the cervix or breast fibrosis; and thromboembolism, particularly postoperative. Tables for choosing the type of pill to suit the patient, brands available in Canada, and doses, are provided. Drug interations may involve modification of absorption, augmentation of hormone-protein linkage, and changes in liver metabolism.

  17. Bone mineral density and history of oral contraceptive use.

    PubMed

    Fortney, J A; Feldblum, P J; Talmage, R V; Zhang, J; Godwin, S E

    1994-02-01

    To examine the relationship between oral contraceptive (OC) use and bone mineral density (BMD), we conducted a cross-sectional study on 352 white, nonsmoking, perimenopausal women aged 40-54 years. We measured bone mineral density of lumbar vertebrae 2-4 with dual photon absorptiometry and mid-radius and distal radius with single photon absorptiometry. After controlling for age, body mass, current physical activity, current calcium intake and history of breastfeeding, our analysis did not find substantial differences in BMD at any site between OC ever users and never users. However, OC ever users had slightly higher lumbar BMD among premenopausal women. No significant association was identified between recency of OC use and BMD. The results of our study suggest that when other factors are accounted for, OC use is not strongly associated with BMD among perimenopausal women, although we cannot exclude a slight beneficial effect.

  18. Lansoprazole does not affect the bioavailability of oral contraceptives.

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, W; Sennewald, R; Klotz, U

    1994-01-01

    The effects of the proton pump inhibitor lansoprazole on the bioavailability of a low-dose oral contraceptive (OC), containing 0.03 mg ethinyloestradiol (EE) and 0.15 mg levonorgestrel (LNG), were investigated. Twenty-four healthy females (aged 19-35 years; weight 60.6 +/- 7.1 kg) participated in a multiple-dose, placebo-controlled, randomized two-way cross-over study. All subjects received the OC over 2 full menstrual cycles from day 1 to day 21 separated by a drug-free interval of 7 days. Lansoprazole (60 mg day-1) or placebo was coadministered for 3 weeks each. Plasma concentrations of EE and LNG were determined by GC-MS. The 90% confidence intervals for ratios of Cmax and AUC after log transformation of both EE and LNG ranged between 91 and 111%, indicating that lansoprazole did not affect the bioavailability of EE and LNG. PMID:7833230

  19. Lansoprazole does not affect the bioavailability of oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, W; Sennewald, R; Klotz, U

    1994-10-01

    The effects of the proton pump inhibitor lansoprazole on the bioavailability of a low-dose oral contraceptive (OC), containing 0.03 mg ethinyloestradiol (EE) and 0.15 mg levonorgestrel (LNG), were investigated. Twenty-four healthy females (aged 19-35 years; weight 60.6 +/- 7.1 kg) participated in a multiple-dose, placebo-controlled, randomized two-way cross-over study. All subjects received the OC over 2 full menstrual cycles from day 1 to day 21 separated by a drug-free interval of 7 days. Lansoprazole (60 mg day-1) or placebo was coadministered for 3 weeks each. Plasma concentrations of EE and LNG were determined by GC-MS. The 90% confidence intervals for ratios of Cmax and AUC after log transformation of both EE and LNG ranged between 91 and 111%, indicating that lansoprazole did not affect the bioavailability of EE and LNG.

  20. [Clinical experiences with a gestodene containing oral contraceptive (femoden)].

    PubMed

    Gimes, G; Valent, S

    1998-09-01

    In order to reduce the side-effects (blood-lipid alterations, androgen effects etc.) new gestogens were introduced, while the ethinyl-estradiol component of the pill was unchanged. Authors report about clinical trial on monophasic oral contraceptive containing 0.030 mg ethinyl-estradiol and 0.075 mg gestodene. In a follow up of 92 women, in 1740 cycles no pregnancy and no cardivascular or thromboembolic complication was observed. The frequency of bleeding disorders was below 10% already in the first cycle. The quantity of withdrawal bleeding, as well the frequency of breakthrough bleeding and spotting decreased during the treatment. Significant alteration in body weight or blood pressure did not occur. Femoden containing third generation gestogen has an excellent cycle control and good patient compliance.

  1. Stroke in women - oral contraception, pregnancy, and hormone replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Rantanen, Kirsi; Tatlisumak, Turgut

    2013-01-01

    Stroke is a devastating disease affecting millions of people worldwide every year. Female stroke victims have higher mortality rates and they do not re-cover as well as men. Women's longevity and different vascular risk factor burden like a larger prevalence of atrial fibrillation play a role. Women also have unique risk factors such as oral contraception, pregnancy, estrogen decrease after the menopause and hormone replacement therapy, which should all be evaluated and taken into consideration in treatment decisions both in the acute phase of stroke and in secondary prevention. In this review, the evidence regarding these hormonal aspects and the risk of stroke in women are evaluated. The relevant guidelines are studied and research gaps identified. Future topics for research are recommended and current treatment possibilities and their risks discussed.

  2. Factors predicting mood changes in oral contraceptive pill users

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Over 100 million women worldwide are using oral contraceptives pills (OCP) and mood changes were being as the primary reason for OCP discontinuation. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and predicting factors of mood changes in oral contraceptive pills users. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 500 women aged 15–49 years old using low dose (LD) pills attending family planning centers in Ahwaz, Iran. Data were collected via face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire including items on demographic, self-efficacy and mood change. Both univarate and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the relationship between reported mood change and the independent variables. Results In all 406 women reported that they did experience OCP side effects. Of these, 37.7% of women (n =153) reported mood changes due to OCP use. The results of multiple logistic regression revealed that place of living (OR =2.57, 95% CI = 1.06-6.20, p =0.03), not receiving information on OCP side effects (OR =1.80, 95% CI = 1.15-2.80, p =0.009), and lower self-efficacy (OR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.80-0.94, p =0.001) were significant predictors of mood changes. Conclusion The findings from this study indicated that the prevalence of reported mood changes due to OCP use among Iranian women appeared to be consistent with other studies. In addition the findings showed that receiving information on OCP side effects from health care workers and self-efficacy were important predicting factors for mood changes. Indeed implementing educational programs and improving self-efficacy among women are recommended. PMID:24015872

  3. Efficacy and safety of the new antiandrogenic oral contraceptive Belara.

    PubMed

    Zahradnik, H P; Goldberg, J; Andreas, J O

    1998-02-01

    The aim of this open, noncontrolled phase III study was the assessment of the contraceptive efficacy and the evaluation of the safety of long-term use of Belara (30 micrograms ethinyl estradiol plus 2 mg chlormadinone acetate). Furthermore, cycle stability during administration of Belara and the influence of Belara on acne and seborrhea as clinical signs of androgenization were observed. Belara was taken by 1655 women for a total of 22,337 cycles. For the theoretical Pearl index, a value of 0.269 (95% CI [0.109, 0.600]) was calculated. In 1655 of 22,337 cycles (7.4%), no withdrawal bleeding was documented, whereas in 2565 of 22,308 cycles (11.5%), spottings and, in 786 of 22,308 cycles (3.5%), breakthrough bleeding occurred. After the intake of Belara for 12 cycles, acne on the face/neck improved in 64.1% of the women (209 of 326). In 53.4% of the women (175 of 326), acne disappeared completely. Seborrhea improved after 12 cycles in 89 of 131 women (67.9%), of whom 76 women (58.0%) were completely cured. Sixty-two serious adverse events (SAE) occurred in 59 of 1655 women. Accidents and injuries of the musculoskeletal system were the SAE with the highest incidence (0.66%). Two cases of deep venous thrombosis, one pulmonary embolism, and two cases of visual disturbances were observed. Only for the two cases of deep venous thrombosis could a relation to Belara be assumed. Of the adverse events commonly reported for oral contraceptives, headache was observed for the first time under study medication in 37.4%, nausea in 23.1%, breast tenderness in 21.7%, and vaginal discharge in 19.4% of the women. The frequency of adverse events decreased with longer duration of a drug consisting of intake of Belara. In conclusion, Belara can be described as an effective and safe oral contraceptive with marked antiandrogenic properties.

  4. Oral contraceptive use alters the balance of platelet prostaglandin and thromboxane synthesis.

    PubMed

    Schorer, A E; Gerrard, J M; White, J G; Krivit, W

    1978-07-01

    The ability of platelet microsomes to generate platelet aggregating activity on addition of arachidonic acid was evaluated in women taking oral contraceptives and in controls taking no medication but matched for age, sex, and family history. Oral contraceptive users generated significantly more platelet aggregating activity per 100 ug of platelet microsomal protein than controls. Variation in generation of platelet aggregating activity during the menstrual cycle was also observed with highest activity during the third week. These studies show an altered balance of platelet prostaglandin and thromboxane synthesis in oral contraceptive users which may contribute to their increased incidence of thromboembolic phenomena.

  5. Factors associated with the contraindicated use of oral contraceptives in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Corrêa, Daniele Aparecida Silva; Felisbino-Mendes, Mariana Santos; Mendes, Mayara Santos; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of the contraindicated use of oral contraceptives and the associated factors in Brazilian women. METHODS 20,454 women who answered the VIGITEL survey in 2008 also participated in this study, of which 3,985 reported using oral contraceptives. We defined the following conditions for the contraindicated use of contraceptives: hypertension; cardiovascular diseases such as heart attack, stroke/cerebrovascular accident; diabetes mellitus; being smoker and 35 years old or older. We estimated the prevalence and 95% confidence intervals of contraindicated use in users of oral contraceptives and the factors associated with contraindication by prevalence ratio and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS In the total population, 21% (95%CI 19.7–21.9) of women showed some contraindication to the use of oral contraceptives, of which 11.7% (95%CI 10.6–13.7) belonged to the group of users of oral contraceptives. The most frequent contraindication in users of oral contraceptives was hypertension (9.1%). The largest proportion of women with at least one contraindication was aged between 45 and 49 years (45.8%) and with education level between zero and eight years (23.8%). The prevalence of contraindication to oral contraceptives was higher in women less educated (zero to eight years of study) (PR = 2.46; 95%CI 1.57–3.86; p < 0.05) and with age between 35-44 years (PR = 4.00; 95%CI 2.34–6.83) and 45-49 years (PR = 5.59; 95%CI 2.90–10.75). CONCLUSIONS Age greater than or equal to 35 and low education level were demographic and iniquity factors, respectively, in the contraindicated use of oral contraceptives. PMID:28099550

  6. Oral contraceptive use and cancer: final report from the Oxford-Family Planning Association contraceptive study.

    PubMed

    Vessey, Martin; Yeates, David

    2013-12-01

    This analysis provides the final results on cancer incidence in relation to oral contraceptive (OC) use from the Oxford-Family Planning Association (Oxford-FPA) contraceptive study, which closed at the end of 2010. An additional 6 years of observation have been added since our last report and there has been an increase in the numbers of cancers of over 50% at seven of the sites considered. The Oxford-FPA study includes 17032 women aged 25-39 years recruited from 1968 to 1974 at contraceptive clinics in England and Scotland. These women were using OCs, a diaphragm or an intrauterine device. Information about cancer incidence among them has been collected from recruitment until closure of the study. OC use was not related to nonreproductive cancer. Breast cancer findings (1087 cases) were entirely negative; the rate ratio (RR) comparing ever users of OCs with never users was 1.0 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.9-1.1]. Only two cases of cervical cancer have been added since our last report (total: 61 cases); the RR comparing ever use with never use is now 3.4 (95% CI: 1.6-8.9). The risk of this disease increases sharply with duration of OC use and declines steadily with interval since last OC use. OC use protects against both uterine body cancer (124 cases) and ovarian cancer (143 cases). The RRs comparing ever use with never use were 0.5 (95% CI: 0.3-0.7) and 0.5 (95% CI: 0.4-0.7), respectively. Protection against both these cancers increased with duration of OC use and waned with interval since last use, but an effect was still present 28 or more years after discontinuation. In our study, OC use had no effect on nonreproductive cancers or on breast cancer. The risk of cervical cancer was increased and that of uterine body cancer and ovarian cancer was decreased by OC use. All these effects increased with duration of use and declined with interval since last use. The beneficial effects of OC use on cancer outweighed the adverse effects. These findings should

  7. Effects of oral contraceptives on tryptophan metabolism and vitamin B6 requirements in women.

    PubMed

    Brown, R R; Rose, D P; Leklem, J E; Linkswiler, H M

    1975-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of oral contraceptive usage on the nutritional requirement for vitamin B6, control women and oral contraceptive users were depleted of vitamin B6 for 1 month followed by a month of repletion with 0.8, 2.0, or 20.0 mg of pyridoxine hydrochloride per day. At weekly intervals a number of indices of vitamin B6 nutrition were measured. Marked elevation in excretion of tryptophan metabolites occurred in oral contraceptive users after tryptophan loads. However, other indices of vitamin B6 nutritional state, including urinary 4-pyridoxic acid excretion, urinary cystathionine excretion, plasma pyridoxal phosphate concentrations, and erythrocyte aspartate and alanine aminotransferases were not different between controls and oral contraceptive users. The excretion of metabolites after oral loading doses of L-kynurenine (which bypasses tryptophan oxygenase) was elevated in oral contraceptive users indicating that abnormal metabolism of tryptophan was not due only to induced tryptophan oxygenase. The data indicate that use of oral contraceptives does not generally change the requirement for vitamin B6 but rather produces a specific change in activity of enzymes beyond kynurenine in the pathway of tryptophan metabolism.

  8. Oral contraceptives alter sleep and raise body temperature in young women.

    PubMed

    Baker, F C; Mitchell, D; Driver, H S

    2001-08-01

    Female reproductive steroids, oestrogen and progesterone, not only affect reproductive function, but also thermoregulation and sleep. Chronic administration of synthetic steroids, as occurs in women taking oral contraceptives, may affect these regulatory systems differently from endogenous oestrogen and progesterone. We therefore investigated body temperature and sleep in ten young women taking oral contraceptives, in the active and placebo phases of the contraceptive pack, and compared them to a group of nine women with ovulatory cycles, in the mid-follicular and mid-luteal phases. Body temperature was raised throughout 24 h in the women taking oral contraceptives in the active phase, and in the naturally cycling women in the luteal phase, compared to the follicular phase. The women taking oral contraceptives in the placebo phase, however, continued to have raised body temperatures, similar to those in the active phase, indicating a prolonged action of synthetic reproductive steroids on body temperature. Sleep also was influenced by the endogenous and synthetic reproductive steroids, but independently of body temperature. The women taking oral contraceptives had more stage-2 non-rapid eye movement sleep in the active phase, both compared to their placebo phase and the naturally cycling women. The naturally cycling women, however, had more slow wave sleep in the luteal phase compared to the contraceptive group of women. Exogenous reproductive steroids therefore influence body temperature and sleep differently from endogenous progesterone and oestrogen.

  9. Gestodene. A review of its pharmacology, efficacy and tolerability in combined contraceptive preparations.

    PubMed

    Wilde, M I; Balfour, J A

    1995-08-01

    The newer progestogens gestodene, desogestrel and norgestimate were developed in an attempt to produce agents with more selective progestational activity that would improve cycle control and minimise metabolic changes and adverse events while effectively preventing pregnancy. In clinical practice, gestodene is combined with ethinylestradiol in monophasic or triphasic combined oral contraceptive preparations. The drug has pharmacokinetic advantages over the other new progestogens in that it is active per se (the others are prodrugs) and has high bioavailability (approximately 100%). The ability of gestodene-containing oral contraceptives to inhibit ovulation is similar to that of preparations containing other progestogens although the required dosage is lower. In common with oral contraceptives containing desogestrel or norgestimate, and in contrast with those containing levonorgestrel, gestodene-containing preparations are associated with neutral or positive changes in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. The effects of gestodene preparations on coagulation parameters, like those of desogestrel and levonorgestrel, are balanced by changes in the fibrinolytic system. Although the impact of these changes on clinical cardiovascular end-points has not been determined, the altered lipid profile is not likely to have significant clinical relevance because of the predominantly thrombogenic nature of cardiovascular disease in oral contraceptive users. Pregnancy rates and Pearl Indices with gestodene-containing preparations are low and similar to those with preparations containing other progestogens. Most pregnancies are attributable to user failure. Cycle control appears to be better with gestodene preparations than with levonorgestrel preparations, and available data suggest that cycle control may also be better with monophasic gestodene/ethinylestradiol than with monophasic desogestrel- or norgestimate-containing preparations, and better with triphasic gestodene- than with

  10. Oral contraceptives and cardiovascular risk. Taking a safe course of action.

    PubMed

    Derman, R J

    1990-09-15

    Although a prospective, longitudinal study on the long-term cardiovascular effects of oral contraceptives has yet to be performed, available data are useful in determining a safe course of action while physicians await definitive answers. Exogenous sex steroids produce important effects on lipid metabolism. Early intervention against cholesterol is important in reducing cardiovascular risk. Current users of high-dose formulations, particularly older women who smoke, are at greatest risk for cardiovascular complications, especially myocardial infarction. Low-dose oral contraceptives have more modest effects on lipid metabolism, but important differences in the potency of progestins remain. Fortunately, recent studies among users of lower-dose oral contraceptive formulations fail to show an increase in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Nonetheless, prudent physicians will avoid oral contraceptives that may adversely affect lipoprotein metabolism, such as those containing progestins with high androgenic and antiestrogenic potency.

  11. Side and site of deep vein thrombosis in women using oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Kierkegaard, A

    1985-01-01

    The anatomy of the thrombus in acute deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in women using oral contraceptives was studied in 277 reports on DVT received by the Swedish Adverse Drug Reaction Advisory Committee (SADRAC). The study revealed a similarity between the anatomy of DVT in women on oral contraceptives and that of DVT in pregnant women, suggesting a pharmacologic influence of the hormones in the pill on the pathogenesis of DVT in women on oral contraceptives. The anatomy of DVT in women on low-estrogen pills was identical with that of DVT in women on high-estrogen pills, suggesting an identical pharmacologic influence of the two types of pill on the pathogenesis of DVT in women on oral contraceptives.

  12. Effects of oral contraceptive agents and sex steroids on carbohydrate metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kalkhoff, R K

    1972-01-01

    The article offers a general interpretation of the influence of oral contraceptive agents on glucose tolerance, emphasizing comparisons of synthetic sex hormones. Although there are conflicting reports on steroid-induced diabetes in normal women, their glucose curves are often higher when under oral contraceptive treatment, suggesting that oral contraceptives may induce a form of subclinical diabetes melitus that is reversible. Evidence from diabetic women suggests definite deliterious effects from contraceptive administration. Estradiol, estriol, and estrone may improve glucose tolerance in nondiabetic women and reduce insulin requirements in diabetics. Progesterone has little effect on carbohydrate tolerance, as did synthetic progestin. Conjugated equine estrogens (equilenine or Premarin) may provoke mild to moderate deterioration of carbohydrate tolerance. Parenterally administered natural estrogens and orally administered synthetic derivatives appear to differ sharply in their effects. Sex hormones' effects on carbohydrate metabolism likely involve interactions with insulin and endogenous glucocorticoids.

  13. Amygdala reactivity to negative stimuli is influenced by oral contraceptive use

    PubMed Central

    Cahill, Larry

    2015-01-01

    The amygdala is a highly interconnected region of the brain that is critically important to emotional processing and affective networks. Previous studies have shown that the response of the amygdala to emotionally arousing stimuli can be modulated by sex hormones. Because oral contraceptive pills dramatically lower circulating sex hormone levels with potent analogs of those hormones, we performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment to measure amygdala reactivity in response to emotional stimuli in women using oral contraceptives, and compared their amygdala reactivity with that of naturally cycling women. Here, we show that women who use oral contraceptive pills have significantly decreased bilateral amygdala reactivity in response to negatively valenced, emotionally arousing stimuli compared with naturally cycling women. We suggest that by modulating amygdala reactivity, oral contraceptive pills may influence behaviors that have previously been shown to be amygdala dependent—in particular, emotional memory. PMID:25688096

  14. Serum Vitamin B12 and Folate Levels in Women Taking Oral Contraceptives

    PubMed Central

    Mountifield, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    Serum vitamin B12 and erythrocyte folate levels were determined in a group of healthy women eating a balanced diet. Approximately 50% were using oral contraceptives. Vitamin B12 levels were lower in the oral contraceptive users. However, their folate levels were no different from those of non-users. Age had no effect on either vitamin B12 or folate levels. Oral contraceptive users taking multiple vitamin tablets containing vitamin B12 and folate had slightly higher folate levels, but their vitamin B12 levels were no different from those of OC users who were not taking vitamin tablets. Hemoglobin and hematocrit levels were not affected by oral contraceptive steroids. No case of megaloblastosis was found. Regular folate supplementation is not required for OC users. In fact, such supplementation may be dangerous. PMID:21267137

  15. The oral contraceptive pill: a revolution for sportswomen?

    PubMed Central

    Bennell, K.; White, S.; Crossley, K.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of the oral contraceptive pill (OCP) on skeletal health, soft tissue injury, and performance in female athletes. METHODS: A literature review was performed using literature retrieval methods to locate relevant studies. RESULTS: Most female athletes primarily choose to use the OCP for contraceptive purposes, but cycle manipulation and control of premenstrual symptoms are secondary advantages of its use. The effect of the OCP on bone density in normally menstruating women is unclear, with some studies reporting no effect, others a positive effect, and some even a negative effect. The OCP is often prescribed for the treatment of menstrual disturbances in female athletes, and improvements in bone density may result. Whether the OCP influences the risk of stress fracture and soft tissue injuries is not clear from research to date. Effects of the OCP on performance are particularly relevant for elite sportswomen. Although a reduction in Vo2MAX has been reported in some studies, this may not necessarily translate to impaired performance in the field. Moreover, some studies claim that the OCP may well enhance performance by reducing premenstrual symptoms and menstrual blood loss. A fear of weight gain with the use of the OCP is not well founded, as population studies report no effect on weight, particularly with the lower dose pills currently available. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the advantages of the pill for sportswomen would appear to outweigh any potential disadvantages. Nevertheless, there is individual variation in response to the OCP and these should be taken into account and monitored in the clinical situation. Women should be counselled as to the range of potential benefits and disadvantages in order to make an informed decision based on individual circumstances. 


 PMID:10450476

  16. [Fertility and characteristics of ovulation after discontinuing oral contraception].

    PubMed

    Gaspard, U; Lambotte, R

    1984-09-01

    A brief review of the literature is the basis for this discussion of residual effects of oral contraceptives (OCs) on fertility and the quality of ovulation after pill use is terminated. A 1982 study of the delay to conception attempted to avoid methological difficulties of earlier studies by comparing previous contraceptive usage among 7000 women hospitalized for childbirth. The analysis showed that the monthly percentage of pregnancies after OC use was significantly decreased for the 1st 3 months compared to levels in former IUD and diaphragm users. 13 months after OCs, 24.8% of OC users still had not conceived, compared to 12.4% if IUD and 8.5% of diaphragm users. Post-pill amenorrhea of longer than 6 months occurs in about 1% of cases. It is now agreed that post-pill amenorrhea is rare, nonspecific, and of multifactorial etiology. The previous existence of menstrual irregularity, stress, psychological troubles, malnutrition, and anorexia are particularly significant. OC use seems to mask the natural occurrence of secondary amenorrhea rather than to cause it. The most careful of available studies document that, although OC use may because of its estrogen content reveal an unsuspected prolactinemia, there is no increase in prolactinemia among OC users. A consensus exists that, excluding patients developing amenorrhea due to ovarian insufficiency, post-pill amenorrhea responds to ovulation inducing treatment exactly as do amenorrheas with no history of pill use. In cases of conception after failure of OCs and continued treatment with OCs, the aging of sperm or hypermaturation of ova at the time of fertilization is accompanied by a very slight increase in the proportion of male fetuses. The teratogenic risk appears to be negligable among former OC users and perhaps slightly greater if OCs, hormonal tests, or supplementary hormonal therapy are continued during pregnancy. The increased risk is not even seen in many studies and does not appear to indicate pregnancy

  17. Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Oral Testosterone Enanthate Plus Dutasteride for 4 Weeks in Normal Men: Implications for Male Hormonal Contraception

    PubMed Central

    AMORY, JOHN K.; KALHORN, THOMAS F.; PAGE, STEPHANIE T.

    2009-01-01

    Oral administration of testosterone enanthate (TE) and dutasteride increases serum testosterone and might be useful for male hormonal contraception. To ascertain the contraceptive potential of oral TE and dutasteride by determining the degree of gonadotropin suppression mediated by 4 weeks of oral TE plus dutasteride, 20 healthy young men were randomly assigned to 4 weeks of either 400 mg oral TE twice daily or 800 mg oral TE once daily in a double-blinded, controlled fashion at a single site. All men received 0.5 mg dutasteride daily. Blood for measurement of serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone, dihydrotesterone (DHT), and estradiol was obtained prior to treatment, weekly during treatment, and 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 13, 14, 16, 20, and 24 hours after the morning dose on the last day of treatment. FSH was significantly suppressed throughout treatment with 800 mg TE once daily and after 4 weeks of treatment with 400 mg TE twice daily. LH was significantly suppressed after 2 weeks of treatment with 800 mg TE, but not with 400 mg TE. Serum DHT was suppressed and serum estradiol increased during treatment in both groups. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol was suppresed during treatment, but liver function tests, hematocrit, creatinine, mood, and sexual function were unaffected. The administration of 800 mg oral TE daily combined with dutasteride for 28 days significantly suppresses gonadotropins without untoward side effects and might have utility as part of a male hormonal contraceptive regimen. PMID:18046048

  18. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral testosterone enanthate plus dutasteride for 4 weeks in normal men: implications for male hormonal contraception.

    PubMed

    Amory, John K; Kalhorn, Thomas F; Page, Stephanie T

    2008-01-01

    Oral administration of testosterone enanthate (TE) and dutasteride increases serum testosterone and might be useful for male hormonal contraception. To ascertain the contraceptive potential of oral TE and dutasteride by determining the degree of gonadotropin suppression mediated by 4 weeks of oral TE plus dutasteride, 20 healthy young men were randomly assigned to 4 weeks of either 400 mg oral TE twice daily or 800 mg oral TE once daily in a double-blinded, controlled fashion at a single site. All men received 0.5 mg dutasteride daily. Blood for measurement of serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone, dihydrotesterone (DHT), and estradiol was obtained prior to treatment, weekly during treatment, and 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 13, 14, 16, 20, and 24 hours after the morning dose on the last day of treatment. FSH was significantly suppressed throughout treatment with 800 mg TE once daily and after 4 weeks of treatment with 400 mg TE twice daily. LH was significantly suppressed after 2 weeks of treatment with 800 mg TE, but not with 400 mg TE. Serum DHT was suppressed and serum estradiol increased during treatment in both groups. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol was suppresed during treatment, but liver function tests, hematocrit, creatinine, mood, and sexual function were unaffected. The administration of 800 mg oral TE daily combined with dutasteride for 28 days significantly suppresses gonadotropins without untoward side effects and might have utility as part of a male hormonal contraceptive regimen.

  19. Comparison of Drospirenone- with Cyproterone Acetate-Containing Oral Contraceptives, Combined with Metformin and Lifestyle Modifications in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Metabolic Disorders: A Prospective Randomized Control Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiu-Yi; Song, Yong; Huang, Wei; Xiao, Li; Wang, Qiu-Shi; Feng, Gui-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Background: While combined oral contraceptives (COCs) are commonly used to treat polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), comparative data regarding metabolic effects of different progestogens on this patient population are missing. This study aimed to compare the different effects of drospirenone (DRP)-containing COCs with cyproterone acetate (CPA)-containing COCs, combined with metformin and lifestyle modifications in women with PCOS and metabolic disorders. Methods: Ninety-nine women with PCOS and a metabolic disorder between January 2011 and January 2013 were enrolled into this prospective randomized clinical trial. Participants were randomized into two groups such as DRP-containing COCs, and CPA-containing COCs. Participants took COCs cyclically for 6 months, combined with metformin administration (1.5 g/d) and lifestyle modifications (diet and exercise). Clinical measures and biochemical and hormone profiles were compared. Comparisons for continuous variables were evaluated with paired and unpaired Student's t-tests. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was used when the data were not normally distributed. Analysis of covariance was used to control for age, body mass index (BMI), and baseline data of each analyzed parameter when compared between the two groups. Results: A total of 68 patients have completed the study. The combination regimen of COCs, metformin, and lifestyle modifications in these patients resulted in a significant decrease in BMI, acne, and hirsutism scores when compared to baseline levels in both groups (P < 0.05). Blood pressure (BP) was significantly different in the CPA group when compared to baseline (75.14 ± 6.77 mmHg vs. 80.70 ± 5.60 mmHg, P < 0.01), and after 6 months of treatment, only the change in systolic BP was significantly different between the two groups (4.00 [–6.00, 13.00] mmHg vs. –3.50 [–13.00, 9.00] mmHg, P = 0.009). Fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance decreased significantly

  20. Ovarian Follicular Development During the Use of Oral Contraception: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Baerwald, Angela R.; Pierson, Roger A.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 40 years, alterations to the composition of oral contraceptives (OCs) have been made in attempts to reduce adverse effects and to improve patient compliance while maintaining contraceptive efficacy. However, there is growing evidence to indicate that reducing the estrogen dose to minimize adverse effects may have compromised the degree of hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian suppression, particularly during the hormone-free interval (HFI) or following missed doses. Follicle development during OC use appears to occur in association with a loss of endocrine suppression during the HFI. This information provides a rationale for reducing or eliminating the HFI in OC regimens. There is also evidence for an increased risk of follicle development and ovulation in women who use delayed OC initiation schemes, such as the “Sunday Start” method. It is not currently known why some follicles ovulate during OC use while others regress or form anovulatory follicle cysts. Continued research about follicle development during OC use would provide insight into understanding the precise mechanisms of action underlying combined OCs, as well as those of continuous OC formulations and emergency contraceptive regimens. PMID:14715122

  1. Effect of a low dose combined oral contraceptive pill on the hormonal profile and cycle outcome following COS with a GnRH antagonist protocol in women over 35 years old.

    PubMed

    Bakas, Panagiotis; Hassiakos, Dimitrios; Grigoriadis, Charalampos; Vlahos, Nikolaos F; Liapis, Angelos; Creatsas, George

    2014-11-01

    This prospective study examines if pre-treatment with two different doses of an oral contraceptive pill (OCP) modifies significantly the hormonal profile and/or the IVF/ICSI outcome following COS with a GnRH antagonist protocol. Infertile patients were allocated to receive either OCP containing 0.03 mg of ethinylestradiol and 3 mg of drospirenone, or OCP containing 0.02 mg of ethinylestradiol and 3 mg of drospirenone prior to initiation of controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) with recombinant gonadotropins on a variable multi-dose antagonist protocol (Ganirelix), while the control group underwent COS without OCP pretreatment. Lower dose OCP was associated with recovery of FSH on day 3 instead of day 5, but the synchronization of the follicular cohort, the number of retrieved oocytes and the clinical pregnancy rate were similar to higher dose OCP.

  2. Effect of low dose oral contraceptives on exercise performance.

    PubMed Central

    Bryner, R W; Toffle, R C; Ullrich, I H; Yeater, R A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--to examine the effect of cycle phase or a low dose oral contraceptive on exercise performance in young women. METHODS--As controls, 15 men were tested twice by a maximal treadmill test (Vo2 max) and by an endurance run 14 d apart to determine performance variability from causes other than hormonal fluctuations. Ten women ages 18-30 were then tested for Vo2 max and endurance in the same way in both the follicular and the luteal phase (random order, ovulation assessed by sonography). They were then randomly assigned to placebo (n = 3) or oral contraceptive (1 mg norethindrone and 35 micrograms ethinyl oestradiol) (n = 7) for 21 days. Tests were repeated during the first and third weeks of treatment. Vo2 max and endurance tests were compared in the men and control cycle of the women by using independent t tests on percent change. The data for both cycles in the women were analysed by repeated measures ANOVA. RESULTS--There was no difference in per cent change in total test time, Vo2 max, or breathing frequency between the men and women in either test. Data obtained during the Vo2 max test revealed no difference between the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle for total test time [11.8 (SD 2.3) v 12.6 (2.3) min], Vo2 [41.6 (12.1) v 39.7 (11.4) ml.kg-1.min-1], or breathing frequency [26.8 (3.5) v 27.3 (9.9) breaths.min-1] respectively, or during the first and third weeks of treatment [total test time 12.0 (2.5) v 12.8 (2.4) min; Vo2 37.3 (7.4) v 41.0 (12.4) ml.kg-1.min-1; breathing frequency 27.8 (4.2) v 27.7 (3.4) breaths.min-1, respectively]. Data obtained during the endurance test revealed no difference between the follicular and luteal phase of the menstrual cycle for total test time [20.5 (15.7) v 16.2 (8.5) min], Vo2 [37.5 (9.4) v 32.9 (8.1) ml.kg-1.min-1], or breathing frequency [32.0 (6.0) v 33.2 (5.1) breaths.min-1, respectively], or during the first and third weeks of treatment [total test time 32.3 (34.9) v 30.6 (30.1) min; Vo2 33

  3. Types of oral contraceptives and breast cancer survival among women enrolled in Medicaid: A competing-risk model.

    PubMed

    Samson, Marsha E; Adams, Swann Arp; Mulatya, Caroline M; Zhang, Jiajia; Bennett, Charles L; Hebert, James; Steck, Susan E

    2017-01-01

    Oral contraceptive pills have been implicated in the pathophysiology of breast cancer. Although many studies have examined the relationship between combined oral contraceptives (COCs) and breast cancer, there is a paucity of literature that discusses progestin-only oral contraceptives (POCs) and breast cancer. The purpose of this investigation is to examine potential associations between different types of oral contraceptives and breast cancer mortality in the South Carolina Medicaid population among different racial/ethnic groups. Subjects included 4816 women diagnosed with breast cancer between 2000 and 2013. Kaplan-Meier curves were calculated to determine time-to-mortality rates among users of oral contraceptives. Competing-risks models and Cox multivariate survival models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of breast cancer and other-cause mortality, as well as all-cause mortality. POCs were associated with a significantly decreased risk of breast cancer mortality (HR: 0.07; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.52) and a non-significant increased risk of all-cause mortality (HR: 1.04; 95% CI: 0.52, 2.07). COCs increased the risk of breast cancer mortality (HR: 1.61; 95% CI: 1.14, 2.28) and all-cause mortality (HR: 1.83; 95% CI: 1.30, 2.57). Use of POCs may be associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer mortality. Due to the small sample size of POC users in the current study, additional research is needed to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A Survey of Teenagers' Attitudes Toward Moving Oral Contraceptives Over the Counter.

    PubMed

    Manski, Ruth; Kottke, Melissa

    2015-09-01

    Evidence suggests that over-the-counter access to oral contraceptives may help expand use among adult women. Teenagers may particularly benefit from this approach, as they experience disproportionately high rates of unintended pregnancy and face unique challenges accessing contraceptives. However, limited research has explored teenagers' attitudes toward over-the-counter access. In 2014, a sample of 348 females aged 14-17, recruited via Facebook advertisements, participated in an online survey assessing teenagers' attitudes toward over-the-counter access and their understanding of how to use oral contraceptives after reading a prototype over-the-counter product label. Differences by participants' characteristics were assessed in bivariate analyses (Pearson chi-square and Fisher's exact tests for categorical measures, and independent t tests and one-way analyses of variance for continuous measures). Seventy-three percent of participants supported over-the-counter access, and 61% reported that they would likely use oral contraceptives available through this approach. Few subgroup differences were found. Notably, sexually experienced participants were significantly more likely than others both to support this approach (85% vs. 63%) and to be interested in obtaining oral contraceptives this way (77% vs. 48%). Participants understood an average of 7.1 of eight key concepts that the prototype product label was intended to convey; no significant differences were found among subgroups. Over-the-counter access may be a promising approach for providing oral contraceptives to teenagers. Additional research is needed to evaluate whether teenagers can screen themselves for contraindications to oral contraceptive use and correctly use oral contraceptives obtained over the counter. Copyright © 2015 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  5. Frequency of Candidiasis and Colonization of Candida albicans in Relation to Oral Contraceptive Pills

    PubMed Central

    Aminzadeh, Atousa; Sabeti Sanat, Ali; Nik Akhtar, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Background Candidiasis, the infection caused by Candida albicans, is one of the most common infections of the oral cavity in humans. Candidiasis causes irritation and is known for its carcinogenic effects. Thus, it is important to recognize the predisposing factors for this opportunistic infection. Several previous studies have demonstrated an increased frequency of vaginal candidiasis in relation to oral contraceptive consumption. Objectives Only a few studies on the relation between oral contraceptives and oral candidiasis have been previously conducted. This study aims to evaluate the possible relation between oral contraceptive pills and oral candidiasis. Methods This analytic, case-control study included 40 non-pregnant women divided into two groups: 20 who used oral contraceptive pills and 20 who did not. The groups were matched according to age, oral health, and past and present medical history. Samples were collected from the tongue’s dorsum using a cotton swab and inoculated on CHROMagar culture plates. The frequency of positive cultures and the number of Candida colonies were compared between the two groups using independent t-tests and Mann-Whitney statistical tests with SPSS18 software. Results The frequency of positive cultures of Candida albicans was higher (P value = 0.03) for the case group. Also, the number of C. albicans and C. krusei was significantly higher for the case group compared to the control group (P value = 0.04, P value = 0.03). Conclusions The results of the present study demonstrate that oral contraceptives containing estradiol can lead to Candida colonization in the oral cavity. It is recommended that further studies comparing the influence of oral contraceptives on Candida’s adherence to the epithelium is highly recommended. PMID:28184328

  6. Effect of oral contraceptive progestins on serum copper concentration.

    PubMed

    Berg, G; Kohlmeier, L; Brenner, H

    1998-10-01

    High serum copper concentration--a well-known effect of oral contraceptive (OC) use--has been linked to increased mortality from cardiovascular disease. The influence of OCs containing newer progestins has not been investigated, however. This concern was addressed in a 1987-88 cross-sectional epidemiologic study of 610 nonpregnant, nonlactating West German women 18-44 years of age. 195 women (32.1%) were current OC users, but only 152 of these women were able to cite the name of the formulation they were taking. In 70% of cases, the OC contained less than 45 mcg of ethylestradiol (median dose, 32.4 mcg). The most common progestin components were desogestrel (41%) and levonorgestrel (30%). Mean serum copper concentration was higher among users of all types of OCs than among non-users, but this concentration varied more strongly according to the OC's progestin compound than its estrogen content. The greatest increase in serum copper (55% compared with non-users) was recorded in users of OCs containing anti-androgen progestins, followed by desogestrel (46%), norethisterone/lynestrenol (42%), and levonorgestrel (34%). The increase in serum copper was more pronounced in women taking OCs containing 45 mcg or less of ethylestradiol than in users of OCs with a high estrogen dose. In the regression models, the different progestin compounds alone explained 28% of the total variance in serum copper concentration. Further investigation of OC-induced increases in serum copper concentration and their impact on cardiovascular risk are warranted.

  7. [Effect of oral contraceptives on the psyche and on sexuality].

    PubMed

    Nahrendorf, G; Carol, W; Klinger, G

    1978-01-01

    The problem of whether or not oral contraceptives affect the psychic function of the female is still controversal. The purpose of the present investigation was to study the occurrence of psychic and sexual effects in women taking either Ovosiston (mestranol 0,08 mg + chlormadinone acetate 2, 0 mg) or Non-Ovlon (ethinylestradiol 0,05 mg + norethisterone acetate 1,0 mg). 186 somatically healthy women were subject to two interviews, immediately before the start of therapy and six months after it. Most of the patients recorded distinctly alterations of their mood, their initiative, their elemental desires such as appetite, sleep, need of warmth, and their sexual behaviour. 73 of them noted a change in their emotional pattern, which was positive in 34 and negative in 39 cases. 99 women reported changes in their elemental desires. 136 patients exhibited alterations of their sexual behaviour, which were assessed as an improvement or impairment in 108 and 28 cases, respectively. There is a statistically significant correlation between the impairment of sexual function and the incidence of other untoward side effects. On the other hand, negative suggestion by poor experience of other women on by the influence of mass media seems to play a minor role in producing changes of sexual behaviour. There is, however, a clearcut relationship between negative suggestion and the incidence of unfavourable emotional alterations. The findings are discussed with reference to their clinical significance.

  8. Oral contraceptives in women with migraine: balancing risks and benefits.

    PubMed

    Allais, G; De Lorenzo, C; Mana, O; Benedetto, C

    2004-10-01

    Oral contraceptives (OCs) are a safe and highly effective method of birth control, but can also be associated with some risks, mainly a potential thrombotic risk. OCs may condition the course of headache and sometimes start it, but their influence on the clinical evolution of migraine is not easily assessable. The last Classification of Headache Disorders of the International Headache Society clearly identifies an "exogenous hormone-induced headache" that could be triggered by intake of OCs. Old high-dose OCs could effectively worsen headache in a significant proportion of patients, but the newest formulations influence headache course to a lesser extent. In any case, while an increase in migraine frequency or intensity do not oblige the cessation of OCs, experiencing a migraine aura for the first time, or even a clear worsening of a preexistent aura suggest discontinuation of OCs. Even if both migraine and OCs intake are associated with an increased risk of ischaemic stroke, migraine per se is not a contraindication for OCs use; however, patients suffering from migraine with aura generally show a greater thrombotic risk than women with migraine without aura. Other risk factors (patient's age, tobacco use, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, obesity and diabetes) must be carefully considered when prescribing OCs in migraine patients. Furthermore, all OCs, even those with low oestrogen content, are a major risk for venous thrombosis, particularly in women with hereditary thrombophilia. A thorough laboratory control of the genetics of prothrombotic factors and coagulative parameters should precede any decision of OCs prescription in migraine patients.

  9. Effect of oral contraceptives on the ultrastructure of the endometrium.

    PubMed

    Mitra, P K; Roychadhuri, J

    1987-01-01

    A low dose oral contraceptive (OC) containing 0.3 mg norgestrel and 0.03 mg ethinyl estradiol was given for conception control in 10 cases, for dysfunction and uterine bleeding (DUB) in 10 cases, for dysmenorrhea in 5 cases, and for endometriosis in 5 cases. Prior to treatment and subsequently the endometrium was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Post therapeutic TEM indicated marked shrinkage of mitochondria, subnuclear lipid deposition, and loss of nuclear nests in the conception control and dysmenorrhea groups. In the DUB group the epithelial cells and mitochondria became stunted, Golgi-complexes developed, lysosomes appeared, and lipid deposition took place. Significant epithelial and stromal changes also occurred in the endometriosis group with increased of intracellular lipid and hugh enlargement of cell size without abnormal structural alteration. SEM showed stunted isolated cilia, small openings at cell apices, and clear-cut gland openings in the conception control and dysmenorrhea groups. In the DUB group rounded shrunken epithelium with scanty ciliation and prominent microvilli, whereas in the endometriosis group after 6 months total epithelial regression and atrophy was evident. OC therapy may help prevent endometrial carcinoma by inducing regression of subcellular organelles.

  10. Process, cost, and clinical quality: the initial oral contraceptive visit.

    PubMed

    McMullen, Michael J; Woolford, Samuel W; Moore, Charles L; Berger, Barry M

    2013-01-01

    To demonstrate how the analysis of clinical process, cost, and outcomes can identify healthcare improvements that reduce cost without sacrificing quality, using the example of the initial visit associated with oral contraceptive pill use. Cross-sectional study using data collected by HealthMETRICS between 1996 and 2009. Using data collected from 106 sites in 24 states, the unintended pregnancy (UIP) rate, effectiveness of patient education, and unit visit cost were calculated. Staff type providing education and placement of education were recorded. Two-way analysis of variance models were created and tested for significance to identify differences between groups. Sites using nonclinical staff to provide education outside the exam were associated with lower cost, higher education scores, and a UIP rate no different from that of sites using clinical staff. Sites also providing patient education during the physical examination were associated with higher cost, lower education scores, and a UIP rate no lower than that of sites providing education outside of the exam. Through analyzing process, cost, and quality, lower-cost processes that did not reduce clinical quality were identified. This methodology is applicable to other clinical services for identifying low-cost processes that do not result in lower clinical quality. By using nonclinical staff educators to provide education outside of the physical examination, sites could save an average of 32% of the total cost of the visit.

  11. Clinical utility of folate-containing oral contraceptives

    PubMed Central

    Lassi, Zohra S; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2012-01-01

    Folate is a generic term for a water-soluble B-complex vitamin which plays an important role in protein synthesis and metabolism and other processes related to cell multiplication and tissue growth. Pregnant and lactating women are at increased risk of folic acid deficiency because generally their dietary folate is insufficient to meet their physiological requirements and the metabolic demands of the growing fetus. The evidence pertaining to the reduction of the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs) due to folate is so compelling that supplementation with 400 μg of folic acid to all women trying to conceive until 12 weeks of pregnancy has been recommended by every relevant authority. A recent Cochrane review has also found protective effects of folate supplementation in occurrence and reoccurrence of NTDs. Despite food fortification and targeted public health campaigns promoting folic acid supplementation, 4,300,000 new cases occur each year worldwide resulting in an estimated 41,000 deaths and 2.3 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYS). This article will review the burden and risk factors of NTDS, and the role of folate in preventing NTDs. It will also describe different modes of supplementing folate and the newer evidence of the effectiveness of adding folate in oral contraceptives for raising serum and red blood cell folate levels. PMID:22570577

  12. Menstrual suppression for combat operations: advantages of oral contraceptive pills.

    PubMed

    Powell-Dunford, Nicole C; Cuda, Amanda S; Moore, Jeffrey L; Crago, Mark S; Kelly, Amanda M; Deuster, Patricia A

    2011-01-01

    increasing numbers of women are deployed to austere settings in which menstruation may impose logistical challenges. Minimal data exists about the use of oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) for menstrual suppression in this population. Post-deployment survey was undertaken to establish prevalence of continuous OCP use, perceived barriers, and associations with menstrual burden in a military population within the austere environment. voluntary and anonymous 44-item questionnaire. of 500 women, 78% (n = 390) had personal experience using OCPs and 66% (n = 330) desired menstrual suppression. However, only 40% (n = 192) reported any OCP use and only 21% (n = 99) reported continuous use during deployment. Sixty-seven percent of women reported some difficulty in daily pill compliance and nearly half (45%) missed ≥ 1 pill per week in the austere setting. Continuous users were nearly twice as compliant as conventional users (p = .019) and compliant OCP users reported significantly less menstrual burden than noncompliant users (p = .017). Almost all women (85%) desired mandatory education about menstrual suppression through OCPs. despite OCP experience and desire for amenorrhea, prevalence of extended cycle OCP use in this population is low. Extended OCPs users in the austere setting report improved compliance and reduced menstrual burden compared with conventional users. Education about OCPs is highly desirable for most military women and may benefit those in austere settings. 2011 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Factors affecting riboflavin requirements of oral contraceptive users and nonusers.

    PubMed

    Roe, D A; Bogusz, S; Sheu, J; McCormick, D B

    1982-03-01

    Riboflavin depletion has been identified in women on oral contraceptives (OC) but change in riboflavin nutriture has not been consistently demonstrated in all OC user groups studied. Discrepant findings in reports have been attributed to differences of pill formulation or riboflavin intake. Aims of this study were to compare the riboflavin requirements of healthy OC users and nonusers on diets prepared in a metabolic unit. A single daily menu and meal pattern was used. The basic diet providing riboflavin at a level of 0.6 mg/1000 kcal was used in the period of acclimation and period 1. In periods 2 and 3, the riboflavin content of the diet was increased to 0.8 and 1.0 mg/1000 kcal, respectively. The riboflavin status of subjects was monitored by erythrocyte glutathione reductase assay and urinary riboflavin excretion. Eight women on OC and 10 nonusers participated. Erythrocyte glutathione reductase assay values and urinary riboflavin excretion showed intersubject and interperiod differences but no significant group differences (OC versus non-OC) in erythrocyte glutathione reductase values or in urinary riboflavin per g creatinine. It was concluded that when dietary intake is controlled, OC do not significantly influence riboflavin status. Riboflavin needs were related to energy requirements of the subjects.

  14. Safety implications of transferring the oral contraceptive from prescription-only to over-the-counter status.

    PubMed

    Potts, M; Denny, C

    1995-12-01

    The idea of making oral contraceptives available without prescription has a long history, and has been recently revived in the US and the UK. High dose oral contraceptives have generally been replaced by low dose formulations and, subsequently, most cardiovascular risks have been reduced and a protection against ovarian and uterine cancers has been consistently demonstrated. Oral contraceptive compliance, however, continues to be a problem, but there is no reason to assume that wise practice would be any more or less if oral contraceptives were available over-the-counter (OTC). Some countries have introduced alternatives to prescription-only oral contraceptives, whereby nurses, midwives, social workers and/or pharmacists are incorporated into the distribution process. This article concludes that the balance of risks and benefits is in favour of OTC access for oral contraceptives.

  15. Clinical comparison of monophasic oral contraceptive preparations of gestodene/ethinyl estradiol and desogestrel/ethinyl estradiol. Latin American Oral Contraceptive Study Group.

    PubMed

    1994-09-01

    The efficacy, cycle control, subjective complaints, and safety of monophasic preparations of the oral contraceptives containing gestodene 75 mcg plus ethinyl estradiol 30 mcg versus desogestrel 150 mcg plus ethinyl estradiol 30 mcg were compared in a 6-cycle, open-label, parallel, randomized, multicenter phase IV clinical study in Latin America. Of a total of 176 women in each group, 163 in the gestodene group and 160 in the desogestrel group completed 6 cycles, providing data for 1,015 and 1,006 cycles, respectively. Subject compliance was excellent; pills were missed during only 6.9% of the cycles in each group. No woman became pregnant during the study. Gestodene group exhibited significantly better cycle control as evidenced by the lower incidence of breakthrough bleeding and spotting. Spotting in some cycles was reported by 11.9% of women taking the gestodene-combination compared with 21% of women taking the desogestrel-combination. Based on number of women, 86.4% of the gestodene group reported all cycles were normal (no BTB) compared with 76.7% of the desogestrel group. Also, the women in the gestodene group reported a significantly lower incidence of nuisance side effects during treatment cycles. No amenorrhea was observed for either group. There were no clinically significant differences between groups with respect to body weight, blood pressure, or laboratory evaluations. Seven women withdrew from the gestodene group and 8 women withdrew from the desogestrel group because of adverse reactions. The results of this study indicate that, although both OCs provided effective contraception, in comparison to the desogestrel-combination, the gestodene-containing OC is associated with better cycle control, less bleeding, and fewer subjective complaints.

  16. Effects of oral contraceptives on glucoregulatory responses to exercise.

    PubMed

    Jankowski, Catherine M; Ben-Ezra, Vic; Gozansky, Wendolyn S; Scheaffer, Suzanne E

    2004-03-01

    Some of the effects of oral contraceptives (OCs) to alter glucoregulation may be ameliorated by exercise. To test this premise, the effects of acute aerobic exercise on postprandial glucose, insulin, and C-peptide responses (area under the curve [AUC]) were measured in 8 users of low-dose estrogen and progestin OCs (OC(+)) and 10 women not using OCs (OC(-)). They completed 2 randomly ordered intervention trials: (1) aerobic exercise on 3 consecutive days with a 2.5-hour, 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) on day 4, and (2) no exercise for 3 days prior to the OGTT (control trial). The exercise was 50 minutes of treadmill walking at 70% (.-)VO(2max). The groups were similar in age (27 +/- 3 years), waist-to-hip ratio (0.74 +/- 0.01), and cardiorespiratory fitness (32.5 +/- 1.6 mL x kg body mass(-1) x min(-1)). Fasting plasma glucose, C-peptide, and insulin levels were similar (P >.05) between groups in the control trial. In both trials, glucose(AUC) was significantly greater (13%, P <.05) in OC(+). Exercise resulted in a significant (P <.05) decrease in fasting plasma glucose and insulin, insulin(AUC), glucose(AUC) x insulin(AUC), and C-peptide(AUC) in both groups, suggesting enhanced insulin action and/or reduced pancreatic insulin secretion. Hepatic insulin extraction ([C-peptide(AUC) - insulin(AUC)())]/C-peptide(AUC)) was increased following exercise only in OC(+). Thus, insulin action was enhanced in response to exercise in young sedentary women independent of OC use. The mechanisms for the acute exercise effect on insulin action may be different in OC users compared with normally menstruating women.

  17. The effect of elevated ovarian hormones on periodontal health: oral contraceptives and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Zachariasen, R D

    1993-01-01

    The most common oral manifestation of elevated levels of ovarian hormones, as seen in pregnancy or oral contraceptive usage, is an increase in gingival inflammation with an accompanying increase in gingival exudate. This gingivitis can be avoided or at least minimized by establishing low plaque levels at the beginning of pregnancy or the beginning of oral contraceptive therapy. It would appear that bacteria are not solely responsible for the gingivitis seen during these times, nor are the ovarian hormones solely responsible for the condition. Data from numerous studies suggest that the ovarian hormones alter the microenvironment of the oral bacteria so as to promote their growth and shifts in their populations. The present article reviews the current state of knowledge concerning the relationship of gingivitis to elevated levels of ovarian hormones, and describes the role that these hormones may play in the gingivitis associated with pregnancy or oral contraceptive usage.

  18. Doxylamine and diphenhydramine pharmacokinetics in women on low-dose estrogen oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Luna, B G; Scavone, J M; Greenblatt, D J

    1989-03-01

    Thirteen women chronically using low-dose estrogen-containing oral contraceptives (50 micrograms or less of ethinyl estradiol or its equivalent for a minimum of 3 months) and 12 age-matched drug-free control women received a single 25 mg oral dose of doxylamine succinate in the fasting state. Ten women taking oral contraceptives and ten controls received a single 50 mg oral dose of diphenhydramine hydrochloride. Multiple plasma samples drawn during 30 hours following the dose of doxylamine, and 12 hours after diphenhydramine dosage, were analyzed by gas chromatography using nitrogen-phosphorus detection. Mean pharmacokinetic variables for doxylamine in control and oral contraceptive groups were: peak plasma concentration, 103 vs 100 ng/ml; time of peak, 2.40 vs 1.87 hours after dosage, elimination half-life, 10.1 vs 10.2 hours; and total clearance, 3.70 vs 3.88 ml/min/kg. Mean pharmacokinetic variables for diphenhydramine in control and oral contraceptive groups were: peak plasma concentration, 63.7 vs 73.8 ng/ml; time of peak, 2.7 vs 2.2 hours after dosage; elimination half-life, 6.0 vs 5.1 hours; and total clearance, 21.8 vs 25.5 ml/min/kg. None of these differences were statistically significant. Thus, low-dose estrogen-containing oral contraceptives do not significantly influence the pharmacokinetics of the antihistamines doxylamine or diphenhydramine.

  19. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of steroid hormones in oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Bond, A M; Heritage, I D; Briggs, M H

    1984-12-19

    Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection is studied for the determination of both progestogenic and oestrogenic components of oral contraceptive formulations. The applicability of the assay is demonstrated for a number of different progestogen-oestrogen combinations in both conventional tablet and novel "paper" formulations. The results show that the method developed is a versatile technique for the routine assay of these pharmaceutical formulations.

  20. SOGC clinical practice guideline. No. 252, December 2010. Oral contraceptives and the risk of venous thromboembolism: an update.

    PubMed

    Reid, Robert

    2010-12-01

    To provide current and emerging evidence on oral contraceptives and the risk of venous thromboembolism. Articles published in English from 2005 were retrieved through searches of PubMed and Medline, using the following terms: venous thromboembolism, VTE, contraception, oral contraceptives, hormonal contraception. Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to May 2010. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology assessment-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. The quality of evidence was rated using the criteria described by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table). SUMMARY STATEMENTS: 1. Modern oral contraceptives offer highly effective contraception and a range of non-contraceptive benefits. (I) 2. Venous thromboembolism, although rare, remains one of the serious adverse consequences of hormonal contraception. Best evidence indicates that venous thromboembolism rates in non-users of reproductive age approximate 4-5/10 000 women per year; rates in oral contraceptive users are in the range of 9-10/10 000 women per year. For comparison, venous thromboembolism rates in pregnancy approach 29/10 000 overall and may reach 300-400/10 000 in the immediate postpartum period. (II-1) 3. Research demonstrates that oral contraceptives with ≤ 35 µg of ethinyl estradiol carry a lower risk of venous thromboembolism than oral contraceptives with 50 µg. (II-2) Although preliminary data suggest a possible further reduction in venous thromboembolism with oral contraceptives with < 35 µg ethinyl estradiol, robust data to support this conclusion are presently lacking. 4. Recent contradictory evidence and the ensuing

  1. Follow-up of adolescent oral contraceptive users.

    PubMed

    Delmore, T; Kalagian, W F; Loewen, I R

    1991-01-01

    Clients in birth control centers (St. Catharines, Niagara Falls, and Welland) in Ontario, Canada were profiled in 1989; factors affecting compliance with the use of oral contraceptives (OCs) were investigated. Compliance was assessed for those 16 years and after 3 months of OC use. A control group and 2 study groups were randomly formed. 1 group was told about a follow up telephone call if the 3-month checkup appointment was not kept and the other not told. Compliance was determined by keeping the follow-up appointment and taking the pill as directed. Self-administered questionnaires were obtained at the 1st appointment and the 2nd study group was interviewed at the 3-month appointment time. Of the 334 intake interviews, 28.4% were adolescents 16 years old. Information on birth control came most frequently from friends (78.7%; then high school classmates, 61.4% grade school classmates, 61.4%; and family, 38.0%). 94.3% had a boyfriend, primarily a steady one. 82.4% were sexually active before the Center visit. 21.3% had had sex when 15 years old. 9.2% of those sexually active had never used birth control. 85.2% of those using contraception had used a condom at least once, and 33.9% used withdrawal. In the preceding month, birth control was used 60% of the time. 46% of mothers and 25% of fathers were considered supportive of birth control. 228 16 years participated in the compliance study. The 2 study groups and the control group were not significantly different in their compliance. The only statistically significant predictor of compliance (from the intake interview) was the previous use of the condom. Those more likely to be compliant were the 10.9% sexually active who had never used a condom. Continuing with the family doctor, not sexually active, advice to stop, side effects concerns, and remembering to take the pill were the most common reasons for noncompliance. The implication for health and sex education is that emphasis needs to the placed on the risks taken

  2. Reproductive Health Outcomes of Insured Women Who Access Oral Levonorgestrel Emergency Contraception

    PubMed Central

    Raine-Bennett, Tina; Merchant, Maqdooda; Sinclair, Fiona; Lee, Justine W.; Goler, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the level of risk for women who seek emergency contraception through various clinical routes and the opportunities for improved care provision. Methods This study looked at a retrospective cohort to assess contraception and other reproductive health outcomes among women aged 15-44 who accessed oral levonorgestrel emergency contraception through an office visit or the call center at Kaiser Permanente Northern California from 2010 to 2011. Results Of 21,421 prescriptions, 14,531(67.8%) were accessed through the call center. In the subsequent 12 months, 12,127(56.6%) women had short-acting contraception (pills, patches, rings, depot medroxyprogesterone) dispensed and 2,264(10.6%) initiated very effective contraception (intrauterine contraception, implants, sterilization). Initiation of very effective contraception was similar for women who accessed it through the call center -1,569(10.8%) and office visits – 695(10.1%) (adjusted OR 1.02 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.93-1.13). In the subsequent 6 months, 2,056(9.6%) women became pregnant. Women who accessed emergency contraception through the call center were less likely to become pregnant within 3 months of accessing emergency contraception than woman who accessed it through office visits (adjusted OR 0.82 95% CI 0.72-0.94); however they were more likely to become pregnant within 4-6 months (adjusted OR 1.37 95%CI 1.16-1.60). Among women who were tested for chlamydia and gonorrhea, 689(7.8%) and 928(7.9%) were positive in the 12 months before and after accessing emergency contraception, respectively. Conclusions Protocols to routinely address unmet need for contraception at every call for emergency contraception and all office visits including visits with primary care providers should be investigated. PMID:25751211

  3. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions between the hepatitis C virus protease inhibitor, boceprevir, and the oral contraceptive ethinyl estradiol/norethindrone.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wen H; Feng, Hwa-Ping; Shadle, Craig R; O'Reilly, Terry; Wagner, John A; Butterton, Joan R

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine drug interactions between boceprevir, a hepatitis C virus NS3/4A protease inhibitor, and a combined oral contraceptive containing ethinyl estradiol (EE) and norethindrone (NE). A single-center, open-label study was conducted in 20 healthy female volunteers. In three consecutive 28-day treatment periods, subjects received EE/NE (0.035 mg/1 mg; 21 days on, 7 days off). During period 3, subjects also received boceprevir (800 mg three times daily) for 28 days. Coadministration of boceprevir with EE/NE did not affect NE AUC0-24 but slightly reduced NE C max. Geometric mean ratios (GMRs) for NE AUC0-24 and C max with EE/NE alone and EE/NE plus boceprevir were 0.96 (90% confidence interval (CI), 0.87-1.06) and 0.83 (90% CI, 0.76-0.90). Coadministration of boceprevir with EE/NE reduced EE AUC0-24 and C max by 26 and 21%, with GMRs of 0.74 (90% CI, 0.68-0.80) and 0.79 (90% CI, 0.75-0.84). Boceprevir had no effect on mid-cycle luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), or sex hormone-binding globulin levels, and progesterone concentrations remained <1 ng/ml during the luteal phase. Adverse events reported in this study were consistent with the well-established safety profile of boceprevir. Serum progesterone, LH, and FSH levels indicate that ovulation was suppressed during coadministration of boceprevir with EE/NE. Coadministration of boceprevir with combined oral contraceptives containing EE and ≥1 mg of NE is therefore unlikely to alter contraceptive effectiveness. The ovulation suppression activity of oral contraceptives containing lower doses of NE, and of other forms of hormonal contraception during coadministration with boceprevir, has not been established.

  4. Effect of educational leaflets and questions on knowledge of contraception in women taking the combined contraceptive pill: randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Little, P; Griffin, S; Kelly, J; Dickson, N; Sadler, C

    1998-06-27

    To assess whether provision of educational leaflets or questions on contraception improves knowledge of contraception in women taking the combined contraceptive pill. Randomisation of women into three groups according to type of educational leaflet on contraceptive information. These groups were subdivided into two on the basis of questions on contraception asked by the doctor or practice nurse. The women were followed up by postal questionnaire 3 months later. 15 general practices in South and West region. 636 women attending check up appointment for repeat prescription of the combined contraceptive pill. Knowledge of: factors causing pill failure, subsequent action, emergency contraception, and all the rules (pill rules) that apply to the contraceptive pill. 523 women returned completed questionnaires (response rate 82%). Knowledge of contraception with no intervention was low with only 10 (12%) women knowing all the pill rules. Educational intervention had a highly significant effect on knowledge of: factors causing pill failure (likelihood ratio chi2=22); subsequent action (21); emergency contraception (24); and all the pill rules (22) (P<0.01 in all cases). Improvement in knowledge of all the pill rules occurred with provision of the summary leaflet (28% knew all the rules, adjusted odds ratio 4.04, 95% confidence interval 1.68 to 9.75), the Family Planning Association's leaflet (27%, 3.43, 1.45 to 8.09), and asking questions (26%, 3.03, 1.30 to 7.00). Asking questions in addition to provision of leaflets improved knowledge of contraception further for the summary leaflet (39%, 6.81, 2.85 to 16.27) but not for the Family Planning Association leaflet (21%, 2.58, 1.07 to 6.18). Women attending check ups for repeat prescriptions of the contraceptive pill should be provided with educational leaflets on contraception or asked relevant questions to help improve their knowledge of contraception. Asking questions in addition to providing a summary leaflet is time

  5. Greater Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Mediated Vasodilation in Women Using Oral Contraceptives

    PubMed Central

    Limberg, Jacqueline K.; Peltonen, Garrett L.; Johansson, Rebecca E.; Harrell, John W.; Kellawan, Jeremy M.; Eldridge, Marlowe W.; Sebranek, Joshua J.; Walker, Benjamin J.; Schrage, William G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: β-adrenergic receptors play an important role in mitigating the pressor effects of sympathetic nervous system activity in young women. Based on recent data showing oral contraceptive use in women abolishes the relationship between muscle sympathetic nervous system activity and blood pressure, we hypothesized forearm blood flow responses to a β-adrenergic receptor agonist would be greater in young women currently using oral contraceptives (OC+, n = 13) when compared to those not using oral contraceptives (OC–, n = 10). Methods: Women (18–35 years) were studied during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle (days 1–5) or placebo phase of oral contraceptive use. Forearm blood flow (FBF, Doppler ultrasound) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP, brachial arterial catheter) were measured at baseline and during graded brachial artery infusion of the β-adrenergic receptor agonist, Isoproterenol (ISO), as well as Acetylcholine (ACH, endothelium-dependent vasodilation) and Nitroprusside (NTP, endothelium-independent vasodilation). Forearm vascular conductance was calculated (FVC = FBF/MAP, ml/min/100 mmHg) and the rise in FVC from baseline during infusion quantified vasodilation (ΔFVC = FVCinfusion − FVCbaseline). Results: ISO increased FVC in both groups (p < 0.01) and ISO-mediated ΔFVC was greater in OC+ compared to OC– (Main effect of group, p = 0.02). Expressing data as FVC and FBF resulted in similar conclusions. FVC responses to both ACH and NTP were also greater in OC+ compared to OC–. Conclusions: These data are the first to demonstrate greater β-adrenergic receptor-mediated vasodilation in the forearm of women currently using oral contraceptives (placebo phase) when compared to those not using oral contraceptives (early follicular phase), and suggest oral contraceptive use influences neurovascular control. PMID:27375493

  6. Side effects and discontinuation of oral contraceptive use in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Janowitz, B; Kane, T T; Arruda, J M; Covington, D L; Morris, L

    1986-07-01

    Oral contraceptives have many advantages, but sometimes also have side effects which can cause users to switch appropriately or inappropriately to less effective methods or abandon contraception. In Brazil, 2/3 of married women of childbearing age were using contraception in 1981, and 1/2 of these were using orals. Contraceptive behavior following reported side effects in users of oral contraceptives in Southern Brazil is examined in this study, in relation to diverse factors. Among 2904 currently-married women, aged 15-44, almost 75% reported that they had used the pill at some time, and of these, 45.6% were still doing so. Data on perceived side effects were gathered for all women. There was no independent medical evaluation of the effects, so the data did not necessarily represent actual prevalence of pill related problems. Women who reported problems with the pill were less likely to be current users (25%) than women who did not (65%). However, overall contraceptive prevalence was about the same in both groups (66.2% and 67.0% respectively), indicating that women who stop using oral contraceptives usually switch to another method. However, they are more likely to be using traditional methods than women in the general population, especially if they want more children. Termination of pill use varies little according to the type of problem reported. Women with problems who sought medical attention were more likely to stop using the pill, and 82.4% of women advised to stop by their physician did so, but the major factor affecting discontinuation was the reported experience of a problem. The most frequently reported problems were headaches (38.1%), nausea (34.1%), nervousness (27.9%), and vertigo (18.3%). Physician intervention should help to avoid women's abandoning oral contraceptives unnecessarily.

  7. Barrier versus oral contraceptive use: a study of female college students.

    PubMed

    Radius, S M; Joffe, A; Gall, M J

    1991-09-01

    Although they provide birth control and are easier to use, oral contraceptives (OCPs) are not the preferred approach to preventing sexually transmitted disease (STD). Do the knowledge, attitudes, and experiences of oral contraceptive users place them at greater risk for STDs than those who employ barrier methods? This study examined differences between sexually active female college students (ie, those who reported ever having had vaginal intercourse) who used OCPs and those who employed barrier methods of contraception at the time of their most recent intercourse. The authors analyzed HIV- and other STD-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors from three consecutive annual health surveys of young women about to begin their first year of college. Findings showed barrier and OCP users to be comparable in knowledge about the effectiveness of various contraceptive methods in protecting them against STDs, perceived personal susceptibility to HIV, and experiences with alcohol before sexual intercourse. Oral contraceptive users, compared with those in the group who used barrier methods, reported a greater number of recent partners (p less than .03) and greater perceived vulnerability to STDs (p less than .03). Student healthcare providers must develop creative educational strategies to encourage simultaneous use of both oral contraceptives and barrier methods to protect students against STDs and pregnancy.

  8. Pharmacokinetics of gestodene and ethinylestradiol in 14 women during three months of treatment with a new tri-step combination oral contraceptive: serum protein binding of gestodene and influence of treatment on free and total testosterone levels in the serum.

    PubMed

    Kuhnz, W; Baumann, A; Staks, T; Dibbelt, L; Knuppen, R; Jütting, G

    1993-10-01

    The pharmacokinetics of gestodene (GEST) and ethinylestradiol (EE2) were determined in 14 healthy women (age 18 to 32 years) during a treatment period of three months with a new tri-step combination oral contraceptive (Milvane). Prior to this treatment period, the same women received a single administration of a coated tablet containing 0.1 mg GEST together with 0.03 mg EE2. There was a wash-out phase of one week between both treatments. Following single dose administration, a mean terminal half-life of 18 h was observed for GEST. The total clearance was 0.9 ml x min-1 x kg-1 and the volume of distribution was 84 l. During a treatment cycle, GEST levels in the serum accumulated by a factor of 8 as compared to single dose administration. Steady-state drug levels were reached during the second half of each cycle. As compared to single dose administration, the following changes were observed for GEST at the end of treatment cycles one and three: prolonged terminal half-life (20 to 22 h), reduced total (0.16 ml x min-1 x kg-1) and free clearance (ca. 27 ml x min-1 x kg-1), reduced volume of distribution (ca. 18 l). A concomitant EE2-induced increase in the SHBG concentrations by a factor of three as compared to pretreatment values was observed during a treatment cycle and appeared to be mainly responsible for the changes in the pharmacokinetics of GEST. Marked changes were also seen for the serum protein binding of GEST. After single dose administration, the free fraction of GEST was 1.3% and the fractions bound to SHBG and albumin were 69.4% and 29.3%, respectively. At the end of cycle one, the free fraction was only 0.6% and the fractions bound to SHBG and albumin were 81.4% and 18.0%, respectively. There was no difference in corresponding pharmacokinetic parameters and in the serum protein binding of GEST at the end of cycles one and three. On the last day of treatment cycles one and three, the AUC(0-4h) values of EE2 were 299.2 and 278.1 pg x ml-1 x h, respectively

  9. Case-control study of oral contraceptives and risk of thromboembolic stroke: results from International Study on Oral Contraceptives and Health of Young Women.

    PubMed

    Heinemann, L A; Lewis, M A; Thorogood, M; Spitzer, W O; Guggenmoos-Holzmann, I; Bruppacher, R

    1997-12-06

    To determine the influence of oral contraceptives (particularly those containing modern progestins) on the risk for ischaemic stroke in women aged 16-44 years. Matched case-control study. 16 Centres in the United Kingdom, Germany, France, Switzerland, and Austria. Cases were 220 women aged 16-44 who had an incident ischaemic stroke. Controls were 775 women (at least one hospital and one community control per case) unaffected by stroke who were matched with the corresponding case for 5 year age band and for hospital or community setting. Information on exposure and confounding variables were collected in a face to face interview. Odds ratios derived with stratified analysis and unconditional logistic regression to adjust for potential confounding. Adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for ischaemic stroke (unmatched analysis) were 4.4 (2.0 to 9.9), 3.4 (2.1 to 5.5), and 3.9 (2.3 to 6.6) for current use of first, second, and third generation oral contraceptives, respectively. The risk ratio for third versus second generation was 1.1 (0.7 to 2.0) and was similar in the United Kingdom and other European countries. The risk estimates were lower if blood pressure was checked before prescription. Although there is a small relative risk of occlusive stroke for women of reproductive age who currently use oral contraceptives, the attributable risk is very small because the incidence in this age range is very low. There is no difference between the risk of oral contraceptives of the third and second generation; only first generation oral contraceptives seem to be associated with a higher risk. This small increase in risk may be further reduced by efforts to control cardiovascular risk factors, particularly high blood pressure.

  10. The effects of oral contraceptives on well-being and sexuality.

    PubMed

    Bancroft, J; Sartorius, N

    1990-01-01

    The extent to which the high discontinuation rate for oral contraceptives is due to adverse effects of mood, well-being and sexuality is explored, taking into account early studies on high dose combined and sequential pills, recent studies on low-dose combined and triphasics, experimental design factors, effects of OCs on free androgen levels, psychosocial factors and reasons for choosing or stopping pills, effects on depressive illness, premenstrual syndrome, sexuality, and possible mechanisms for direct effects of steroids on mood and sexuality. Study design is complicated by selection of early or late oral contraceptive users, types of controls, and unknown confounding factors such as reason for choice of pills, effect of a reliable contraceptive on the sexual relationship, prior history of depression and premenstrual tension. Furthermore virtually all topics reviewed here resulted in inconsistent or contradictory findings, making a case for individual variation and subgroups of women with different responses regarding the end point being examined. Examples include whether progestogen alter female sexual desire or male attraction; and whether rising or falling free testosterone levels affect sexual response. Factors affecting experimental design include culture, language, life-cycle, type of relationship, personal qualities affecting contraceptive choice, manner of eliciting reports of side effects, steroid dose, whether ovulation was blocked, initial or established pill-use, possibility of missed pills, and type of controls. Current pill users seem to discontinue for depression and low libido less frequently than did users of higher dose pills, and severity scores of adverse effects are lower. Premenstrual and other cyclic events may be altered in timing, and premenstrual symptoms are relieved in most women, but worsened in some who take pills. It is likely that women with depressive and premenstrual complaints tend to discontinue pills, leaving the remaining

  11. Risk of venous thromboembolism among users of third generation oral contraceptives compared with users of oral contraceptives with levonorgestrel before and after 1995: cohort and case-control analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jick, Hershel; Kaye, James A; Vasilakis-Scaramozza, Catherine; Jick, Susan S

    2000-01-01

    Objective To compare the risk of idiopathic venous thromboembolism among women taking third generation oral contraceptives (with gestodene or desogestrel) with that among women taking oral contraceptives with levonorgestrel. Design Cohort and case-control analyses derived from the General Practice Research Database. Setting UK general practices, January 1993 to December 1999. Participants Women aged 15-39 taking third generation oral contraceptives or oral contraceptives with levonorgestrel. Main outcome measures Relative incidence (cohort study) and odds ratios (case-control study) as measures of the relative risk of venous thromboembolism. Results The adjusted estimates of relative risk for venous thromboembolism associated with third generation oral contraceptives compared with oral contraceptives with levonorgestrel was 1.9 (95% confidence interval 1.3 to 2.8) in the cohort analysis and 2.3 (1.3 to 3.9) in the case-control study. The estimates for the two types of oral contraceptives were similar before and after the warning issued by the Committee on Safety of Medicines in October 1995. A shift away from the use of third generation oral contraceptives after the scare was more pronounced among younger women (who have a lower risk of venous thromboembolism) than among older women. Fewer cases of venous thromboembolism occurred in 1996 and later than would have been expected if the use of oral contraceptives had remained unchanged. Conclusions These findings are consistent with previously reported studies, which found that compared with oral contraceptives with levonorgestrel, third generation oral contraceptives are associated with around twice the risk of venous thromboembolism. PMID:11073511

  12. Oral contraceptives and venous thromboembolism: a quantitative discussion of the uncertainties.

    PubMed

    Koster, T; Small, R A; Rosendaal, F R; Helmerhorst, F M

    1995-07-01

    A meta-analysis of controlled studies between 1966 and 1993 was conducted by means of a Medline computer search. A total of 588 articles were reviewed for controlled studies. 1 randomized trial, 6 follow-up studies, and 8 case-control studies were included. Summary thrombosis risk for oral contraceptive users, number needed to discontinue oral contraceptives to prevent one (recurrent) thrombosis, comparison of additional unwanted pregnancies, and postpartum thrombosis between alternative birth-control methods were the main outcome measures. The studies proved highly heterogeneous with regard to size and direction of the risk estimate. The summary relative risk of first thrombosis during oral contraceptive use was 2.9 (95% CI 0.5-17). The reported risks were higher in case control (RR 4.2) than in follow-up studies (RR 2.1). Various hypothetical assumptions were advanced wherein women would continue to take oral contraceptives after a first episode of thrombosis, or switch to use of an IUD, condom, or the progestogen-only pill. The cost-benefit ratio of advising against the use of oral contraceptives after a first thrombosis varied tremendously. The outcome with regard to pregnancies and thrombosis in 5 hypothetical cohorts of 100,000 post-thrombotic women monitored for 1 year indicated that under all but the highest assumption for recurrence risk, among typical couples the number of unexpected pregnancies as well as thrombotic episodes would be highest among condom users. IUDs would result in a reduction of at least 30% in the number of venous thrombotic episodes and accidental pregnancies. The lowest expected failures rates would lead to a decrease in thrombosis for both IUD and condom use. These findings indicate that there is a lack of necessary data for recurrence risk of venous thrombosis during continuing use of oral contraceptives, or after switching to other modes of contraception.

  13. Oral contraceptives and cognition: A role for ethinyl estradiol.

    PubMed

    Beltz, Adriene M; Hampson, Elizabeth; Berenbaum, Sheri A

    2015-08-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Estradiol and cognition". Estrogens have been seen to play a role in human cognitive abilities, but questions remain about the cognitive impact of ethinyl estradiol, which is contained in many oral contraceptives (OCs). Inconsistencies in past studies likely reflect small samples and heterogeneous groups of OC users. The aims of the present work were to examine OC effects on sex-typed spatial and verbal abilities by (a) comparing mental rotations and expressional fluency in normally-cycling (NC) women and men to OC users considered as a heterogeneous group and then to homogeneous groups of OC users created by classifying pills according to their active constituents, and (b) determining the relation between synthetic hormone doses in OCs and mental rotations and expressional fluency. Participants were 136 men, 93 NC women, and 148 OC users, including homogeneous monophasic (n = 55) and triphasic (n = 43) OC groups, aged 18 to 30 years. Significant effects of OC use were seen in homogeneous group comparisons but not when OC users were considered as a heterogeneous group. On mental rotations, men outperformed women, and monophasic OC users outperformed NC women. The latter difference may be attributable to estradiol, as ethinyl estradiol was inversely related to spatial ability among OC users and was lower in monophasic than in triphasic users. On expressional fluency, NC women and monophasic OC users outperformed men, and monophasic users outperformed triphasic users. Thus, results show the importance of ethinyl estradiol and of considering pill constituents when studying the cognitive effects of OCs.

  14. The influence of humidity, temperature, and oral contraceptive in tear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, Raul A. R. C.; Ribeiro, Tânia L. C.; Moreira, Sandra M. B.; Baptista, António M. G.

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study is to ascertain whether the quantity and quality of tear and eye subjective comfort are influenced by the temperature, humidity and oral Contraceptives Taking or Non-taking (CTNT). Forty-one students, females, from the University of Minho, Braga, Portugal, aged (mean+/-1standard deviation) of 21.51+/-1.85 years, ranging from 20 to 30 years, participated in this study. The McMonnies Questionnaire (MMQ), Break Up Time (BUT) and Phenol Red Test (PRT) were accessed between 14-17 hours in four sets of visits throughout the year: Visit 1, Visit 2, Visit 3 and Visit 4. The PRT and BUT values (mean+/-1standard deviation) for Visit 1, Visit 2, Visit 3 and Visit 4 were respectively 23.88+/-6.50mm, 22.29+/-8.00mm, 23.61+/-6.75mm, 22.88+/-7.00mm and 6.02+/-1.58s, 5.62+/-1.22s, 5.23+/-0.88s, 5.53+/-1. 42s. The MMQ scores for Visit 1, Visit 2, Visit 3 and Visit 4 ranged from 2-13, 2-15, 1-14 and 2-14 with medians of 6, 7, 6 and 6, respectively. The influence of temperature, humidity and CTNT on PRT, BUT and MMQ were evaluated using generalized linear mixed model. For BUT and MMQ statistical significant effects were found regarding temperature and humidity. The temperature and humidity influenced the tear quality and subjective comfort but did not influence the tear quantity. The CTNT did not influence tear quantity, quality or subjective eye comfort.

  15. [Oral contraceptives and cardiovascular disease--aspects of lipid metabolism].

    PubMed

    Crona, N; Silfverstolpe, G

    1984-02-08

    A review of the research data concerning cardiovascular disease induced by oral contraceptives (OC) relies on the findings of 3 US and British prospective studies involving 80,000 women. Pill users under 35 who were nonsmokers had 1/4 of the risk of dying as a result of this use than of pregnancy complications (in smokers, the risk is the same). Acute pathogenetical effects include blood coagulation homeostasis leading to thromboembolism and long-term disorders of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. The estrogen component of OCs, ethinyl estradiol (EE), tends to increase Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL) and High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) levels while decreasing Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) levels. The gestagen component, a nortestosterone derivative, acts in the opposite way. The estrogen component also increases the level of triglycerides in the VLDL fraction and in serum. There seems to be an inverse ratio between VLDL and HDL levels (gestagen-dominant OCs lower the HDL cholesterol level). The thromboembolitic side effects of estrogen led to the introduction of low-dose pills in the 1970s (acute pancreatitis, a severe side effect, has been all but eliminated). The cardiovascular complications and cerebral insult induced by the gestagen component, a 19-nortestosterone derivative, have also resulted in decreased doses of gestagens in OCs. Non-alkylated estrogens ("natural" estrogens) have been favored recently because they do not increase VLDL levels, while still increasing HDL. A 17-alpha-hydroxprogesterone derivative as the gestagen component of pills has been used in recent years, since it is inert in lipid metabolism, unlike 19-nortestosterone. The effect of exogenous sexual steriods on prostaglandin synethis and on the balance of thromboxanes and prostacyclines will require futher study.

  16. Effect of injectable and oral contraceptives on serum lipids

    PubMed Central

    Berenson, Abbey B.; Rahman, Mahbubur; Wilkinson, Gregg

    2010-01-01

    Objective To estimate the effects of using depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) or oral contraceptives (OC) containing 20 micrograms ethinyl estradiol and 0.15 mg desogestrel on serum lipid levels. Methods Serum lipids were measured at baseline and every 6 months thereafter for 3 years on 703 white, black, and Hispanic women using DMPA, OC, or nonhormonal (NH) birth control. DMPA discontinuers were followed for up to 2 additional years. Participants completed questionnaires containing demographic and behavioral measures every 6 months and underwent 24 hour dietary recalls annually. Mixed model regression analyses and general estimating equations procedures were used to estimate changes over time in lipids by method, along with their predictors. Results OC users experienced significantly greater increases in levels of triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) than NH users (P<.001). However, no difference was noted in the LDL-C to HDL-C ratio between OC and NH users. Among DMPA users, HDL-C levels initially decreased for 6 months, but then returned to baseline. The LDL-C to HDL-C ratio rose during the first 6 months of DMPA use, but then dropped back to baseline over the next 24 months. After DMPA was discontinued, women who used OC increased their TG, TC, VLDL-C, and HDL-C levels significantly more than those who chose NH (P< .05). Conclusion Use of very low dose OC containing desogestrel can elevate lipid levels. DMPA users were at increased risk of developing an abnormally low HDL-C level as well as an abnormally high LDL level and an increase in the LDL to HDL cholesterol ratio, although these effects appeared to be temporary. PMID:19888036

  17. History of oral contraceptive use and risk of spontaneous abortion

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Kristen A.; Hatch, Elizabeth E.; Rothman, Kenneth J.; Mikkelsen, Ellen M.; Brogly, Susan B.; Sørensen, Henrik T.; Riis, Anders H.; Wise, Lauren A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine the association between pregravid oral contraceptive (OC) use and spontaneous abortion (SAB). Methods In an Internet-based preconception cohort study of 4,862 Danish pregnancy planners, we used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between OC use and SAB. We controlled for maternal age, physical activity, parity, education, alcohol and caffeine consumption, body mass index, and smoking. Results Compared with women who discontinued OCs >1 year before conception, HRs were 0.95 (95% CI: 0.77, 1.17), 0.99 (95% CI: 0.82, 1.19), and 0.80 (95% CI: 0.60, 1.06) for women who discontinued OCs 7-12, 2-6, and 0-1 months before conception, respectively. Compared with <4 years of OC use, HRs for 4-7, 8-11, and ≥12 years of OC use were 1.05 (95% CI: 0.80, 1.37), 0.92 (95% CI: 0.71, 1.19), and 0.88 (95% CI: 0.65, 1.19), respectively. Dose of estrogen and generation of progestin were not materially associated with SAB risk. Conclusions We found no evidence that pregravid OC use is associated with an increase in SAB. Use within one month of conception was associated with a slightly lower risk of SAB, but this may be due to increased reproductive fitness in women who conceive quickly after discontinuation of OCs. PMID:26452607

  18. Long-term experience with a low-dose oral contraceptive.

    PubMed

    Brill, K; Schnitker, J; Albring, M

    1990-12-01

    Oral contraception has proved to be the most efficient reversible method of fertility control for over 25 years. During this period, various investigations and epidemiological studies have suggested that some risks may be involved, but, on the other hand, a number of non-contraceptive benefits have become obvious. The results of these investigations were taken into account when new formulations had to be developed, with an aim to improving hormonal fertility control with regard to its tolerance, cycle control, and impact on metabolism. Since then, the objective of research has been to contrive new hormonal contraceptives which ensure safety to the largest possible extent, from a medical point of view, for the sake of the patient, without affecting contraceptive effectiveness. The aim to reduce side-effects connected with the use of oral contraception, as well as to lower the risks possibly involved, has obviously been achieved by extensive research. Both by devising a new substance and reducing doses, the criteria of modern low-dose oral contraception have been met, as has become evident in the course of the clinical experience gathered with Femovan.

  19. Comparing the effects of the second-and third-generation oral contraceptives on sexual functioning.

    PubMed

    Shahnazi, Mahnaz; Bayatipayan, Somaye; Khalili, Azizeh Farshbaf; Kochaksaraei, Fatemeh Ranjbar; Jafarabadi, Mohammad Asghari; Banoi, Kamala Gaza; Nahaee, Jila

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of the second- and third-generation oral contraceptives on women's reproductive sexual function. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted on 82 married women of reproductive age in Tehran. Samples were randomized into the groups receiving second- and third-generation oral contraceptive pills. Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) tool was used before the intervention and 2 and 4 months after the intervention. Data analysis was carried out using analysis of variance (ANOVA) within repeated measures and P < 0.05 were considered significant. There was a statistically significant difference in the positive and negative moods between the experimental and control groups before the intervention in the second and fourth months. The second-generation pills caused a decrease in sexual function in the second month and an increase in sexual function in the fourth month, but the third-generation pills led to an increase in sexual function in the second and fourth months. The increase in sexual function that resulted from using the third-generation pills was significantly higher than that resulted on using the second-generation pills. According to the results of this study, sexual functioning decreased in the second month of using the second-generation pills and sexual performance was significantly more on using the third-generation pills compared to second-generation pills. The most common type of oral contraceptive used in Iran is the second-generation oral contraceptive LD™ (low-dose estrogen), which is freely distributed in health centers. Therefore, it is necessary for women who wish to use these contraceptive methods to be educated and consulted before they start using them. The third-generation contraceptive pills can be recommended to women who wish to use oral contraceptives.

  20. Comparing the effects of the second-and third-generation oral contraceptives on sexual functioning

    PubMed Central

    Shahnazi, Mahnaz; Bayatipayan, Somaye; Khalili, Azizeh Farshbaf; Kochaksaraei, Fatemeh Ranjbar; Jafarabadi, Mohammad Asghari; Banoi, Kamala Gaza; Nahaee, Jila

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of the second- and third-generation oral contraceptives on women's reproductive sexual function. Materials and Methods: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted on 82 married women of reproductive age in Tehran. Samples were randomized into the groups receiving second- and third-generation oral contraceptive pills. Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) tool was used before the intervention and 2 and 4 months after the intervention. Data analysis was carried out using analysis of variance (ANOVA) within repeated measures and P < 0.05 were considered significant. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in the positive and negative moods between the experimental and control groups before the intervention in the second and fourth months. The second-generation pills caused a decrease in sexual function in the second month and an increase in sexual function in the fourth month, but the third-generation pills led to an increase in sexual function in the second and fourth months. The increase in sexual function that resulted from using the third-generation pills was significantly higher than that resulted on using the second-generation pills. Conclusions: According to the results of this study, sexual functioning decreased in the second month of using the second-generation pills and sexual performance was significantly more on using the third-generation pills compared to second-generation pills. The most common type of oral contraceptive used in Iran is the second-generation oral contraceptive LD™ (low-dose estrogen), which is freely distributed in health centers. Therefore, it is necessary for women who wish to use these contraceptive methods to be educated and consulted before they start using them. The third-generation contraceptive pills can be recommended to women who wish to use oral contraceptives. PMID:25709690

  1. Cycle-Related Changes in Mood, Sexual Desire, and Sexual Activity in Oral Contraception-Using and Nonhormonal-Contraception-Using Couples.

    PubMed

    Elaut, Els; Buysse, Ann; De Sutter, Petra; Gerris, Jan; De Cuypere, Griet; T'Sjoen, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Findings on women's sexuality across the menstrual cycle are inconsistent. One relatively consistent finding is a midcycle and premenstrual peak in sexual desire in freely cycling women. Results on the cycle-related effects on sexual behavior are less clear. Large proportions of reproductive-aged women use combined oral contraception (COC), but studies on potential cycle-related shifts in sexual desire and behavior are sparse. A prospective diary study assessed sexual desire, sexual behavior, and mood in 89 heterosexual couples. Women were using one of four contraceptive methods: (1) nonhormonal contraception, (2) low-dose COC containing 20 mcg ethinylestradiol and 75 mcg gestoden or desogestrel, (3) COC containing 35 mcg ethinylestradiol and 2 mg cyproteronacetate, and (4) COC containing 30 mcg ethinylestradiol and 3 mg drospirenone. No cycle effects of sexual desire were established in the COC group, but frequency of sexual intercourse declined in the last days of active pill taking. These results were similar in both female and male partners. Negative affect did not covary with sexual desire.

  2. Pulmonary embolism in a healthy woman using the oral contraceptives containing desogestrel

    PubMed Central

    Park, Min-Jeong

    2017-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism is well known as one of the rare but serious adverse effects of combined oral contraceptives (COCs). The COCs with third and fourth generation progestogens were found to have higher risk of venous thrombosis than those with second generation progestogens. We present a case of pulmonary embolism in a 23-year-old nulligravid woman who was using COCs containing the third generation progestogen (desogestrel). At the time of presentation of the adverse effect, she had been using the COCs for 4 months. She had no additional risk factors for thrombosis such as smoking, surgery, tumor as well as genetic factors. This case demonstrates even young women in otherwise good health may be at risk of venous thromboembolism from low-dose formulations of COCs as an over-the-counter drug. We describe this case with a brief review of literatures. PMID:28344968

  3. A study of the influence of a gestodene-containing triphasic oral contraceptive on endometrial morphology.

    PubMed

    Rabe, T; Leppien, G; Fossman, W G; Hessing, C; Vladescú, E; Runnebaum, B

    1997-09-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate histological changes in the endometrium in 20 volunteers treated with a low-dose, gestodene-containing triphasic oral contraceptive. Endometrial biopsy specimens were taken before, during a 6-month period of oral contraceptive use and in a post-treatment period. These specimens were evaluated using light microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. In addition, ultrasound examinations of the uterus, endometrial thickness and ovaries were performed. The low-dose, gestodene-containing triphasic oral contraceptive had no adverse effects on the endometrium (e.g. no proliferation, no polyps, no inflammatory processes), was well tolerated and showed a low side-effect profile. The inhibition of endometrial transformation was demonstrated both by endometrial morphology as well as by endometrial thickness, as measured by transvaginal ultrasound examination.

  4. Sequential gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist/low-dose oral contraceptive treatment for leiomyomata uteri.

    PubMed

    Balasch, J; Manau, D; Mimó, J; Durán, M; Puerto, B; Vanrell, J A

    1995-03-01

    On the basis that gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa) induce a significant but transient shrinkage of leiomyomas and that oral contraceptive use may be associated with a decreased risk of fibroids, we tested the hypothesis that sequential GnRHa/low-dose oral contraceptive treatment could be a therapeutic alternative in perimenopausal women with uterine fibroids. Six premenopausal women with leiomyomata uteri were treated with D-tryptophan-6-luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (D-Trp-6-LHRH) depot (Decapeptyl 3.75) for 6 months and demonstrated a significant reduction in mean uterine volume. A low-dose oral contraceptive containing 30 micrograms of ethinyl oestradiol plus 150 micrograms of desogestrel was given during the ensuing 12 months. When GnRHa therapy was discontinued, there was a rapid regrowth of the uterine fibroids and the uterine volume had reached, or even exceeded, pretreatment values by the eighth to 12th month of contraceptive therapy. Sequential GnRHa/low-dose oral contraceptive treatment is not a useful tool for leiomyomata uteri.

  5. Early Impact Of The Affordable Care Act On Oral Contraceptive Cost Sharing, Discontinuation, And Nonadherence.

    PubMed

    Pace, Lydia E; Dusetzina, Stacie B; Keating, Nancy L

    2016-09-01

    The oral contraceptive pill is the contraceptive method most commonly used by US women, but inconsistent use of the pill is a contributor to high rates of unintended pregnancy. The relationship between consumer cost sharing and consistent use of the pill is not well understood, and the impact of the elimination of cost sharing for oral contraceptive pills in a mandate in the Affordable Care Act (ACA) is not yet known. We analyzed insurance claims for 635,075 women with employer-sponsored insurance who were initiating use of the pill, to examine rates of discontinuation and nonadherence, their relationship with cost sharing, and trends before and during the first year after implementation of the ACA mandate. We found that cost sharing for oral contraceptives decreased markedly following implementation, more significantly for generic than for brand-name versions. Higher copays were associated with greater discontinuation of and nonadherence to generic pills than was the case with zero copayments. Discontinuation of the use of generic or brand-name pills decreased slightly but significantly following ACA implementation, as did nonadherence to brand-name pills. Our findings suggest a modest early impact of the ACA on improving consistent use of oral contraceptives among women initiating their use.

  6. Amelioration of lipid abnormalities by vitamin therapy in women using oral contraceptives

    PubMed Central

    Torkzahrani, Shahnaz; Heidari, Afrooz; Mostafavi-pour, Zohreh; Ahmadi, Majid

    2014-01-01

    Objective Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) have some adverse effects on the serum lipid profile. Because hyperlipidemia is one of the risk factors in cardiovascular diseases, lipid abnormalities should be evaluated in women consuming COCs. Vitamins E and C are known to have beneficial effects on serum lipid profiles. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the effects of vitamins E and C on serum lipids in women using COCs. Methods The study compared changes in lipid parameters with and without vitamin therapy in women consuming COCs compared to those of a control group (40 non-contraceptive users or NCU) for 4 weeks. Total cholesterol and triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels along with HDL/LDL ratios were measured for all participants. Results COC users experienced significantly higher increases in the levels of triglycerides and LDL than non-users (p<0.05). However, no significant differences were noted in the total cholesterol and HDL levels. In the treated COC group receiving vitamins E and C, the HDL level and the HDL/LDL ratio increased and the LDL and triglycerides levels decreased significantly compared with those of the other groups. Conclusion The results of our study indicate that supplementation with antioxidant vitamins E and C restores a normal lipid profile in COC users. PMID:24693493

  7. Tear Osmolarity and Dry Eye Symptoms in Women Using Oral Contraception and Contact Lenses

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sarah P.; Massaro-Giordano, Giacomina; Pistilli, Maxwell; Schreiber, Courtney A.; Bunya, Vatinee Y.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine the relationship between oral contraceptive pill (OCP) use, contact lens wear, and dry eye signs and symptoms in healthy young females. Methods Fifty-two women using OCPs and forty-five women not using any form of hormonal contraception were enrolled. Medical, menstrual, and contact lens histories were obtained and dry eye symptoms were assessed using the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) and Symptom Assessment iN Dry Eye (SANDE) questionnaires. Tear osmolarity testing was performed using the TearLab™ Osmolarity System. Results Mean age of all subjects was 26.0 ± 3.7 years. There were no significant differences in any of the measurements between the follicular and luteal phases. While SANDE scores were significantly higher in subjects with OCP and recent contact lens use (p<0.01), there were no significant differences in OSDI and tear osmolarity amongst the same subject groups. Subjects who reported both OCP and recent contact lens use had significantly higher OSDI and SANDE scores (p=0.015 and p<0.001, respectively). Conclusions There were no differences between the phases of the menstrual cycle. Tear osmolarity was not affected by OCP or contact lens use in young females. However, the combination of OCP use and contact lens wear may increase the severity of dry eye symptoms. PMID:23086364

  8. Partner choice, relationship satisfaction, and oral contraception: the congruency hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Roberts, S Craig; Little, Anthony C; Burriss, Robert P; Cobey, Kelly D; Klapilová, Kateřina; Havlíček, Jan; Jones, Benedict C; DeBruine, Lisa; Petrie, Marion

    2014-07-01

    Hormonal fluctuation across the menstrual cycle explains temporal variation in women's judgment of the attractiveness of members of the opposite sex. Use of hormonal contraceptives could therefore influence both initial partner choice and, if contraceptive use subsequently changes, intrapair dynamics. Associations between hormonal contraceptive use and relationship satisfaction may thus be best understood by considering whether current use is congruent with use when relationships formed, rather than by considering current use alone. In the study reported here, we tested this congruency hypothesis in a survey of 365 couples. Controlling for potential confounds (including relationship duration, age, parenthood, and income), we found that congruency in current and previous hormonal contraceptive use, but not current use alone, predicted women's sexual satisfaction with their partners. Congruency was not associated with women's nonsexual satisfaction or with the satisfaction of their male partners. Our results provide empirical support for the congruency hypothesis and suggest that women's sexual satisfaction is influenced by changes in partner preference associated with change in hormonal contraceptive use.

  9. Response from women to adverse publicity about oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Portnoy, A

    1984-06-01

    The response of the oral contraceptive (OC) clients of a general practice in Leicester, England to the publication of 2 1983 articles reporting on the adverse effects of OCs was assessed for the 6-week period following publication. During this period, 223 women representing 24% of the practice's OC patients, inquired about the risks associated with OCs. 43 of these patients made phone inquires. They were advised to make an appointment with their physicians when their currnt prescription expired. The remaining 180 patients inquired in person. 48 of the women came to the office for the sole purpose of inquiring about the risk, 91 inquired during the course of routinely scheduled OC checkups, and 34 inquired during consultations unrelated to OC usage. The other 7 women used OCs in the past and came to the clinic to inquire about the possible risks associated with previous use. The prescriptions of 67 of the 180 women were changed to low dose OCs. Only 1 patient decided to discontinue using OCs. Despite the emphasis in the articles on the risks associated with OC use for women 25 years of age or less, the proportion of inquiries (63%) from women 25 in this age group was similar to the proportion of women (62%) in that age category in the practice's OC user population. Among patients who inquired in person, 37% received blood pressure checks 32% received blood pressure and breast checks, and 31% were not examined. About 1/3 were advised to have a cervical smear examination. The response to the article was moderate in comparison to the response which followed the 1969 adverse report on OCs by the Committee on Safety of Medicines. As a result of that report, many women stopped taking OCs, and the abortion rate increased markedly the following year. The mild response observed in this study may have been due to the more effective handling of inquiries on the part of physicians, less sensational reporting of the findings, or, perphaps, users become immune to repeated

  10. Estimating systemic exposure to levonorgestrel from an oral contraceptive.

    PubMed

    Basaraba, Cale N; Westhoff, Carolyn L; Pike, Malcolm C; Nandakumar, Renu; Cremers, Serge

    2017-04-01

    The gold standard for measuring oral contraceptive (OC) pharmacokinetics is the 24-h steady-state area under the curve (AUC). We conducted this study to assess whether limited sampling at steady state or measurements following use of one or two OCs could provide an adequate proxy in epidemiological studies for the progestin 24-h steady-state AUC of a particular OC. We conducted a 13-sample, 24-h pharmacokinetic study on both day 1 and day 21 of the first cycle of a monophasic OC containing 30-mcg ethinyl estradiol and 150-mcg levonorgestrel (LNG) in 17 normal-weight healthy White women and a single-dose 9-sample study of the same OC after a 1-month washout. We compared the 13-sample steady-state results with several steady-state and single-dose results calculated using parsimonious sampling schemes. The 13-sample steady-state 24-h LNG AUC was highly correlated with the steady-state 24-h trough value [r=0.95; 95% confidence interval (0.85, 0.98)] and with the steady-state 6-, 8-, 12- and 16-h values (0.92≤r≤0.95). The trough values after one or two doses were moderately correlated with the steady-state 24-h AUC value [r=0.70; 95% CI (0.27, 0.90) and 0.77; 95% CI (0.40, 0.92), respectively]. Single time-point concentrations at steady state and after administration of one or two OCs gave highly to moderately correlated estimates of steady-state LNG AUC. Using such measures could facilitate prospective pharmaco-epidemiologic studies of the OC and its side effects. A single time-point LNG concentration at steady state is an excellent proxy for complete and resource-intensive steady-state AUC measurement. The trough level after two single doses is a fair proxy for steady-state AUC. These results provide practical tools to facilitate large studies to investigate the relationship between systemic LNG exposure and side effects in a real-life setting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Oral contraceptives and MI: how strong is the link?

    PubMed

    Jick, H

    1982-05-15

    Most of the evidence for an association between oral contraceptives (OCs) and myocardial infarction (MI) comes from case control studies and must consequently be interpreted with care. Among other things, the following must be considered: the selection of patients studied; the method of determining drug exposure; and the comparability of women identified as cases with women used as controls. The doses of estrogen and progesterone in marketed OCs have changed over the years, and this fact must be remembered. To interpret the literature on this subject it is necessary to understand the meaning of certain epidemiologic terms. The term "relative risk" (or risk ratio) refers to a comparison of risks for women exposed to OCs and those not exposed. Relative risk estimates themselves provide no information on the actual risks, only on the ratio of risks. Most of the available data on this subject relate to the risks of current OC use. The 1st formal body of data of substantial size on OCs and nonfatal MI was published by Mann and colleagues. In comparing the OC use of 72 women below age 45 who were hospitalized for nonfatal MI with OC use in controls, they estimated that current users had a 4-fold higher risk for acute MI than did nonusers. There was no positive association between past OC use and MI. A report on the relationship of OC to fatal MI also found a positive modest association. The data published before 1979 are quite consistent and provide reasonable estimates of risk for nonfatal MI among healthy OC users and nonusers. There are striking differences in absolute risk related to age and smoking status. For nonsmoking women younger than 38 the risk of MI is negligible; for women over 40 who smoke and use OCs the risk is estimated to be as high as 1.7/1000 woman-years. The results of a case-control study published last year purport to show a modest elevation of risk for nonfatal MI in women who used OCs for at least 5 years but had discontinued using them. These

  12. Oral contraceptive use: interview data versus pharmacy records.

    PubMed

    Norell, S E; Boethius, G; Persson, I

    1998-12-01

    In studies where women are interviewed about oral contraceptive (OC) use only after the emergence of disease (e.g., breast cancer), the experience of disease may enhance recall and reporting of OC use, resulting in overestimation of relative risks. This community-based study compared two sources of information on ever-use of OCs--structured interviews and pharmacy prescription records--in 427 women 20-34 years of age who were long-term residents of Sweden's Jamtland County where registration of prescriptions has been virtually complete since 1970. A life-events calendar and photographs of OCs in use since 1970 were used in the interviews to facilitate recall. 153 women reported current OC use; the pharmacy register failed to document a current prescription for 37 (24%). Only 4 (1.5%) of the 274 women who denied current OC use had an active prescription on file. Of the 37 women identified as never-users by interview, 2 (5%) had records of OC prescriptions (for under 2 years of use). Of the 36 women identified as never-users by pharmacy records, only 1 reported ever-use. Compared to the pharmacy registry, 13% reported a shorter and 28% a longer duration of OC use. Of women who reported OC use within 5 years of interview, 5-10 years earlier, and more than 10 years ago, 2.6% (8/312), 4.6% (14/307), and 12.8% (26/203), respectively, had no prescriptions on file for that time period. Discrepancies between the two data sources in time since first OC use were usually less than 2 years; the tendency was for women to overestimate rather than understate the actual duration of OC use. These findings suggest that interview data on OC use introduce minimal--if any--bias. Agreement between interviews and records in terms of the specific brands of OCs taken was less satisfactory. 19% of users of high-dose OCs, for example, did not recall the type of pill dispensed by the pharmacy. Thus, use of pharmacy records is recommended over interview data in studies where the specific OC

  13. Heparanase procoagulant activity is elevated in women using oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Matan, Moshe; Axelman, Elena; Brenner, Benjamin; Nadir, Yona

    2013-09-01

    What is the effect of estrogen on heparanase procogulant activity? Estrogen increases heparanase procoagulant activity. Estrogen therapy increases the risk of thrombosis and was previously found to up-regulate heparanase expression. Heparanase is involved in angiogenesis and metastasis, and has been shown to form a complex with tissue factor (TF) and also shown to enhance the generation of factor Xa. A case-control study. Thirty-four healthy women using oral contraceptives (OC) and 41 women not using hormonal therapy and not pregnant per history were enrolled, over a 5-month period, at the Rambam Medical Center, Haifa, Israel. In vitro, estrogen receptor-positive (MCF-7) and -negative (MDA-231) cell lines were incubated with estrogen, tamoxifen and ICI-182.780 a pure estrogen receptor antagonist. The cell medium was evaluated for TF/heparanase complex activity, TF activity and heparanase procoagulant activity by chromogenic substrate. Exclusion criteria included age <18 years, post-menopausal women, concomitant medications other than supplement minerals and vitamins, acute or chronic illness. The study demonstrates increased risk of high heparanase procoagulant activity in OC users. When a cutoff level of 0.25 (absorbance 405-490 nm) was set, the odds ratio was 131 (P < 0.0001). When all results were studied by quartiles, in quartiles 3 and 4 the results were almost exclusively of the OC users (P < 0.0001). In cell cultures, estrogen and tamoxifen increased heparanase procoagulant activity in the medium of estrogen receptor-positive (MCF-7) cells. The main limitation of the current study is that the two estrogens given to the women and cell cultures, ethinyl estradiol (EE) and 17-β-estradiol (E2), respectively, may have different effects on the coagulation system, although an increase in heparanase procoagulant activity was demonstrated in both of them. Although the sample size of the study group was limited, significant differences in the activation of the

  14. Cluster headache in women: relation with menstruation, use of oral contraceptives, pregnancy, and menopause

    PubMed Central

    van Vliet, J A; Favier, I; Helmerhorst, F M; Haan, J; Ferrari, M D

    2006-01-01

    In contrast with migraine, little is known about the relation between cluster headache and menstrual cycle, oral contraceptives, pregnancy, and menopause. A population based questionnaire study was performed among 224 female cluster headache patients, and the possible effect of hormonal influences on cluster headache attacks studied. For control data, a similar but adjusted questionnaire was sent to healthy volunteers and migraine patients. It was found that menstruation, use of oral contraceptives, pregnancy, and menopause had a much smaller influence on cluster headache attacks than in migraine. Cluster headache can, however, have a large impact on individual women, for example to refrain from having children. PMID:16407458

  15. Timing of oral contraceptive use and the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Kotsopoulos, Joanne; Lubinski, Jan; Moller, Pal; Lynch, Henry T; Singer, Christian F; Eng, Charis; Neuhausen, Susan L; Karlan, Beth; Kim-Sing, Charmaine; Huzarski, Tomasz; Gronwald, Jacek; McCuaig, Jeanna; Senter, Leigha; Tung, Nadine; Ghadirian, Parviz; Eisen, Andrea; Gilchrist, Dawna; Blum, Joanne L; Zakalik, Dana; Pal, Tuya; Sun, Ping; Narod, Steven A

    2014-02-01

    It is not clear if early oral contraceptive use increases the risk of breast cancer among young women with a breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1) mutation. Given the benefit of oral contraceptives for the prevention of ovarian cancer, estimating age-specific risk ratios for oral contraceptive use and breast cancer is important. We conducted a case-control study of 2,492 matched pairs of women with a deleterious BRCA1 mutation. Breast cancer cases and unaffected controls were matched on year of birth and country of residence. Detailed information about oral contraceptive use was collected from a routinely administered questionnaire. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for the association between oral contraceptive and breast cancer, by age at first use and by age at diagnosis. Among BRCA1 mutation carriers, oral contraceptive use was significantly associated with an increased risk of breast cancer for women who started the pill prior to age 20 (OR 1.45; 95 % CI 1.20-1.75; P = 0.0001) and possibly between ages 20 and 25 as well (OR 1.19; 95 % CI 0.99-1.42; P = 0.06). The effect was limited to breast cancers diagnosed before age 40 (OR 1.40; 95 % CI 1.14-1.70; P = 0.001); the risk of early-onset breast cancer increased by 11 % with each additional year of pill use when initiated prior to age 20 (OR 1.11; 95 % CI 1.03-1.20; P = 0.008). There was no observed increase for women diagnosed at or after the age of 40 (OR 0.97; 95 % CI 0.79-1.20; P = 0.81). Oral contraceptive use before age 25 increases the risk of early-onset breast cancer among women with a BRCA1 mutation and the risk increases with duration of use. Caution should be taken when advising women with a BRCA1 mutation to take an oral contraceptive prior to age 25.

  16. The care of oral contraceptive users by general practitioners in Oxfordshire

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Bridget; Thorogood, Margaret

    1977-01-01

    A questionnaire was circulated to a sample of general practitioners in Oxfordshire enquiring about the supervision of women taking oral contraceptives. A high standard of care was being offered and the doctors believed that there was a wide range of conditions that should influence the prescription of oral contraceptives. We conclude that while suitably trained paramedical staff could provide the same standard of care as the general practitioners, this could not be achieved through the use of a package insert listing possible contraindications. PMID:894634

  17. Lipids, cardiovascular disease, and oral contraceptives: a practical perspective.

    PubMed

    Upton, G V

    1990-01-01

    Figure 9 is an attempt to summate the influences of life-style on lipid parameters. Based on the work of Nikkila, it shows the source of the production of HDL and LDL, the factors that can affect these lipoprotein levels, and where in the cascade of lipoprotein metabolism these factors exert influence. The source of HDL production is the liver and the intestine. At this stage, diet, exercise, hormones, genetics, drugs, and certain disease states can affect HDL levels. Lecithin-cholesterol acyl transferase (LCAT) esterifies HDL-free cholesterol in plasma, and HDL3 is formed that in turn is transformed to HDL2. At the same time, VLDL from the gut and the liver will be converted, under the influence of LPL, to HDL2 and LDL. Thus HDL2 is being formed by the breakdown of VLDL and from the transformation of HDL3 to HDL2. Insulin, exercise, alcohol, fats, drugs, and diet affect lipoprotein lipase and consequently influence levels of LDL and HDL2 indirectly. Progestogens increase and estrogens decrease hepatic endothelial lipase, thus affecting the HDL2 concentration. It is at this point that combination OCs influence HDL2. The balance between estrogen and progestogen in a given contraceptive determines the extent and direction of HDL2 concentration. A separate pathway in the liver also catabolizes HDL2 and HDL3. LDL is generated partly from catabolism of VLDL and is partly secreted from the liver. The removal of LDL is mediated by receptors in both the liver and peripheral tissues. It is here that the Brown-Goldstein theory plays a major role. If LDL receptors are present in an insufficient number or are defective, then the C will accumulate and atherosclerosis may follow. Thus two key enzymes, LCAT and LPL, control the production of HDL2 and LDL, whereas a third enzyme, hepatic endothelial lipase, catabolizes HDL2.

  18. A consumer intercept study of oral contraceptive users in the Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Green, E C

    1988-01-01

    Purchasers of a low-cost oral contraceptive were intercepted and interviewed in a sample of Santo Domingo pharmacies that represented the highest sales of the product, yet also reflected the socioeconomic profile of the city's entire population. Users of the contraceptive were later interviewed in greater depth in their homes. The survey of users showed that the Dominican Republic's social marketing program, implemented by PROFAMILIA, was reaching an appropriate target market--that is, younger, lower-middle-class women of low parity. The program was, in addition, successful in attracting first-time adopters, and it was also expanding the overall commercial market for all contraceptives. The marketing campaign was successful in part because a mass audience was reached, through brief television spots. Program impact on contraceptive prevalence can be assessed from sales data.

  19. The Creeping Pearl: Why Has the Rate of Contraceptive Failure Increased in Clinical Trials of Combined Hormonal Contraceptive Pills?

    PubMed Central

    Trussell, James; Portman, David

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Despite several drawbacks, the Pearl Index continues to be the most widely used statistical measure of contraceptive failure. However, Pearl indices reported in studies of newer hormonal contraceptives appear to be increasing. STUDY DESIGN We searched PubMed and MIS databases for prospective trials evaluating oral contraceptive (OC) efficacy to examine potential factors that could contribute to increasing Pearl indices. RESULTS Numerous potential factors were identified, including an increased rate of failures of newer OCs, deficiencies in methods of calculating contraceptive failure rates, differences in study design and changes in patient populations resulting in increased rates of contraceptive failures due to the inappropriate or inconsistent use of the method. CONCLUSIONS The two most likely important contributors to the increase in Pearl indices are more frequent pregnancy testing with more sensitive tests and less adherent study populations. Because study populations appear to be increasingly representative of the likely actual users once the product is marketed, we can expect to see even higher failure rates in ongoing and future studies. This result poses challenges for companies and regulatory agencies. PMID:23683581

  20. Reversible ischemic colitis in young women. Association with oral contraceptive use.

    PubMed

    Deana, D G; Dean, P J

    1995-04-01

    Ischemic colitis, a condition of middle-aged to elderly patients, occurs uncommonly in younger persons. In this study, we describe the clinical and pathological features of 18 young adults (mean age, 29 years; age range, 17-39 years) with spontaneous ischemic colitis, 17 of whom were women. All presented with abrupt onset of severe, cramping abdominal pain followed by hematochezia. Colonoscopic visualization of the mucosa showed segmental hyperemia, friability, and erosion affecting the distal transverse colon (three cases), splenic flexure (three cases), descending colon (five cases), and sigmoid (seven cases). Mucosal biopsy documented superficial ischemic necrosis in seven patients; 11 patients had full-thickness mucosal necrosis with regeneration. Colonic mucosa proximal and distal to the ischemic segment was endoscopically normal in all patients and histologically normal in the eight patients in whom biopsies were obtained. All patients recovered with supportive care. Median duration of illness was 2.1 days (range, 1-4 days). Ten women (59%) were using low-dose estrogenic oral contraceptive agents, compared with the 1988 national average of 18.5% oral contraceptive users among females aged 15 to 44 years. The calculated odds ratio yielded a greater than sixfold relative risk for the occurrence of ischemic colitis among oral contraceptive users. In addition, four women not currently on hormonal contraceptive therapy had a past history of oral contraceptive use; the three remaining women were taking estrogen as replacement therapy after oophorectomy. In one patient, documented reversible ischemic colitis recurred on resumption of oral contraceptive use; four women reported symptoms and signs of recurrent ischemia but did not seek further medical evaluation. Our data indicate that transient colonic ischemia represents a form of acute segmental colitis in young adults; before the 5th decade of life, spontaneous ischemic colitis is a disorder found almost

  1. Continuous versus cyclic oral contraceptives for the treatment of endometriosis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Zorbas, Konstantinos A; Economopoulos, Konstantinos P; Vlahos, Nikos F

    2015-07-01

    Recurrence of endometriosis after conservative surgery has been observed in 40-50 % of patients within the first 5 years. A variety of regimens such as combined oral contraceptives, GnRH agonists, danazol, and progestins have been used postoperatively to reduce recurrence rates. Oral contraceptives (oCP) have been used either in a cyclic or in a continuous (no pill-free interval) fashion. The purpose of this article was to summarize the existing evidence on the efficacy and patient compliance for the use of oCP in a continuous versus cyclic fashion following conservative surgery for endometriosis. A systematic search of Medline identified four eligible studies. Studies were considered eligible, if they have evaluated oCP therapy, either in a cyclic or continuous regimen, after conservative surgery for endometriosis. Specifically, studies (1) reporting on women with endometriosis who were treated postoperatively with both continuous oCP and cyclic oCP, (2) written in English, (3) with minimum 6 months duration of medical treatment, and (4) with minimum 12 months duration of follow-up were considered eligible for our systematic review. Outcome measures of these eligible studies were tabulated and then analyzed cumulatively. A purely descriptive approach was adopted concerning all variables. Postoperative use of continuous oCP was associated with a reduction in the recurrence rate of dysmenorrhea, delay in the presentation of dysmenorrhea, reduction in nonspecific pelvic pain, and reduction in the recurrence rate for endometrioma. Use of oCP in a continuous fashion following conservative surgery for endometriosis is more beneficial to cyclic use.

  2. The formulation of oral contraceptives: does the amount of estrogen make any clinical difference?

    PubMed

    Speroff, L

    1982-05-01

    The question of whether the formulation of the oral contraceptive (OC) pill makes any clinically significant difference is often raised because both physicians and patients are faced with the problem of selecting from a bewildering array of available pills. The answer involves examining the contribution of estrogen and progestin separately. The estrogen component of the combination birth control pill serves 3 important functions: it exerts negative feedback action on the secretion of gonadotropins; it provides stability to the endometrium, preventing irregular shedding and unwanted breakthrough bleeding; and it increases the potency of the progestational component in its inhibitory action on gonadotropin secretion and its antifertility effects on cervical mucus, endometrium, and possibly the Fallopian tube. The presence of estrogen may eliminate a need for higher progestin doses in OCs. This effect is mediated by estrogen induced increase in the concentration of intracellular progestin receptors. A minimal pharmacologic level of estrogen is needed to achieve effective contraception, and the new low dose pills are most likely at the limit of the ability to reduce dosage. Thrombosis is the most serious side effect of the OC; it plays a key role in the increased risk of death from a variety of circulatory problems such as myocardial infarction, pulmonary embolism, and stroke. A convincing argument can be made for a dose related response between the incidence of thrombosis and the estrogen content of the pill. Only the 19-nortestosterone family of progestins is approved for contraceptive use in the U.S. The progestin component exerts its principal contraceptive effect by suppressing luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion. In 1978 an early report from the Walnut Creek study suggested that HDL-cholesterol levels were positively associated with estrogen levels in OCs and negatively with progestin. The implication was that high dose progestins would be associated with a

  3. Forgettable contraception.

    PubMed

    Grimes, David A

    2009-12-01

    The term "forgettable contraception" has received less attention in family planning than has "long-acting reversible contraception." Defined here as a method requiring attention no more often than every 3 years, forgettable contraception includes sterilization (female or male), intrauterine devices, and implants. Five principal factors determine contraceptive effectiveness: efficacy, compliance, continuation, fecundity, and the timing of coitus. Of these, compliance and continuation dominate; the key determinants of contraceptive effectiveness are human, not pharmacological. Human nature undermines methods with high theoretical efficacy, such as oral contraceptives and injectable contraceptives. By obviating the need to think about contraception for long intervals, forgettable contraception can help overcome our human fallibility. As a result, all forgettable contraception methods provide first-tier effectiveness (contraceptives today with exclusively first-tier effectiveness is the one that can be started -- and then forgotten for years.

  4. Comparison of two oral contraceptives containing either drospirenone or cyproterone acetate in the treatment of hirsutism.

    PubMed

    Batukan, Cem; Muderris, Iptisam Ipek; Ozcelik, Bulent; Ozturk, Ahmet

    2007-01-01

    Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) are considered the first-line treatment for women with hirsutism. They diminish androgen release from the ovary and decrease plasma free testosterone levels by increasing sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations. COCs containing cyproterone acetate (CPA) and drospirenone (DRSP) have been proved effective for the treatment of acne and facial hirsutism. This study prospectively compared the clinical and biochemical efficacy of 3 mg DRSP/30 microg ethinyl estradiol (EE) and 2 mg CPA/35 microg EE combinations in a total of 91 patients with hirsutism. Individuals randomly received a cyclic combination of either DRSP/EE (n=48) or CPA/EE (n=43) for 12 months. Basal serum total testosterone, free testosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and SHBG levels, as well as Ferriman-Gallwey scores, were determined before and after treatment. Both COCs achieved a similar effect on clinical hirsutism scores, in addition to serum androgen and SHBG levels, after completion of therapy. The percentage reductions in total hirsutism score (median % (min-max)) during therapy were 0.70 (0-0.58) vs. 0.57 (0.10-1.00) at 6 months (p = 0.028) and 0.80 (0-0.42) vs. 0.81 (0-0.75) at 12 months (p = 0.6) in the DRSP/EE and CPA/EE groups, respectively. In conclusion, the DRSP/EE combination is at least as effective as the CPA/EE combination in improving hirsutism scores.

  5. Contraception-related venous thromboembolism in adolescents.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Sarah H

    2014-02-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a rare but serious complication of combined hormonal contraception. While the absolute risk of VTE is low in adolescents, thrombotic events in contraception users younger than the age of 20 years account for 5 to 10% of total contraception-related VTE events in population studies, because of the high frequency of contraception use in adolescents. An increased risk of VTE exists not only with oral contraceptives, but also the contraceptive patch and vaginal ring. Most adolescents who experience contraception-related VTE have additional transient or inherited thrombotic risk factors at the time of VTE. Although the presence of inherited thrombophilia impacts the risk of contraception-related VTE, thrombophilia screening before contraception prescribing should be targeted only to high-risk populations. Pediatric institutions, caregivers, and young women need to be aware of the risk of VTE with estrogen-containing contraception, and maintain a high index of suspicion for this complication in women using these agents.

  6. Contraception: an international perspective.

    PubMed

    Sitruk-Ware, Regine

    2006-03-01

    Although it is estimated that the population growth rate will decline to a replacement level by 2050, it is also now predicted that the total world population will reach 8.9 billion in that year -- far higher than the 2004 estimate of 6.4 billion. More than 26 billion new couples will need contraceptives in the next half century. Although a steady increase in contraceptive use has been observed in both developed and developing countries, the contraceptive needs of a high percentage of couples have not yet been met and the number of unplanned pregnancies continues to increase. The actual use of contraception differs from region to region. Although no new method has been registered for many years, several new products have been marketed during the last 5. Among these are new implants, medicated intrauterine systems, contraceptive vaginal rings, transdermal patches and several new combined oral contraceptive formulations. New contraceptive methods have been developed to meet the objectives of expanding contraceptive choices for both women and men and answering an unmet need for contraceptives with a long-term action that meet the expectations of consumers. Simplicity, reversibility and effectiveness are the desired features of a male contraceptive, but no new male contraceptive method is yet available. New areas of basic research include studies on genes, proteins and enzymes involved in the reproductive system. The new methods will be targeted to specific interactions within the reproductive system at the level of ovaries and testes, as well as between spermatozoa and ova. This futuristic approach still keeps in mind the need for better access to existing contraceptive methods, as well as the discovery of new contraceptives that are simple to use, safe, reversible and inexpensive. In the future, contraceptives may be combined with other medicinal agents to provide dual protection against both pregnancy and other preventable conditions, such as sexually transmitted

  7. Today's contraceptive choices.

    PubMed

    Schnare, S; Matsuda, K J

    1997-12-01

    This article was written to acquaint nurses involved in contraceptive counseling with the methods currently available in the US and with the general needs of clients of different ages. The article includes a chart giving descriptions, the perfect use failure rate, advantages, and disadvantages of the following: combined oral contraceptives (OCs), progestin-only OCs, Norplant, Depo-Provera, Copper T-380 IUDs, Progestasert IUDs, male condoms, female condoms, spermicide, vaginal diaphragms, cervical caps, natural family planning, the lactation amenorrhea method, sexual sterilization, emergency postcoital contraception using combined OCs, and emergency postcoital contraception with Copper T-380 IUDs. The counseling advice considers how to meet the challenge involved in talking about sexuality, contraception, and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases with adolescents. Next, a method-by-method review of topics to discuss with young adults is presented to dispel the misinformation that often results in unintended pregnancies among this group. Contraceptive counseling for postpartum women should address their concerns about when to resume contraceptive usage and which types are appropriate, especially if they are breast feeding. Finally, the article covers the contraceptive needs of perimenopausal women and how to determine when they can stop worrying about contraception. It is concluded that counselors should insure that their facilities offer a wide variety of methods and should always match contraceptive advice to a patient's specific needs.

  8. Oral contraceptives, antithrombin- III activity, and postoperative deep-vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Sagar, S; Stamatakis, J D; Thomas, D P; Kakkar, V V

    1976-03-06

    Deep-vein thrombosis (D.V.T.) was detected by the fibrinogen-uptake test in six out of a total of thirty-one young women undergoing emergency abdominal surgery who gave a history of recent oral contraceptive intake. In contrast, no D.V.T. developed in nineteen similar patients who were not on oral contraceptives (P less than 0-01). Plasma-antithrombin-III activity was significantly lower preoperatively in patients taking oral contraceptives; postoperative D.V.T. subsequently developed in three out of five patients with preoperative antithrombin-III activity below 50%. In seventy-eight dental patients undergoing molar extraction, antithrombin-III activity was measured before, during, and after operation. Activity fell in all patients during operation, but the fall was significantly greater in women taking oral contraceptives (P less than 0-01). The intra-operative fall in antithrombin-III activity was prevented by a small preoperative dose of subcutaneous heparin.

  9. Cerebral arterial occlusion and intracranial venous thrombosis in a woman taking oral contraceptives.

    PubMed Central

    Montón, F.; Rebollo, M.; Quintana, F.; Berciano, J.

    1984-01-01

    Occlusion of the middle cerebral artery and thrombosis of the superior sagittal sinus are reported in a 30-year-old woman taking oral contraceptives (OC). The coexistence of arterial and venous cerebral pathology as a complication of OC use has only been previously reported in one case. The pathogenesis of this rare association is briefly discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:6462985

  10. Factor V Leiden: should we screen oral contraceptive users and pregnant women?

    PubMed Central

    Vandenbroucke, J. P.; van der Meer, F. J.; Helmerhorst, F. M.; Rosendaal, F. R.

    1996-01-01

    The factor V Leiden mutation is the most common genetic risk factor for deep vein thrombosis: it is present in about 5% of the white population. The risk of deep vein thrombosis among women who use oral contraceptives is greatly increased by the presence of the mutation. The same seems to be true of the risk of postpartum thrombosis. Several authors have called for all women to be screened before prescription of oral contraceptives and during pregnancy. Such a policy might deny effective contraception to a substantial number of women while preventing only a small number of deaths due to pulmonary emboli. Moreover, in pregnancy the ensuing use of oral anticoagulation prophylaxis might carry a penalty of fatal bleeding that is equal to or exceeds the risk of death due to postpartum thrombosis. It might pay, however, to take a personal and family history of deep vein thrombosis when prescribing oral contraceptives or at a first antenatal visit to detect women from families with a tendency to multiple thrombosis. Images p1129-a PMID:8916702

  11. Impact of exercise on bone health and contraindication of oral contraceptive use in young women.

    PubMed

    Weaver, C M; Teegarden, D; Lyle, R M; McCabe, G P; McCabe, L D; Proulx, W; Kern, M; Sedlock, D; Anderson, D D; Hillberry, B M; Peacock, M; Johnston, C C

    2001-06-01

    The effect of quantified resistance and high impact exercise training on bone mass as modified by age and oral contraceptive (OCont) use in young women was studied. Women were categorized by age (18-23 vs 24-31 yr) and OCont use, and were then randomized into either three sessions of resistance exercise plus 60 min.wk-1 of jumping rope or a control group for 24 months. Total body, spine, femoral neck, greater trochanter, Ward's area, and radial bone mineral density (BMD) and/or content (BMC), biochemical markers of bone turnover, dietary intake of calcium, lean body mass, maximal oxygen uptake, and strength were determined at baseline and every 6 months. Total body (TB) BMC percent change from baseline was higher in exercisers compared with nonexercisers at 6 and 24 months. OCont users had lower bone turnover at baseline and a decrease in TBBMC from baseline compared with non-OCont users at 24 months. Spine BMC and BMD decreased in the exercise and OCont group at 6 months and remained significantly below nonexercisers who used oral contraceptives at 2 yr. Femoral neck BMD also decreased in the exercise and oral contraceptive group at 6 months. Exercise prevented a decline in TBBMC seen in the nonexercisers. On the other hand, exercise in oral contraceptive users prevented the increase observed in the spine of the nonexercise plus OCont group.

  12. Menstrual and oral contraceptive use patterns among deployed military women by race and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Deuster, Patricia A; Powell-Dunford, Nicole; Crago, Mark S; Cuda, Amanda S

    2011-01-01

    Menstrual cycle patterns and concerns and oral contraceptive use in the combat environment were examined in Caucasian, Asian, Hispanic, and African American women to guide the development of educational resources for women soldiers. An anonymous, questionnaire was completed by 455 U.S. Army women-Caucasian (CA: n = 141); Asian (AS: n = 67); Hispanic (HIS: n = 67); and African American (AA: n = 184) to compare menstrual patterns and concerns, dysmenorrhea, and oral contraceptive patterns. Total menstrual concerns were significantly lower among African Americans relative to Caucasians, Asians, or Hispanics; Asians and Hispanics reported the greatest concern. Overall, secondary amenorrhea was noted by 14.9% of women. Severe dysmenorrhea rates were significantly lower in African American (6.1%) compared to Caucasian (11.6%), Asian (20.9%) and Hispanic (19.7%) women. Asian women reported missing less work-only 9.3% with moderate to severe dysmenorrhea missed work compared to 25.1% of all other women. Only 9.2% of women with mild, compared to 25.8% with moderate to severe (OR = 3.44; p ≤ 0.0001) dysmenorrhea sought health care. Less than 50% of women took oral contraceptive, and less than half of those women took oral contraceptive continuously. African Americans seemed to experience menstruation as less bothersome than others, despite no difference in the proportion with menstrual irregularities, mean duration of menses, and/or mean time between cycles.

  13. [Objective and perceived knowledge of oral contraceptive methods among adolescent mothers].

    PubMed

    Sousa, Michelle Chintia Rodrigues de; Gomes, Keila Rejane Oliveira

    2009-03-01

    The high rate of early pregnancy in Brazil and particularly in Teresina (21.5%), Piauí State, motivated the current study, the aim of which was to identify levels of objective and perceived knowledge on oral contraceptives, as well as predictive reproductive and socio-demographic variables for high knowledge. A cross-sectional study was performed including 278 teenage mothers (15-19 years), with their childbearing history, admitted to four maternity hospitals in Teresina in 2006. Logistic regression provided the basis for the statistical analysis. Nearly 98% of the adolescent mothers showed low objective and perceived knowledge of oral contraceptives. High parity was the only predictor of increased objective knowledge on oral contraceptives. The adolescents' low level of objective and perceived knowledge on use of oral contraceptives emphasized their susceptibility to risky sexual behavior. The findings emphasize the need for a more interactive approach with adolescents concerning their level of objective and perceived knowledge, to reduce the occurrence and repetition of unwanted teenage pregnancy and its negative consequences for the lives of these young mothers and their children.

  14. Relationships between blood pressure, oral contraceptive use and metabolic risk markers for cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Godsland, I F; Crook, D; Devenport, M; Wynn, V

    1995-09-01

    Data from a previous study, designed to compare metabolic risk markers for cardiovascular disease in non-users and oral contraceptive (OC) users, were analysed to evaluate the influence of OC composition on blood pressure. Healthy, female volunteers (1189 women) either not using OC (non-users) or currently using one of six different combined formulations (users) were compared. Combinations studied contained 30-40 micrograms ethinyl estradiol combined with the progestins levonorgestrel, norethindrone (at two and three different doses, respectively) or desogestrel. After statistical standardisation to account for the significantly greater age of the non-users and longer duration of OC use amongst the levonorgestrel combination users, mean blood pressure was higher, compared with non-users, in users of monophasic or triphasic levonorgestrel combinations (systolic: +4.3 mmHg (p < 0.001) and +2.7 mmHg (p < 0.001), respectively; diastolic: +2.6 mmHg (p < 0.001) and +2.3 mmHg (p < 0.05), respectively). Blood pressures in users of monophasic norethindrone and desogestrel combinations were not significantly raised and there was no increase in the proportion of women with abnormal values. Diastolic and systolic blood pressures were positively associated with oral glucose tolerance test insulin response (r = 0.11 (p < 0.01) and r = 0.15 (p < 0.001), respectively) in users but not in non-users. Currently used OC containing norethindrone or desogestrel progestins have little impact on blood pressure. Their correlated reduction in impact on insulin concentrations, though small, suggests common mechanisms through which OC affect blood pressure and insulin.

  15. Maternal use of oral contraceptives and risk of birth defects in Denmark: prospective, nationwide cohort study.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Brittany M; Mølgaard-Nielsen, Ditte; Svanström, Henrik; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Pasternak, Björn; Melbye, Mads

    2016-01-06

    Is oral contraceptive use around the time of pregnancy onset associated with an increased risk of major birth defects? In a prospective observational cohort study, data on oral contraceptive use and major birth defects were collected among 880,694 live births from Danish registries between 1997 and 2011. We conservatively assumed that oral contraceptive exposure lasted up to the most recently filled prescription. The main outcome measure was the number of major birth defects throughout one year follow-up (defined according to the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies classification). Logistic regression estimated prevalence odds ratios of any major birth defect as well as categories of birth defect subgroups. Prevalence of major birth defects (per 1000 births) was consistent across each oral contraceptive exposure group (25.1, never users; 25.0, use >3 months before pregnancy onset (reference group); 24.9, use 0-3 months before pregnancy onset (that is, recent use); 24.8, use after pregnancy onset). No increase in prevalence of major birth defects was seen with oral contraceptive exposure among women with recent use before pregnancy (prevalence odds ratio 0.98 (95% confidence interval 0.93 to 1.03)) or use after pregnancy onset (0.95 (0.84 to 1.08)), compared with the reference group. There was also no increase in prevalence of any birth defect subgroup (for example, limb defects). It is unknown whether women took oral contraceptives up to the date of their most recently filled prescription. Also, the rarity of birth defects made disaggregation of the results difficult. Residual confounding was possible, and the analysis lacked information on folate, one of the proposed mechanisms. Oral contraceptive exposure just before or during pregnancy does not appear to be associated with an increased risk of major birth defects. BMC was funded by the Harvard T H Chan School of Public Health's Maternal Health Task Force and Department of Epidemiology Rose Traveling

  16. [Withdrawal of high estrogen containing oral contraceptives and the demand for medical service].

    PubMed

    Kamper-Jorgensen, F; Albertsen, J; Almind, G; Andersen, K; Braae, M; Dybkjaer, L; Frolund, F; Granlie, K; Hald, E; Hald, J; Hector, O; Jacobsen, K; Kaltoft, S; Kjaerulff, E; Mabeck, C D; Magnusson, B; Nielsen, A; Novella, P; Olsen, O M; Pedersen, P A; Rasmussen, I; Strunk, K; Traeden, J B; Veje, J O

    1975-03-24

    The results of a survey are presented conerning the effectiveness of mass media publicity with the public. After oral contraceptives containing high levels of estrogen were prohibited in Denmark, a telephone survey of 23 doctors was taken to determine the fluctuation in demand for medical information from patients, and the reason for the fluctuation. The reasons were divided into 3 groups: 1) resulting from mass media publicity, 2) resulting from the unavailability of a particular contraceptive, and 3) other. 3 surveys were conducted of the frequency of demand for information on the high estrogen contraceptives, 1 for each of the 2 weeks after the prohibition and withdrawal of the contraceptives took place, and 1 1 month after the prohibition. 2-3% of the inquiries received by the doctors concerned the prohibited contraceptives, and half of these could be attributed directly to the mass media publicity. The number of requests in categories 1 and 2 dropped sharply in the 2nd and 3rd surveys, indicating that the effect of the mass meida publicity and the withdrawal of the contraceptive from the market had only a very immediate effect. It is also shown that the telephone can be used successfully to ascertain the effects of a short-term social phenomenon on the public.

  17. Measuring perceptions of synergistic circulatory disease risk due to smoking and the oral contraceptive pill.

    PubMed

    French, David P; Gayton, Emma L; Burton, Jessica; Thorogood, Margaret; Marteau, Theresa M

    2002-12-01

    There is evidence that the oral contraceptive pill (OCP) and smoking contribute independently to risk of circulatory disease. There is mixed evidence that the combined risk may be greater than the sum of these factors operating in isolation. Little is known about how the general population views the risks from OCP use, singly and in combination with smoking. Previous attempts at assessing whether the public views risks as operating synergistically have generally found evidence for subadditive models, where the combined risk is less than the sum of factors operating in isolation. However, concerns have been expressed over the validity of the measures of risk perception used. Therefore, this study used three distinct methods of measurement to assess the extent to which 241 undergraduate students perceive the risks of smoking and the OCP separately and combined, for circulatory disease. For all three methods, respondents read each of four vignettes describing information about a woman's risk factors (with high and low levels of both OCP and smoking), and then estimated risk of circulatory disease using one of the three risk measures. The three measures produced similar ratings. Consistent with the epidemiological evidence, information about smoking had more impact on estimates of overall risk than did information about the OCP For all three measures, responses were consistent with an additive model of risk from smoking and the OCP. This convergence of results from different methods suggests that all three methods of measurement employed, which all had a large number of response options, may be valid.

  18. [Clinical trial of the combined contraceptive preparation, Ovidon].

    PubMed

    Nalbanski, B

    1979-01-01

    The efficacy of a new estrogen-progestin contraceptive agent Ovidon was evaluated in 65 women. The women were taking the contraceptive for 47 cycles (each Ovidon pill contained 0.25 mg of D-norgestrel and 0.05 mg of ethinyl estradiol). Prior to the Ovidon treatment, 15 women did not use any contraceptive agents or devices, 5 used hormonal contraceptives, 2 used IUDs, 4 used mechanical devices, 20 practiced coitus interraptus, and 9 used a biological method. Ovidon administration provided a 100% contraceptive effect. Side effects of Ovidon included fatigue (15 women), headache (4), irritability (3), fullness of the breast (27), hemorrhage (12), vaginal discharge (6), and changes in libido (22). Ovidon administration did not induce amenorrhea. A 1-3 kg weight gain was observed in 5 women. Laboratory studies showed no changes in hemoglobin levels, leukocyte count, cholesterol, and alkaline phosphatase levels. These findings indicated the safety and contraceptive efficacy of Ovidon.

  19. Examining the role of oral contraceptive users as an experimental and/or control group in athletic performance studies.

    PubMed

    Elliott-Sale, Kirsty Jayne; Smith, Stephanie; Bacon, James; Clayton, David; McPhilimey, Martin; Goutianos, Georgios; Hampson, Jennifer; Sale, Craig

    2013-09-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effect of oral contraceptives on endogenous reproductive hormone levels in order to assess the suitability of oral contraceptive users as experimental and/or control groups in human performance studies. Ninety-five females who were taking a variety of oral contraceptives (2 types and 11 brands) were recruited. A single blood sample was analysed for endogenous concentrations of oestradiol and progesterone. There were significant differences (p<.05) in circulating oestradiol and progesterone as a result of oral contraceptive type and brand. Overall, oral contraceptive use resulted in low levels of oestradiol and progesterone and large variation in hormone concentration when multiple brands were analysed together. This study indicates that future studies should employ a single pill type and brand when using oral contraceptive users as either a control or experimental group and that comparison between oral contraceptive users as a control group and the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle as an experimental group should be reconsidered. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A case-control study of oral contraceptive use and invasive epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, L; Palmer, J R; Zauber, A G; Warshauer, M E; Lewis, J L; Strom, B L; Harlap, S; Shapiro, S

    1994-04-01

    The relation of oral contraceptive use to the risk of ovarian cancer was assessed with data collected during 1977-1991 from patients under 65 years of age in hospitals in Boston, New York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore. We compared 441 women with recently diagnosed invasive epithelial ovarian cancer to 2,065 control women. Logistic regression was used to control risk factors for ovarian cancer. The multivariate relative risk estimate decreased with the increasing duration of oral contraceptive use (p < 0.05): the estimate was close to 1.0 for duration categories of less than 3 years; it was reduced for the categories of 3-4 years of use and greater, but it did not decline further as the duration of use increased. For > or = 3 years of use, the estimate was 0.6 (95% confidence interval 0.4-0.8). The inverse association of risk with > or = 3 years of use was consistently present across categories of age, parity, interview year, and geographic area. It was apparent for as long as 15-19 years after cessation. Many different specific oral contraceptive formulations appeared related to a decreased risk; however, data were sparse for the newer types, particularly phasic preparations, and the ability to assess specific preparations in the context of use of multiple preparations was limited. The present data confirm previous reports of an inverse association of ovarian cancer risk with oral contraceptive use of several years in duration. They also suggest that the association may persist for as long as two decades and that it is not confined to any particular type of oral contraceptive formulation.

  1. Evaluating the practice of Iranian community pharmacists regarding oral contraceptive pills using simulated patients

    PubMed Central

    Foroutan, Nazanin; Dabaghzadeh, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: As oral contraceptive pills are available over the counter in pharmacies, pharmacists are professionally responsible for checking and informing patients about every aspect of taking these drugs. Simulated patient method is a new and robust way to evaluate professional performance of pharmacists. Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the pharmacy practice of Iranian pharmacists regarding over-the-counter use of oral contraceptive pills using simulated patient method. Methods: Simulated patients visited pharmacy with a prescription containing ciprofloxacin and asked for oral contraceptive pills. The pharmacist was expected to ask important questions for using these drugs and to inform the patient about them properly. Moreover, the Pharmacists should advise patients in regard to the possible interaction. Results: Ninety four pharmacists participated in this study. In 24 (25.3%) visits, the liable pharmacist was not present at the time of purchase. Furthermore, In 13 (18.57 %) visits by the simulated patients, the liable pharmacists did not pay any attention to the simulated patients even when they asked for consultation. Twenty nine (41.43%) pharmacists did not ask any question during dispensing. Nausea was the most frequent described side effect by pharmacists (27 (38.57%)). Yet important adverse effects of oral contraceptive pills were not mentioned by the pharmacists except for few ones. Only twelve (17.14%) pharmacists mentioned the possible interaction. There was a significant relation between the pharmacists’ gender and detection of possible interaction (p value= 0.048). Conclusion: The quality of the pharmacists’ consultations regarding the over the counter use of oral contraceptive pills was not satisfactory and required improvement. PMID:28042350

  2. The link between oral contraceptive use and prevalence in autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Strifert, Kim

    2014-12-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of developmental disabilities that include full syndrome autism, Asperger's syndrome, and other pervasive developmental disorders. The identified prevalence of ASD has increased in a short time period across multiple studies causing some to conclude that it has reached epidemic proportions in the U.S. Many possible explanations for the rise in numbers of individuals diagnosed with ASD have been offered and yet, causes and contributing factors for ASD are inadequately understood. Current evidence suggests that both genetics and environment play a part in causing ASD. One possible risk factor for the increase in prevalence has been profoundly overlooked in the existing biomedical and epidemiologic literature. As the prevalence of ASD has risen in the last sixty years, so has the prevalence of the usage of the oral contraceptives and other modern hormonal delivery methods. In 1960 about one million American women were using oral contraceptives, today close to 11 million women in the U.S. use oral contraceptives. Eighty-two percent of sexually active women in the U.S. have used oral contraceptives at some point during their reproductive years. Thus, the growth in use of progesterone/estrogen-based contraceptives in the United State has reached near-ubiquitous levels among women in the child-bearing age range. The suppression of ovulation produced by estrogen-progesterone is an indisputable abnormality. It is logical to consider the outcome of the ovum that would have been normally released from the ovary during ovulation. To date there is no comprehensive research into the potential neurodevelopmental effects of oral contraceptive use on progeny. The issue has been only sparsely considered in the biomedical literature. This article hypothesizes that the compounds, estrogen and progesterone, used in oral contraceptives modify the condition of the oocyte and give rise to a potent risk factor that helps explain the recent increase

  3. Contraception with Chlormadinone Acetate in Woman with Previous Contraceptive Jaundice

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, R. P. H.; Williams, Roger

    1970-01-01

    The oral contraceptive chlormadinone acetate has been given for eight months to a woman who had developed jaundice during four pregnancies, and twice while taking a combined contraceptive pill. No side-effects or changes in liver function were observed. This is further evidence that progestogens used for contraception, and in particular those derived from hydroxyprogesterone, are less hepatotoxic than the oestrogenic components. PMID:4189931

  4. Effect of oral contraceptives on the transport of chlorpromazine across the CACO-2 intestinal epithelial cell line.

    PubMed

    Brown, Deon; Goosen, Theunis C; Chetty, Mano; Hamman, Josias H

    2003-09-01

    In previous chlorpromazine pharmacokinetic studies a dramatic elevation in blood plasma levels of this drug was observed when taken in combination with oral contraceptives. Different mechanisms have been postulated to explain this observation. The aim of the study was to investigate whether oral contraceptives such as ethinyloestradiol and progesterone enhance the absorption of chlorpromazine by means of inhibiting P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and if this effect is mainly due to ethinyloestradiol or progesterone or their combination. The Caco-2 cell line was used as an in vitro model to study the effects of these compounds on the transport of chlorpromazine. Both apical to basolateral (AP-BL) and basolateral to apical (BL-AP) transport studies were done on chlorpromazine in combination with different compounds. Ethinyloestradiol enhanced the AP-BL cumulative transport of chlorpromazine by 11.5% compared to the control group, which was also statistically significantly higher than the effect caused by progesterone (0.8%). A combination of these two steroidal hormones enhanced the cumulative transport of chlorpromazine by only 2.0% compared to the control group. This indicates the possible existence of separate drug-binding sites for these two hormones and chlorpromazine on P-gp. The drug-binding site (or receptor) for progesterone probably interacts allosterically with the binding site for ethinyloestradiol and thereby decreasing its transport enhancing effects on chlorpromazine.

  5. Combined hormonal contraception and risk of venous thromboembolism within the first year following pregnancy. Danish nationwide historical cohort 1995-2009.

    PubMed

    Petersen, J F; Bergholt, T; Nielsen, A K; Paidas, M J; Løkkegaard, E C L

    2014-07-03

    Estimating the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) associated with combined hormonal contraceptives following early terminated pregnancies or birth, a Danish nationwide retrospective cohort observing a one-year follow-up was defined using three unique registries. All Danish women with confirmed pregnancies aged 15-49 during the period of 1995-2009 were included. The main outcomes were relative and absolute risks of first time venous thromboembolism in users as well as non-users of combined hormonal contraceptives. In 985,569 person-years, 598 venous thromboembolisms were recorded. After early terminated pregnancies and births, respectively, 113 and 485 events occurred in 212,552 and 773,017 person-years. After early terminated pregnancies, the crude VTE incidence ratios were similar, and the numbers needed to harm were equal between groups that did or did not use combined hormonal contraceptives throughout the follow-up year. After childbirth, individuals that used combined hormonal contraceptives were more likely than non-users to experience VTE depicted by crude incidence ratios; however, the difference was only significant after 14 weeks. This implied that the numbers needed to harm were lower for those that used compared to those that did not use combined oral contraceptives in the initial 14 weeks postpartum. In conclusion, the use of combined hormonal contraceptives after early terminated pregnancies was not detrimental, but during the puerperal period, they should be used with caution.

  6. Cancer incidence attributable to the use of oral contraceptives and hormone therapy in Alberta in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Grevers, Xin; Grundy, Anne; Poirier, Abbey E.; Khandwala, Farah; Feldman, Matthew; Friedenreich, Christine M.; Brenner, Darren R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hormonal contraceptives and hormone replacement therapies are classified as carcinogenic to humans (group 1) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. We sought to estimate the proportion and total number of cancers attributable to the use of oral contraceptives and hormone therapy in Alberta in 2012. Methods: Population attributable risks were used to estimate the proportion of attributable cases for each associated cancer site. Relative risk estimates were obtained from the most relevant and recent epidemiologic literature. Prevalences of the use of oral contraceptives and hormone therapy in Alberta were collected from Alberta's Tomorrow Project. Specific cancer incidence data were obtained from the Alberta Cancer Registry for the year 2012. Results: Overall, 6.3% of breast cancers (n = 135) diagnosed in Alberta in 2012 were estimated to be attributable to the use of oral contraceptives, and the exposure potentially prevented about 57.3% of endometrial cancers (n = 276) and 29.1% of ovarian cancers (n = 52). About 15.5% of breast cancers (n = 258) and 8.9% of ovarian cancers (n = 13) were estimated to be attributable to the use of hormone therapy, whereas 11.3% of endometrial cancers (n = 48) were possibly prevented by the exposure. Interpretation: Based on our estimates, oral contraceptive use resulted in a net protective effect among the cancer sites studied, thus reducing the cancer burden in Alberta in 2012. The use of hormone therapy was estimated to increase the cancer burden in the province, therefore the risk and benefit of hormone therapy should be carefully considered before use. PMID:28018891

  7. Oral contraceptive use, muscle sympathetic nerve activity, and systemic hemodynamics in young women

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Ronee E.; Hart, Emma C.; Charkoudian, Nisha; Curry, Timothy B.; Carter, Jason R.; Fu, Qi; Minson, Christopher T.; Joyner, Michael J.; Barnes, Jill N.

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous female sex hormones influence muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), a regulator of arterial blood pressure and important factor in hypertension development. While nearly 80% of American women report using hormonal contraceptives sometime during their life, the influence of combined oral contraceptives (OCs) on MSNA and systemic hemodynamics remains equivocal. The goal of this study was to determine if women taking OCs have altered MSNA and hemodynamics (cardiac output and total peripheral resistance) at rest during the placebo phase of OC use compared to women with natural menstrual cycles during the early follicular phase. We retrospectively analyzed data from studies in which healthy, premenopausal women (ages 18–35 years old) participated. We collected MSNA values at rest and hemodynamic measurements in women taking OCs (n=53, 25±4 yr) and women with natural menstrual cycles (n=74, 25±4 yr). Blood pressure was higher in women taking OCs versus those with natural menstrual cycles (mean arterial pressure: 89±1 vs. 85±1 mmHg, respectively; p=0.01), although MSNA was similar in both groups (MSNA burst incidence: 16±1 vs. 18±1 bursts/100 heartbeats, respectively, p=0.19). In a subset of women in which detailed hemodynamic data were available, those taking OCs (n=33) had similar cardiac output (4.9±0.2 vs. 4.7±0.2 L/min, respectively; p=0.47) and total peripheral resistance (19.2±0.8 vs. 20.0±0.9 units, respectively; p=0.51) as women with natural menstrual cycles (n=22). In conclusion, women taking OCs have higher resting blood pressure and similar MSNA and hemodynamics during the placebo phase of OC use compared to naturally menstruating women in the early follicular phase. PMID:26101348

  8. The effect of rosuvastatin on oestrogen & progestin pharmacokinetics in healthy women taking an oral contraceptive

    PubMed Central

    Simonson, Steven G; Martin, Paul D; Warwick, Mike J; Mitchell, Patrick D; Schneck, Dennis W

    2004-01-01

    Aims To assess the effect of rosuvastatin on oestrogen and progestin pharmacokinetics in women taking a commonly prescribed combination oral contraceptive steroid (OCS); the effect on endogenous hormones and the lipid profile was also assessed. Methods This open-label, nonrandomised trial consisted of 2 sequential menstrual cycles. Eighteen healthy female volunteers received OCS (Ortho Tri-Cyclen®) on Days 1–21 and placebo OCS on Days 22–28 of Cycles A and B Rosuvastatin 40 mg was also given on Days 1–21 of Cycle B. Results Co-administration did not result in lower exposures to the exogenous oestrogen or progestin OCS components. Co-administration increased AUC[0–24] for ethinyl oestradiol (26%; 90% CI ratio 1.19–1.34), 17-desacetyl norgestimate (15%; 90% CI 1.10–1.20), and norgestrel (34%; 90% CI 1.25–1.43), and increased Cmax for ethinyl oestradiol (25%; 90% CI 1.17–1.33) and norgestrel (23%; 90% CI 1.14–1.33). The increases in exposure were attributed to a change in bioavailability rather than a decrease in clearance. Luteinizing and follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations were similar between cycles. There were no changes in the urinary excretion of cortisol and 6β-hydroxycortisol. Rosuvastatin significantly decreased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [-55%], total cholesterol [-27%], and triglycerides [-12%], and significantly increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol[11%]. Co-administration was well tolerated. Conclusions Rosuvastatin can be coadministered with OCS without decreasing OCS plasma concentrations, indicating that contraceptive efficacy should not be decreased. The results are consistent with an absence of induction of CYP3A4 by rosuvastatin. The expected substantial lipid-regulating effect was observed in this study, and there was no evidence of an altered lipid-regulating effect with OCS coadministration. PMID:14998424

  9. Measuring oral contraceptive adherence using self-report versus pharmacy claims data.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Hallie N; Borrero, Sonya; Lehman, Erik; Velott, Diana L; Chuang, Cynthia H

    2017-09-04

    Proportion of Days Covered (PDC) is a measure of medication adherence that uses prescription claims data to describe the proportion of days that the patient possessed medication. The objective of this study is to compare PDC and self-report as measures of oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) adherence and to identify individual-level predictors of adherence. In a sample of 384 OCP users, self-report was compared with PDC as measures of adherence over the past 3 months. Patient-level variables were examined for associations with adherence using multivariable logistic regression models. High adherence, defined as missing ≤1 pill per month, was 76%, 68% and 54% as measured by self-report, PDC and both measures, respectively. Younger women (ages 18-25 and 26-33 years) were significantly less likely to have high adherence on both measures than women in the 34-40 age group [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.20, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.08-0.51 and adjusted OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.11-0.62, respectively). Other predictors of high adherence on both self-report and PDC measures included being in a relationship (adjusted OR 2.30, 95% CI 1.14-4.64, compared with unpartnered women), Protestant religion (adjusted OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.07-4.06, compared with women with no religious affiliation) and higher contraceptive self-efficacy (adjusted OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.03-2.58). PDC derived from pharmacy claims, or a combination of PDC and self-report measures, may be an alternative to self-report alone for measuring OCP adherence. PDC may be a potential tool for measuring women's adherence to OCPs and should be validated in future studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects on acne of two oral contraceptives containing desogestrel and cyproterone acetate.

    PubMed

    Charoenvisal, C; Thaipisuttikul, Y; Pinjaroen, S; Krisanapan, O; Benjawang, W; Koster, A; Doesburg, W

    1996-01-01

    In Thailand, at the Prince of Sonkhla University in Sonkhla (Center A) and Rajvithi Hospital in Bangkok (Center B), researchers compared data on 32 women using a low-dose combined oral contraceptive (OC) containing 150 mcg desogestrel plus 30 mcg ethinyl estradiol (Marvelon) with data on 34 women using an OC containing 2000 mcg cyproterone aceta