Science.gov

Sample records for combined soxnox processes

  1. SOX/NOX sorbent and process of use

    DOEpatents

    Ziebarth, M.S.; Hager, M.J.; Beeckman, J.W.; Plecha, S.

    1995-05-09

    An alumina sorbent capable of adsorbing NOx and SOx from waste gases and being regenerated by heating above 600 C is made by incorporating an alumina stabilizing agent into the sorbent. A preferred method is to add the stabilizer when the alumina is precipitated. The precipitated powder is formed subsequently into a slurry, milled and dripped to form the stabilized spheroidal alumina particles. These particles are impregnated with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal to form the stabilized sorbent. Alumina stabilizers include one or more of silica, lanthana, other rare earths, titania, zirconia and alkaline earths. 3 figs.

  2. SOX/NOX sorbent and process of use

    DOEpatents

    Ziebarth, Michael S.; Hager, Michael J.; Beeckman, Jean W.; Plecha, Stanislaw

    1995-01-01

    An alumina sorbent capable of adsorbing NOx and SOx from waste gases and being regenerated by heating above 600.degree. C. is made by incorporating an alumina stabilizing agent into the sorbent. A preferred method is to add the stabilizer when the alumina is precipitated. The precipitated powder is formed subsequently into a slurry, milled and dripped to form the stabilized spheroidal alumina particles. These particles are impregnated with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal to form the stabilized sorbent. Alumina stabilizers include one or more of silica, lanthana, other rare earths, titania, zirconia and alkaline earths.

  3. Sox/Nox Sorbent And Process Of Use

    DOEpatents

    Ziebarth, Michael S.; Hager, Michael J.; Beeckman, Jean W.; Plecha, Stanislaw

    1995-06-27

    An alumina sorbent capable of adsorbing NOx and SOx from waste gases and being regenerated by heating above 650.degree. C. is made by incorporating an alumina stabilizing agent into the sorbent. A preferred method is to add the stabilizer when the alumina is precipitated. The precipitated powder is formed subsequently into a slurry, milled and spray dried to form the stabilized spheroidal alumina particles having a particle size of less than 500 microns. These particles are impregnated with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal to form the stabilized sorbent. Alumina stabilizers include one or more of silica, lanthana, other rare earths, titania, zirconia and alkaline earths.

  4. SOx/NOx sorbent and process of use

    DOEpatents

    Ziebarth, Michael S.; Hager, Michael J.; Beeckman, Jean W.; Plecha, Stanislaw

    1993-01-19

    An alumina sorbent capable of adsorbing NOx and SOx from waste gases and being regenerated by heating above 600.degree. C. is made by incorporating an alumina stabilizing agent into the sorbent. A preferred method is to add the stabilizer when the alumina is precipitated. The precipitated powder is formed subsequently into a slurry, milled and dripped to form the stabilizing spheroidal alumina particles. These particles are impregnated with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal to form the stabilized sorbent. Alumina stabilizers include one or more of silica, lanthana, other rare earths, titania, zirconia and alkaline earths.

  5. Sox/Nox Sorbent And Process Of Use

    DOEpatents

    Ziebarth, Michael S.; Hager, Michael J.; Beeckman, Jean W.; Plecha, Stanislaw

    1996-12-17

    An alumina sorbent capable of adsorbing NOx and SOx from waste gases and being regenerated by heating above 650.degree. C. is made by incorporating an alumina stabilizing agent into the sorbent. A preferred method is to add the stabilizer when the alumina is precipitated. The precipitated powder is formed subsequently into a slurry, milled and spray dried to form the stabilized spheroidal alumina particles having a particle size of less than 500 microns. These particles are impregnated with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal to form the stabilized sorbent. Alumina stabilizers include one or more of silica, lanthana, other rare earths, titania, zirconia and alkaline earths.

  6. SOx/NOx sorbent and process of use

    DOEpatents

    Ziebarth, M.S.; Hager, M.J.; Beeckman, J.W.; Plecha, S.

    1993-01-19

    An alumina sorbent capable of adsorbing NOx and SOx from waste gases and being regenerated by heating above 600 C. is made by incorporating an alumina stabilizing agent into the sorbent. A preferred method is to add the stabilizer when the alumina is precipitated. The precipitated powder is formed subsequently into a slurry, milled and dripped to form the stabilizing spheroidal alumina particles. These particles are impregnated with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal to form the stabilized sorbent. Alumina stabilizers include one or more of silica, lanthana, other rare earths, titania, zirconia and alkaline earths.

  7. [Food preservation through combined processes].

    PubMed

    Sala Trepat, F J

    1995-03-01

    Food preservation by combined processes is based on the combination of two or more existing preservation methods with the objective of developing milder preservation procedures. Currently two combined processes (CP) deserve a special attention, the preservation of food by high pressures (HP) and the preservation of food with the combined use of heat and ultrasounds under pressure (Mano-Thermo-Sonication). In the preservation by HP, the food, at room temperature or at very mild temperature, is held during relatively long periods under very high pressures (100-1000 MPa) to inactivate its enzymes and/or microorganisms. This procedure has proved to be effective to inactivate vegetative cells but much less effective to inactivate most enzymes and bacterial spores. Several kinds of food preserved by this method have already been launched into the market. In Mano-Thermo-Sonication (MTS Process) microorganisms and enzymes are inactivated by a combined heat/ultrasounds treatment under pressure. By this method, the lethality of heat treatments at the same temperature is highly increased. Therefore, the intensity of heat treatments can be drastically reduced. Heat resistance of spores is reduced by a factor of 1/10 and that of enzymes and vegetative cells is reduced by a factor of 1/50 approximately. The applicability of this procedure is currently being investigated.

  8. Combined processing of lead concentrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubasov, V. L.; Paretskii, V. M.; Sidorin, G. N.; Travkin, V. F.

    2013-06-01

    A combined scheme of processing of lead concentrates with the production of pure metallic lead and the important components containing in these concentrates is considered. This scheme includes sulfating roasting of the lead concentrates and two-stage leaching of the formed cinder with the formation of a sulfate solution and lead sulfate. When transformed into a carbonate form, lead sulfate is used for the production of pure metallic lead. Silver, indium, copper, cadmium, nickel, cobalt, and other important components are separately extracted from a solution. At the last stage, zinc is extracted by either extraction followed by electrolytic extraction of a metal or the return of the forming solution of sulfuric acid to cinder leaching.

  9. Combining human and machine processes (CHAMP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudit, Moises; Sudit, David; Hirsch, Michael

    2015-05-01

    Machine Reasoning and Intelligence is usually done in a vacuum, without consultation of the ultimate decision-maker. The late consideration of the human cognitive process causes some major problems in the use of automated systems to provide reliable and actionable information that users can trust and depend to make the best Course-of-Action (COA). On the other hand, if automated systems are created exclusively based on human cognition, then there is a danger of developing systems that don't push the barrier of technology and are mainly done for the comfort level of selected subject matter experts (SMEs). Our approach to combining human and machine processes (CHAMP) is based on the notion of developing optimal strategies for where, when, how, and which human intelligence should be injected within a machine reasoning and intelligence process. This combination is based on the criteria of improving the quality of the output of the automated process while maintaining the required computational efficiency for a COA to be actuated in timely fashion. This research addresses the following problem areas: • Providing consistency within a mission: Injection of human reasoning and intelligence within the reliability and temporal needs of a mission to attain situational awareness, impact assessment, and COA development. • Supporting the incorporation of data that is uncertain, incomplete, imprecise and contradictory (UIIC): Development of mathematical models to suggest the insertion of a cognitive process within a machine reasoning and intelligent system so as to minimize UIIC concerns. • Developing systems that include humans in the loop whose performance can be analyzed and understood to provide feedback to the sensors.

  10. Flue Gas Perification Utilizing SOx/NOx Reactions During Compression of CO2 Derived from Oxyfuel Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Fogash

    2010-09-30

    The United States wishes to decrease foreign energy dependence by utilizing the country’s significant coal reserves, while stemming the effects of global warming from greenhouse gases. In response to these needs, Air Products has developed a patented process for the compression and purification of the CO2 stream from oxyfuel combustion of pulverized coal. The purpose of this project was the development and performance of a comprehensive experimental and engineering evaluation to determine the feasibility of purifying CO2 derived from the flue gas generated in a tangentially fired coal combustion unit operated in the oxy-combustion mode. Following the design and construction of a 15 bar reactor system, Air Products conducted two test campaigns using the slip stream from the tangentially fired oxy-coal combustion unit. During the first test campaign, Air Products evaluated the reactor performance based on both the liquid and gaseous reactor effluents. The data obtained from the test run has enabled Air Products to determine the reaction and mass transfer rates, as well as the effectiveness of the reactor system. During the second test campaign, Air Products evaluated reactor performance based on effluents for different reactor pressures, as well as water recycle rates. Analysis of the reaction equations indicates that both pressure and water flow rate affect the process reaction rates, as well as the overall reactor performance.

  11. Flue Gas Purification Utilizing SOx/NOx Reactions During Compression of CO{sub 2} Derived from Oxyfuel Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Fogash, Kevin

    2010-09-30

    The United States wishes to decrease foreign energy dependence by utilizing the country’s significant coal reserves, while stemming the effects of global warming from greenhouse gases. In response to these needs, Air Products has developed a patented process for the compression and purification of the CO{sub 2} stream from oxyfuel combustion of pulverized coal. The purpose of this project was the development and performance of a comprehensive experimental and engineering evaluation to determine the feasibility of purifying CO{sub 2} derived from the flue gas generated in a tangentially fired coal combustion unit operated in the oxy-combustion mode. Following the design and construction of a 15 bar reactor system, Air Products conducted two test campaigns using the slip stream from the tangentially fired oxy-coal combustion unit. During the first test campaign, Air Products evaluated the reactor performance based on both the liquid and gaseous reactor effluents. The data obtained from the test run has enabled Air Products to determine the reaction and mass transfer rates, as well as the effectiveness of the reactor system. During the second test campaign, Air Products evaluated reactor performance based on effluents for different reactor pressures, as well as water recycle rates. Analysis of the reaction equations indicates that both pressure and water flow rate affect the process reaction rates, as well as the overall reactor performance.

  12. Combined transuranic-strontium extraction process

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1992-12-08

    The transuranic (TRU) elements neptunium, plutonium and americium can be separated together with strontium from nitric acid waste solutions in a single process. An extractant solution of a crown ether and an alkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialkylcarbanylmethylphosphine oxide in an appropriate diluent will extract the TRU's together with strontium, uranium and technetium. The TRU's and the strontium can then be selectively stripped from the extractant for disposal. 3 figs.

  13. Combined transuranic-strontium extraction process

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Dietz, Mark L.

    1992-01-01

    The transuranic (TRU) elements neptunium, plutonium and americium can be separated together with strontium from nitric acid waste solutions in a single process. An extractant solution of a crown ether and an alkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialkylcarbanylmethylphosphine oxide in an appropriate diluent will extract the TRU's together with strontium, uranium and technetium. The TRU's and the strontium can then be selectively stripped from the extractant for disposal.

  14. Combined transuranic-strontium extraction process

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1991-12-31

    The transuranic (TRU) elements neptunium, plutonium and amercium can be separated together with strontium from nitric acid waste solutions in a single process. An extractant solution of a crown ether and an alkyl(phenyl)-N.N-dialkylcarbanylmethylphosphine oxide in an appropriate diluent will extract the TRU`s to gather with strontium, uranium and technetium. The TRU`s and the strontium can then be selectively stripped from the extractant for disposal.

  15. Products of the IGS - The Combination Process and Consistency Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, R.; Ferland, R.; Gendt, G.

    2003-04-01

    Since 1992 the IGS generates several types of inter-dependant data products; namely: satellites ephemerides, earth rotation parameters, station coordinates/velocity, satellites/stations clock offsets, ionospheric and tropospheric delays. The first four are generally referred to as IGS core products. All those products are available to support a number of scientific activities. Many agencies contribute to the effort by providing the stations infrastructure and measurements and/or data distribution centers and/or data analysis. The Analysis Centers (AC) provide most of the products "building blocks" used to generate the IGS combined data products. These AC products are generated using independent software procedures. Those must be combined to generate the IGS data products. Simultaneous and rigorous combination of all the AC products would be difficult. A distributed approach was chosen to generate the IGS combined products, simplifying the tasks and distributing the workload, while trying to minimize the approximations. The satellites ephemerides and satellites/stations clock offsets are combined by the AC coordinator; the station coordinates/velocity and earth rotation parameters are combined within the Reference Frame Working Group (RFWG); the ionospheric and tropospheric products are generated within their respective working groups. The orbit combination is done using a weighted averaging process, where the solution from each AC provided using the SP3 format is assigned a constant weight. The clock offsets are also combined using the AC orbit weights. Originally, the ERP’s were also combined as part of the orbit combination process also using the AC orbit weights. Three types of orbit products are generated, based on the latency (ultra-rapid, rapid &final). Since 2000/02/27, the station coordinates/velocity and earth rotation parameters, provided by the ACs in the SINEX format, are combined using a rigorous least-squares adjustment with all the available

  16. How do we process novel conceptual combinations in context?

    PubMed

    Middleton, Erica L; Rawson, Katherine A; Wisniewski, Edward J

    2011-04-01

    Most theories of how people interpret novel noun-noun combinations (e.g., ghost forest) do not sufficiently address the role of context, which is surprising given that novel combinations are generally encountered in discourse contexts. We evaluated three hypotheses for the role of context in interpretation. The generation hypothesis states that interpretation is based on sense generation both in and out of context. The anaphor resolution hypothesis states that interpretation initially involves identifying a referent from the prior discourse context, and meaning generation occurs only if anaphoric processing fails. The dual-process hypothesis states that sense generation and anaphor resolution operate in parallel, and both may influence initial interpretation. In two experiments, we examined reading times on novel combinations when the dominant meaning (most likely interpretation) or subordinate meaning (infrequent interpretation) preceded or followed the combination in text. Results supported the dual-process hypothesis.

  17. A model for anaerobic ponds combining settling and biological processes.

    PubMed

    Effebi, K R; Jupsin, H; Keffala, C; Vasel, J L

    2013-01-01

    This work presents an approach to an anaerobic pond model by combining the stoichiometry of the hydrolysis and acidogenic processes of the main constituents of wastewater, i.e. carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids, grouped as a 'combined substrate' with a previously published settling model (see 'Suspended solids settling and half removal time in stabilization ponds (Tunisia)' by Effebi et al. (2011)). This approach includes biomass production. Coupling the kinetics and stoichiometry of the previous processes with the usual methanogenic model, we developed an anaerobic pond model. This paper gives the stoichiometry of the different chemical reactions that occur during the degradation of a conventional influent (corresponding to what we define as a 'combined substrate') of domestic wastewater and the model's first results.

  18. Combining image-processing and image compression schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenspan, H.; Lee, M.-C.

    1995-01-01

    An investigation into the combining of image-processing schemes, specifically an image enhancement scheme, with existing compression schemes is discussed. Results are presented on the pyramid coding scheme, the subband coding scheme, and progressive transmission. Encouraging results are demonstrated for the combination of image enhancement and pyramid image coding schemes, especially at low bit rates. Adding the enhancement scheme to progressive image transmission allows enhanced visual perception at low resolutions. In addition, further progressing of the transmitted images, such as edge detection schemes, can gain from the added image resolution via the enhancement.

  19. Combination of monthly gravity field solutions from different processing centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jean, Yoomin; Meyer, Ulrich; Jäggi, Adrian

    2015-04-01

    Currently, the official GRACE Science Data System (SDS) monthly gravity field solutions are generated independently by the Centre for Space Research (CSR) and the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ). Additional GRACE SDS monthly fields are provided by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for validation and outside the SDS by a number of other institutions worldwide. Although the adopted background models and processing standards have been harmonized more and more by the various processing centers during the past years, notable differences still exist and the users are more or less left alone with a decision which model to choose for their individual applications. Combinations are well-established in the area of other space geodetic techniques, such as the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), and Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), where regular comparisons and combinations of space-geodetic products have tremendously increased the usefulness of the products in a wide range of disciplines and scientific applications. In the frame of the recently started Horizon 2020 project European Gravity Service for Improved Emergency Management (EGSIEM), a scientific combination service shall therefore be established to deliver the best gravity products for applications in Earth and environmental science research based on the unified knowledge of the European GRACE community. In a first step the large variety of available monthly GRACE gravity field solutions shall be mutually compared spatially and spectrally. We assess the noise of the raw as well as filtered solutions and compare the secular and seasonal periodic variations fitted to the monthly solutions. In a second step we will explore ways to generate combined solutions, e.g., based on a weighted average of the individual solutions using empirical weights derived from pair-wise comparisons. We will also assess the quality of such a combined solution and discuss the

  20. Combining Advanced Oxidation Processes: Assessment Of Process Additivity, Synergism, And Antagonism

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Robert W.; Sharma, M.P.; Gbadebo Adewuyi, Yusuf

    2007-07-01

    This paper addresses the process interactions from combining integrated processes (such as advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), biological operations, air stripping, etc.). AOPs considered include: Fenton's reagent, ultraviolet light, titanium dioxide, ozone (O{sub 3}), hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), sonication/acoustic cavitation, among others. A critical review of the technical literature has been performed, and the data has been analyzed in terms of the processes being additive, synergistic, or antagonistic. Predictions based on the individual unit operations are made and compared against the behavior of the combined unit operations. The data reported in this paper focus primarily on treatment of petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents. (authors)

  1. Slaughterhouse wastewater treatment by combined chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation process.

    PubMed

    Bazrafshan, Edris; Kord Mostafapour, Ferdos; Farzadkia, Mehdi; Ownagh, Kamal Aldin; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Slaughterhouse wastewater contains various and high amounts of organic matter (e.g., proteins, blood, fat and lard). In order to produce an effluent suitable for stream discharge, chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation techniques have been particularly explored at the laboratory pilot scale for organic compounds removal from slaughterhouse effluent. The purpose of this work was to investigate the feasibility of treating cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater by combined chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation process to achieve the required standards. The influence of the operating variables such as coagulant dose, electrical potential and reaction time on the removal efficiencies of major pollutants was determined. The rate of removal of pollutants linearly increased with increasing doses of PACl and applied voltage. COD and BOD(5) removal of more than 99% was obtained by adding 100 mg/L PACl and applied voltage 40 V. The experiments demonstrated the effectiveness of chemical and electrochemical techniques for the treatment of slaughterhouse wastewaters. Consequently, combined processes are inferred to be superior to electrocoagulation alone for the removal of both organic and inorganic compounds from cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater.

  2. Slaughterhouse Wastewater Treatment by Combined Chemical Coagulation and Electrocoagulation Process

    PubMed Central

    Bazrafshan, Edris; Kord Mostafapour, Ferdos; Farzadkia, Mehdi; Ownagh, Kamal Aldin; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Slaughterhouse wastewater contains various and high amounts of organic matter (e.g., proteins, blood, fat and lard). In order to produce an effluent suitable for stream discharge, chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation techniques have been particularly explored at the laboratory pilot scale for organic compounds removal from slaughterhouse effluent. The purpose of this work was to investigate the feasibility of treating cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater by combined chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation process to achieve the required standards. The influence of the operating variables such as coagulant dose, electrical potential and reaction time on the removal efficiencies of major pollutants was determined. The rate of removal of pollutants linearly increased with increasing doses of PACl and applied voltage. COD and BOD5 removal of more than 99% was obtained by adding 100 mg/L PACl and applied voltage 40 V. The experiments demonstrated the effectiveness of chemical and electrochemical techniques for the treatment of slaughterhouse wastewaters. Consequently, combined processes are inferred to be superior to electrocoagulation alone for the removal of both organic and inorganic compounds from cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater. PMID:22768233

  3. Symbolic Processing Combined with Model-Based Reasoning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Mark

    2009-01-01

    A computer program for the detection of present and prediction of future discrete states of a complex, real-time engineering system utilizes a combination of symbolic processing and numerical model-based reasoning. One of the biggest weaknesses of a purely symbolic approach is that it enables prediction of only future discrete states while missing all unmodeled states or leading to incorrect identification of an unmodeled state as a modeled one. A purely numerical approach is based on a combination of statistical methods and mathematical models of the applicable physics and necessitates development of a complete model to the level of fidelity required for prediction. In addition, a purely numerical approach does not afford the ability to qualify its results without some form of symbolic processing. The present software implements numerical algorithms to detect unmodeled events and symbolic algorithms to predict expected behavior, correlate the expected behavior with the unmodeled events, and interpret the results in order to predict future discrete states. The approach embodied in this software differs from that of the BEAM methodology (aspects of which have been discussed in several prior NASA Tech Briefs articles), which provides for prediction of future measurements in the continuous-data domain.

  4. Combining decision support and image processing: a PROforma model.

    PubMed

    Sordo, M; Fox, J; Blum, C; Taylor, P; Lee, R; Alberdi, E

    2001-01-01

    This paper addresses two important problems in medical image interpretation:(1) integration of numeric and symbolic information, (2) access to external sources of medical knowledge. We have developed a prototype in which image processing algorithms are combined with symbolic representations for reasoning, decision making and task management in an integrated, platform-independent system for the differential diagnosis of abnormalities in mammograms. The prototype is based on PROforma, a generic technology for building decision support systems based on clinical guidelines. The PROforma language defines a set of tasks, one of which, the enquiry, is used as means of interaction with the outside world. However, the current enquiry model has proved to be too limited for our purposes. In this paper we outline a more general model, which can be used as an interface between symbolic functions and image or other signal data.

  5. Conceptual combination during sentence comprehension: evidence for compositional processes.

    PubMed

    Swinney, David; Love, Tracy; Walenski, Matthew; Smith, Edward E

    2007-05-01

    This experiment examined the time course of integration of modifier-noun (conceptual) combinations during auditory sentence comprehension using cross-modal lexical priming. The study revealed that during ongoing comprehension, there is initial activation of features of the noun prior to activation of (emergent) features of the entire conceptual combination. These results support compositionality in conceptual combination; that is, they indicate that features of the individual words constituting a conceptual combination are activated prior to combination of the words into a new concept.

  6. Combined photo-fenton-SBR processes for the treatment of wastewater from the citrus processing industry.

    PubMed

    Guzmán, José; Mosteo, Rosa; Ormad, María P; Ovelleiro, José L

    2015-01-21

    In this study, the photo-Fenton process was combined with a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) for the treatment of synthetic samples of citrus wastewater (CWW). An experimental design based on the surface response methodology was applied to assess the individual and combined effects of several operating parameters (CODinitial, Fe3(+) concentration and H2O2 concentration) on the photo-Fenton treatment efficiency (DOC removal) with the aim of optimizing the process. The experimental results obtained under optimal conditions for CWW with high CODinitial (10000 mgO2/L) showed a partial degradation of organic matter of around of 61% (measured as DOC). Thereafter, the photo-Fenton effluent was neutralized and clarified before being subjected to the SBR reactor. The results show degradation yields up to 93% of the initial DOC removal without producing undesired side effects, using a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1.59 d. The final effluent contained a concentration of organic matter (measured as COD) of 120 mg O2/L.

  7. Integrated processes for produced water polishing: Enhanced flotation/sedimentation combined with advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Silvia; Micó, María M; Arnaldos, Marina; Ferrero, Enrique; Malfeito, Jorge J; Medina, Francisco; Contreras, Sandra

    2017-02-01

    In this study, bench scale dissolved air flotation (DAF) and settling processes have been studied and compared to a novel flotation technology based on the use of glass microspheres of limited buoyancy and its combination with conventional DAF, (Enhanced DAF or E-DAF). They were evaluated as pretreatments for advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) to polish produced water (PW) for reuse purposes. Settling and E-DAF without air injection showed adequate turbidity and oil and grease (O&G) removals, with eliminations higher than 87% and 90% respectively, employing 70 mg L(-1) of FeCl3 and 83 min of settling time, and 57.9 mg L(-1) of FeCl3, 300 mg L(-1) of microspheres and a flocculation rate of 40 rpm in the E-DAF process. A linear correlation was observed between final O&G concentration and turbidity after E-DAF. In order to polish the O&G content of the effluent even further, to remove soluble compounds as phenol and to take advantage of residual iron after these treatments, Fenton and photo-Fenton reactions were essayed. After 6 h of the Fenton reaction at pH 3, the addition of 1660 mg L(-1) of H2O2 and 133 mg L(-1) of iron showed a maximum O&G elimination of 57.6% and a phenol removal up to 80%. Photo-Fenton process showed better results after 3 h, adding 600 mg L(-1) of H2O2 and 300 mg L(-1) of iron, at pH 3, with a higher fraction of elimination of the O&G content (73.7%) and phenol (95%) compared to the conventional Fenton process.

  8. Speaker verification using combined acoustic and EM sensor signal processing

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, L C; Gable, T J; Holzrichter, J F

    2000-11-10

    Low Power EM radar-like sensors have made it possible to measure properties of the human speech production system in real-time, without acoustic interference. This greatly enhances the quality and quantity of information for many speech related applications. See Holzrichter, Burnett, Ng, and Lea, J. Acoustic. SOC. Am . 103 ( 1) 622 (1998). By combining the Glottal-EM-Sensor (GEMS) with the Acoustic-signals, we've demonstrated an almost 10 fold reduction in error rates from a speaker verification system experiment under a moderate noisy environment (-10dB).

  9. Two-stage process combines anaerobic and aerobic methods

    SciTech Connect

    Kayhanian, M.; Lindenauer, K.; Hardy, S.; Tchobanoglous, G.

    1991-03-01

    The organic fraction of the material diverted from landfills has potential to be utilized as a raw material to be recycled, used for the production of compost, converted to energy in waste-to-energy facilities, or used for the production of other end products. Given the uncertainties concerning the future availability, production costs, and market prices for conventional fuels, any potential source of alternate energy and alternative energy technologies deserve serious consideration. Faced with an uncertain energy future, several European countries have already started using biomass and MSW as a source of energy. An innovative high-solids anaerobic digestion/aerobic composting process currently under investigation at the University of California, Davis is as an ideal candidate for processing a large fraction of the organic matter in MSW. The principal advantages of this innovative process which is described and discussed in this paper are: (1) the recovery of biogas that can be used as a fuel for the production of energy, and (2) the production of humus-like material that can be used as a high-quality soil amendment or as boiler fuel. The fact that a liquid waste stream that needs further treatment is not generated in this process is another significant advantage.

  10. Lean Six Sigma Application in Rear Combination Automotive Lighting Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodkomkham, Thanwarhat; Chutima, Parames

    2016-05-01

    The case study company produces various front and rear lightings for automobiles and motorcycles. Currently, it faces two problems, i.e. high defective rate and high inventory. Lean Six Sigma was applied as a tool to solve the first problem, whereas the other problem was managed by changing the production concept from push to pull. The results showed that after applying all new settings to the process, the defect rate was reduced from 36,361 DPPM to 3,029 DPPM. In addition, after the implementation of the Kanban system, the company achieved substantial improvement in lead time reduction by 44%, in-process inventory reduction by 42%, finished good inventory reduction by 50%, and finished good area increased by 16%.

  11. Combining advanced imaging processing and low cost remote imaging capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohrer, Matthew J.; McQuiddy, Brian

    2008-04-01

    Target images are very important for evaluating the situation when Unattended Ground Sensors (UGS) are deployed. These images add a significant amount of information to determine the difference between hostile and non-hostile activities, the number of targets in an area, the difference between animals and people, the movement dynamics of targets, and when specific activities of interest are taking place. The imaging capabilities of UGS systems need to provide only target activity and not images without targets in the field of view. The current UGS remote imaging systems are not optimized for target processing and are not low cost. McQ describes in this paper an architectural and technologic approach for significantly improving the processing of images to provide target information while reducing the cost of the intelligent remote imaging capability.

  12. A combined cesium-strontium extraction/recovery process

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.; Jensen, M.P.

    1996-03-01

    A new solvent extraction process for the simultaneous extraction of cesium and strontium from acidic nitrate media is described. This process uses a solvent formulation comprised of 0.05 M di-t-butylcyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DtBuCH18C6), 0.1 M Crown 100{prime} (a proprietary, cesium-selective derivative of dibenzo-18-crown-6), 1.2 M tributyl phosphate (TBP), and 5% (v/v) lauryl nitrile in an isoparaffinic hydrocarbon diluent. Distribution ratios for cesium and strontium from 4 M nitric acid are 4.13 and 3.46, respectively. A benchtop batch countercurrent extraction experiment indicates that >98% of the cesium and strontium initially present in the feed solution can be removed in only four extraction stages. Through proper choice of extraction and strip conditions, extracted cesium and strontium can be recovered either together or individually.

  13. Process for combining multiple passes of interferometric SAR data

    DOEpatents

    Bickel, Douglas L.; Yocky, David A.; Hensley, Jr., William H.

    2000-11-21

    Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IFSAR) is a promising technology for a wide variety of military and civilian elevation modeling requirements. IFSAR extends traditional two dimensional SAR processing to three dimensions by utilizing the phase difference between two SAR images taken from different elevation positions to determine an angle of arrival for each pixel in the scene. This angle, together with the two-dimensional location information in the traditional SAR image, can be transformed into geographic coordinates if the position and motion parameters of the antennas are known accurately.

  14. Process for combined control of mercury and nitric oxide.

    SciTech Connect

    Livengood, C. D.; Mendelsohn, M. H.

    1999-11-03

    Continuing concern about the effects of mercury in the environment may lead to requirements for the control of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. If such controls are mandated, the use of existing flue-gas cleanup systems, such as wet scrubbers currently employed for flue-gas desulfurization, would be desirable, Such scrubbers have been shown to be effective for capturing oxidized forms of mercury, but cannot capture the very insoluble elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) that can form a significant fraction of the total emissions. At Argonne National Laboratory, we have proposed and tested a concept for enhancing removal of Hg{sup 0}, as well as nitric oxide, through introduction of an oxidizing agent into the flue gas upstream of a scrubber, which readily absorbs the soluble reaction products. Recently, we developed a new method for introducing the oxidizing agent into the flue-gas stream that dramatically improved reactant utilization. The oxidizing agent employed was NOXSORB{trademark}, which is a commercial product containing chloric acid and sodium chlorate. When a dilute solution of this agent was introduced into a gas stream containing Hg{sup 0} and other typical flue-gas species at 300 F, we found that about 100% of the mercury was removed from the gas phase and recovered in process liquids. At the same time, approximately 80% of the nitric oxide was removed. The effect of sulfur dioxide on this process was also investigated and the results showed that it slightly decreased the amount of Hg{sup 0} oxidized while appearing to increase the removal of nitric oxide from the gas phase. We are currently testing the effects of variations in NOXSORB{trademark} concentration, sulfur dioxide concentration, nitric oxide concentration, and reaction time (residence time). Preliminary economic projections based on the results to date indicate that the chemical cost for nitric oxide oxidation could be less than $5,000/ton removed, while for Hg{sup 0} oxidation it

  15. Combined heat and mass transfer device for improving separation process

    DOEpatents

    Tran, Thanh Nhon

    1999-01-01

    A two-phase small channel heat exchange matrix simultaneously provides for heat transfer and mass transfer between the liquid and vapor phases of a multi-component mixture at a single, predetermined location within a separation column, significantly improving the thermodynamic efficiency of the separation process. The small channel heat exchange matrix is composed of a series of channels having a hydraulic diameter no greater than 5.0 millimeters for conducting a two-phase coolant. In operation, the matrix provides the liquid-vapor contacting surfaces within the separation column, such that heat and mass are transferred simultaneously between the liquid and vapor phases. The two-phase coolant allows for a uniform heat transfer coefficient to be maintained along the length of the channels and across the surface of the matrix. Preferably, a perforated, concave sheet connects each channel to an adjacent channel to facilitate the flow of the liquid and vapor phases within the column and to increase the liquid-vapor contacting surface area.

  16. Combined heat and mass transfer device for improving separation process

    DOEpatents

    Tran, T.N.

    1999-08-24

    A two-phase small channel heat exchange matrix simultaneously provides for heat transfer and mass transfer between the liquid and vapor phases of a multi-component mixture at a single, predetermined location within a separation column, significantly improving the thermodynamic efficiency of the separation process. The small channel heat exchange matrix is composed of a series of channels having a hydraulic diameter no greater than 5.0 millimeters for conducting a two-phase coolant. In operation, the matrix provides the liquid-vapor contacting surfaces within the separation column, such that heat and mass are transferred simultaneously between the liquid and vapor phases. The two-phase coolant allows for a uniform heat transfer coefficient to be maintained along the length of the channels and across the surface of the matrix. Preferably, a perforated, concave sheet connects each channel to an adjacent channel to facilitate the flow of the liquid and vapor phases within the column and to increase the liquid-vapor contacting surface area. 12 figs.

  17. MAGIC: A Tool for Combining, Interpolating, and Processing Magnetograms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allred, Joel

    2012-01-01

    Transients in the solar coronal magnetic field are ultimately the source of space weather. Models which seek to track the evolution of the coronal field require magnetogram images to be used as boundary conditions. These magnetograms are obtained by numerous instruments with different cadences and resolutions. A tool is required which allows modelers to fmd all available data and use them to craft accurate and physically consistent boundary conditions for their models. We have developed a software tool, MAGIC (MAGnetogram Interpolation and Composition), to perform exactly this function. MAGIC can manage the acquisition of magneto gram data, cast it into a source-independent format, and then perform the necessary spatial and temporal interpolation to provide magnetic field values as requested onto model-defined grids. MAGIC has the ability to patch magneto grams from different sources together providing a more complete picture of the Sun's field than is possible from single magneto grams. In doing this, care must be taken so as not to introduce nonphysical current densities along the seam between magnetograms. We have designed a method which minimizes these spurious current densities. MAGIC also includes a number of post-processing tools which can provide additional information to models. For example, MAGIC includes an interface to the DA VE4VM tool which derives surface flow velocities from the time evolution of surface magnetic field. MAGIC has been developed as an application of the KAMELEON data formatting toolkit which has been developed by the CCMC.

  18. Research of Influence Electric Conditions Combined ElectroDiamond Processing by on Specific Consumption of Wheel*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobanov, D. V.; Arkhipov, P. V.; Yanyushkin, A. S.; Skeeba, V. Yu

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents results of stability research of cutting properties of diamond abrasive tools in metal binder for grinding high-strength composite materials, as well as the need to reduce the specific consumption of wheel, as one of the most important economic indicators of processing. Shows a comparative analysis of the results of preliminary researches of various methods diamond processing, in which determined that the minimum specific consumption of wheel reached by combined electro-diamond grinding, combining electrochemical grinding with simultaneous continuous electrochemical correction surface wheel. Were conducted more research directed at identifying the specific consumption the diamond wheel on metallic binder depending from electric conditions combined electrodiamond processing. Researches have established the advantages of combined electro-diamond of hard alloys processing and define rational modes to ensure a satisfactory consumption of the diamond wheel, as well as significantly increasing quality and performance.

  19. Children's Writing Processes when Using Computers: Insights Based on Combining Analyses of Product and Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gnach, Aleksandra; Wiesner, Esther; Bertschi-Kaufmann, Andrea; Perrin, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Children and young people are increasingly performing a variety of writing tasks using computers, with word processing programs thus becoming their natural writing environment. The development of keystroke logging programs enables us to track the process of writing, without changing the writing environment for the writers. In the myMoment schools…

  20. Efficiency of combined process of ozone and bio-filtration in the treatment of secondary effluent.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Smriti; Tripathi, B D

    2011-07-01

    The present work was aimed at studying the efficiency of the combined process of biofiltration with ozonation to improve the quality of secondary effluent. The secondary effluent from the Dinapur Sewage Treatment Plant Varanasi, India was used in this work. The process of biofiltration with the plant species of Eichornia crassipes and Lemna minor, at a flow rate of 262 ml min(-1) and plant density of 30 mg L(-1) for 48 h, in combination with the process of ozonation with ozone dose of 10 mg L(-1) and contact time of 5 min was applied. Results revealed that combined process was statistically most suitable for the highest degradation of physico-chemical and microbial parameters with improving BDOC value. The biofiltration process is able to remove highest percentage of toxic heavy metals from the secondary effluent without production of toxicity. This technique is highly recommendable for tropical wastewater where sewage is mixed with industrial effluents.

  1. Process automation using combinations of process and machine control technologies with application to a continuous dissolver

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, B.B.: Yarbro, O.O.

    1991-01-01

    Operation of a continuous rotary dissolver, designed to leach uranium-plutonium fuel from chopped sections of reactor fuel cladding using nitric acid, has been automated. The dissolver is a partly continuous, partly batch process that interfaces at both ends with batchwise processes, thereby requiring synchronization of certain operations. Liquid acid is fed and flows through the dissolver continuously, whereas chopped fuel elements are fed to the dissolver in small batches and move through the compartments of the dissolver stagewise. Sequential logic (or machine control) techniques are used to control discrete activities such as the sequencing of isolation valves. Feedback control is used to control acid flowrates and temperatures. Expert systems technology is used for on-line material balances and diagnostics of process operation. 1 ref., 3 figs.

  2. Combined compost and vermicomposting process in the treatment and bioconversion of sludge.

    PubMed

    Alidadi, H; Parvaresh, A R; Shahmansouri, M R; Pourmoghadas, H; Najafpoor, A A

    2007-11-01

    Traditional thermophillic composting is commonly for treatment of sludge. A related technique as vermicomposting process, using earthworms to breakdown sludge, is also becoming popular. These two techniques have their inherent advantages and disadvantages. The combined approach suggested in this study to enhance the overall process and improve the products qualities. Two systems, vermicomposting and combined compost-vermicomposting processes, have been investigated in this study. The sludge used in this study was obtained from the drying beds of South Isfahan wastewater treatment plant. The sludge mixed with sawdust to provide C/N ratio of 25/1. Eisenia fetida was the species of earthworms used in the vermicomposting processes. The results obtained indicate reduction in the amount of volatile solids, total carbon and C/N ratio with the vermicompost age, which indicates the reduction in the biodegradable organic content and mineralization of sludge. Also increase in phosphorus concentration by the end process because of mineralization of organic matter. The results indicate that, a system that combines the two mentioned processes not only shortens stabilization time, but also improves the products quality. Combining the two systems resulted in a product that was more stable and homogenous; the product could meet the pathogen reduction requirements.

  3. A sequence of calculation of the modes of dimensional combined processing by an electrode brush

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryazantsev, A. Yu; Kirillov, O. N.; Smolentsev, V. P.; Totay, A. V.

    2016-04-01

    In the article the way of calculation of the modes of dimensional processing by an electrode brush is considered. The choice of a liquid working environment is presented. A calculation of tension in electrodes and forces of the technological current realized during processing is given. A choice of a clip of wire bunches in a processing zone, feeding an electrode brush to a non-rigid work piece. The recommended technological indicators of the process of the finishing combined treatment by an electrode brush are presented.

  4. Combining mask and OPC process verification for improved wafer patterning and yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamouda, Ayman; Abdelghany, Hesham

    2016-10-01

    As technology advances into deep submicron nodes, the mask manufacturing process accuracy become more important. Mask Process Correction (MPC) has been transitioning from Rules-Based Mask Process correction to Model-Based Mask Process Correction mode. MPC is a subsequent step to OPC, where additional perturbation is applied to the mask shapes to correct for the mask manufacturing process. Shifting towards full model-based MPC is driven mainly by the accuracy requirements in advanced technology nodes, both for DUV and EUV processes. In the current state-of-the-art MPC process, MPC is completely decoupled from OPC, where each of them assumes that the other is executing perfectly. However, this decoupling is not suitable anymore due to the limited tolerance in the mask CDU budget and the increased wafer CDU requirements required from OPC. It is becoming more important to reduce any systematic mask errors, especially where they matter the most. In this work, we present a new combined-verification methodology that allows testing the combined effect of mask process and lithography process together and judging the final wafer patterning quality. This has the potential to intercept risks due to superposition of OPC and MPC correction residual errors, and capturing and correcting such a previously hidden source of patterning degradation.

  5. Influence of mold and substrate material combinations on nanoimprint lithography process: MD simulation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Seunghwa; Yu, Suyoung; Cho, Maenghyo

    2014-05-01

    A molecular dynamics (MD) study was performed to examine the effect of mold-substrate material composition on the pattern transferring and defects of the resist polymer in a thermal Nano Imprint Lithography (NIL) process. As candidate materials, single crystalline nickel (Ni), silicon (Si) and silica (SiO2, α-quartz) for the rigid mold substrate, and amorphous poly-(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) thin film for the resist were considered for common applications in NIL processes. Three different material compositions of Si mold-Ni substrate, Ni mold-Si substrate, and quartz mold-Ni substrate were considered. In accordance with a real NIL process, a sequence of indentation-relaxation-release processes was quasi-statically simulated using isothermal ensemble simulation on tri-layer molecular structures consisting of a mold, resist, and substrate. To correlate the deformed shape and delamination of PMMA resist from the substrate in indentation and release processes, non-bond interaction energy between a rigid mold and resist was calculated for each combination of mold and substrate materials. The Si mold-Ni substrate combination shows successful pattern transfer to the resist polymer even without an anti-sticking layer as a result of the desirable balance of surface free energy for mold and substrate materials. However, Ni mold-Si substrate combination shows a critical delamination of the resist in the release process due to strong van der Waals adhesion between the resist and Ni mold. Similarly, the quartz mold-Ni substrate combination shows the same delamination in pattern transfer, but the adhesion of the resist to the quartz mold is attributed to electrostatic interaction. In order to provide guidelines for material selection in imprint-like processes where surface adsorption and wetting characteristics are critical design parameters, a simple PMMA-rigid plate model is proposed, with which consistent surface interaction characteristics in the full model NIL process

  6. Application of combined treatment for control of Botrytis cinerea in phytosanitary irradiation processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Koo; Yoon, Minchul; Park, Hae-Jun; Youll Lee, Kwang; Jeong, Rae-Dong; Song, Beom-Seok; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2014-06-01

    Phytosanitary treatments are required to disinfest quarantine pests and pathogens in agricultural commodities. Gray mold in fruit is caused by Botrytis cinerea, which is one of the major postharvest pathogen of apple and pear. Irradiation treatment is a viable alternative for phytosanitary purposes and a useful nonchemical method for controlling pests and postharvest pathogens. An irradiation dose of over 0.4 kGy is used for the control of insects and fungal disease in fresh fruit, but a loss of firmness occurs. Combined treatments are needed to reduce the irradiation dose in phytosanitary irradiation processing. This study focuses on the application of combined treatments to reduce the loss of fruit quality when fresh fruit is irradiated for phytosanitary purposes. Comparing the antifungal activity against B. cinerea, while gamma irradiation showed no antifungal activity at a dose of 1.0 kGy, combined treatments (nano Ag particle, nano-sized silica silver) at a dose of 1.0 kGy showed the strongest antifungal activity. This study demonstrates the synergistic impacts of combined treatments in phytosanitary irradiation processing. Taken together, the combined treatments may affect reduction of fruit injury that occurred with irradiation only, meaning that the use of combined treatments with gamma irradiation is significantly effective for the preservation of fruit quality.

  7. Combined LTP and LTD of modulatory inputs controls neuronal processing of primary sensory inputs.

    PubMed

    Doiron, Brent; Zhao, Yanjun; Tzounopoulos, Thanos

    2011-07-20

    A hallmark of brain organization is the integration of primary and modulatory pathways by principal neurons. However, the pathway interactions that shape primary input processing remain unknown. We investigated this problem in mouse dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) where principal cells integrate primary, auditory nerve input with modulatory, parallel fiber input. Using a combined experimental and computational approach, we show that combined LTP and LTD of parallel fiber inputs to DCN principal cells and interneurons, respectively, broaden the time window within which synaptic inputs summate. Enhanced summation depolarizes the resting membrane potential and thus lowers the response threshold to auditory nerve inputs. Combined LTP and LTD, by preserving the variance of membrane potential fluctuations and the membrane time constant, fixes response gain and spike latency as threshold is lowered. Our data reveal a novel mechanism mediating adaptive and concomitant homeostatic regulation of distinct features of neuronal processing of sensory inputs.

  8. Students' Thinking Process in Solving Combination Problems Considered from Assimilation and Accommodation Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jalan, Sukoriyanto; Nusantara, Toto; Subanji, Subanji; Chandra, Tjang Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to explain the thinking process of students in solving combination problems considered from assimilation and accommodation frameworks. This research used a case study approach by classifying students into three categories of capabilities namely high, medium and low capabilities. From each of the ability categories, one student was…

  9. Inactivation kinetics and photoreactivation of vegetable oxidative enzymes after combined UV-C processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The inactivation kinetics of lipoxygenase (LOX), peroxidase (POD) and polyphenoloxidase (PPO) in phosphate buffer (pH 4.0 and 7.0) treated by combined thermal (25-65 C) and UV-C (1-10 min) processes were fitted using a traditional first-order kinetics model and the Weibull distribution function. For...

  10. Combined photocatalytic and fungal processes for the treatment of nitrocellulose industry wastewater.

    PubMed

    Barreto-Rodrigues, Marcio; Souza, João V B; Silva, Erica S; Silva, Flávio T; Paiva, Teresa C B

    2009-01-30

    The objective of this work was to characterize the delignification effluent originating from the delignification industry and evaluate the combination of the fungus and photocatalytic process (TiO(2)/UV system) for the treatment of this effluent. The delignification effluent has proven harmful to the environment because it presents high color (3516 CU), total phenol (876 mg/L) and TOC (1599 mg/L) and is also highly toxic even in a low concentration. The results of photocatalysis were 11%, 25% and 13% higher for reductions in color, total phenol and TOC, respectively. The combined treatments presented benefits when compared to the non-combined treatments. Fungus and photocatalysis in combination proved to be the best treatment, reducing the color, total phenol, toxicity (inhibition of Escherichia coli growth) and TOC by 94.2%, 92.6%, 4.9% and 62%, respectively.

  11. An integral design strategy combining optical system and image processing to obtain high resolution images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiaoyang; Wang, Lin; Yang, Ying; Gong, Rui; Shao, Xiaopeng; Liang, Chao; Xu, Jun

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, an integral design that combines optical system with image processing is introduced to obtain high resolution images, and the performance is evaluated and demonstrated. Traditional imaging methods often separate the two technical procedures of optical system design and imaging processing, resulting in the failures in efficient cooperation between the optical and digital elements. Therefore, an innovative approach is presented to combine the merit function during optical design together with the constraint conditions of image processing algorithms. Specifically, an optical imaging system with low resolution is designed to collect the image signals which are indispensable for imaging processing, while the ultimate goal is to obtain high resolution images from the final system. In order to optimize the global performance, the optimization function of ZEMAX software is utilized and the number of optimization cycles is controlled. Then Wiener filter algorithm is adopted to process the image simulation and mean squared error (MSE) is taken as evaluation criterion. The results show that, although the optical figures of merit for the optical imaging systems is not the best, it can provide image signals that are more suitable for image processing. In conclusion. The integral design of optical system and image processing can search out the overall optimal solution which is missed by the traditional design methods. Especially, when designing some complex optical system, this integral design strategy has obvious advantages to simplify structure and reduce cost, as well as to gain high resolution images simultaneously, which has a promising perspective of industrial application.

  12. Effective Reuse of Electroplating Rinse Wastewater by Combining PAC with H2O2/UV Process.

    PubMed

    Yen, Hsing Yuan; Kang, Shyh-Fang; Lin, Chen Pei

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated the performance of treating electroplating rinse wastewater by powder activated carbon (PAC) adsorption, H2O2/UV oxidation, and their combination to remove organic compounds and heavy metals. The results showed that neither the process of PAC adsorption nor H2O2/UV oxidation could reduce COD to 100 mg/L, as enforced by the Taiwan Environmental Protection Agency. On the other hand, the water sample treated by the combined approach of using PAC (5 g/L) pre-adsorption and H2O2/UV post-oxidation (UV of 64 W, H2O2 of 100 mg/L, oxidation time of 90 min), COD and DOC were reduced to 8.2 mg/L and 3.8 mg/L, respectively. Also, the combined approach reduced heavy metals to meet the effluent standards and to satisfy the in-house water reuse criteria for the electroplating factory. The reaction constant analysis indicated that the reaction proceeded much more rapidly for the combined process. Hence, it is a more efficient, economic and environmentally friendly process.

  13. Combined gettering and molten salt process for tritium recovery from lithium

    SciTech Connect

    Sze, D.K.; Finn, P.A.; Bartlit, J.; Tanaka, S.; Teria, T.; Yamawaki, M.

    1988-02-01

    A new tritium recovery concept from lithium has been developed as part of the US/Japan collaboration on Reversed-Field Pinch Reactor Design Studies. This concept combines the ..gamma..-gettering process as the front end to recover tritium from the coolant, and a molten salt recovery process to extract tritium for fuel processing. A secondary lithium is used to regenerate the tritium from the gettering bed and, in the process, increases the tritium concentration by a factor of about 20. That way, the required size of the molten salt process becomes very small. A potential problem is the possible poisoning of the gettering bed by the salt dissolved in lithium. 16 refs., 6 figs.

  14. Combined Intercritical Annealing and Q&P Processing of Medium Mn Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Cooman, Bruno C.; Lee, Seon Jong; Shin, Sunmi; Seo, Eun Jung; Speer, John G.

    2017-01-01

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of intercritically annealed medium Mn steel are dependent on the selection of the intercritical annealing (IA) temperature. While the yield strength (YS) decreases with increasing IA temperature, the ultimate tensile strength increases with increasing IA temperature. Strain aging phenomena, both static and dynamic, are also often observed. The present contribution shows that, by combining IA with the quench and partitioning processing of the intercritical austenite, it is possible to obtain non-aging mechanical properties which combine a high YS with an ultra-high tensile strength. These properties are particularly suitable for automotive parts related to passenger safety.

  15. A combined upflow anaerobic sludge bed and trickling biofilter process for the treatment of swine wastewater.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bowei; Li, Jiangzheng; Buelna, Gerardo; Dubé, Rino; Le Bihan, Yann

    2016-01-01

    A combined upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB)-trickling biofilter (TBF) process was constructed to treat swine wastewater, a typical high-strength organic wastewater with low carbon/nitrogen ratio and ammonia toxicity. The results showed that the UASB-TBF system can remarkably enhance the removal of pollutants in the swine wastewater. At an organic loading rate of 2.29 kg/m(3) d and hydraulic retention time of 48 h in the UASB, the chemical oxygen demand (COD), Suspended Solids and Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen removals of the combined process reached 83.6%, 84.1% and 41.2%, respectively. In the combined system the UASB served as a pretreatment process for COD removal while nitrification and denitrification occurred only in the TBF process. The TBF performed reasonably well at a surface hydraulic load as high as 0.12 m(3)/m(2) d. Since the ratio of influent COD to total mineral nitrogen was less than 3.23, it is reasonable to suggest that the wood chips in TBF can serve as a new carbon source for denitrification.

  16. Combined treatment of olive mill wastewater by Fenton's reagent and anaerobic biological process.

    PubMed

    Amor, Carlos; Lucas, Marco S; García, Juan; Dominguez, Joaquín R; De Heredia, J Beltrán; Peres, José A

    2015-01-01

    This work presents the application of Fenton's reagent process combined with anaerobic digestion to treat an olive mill wastewater (OMW). Firstly, OMW was pre-treated by chemical oxidation in a batch reactor with Fenton's reagent, using a fixed H2O2/COD ratio of 0.20, pH = 3.5 and a H2O2/Fe(2+) molar ratio of 15:1. This advanced oxidation treatment allowed reaching reductions of 17.6 and 82.5% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total polyphenols (TP), respectively. Secondly, OMW treatment by anaerobic digestion was performed using previously adapted microorganisms immobilized in Sepiolite. These biological tests were carried out varying the substrate concentration supplied to the reactor and COD conversions from 52 to 74% were obtained. Afterwards, Fenton's reagent followed by anaerobic digestion was applied to OMW treatment. This combined process presented a significant improvement on organic load removal, reaching COD degradations from 64 to 88%. Beyond the pollutant load removal, it was also monitored the yield of methane generated throughout anaerobic experiments. The methane produced ranged from 281 cm(3) to 322 cm(3) of CH4/g COD removed. Additionally, a methane generation kinetic study was performed using the Monod Model. The application of this model allowed observing a kinetic constant increase of the combined process (kFN = 0.036 h(-1)) when compared to the single anaerobic process (kF = 0.017 h(-1)).

  17. Combined treatment technology based on synergism between hydrodynamic cavitation and advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Gogate, Parag R; Patil, Pankaj N

    2015-07-01

    The present work highlights the novel approach of combination of hydrodynamic cavitation and advanced oxidation processes for wastewater treatment. The initial part of the work concentrates on the critical analysis of the literature related to the combined approaches based on hydrodynamic cavitation followed by a case study of triazophos degradation using different approaches. The analysis of different combinations based on hydrodynamic cavitation with the Fenton chemistry, advanced Fenton chemistry, ozonation, photocatalytic oxidation, and use of hydrogen peroxide has been highlighted with recommendations for important design parameters. Subsequently degradation of triazophos pesticide in aqueous solution (20 ppm solution of commercially available triazophos pesticide) has been investigated using hydrodynamic cavitation and ozonation operated individually and in combination for the first time. Effect of different operating parameters like inlet pressure (1-8 bar) and initial pH (2.5-8) have been investigated initially. The effect of addition of Fenton's reagent at different loadings on the extent of degradation has also been investigated. The combined method of hydrodynamic cavitation and ozone has been studied using two approaches of injecting ozone in the solution tank and at the orifice (at the flow rate of 0.576 g/h and 1.95 g/h). About 50% degradation of triazophos was achieved by hydrodynamic cavitation alone under optimized operating parameters. About 80% degradation of triazophos was achieved by combination of hydrodynamic cavitation and Fenton's reagent whereas complete degradation was achieved using combination of hydrodynamic cavitation and ozonation. TOC removal of 96% was also obtained for the combination of ozone and hydrodynamic cavitation making it the best treatment strategy for removal of triazophos.

  18. Combination of an electrolytic pretreatment unit with secondary water reclamation processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, G. W.; Bonura, M. S.

    1973-01-01

    The design and fabrication of a flight concept prototype electrolytic pretreatment unit (EPU) and of a contractor-furnished air evaporation unit (AEU) are described. The integrated EPU and AEU potable water recovery system is referred to as the Electrovap and is capable of processing the urine and flush water of a six-man crew. Results of a five-day performance verification test of the Electrovap system are presented and plans are included for the extended testing of the Electrovap to produce data applicable to the combination of electrolytic pretreatment with most final potable water recovery systems. Plans are also presented for a program to define the design requirements for combining the electrolytic pretreatment unit with a reverse osmosis final processing unit.

  19. Composting versus vermicomposting: a comparative study of organic matter evolution through straight and combined processes.

    PubMed

    Fornes, Fernando; Mendoza-Hernández, Daicy; García-de-la-Fuente, Rosana; Abad, Manuel; Belda, Rosa M

    2012-08-01

    Changes in physical and chemical characteristics of an organic waste (tomato crop waste) throughout composting (COM), vermicomposting (VER) and the combination of both processes (C+V) were assessed at five selected stages. COM consisted of a combination of the static Rutgers system with forced aeration and pile turning. For VER Eisenia worms were fed with the raw material. For C+V pre-composted material was added to the worms. Particle size decreased during COM, yet it increased during VER and C+V due to the amalgamation of small particles. pH was alkaline throughout the processes. Heavy irrigation during vermicomposting resulted in greater decrease of EC and greater leaching of organic matter, total nitrogen and most macronutrients in VER and C+V than in COM. Final materials were not phytotoxic but compost could have salinity related problems. Thus, COM, VER and C+V produced treated organic material, which could be suitable for horticultural purposes.

  20. Combined advanced oxidation and biological treatment processes for the removal of pesticides from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Lafi, Walid K; Al-Qodah, Z

    2006-09-01

    Advanced oxidation processes were combined with biological treatment processes in this study to remove both pesticides and then the COD load from aqueous solutions. It was found that O(3) and O(3)/UV oxidation systems were able to reach 90 and 100%, removal of the pesticide Deltamethrin, respectively, in a period of 210 min. The use of O(3) combined with UV radiation enhances pesticides degradation and the residual pesticide reaches zero in the case of Deltamethrin. The combined O(3)/UV system can reduce COD up to 20% if the pH of the solution is above 4. Both pesticide degradation and COD removal in the combined O(3)/UV system follow the pseudo-first-order kinetics and the parameters of this model were evaluated. The application of the biological treatment to remove the bulk COD from different types of feed solution was investigated. More than 95% COD removal was achieved when treated wastewater by the O(3)/UV system was fed to the bioreactor. The parameters of the proposed Grau model were estimated.

  1. The mutation process in a chlorella population under the combined action of radionuclides and chemical mutagens

    SciTech Connect

    Ptitsyna, S.N.; Sergeeva, S.A.; Shevchenko, V.A.; Shvobene, R.Y.

    1985-09-01

    This paper investigates the dynamics of the mutation process under the combined chronic action of radionuclides (/sup 144/Ce, /sup 90/Sr) and inhibitors of repair, acriflavine and caffeine, as well as under the joint action of ethyleneimine and acriflavine, in a Chlorella population. It is shown that the modifying effect of acriflavine is more pronounced under the action of /sup 144/Ce, which is evidently due to its stronger genetic effect, in comparison with /sup 90/Sr. Experiments with inhibitors confirm the participation of the repair systems in the establishment of the visible picture of the mutation process induced by radionuclides and by ethyleneimine (EI).

  2. Effects of combined traditional processing methods on the nutritional quality of beans.

    PubMed

    Nakitto, Aisha M; Muyonga, John H; Nakimbugwe, Dorothy

    2015-05-01

    Consumption of dry beans is limited by long cooking times thus high fuel requirement. The bioavailability of nutrients in beans is also limited due to presence of antinutrients such as phytates and tannins. Little research has been done on combined processing methods for production of nutritious fast cooking bean flour and the effect of combined treatments on nutritional quality of beans has not previously determined. The aim of this study was to reduce cooking time and enhance the nutritional value of dry beans. Specifically to: develop protocols for production of fast cooking bean flours and assess the effect of processing on the nutritional characteristics of the flours. Dry beans (K131 variety) were soaked for 12 h; sprouted for 48 h; dehulled and steamed for 25 and 15 min for whole and dehulled beans respectively or roasted at 170°C for 45 and 15 min for whole and dehulled beans respectively. Dehulling eliminated phytates and tannins and increased protein digestibility. In vitro protein digestibility and mineral (iron and zinc) extractability were negatively correlated with tannin and phytate content. Total available carbohydrates were highest in moist heat-treated bean flours. Overall, combined processing of beans improved the nutritional quality of dry beans and the resulting precooked flours need less cooking time compared to whole dry beans.

  3. Effects of combined traditional processing methods on the nutritional quality of beans

    PubMed Central

    Nakitto, Aisha M; Muyonga, John H; Nakimbugwe, Dorothy

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of dry beans is limited by long cooking times thus high fuel requirement. The bioavailability of nutrients in beans is also limited due to presence of antinutrients such as phytates and tannins. Little research has been done on combined processing methods for production of nutritious fast cooking bean flour and the effect of combined treatments on nutritional quality of beans has not previously determined. The aim of this study was to reduce cooking time and enhance the nutritional value of dry beans. Specifically to: develop protocols for production of fast cooking bean flours and assess the effect of processing on the nutritional characteristics of the flours. Dry beans (K131 variety) were soaked for 12 h; sprouted for 48 h; dehulled and steamed for 25 and 15 min for whole and dehulled beans respectively or roasted at 170°C for 45 and 15 min for whole and dehulled beans respectively. Dehulling eliminated phytates and tannins and increased protein digestibility. In vitro protein digestibility and mineral (iron and zinc) extractability were negatively correlated with tannin and phytate content. Total available carbohydrates were highest in moist heat-treated bean flours. Overall, combined processing of beans improved the nutritional quality of dry beans and the resulting precooked flours need less cooking time compared to whole dry beans. PMID:25987998

  4. Can the combination of localized "proliferative therapy" with "minor ozonated autohemotherapy" restore the natural healing process?

    PubMed

    Gracer, R I; Bocci, V

    2005-01-01

    Regenerative injection therapy (RIT), also known as proliferative therapy, has been used for over 30 years in the USA in patients with spinal and peripheral joint and ligamentous pathologies. It involves the injection of mildly irritating medications onto ligaments and tendons, most commonly at origins and insertions. These injections cause a mild inflammatory response which "turns on" the normal healing process and results in the regeneration of these structures. At the same time they strengthen and become less sensitive to pain through a combination of neurolysis of small nerve fibers (C-fibers) and increased stability of the underlying structures. Oxygen/ozone therapy is a well established complementary therapy practiced in many European countries. The ozone dissolves in body fluids and immediately reacts with biomolecules generating messengers responsible for biological and therapeutic activities. This results in an anti inflammatory response, which also results in a similar trophic reaction to that of RIT. It is logical to expect that combining these two modalities would result in enhanced healing and therefore improved clinical outcomes. Oxygen/ozone therapy, accomplished by autohemotherapy (AHT), is performed by either administering ozonated blood intravenously (Major AHT) or via intramuscular route (Minor AHT). These procedures result in stimulation of the immune and healing systems. Our concept is that the local injection of this activated blood injected directly to the ligamentous areas that are also being treated with RIT will act as a direct stimulation to the healing process. In addition, combining this with intravenous major AHT should stimulate the immune system to augment and support this process. RIT and oxygen/ozone therapy have been extensively studied separately. We propose a study of lumbosacral ligamentous pain to explore this therapeutic combination. We hope that this paper will stimulate general interest in this area of medicine and result

  5. [Enhancement for anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge pretreated by microwave and its combined processes ].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ji-bao; Ni, Xiao-tang; Wei, Yuan-song; Tong, Juan; Wang, Ya-wei

    2014-09-01

    To improve anaerobic digestion and dewatering of sludge, impacts of sludge pretreated by microwave (MW) and its combined processes on sludge anaerobic digestion and dewatering were investigated. The results showed that microwave and its combined processes could effectively enhance anaerobic sludge digestion. Not only the cumulative methane production in the test of the MW-H2O2-alkaline (0. 2) was increased by 13. 34% compared with the control, but also its methane production rate was much higher than that of the control. Compared with the single MW process, the addition of both H2O2 and alkaline enhanced the solubilization of particle COD( >0. 45 micron) , indicating that synergistically generated soluble organics were faster to biodegrade which resulted in the enhancement of anaerobic digestion. The MW-acid process was effective in improving sludge dewaterability, e. g. , Capillary Suction Time (CST) at only 9. 85 s. The improvement of sludge dewatering was significantly correlated with sludge physical properties such as zeta potential, surface charge density and particle size. Under different sludge pretreatment conditions, the sludge dewatering after anaerobic digestion was similar, though the difference of sludge dewatering to some degrees was observed for pretreated sludge.

  6. Significant diethyl phthalate (DEP) degradation by combined advanced oxidation process in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Na, Seungmin; Ahn, Yun-Gyong; Cui, Mingcan; Khim, Jeehyeong

    2012-06-30

    Ultrasound (US) combined with ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and a titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) catalyst was used to effectively remove diethyl phthalate (DEP) from aqueous solutions. Single (sonolysis, photolysis, photocatalysis) and combined (sonophotolysis, sonophotocatalysis) processes were performed to confirm the synergistic effects and DEP degradation mechanism. Using only US, the optimum frequency for DEP degradation was 283 kHz. At this frequency a high rate of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) formation was observed of approximately 0.32 mM min(-1). The pseudo-first order degradation rate constants were 10(-2)-10(-4) min(-1) depending on the process. Significant degradation and mineralization (TOC) of DEP were observed with the sonophotolytic and sonophotocatalytic processes. Moreover, synergistic effects of 1.29 and 1.95 were exhibited at the sonophotocatalytic and sonophotolytic DEP degradation, respectively. Furthermore, additional advantageous reactions may occur in the heterogeneous sonophotocatalytic process due to interactions between US, UV, and the photocatalyst.

  7. Combination of minimal processing and irradiation to improve the microbiological safety of lettuce ( Lactuca sativa, L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goularte, L.; Martins, C. G.; Morales-Aizpurúa, I. C.; Destro, M. T.; Franco, B. D. G. M.; Vizeu, D. M.; Hutzler, B. W.; Landgraf, M.

    2004-09-01

    The feasibility of gamma radiation in combination with minimal processing (MP) to reduce the number of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in iceberg lettuce ( Lactuca sativa, L.) (shredded) was studied in order to increase the safety of the product. The reduction of the microbial population during the processing, the D10-values for Salmonella spp. and E. coli O157:H7 inoculated on shredded iceberg lettuce as well as the sensory evaluation of the irradiated product were evaluated. The immersion in chlorine (200 ppm) reduced coliform and aerobic mesophilic microorganisms by 0.9 and 2.7 log, respectively. D-values varied from 0.16 to 0.23 kGy for Salmonella spp. and from 0.11 to 0.12 kGy for E. coli O157:H7. Minimally processed iceberg lettuce exposed to 0.9 kGy does not show any change in sensory attributes. However, the texture of the vegetable was affected during the exposition to 1.1 kGy. The exposition of MP iceberg lettuce to 0.7 kGy reduced the population of Salmonella spp. by 4.0 log and E. coli by 6.8 log without impairing the sensory attributes. The combination of minimal process and gamma radiation to improve the safety of iceberg lettuce is feasible if good hygiene practices begins at farm stage.

  8. Electrochemical advanced oxidation and biological processes for wastewater treatment: a review of the combined approaches.

    PubMed

    Ganzenko, Oleksandra; Huguenot, David; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Esposito, Giovanni; Oturan, Mehmet A

    2014-01-01

    As pollution becomes one of the biggest environmental challenges of the twenty-first century, pollution of water threatens the very existence of humanity, making immediate action a priority. The most persistent and hazardous pollutants come from industrial and agricultural activities; therefore, effective treatment of this wastewater prior to discharge into the natural environment is the solution. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have caused increased interest due to their ability to degrade hazardous substances in contrast to other methods, which mainly only transfer pollution from wastewater to sludge, a membrane filter, or an adsorbent. Among a great variety of different AOPs, a group of electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs), including electro-Fenton, is emerging as an environmental-friendly and effective treatment process for the destruction of persistent hazardous contaminants. The only concern that slows down a large-scale implementation is energy consumption and related investment and operational costs. A combination of EAOPs with biological treatment is an interesting solution. In such a synergetic way, removal efficiency is maximized, while minimizing operational costs. The goal of this review is to present cutting-edge research for treatment of three common and problematic pollutants and effluents: dyes and textile wastewater, olive processing wastewater, and pharmaceuticals and hospital wastewater. Each of these types is regarded in terms of recent scientific research on individual electrochemical, individual biological and a combined synergetic treatment.

  9. Nitrogen management in landfill leachate: Application of SHARON, ANAMMOX and combined SHARON-ANAMMOX process

    SciTech Connect

    Sri Shalini, S.; Joseph, Kurian

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Significant research on ammonia removal from leachate by SHARON and ANAMMOX process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Operational parameters, microbiology, biochemistry and application of the process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SHARON-ANAMMOX process for leachate a new research and this paper gives wide facts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cost-effective process, alternative to existing technologies for leachate treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Address the issues and operational conditions for application in leachate treatment. - Abstract: In today's context of waste management, landfilling of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is considered to be one of the standard practices worldwide. Leachate generated from municipal landfills has become a great threat to the surroundings as it contains high concentration of organics, ammonia and other toxic pollutants. Emphasis has to be placed on the removal of ammonia nitrogen in particular, derived from the nitrogen content of the MSW and it is a long term pollution problem in landfills which determines when the landfill can be considered stable. Several biological processes are available for the removal of ammonia but novel processes such as the Single Reactor System for High Activity Ammonia Removal over Nitrite (SHARON) and Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation (ANAMMOX) process have great potential and several advantages over conventional processes. The combined SHARON-ANAMMOX process for municipal landfill leachate treatment is a new, innovative and significant approach that requires more research to identify and solve critical issues. This review addresses the operational parameters, microbiology, biochemistry and application of both the processes to remove ammonia from leachate.

  10. Pilot Cases of Combined Cognitive Processing Therapy and Smoking Cessation for Smokers With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    PubMed

    Dedert, Eric A; Resick, Patricia A; McFall, Miles E; Dennis, Paul A; Olsen, Maren; Beckham, Jean C

    2016-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and smoking are often comorbid, and both problems are in need of improved access to evidence-based treatment. The combined approach could address two high-priority problems and increase patient access to both treatments, but research is needed to determine whether this is feasible and has promise for addressing both PTSD and smoking. We collected data from 15 test cases that received a treatment combining two evidence-based treatments: cognitive processing therapy-cognitive version (CPT-C) for PTSD and integrated care for smoking cessation (ICSC). We explored two combined treatment protocols including a brief (six-session) CPT-C with five follow-up in-person sessions focused on smoking cessation (n=9) and a full 12-session CPT-C protocol with ICSC (n=6). The combined interventions were feasible and acceptable to patients with PTSD making a quit attempt. Initial positive benefits of the combined treatments were observed. The six-session dose of CPT-C and smoking cessation resulted in 6-month bioverified smoking abstinence in two of nine participants, with clinically meaningful PTSD symptom reduction in three of nine participants. In the second cohort (full CPT-C and smoking treatment), both smoking and PTSD symptoms were improved, with three of six participants abstinent from smoking and four of six participants reporting clinically meaningful reduction in PTSD symptoms. Results suggested that individuals with PTSD who smoke are willing to engage in concurrent treatment of these problems and that combined treatment is feasible.

  11. Non-biodegradable landfill leachate treatment by combined process of agitation, coagulation, SBR and filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Abood, Alkhafaji R.; Bao, Jianguo; Du, Jiangkun; Zheng, Dan; Luo, Ye

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • A novel method of stripping (agitation) was investigated for NH{sub 3}-N removal. • PFS coagulation followed agitation process enhanced the leachate biodegradation. • Nitrification–denitrification achieved by changing operation process in SBR treatment. • A dual filter of carbon-sand is suitable as a polishing treatment of leachate. • Combined treatment success for the complete treatment of non-biodegradable leachate. - Abstract: This study describes the complete treatment of non-biodegradable landfill leachate by combined treatment processes. The processes consist of agitation as a novel stripping method used to overcome the ammonia toxicity regarding aerobic microorganisms. The NH{sub 3}-N removal ratio was 93.9% obtained at pH 11.5 and a gradient velocity (G) 150 s{sup −1} within a five-hour agitation time. By poly ferric sulphate (PFS) coagulation followed the agitation process; chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD{sub 5}) were removed at 70.6% and 49.4%, respectively at an optimum dose of 1200 mg L{sup −1} at pH 5.0. The biodegradable ratio BOD{sub 5}/COD was improved from 0.18 to 0.31 during pretreatment step by agitation and PFS coagulation. Thereafter, the effluent was diluted with sewage at a different ratio before it was subjected to sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treatment. Up to 93.3% BOD{sub 5}, 95.5% COD and 98.1% NH{sub 3}-N removal were achieved by SBR operated under anoxic–aerobic–anoxic conditions. The filtration process was carried out using sand and carbon as a dual filter media as polishing process. The final effluent concentration of COD, BOD{sub 5}, suspended solid (SS), NH{sub 3}-N and total organic carbon (TOC) were 72.4 mg L{sup −1}, 22.8 mg L{sup −1}, 24.2 mg L{sup −1}, 18.4 mg L{sup −1} and 50.8 mg L{sup −1} respectively, which met the discharge standard. The results indicated that a combined process of agitation-coagulation-SBR and filtration effectively eliminated

  12. Weld-brazing - a new joining process. [combination resistance spot welding and brazing of titanium alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bales, T. T.; Royster, D. M.; Arnold, W. E., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A joining process designated weld brazing which combines resistance spot welding and brazing has been developed. Resistance spot welding is used to position and align the parts as well as to establish a suitable faying surface gap for brazing. Fabrication is then completed by capillary flow of the braze alloy into the joint. The process has been used successfully to fabricate Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy joints using 3003 aluminum braze alloy. Test results obtained on single overlap and hat-stiffened structural specimens show that weld brazed joints are superior in tensile shear, stress rupture, fatigue, and buckling than joint fabricated by spotwelding or brazing. Another attractive feature of the process is that the brazed joints is hermetically sealed by the braze material.

  13. Non-biodegradable landfill leachate treatment by combined process of agitation, coagulation, SBR and filtration.

    PubMed

    Abood, Alkhafaji R; Bao, Jianguo; Du, Jiangkun; Zheng, Dan; Luo, Ye

    2014-02-01

    This study describes the complete treatment of non-biodegradable landfill leachate by combined treatment processes. The processes consist of agitation as a novel stripping method used to overcome the ammonia toxicity regarding aerobic microorganisms. The NH3-N removal ratio was 93.9% obtained at pH 11.5 and a gradient velocity (G) 150 s(-1) within a five-hour agitation time. By poly ferric sulphate (PFS) coagulation followed the agitation process; chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD5) were removed at 70.6% and 49.4%, respectively at an optimum dose of 1200 mg L(-1) at pH 5.0. The biodegradable ratio BOD5/COD was improved from 0.18 to 0.31 during pretreatment step by agitation and PFS coagulation. Thereafter, the effluent was diluted with sewage at a different ratio before it was subjected to sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treatment. Up to 93.3% BOD5, 95.5% COD and 98.1% NH3-N removal were achieved by SBR operated under anoxic-aerobic-anoxic conditions. The filtration process was carried out using sand and carbon as a dual filter media as polishing process. The final effluent concentration of COD, BOD5, suspended solid (SS), NH3-N and total organic carbon (TOC) were 72.4 mg L(-1), 22.8 mg L(-1), 24.2 mg L(-1), 18.4 mg L(-1) and 50.8 mg L(-1) respectively, which met the discharge standard. The results indicated that a combined process of agitation-coagulation-SBR and filtration effectively eliminated pollutant loading from landfill leachate.

  14. Combined unilateral lesions of the amygdala and orbital prefrontal cortex impair affective processing in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, Alicia; Murray, Elisabeth A

    2004-05-01

    The amygdala and orbital prefrontal cortex (PFo) interact as part of a system for affective processing. To assess whether there is a hemispheric functional specialization for the processing of emotion or reward or both in nonhuman primates, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) with combined lesions of the amygdala and PFo in one hemisphere, either left or right, were compared with unoperated controls on a battery of tasks that tax affective processing, including two tasks that tax reward processing and two that assess emotional reactions. Although the two operated groups did not differ from each other, monkeys with unilateral lesions, left and right, showed altered reward-processing abilities as evidenced by attenuated reinforcer devaluation effects and an impairment in object reversal learning relative to controls. In addition, both operated groups showed blunted emotional reactions to a rubber snake. By contrast, monkeys with unilateral lesions did not differ from controls in their responses to an unfamiliar human (human "intruder"). Although the results provide no support for a hemispheric specialization of function, they yield the novel finding that unilateral lesions of the amygdala-orbitofrontal cortical circuit in monkeys are sufficient to significantly disrupt affective processing.

  15. Degradation of imidacloprid using combined advanced oxidation processes based on hydrodynamic cavitation.

    PubMed

    Patil, Pankaj N; Bote, Sayli D; Gogate, Parag R

    2014-09-01

    The harmful effects of wastewaters containing pesticides or insecticides on human and aquatic life impart the need of effectively treating the wastewater streams containing these contaminants. In the present work, hydrodynamic cavitation reactors have been applied for the degradation of imidacloprid with process intensification studies based on different additives and combination with other similar processes. Effect of different operating parameters viz. concentration (20-60 ppm), pressure (1-8 bar), temperature (34 °C, 39 °C and 42 °C) and initial pH (2.5-8.3) has been investigated initially using orifice plate as cavitating device. It has been observed that 23.85% degradation of imidacloprid is obtained at optimized set of operating parameters. The efficacy of different process intensifying approaches based on the use of hydrogen peroxide (20-80 ppm), Fenton's reagent (H2O2:FeSO4 ratio as 1:1, 1:2, 2:1, 2:2, 4:1 and 4:2), advanced Fenton process (H2O2:Iron Powder ratio as 1:1, 2:1 and 4:1) and combination of Na2S2O8 and FeSO4 (FeSO4:Na2S2O8 ratio as 1:1, 1:2, 1:3 and 1:4) on the extent of degradation has been investigated. It was observed that near complete degradation of imidacloprid was achieved in all the cases at optimized values of process intensifying parameters. The time required for complete degradation of imidacloprid for approach based on hydrogen peroxide was 120 min where as for the Fenton and advance Fenton process, the required time was only 60 min. To check the effectiveness of hydrodynamic cavitation with different cavitating devices, few experiments were also performed with the help of slit venturi as a cavitating device at already optimized values of parameters. The present work has conclusively established that combined processes based on hydrodynamic cavitation can be effectively used for complete degradation of imidacloprid.

  16. Combined effect of alkali pretreatment and sodium chloride addition on the olive fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Chammem, N; Kachouri, M; Mejri, M; Peres, C; Boudabous, A; Hamdi, M

    2005-07-01

    Green olives of the Tunisian variety "Meski" were treated according to a Spanish-style green olive preservation process by using an alkaline treatment (1.5, 2 and 2.5% (w/v) NaOH) to eliminate bitterness, combined with different brine concentrations (6, 9 and 12% (w/v) NaCl). A spontaneous fermentation by the environmental microflora took place. Results showed that 2% NaOH solution and 9% sodium chloride brine was an optimal combination inducing the best growth of Lactobacillus species (10(8) CFU/ml) and acidity of 0.726 g lactic acid/100 ml brine. In all trials and independently of the treatment, Lb. plantarum was the most dominant strain of Lactobacillus. Moreover, pretreatment with lye and lactic fermentation of olives contributed to coliform elimination.

  17. Meaningful call combinations and compositional processing in the southern pied babbler.

    PubMed

    Engesser, Sabrina; Ridley, Amanda R; Townsend, Simon W

    2016-05-24

    Language's expressive power is largely attributable to its compositionality: meaningful words are combined into larger/higher-order structures with derived meaning. Despite its importance, little is known regarding the evolutionary origins and emergence of this syntactic ability. Although previous research has shown a rudimentary capability to combine meaningful calls in primates, because of a scarcity of comparative data, it is unclear to what extent analog forms might also exist outside of primates. Here, we address this ambiguity and provide evidence for rudimentary compositionality in the discrete vocal system of a social passerine, the pied babbler (Turdoides bicolor). Natural observations and predator presentations revealed that babblers produce acoustically distinct alert calls in response to close, low-urgency threats and recruitment calls when recruiting group members during locomotion. On encountering terrestrial predators, both vocalizations are combined into a "mobbing sequence," potentially to recruit group members in a dangerous situation. To investigate whether babblers process the sequence in a compositional way, we conducted systematic experiments, playing back the individual calls in isolation as well as naturally occurring and artificial sequences. Babblers reacted most strongly to mobbing sequence playbacks, showing a greater attentiveness and a quicker approach to the loudspeaker, compared with individual calls or control sequences. We conclude that the sequence constitutes a compositional structure, communicating information on both the context and the requested action. Our work supports previous research suggesting combinatoriality as a viable mechanism to increase communicative output and indicates that the ability to combine and process meaningful vocal structures, a basic syntax, may be more widespread than previously thought.

  18. Meaningful call combinations and compositional processing in the southern pied babbler

    PubMed Central

    Engesser, Sabrina; Ridley, Amanda R.; Townsend, Simon W.

    2016-01-01

    Language’s expressive power is largely attributable to its compositionality: meaningful words are combined into larger/higher-order structures with derived meaning. Despite its importance, little is known regarding the evolutionary origins and emergence of this syntactic ability. Although previous research has shown a rudimentary capability to combine meaningful calls in primates, because of a scarcity of comparative data, it is unclear to what extent analog forms might also exist outside of primates. Here, we address this ambiguity and provide evidence for rudimentary compositionality in the discrete vocal system of a social passerine, the pied babbler (Turdoides bicolor). Natural observations and predator presentations revealed that babblers produce acoustically distinct alert calls in response to close, low-urgency threats and recruitment calls when recruiting group members during locomotion. On encountering terrestrial predators, both vocalizations are combined into a “mobbing sequence,” potentially to recruit group members in a dangerous situation. To investigate whether babblers process the sequence in a compositional way, we conducted systematic experiments, playing back the individual calls in isolation as well as naturally occurring and artificial sequences. Babblers reacted most strongly to mobbing sequence playbacks, showing a greater attentiveness and a quicker approach to the loudspeaker, compared with individual calls or control sequences. We conclude that the sequence constitutes a compositional structure, communicating information on both the context and the requested action. Our work supports previous research suggesting combinatoriality as a viable mechanism to increase communicative output and indicates that the ability to combine and process meaningful vocal structures, a basic syntax, may be more widespread than previously thought. PMID:27155011

  19. Use of combined coagulation-adsorption process as pretreatment of landfill leachate

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Landfill leachate is an important pollution factor resulting from municipal landfill sites. Physical and chemical processes are the better option for pretreatment or full treatment of landfill leachate. This article presents a combination of pre-treatment method (coagulation and adsorption) for leachate collected from municipal solid waste open dumping site. Physico chemical characteristics of stabilized and fresh leachate were examined. Coagulation process was examined by using alum and ferric chloride. A low cost adsorbent, fly ash was used for adsorption studies. Coagulation studies were carried out for fresh and stabilized leachate. Adsorption studies have been conducted for alum pre-treated stabilized leachate. Effect of coagulant dose, adsorbent dose, pH and contact time were carried out. The effective optimum coagulant dosages were 0.6 g/L and 0.7 g/L for alum and ferric chloride respectively for stabilized leachate and incase of fresh leachate 0.8 g/L and 0.6 g/L for alum and ferric chloride respectively. For the alum pretreated stabilized leachate, the maximum COD removal is 28% using fly ash adsorbent with equilibrium time of 210 min and optimum dose of 6 g/L. Overall COD removal efficiency of 82% was obtained by coagulation using alum and adsorption using fly ash for stabilized leachate. The results obtained showed that combined coagulation and adsorption process can be used effectively for stabilized leachate treatment. PMID:23517661

  20. Combining discrete element modelling and process-based models: syntectonic sedimentation in a thrust fault propagation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona, A.; Clavera-Gispert, R.; Gratacós, O.; Hardy, S.

    2009-04-01

    Numerical modelling has recently become a fundamental tool in structural geology. Numerical models provide information which may assist the understanding of geometries, architectures and processes difficult to otherwise observe and may also be used to validate other methods. The work presented here introduces a new numerical computer programme designed to combine discrete element and process-based sedimentation models. Combining these two methods allows us to include the simulation of both sedimentation and deformation processes in a single and more effective model. The new code has been developed from two previous published works: simsafadim_clastic and discrete element modelling. The former simulates sub-aquatic clastic transport and sedimentation in three dimensions, including process of interaction, production and sedimentation of carbonates; moreover it is also powerful tool for the 3D prediction of stratigraphic structures and facies in sedimentary basins. The latter deals with the simulation of the deformation in sedimentary rocks in 2D and 3D. This deformation is a consequence of the interaction of many individual elements according to mechanical rules. Merging these two models offers a more complex and realistic study of the evolution of the structure and the deformation in sedimentary materials produced by faults and folds since better approximations of the structures and geometries in the nature are obtained as a result of the capability of the programme in reproducing these two processes simultaneously. As a result much more complex depositional structures (syntectonic geometries) can be studied, together with more complex analysis of the evolution of the deformation. Deformation of the sedimentary cover, as a consequence of tectonic movements, is included and conditioned by the presence of the new syntectonic sediments. The analysis of the evolution of the deformation of these new syntectonic materials can also be performed. As an illustrative example

  1. Cost-effective FBG interrogation combined with cepstral-based signal processing for railway traffic monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinet, D.; Kouroussis, G.; Dupuy, J.; Moeyaert, V.; Verlinden, O.; Caucheteur, C.

    2016-04-01

    Due to their high mechanical and corrosion resistance, low signal attenuation, optical fiber sensors and more particularly fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) have demonstrated their high potential in various sensors applications such as health monitoring of structural pieces when their are placed under constrain, vibration or temperature variation. In this paper, we evaluate the capability of a low cost optical fiber Bragg gratings interrogator, based on the edge filter demodulation technique, combined with a cepstral-based signal processing to address three cascaded FBGs along a railway track. We show in real-life conditions that, thanks to this method, it is possible from a noisy measurement to retrieve the speed of the trains.

  2. Development of combined nanofiltration and forward osmosis process for production of ethanol from pretreated rice straw.

    PubMed

    Shibuya, Masafumi; Sasaki, Kengo; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Yasukawa, Masahiro; Takahashi, Tomoki; Kondo, Akihiko; Matsuyama, Hideto

    2017-03-28

    A membrane process combining nanofiltraion (NF) and forward osmosis (FO) was developed for the sugar concentration with the aim of high bio-ethanol production from the liquid fraction of rice straw. The commercial NF membrane, ESNA3, was more adequate for removal of fermentation inhibitors (such as acetic acid) than the FO membrane, whereas the commercial FO membrane, TFC-ES, was more adequate for concentration of the sugars than the NF membrane. The liquid fraction was subjected to the following process: NF concentration with water addition (NF(+H2O))→enzymatic hydrolysis→FO concentration. This NF(+H2O)-FO hybrid process generated a total sugar content of 107g·L(-1). Xylose-assimilating S. cerevisiae produced 24g·L(-1) ethanol from the liquid fraction that was diluted 1.5-fold and then concentrated by the NF(+H2O)-FO hybrid process. The NF(+H2O)-FO hybrid process has the potential for optimized ethanol production from pretreated lignocellulosic biomass.

  3. Computational thermodynamics, Gaussian processes and genetic algorithms: combined tools to design new alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tancret, F.

    2013-06-01

    A new alloy design procedure is proposed, combining in a single computational tool several modelling and predictive techniques that have already been used and assessed in the field of materials science and alloy design: a genetic algorithm is used to optimize the alloy composition for target properties and performance on the basis of the prediction of mechanical properties (estimated by Gaussian process regression of data on existing alloys) and of microstructural constitution, stability and processability (evaluated by computational themodynamics). These tools are integrated in a unique Matlab programme. An example is given in the case of the design of a new nickel-base superalloy for future power plant applications (such as the ultra-supercritical (USC) coal-fired plant, or the high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor (HTGCR or HTGR), where the selection criteria include cost, oxidation and creep resistance around 750 °C, long-term stability at service temperature, forgeability, weldability, etc.

  4. Combination of PCA and LORETA for sources analysis of ERP data: an emotional processing study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jin; Tian, Jie; Yang, Lei; Pan, Xiaohong; Liu, Jiangang

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study spatiotemporal patterns of neuronal activity in emotional processing by analysis of ERP data. 108 pictures (categorized as positive, negative and neutral) were presented to 24 healthy, right-handed subjects while 128-channel EEG data were recorded. An analysis of two steps was applied to the ERP data. First, principal component analysis was performed to obtain significant ERP components. Then LORETA was applied to each component to localize their brain sources. The first six principal components were extracted, each of which showed different spatiotemporal patterns of neuronal activity. The results agree with other emotional study by fMRI or PET. The combination of PCA and LORETA can be used to analyze spatiotemporal patterns of ERP data in emotional processing.

  5. Combined Laser Beam Welding and Brazing Process for Aluminium Titanium Hybrid Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, F.; Grden, M.; Thomy, C.; Vollertsen, F.

    The current state of the art in light-weight construction is - for the case of aircraft structures - the use of either aluminium or titanium. Whereas aluminium is light-weight and less expensive, titanium offers superior corrosion properties at higher cost. In order to combine the advantages of both materials, a hybrid Ti-Al structure is proposed for e.g. seat-track application. In this paper, an overview of the results from this research work and the accompanying thermo-mechanical simulations will be reported and discussed. On the basis of the development of an appropriate system technology, the process development will be described, focusing on the main influencing parameters of the process on joint properties.

  6. Combining reactive sputtering and rapid thermal processing for synthesis and discovery of metal oxynitrides

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Lan; Suram, Santosh K.; Becerra-Stasiewicz, Natalie; Mitrovic, Slobodan; Kan, Kevin; Jones, Ryan J. R.; Gregoire, John M.

    2015-05-27

    Recent efforts have demonstrated enhanced tailoring of material functionality with mixed-anion materials, yet exploratory research with mixed-anion chemistries is limited by the sensitivity of these materials to synthesis conditions. In order to synthesize a particular metal oxynitride compound by traditional reactive annealing we require specific, limited ranges of both oxygen and nitrogen chemical potentials in order to establish equilibrium between the solid-state material and a reactive atmosphere. While using Ta-O-N as an example system, we describe a combination of reactive sputter deposition and rapid thermal processing for synthesis of mixed-anion inorganic materials. Heuristic optimization of reactive gas pressures to attain a desired anion stoichiometry is discussed, and the ability of rapid thermal processing to enable amorphous to crystalline transitions without preferential anion loss is demonstrated through the controlled synthesis of nitride, oxide and oxynitride phases.

  7. Combining reactive sputtering and rapid thermal processing for synthesis and discovery of metal oxynitrides

    DOE PAGES

    Zhou, Lan; Suram, Santosh K.; Becerra-Stasiewicz, Natalie; ...

    2015-05-27

    Recent efforts have demonstrated enhanced tailoring of material functionality with mixed-anion materials, yet exploratory research with mixed-anion chemistries is limited by the sensitivity of these materials to synthesis conditions. In order to synthesize a particular metal oxynitride compound by traditional reactive annealing we require specific, limited ranges of both oxygen and nitrogen chemical potentials in order to establish equilibrium between the solid-state material and a reactive atmosphere. While using Ta-O-N as an example system, we describe a combination of reactive sputter deposition and rapid thermal processing for synthesis of mixed-anion inorganic materials. Heuristic optimization of reactive gas pressures to attainmore » a desired anion stoichiometry is discussed, and the ability of rapid thermal processing to enable amorphous to crystalline transitions without preferential anion loss is demonstrated through the controlled synthesis of nitride, oxide and oxynitride phases.« less

  8. Conflict game in evacuation process: A study combining Cellular Automata model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xiaoping; Cheng, Yuan

    2011-03-01

    The game-theoretic approach is an essential tool in the research of conflicts of human behaviors. The aim of this study is to research crowd dynamic conflicts during evacuation processes. By combining a conflict game with a Cellular Automata model, the following factors such as rationality, herding effect and conflict cost are taken into the research on frequency of each strategy of evacuees, and evacuation time. Results from Monte Carlo simulations show that (i) in an emergency condition, rationality leads to “vying” behaviors and inhibited “polite” behavior; (ii) high herding causes a crowd of high rationality (especially in normal circumstances) to become more “vying” in behavior; (iii) the high-rationality crowd is shown to spend more evacuation time than a low-rationality crowd in emergency situations. This study provides a new perspective to understand conflicts in evacuation processes as well as the rationality of evacuees.

  9. Combining analysis with optimization at Langley Research Center. An evolutionary process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. L., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The evolutionary process of combining analysis and optimization codes was traced with a view toward providing insight into the long term goal of developing the methodology for an integrated, multidisciplinary software system for the concurrent analysis and optimization of aerospace structures. It was traced along the lines of strength sizing, concurrent strength and flutter sizing, and general optimization to define a near-term goal for combining analysis and optimization codes. Development of a modular software system combining general-purpose, state-of-the-art, production-level analysis computer programs for structures, aerodynamics, and aeroelasticity with a state-of-the-art optimization program is required. Incorporation of a modular and flexible structural optimization software system into a state-of-the-art finite element analysis computer program will facilitate this effort. This effort results in the software system used that is controlled with a special-purpose language, communicates with a data management system, and is easily modified for adding new programs and capabilities. A 337 degree-of-freedom finite element model is used in verifying the accuracy of this system.

  10. Cracking Process and Stress Field Evolution in Specimen Containing Combined Flaw Under Uniaxial Compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ting; Lin, Baiquan; Yang, Wei; Zou, Quanle; Kong, Jia; Yan, Fazhi

    2016-08-01

    Hydraulic slotting, an efficient technique for underground enhanced coal bed methane (ECBM) recovery, has been widely used in China. However, its pressure relief mechanism is unclear. Thus far, only limited research has been conducted on the relationships among the mechanical properties, flaw parameters, and crack propagation patterns of coal after hydraulic slotting. In addition, because of the limitations of test methods, an in-depth information is not available for this purpose. In this work, numerical models of specimens containing combined flaws are established based on particle flow code method. Our results provide insights into the effects of flaw inclination angle on the mechanical properties, crack propagation patterns, and temporal and spatial evolution rules of stress field in specimens containing combined flaws during the loading process. Besides, based on the initiation position and underlying mechanism, three types of crack initiation modes are identified from the failure processes of specimens. Finally, the crack propagation pattern is quantitatively described by the fractal dimension, which is found to be inversely proportional to the uniaxial compressive strength and elastic modulus of the specimen. To verify the rationality of the numerical simulation results, laboratory tests were conducted and their results match well with those obtained from the numerical simulation.

  11. [Study on the combination of preozonation and post-ozonation-BAC process for drinking water treatment].

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhao-hai; Yang, Min; Zhang, Yu; Pei, Yi-shan; Zhang, Jun-zhi; Hirotsuji, Juni

    2005-11-01

    This study was conducted to illustrate the effectiveness of preozonation or O3-BAC or combination of these two process in controlling DBPs for treating a dam source water in South China through SBR and continuous flow (200 L/h) experiments and the variables in the treatment train included the point of preozonation with respect to coagulation; the point of ozonation with respect to BAC, the ozone dosage required for preozonation and the Br- content of raw water. Results indicated the reduction in DBP formation potential closely paralleled the reduction in UV absorbance, and trihalomethane and haloacetic acid formation potential can be removed under a dose of preozone at 0.5 - 1.0 mg/L, at the same time, ozone by-products (bromate and formaldehyde) can be controlled in low level. The continuous flow experiment results show that combination of preozonation and O3-BAC process has obviously positive effects on the removals of particles with a size above 2 microm, COD(Mn), and TOC. However, DBPs formation can be controlled by the removal of organic matters.

  12. Combined compared to dissociated oral and intestinal sucrose stimuli induce different brain hedonic processes

    PubMed Central

    Clouard, Caroline; Meunier-Salaün, Marie-Christine; Meurice, Paul; Malbert, Charles-Henri; Val-Laillet, David

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of brain networks contributing to the processing of oral and/or intestinal sugar signals in a relevant animal model might help to understand the neural mechanisms related to the control of food intake in humans and suggest potential causes for impaired eating behaviors. This study aimed at comparing the brain responses triggered by oral and/or intestinal sucrose sensing in pigs. Seven animals underwent brain single photon emission computed tomography (99mTc-HMPAO) further to oral stimulation with neutral or sucrose artificial saliva paired with saline or sucrose infusion in the duodenum, the proximal part of the intestine. Oral and/or duodenal sucrose sensing induced differential cerebral blood flow changes in brain regions known to be involved in memory, reward processes and hedonic (i.e., pleasure) evaluation of sensory stimuli, including the dorsal striatum, prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, insular cortex, hippocampus, and parahippocampal cortex. Sucrose duodenal infusion only and combined sucrose stimulation induced similar activity patterns in the putamen, ventral anterior cingulate cortex and hippocampus. Some brain deactivations in the prefrontal and insular cortices were only detected in the presence of oral sucrose stimulation. Finally, activation of the right insular cortex was only induced by combined oral and duodenal sucrose stimulation, while specific activity patterns were detected in the hippocampus and parahippocampal cortex with oral sucrose dissociated from caloric load. This study sheds new light on the brain hedonic responses to sugar and has potential implications to unravel the neuropsychological mechanisms underlying food pleasure and motivation. PMID:25147536

  13. Research of combined adsorption-coagulation process in treating petroleum refinery effluent.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bing; Shui, Yiyu; Ren, Hongyang; He, Min

    2017-02-01

    The petroleum refinery industry generates a significant amount of wastewater that contains a high level of organic matter, which calls for effective and costly treatments. In this research, the effectiveness of the petroleum refinery effluent (PRE) treatment with physicochemical process of combined adsorption and coagulation was evaluated. The effects of initial pH, hydraulic condition , and combined sequence of treatment process, different treating reagent types and dosages on the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal were investigated. Additionally, the elimination efficiency of pollutant wastewater was monitored by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and Fourier transformed infrared (FT-IR) spectrophotometer was adopted to describe the structure of the wastewater. Wooden activated carbon was chosen as adsorbent at the dosage of 10 g/L as a primary treatment, and 1500 mg/L polymeric magnesium ferric sulfate was used in coagulation. Results showed that adsorption and subsequent coagulation displayed the best performance when initial pH was 9 at shear rates (G) of G1 = 65 s(-1) and G2 = 20 s(-1), which reached maximal removal rate of COD and total organic carbon GC-MS testing result revealed that adsorption was effective in phenols and iso-alkanes removal, whereas coagulation was good at removing esters and n-alkanes.

  14. Combined fenton oxidation and biological activated carbon process for recycling of coking plant effluent.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wen-xin; Zhang, Wei; Li, Bing-jing; Duan, Jun; Lv, Yan; Liu, Wan-dong; Ying, Wei-chi

    2011-05-15

    Fenton oxidation and coagulation-flocculation-sedimentation (CFS) were both effective in removing many organic constituents of the biotreated coking plant effluent before the final treatment in an activated carbon adsorber. Fenton oxidation broke down most persistent organic pollutants and complex cyanides present in the feed stream and caused the eventual biodegradation of the organic residues in the adsorber. The results of Fenton oxidation followed by adsorption and biodegradation in two biological activated carbon (BAC) adsorbers show that the combined treatment consistently produced a high quality final effluent of <50mg/L in COD(Cr) and <0.5mg/L in total cyanide during the 70-d study without replacing any activated carbon. The BAC function of the adsorber substantially reduced the need for replacing activated carbon making the combined Fenton oxidation-BAC treatment process a cost effective treatment process to recycle the final effluent for many beneficial reuses while meeting the much more stringent discharge limits of the future.

  15. An Approach to Optimize Size Parameters of Forging by Combining Hot-Processing Map and FEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, H. E.; Wang, X. Y.; Deng, L.

    2014-11-01

    The size parameters of 6061 aluminum alloy rib-web forging were optimized by using hot-processing map and finite element method (FEM) based on high-temperature compression data. The results show that the stress level of the alloy can be represented by a Zener-Holloman parameter in a hyperbolic sine-type equation with the hot deformation activation energy of 343.7 kJ/mol. Dynamic recovery and dynamic recrystallization concurrently preceded during high-temperature deformation of the alloy. Optimal hot-processing parameters for the alloy corresponding to the peak value of 0.42 are 753 K and 0.001 s-1. The instability domain occurs at deformation temperature lower than 653 K. FEM is an available method to validate hot-processing map in actual manufacture by analyzing the effect of corner radius, rib width, and web thickness on workability of rib-web forging of the alloy. Size parameters of die forgings can be optimized conveniently by combining hot-processing map and FEM.

  16. Combined SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} scrubbing process

    SciTech Connect

    Breault, R.W.; Bittenson, S.; Lani, B.

    1998-04-01

    A new wet scrubber process has been developed and undergone preliminary testing to verify the viability of a zero discharge system for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal. The process combines the Dravo ThioClear{reg_sign} process with Tecogen`s TecoLytic{trademark} process. The integration of these two technologies results a system that removes both SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} while producing only salable byproducts. These by-products are wall board grade gypsum, magnesium hydroxide and up to 60 weight percent fertilizer grade calcium nitrate solution. Hence, a zero waste, zero discharge wet scrubber system is being demonstrated. The core of the integrated technology consists of two parts. The first part is the ThioClear process. In this process, a highly alkaline magnesium sulfite solution is used to capture the SO{sub 2} in a high velocity (greater than 15 ft/s with a nominal design of 25 ft/s) horizontal scrubber. Once captured, the sulfites are oxidized to sulfates in an oxidizing vessel. The effluent from the oxidizer is reacted with a magnesium-enhanced lime slurry to raise the pH to about 10.5. At this higher pH, 6 to Mg magnesium hydroxide precipitates and 80g or larger gypsum precipitates are formed. Subsequent product purification produces salable gypsum and magnesium hydroxide. The flue gas continues through the high velocity horizontal scrubber passing through the TecoLytic {trademark} section. In this section, high voltage is applied to produce highly reactive excited species. These species interact with the water vapor present to produce hydroxyl radicals while simultaneously oxidizing the NO to NO{sub 2}. The hydroxyl radicals rapidly oxidize the NO{sub 2} to nitric acid which is scrubbed in the second stage of the horizontal scrubber with a calcium nitrate - lime solution.

  17. Advanced biorefinery in lower termite-effect of combined pretreatment during the chewing process

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Currently the major barrier in biomass utilization is the lack of an effective pretreatment of plant cell wall so that the carbohydrates can subsequently be hydrolyzed into sugars for fermentation into fuel or chemical molecules. Termites are highly effective in degrading lignocellulosics and thus can be used as model biological systems for studying plant cell wall degradation. Results We discovered a combination of specific structural and compositional modification of the lignin framework and partial degradation of carbohydrates that occurs in softwood with physical chewing by the termite, Coptotermes formosanus, which are critical for efficient cell wall digestion. Comparative studies on the termite-chewed and native (control) softwood tissues at the same size were conducted with the aid of advanced analytical techniques such as pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetry. The results strongly suggest a significant increase in the softwood cellulose enzymatic digestibility after termite chewing, accompanied with utilization of holocellulosic counterparts and an increase in the hydrolysable capacity of lignin collectively. In other words, the termite mechanical chewing process combines with specific biological pretreatment on the lignin counterpart in the plant cell wall, resulting in increased enzymatic cellulose digestibility in vitro. The specific lignin unlocking mechanism at this chewing stage comprises mainly of the cleavage of specific bonds from the lignin network and the modification and redistribution of functional groups in the resulting chewed plant tissue, which better expose the carbohydrate within the plant cell wall. Moreover, cleavage of the bond between the holocellulosic network and lignin molecule during the chewing process results in much better exposure of the biomass carbohydrate. Conclusion Collectively, these data indicate the

  18. Treatment of hazardous landfill leachate using Fenton process followed by a combined (UASB/DHS) system.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Sherif; Tawfik, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Fenton process for pre-treatment of hazardous landfill leachate (HLL) was investigated. Total, particulate and soluble chemical oxygen demand (CODt, CODp and CODs) removal efficiency amounted to 67%, 47% and 64%, respectively, at pH value of 3.5, molar ratio (H2O2/Fe(2+)) of 5, H2O2 dosage of 25 ml/L and contact time of 15 min. Various treatment scenarios were attempted and focused on studying the effect of pre-catalytic oxidation process on the performance of up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), UASB/down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) and DHS system. The results obtained indicated that pre-catalytic oxidation process improved the CODt removal efficiency in the UASB reactor by a value of 51.4%. Overall removal efficiencies of CODt, CODs and CODp were 80 ± 6%, 80 ± 7% and 78 ± 16% for UASB/DHS treating pre-catalytic oxidation effluent, respectively. The removal efficiencies of CODt, CODs and CODp were, respectively, decreased to 54 ± 2%, 49 ± 2% and 71 ± 16% for UASB/DHS system without pre-treatment. However, the results for the combined process (UASB/DHS) system is almost similar to those obtained for UASB reactor treating pre-catalytic oxidation effluent. The DHS system achieved average removal efficiencies of 52 ± 4% for CODt, 51 ± 4% for CODs and 52 ± 15% for CODp. A higher COD fractions removal was obtained when HLL was pre-treated by Fenton reagent. The combined processes provided a removal efficiency of 85 ± 1% for CODt, 85 ± 1% for CODs and 83 ± 8% for CODp. The DHS system is not only effective for organics degradation but also for ammonia oxidation. Almost complete ammonia (NH4-N) removal (92 ± 3.6%) was occurred and the nitrate production amounted to 37 ± 6 mg/L in the treated effluent. This study strongly recommends applying Fenton process followed by DHS system for treatment of HLL.

  19. Effect of combination processing on the microbial, chemical and sensory quality of ready-to-eat (RTE) vegetable pulav

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, R.; George, Johnsy; Rajamanickam, R.; Nataraju, S.; Sabhapathy, S. N.; Bawa, A. S.

    2011-12-01

    Effect of irradiation in combination with retort processing on the shelf life and safety aspects of an ethnic Indian food product like vegetable pulav was investigated. Gamma irradiation of RTE vegetable pulav was carried out at different dosage rates with 60Co followed by retort processing. The combination processed samples were analysed for microbiological, chemical and sensory characteristics. Microbiological analysis indicated that irradiation in combination with retort processing has significantly reduced the microbial loads whereas the chemical and sensory analysis proved that this combination processing is effective in retaining the properties even after storage for one year at ambient conditions. The results also indicated that a minimum irradiation dosage at 4.0 kGy along with retort processing at an F0 value of 2.0 is needed to achieve the desired shelf life with improved organoleptic qualities.

  20. A combined recovery process of metals in spent lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhui; Shi, Pixing; Wang, Zefeng; Chen, Yao; Chang, Chein-Chi

    2009-11-01

    This work proposes a new process of recovering Co from spent Li-ion batteries (LIBs) by a combination of crushing, ultrasonic washing, acid leaching and precipitation, in which ultrasonic washing was used for the first time as an alternative process to improve the recovery efficiency of Co and reduce energy consumption and pollution. Spent LIBs were crushed with a 12 mm aperture screen, and the undersize products were put into an ultrasonic washing container to separate electrode materials from their support substrate. The washed materials were filtered through a 2mm aperture screen to get underflow products, namely recovered electrodes. Ninety two percent of the Co was transferred to the recovered electrodes where Co accounted for 28% of the mass and impurities, including Al, Fe, and Cu, accounted for 2%. The valuable materials left in 2-12 mm products, including Cu, Al, and Fe, were presented as thin sheets, and could be easily separated. The recovered electrodes were leached with 4.0M HCl for 2.0 h, at 80 degrees C, along with concurrent agitation. Ninety seven percent of the Li and 99% of the Co in recovered electrodes could be dissolved. The impurities could be removed at pH 4.5-6.0 with little loss of Co by chemical precipitation. This process is feasible for recycling spent LIBs in scale-up.

  1. Combining Different Tools for EEG Analysis to Study the Distributed Character of Language Processing

    PubMed Central

    da Rocha, Armando Freitas; Foz, Flávia Benevides; Pereira, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies on language processing indicate that language cognition is better understood if assumed to be supported by a distributed intelligent processing system enrolling neurons located all over the cortex, in contrast to reductionism that proposes to localize cognitive functions to specific cortical structures. Here, brain activity was recorded using electroencephalogram while volunteers were listening or reading small texts and had to select pictures that translate meaning of these texts. Several techniques for EEG analysis were used to show this distributed character of neuronal enrollment associated with the comprehension of oral and written descriptive texts. Low Resolution Tomography identified the many different sets (si) of neurons activated in several distinct cortical areas by text understanding. Linear correlation was used to calculate the information H(ei) provided by each electrode of the 10/20 system about the identified si. H(ei) Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to study the temporal and spatial activation of these sources si. This analysis evidenced 4 different patterns of H(ei) covariation that are generated by neurons located at different cortical locations. These results clearly show that the distributed character of language processing is clearly evidenced by combining available EEG technologies. PMID:26713089

  2. Partial Nitrification and Denitrifying Phosphorus Removal in a Pilot-Scale ABR/MBR Combined Process.

    PubMed

    Wu, Peng; Xu, Lezhong; Wang, Jianfang; Huang, Zhenxing; Zhang, Jiachao; Shen, Yaoliang

    2015-11-01

    A pilot-scale combined process consisting of an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) and an aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR) for the purpose of achieving easy management, low energy demands, and high efficiencies on nutrient removal from municipal wastewater was investigated. The process operated at room temperature with hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 7.5 h, recycle ratio 1 of 200%, recycle ratio 2 of 100%, and dissolved oxygen (DO) of 1 mg/L and achieved good effluent quality with chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 25 mg/L, NH4 (+)-N of 4 mg/L, total nitrogen (TN) of 11 mg/L, and total phosphorus (TP) of 0.7 mg/L. The MBR achieved partial nitrification, and NO2 (-)-N has been accumulated (4 mg/L). Efficient short-cut denitrification was occurred in the ABR with a TN removal efficiency of 51%, while the role of denitrification and phosphorus removal removed partial TN (14%). Furthermore, nitrogen was further removed (11%) by simultaneous nitrification and denitrification in the MBR. In addition, phosphorus accumulating organisms in the MBR sufficiently uptake phosphorus; thus, effluent TP further reduced with a TP removal efficiency of 84%. Analysis of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) showed that ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs) were enriched in the process. In addition, the accumulation of NO2 (-)-N was contributed to the inhibition on the activities of the NOB rather than its elimination.

  3. Pilot-scale two-stage process: a combination of acidogenic hydrogenesis and methanogenesis.

    PubMed

    Han, S K; Kim, S H; Kim, H W; Shin, H S

    2005-01-01

    This study was performed to optimize both acidogenic hydrogenesis and methanogenesis, and then to develop a pilot-scale two-stage process producing not only CH4 but also H2. Firstly, acidogenic hydrogenesis of food waste was examined in pilot-scale leaching-bed reactors using dilution rate (D) as a tool to improve the environmental conditions. The maximum efficiency of 71.4% was obtained by adjusting D from 4.5 to 2.5 d(-1) depending on the state of degradation. Secondly, the wastewater from acidogenic hydrogenesis was converted to CH4 in a pilot-scale UASB reactor. The COD removal efficiency exceeded 95% up to the loading rates of 13.1 g COD/Ld, which corresponded to HRT of 0.25 d (6 h). Lastly, a pilot-scale two-stage process was devised based on a combination of acidogenic hydrogenesis and methanogenesis. Over 120 days, the pilot-scale process resulted in large VS reduction of 70.9% at the high loading rate of 12.5 kg VS/m3/d in a short SRT of 8 days.

  4. Advanced oxidation processes for wastewater treatment using a plasma/ozone combination system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Nozomi; Kamiya, Yu; Saeki, Ryo; Tachibana, Kosuke; Yasuoka, Koichi

    2014-10-01

    Advanced oxidation process (AOP) using OH radicals is a promising method for the decomposition of persistent organic compounds in wastewater. Although many types of plasma reactors have been developed for the AOP, they are unsuitable for the complete decomposition of highly concentrated organic compounds. The reason for the incomplete decomposition is that OH radicals, particularly at a high density, recombine among themselves to form hydrogen peroxide. We have developed a combination plasma reactor in which ozone gas is fed, so that the generated hydrogen peroxide is re-converted to OH radicals. Pulsed plasmas generated within oxygen bubbles supply not only OH radicals but also hydrogen peroxide into wastewater. The total organic carbon (TOC) of the wastewater was more than 1 gTOC/L. The TOC values decreased linearly with time, and the persistent compounds which could not be decomposed by ozone were completely mineralized within 8 h of operation.

  5. Knowledge Extraction from MEDLINE by Combining Clustering with Natural Language Processing

    PubMed Central

    Miñarro-Giménez, Jose A.; Kreuzthaler, Markus; Schulz, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The identification of relevant predicates between co-occurring concepts in scientific literature databases like MEDLINE is crucial for using these sources for knowledge extraction, in order to obtain meaningful biomedical predications as subject-predicate-object triples. We consider the manually assigned MeSH indexing terms (main headings and subheadings) in MEDLINE records as a rich resource for extracting a broad range of domain knowledge. In this paper, we explore the combination of a clustering method for co-occurring concepts based on their related MeSH subheadings in MEDLINE with the use of SemRep, a natural language processing engine, which extracts predications from free text documents. As a result, we generated sets of clusters of co-occurring concepts and identified the most significant predicates for each cluster. The association of such predicates with the co-occurrences of the resulting clusters produces the list of predications, which were checked for relevance. PMID:26958228

  6. Processing of combined domestic bath and laundry waste waters for reuse as commode flushing water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hypes, W. D.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental investigation of processes and system configurations for reclaiming combined bath and laundry waste waters for reuse as commode flush water was conducted. A 90-min recycle flow was effective in removing particulates and in improving other physical characteristics to the extent that the filtered water was subjectively acceptable for reuse. The addition of a charcoal filter resulted in noticeable improvements in color, turbidity, and suds elimination. Heating and chlorination of the waste waters were investigated for reducing total organism counts and eliminating coliform organisms. A temperature of 335.9 K (145 F) for 30 min and chlorine concentrations of 20 mg/l in the collection tank followed by 10 mg/l in the storage tank were determined to be adequate for this purpose. Water volume relationships and energy-use rates for the waste water reuse systems are also discussed.

  7. Process combinations for the manufacturing of metal-plastic hybrid parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drossel, W.-G.; Lies, C.; Albert, A.; Haase, R.; Müller, R.; Scholz, P.

    2016-03-01

    The usage of innovative lightweight materials and processing technologies gains importance in manifold industrial scopes. Especially for moving parts and mobility products the weight is decisively. The aerospace and automotive industries use light and high-strength materials to reduce weight and energy consumption and thereby improve the performance of their products. Composites with reinforced plastics are of particular importance. They offer a low density in combination with high specific stiffness and strength. A pure material substitution through reinforced plastics is still not economical. The approach of using hybrid metal-plastic structures with the principle of “using the right material at the right place” is a promising solution for the economical realization of lightweight structures with a high achievement potential. The article shows four innovative manufacturing possibilities for the realization of metal-plastic-hybrid parts.

  8. Use of uniform designs in combination with neural networks for viral infection process development.

    PubMed

    Buenno, Laís Hara; Rocha, José Celso; Leme, Jaci; Caricati, Celso Pereira; Tonso, Aldo; Fernández Núñez, Eutimio Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    This work aimed to compare the predictive capacity of empirical models, based on the uniform design utilization combined to artificial neural networks with respect to classical factorial designs in bioprocess, using as example the rabies virus replication in BHK-21 cells. The viral infection process parameters under study were temperature (34°C, 37°C), multiplicity of infection (0.04, 0.07, 0.1), times of infection, and harvest (24, 48, 72 hours) and the monitored output parameter was viral production. A multilevel factorial experimental design was performed for the study of this system. Fractions of this experimental approach (18, 24, 30, 36 and 42 runs), defined according uniform designs, were used as alternative for modelling through artificial neural network and thereafter an output variable optimization was carried out by means of genetic algorithm methodology. Model prediction capacities for all uniform design approaches under study were better than that found for classical factorial design approach. It was demonstrated that uniform design in combination with artificial neural network could be an efficient experimental approach for modelling complex bioprocess like viral production. For the present study case, 67% of experimental resources were saved when compared to a classical factorial design approach. In the near future, this strategy could replace the established factorial designs used in the bioprocess development activities performed within biopharmaceutical organizations because of the improvements gained in the economics of experimentation that do not sacrifice the quality of decisions.

  9. Effect of Novel Quick Freezing Techniques Combined with Different Thawing Processes on Beef Quality

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Seon-Mi; Han, Gui-Jung

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of various freezing and thawing techniques on the quality of beef. Meat samples were frozen using natural convection freezing (NF), individual quick freezing (IQF), or cryogenic freezing (CF) techniques, followed by natural convection thawing (NCT) or running water thawing (RT). The meat was frozen until the core temperature reached -12℃ and then stored at -24℃, followed by thawing until the temperature reached 5℃. Quality parameters, such as the pH, water binding properties, CIE color, shear force, and microstructure of the beef were elucidated. Although the freezing and thawing combinations did not cause remarkable changes in the quality parameters, rapid freezing, in the order of CF, IQF, and NF, was found to minimize the quality deterioration. In the case of thawing methods, NCT was better than RT and the meat quality was influence on the thawing temperature rather than the thawing rate. Although the microstructure of the frozen beef exhibited an excessive loss of integrity after the freezing and thawing, it did not cause any remarkable change in the beef quality. Taken together, these results demonstrate that CF and NCT form the best combination for beef processing; however, IQF and NCT may have practical applications in the frozen food industry. PMID:26761674

  10. Effect of Novel Quick Freezing Techniques Combined with Different Thawing Processes on Beef Quality.

    PubMed

    Jo, Yeon-Ji; Jang, Min-Young; Jung, You-Kyoung; Kim, Jae-Hyeong; Sim, Jun-Bo; Chun, Ji-Yeon; Yoo, Seon-Mi; Han, Gui-Jung; Min, Sang-Gi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of various freezing and thawing techniques on the quality of beef. Meat samples were frozen using natural convection freezing (NF), individual quick freezing (IQF), or cryogenic freezing (CF) techniques, followed by natural convection thawing (NCT) or running water thawing (RT). The meat was frozen until the core temperature reached -12℃ and then stored at -24℃, followed by thawing until the temperature reached 5℃. Quality parameters, such as the pH, water binding properties, CIE color, shear force, and microstructure of the beef were elucidated. Although the freezing and thawing combinations did not cause remarkable changes in the quality parameters, rapid freezing, in the order of CF, IQF, and NF, was found to minimize the quality deterioration. In the case of thawing methods, NCT was better than RT and the meat quality was influence on the thawing temperature rather than the thawing rate. Although the microstructure of the frozen beef exhibited an excessive loss of integrity after the freezing and thawing, it did not cause any remarkable change in the beef quality. Taken together, these results demonstrate that CF and NCT form the best combination for beef processing; however, IQF and NCT may have practical applications in the frozen food industry.

  11. Combination of MVDR beamforming and single-channel spectral processing for enhancing noisy and reverberant speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cauchi, Benjamin; Kodrasi, Ina; Rehr, Robert; Gerlach, Stephan; Jukić, Ante; Gerkmann, Timo; Doclo, Simon; Goetze, Stefan

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a system aiming at joint dereverberation and noise reduction by applying a combination of a beamformer with a single-channel spectral enhancement scheme. First, a minimum variance distortionless response beamformer with an online estimated noise coherence matrix is used to suppress noise and reverberation. The output of this beamformer is then processed by a single-channel spectral enhancement scheme, based on statistical room acoustics, minimum statistics, and temporal cepstrum smoothing, to suppress residual noise and reverberation. The evaluation is conducted using the REVERB challenge corpus, designed to evaluate speech enhancement algorithms in the presence of both reverberation and noise. The proposed system is evaluated using instrumental speech quality measures, the performance of an automatic speech recognition system, and a subjective evaluation of the speech quality based on a MUSHRA test. The performance achieved by beamforming, single-channel spectral enhancement, and their combination are compared, and experimental results show that the proposed system is effective in suppressing both reverberation and noise while improving the speech quality. The achieved improvements are particularly significant in conditions with high reverberation times.

  12. Treatment of biomass gasification wastewater using a combined wet air oxidation/activated sludge process

    SciTech Connect

    English, C.J.; Petty, S.E.; Sklarew, D.S.

    1983-02-01

    A lab-scale treatability study for using thermal and biological oxidation to treat a biomass gasification wastewater (BGW) having a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 46,000 mg/l is described. Wet air oxidation (WA0) at 300/sup 0/C and 13.8 MPa (2000 psi) was used to initially treat the BGW and resulted in a COD reduction of 74%. This was followed by conventional activated sludge treatment using operating conditions typical of municipal sewage treatment plants. This resulted in an additional 95% COD removal. Overall COD reduction for the combined process was 99%. A detailed chemical analysis of the raw BGW and thermal and biological effluents was performed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). These results showed a 97% decrease in total extractable organics with WA0 and a 99.6% decrease for combined WA0 and activated sludge treatment. Components of the treated waters tended to be fewer in number and more highly oxidized. An experiment was conducted to determine the amount of COD reduction caused by volatilization during biological treatment. Unfortunately, this did not yield conclusive results. Treatment of BGW using WA0 followed by activated sludge appears to be very effective and investigations at a larger scale are recommended.

  13. Parametric Studies of the Ejector Process within a Turbine-Based Combined-Cycle Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgiadis, Nicholas J.; Walker, James F.; Trefny, Charles J.

    1999-01-01

    Performance characteristics of the ejector process within a turbine-based combined-cycle (TBCC) propulsion system are investigated using the NPARC Navier-Stokes code. The TBCC concept integrates a turbine engine with a ramjet into a single propulsion system that may efficiently operate from takeoff to high Mach number cruise. At the operating point considered, corresponding to a flight Mach number of 2.0, an ejector serves to mix flow from the ramjet duct with flow from the turbine engine. The combined flow then passes through a diffuser where it is mixed with hydrogen fuel and burned. Three sets of fully turbulent Navier-Stokes calculations are compared with predictions from a cycle code developed specifically for the TBCC propulsion system. A baseline ejector system is investigated first. The Navier-Stokes calculations indicate that the flow leaving the ejector is not completely mixed, which may adversely affect the overall system performance. Two additional sets of calculations are presented; one set that investigated a longer ejector region (to enhance mixing) and a second set which also utilized the longer ejector but replaced the no-slip surfaces of the ejector with slip (inviscid) walls in order to resolve discrepancies with the cycle code. The three sets of Navier-Stokes calculations and the TBCC cycle code predictions are compared to determine the validity of each of the modeling approaches.

  14. Evaluation of a Combined Cyclone and Gas Filtration System for Particulate Removal in the Gasification Process

    SciTech Connect

    Rizzo, Jeffrey J.

    2010-04-30

    The Wabash gasification facility, owned and operated by sgSolutions LLC, is one of the largest single train solid fuel gasification facilities in the world capable of transforming 2,000 tons per day of petroleum coke or 2,600 tons per day of bituminous coal into synthetic gas for electrical power generation. The Wabash plant utilizes Phillips66 proprietary E-Gas (TM) Gasification Process to convert solid fuels such as petroleum coke or coal into synthetic gas that is fed to a combined cycle combustion turbine power generation facility. During plant startup in 1995, reliability issues were realized in the gas filtration portion of the gasification process. To address these issues, a slipstream test unit was constructed at the Wabash facility to test various filter designs, materials and process conditions for potential reliability improvement. The char filtration slipstream unit provided a way of testing new materials, maintenance procedures, and process changes without the risk of stopping commercial production in the facility. It also greatly reduced maintenance expenditures associated with full scale testing in the commercial plant. This char filtration slipstream unit was installed with assistance from the United States Department of Energy (built under DOE Contract No. DE-FC26-97FT34158) and began initial testing in November of 1997. It has proven to be extremely beneficial in the advancement of the E-Gas (TM) char removal technology by accurately predicting filter behavior and potential failure mechanisms that would occur in the commercial process. After completing four (4) years of testing various filter types and configurations on numerous gasification feed stocks, a decision was made to investigate the economic and reliability effects of using a particulate removal gas cyclone upstream of the current gas filtration unit. A paper study had indicated that there was a real potential to lower both installed capital and operating costs by implementing a char

  15. Geocenter variations derived from a combined processing of LEO- and ground-based GPS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Männel, Benjamin; Rothacher, Markus

    2017-01-01

    GNSS observations provided by the global tracking network of the International GNSS Service (IGS, Dow et al. in J Geod 83(3):191-198, 2009) play an important role in the realization of a unique terrestrial reference frame that is accurate enough to allow a detailed monitoring of the Earth's system. Combining these ground-based data with GPS observations tracked by high-quality dual-frequency receivers on-board low earth orbiters (LEOs) is a promising way to further improve the realization of the terrestrial reference frame and the estimation of geocenter coordinates, GPS satellite orbits and Earth rotation parameters. To assess the scope of the improvement on the geocenter coordinates, we processed a network of 53 globally distributed and stable IGS stations together with four LEOs (GRACE-A, GRACE-B, OSTM/Jason-2 and GOCE) over a time interval of 3 years (2010-2012). To ensure fully consistent solutions, the zero-difference phase observations of the ground stations and LEOs were processed in a common least-squares adjustment, estimating all the relevant parameters such as GPS and LEO orbits, station coordinates, Earth rotation parameters and geocenter motion. We present the significant impact of the individual LEO and a combination of all four LEOs on the geocenter coordinates. The formal errors are reduced by around 20% due to the inclusion of one LEO into the ground-only solution, while in a solution with four LEOs LEO-specific characteristics are significantly reduced. We compare the derived geocenter coordinates w.r.t. LAGEOS results and external solutions based on GPS and SLR data. We found good agreement in the amplitudes of all components; however, the phases in x- and z-direction do not agree well.

  16. A combined SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} scrubbing process

    SciTech Connect

    Breault, R.W.; Bittenson, S.; Lani, B.

    1998-07-01

    A new wet scrubber process has been developed and undergone preliminary testing to verify the viability of a zero discharge system for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal. The process combines the Dravo ThioClear{reg{underscore}sign} process with Tecogen's TecoLytic{trademark} process. The integration of these two technologies results a system that removes both SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} while producing only salable byproducts. These by-products are wall board grade gypsum, magnesium hydroxide and up to 60 weight percent fertilizer grade calcium nitrate solution. Hence, a zero waste, zero discharge wet scrubber system is being demonstrated. The core of the integrated technology consists of two parts. The first part is the ThioClear process. In this process, a highly alkaline magnesium sulfite solution is used to capture the SO{sub 2} in a high velocity (greater than 15 ft/s with a nominal design of 25 ft/s) horizontal scrubber. Once captured, the sulfites are oxidized to sulfates in an oxidizing vessel. The effluent from the oxidizer is reacted with a magnesium-enhanced lime slurry to raise the pH to about 10.5. At this higher pH, 6 to 10{micro} magnesium hydroxide precipitates and 80{micro} or larger gypsum precipitates are formed. Subsequent product purification produces salable gypsum and magnesium hydroxide. The flue gas continues through the high velocity horizontal scrubber passing through the TecoLytic{trademark} section. In this section, high voltage is applied to produce highly reactive excited species. These species interact with the water vapor present to produce hydroxyl radicals while simultaneously oxidizing the NO to NO{sub 2}. The hydroxyl radicals rapidly oxidize the NO{sub 2} to nitric acid which is scrubbed in the second stage of the horizontal scrubber with a calcium nitrate--lime solution. Bench scale tests have shown high potential. A pilot plant facility has been installed at Cincinnati Gas and Electric Company's Miami Fort facility. Pilot tests at

  17. Combination of algae and yeast fermentation for an integrated process to produce single cell oils.

    PubMed

    Dillschneider, R; Schulze, I; Neumann, A; Posten, C; Syldatk, C

    2014-09-01

    Economic and ecological reasons cause the industry to develop new innovative bio-based processes for the production of oil as renewable feedstock. Petroleum resources are expected to be depleted in the near future. Plant oils as sole substituent are highly criticized because of the competitive utilization of the agricultural area for food and energy feedstock production. Microbial lipids of oleaginous microorganisms are therefore a suitable alternative. To decrease production costs of microbial lipids and gain spatial independence from industrial sites of CO2 emission, a combination of heterotrophic and phototrophic cultivation with integrated CO2 recycling was investigated in this study. A feasibility study on a semi-pilot scale was conducted and showed that the cultivation of the oleaginous yeast Cryptococcus curvatus on a 1.2-L scale was sufficient to supply a culture of the oleaginous microalgae Phaeodactylum tricornutum in a 21-L bubble column reactor with CO2 while single cell oils were produced in both processes due to a nutrient limitation.

  18. Combination of digital signal processing methods towards an improved analysis algorithm for structural health monitoring.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pentaris, Fragkiskos P.; Makris, John P.

    2013-04-01

    In Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) is of great importance to reveal valuable information from the recorded SHM data that could be used to predict or indicate structural fault or damage in a building. In this work a combination of digital signal processing methods, namely FFT along with Wavelet Transform is applied, together with a proposed algorithm to study frequency dispersion, in order to depict non-linear characteristics of SHM data collected in two university buildings under natural or anthropogenic excitation. The selected buildings are of great importance from civil protection point of view, as there are the premises of a public higher education institute, undergoing high use, stress, visit from academic staff and students. The SHM data are collected from two neighboring buildings that have different age (4 and 18 years old respectively). Proposed digital signal processing methods are applied to the data, presenting a comparison of the structural behavior of both buildings in response to seismic activity, weather conditions and man-made activity. Acknowledgments This work was supported in part by the Archimedes III Program of the Ministry of Education of Greece, through the Operational Program "Educational and Lifelong Learning", in the framework of the project entitled «Interdisciplinary Multi-Scale Research of Earthquake Physics and Seismotectonics at the front of the Hellenic Arc (IMPACT-ARC) » and is co-financed by the European Union (European Social Fund) and Greek National Fund.

  19. Combined effects of organic aerosol loading and fog processing on organic aerosols oxidation, composition, and evolution.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Abhishek; Gupta, Tarun; Tripathi, S N

    2016-12-15

    Chemical characterization of ambient non-refractory submicron aerosols (NR-PM1) was carried out in real time at Kanpur, India. The measurements were performed during the winter (December 2014 to February 2015), and comprised of two very distinct high and low aerosol loading periods coupled with prevalent foggy conditions. The average non-refractory submicron aerosol loading varied significantly from high (HL, ~240μg/m(3)) to low loading (LL, ~100μg/m(3)) period and was dominated by organic aerosols (OA) which contributed more than half (~60%) of the measured aerosol mass. OA source apportionment via positive matrix factorization (PMF) showed drastic changes in the composition of OA from HL to LL period. Overall, O/C (oxygen to carbon) ratios also varied significantly from HL (=0.59) to LL (=0.69) period. Fog episodes (n=17) studied here seem to be reducing the magnitude of the negative impact of OA loading on O/C ratio (OA loading and O/C ratio are anti-correlated, as higher OA loading allows gas to particle partitioning of relatively less oxidized organics) by 60% via aqueous processing. This study provided new insights into the combined effects of OA loading and fog aqueous processing on the evolution of ambient organic aerosols (OA) for the first time.

  20. Combined De-Algination Process as a Fractionation Strategy for Valorization of Brown Macroalga Saccharina japonica.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Hyun Jin; Oh, Kyeong Keun

    2016-11-17

    A combined process, de-algination followed by enzymatic saccharification, was designed to produce alginate and glucose from Saccharina japonica consecutively. The process conditions of de-algination were optimized separately for each stage of acidification and alkaline extraction. Collectively, the de-algination yield was 70.1% under the following optimized conditions: 2.4 wt% of Na2CO3, 70 °C, and 100 min with the acidified S. japonica immersed in a 0.5 wt% H2SO4 solution for 2 h at room temperature. The glucan content in the de-alginated S. japonica increased to 38.0%, which was approximately fivefold higher than that of the raw S. japonica. The enzymatic hydrolysis of the de-alginated S. japonica almost completed in 9 h, affording 5.2 g (96.8% of glucan digestibility) of glucose at a de-alginated S. japonica loading of 14.2 g.

  1. Bone marrow segmentation based on a combined consideration of transverse relaxation processes and Dixon oscillations.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Mukund; Jarrett, Delma Y; Mulkern, Robert V

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate that gradient-echo sampling of single spin echoes can be used to isolate the signal from trabecular bone marrow, with high-quality segmentation and surface reconstructions resulting from the application of simple post-processing strategies. Theoretical expressions of the time-domain single-spin-echo signal were used to simulate signals from bone marrow, non-bone fatty deposits and muscle. These simulations were compared with and used to interpret signals obtained by the application of the gradient-echo sampling of a spin-echo sequence to image the knee and surrounding tissues at 1.5 T. Trabecular bone marrow has a much higher reversible transverse relaxation rate than surrounding non-bone fatty deposits and other musculoskeletal tissues. This observation, combined with a choice of gradient-echo spacing that accentuates Dixon-type oscillations from chemical-shift interference effects, enabled the isolation of bone marrow signal from surrounding tissues through the use of simple image subtraction and thresholding. Three-dimensional renderings of the marrow surface were then readily generated with this approach - renderings that may prove useful for bone morphology assessment, e.g. for the measurement of femoral anteversion. In conclusion, understanding the behavior of signals from bone marrow and surrounding tissue as a function of time through a spin echo facilitates the segmentation and reconstruction of bone marrow surfaces using straightforward post-processing strategies that are typically available on modern radiology workstations.

  2. Combined osmodehydration and high pressure processing on the enzyme stability and antioxidant capacity of a grapefruit jam

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A combined osmodehydration process and high pressure treatment (OD-HHP) was developed for grapefruit jam preservation. The inactivation kinetics of pectinmethylesterase (PME) and peroxidase (POD) in the osmodehydrated (OD) jam treated by combined thermal (45-75°C) and high pressure (550–700 MPa) pro...

  3. Treatment of concentrated fruit juice wastewater by the combination of biological and chemical processes.

    PubMed

    Amor, Carlos; Lucas, Marco S; Pirra, António J; Peres, José A

    2012-01-01

    Concentrated fruit juice industries use a wide volume of water for washing and fruit processing, generating a large volume of wastewater. This work studied the combination of an aerobic biological process with a chemical coagulation/flocculation step to treat a high concentrated fruit juice wastewater. This wastewater presents a good biodegradability (BOD(5)/COD = 0.66) allowing a chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal above 90% in most reactors. The best results in aerobic biological treatment were obtained in reactors initially loaded with 2 g VSS L(-1) of biomass concentration and 20 g COD L(-1) of organic matter concentration. Three different kinetic models were evaluated (Monod, Haldane and Contois). The Haldane-inhibition model was the one that best fitted the COD biodegradation. AQUASIM software allowed calculate the following kinetic constants ranges for aerobic biodegradation: K (s): 6-20 g COD L(-1); v (max): 2.0-5.1 g COD g(-1) VSS day(-1) and K (i) values: 0.10-0.50 g COD L(-1). These constants corresponds to maximum removal rates (v*) between 0.11 and 0.26 g COD g(-1) VSS day(-1) for substrate concentrations (S*) from 0.77 to 3.16 g COD L(-1). A tertiary coagulation/flocculation process improved the efficiency of the biological pre-treatment. Ferric chloride was selected as best compromise to treat this wastewater. Optimal conditions were 0.44 g L(-1) of coagulant at pH = 5.5, achieving 94.4% and 99.6% on turbidity and COD removal, respectively.

  4. Personalized implant for high tibial opening wedge: combination of solid freeform fabrication with combustion synthesis process.

    PubMed

    Zhim, Fouad; Ayers, Reed A; Moore, John J; Moufarrège, Richard; Yahia, L'Hocine

    2012-09-01

    In this work a new generation of bioceramic personalized implants were developed. This technique combines the processes of solid freeform fabrication (SFF) and combustion synthesis (CS) to create personalized bioceramic implants with tricalcium phosphate (TCP) and hydroxyapatite (HA). These porous bioceramics will be used to fill the tibial bone gap created by the opening wedge high tibial osteotomy (OWHTO). A freeform fabrication with three-dimensional printing (3DP) technique was used to fabricate a metallic mold with the same shape required to fill the gap in the opening wedge osteotomy. The mold was subsequently used in a CS process to fabricate the personalized ceramic implants with TCP and HA compositions. The mold geometry was designed on commercial 3D CAD software. The final personalized bioceramic implant was produced using a CS process. This technique was chosen because it exploits the exothermic reaction between P₂O₅ and CaO. Also, chemical composition and distribution of pores in the implant could be controlled. To determine the chemical composition, the microstructure, and the mechanical properties of the implant, cylindrical shapes were also fabricated using different fabrication parameters. Chemical composition was performed by X-ray diffraction. Pore size and pore interconnectivity was measured and analyzed using an electronic microscope system. Mechanical properties were determined by a mechanical testing system. The porous TCP and HA obtained have an open porous structure with an average 400 µm channel size. The mechanical behavior shows great stiffness and higher load to failure for both ceramics. Finally, this personalized ceramic implant facilitated the regeneration of new bone in the gap created by OWHTO and provides additional strength to allow accelerated rehabilitation.

  5. Intensification of degradation of methomyl (carbamate group pesticide) by using the combination of ultrasonic cavitation and process intensifying additives.

    PubMed

    Raut-Jadhav, Sunita; Pinjari, Dipak V; Saini, Daulat R; Sonawane, Shirish H; Pandit, Aniruddha B

    2016-07-01

    In the present work, the degradation of methomyl has been carried out by using the ultrasound cavitation (US) and its combination with H2O2, Fenton and photo-Fenton process. The study of effect of operating pH and ultrasound power density has indicated that maximum extent of degradation of 28.57% could be obtained at the optimal pH of 2.5 and power density of 0.155 W/mL. Application of US in combination with H2O2, Fenton and photo-Fenton process has further accelerated the rate of degradation of methomyl with complete degradation of methomyl in 27 min, 18 min and 9 min respectively. Mineralization study has proved that a combination of US and photo-Fenton process is the most effective process with maximum extent of mineralization of 78.8%. Comparison of energy efficiency and cost effectiveness of various processes has indicated that the electrical cost of 79892.34Rs./m(3) for ultrasonic degradation of methomyl has drastically reduced to 2277.00Rs./m(3), 1518.00Rs./m(3) and 807.58Rs./m(3) by using US in combination with H2O2, Fenton and photo-Fenton process respectively. The cost analysis has also indicated that the combination of US and photo-Fenton process is the most energy efficient and cost effective process.

  6. Mechanism of Bacterial Inactivation by (+)-Limonene and Its Potential Use in Food Preservation Combined Processes

    PubMed Central

    Espina, Laura; Gelaw, Tilahun K.; de Lamo-Castellví, Sílvia; Pagán, Rafael; García-Gonzalo, Diego

    2013-01-01

    This work explores the bactericidal effect of (+)-limonene, the major constituent of citrus fruits' essential oils, against E. coli. The degree of E. coli BJ4 inactivation achieved by (+)-limonene was influenced by the pH of the treatment medium, being more bactericidal at pH 4.0 than at pH 7.0. Deletion of rpoS and exposure to a sub-lethal heat or an acid shock did not modify E. coli BJ4 resistance to (+)-limonene. However, exposure to a sub-lethal cold shock decreased its resistance to (+)-limonene. Although no sub-lethal injury was detected in the cell envelopes after exposure to (+)-limonene by the selective-plating technique, the uptake of propidium iodide by inactivated E. coli BJ4 cells pointed out these structures as important targets in the mechanism of action. Attenuated Total Reflectance Infrared Microspectroscopy (ATR-IRMS) allowed identification of altered E. coli BJ4 structures after (+)-limonene treatments as a function of the treatment pH: β-sheet proteins at pH 4.0 and phosphodiester bonds at pH 7.0. The increased sensitivity to (+)-limonene observed at pH 4.0 in an E. coli MC4100 lptD4213 mutant with an increased outer membrane permeability along with the identification of altered β-sheet proteins by ATR-IRMS indicated the importance of this structure in the mechanism of action of (+)-limonene. The study of mechanism of inactivation by (+)-limonene led to the design of a synergistic combined process with heat for the inactivation of the pathogen E. coli O157:H7 in fruit juices. These results show the potential of (+)-limonene in food preservation, either acting alone or in combination with lethal heat treatments. PMID:23424676

  7. Mechanism of bacterial inactivation by (+)-limonene and its potential use in food preservation combined processes.

    PubMed

    Espina, Laura; Gelaw, Tilahun K; de Lamo-Castellví, Sílvia; Pagán, Rafael; García-Gonzalo, Diego

    2013-01-01

    This work explores the bactericidal effect of (+)-limonene, the major constituent of citrus fruits' essential oils, against E. coli. The degree of E. coli BJ4 inactivation achieved by (+)-limonene was influenced by the pH of the treatment medium, being more bactericidal at pH 4.0 than at pH 7.0. Deletion of rpoS and exposure to a sub-lethal heat or an acid shock did not modify E. coli BJ4 resistance to (+)-limonene. However, exposure to a sub-lethal cold shock decreased its resistance to (+)-limonene. Although no sub-lethal injury was detected in the cell envelopes after exposure to (+)-limonene by the selective-plating technique, the uptake of propidium iodide by inactivated E. coli BJ4 cells pointed out these structures as important targets in the mechanism of action. Attenuated Total Reflectance Infrared Microspectroscopy (ATR-IRMS) allowed identification of altered E. coli BJ4 structures after (+)-limonene treatments as a function of the treatment pH: β-sheet proteins at pH 4.0 and phosphodiester bonds at pH 7.0. The increased sensitivity to (+)-limonene observed at pH 4.0 in an E. coli MC4100 lptD4213 mutant with an increased outer membrane permeability along with the identification of altered β-sheet proteins by ATR-IRMS indicated the importance of this structure in the mechanism of action of (+)-limonene. The study of mechanism of inactivation by (+)-limonene led to the design of a synergistic combined process with heat for the inactivation of the pathogen E. coli O157:H7 in fruit juices. These results show the potential of (+)-limonene in food preservation, either acting alone or in combination with lethal heat treatments.

  8. Degradation of 2,4-dinitrophenol using a combination of hydrodynamic cavitation, chemical and advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Bagal, Manisha V; Gogate, Parag R

    2013-09-01

    In the present work, degradation of 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), a persistent organic contaminant with high toxicity and very low biodegradability has been investigated using combination of hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) and chemical/advanced oxidation. The cavitating conditions have been generated using orifice plate as a cavitating device. Initially, the optimization of basic operating parameters have been done by performing experiments over varying inlet pressure (over the range of 3-6 bar), temperature (30 °C, 35 °C and 40 °C) and solution pH (over the range of 3-11). Subsequently, combined treatment strategies have been investigated for process intensification of the degradation process. The effect of HC combined with chemical oxidation processes such as hydrogen peroxide (HC/H2O2), ferrous activated persulfate (HC/Na2S2O8/FeSO4) and HC coupled with advanced oxidation processes such as conventional Fenton (HC/FeSO4/H2O2), advanced Fenton (HC/Fe/H2O2) and Fenton-like process (HC/CuO/H2O2) on the extent of degradation of DNP have also been investigated at optimized conditions of pH 4, temperature of 35 °C and inlet pressure of 4 bar. Kinetic study revealed that degradation of DNP fitted first order kinetics for all the approaches under investigation. Complete degradation with maximum rate of DNP degradation has been observed for the combined HC/Fenton process. The energy consumption analysis for hydrodynamic cavitation based process has been done on the basis of cavitational yield. Degradation intermediates have also been identified and quantified in the current work. The synergistic index calculated for all the combined processes indicates HC/Fenton process is more feasible than the combination of HC with other Fenton like processes.

  9. Combined effects of organic aerosol loading and fog processing on organic aerosols oxidation and composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Abhishek; Tripathi, Sachchida; Gupta, Tarun

    2016-04-01

    Fog is a natural meteorological phenomenon that occurs throughout the world, it contains substantial quantity of liquid water and generally seen as a natural cleansing agent but it also has the potential to form highly oxidized secondary organic aerosols (SOA) via aqueous processing of ambient aerosols. On the other hand higher organic aerosols (OA) loading tend to decrease the overall oxidation level (O/C) of the particle phase organics, due to enhanced partitioning of less oxidized organics from gas to particle phase. However, combined impact of these two parameters; aqueous oxidation and OA loading, on the overall oxidation ratio (O/C) of ambient OA has never been studied. To assess this, real time ambient sampling using HR-ToF-AMS was carried out at Kanpur, India from 15 December 2014 - 10 February 2015. In first 3 weeks of this campaign, very high OA loading is (134 ± 42 μg/m3) observed (termed as high loading or HL period) while loading is substantially reduced from 2nd January, 2016 (56 ± 20 μg/m3, termed as low loading or LL period) . However, both the loading period was affected by several fog episodes (10 in HL and 7 in LL), thus providing the opportunity of studying the combined effects of fog and OA loading on OA oxidation. It is found that O/C ratio is very strongly anti-correlated with OA loading in both the loading period, however, slope of this ant-correlation is much steep during HL period than in LL period. Source apportionment of OA revealed that there is drastic change in the types of OA from HL to LL period, clearly indicating difference in OA composition from HL to LL period. During foggy night continuous oxidation of OA is observed from early evening to early morning with 15-20% enhancement in O/C ratio, while the same is absent during non-foggy period, clearly indicating the efficient fog processing of ambient OA. It is also found that night time fog aqueous oxidation can be as effective as daytime photo chemistry in oxidation of OA. Fog

  10. Lithium and carbon isotopes in river catchment: combined tracers to constrain chemical weathering processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rad, S.; Rive, K.; Assayag, N.; Dictor, M.; Garcin, M.

    2012-12-01

    Water-rock interactions produced in river catchment are accompanied by fractionation or changes in stable isotopes such as H, Li, C and O during chemical weathering processes. Li is a fluid-mobile element that tends to preferentially partition into the fluid phase during water-rock interaction. The relative mass difference between the two isotopes is considerable, generating large mass dependent fractionation during chemical weathering processes. The CO2 dissolves into the water providing the main acid that attack the rock during chemical weathering. Carbon stable isotopes and concentration of Dissolved Inorganic Carbon (DIC) in the river catchment can be used to determine the origin and consumption rates of CO2. In the present work, stable isotopes were analyzed in Allier River, one of the major river basins of France. The lithology is dominated by granite rocks within current upstream, while it is mainly basaltic and Oligocene sediments in the downstream with hydrothermal manifestations. We propose a new isotopic approach by combining δ7Li and δ13CDIC analyses in river catchment waters. A first method has been applied to volcanic tropical environments with Li concentrations correlated to δ13CDIC (Rad et al., 2011). Here, we have completed this approach by lithium isotopes. Water samples were collected during several field trips. Our results show a large variation in Li isotopes and C isotopes within the catchment from 3.3 ‰ to 30.3 ‰ and from -17.9‰ to -3.5‰, respectively. Chemical weathering rates linearly increase from upstream to downstream over 400km distance, whereas Li isotope signatures decrease and global C signature increases. This is due to low water-rock interaction dominated in upstream, whereas the downstream is punctually impacted by hydrothermalism. From Li and C isotopes, our results show 4 groups reflecting different chemical weathering processes: the first group with high fractionation of Li and C, for Li, the heavy lithium

  11. A COMBINED REACTION/PRODUCT RECOVERY PROCESS FOR THE CONTINUOUS PRODUCTION OF BIODIESEL

    SciTech Connect

    Birdwell, J.F., Jr.; McFarlane, J.; Schuh, D.L.; Tsouris, C; Day, J.N.; Hullette, J.N.

    2009-09-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Nu-Energie, LLC entered into a Cooperative Research And Development Agreement (CRADA) for the purpose of demonstrating and deploying a novel technology for the continuous synthesis and recovery of biodiesel from the transesterification of triglycerides. The focus of the work was the demonstration of a combination Couette reactor and centrifugal separator - an invention of ORNL researchers - that facilitates both product synthesis and recovery from reaction byproducts in the same apparatus. At present, transesterification of triglycerides to produce biodiesel is performed in batch-type reactors with an excess of a chemical catalyst, which is required to achieve high reactant conversions in reasonable reaction times (e.g., 1 hour). The need for long reactor residence times requires use of large reactors and ancillary equipment (e.g., feed and product tankage), and correspondingly large facilities, in order to obtain the economy of scale required to make the process economically viable. Hence, the goal of this CRADA was to demonstrate successful, extended operation of a laboratory-scale reactor/separator prototype to process typical industrial reactant materials, and to design, fabricate, and test a production-scale unit for deployment at the biodiesel production site. Because of its ease of operation, rapid attainment of steady state, high mass transfer and phase separation efficiencies, and compact size, a centrifugal contactor was chosen for intensification of the biodiesel production process. The unit was modified to increase the residence time from a few seconds to minutes*. For this application, liquid phases were introduced into the reactor as separate streams. One was composed of the methanol and base catalyst and the other was the soy oil used in the experiments. Following reaction in the mixing zone, the immiscible glycerine and methyl ester products were separated in the high speed rotor and collected from separate

  12. Modeling of combustion processes of stick propellants via combined Eulerian-Lagrangian approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuo, K. K.; Hsieh, K. C.; Athavale, M. M.

    1988-01-01

    This research is motivated by the improved ballistic performance of large-caliber guns using stick propellant charges. A comprehensive theoretical model for predicting the flame spreading, combustion, and grain deformation phenomena of long, unslotted stick propellants is presented. The formulation is based upon a combined Eulerian-Lagrangian approach to simulate special characteristics of the two phase combustion process in a cartridge loaded with a bundle of sticks. The model considers five separate regions consisting of the internal perforation, the solid phase, the external interstitial gas phase, and two lumped parameter regions at either end of the stick bundle. For the external gas phase region, a set of transient one-dimensional fluid-dynamic equations using the Eulerian approach is obtained; governing equations for the stick propellants are formulated using the Lagrangian approach. The motion of a representative stick is derived by considering the forces acting on the entire propellant stick. The instantaneous temperature and stress fields in the stick propellant are modeled by considering the transient axisymmetric heat conduction equation and dynamic structural analysis.

  13. [Quantitative analysis method of natural gas combustion process combining wavelength selection and outlier spectra detection].

    PubMed

    Cao, Hui; Hu, Luo-Na; Zhou, Yan

    2012-10-01

    The present paper uses a combination method of wavelength selection and outlier spectra detection for quantitative analysis of nature gas combustion process based on its near infrared spectra. According to the statistical distribution of partial least squares (PLS) model coefficients and prediction errors, the method realized wavelength selection and outlier spectra detection, respectively. In contrast with PLS, PLS after leave-one-out for outlier detection (LOO-PLS), uninformative variable elimination by PLS (UVE-PLS) and UVE-PLS after leave-one-out for outlier detection (LOO-UVE-PLS), the root-mean-squared error of prediction (RMSEP) based on the method for CH4 prediction model is reduced by 14.33%, 14.33%, 10.96% and 12.21%; the RMSEP value for CO prediction model is reduced by 67.26%, 72.58%, 11.32% and 4.52%; the RMSEP value for CO2 prediction model is reduced by 5.95%, 19.7%, 36.71% and 4.04% respectively. Experimental results demonstrate that the method can significantly decrease the number of selected wavelengths, reduce model complexity and effectively detect outlier spectra. The established prediction model of analytes is more accurate as well as robust.

  14. Metal recovery from spent hydrodesulfurization catalysts using a combined acid-leaching and electrolysis process.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yi-Chieh; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Huang, Kuo-Lin; Wu, Chung-Mou

    2008-06-15

    This study focuses on recovering valuable metals from spent hydrodesulfurization (HDS) catalysts using a combined acid-leaching and fluidized-bed electrolysis process. The electrolytic cell was equipped with a glass bead medium, an iridium oxide mesh anode, and a stainless steel plate cathode. An acid solution consisting of concentrated HNO3/H2SO4/HCl with a volume ratio of 2:1:1 was found to be better than the other tested solution (HNO3/H2SO4=1:1) to leach the metals. For the three-acid mixture, the best solid/liquid ratio and leaching time were 40 g/L and 1 h, respectively, at 70 degrees C; under this condition, the leaching yields of target metals (Mo, Ni, and V) in the 1st stage of leaching reached 90, 99, and 99%, respectively, much higher than those in the 2nd/3rd/4th stages. When this acid leachate was electrolyzed for 2 h at 2 A constant current (current density=approximately 35.7 mA/cm2), a stable cell voltage of 5 V was observed. The electrolytic recoveries of Mo, Ni, and V were approximately 15, 61, and 66%, respectively, but extending the electrolysis time from 2 to 4 h did not increase the recoveries. For this operation, the total recoveries (leaching yieldxelectrolytic recovery) of Mo, Ni, and V were approximately 14, 60, and 65%, respectively.

  15. Nonthermal combined ultraviolet and vacuum-ultraviolet curing process for organosilicate dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, H.; Guo, X.; Pei, D.; Li, W.; Blatz, J.; Hsu, K.; Benjamin, D.; Lin, Y.-H.; Fung, H.-S.; Chen, C.-C.; Nishi, Y.; Shohet, J. L.

    2016-06-01

    Porous SiCOH films are of great interest in semiconductor fabrication due to their low-dielectric constant properties. Post-deposition treatments using ultraviolet (UV) light on organosilicate thin films are required to decompose labile pore generators (porogens) and to ensure optimum network formation to improve the electrical and mechanical properties of low-k dielectrics. The goal of this work is to choose the best vacuum-ultraviolet photon energy in conjunction with vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photons without the need for heating the dielectric to identify those wavelengths that will have the most beneficial effect on improving the dielectric properties and minimizing damage. VUV irradiation between 8.3 and 8.9 eV was found to increase the hardness and elastic modulus of low-k dielectrics at room temperature. Combined with UV exposures of 6.2 eV, it was found that this "UV/VUV curing" process is improved compared with current UV curing. We show that UV/VUV curing can overcome drawbacks of UV curing and improve the properties of dielectrics more efficiently without the need for high-temperature heating of the dielectric.

  16. [Analysis of novel style biological fluidized bed A/O combined process in dyeing wastewater treatment].

    PubMed

    Wei, Chao-Hai; Huang, Hui-Jing; Ren, Yuan; Wu, Chao-Fei; Wu, Hai-Zhen; Lu, Bin

    2011-04-01

    A novel biological fluidized bed was designed and developed to deal with high-concentration refractory organic industrial wastewater. From 12 successful projects, three cases of dyeing wastewater treatment projects with the scale of 1200, 2000 and 13000 m3/d respectively were selected to analyze the principle of treating refractory organic wastewater with fluidized bed technology and discuss the superiority of self-developed biological fluidized bed from the aspects of technical and economic feasibility. In the three cases, when the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of biological system were 23, 34 and 21. 8 h, and the volume loading of influents (COD) were 1.75, 4.75 and 2.97 kg/(m3 x d), the corresponding COD removal were 97.3%, 98.1% and 95.8%. Furthermore the operating costs of projects were 0.91, 1.17 and 0.88 yuan per ton of water respectively. The index of effluent all met the 1st grade of Guangdong Province wastewater discharge standard. Results showed that the biological fluidized bed had characteristics of shorter retention time, greater oxygen utilization rate, faster conversion rate of organic pollutants and less sludge production, which made it overcome the shortcomings of traditional methods in printing and dyeing wastewater treatment. Considering the development of technology and the combination of ecological security and recycling resources, a low-carbon wastewater treatment process was proposed.

  17. [Printing and dyeing wastewater treatment using combined process of anaerobic bioreactor and MBR].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiang; Liu, Jun-xin

    2004-09-01

    This paper describes a labor-scale experiment for printing and dyeing wastewater treatment of woolen mill using a combined process of an anaerobic reactor and a membrane bioreactor (MBR). The experimental results showed that when the concentration of COD, BOD5 and color in the influent were 128-321 mg/L, 36-95 mg/L and 40-70 dilution times (DT), the average concentrations of COD, BOD5, color and turbidity in the effluent were 36.9 mg/L, 3.7 mg/L, 21 DT and 0.24 NTU, respectively, and the corresponding removal rates were 80.3%, 95%, 59% and 99.3%, respectively. A new integrated membrane bioreactor by gravity drain of liquid level in the bioreactor was developed in this study. It not only lessens suction pump for effluent and controlling unit comparing to the traditional integrated membrane bioreactor, but also has the characters of high and continuous flux, concise configuration and simple operation and maintenance. According to the experimental results, the air flow rate through the membrane module is a significant factor to affect the flux rate and cake layer deposited on the membrane. With application of optimal air flow rate, it is effective to reduce membrane fouling and maintain high flux rate.

  18. Characteristics of Toluene Treatment by Combination of Surface Discharge and Ad-vance Oxidation Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimosaki, Mitsuaki; Hayashi, Nobuya; Yamabe, Chobei

    2004-09-01

    Recently, decomposition of the toluene has been studied using several types of discharges, and the decom-position was 70% using the surface discharge. In order to improve the decomposition rate of toluene and to con-trol byproducts, combination of surface discharges and Advanced Oxidation Process was developed for the treat-ment of volatile organic compound. The oxygen radical was generated by irradiation of ultraviolet rays (253.7 nm) to ozone, which was able to decompose toxic substances such as toluene. UV rays from UV light tube irradiated to ozone which generated by the surface discharge to generate oxygen radical. Toluene was decomposed efficiently by the surface discharge and oxygen radical. The maximum decomposition rate of toluene was achieved to be ap-proximately 98%, when discharge power exceeded 3.5 kV. Measured byproducts were water vapor, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and formic acid. However, formic acid was generated in the case of low discharge power (below 3 kV), it was decomposed to water, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, when discharge power exceeded 3 kV.

  19. Treatment of oilfield fracturing wastewater by a sequential combination of flocculation, Fenton oxidation and SBR process.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian; Hong, Liang; Liu, Yan-Hong; Guo, Jian-Wei; Lin, Li-Fei

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a combined process was developed that included flocculation, Fenton oxidation and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) to treat oilfield fracturing wastewater (FW). Flocculation and Fenton oxidation were applied to reduce chemical oxygen demand (COD) organic load and to enhance biodegradability, respectively. For flocculation, the optimum conditions were: polymeric aluminium chloride dosage, 40 mg/L; polyacrylamide dosage, 4 mg/L; dilution ratio, 1:2 and stirring time, 30 min. For Fenton oxidation, a total reaction time of 60 min, a H₂O₂dosage of 2 m mol/L, with a [H₂O₂]/[FeSO₄] ratio of 2 were selected to achieve optimum oxidation. Under these optimum flocculation and Fenton oxidation conditions, the COD removal efficiency was found to be 76.6%. Following pretreatment with flocculation and Fenton oxidation, the FW was further remediated using a SBR. Results show that COD was reduced to 92 mg/L, and the overall water quality of the final effluent could meet the class I national wastewater discharge standard of petrochemical industry of China.

  20. Central Processing Energetic Factors Mediate Impaired Motor Control in ADHD Combined Subtype but Not in ADHD Inattentive Subtype

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egeland, Jens; Ueland, Torill; Johansen, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Participants with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often impaired in visuomotor tasks. However, little is known about the contribution of modal impairment in motor function relative to central processing deficits or whether different processes underlie the impairment in ADHD combined (ADHD-C) versus ADHD inattentive (ADHD-I)…

  1. Combined Economic and Hydrologic Modeling to Support Collaborative Decision Making Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheer, D. P.

    2008-12-01

    For more than a decade, the core concept of the author's efforts in support of collaborative decision making has been a combination of hydrologic simulation and multi-objective optimization. The modeling has generally been used to support collaborative decision making processes. The OASIS model developed by HydroLogics Inc. solves a multi-objective optimization at each time step using a mixed integer linear program (MILP). The MILP can be configured to include any user defined objective, including but not limited too economic objectives. For example, an estimated marginal value for water for crops and M&I use were included in the objective function to drive trades in a model of the lower Rio Grande. The formulation of the MILP, constraints and objectives, in any time step is conditional: it changes based on the value of state variables and dynamic external forcing functions, such as rainfall, hydrology, market prices, arrival of migratory fish, water temperature, etc. It therefore acts as a dynamic short term multi-objective economic optimization for each time step. MILP is capable of solving a general problem that includes a very realistic representation of the physical system characteristics in addition to the normal multi-objective optimization objectives and constraints included in economic models. In all of these models, the short term objective function is a surrogate for achieving long term multi-objective results. The long term performance for any alternative (especially including operating strategies) is evaluated by simulation. An operating rule is the combination of conditions, parameters, constraints and objectives used to determine the formulation of the short term optimization in each time step. Heuristic wrappers for the simulation program have been developed improve the parameters of an operating rule, and are initiating research on a wrapper that will allow us to employ a genetic algorithm to improve the form of the rule (conditions, constraints

  2. Low-temperature NOx reduction processes using combined systems of pulsed corona discharge and catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H. H.; Takashima, K.; Katsura, S.; Mizuno, A.

    2001-02-01

    In this paper, we will report NOx removal via reduction processes using two types of combined system of pulse corona discharge and catalysts: the single-stage plasma-driven catalyst (PDC) system, and the two-stage plasma-enhanced selective catalytic reduction (PE-SCR) system. Several catalysts, such as γ-alumina catalysts, mechanically mixed catalysts of γ-alumina with BaTiO3 or TiO2, and Co-ZSM-5 were tested. In the PDC system, which is directly activated by the discharge plasma, it was found that the use of additives was necessary to achieve NOx removal by reduction. Removal rates of NO and NOx were linearly increased as the molar ratio of additive to NOx increased. The dependence of NO and NOx removal on the gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) at a fixed specific input energy (SIE) indicates that plasma-induced surface reaction on the catalyst plays an important role in the PDC system. It was found that the optimal GHSV of the PDC system with the γ-alumina catalyst was smaller than 6000 h-1. Mechanical mixing of γ-alumina with BaTiO3 or TiO2 did not enhance NO and NOx removal and γ-alumina alone was found to be the most suitable catalyst. The dielectric constant of the catalyst only influenced the plasma intensity, not the NOx removal. In the PE-SCR system, plasma-treated NOx (mostly NO2) was reduced effectively with NH3 over the Co-ZSM-5 catalyst at a relatively low temperature of 150 °C. Under optimal conditions the energy cost and energy yield were 25 eV/molecule and 21 g-N (kWh)-1, respectively.

  3. Structural damage detection using extended Kalman filter combined with statistical process control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Chenhao; Jang, Shinae; Sun, Xiaorong

    2015-04-01

    Traditional modal-based methods, which identify damage based upon changes in vibration characteristics of the structure on a global basis, have received considerable attention in the past decades. However, the effectiveness of the modalbased methods is dependent on the type of damage and the accuracy of the structural model, and these methods may also have difficulties when applied to complex structures. The extended Kalman filter (EKF) algorithm which has the capability to estimate parameters and catch abrupt changes, is currently used in continuous and automatic structural damage detection to overcome disadvantages of traditional methods. Structural parameters are typically slow-changing variables under effects of operational and environmental conditions, thus it would be difficult to observe the structural damage and quantify the damage in real-time with EKF only. In this paper, a Statistical Process Control (SPC) is combined with EFK method in order to overcome this difficulty. Based on historical measurements of damage-sensitive feathers involved in the state-space dynamic models, extended Kalman filter (EKF) algorithm is used to produce real-time estimations of these features as well as standard derivations, which can then be used to form control ranges for SPC to detect any abnormality of the selected features. Moreover, confidence levels of the detection can be adjusted by choosing different times of sigma and number of adjacent out-of-range points. The proposed method is tested using simulated data of a three floors linear building in different damage scenarios, and numerical results demonstrate high damage detection accuracy and light computation of this presented method.

  4. SINCom --- the new program package for combined processing of space geodetic observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brattseva, O.; Gayazov, I.; Kurdubov, S.; Suvorkin, V.

    2015-08-01

    The software SINCom realizing the combination of standardized SINEX-files is introduced. The program package is meant to work in the following two modes: a combined solution within one observational technique on the appointed time interval and an inter-technique combination of daily SINEX-files. The realization of stations velocities estimation is recounted. The mathematical model, algorithms and the special task-forming language are presented. The main features of developed software and the arising problems are discussed. The problem-oriented aspects and the requirements for the content of incoming SINEX-files are viewed. The extensive plans of the SINCom use to obtaining TRF combined solution are considered. The first experimental results of single-technique combination for VLBI, GPS and SLR observations are presented.

  5. Combination of glazing, nisin treatment and radiation processing for shelf-life extension of seer fish (Scomberomorous guttatus) steaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakatkar, Aarti S.; Gautam, Raj Kamal; Shashidhar, Ravindranath

    2017-01-01

    Fish and fishery products are most perishable. Combination of chilling with gamma irradiation, edible coatings, addition of antimicrobials etc has been applied to extend the shelf life. In the present study, a process to enhance the shelf life of seer fish (Scomberomorus guttatus) steaks using combination of coating prepared from gel dispersion of same fish; incorporated with nisin and gamma irradiation is described. A combination of glazing incorporated with nisin and irradiation at 2 kGy and 5 kGy increased the shelf life of the steaks from 7 days up to 34 and 42 days respectively on chilled storage.

  6. Mature landfill leachate treatment by coagulation/flocculation combined with Fenton and solar photo-Fenton processes.

    PubMed

    Amor, Carlos; De Torres-Socías, Estefanía; Peres, José A; Maldonado, Manuel I; Oller, Isabel; Malato, Sixto; Lucas, Marco S

    2015-04-09

    This work reports the treatment of a mature landfill leachate through the application of chemical-based treatment processes in order to achieve the discharge legal limits into natural water courses. Firstly, the effect of coagulation/flocculation with different chemicals was studied, evaluating the role of different initial pH and chemicals concentration. Afterwards, the efficiency of two different advanced oxidation processes for leachate remediation was assessed. Fenton and solar photo-Fenton processes were applied alone and in combination with a coagulation/flocculation pre-treatment. This physicochemical conditioning step, with 2 g L(-1) of FeCl3 · 6H2O at pH 5, allowed removing 63% of COD, 80% of turbidity and 74% of total polyphenols. Combining the coagulation/flocculation pre-treatment with Fenton reagent, it was possible to reach 89% of COD removal in 96 h. Moreover, coagulation/flocculation combined with solar photo-Fenton revealed higher DOC (75%) reductions than single solar photo-Fenton (54%). In the combined treatment (coagulation/flocculation and solar photo-Fenton), it was reached a DOC reduction of 50% after the chemical oxidation, with 110 kJ L(-1) of accumulated UV energy and a H2O2 consumption of 116 mM. Toxicity and biodegradability assays were performed to evaluate possible variations along the oxidation processes. After the combined treatment, the leachate under study presented non-toxicity but biodegradability increased.

  7. SYSTEMATIC SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY TECHNIQUE FOR EVALUATING COMBINED BIOLOIGCAL/GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON TREATMENT PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A systematic scanning election microscope analytical technique has been developed to examine granular activated carbon used a a medium for biomass attachment in liquid waste treatment. The procedure allows for the objective monitoring, comparing, and trouble shooting of combined ...

  8. Electrophysiological Evidence for Early and Interactive Symbol Access and Rule Processing in Retrieving and Combining Language Constructions.

    PubMed

    Lucchese, Guglielmo; Hanna, Jeff; Autenrieb, Anne; Miller, Tally McCormick; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2017-02-01

    The human brain stores an immense repertoire of linguistic symbols (morphemes, words) and combines them into a virtually unlimited set of well-formed strings (phrases, sentences) that serve as efficient communicative tools. Communication is hampered, however, if strings include meaningless items (e.g., "pseudomorphemes"), or if the rules for combining string elements are violated. Prior research suggests that, when participants attentively process sentences in a linguistic task, syntactic processing can occur quite early, but lexicosemantic processing, or any interaction involving this factor, is manifest later in time (ca. 400 msec or later). In contrast, recent evidence from passive speech perception paradigms suggests early processing of both combinatorial (morphosyntactic) and storage-related (lexicosemantic) properties. A crucial question is whether these parallel processes might also interact early in processing. Using ERPs in an orthogonal design, we presented spoken word strings to participants while they were distracted from incoming speech to obtain information about automatic language processing mechanisms unaffected by task-related strategies. Stimuli were either (1) well-formed miniconstructions (short pronoun-verb sentences), (2) "unstored" strings containing a pseudomorpheme, (3) "ill-combined" strings violating subject-verb agreement rules, or (4) double violations including both types of errors. We found that by 70-210 msec after the onset of the phrase-final syllable that disambiguated the strings, interactions of lexicosemantic and morphosyntactic deviance were evident in the ERPs. These results argue against serial processing of lexical storage, morphosyntactic combination and their interaction, and in favor of early, simultaneous, and interactive processing of symbols and their combinatorial structures.

  9. The neural basis of sublexical speech and corresponding nonspeech processing: a combined EEG-MEG study.

    PubMed

    Kuuluvainen, Soila; Nevalainen, Päivi; Sorokin, Alexander; Mittag, Maria; Partanen, Eino; Putkinen, Vesa; Seppänen, Miia; Kähkönen, Seppo; Kujala, Teija

    2014-03-01

    We addressed the neural organization of speech versus nonspeech sound processing by investigating preattentive cortical auditory processing of changes in five features of a consonant-vowel syllable (consonant, vowel, sound duration, frequency, and intensity) and their acoustically matched nonspeech counterparts in a simultaneous EEG-MEG recording of mismatch negativity (MMN/MMNm). Overall, speech-sound processing was enhanced compared to nonspeech sound processing. This effect was strongest for changes which affect word meaning (consonant, vowel, and vowel duration) in the left and for the vowel identity change in the right hemisphere also. Furthermore, in the right hemisphere, speech-sound frequency and intensity changes were processed faster than their nonspeech counterparts, and there was a trend for speech-enhancement in frequency processing. In summary, the results support the proposed existence of long-term memory traces for speech sounds in the auditory cortices, and indicate at least partly distinct neural substrates for speech and nonspeech sound processing.

  10. The Process of Change in Cognitive Therapy for Depression when Combined with Antidepressant Medication: Predictors of Early Intersession Symptom Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strunk, Daniel R.; Cooper, Andrew A.; Ryan, Elizabeth T.; DeRubeis, Robert J.; Hollon, Steven D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Previous studies of cognitive therapy (CT) for depression have examined therapist adherence and the therapeutic alliance as predictors of subsequent symptom change. However, little is known about these CT process variables when CT is delivered in combination with antidepressant medication. Method: In a sample of 176 depressed…

  11. Processing of ICARTT Data Files Using Fuzzy Matching and Parser Combinators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutherford, Matthew T.; Typanski, Nathan D.; Wang, Dali; Chen, Gao

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the task of parsing and matching inconsistent, poorly formed text data through the use of parser combinators and fuzzy matching is discussed. An object-oriented implementation of the parser combinator technique is used to allow for a relatively simple interface for adapting base parsers. For matching tasks, a fuzzy matching algorithm with Levenshtein distance calculations is implemented to match string pair, which are otherwise difficult to match due to the aforementioned irregularities and errors in one or both pair members. Used in concert, the two techniques allow parsing and matching operations to be performed which had previously only been done manually.

  12. Improvement of process identification and discharge measurement by the combination of different sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schimmel, Andreas; Hübl, Johannes; Koschuch, Richard

    2016-04-01

    The Lattenbach is a very active torrent located in a geologic fault zone in the western part of Austria with a catchment area of 5,3 km², feeding the river Sanna, which is a tributary of the river Inn. The highest elevation in the watershed is around 2900 m above sea level (asl), the confluence with the river Sanna at 840 m asl. Both, the village Grins in the middle reach of the torrent and the village Pians at the outlet of the catchment, are affected by the hydrologic and geomorphic processes within the watershed. Aside from the 'regular' flood events with bedload transport in spring and summer, the torrent produced five debris flows and three debris flow-like events within the last years (16/08/15, 09/08/15, 26/08/12, 10/07/10, 01/09/08, 20/06/07, 30/08/07 and 22/08/05, respectively). Due to the frequent debris flow and debris flood events the torrent is monitored by the Institute of Mountain Risk Engineering since several years. The parameters that are currently measured during an event includes meteorological data (rainfall, temperature, etc.) in the upper part of the catchment (station Dawinalpe) and run-off data from the middle and lower reach of the torrent at the villages Grins and Pians. In the last years the monitoring equipment has been improved: Since July 2013 a first version of a warning system based on a combination of infrasound and seismic data is installed at the monitoring station closed to Grins. This system is build up on a minimum of one seismic and one infrasound sensor which are co-located and a microcontroller which runs a detection algorithm to detect debris flows with high accuracy in real time directly on-site. The detection algorithm is based on an analyses of the evolution in time of the frequency content of the infrasound and seismic signals produced by a mass movement and has already been tested at several test sites in Austria, Italy and Switzerland. Further a high frequency pulse Doppler Radar has been installed which provides

  13. Comprehensive microbial analysis of combined mesophilic anaerobic-thermophilic aerobic process treating high-strength food wastewater.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyun Min; Ha, Jeong Hyub; Park, Jong Moon; Kim, Mi-Sun; Sommer, Sven G

    2015-04-15

    A combined mesophilic anaerobic-thermophilic aerobic process was used to treat high-strength food wastewater in this study. During the experimental period, most of solid residue from the mesophilic anaerobic reactor (R1) was separated by centrifugation and introduced into the thermophilic aerobic reactor (R2) for further digestion. Then, thermophilic aerobically-digested sludge was reintroduced into R1 to enhance reactor performance. The combined process was operated with two different Runs: Run I with hydraulic retention time (HRT) = 40 d (corresponding OLR = 3.5 kg COD/m(3) d) and Run II with HRT = 20 d (corresponding OLR = 7 kg COD/m(3)). For a comparison, a single-stage mesophilic anaerobic reactor (R3) was operated concurrently with same OLRs and HRTs as the combined process. During the overall digestion, all reactors showed high stability without pH control. The combined process demonstrated significantly higher organic matter removal efficiencies (over 90%) of TS, VS and COD and methane production than did R3. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) results indicated that higher populations of both bacteria and archaea were maintained in R1 than in R3. Pyrosequencing analysis revealed relatively high abundance of phylum Actinobacteria in both R1 and R2, and a predominance of phyla Synergistetes and Firmicutes in R3 during Run II. Furthermore, R1 and R2 shared genera (Prevotella, Aminobacterium, Geobacillus and Unclassified Actinobacteria), which suggests synergy between mesophilic anaerobic digestion and thermophilic aerobic digestion. For archaea, in R1 methanogenic archaea shifted from genus Methanosaeta to Methanosarcina, whereas genera Methanosaeta, Methanobacterium and Methanoculleus were predominant in R3. The results demonstrated dynamics of key microbial populations that were highly consistent with an enhanced reactor performance of the combined process.

  14. Removal of oxalic acid, oxamic acid and aniline by a combined photolysis and ozonation process.

    PubMed

    Orge, C A; Faria, J L; Pereira, M F R

    2015-01-01

    Aniline (ANL), an aromatic amine, oxalic acid (OXA) and oxamic acid (OMA), short-chain carboxylic acids, were chosen as model organic pollutants for testing the combined effect of neat photolysis and ozonation in the treatment of aqueous effluents. In order to better understand the results, single ozonation and neat photolysis were also carried out. OXA has a high refractory character relatively to single ozonation and neat photolysis only accounted for 26% conversion of OXA after 2 h of reaction. On the other hand, OXA complete degradation was observed in less than an hour when ozone and light were used simultaneously. Despite OMA, a compound never studied before by a combined ozonation and photolysis treatment, being highly refractory to oxidation, more than 50% was removed by photo-ozonation after 3 h of reaction. In the case of ANL, both single ozonation and photo-ozonation resulted in 100% removal in a short reaction period due to the high reactivity of ozone to attack this type of molecules; however, only the combined method leads to efficient mineralization (89%) after 3 h of reaction. A significant synergetic effect was observed in the degradation of the selected contaminants by the simultaneous use of ozone and light, since the mineralization rate of combined method is higher than the sum of the mineralization rates of the individual treatments. The promising results observed in the degradation of the selected contaminants are paving the way to the application of photo-ozonation in the treatment of wastewater containing this type of pollutants.

  15. Sentence-Combining and Redrafting Processes in the Writing of Secondary School Students in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keen, John

    2004-01-01

    This article describes an investigation based on a corpus of original and redrafted versions of extracts from reflective narratives by 15-year-old secondary school students in the UK. It builds on the established research on sentence combining with respect to students' writing development. The findings are discussed in relation to the use of…

  16. Molecular mechanisms of the cross-impact of pathological processes in combined diabetes and cancer. Research and clinical aspects.

    PubMed

    Aleksandrovski, Ya A

    2002-12-01

    The mechanisms of interaction and cross-impact of metabolic processes in a combined diabetes and cancer condition are discussed. A hypothesis is proposed whereby the processes responsible for destruction of the organism in the case of diabetes--long-term hyperglycemia and generation of methylglyoxal--may substantially impact tumor development. The hypothesis is based on the fact that both diabetes and carcinogenesis cause dysfunction of the vital cellular signal system regulated by the protein kinase C (PKC) family. Normalization of the PKC functional activity in the case of diabetes restrains development of diabetic complications and inhibits the processes of tumor growth and metastasizing in carcinogenesis. On this basis, an attempt is made to interpret both the detrimental and beneficial effects of diabetes on cancer. The resultant effect is determined by the type of tumor and the duration and level of hyperglycemia. The mechanisms of the impact of diabetes mellitus on cancer are analyzed to develop recommendations for combined cancer therapy options.

  17. A combined physical/microbial process for the beneficiation of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, G.F.; Stevens, C.J.; Noah, K.S.; McIlwain, M.E.

    1993-09-01

    A large-laboratory scale physical/microbial process was demonstrated for the removal of pyritic sulfur from coal. The process took place in an aerated-trough slurry reactor with a total slurry volume of 150 L. The reactor was divided into six sections, each of which acted as a physical separator and a bioreactor. The process objective was to physically remove the larger pyritic inclusions and to biodegrade the small inclusions (micropyrite). The process was continuously operated for 120 days, treating approximately 1 ton of Illinois {number_sign}6 coal. Ninety percent pyrite removal was achieved at a 20% slurry concentration and a reactor residence time of 5 days. Additional research should be performed to find the optimum values for reactor residence time, slurry concentration, and process hydraulic residence time (or recycle ratio). Finding these optimum values will enable a process to be developed that will maximize the amount of coal that can be processed per unit reactor volume per unit time with the desired level of pyritic sulfur removal.

  18. Combined image-processing algorithms for improved optical coherence tomography of prostate nerves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitchian, Shahab; Weldon, Thomas P.; Fiddy, Michael A.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2010-07-01

    Cavernous nerves course along the surface of the prostate gland and are responsible for erectile function. These nerves are at risk of injury during surgical removal of a cancerous prostate gland. In this work, a combination of segmentation, denoising, and edge detection algorithms are applied to time-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of rat prostate to improve identification of cavernous nerves. First, OCT images of the prostate are segmented to differentiate the cavernous nerves from the prostate gland. Then, a locally adaptive denoising algorithm using a dual-tree complex wavelet transform is applied to reduce speckle noise. Finally, edge detection is used to provide deeper imaging of the prostate gland. Combined application of these three algorithms results in improved signal-to-noise ratio, imaging depth, and automatic identification of the cavernous nerves, which may be of direct benefit for use in laparoscopic and robotic nerve-sparing prostate cancer surgery.

  19. Combining Offline and Online Computation for Solving Partially Observable Markov Decision Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-06

    1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and...currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 05-03-2015 2. REPORT TYPE ...Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 07-03-2012 – 06-03-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Combining Offline and Online Computation for Solving

  20. Concurrent removal of humic acid and o-dichlorobenzene in drinking water by combined ozonation and bentonite coagulation process.

    PubMed

    Gu, Li; Zhang, Xingwang; Lei, Lecheng; Liu, Xianjun

    2009-01-01

    Combined ozonation and bentonite coagulation process (COBC) was investigated as a method of concurrently removing humic acid (HA) and o-dichlorobenzene (DCB) from drinking water. In this process, HA and DCB were removed by joint effect of catalytic ozonation and bentonite coagulation. HA removal was highly dependent on the coagulation process while DCB removal was dependent on the oxidation process in COBC. Iron in solution not only acted as a coagulant, but also promoted the formation of HO, which is effective in destroying aromatic chemicals. Bentonite in COBC improved the coagulation process, resulting in an enhancement in the treating efficiency. COBC is proved to be potentially advantageous on dissolved pollutants in drinking water, and appears to have great potential for a wide range of practical applications.

  1. Cheminformatics Applications and Physicochemical Property Calculators: A Powerful Combination for the Encoding of Process Science

    EPA Science Inventory

    The registration of new chemicals under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and new pesticides under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) requires knowledge of the process science underlying the transport and transformation of organic chemicals in n...

  2. Cheminformatics and Computational Chemistry: A Powerful Combination for the Encoding of Process Science

    EPA Science Inventory

    The registration of new chemicals under the Toxicological Substances Control Act (TSCA) and new pesticides under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) requires knowledge of the process science underlying the transformation of organic chemicals in natural...

  3. Characterization of dissolved organic matter in landfill leachate during the combined treatment process of air stripping, Fenton, SBR and coagulation

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, ZhiPing; Wu, WenHui; Shi, Ping; Guo, JinSong; Cheng, Jin

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • DOM fractions spectra analysis during the whole treatment process. • Efficient method was achieved to remove organic matters in landfill leachate. • Molecular weight distribution and fractions were discussed. - Abstract: A combined treatment process of air stripping + Fenton + sequencing batch reactor (SBR)+ coagulation was performed to remove the pollutants in landfill leachate. Molecular weight (MW) distribution and fractions of dissolved organic matter (DOM) were discussed to study the characteristics. The experiment showed that the removal rate of chemical oxygen demand (COD), five day biological oxygen demand (BOD{sub 5}) and ammonia nitrogen (NH{sub 3}−N) by the combined process were 92.8%, 87.8% and 98.0%, respectively. Humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA) were the main fractions in raw leachate with 81.8% of the total COD concentration, while hydrophilic organic matter (HyI) was the dominant fraction in the final effluent of the combined process with 63.5% of the total COD concentration. After the combined treatment process, the removal rate of DOM and fractions HA, FA, HyI were 91.9%, 97.1%, 95.8% and 71.7%, respectively. Organic matters of MW < 2 k and MW > 100 k were removed with 90.5% and 97.9% COD concentration after the treatment. The ultraviolet–visible spectra (UV–vis), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) and three-dimensional excitation-emission matrices spectra (EEMs) indicated that benzene materials and phenol compounds were preferentially removed in air stripping. High MW matters, aromatic rings, conjugated moieties and some functional groups were mainly removed by Fenton. While small MW fractions, carboxylic acids, alcohols and protein-like materials were preferentially biodegraded via SBR. Fulvic-like and humic-like materials were mainly destroyed via Fenton oxidation and coagulation.

  4. A combined acidification/PEO flocculation process to improve the lignin removal from the pre-hydrolysis liquor of kraft-based dissolving pulp production process.

    PubMed

    Shi, Haiqiang; Fatehi, Pedram; Xiao, Huining; Ni, Yonghao

    2011-04-01

    The presence of lignin impairs the utilization of the hemicelluloses dissolved in the pre-hydrolysis liquor (PHL) of the kraft-based dissolving pulp production process. In this paper, a novel process was developed by combining the acidification and poly ethylene oxide (PEO) flocculation concepts to improve the lignin removal. The results showed that the lignin removal was improved by the addition of PEO to the acidified PHL, particularly at a low pH of 1.5. The main mechanisms involved are the lignin/PEO complex formation and the bridging of the formed complexes. This hypothesis was supported by the turbidity, FTIR and particle size measurements. Interestingly, the hemicelluloses removal from the acidification/PEO flocculation was marginal, which would be beneficial for the down-stream ethanol production from the PHL. Additionally, a process flow diagram was proposed that incorporates this new concept into the existing configuration of kraft-based dissolving pulp production process.

  5. Bacterial radiosensitization by using radiation processing in combination with essential oil: Mechanism of action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacroix, Monique; Caillet, Stéphane; Shareck, Francois

    2009-07-01

    Spice extracts under the form of essential oils were tested for their efficiency to increase the relative radiosensitivity of Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157H7 in culture media. The two pathogens were treated by gamma-irradiation alone or in combination with oregano essential oil to evaluate their mechanism of action. The membrane murein composition, and the intracellular and extracellular concentration of ATP was determined. The bacterial strains were treated with two irradiation doses: 1.2 kGy to induce cell damage and 3.5 kGy to cause cell death for L. monocytogenes. A dose of 0.4 kGy to induce cell damages, 1.1 kGy to obtain viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state and 1.3 kGy to obtain a lethal dose was also applied on E. coli O157H7. Oregano essential oil was used at 0.020% and 0.025% (w/v), which is the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for L. monocytogenes. For E. coli O157H7, a concentration of 0.006% and 0.025% (w/v) which is the minimum inhibitory concentration was applied. The use of essential oils in combination with irradiation has permitted an increase of the bacterial radiosensitization by more than 3.1 times. All treatments had also a significant effect ( p⩽0.05) on the murein composition, although some muropeptides did not seem to be affected by the treatment. Each treatment influenced differently the relative percentage and number of muropeptides. There was a significant ( p⩽0.05) correlation between the reduction of intracellular ATP and increase in extracellular ATP following treatment of the cells with oregano oil. The reduction of intracellular ATP was even more important when essential oil was combined with irradiation, but irradiation of L. monocytogenes alone induced a significant decrease ( p⩽0.05) of the internal ATP without affecting the external ATP.

  6. Applications of radiation processing in combination with conventional treatments to assure food safety: New development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacroix, M.; Turgis, M.; Borsa, J.; Millette, M.; Salmieri, S.; Caillet, S.; Han, J.

    2009-11-01

    Spice extracts under the form of essential oils (Eos) were tested for their efficiency to increase the relative bacterial radiosensitivity (RBR) of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli and Salmonellatyphi in culture media under different atmospheric conditions. The selected Eos were tested for their ability to reduce the dose necessary to eliminate E. coli and S.typhi in medium fat ground beef (23% fat) and Listeria in ready-to-eat carrots when packed under air or under atmosphere rich in oxygen (MAP). Results have demonstrated that depending of the compound added and the combined treatment used, the RBR increased from 2 to 4 times. In order to evaluate the industrial feasibility, EOs were added in ground beef at a concentration which does not affect the taste and treated at a dose of 1.5 kGy. The content of total mesophilic aerobic, E. coli, Salmonella, total coliform, lactic acid bacteria, and Pseudomonas was determined during 28 days. The results showed that the combined treatment (radiation and EOs) can eliminate Salmonella and E. coli when done under air. When done under MAP, Pseudomonas could be eliminated and a shelf life of more than 28 days was observed. An active edible coating containing EOs was also developed and sprayed on ready-to-eat carrots before radiation treatment and Listeria was evaluated. A complete inhibition of Listeria was obtained at a dose of 0.5 kGy when applied under MAP. Our results have shown that the combination of an edible coating, MAP, and radiation can be used to maintain the safety of meat and vegetables.

  7. An (even) broader perspective: Combining environmental processes and natural hazards education in a MSc programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heckmann, Tobias; Haas, Florian; Trappe, Martin; Cyffka, Bernd; Becht, Michael

    2010-05-01

    Natural hazards are processes occurring in the natural environment that negatively affect human society. In most instances, the definition of natural hazards implies sudden events as different as earthquakes, floods or landslides. In addition, there are other phenomena that occur more subtly or slowly, and nevertheless may have serious adverse effects on the human environment. Hence, a comprehensive study programme in natural hazards has to include not only the conspicuous causes and effects of natural catastrophes, but of environmental processes in general. Geography as a discipline is located at the interface of natural, social and economic sciences; the physical geography programme described here is designed to include the social and economic dimension as well as management issues. Modules strengthening the theoretical background of geomorphic, geological, hydrological and meteorological processes and hazards are complemented by practical work in the field and the laboratory, dealing with measuring and monitoring environmental processes. On this basis, modeling and managing skills are developed. Another thread in the transdisciplinary programme deals with sustainability and environmental policy issues, and environmental psychology (e.g. perception of and reaction to hazards). This will improve the communication and team working skills of students wherever they are part of an interdisciplinary working group. Through the involvement in research programmes, students are confronted ‘hands on' with the different aspects of environmental processes and their consequences; thus, they will be excellently but not exclusively qualified for positions in the ‘natural hazards' sector.

  8. A hybrid process combining homogeneous catalytic ozonation and membrane distillation for wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Zhao, Peng; Li, Jie; Hou, Deyin; Wang, Jun; Liu, Huijuan

    2016-10-01

    A novel catalytic ozonation membrane reactor (COMR) coupling homogeneous catalytic ozonation and direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) was developed for refractory saline organic pollutant treatment from wastewater. An ozonation process took place in the reactor to degrade organic pollutants, whilst the DCMD process was used to recover ionic catalysts and produce clean water. It was found that 98.6% total organic carbon (TOC) and almost 100% salt were removed and almost 100% metal ion catalyst was recovered. TOC in the permeate water was less than 16 mg/L after 5 h operation, which was considered satisfactory as the TOC in the potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHP) feed water was as high as 1000 mg/L. Meanwhile, the membrane distillation flux in the COMR process was 49.8% higher than that in DCMD process alone after 60 h operation. Further, scanning electron microscope images showed less amount and smaller size of contaminants on the membrane surface, which indicated the mitigation of membrane fouling. The tensile strength and FT-IR spectra tests did not reveal obvious changes for the polyvinylidene fluoride membrane after 60 h operation, which indicated the good durability. This novel COMR hybrid process exhibited promising application prospects for saline organic wastewater treatment.

  9. [Degradation of MC-LR by combination of UV/H2O2 process].

    PubMed

    Guo, Jian-Wei; Gao, Nai-Yun; Yin, Di-Di; Li, Lei; Dong, Bing-Zhi; Zhang, Ke-Jia

    2009-02-15

    The degradation of MC-LR in water by UV/H2O2 process was investigated. The effects of intensity of UV radiation, initial concentration of MC-LR, dosages of H2O2, initial pH value and anions on degradation of MC-LR by UV/H2O2 process were studied. The results show that the removal of MC-LR only by H2O2 is nearly zero, and UV process can degrade MC-LR to a certain extent. However, the degradation efficiency of UV/H2O2 process is much higher than UV and H2O2 process due to the synergetic effect between UV and H2O2. The removal of MC-LR increases with the enhancement of intensity of UV radiation, but decreases gradually with the increase of initial concentration of MC-LR. When the dosages of H2O2 change from 1 mmol/L to 3 mmol/L, the constant of degradation rate rises from 0.0844 to 0.1664. The optimum pH value is 3.13. The added anions have adverse effect on the degradation of MC-LR, especially carbonate and nitrate ions have the biggest influence among the studied anions.

  10. Denoising of human speech using combined acoustic and em sensor signal processing

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, L C; Burnett, G C; Holzrichter, J F; Gable, T J

    1999-11-29

    Low Power EM radar-like sensors have made it possible to measure properties of the human speech production system in real-time, without acoustic interference. This greatly enhances the quality and quantify of information for many speech related applications. See Holzrichter, Burnett, Ng, and Lea, J. Acoustic. Soc. Am. 103 (1) 622 (1998). By using combined Glottal-EM- Sensor- and Acoustic-signals, segments of voiced, unvoiced, and no-speech can be reliably defined. Real-time Denoising filters can be constructed to remove noise from the user's corresponding speech signal.

  11. Process modelling of biomass conversion to biofuels with combined heat and power.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Abhishek; Shinde, Yogesh; Pareek, Vishnu; Zhang, Dongke

    2015-12-01

    A process model has been developed to study the pyrolysis of biomass to produce biofuel with heat and power generation. The gaseous and solid products were used to generate heat and electrical power, whereas the bio-oil was stored and supplied for other applications. The overall efficiency of the base case model was estimated for conversion of biomass into useable forms of bio-energy. It was found that the proposed design is not only significantly efficient but also potentially suitable for distributed operation of pyrolysis plants having centralised post processing facilities for production of other biofuels and chemicals. It was further determined that the bio-oil quality improved using a multi-stage condensation system. However, the recycling of flue gases coming from combustor instead of non-condensable gases in the pyrolyzer led to increase in the overall efficiency of the process with degradation of bio-oil quality.

  12. Combined micromechanical and fabrication process optimization for metal-matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morel, M.; Saravanos, D. A.; Chamis, C. C.

    1991-01-01

    A method is presented to minimize the residual matrix stresses in metal matrix composites. Fabrication parameters such as temperature and consolidation pressure are optimized concurrently with the characteristics (i.e., modulus, coefficient of thermal expansion, strength, and interphase thickness) of a fiber-matrix interphase. By including the interphase properties in the fabrication process, lower residual stresses are achievable. Results for an ultra-high modulus graphite (P100)/copper composite show a reduction of 21 percent for the maximum matrix microstress when optimizing the fabrication process alone. Concurrent optimization of the fabrication process and interphase properties show a 41 percent decrease in the maximum microstress. Therefore, this optimization method demonstrates the capability of reducing residual microstresses by altering the temperature and consolidation pressure histories and tailoring the interphase properties for an improved composite material. In addition, the results indicate that the consolidation pressures are the most important fabrication parameters, and the coefficient of thermal expansion is the most critical interphase property.

  13. Combination Across Domains: An MEG Investigation into the Relationship between Mathematical, Pictorial, and Linguistic Processing

    PubMed Central

    Bemis, Douglas K.; Pylkkänen, Liina

    2013-01-01

    Debates surrounding the evolution of language often hinge upon its relationship to cognition more generally and many investigations have attempted to demark the boundary between the two. Though results from these studies suggest that language may recruit domain-general mechanisms during certain types of complex processing, the domain-generality of basic combinatorial mechanisms that lie at the core of linguistic processing is still unknown. Our previous work (Bemis and Pylkkänen, 2011, 2012) used magnetoencephalography to isolate neural activity associated with the simple composition of an adjective and a noun (“red boat”) and found increased activity during this processing localized to the left anterior temporal lobe (lATL), ventro-medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), and left angular gyrus (lAG). The present study explores the domain-generality of these effects and their associated combinatorial mechanisms through two parallel non-linguistic combinatorial tasks designed to be as minimal and natural as the linguistic paradigm. In the first task, we used pictures of colored shapes to elicit combinatorial conceptual processing similar to that evoked by the linguistic expressions and find increased activity again localized to the vmPFC during combinatorial processing. This result suggests that a domain-general semantic combinatorial mechanism operates during basic linguistic composition, and that activity generated by its processing localizes to the vmPFC. In the second task, we recorded neural activity as subjects performed simple addition between two small numerals. Consistent with a wide array of recent results, we find no effects related to basic addition that coincide with our linguistic effects and instead find increased activity localized to the intraparietal sulcus. This result suggests that the scope of the previously identified linguistic effects is restricted to compositional operations and does not extend generally to all tasks that are merely similar

  14. THE COMBINED EFFECTS OF FORMALIN FIXATION AND INDIVIDUAL STEPS IN TISSUE PROCESSING ON IMMUNO-RECOGNITION

    PubMed Central

    Otali, Dennis; Stockard, Cecil R.; Oelschlager, Denise K.; Wan, Wen; Manne, Upender; Watts, Stephen A.; Grizzle, William E.

    2010-01-01

    It is accepted that the aldehyde-based fixation of cells can affect the immunodetection of antigens; however, the effects of tissue processing on immunodetection have not been analyzed systematically. We therefore investigated the effects of aldehyde-based fixation and the individual steps of tissue processing on immunohistochemical detection of specific antigens. DU145 (prostate) and SKOV3 (ovarian) cancer cell lines were cultured as monolayers on microscope slides. The immunohistochemical detection of Ki67/MIB-1 and PCNA was evaluated after various times of fixation in 10% neutral-buffered formalin (NBF) plus after each of the individual cumulative steps of tissue processing. The effect of antigen retrieval (AR) was evaluated concomitantly as an additional variable. Our results indicate that, in addition to fixation, each of the different steps in tissue processing has effects on immunorecognition of the epitopes recognized by these antibodies. The extensive dehydration through ethanols to absolute ethanol had only modest effects except for the detection of Ki67/MIB-1 in SKOV-3 cells where the effect was stronger. In general, however, the establishment of a hydrophobic environment by xylene resulted in the greatest decrease in immunorecognition. Antigen retrieval was able to compensate for most, but not all of the losses in staining following fixation and exposure to xylene; however, AR gave very consistent results for most steps of tissue processing, suggesting that AR should also be used in staining for PCNA. The cellular variations that were noted indicate that the effects of fixation and other steps of tissue processing may depend upon how antigens are packaged by specific cells. PMID:19886759

  15. Silicon microstructure fabricated by laser micro-patterning method combined with wet etching process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oishi, T.; Goto, M.; Pihosh, Y.; Kasahara, A.; Tosa, M.

    2005-02-01

    A simple method for silicon microfabrication has been successfully developed. Polypropylene (PP) film as a resist was prepared on a surface of silicon (Si) (1 0 0) plate by an rf magnetron sputtering method. A pulsed laser light was focused and irradiated to the PP film and a part of the film was removed by laser ablation process in the spot at certain laser intensity. When the sample was immersed in a potassium hydroxide solution, etching occurred only at the part that the PP film was removed by laser ablation. These results raise the possibility of this method as a process for Si microfabrication.

  16. MARAPUR--a new process combination for the optimization of MBR.

    PubMed

    Klegraf, F; Lahnsteiner, J

    2008-01-01

    The MARAPUR concept is a biological wastewater treatment process based on the MBR functional principle. The ultrafiltration of activated sludge takes place in pressure-driven hollow fiber membranes. The vertical membrane modules are installed compactly in a MEGAMODUL. The permeate extraction is accomplished in the cross-flow, which is supported by rinsing aeration. The main process advantages are high filtration performance, excellent operation reliability provided by wastewater fine sieving and reduced cleaning chemicals demand. Wastewater fine sieving with a mesh size of 0.25 mm is an effective measure against membrane clogging by hair and fibers.

  17. [Combination of two signals of danger--a principal cause of activation of chronic inflammatory processes].

    PubMed

    Lebedev, K A

    2012-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory processes have long current during which there is a change of remission by an aggravation of disease. Until recently was considered, that occurrence and activation of chronic inflammatory process is caused by one signal of danger. Most often it are served with microorganisms. The sum of our end literary data shows that activation is connected with accumulation in the center of an inflammation of macrophages and their hyperactivation as a result of action of two signals of danger--microorganisms and xenobiotics.

  18. Advanced process of microbiological control of wastewater in combined system of disinfection with UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Bilotta, P; Daniel, L A

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to present a methodology with superior efficiency for inactivating pathogenic indicators commonly found in domestic sewage. The adopted method was based on synergistic effect resulting from the introduction of a UV radiation pre-disinfection stage of sewage followed by secondary treatment. A pilot unit was installed in the sewage treatment plant of the University of São Paulo to simulate the combined system in full-scale operational conditions. Its performance was evaluated through microbiological examinations for determining Escherichia coli, total coliforms and coliphages. The application of UV radiation at 5.1 mW/cm(2) for 10 s of exposure in the first disinfection stage was enough to reduce the surviving number of E. coli around 100 times, in comparison to the conventional method. Therefore, based on experimental data, it is possible to conclude that combining treatment and pre-disinfection stage is an effective potential technique to produce effluents with lower degree of contamination by pathogenic organisms.

  19. A Study of Feature Combination for Vehicle Detection Based on Image Processing

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Video analytics play a critical role in most recent traffic monitoring and driver assistance systems. In this context, the correct detection and classification of surrounding vehicles through image analysis has been the focus of extensive research in the last years. Most of the pieces of work reported for image-based vehicle verification make use of supervised classification approaches and resort to techniques, such as histograms of oriented gradients (HOG), principal component analysis (PCA), and Gabor filters, among others. Unfortunately, existing approaches are lacking in two respects: first, comparison between methods using a common body of work has not been addressed; second, no study of the combination potentiality of popular features for vehicle classification has been reported. In this study the performance of the different techniques is first reviewed and compared using a common public database. Then, the combination capabilities of these techniques are explored and a methodology is presented for the fusion of classifiers built upon them, taking into account also the vehicle pose. The study unveils the limitations of single-feature based classification and makes clear that fusion of classifiers is highly beneficial for vehicle verification. PMID:24672299

  20. Combined process for ethanol fermentation at high-solids loading and biogas digestion from unwashed steam-exploded corn stover.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen; Lv, Zhe; Du, Jiliang; Mo, Chunling; Yang, Xiushan; Tian, Shen

    2014-08-01

    A combined process was designed for the co-production of ethanol and methane from unwashed steam-exploded corn stover. A terminal ethanol titer of 69.8 g/kg mass weight (72.5%) was achieved when the fed-batch mode was performed at a final solids loading of 35.5% (w/w) dry matter (DM) content. The whole stillage from high-solids ethanol fermentation was directly transferred in a 3-L anaerobic digester. During 52-day single-stage digester operation, the methane productivity was 320 mL CH₄/g volatile solids (VS) with a maximum VS reduction efficiency of 55.3%. The calculated overall product yield was 197 g ethanol + 96 g methane/kg corn stover. This indicated that the combined process was able to improve overall content utilization and extract a greater yield of lignocellulosic biomass compared to ethanol fermentation alone.

  1. SYSTEM AND PROCESS FOR PRODUCTION OF METHANOL FROM COMBINED WIND TURBINE AND FUEL CELL POWER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper examines an integrated use of ultra-clean wind turbines and high temperature fuel cells to produce methanol, especially for transportation purposes. The principal utility and application of the process is the production of transportation fuel from domestic resources to ...

  2. Making the Black Box of Collaborative Learning Transparent: Combining Process-Oriented and Cognitive Load Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janssen, Jeroen; Kirschner, Femke; Erkens, Gijsbert; Kirschner, Paul A.; Paas, Fred

    2010-01-01

    Traditional research on collaborative learning employs a "black box" approach that makes it difficult to gain a deeper understanding of the differential effects of collaborative learning. To make the black box transparent, researchers have studied the process of collaboration, in order to establish which interaction features are likely to make…

  3. Combining ARS Process-Based Water and Wind Erosion Prediction Technologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Erosion process research in the United States has long been separated by location, experimental data collection, and prediction technologies. Erosion experiment stations were established in the l930’s throughout the country, however most examined erosion by water while a few in the Plains states we...

  4. Combining Natural Language Processing and Statistical Text Mining: A Study of Specialized versus Common Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarman, Jay

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on developing and evaluating hybrid approaches for analyzing free-form text in the medical domain. This research draws on natural language processing (NLP) techniques that are used to parse and extract concepts based on a controlled vocabulary. Once important concepts are extracted, additional machine learning algorithms,…

  5. Intelligent Modeling Combining Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System and Genetic Algorithm for Optimizing Welding Process Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowtham, K. N.; Vasudevan, M.; Maduraimuthu, V.; Jayakumar, T.

    2011-04-01

    Modified 9Cr-1Mo ferritic steel is used as a structural material for steam generator components of power plants. Generally, tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding is preferred for welding of these steels in which the depth of penetration achievable during autogenous welding is limited. Therefore, activated flux TIG (A-TIG) welding, a novel welding technique, has been developed in-house to increase the depth of penetration. In modified 9Cr-1Mo steel joints produced by the A-TIG welding process, weld bead width, depth of penetration, and heat-affected zone (HAZ) width play an important role in determining the mechanical properties as well as the performance of the weld joints during service. To obtain the desired weld bead geometry and HAZ width, it becomes important to set the welding process parameters. In this work, adaptative neuro fuzzy inference system is used to develop independent models correlating the welding process parameters like current, voltage, and torch speed with weld bead shape parameters like depth of penetration, bead width, and HAZ width. Then a genetic algorithm is employed to determine the optimum A-TIG welding process parameters to obtain the desired weld bead shape parameters and HAZ width.

  6. Liposomes Size Engineering by Combination of Ethanol Injection and Supercritical Processing.

    PubMed

    Santo, Islane Espirito; Campardelli, Roberta; Albuquerque, Elaine Cabral; Vieira De Melo, Silvio A B; Reverchon, Ernesto; Della Porta, Giovanna

    2015-11-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction using a high-pressure packed tower is proposed not only to remove the ethanol residue from liposome suspensions but also to affect their size and distribution leading the production of nanosomes. Different operating pressures, temperatures, and gas to liquid ratios were explored and ethanol was successfully extracted up to a value of 400 ppm; liposome size and distribution were also reduced by the supercritical processing preserving their integrity, as confirmed by Z-potential data and Trasmission Electron Microscopy observations. Operating at 120 bar and 38°C, nanosomes with a mean diameter of about 180 ± 40 nm and good storage stability were obtained. The supercritical processing did not interfere on drug encapsulation, and no loss of entrapped drug was observed when the water-soluble fluorescein was loaded as a model compound. Fluorescein encapsulation efficiency was 30% if pure water was used during the supercritical extraction as processing fluid; whereas an encapsulation efficiency of 90% was obtained if the liposome suspension was processed in water/fluorescein solution. The described technology is easy to scale up to an industrial production and merge in one step the solvent extraction, liposome size engineering, and an excellent drug encapsulation in a single operation unit.

  7. Magnesium Recycling of Partially Oxidized, Mixed Magnesium-Aluminum Scrap through Combined Refining and Solid Oxide Membrane Electrolysis Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Xiaofei Guan; Peter A. Zink; Uday B. Pal; Adam C. Powell

    2012-01-01

    Pure magnesium (Mg) is recycled from 19g of partially oxidized 50.5wt.% Mg-Aluminum (Al) alloy. During the refining process, potentiodynamic scans (PDS) were performed to determine the electrorefining potential for magnesium. The PDS show that the electrorefining potential increases over time as the magnesium content inside the Mg-Al scrap decreases. Up to 100% percent of magnesium is refined from the Mg-Al scrap by a novel refining process of dissolving magnesium and its oxide into a flux followed by vapor phase removal of dissolved magnesium and subsequently condensing the magnesium vapor. The solid oxide membrane (SOM) electrolysis process is employed in the refining system to enable additional recycling of magnesium from magnesium oxide (MgO) in the partially oxidized Mg-Al scrap. The combination of the refining and SOM processes yields 7.4g of pure magnesium.

  8. Magnesium Recycling of Partially Oxidized, Mixed Magnesium-Aluminum Scrap Through Combined Refining and Solid Oxide Membrane (SOM) Electrolysis Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Guan, Xiaofei; Zink, Peter; Pal, Uday

    2012-03-11

    Pure magnesium (Mg) is recycled from 19g of partially oxidized 50.5wt.%Mg-Aluminum (Al) alloy. During the refining process, potentiodynamic scans (PDS) were performed to determine the electrorefining potential for magnesium. The PDS show that the electrorefining potential increases over time as the Mg content inside the Mg-Al scrap decreases. Up to 100% percent of magnesium is refined from the Mg-Al scrap by a novel refining process of dissolving magnesium and its oxide into a flux followed by vapor phase removal of dissolved magnesium and subsequently condensing the magnesium vapors in a separate condenser. The solid oxide membrane (SOM) electrolysis process is employed in the refining system to enable additional recycling of magnesium from magnesium oxide (MgO) in the partially oxidized Mg-Al scrap. The combination of the refining and SOM processes yields 7.4g of pure magnesium; could not collect and weigh all of the magnesium recovered.

  9. Combining data mining tools with health care models for improved understanding of health processes and resource utilisation.

    PubMed

    Harper, Paul

    2005-12-01

    Variability and uncertainty are inherent characteristics of most health care processes. Patient pathways and dwelling times even within the same process typically vary from patient to patient, such as the flow of patients through a particular health care provider or patient progression through the natural history of a given disease. The challenge for the OR modeller is to adequately handle and capture the stochastic features within developed models. This paper will discuss the benefits of combining patient classification tools (data mining techniques) with developed OR models, such as simulation tools, to more accurately capture patient outcomes, risks and resource needs. Illustrative applications will demonstrate the approach.

  10. Combined microfluidization and ultrasonication: a synergistic protocol for high-efficient processing of SWCNT dispersions with high quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Sida; Liu, Tao; Wang, Yong; Li, Liuhe; Wang, Guantao; Luo, Yun

    2016-08-01

    High-efficient and large-scale production of high-quality CNT dispersions is necessary for meeting the future needs to develop various CNT-based electronic devices. Herein, we have designed novel processing protocols by combining conventional ultrasonication process with a new microfluidization technique to produce high-quality SWCNT dispersions with improved processing efficiency. To judge the quality of SWCNT dispersions, one critical factor is the degree of exfoliation, which could be quantified by both geometrical dimension of the exfoliated nanotubes and percentage of individual tubes in a given dispersion. In this paper, the synergistic effect of the combined protocols was systematically investigated through evaluating SWCNT dispersions with newly developed characterization techniques, namely preparative ultracentrifuge method (PUM) and simultaneous Raman scattering and photoluminescence spectroscopy (SRSPL). The results of both techniques draw similar conclusions that as compared with either of the processes operated separately, a low-pass microfluidization followed by a reasonable duration of ultrasonication could substantially improve the processing efficiency to produce high-quality SWCNT dispersions with averaged particle length and diameter as small as 600 and 2 nm, respectively.

  11. The combined effect of wet granulation process parameters and dried granule moisture content on tablet quality attributes.

    PubMed

    Gabbott, Ian P; Al Husban, Farhan; Reynolds, Gavin K

    2016-09-01

    A pharmaceutical compound was used to study the effect of batch wet granulation process parameters in combination with the residual moisture content remaining after drying on granule and tablet quality attributes. The effect of three batch wet granulation process parameters was evaluated using a multivariate experimental design, with a novel constrained design space. Batches were characterised for moisture content, granule density, crushing strength, porosity, disintegration time and dissolution. Mechanisms of the effect of the process parameters on the granule and tablet quality attributes are proposed. Water quantity added during granulation showed a significant effect on granule density and tablet dissolution rate. Mixing time showed a significant effect on tablet crushing strength, and mixing speed showed a significant effect on the distribution of tablet crushing strengths obtained. The residual moisture content remaining after granule drying showed a significant effect on tablet crushing strength. The effect of moisture on tablet tensile strength has been reported before, but not in combination with granulation parameters and granule properties, and the impact on tablet dissolution was not assessed. Correlations between the energy input during granulation, the density of granules produced, and the quality attributes of the final tablets were also identified. Understanding the impact of the granulation and drying process parameters on granule and tablet properties provides a basis for process optimisation and scaling.

  12. Energy intensity of computer manufacturing: hybrid assessment combining process and economic input-output methods.

    PubMed

    Williams, Eric

    2004-11-15

    The total energy and fossil fuels used in producing a desktop computer with 17-in. CRT monitor are estimated at 6400 megajoules (MJ) and 260 kg, respectively. This indicates that computer manufacturing is energy intensive: the ratio of fossil fuel use to product weight is 11, an order of magnitude larger than the factor of 1-2 for many other manufactured goods. This high energy intensity of manufacturing, combined with rapid turnover in computers, results in an annual life cycle energy burden that is surprisingly high: about 2600 MJ per year, 1.3 times that of a refrigerator. In contrast with many home appliances, life cycle energy use of a computer is dominated by production (81%) as opposed to operation (19%). Extension of usable lifespan (e.g. by reselling or upgrading) is thus a promising approach to mitigating energy impacts as well as other environmental burdens associated with manufacturing and disposal.

  13. Biological improvement on combined mycelial pellet for aniline treatment by tourmaline in SBR process.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Si; Li, Ang; Cui, Di; Duan, Shuyue; Yang, Jixian; Ma, Fang; Shi, Shengnan; Ren, Nanqi

    2011-10-01

    As a biomass carrier, mycelial pellet of Aspergillus niger Y3 was used to immobilize the aniline-degrading bacterium Acinetobacter calcoaceticus JH-9 and the mix culture of the COD rapid degrading bacteria in this study. Tourmaline was added to this system in order to improve the aniline removal performance using combined mycelial pellet. Flask experiments were performed to investigate the promotion mechanism. The results showed that the start-up time was shorted from 7 cycles to only 1 cycle. The aniline and COD concentration in effluent were much lower in the tourmaline-adding system. It was suggested that tourmaline could enhance the number and activity of the aniline-degrading bacteria immobilized on the mycelial pellet. Therefore, the performance of mycelial pellet as a biomass carrier could be improved by tourmaline.

  14. Selective feeding in birds depends on combined processing in the left and right brain hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Prior, Helmut; Wilzeck, Christiane

    2008-01-15

    During visually guided foraging birds tend to select certain types of food from a mixed diet. This selectivity is ecologically relevant. During scanning for food birds spot the surroundings mainly with the monocular lateral visual field of the one or other eye and then control pecking with their small binocular frontal visual field. As the visual systems of the avian left and right brain hemisphere are supposed to work largely independently in the short term, the problem arises of how the avian brain handles a task that requires coordinated activity of the left and right brain hemisphere for efficient processing. Here we report that chicks exhibit strong selective feeding when both of the brain hemispheres are involved. With the left or right hemisphere alone selectivity is reduced or completely absent. Our findings reveal a marked qualitative difference between unilateral and bilateral processing. They highlight an important but so far unexplored selection pressure for the evolution of hemispheric cooperation.

  15. Congenital anomaly of combined atlas-odontoid process fusion and bipartite atlas.

    PubMed

    Gil, Jea Ryoung; Kim, Wan Tae; Seo, Min Jeong

    2015-12-01

    Congenital fusion of the atlas with the odontoid process of the axis is a very rare condition caused by a segmental defect of the first cervical somite. Only 9 such cases have been reported in the literature to date. The bipartite atlas, another well-documented rare anomaly, has been observed in only 0.1% of the general population. We describe the first case of a 70-year-old male with both of these complex congenital anomalies.

  16. Recovery of phosphorus from sewage sludge in combination with the supercritical water process.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yunbo; Xiang, Bobin; Chen, Hongmei; Xu, Bibo; Zhu, Lu; Li, Caiting; Zeng, Guangming

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the fraction transformation and recovering of phosphorus (P) from sewage sludge (SS) residues, derived from supercritical water process, was investigated by extraction and precipitation processes. In addition, the form of heavy metals existing during the recovery process is also discussed. First, P in the solid residues was recovered by acid leaching with HCl, and then the derived P was adsorbed by activated alumina (Al(2)O(3)). Finally, the Al2O3 was desorbed with low concentration of NaOH. Results showed that 80% organic P was converted into HCl-P. The total P (the chief ingredient of HCl-P) in solid residue increased from 86.1 to 95.6% as temperature increased from 350 to 400 °C. The amount of P in the solid residue that was dissolved by 1 M HCl was 97.8%, and over 95% of P in the leaching solution (15 mg/L for P concentration) was adsorbed after 5.0 g of Al(2)O(3) powder was added. The amount of P desorbed from Al(2)O(3) with 0.1 M NaOH was 98.7%. Ultimately, over 85% of TP in SS was recovered. Moreover, the proportion of Cu, Zn and Pb in the extracted P products was lower than 5%.

  17. Coking wastewater treatment for industrial reuse purpose: combining biological processes with ultrafiltration, nanofiltration and reverse osmosis.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xuewen; Li, Enchao; Lu, Shuguang; Qiu, Zhaofu; Sui, Qian

    2013-08-01

    A full-scale plant using anaerobic, anoxic and oxic processes (A1/A2/O), along with a pilot-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR), nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) integrated system developed by Shanghai Baosteel Chemical Co. Ltd., was investigated to treat coking wastewater for industrial reuse over a period of one year. The removals reached 82.5% (COD), 89.6% (BOD), 99.8% (ammonium nitrogen), 99.9% (phenol), 44.6% (total cyanide (T-CN)), 99.7% (thiocyanide (SCN-)) and 8.9% (fluoride), during the A1/A2/O biological treatment stage, and all parameters were further reduced by over 96.0%, except for fluoride (86.4%), in the final discharge effluent from the currently operating plant. The pilot-scale MBR process reduced the turbidity to less than 0.65 NTU, and most of the toxic organic compounds were degraded or intercepted by the A1/A2/O followed MBR processes. In addition, parameters including COD, T-CN, total nitrogen, fluoride, chloride ion, hardness and conductivity were significantly reduced by the NF-RO system to a level suitable for industrial reuse, with a total water production ratio of 70.7%. However, the concentrates from the NF and RO units were highly polluted and should be disposed of properly or further treated before being discharged.

  18. Effect of 5-fluorouracil combination therapy on RNA processing in human colonic carcinoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Greenhalgh, D. A.; Parish, J. H.

    1990-01-01

    We have evaluated the RNA-directed cytotoxicity of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in human colonic carcinoma cells. The mode of action of 5-FU and its effects on human pre-rRNA processing were then examined. From these data, possible reasons why the disruption of pre-rRNA maturation could induce cytotoxic effects are considered. The results imply that inhibition of thymidylate synthase is not the sole primary cytotoxic lesion in this cell line. First, exogenous thymidine (dTHd) enchanced cytotoxicity. Second, addition of dThd to the cells was found to enhance incorporation of 5-FU into total cellular RNA. Third, 5-FU disrupted rRNA processing by a different mechanism from actinomycin D and methotrexate (MTX), suggesting that the inhibition was not just a consequence of cell death. Finally, the addition of dThd was found to enhance the disruption of rRNA processing consistent with an increase in concentration of 5-FU. These data are discussed in the light of literature reports and their potential for optimising 5-FU protocols. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:2328208

  19. Study on treatment of coking wastewater by biofilm reactors combined with zero-valent iron process.

    PubMed

    Lai, Peng; Zhao, Hua-Zhang; Zeng, Ming; Ni, Jin-Ren

    2009-03-15

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the behavior of the integrated system with biofilm reactors and zero-valent iron (ZVI) process for coking wastewater treatment. Particular attention was paid to the performance of the integrated system for removal of organic and inorganic nitrogen compounds. Maximal removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia nitrogen (NH(3)-N) and total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) were up to 96.1, 99.2 and 92.3%, respectively. Moreover, it was found that some phenolic compounds were effectively removed. The refractory organic compounds were primarily removed in ZVI process of the integrated system. These compounds, with molecular weights either ranged 10,000-30,000 Da or 0-2000 Da, were mainly the humic acid (HA) and hydrophilic (HyI) compounds. Oxidation-reduction and coagulation were the main removal mechanisms in ZVI process, which could enhance the biodegradability of the system effluent. Furthermore, the integrated system showed a rapid recovery performance against the sudden loading shock and remained high efficiencies for pollutants removal. Overall, the integrated system was proved feasible for coking wastewater treatment in practical applications.

  20. Combined expert system/neural networks method for process fault diagnosis

    DOEpatents

    Reifman, J.; Wei, T.Y.C.

    1995-08-15

    A two-level hierarchical approach for process fault diagnosis of an operating system employs a function-oriented approach at a first level and a component characteristic-oriented approach at a second level, where the decision-making procedure is structured in order of decreasing intelligence with increasing precision. At the first level, the diagnostic method is general and has knowledge of the overall process including a wide variety of plant transients and the functional behavior of the process components. An expert system classifies malfunctions by function to narrow the diagnostic focus to a particular set of possible faulty components that could be responsible for the detected functional misbehavior of the operating system. At the second level, the diagnostic method limits its scope to component malfunctions, using more detailed knowledge of component characteristics. Trained artificial neural networks are used to further narrow the diagnosis and to uniquely identify the faulty component by classifying the abnormal condition data as a failure of one of the hypothesized components through component characteristics. Once an anomaly is detected, the hierarchical structure is used to successively narrow the diagnostic focus from a function misbehavior, i.e., a function oriented approach, until the fault can be determined, i.e., a component characteristic-oriented approach. 9 figs.

  1. Combined expert system/neural networks method for process fault diagnosis

    DOEpatents

    Reifman, Jaques; Wei, Thomas Y. C.

    1995-01-01

    A two-level hierarchical approach for process fault diagnosis is an operating system employs a function-oriented approach at a first level and a component characteristic-oriented approach at a second level, where the decision-making procedure is structured in order of decreasing intelligence with increasing precision. At the first level, the diagnostic method is general and has knowledge of the overall process including a wide variety of plant transients and the functional behavior of the process components. An expert system classifies malfunctions by function to narrow the diagnostic focus to a particular set of possible faulty components that could be responsible for the detected functional misbehavior of the operating system. At the second level, the diagnostic method limits its scope to component malfunctions, using more detailed knowledge of component characteristics. Trained artificial neural networks are used to further narrow the diagnosis and to uniquely identify the faulty component by classifying the abnormal condition data as a failure of one of the hypothesized components through component characteristics. Once an anomaly is detected, the hierarchical structure is used to successively narrow the diagnostic focus from a function misbehavior, i.e., a function oriented approach, until the fault can be determined, i.e., a component characteristic-oriented approach.

  2. Combining In-situ and In-transit Processing to Enable Extreme-Sscale Scientific Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, Janine C.; Abbasi, Hasan; Bremer, Peer-Timo; Grout, Ray; Gyulassy, Attila; Jin, Tong; Klasky, Scott A; Kolla, Hemanth; Parashar, Manish; Pascucci, Valerio; Pebay, Philippe; Thompson, David; Yu, Hongfeng; Zhang, Fan; Chen, Jacqueline H

    2012-01-01

    With the onset of extreme-scale computing, I/O constraints make it increasingly difficult for scientists to save a sufficient amount of raw simulation data to persistent storage. One potential solution is to change the data analysis pipeline from a post-process centric to a concurrent approach based on either in-situ or in-transit processing. In this context computations are considered in-situ if they utilize the primary compute resources, while in-transit processing refers to offloading computations to a set of secondary resources using asynchronous data transfers. In this paper we explore the design and implementation of three common analysis techniques typically performed on large-scale scientific simulations: topological analysis, descriptive statistics, and visualization. We summarize algorithmic developments, describe a resource scheduling system to coordinate the execution of various analysis workflows, and discuss our implementation using the DataSpaces and ADIOS frameworks that support efficient data movement between in-situ and in-transit computations. We demonstrate the efficiency of our lightweight, flexible framework by deploying it on the Jaguar XK6 to analyze data generated by S3D, a massively parallel turbulent combustion code. Our framework allows scientists dealing with the data deluge at extreme scale to perform analyses at increased temporal resolutions, mitigate I/O costs, and significantly improve the time to insight.

  3. The combined influence of central and peripheral routes in the online persuasion process.

    PubMed

    SanJosé-Cabezudo, Rebeca; Gutiérrez-Arranz, Ana M; Gutiérrez-Cillán, Jesús

    2009-06-01

    The elaboration likelihood model (ELM) is one of the most widely used psychological theories in academic literature to account for how advertising information is processed. The current work seeks to overturn one of the basic principles of the ELM and takes account of new variables in the model that help to explain the online persuasion process more clearly. Specifically, we posit that in a context of high-involvement exposure to advertising (e.g., Web pages), central and peripheral processing routes may act together. In a repeated-measures experimental design, 112 participants were exposed to two Web sites of a fictitious travel agency, differing only in their design--serious versus amusing. Findings evidence that a peripheral cue, such as how the Web pages are presented, does prove relevant when attempting to reflect the level of effectiveness. Moreover, if we take account of individuals' motivation when accessing the Internet, whether cognitive or affective, the motivation will impact their response to the Web site design. The work contributes to ELM literature and may help firms to pinpoint those areas and features of Internet advertising that prove most efficient.

  4. Combination process of diamond machining and roll-to-roll UV-replication for thin film micro- and nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Väyrynen, J.; Mönkkönen, K.; Siitonen, S.

    2016-09-01

    Roll-to-roll (R2R) ultraviolet (UV) curable embossing replication process is a highly accurate and cost effective way to replicate large quantities of thin film polymer parts. These structures can be used for microfluidics, LED-optics, light guides, displays, cameras, diffusers, decorative, laser sensing and measuring devices. In the R2R UV-process, plastic thin film coated with UV-curable lacquer, passes through an imprinting embossing drum and is then hardened by an UV-lamp. One key element for mastering this process is the ability to manufacture a rotating drum containing micro- and nanostructures. Depending on the pattern shapes, the drum can be directly machined by diamond machining or it can be done through wafer level lithographical process. Due to the shrinkage of UV-curable lacquer, the R2R drum pattern process needs to be prototyped few times, in order to get the desired performance and shape from the R2R produced part. To speed up the prototyping and overall process we have developed a combination process where planar diamond machining patterns are being turned into a drum roller. Initially diamond machined patterns from a planar surface are replicated on a polymer sheet using UV-replication. Secondly, a nickel stamper shim is grown form the polymer sheet and at the end the stamper is turned into a roller and used in the R2R process. This process allows various micro milled, turned, grooved and ruled structures to be made at thin film products through the R2R process. In this paper, the process flow and examples of fabricating R2R embossed UVcurable thin film micro- and nanostructures from planar diamond machined patterns, is reported.

  5. Combined mesophilic anaerobic and thermophilic aerobic digestion process for high-strength food wastewater to increase removal efficiency and reduce sludge discharge.

    PubMed

    Jang, H M; Park, S K; Ha, J H; Park, J M

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a process that combines the mesophilic anaerobic digestion (MAD) process with thermophilic aerobic digestion (TAD) for high-strength food wastewater (FWW) treatment was developed to examine the removal of organic matter and methane production. All effluent discharged from the MAD process was separated into solid and liquid portions. The liquid part was discarded and the sludge part was passed to the TAD process for further degradation. Then, the digested sludge from the TAD process was recycled back to the MAD unit to achieve low sludge discharge from the combined process. The reactor combination was operated in two phases: during Phase I, 40 d of total hydraulic retention time (HRT) was applied; during Phase II, 20 d was applied. HRT of the TAD process was fixed at 5 d. For a comparison, a control process (single-stage MAD) was operated with the same HRTs of the combined process. Our results indicated that the combined process showed over 90% total solids, volatile solids and chemical oxygen demand removal efficiencies. In addition, the combined process showed a significantly higher methane production rate than that of the control process. Consequently, the experimental data demonstrated that the combined MAD-TAD process was successfully employed for high-strength FWW treatment with highly efficient organic matter reduction and methane production.

  6. Does lake size matter? Combining morphology and process modeling to examine the contribution of lake classes to population-scale processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winslow, Luke A.; Read, Jordan S.; Hanson, Paul C.; Stanley, Emily H.

    2014-01-01

    With lake abundances in the thousands to millions, creating an intuitive understanding of the distribution of morphology and processes in lakes is challenging. To improve researchers’ understanding of large-scale lake processes, we developed a parsimonious mathematical model based on the Pareto distribution to describe the distribution of lake morphology (area, perimeter and volume). While debate continues over which mathematical representation best fits any one distribution of lake morphometric characteristics, we recognize the need for a simple, flexible model to advance understanding of how the interaction between morphometry and function dictates scaling across large populations of lakes. These models make clear the relative contribution of lakes to the total amount of lake surface area, volume, and perimeter. They also highlight the critical thresholds at which total perimeter, area and volume would be evenly distributed across lake size-classes have Pareto slopes of 0.63, 1 and 1.12, respectively. These models of morphology can be used in combination with models of process to create overarching “lake population” level models of process. To illustrate this potential, we combine the model of surface area distribution with a model of carbon mass accumulation rate. We found that even if smaller lakes contribute relatively less to total surface area than larger lakes, the increasing carbon accumulation rate with decreasing lake size is strong enough to bias the distribution of carbon mass accumulation towards smaller lakes. This analytical framework provides a relatively simple approach to upscaling morphology and process that is easily generalizable to other ecosystem processes.

  7. Combined flatland ST radar and digital-barometer network observations of mesoscale processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, W. L.; Vanzandt, T. E.; Gage, K. S.; Einaudi, F. E.; Rottman, J. W.; Hollinger, S. E.

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes a six-station digital-barometer network centered on the Flatland ST radar to support observational studies of gravity waves and other mesoscale features at the Flatland Atmospheric Observatory in central Illinois. The network's current mode of operation is examined, and a preliminary example of an apparent group of waves evident throughout the network as well as throughout the troposphere is presented. Preliminary results demonstrate the capabilities of the current operational system to study wave convection, wave-front, and other coherent mesoscale interactions and processes throughout the troposphere. Unfiltered traces for the pressure and horizontal zonal wind, for days 351 to 353 UT, 1990, are illustrated.

  8. Remediation of a winery wastewater combining aerobic biological oxidation and electrochemical advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Francisca C; Boaventura, Rui A R; Brillas, Enric; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2015-05-15

    Apart from a high biodegradable fraction consisting of organic acids, sugars and alcohols, winery wastewaters exhibit a recalcitrant fraction containing high-molecular-weight compounds as polyphenols, tannins and lignins. In this context, a winery wastewater was firstly subjected to a biological oxidation to mineralize the biodegradable fraction and afterwards an electrochemical advanced oxidation process (EAOP) was applied in order to mineralize the refractory molecules or transform them into simpler ones that can be further biodegraded. The biological oxidation led to above 97% removals of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), but was inefficient on the degradation of a bioresistant fraction corresponding to 130 mg L(-1) of DOC, 380 mg O2 L(-1) of COD and 8.2 mg caffeic acid equivalent L(-1) of total dissolved polyphenols. Various EAOPs such as anodic oxidation with electrogenerated H2O2 (AO-H2O2), electro-Fenton (EF), UVA photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) and solar PEF (SPEF) were then applied to the recalcitrant effluent fraction using a 2.2 L lab-scale flow plant containing an electrochemical cell equipped with a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and a carbon-PTFE air-diffusion cathode and coupled to a photoreactor with compound parabolic collectors (CPCs). The influence of initial Fe(2+) concentration and current density on the PEF process was evaluated. The relative oxidative ability of EAOPs increased in the order AO-H2O2 < EF < PEF ≤ SPEF. The SPEF process using an initial Fe(2+) concentration of 35 mg L(-1), current density of 25 mA cm(-2), pH of 2.8 and 25 °C reached removals of 86% on DOC and 68% on COD after 240 min, regarding the biologically treated effluent, along with energy consumptions of 45 kWh (kg DOC)(-1) and 5.1 kWh m(-3). After this coupled treatment, color, odor, COD, BOD5, NH4(+), NO3(-) and SO4(2-) parameters complied with the legislation targets and, in addition, a total

  9. A Complex Approach to UXO Discrimination: Combining Advanced EMI Forward Models and Statistical Signal Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    assume that the NSMS can be approximated by a series of expansion functions F m (  ) such that (  )   m F m (  ) m1 M  (31) UXO...a receiver coil is the electromotive force given by the negative of the time derivative of the secondary magnetic flux through the coil. Since the...statistical signal processing MM-1572 Final Report Sky Research, Inc. January 2012 52 A support vector machine learns from data: when fed a series

  10. Hybrid Processes Combining Photocatalysis and Ceramic Membrane Filtration for Degradation of Humic Acids in Saline Water

    PubMed Central

    Song, Lili; Zhu, Bo; Gray, Stephen; Duke, Mikel; Muthukumaran, Shobha

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the combined effects of photocatalysis with ceramic membrane filtration for the removal of humic acid in the presence of salt; to simulate saline wastewater conditions. The effects of operating parameters, such as salinity and TiO2 concentration on permeate fluxes, total organic carbon (TOC), and UV absorbance removal, were investigated. The interaction between the humic acids and TiO2 photocatalyst played an important role in the observed flux change during ceramic membrane filtration. The results for this hybrid system showed that the TOC removal was more than 70% for both without NaCl and with the 500 ppm NaCl concentration, and 62% and 66% for 1000 and 2000 ppm NaCl concentrations. The reduction in UV absorbance was more complete in the absence of NaCl compared to the presence of NaCl. The operation of the integrated photoreactor-ceramic membrane filter over five repeat cycles is described. It can be concluded that the overall removal performance of the hybrid system was influenced by the presence of salts, as salt leads to agglomeration of TiO2 particles by suppressing the stabilising effects of electrostatic repulsion and thereby reduces the effective surface contact between the pollutant and the photocatalyst. PMID:26938568

  11. Combination of microalgae cultivation with membrane processes for the treatment of municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lu; Wei, Jiang; Wang, Weiguo; Wang, Cunwen

    2013-01-01

    The treatment of wastewater by microalgae cultivation has attracted more and more attention. However, the way to harvest microalgae cells from the wastewater and the treatment of the large quantity of residual solution have become critical issues. In this work, a new approach for the treatment of municipal wastewater is presented. The combination of flocculation for removing mainly microalgae and thereafter membrane filtration for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and conductivity reduction of the residual solution after flocculation is discussed. The COD concentration of the wastewater decreased from 260 to 84 mg/L after flocculation by chitosan. Five ultrafiltration (UF) membranes and two nanofiltration (NF) membranes were used for filtration to find a suitable membrane for COD and conductivity reduction. Among the five UF membranes, GR82PE showed the best performance, whose permeate flux and COD retention at 4 bar were 189.66 L/(m(2)·h) and 43.03%, respectively. NF membranes showed higher COD and conductivity retentions than UF membranes. The COD retention of Desal5-DK reached 98.3% at 20 bar. Lastly, the flux recovery after the filtration test of each membrane is also discussed.

  12. Combined Theoretical and Experimental Analysis of Processes Determining Cathode Performance in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kukla, Maija M.; Kotomin, Eugene Alexej; Merkle, R.; Mastrikov, Yuri; Maier, J.

    2013-02-11

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are under intensive investigation since the 1980’s as these devices open the way for ecologically clean direct conversion of the chemical energy into electricity, avoiding the efficiency limitation by Carnot’s cycle for thermochemical conversion. However, the practical development of SOFC faces a number of unresolved fundamental problems, in particular concerning the kinetics of the electrode reactions, especially oxygen reduction reaction. We review recent experimental and theoretical achievements in the current understanding of the cathode performance by exploring and comparing mostly three materials: (La,Sr)MnO3 (LSM), (La,Sr)(Co,Fe)O3 (LSCF) and (Ba,Sr)(Co,Fe)O3 (BSCF). Special attention is paid to a critical evaluation of advantages and disadvantages of BSCF, which shows the best cathode kinetics known so far for oxides. We demonstrate that it is the combined experimental and theoretical analysis of all major elementary steps of the oxygen reduction reaction which allows us to predict the rate determining steps for a given material under specific operational conditions and thus control and improve SOFC performance.

  13. Combined theoretical and experimental analysis of processes determining cathode performance in solid oxide fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Kuklja, M M; Kotomin, E A; Merkle, R; Mastrikov, Yu A; Maier, J

    2013-04-21

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are under intensive investigation since the 1980's as these devices open the way for ecologically clean direct conversion of the chemical energy into electricity, avoiding the efficiency limitation by Carnot's cycle for thermochemical conversion. However, the practical development of SOFC faces a number of unresolved fundamental problems, in particular concerning the kinetics of the electrode reactions, especially oxygen reduction reaction. We review recent experimental and theoretical achievements in the current understanding of the cathode performance by exploring and comparing mostly three materials: (La,Sr)MnO3 (LSM), (La,Sr)(Co,Fe)O3 (LSCF) and (Ba,Sr)(Co,Fe)O3 (BSCF). Special attention is paid to a critical evaluation of advantages and disadvantages of BSCF, which shows the best cathode kinetics known so far for oxides. We demonstrate that it is the combined experimental and theoretical analysis of all major elementary steps of the oxygen reduction reaction which allows us to predict the rate determining steps for a given material under specific operational conditions and thus control and improve SOFC performance.

  14. Hybrid Processes Combining Photocatalysis and Ceramic Membrane Filtration for Degradation of Humic Acids in Saline Water.

    PubMed

    Song, Lili; Zhu, Bo; Gray, Stephen; Duke, Mikel; Muthukumaran, Shobha

    2016-03-01

    This study explored the combined effects of photocatalysis with ceramic membrane filtration for the removal of humic acid in the presence of salt; to simulate saline wastewater conditions. The effects of operating parameters, such as salinity and TiO₂ concentration on permeate fluxes, total organic carbon (TOC), and UV absorbance removal, were investigated. The interaction between the humic acids and TiO₂ photocatalyst played an important role in the observed flux change during ceramic membrane filtration. The results for this hybrid system showed that the TOC removal was more than 70% for both without NaCl and with the 500 ppm NaCl concentration, and 62% and 66% for 1000 and 2000 ppm NaCl concentrations. The reduction in UV absorbance was more complete in the absence of NaCl compared to the presence of NaCl. The operation of the integrated photoreactor-ceramic membrane filter over five repeat cycles is described. It can be concluded that the overall removal performance of the hybrid system was influenced by the presence of salts, as salt leads to agglomeration of TiO₂ particles by suppressing the stabilising effects of electrostatic repulsion and thereby reduces the effective surface contact between the pollutant and the photocatalyst.

  15. Combined multi-nozzle deposition and freeze casting process to superimpose two porous networks for hierarchical three-dimensional microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Jessica E; Hunger, Philipp M; Wang, Chengyang; Hamid, Qudus; Wegst, Ulrike G K; Sun, Wei

    2014-03-01

    An engineered three-dimensional scaffold with hierarchical porosity and multiple niche microenvironments is produced using a combined multi-nozzle deposition-freeze casting technique. In this paper we present a process to fabricate a scaffold with improved interconnectivity and hierarchical porosity. The scaffold is produced using a two-stage manufacturing process which superimposes a printed porous alginate (Alg) network and a directionally frozen ceramic-polymer matrix. The combination of two processes, multi-nozzle deposition and freeze casting, provides engineering control of the microenvironment of the scaffolds over several length scales; including the addition of lateral porosity and the ratio of polymer to ceramic microstructures. The printed polymer scaffold is submerged in a ceramic-polymer slurry and subsequently, both structures are directionally frozen (freeze cast), superimposing and patterning both microenvironments into a single hierarchical architecture. An optional additional sintering step removes the organic material and densifies the ceramic phase to produce a well-defined network of open pores and a homogenous cell wall material composition. The techniques presented in this contribution address processing challenges, such as structure definition, reproducibility and fine adjustments of unique length scales, which one typically encounters when fabricating topological channels between longitudinal and transverse porous networks.

  16. The recursive combination filter approach of pre-processing for the estimation of standard deviation of RR series.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Alok; Swati, D

    2015-09-01

    Variation in the interval between the R-R peaks of the electrocardiogram represents the modulation of the cardiac oscillations by the autonomic nervous system. This variation is contaminated by anomalous signals called ectopic beats, artefacts or noise which mask the true behaviour of heart rate variability. In this paper, we have proposed a combination filter of recursive impulse rejection filter and recursive 20% filter, with recursive application and preference of replacement over removal of abnormal beats to improve the pre-processing of the inter-beat intervals. We have tested this novel recursive combinational method with median method replacement to estimate the standard deviation of normal to normal (SDNN) beat intervals of congestive heart failure (CHF) and normal sinus rhythm subjects. This work discusses the improvement in pre-processing over single use of impulse rejection filter and removal of abnormal beats for heart rate variability for the estimation of SDNN and Poncaré plot descriptors (SD1, SD2, and SD1/SD2) in detail. We have found the 22 ms value of SDNN and 36 ms value of SD2 descriptor of Poincaré plot as clinical indicators in discriminating the normal cases from CHF cases. The pre-processing is also useful in calculation of Lyapunov exponent which is a nonlinear index as Lyapunov exponents calculated after proposed pre-processing modified in a way that it start following the notion of less complex behaviour of diseased states.

  17. Combined Fenton oxidation and aerobic biological processes for treating a surfactant wastewater containing abundant sulfate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Jun; Song, Yang; Mai, Jun-Sheng

    2008-12-30

    The present study is to investigate the treatment of a surfactant wastewater containing abundant sulfate by Fenton oxidation and aerobic biological processes. The operating conditions have been optimized. Working at an initial pH value of 8, a Fe2+ dosage of 600mgL(-1) and a H2O2 dosage of 120mgL(-1), the chemical oxidation demand (COD) and linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) were decreased from 1500 and 490mgL(-1) to 230 and 23mgL(-1) after 40min of Fenton oxidation, respectively. Advanced oxidation pretreatment using Fenton reagent was very effective at enhancing the biodegradability of this kind of wastewater. The wastewater was further treated by a bio-chemical treatment process based on an immobilized biomass reactor with a hydraulic detention time (HRT) of 20h after Fenton oxidation pretreatment under the optimal operating conditions. It was found that the COD and LAS of the final effluent were less than 100 and 5mgL(-1), corresponding to a removal efficiencies of over 94% and 99%, respectively.

  18. Removal of herbicidal ionic liquids by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes combined with biological treatment.

    PubMed

    Pęziak-Kowalska, Daria; Fourcade, Florence; Niemczak, Michał; Amrane, Abdeltif; Chrzanowski, Łukasz; Lota, Grzegorz

    2016-09-12

    Recently a new group of ionic liquids (ILs) with herbicidal properties has been proposed for use in agriculture. Owing to the design of specific physicochemical properties, this group, referred to as herbicidal ionic liquids (HILs), allows for reducing herbicide field doses. Several ILs comprising phenoxy herbicides as anions and quaternary ammonium cations have been synthesized and tested under greenhouse and field conditions. However, since they are to be introduced into the environment, appropriate treatment technologies should be developed in order to ensure their proper removal and avoid possible contamination. In this study, didecyldimethylammonium (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy) acetate was selected as a model HIL to evaluate the efficiency of a hybrid treatment method. Electrochemical oxidation or electro-Fenton was considered as a pretreatment step, whereas biodegradation was selected as the secondary treatment method. Both processes were carried out in current mode, at 10 mA with carbon felt as working electrode. The efficiency of degradation, oxidation and mineralization was evaluated after 6 h. Both processes decreased the total organic carbon and chemical oxygen demand (COD) values and increased the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) on the COD ratio to a value close to 0.4, showing that the electrolyzed solutions can be considered as 'readily biodegradable.'

  19. Mesoscale modeling of combined aerosol and photo-oxidant processes in the eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazaridis, M.; Spyridaki, A.; Solberg, S.; Smolík, J.; Ždímal, V.; Eleftheriadis, K.; Aleksandropoulou, V.; Hov, O.; Georgopoulos, P. G.

    2004-09-01

    Particulate matter and photo-oxidant processes in the Eastern Mediterranean have been studied using the UAM-AERO mesoscale air quality model in conjunction with the NILU-CTM regional model. Meteorological data were obtained from the RAMS prognostic meteorological model. The modeling domain includes the eastern Mediterranean area between the Greek mainland and the island of Crete. The modeling system is applied to study the atmospheric processes in three periods, i.e. 13-16 July 2000, 26-30 July 2000 and 7-14 January 2001. The spatial and temporal distributions of both gaseous and particulate matter pollutants have been extensively studied together with the identification of major emission sources in the area. The modeling results were compared with field data obtained in the same period. Comparison of the modeling results with measured data was performed for a number of gaseous and aerosol species. The UAM-AERO model underestimates the PM10 measured concentrations during summer but better comparison has been obtained for the winter data.

  20. Central processing energetic factors mediate impaired motor control in ADHD combined subtype but not in ADHD inattentive subtype.

    PubMed

    Egeland, Jens; Ueland, Torill; Johansen, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Participants with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often impaired in visuomotor tasks. However, little is known about the contribution of modal impairment in motor function relative to central processing deficits or whether different processes underlie the impairment in ADHD combined (ADHD-C) versus ADHD inattentive (ADHD-I) subtype. The present study analyzes performance on the Visual Motor Integration Test relative to less effortful motor tests as well as on measures of energetics. Both ADHD groups showed evidence of impaired motor function on both visual-motor integration (VMI) and the less effortful motor tests. The ADHD-C group performed below the ADHD-I group on VMI, but their performance correlated highly with the measures of the energetic pools of arousal and effort. Different mechanisms may underlie impaired fine motor skills in ADHD. Central processing deficits contribute significantly to the deficit of ADHD-C but do not explain the motor impairment in ADHD-I.

  1. A novel process combining simultaneous partial nitrification, anammox and denitrification (SNAD) with denitrifying phosphorus removal (DPR) to treat sewage.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xin; Zhou, Jian; Li, Yancheng; Qing, Xiaoxia; He, Qiang

    2016-12-01

    In this study, a novel process combined simultaneous partial nitrification, anammox and denitrification (SNAD) with denitrifying phosphorus removal (DPR) was proposed for advanced nitrogen removal. Firstly simulating sewage was introduced to a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) for organic matter removal and anaerobic phosphorus release (stage 1). Then effluent of stage 1 with low COD was discharged to a sequencing biofilm batch reactor (SBBR) for partial nitrification, anammox and partial denitrification (stage 2). The nitrate produced in SBBR was fed into SBR again, in which the nitrate was removed by DPR process (stage 3). The performance of the SNAD-DPR process was investigated. And effects of carbon source addition during start-up period on microbial community were discussed based on 16S rRNA amplicon pyrosequencing.

  2. Positioning improvement by L1-L2 wave combination implementation in Data process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kheloufi, N.; Kahlouche, S.; Naamaoui, H.

    2012-04-01

    Geodetic reference frames are an essential foundation for all surveys related to geodetic works and land management that is why their realization is not an easy task and requires skills and more attention to avoid errors. Large area cannot provide a dense nation-wide control GPS network without minimization of these errors. In order to perform this task, an observation strategy taking in account all the corrections which will influence the GPS data treatment is necessary. GPS reference works done in the framework of my master thesis have provided interesting results for the modeling concept of survey errors. Carrier phase based GPS measurements were not sufficient, if we have not taken in consideration the different parameters (GDOP, Atmosphere, Elevation mask ...) to control the three dimension positions measurement which required a sub centimeter accuracies that could not be reached without bringing several corrections to the patterned errors. For those applications requiring sub meter or even centimeter-level accuracy in position the appropriate radius of a field station is limited to less than 1000 km for the long baselines station (Arzew-Constantine baseline). To overcome this unsatisfactory situation, the spatial and temporal correlations of GPS measurement errors introduced by ionosphere, troposphere, and satellite orbit need to be modeled in a real time multi station solution. A concept for such a local GPS reference network covering control point and benchmark areas only densely can be concerned by this study because reduction of errors propagation effect where an efficient algorithm such as geodetic lines, Levenberg-Marquardt and many others has been developed in order to minimize accuracy loss. Therefore the effort agreed in order to improve accuracies on networks computations has been reduced drastically. In this paper, we discuss the carrier receiver wave combination choice in order to conjugate it with different algorithms cited above to perform an

  3. Probing electron transfer processes in YPO(4):Ce, Sm by combined synchrotron-laser excitation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Poolton, N R J; Bos, A J J; Jones, G O; Dorenbos, P

    2010-05-12

    Yttrium phosphate co-doped with cerium and samarium acts as a charge storage phosphor, but in highly doped material (0.5% co-doping levels), the proximity of defects leads to the uncontrolled non-radiative loss of stored charge through tunnelling. In order to characterize these defects, their mutual interactions and intra-pair charge transfer routes, experiments have been undertaken in which a laser probe is deployed during luminescence excitation using a synchrotron. Two modes of operation are described; in each case, the laser (2.8 eV) probes only Sm(2+) ions, and the detection is set to monitor exclusively Ce(3+) 5d-4f emission. Mode 1: the sample is pumped with monochromatic synchrotron photons in the range 4.5-12 eV, and the resultant charge populations probed with the laser 30 s later; this has the effect of sampling electrons trapped at Sm(2+) that are in quasi-equilibrium. Here, a clear transition between a sub-bandgap Urbach tail region and excitations above the mobility edge is especially apparent, enabling an accurate value of the conduction band energy of YPO(4) to be determined, 9.20 eV. Furthermore, the Sm(2+) and Ce(3+) ground state energies can be positioned within the bandgap (6.8 eV and 3.85 eV above the top of the valence band, respectively). Mode 2: the sample is pumped with monochromatic synchrotron photons in the range 4.5-12 eV and, during this pumping process, the laser probe is activated. This more dynamic process probes direct electron transfer excitation processes between spatially correlated Sm-Ce defect pairs, via their excited states; the laser probe enhances the Ce(3+) emission if direct electron transfer from the Ce(3+) ground state to the excited states of Sm(2+) is being pumped, or quenches the luminescence if the Ce(3+) excited states are pumped. The experiments allow for a precise measure of the difference in energy between the Sm(2+) and Ce(3+) ground states (2.98 eV).

  4. Models for Curricular Materials Development: Combining Applied Development Processes with Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleton, James; Lawrenz, Frances; Craft, Elaine; Cudmore, Wynn; Hall, Jim; Waintraub, Jack

    2007-12-01

    Developing curricular materials for technical and vocational education is particularly challenging because of the comprehensive requirements for technical education and the rapidity with which technical positions are evolving. Well-educated employees are expected to have general communication, reasoning, problem-solving, and behavioral skills in addition to occupation-specific technical knowledge. Furthermore, technical and vocational education materials must meet the needs of various contexts each with its own unique array of factors which must be accommodated. To assist in the process of materials development, this paper presents a comprehensive and contextualized model as a guide for curricular developers. This model was formed through the synthesis of two theoretical and four applied models, with the outline of the applied models occurring as part of a national evaluation of the National Science Foundation's Advanced Technological Education Program. Examples illuminating the elements of the template are provided.

  5. Combining metabolic engineering and process optimization to improve production and secretion of fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Ledesma-Amaro, Rodrigo; Dulermo, Remi; Niehus, Xochitl; Nicaud, Jean-Marc

    2016-11-01

    Microbial oils are sustainable alternatives to petroleum for the production of chemicals and fuels. Oleaginous yeasts are promising source of oils and Yarrowia lipolytica is the most studied and engineered one. Nonetheless the commercial production of biolipids is so far limited to high value products due to the elevated production and extraction costs. In order to contribute to overcoming these limitations we exploited the possibility of secreting lipids to the culture broth, uncoupling production and biomass formation and facilitating the extraction. We therefore considered two synthetic approaches, Strategy I where fatty acids are produced by enhancing the flux through neutral lipid formation, as typically occurs in eukaryotic systems and Strategy II where the bacterial system to produce free fatty acids is mimicked. The engineered strains, in a coupled fermentation and extraction process using alkanes, secreted the highest titer of lipids described so far, with a content of 120% of DCW.

  6. Mesoscale modeling of combined aerosol and photo-oxidant processes in the Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazaridis, M.; Spyridaki, A.; Solberg, S.; Smolík, J.; Zdímal, V.; Eleftheriadis, K.; Aleksanropoulou, V.; Hov, O.; Georgopoulos, P. G.

    2005-03-01

    Particulate matter and photo-oxidant processes in the Eastern Mediterranean have been studied using the UAM-AERO mesoscale air quality model in conjunction with the NILU-CTM regional model. Meteorological data were obtained from the RAMS prognostic meteorological model. The modeling domain includes the eastern Mediterranean area between the Greek mainland and the island of Crete. The modeling system is applied to study the atmospheric processes in three periods, i.e. 13-16 July 2000, 26-30 July 2000 and 7-14 January 2001. The spatial and temporal distributions of both gaseous and particulate matter pollutants have been extensively studied together with the identification of major emission sources in the area. The modeling results were compared with field data obtained in the same period. The objective of the current modeling work was mainly to apply the UAM-AERO mesoscale model in the eastern Mediterranean in order to assess the performed field campaigns and determine that the applied mesoscale model is fit for this purpose. Comparison of the modeling results with measured data was performed for a number of gaseous and aerosol species. The UAM-AERO model underestimates the PM10 measured concentrations during summer and winter campaigns. Discrepancies between modeled and measured data are attributed to unresolved particulate matter emissions. Particulate matter in the area is mainly composed by sulphate, sea salt and crustal materials, and with significant amounts of nitrate, ammonium and organics. During winter the particulate matter and oxidant concentrations were lower than the summer values.

  7. A combined process of adsorption and Fenton-like oxidation for furfural removal using zero-valent iron residue.

    PubMed

    Li, Furong; Bao, Jianguo; Zhang, Tian C; Lei, Yutian

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the feasibility of using a combined adsorption and Fenton-like oxidation process (with zero-valent iron (ZVI) residue from heat wraps as an absorbent and catalyst) to remove furfural in the solution was evaluated. The influencing parameters (e.g. pH, H2O2 concentration, initial furfural concentration) and the reusability of ZVI residue (to replace the iron powder) were estimated. The ZVI residue was found to have much better adsorption effect on furfural at pH 2.0 compared with pH 6.7. For Fenton-like reaction alone with ZVI residue, the highest furfural removal of 97.5% was observed at the concentration of 0.176 mol/L H2O2, and all of the samples had >80% removal efficiency at different initial furfural concentrations of 2, 10, 20, 30 and 40 mmol/L. However, with a combined adsorption and Fenton-like oxidation, the removal efficiency of furfural was nearly 100% for all treatments. The ZVI residue used for furfural removal was much better than that of iron powder in the Fenton-like reaction at a seven-cycle experiment. This study suggests the combined process of adsorption and Fenton-like oxidation using ZVI residue is effective for the treatment of furfural in the liquid.

  8. Experimental Investigation of Space Radiation Processing in Lunar Soil Ilmenite: Combining Perspectives from Surface Science and Transmission Electron Microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christoffersen, R.; Keller, L. P.; Rahman, Z.; Baragiola, R.

    2010-01-01

    Energetic ions mostly from the solar wind play a major role in lunar space weathering because they contribute structural and chemical changes to the space-exposed surfaces of lunar regolith grains. In mature mare soils, ilmenite (FeTiO3) grains in the finest size fraction have been shown in transmission electron microscope (TEM) studies to exhibit key differences in their response to space radiation processing relative to silicates [1,2,3]. In ilmenite, solar ion radiation alters host grain outer margins to produce 10-100 nm thick layers that are microstructurally complex, but dominantly crystalline compared to the amorphous radiation-processed rims on silicates [1,2,3]. Spatially well-resolved analytical TEM measurements also show nm-scale compositional and chemical state changes in these layers [1,3]. These include shifts in Fe/Ti ratio from strong surface Fe-enrichment (Fe/Ti >> 1), to Fe depletion (Fe/Ti < 1) at 40-50 nm below the grain surface [1,3]. These compositional changes are not observed in the radiation-processed rims on silicates [4]. Several mechanism(s) to explain the overall relations in the ilmenite grain rims by radiation processing and/or additional space weathering processes were proposed by [1], and remain under current consideration [3]. A key issue has concerned the ability of ion radiation processing alone to produce some of the deeper- penetrating compositional changes. In order to provide some experimental constraints on these questions, we have performed a combined X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and field-emission scanning transmission electron (FE-STEM) study of experimentally ion-irradiated ilmenite. A key feature of this work is the combination of analytical techniques sensitive to changes in the irradiated samples at depth scales going from the immediate surface (approx.5 nm; XPS), to deeper in the grain interior (5-100 nm; FE-STEM).

  9. Mathematical modeling of COD removal via the combined treatment of domestic wastewater and landfill leachate based on the PACT process.

    PubMed

    Fernández Bou, Ángel S; Nascentes, Alexandre Lioi; Costa Pereira, Barbara; Da Silva, Leonardo Duarte Batista; Alberto Ferreira, João; Campos, Juacyara Carbonelli

    2015-01-01

    The experiments performed in this study consisted of 16 batch reactors fed different mixtures of landfill leachate combined with synthetic wastewater treated using the Powdered Activated Carbon Treatment (PACT) process. The objective was to measure the COD mass removal per liter each day for each reactor using two models: the first model combined the variables PAC concentration (0 g·L(-1), 2 g·L(-1), 4 g·L(-1), and 6 g·L(-1)) and leachate rate in the wastewater (0%, 2%, 5%, and 10%), and the second model combined the PAC concentration and the influent COD. The Response Surface Methodology with Central Composite Design was used to describe the response surface of both models considered in this study. Domestic wastewater was produced under controlled conditions in the laboratory where the experiments were performed. The results indicated that the PAC effect was null when the influent did not contain leachate; however, as the concentration of leachate applied to the mixture was increased, the addition of a higher PAC concentration resulted in a better COD mass removal in the reactors. The adjusted R(2) values of the two models were greater than 0.95, and the predicted R(2) values were greater than 0.93. The models may be useful for wastewater treatment companies to calculate PAC requirements in order to meet COD mass removal objectives in combined treatment.

  10. Combining machine learning and remotely sensed bandratios to investigate chlorophyll content and photosynthetic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gholizadeh, Hamed

    Photosynthesis in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems is the key component of the food chain and the most important driver of the global carbon cycle. Therefore, estimation of photosynthesis at large spatial scales is of great scientific importance and can only practically be achieved by remote sensing data and techniques. In this dissertation, remotely sensed information and techniques, as well as field measurements, are used to improve current approaches of assessing photosynthetic processes. More specifically, three topics are the focus here: (1) investigating the application of spectral vegetation indices as proxies for terrestrial chlorophyll in a mangrove ecosystem, (2) evaluating and improving one of the most common empirical ocean-color algorithms (OC4), and (3) developing an improved approach based on sunlit-to-shaded scaled photochemical reflectance index (sPRI) ratios for detecting drought signals in a deciduous forest at eastern United States. The results indicated that although the green normalized difference vegetation index (GNDVI) is an efficient proxy for terrestrial chlorophyll content, there are opportunities to improve the performance of vegetation indices by optimizing the band weights. In regards to the second topic, we concluded that the parameters of the OC4 algorithm and similar empirical models should be tuned regionally and the addition of sea-surface temperature makes the global ocean-color approaches more valid. Results obtained from the third topic showed that considering shaded and sunlit portions of the canopy (i.e., two-leaf models instead of single big leaf models) and taking into account the divergent stomatal behavior of the species (i.e. isohydric and anisohydric) can improve the capability of sPRI in detecting drought. In addition to investigating the photosynthetic processes, the other common theme of the three research topics is the evaluation of "off- the-shelf" solutions to remote-sensing problems. Although widely used

  11. Characteristic Features of the Formation of a Combined Magnetron-Laser Plasma in the Processes of Deposition of Film Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burmakov, A. P.; Kuleshov, V. N.; Prokopchik, K. Yu.

    2016-09-01

    A block diagram of a facility for combined magnetron-laser deposition of coatings and of the systems of controlling and managing this process is considered. The results of analysis of the influence of the gas medium and of laser radiation parameters on the emission-optical properties of laser plasma are considered. The influence of the laser plasma on the electric characteristics of a magnetron discharge is analyzed. The formation of the laser plasma-initiated pulse arc discharge has been established and the influence of the laser radiation parameters on the electric characteristics of this discharge has been determined. The emission optical spectra of the magnetron discharge plasma and of erosion laser plasma are compared separately and in combination.

  12. Treatment of sewage sludge in supercritical water and evaluation of the combined process of supercritical water gasification and oxidation.

    PubMed

    Qian, Lili; Wang, Shuzhong; Xu, Donghai; Guo, Yang; Tang, Xingying; Wang, Longfei

    2015-01-01

    Influences of temperature and oxidation coefficient (n) on sewage sludge treatment in supercritical water and its corresponding reaction mechanism were studied. Moreover, the combined process of supercritical water gasification (SCWG) and supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) was also investigated. The results show that ammonia nitrogen, phenols and pyridines are main refractory intermediates. The weight of solid products at 873K and n=4 is only 3.5wt.% of the initial weight, which is lower than that after combustion. Volatile organics in solid phase have almost released at 723K and n=0. Highest yield of combustible gases was obtained at n=0, and H2 yield can reach 11.81mol/kg at 873K. Furthermore, the combination of SCWG at 723K and SCWO at 873K with a total n=1 is feasible for its good effluent quality and low operation costs.

  13. Growth process of microcrystalline silicon studied by combined photoluminescence and Raman investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Klossek, A.; Mankovics, D.; Ratzke, M.; Arguirov, T.; Kittler, M.; Kirner, S.; Gabriel, O.; Stannowski, B.; Schlatmann, R.; Friedrich, F.

    2013-12-14

    Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of silicon on glass substrates leads to formation of silicon amorphous films with partial crystallization of nano-grains in the amorphous matrix. We studied the transition of amorphous to microcrystalline silicon during such deposition. Formation of silicon nano-grains was detected by means of photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy. The crystalline fraction and the mean size of the nano-grains were estimated by the position and the intensity of the peaks in the Raman spectrum. We showed that the fraction of crystalline silicon in the layers and the size of the nano-grains are strongly dependent on the growth conditions. The photoluminescence spectra exhibit distinct features related to recombination in the amorphous and in the crystalline phases. A significant narrowing of the photoluminescence peak related to the amorphous phase with increasing crystalline fraction indicates a structural modification in the amorphous silicon. It suggests an ordering process occurring before the start of the actual crystallization. A peak at about 1.4 eV was associated with isolated nano-crystalline grains within the amorphous matrix. A correlation between the peak energy and grain size was found, indicating effects of carrier quantum confinement. The experimental results confirm the established theoretical models for growth of microcrystalline silicon films.

  14. Microbiological Contamination at Workplaces in a Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Station Processing Plant Biomass.

    PubMed

    Szulc, Justyna; Otlewska, Anna; Okrasa, Małgorzata; Majchrzycka, Katarzyna; Sulyok, Michael; Gutarowska, Beata

    2017-01-21

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the microbial contamination at a plant biomass processing thermal power station (CHP). We found 2.42 × 10³ CFU/m³ of bacteria and 1.37 × 10⁴ CFU/m³ of fungi in the air; 2.30 × 10⁷ CFU/g of bacteria and 4.46 × 10⁵ CFU/g of fungi in the biomass; and 1.61 × 10² CFU/cm² bacteria and 2.39 × 10¹ CFU/cm² fungi in filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs). Using culture methods, we found 8 genera of mesophilic bacteria and 7 of fungi in the air; 10 genera each of bacteria and fungi in the biomass; and 2 and 5, respectively, on the FFRs. Metagenomic analysis (Illumina MiSeq) revealed the presence of 46 bacterial and 5 fungal genera on the FFRs, including potential pathogens Candida tropicalis, Escherichia coli, Prevotella sp., Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp.). The ability of microorganisms to create a biofilm on the FFRs was confirmed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We also identified secondary metabolites in the biomass and FFRs, including fumigaclavines, quinocitrinines, sterigmatocistin, and 3-nitropropionic acid, which may be toxic to humans. Due to the presence of potential pathogens and mycotoxins, the level of microbiological contamination at workplaces in CHPs should be monitored.

  15. The Perception of Telephone-Processed Speech by Combined Electric and Acoustic Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Tahmina, Qudsia; Runge, Christina; Friedland, David R.

    2013-01-01

    This study assesses the effects of adding low- or high-frequency information to the band-limited telephone-processed speech on bimodal listeners’ telephone speech perception in quiet environments. In the proposed experiments, bimodal users were presented under quiet listening conditions with wideband speech (WB), bandpass-filtered telephone speech (300–3,400 Hz, BP), high-pass filtered speech (f > 300 Hz, HP, i.e., distorted frequency components above 3,400 Hz in telephone speech were restored), and low-pass filtered speech (f < 3,400 Hz, LP, i.e., distorted frequency components below 300 Hz in telephone speech were restored). Results indicated that in quiet environments, for all four types of stimuli, listening with both hearing aid (HA) and cochlear implant (CI) was significantly better than listening with CI alone. For both bimodal and CI-alone modes, there were no statistically significant differences between the LP and BP scores and between the WB and HP scores. However, the HP scores were significantly better than the BP scores. In quiet conditions, both CI alone and bimodal listening achieved the largest benefits when telephone speech was augmented with high rather than low-frequency information. These findings provide support for the design of algorithms that would extend higher frequency information, at least in quiet environments. PMID:24265213

  16. Ultrahigh surface area carbon from carbonated beverages. Combining self-templaing process and in situ activation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Pengfei; Zhang, Zhiyong; Chen, Jihua; Dai, Sheng

    2015-05-11

    Ultrahigh surface area carbons (USACs, e.g., >2000 m2/g) are attracting tremendous attention due to their outstanding performance in energy-related applications. The state-of-art approaches to USACs involve templating or activation methods and all these techniques show certain drawbacks. In this work, a series of USACs with specific surface areas up to 3633 m2/g were prepared in two steps: hydrothermal carbonization (200 °C) of carbonated beverages (CBs) and further thermal treatment in nitrogen (600–1000 °C). The rich inner porosity is formed by a self-templated process during which acids and polyelectrolyte sodium salts in the beverage formulas make some contribution. This strategy covers various CBs such as Coca Cola®, Pepsi Cola®, Dr. Pepper®, andFanta® and it enables an acceptable product yield (based on sugars), for example: 21 wt% for carbon (2940 m2/g) from Coca Cola®. Being potential electrode materials for supercapacitors, those carbon materials possessed a good specific capacitance (57.2–185.7 F g-1) even at a scan rate of 1000 mV s-1. Thus, a simple and efficient strategy to USACs has been presented.

  17. Ultrahigh surface area carbon from carbonated beverages. Combining self-templaing process and in situ activation

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Pengfei; Zhang, Zhiyong; Chen, Jihua; ...

    2015-05-11

    Ultrahigh surface area carbons (USACs, e.g., >2000 m2/g) are attracting tremendous attention due to their outstanding performance in energy-related applications. The state-of-art approaches to USACs involve templating or activation methods and all these techniques show certain drawbacks. In this work, a series of USACs with specific surface areas up to 3633 m2/g were prepared in two steps: hydrothermal carbonization (200 °C) of carbonated beverages (CBs) and further thermal treatment in nitrogen (600–1000 °C). The rich inner porosity is formed by a self-templated process during which acids and polyelectrolyte sodium salts in the beverage formulas make some contribution. This strategy coversmore » various CBs such as Coca Cola®, Pepsi Cola®, Dr. Pepper®, andFanta® and it enables an acceptable product yield (based on sugars), for example: 21 wt% for carbon (2940 m2/g) from Coca Cola®. Being potential electrode materials for supercapacitors, those carbon materials possessed a good specific capacitance (57.2–185.7 F g-1) even at a scan rate of 1000 mV s-1. Thus, a simple and efficient strategy to USACs has been presented.« less

  18. Microbiological Contamination at Workplaces in a Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Station Processing Plant Biomass

    PubMed Central

    Szulc, Justyna; Otlewska, Anna; Okrasa, Małgorzata; Majchrzycka, Katarzyna; Sulyok, Michael; Gutarowska, Beata

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the microbial contamination at a plant biomass processing thermal power station (CHP). We found 2.42 × 103 CFU/m3 of bacteria and 1.37 × 104 CFU/m3 of fungi in the air; 2.30 × 107 CFU/g of bacteria and 4.46 × 105 CFU/g of fungi in the biomass; and 1.61 × 102 CFU/cm2 bacteria and 2.39 × 101 CFU/cm2 fungi in filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs). Using culture methods, we found 8 genera of mesophilic bacteria and 7 of fungi in the air; 10 genera each of bacteria and fungi in the biomass; and 2 and 5, respectively, on the FFRs. Metagenomic analysis (Illumina MiSeq) revealed the presence of 46 bacterial and 5 fungal genera on the FFRs, including potential pathogens Candida tropicalis, Escherichia coli, Prevotella sp., Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp.). The ability of microorganisms to create a biofilm on the FFRs was confirmed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We also identified secondary metabolites in the biomass and FFRs, including fumigaclavines, quinocitrinines, sterigmatocistin, and 3-nitropropionic acid, which may be toxic to humans. Due to the presence of potential pathogens and mycotoxins, the level of microbiological contamination at workplaces in CHPs should be monitored. PMID:28117709

  19. Reuse of washing effluent containing oxalic acid by a combined precipitation-acidification process.

    PubMed

    Lim, Mihee; Kim, Myoung-Jin

    2013-01-01

    This study aims at evaluating the reuse feasibility of effluent produced by the soil washing of mine tailings with oxalic acid. Alkaline chemicals such as NaOH, Ca(OH)(2), and Na(2)CO(3) are used for the precipitation of arsenic and heavy metals in the effluent containing oxalic acid. All of the target contaminants are removed with very high efficiency (up to 100%) at high pH. The precipitation using NaOH at pH 9 is determined to be the most cost-effective method for the removal of arsenic as well as heavy metals in the effluent. The effluent decontaminated by NaOH is consecutively reused for the soil washing of raw mine tailings, resulting in considerable efficiency. Furthermore, even more arsenic and heavy metals are extracted from raw mine tailings by acidifying the decontaminated effluent under the alkaline condition, compared with direct reuse of the decontaminated effluent. Here, the oxalic acid, which is a weak complex-forming ligand as well as a weak acid, has noticeable effects on both soil washing and effluent treatment by precipitation. It extracts efficiently the contaminants from the mine tailings without adverse change of soil and also makes possible the precipitation of the contaminants in the effluent unlike strong chelating reagent. Reuse of the washing effluent containing oxalic acid would make the existing soil washing process more environment-friendly and cost-effective.

  20. Combined optimization of image-gathering and image-processing systems for scene feature detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halyo, Nesim; Arduini, Robert F.; Samms, Richard W.

    1987-01-01

    The relationship between the image gathering and image processing systems for minimum mean squared error estimation of scene characteristics is investigated. A stochastic optimization problem is formulated where the objective is to determine a spatial characteristic of the scene rather than a feature of the already blurred, sampled and noisy image data. An analytical solution for the optimal characteristic image processor is developed. The Wiener filter for the sampled image case is obtained as a special case, where the desired characteristic is scene restoration. Optimal edge detection is investigated using the Laplacian operator x G as the desired characteristic, where G is a two dimensional Gaussian distribution function. It is shown that the optimal edge detector compensates for the blurring introduced by the image gathering optics, and notably, that it is not circularly symmetric. The lack of circular symmetry is largely due to the geometric effects of the sampling lattice used in image acquisition. The optimal image gathering optical transfer function is also investigated and the results of a sensitivity analysis are shown.

  1. Immunoassays in a porous silicon interferometric biosensor combined with sensitive signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinsley-Bown, A.; Smith, R. G.; Hayward, S.; Anderson, M. H.; Koker, L.; Green, A.; Torrens, R.; Wilkinson, A.-S.; Perkins, E. A.; Squirrell, D. J.; Nicklin, S.; Hutchinson, A.; Simons, A. J.; Cox, T. I.

    2005-06-01

    Orthogonal subspace signal processing algorithms (OSPA) have been developed to extract the optical thickness of a porous silicon layer to within one part in 105 from its reflectivity spectrum. This is equivalent to a limit of detection (LOD) of 40 pm change in optical thickness for a 3 μm thick layer, or an LOD of 1/2000 of a monolayer coverage with antibodies, of molecular weight 160 k Daltons, within a layer with pores of 100 nm diameter. A large molecule {horseradish peroxidase (HRP), MWt 40 kDa} has been detected at a concentration of 1 μg/ml by measuring its direct binding to anti-HRP antibodies immobilised within a porous silicon layer. A competitive assay has been demonstrated for the detection of a small molecule {2, 4, 6 trinitrotoluene (TNT), MWt 227 Da} at 10 μg/ml. The projected LODs for HRP and TNT by these assays are 50 ng/ml and 1 μg/ml respectively.

  2. Total combining power: Technique for the evaluation of the quality control process of clostridiosis vaccines.

    PubMed

    Brandi, Igor Viana; Santos, Eliane Macedo Sobrinho; Carvalho, Bruna Mara Aparecida de; Durães, Carla Adriana Ferreira; Farias, Paula Karoline Soares; Sari, Roger Shoji; Cangussu, Alex Sander Rodrigues; Pessoa, Adalberto

    2016-11-01

    An efficient technique for evaluation of the quality control of vaccines against clostridiosis is described in this study. This technique is capable of quantifying the toxoid of the bacterium Clostridium perfringens Type D, which is commonly found within these vaccines. The described method is performed in vivo to quantify the toxoid, replacing the current predominant approaches that use the titration of toxins before the inactivation process. This method is based on the partial neutralization of a determined dose of antitoxin by testing different doses of the toxoid. In order to guarantee its reliability, it is essential for the technique to be validated. Thus, the technique was tested using the following validation parameters: specificity and selectivity, detection limit, linear correlation, precision and robustness, in agreement with the requirements of regulatory agencies and international committees from around the world. The method was found to be specific, selective, robust, precise, and linear inside a specific concentration range. Therefore, it could be applied to the quality control of clostridiosis vaccines with satisfactory results.

  3. Assessment of the GHG Reduction Potential from Energy Crops Using a Combined LCA and Biogeochemical Process Models: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Dong; Hao, Mengmeng; Wang, Qiao; Huang, Yaohuan; Fu, Xinyu

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose for developing biofuel is to reduce GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions, but the comprehensive environmental impact of such fuels is not clear. Life cycle analysis (LCA), as a complete comprehensive analysis method, has been widely used in bioenergy assessment studies. Great efforts have been directed toward establishing an efficient method for comprehensively estimating the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction potential from the large-scale cultivation of energy plants by combining LCA with ecosystem/biogeochemical process models. LCA presents a general framework for evaluating the energy consumption and GHG emission from energy crop planting, yield acquisition, production, product use, and postprocessing. Meanwhile, ecosystem/biogeochemical process models are adopted to simulate the fluxes and storage of energy, water, carbon, and nitrogen in the soil-plant (energy crops) soil continuum. Although clear progress has been made in recent years, some problems still exist in current studies and should be addressed. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art method for estimating GHG emission reduction through developing energy crops and introduces in detail a new approach for assessing GHG emission reduction by combining LCA with biogeochemical process models. The main achievements of this study along with the problems in current studies are described and discussed. PMID:25045736

  4. Rapid low-temperature processing of metal-oxide thin film transistors with combined far ultraviolet and thermal annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leppäniemi, J.; Ojanperä, K.; Kololuoma, T.; Huttunen, O.-H.; Dahl, J.; Tuominen, M.; Laukkanen, P.; Majumdar, H.; Alastalo, A.

    2014-09-01

    We propose a combined far ultraviolet (FUV) and thermal annealing method of metal-nitrate-based precursor solutions that allows efficient conversion of the precursor to metal-oxide semiconductor (indium zinc oxide, IZO, and indium oxide, In2O3) both at low-temperature and in short processing time. The combined annealing method enables a reduction of more than 100 °C in annealing temperature when compared to thermally annealed reference thin-film transistor (TFT) devices of similar performance. Amorphous IZO films annealed at 250 °C with FUV for 5 min yield enhancement-mode TFTs with saturation mobility of ˜1 cm2/(V.s). Amorphous In2O3 films annealed for 15 min with FUV at temperatures of 180 °C and 200 °C yield TFTs with low-hysteresis and saturation mobility of 3.2 cm2/(V.s) and 7.5 cm2/(V.s), respectively. The precursor condensation process is clarified with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. Introducing the FUV irradiation at 160 nm expedites the condensation process via in situ hydroxyl radical generation that results in the rapid formation of a continuous metal-oxygen-metal structure in the film. The results of this paper are relevant in order to upscale printed electronics fabrication to production-scale roll-to-roll environments.

  5. Assessment of the GHG reduction potential from energy crops using a combined LCA and biogeochemical process models: a review.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Dong; Hao, Mengmeng; Fu, Jingying; Wang, Qiao; Huang, Yaohuan; Fu, Xinyu

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose for developing biofuel is to reduce GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions, but the comprehensive environmental impact of such fuels is not clear. Life cycle analysis (LCA), as a complete comprehensive analysis method, has been widely used in bioenergy assessment studies. Great efforts have been directed toward establishing an efficient method for comprehensively estimating the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction potential from the large-scale cultivation of energy plants by combining LCA with ecosystem/biogeochemical process models. LCA presents a general framework for evaluating the energy consumption and GHG emission from energy crop planting, yield acquisition, production, product use, and postprocessing. Meanwhile, ecosystem/biogeochemical process models are adopted to simulate the fluxes and storage of energy, water, carbon, and nitrogen in the soil-plant (energy crops) soil continuum. Although clear progress has been made in recent years, some problems still exist in current studies and should be addressed. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art method for estimating GHG emission reduction through developing energy crops and introduces in detail a new approach for assessing GHG emission reduction by combining LCA with biogeochemical process models. The main achievements of this study along with the problems in current studies are described and discussed.

  6. The Unique and Combined Effects of Reinforcement and Methylphenidate on Temporal Information Processing in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Luman, Marjolein; Papanikolau, Alky; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2015-08-01

    Temporal information processing and reward sensitivity are neurocognitive impairments key to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The aim of this study was to examine the unique and combined impact of reinforcement and methylphenidate (MPH) on temporal information processing in children with ADHD. We predicted that both monetary reinforcement and MPH would ameliorate temporal information processing deficits in ADHD, and we expected that the combined effect of reinforcement and MPH would be most beneficial. Forty children (23 with ADHD and 27 typical controls, aged 8-12 y) performed a time production task under 3 conditions: reward, response cost, and feedback only. Children with ADHD also performed the task (in random order) with placebo, a low, a medium, and a high dose of MPH. Dependent variables were time production accuracy and variability. At baseline, children with ADHD displayed poor internal clock functioning compared with controls, as reflected by greater underestimations of the 1-second interval, and they showed poor motor output as reflected by increased timing variability. Reward and response cost improved motor output (timing variability), with similar effects for both groups. Methylphenidate increased performance (timing variability) compared with placebo, with a higher dose showing greater effects. Effect sizes of reinforcement and medication were medium to large. Contrary to expectations, MPH did not add to the reinforcement effect. The results of this study confirm the value of reward and response cost being similar to that of MPH to optimize (timing) performance of children with ADHD.

  7. Preparation of Light-responsive Membranes by a Combined Surface Grafting and Postmodification Process

    PubMed Central

    Schöller, Katrin; Baumann, Lukas; Hegemann, Dirk; De Courten, Damien; Wolf, Martin; Rossi, René M.; Scherer, Lukas J.

    2014-01-01

    In order to modify the surface tension of commercial available track-edged polymer membranes, a procedure of surface-initiated polymerization is presented. The polymerization from the membrane surface is induced by plasma treatment of the membrane, followed by reacting the membrane surface with a methanolic solution of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA). Special attention is given to the process parameters for the plasma treatment prior to the polymerization on the surface. For example, the influence of the plasma-treatment on different types of membranes (e.g. polyester, polycarbonate, polyvinylidene fluoride) is studied. Furthermore, the time-dependent stability of the surface-grafted membranes is shown by contact angle measurements. When grafting poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) in this way, the surface can be further modified by esterification of the alcohol moiety of the polymer with a carboxylic acid function of the desired substance. These reactions can therefore be used for the functionalization of the membrane surface. For example, the surface tension of the membrane can be changed or a desired functionality as the presented light-responsiveness can be inserted. This is demonstrated by reacting PHEMA with a carboxylic acid functionalized spirobenzopyran unit which leads to a light-responsive membrane. The choice of solvent plays a major role in the postmodification step and is discussed in more detail in this paper. The permeability measurements of such functionalized membranes are performed using a Franz cell with an external light source. By changing the wavelength of the light from the visible to the UV-range, a change of permeability of aqueous caffeine solutions is observed. PMID:24686898

  8. Quantitative carbon analysis in coal by combining data processing and spatial confinement in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiongwei; Yin, Hualiang; Wang, Zhe; Fu, Yangting; Li, Zheng; Ni, Weidou

    2015-09-01

    Online measurement of carbon content of coal is important for coal-fired power plants to realize the combustion optimization of coal-fired boilers. Given that the measurement of carbon content of coal using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) suffers from low measurement accuracy because of matrix effects, our previous study has proposed a combination model to improve the measurement accuracy of carbon content of coal. The spatial confinement method, which utilizes the spectral emissions of laser-induced plasmas spatially confined by cavities for quantitative analysis, has potential to improve quantitative analysis performance. In the present study, the combination model was used for coal measurement with cylindrical cavity confinement to further improve the measurement accuracy of carbon content of coal. Results showed that measurement accuracy was improved when the combination model was used with spatial confinement method. The coefficient of determination, root-mean-square error of prediction, average relative error, and average absolute error for the combination model with cylindrical cavity confinement were 0.99, 1.35%, 1.66%, and 1.08%, respectively, whereas values for the combination model without cylindrical cavity confinement were 0.99, 1.63%, 1.82%, and 1.27%, respectively. This is the first time that the average absolute error of carbon measurement for coal analysis has achieved close to 1.0% using LIBS, which is the critical requirement set for traditional chemical processing method by Chinese national standard. These results indicated that LIBS had significant application potential for coal analysis.

  9. Combined high pressure and thermal processing on inactivation of type A and proteolytic type B spores of Clostridium botulinum.

    PubMed

    Reddy, N Rukma; Marshall, Kristin M; Morrissey, Travis R; Loeza, Viviana; Patazca, Eduardo; Skinner, Guy E; Krishnamurthy, Kathiravan; Larkin, John W

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the resistance of multiple strains of Clostridium botulinum type A and proteolytic type B spores exposed to combined high pressure and thermal processing and compare their resistance with Clostridium sporogenes PA3679 and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens TMW-2.479-Fad-82 spores. The resistance of spores suspended in N-(2acetamido)-2-aminoethanesulfonic acid (ACES) buffer (0.05 M, pH 7.0) was determined at a process temperature of 105°C, with high pressures of 600, 700, and 750 MPa by using a laboratory-scale pressure test system. No surviving spores of the proteolytic B strains were detected after processing at 105°C and 700 MPa for 6 min. A . 7-log reduction of B. amyloliquefaciens spores was observed when processed for 4 min at 105°C and 700 MPa. D-values at 105°C and 700 MPa for type A strains ranged from 0.57 to 2.28 min. C. sporogenes PA3679 had a D-value of 1.48 min at 105°C and 700 MPa. Spores of the six type A strains with high D-values along with C. sporogenes PA3679 and B. amyloliquefaciens were further evaluated for their pressure resistance at pressures 600 and 750 MPa at 105°C. As the process pressure increased from 600 to 750 MPa at 105°C, D-values of some C. botulinum strains and C. sporogenes PA3679 spores decreased (i.e., 69-A, 1.91 to 1.33 min and PA3679, 2.35 to 1.29 min). Some C. botulinum type A strains were more resistant than C. sporogenes PA3679 and B. amyloliquefaciens to combined high pressure and heat, based on D-values determined at 105°C. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was also performed to establish whether strains with a similar restriction banding pattern also exhibited similar D-values. However, no correlation between the genomic background of a strain and its resistance to high pressure processing was observed, based on PFGE analysis. Spores of proteolytic type B strains of C. botulinum were less resistant to combined high pressure and heat (700 MPa and 105°C) treatment when

  10. Decomposition of intact chicken feathers by a thermophile in combination with an acidulocomposting garbage-treatment process.

    PubMed

    Shigeri, Yasushi; Matsui, Tatsunobu; Watanabe, Kunihiko

    2009-11-01

    In order to develop a practical method for the decomposition of intact chicken feathers, a moderate thermophile strain, Meiothermus ruber H328, having strong keratinolytic activity, was used in a bio-type garbage-treatment machine working with an acidulocomposting process. The addition of strain H328 cells (15 g) combined with acidulocomposting in the garbage machine resulted in 70% degradation of intact chicken feathers (30 g) within 14 d. This degradation efficiency is comparable to a previous result employing the strain as a single bacterium in flask culture, and it indicates that strain H328 can promote intact feather degradation activity in a garbage machine currently on the market.

  11. Mineralization of integrated gasification combined-cycle power-station wastewater effluent by a photo-Fenton process.

    PubMed

    Durán, A; Monteagudo, J M; San Martín, I; Aguirre, M

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this work was to study the mineralization of wastewater effluent from an integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power station sited in Spain to meet the requirements of future environmental legislation. This study was done in a pilot plant using a homogeneous photo-Fenton oxidation process with continuous addition of H(2)O(2) and air to the system. The mineralization process was found to follow pseudo-first-order kinetics. Experimental kinetic constants were fitted using neural networks (NNs). The NNs model reproduced the experimental data to within a 90% confidence level and allowed the simulation of the process for any values of the parameters within the experimental range studied. At the optimum conditions (H(2)O(2) flow rate=120 mL/h, [Fe(II)]=7.6 mg/L, pH=3.75 and air flow rate=1 m(3)/h), a 90% mineralization was achieved in 150 min. Determination of the hydrogen peroxide consumed and remaining in the water revealed that 1.2 mol of H(2)O(2) was consumed per each mol of total organic carbon removed from solution. This result confirmed that an excess of dissolved H(2)O(2) was needed to achieve high mineralization rates, so continuous addition of peroxide is recommended for industrial application of this process. Air flow slightly improved the mineralization rate due to the formation of peroxo-organic radicals which enhanced the oxidation process.

  12. Combination of process and vibration data for improved condition monitoring of industrial systems working under variable operating conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Cárcel, C.; Jaramillo, V. H.; Mba, D.; Ottewill, J. R.; Cao, Y.

    2016-01-01

    The detection and diagnosis of faults in industrial processes is a very active field of research due to the reduction in maintenance costs achieved by the implementation of process monitoring algorithms such as Principal Component Analysis, Partial Least Squares or more recently Canonical Variate Analysis (CVA). Typically the condition of rotating machinery is monitored separately using vibration analysis or other specific techniques. Conventional vibration-based condition monitoring techniques are based on the tracking of key features observed in the measured signal. Typically steady-state loading conditions are required to ensure consistency between measurements. In this paper, a technique based on merging process and vibration data is proposed with the objective of improving the detection of mechanical faults in industrial systems working under variable operating conditions. The capabilities of CVA for detection and diagnosis of faults were tested using experimental data acquired from a compressor test rig where different process faults were introduced. Results suggest that the combination of process and vibration data can effectively improve the detectability of mechanical faults in systems working under variable operating conditions.

  13. Influence of punch face angle and reduction on flow mode in backward and combined radial backward extrusion process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noh, Jeong-hoon; Hwang, Beong Bok; Lee, Ho Yong

    2015-11-01

    This paper is concerned with the analysis on the flow mode which determines lubrication limit such as stiction onto or sliding over punch face. The main goal of this study is to examine the influence of geometrical parameters such as punch face angle, reduction in area, and the gap height in radial direction in backward and combined radial-backward extrusion process on the flow mode and surface stresses such as sliding velocity, sliding distance and surface expansion. Annealed steel 17Cr3 was selected as a model material, a rigid-plastic material, for simulation, which was conducted using a commercially available FEA tool, Deform 2-D, programmed in a rigid plasticity theory. Change of flow mode during deformation was also investigated to find under which conditions of process parameter adopted the flow mode changes from stiction to transition or transition to sliding. In this paper, sliding velocities were quantitatively analyzed to determine the flow mode.

  14. A whole biodiesel conversion process combining isolation, cultivation and in situ supercritical methanol transesterification of native microalgae.

    PubMed

    Jazzar, Souhir; Quesada-Medina, Joaquín; Olivares-Carrillo, Pilar; Marzouki, Mohamed Néjib; Acién-Fernández, Francisco Gabriel; Fernández-Sevilla, José María; Molina-Grima, Emilio; Smaali, Issam

    2015-08-01

    A coupled process combining microalgae production with direct supercritical biodiesel conversion using a reduced number of operating steps is proposed in this work. Two newly isolated native microalgae strains, identified as Chlorella sp. and Nannochloris sp., were cultivated in both batch and continuous modes. Maximum productivities were achieved during continuous cultures with 318mg/lday and 256mg/lday for Chlorella sp. and Nannochloris sp., respectively. Microalgae were further characterized by determining their photosynthetic performance and nutrient removal efficiency. Biodiesel was produced by catalyst-free in situ supercritical methanol transesterification of wet unwashed algal biomass (75wt.% of moisture). Maximum biodiesel yields of 45.62wt.% and 21.79wt.% were reached for Chlorella sp. and Nannochloris sp., respectively. The analysis of polyunsaturated fatty acids of Chlorella sp. showed a decrease in their proportion when comparing conventional and supercritical transesterification processes (from 37.4% to 13.9%, respectively), thus improving the quality of the biodiesel.

  15. Recovery of copper and water from copper-electroplating wastewater by the combination process of electrolysis and electrodialysis.

    PubMed

    Peng, Changsheng; Liu, Yanyan; Bi, Jingjing; Xu, Huizhen; Ahmed, Abou-Shady

    2011-05-30

    In this paper, a laboratory-scale process which combined electrolysis (EL) and electrodialysis (ED) was developed to treat copper-containing wastewater. The feasibility of such process for copper recovery as well as water reuse was determined. Effects of three operating parameters, voltage, initial Cu(2+) concentration and water flux on the recovery of copper and water were investigated and optimized. The results showed that about 82% of copper could be recovered from high concentration wastewater (HCW, >400mg/L) by EL, at the optimal conditions of voltage 2.5 V/cm and water flux 4 L/h; while 50% of diluted water could be recycled from low concentration wastewater (LCW, <200mg/L) by ED, at the optimal conditions of voltage 40 V and water flux 4 L/h. However, because of the limitation of energy consumption (EC), LCW for EL and HCW for ED could not be treated effectively, and the effluent water of EL and concentrated water of ED should be further treated before discharged. Therefore, the combination process of EL and ED was developed to realize the recovery of copper and water simultaneously from both HCW and LCW. The results of the EL-ED process showed that almost 99.5% of copper and 100% of water could be recovered, with the energy consumption of EL ≈ 3 kW h/kg and ED ≈ 2 kW h/m(3). According to SEM and EDX analysis, the purity of recovered copper was as high as 97.9%.

  16. The combined effects of pre- and post-copulatory processes are masking sexual conflict over mating rate in Gerris buenoi.

    PubMed

    Devost, E; Turgeon, J

    2016-01-01

    In polygynandrous animals, post-copulatory processes likely interfere with precopulatory sexual selection. In water striders, sexual conflict over mating rate and post-copulatory processes are well documented, but their combined effect on reproductive success has seldom been investigated. We combine genetic parentage analyses and behavioural observations conducted in a competitive reproductive environment to investigate how pre- and post-copulatory processes influence reproductive success in Gerris buenoi Kirkaldy. Precopulatory struggles had antagonistic effects on male and female reproductive success: efficiently gaining copulations was beneficial for males, whereas efficiently avoiding copulations was profitable for females. Also, high mating rates and an intermediate optimal resistance level of females supported the hypothesis of convenience polyandry. Contrary to formal predictions, high mating rates (i.e. the number of copulations) did not increase reproductive success in males or decrease reproductive success in females. Instead, the reproductive success of both sexes was higher when offspring were produced with several partners and when there were few unnecessary matings. Thus, male and female G. buenoi displayed different interests in reproduction, but post-copulatory processes were masking the effects of copulatory mating success on reproductive success. Given the high mating rates observed, sperm competition could easily counter the effect of mating rates, perhaps in interaction with cryptic female choice and/or fecundity selection. Our study presents a complex but realistic overview of sexual selection forces at work in a model organism for the study of sexual conflict, confirming that insights are gained from investigating all episodes in the reproduction cycle of polygynandrous animals.

  17. A Combination of Biochar-Mineral Complexes and Compost Improves Soil Bacterial Processes, Soil Quality, and Plant Properties.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jun; Zhang, Rui; Nielsen, Shaun; Joseph, Stephen D; Huang, Danfeng; Thomas, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    Organic farming avoids the use of synthetic fertilizers and promises food production with minimal environmental impact, however this farming practice does not often result in the same productivity as conventional farming. In recent years, biochar has received increasing attention as an agricultural amendment and by coating it with minerals to form biochar-mineral complex (BMC) carbon retention and nutrient availability can be improved. However, little is known about the potential of BMC in improving organic farming. We therefore investigated here how soil, bacterial and plant properties respond to a combined treatment of BMC and an organic fertilizer, i.e., a compost based on poultry manure. In a pakchoi pot trial, BMC and compost showed synergistic effects on soil properties, and specifically by increasing nitrate content. Soil nitrate has been previously observed to increase leaf size and we correspondingly saw an increase in the surface area of pakchoi leaves under the combined treatment of BMC and composted chicken manure. The increase in soil nitrate was also correlated with an enrichment of bacterial nitrifiers due to BMC. Additionally, we observed that the bacteria present in the compost treatment had a high turnover, which likely facilitated organic matter degradation and a reduction of potential pathogens derived from the manure. Overall our results demonstrate that a combination of BMC and compost can stimulate microbial process in organic farming that result in better vegetable production and improved soil properties for sustainable farming.

  18. A Combination of Biochar–Mineral Complexes and Compost Improves Soil Bacterial Processes, Soil Quality, and Plant Properties

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Jun; Zhang, Rui; Nielsen, Shaun; Joseph, Stephen D.; Huang, Danfeng; Thomas, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    Organic farming avoids the use of synthetic fertilizers and promises food production with minimal environmental impact, however this farming practice does not often result in the same productivity as conventional farming. In recent years, biochar has received increasing attention as an agricultural amendment and by coating it with minerals to form biochar–mineral complex (BMC) carbon retention and nutrient availability can be improved. However, little is known about the potential of BMC in improving organic farming. We therefore investigated here how soil, bacterial and plant properties respond to a combined treatment of BMC and an organic fertilizer, i.e., a compost based on poultry manure. In a pakchoi pot trial, BMC and compost showed synergistic effects on soil properties, and specifically by increasing nitrate content. Soil nitrate has been previously observed to increase leaf size and we correspondingly saw an increase in the surface area of pakchoi leaves under the combined treatment of BMC and composted chicken manure. The increase in soil nitrate was also correlated with an enrichment of bacterial nitrifiers due to BMC. Additionally, we observed that the bacteria present in the compost treatment had a high turnover, which likely facilitated organic matter degradation and a reduction of potential pathogens derived from the manure. Overall our results demonstrate that a combination of BMC and compost can stimulate microbial process in organic farming that result in better vegetable production and improved soil properties for sustainable farming. PMID:27092104

  19. A novel conditioning process for enhancing dewaterability of waste activated sludge by combination of zero-valent iron and persulfate.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xu; Wang, Qilin; Jiang, Guangming; Liu, Peng; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2015-06-01

    Improvement of sludge dewaterability is crucial for reducing the costs of sludge disposal in wastewater treatment plants. This study presents a novel conditioning method for improving waste activated sludge dewaterability by combination of persulfate and zero-valent iron. The combination of zero-valent iron (0-30g/L) and persulfate (0-6g/L) under neutral pH substantially enhanced the sludge dewaterability due to the advanced oxidization reactions. The highest enhancement of sludge dewaterability was achieved at 4g persulfate/L and 15g zero-valent iron/L, with which the capillary suction time was reduced by over 50%. The release of soluble chemical oxygen demand during the conditioning process implied the decomposition of sludge structure and microorganisms, which facilitated the improvement of dewaterability due to the release of bound water that was included in sludge structure and microorganism. Economic analysis showed that the proposed conditioning process with persulfate and ZVI is more economically favorable for improving WAS dewaterability than classical Fenton reagent.

  20. Rural Sewage Treatment by using Combined Process of Multi-layer Bio-filter and Constructed Wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xudong; Paul, Etienne; Qiu, Jiangping; Roustan, Michel; Wisniewski, Christelle; Mauviot, Patrice

    2010-11-01

    A combined process of multi-layer bio-filter and constructed wetland has been used to treat the rural sewage in eastern China. The capacity of the system was 60 m3/d, the hydraulic loading rate (HLR) of the bio-filter and the constructed wetland was 4.0 m3/(m3ṡd) and 0.50 m3/(m3ṡd), respectively. The system has been operated automatically for 2 years. The results showed that the average concentrations of COD, NH4+-N, TN and TP in the effluent were 58.2, 8.1, 12.1 and 0.9 mg/L with the removal efficiency of 79.2%, 62.8%, 55.1% and 77.1% respectively, which could meet the first grade of Chinese national pollutants discharge standard for municipal wastewater treatment plant (GB 18918-2002). The track studies showed that the organic pollutants were mainly removed in the first 4 layers and the ammonia was mainly removed in the 4th˜6th layers of the filter. It was observed that the COD removal efficiency in the whole system decreased from 84.6% to 73.3% following the sequences of summer, autumn, spring and winter. Comparing with traditional techniques, the combined process could provide a higher nitrogen and phosphorus removal capacity.

  1. Acetaldehyde removal using an atmospheric non-thermal plasma combined with a packed bed: role of the adsorption process.

    PubMed

    Klett, C; Duten, X; Tieng, S; Touchard, S; Jestin, P; Hassouni, K; Vega-González, A

    2014-08-30

    This work is an attempt in order to help towards understanding the influence of the adsorption process on the removal of a VOC (acetaldehyde, CH3CHO) using cyclic non thermal plasma (NTP) combined with a packed-bed of a catalyst support, α-Al2O3. In the first part, the results obtained by placing the saturated alumina pellets inside the plasma discharge zone are discussed, in terms of acetaldehyde removal, CO and CO2 production. In the second part, adsorption of CH3CHO, CO, CO2 and O3 was carried out, from single and multicomponent mixtures of the different compounds. The results showed that (i) the adsorption capacities followed the order CH3CHO≫  CO2>CO; (ii) O3 was decomposed on the alumina surface; (iii) CO oxidation occurred on the surface when O3 was present. In the third part, diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) was used to follow the alumina surface during acetaldehyde adsorption. DRIFTS measurements demonstrated that besides the bands of molecularly adsorbed acetaldehyde, several absorptions appeared on the spectra showing the intermediate surface transformation of acetaldehyde already at 300K. Finally, the relationship between the adsorption results and the NTP combined with a packed-bed process is discussed.

  2. Combination of surfactant enhanced soil washing and electro-Fenton process for the treatment of soils contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Huguenot, David; Mousset, Emmanuel; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Oturan, Mehmet A

    2015-04-15

    In order to improve the efficiency of soil washing treatment of hydrocarbon contaminated soils, an innovative combination of this soil treatment technique with an electrochemical advanced oxidation process (i.e. electro-Fenton (EF)) has been proposed. An ex situ soil column washing experiment was performed on a genuinely diesel-contaminated soil. The washing solution was enriched with surfactant Tween 80 at different concentrations, higher than the critical micellar concentration (CMC). The impact of soil washing was evaluated on the hydrocarbons concentration in the leachates collected at the bottom of the soil columns. These eluates were then studied for their degradation potential by EF treatment. Results showed that a concentration of 5% of Tween 80 was required to enhance hydrocarbons extraction from the soil. Even with this Tween 80 concentration, the efficiency of the treatment remained very low (only 1% after 24 h of washing). Electrochemical treatments performed thereafter with EF on the collected eluates revealed that the quasi-complete mineralization (>99.5%) of the hydrocarbons was achieved within 32 h according to a linear kinetic trend. Toxicity was higher than in the initial solution and reached 95% of inhibition of Vibrio fischeri bacteria measured by Microtox method, demonstrating the presence of remaining toxic compounds even after the complete degradation. Finally, the biodegradability (BOD₅/COD ratio) reached a maximum of 20% after 20 h of EF treatment, which is not enough to implement a combined treatment with a biological treatment process.

  3. Assessing the application of advanced oxidation processes, and their combination with biological treatment, to effluents from pulp and paper industry.

    PubMed

    Merayo, Noemí; Hermosilla, Daphne; Blanco, Laura; Cortijo, Luis; Blanco, Angeles

    2013-11-15

    The closure of water circuits within pulp and paper mills has resulted in a higher contamination load of the final mill effluent, which must consequently be further treated in many cases to meet the standards imposed by the legislation in force. Different treatment strategies based on advanced oxidation processes (ozonation and TiO2-photocatalysis), and their combination with biological treatment (MBR), are herein assessed for effluents of a recycled paper mill and a kraft pulp mill. Ozone treatment achieved the highest efficiency of all. The consumption of 2.4 g O3 L(-1) resulted in about a 60% COD reduction treating the effluent from the kraft pulp mill at an initial pH=7; although it only reached about a 35% COD removal for the effluent of the recycled paper mill. Otherwise, photocatalysis achieved about a 20-30% reduction of the COD for both type of effluents. In addition, the effluent from the recycled paper mill showed a higher biodegradability, so combinations of these AOPs with biological treatment were tested. As a result, photocatalysis did not report any significant COD reduction improvement whether being performed as pre- or post-treatment of the biological process; whereas the use of ozonation as post-biological treatment enhanced COD removal a further 10%, summing up a total 90% reduction of the COD for the combined treatment, as well as it also supposed an increase of the presence of volatile fatty acids, which might ultimately enable the resultant wastewater to be recirculated back to further biological treatment.

  4. Selecting the process arrangement for preparing the gas turbine working fluid for an integrated gasification combined-cycle power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhkov, A. F.; Gordeev, S. I.; Bogatova, T. F.

    2015-11-01

    Introduction of a combined-cycle technology based on fuel gasification integrated in the process cycle (commonly known as integrated gasification combined cycle technology) is among avenues of development activities aimed at achieving more efficient operation of coal-fired power units at thermal power plants. The introduction of this technology is presently facing the following difficulties: IGCC installations are characterized by high capital intensity, low energy efficiency, and insufficient reliability and availability indicators. It was revealed from an analysis of literature sources that these drawbacks are typical for the gas turbine working fluid preparation system, the main component of which is a gasification plant. Different methods for improving the gasification plant chemical efficiency were compared, including blast air high-temperature heating, use of industrial oxygen, and a combination of these two methods implying limited use of oxygen and moderate heating of blast air. Calculated investigations aimed at estimating the influence of methods for achieving more efficient air gasification are carried out taking as an example the gasifier produced by the Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI) with a thermal capacity of 500 MW. The investigation procedure was verified against the known experimental data. Modes have been determined in which the use of high-temperature heating of blast air for gasification and cycle air upstream of the gas turbine combustion chamber makes it possible to increase the working fluid preparation system efficiency to a level exceeding the efficiency of the oxygen process performed according to the Shell technology. For the gasification plant's configuration and the GTU working fluid preparation system be selected on a well-grounded basis, this work should be supplemented with technical-economic calculations.

  5. LLRW disposal site selection process. Southeast Compact -- State of North Carolina: A combined technical and public information approach

    SciTech Connect

    Snider, F.G.; Amick, D.C.; Khoury, S.G.; Stowe, C.H.; Guichard, P.

    1989-11-01

    The State of North Carolina has been designated to host the second commercial low level radioactive waste disposal facility for the Southeast Compact. The North Carolina facility is to be operational on January 1, 1993, concurrent with the closing of the present facility in Barnwell, South Carolina. The NC Low Level Radioactive Waste Management Authority and its contractor, Ebasco Services Incorporated, initiated the site selection process in July of 1988. The present schedule calls for the identification of two or more sites for detailed characterization in the latter half of 1989. The site selection process is following two concurrent and parallel paths. The first is the technical site screening process, which is focusing the search for a suitable site by the systematic application of state and federal laws and regulations regarding exclusion and suitability factors. In a parallel effort, the NCLL Radioactive Waste Management Authority has embarked on an extensive public information program. In addition to newsletters, fact sheets, brochures, video tapes, and news releases, a total of six regional meetings and 26 public forums have been held across the state. A total of 4,764 people attended the forums, 1,241 questions were asked, and 243 public statements were made. The combination of a systematic, defensible technical siting process and the concurrent release of information and numerous statewide public meetings and forums is proving to be an effective strategy for the eventual identification of sites that are both technically suitable and publicly acceptable.

  6. Combined column and cell flotation process for the treatment of PAH contaminated hazardous wastes produced by an aluminium production plant.

    PubMed

    Dhenain, Aurélie; Mercier, Guy; Blais, Jean-François; Chartier, Myriam

    2009-06-15

    The aluminium electrolytic plants generate PAH and fluoride contaminated wastes which are usually classified as hazardous material. These residues are generally disposed in secure landfill sites. A flotation cell process was previously developed to remove PAH from these aluminium industry wastes. The tests were done on composite samples made of particle size fractions under 50mm. The efficiency of the flotation cell process was demonstrated but the high quantity of concentrate produced (14.0%) during the air injection period, because of the solid entrainment, raised the treatment cost. The aim of this study was to reduce the entrainment of fine particles in order to obtain an efficient and economic technology. The process initially developed was modified: the smallest particle size fraction (<0.5mm) of the composite sample was treated in a flotation column, whereas the other particle size fractions (0.5-50mm) were treated in a flotation cell. The separated treatment allowed to reduce the entrainment during the air injection period of the flotation cell step from 14.0% to 10.1%. The optimum total solids of the pulp and cocamidopropylhydroxysultaine (CAS) concentration were 3.33% and 0.50% (ww(-1)) for the flotation column, and 15% and 0.25% (ww(-1)) for the flotation cell. This combined flotation process minimized the total entrainment which allowed a 23.6% abatement of the concentrate quantity initially produced, and reduced the PAH concentrations of the wastes under the authorized limit of 1000 mg kg(-1).

  7. Introducing capnophilic lactic fermentation in a combined dark-photo fermentation process: a route to unparalleled H2 yields.

    PubMed

    Dipasquale, L; Adessi, A; d'Ippolito, G; Rossi, F; Fontana, A; De Philippis, R

    2015-01-01

    Two-stage process based on photofermentation of dark fermentation effluents is widely recognized as the most effective method for biological production of hydrogen from organic substrates. Recently, it was described an alternative mechanism, named capnophilic lactic fermentation, for sugar fermentation by the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga neapolitana in CO2-rich atmosphere. Here, we report the first application of this novel process to two-stage biological production of hydrogen. The microbial system based on T. neapolitana DSM 4359(T) and Rhodopseudomonas palustris 42OL gave 9.4 mol of hydrogen per mole of glucose consumed during the anaerobic process, which is the best production yield so far reported for conventional two-stage batch cultivations. The improvement of hydrogen yield correlates with the increase in lactic production during capnophilic lactic fermentation and takes also advantage of the introduction of original conditions for culturing both microorganisms in minimal media based on diluted sea water. The use of CO2 during the first step of the combined process establishes a novel strategy for biohydrogen technology. Moreover, this study opens the way to cost reduction and use of salt-rich waste as feedstock.

  8. Decomposition and biodegradability enhancement of textile wastewater using a combination of electron beam irradiation and activated sludge process.

    PubMed

    Mohd Nasir, Norlirubayah; Teo Ming, Ting; Ahmadun, Fakhru'l-Razi; Sobri, Shafreeza

    2010-01-01

    The research conducted a study on decomposition and biodegradability enhancement of textile wastewater using a combination of electron beam irradiation and activated sludge process. The purposes of this research are to remove pollutant through decomposition and to enhance the biodegradability of textile wastewater. The wastewater is treated using electron beam irradiation as a pre-treatment before undergo an activated sludge process. As a result, for non-irradiated wastewater, the COD removal was achieved to be between 70% and 79% after activated sludge process. The improvement of COD removal efficiency increased to 94% after irradiation of treated effluent at the dose of 50 kGy. Meanwhile, the BOD(5) removal efficiencies of non-irradiated and irradiated textile wastewater were reported to be between 80 and 87%, and 82 and 99.2%, respectively. The maximum BOD(5) removal efficiency was achieved at day 1 (HRT 5 days) of the process of an irradiated textile wastewater which is 99.2%. The biodegradability ratio of non-irradiated wastewater was reported to be between 0.34 and 0.61, while the value of biodegradability ratio of an irradiated wastewater increased to be between 0.87 and 0.96. The biodegradability enhancement of textile wastewater is increased with increasing the doses. Therefore, an electron beam radiation holds a greatest application of removing pollutants and also on enhancing the biodegradability of textile wastewater.

  9. Study of the machining process of nano-electrical discharge machining based on combined atomistic-continuum modeling method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guojun; Guo, Jianwen; Ming, Wuyi; Huang, Yu; Shao, Xinyu; Zhang, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Nano-electrical discharge machining (nano-EDM) is an attractive measure to manufacture parts with nanoscale precision, however, due to the incompleteness of its theories, the development of more advanced nano-EDM technology is impeded. In this paper, a computational simulation model combining the molecular dynamics simulation model and the two-temperature model for single discharge process in nano-EDM is constructed to study the machining mechanism of nano-EDM from the thermal point of view. The melting process is analyzed. Before the heated material gets melted, thermal compressive stress higher than 3 GPa is induced. After the material gets melted, the compressive stress gets relieved. The cooling and solidifying processes are also analyzed. It is found that during the cooling process of the melted material, tensile stress higher than 3 GPa arises, which leads to the disintegration of material. The formation of the white layer is attributed to the homogeneous solidification, and additionally, the resultant residual stress is analyzed.

  10. Performance of combined sodium persulfate/H2O2 based advanced oxidation process in stabilized landfill leachate treatment.

    PubMed

    Hilles, Ahmed H; Abu Amr, Salem S; Hussein, Rim A; El-Sebaie, Olfat D; Arafa, Anwaar I

    2016-01-15

    A combination of persulfate and hydrogen peroxide (S2O8(2-)/H2O2) was used to oxidizelandfill leachate. The reaction was performed under varying S2O8(2-)/H2O2 ratio (g/g), S2O8(2-)/H2O2 dosages (g/g), pH, and reaction time (minutes), so as to determine the optimum operational conditions. Results indicated that under optimum operational conditions (i.e. 120 min of oxidation using a S2O8(2-)/H2O2 ratio of 1 g/1.47 g at a persulfate and hydrogen peroxide dosage of 5.88 g/50 ml and8.63 g/50 ml respectively, at pH 11) removal of 81% COD and 83% NH3-N was achieved. In addition, the biodegradability (BOD5/COD ratio) of the leachate was improved from 0.09 to 0.17. The results obtained from the combined use of (S2O8(2-)/H2O2) were compared with those obtained with sodium persulfate only, hydrogen peroxide only and sodium persulfate followed by hydrogen peroxide. The combined method (S2O8(2-)/H2O2) achieved higher removal efficiencies for COD and NH3-N compared with the other methods using a single oxidizing agent. Additionally, the study has proved that the combination of S2O8(2-)/H2O2 is more efficient than the sequential use of sodium persulfate followed by hydrogen peroxide in advanced oxidation processes aiming at treatingstabilizedlandfill leachate.

  11. Rapid low-temperature processing of metal-oxide thin film transistors with combined far ultraviolet and thermal annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Leppäniemi, J. Ojanperä, K.; Kololuoma, T.; Huttunen, O.-H.; Majumdar, H.; Alastalo, A.; Dahl, J.; Tuominen, M.; Laukkanen, P.

    2014-09-15

    We propose a combined far ultraviolet (FUV) and thermal annealing method of metal-nitrate-based precursor solutions that allows efficient conversion of the precursor to metal-oxide semiconductor (indium zinc oxide, IZO, and indium oxide, In{sub 2}O{sub 3}) both at low-temperature and in short processing time. The combined annealing method enables a reduction of more than 100 °C in annealing temperature when compared to thermally annealed reference thin-film transistor (TFT) devices of similar performance. Amorphous IZO films annealed at 250 °C with FUV for 5 min yield enhancement-mode TFTs with saturation mobility of ∼1 cm{sup 2}/(V·s). Amorphous In{sub 2}O{sub 3} films annealed for 15 min with FUV at temperatures of 180 °C and 200 °C yield TFTs with low-hysteresis and saturation mobility of 3.2 cm{sup 2}/(V·s) and 7.5 cm{sup 2}/(V·s), respectively. The precursor condensation process is clarified with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. Introducing the FUV irradiation at 160 nm expedites the condensation process via in situ hydroxyl radical generation that results in the rapid formation of a continuous metal-oxygen-metal structure in the film. The results of this paper are relevant in order to upscale printed electronics fabrication to production-scale roll-to-roll environments.

  12. A combined experimental and computational study of fluxional processes in sigma amine-borane complexes of rhodium and iridium.

    PubMed

    Algarra, Andrés G; Sewell, Laura J; Johnson, Heather C; Macgregor, Stuart A; Weller, Andrew S

    2014-08-07

    A combined experimental and computational study on the fluxional processes involving the M-H and B-H positions in the sigma amine-borane complexes [M(PR3)2(H)2(η(2)-H3B·NMe3)][BAr(F)4] (M = Rh, Ir; R = Cy for experiment; R = Me, Cy for computation; Ar(F) = 3,5-(CF3)2C6H3) is reported. The processes studied are: B-H bridging/terminal exchange; reaction with exogenous D2 leading to exchange at M-H; and intramolecular M-H/B-H exchange. Experimentally it was found that B-H bridging/terminal exchange is most accessible and slightly favoured for Rh; D2/M-H exchange occurs at qualitatively similar rates for both M = Rh and Ir, while M-H/B-H exchange is the slowest overall, with the Ir congener having a lower barrier than Rh. Evidence for the isotopic perturbation of equilibrium is also reported for the BH/BD isotopologues of [Ir(PCy3)2(H)2(η(2)-H3B·NMe3)][BAr(F)4]. DFT calculations using model complexes (R = Me) qualitatively reproduce the relative rates of the various exchange processes for both M = Rh and Ir, i.e. barriers for B-H bridging/terminal exchange are less than those for M-H/H2 exchange, which in turn are less than those for M-H/B-H exchange. Which metal promotes these processes more effectively depends upon the nature of the rate-limiting transition state, which can change between Rh and Ir. Computational analysis of the full experimental system (R = Cy) reveals similar overall trends in terms of the relative ease of the various exchange processes. However, there are differences in the details, and these are discussed.

  13. A compact process for the treatment of olive mill wastewater by combining wet hydrogen peroxide catalytic oxidation and biological techniques.

    PubMed

    Azabou, Samia; Najjar, Wahiba; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Ghorbel, Abdelhamid; Sayadi, Sami

    2010-11-15

    A system based on combined actions of catalytic wet oxidation and microbial technologies for the treatment of highly polluted OMW containing polyphenols was studied. The wet hydrogen peroxide catalytic oxidation (WHPCO) process has been investigated in the semi-batch mode at atmospheric pressure, using aluminium-iron-pillared inter layer clay ((Al-Fe)PILC), under two different catalytic processes: ((Al-Fe)PILC/H(2)O(2)/ultraviolet radiations) at 25°C and ((Al-Fe)PILC/H(2)O(2)) at 50°C. The results show that raw OMW was resistant to the photocatalytic process. However ((Al-Fe)PILC/H(2)O(2)), system operating at 50°C reduced considerably the COD, colour and total phenolic contents, and thus decreased the inhibition of the marine photobacteria Vibrio fischeri luminescence by 70%. This study also examined the feasibility of coupling WHPCO and anaerobic digestion treatment. Biomethanisation experiments performed with raw OMW or pre-treated OMW proved that pre-treatments with ((Al-Fe)PILC/H(2)O(2)) system, for more than 2 h, resulted in higher methane production. Both untreated OMW as well as 2-h pre-treated OMW revealed as toxic to anaerobic bacteria.

  14. Recovery of metals from waste printed circuit boards by supercritical water pre-treatment combined with acid leaching process.

    PubMed

    Xiu, Fu-Rong; Qi, Yingying; Zhang, Fu-Shen

    2013-05-01

    Waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) contain a large number of metals such as Cu, Sn, Pb, Cd, Cr, Zn, and Mn. In this work, an efficient and environmentally friendly process for metals recovery from waste PCBs by supercritical water (SCW) pre-treatment combined with acid leaching was developed. In the proposed process, waste PCBs were pre-treated by SCW, then the separated solid phase product with concentrated metals was subjected to an acid leaching process for metals recovery. The effect of SCW pre-treatment on the recovery of different metals from waste PCBs was investigated. Two methods of SCW pre-treatment were studied: supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) and supercritical water depolymerization (SCWD). Experimental results indicated that SCWO and SCWD pre-treatment had significant effect on the recovery of different metals. SCWO pre-treatment was highly efficient for enhancing the recovery of Cu and Pb, and the recovery efficiency increased significantly with increasing pre-treatment temperature. The recovery efficiency of Cu and Pb for SCWO pre-treatment at 420°C was 99.8% and 80%, respectively, whereas most of the Sn and Cr were immobilized in the residue. The recovery of all studied metals was enhanced by SCWD pre-treatment and increased along with pre-treatment temperature. Up to 90% of Sn, Zn, Cr, Cd, and Mn could be recovered for SCWD pre-treatment at 440°C.

  15. Removal of organic and inorganic sulfur from Ohio coal by combined physical and chemical process. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Attia, Y.A.; Zeky, M.El.; Lei, W.W.; Bavarian, F.; Yu, S.

    1989-04-28

    This project consisted of three sections. In the first part, the physical cleaning of Ohio coal by selective flocculation of ultrafine slurry was considered. In the second part, the mild oxidation process for removal of pyritic and organic sulfur.was investigated. Finally, in-the third part, the combined effects of these processes were studied. The physical cleaning and desulfurization of Ohio coal was achieved using selective flocculation of ultrafine coal slurry in conjunction with froth flotation as flocs separation method. The finely disseminated pyrite particles in Ohio coals, in particular Pittsburgh No.8 seam, make it necessary to use ultrafine ({minus}500 mesh) grinding to liberate the pyrite particles. Experiments were performed to identify the ``optimum`` operating conditions for selective flocculation process. The results indicated that the use of a totally hydrophobic flocculant (FR-7A) yielded the lowest levels of mineral matters and total sulfur contents. The use of a selective dispersant (PAAX) increased the rejection of pyritic sulfur further. In addition, different methods of floc separation techniques were tested. It was found that froth flotation system was the most efficient method for separation of small coal flocs.

  16. An approach for combining airborne LiDAR and high-resolution aerial color imagery using Gaussian processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yansong; Monteiro, Sildomar T.; Saber, Eli

    2015-10-01

    Changes in vegetation cover, building construction, road network and traffic conditions caused by urban expansion affect the human habitat as well as the natural environment in rapidly developing cities. It is crucial to assess these changes and respond accordingly by identifying man-made and natural structures with accurate classification algorithms. With the increase in use of multi-sensor remote sensing systems, researchers are able to obtain a more complete description of the scene of interest. By utilizing multi-sensor data, the accuracy of classification algorithms can be improved. In this paper, we propose a method for combining 3D LiDAR point clouds and high-resolution color images to classify urban areas using Gaussian processes (GP). GP classification is a powerful non-parametric classification method that yields probabilistic classification results. It makes predictions in a way that addresses the uncertainty of real world. In this paper, we attempt to identify man-made and natural objects in urban areas including buildings, roads, trees, grass, water and vehicles. LiDAR features are derived from the 3D point clouds and the spatial and color features are extracted from RGB images. For classification, we use the Laplacian approximation for GP binary classification on the new combined feature space. The multiclass classification has been implemented by using one-vs-all binary classification strategy. The result of applying support vector machines (SVMs) and logistic regression (LR) classifier is also provided for comparison. Our experiments show a clear improvement of classification results by using the two sensors combined instead of each sensor separately. Also we found the advantage of applying GP approach to handle the uncertainty in classification result without compromising accuracy compared to SVM, which is considered as the state-of-the-art classification method.

  17. A strategy of combining SILAR with solvothermal process for In2S3 sensitized quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Peizhi; Tang, Qunwei; Ji, Chenming; Wang, Haobo

    2015-12-01

    Pursuit of an efficient strategy for quantum dot-sensitized photoanode has been a persistent objective for enhancing photovoltaic performances of quantum dot-sensitized solar cell (QDSC). We present here the fabrication of the indium sulfide (In2S3) quantum dot-sensitized titanium dioxide (TiO2) photoanode by combining successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) with solvothermal processes. The resultant QDSC consists of an In2S3 sensitized TiO2 photoanode, a liquid polysulfide electrolyte, and a Co0.85Se counter electrode. The optimized QDSC with photoanode prepared with the help of a SILAR method at 20 deposition cycles and solvothermal method yields a maximum power conversion efficiency of 1.39%.

  18. The effect of combination enzymatic and advanced oxidation process treatments on the colour of pulp and paper mill effluent.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Samaneh; Abdulkhani, Ali; Karimi, Alinaghi; Ghazali, Abdul Halim B; Ahmadun, Fakhru L-Razi

    2010-04-01

    The efficiency of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), enzymatic treatment and combined enzymatic/AOP sequences for the colour remediation of soda and chemimechanical pulp and paper mill effluent was investigated. The results indicated that under all circumstances, the AOP using ultraviolet irradiation (photo-Fenton) was more efficient in the degradation of effluent components in comparison with the dark reaction. It was found that both versatile peroxidase (VP) from Bjerkandera adusta and laccase from Trametes versicolor, as pure enzymes, decolorize the deep brown effluent to a clear light-yellow solution. In addition, it was found that in the laccase treatment, the decolorization rates of both effluents were enhanced in the presence of 2, 2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate), while in the case of VP, Mn(+2) decreased the efficiency of the decolorization treatment. The concomitant use of enzymes and AOPs imposes a considerable effect on the colour remediation of effluent samples.

  19. A combined approach to predict spatial temperature evolution and its consequences during FIB processing of soft matter.

    PubMed

    Schmied, Roland; Fröch, Johannes E; Orthacker, Angelina; Hobisch, Josephine; Trimmel, Gregor; Plank, Harald

    2014-04-07

    Accessing local temperatures and their evolution during focused ion beam (FIB) processing is of particular importance in the context of polymers or biomaterials as they tend to undergo severe chemical and morphological damage due to the high temperatures arising. In this study we present a combination of ion trajectory simulations and thermal spike model based calculations, which allows predicting local temperatures, lateral distributions and evolution during FIB patterning. Simulations and calculations have been done without any approximation or correction factors and lead to results in very good agreement with experiments on polymers taking into account their thermal behaviour. Finally, the model is applied to different scanning strategies which demonstrate how classically applied patterning strategies lead to massive temperature increases which can be the knock out criteria for low melting materials.

  20. One-pot process combining transesterification and selective hydrogenation for biodiesel production from starting material of high degree of unsaturation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ru; Su, Mengxing; Li, Min; Zhang, Jianchun; Hao, Xinmin; Zhang, Hua

    2010-08-01

    A one-pot process combining transesterification and selective hydrogenation was established to produce biodiesel from hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seed oil which is eliminated as a potential feedstock by a specification of iodine value (IV; 120 g I(2)/100g maximum) contained in EN 14214. A series of alkaline earth metal oxides and alkaline earth metal supported copper oxide were prepared and tested as catalysts. SrO supported 10 wt.% CuO showed the superior catalytic activity for transesterification with a biodiesel yield of 96% and hydrogenation with a reduced iodine value of 113 and also exhibited a promising selectivity for eliminating methyl linolenate and increasing methyl oleate without rising methyl stearate in the selective hydrogenation. The fuel properties of the selective hydrogenated methyl esters are within biodiesel specifications. Furthermore, cetane numbers and iodine values were well correlated with the compositions of the hydrogenated methyl esters according to degrees of unsaturation.

  1. Combined Effect of Pressure-Assisted Thermal Processing and Antioxidants on the Retention of Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Milk

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Monteagudo, Sergio I.; Saldaña, Marleny D.A.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of pressure-assisted thermal processing (PATP) in combination with seven synthetic antioxidants was evaluated on the retention of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in enriched milk. Milk rich in CLA was first saturated with oxygen, followed by the addition of either catechin, cysteine, ascorbic acid, tannic acid, gallic acid, caffeic acid or p-coumaric acid (500 mg kg−1 untreated milk). Samples were treated at 600 MPa and 120 °C up to 15 min of holding time. During PATP, CLA not only oxidized at a slower rate, but also less oxygen was consumed compared to the control (0.1 MPa and 120 °C). In addition, phenolic antioxidants were able to quench dissolved oxygen in samples treated with PATP. For those samples added with gallic acid and catechin, 85% and 75% of the CLA was retained after 15 min of holding time at 600 MPa and 120 °C, respectively. The retention of CLA was enhanced by the application of PATP in combination with gallic acid. PMID:28231190

  2. Modeling the Effects of Hydrodynamic Regimes on Microbial Communities within Fluvial Biofilms: Combining Deterministic and Stochastic Processes.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Wenlong; Wang, Peifang; Niu, Lihua; Hou, Jun; Wang, Jing; Wang, Linqiong

    2015-11-03

    To fully understand the effects of hydrodynamics on a microbial community, the roles of niche-based and neutral processes must be considered in a mathematical model. To this end, a two-dimensional model combining mechanisms of immigration, dispersal, and niche differentiation was first established to describe the effects of hydrodynamics on bacterial communities within fluvial biofilms. Deterministic factors of the model were identified via the calculation of Spearman's rank correlation coefficients between parameters of hydrodynamics and the bacterial community. It was found that turbulent kinetic energy and turbulent intensity were considered as a set of reasonable predictors of community composition, whereas flow velocity and turbulent intensity can be combined together to predict biofilm bacterial biomass. According to the modeling result, the bacterial community could get its favorable assembly condition with a flow velocity ranging from 0.041 to 0.061 m/s. However, the driving force for biofilm community assembly changed with the local hydrodynamics. Individuals reproduction within the biofilm was the main driving force with flow velocity less than 0.05 m/s, while cell migration played a much more important role with velocity larger than 0.05 m/s. The developed model could be considered as a useful tool for improving the technologies of water environment protection and remediation.

  3. Combined Effect of Pressure-Assisted Thermal Processing and Antioxidants on the Retention of Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Milk.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Monteagudo, Sergio I; Saldaña, Marleny D A

    2015-04-14

    The effect of pressure-assisted thermal processing (PATP) in combination with seven synthetic antioxidants was evaluated on the retention of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in enriched milk. Milk rich in CLA was first saturated with oxygen, followed by the addition of either catechin, cysteine, ascorbic acid, tannic acid, gallic acid, caffeic acid or p-coumaric acid (500 mg kg(-)¹ untreated milk). Samples were treated at 600 MPa and 120 °C up to 15 min of holding time. During PATP, CLA not only oxidized at a slower rate, but also less oxygen was consumed compared to the control (0.1 MPa and 120 °C). In addition, phenolic antioxidants were able to quench dissolved oxygen in samples treated with PATP. For those samples added with gallic acid and catechin, 85% and 75% of the CLA was retained after 15 min of holding time at 600 MPa and 120 °C, respectively. The retention of CLA was enhanced by the application of PATP in combination with gallic acid.

  4. Removal of Penicillin G by combination of sonolysis and Photocatalytic (sonophotocatalytic) process from aqueous solution: process optimization using RSM (Response Surface Methodology)

    PubMed Central

    Almasi, Ali; Dargahi, Abdollah; Mohamadi, Mitra; Biglari, Hamed; Amirian, Farhad; Raei, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Penicillin G (PG) is used in a variety of infectious diseases, extensively. Generally, when antibiotics are introduced into the food chain, they pose a threat to the environment and can risk health outcomes. The aim of the present study was the removal of Penicillin G from an aqueous solution through an integrated system of UV/ZnO and UV/WO3 with Ultrasound pretreatment. Methods In this descriptive-analytical work dealing with the removal of Penicillin G from an aqueous solution, four significant variables, contact time (60–120 min), Penicillin G concentration (50–150 mg/L), ZnO dose (200–400 mg/L), and WO3 dose (100–200 mg/L) were investigated. Experiments were performed in a Pyrex reactor (batch, 1 Lit) with an artificial UV 100-Watt medium pressure mercury lamp, coupled with ultrasound (100 W, 40 KHz) for PG pre-treatment. Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) was selected to follow the performance of the photo-catalytic process and sonolysis. The experiments were based on a Central Composite Design (CCD) and analyzed by Response Surface Methodology (RSM). A mathematical model of the process was designed according to the proposed degradation scheme. Results The results showed that the maximum removal of PG occurred in ultrasonic/UV/WO3 in the presence of 50 mg/L WO3 and contact time of 120 minutes. In addition, an increase in the PG concentration caused a decrease in COD removal. As the initial concentration of the catalyst increased, the COD removal also increased. The maximum COD removal (91.3%) achieved by 200 mg/L WO3 and 400 mg/l ZnO, a contact time of 120 minutes, and an antibiotic concentration of 50 mg/L. All of the variables in the process efficiency were found to be significant (p < 0.05). Catalyst dose and contact time were shown to have a positive effect on the response (p < 0.05). Conclusion The research data supported the conclusion that the combination of advanced oxidation process of sonolysis and photocatalytic (sonophotocatalytic

  5. Wastewater from wood and pulp industry treated by combination of coagulation, adsorption on modified clinoptilolite tuff and membrane processes.

    PubMed

    Bennani, Yasmina; Kosutić, Kresimir; Drazević, Emil; Rozeć, Mirela

    2012-06-01

    Wastewater from the wood and pulp industry is of environmental concern. It contains high concentrations of organic and inorganic matter. In this work a combined method of coagulation, adsorption and nanofiltration/reverse osmosis (NF/RO) was investigated in the purification of biologically treated wastewater from wood processing. Coagulation with 0.8 g dm(-3) AlCl3 x 6H2O and adsorption on 2.5 g m(-3) modified clinoptilolite tuff resulted in removal efficiencies of total carbon (TC), total organic carbon (TOC) and inorganic carbon (IC) up to 67.1%, 77.4% and 49.5%, respectively. Almost complete removal of solutes was achieved after NF/RO treatment. The TOC removal efficiency with RO membrane (CPA-3, LFC-1, XLE) and tight NF membrane (NF90) was 98% and with highly porous NF membrane (DK), 88%. After the proposed treatment the purified water stream can be recycled into the process or safely disposed to the river.

  6. An all-silicon single-wafer micro-g accelerometer with a combined surface and bulk micromachining process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yazdi, N.; Najafi, K.

    2000-01-01

    This paper reports an all-silicon fully symmetrical z-axis micro-g accelerometer that is fabricated on a single-silicon wafer using a combined surface and bulk fabrication process. The microaccelerometer has high device sensitivity, low noise, and low/controllable damping that are the key factors for attaining micro g and sub-micro g resolution in capacitive accelerometers. The microfabrication process produces a large proof mass by using the whole wafer thickness and a large sense capacitance by utilizing a thin sacrificial layer. The sense/feedback electrodes are formed by a deposited 2-3 microns polysilicon film with embedded 25-35 microns-thick vertical stiffeners. These electrodes, while thin, are made very stiff by the thick embedded stiffeners so that force rebalancing of the proof mass becomes possible. The polysilicon electrodes are patterned to create damping holes. The microaccelerometers are batch-fabricated, packaged, and tested successfully. A device with a 2-mm x 1-mm proof mass and a full bridge support has a measured sensitivity of 2 pF/g. The measured sensitivity of a 4-mm x 1-mm accelerometer with a cantilever support is 19.4 pF/g. The calculated noise floor of these devices at atmosphere are 0.23 micro g/sqrt(Hz) and 0.16 micro g/sqrt(Hz), respectively.

  7. Bioleaching combined brine leaching of heavy metals from lead-zinc mine tailings: Transformations during the leaching process.

    PubMed

    Ye, Maoyou; Yan, Pingfang; Sun, Shuiyu; Han, Dajian; Xiao, Xiao; Zheng, Li; Huang, Shaosong; Chen, Yun; Zhuang, Shengwei

    2017-02-01

    During the process of bioleaching, lead (Pb) recovery is low. This low recovery is caused by a problem with the bioleaching technique. This research investigated the bioleaching combination of bioleaching with brine leaching to remove heavy metals from lead-zinc mine tailings. The impact of different parameters were studied, including the effects of initial pH (1.5-3.0) and solid concentration (5-20%) for bioleaching, and the effects of sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration (10-200 g/L) and temperature (25 and 50 °C) for brine leaching. Complementary characterization experiments (Sequential extraction, X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electronic microscope (SEM)) were also conducted to explore the transformation of tailings during the leaching process. The results showed that bioleaching efficiency was significantly influenced by initial pH and solid concentration. Approximately 85.45% of iron (Fe), 4.12% of Pb, and 97.85% of zinc (Zn) were recovered through bioleaching in optimum conditions. Increasing the brine concentration and temperature promoted lead recovery. Lead was recovered from the bioleaching residues at a rate of 94.70% at 25 °C and at a rate of 99.46% at 50 °C when the NaCl concentration was 150 g/L. The study showed that bioleaching significantly changed the speciation of heavy metals and the formation and surface morphology of tailings. The metals were mainly bound in stable fractions after bioleaching.

  8. Production of ectoine through a combined process that uses both growing and resting cells of Halomonas salina DSM 5928T.

    PubMed

    Lang, Ya-jun; Bai, Lin; Ren, Ya-nan; Zhang, Ling-hua; Nagata, Shinichi

    2011-03-01

    Using ectoine-excreting strain Halomonas salina DSM 5928(T), we developed a new process for high-efficiency production of ectoine, which involved a combined process of batch fermentation by growing cells and production by resting cells. In the first stage, batch fermentation was carried out using growing cells under optimal fermentation conditions. The second stage was the production phase, in which ectoine was synthesized and excreted by phosphate-limited resting cells. Optimal conditions for synthesis and excretion of ectoine during batch fermentation in a 10 l fermentor were 0.5 mol l(-1) NaCl and an initial monosodium glutamate concentration of 80 g l(-1) respectively. The pH was adjusted to 7.0 and the temperature was maintained at 33°C. In phosphate-limited resting cells medium, monosodium glutamate and NaCl concentration was 200 g l(-1) and 0.5 mol l(-1), respectively, as well as pH was 7.0. The total concentration of ectoine produced was 14.86 g l(-1), the productivity and yield of ectoine was 7.75 g l(-1) day(-1) and 0.14 g g(-1), respectively, and the percentage of ectoine excreted was 79%. These levels of ectoine production and excretion are the highest reported to date.

  9. Combining a modified vector field histogram algorithm and real-time image processing for unknown environment navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nepal, Kumud; Fine, Adam; Imam, Nabil; Pietrocola, David; Robertson, Neil; Ahlgren, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Q is an unmanned ground vehicle designed to compete in the Autonomous and Navigation Challenges of the AUVSI Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC). Built on a base platform of a modified PerMobil Trax off-road wheel chair frame, and running off a Dell Inspiron D820 laptop with an Intel t7400 Core 2 Duo Processor, Q gathers information from a SICK laser range finder (LRF), video cameras, differential GPS, and digital compass to localize its behavior and map out its navigational path. This behavior is handled by intelligent closed loop speed control and robust sensor data processing algorithms. In the Autonomous challenge, data taken from two IEEE 1394 cameras and the LRF are integrated and plotted on a custom-defined occupancy grid and converted into a histogram which is analyzed for openings between obstacles. The image processing algorithm consists of a series of steps involving plane extraction, normalizing of the image histogram for an effective dynamic thresholding, texture and morphological analysis and particle filtering to allow optimum operation at varying ambient conditions. In the Navigation Challenge, a modified Vector Field Histogram (VFH) algorithm is combined with an auto-regressive path planning model for obstacle avoidance and better localization. Also, Q features the Joint Architecture for Unmanned Systems (JAUS) Level 3 compliance. All algorithms are developed and implemented using National Instruments (NI) hardware and LabVIEW software. The paper will focus on explaining the various algorithms that make up Q's intelligence and the different ways and modes of their implementation.

  10. Enhanced hydroxyl radical generation in the combined ozonation and electrolysis process using carbon nanotubes containing gas diffusion cathode.

    PubMed

    Wu, Donghai; Lu, Guanghua; Zhang, Ran; Lin, Qiuhong; Yan, Zhenhua; Liu, Jianchao; Li, Yi

    2015-10-01

    Combination of ozone together with electrolysis (ozone-electrolysis) is a promising wastewater treatment technology. This work investigated the potential use of carbon nanotube (CNT)-based gas diffusion cathode (GDC) for ozone-electrolysis process employing hydroxyl radicals (·OH) production as an indicator. Compared with conventional active carbon (AC)-polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and carbon black (CB)-PTFE cathodes, the production of ·OH in the coupled process was improved using CNTs-PTFE GDC. Appropriate addition of acetylene black (AB) and pore-forming agent Na2SO4 could enhance the efficiency of CNTs-PTFE GDC. The optimum GDC composition was obtained by response surface methodology (RSM) analysis and was determined as CNTs 31.2 wt%, PTFE 60.6 wt%, AB 3.5 wt%, and Na2SO4 4.7 wt%. Moreover, the optimized CNT-based GDC exhibited much more effective than traditional Ti and graphite cathodes in Acid Orange 7 (AO7) mineralization and possessed the desirable stability without performance decay after ten times reaction. The comparison tests revealed that peroxone reaction was the main pathway of ·OH production in the present system, and cathodic reduction of ozone could significantly promote ·OH generation. These results suggested that application of CNT-based GDC offers considerable advantages in ozone-electrolysis of organic wastewater.

  11. Combining LCT tools for the optimization of an industrial process: material and energy flow analysis and best available techniques.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, M T Torres; Andrade, L Cristóbal; Bugallo, P M Bello; Long, J J Casares

    2011-09-15

    Life cycle thinking (LCT) is one of the philosophies that has recently appeared in the context of the sustainable development. Some of the already existing tools and methods, as well as some of the recently emerged ones, which seek to understand, interpret and design the life of a product, can be included into the scope of the LCT philosophy. That is the case of the material and energy flow analysis (MEFA), a tool derived from the industrial metabolism definition. This paper proposes a methodology combining MEFA with another technique derived from sustainable development which also fits the LCT philosophy, the BAT (best available techniques) analysis. This methodology, applied to an industrial process, seeks to identify the so-called improvable flows by MEFA, so that the appropriate candidate BAT can be selected by BAT analysis. Material and energy inputs, outputs and internal flows are quantified, and sustainable solutions are provided on the basis of industrial metabolism. The methodology has been applied to an exemplary roof tile manufacture plant for validation. 14 Improvable flows have been identified and 7 candidate BAT have been proposed aiming to reduce these flows. The proposed methodology provides a way to detect improvable material or energy flows in a process and selects the most sustainable options to enhance them. Solutions are proposed for the detected improvable flows, taking into account their effectiveness on improving such flows.

  12. Fabrication of combined-scale nano- and microfluidic polymer systems using a multilevel dry etching, electroplating and molding process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanzi, Simone; Østergaard, Peter Friis; Matteucci, Marco; Lehrmann Christiansen, Thomas; Cech, Jiri; Marie, Rodolphe; Taboryski, Rafael

    2012-11-01

    Microfabricated single-cell capture and DNA stretching devices have been produced by injection molding. The fabrication scheme employed deep reactive ion etching in a silicon substrate, electroplating in nickel and molding in cyclic olefin polymer. This work proposes technical solutions to fabrication challenges associated with chip sealing and demolding of polymer high-volume replication methods. UV-assisted thermal bonding was found to ensure a strong seal of the microstructures in the molded part without altering the geometry of the channels. In the DNA stretching device, a low aspect ratio nanoslit (1/200) connecting two larger micro-channels was used to stretch a 168.5 kbp DNA molecule, while in the other device single-HeLa cells were captured against a micro-aperture connecting two larger microfluidic channels. Different dry etching processes have been investigated for the master origination of the cell-capture device. The combination of a modified Bosch process and an isotropic polysilicon etch was found to ensure the ease of demolding by resulting in slightly positively tapered sidewalls with negligible undercut at the mask interface.

  13. Formation of pristane from α-tocopherol under simulated anoxic sedimentary conditions: A combination of biotic and abiotic degradative processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rontani, Jean-François; Nassiry, Mina; Michotey, Valérie; Guasco, Sophie; Bonin, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Incubation of intact and oxidized α-tocopherol (vitamin E) in anaerobic sediment slurries allowed us to demonstrate that, as previously suggested by Goossens et al. (1984), the degradation of α-tocopherol in anoxic sediments results in the formation of pristane. The conversion of α-tocopherol to this isoprenoid alkane involves a combination of biotic and abiotic degradative processes, i.e. the anaerobic biodegradation (which seems to be mainly induced by denitrifying bacteria) of trimeric structures resulting from the abiotic oxidation of α-tocopherol. On the basis of the results obtained, it is proposed that in the marine environment most of the α-tocopherol present in phytoplanktonic cells should be quickly degraded within the water column and the oxic zone of sediments by way of aerobic biodegradation, photo- and autoxidation processes. Abiotic transformation of this compound mainly results in the production of trimeric oxidation products, sufficiently stable to be incorporated into anoxic sediments and whose subsequent anaerobic bacterial degradation affords pristane. These results confirm that the ratio pristane to phytane cannot be used as an indicator of the oxicity of the environment of deposition; in contrast, they support the use of PFI (Pristane Formation Index) as a proxy for the state of diagenesis of sedimentary organic matter.

  14. Combination of chemical analyses and animal feeding trials as reliable procedures to assess the safety of heat processed soybean seeds.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Ilka M; Brasil, Isabel Cristiane F; Oliveira, José Tadeu A; Campello, Cláudio C; Maia, Fernanda Maria M; Campello, Maria Verônica M; Farias, Davi F; Carvalho, Ana Fontenele U

    2009-06-10

    This study assessed whether chemical analyses are sufficient to guarantee the safety of heat processing of soybeans (SB) for human/animal consumption. The effects of extrusion and dry-toasting were analyzed upon seed composition and performance of broiler chicks. None of these induced appreciable changes in protein content and amino acid composition. Conversely, toasting reduced all antinutritional proteins by over 85%. Despite that, the animals fed on toasted SB demonstrated a low performance (feed efficiency 57.8 g/100 g). Extrusion gave place to higher contents of antinutrients, particularly of trypsin inhibitors (27.53 g/kg flour), but animal performance was significantly (p < 0.05) better (feed efficiency 63.2 g/100 g). Upon the basis of chemical analyses, dry-toasting represents the treatment of choice. However, considering the results of the feeding trials, extrusion appears to be the safest method. In conclusion, in order to evaluate the reliability of any processing method intended to improve nutritional value, the combination of chemical and animal studies is necessary.

  15. Precooling treatments induce resistance of Anastrepha ludens eggs to quarantine treatments of high-pressure processing combined with cold.

    PubMed

    Castañón-Rodríguez, J F; Velazquez, G; Montoya, P; Vázquez, M; Ramírez, J A

    2014-04-01

    High-pressure processing (HPP) combined with heat or cold has been proposed as an alternative quarantine process for Mexican fruit fly Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae). HPP conditions at levels higher than 100 MPa applied to destroy eggs and larvae can also affect the postharvest physiology of the fruits. HPP at pressure levels in the range of 50-100 MPa is recommended. Eggs have been reported as being more resistant to HPP than larvae. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the effect of a precooling treatment on the biological viability of A. ludens eggs treated by HPP at 0 degrees C. The capability of nondestroyed eggs to develop and reproduce was also evaluated. One-, 2-, 3-, and 4-d-old eggs were precooled in ice water for 0 (control) 3, 6, 12, or 24 h and then pressurized at 50, 70, or 90 MPa for 0, 3, 6, or 9 min at 0 degrees C. The hatching capability of pressurized eggs was evaluated. The most lethal effect of HPP on nonprecooled eggs (0 h) was obtained at 90 MPa for 9 min, destroying all eggs except for the 3-d-old ones, which showed an 11.8% hatch rate. Precooling treatment improved the hatch rate of eggs ranging from 4 to 50% depending on precooling conditions. The main effect was observed after 6 h. These results suggest that precooling modified the biochemistry and physiology of eggs, improving their resistance to HPP treatments.

  16. Nitrogen removal from coal gasification wastewater by activated carbon technologies combined with short-cut nitrogen removal process.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qian; Han, Hongjun; Hou, Baolin; Zhuang, Haifeng; Jia, Shengyong; Fang, Fang

    2014-11-01

    A system combining granular activated carbon and powdered activated carbon technologies along with shortcut biological nitrogen removal (GAC-PACT-SBNR) was developed to enhance total nitrogen (TN) removal for anaerobically treated coal gasification wastewater with less need for external carbon resources. The TN removal efficiency in SBNR was significantly improved by introducing the effluent from the GAC process into SBNR during the anoxic stage, with removal percentage increasing from 43.8%-49.6% to 68.8%-75.8%. However, the TN removal rate decreased with the progressive deterioration of GAC adsorption. After adding activated sludge to the GAC compartment, the granular carbon had a longer service-life and the demand for external carbon resources became lower. Eventually, the TN removal rate in SBNR was almost constant at approx. 43.3%, as compared to approx. 20.0% before seeding with sludge. In addition, the production of some alkalinity during the denitrification resulted in a net savings in alkalinity requirements for the nitrification reaction and refractory chemical oxygen demand (COD) degradation by autotrophic bacteria in SBNR under oxic conditions. PACT showed excellent resilience to increasing organic loadings. The microbial community analysis revealed that the PACT had a greater variety of bacterial taxons and the dominant species associated with the three compartments were in good agreement with the removal of typical pollutants. The study demonstrated that pre-adsorption by the GAC-sludge process could be a technically and economically feasible method to enhance TN removal in coal gasification wastewater (CGW).

  17. Combined use of isotopic and hydrometric data to conceptualize ecohydrological processes in a high-elevation tropical ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mosquera, Giovanny M; Celleri, Rolando; Lazo, Patricio X; Vache, Kellie B; Perakis, Steven; Crespo, Patricio

    2016-01-01

    Few high-elevation tropical catchments worldwide are gauged and even fewer are studied using combined hydrometric and isotopic data. Consequently, we lack information needed to understand processes governing rainfall-runoff dynamics and to predict their influence on downstream ecosystem functioning. To address this need, we present a combination of hydrometric and water stable isotopic observations in the wet Andean páramo ecosystem of the Zhurucay Ecohydrological Observatory (7.53 km2). The catchment is located in the Andes of south Ecuador between 3400 and 3900 m a.s.l. Water samples for stable isotopic analysis were collected during 2 years (May 2011 – May 2013), while rainfall and runoff measurements were continuously recorded since late 2010. The isotopic data reveal that Andosol soils predominantly situated on hillslopes drain laterally to Histosols (Andean páramo wetlands) mainly located at the valley bottom. Histosols, in turn, feed water to creeks and small rivers throughout the year, establishing hydrologic connectivity between wetlands and the drainage network. Runoff is primarily comprised of pre-event water stored in the Histosols, which is replenished by rainfall that infiltrates through the Andosols. Contributions from the mineral horizon and the top of the fractured bedrock are small and only seem to influence discharge in small catchments during low flow generation (non-exceedance flows < Q35). Variations in source contributions are controlled by antecedent soil moisture, rainfall intensity, and duration of rainy periods. Saturated hydraulic conductivity of the soils, higher than the year-round low precipitation intensity, indicates that Hortonian overland flow rarely occurs during high intensity precipitation events. Deep groundwater contributions to discharge seem to be minimal. These results suggest that, in this high-elevation tropical ecosystem: 1) subsurface flow is a dominant hydrological process and 2) (Histosols) wetlands are the major

  18. [Effects of temperature on combined process of ABR and MBR for domestic sewage treatment and analysis of microbial community].

    PubMed

    Wu, Peng; Lu, Shuang-jun; Xu, Yue-zhong; Liu, Jie; Shen, Yao-liang

    2014-09-01

    Effects of temperature on the combined process of ABR and MBR ( CAMBR) for domestic sewage treatment were investigated and the changes in the bacterial community structure were analyzed by PCR-DGGE technique. The HRT, recycle ratio 1, recycle ratio 2, pH and DO were 7.5 h, 200% , 50%, 6.5~8.5 and 3 mg.L-1, respectively. The temperature were controlled at three gradients: middle (25°C ±5°C ), low (10°C±5°C) and high (35°C±5°C ). The results showed that the change of temperature had little influence on COD removal, and the CAMBR in stable state showed good performance in COD removal. In addition, the CAMBR achieved good effluent quality in middle or high temperature environment, and the average TN removal efficiency was 70% with an effluent TN of 9 mg L-1, and the average TP removal efficiency was 73% with the effluent TP below 0. 8 mg L-1. For the process operated in low temperature environment, the average TN removal efficiency was only 57% with an effluent TN of 15 mg L-1, and the average TP removal efficiency was decreased to 67% with an effluent TP of 1 mg.L-1. DGGE analysis indicated that throughout the process, the microbial population within the system maintained its diversity in distribution, while the dominant flora was prominent. During the same period, microbial populations in each compartment were similar. However, the structure of microbial community had significant differences between the ABR and the MBR due to the change of microenvironment in each compartment. Thus, the contributions of the ABR and the MBR were intensified, guaranteeing the efficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus removal in the system.

  19. Combination of forward osmosis (FO) process with coagulation/flocculation (CF) for potential treatment of textile wastewater.

    PubMed

    Han, Gang; Liang, Can-Zeng; Chung, Tai-Shung; Weber, Martin; Staudt, Claudia; Maletzko, Christian

    2016-03-15

    A novel combination of forward osmosis (FO) process with coagulation/flocculation (CF) (FO-CF) has been experimentally conceived for the treatment and reuse of textile wastewater. FO is employed to spontaneously recover water from the wastewater via osmosis and thus effectively reduces its volume with a dramatically enhanced dye concentration. CF is then applied to precipitate and remove dyes from the FO concentrated stream with much improved efficiency and reduced chemical dosage. The FO-CF hybrid system exhibits unique advantages of high water flux and recovery rate, well controlled membrane fouling, high efficiency, and minimal environmental impact. Using a lab-made thin-film composite (TFC) FO membrane, an initial water flux (Jw) of 36.0 L m(-2) h(-1) with a dye rejection of 99.9% has been demonstrated by using 2 M NaCl as the draw solution and synthetic textile wastewater containing multiple textile dyes, inorganic salts and organic additives as the feed under the FO mode. The Jw could be maintained at a high value of 12.0 L m(-2) h(-1) even when the recovery rate of the wastewater reaches 90%. Remarkable reverse fouling behavior has also been observed where the Jw of the fouled membrane can be almost fully restored to the initial value by physical flushing without using any chemicals. Due to the great dye concentration in the FO concentrated wastewater stream, the CF process could achieve more than 95% dye removal with a small dosage of coagulants and flocculants at 500-1000 ppm. The newly developed FO-CF hybrid process may open up new exploration of alternative technologies for the effective treatment and reuse of textile effluents.

  20. Pretreatment of 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) producing wastewater using a combined zero-valent iron (ZVI) reduction and Fenton oxidation process.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jinyou; Ou, Changjin; Zhou, Zongyuan; Chen, Jun; Fang, Kexiong; Sun, Xiuyun; Li, Jiansheng; Zhou, Lin; Wang, Lianjun

    2013-09-15

    A combined zero-valent iron (ZVI) reduction and Fenton oxidation process was tested for the pretreatment of 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) producing wastewater. Operating conditions were optimized and overall performance of the combined process was evaluated. For ZVI process, almost complete reduction of nitroaromatic compounds was observed at empty bed contact time (EBCT) of 8h. For Fenton process, the optimal pH, H₂O₂ to Fe(II) molar ratio, H₂O₂ dosage and hydraulic retention time (HRT) were found to be 3.0, 15, 0.216 mol/L and 5h, respectively. After pretreatment by the combined ZVI-Fenton process under the optimal conditions, aromatic organic compound removal was as high as 77.2%, while the majority of COD remained to be further treated by sequent biological process. The combined anaerobic-aerobic process consisted of an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) and a moving-bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) was operated for 3 months, fed with ZVI-Fenton effluent. The results revealed that the coupled ZVI-Fenton-ABR-MBBR system was significantly efficient in terms of correcting the effluent's main parameters of relevance, mainly aromatic compounds concentration, COD concentration, color and acute toxicity. These results indicate that the combined ZVI-Fenton process offers bright prospects for the pretreatment of wastewater containing nitroaromatic compounds.

  1. In situ characterization and analysis of Salmonella biofilm formation under meat processing environments using a combined microscopic and spectroscopic approach.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huhu; Ding, Shijie; Wang, Guangyu; Xu, Xinglian; Zhou, Guanghong

    2013-11-01

    Salmonella biofilm on food-contact surfaces present on food processing facilities may serve as a source of cross-contamination. In our work, biofilm formation by multi-strains of meat-borne Salmonella incubated at 20 °C, as well as the composition and distribution of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), were investigated in situ by combining confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy. A standard laboratory culture medium (tryptic soy broth, TSB) was used and compared with an actual meat substrate (meat thawing-loss broth, MTLB). The results indicated that Salmonella grown in both media were able to form biofilms on stainless steel surfaces via building a three-dimensional structure with multilayers of cells. Although the number of biofilm cells grown in MTLB was less than that in TSB, the cell numbers in MTLB was adequate to form a steady and mature biofilm. Salmonella grown in MTLB showed "cloud-shaped" morphology in the mature biofilm, whereas when grown in TSB appeared "reticular-shaped". The ATR-FTIR and Raman analysis revealed a completely different chemical composition between biofilms and the corresponding planktonic cells, and some important differences in biofilms grown in MTLB and in TSB. Importantly, our findings suggested that the progress towards a mature Salmonella biofilm on stainless steel surfaces may be associated with the production of the EPS matrix, mainly consisting of polysaccharides and proteins, which may serve as useful markers of biofilm formation. Our work indicated that a combination of these non-destructive techniques provided new insights into the formation of Salmonella biofilm matrix.

  2. [Formation and Variation of Brominated Disinfection By-products in A Combined Ultrafiltration and Reverse Osmosis Process for Seawater Desalination].

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhe; Sun, Ying-xue; Shi, Na; Hu, Hong-ying

    2015-10-01

    The characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and brominated disinfection by-products ( Br-DBPs ) during a seawater desalination ultrafiltration (UF) combined reverse osmosis (RO) process were studied. The seawater contained high level of bromide ion (45.6-50.9 mg x L(-1)) and aromatic compounds with specific ultraviolet absorbance ( SUVA) of 3.6-6.0 L x (mg x m)(-1). The tryptophan-like aromatic protein, fulvic acid-like and soluble microbial by-product-like were the main fluorescent DOM in the seawater. After pre-chlorination of the seawater, the concentrations of DBPs was significantly increased in the influent of UF, which was dominantly the Br-DBPs. Bromoform (CHBr3) accounted for 70.48% - 91.50% of total trihalomethanes (THMs), dibromoacetic acid (Br2CHCO2H) occupied 81.14% - 100% of total haloacetic acids (HAAs) and dibromoacetonitrile (C2HBr2N) occupied 83.77% - 87.45% of total haloacetonitriles ( HANs). The removal efficiency of THMs, HAAs and HANs by the UF membrane was 36.63% - 40.39%, 73.83% - 95.38% and 100%, respectively. The RO membrane could completely remove the HAAs, while a little of the THMs was penetrated. The antiestrogenic activity in the seawater was 0.35 - 0.44 mg x L(-1), which was increased 32% - 69% after the pre-chlorination. The DBPs and other bio-toxic organics which formed during the UF-RO process were finally concentrated in the UF concentrate and RO concentrate.

  3. Study on an integrated process combining ozonation with ceramic ultra-filtration for decentralized supply of drinking water.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jia; Fan, Xiao J; Tao, Yi; Wei, De Q; Zhang, Xi H

    2014-09-19

    An integrated process was specifically developed for the decentralized supply of drinking water from micro-polluted surface water in the rural areas of China. The treatment process combined ozonation with ceramic ultra-filtration (UF), coagulation for pre-treatment and granular activated carbon filtration. A flat-sheet ceramic membrane was used with a cut-off of 60 nm and the measurement of 254 mm (length) × 240 mm (width) × 6 mm (thickness). Ozonation and ceramic UF was set up whthin one reactor. The experimental results showed that the removal efficiencies of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and the formation potential of trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs) and ammonia were 80%, 76%, 70% and 90%, respectively; that the turbidity of the product water was below 0.2 NTU and the particle count number (particles larger than 2 μm) was less than 50 counts per mL. The result also showed that all the pathogenic microorganisms were retained by the ceramic and that UF. Ozonation played a critical role in the control of membrane fouling and the removal of contaminants. Exactly, the membrane fouling can be controlled in situ with 3 mg L(-1) ozone at the permeate flux of 80 L m(-2) h(-1), yet the required dosage of ozone was dependent on the quality of the raw water. Therefore, this study is able to provide a highly compacted system for decentralized supply of high-quality drinking water in terms of both chemical and microbiological safety for the rural areas in China.

  4. Combining High Resolution Measurements and Simulations of Near-Bed Sediment Transport Processes Under Large-Scale Breaking Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finn, J. R.; Hurther, D.; van der Zanden, J.; van der A, D. A.; Ribberink, J.; O'Donoghue, T.; Li, M.

    2015-12-01

    Physical processes involved in near-bed sediment transport under regular, breaking waves are investigated using a combined framework of high resolution measurement and numerical simulation. Experiments are carried out at full scale (0.85 m wave height, 4 s period) in the CIEM wave flume above a mobile sand bed (d10, d50, d90 = 0.15 mm, 0.25 mm, 0.37 mm). Vertical profiles of co-located, two component (u, w) velocity and particle concentration are measured in the bottom boundary layer (BBL) using a multi-frequency acoustic concentration velocity profiler (ACVP) at several locations along the beach. The intra-wave free stream velocity measurements are provided as input to three dimensional Euler-Lagrange point-particle simulations of the BBL. Using a series of feedback controllers, the simulation forcing is adjusted to match the measured orbital velocity and turbulent intensities at an elevation of z~8 cm above the bed. The simulations treat sand grains both in the bed and in suspension as Lagrangian particles that respond to hydrodynamic and inter-particle forces. Particles are coupled to the near-bed hydrodynamics through the volume filtered Navier Stokes equations, which are solved in a finite volume LES framework at near particle scale. Several wave cycles are simulated in order to make direct comparisons of the mean and turbulent statistics with the measurements and to explore the near-bed particle response to wave breaking. Statistics of the space-time dependent grain-size distribution, a natural output of the particle-based simulations, are fed back into the acoustic calibration of the ACVP, improving the instrument's response to grain size sorting induced by the near bed flow. This cross validation and calibration of measurement and simulation allows for detailed interrogation of near-bed transport processes with minimal empirical assumptions relating to bed shear, particle pickup, or surface wave breaking.

  5. Authentication of bee pollen grains in bright-field microscopy by combining one-class classification techniques and image processing.

    PubMed

    Chica, Manuel

    2012-11-01

    A novel method for authenticating pollen grains in bright-field microscopic images is presented in this work. The usage of this new method is clear in many application fields such as bee-keeping sector, where laboratory experts need to identify fraudulent bee pollen samples against local known pollen types. Our system is based on image processing and one-class classification to reject unknown pollen grain objects. The latter classification technique allows us to tackle the major difficulty of the problem, the existence of many possible fraudulent pollen types, and the impossibility of modeling all of them. Different one-class classification paradigms are compared to study the most suitable technique for solving the problem. In addition, feature selection algorithms are applied to reduce the complexity and increase the accuracy of the models. For each local pollen type, a one-class classifier is trained and aggregated into a multiclassifier model. This multiclassification scheme combines the output of all the one-class classifiers in a unique final response. The proposed method is validated by authenticating pollen grains belonging to different Spanish bee pollen types. The overall accuracy of the system on classifying fraudulent microscopic pollen grain objects is 92.3%. The system is able to rapidly reject pollen grains, which belong to nonlocal pollen types, reducing the laboratory work and effort. The number of possible applications of this authentication method in the microscopy research field is unlimited.

  6. AOX removal from industrial wastewaters using advanced oxidation processes: assessment of a combined chemical-biological oxidation.

    PubMed

    Luyten, J; Sniegowski, K; Van Eyck, K; Maertens, D; Timmermans, S; Liers, Sven; Braeken, L

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the abatement of adsorbable halogenated organic compounds (AOX) from an industrial wastewater containing relatively high chloride concentrations by a combined chemical and biological oxidation is assessed. For chemical oxidation, the O(3)/UV, H(2)O(2)/UV and photo-Fenton processes are evaluated on pilot scale. Biological oxidation is simulated in a 4 h respirometry experiment with periodic aeration. The results show that a selective degradation of AOX with respect to the matrix compounds (expressed as chemical oxygen demand) could be achieved. For O(3)/UV, lowering the ratio of O(3) dosage to UV intensity leads to a better selectivity for AOX. During O(3)-based experiments, the AOX removal is generally less than during the H(2)O(2)-based experiments. However, after biological oxidation, the AOX levels are comparable. For H(2)O(2)/UV, optimal operating parameters for UV and H(2)O(2) dosage are next determined in a second run with another wastewater sample.

  7. Nanoparticle fouling and its combination with organic fouling during forward osmosis process for silver nanoparticles removal from simulated wastewater.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanxiao; Wang, Xinhua; Wang, Zhiwei; Li, Xiufen; Ren, Yueping

    2016-05-10

    The increasing and wide application of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) has resulted in their appearance in wastewater. In consideration of their potential toxicity and environmental impacts, it is necessary to find effective technology for their removal from wastewater. Here, forward osmosis (FO) membrane was applied for Ag NPs removal from wastewater, and single and combined fouling of nanoparticles and organic macromolecules were further investigated during the FO process. The findings demonstrated that FO membrane can effectively remove Ag NPs from wastewater due to its high rejection performance. Fouling tests indicated that water flux declined appreciably even at the beginning of the single Ag NPs fouling test, and more remarkable flux decline and larger amounts of deposited Ag NPs were observed with an increase of Ag NPs concentration. However, the addition of bovine serum albumin (BSA) could effectively alleviate the FO membrane fouling induced by Ag NPs. The interaction between Ag NPs and BSA was responsible for this phenomenon. BSA can easily form a nanoparticle-protein corona surrounded nanoparticles, which prevented nanoparticles from aggregation due to the steric stabilization mechanism. Furthermore, the interaction between BSA and Ag NPs occurred not only in wastewater but also on FO membrane surface.

  8. How does CO capture process on microporous NaY zeolites? A FTIR and DFT combined study.

    PubMed

    Cairon, O; Guesmi, H

    2011-06-21

    Reliable experimental IR and theoretical approaches, both investigating CO adsorption on NaY faujasites, are supporting that CO capture occurs through the completion of the vacant coordination of Na(+) cations located in the accessible S(II) sites. As a result, carbonyl adsorbed species are formed by the capture of one, two or three CO molecules and are experimentally discernable by their respective IR positions that are down-shifted by an average 11-12 cm(-1) value for each captured CO molecule. DFT analysis is proposed for comparison and reproduces well the observed experimental shift of the ν(CO) positions of the different polycarbonyls of interest. In addition, the effect of Si or Al composition surrounding the SII Na(+) cation is investigated and results suggest that polycarbonyls that are formed might be in connection with the acidic strength of the cationic sites. This combined study completes and improves the understanding of the complex issue of CO adsorption at 80 K widely used as a model to explain how physical adsorption takes place in NaY faujasites working as an efficient industrial adsorbent in gas separation or gas purification processes.

  9. Combining natural language processing and network analysis to examine how advocacy organizations stimulate conversation on social media.

    PubMed

    Bail, Christopher Andrew

    2016-10-18

    Social media sites are rapidly becoming one of the most important forums for public deliberation about advocacy issues. However, social scientists have not explained why some advocacy organizations produce social media messages that inspire far-ranging conversation among social media users, whereas the vast majority of them receive little or no attention. I argue that advocacy organizations are more likely to inspire comments from new social media audiences if they create "cultural bridges," or produce messages that combine conversational themes within an advocacy field that are seldom discussed together. I use natural language processing, network analysis, and a social media application to analyze how cultural bridges shaped public discourse about autism spectrum disorders on Facebook over the course of 1.5 years, controlling for various characteristics of advocacy organizations, their social media audiences, and the broader social context in which they interact. I show that organizations that create substantial cultural bridges provoke 2.52 times more comments about their messages from new social media users than those that do not, controlling for these factors. This study thus offers a theory of cultural messaging and public deliberation and computational techniques for text analysis and application-based survey research.

  10. Fabrication of hydroxyapatite-poly(epsilon-caprolactone) scaffolds by a combination of the extrusion and bi-axial lamination processes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jong-Jae; Bae, Chang-Jun; Koh, Young-Hag; Kim, Hyoun-Ee; Kim, Hae-Won

    2007-06-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA)/poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) composite scaffolds were fabricated using a combination of the extrusion and bi-axial lamination processes. Firstly, HA/PCL composites with various HA contents (0, 50, 60, 70 wt%) were prepared by mixing the HA powders and the molten PCL at 100 degrees C and then extruded through an orifice with dimensions of 600 x 600 microm to produce HA/PCL composite fibers. Isobutyl methacrylate (IBMA) polymer fiber was also prepared in a similar manner for use as a fugitive material. The 3-D scaffold was then produced by the bi-axial lamination of the HA/PCL and IBMA fibers, followed by solvent leaching to remove the IBMA. It was observed that the HA/PCL composites had a superior elastic modulus and biological properties, as compared to the pure PCL. The fabricated HA/PCL scaffold showed a controlled pore structure (porosity of approximately 49% and pore size of approximately 512 microm) and excellent welding between the HA/PCL fibers, as well as a high compressive strength of approximately 7.8 MPa.

  11. Combining natural language processing and network analysis to examine how advocacy organizations stimulate conversation on social media

    PubMed Central

    Bail, Christopher Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Social media sites are rapidly becoming one of the most important forums for public deliberation about advocacy issues. However, social scientists have not explained why some advocacy organizations produce social media messages that inspire far-ranging conversation among social media users, whereas the vast majority of them receive little or no attention. I argue that advocacy organizations are more likely to inspire comments from new social media audiences if they create “cultural bridges,” or produce messages that combine conversational themes within an advocacy field that are seldom discussed together. I use natural language processing, network analysis, and a social media application to analyze how cultural bridges shaped public discourse about autism spectrum disorders on Facebook over the course of 1.5 years, controlling for various characteristics of advocacy organizations, their social media audiences, and the broader social context in which they interact. I show that organizations that create substantial cultural bridges provoke 2.52 times more comments about their messages from new social media users than those that do not, controlling for these factors. This study thus offers a theory of cultural messaging and public deliberation and computational techniques for text analysis and application-based survey research. PMID:27694580

  12. Nanoparticle fouling and its combination with organic fouling during forward osmosis process for silver nanoparticles removal from simulated wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yanxiao; Wang, Xinhua; Wang, Zhiwei; Li, Xiufen; Ren, Yueping

    2016-05-01

    The increasing and wide application of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) has resulted in their appearance in wastewater. In consideration of their potential toxicity and environmental impacts, it is necessary to find effective technology for their removal from wastewater. Here, forward osmosis (FO) membrane was applied for Ag NPs removal from wastewater, and single and combined fouling of nanoparticles and organic macromolecules were further investigated during the FO process. The findings demonstrated that FO membrane can effectively remove Ag NPs from wastewater due to its high rejection performance. Fouling tests indicated that water flux declined appreciably even at the beginning of the single Ag NPs fouling test, and more remarkable flux decline and larger amounts of deposited Ag NPs were observed with an increase of Ag NPs concentration. However, the addition of bovine serum albumin (BSA) could effectively alleviate the FO membrane fouling induced by Ag NPs. The interaction between Ag NPs and BSA was responsible for this phenomenon. BSA can easily form a nanoparticle-protein corona surrounded nanoparticles, which prevented nanoparticles from aggregation due to the steric stabilization mechanism. Furthermore, the interaction between BSA and Ag NPs occurred not only in wastewater but also on FO membrane surface.

  13. Nanoparticle fouling and its combination with organic fouling during forward osmosis process for silver nanoparticles removal from simulated wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yanxiao; Wang, Xinhua; Wang, Zhiwei; Li, Xiufen; Ren, Yueping

    2016-01-01

    The increasing and wide application of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) has resulted in their appearance in wastewater. In consideration of their potential toxicity and environmental impacts, it is necessary to find effective technology for their removal from wastewater. Here, forward osmosis (FO) membrane was applied for Ag NPs removal from wastewater, and single and combined fouling of nanoparticles and organic macromolecules were further investigated during the FO process. The findings demonstrated that FO membrane can effectively remove Ag NPs from wastewater due to its high rejection performance. Fouling tests indicated that water flux declined appreciably even at the beginning of the single Ag NPs fouling test, and more remarkable flux decline and larger amounts of deposited Ag NPs were observed with an increase of Ag NPs concentration. However, the addition of bovine serum albumin (BSA) could effectively alleviate the FO membrane fouling induced by Ag NPs. The interaction between Ag NPs and BSA was responsible for this phenomenon. BSA can easily form a nanoparticle-protein corona surrounded nanoparticles, which prevented nanoparticles from aggregation due to the steric stabilization mechanism. Furthermore, the interaction between BSA and Ag NPs occurred not only in wastewater but also on FO membrane surface. PMID:27160045

  14. A new combined nuclear magnetic resonance and Raman spectroscopic probe applied to in situ investigations of catalysts and catalytic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camp, Jules C. J.; Mantle, Michael D.; York, Andrew P. E.; McGregor, James

    2014-06-01

    Both Raman and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies are valuable analytical techniques capable of providing mechanistic information and thereby providing insights into chemical processes, including catalytic reactions. Since both techniques are chemically sensitive, they yield not only structural information but also quantitative analysis. In this work, for the first time, the combination of the two techniques in a single experimental apparatus is reported. This entailed the design of a new experimental probe capable of recording simultaneous measurements on the same sample and/or system of interest. The individual datasets acquired by each spectroscopic method are compared to their unmodified, stand-alone equivalents on a single sample as a means to benchmark this novel piece of equipment. The application towards monitoring reaction progress is demonstrated through the evolution of the homogeneous catalysed metathesis of 1-hexene, with both experimental techniques able to detect reactant consumption and product evolution. This is extended by inclusion of magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR capabilities with a custom made MAS 7 mm rotor capable of spinning speeds up to 1600 Hz, quantified by analysis of the spinning sidebands of a sample of KBr. The value of this is demonstrated through an application involving heterogeneous catalysis, namely the metathesis of 2-pentene and ethene. This provides the added benefit of being able to monitor both the reaction progress (by NMR spectroscopy) and also the structure of the catalyst (by Raman spectroscopy) on the very same sample, facilitating the development of structure-performance relationships.

  15. Potential for green microalgae to produce hydrogen, pharmaceuticals and other high value products in a combined process

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    during general anaerobic conditions, and during sulfur deprivation. Species used today for commercial purposes are also described. This information is analyzed in order to form a basis for selection of wild type species for a future multi-step process, where hydrogen production from solar energy is combined with the production of valuable metabolites and other commercial uses of the algal biomass. PMID:22765907

  16. Potential for green microalgae to produce hydrogen, pharmaceuticals and other high value products in a combined process.

    PubMed

    Skjånes, Kari; Rebours, Céline; Lindblad, Peter

    2013-06-01

    during general anaerobic conditions, and during sulfur deprivation. Species used today for commercial purposes are also described. This information is analyzed in order to form a basis for selection of wild type species for a future multi-step process, where hydrogen production from solar energy is combined with the production of valuable metabolites and other commercial uses of the algal biomass.

  17. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations of hydrogen production from the combined processes of dimethyl ether steam reforming and partial oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semelsberger, Troy A.; Borup, Rodney L.

    Thermodynamic analyses of producing a hydrogen-rich fuel-cell feed from the combined processes of dimethyl ether (DME) partial oxidation and steam reforming were investigated as a function of oxygen-to-carbon ratio (0.00-2.80), steam-to-carbon ratio (0.00-4.00), temperature (100 °C-600 °C), pressure (1-5 atm) and product species. Thermodynamically, dimethyl ether processed with air and steam generates hydrogen-rich fuel-cell feeds; however, the hydrogen concentration is less than that for pure DME steam reforming. Results of the thermodynamic processing of dimethyl ether indicate the complete conversion of dimethyl ether to hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide for temperatures greater than 200 °C, oxygen-to-carbon ratios greater than 0.00 and steam-to-carbon ratios greater than 1.25 at atmospheric pressure (P = 1 atm). Increasing the operating pressure has negligible effects on the hydrogen content. Thermodynamically, dimethyl ether can produce concentrations of hydrogen and carbon monoxide of 52% and 2.2%, respectively, at a temperature of 300 °C, and oxygen-to-carbon ratio of 0.40, a pressure of 1 atm and a steam-to-carbon ratio of 1.50. The order of thermodynamically stable products (excluding H 2, CO, CO 2, DME, NH 3 and H 2O) in decreasing mole fraction is methane, ethane, isopropyl alcohol, acetone, n-propanol, ethylene, ethanol and methyl-ethyl ether; trace amounts of formaldehyde, formic acid and methanol are observed. Ammonia and hydrogen cyanide are also thermodynamically favored products. Ammonia is favored at low temperatures in the range of oxygen-to-carbon ratios of 0.40-2.50 regardless of the steam-to-carbon ratio employed. The maximum ammonia content (i.e., 40%) occurs at an oxygen-to-carbon ratio of 0.40, a steam-to-carbon ratio of 1.00 and a temperature of 100 °C. Hydrogen cyanide is favored at high temperatures and low oxygen-to-carbon ratios with a maximum of 3.18% occurring at an oxygen-to-carbon ratio of 0.40 and a steam

  18. Prediction of Groundwater Flow and Transport Processes in an Urban Area: A Combined Approach of Field Testing and Numerical Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popp, Andrea; Moeck, Christian; Radny, Dirk; Borer, Paul; Affolter, Annette; Epting, Jannis; Huggenberger, Peter; Auckenthaler, Adrian; Schirmer, Mario

    2015-04-01

    Drinking water supply in urban areas is challenging due to different kinds of water use and potential groundwater contamination. We investigate an area where drinking water production is close to different contaminated sites. The study site is characterized by a high complexity of the tectonic and geological setting with a gravel and a karstic aquifer. The two aquifers are partly connected, partly disconnected by an aquitard. To avoid drinking water contamination, artificial groundwater recharge with surface water into the gravel aquifer is used to create a hydraulic barrier between the contaminated sites and the water abstraction wells. Trace compounds, that were found in former times in the surface water but not nowadays, are still detected in the extracted drinking water. Different studies have been performed such as numerical modeling, intensive groundwater monitoring and investigation of drilling cores to get a differentiated overview of the distribution of the contaminants. Back-diffusion from the matrix due to changing hydraulic boundary was stated to be the reason for the actual distribution of the contaminants. In a first approach due to the lack of experimental data or evidence from field measurements, the permeabilities of the karstic aquifer were assumed as homogeneous. In our study, we seek to identify the flow and transport processes within the system including the fracture network in a combined approach of field work and 3D modeling with FEFLOW. During a field campaign we acquired water samples for the analysis of stable water isotopes as well as organic and inorganic compounds. Furthermore, tritium and helium samples were taken to estimate water ages and to determine the flow through the fracture networks. A combination of existing and recently obtained data was used to build and validate a 3D flow and transport model. The simulation of different scenarios such as the water flow for varying injection and extraction rates as well as particle

  19. Combination of techniques for mapping structural and functional connectivity of soil erosion processes: a case study in a small watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seeger, Manuel; Taguas, Encarnación; Brings, Christine; Wirtz, Stefan; Rodrigo Comino, Jesus; Albert, Enrique; Ries, Johabbes B.

    2016-04-01

    experiment). The measurements were conducted at representative areas identified in advance by precedent mapping. Preliminary results show that the rills are highly effective in producing sediments, but also in connecting fast the different sources with the catchment's outlet. But also they act as a disconnecting feature to the areas of observation, as they may lead the runoff (and the transported sediments) outside the catchment. On the other side, the experiments showed that the evidently degraded areas produce only very delayed runoff, and thus also sediments, whereas the areas with stable deep soils show evidences of fast runoff and erosive responses. The preliminary results of the combination of mapping and experimental techniques demonstrate the different levels at where functional and structural connectivity have to be evaluated. The latter one may be, as a geomorphological feature, the result of former process distributions, whereas the directly observable (functional) connectivity may shift in time due to internal feedbacks, such as the result of soil degradation.

  20. IN-SITU IONIC CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF FRESH WATER VIA A NOVEL COMBINED MULTI-SENSOR / SIGNAL PROCESSING ARCHITECTURE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, A. V.; Hemond, H.

    2009-12-01

    The capability for comprehensive, real-time, in-situ characterization of the chemical constituents of natural waters is a powerful tool for the advancement of the ecological and geochemical sciences, e.g. by facilitating rapid high-resolution adaptive sampling campaigns and avoiding the potential errors and high costs related to traditional grab sample collection, transportation and analysis. Portable field-ready instrumentation also promotes the goals of large-scale monitoring networks, such as CUASHI and WATERS, without the financial and human resources overhead required for traditional sampling at this scale. Problems of environmental remediation and monitoring of industrial waste waters would additionally benefit from such instrumental capacity. In-situ measurement of all major ions contributing to the charge makeup of natural fresh water is thus pursued via a combined multi-sensor/multivariate signal processing architecture. The instrument is based primarily on commercial electrochemical sensors, e.g. ion selective electrodes (ISEs) and ion selective field-effect transistors (ISFETs), to promote low cost as well as easy maintenance and reproduction,. The system employs a novel architecture of multivariate signal processing to extract accurate information from in-situ data streams via an "unmixing" process that accounts for sensor non-linearities at low concentrations, as well as sensor cross-reactivities. Conductivity, charge neutrality and temperature are applied as additional mathematical constraints on the chemical state of the system. Including such non-ionic information assists in obtaining accurate and useful calibrations even in the non-linear portion of the sensor response curves, and measurements can be made without the traditionally-required standard additions or ionic strength adjustment. Initial work demonstrates the effectiveness of this methodology at predicting inorganic cations (Na+, NH4+, H+, Ca2+, and K+) in a simplified system containing

  1. Combining livestock production information in a process-based vegetation model to reconstruct the history of grassland management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Jinfeng; Ciais, Philippe; Herrero, Mario; Havlik, Petr; Campioli, Matteo; Zhang, Xianzhou; Bai, Yongfei; Viovy, Nicolas; Joiner, Joanna; Wang, Xuhui; Peng, Shushi; Yue, Chao; Piao, Shilong; Wang, Tao; Hauglustaine, Didier A.; Soussana, Jean-Francois; Peregon, Anna; Kosykh, Natalya; Mironycheva-Tokareva, Nina

    2016-06-01

    Grassland management type (grazed or mown) and intensity (intensive or extensive) play a crucial role in the greenhouse gas balance and surface energy budget of this biome, both at field scale and at large spatial scale. However, global gridded historical information on grassland management intensity is not available. Combining modelled grass-biomass productivity with statistics of the grass-biomass demand by livestock, we reconstruct gridded maps of grassland management intensity from 1901 to 2012. These maps include the minimum area of managed vs. maximum area of unmanaged grasslands and the fraction of mown vs. grazed area at a resolution of 0.5° by 0.5°. The grass-biomass demand is derived from a livestock dataset for 2000, extended to cover the period 1901-2012. The grass-biomass supply (i.e. forage grass from mown grassland and biomass grazed) is simulated by the process-based model ORCHIDEE-GM driven by historical climate change, rising CO2 concentration, and changes in nitrogen fertilization. The global area of managed grassland obtained in this study increases from 6.1 × 106 km2 in 1901 to 12.3 × 106 km2 in 2000, although the expansion pathway varies between different regions. ORCHIDEE-GM also simulated augmentation in global mean productivity and herbage-use efficiency over managed grassland during the 20th century, indicating a general intensification of grassland management at global scale but with regional differences. The gridded grassland management intensity maps are model dependent because they depend on modelled productivity. Thus specific attention was given to the evaluation of modelled productivity against a series of observations from site-level net primary productivity (NPP) measurements to two global satellite products of gross primary productivity (GPP) (MODIS-GPP and SIF data). Generally, ORCHIDEE-GM captures the spatial pattern, seasonal cycle, and interannual variability of grassland productivity at global scale well and thus is

  2. Combined distributed source and single-trial EEG-fMRI modeling: application to effortful decision making processes.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Fabrizio; Mulert, Christoph; Goebel, Rainer

    2009-08-01

    Single-trial coupling of simultaneously recorded EEG and fMRI time-series can be used to generate fMRI patterns of brain activity with high spatial resolution from EEG responses with high temporal resolution. A forced choice reaction task under different effort conditions has been previously used to demonstrate single-trial EEG-fMRI coupling effects for an early ERP component (N1: 70-150 ms) measured on a single scalp channel (Cz), thereby providing the first multi-modal evidence of early anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) activation in effortful decision making (Mulert, C., Seifert, C., Leicht, G., Kirsch, V., Ertl, M., Karch, S., Moosmann, M., Lutz, J., Möller, H.J., Hegerl, U., Pogarell, O., Jäger, L., 2008. Single-trial coupling of EEG and fMRI reveals the involvement of early anterior cingulate cortex activation in effortful decision making. Neuroimage 42, 158-168.). In this work, we searched for "effort-specific" ERP-N1 sources and explored their single-trial EEG-fMRI correlations for discovering "source-specific" inter-modality coupling effects. To this end, we performed a whole-cortex distributed ERP analysis and used the local source power trial-by-trial variation as an input for single-trial EEG-fMRI coupling analysis. We found a high-effort-specific ERP-N1 source in the ACC and statistically significant differential EEG-fMRI coupling spots in five cortical regions, including the ACC. Our results provide new insights about the neural origins of effort-specific EEG and fMRI response modulations in a choice reaction task and confirm the central role of early ACC activation in motivation-related decision making processes; we discuss the importance of combining distributed source modeling with single-trial coupling for enriching the interpretation of EEG-fMRI patterns.

  3. Combining Internet monitoring processes, packaging and isotopic analyses to determine the market structure: example of Gamma Butyrolactone.

    PubMed

    Pazos, Diego; Giannasi, Pauline; Rossy, Quentin; Esseiva, Pierre

    2013-07-10

    The Internet is becoming more and more popular among drug users. The use of websites and forums to obtain illicit drugs and relevant information about the means of consumption is a growing phenomenon mainly for new synthetic drugs. Gamma Butyrolactone (GBL), a chemical precursor of Gamma Hydroxy Butyric acid (GHB), is used as a "club drug" and also in drug facilitated sexual assaults. Its market takes place mainly on the Internet through online websites but the structure of the market remains unknown. This research aims to combine digital, physical and chemical information to help understand the distribution routes and the structure of the GBL market. Based on an Internet monitoring process, thirty-nine websites selling GBL, mainly in the Netherlands, were detected between January 2010 and December 2011. Seventeen websites were categorized into six groups based on digital traces (e.g. IP addresses and contact information). In parallel, twenty-five bulk GBL specimens were purchased from sixteen websites for packaging comparisons and carbon isotopic measurements. Packaging information showed a high correlation with digital data confirming the links previously established whereas chemical information revealed undetected links and provided complementary information. Indeed, while digital and packaging data give relevant information about the retailers, the supply routes and the distribution close to the consumer, the carbon isotopic data provides upstream information about the production level and in particular the synthesis pathways and the chemical precursors. A three-level structured market has been thereby identified with a production level mainly located in China and in Germany, an online distribution level mainly hosted in the Netherlands and the customers who order on the Internet.

  4. Compact secondary treatment train combining a lab-scale moving bed biofilm reactor and enhanced flotation processes.

    PubMed

    Brosseau, Catherine; Émile, Bettina; Labelle, Marc-André; Laflamme, Édith; Dold, Peter L; Comeau, Yves

    2016-12-01

    High-rate wastewater processes are receiving a renewed interest to obtain energy positive/efficient water resource recovery facilities. An innovative treatment train combining a high-rate moving bed biofilm reactor (HR-MBBR) with an enhanced flotation process was studied. The two objectives of this work were 1) to maximize the conversion of soluble organics to particulate matter in an HR-MBBR and 2) to maximize the particulate matter recovery from the HR-MBBR effluent by green chemicals to enhance biogas production by anaerobic digestion. To achieve these objectives, lab-scale MBBRs fed with synthetic soluble wastewater were operated at organic loading rates (OLRs) between 4 and 34 kg COD m(-3) reactor d(-1) corresponding to hydraulic retention times (HRTs) between 6 and 54 min. Colloidal and soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency in the HR-MBBR increased with HRT to reach a plateau of 85% at an HRT longer than 27 min. Carrier clogging observed at an OLR higher than 16 kg COD m(-3) d(-1) (HRT < 13 min) resulted in about 23% loss in colloidal and soluble COD removal efficiency. Thus, the recommended parameters were between 22 and 37 min and between 6 and 10 kg COD m(-3) d(-1) for the HRT and the OLR, respectively, to maximize the conversion of soluble organics to particulate matter. Total suspended solids (TSS) recovery of 58-85% and 90-97% were achieved by enhanced flotation using green and unbiodegradable chemicals, respectively, corresponding to a TSS effluent concentration below 14 and 7 mg TSS/L. Among the synthetic polymers tested, a high molecular weight and low charge density cationic polyacrylamide was found to give the best results with less than 2 mg TSS/L in the clarified effluent (97% TSS recovery). Green chemicals, although performing slightly less for solids separation than unbiodegradable chemicals, achieved a mean TSS concentration of 10 ± 3 mg/L in the clarified effluent.

  5. Exploring the Interrelationship of Structure and Process in Family Child Care: The FCCERS-R and "Combined" CLASS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enns, Lionel

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the correlations between two prominent family child care environmental rating scales, the Family Child Care Environment Rating Scale - Revised (FCCERS-R) and the "Combined" Classroom Assessment Scoring System ("Combined" CLASS), both of which were used during the pilot study of Washington State's Quality…

  6. Cost-effectiveness analysis of TOC removal from slaughterhouse wastewater using combined anaerobic-aerobic and UV/H2O2 processes.

    PubMed

    Bustillo-Lecompte, Ciro Fernando; Mehrvar, Mehrab; Quiñones-Bolaños, Edgar

    2014-02-15

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the operating costs of treating slaughterhouse wastewater (SWW) using combined biological and advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). This study compares the performance and the treatment capability of an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR), an aerated completely mixed activated sludge reactor (AS), and a UV/H2O2 process, as well as their combination for the removal of the total organic carbon (TOC). Overall efficiencies are found to be up to 75.22, 89.47, 94.53, 96.10, 96.36, and 99.98% for the UV/H2O2, ABR, AS, combined AS-ABR, combined ABR-AS, and combined ABR-AS-UV/H2O2 processes, respectively. Due to the consumption of electrical energy and reagents, operating costs are calculated at optimal conditions of each process. A cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) is performed at optimal conditions for the SWW treatment by optimizing the total electricity cost, H2O2 consumption, and hydraulic retention time (HRT). The combined ABR-AS-UV/H2O2 processes have an optimal TOC removal of 92.46% at an HRT of 41 h, a cost of $1.25/kg of TOC removed, and $11.60/m(3) of treated SWW. This process reaches a maximum TOC removal of 99% in 76.5 h with an estimated cost of $2.19/kg TOC removal and $21.65/m(3) treated SWW, equivalent to $6.79/m(3) day.

  7. Combined use of fallout radionuclides and stable isotopes for investigating soil erosion processes in a Moroccan watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benmansour, Moncef; Mabit, Lionel; Zouagui, Anis; Amenzou, Nouredinne; Sabir, Mohamed; Nouira, Asmae; Brandt, Christian; Rasche, Frank; Naimi, Mustapha; Chikhaoui, Mohamed; Marah, Hamid; Benkdad, Azzouz; Taous, Fouad

    2015-04-01

    On-site and off-site impacts associated with land degradation by soil erosion are a major concern in Morocco. This study aimed to use fallout radionuclides (FRNs): Caesium-137 (137Cs), excess Lead-210 (210Pbex) and Beryllium-7 (7Be) in combination with carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes (i.e. Carbon-13 (13C) and Nitrogen-15 (15N)) in estimating soil loss in the "My Bouchta" watershed and the origin of sediment deposits in a downstream water reservoir (i.e. "Talembout"). Using 137Cs, the net soil erosion rate, for the "My Bouchta" watershed over a period of 50 years, was estimated at 23 t/ha/yr with a main sediment contribution (> 90{%}) from the agricultural fields, the forest and shrub fields contributing to less than 10{%} of the overall sediment production. This result indicates clearly the role and the effectiveness of the forest plantations and vegetation cover to protect soil resource against erosion processes. The use of the 210Pb^ex technique in three different fields further highlighted that soil erosion rates over a period of 100 years were lower than those obtained by 137Cs reflecting the increase of soil loss during the last decades. Tests of fallout 7Be associated with short rainfall events in four fields confirmed the results obtained with 137Cs, that areas under natural vegetation were protected against erosion. Sedimentation rates were assessed for the "Talembout" water reservoir and the mean values obtained for two sediment cores using 210Pbex and the Constant Rate of Supply (CRS) model were about 0.51-0.58 g/cm^2/yr. The obtained results showed also a significant yearly increase of the sedimentation rate. The results derived from the stable isotopes depth profiles indicated similar behavior for forest and shrub fields. Furthermore, strong correlation between δ13C and total C was observed for this type of land use while for the agricultural fields, the correlation was not significant. In addition, the sediment profile of N-15 indicated an

  8. A Hybrid approach to molecular continuum processes combiningGaussian basis functions and the discrete variable representation

    SciTech Connect

    Rescigno, Thomas N.; Horner, Daniel A.; Yip, Frank L.; McCurdy,C. William

    2005-08-29

    Gaussian basis functions, routinely employed in molecular electronic structure calculations, can be combined with numerical grid-based functions in a discrete variable representation to provide an efficient method for computing molecular continuum wave functions. This approach, combined with exterior complex scaling, obviates the need for slowly convergent single-center expansions, and allows one to study a variety of electron-molecule collision problems. The method is illustrated by computation of various bound and continuum properties of H2+.

  9. Application of near-infrared spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis in monitoring of crude heparin purification process.

    PubMed

    Zang, Hengchang; Wang, Jinfeng; Li, Lian; Zhang, Hui; Jiang, Wei; Wang, Fengshan

    2013-05-15

    Ion-exchange chromatography is a widely used purification technology in the heparin manufacturing process. To improve the efficiency and understand the process directly, a rapid and equally precise method needs to be developed to measure heparin concentration in chromatography process. Here, two robust partial least squares regression (PLS-R) models were established for quantification of heparin based on the near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy with 80 samples of adsorption process and 76 samples of elution process. Several variables selection algorithms, including correlation coefficient method, successive projection algorithm (SPA) and interval partial least squares (iPLSs), were performed to remove non-informative variables. The results showed that the correlation coefficient of validation (Rp) and the residual predictive deviation (RPD) corresponded to 0.957 and 3.4472 for adsorption process, 0.968 and 3.9849 for elution process, respectively. The approach was found considerable potential for real-time monitoring the heparin concentration of chromatography process.

  10. Application of near-infrared spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis in monitoring of crude heparin purification process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, Hengchang; Wang, Jinfeng; Li, Lian; Zhang, Hui; Jiang, Wei; Wang, Fengshan

    2013-05-01

    Ion-exchange chromatography is a widely used purification technology in the heparin manufacturing process. To improve the efficiency and understand the process directly, a rapid and equally precise method needs to be developed to measure heparin concentration in chromatography process. Here, two robust partial least squares regression (PLS-R) models were established for quantification of heparin based on the near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy with 80 samples of adsorption process and 76 samples of elution process. Several variables selection algorithms, including correlation coefficient method, successive projection algorithm (SPA) and interval partial least squares (iPLSs), were performed to remove non-informative variables. The results showed that the correlation coefficient of validation (Rp) and the residual predictive deviation (RPD) corresponded to 0.957 and 3.4472 for adsorption process, 0.968 and 3.9849 for elution process, respectively. The approach was found considerable potential for real-time monitoring the heparin concentration of chromatography process.

  11. The Processing of Somatosensory Information Shifts from an Early Parallel into a Serial Processing Mode: A Combined fMRI/MEG Study

    PubMed Central

    Klingner, Carsten M.; Brodoehl, Stefan; Huonker, Ralph; Witte, Otto W.

    2016-01-01

    The question regarding whether somatosensory inputs are processed in parallel or in series has not been clearly answered. Several studies that have applied dynamic causal modeling (DCM) to fMRI data have arrived at seemingly divergent conclusions. However, these divergent results could be explained by the hypothesis that the processing route of somatosensory information changes with time. Specifically, we suggest that somatosensory stimuli are processed in parallel only during the early stage, whereas the processing is later dominated by serial processing. This hypothesis was revisited in the present study based on fMRI analyses of tactile stimuli and the application of DCM to magnetoencephalographic (MEG) data collected during sustained (260 ms) tactile stimulation. Bayesian model comparisons were used to infer the processing stream. We demonstrated that the favored processing stream changes over time. We found that the neural activity elicited in the first 100 ms following somatosensory stimuli is best explained by models that support a parallel processing route, whereas a serial processing route is subsequently favored. These results suggest that the secondary somatosensory area (SII) receives information regarding a new stimulus in parallel with the primary somatosensory area (SI), whereas later processing in the SII is dominated by the preprocessed input from the SI. PMID:28066197

  12. Combined application of optical methods to increase the information content of optical coherent tomography in diagnostics of neoplastic processes

    SciTech Connect

    Kuranov, R V; Sapozhnikova, V V; Shakhova, N M; Gelikonov, V M; Zagainova, E V; Petrova, S A

    2002-11-30

    A combined application of optical methods [optical coherent tomography (OCT), cross-polarisation optical coherent tomography, and fluorescence spectroscopy] is proposed for obtaining information on morphological and biochemical changes occurring in tissues in norm and pathology. It is shown that neoplastic and scar changes in esophagus can be distinguished using a combination of polarisation and standard OCT due to the difference between the depolarising properties of the tissues caused by the structural properties of collagenic fibres in stroma. It is shown that OCT combined with fluorescence spectroscopy with the use of 5-aminolevulinic acid is promising for determining the boundaries of carcinoma of the uterine cervix and vulva. It is found that the tumour boundary detected by optical methods coincides with the morphological boundary and extends beyond colposcopically determined boundary by about 2 mm. (laser biology and medicine)

  13. Mechanical and chemical processes affecting the chalk during burial, insights from combined reflection seismics, well data and field work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreau, Julien; Boussaha, Myriam; Nielsen, Lars; Thibault, Nicolas; Stemmerik, Lars

    2014-05-01

    The chalk must undergo several phases of grain reorganisation and chemical reactions during its diagenetic evolution from a carbonaceous ooze to a sedimentary rock. Some of these transformations could be observed on structures from the kilometre- to the micrometre-scale with seismic reflection and cores analyses, respectively. However, few sites allow to combine all the different scale of observation for chalk diagenesis. Onshore and offshore high resolution seismics, two fully cored >350 m wells with wireline logging tools and very high quality exposures from a coastal cliff and a quarry form such an exceptional dataset in the Stevns peninsula area, eastern Danish Basin (Denmark). The studied chalk interval in the area is of Maastrichtian to Danian age. The chalk has been divided in 4 lithofacies, chalk-marl alternations, white chalk, white chalk with flint layers and bryozoan chalk. Advanced stratigraphic works have been performed with astronomical calibration based on stable isotope stratigraphy, wireline logs as well as several palaeontological proxies and detailed sedimentological analysis. Since a couple of decades, a specific kind of fractures has been described in the Chalk of Denmark, the so-called hairline fractures. They have recently been interpreted as compaction bands associated with the pore collapse of the chalk. We have observed these fractures on the field and on the cores in specific intervals. At depth, these fractures are in genetic relation with the formation of some stylolithes. The pressure-solution allows the formation of carbonate seams in the hairline fractures. At larger scale, on the field are observed faults which are sealed with flint precipitations. They slightly offset (<1 m) strata underlined by flint bands. On the onshore and offshore seismic reflection profiles, numerous strata-bound faults form noisy intervals as well as amplitude anomalies. Their normal offsets are less than 25 m. Their branching patterns, and their restriction

  14. Tailoring and Combining the CMMI-ACQ and Quality Models to Improve the Military’s Requirements Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    have been used, CAIR (developed at the SEI), Semio Text, TextSmart, Lexiquest Mine and Leximancer . This is not an exhaustive list and SEI does not...following describes the approach used with Leximancer . 13 Tailoring and Combining the CMMI-ACQ and Quality Models to Improve the Military’s

  15. A method to generate fully multi-scale optimal interpolation by combining efficient single process analyses, illustrated by a DINEOF analysis spiced with a local optimal interpolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckers, J.-M.; Barth, A.; Tomazic, I.; Alvera-Azcárate, A.

    2014-10-01

    We present a method in which the optimal interpolation of multi-scale processes can be expanded into a succession of simpler interpolations. First, we prove how the optimal analysis of a superposition of two processes can be obtained by different mathematical formulations involving iterations and analysis focusing on a single process. From the different mathematical equivalent formulations, we then select the most efficient ones by analyzing the behavior of the different possibilities in a simple and well-controlled test case. The clear guidelines deduced from this experiment are then applied to a real situation in which we combine large-scale analysis of hourly Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) satellite images using data interpolating empirical orthogonal functions (DINEOF) with a local optimal interpolation using a Gaussian covariance. It is shown that the optimal combination indeed provides the best reconstruction and can therefore be exploited to extract the maximum amount of useful information from the original data.

  16. The Deficit of Letter Processing in Developmental Dyslexia: Combining Evidence from Dyslexics, Typical Readers and Illiterate Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandes, Tânia; Vale, Ana P.; Martins, Bruno; Morais, José; Kolinsky, Régine

    2014-01-01

    To clarify the link between anomalous letter processing and developmental dyslexia, we examined the impact of surrounding contours on letter vs. pseudo-letter processing by three groups of children--phonological dyslexics and two controls, one matched for chronological age, the other for reading level--and three groups of adults differing by…

  17. Current advances of integrated processes combining chemical absorption and biological reduction for NO x removal from flue gas.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shihan; Chen, Han; Xia, Yinfeng; Liu, Nan; Lu, Bi-Hong; Li, Wei

    2014-10-01

    Anthropogenic nitrogen oxides (NO x ) emitted from the fossil-fuel-fired power plants cause adverse environmental issues such as acid rain, urban ozone smoke, and photochemical smog. A novel chemical absorption-biological reduction (CABR) integrated process under development is regarded as a promising alternative to the conventional selective catalytic reduction processes for NO x removal from the flue gas because it is economic and environmentally friendly. CABR process employs ferrous ethylenediaminetetraacetate [Fe(II)EDTA] as a solvent to absorb the NO x following microbial denitrification of NO x to harmless nitrogen gas. Meanwhile, the absorbent Fe(II)EDTA is biologically regenerated to sustain the adequate NO x removal. Compared with conventional denitrification process, CABR not only enhances the mass transfer of NO from gas to liquid phase but also minimize the impact of oxygen on the microorganisms. This review provides the current advances of the development of the CABR process for NO x removal from the flue gas.

  18. Dynamic modelling of an adsorption storage tank using a hybrid approach combining computational fluid dynamics and process simulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mota, J.P.B.; Esteves, I.A.A.C.; Rostam-Abadi, M.

    2004-01-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software package has been coupled with the dynamic process simulator of an adsorption storage tank for methane fuelled vehicles. The two solvers run as independent processes and handle non-overlapping portions of the computational domain. The codes exchange data on the boundary interface of the two domains to ensure continuity of the solution and of its gradient. A software interface was developed to dynamically suspend and activate each process as necessary, and be responsible for data exchange and process synchronization. This hybrid computational tool has been successfully employed to accurately simulate the discharge of a new tank design and evaluate its performance. The case study presented here shows that CFD and process simulation are highly complementary computational tools, and that there are clear benefits to be gained from a close integration of the two. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A Decision Tool that Combines Discrete Event Software Process Models with System Dynamics Pieces for Software Development Cost Estimation and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mizell, Carolyn Barrett; Malone, Linda

    2007-01-01

    The development process for a large software development project is very complex and dependent on many variables that are dynamic and interrelated. Factors such as size, productivity and defect injection rates will have substantial impact on the project in terms of cost and schedule. These factors can be affected by the intricacies of the process itself as well as human behavior because the process is very labor intensive. The complex nature of the development process can be investigated with software development process models that utilize discrete event simulation to analyze the effects of process changes. The organizational environment and its effects on the workforce can be analyzed with system dynamics that utilizes continuous simulation. Each has unique strengths and the benefits of both types can be exploited by combining a system dynamics model and a discrete event process model. This paper will demonstrate how the two types of models can be combined to investigate the impacts of human resource interactions on productivity and ultimately on cost and schedule.

  20. An illustrated comparison of processing methods for MR phase imaging and QSM: combining array coil signals and phase unwrapping.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Simon Daniel; Bredies, Kristian; Khabipova, Diana; Dymerska, Barbara; Marques, José P; Schweser, Ferdinand

    2016-09-13

    Phase imaging benefits from strong susceptibility effects at very high field and the high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) afforded by multi-channel coils. Combining the information from coils is not trivial, however, as the phase that originates in local field effects (the source of interesting contrast) is modified by the inhomogeneous sensitivity of each coil. This has historically been addressed by referencing individual coil sensitivities to that of a volume coil, but alternative approaches are required for ultra-high field systems in which no such coil is available. An additional challenge in phase imaging is that the phase that develops up to the echo time is "wrapped" into a range of 2π radians. Phase wraps need to be removed in order to reveal the underlying phase distribution of interest. Beginning with a coil combination using a homogeneous reference volume coil - the Roemer approach - which can be applied at 3 T and lower field strengths, we review alternative methods for combining single-echo and multi-echo phase images where no such reference coil is available. These are applied to high-resolution data acquired at 7 T and their effectiveness assessed via an index of agreement between phase values over channels and the contrast-to-noise ratio in combined images. The virtual receiver coil and COMPOSER approaches were both found to be computationally efficient and effective. The main features of spatial and temporal phase unwrapping methods are reviewed, placing particular emphasis on recent developments in temporal phase unwrapping and Laplacian approaches. The features and performance of these are illustrated in application to simulated and high-resolution in vivo data. Temporal unwrapping was the fastest of the methods tested and the Laplacian the most robust in images with low SNR. © 2016 The Authors. NMR in Biomedicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Thermal stress analysis in permanent mold processing determining mold life and utilizing a combined thermomechanical finite element model

    SciTech Connect

    Fackeldey, M.; Guan, J.; Helling, V.; Sahm, P.R.

    1995-12-31

    Permanent mold casting offers various advantages, but its process control requires high technical skill, especially when cast iron is utilized. Thermal stresses resulting from non-uniform cooling and hindering of shrinkage frequently cause cracks, which can lead to a destruction of the permanent mold. In this paper an in-house 3-dimensional finite element model is presented, which allows an easy and comfortable analysis of the origin of thermal and residual stresses. By varying single parameters, i.e. the initial temperature as well as the mold geometry, the process may be evaluated. This leads to an optimization of the process and allows an assessment of the mold life.

  2. Niche Divergence versus Neutral Processes: Combined Environmental and Genetic Analyses Identify Contrasting Patterns of Differentiation in Recently Diverged Pine Species

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Letelier, Alejandra; Ortíz-Medrano, Alejandra; Piñero, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Solving relationships of recently diverged taxa, poses a challenge due to shared polymorphism and weak reproductive barriers. Multiple lines of evidence are needed to identify independently evolving lineages. This is especially true of long-lived species with large effective population sizes, and slow rates of lineage sorting. North American pines are an interesting group to test this multiple approach. Our aim is to combine cytoplasmic genetic markers with environmental information to clarify species boundaries and relationships of the species complex of Pinus flexilis, Pinus ayacahuite, and Pinus strobiformis. Methods Mitochondrial and chloroplast sequences were combined with previously obtained microsatellite data and contrasted with environmental information to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships of the species complex. Ecological niche models were compared to test if ecological divergence is significant among species. Key Results and Conclusion Separately, both genetic and ecological evidence support a clear differentiation of all three species but with different topology, but also reveal an ancestral contact zone between P. strobiformis and P. ayacahuite. The marked ecological differentiation of P. flexilis suggests that ecological speciation has occurred in this lineage, but this is not reflected in neutral markers. The inclusion of environmental traits in phylogenetic reconstruction improved the resolution of internal branches. We suggest that combining environmental and genetic information would be useful for species delimitation and phylogenetic studies in other recently diverged species complexes. PMID:24205167

  3. Degradation of 4-chloro 2-aminophenol using a novel combined process based on hydrodynamic cavitation, UV photolysis and ozone.

    PubMed

    Barik, Arati J; Gogate, Parag R

    2016-05-01

    The degradation of 4-chloro 2-aminophenol (4C2AP), an acute toxic organic compound, has been studied using different approaches based on the hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) with orifice plate as cavitating device, photolysis (UV) and ozonation (O3). The dependency of extent of degradation on operating parameters like operating pressure (2-5 bar), initial pH (3-8) and temperature (30-38 °C) have been established initially to maximize the efficacy of hydrodynamic cavitation. Subsequently the degradation has been studied using combined treatment strategies as HC+UV, HC+O3, UV+O3 and HC+UV+O3 at the established optimum parameters of operating temperature as 30 °C, initial pH of 6 and inlet pressure of 4 bar. The maximum extent of degradation as 96.85% and 73.6% reduction in TOC has been obtained using hydrodynamic cavitation in combination with UV photolysis and ozonation under the optimized operating conditions. The degradation products of 4C2AP have been identified using GC-MS. The present work has clearly established the efficacy of combined treatment approach (HC+UV+O3) for the removal of organic pollutant for the first time.

  4. Low-fat set yogurt made from milk subjected to combinations of high hydrostatic pressure and thermal processing.

    PubMed

    Harte, F; Luedecke, L; Swanson, B; Barbosa-Cánovas, G V

    2003-04-01

    The combined use of high hydrostatic pressure (300 to 676 MPa, 5 min) and thermal treatment (85 degrees C, 30 min) in milk for the manufacture of low-fat yogurt was studied. The objective was to reduce syneresis and improve the rheological properties of yogurt, reducing the need for thickeners and stabilizers. The use of high hydrostatic pressure alone, or after thermal treatment, reduced the lightness and increased the viscosity of skim milk. However, milk recovered its initial lightness and viscosity when thermal treatment was applied after high hydrostatic pressure. The MALDI-TOF spectra of skim milk presented monomers of whey proteins after a treatment of 676 MPa for 5 min. Yogurts made from skim milk subjected to 400 to 500 MPa and thermal treatment showed increased yield stress, resistance to normal penetration, and elastic modulus, while having reduced syneresis when compared to yogurts from thermally treated or raw milks. The combined use of thermal treatment and high hydrostatic pressure assures extensive whey protein denaturation and casein micelle disruption, respectively. Although reaggregation of casein submicelles occurs during fermentation, the net effect of the combined HHP and thermal treatment is the improvement of yogurt yield stress and reduction of syneresis.

  5. Efficient utilization of greenhouse gas in a gas-to-liquids process combined with carbon dioxide reforming of methane.

    PubMed

    Ha, Kyoung-Su; Bae, Jong Wook; Woo, Kwang-Jae; Jun, Ki-Won

    2010-02-15

    A process model for a gas-to-liquids (GTL) process mainly producing Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthetic oils has been developed to assess the effects of reforming methods, recycle ratio of unreacted syngas mixture on the process efficiency and the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission. The reforming unit of our study is composed of both steam reforming of methane (SRM) and carbon dioxide reforming of methane (CDR) to form syngas, which gives composition flexibility, reduction in GHG emission, and higher cost-competitiveness. With recycling, it is found that zero emission of CO(2) from the process can be realized and the required amount of natural gas (NG) can be significantly reduced. This GTL process model has been built by using Aspen Plus software, and it is mainly composed of a feeding unit, a reforming unit, an FT synthesis unit, several separation units and a recycling unit. The composition flexibility of the syngas mixture due to the two different types of reforming reactions raises an issue that in order to attain the optimized feed composition of FT synthesis the amount of flow rate of each component in the fresh feed mixture should be determined considering the effects of the recycle and its split ratio. In the FT synthesis unit, the 15 representative reactions for the chain growth and water gas shift on the cobalt-based catalyst are considered. After FT synthesis, the unreacted syngas mixture is recycled to the reforming unit or the FT synthesis unit or both to enhance process efficiency. The effect of the split ratio, the recycle flow rate to the FT reactor over the recycle flow rate to the reforming unit, on the efficiency of the process was also investigated. This work shows that greater recycle to the reforming unit is less effective than that to the FT synthesis unit from the standpoint of the net heat efficiency of the process, since the reforming reactions are greatly endothermic and greater recycle to the reformer requires more energy.

  6. Recovery of copper and lead from waste printed circuit boards by supercritical water oxidation combined with electrokinetic process.

    PubMed

    Xiu, Fu-Rong; Zhang, Fu-Shen

    2009-06-15

    An effective and benign process for copper and lead recovery from waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) was developed. In the process, the PCBs was pre-treated in supercritical water, then subjected to electrokinetic (EK) process. Experimental results showed that supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) process was strong enough to decompose the organic compounds of PCBs, and XRD spectra indicated that copper and lead were oxidized into CuO, Cu(2)O and beta-PbO(2) in the process. The optimum SCWO treatment conditions were 60 min, 713 K, 30 MPa, and EK treatment time, constant current density were 11h, 20 mA cm(-2), respectively. The recovery percentages of copper and lead under optimum SCWO+EK treatment conditions were around 84.2% and 89.4%, respectively. In the optimized EK treatment, 74% of Cu was recovered as a deposit on the cathode with a purity of 97.6%, while Pb was recovered as concentrated solutions in either anode (23.1%) or cathode (66.3%) compartments but little was deposited on the electrodes. It is believed that the process is effective and practical for Cu and Pb recovery from waste electric and electronic equipments.

  7. Degradation of a textile reactive azo dye by a combined biological-photocatalytic process: Candida tropicalis Jks2 -Tio2/Uv

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the decolorization and degradation of Reactive Black 5 (RB5) azo dye was investigated by biological, photocatalytic (UV/TiO2) and combined processes. Application of Candida tropicalis JKS2 in treatment of the synthetic medium containing RB5 indicated complete decolorization of the dye with 200 mg/L in less than 24 h. Degradation of the aromatic rings, resulting from the destruction of the dye, did not occur during the biological treatment. Mineralization of 50 mg/L RB5 solution was obtained after 80 min by photocatalytic process (in presence of 0.2 g/L TiO2). COD (chemical oxygen demand) was not detectable after complete decolorization of 50 mg/L RB5 solution. However, photocatalytic process was not effective in the removal of the dye at high concentrations (≥200 mg/L). With 200 mg/L concentration, 74.9% of decolorization was achieved after 4 h illumination under photocatalytic process and the absorbance peak in UV region (attributed to aromatic rings) was not completely removed. A two-step treatment process, namely, biological treatment by yeast followed by photocatalytic degradation, was also assessed. In the combined process (with 200 mg/L RB5), absorbance peak in UV region significantly disappeared after 2 h illumination and about 60% COD removal was achieved in the biological step. It is suggested that the combined process is more effective than the biological and photocatalytic treatments in the remediation of aromatic rings. PMID:23369285

  8. Lurgi's MPG gasification plus Rectisol{reg_sign} gas purification - advanced process combination for reliable syngas production

    SciTech Connect

    2005-07-01

    Lurgi's Multi Purpose Gasification Process (MPG) is the reliable partial oxidation process to convert hydrocarbon liquids, slurries and natural gas into valuable syngas. The MPG burner has once again proven its capabilities in an ammonia plant based on asphalt gasification. Lurgi is operating the HP-POX demonstration plant together with the University of Freiberg, Germany. Gasification tests at pressures of up to 100 bar have shown that syngas for high pressure synthesis such as methanol and ammonia can be produced more economically. The Rectisol{reg_sign} gas purification process yields ultra clean synthesis gas which is required to avoid problems in the downstream synthesis. Pure carbon dioxide is produced as a separate stream and is readily available for sequestration, enhanced oil recovery or other uses. The reliability of the Rectisol{reg_sign} process and the confidence of plant operators in this process are acknowledged by the fact that more than 75% of the syngas produced world wide by coal, oil and waste gasification is purified in Rectisol{reg_sign} units. Virtually all coal gasification plants currently under construction rely on Rectisol{reg_sign}. The new, large GTL plants and hydrogen production facilities require effective CO{sub 2} removal. New developments make Rectisol{reg_sign} attractive for this task. 10 figs., 3 tabs., 2 photos.

  9. Rapid differentiation of new apple cultivars by headspace solid-phase microextraction in combination with chemometrical data processing.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Ines; Ulrich, Detlef; Fischer, Christa

    2003-04-01

    The aim of this study was to test a combination of automated headspace solid phase-microextraction gas chromatography (GC) with chemometrical data treatment for the rapid differentiation of enzyme-inactivated homogenates of new apple cultivars. The four cultivars Pinova, Piflora, Renora and Florina are characterized by different volatile patterns. Differences in the contents of volatiles were especially found for butyl acetate, ethyl butanoate, 2-methyl butanol, ethyl acetate and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-ol. The used sample preparation method for GC coupled with pattern recognition of chromatograms is a useful tool for rapid and reliable determination of large numbers of samples.

  10. Technical and economical assessment of formic acid to recycle phosphorus from pig slurry by a combined acidification-precipitation process.

    PubMed

    Daumer, M-L; Picard, S; Saint-Cast, P; Dabert, P

    2010-08-15

    Dissolution by acidification followed by a liquid/solid separation and precipitation of phosphorus from the liquid phase is one possibility to recycle phosphorus from livestock effluents. To avoid increase of effluent salinity by using mineral acids in the recycling process, the efficiency of two organic acids, formic and acetic acid, in dissolving the mineral phosphorus from piggery wastewater was compared. The amount of formic acid needed to dissolve the phosphorus was reduced three fold, compared to acetic acid. The amount of magnesium oxide needed for further precipitation was decreased by two with formic acid. Neither the carbon load nor the effluent salinity was significantly increased by using formic acid. An economical comparison was performed for the chemical recycling process (mineral fertilizer) vs. centrifugation (organic fertilizer) considering the centrifugation and the mineral fertilizers sold in the market. After optimisation of the process, the product could be economically competitive with mineral fertilizer as superphosphate in less than 10 years.

  11. Using image processing technology combined with decision tree algorithm in laryngeal video stroboscope automatic identification of common vocal fold diseases.

    PubMed

    Jeffrey Kuo, Chung-Feng; Wang, Po-Chun; Chu, Yueng-Hsiang; Wang, Hsing-Won; Lai, Chun-Yu

    2013-10-01

    This study used the actual laryngeal video stroboscope videos taken by physicians in clinical practice as the samples for experimental analysis. The samples were dynamic vocal fold videos. Image processing technology was used to automatically capture the image of the largest glottal area from the video to obtain the physiological data of the vocal folds. In this study, an automatic vocal fold disease identification system was designed, which can obtain the physiological parameters for normal vocal folds, vocal paralysis and vocal nodules from image processing according to the pathological features. The decision tree algorithm was used as the classifier of the vocal fold diseases. The identification rate was 92.6%, and the identification rate with an image recognition improvement processing procedure after classification can be improved to 98.7%. Hence, the proposed system has value in clinical practices.

  12. Combined TGA-MS kinetic analysis of multistep processes. Thermal decomposition and ceramification of polysilazane and polysiloxane preceramic polymers.

    PubMed

    García-Garrido, C; Sánchez-Jiménez, P E; Pérez-Maqueda, L A; Perejón, A; Criado, José M

    2016-10-26

    The polymer-to-ceramic transformation kinetics of two widely employed ceramic precursors, 1,3,5,7-tetramethyl-1,3,5,7-tetravinylcyclotetrasiloxane (TTCS) and polyureamethylvinylsilazane (CERASET), have been investigated using coupled thermogravimetry and mass spectrometry (TG-MS), Raman, XRD and FTIR. The thermally induced decomposition of the pre-ceramic polymer is the critical step in the synthesis of polymer derived ceramics (PDCs) and accurate kinetic modeling is key to attaining a complete understanding of the underlying process and to attempt any behavior predictions. However, obtaining a precise kinetic description of processes of such complexity, consisting of several largely overlapping physico-chemical processes comprising the cleavage of the starting polymeric network and the release of organic moieties, is extremely difficult. Here, by using the evolved gases detected by MS as a guide it has been possible to determine the number of steps that compose the overall process, which was subsequently resolved using a semiempirical deconvolution method based on the Frasier-Suzuki function. Such a function is more appropriate that the more usual Gaussian or Lorentzian functions since it takes into account the intrinsic asymmetry of kinetic curves. Then, the kinetic parameters of each constituent step were independently determined using both model-free and model-fitting procedures, and it was found that the processes obey mostly diffusion models which can be attributed to the diffusion of the released gases through the solid matrix. The validity of the obtained kinetic parameters was tested not only by the successful reconstruction of the original experimental curves, but also by predicting the kinetic curves of the overall processes yielded by different thermal schedules and by a mixed TTCS-CERASET precursor.

  13. Removal of heavy metals and arsenic from a co-contaminated soil by sieving combined with washing process.

    PubMed

    Liao, Xiaoyong; Li, You; Yan, Xiulan

    2016-03-01

    Batch experiments were conducted with a heavy metals and arsenic co-contaminated soil from an abandoned mine to evaluate the feasibility of a remediation technology that combines sieving with soil washing. Leaching of the arsenic and heavy metals from the different particle size fractions was found to decrease in the order: <0.1, 2-0.1, and >2mm. With increased contact time, the concentration of heavy metals in the leachate was significantly decreased for small particles, probably because of adsorption by the clay soil component. For the different particle sizes, the removal efficiencies for Pb and Cd were 75%-87%, and 61%-77% for Zn and Cu, although the extent of removal was decreased for As and Cr at <45%. The highest efficiency by washing for Pb, Cd, Zn, and As was from the soil particles >2mm, although good metal removal efficiencies were also achieved in the small particle size fractions. Through SEM-EDS observations and correlation analysis, the leaching regularity of the heavy metals and arsenic was found to be closely related to Fe, Mn, and Ca contents of the soil fractions. The remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soil by sieving combined with soil washing was proven to be efficient, and practical remediation parameters were also recommended.

  14. Vestibular influences on human postural control in combinations of pitch and roll planes reveal differences in spatiotemporal processing.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, M G; Allum, J H; Honegger, F

    2001-09-01

    The present study examined the influence of bilateral peripheral vestibular loss (BVL) in humans on postural responses to multidirectional surface rotations in the pitch and roll planes. Specifically, we examined the effects of vestibular loss on the directional sensitivity, timing, and amplitude of early stretch, balance correcting, and stabilizing reactions in postural leg and trunk muscles as well as changes in ankle torque and trunk angular velocity following multidirectional rotational perturbations of the support surface. Fourteen normal healthy adults and five BVL patients stood on a dual axis rotating platform which rotated 7.5 degrees at 50 degrees/s through eight different directions of pitch and roll combinations separated by 45 degrees. Directions were randomized within a series of 44 perturbation trials which were presented first with eyes open, followed by a second series of trials with eyes closed. Vestibular loss did not influence the range of activation or direction of maximum sensitivity for balance correcting responses (120-220 ms). Response onsets at approximately 120 ms were normal in tibialis anterior (TA), soleus (SOL), paraspinals (PARAS), or quadriceps muscles. Only SOL muscle activity demonstrated a 38- to 45-ms delay for combinations of forward (toe-down) and roll perturbations in BVL patients. The amplitude of balance correcting responses in leg muscles between 120 and 220 ms was, with one exception, severely reduced in BVL patients for eyes open and eyes closed conditions. SOL responses were decreased bilaterally for toe-up and toe-down perturbations, but more significantly reduced in the downhill (load-bearing) leg for combined roll and pitch perturbations. TA was significantly reduced bilaterally for toe-up perturbations, and in the downhill leg for backward roll perturbations. Forward perturbations, however, elicited significantly larger TA activity in BVL between 120 and 220 ms compared to normals, which would act to further

  15. Brief Report: How Adolescents with ASD Process Social Information in Complex Scenes. Combining Evidence from Eye Movements and Verbal Descriptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeth, Megan; Ropar, Danielle; Mitchell, Peter; Chapman, Peter; Loher, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    We investigated attention, encoding and processing of social aspects of complex photographic scenes. Twenty-four high-functioning adolescents (aged 11-16) with ASD and 24 typically developing matched control participants viewed and then described a series of scenes, each containing a person. Analyses of eye movements and verbal descriptions…

  16. Characterization of Chinese liquor aroma components during aging process and liquor age discrimination using gas chromatography combined with multivariable statistics

    PubMed Central

    Xu, M. L.; Yu, Y.; Ramaswamy, H. S.; Zhu, S. M.

    2017-01-01

    Chinese liquor aroma components were characterized during the aging process using gas chromatography (GC). Principal component and cluster analysis (PCA, CA) were used to discriminate the Chinese liquor age which has a great economic value. Of a total of 21 major aroma components identified and quantified, 13 components which included several acids, alcohols, esters, aldehydes and furans decreased significantly in the first year of aging, maintained the same levels (p > 0.05) for next three years and decreased again (p < 0.05) in the fifth year. On the contrary, a significant increase was observed in propionic acid, furfural and phenylethanol. Ethyl lactate was found to be the most stable aroma component during aging process. Results of PCA and CA demonstrated that young liquor (fresh) and aged liquors were well separated from each other, which is in consistent with the evolution of aroma components along with the aging process. These findings provide a quantitative basis for discriminating the Chinese liquor age and a scientific basis for further research on elucidating the liquor aging process, and a possible tool to guard against counterfeit and defective products. PMID:28059090

  17. [HPLC combined with PCA technology for analysis of five gingerol compounds in different processing degrees of ginger charcoal].

    PubMed

    Yu, Jiang-yong; Chen, Qiu-fang; Lu, Guo-yong

    2015-11-01

    To establish a new method for simultaneously determining the content of five gingerol compounds in different processing degrees of ginger charcoal and PCA principal component analysis was conducted for analysis. Samples were analyzed on Ultimate TM XB-C18 column (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 μm) , with acetonitrile (A) -0.1% phosphoric acid solution (B) as mobile phase for gradient elution. Detection wavelength was set at 280 nm. The flow rate was 0.6 mL x min(-1) and the column temperature was 30 degrees C. The five compounds were separated well and showed good linearity (r ≥ 0.999 7) within the concentration ranges tested. The average value for recoveries was between 98.86% - 101.5% (RSD 1.4% - 2.9%). The contents of five compounds showed difference among different processing degrees of ginger charcoal. Zingiberone had the highest content in the standard carbon, and the content of gingerol was decreased as the deepening of processing degree. Different processing degrees of ginger charcoal were classified into three groups with PCA, and provided scientific basis for establishing the quality standards of ginger charcoal.

  18. Characterization of Chinese liquor aroma components during aging process and liquor age discrimination using gas chromatography combined with multivariable statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, M. L.; Yu, Y.; Ramaswamy, H. S.; Zhu, S. M.

    2017-01-01

    Chinese liquor aroma components were characterized during the aging process using gas chromatography (GC). Principal component and cluster analysis (PCA, CA) were used to discriminate the Chinese liquor age which has a great economic value. Of a total of 21 major aroma components identified and quantified, 13 components which included several acids, alcohols, esters, aldehydes and furans decreased significantly in the first year of aging, maintained the same levels (p > 0.05) for next three years and decreased again (p < 0.05) in the fifth year. On the contrary, a significant increase was observed in propionic acid, furfural and phenylethanol. Ethyl lactate was found to be the most stable aroma component during aging process. Results of PCA and CA demonstrated that young liquor (fresh) and aged liquors were well separated from each other, which is in consistent with the evolution of aroma components along with the aging process. These findings provide a quantitative basis for discriminating the Chinese liquor age and a scientific basis for further research on elucidating the liquor aging process, and a possible tool to guard against counterfeit and defective products.

  19. Simulating Cortical Development as a Self Constructing Process: A Novel Multi-Scale Approach Combining Molecular and Physical Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Zubler, Frederic; Hauri, Andreas; Pfister, Sabina; Bauer, Roman; Anderson, John C.; Whatley, Adrian M.; Douglas, Rodney J.

    2013-01-01

    Current models of embryological development focus on intracellular processes such as gene expression and protein networks, rather than on the complex relationship between subcellular processes and the collective cellular organization these processes support. We have explored this collective behavior in the context of neocortical development, by modeling the expansion of a small number of progenitor cells into a laminated cortex with layer and cell type specific projections. The developmental process is steered by a formal language analogous to genomic instructions, and takes place in a physically realistic three-dimensional environment. A common genome inserted into individual cells control their individual behaviors, and thereby gives rise to collective developmental sequences in a biologically plausible manner. The simulation begins with a single progenitor cell containing the artificial genome. This progenitor then gives rise through a lineage of offspring to distinct populations of neuronal precursors that migrate to form the cortical laminae. The precursors differentiate by extending dendrites and axons, which reproduce the experimentally determined branching patterns of a number of different neuronal cell types observed in the cat visual cortex. This result is the first comprehensive demonstration of the principles of self-construction whereby the cortical architecture develops. In addition, our model makes several testable predictions concerning cell migration and branching mechanisms. PMID:23966845

  20. Simulating cortical development as a self constructing process: a novel multi-scale approach combining molecular and physical aspects.

    PubMed

    Zubler, Frederic; Hauri, Andreas; Pfister, Sabina; Bauer, Roman; Anderson, John C; Whatley, Adrian M; Douglas, Rodney J

    2013-01-01

    Current models of embryological development focus on intracellular processes such as gene expression and protein networks, rather than on the complex relationship between subcellular processes and the collective cellular organization these processes support. We have explored this collective behavior in the context of neocortical development, by modeling the expansion of a small number of progenitor cells into a laminated cortex with layer and cell type specific projections. The developmental process is steered by a formal language analogous to genomic instructions, and takes place in a physically realistic three-dimensional environment. A common genome inserted into individual cells control their individual behaviors, and thereby gives rise to collective developmental sequences in a biologically plausible manner. The simulation begins with a single progenitor cell containing the artificial genome. This progenitor then gives rise through a lineage of offspring to distinct populations of neuronal precursors that migrate to form the cortical laminae. The precursors differentiate by extending dendrites and axons, which reproduce the experimentally determined branching patterns of a number of different neuronal cell types observed in the cat visual cortex. This result is the first comprehensive demonstration of the principles of self-construction whereby the cortical architecture develops. In addition, our model makes several testable predictions concerning cell migration and branching mechanisms.

  1. Combining Contextual and Morphemic Cues Is Beneficial during Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition: Semantic Transparency in Novel Compound Word Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brusnighan, Stephen M.; Folk, Jocelyn R.

    2012-01-01

    In two studies, we investigated how skilled readers use contextual and morphemic information in the process of incidental vocabulary acquisition during reading. In Experiment 1, we monitored skilled readers' eye movements while they silently read sentence pairs containing novel and known English compound words that were either semantically…

  2. GROWTH AND BEHAVIOR OF LARVAL ZEBRAFISH Danio rerio FED A PROCESSED DIET, LIVE FOOD, OR THE COMBINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because Zebrafish (Danio rerio) have become a popular and important model for scientific research, the capability to rear larval zebrafish to adulthood is of great importance. Recently research examining the effects of diet (live versus processed) have been published. In the cu...

  3. A combined process of activated carbon adsorption, ion exchange resin treatment and membrane concentration for recovery of dissolved organics in pre-hydrolysis liquor of the kraft-based dissolving pulp production process.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jing; Kaur, Ishneet; Baktash, Mir Mojtaba; He, Zhibin; Ni, Yonghao

    2013-01-01

    To recover dissolved organics in pre-hydrolysis liquor (PHL) of the kraft-based dissolving pulp production process, a new combined process concept of sequential steps of activated carbon adsorption, ion exchange resin treatment, and membrane concentration, was proposed. The removal of lignin in the PHL was achieved in the activated carbon adsorption step, which also facilitates the subsequent operations, such as the membrane filtration and ion exchange resin treatment. The ion exchange resin treatment resulted in the removal/concentration of acetic acid, which opens the door for acetic acid recovery. The membrane filtration is to recover/concentrate the dissolved sugars. The combined process resulted in the production of PHL-based concentrate with relatively high concentration of hemicellulosic sugars, i.e., 22.13%.

  4. Combining molecular evolution and environmental genomics to unravel adaptive processes of MHC class IIB diversity in European minnows (Phoxinus phoxinus)

    PubMed Central

    Collin, Helene; Burri, Reto; Comtesse, Fabien; Fumagalli, Luca

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Host–pathogen interactions are a major evolutionary force promoting local adaptation. Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) represent unique candidates to investigate evolutionary processes driving local adaptation to parasite communities. The present study aimed at identifying the relative roles of neutral and adaptive processes driving the evolution of MHC class IIB (MHCIIB) genes in natural populations of European minnows (Phoxinus phoxinus). To this end, we isolated and genotyped exon 2 of two MHCIIB gene duplicates (DAB1 and DAB3) and 1′665 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers in nine populations, and characterized local bacterial communities by 16S rDNA barcoding using 454 amplicon sequencing. Both MHCIIB loci exhibited signs of historical balancing selection. Whereas genetic differentiation exceeded that of neutral markers at both loci, the populations' genetic diversities were positively correlated with local pathogen diversities only at DAB3. Overall, our results suggest pathogen-mediated local adaptation in European minnows at both MHCIIB loci. While at DAB1 selection appears to favor different alleles among populations, this is only partially the case in DAB3, which appears to be locally adapted to pathogen communities in terms of genetic diversity. These results provide new insights into the importance of host–pathogen interactions in driving local adaptation in the European minnow, and highlight that the importance of adaptive processes driving MHCIIB gene evolution may differ among duplicates within species, presumably as a consequence of alternative selective regimes or different genomic context. Using next-generation sequencing, the present manuscript identifies the relative roles of neutral and adaptive processes driving the evolution of MHC class IIB (MHCIIB) genes in natural populations of a cyprinid fish: the European minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus). We highlight that the relative importance of neutral

  5. Introducing DIASCoPE: Directly Integrated Acoustic System Combined with Pressure Experiments — Changing the Paradigm from Product to Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitaker, M. L.; Baldwin, K. J.; Huebsch, W. B.; Tercé, N.; Bejina, F.; Bystricky, M.; Chen, H.; Vaughan, M. T.; Weidner, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the properties and behaviors of materials and multi-phase aggregates under conditions of high pressure and temperature is vital to unraveling the mysteries that lie beneath the surface of the planet. Advances in in situexperimental techniques using synchrotron radiation at these extreme conditions have helped to provide answers to fundamental questions that were previously unattainable. Synchrotron-based ultrasonic interferometry measurements have proven to be especially important in determining acoustic velocities and thermoelastic properties of materials at high pressures and temperatures. However, due to relatively slow data collection times, it has been difficult to measure the effects of processes as they occur, and instead the measurement is made on the end product of these processes. DIASCoPE is an important step toward addressing this problem.Over the last three years, we have designed and developed an on-board ultrasonic acoustic velocity measurement system that cuts data collection time down by over an order of magnitude. We can now measure P- and S-wave travel times in samples at extreme conditions in less than one second. Moreover, the system has been fully integrated with the multi-anvil apparatus and the EPICS control system at beamline X17B2 of the National Synchrotron Light Source, allowing for greater ease of control andfull automation of experimental data collection. The DIASCoPE has completed the testing and commissioning phase, and the first data collected using this powerful new system will be presented here.DIASCoPE represents a major step forward in acoustic velocity collection time reduction that will finally allow us to begin to witness what effects various processes in the deep Earth may have on the physical properties of materials at extreme conditions as they occur. These new capabilities will allow us to change the focus of study from the product to the process itself and will lead to a greater understanding of the

  6. Simple additive effects are rare: a quantitative review of plant biomass and soil process responses to combined manipulations of CO2 and temperature.

    PubMed

    Dieleman, Wouter I J; Vicca, Sara; Dijkstra, Feike A; Hagedorn, Frank; Hovenden, Mark J; Larsen, Klaus S; Morgan, Jack A; Volder, Astrid; Beier, Claus; Dukes, Jeffrey S; King, John; Leuzinger, Sebastian; Linder, Sune; Luo, Yiqi; Oren, Ram; De Angelis, Paolo; Tingey, David; Hoosbeek, Marcel R; Janssens, Ivan A

    2012-09-01

    In recent years, increased awareness of the potential interactions between rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations ([ CO2 ]) and temperature has illustrated the importance of multifactorial ecosystem manipulation experiments for validating Earth System models. To address the urgent need for increased understanding of responses in multifactorial experiments, this article synthesizes how ecosystem productivity and soil processes respond to combined warming and [ CO2 ] manipulation, and compares it with those obtained in single factor [ CO2 ] and temperature manipulation experiments. Across all combined elevated [ CO2 ] and warming experiments, biomass production and soil respiration were typically enhanced. Responses to the combined treatment were more similar to those in the [ CO2 ]-only treatment than to those in the warming-only treatment. In contrast to warming-only experiments, both the combined and the [ CO2 ]-only treatments elicited larger stimulation of fine root biomass than of aboveground biomass, consistently stimulated soil respiration, and decreased foliar nitrogen (N) concentration. Nonetheless, mineral N availability declined less in the combined treatment than in the [ CO2 ]-only treatment, possibly due to the warming-induced acceleration of decomposition, implying that progressive nitrogen limitation (PNL) may not occur as commonly as anticipated from single factor [ CO2 ] treatment studies. Responses of total plant biomass, especially of aboveground biomass, revealed antagonistic interactions between elevated [ CO2 ] and warming, i.e. the response to the combined treatment was usually less-than-additive. This implies that productivity projections might be overestimated when models are parameterized based on single factor responses. Our results highlight the need for more (and especially more long-term) multifactor manipulation experiments. Because single factor CO2 responses often dominated over warming responses in the combined treatments, our

  7. The comparison of removing plug by ultrasonic wave, chemical deplugging agent and ultrasound-chemical combination deplugging for near-well ultrasonic processing technology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenjun; Xu, Yuanming; Bajracharya, Suman

    2015-11-01

    Near-well ultrasonic processing technology is characterized by high adaptability, simple operation, low cost and zero pollution. The main plugs of oil production include paraffin deposition plug, polymer plug, and drilling fluid plug etc. Although some good results have been obtained through laboratory experiments and field tests, systematic and intensive studies are absent for certain major aspects, such as: effects of ultrasonic treatment for different kinds of plugs and whether effect of ultrasound-chemicals combination deplugging is better than that of ultrasonic deplugging. In this paper, the experiments of removing drilling fluid plug, paraffin deposition plug and polymer plug by ultrasonic wave, chemical deplugging agent and ultrasound-chemical combination deplugging respectively are carried out. Results show that the effect of ultrasound-chemical combination deplugging is clearly better than that of using ultrasonic wave and chemical deplugging agent separately, which indicates that ultrasonic deplugging and chemical deplugging can produce synergetic effects. On the one hand, ultrasonic treatment can boost the activity of chemical deplugging agent and turn chemical deplugging into dynamic chemical process, promoting chemical agent reaction speed and enhancing deplugging effect; on the other hand, chemical agent can reduce the adhesion strength of plugs so that ultrasonic deplugging effect can be improved significantly. Experimental results provide important reference for near-well ultrasonic processing technology.

  8. [Adaptation processes in mice during chronic combined exposure to radiation and chemical compounds (acetone, ethanol, acetaldehyde) innate to exploration missions].

    PubMed

    Tatarkin, S V; Shafirkin, A V; Mukhamedieva, L N; Barantseva, M Iu; Ivanova, S M

    2012-01-01

    The paper reports the results of experimental investigation with mice subjected to 63-day of daily 10-fold fractionated gamma-irradiation at the total dose of 350 cGy followed by 70-day exposure to chemical mixture (acetone, ethanol, acetate aldehyde) at close to maximum permissible concentrations innate to piloted space vehicles (MPCpsv). Measured levels of radiation and known radiation sensitivity of mice were used to model absorbed dose to cosmonauts on an exploration mission. Functional shifts in the hematopoietic system and changes in biochemical parameters of erythrocytes indicative of energy exchange and redox potential were tracked up during the combined radiation-chemical exposure and 90 days of recovery. It was shown that adaptation caused pronounced and strongly pronounced tension of regulatory mechanisms, particularly under the effects of radiation. High tension still persisted in the recovery period.

  9. Prevention of struvite scaling in digesters combined with phosphorus removal and recovery--the FIX-Phos process.

    PubMed

    Petzet, Sebastian; Cornel, Peter

    2012-03-01

    The fixation of phosphorus (FIX-Phos) combines struvite prevention and phosphorus recovery by the addition of calciumsilicatehydrate (CSH) particles into the anaerobic digester. The CSH fixates phosphorus as calcium phosphate and reduces the phosphorus concentration in the sludge water that allows for control of struvite formation. The phosphorus-containing recovery product can be separated and recovered from the digested sludge. In pilot plant experiments, 21% to 31% of phosphorus contained in digested sludge could be recovered when CSH was added at concentrations of 2 g/L to 3.5 g/L to a mixture of primary sludge and waste activated sludge (WAS) from enhanced biological phosphorus removal. The recovery product contained few heavy metals and a phosphorus content of 18 wt % P2O5, which allows for recycling as fertilizer. The fixation of phosphorus within the digester may increase wastewater sludge dewaterability. The phosphorus recycle stream to the headworks of the wastewater treatment plant is reduced.

  10. Stakeholder analysis combined with social network analysis provides fine-grained insights into water infrastructure planning processes.

    PubMed

    Lienert, Judit; Schnetzer, Florian; Ingold, Karin

    2013-08-15

    Environmental policy and decision-making are characterized by complex interactions between different actors and sectors. As a rule, a stakeholder analysis is performed to understand those involved, but it has been criticized for lacking quality and consistency. This lack is remedied here by a formal social network analysis that investigates collaborative and multi-level governance settings in a rigorous way. We examine the added value of combining both elements. Our case study examines infrastructure planning in the Swiss water sector. Water supply and wastewater infrastructures are planned far into the future, usually on the basis of projections of past boundary conditions. They affect many actors, including the population, and are expensive. In view of increasing future dynamics and climate change, a more participatory and long-term planning approach is required. Our specific aims are to investigate fragmentation in water infrastructure planning, to understand how actors from different decision levels and sectors are represented, and which interests they follow. We conducted 27 semi-structured interviews with local stakeholders, but also cantonal and national actors. The network analysis confirmed our hypothesis of strong fragmentation: we found little collaboration between the water supply and wastewater sector (confirming horizontal fragmentation), and few ties between local, cantonal, and national actors (confirming vertical fragmentation). Infrastructure planning is clearly dominated by engineers and local authorities. Little importance is placed on longer-term strategic objectives and integrated catchment planning, but this was perceived as more important in a second analysis going beyond typical questions of stakeholder analysis. We conclude that linking a stakeholder analysis, comprising rarely asked questions, with a rigorous social network analysis is very fruitful and generates complementary results. This combination gave us deeper insight into the

  11. Combined on-board hydride slurry storage and reactor system and process for hydrogen-powered vehicles and devices

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, Kriston P; Holladay, Jamelyn D; Simmons, Kevin L; Herling, Darrell R

    2014-11-18

    An on-board hydride storage system and process are described. The system includes a slurry storage system that includes a slurry reactor and a variable concentration slurry. In one preferred configuration, the storage system stores a slurry containing a hydride storage material in a carrier fluid at a first concentration of hydride solids. The slurry reactor receives the slurry containing a second concentration of the hydride storage material and releases hydrogen as a fuel to hydrogen-power devices and vehicles.

  12. Combining MMOWGLI Social Media Brainstorming with Lexical Link Analysis (LLA) to Strengthen the DoD Acquisition Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    founded Quantum Intelligence, Inc. She was principal investigator (PI) for six contracts awarded by the DoD Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR... Quantum Intelligence, Inc. CLA is a computer-based learning agent, or agent collaboration, capable of ingesting and processing data sources. We have...opportunities all need to be addressed consciously and consistently.  Following a series of deliberate experiments, long-term procedural improvements to the

  13. An improved quarantine method for mangoes against the Mexican fruit fly based on high-pressure processing combined with heat.

    PubMed

    Velazquez, Gonzalo; Candelario, Hugo Ernesto; Ramírez, José A; Montoya, Pablo; Loera-Gallardo, Jesús; Vázquez, Manuel

    2010-05-01

    The Mexican fruit fly Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the most important insects infesting mangoes, citrus, and other fruits in Mexico and other Latin-American countries. Quarantine methods approved to destroy this insect decrease the shelf life of commodities. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of high-pressure processing using an initial temperature of 50 degrees C on the survivorship of eggs and larvae of the Mexican fruit fly. Eggs and larvae were pressurized at 25, 50, 75, 100, or 150 MPa for 0, 5, 10, or 20 min. The hatching ability of pressurized eggs of 1, 2, 3, and 4 days old and survivorship of the first, second, and third instars were registered. Further, the ability to pupate was studied in surviving third instars. The results showed that eggs were more resistant than larvae to the high-pressure processing. Treatments at 150 MPa at initial 50 degrees C for 10 min destroyed all eggs and larvae of A. ludens, indicating that this process might be useful as a quarantine method for infested mangoes or other fruits.

  14. Combined use of pharmacophoric models together with drug metabolism and genotoxicity "in silico" studies in the hit finding process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerez, Ma José; Jerez, Miguel; González-García, Coral; Ballester, Sara; Castro, Ana

    2013-01-01

    In this study we propose a virtual screening strategy based on the generation of a pharmacophore hypothesis, followed by an in silico evaluation of some ADME-TOX properties with the aim to apply it to the hit finding process and, specifically, to characterize new chemical entities with potential to control inflammatory processes mediated by T lymphocytes such as multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus erithematosus or rheumatoid arthritis. As a result, three compounds with completely novel scaffolds were selected as final hits for future hit-to-lead optimization due to their anti-inflammatory profile. The biological results showed that the selected compounds increased the intracellular cAMP levels and inhibited cell proliferation in T lymphocytes. Moreover, two of these compounds were able to increase the production of IL-4, an immunoregulatory cytokine involved in the selective deviation of T helper (Th) immune response Th type 2 (Th2), which has been proved to have anti-inflammatory properties in several animal models for autoimmune pathologies as multiple sclerosis or rheumatoid arthritis. Thus our pharmacological strategy has shown to be useful to find molecules with biological activity to control immune responses involved in many inflammatory disorders. Such promising data suggested that this in silico strategy might be useful as hit finding process for future drug development.

  15. Novel Combination of Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells with Low Temperature Processed Compact TiO2 Layer via Anodic Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Du, Yangyang; Cai, Hongkun; Wen, Hongbin; Wu, Yuxiang; Huang, Like; Ni, Jian; Li, Juan; Zhang, Jianjun

    2016-05-25

    In this work, a facile and low temperature processed anodic oxidation approach is proposed for fabricating compact and homogeneous titanium dioxide film (AO-TiO2). In order to realize morphology and thickness control of AO-TiO2, the theory concerning anodic oxidation (AO) is unveiled and the influence of relevant parameters during the process of AO such as electrolyte ingredient and oxidation voltage on AO-TiO2 formation is observed as well. Meanwhile, we demonstrate that the planar perovskite solar cells (p-PSCs) fabricated in ambient air and utilizing optimized AO-TiO2 as electron transport layer (ETL) can deliver repeatable power conversion efficiency (PCE) over 13%, which possess superior open-circuit voltage (Voc) and higher fill factor (FF) compared to its counterpart utilizing conventional high temperature processed compact TiO2 (c-TiO2) as ETL. Through a further comparative study, it is indicated that the improvement of device performance should be attributed to more effective electron collection from perovskite layer to AO-TiO2 and the decrease of device series resistance. Furthermore, hysteresis effect about current density-voltage (J-V) curves in TiO2-based p-PSCs is also unveiled.

  16. Evaluation of anaerobic digestion processes for short sludge-age waste activated sludge combined with anammox treatment of digestate liquor.

    PubMed

    Ge, Huoqing; Batstone, Damien; Keller, Jurg

    2016-01-01

    The need to reduce energy input and enhance energy recovery from wastewater is driving renewed interest in high-rate activated sludge treatment (i.e. short hydraulic and solids retention times (HRT and SRT, respectively)). This process generates short SRT activated sludge stream, which should be highly degradable. However, the evaluation of anaerobic digestion of short SRT sludge has been limited. This paper assesses anaerobic digestion of short SRT sludge digestion derived from meat processing wastewater under thermophilic and mesophilic conditions. The thermophilic digestion system (55°C) achieved 60 and 68% volatile solids destruction at 8 day and 10 day HRT, respectively, compared with 50% in the mesophilic digestion system (35°C, 10 day HRT). The digestion effluents from the thermophilic (8-10 day HRT) and mesophilic systems were stable, as assessed by residual methane potentials. The ammonia rich sludge dewatering liquor was effectively treated by a batch anammox process, which exhibited comparable nitrogen removal rate as the tests using a control synthetic ammonia solution, indicating that the dewatering liquor did not have inhibiting/toxic effects on the anammox activity.

  17. A compact process for treating oilfield wastewater by combining hydrolysis acidification, moving bed biofilm, ozonation and biologically activated carbon techniques.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Tao

    2016-01-01

    A lab-scale hybrid system integrating a hybrid hydrolysis acidification (HA) reactor, a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) and an ozonation-biologically activated carbon (O3-BAC) unit was used in the treatment of heavy oil wastewater with high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and low biodegradability. The effects of hydraulic retention time and ozonation time were investigated. The results show that under the optimal conditions, the effluent concentrations of COD, oil and ammonia were 48, 1.3 and 3.5 mg/L, respectively, corresponding to total removal efficiencies of 95.8%, 98.9% and 94.4%, respectively. The effluent could meet the grade I as required by the national discharge standard of China. The HA process remarkably improved the biodegradability of the wastewater, while the MBBR process played an important role in degrading COD. The ozonation process further enhanced the biodegradability of the MBBR effluent, and finally, deep treatment was completed in the BAC reactor. This work demonstrates that the hybrid HA/MBBR/O3-BAC system has the potential to be used for the treatment of high-strength oilfield wastewater.

  18. Development of downflow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor as post treatment of existing combined anaerobic tank treating natural rubber processing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Watari, Takahiro; Cuong Mai, Trung; Tanikawa, Daisuke; Hirakata, Yuga; Hatamoto, Masashi; Syutsubo, Kazuaki; Fukuda, Masao; Nguyen, Ngoc Bich; Yamaguchi, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Conventional aerated tank technology is widely applied for post treatment of natural rubber processing wastewater in Southeast Asia; however, a long hydraulic retention time (HRT) is required and the effluent standards are exceeded. In this study, a downflow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor was installed as post treatment of anaerobic tank effluent in a natural rubber factory in South Vietnam and the process performance was evaluated. The DHS reactor demonstrated removal efficiencies of 64.2 ± 7.5% and 55.3 ± 19.2% for total chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total nitrogen, respectively, with an organic loading rate of 0.97 ± 0.03 kg-COD m(-3) day(-1) and a nitrogen loading rate of 0.57 ± 0.21 kg-N m(-3) day(-1). 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis of the sludge retained in the DHS also corresponded to the result of reactor performance, and both nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria were detected in the sponge carrier. In addition, anammox bacteria was found in the retained sludge. The DHS reactor reduced the HRT of 30 days to 4.8 h compared with the existing algal tank. This result indicates that the DHS reactor could be an appropriate post treatment for the existing anaerobic tank for natural rubber processing wastewater treatment.

  19. Water interactions with condensed organic phases: a combined experimental and theoretical study of molecular-level processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, Sofia M.; Kong, Xiangrui; Thomson, Erik S.; Papagiannakopoulos, Panos; Pettersson, Jan B. C.; Lovrić, Josip; Toubin, Céline

    2016-04-01

    Water uptake on aerosol particles modifies their chemistry and microphysics with important implications for air quality and climate. A large fraction of the atmospheric aerosol consists of organic aerosol particles or inorganic particles with condensed organic components. Here, we combine laboratory studies using the environmental molecular beam (EMB) method1 with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to characterize water interactions with organic surfaces in detail. The over-arching aim is to characterize the mechanisms that govern water uptake, in order to guide the development of physics-based models to be used in atmospheric modelling. The EMB method enables molecular level studies of interactions between gases and volatile surfaces at near ambient pressure,1 and the technique may provide information about collision dynamics, surface and bulk accommodation, desorption and diffusion kinetics. Molecular dynamics simulations provide complementary information about the collision dynamics and initial interactions between gas molecules and the condensed phase. Here, we focus on water interactions with condensed alcohol phases that serve as highly simplified proxies for systems in the environment. Gas-surface collisions are in general found to be highly inelastic and result in efficient surface accommodation of water molecules. As a consequence, surface accommodation of water can be safely assumed to be close to unity under typical ambient conditions. Bulk accommodation is inefficient on solid alcohol and the condensed materials appear to produce hydrophobic surface structures, with limited opportunities for adsorbed water to form hydrogen bonds with surface molecules. Accommodation is significantly more efficient on the dynamic liquid alcohol surfaces. The results for n-butanol (BuOH) are particularly intriguing where substantial changes in water accommodation taking place over a 10 K interval below and above the BuOH melting point.2 The governing mechanisms for the

  20. GLASS-CERAMICS IN A COLD-CRUCIBLE MELTER : THE OPTIMUM COMBINATION FOR GREATER WASTE PROCESSING EFFICIENCY

    SciTech Connect

    DAY, R.A.; FERENCZY, J.; DRABAREK, E.; ADVOCAT, T.; FILLET, C.; LACOMBE, J.; LADIRAT, C.; VEYER, C.; QUANG, R. DO; THOMASSON, J.

    2003-02-27

    Improving the efficiency of nuclear waste immobilization is constantly desired by all nuclear waste management programs world-wide. For high-level and other waste to be vitrified in traditional ceramic Joule-heated melters operated at temperatures up to 1150 C, process flexibilities including waste loadings are often restricted by this temperature limit as well as the need to consider wasteform corrosion of refractory linings and electrodes. New melter technologies, such as the cold-crucible melter (CCM), enable processing up to significantly higher temperatures free of many of the limitations of conventional melters. Higher processing temperatures open up the way for wider composition and processing envelopes to be considered for the vitrification process, including the possibility for higher waste loadings. In many instances the presence of crystals in the final cooled wasteform is not considered desirable within presently existing glass specifications. For some feed compositions in creased waste loadings can lead to the formation of large amounts of crystals, and thus to a significant departure from the ''glass'' state. Nevertheless it is recognized that, in general, increasing the acceptable volume fractions of crystals in the glass offers the best opportunity to increase waste loading, all other factors being equal. In addition, the deliberate promotion of specific crystalline phases by design may enhance the quality of the wasteform, for example by partitioning a long-lived radionuclide into a very stable crystalline phase, or by depleting the glass in detrimental elements. In order to explore the potential improvements by harnessing the higher achievable processing temperatures and immunity to refractory corrosion available with the cold-crucible melter, and after promising indications for synroc-based matrices, it was decided to investigate the feasibility of designing and producing via melting new high temperature ''glass-ceramic'' wasteforms for high

  1. Efficient utilization of greenhouse gases in a gas-to-liquids process combined with CO2/steam-mixed reforming and Fe-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chundong; Jun, Ki-Won; Ha, Kyoung-Su; Lee, Yun-Jo; Kang, Seok Chang

    2014-07-15

    Two process models for carbon dioxide utilized gas-to-liquids (GTL) process (CUGP) mainly producing light olefins and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthetic oils were developed by Aspen Plus software. Both models are mainly composed of a reforming unit, an F-T synthesis unit and a recycle unit, while the main difference is the feeding point of fresh CO2. In the reforming unit, CO2 reforming and steam reforming of methane are combined together to produce syngas in flexible composition. Meanwhile, CO2 hydrogenation is conducted via reverse water gas shift on the Fe-based catalysts in the F-T synthesis unit to produce hydrocarbons. After F-T synthesis, the unreacted syngas is recycled to F-T synthesis and reforming units to enhance process efficiency. From the simulation results, it was found that the carbon efficiencies of both CUGP options were successfully improved, and total CO2 emissions were significantly reduced, compared with the conventional GTL processes. The process efficiency was sensitive to recycle ratio and more recycle seemed to be beneficial for improving process efficiency and reducing CO2 emission. However, the process efficiency was rather insensitive to split ratio (recycle to reforming unit/total recycle), and the optimum split ratio was determined to be zero.

  2. Optimal Medical Equipment Maintenance Service Proposal Decision Support System combining Activity Based Costing (ABC) and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP).

    PubMed

    da Rocha, Leticia; Sloane, Elliot; M Bassani, Jose

    2005-01-01

    This study describes a framework to support the choice of the maintenance service (in-house or third party contract) for each category of medical equipment based on: a) the real medical equipment maintenance management system currently used by the biomedical engineering group of the public health system of the Universidade Estadual de Campinas located in Brazil to control the medical equipment maintenance service, b) the Activity Based Costing (ABC) method, and c) the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. Results show the cost and performance related to each type of maintenance service. Decision-makers can use these results to evaluate possible strategies for the categories of equipment.

  3. Process for the combined removal of SO.sub.2 and NO.sub.x from flue gas

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Shih-Ger; Liu, David K.; Griffiths, Elizabeth A.; Littlejohn, David

    1988-01-01

    The present invention in one aspect relates to a process for the simultaneous removal of NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2 from a fluid stream comprising mixtures thereof and in another aspect relates to the separation, use and/or regeneration of various chemicals contaminated or spent in the process and which includes the steps of: (A) contacting the fluid stream at a temperature of between about 105.degree. and 180.degree. C. with a liquid aqueous slurry or solution comprising an effective amount of an iron chelate of an amino acid moiety having at least one --SH group; (B) separating the fluid stream from the particulates formed in step (A) comprising the chelate of the amino acid moiety and fly ash; (C) washing and separating the particulates of step (B) with an aqueous solution having a pH value of between about 5 to 8; (D) subsequently washing and separating the particulates of step (C) with a strongly acidic aqueous solution having a pH value of between about 1 to 3; (E) washing and separating the particulates of step (D) with an basic aqueous solution having a pH value of between about 9 to 12; (F) optionally adding additional amino acid moiety, iron (II) and alkali to the aqueous liquid from step (D) to produce an aqueous solution or slurry similar to that in step (A) having a pH value of between about 4 to 12; and (G) recycling the aqueous slurry of step (F) to the contacting zone of step (A). Steps (D) and (E) can be carried out in the reverse sequence, however the preferred order is (D) and then (E). In another preferred embodiment the present invention provides a process for the removal of NO.sub.x, SO.sub.2 and particulates from a fluid stream which includes the steps of (A) injecting into a reaction zone an aqueous solution itself comprising (i) an amino acid moiety selected from those described above; (ii) iron (II) ion; and (iii) an alkali, wherein the aqueous solution has a pH of between about 4 and 11; followed by solids separation and washing as is

  4. In situ formation of reduced graphene oxide structures in ceria by combined sol–gel and solvothermal processing

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jingxia; Ofner, Johannes; Lendl, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Raman and IR investigations indicated the presence of reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-like residues on ceria nanoparticles after solvothermal treatment in ethanol. The appearance of such structures is closely related to cerium tert-butoxide as precursor and ethanol as solvothermal solvent. The rGO-like residues improve the catalytic CO oxidation activity. This was also confirmed by introduction of “external” graphene oxide during sol–gel processing, by which the rGO structures and the catalytic activity were enhanced. PMID:28144531

  5. Scanning electron microscopy combined with image processing technique: Microstructure and texture analysis of legumes and vegetables for instant meal.

    PubMed

    Pieniazek, Facundo; Messina, Valeria

    2016-04-01

    Development and innovation of new technologies are necessary especially in food quality; due that most instrumental technique for measuring quality properties involves a considerable amount of manual work. Image analysis is a technique that allows to provide objective evaluations from digitalized images that can estimate quality parameters for consumer's acceptance. The aim of the present research was to study the effect of freeze drying on the microstructure and texture of legume and vegetables using scanning electron microscopy at different magnifications' combined with image analysis. Cooked and cooked freeze dried rehydrated legumes and vegetables were analyzed individually by scanning electron microscopy at different magnifications' (250, 500, and 1000×).Texture properties were analyzed by texture analyzer and image analysis. Significant differences (P < 0.05) were obtained for image and instrumental texture parameters. A linear trend with a linear correlation was applied for instrumental and image features. Results showed that image features calculated from Grey level co-occurrence matrix at 1,000× had high correlations with instrumental features. In rice, homogeneity and contrast can be applied to evaluate texture parameters gumminess and adhesiviness; Lentils: contrast, correlation, energy, homogeneity, and entropy for hardness, adhesiviness, gumminess, and chewiness; Potato and carrots: contrast, energy, homogeneity and entropy for adhesiviness, chewiness, hardness, cohesiviness, and resilence. Results revealed that combing scanning electron microscopy with image analysis can be a useful tool to analyze quality parameters in legumes and vegetables.

  6. Composite scaffolds for osteochondral repair obtained by combination of additive manufacturing, leaching processes and hMSC-CM functionalization.

    PubMed

    Díaz Lantada, Andrés; Alarcón Iniesta, Hernán; García-Ruíz, Josefa Predestinación

    2016-02-01

    Articular repair is a relevant and challenging area for the emerging fields of tissue engineering and biofabrication. The need of significant gradients of properties, for the promotion of osteochondral repair, has led to the development of several families of composite biomaterials and scaffolds, using different effective approaches, although a perfect solution has not yet been found. In this study we present the design, modeling, rapid manufacturing and in vitro testing of a composite scaffold aimed at osteochondral repair. The presented composite scaffold stands out for having a functional gradient of density and stiffness in the bony phase, obtained in titanium by means of computer-aided design combined with additive manufacture using selective laser sintering. The chondral phase is obtained by sugar leaching, using a PDMS matrix and sugar as porogen, and is joined to the bony phase during the polymerization of PDMS, therefore avoiding the use of supporting adhesives or additional intermediate layers. The mechanical performance of the construct is biomimetic and the stiffness values of the bony and chondral phases can be tuned to the desired applications, by means of controlled modifications of different parameters. A human mesenchymal stem cell (h-MSC) conditioned medium (CM) is used for improving scaffold response. Cell culture results provide relevant information regarding the viability of the composite scaffolds used.

  7. Degradation and COD removal of catechol in wastewater using the catalytic ozonation process combined with the cyclic rotating-bed biological reactor.

    PubMed

    Aghapour, Ali Ahmad; Moussavi, Gholamreza; Yaghmaeian, Kamyar

    2015-07-01

    The effect of ozonation catalyzed with MgO/granular activated carbon (MgO/GAC) composite as a pretreatment process on the performance of cyclic rotating-bed biological reactor (CRBR) for the catechol removal from wastewater has been investigated. CRBR with acclimated biomasses could efficiently remove catechol and its related COD from wastewater at organic loading rate (OLR) of 7.82 kg COD/m(3).d (HRT of 9 h). Then, OLR increased to 15.64 kg COD/m(3).d (HRT of 4.5 h) and CRBR failed. Catalytic ozonation process (COP) used as a pre-treatment and could improve the performance of the failed CRBR. The overall removal efficiency of the combined process attained respective steady states of 91% and 79% for degradation and COD removal of catechol. Therefore, the combined process is more effective in degradation and COD removal of catechol; it is also a viable alternative for upgrading industrial wastewater treatment plant.

  8. Optimizing carbon efficiency of jet fuel range alkanes from cellulose co-fed with polyethylene via catalytically combined processes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuesong; Lei, Hanwu; Zhu, Lei; Zhu, Xiaolu; Qian, Moriko; Yadavalli, Gayatri; Yan, Di; Wu, Joan; Chen, Shulin

    2016-08-01

    Enhanced carbon yields of renewable alkanes for jet fuels were obtained through the catalytic microwave-induced co-pyrolysis and hydrogenation process. The well-promoted ZSM-5 catalyst had high selectivity toward C8-C16 aromatic hydrocarbons. The raw organics with improved carbon yield (∼44%) were more principally lumped in the jet fuel range at the catalytic temperature of 375°C with the LDPE to cellulose (representing waste plastics to lignocellulose) mass ratio of 0.75. It was also observed that the four species of raw organics from the catalytic microwave co-pyrolysis were almost completely converted into saturated hydrocarbons; the hydrogenation process was conducted in the n-heptane medium by using home-made Raney Ni catalyst under a low-severity condition. The overall carbon yield (with regards to co-reactants of cellulose and LDPE) of hydrogenated organics that mostly match jet fuels was sustainably enhanced to above 39%. Meanwhile, ∼90% selectivity toward jet fuel range alkanes was attained.

  9. Combining self-affirmation with the extended parallel process model: the consequences for motivation to eat more fruit and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Napper, Lucy E; Harris, Peter R; Klein, William M P

    2014-01-01

    There is potential for fruitful integration of research using the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM) with research using Self-affirmation Theory. However, to date no studies have attempted to do this. This article reports an experiment that tests whether (a) the effects of a self-affirmation manipulation add to those of EPPM variables in predicting intentions to improve a health behavior and (b) self-affirmation moderates the relationship between EPPM variables and intentions. Participants (N = 80) were randomized to either a self-affirmation or control condition prior to receiving personally relevant health information about the risks of not eating at least five portions of fruit and vegetables per day. A hierarchical regression model revealed that efficacy, threat × efficacy, self-affirmation, and self-affirmation × efficacy all uniquely contributed to the prediction of intentions to eat at least five portions per day. Self-affirmed participants and those with higher efficacy reported greater motivation to change. Threat predicted intentions at low levels of efficacy, but not at high levels. Efficacy had a stronger relationship with intentions in the nonaffirmed condition than in the self-affirmed condition. The findings indicate that self-affirmation processes can moderate the impact of variables in the EPPM and also add to the variance explained. We argue that there is potential for integration of the two traditions of research, to the benefit of both.

  10. Reuse of a dyehouse effluent after being treated with the combined catalytic wet peroxide oxidation process and the aerated constructed wetland.

    PubMed

    Lee, D K; Kim, S C; Yoon, J H

    2007-01-01

    A catalytic wet peroxide oxidation process was combined with the aerated constructed wetland in order to treat the raw dyehouse wastewater to in acceptable level for reuse as washing process water. More than 90% of BOD and CODs could be removed with the wet peroxide oxidation reactor and the remaining pollutants in the treated water were transformed into biodegradable ones which could have been successfully treated at the following aerated constructed wetland. The highest values of BOD5, CODMn, CODCr, SS and T-N in the treated water were 1.6, 1.8, 2.1, 0.5 and 12.8 mg/L, respectively. These values were low enough for the treated water to be reused at the washing process.

  11. Identification of lesion images from gastrointestinal endoscope based on feature extraction of combinational methods with and without learning process.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ding-Yun; Gan, Tao; Rao, Ni-Ni; Xing, Yao-Wen; Zheng, Jie; Li, Sang; Luo, Cheng-Si; Zhou, Zhong-Jun; Wan, Yong-Li

    2016-08-01

    The gastrointestinal endoscopy in this study refers to conventional gastroscopy and wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE). Both of these techniques produce a large number of images in each diagnosis. The lesion detection done by hand from the images above is time consuming and inaccurate. This study designed a new computer-aided method to detect lesion images. We initially designed an algorithm named joint diagonalisation principal component analysis (JDPCA), in which there are no approximation, iteration or inverting procedures. Thus, JDPCA has a low computational complexity and is suitable for dimension reduction of the gastrointestinal endoscopic images. Then, a novel image feature extraction method was established through combining the algorithm of machine learning based on JDPCA and conventional feature extraction algorithm without learning. Finally, a new computer-aided method is proposed to identify the gastrointestinal endoscopic images containing lesions. The clinical data of gastroscopic images and WCE images containing the lesions of early upper digestive tract cancer and small intestinal bleeding, which consist of 1330 images from 291 patients totally, were used to confirm the validation of the proposed method. The experimental results shows that, for the detection of early oesophageal cancer images, early gastric cancer images and small intestinal bleeding images, the mean values of accuracy of the proposed method were 90.75%, 90.75% and 94.34%, with the standard deviations (SDs) of 0.0426, 0.0334 and 0.0235, respectively. The areas under the curves (AUCs) were 0.9471, 0.9532 and 0.9776, with the SDs of 0.0296, 0.0285 and 0.0172, respectively. Compared with the traditional related methods, our method showed a better performance. It may therefore provide worthwhile guidance for improving the efficiency and accuracy of gastrointestinal disease diagnosis and is a good prospect for clinical application.

  12. A unified 3D default space consciousness model combining neurological and physiological processes that underlie conscious experience.

    PubMed

    Jerath, Ravinder; Crawford, Molly W; Barnes, Vernon A

    2015-01-01

    The Global Workspace Theory and Information Integration Theory are two of the most currently accepted consciousness models; however, these models do not address many aspects of conscious experience. We compare these models to our previously proposed consciousness model in which the thalamus fills-in processed sensory information from corticothalamic feedback loops within a proposed 3D default space, resulting in the recreation of the internal and external worlds within the mind. This 3D default space is composed of all cells of the body, which communicate via gap junctions and electrical potentials to create this unified space. We use 3D illustrations to explain how both visual and non-visual sensory information may be filled-in within this dynamic space, creating a unified seamless conscious experience. This neural sensory memory space is likely generated by baseline neural oscillatory activity from the default mode network, other salient networks, brainstem, and reticular activating system.

  13. An investigation of a process for partial nitrification and autotrophic denitrification combined desulfurization in a single biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zhiwei; Xu, Hanli; Wang, Yunlong; Yang, Shangyuan; Du, Ping

    2013-11-01

    In this study, a vertical submerged biofilm reactor was applied to investigate autotrophic partial nitrification/denitrification and simultaneous sulfide removal by using synthetic wastewater. The appropriate influent ratios of ammonia and sulfide needed to achieve partial autotrophic nitrification and denitrification were evaluated with influent ammonium nitrogen ranging from 54.6 to 129.8 mg L(-1) and sulfide concentrations ranging from 52.7 to 412.4 mg S L(-1). The results demonstrated that the working parameter was more stable when the sulfur/nitrogen ratio was set at 3:2, which yielded the maximum sulfur conversion. Batch experiments with different phosphate concentrations proved that a suitable phosphate buffer solution to control pH values could improve synchronous desulfurization denitrification process performance.

  14. Quantitative analysis of trace chromium in blood samples. Combination of the advanced oxidation process with catalytic adsorptive stripping voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Yong, Li; Armstrong, Kristie C; Dansby-Sparks, Royce N; Carrington, Nathan A; Chambers, James Q; Xue, Zi-Ling

    2006-11-01

    A new method for pretreating blood samples for trace Cr analysis is described. The advanced oxidation process (AOP with H2O2 and 5.5-W UV irradiation for 60 min) is used to remove biological/organic species for subsequent analysis. Prior to the AOP pretreatment, acid (HNO3) is used at pH 3.0 to inhibit the enzyme catalase in the blood samples. Catalytic adsorptive stripping voltammetry at a bismuth film electrode gives a Cr concentration of 6.0 +/- 0.3 ppb in the blood samples. This concentration was confirmed by dry-ashing the blood samples and subsequent analysis by atomic absorption spectroscopy. This current method may be used to monitor chromium, a trace metal in humans, and the efficacy and safety of chromium supplements as adjuvant therapy for diabetes.

  15. A unified 3D default space consciousness model combining neurological and physiological processes that underlie conscious experience

    PubMed Central

    Jerath, Ravinder; Crawford, Molly W.; Barnes, Vernon A.

    2015-01-01

    The Global Workspace Theory and Information Integration Theory are two of the most currently accepted consciousness models; however, these models do not address many aspects of conscious experience. We compare these models to our previously proposed consciousness model in which the thalamus fills-in processed sensory information from corticothalamic feedback loops within a proposed 3D default space, resulting in the recreation of the internal and external worlds within the mind. This 3D default space is composed of all cells of the body, which communicate via gap junctions and electrical potentials to create this unified space. We use 3D illustrations to explain how both visual and non-visual sensory information may be filled-in within this dynamic space, creating a unified seamless conscious experience. This neural sensory memory space is likely generated by baseline neural oscillatory activity from the default mode network, other salient networks, brainstem, and reticular activating system. PMID:26379573

  16. Processing time of addition or withdrawal of single or combined balance-stabilizing haptic and visual information

    PubMed Central

    Honeine, Jean-Louis; Crisafulli, Oscar; Sozzi, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the integration time of haptic and visual input and their interaction during stance stabilization. Eleven subjects performed four tandem-stance conditions (60 trials each). Vision, touch, and both vision and touch were added and withdrawn. Furthermore, vision was replaced with touch and vice versa. Body sway, tibialis anterior, and peroneus longus activity were measured. Following addition or withdrawal of vision or touch, an integration time period elapsed before the earliest changes in sway were observed. Thereafter, sway varied exponentially to a new steady-state while reweighting occurred. Latencies of sway changes on sensory addition ranged from 0.6 to 1.5 s across subjects, consistently longer for touch than vision, and were regularly preceded by changes in muscle activity. Addition of vision and touch simultaneously shortened the latencies with respect to vision or touch separately, suggesting cooperation between sensory modalities. Latencies following withdrawal of vision or touch or both simultaneously were shorter than following addition. When vision was replaced with touch or vice versa, adding one modality did not interfere with the effect of withdrawal of the other, suggesting that integration of withdrawal and addition were performed in parallel. The time course of the reweighting process to reach the new steady-state was also shorter on withdrawal than addition. The effects of different sensory inputs on posture stabilization illustrate the operation of a time-consuming, possibly supraspinal process that integrates and fuses modalities for accurate balance control. This study also shows the facilitatory interaction of visual and haptic inputs in integration and reweighting of stance-stabilizing inputs. PMID:26334013

  17. Treatment of combined acid mine drainage (AMD)--flotation circuit effluents from copper mine via Fenton's process.

    PubMed

    Mahiroglu, Ayse; Tarlan-Yel, Esra; Sevimli, Mehmet Faik

    2009-07-30

    The treatability of a copper mine wastewater, including heavy metals, AMD, as well as flotation chemicals, with Fenton process was investigated. Fenton process seems advantageous for this treatment, because of Fe(2+) content and low pH of AMD. First, optimum Fe(2+) condition under constant H(2)O(2) was determined, and initial Fe(2+) content of AMD was found sufficient (120 mg/L for removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 6125 mg/L). In the second step, without any additional Fe(2+), optimum H(2)O(2) dosage was determined as 40 mg/L. Fe(2+)/H(2)O(2) molar ratio of 1.8 was enough to achieve the best treatment performance. In all trials, initial pH of AMD was 4.8 and pH adjustment was not performed. Utilization of existing pH and Fe(2+), low H(2)O(2) requirements, and up to 98% treatment performances in COD, turbidity, color, Cu(2+), Zn(2+) made the proposed treatment system promising. Since the reaction occurs stepwise, a two-step kinetic model was applied and calculated theoretical maximum removal rate was consistent to experimental one, which validates the applied model. For the optimum molar ratio (1.8), 140 mL/L sludge of high density (1.094 g/mL), high settling velocity (0.16 cm/s) with low specific resistance (3.15 x 10(8)m/kg) was obtained. High reaction rates and easily dewaterable sludge characteristics also made the proposed method advantageous.

  18. Comparison of three combined sequencing batch reactor followed by enhanced Fenton process for an azo dye degradation: Bio-decolorization kinetics study.

    PubMed

    Azizi, A; Alavi Moghaddam, M R; Maknoon, R; Kowsari, E

    2015-12-15

    The purpose of this research was to compare three combined sequencing batch reactor (SBR) - Fenton processes as post-treatment for the treatment of azo dye Acid Red 18 (AR18). Three combined treatment systems (CTS1, CTS2 and CTS3) were operated to investigate the biomass concentration, COD removal, AR18 dye decolorization and kinetics study. The MLSS concentration of CTS2 reached 7200 mg/L due to the use of external feeding in the SBR reactor of CTS2. The COD concentration remained 273 mg/L and 95 mg/L (initial COD=3270 mg/L) at the end of alternating anaerobic-aerobic SBR with external feeding (An-A MSBR) and CTS2, respectively, resulting in almost 65% of Fenton process efficiency. The dye concentration of 500 mg/L was finally reduced to less than 10mg/L in all systems indicating almost complete AR18 decolorization, which was also confirmed by UV-vis analysis. The dye was removed following two successive parts as parts 1 and 2 with pseudo zero-order and pseudo first-order kinetics, respectively, in all CTSs. Higher intermediate metabolites degradation was obtained using HPLC analysis in CTS2. Accordingly, a combined treatment system can be proposed as an appropriate and environmentally-friendly system for the treatment of the azo dye AR18 in wastewater.

  19. The Combination of Vitamin K3 and Vitamin C Has Synergic Activity against Forms of Trypanosoma cruzi through a Redox Imbalance Process

    PubMed Central

    Cristina Desoti, Vânia; Lazarin-Bidóia, Danielle; Martins Ribeiro, Fabianne; Cardoso Martins, Solange; da Silva Rodrigues, Jean Henrique; Ueda-Nakamura, Tania; Vataru Nakamura, Celso; Farias Ximenes, Valdecir; de Oliveira Silva, Sueli

    2015-01-01

    Chagas’ disease is an infection that is caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, affecting millions of people worldwide. Because of severe side effects and variable efficacy, the current treatments for Chagas’ disease are unsatisfactory, making the search for new chemotherapeutic agents essential. Previous studies have reported various biological activities of naphthoquinones, such as the trypanocidal and antitumor activity of vitamin K3. The combination of this vitamin with vitamin C exerted better effects against various cancer cells than when used alone. These effects have been attributed to an increase in reactive oxygen species generation. In the present study, we evaluated the activity of vitamin K3 and vitamin C, alone and in combination, against T. cruzi. The vitamin K3 + vitamin C combination exerted synergistic effects against three forms of T. cruzi, leading to morphological, ultrastructural, and functional changes by producing reactive species, decreasing reduced thiol groups, altering the cell cycle, causing lipid peroxidation, and forming autophagic vacuoles. Our hypothesis is that the vitamin K3 + vitamin C combination induces oxidative imbalance in T. cruzi, probably started by a redox cycling process that leads to parasite cell death. PMID:26641473

  20. Developing an industrial artemisinic acid fermentation process to support the cost-effective production of antimalarial artemisinin-based combination therapies.

    PubMed

    Lenihan, Jacob R; Tsuruta, Hiroko; Diola, Don; Renninger, Neil S; Regentin, Rika

    2008-01-01

    Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) are currently unaffordable for many of the people who need them most. A major cost component of ACTs is the plant-derived artemisinin. A fermentation process for a precursor to artemisinin might provide a viable second source to stabilize the artemisinin supply and therefore reduce price. The heterologous production of artemisinic acid, an artemisinin precursor, by Saccharomyces cerevisiae was improved 25-fold from a 100 mg/L flask process to a 2.5 g/L process in bioreactors. A defined medium fed-batch process with galactose as the carbon source and inducer was developed, with titers of 1.3 g/L. In this strain ERG9 was controlled with promoter Pmet3 so that methionine repressed the sterol biosynthesis pathway and increased precursor availability for artemisinic acid biosynthesis. Addition of methionine to the process increased artemisinic acid titers to 1.8 g/L. A dissolved oxygen-stat algorithm was developed, which simultaneously controlled the agitation and feed pump. This improved process control and increased titers to 2.5 g/L.

  1. Combining microwave resonance technology to multivariate data analysis as a novel PAT tool to improve process understanding in fluid bed granulation.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Vera; Herdling, Thorsten; Reich, Gabriele; Menezes, José C; Lochmann, Dirk

    2011-08-01

    A set of 192 fluid bed granulation batches at industrial scale were in-line monitored using microwave resonance technology (MRT) to determine moisture, temperature and density of the granules. Multivariate data analysis techniques such as multiway partial least squares (PLS), multiway principal component analysis (PCA) and multivariate batch control charts were applied onto collected batch data sets. The combination of all these techniques, along with off-line particle size measurements, led to significantly increased process understanding. A seasonality effect could be put into evidence that impacted further processing through its influence on the final granule size. Moreover, it was demonstrated by means of a PLS that a relation between the particle size and the MRT measurements can be quantitatively defined, highlighting a potential ability of the MRT sensor to predict information about the final granule size. This study has contributed to improve a fluid bed granulation process, and the process knowledge obtained shows that the product quality can be built in process design, following Quality by Design (QbD) and Process Analytical Technology (PAT) principles.

  2. Combination of geochemical and hydrobiological tracers for the analysis of runoff generating processes in a lowland catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faber, Claas; Wu, Naicheng; Ulrich, Uta; Fohrer, Nicola

    2015-04-01

    Since lowlands are characterised by flat topography and low hydraulic gradients, groundwater inflow has a large influence to streamflow generation in such catchments. In catchments with intense agricultural land use, artificial drainages are often another major contributor to streamflow. They shorten the soil passage and thus change the matter retention potential as well as runoff dynamics of a catchment. Contribution of surface runoff to streamflow is usually less important in volume. However, due to high concentrations of agrochemicals, surface runoff can constitute an important entry pathway into water bodies, especially if strong precipitation events coincide with fertilizer or pesticide application. The DFG funded project "Separating surface runoff from tile drainage flow in agricultural lowland catchments based on diatoms to improve modelled runoff components and phosphorous transport" investigates prevalent processes in this context in a 50 km² lowland catchment (Kielstau, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany) with the goal of improving existing models. End Member Mixing Analysis (EMMA) is used in the project to determine the relative importance of groundwater, tile drainage and surface runoff to streamflow at daily time steps. It became apparent that geochemical tracers are suitable for distinguishing surface runoff, but are weak for the separation of tile drainage and groundwater influence. We attribute this to the strong and complex interaction between soil water and shallow groundwater tables in the catchment. Recent studies (e.g. Pfister et al. 2011, Tauro et al. 2013) show the potential of diatoms as indicators for hydrological processes. Since we found diatoms to be suitable for the separation of tile drainage and stream samples (Wu et al., unpublished data) in our catchment, we are able to include diatom derived indices (e.g. density, species moisture indices, diversity indices) as traces in EMMA. Our results show that the inclusion of diatom data in the

  3. Depth probing of the hydride formation process in thin Pd films by combined electrochemistry and fiber optics-based in situ UV/vis spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wickman, Björn; Fredriksson, Mattias; Feng, Ligang; Lindahl, Niklas; Hagberg, Johan; Langhammer, Christoph

    2015-07-15

    We demonstrate a flexible combined electrochemistry and fiber optics-based in situ UV/vis spectroscopy setup to gain insight into the depth evolution of electrochemical hydride and oxide formation in Pd films with thicknesses of 20 and 100 nm. The thicknesses of our model systems are chosen such that the films are thinner or significantly thicker than the optical skin depth of Pd to create two distinctly different situations. Low power white light is irradiated on the sample and analyzed in three different configurations; transmittance through, and, reflectance from the front and the back side of the film. The obtained optical sensitivities correspond to fractions of a monolayer of adsorbed or absorbed hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) on Pd. Moreover, a combined simultaneous readout obtained from the different optical measurement configurations provides mechanistic insights into the depth-evolution of the studied hydrogenation and oxidation processes.

  4. Identification and characterization of contrasting sunflower genotypes to early leaf senescence process combining molecular and physiological studies (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    López Gialdi, A I; Moschen, S; Villán, C S; López Fernández, M P; Maldonado, S; Paniego, N; Heinz, R A; Fernandez, P

    2016-09-01

    Leaf senescence is a complex mechanism ruled by multiple genetic and environmental variables that affect crop yields. It is the last stage in leaf development, is characterized by an active decline in photosynthetic rate, nutrients recycling and cell death. The aim of this work was to identify contrasting sunflower inbred lines differing in leaf senescence and to deepen the study of this process in sunflower. Ten sunflower genotypes, previously selected by physiological analysis from 150 inbred genotypes, were evaluated under field conditions through physiological, cytological and molecular analysis. The physiological measurement allowed the identification of two contrasting senescence inbred lines, R453 and B481-6, with an increase in yield in the senescence delayed genotype. These findings were confirmed by cytological and molecular analysis using TUNEL, genomic DNA gel electrophoresis, flow sorting and gene expression analysis by qPCR. These results allowed the selection of the two most promising contrasting genotypes, which enables future studies and the identification of new biomarkers associated to early senescence in sunflower. In addition, they allowed the tuning of cytological techniques for a non-model species and its integration with molecular variables.

  5. Combining analytical hierarchy process and agglomerative hierarchical clustering in search of expert consensus in green corridors development management.

    PubMed

    Shapira, Aviad; Shoshany, Maxim; Nir-Goldenberg, Sigal

    2013-07-01

    Environmental management and planning are instrumental in resolving conflicts arising between societal needs for economic development on the one hand and for open green landscapes on the other hand. Allocating green corridors between fragmented core green areas may provide a partial solution to these conflicts. Decisions regarding green corridor development require the assessment of alternative allocations based on multiple criteria evaluations. Analytical Hierarchy Process provides a methodology for both a structured and consistent extraction of such evaluations and for the search for consensus among experts regarding weights assigned to the different criteria. Implementing this methodology using 15 Israeli experts-landscape architects, regional planners, and geographers-revealed inherent differences in expert opinions in this field beyond professional divisions. The use of Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering allowed to identify clusters representing common decisions regarding criterion weights. Aggregating the evaluations of these clusters revealed an important dichotomy between a pragmatist approach that emphasizes the weight of statutory criteria and an ecological approach that emphasizes the role of the natural conditions in allocating green landscape corridors.

  6. Combination of ion exchange and partial nitritation/Anammox process for ammonium removal from mainstream municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Malovanyy, Andriy; Plaza, Elzbieta; Trela, Jozef; Malovanyy, Myroslav

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a new technology of nitrogen removal from mainstream municipal wastewater is proposed. It is based on ammonium removal by ion exchange and regeneration of ion exchange material with 10-30 g/L NaCl solution with further nitrogen removal from spent regenerant by partial nitritation/Anammox process. Influence of regenerant strength on performance of ion exchange and biological parts of the proposed technology was evaluated. Moreover, the technology was tested in batch mode using pretreated municipal wastewater, strong acid cation (SAC) resin and partial nitritation/Anammox biomass. It was shown that with ion exchange it is possible to remove 99.9% of ammonium from wastewater while increasing the concentration of ammonium in spent regenerant by 18 times. Up to 95% of nitrogen from spent regenerant, produced by regeneration of SAC resin with 10 g/L NaCl solution, was removed biologically by partial nitritation/Anammox biomass. Moreover, the possibilities of integration of the technology into municipal wastewater treatment technology, and the challenges and advantages are discussed.

  7. Using a combined protection motivation theory and health action process approach intervention to promote exercise during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gaston, Anca; Prapavessis, Harry

    2014-04-01

    Despite the benefits of exercise during pregnancy, many expectant mothers are inactive. This study examined whether augmenting a protection motivation theory (PMT) intervention with a Health Action Process Approach can enhance exercise behavior change among pregnant women. Sixty inactive pregnant women were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: PMT-only, PMT + action-planning, and PMT + action-and-coping-planning. Week-long objective (accelerometer) and subjective (self-report) exercise measures were collected at baseline, and at 1- and 4-weeks post-intervention. Repeated-measures ANOVAs demonstrated that while all participants reported increased exercise from baseline to 1-week post-intervention, participants in both planning groups were significantly more active (p < .001) than those in the PMT-only group by 4-weeks post-intervention (η (2) = .13 and .15 for accelerometer and self-report data, respectively). In conclusion, augmenting a PMT intervention with action or action-and-coping-planning can enhance exercise behavior change in pregnant women.

  8. Evaluation of a combined pre-processing and H.264-compression scheme for 3D integral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsson, Roger; Sjöström, Mårten; Xu, Youzhi

    2007-01-01

    To provide sufficient 3D-depth fidelity, integral imaging (II) requires an increase in spatial resolution of several orders of magnitude from today's 2D images. We have recently proposed a pre-processing and compression scheme for still II-frames based on forming a pseudo video sequence (PVS) from sub images (SI), which is later coded using the H.264/MPEG-4 AVC video coding standard. The scheme has shown good performance on a set of reference images. In this paper we first investigate and present how five different ways to select the SIs when forming the PVS affect the schemes compression efficiency. We also study how the II-frame structure relates to the performance of a PVS coding scheme. Finally we examine the nature of the coding artifacts which are specific to the evaluated PVS-schemes. We can conclude that for all except the most complex reference image, all evaluated SI selection orders significantly outperforms JPEG 2000 where compression ratios of up to 342:1, while still keeping PSNR > 30 dB, is achieved. We can also confirm that when selecting PVS-scheme, the scheme which results in a higher PVS-picture resolution should be preferred to maximize compression efficiency. Our study of the coded II-frames also indicates that the SI-based PVS, contrary to other PVS schemes, tends to distribute its coding artifacts more homogenously over all 3D-scene depths.

  9. Integrated hydrogen production process from cellulose by combining dark fermentation, microbial fuel cells, and a microbial electrolysis cell.

    PubMed

    Wang, Aijie; Sun, Dan; Cao, Guangli; Wang, Haoyu; Ren, Nanqi; Wu, Wei-Min; Logan, Bruce E

    2011-03-01

    Hydrogen gas production from cellulose was investigated using an integrated hydrogen production process consisting of a dark fermentation reactor and microbial fuel cells (MFCs) as power sources for a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC). Two MFCs (each 25 mL) connected in series to an MEC (72 mL) produced a maximum of 0.43 V using fermentation effluent as a feed, achieving a hydrogen production rate from the MEC of 0.48 m(3) H(2)/m(3)/d (based on the MEC volume), and a yield of 33.2 mmol H(2)/g COD removed in the MEC. The overall hydrogen production for the integrated system (fermentation, MFC and MEC) was increased by 41% compared with fermentation alone to 14.3 mmol H(2)/g cellulose, with a total hydrogen production rate of 0.24 m(3) H(2)/m(3)/d and an overall energy recovery efficiency of 23% (based on cellulose removed) without the need for any external electrical energy input.

  10. Responses of eastern Chinese coastal salt marshes to sea-level rise combined with vegetative and sedimentary processes.

    PubMed

    Ge, Zhen-Ming; Wang, Heng; Cao, Hao-Bin; Zhao, Bin; Zhou, Xiao; Peltola, Heli; Cui, Li-Fang; Li, Xiu-Zhen; Zhang, Li-Quan

    2016-06-23

    The impacts of sea-level rise (SLR) on coastal ecosystems have attracted worldwide attention in relation to global change. In this study, the salt marsh model for the Yangtze Estuary (SMM-YE, developed in China) and the Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM, developed in the U.S.) were used to simulate the effects of SLR on the coastal salt marshes in eastern China. The changes in the dominant species in the plant community were also considered. Predictions based on the SLAMM indicated a trend of habitat degradation up to 2100; total salt marsh habitat area continued to decline (4-16%) based on the low-level scenario, with greater losses (6-25%) predicted under the high-level scenario. The SMM-YE showed that the salt marshes could be resilient to threats of SLR through the processes of accretion of mudflats, vegetation expansion and sediment trapping by plants. This model predicted that salt marsh areas increased (3-6%) under the low-level scenario. The decrease in the total habitat area with the SMM-YE under the high-level scenario was much lower than the SLAMM prediction. Nevertheless, SLR might negatively affect the salt marsh species that are not adapted to prolonged inundation. An adaptive strategy for responding to changes in sediment resources is necessary in the Yangtze Estuary.

  11. Responses of eastern Chinese coastal salt marshes to sea-level rise combined with vegetative and sedimentary processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Zhen-Ming; Wang, Heng; Cao, Hao-Bin; Zhao, Bin; Zhou, Xiao; Peltola, Heli; Cui, Li-Fang; Li, Xiu-Zhen; Zhang, Li-Quan

    2016-06-01

    The impacts of sea-level rise (SLR) on coastal ecosystems have attracted worldwide attention in relation to global change. In this study, the salt marsh model for the Yangtze Estuary (SMM-YE, developed in China) and the Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM, developed in the U.S.) were used to simulate the effects of SLR on the coastal salt marshes in eastern China. The changes in the dominant species in the plant community were also considered. Predictions based on the SLAMM indicated a trend of habitat degradation up to 2100; total salt marsh habitat area continued to decline (4–16%) based on the low-level scenario, with greater losses (6–25%) predicted under the high-level scenario. The SMM-YE showed that the salt marshes could be resilient to threats of SLR through the processes of accretion of mudflats, vegetation expansion and sediment trapping by plants. This model predicted that salt marsh areas increased (3–6%) under the low-level scenario. The decrease in the total habitat area with the SMM-YE under the high-level scenario was much lower than the SLAMM prediction. Nevertheless, SLR might negatively affect the salt marsh species that are not adapted to prolonged inundation. An adaptive strategy for responding to changes in sediment resources is necessary in the Yangtze Estuary.

  12. Carbon nanofiber reinforced aluminum matrix composite fabricated by combined process of spark plasma sintering and hot extrusion.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hansang; Kurita, Hiroki; Leparoux, Marc; Kawasaki, Akira

    2011-05-01

    Spark plasma sintering and hot extrusion processes have been employed for fabricating carbon nanofiber (CNF)-aluminum (Al) matrix bulk materials. The Al powder and the CNFs were mixed in a mixing medium of natural rubber. The CNFs were well dispersed onto the Al particles. After removal of the natural rubber, the Al-CNF mixture powders were highly densified. From the microstructural viewpoint, the composite materials were observed by optical, field-emission scanning electron, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopies. The CNFs were found to be located on every grain boundary and aligned with the extrusion direction of the Al-CNF bulk materials. Some Al carbides (Al4C3) were also observed at the surface of the CNFs. This carbide was created by a reaction between the Al and the disordered CNF. The CNFs and the formation of Al4C3 play an important role in the enhancement of the mechanical properties of the Al-CNF bulk material. The CNFs can also be used for engineering reinforcement of other matrix materials such as ceramics, polymers and more complex matrices.

  13. Combining Population Structure with Historic Abitoic Processes to Better Understand Species and Community Range Shifts in Response to Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, N. M.

    2015-12-01

    The evolution and speciation of plants is directly tied to the environment as the constrained stages of dispersal creates strong genetic differentiation among populations. This can result in differing genetic patterns between nuclear and chloroplast loci, where genes are inherited differently and dispersed via separate vectors. By developing distribution models based on genetic patterns found within a species, it is possible to begin understanding the influence of historic geomorphic and/or climatic processes on population evolution. If genetic patterns of the current range correlate with specific patterns of climate variability within the Pleistocene, it is possible that future shifts in species distribution in response to climate change can be more accurately modelled due to the historic signature that is found within inherited genes. Preliminary genetic analyses of Linanthus dichotomus, an annual herb distributed across California, suggests that the current taxonomic treatment does not accurately depict how this species is evolving. Genetic patterns of chloroplast genes suggest that populations are more correlated with biogeography than what the current nomenclature states. Additionally, chloroplast and nuclear genes show discrepancies in the dispersal across the landscape, suggesting pollinator driven gene flow overcoming seed dispersal boundaries. By comparing discrepancies between pollinator and seed induced gene flow we may be able to gain insight into historical pollinator communities within the Pleistocene. This information can then be applied to projected climate models to more accurately understand how species and/or communities will respond to a changing environment.

  14. Responses of eastern Chinese coastal salt marshes to sea-level rise combined with vegetative and sedimentary processes

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Zhen-Ming; Wang, Heng; Cao, Hao-Bin; Zhao, Bin; Zhou, Xiao; Peltola, Heli; Cui, Li-Fang; Li, Xiu-Zhen; Zhang, Li-Quan

    2016-01-01

    The impacts of sea-level rise (SLR) on coastal ecosystems have attracted worldwide attention in relation to global change. In this study, the salt marsh model for the Yangtze Estuary (SMM-YE, developed in China) and the Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM, developed in the U.S.) were used to simulate the effects of SLR on the coastal salt marshes in eastern China. The changes in the dominant species in the plant community were also considered. Predictions based on the SLAMM indicated a trend of habitat degradation up to 2100; total salt marsh habitat area continued to decline (4–16%) based on the low-level scenario, with greater losses (6–25%) predicted under the high-level scenario. The SMM-YE showed that the salt marshes could be resilient to threats of SLR through the processes of accretion of mudflats, vegetation expansion and sediment trapping by plants. This model predicted that salt marsh areas increased (3–6%) under the low-level scenario. The decrease in the total habitat area with the SMM-YE under the high-level scenario was much lower than the SLAMM prediction. Nevertheless, SLR might negatively affect the salt marsh species that are not adapted to prolonged inundation. An adaptive strategy for responding to changes in sediment resources is necessary in the Yangtze Estuary. PMID:27334452

  15. Electrosorption and photocatalytic one-stage combined process using a new type of nanosized TiO₂/activated charcoal plate electrode.

    PubMed

    Ayoubi-Feiz, Baharak; Aber, Soheil; Khataee, Alireza; Alipour, Esmaeel

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, an activated charcoal (AC) plate was prepared by physical activation method. Its surface was coated with TiO₂ nanoparticles by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method. The average crystallite size of TiO₂ nanoparticles was determined approximately 28 nm. The nature of prepared electrode was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area measurement before and after immobilization. The electrosorption and photocatalytic one-stage combined process was investigated in degradation of Lanasol Red 5B (LR5B), and the effect of dye concentration, electrolyte concentration, pH, voltage, and contact time was optimized and modeled using response surface methodology (RSM) approach. The dye concentration of 30 mg L(-1), Na₂SO₄ concentration of 4.38 g L(-1), pH of 4, voltage of 250 mV, and contact time of 120 min were determined as optimum conditions. Decolorization efficiency increased in combined process to 85.65% at optimum conditions compared to 66.03% in TiO₂/AC photocatalytic, 20.09% in TiO₂/AC electrosorption, and 1.91% in AC photocatalytic processes.

  16. Germination and extrusion as combined processes for reducing phytates and increasing phenolics content and antioxidant capacity of Oryza sativa L. whole grain flours.

    PubMed

    Albarracín, M; De Greef, D M; González, R J; Drago, S R

    2015-01-01

    Whole rice (WR) products with low phytic acid (PA) content and enhanced bio-functional components were obtained by the combination of germination and extrusion processes. Germination conditions (24 h - 35 °C), with a previous soaking process (24 h - 20 °C), were chosen according to the remnant PA content and germination rate. Specific mechanical energy consumption, expansion, sensorial and mechanical hardness, specific volume, solubility, water absorption, free phenolic content (FPC) and antioxidant capacity were evaluated. Results indicated that 175 °C and 14 g 100 g(-1) of moisture were the most appropriate conditions to obtain expanded products and precooked flours based on germinated WR. Selected extruded product presented less PA content (821.6 9 ± 10.3 versus 695.2 0 ± 1.6 mg 100 g(-1)) and higher Fe bio-accessibility, FPC (45.2 9 ± 1.61 versus 66.3 5 ± 3.35 mg GAE g(-1)) and antioxidant capacity compared with WR (34.9 5 ± 0.8 versus 54.6 3 ± 1.6 µmol trolox g(-1)). Combining germination-extrusion processes could be a strategy to obtain expanded products or precooked flours based on WR with enhanced health benefits.

  17. Removal of refractory organics in nanofiltration concentrates of municipal solid waste leachate treatment plants by combined Fenton oxidative-coagulation with photo--Fenton processes.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiuyi; Zhao, Lei; Qin, Lele; Tian, Xiujun; Wang, Aimin; Zhou, Yanmei; Meng, Liao; Chen, Yong

    2016-03-01

    Removal of the refractory organic matters in leachate brines generated from nanofiltration unit in two full-scale municipal solid waste landfill leachate treatment plants was investigated by Fenton oxidative-coagulation and ultraviolet photo - Fenton processes in this study. Fenton oxidative-coagulation was performed under the condition of an initial pH of 5.0 and low H2O2/Fe(2+) ratios. After precipitate separation, the remaining organic constituents were further oxidized by photo - Fenton process. For both leachate brines with varying pollution strength, more than 90% COD and TOC reductions were achieved at H2O2/Fe(2+) dosages of 35 mM/8 mM and 90 mM/10 mM, respectively. The effluent COD ranged 120-160 mg/L under the optimal operating conditions, and the biodegradability was increased significantly. Fenton oxidative-coagulation was demonstrated to contribute nearly 70% overall removal of organic matters. In the combined processes, the efficiency of hydrogen peroxide varied from 216 to 228%, which may significantly reduce the operating cost of conventional Fenton method. Six phthalic acid esters and thirteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were found in leachate brines, and, on the average, around 80% phthalic acid esters and 90% polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were removed by the combined treatments.

  18. Anxiety Sensitivity and Pre-Cessation Smoking Processes: Testing the Independent and Combined Mediating Effects of Negative Affect–Reduction Expectancies and Motives

    PubMed Central

    Farris, Samantha G.; Leventhal, Adam M.; Schmidt, Norman B.; Zvolensky, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Anxiety sensitivity appears to be relevant in understanding the nature of emotional symptoms and disorders associated with smoking. Negative-reinforcement smoking expectancies and motives are implicated as core regulatory processes that may explain, in part, the anxiety sensitivity–smoking interrelations; however, these pathways have received little empirical attention. Method: Participants (N = 471) were adult treatment-seeking daily smokers assessed for a smoking-cessation trial who provided baseline data; 157 participants provided within-treatment (pre-cessation) data. Anxiety sensitivity was examined as a cross-sectional predictor of several baseline smoking processes (nicotine dependence, perceived barriers to cessation, severity of prior withdrawal-related quit problems) and pre-cessation processes including nicotine withdrawal and smoking urges (assessed during 3 weeks before the quit day). Baseline negative-reinforcement smoking expectancies and motives were tested as simultaneous mediators via parallel multiple mediator models. Results: Higher levels of anxiety sensitivity were related to higher levels of nicotine dependence, greater perceived barriers to smoking cessation, more severe withdrawal-related problems during prior quit attempts, and greater average withdrawal before the quit day; effects were indirectly explained by the combination of both mediators. Higher levels of anxiety sensitivity were not directly related to pre-cessation smoking urges but were indirectly related through the independent and combined effects of the mediators. Conclusions: These empirical findings bolster theoretical models of anxiety sensitivity and smoking and identify targets for nicotine dependence etiology research and cessation interventions. PMID:25785807

  19. Understanding interaction effects of climate change and fire management on bird distributions through combined process and habitat models.

    PubMed

    White, Joseph D; Gutzwiller, Kevin J; Barrow, Wylie C; Johnson-Randall, Lori; Zygo, Lisa; Swint, Pamela

    2011-06-01

    Avian conservation efforts must account for changes in vegetation composition and structure associated with climate change. We modeled vegetation change and the probability of occurrence of birds to project changes in winter bird distributions associated with climate change and fire management in the northern Chihuahuan Desert (southwestern U.S.A.). We simulated vegetation change in a process-based model (Landscape and Fire Simulator) in which anticipated climate change was associated with doubling of current atmospheric carbon dioxide over the next 50 years. We estimated the relative probability of bird occurrence on the basis of statistical models derived from field observations of birds and data on vegetation type, topography, and roads. We selected 3 focal species, Scaled Quail (Callipepla squamata), Loggerhead Shrike (Lanius ludovicianus), and Rock Wren (Salpinctes obsoletus), that had a range of probabilities of occurrence for our study area. Our simulations projected increases in relative probability of bird occurrence in shrubland and decreases in grassland and Yucca spp. and ocotillo (Fouquieria splendens) vegetation. Generally, the relative probability of occurrence of all 3 species was highest in shrubland because leaf-area index values were lower in shrubland. This high probability of occurrence likely is related to the species' use of open vegetation for foraging. Fire suppression had little effect on projected vegetation composition because as climate changed there was less fuel and burned area. Our results show that if future water limits on plant type are considered, models that incorporate spatial data may suggest how and where different species of birds may respond to vegetation changes.

  20. Fractionation of the component processes underlying successful episodic encoding: a combined fMRI and divided-attention study.

    PubMed

    Uncapher, Melina R; Rugg, Michael D

    2008-02-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that attentional resources are necessary for the encoding of episodic memories, but the nature of the relationship between attention and neural correlates of encoding is unclear. Here we address this question using functional magnetic resonance imaging and a divided-attention paradigm in which competition for different types of attentional resources was manipulated. Fifteen volunteers were scanned while making animacy judgments to visually presented words and concurrently performing one of three tasks on auditorily presented words: male/female voice discrimination (control task), 1-back voice comparison (1-back task), or indoor/outdoor judgment (semantic task). The 1-back and semantic tasks were designed to compete for task-generic and task-specific attentional resources, respectively. Using the "remember/know" procedure, memory for the study words was assessed after 15 min. In the control condition, subsequent memory effects associated with later recollection were identified in the left dorsal inferior frontal gyrus and in the left hippocampus. These effects were differentially attenuated in the two more difficult divided-attention conditions. The effects of divided attention seem, therefore, to reflect impairments due to limitations at both task-generic and task-specific levels. Additionally, each of the two more difficult divided-attention conditions was associated with subsequent memory effects in regions distinct from those showing effects in the control condition. These findings suggest the engagement of alternative encoding processes to those engaged in the control task. The overall pattern of findings suggests that divided attention can impact later memory in different ways, and accordingly, that different attentional resources, including task-generic and task-specific resources, make distinct contributions to successful episodic encoding.

  1. Understanding interaction effects of climate change and fire management on bird distributions through combined process and habitat models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Joseph D.; Gutzwiller, Kevin J.; Barrow, Wylie C.; Johnson-Randall, Lori; Zygo, Lisa; Swint, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    Avian conservation efforts must account for changes in vegetation composition and structure associated with climate change. We modeled vegetation change and the probability of occurrence of birds to project changes in winter bird distributions associated with climate change and fire management in the northern Chihuahuan Desert (southwestern U.S.A.). We simulated vegetation change in a process-based model (Landscape and Fire Simulator) in which anticipated climate change was associated with doubling of current atmospheric carbon dioxide over the next 50 years. We estimated the relative probability of bird occurrence on the basis of statistical models derived from field observations of birds and data on vegetation type, topography, and roads. We selected 3 focal species, Scaled Quail (Callipepla squamata), Loggerhead Shrike (Lanius ludovicianus), and Rock Wren (Salpinctes obsoletus), that had a range of probabilities of occurrence for our study area. Our simulations projected increases in relative probability of bird occurrence in shrubland and decreases in grassland and Yucca spp. and ocotillo (Fouquieria splendens) vegetation. Generally, the relative probability of occurrence of all 3 species was highest in shrubland because leaf-area index values were lower in shrubland. This high probability of occurrence likely is related to the species' use of open vegetation for foraging. Fire suppression had little effect on projected vegetation composition because as climate changed there was less fuel and burned area. Our results show that if future water limits on plant type are considered, models that incorporate spatial data may suggest how and where different species of birds may respond to vegetation changes.

  2. Understanding interaction effects of climate change and fire management on bird distributions through combined process and habitat models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Joseph D.; Gutzwiller, Kevin J.; Barrow, Wylie C.; Johnson-Randall, Lori; Zygo, Lisa; Swint, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    Avian conservation efforts must account for changes in vegetation composition and structure associated with climate change. We modeled vegetation change and the probability of occurrence of birds to project changes in winter bird distributions associated with climate change and fire management in the northern Chihuahuan Desert (southwestern U.S.A.). We simulated vegetation change in a process-based model (Landscape and Fire Simulator) in which anticipated climate change was associated with doubling of current atmospheric carbon dioxide over the next 50 years. We estimated the relative probability of bird occurrence on the basis of statistical models derived from field observations of birds and data on vegetation type, topography, and roads. We selected 3 focal species, Scaled Quail (Callipepla squamata), Loggerhead Shrike (Lanius ludovicianus), and Rock Wren (Salpinctes obsoletus), that had a range of probabilities of occurrence for our study area. Our simulations projected increases in relative probability of bird occurrence in shrubland and decreases in grassland and Yucca spp. and ocotillo (Fouquieria splendens) vegetation. Generally, the relative probability of occurrence of all 3 species was highest in shrubland because leaf-area index values were lower in shrubland. This high probability of occurrence likely is related to the species' use of open vegetation for foraging. Fire suppression had little effect on projected vegetation composition because as climate changed there was less fuel and burned area. Our results show that if future water limits on plant type are considered, models that incorporate spatial data may suggest how and where different species of birds may respond to vegetation changes. ??2011 Society for Conservation Biology.

  3. Recovery of polypropylene and polyethylene from packaging plastic wastes without contamination of chlorinated plastic films by the combination process of wet gravity separation and ozonation.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Mallampati Srinivasa; Okuda, Tetsuji; Nakai, Satoshi; Nishijima, Wataru; Okada, Mitsumasa

    2011-08-01

    Wet gravity separation technique has been regularly practiced to separate the polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene (PE) (light plastic films) from chlorinated plastic films (CP films) (heavy plastic films). The CP films including poly vinyl chloride (PVC) and poly vinylidene chloride (PVDC) would float in water even though its density is more than 1.0g/cm(3). This is because films are twisted in which air is sometimes entrapped inside the twisted CP films in real existing recycling plant. The present research improves the current process in separating the PP and PE from plastic packaging waste (PPW), by reducing entrapped air and by increasing the hydrophilicity of the CP films surface with ozonation. The present research also measures the hydrophilicity of the CP films. In ozonation process mixing of artificial films up to 10min reduces the contact angle from 78° to 62°, and also increases the hydrophilicity of CP films. The previous studies also performed show that the artificial PVDC films easily settle down by the same. The effect of ozonation after the wet gravity separation on light PPW films obtained from an actual PPW recycling plant was also evaluated. Although actual light PPW films contained 1.3% of CP films however in present case all the CP films were removed from the PPW films as a settled fraction in the combination process of ozonation and wet gravity separation. The combination process of ozonation and wet gravity separation is the more beneficial process in recovering of high purity PP and PE films from the PPW films.

  4. Combined modified atmosphere packaging and low temperature storage delay lignification and improve the defense response of minimally processed water bamboo shoot

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Minimally processed water bamboo shoot (WBS) lignifies and deteriorates rapidly at room temperature, which limits greatly its marketability. This study was to investigate the effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the sensory quality index, lignin formation, production of radical oxygen species (ROS) and activities of scavenging enzymes, membrane integrity and energy status of minimally processed WBS when packaged with or without the sealed low-density polyethylene (LDPE) bags, and then stored at 20°C for 9 days or 2°C for 60 days. Results The sensory quality of minimally processed WBS decreased quickly after 6 days of storage at 20°C. Low temperature storage maintained a higher sensory quality index within the first 30 days, but exhibited higher contents of lignin and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as compared with non-MAP shoots at 20°C. Combined MAP and low temperature storage not only maintained good sensory quality after 30 days, but also reduced significantly the increases in lignin content, superoxide anion (O2.-) production rate, H2O2 content and membrane permeability, maintained high activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and reduced the increase in activities of lipase, phospholipase D (PLD) and lipoxygenase (LOX). Furthermore, the minimally processed WBS under MAP condition exhibited higher energy charge (EC) and lower adenosine monophosphate (AMP) content by the end of storage (60 days) at 2°C than those without MAP or stored for 9 days at 20°C. Conclusion These results indicated that MAP in combination with low temperature storage reduced lignification of minimally processed WBS, which was closely associated with maintenance of energy status and enhanced activities of antioxidant enzymes, as well as reduced alleviation of membrane damage caused by ROS. PMID:24006941

  5. Process screening study of alternative gas treating and sulfur removal systems for IGCC (Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle) power plant applications: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Biasca, F.E.; Korens, N.; Schulman, B.L.; Simbeck, D.R.

    1987-12-01

    One of the inherent advantages of the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle plant (IGCC) over other coal-based electric generation technologies is that the sulfur in the coal is converted into a form which can be removed and recovered. Extremely low sulfur oxide emissions can result. Gas treating and sulfur recovery processes for the control of sulfur emissions are an integral part of the overall IGCC plant design. There is a wide range of commercially proven technologies which are highly efficient for sulfur control. In addition, there are many developing technologies and new concepts for applying established technologies which offer potential improvements in both technical and economic performance. SFA Pacific, Inc. has completed a screening study to compare several alternative methods of removing sulfur from the gas streams generated by the Texaco coal gasification process for use in an IGCC plant. The study considered cleaning the gas made from high and low sulfur coals to produce a low sulfur fuel gas and a severely desulfurized synthesis gas (suitable for methanol synthesis), while maintaining a range of low levels of total sulfur emissions. The general approach was to compare the technical performance of the various processes in meeting the desulfurization specifications laid out in EPRI's design basis for the study. The processing scheme being tested at the Cool Water IGCC facility incorporates the Selexol acid gas removal process which is used in combination with a Claus sulfur plant and a SCOT tailgas treating unit. The study has identified several commercial systems, as well as some unusual applications, which can provide efficient removal of sulfur from the fuel gas and also produce extremely low sulfur emissions - so as to meet very stringent sulfur emissions standards. 29 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs.

  6. Combining long term field experiments and nanoscale analysis to enhance process understanding of root litter stabilization by mineral interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabbi, Abad; Baumann, Karen; Remusat, Laurent; Barre, Pierre; Dignac, Marie-France; Rumpel, Cornelia

    2015-04-01

    Mineral interaction may affect the stabilisation of root litter directly or indirectly after microbial decomposition and transformation. The importance of both processes may vary within the soil profile. In this study we studied C stabilisation of isotopically labelled root litter (13C and 15N), which was incubated during 3 year in the field at different soil depth. Samples from this field experiment were recovered and subjected to nanoscale analyses in order to elucidate mineral interactions occurring in different parts of the soil profile. Our results showed enrichment of mineral associated organic matter in subsoil horizons. However, material derived from new plant litter may be stabilised at similar rates in top- and subsoil horizons. N-containing compounds are enriched in the mineral associated fraction of subsoil horizons, indicating enrichment of microbial derived material with depth. Nano scale analyses showed that indeed plant-derived material may be associated with metal oxides in topsoil horizons, whereas the mineral associated organic matter in subsoil horizons may consist of microbial cells. Interestingly, in contrast to short term laboratory analysis, decoupling of C and N through stabilisation with soil minerals was observed during this long term field experiment. Our results indicate that the nature of OM stabilised by mineral interactions is depth specific. Therefore, we suggest, that plant derived lignocellulosic material may be preserved by mineral interactions in topsoil given its incomplete degradation, thereby leading to the formation of functional groups and favouring adsorption to soil minerals. This is consistent with the higher state of lignin-degradation observed in topsoil horizons as compared to subsoil. At depth, where microorganisms are most likely energy limited, degradation of fresh plant litter may be complete, thereby diminishing the formation of lignocellulosic compounds capable of sorption onto metal oxides. As a result

  7. Integration Of Digital Methodologies (Field, Processing, and Presentation) In A Combined Sedimentology/Stratigraphy and Structure Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinconico, L. L., Jr.; Sunderlin, D.; Liew, C. W.

    2015-12-01

    Over the course of the last three years we have designed, developed and refined two Apps for the iPad. GeoFieldBook and StratLogger allow for the real-time display of spatial (structural) and temporal (stratigraphic) field data as well as very easy in-field navigation. Field techniques and methods for data acquisition and mapping in the field have dramatically advanced and simplified how we collect and analyze data while in the field. The Apps are not geologic mapping programs, but rather a way of bypassing the analog field book step to acquire digital data directly that can then be used in various analysis programs (GIS, Google Earth, Stereonet, spreadsheet and drawing programs). We now complete all of our fieldwork digitally. GeoFieldBook can be used to collect structural and other field observations. Each record includes location/date/time information, orientation measurements, formation names, text observations and photos taken with the tablet camera. Records are customizable, so users can add fields of their own choosing. Data are displayed on an image base in real time with oriented structural symbols. The image base is also used for in-field navigation. In StratLogger, the user records bed thickness, lithofacies, biofacies, and contact data in preset and modifiable fields. Each bed/unit record may also be photographed and geo-referenced. As each record is collected, a column diagram of the stratigraphic sequence is built in real time, complete with lithology color, lithology texture, and fossil symbols. The recorded data from any measured stratigraphic sequence can be exported as both the live-drawn column image and as a .csv formatted file for use in spreadsheet or other applications. Common to both Apps is the ability to export the data (via .csv files), photographs and maps or stratigraphic columns (images). Since the data are digital they are easily imported into various processing programs (for example for stereoplot analysis). Requiring that all maps

  8. Waking Up the Mind: Qualitative Study Findings About the Process Through Which Programs Combining Income Generation and Health Education Can Empower Indigenous Guatemalan Women.

    PubMed

    Gurman, Tilly A; Ballard, Anne; Kerr, Samantha; Walsh, Janée; Petrocy, Amy

    2016-01-01

    We explored the process through which two income-generation programs that include health education empower indigenous Guatemalan women artisans. Both artisans (n = 44) and program staff (n = 11) participated in semistructured interviews. Respondents expressed that women gained support about personal issues and experienced an awakening of the mind (despertar la mente). Through active participation, women's fear of strangers and speaking in public decreased. Women also gained mobility, awareness of their rights as women, and self-confidence from earning and managing their own income. Given our findings, we suggest that programs combining income generation and health education have the potential to empower women.

  9. UHPLC-MS/MS quantification combined with chemometrics for the comparative analysis of different batches of raw and wine-processed Dipsacus asper.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yi; Du, Yingshan; Su, Dandan; Li, Weidong; Cai, Baochang

    2017-02-20

    A rapid and sensitive ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry approach was established for the simultaneous determination of 4-caffeoylquinic acid, loganic acid, chlorogenic acid, loganin, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, dipsacoside B, asperosaponin VI and sweroside in raw and wine-processed Dipsacus asper. Chloramphenicol and glycyrrhetinic acid were employed as internal standards. The proposed approach was fully validated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, precision, repeatability as well as recovery. Intra- and inter-assay variability for all analytes were 2.8-4.9 and 1.7-4.8%, respectively. The standard addition method determined recovery rates for each analytes (96.8-104.6%). In addition, the developed approach was applied to 20 batches of raw and wine-processed samples of Dipsacus asper. Principle component analysis and partial least squares-discriminate analysis revealed a clear separation between the raw group and wine-processed group. After wine-processing, the contents of loganic acid, chlorogenic acid, dipsacoside B and asperosaponin VI were up-regulated, whilst the contents of 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 4-caffeoylquinic acid, loganin and sweroside were down-regulated. Our results demonstrated that ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry quantification combined with chemometrics is a viable method for quality evaluation of the raw Dipsacus asper and its wine-processed products. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Simultaneous determination of the protein conversion process in porcine stratum corneum after pretreatment with skin enhancers by a combined microscopic FT-IR/DSC system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shan-Yang; Duan, Kwo-Jen; Lin, Tsung-Chien

    1996-11-01

    A newly developed microscopic Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry combined with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has been used to investigate simultaneously the thermal response and IR spectral changes in protein structure in porcine stratum corneum (SC) after pretreatment with skin penetration enhancers (propylene glycol (PG), azone/PG, oleic acid (OA)/PG, vitamin C, and vitamin C+ OA/PG). The amide I and II bands of the protein were used as probes to determine its structural transformation with temperature. A reheating process was also performed. The dual effects of enhancer and temperature on the protein conformational changes of porcine SC were studied. The results indicate that the newly developed FT-IR/DSC system can continuously determine the thermoresponsive conversion process from α-helix to β-sheet in the keratin structure of porcine SC pretreated with different enhancers. The temperature-induced keratin conversion in the protein structure of porcine SC was irreversible, with or without pretreatment with skin penetration enhancers. The conformational transition in the protein during heating was found to be partially from the α-helix to a random coil structure, and partially from the α-helix to the β-sheet structure. The kinetics of this conversion for the first and second heating processes were significantly different; the conversion process for all the first-heated SC samples during the second heating process was slower than that of the samples during the first heating process. Moreover, it was found that the skin penetration enhancers were able to alter synergistically and promote keratin conversion in the protein structure of porcine SC when accompanying the heating process. PG, OA/PG and azone/PG were found to be the most effective.

  11. An Integrated Modeling Approach for Predicting Process Maps of Residual Stress and Distortion in a Laser Weld: A Combined CFD-FE Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Richard P.; Panwisawas, Chinnapat; Sovani, Yogesh; Perumal, Bama; Ward, R. Mark; Brooks, Jeffery W.; Basoalto, Hector C.

    2016-10-01

    Laser welding has become an important joining methodology within a number of industries for the structural joining of metallic parts. It offers a high power density welding capability which is desirable for deep weld sections, but is equally suited to performing thinner welded joints with sensible amendments to key process variables. However, as with any welding process, the introduction of severe thermal gradients at the weld line will inevitably lead to process-induced residual stress formation and distortions. Finite element (FE) predictions for weld simulation have been made within academia and industrial research for a number of years, although given the fluid nature of the molten weld pool, FE methodologies have limited capabilities. An improvement upon this established method would be to incorporate a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model formulation prior to the FE model, to predict the weld pool shape and fluid flow, such that details can be fed into FE from CFD as a starting condition. The key outputs of residual stress and distortions predicted by the FE model can then be monitored against the process variables input to the model. Further, a link between the thermal results and the microstructural properties is of interest. Therefore, an empirical relationship between lamellar spacing and the cooling rate was developed and used to make predictions about the lamellar spacing for welds of different process parameters. Processing parameter combinations that lead to regions of high residual stress formation and high distortion have been determined, and the impact of processing parameters upon the predicted lamellar spacing has been presented.

  12. Effect of combination treatment of gamma irradiation and ascorbic acid on physicochemical and microbial quality of minimally processed eggplant (Solanum melongena L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Peerzada R.; Omeera, A.; Suradkar, Prashant P.; Dar, Mohd A.

    2014-10-01

    Gamma irradiation alone and in combination with ascorbic acid was tested for preventing the surface browning and maintaining the quality attributes of minimally processed eggplant. Eggplant samples after preparation were subjected to treatment of gamma irradiation in the dose range of 0.25-1.0 kGy and to combination treatments of ascorbic acid dip at a concentration of 2.0% w/v and gamma irradiation (dose range 0.5-2.0 kGy) followed by storage at 3±1 °C, RH 80%. Studies revealed inverse correlation (r=-0.93) between the polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, browning index and the treatments of ascorbic acid and gamma irradiation. Combinatory treatment of 2.0% w/v ascorbic acid and 1.0 kGy gamma irradiation proved to be significantly (p≤0.05) effective in inhibiting the PPO activity, preventing the surface browning and maintaining the creamy white color and other quality attributes of minimally processed eggplant up to 6 days of refrigerated storage. Sensory evaluation revealed that control and 0.25 kGy irradiated samples were unacceptable only after 3 days of storage. Samples irradiated at 0.5 kGy and 0.75 kGy were unacceptable after 6 days of storage. Microbial analysis revealed that radiation processing of minimally processed eggplant at 1.0 kGy with and without ascorbic acid resulted in around 1 and 1.5 log reduction in yeast and mold count as well as bacterial count just after treatment and 6 days of storage therefore, enhances the microbial safety.

  13. A hybrid enrichment process combining conjugated polymer extraction and silica gel adsorption for high purity semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Jianfu; Li, Zhao; Lefebvre, Jacques; Cheng, Fuyong; Dunford, Jeffrey L.; Malenfant, Patrick R. L.; Humes, Jefford; Kroeger, Jens

    2015-09-01

    A novel purification process for the enrichment of sc-SWCNTs that combines selective conjugated polymer extraction (CPE) with selective adsorption using silica gel, termed hybrid-CPE (h-CPE), has been developed, providing a high purity sc-SWCNT material with a significant improvement in process efficiency and yield. Using the h-CPE protocol, a greater than 5 fold improvement in yield can be obtained compared to traditional CPE while obtaining sc-SWCNT with a purity >99.9% as assessed by absorption spectroscopy and Raman mapping. Thin film transistor devices using the h-CPE derived sc-SWCNTs as the semiconductor possess mobility values ranging from 10-30 cm2 V-1 s-1 and current ON/OFF ratio of 104-105 for channel lengths between 2.5 and 20 μm.A novel purification process for the enrichment of sc-SWCNTs that combines selective conjugated polymer extraction (CPE) with selective adsorption using silica gel, termed hybrid-CPE (h-CPE), has been developed, providing a high purity sc-SWCNT material with a significant improvement in process efficiency and yield. Using the h-CPE protocol, a greater than 5 fold improvement in yield can be obtained compared to traditional CPE while obtaining sc-SWCNT with a purity >99.9% as assessed by absorption spectroscopy and Raman mapping. Thin film transistor devices using the h-CPE derived sc-SWCNTs as the semiconductor possess mobility values ranging from 10-30 cm2 V-1 s-1 and current ON/OFF ratio of 104-105 for channel lengths between 2.5 and 20 μm. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr04851f

  14. Remediation of PAH-contaminated soil at a gas manufacturing plant by a combined two-phase partition system washing and microbial degradation process.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xuan; Xu, Xinyang; Gong, Zongqiang; Li, Xiaojun; Jia, Chunyun; Guo, Meixia; Li, Haibo

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to design a remediation technique using both soil washing and microbial degradation to remove polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from contaminated soil. PAH biodegradation by inoculation of Mycobacterium sp. was first tested. The effectiveness of washing agents (Tween 80 solution, biodiesel, and a two-phase partition system (TPPS)) was then evaluated with column experiments. Third, the combination of TPPS washing and microbial degradation was studied. PAH bioavailability before and after biodegradation and the joint remediation was also assessed using hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD) extraction. Only phenanthrene and anthracene were noticeably biodegradable when the soil was inoculated with Mycobacterium sp. TPPS containing 2% (v/v) biodiesel and 2.5% (w/v) Tween 80 was used as the washing agent for the joint remediation test because it gave higher PAH extractions than Tween 80 solution with lower doses, and there was less residue in the soil. Joint TPPS washing and microbial degradation gave a total PAH removal of 92.6%, which was much higher than the results from either the biodegradation or washing experiments alone. Removals of all high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs were improved. Bioavailable concentrations of all PAHs decreased significantly after the joint remediation process, indicating that there were reduced risks from all PAHs. The results demonstrate that the combination of TPPS washing and microbial degradation is a useful and innovative process for remediation of PAH-contaminated soils.

  15. Identification of microbes from the surfaces of food-processing lines based on the flow cytometric evaluation of cellular metabolic activity combined with cell sorting.

    PubMed

    Juzwa, W; Duber, A; Myszka, K; Białas, W; Czaczyk, K

    2016-09-01

    In this study the design of a flow cytometry-based procedure to facilitate the detection of adherent bacteria from food-processing surfaces was evaluated. The measurement of the cellular redox potential (CRP) of microbial cells was combined with cell sorting for the identification of microorganisms. The procedure enhanced live/dead cell discrimination owing to the measurement of the cell physiology. The microbial contamination of the surface of a stainless steel conveyor used to process button mushrooms was evaluated in three independent experiments. The flow cytometry procedure provided a step towards monitoring of contamination and enabled the assessment of microbial food safety hazards by the discrimination of active, mid-active and non-active bacterial sub-populations based on determination of their cellular vitality and subsequently single cell sorting to isolate microbial strains from discriminated sub-populations. There was a significant correlation (r = 0.97; p < 0.05) between the bacterial cell count estimated by the pour plate method and flow cytometry, despite there being differences in the absolute number of cells detected. The combined approach of flow cytometric CRP measurement and cell sorting allowed an in situ analysis of microbial cell vitality and the identification of species from defined sub-populations, although the identified microbes were limited to culturable cells.

  16. Investigation of the synergistic effects for p-nitrophenol mineralization by a combined process of ozonation and electrolysis using a boron-doped diamond anode.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Cuicui; Yuan, Shi; Li, Xiang; Wang, Huijiao; Bakheet, Belal; Komarneni, Sridhar; Wang, Yujue

    2014-09-15

    Electrolysis and ozonation are two commonly used technologies for treating wastewaters contaminated with nitrophenol pollutants. However, they are often handicapped by their slow kinetics and low yields of total organic carbon (TOC) mineralization. To improve TOC mineralization efficiency, we combined electrolysis using a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode with ozonation (electrolysis-O3) to treat a p-nitrophenol (PNP) aqueous solution. Up to 91% TOC was removed after 60 min of the electrolysis-O3 process. In comparison, only 20 and 44% TOC was respectively removed by individual electrolysis and ozonation treatment conducted under similar reaction conditions. The result indicates that when electrolysis and ozonation are applied simultaneously, they have a significant synergy for PNP mineralization. This synergy can be mainly attributed to (i) the rapid degradation of PNP to carboxylic acids (e.g., oxalic acid and acetic acid) by O3, which would otherwise take a much longer time by electrolysis alone, and (ii) the effective mineralization of the ozone-refractory carboxylic acids to CO2 by OH generated from multiple sources in the electrolysis-O3 system. The result suggests that combining electrolysis with ozonation can provide a simple and effective way to mutually compensate the limitations of the two processes for degradation of phenolic pollutants.

  17. Combining HJ CCD, GF-1 WFV and MODIS Data to Generate Daily High Spatial Resolution Synthetic Data for Environmental Process Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Mingquan; Huang, Wenjiang; Niu, Zheng; Wang, Changyao

    2015-01-01

    The limitations of satellite data acquisition mean that there is a lack of satellite data with high spatial and temporal resolutions for environmental process monitoring. In this study, we address this problem by applying the Enhanced Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (ESTARFM) and the Spatial and Temporal Data Fusion Approach (STDFA) to combine Huanjing satellite charge coupled device (HJ CCD), Gaofen satellite no. 1 wide field of view camera (GF-1 WFV) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data to generate daily high spatial resolution synthetic data for land surface process monitoring. Actual HJ CCD and GF-1 WFV data were used to evaluate the precision of the synthetic images using the correlation analysis method. Our method was tested and validated for two study areas in Xinjiang Province, China. The results show that both the ESTARFM and STDFA can be applied to combine HJ CCD and MODIS reflectance data, and GF-1 WFV and MODIS reflectance data, to generate synthetic HJ CCD data and synthetic GF-1 WFV data that closely match actual data with correlation coefficients (r) greater than 0.8989 and 0.8643, respectively. Synthetic red- and near infrared (NIR)-band data generated by ESTARFM are more suitable for the calculation of Normalized Different Vegetation Index (NDVI) than the data generated by STDFA. PMID:26308017

  18. Improvement for the multi-scale periodic characteristics revealing of precipitation signals and its impact assessment on soil hydrological process by combining HHT and CWT approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, S. P.; Yang, J. S.; Liu, G. M.; Yao, R. J.; Wang, X. P.

    2014-06-01

    This study conducts a detailed analysis of the multi-scale periodic features involved in the annual and seasonal precipitation signals at the Chinese coastal reclamation region by selecting the suitable Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) and innovatively combining the improved Hilbert Huang Transform (HHT), and further deduces the precipitation trend and its impact on the future soil hydrological process. The Morlet wavelet transform is proved suitable in revealing the precipitation signals broad-scale periodicities, however, the critical mode mixing problem in the CWT causes the poor significances of the fine-scale periodicities, which can not well match the climate background. By combining the HHT approach, the fine-scale mode mixing drawback in the CWT is effectively eliminated, and the multi-scale periodicities of the studied precipitation signals are accurately revealed, based on which an overall decreasing trend of the annual and seasonal precipitation in the future years is demonstrated. Furthermore, by novelly using the Cross Wavelet Transform (XWT) and Wavelet Transform Coherence (WTC) approaches the prominent correlations between the precipitation dynamics and soil and groundwater salinities dynamics, that the precipitation increase can effectively leach the surface soil salt downwards into the deeper soil layers and groundwater with 5-7 days lag, in the new cultivated tidal land are demonstrated. The revealed future decreasing trend of precipitation especially in spring and summer may aggravate the soil salinization at the coastal reclamation region, thus we suggest reasonable salt leaching and evaporation suppression measures to prevent the possible soil secondary salinization process.

  19. Improvement for the multi-scale periodic characteristics revealing of precipitation signals and its impact assessment on soil hydrological process by combining HHT and CWT approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, S.; Yang, J.; Liu, G.; Yao, R.; Wang, X.

    2015-03-01

    This study conducts a detailed analysis of multi-scale periodic features involved in the annual and seasonal precipitation signals at the typical coastal reclamation region in China by selecting the suitable continuous wavelet transform (CWT) and innovatively combining the improved Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT), and further deduces the precipitation trend and its impacts on the future soil hydrological process. The Morlet wavelet transform is proved suitable in revealing the precipitation signals broad-scale periodicities, however, the critical mode mixing problem in CWT causes the poor significance in the fine-scale periodicities, which cannot well match the climate background. By combining the HHT approach, the fine-scale mode mixing drawback in CWT is effectively eliminated, and the the studied precipitation signals multi-scale periodicities are accurately revealed. Consequently, an overall decreasing trend of annual and seasonal precipitation in future years is demonstrated. Furthermore, by novelly using the cross wavelet transform (XWT) and wavelet transform coherence (WTC) approaches, the prominent correlations between the precipitation dynamics and soil and groundwater salinities dynamics, it is demonstrated that the precipitation increase can effectively leach the surface soil salt downwards into the deeper soil layers and groundwater with 5-7-day lag in the new cultivated tidal land. The revealed future decreasing trend of precipitation, especially in spring and summer, may aggravate the soil salinization at the coastal reclamation region, thus some reasonable salt leaching and evaporation suppression measures need to be taken to prevent the possible soil secondary salinization process.

  20. The feasibility of using combined TiO2 photocatalysis oxidation and MBBR process for advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater.

    PubMed

    Xu, Peng; Han, Hongjun; Hou, Baolin; Zhuang, Haifeng; Jia, Shengyong; Wang, Dexin; Li, Kun; Zhao, Qian

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the feasibility of using combined heterogeneous photocatalysis oxidation (HPO) and moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) process for advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater (CGW). The results indicated that the TOC removal efficiency was significantly improved in HPO. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis indicated that the HPO could be employed to eliminate bio-refractory and toxic compounds. Meanwhile, the BOD5/COD of the raw wastewater was increased from 0.08 to 0.49. Furthermore, in the integration of TiO2 photocatalysis oxidation and MBBR process, the effluent of COD, BOD5, TOC, NH4(+)-N and TN were 22.1 mg/L, 1.1 mg/L, 11.8 mg/L, 4.1mg/L and 13.7 mg/L, respectively, which all met class-I criteria of the Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard (GB18918-2002, China). The total operating cost was 2.8CNY/t. Therefore, there is great potential for the combined system in engineering applications as a final treatment for biologically pretreated CGW.

  1. Combined processes of two-stage Fenton-biological anaerobic filter-biological aerated filter for advanced treatment of landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojun; Han, Jijun; Chen, Zhiwei; Jian, Lei; Gu, Xiaoyang; Lin, Che-Jen

    2012-12-01

    There are numerous non-biodegradable organic materials in the mature landfill leachate. To meet the new discharge standard of China, additional advanced treatment is needed for the effluent from the biological treatment processes of leachate. In this study, a combined process including two stages of "Fenton-biological anaerobic filter (BANF)-biological aerated filter (BAF)" was evaluated to address the advanced treatment need. The Fenton oxidation was applied to reduce chemical oxygen demand (COD) and enhance biodegradability of refractory organics, and the BANF-BAF process was then applied to remove the total nitrogen (TN). The treatment achieved effluent concentrations of COD<70 mg/L, TN<40 mg/L and NH(3)-N<10 mg/L. The removal efficiency of COD and TN were 96.1% and 95.9%, respectively. The effluent quality met the new discharge standard for Pollution Control on the Landfill Site of Municipal Solid of PR China (GB16889-2008). The operation cost of these processes was about 36.1CHY/t (5.70USD/t).

  2. Fabrication of long-focal-length plano-convex microlens array by combining the micro-milling and injection molding processes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Kirchberg, Stefan; Jiang, Bing-Yan; Xie, Lei; Jia, Yun-Long; Sun, Lei-Lei

    2014-11-01

    A uniform plano-convex spherical microlens array with a long focal length was fabricated by combining the micromilling and injection molding processes in this work. This paper presents a quantitative study of the injection molding process parameters on the uniformity of the height of the microlenses. The variation of the injection process parameters, i.e., barrel temperature, mold temperature, injection speed, and packing pressure, was found to have a significant effect on the uniformity of the height of the microlenses, especially the barrel temperature. The filling-to-packing switchover point is also critical to the uniformity of the height of the microlenses. The optimal uniformity was achieved when the polymer melts completely filled the mold cavity, or even a little excessively filled the cavity, during the filling stage. In addition, due to the filling resistance, the practical filling-to-packing switchover point can vary with the change of the filling processing conditions and lead to a non-negligible effect on the uniformity of the height of the microlenses. Furthermore, the effect of injection speed on the uniformity of the height of the microlenses was analyzed in detail. The results indicated that the effect of injection speed on the uniformity of the height of the microlenses is mainly attributed to the two functions of injection speed: transferring the filling-to-packing switchover point and affecting the distribution of residual flow stress in the polymer melt.

  3. The role of a combined coagulation and disk filtration process as a pre-treatment to microfiltration and reverse osmosis membranes in a municipal wastewater pilot plant.

    PubMed

    Chon, Kangmin; Cho, Jaeweon; Kim, Seung Joon; Jang, Am

    2014-12-01

    A pilot study was conducted to assess the performance of a municipal wastewater reclamation plant consisting of a combined coagulation-disk filtration (CC-DF) process, microfiltration (MF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes, in terms of the removal of water contaminants and changes in characteristics of effluent organic matter (EfOM). The CC-DF and MF membranes were not effective for the removal of dissolved water contaminants. However, they could partially reduce the turbidity associated with the cake layer formation by particulate materials on the membrane surfaces. Furthermore, most of water contaminants were completely removed by the RO membranes. Although the CC-DF process could remove approximately 20% of turbidity, the aluminium concentrations considerably increased after the CC-DF process due to the residual coagulants complexed with both carboxylic acid and alcohol functional groups of EfOM. Those aluminium-EfOM complexes had a lower negative charge and higher molecular weight (>0.1 μm pore size of the MF membranes) compared to non-complexed EfOM. These results indicate that the control of the formation of the aluminium-EfOM complexes should be considered as a key step to use the CC-DF process as a pre-treatment of the MF and RO membranes for mitigation of membrane fouling in the tested pilot plant.

  4. Separation of high-purity syringol and acetosyringone from rice straw-derived bio-oil by combining the basification-acidification process and column chromatography.

    PubMed

    Hao, Shilai; Chen, Kaifei; Cao, Leichang; Zhu, Xiangdong; Luo, Gang; Zhang, Shicheng; Chen, Jianmin

    2016-10-01

    Numerous technologies have been used to reclaim valuable chemicals from bio-oil. In this study, a combination of the basification-acidification process and column chromatography was employed for the separation of high-purity syringol and acetosyringone from rice straw-derived bio-oil. The optimal conditions for the basification-acidification process and the possible precipitation mechanism of the basification were explored. The results showed the following as the optimal conditions for the basification process: mass ratio of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2 ) to bio-oil, 2.0; reaction temperature, 70°C; and reaction time, 30 min. The results also showed that 1.6 mol of hydrochloric acid (HCl) per gram of bio-oil was optimal for the acidification. The precipitation was found to proceed via a possible mechanism involving the reaction of the phenolic compounds in the bio-oil with Ca(OH)2 to produce a precipitate. After further separation by column chromatography, purities of 91.4 and 96.2% (from gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) were obtained for syringol and acetosyringone, respectively. Their recoveries for the whole process were 73.0 and 39.3%, respectively.

  5. Combined effects of heat, nisin and acidification on the inactivation of Clostridium sporogenes spores in carrot-alginate particles: from kinetics to process validation.

    PubMed

    Naim, F; Zareifard, M R; Zhu, S; Huizing, R H; Grabowski, S; Marcotte, M

    2008-10-01

    Combined effects of mild temperatures, acidification and nisin on the thermal resistance of Clostridium sporogenes ATCC 11437 spores were assessed. Inoculated carrot-alginate particles were used as a solid-food model for the validation of the spore inactivation during the flow of a solid-liquid food system through the holding tube of an aseptic processing unit. Inactivation kinetics was studied in a water bath with the spores inoculated into carrot-alginate particles and in Sorensen's phosphate buffer. For temperatures of 70-90 degrees C, D-values in the buffer were 24.9-5.7 min, much lower than those evaluated for the particles (115.1-22.2 min). Statistical analyses showed significant synergistic effects of temperature and pH on spore inactivation for both media. Acidification reduced the heat resistance of the spores by reducing the D-values. Nisin was not significantly effective at the lower concentrations (up to 750 IU/g). The combination of 90 degrees C, pH: 4.5 and 500IU/g nisin resulted in a ten-fold decrease of the D-value for spores inoculated in the particles (from 111.1 to 10.6 min). Microbial validation tests were conducted using a pilot-scale aseptic processing unit with a mixture of carrot cubes (10%) and carrier liquid of 2%-carboxymethylcellulose solution (90%). Spore-inoculated carrot-alginate particles (initial counts of 106 CFU/g, obtained after come-up-time pre-heat) with pH 3.5 and 2000 IU/g nisin were processed at 90 degrees C in the aseptic processing unit. Microbial analysis showed no spore survivors in the particles after passing through the holding tube (5.2-6.0 min of residence time). The proposed combination of these hurdles significantly enhanced the spore inactivation rate (D(90)=1.17 min) as compared to that for thermal treatment only (D(90)=19.6 min).

  6. Combined diffusion-weighted and functional magnetic resonance imaging reveals a temporal-occipital network involved in auditory-visual object processing

    PubMed Central

    Beer, Anton L.; Plank, Tina; Meyer, Georg; Greenlee, Mark W.

    2013-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed that the superior temporal and occipital cortex are involved in multisensory integration. Probabilistic fiber tracking based on diffusion-weighted MRI suggests that multisensory processing is supported by white matter connections between auditory cortex and the temporal and occipital lobe. Here, we present a combined functional MRI and probabilistic fiber tracking study that reveals multisensory processing mechanisms that remained undetected by either technique alone. Ten healthy participants passively observed visually presented lip or body movements, heard speech or body action sounds, or were exposed to a combination of both. Bimodal stimulation engaged a temporal-occipital brain network including the multisensory superior temporal sulcus (msSTS), the lateral superior temporal gyrus (lSTG), and the extrastriate body area (EBA). A region-of-interest (ROI) analysis showed multisensory interactions (e.g., subadditive responses to bimodal compared to unimodal stimuli) in the msSTS, the lSTG, and the EBA region. Moreover, sounds elicited responses in the medial occipital cortex. Probabilistic tracking revealed white matter tracts between the auditory cortex and the medial occipital cortex, the inferior occipital cortex (IOC), and the superior temporal sulcus (STS). However, STS terminations of auditory cortex tracts showed limited overlap with the msSTS region. Instead, msSTS was connected to primary sensory regions via intermediate nodes in the temporal and occipital cortex. Similarly, the lSTG and EBA regions showed limited direct white matter connections but instead were connected via intermediate nodes. Our results suggest that multisensory processing in the STS is mediated by separate brain areas that form a distinct network in the lateral temporal and inferior occipital cortex. PMID:23407860

  7. Quantifying the uncertainty of eddy covariance fluxes due to the use of different software packages and combinations of processing steps in two contrasting ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mammarella, Ivan; Peltola, Olli; Nordbo, Annika; Järvi, Leena; Rannik, Üllar

    2016-10-01

    We have carried out an inter-comparison between EddyUH and EddyPro®, two public software packages for post-field processing of eddy covariance data. Datasets including carbon dioxide, methane and water vapour fluxes measured over 2 months at a wetland in southern Finland and carbon dioxide and water vapour fluxes measured over 3 months at an urban site in Helsinki were processed and analysed. The purpose was to estimate the flux uncertainty due to the use of different software packages and to evaluate the most critical processing steps, determining the largest deviations in the calculated fluxes. Turbulent fluxes calculated with a reference combination of processing steps were in good agreement, the systematic difference between the two software packages being up to 2.0 and 6.7 % for half-hour and cumulative sum values, respectively. The raw data preparation and processing steps were consistent between the software packages, and most of the deviations in the estimated fluxes were due to the flux corrections. Among the different calculation procedures analysed, the spectral correction had the biggest impact for closed-path latent heat fluxes, reaching a nocturnal median value of 15 % at the wetland site. We found up to a 43 % median value of deviation (with respect to the run with all corrections included) if the closed-path carbon dioxide flux is calculated without the dilution correction, while the methane fluxes were up to 10 % lower without both dilution and spectroscopic corrections. The Webb-Pearman-Leuning (WPL) and spectroscopic corrections were the most critical steps for open-path systems. However, we found also large spectral correction factors for the open-path methane fluxes, due to the sensor separation effect.

  8. Phenomenological study and application of the combined influence of iron concentration and irradiance on the photo-Fenton process to remove micropollutants.

    PubMed

    Carra, Irene; García Sánchez, José Luis; Casas López, José Luis; Malato, Sixto; Sánchez Pérez, José Antonio

    2014-04-15

    The presence of low concentrations of persistent pollutants in waters (μg/L or ng/L), also called micropollutants, brings as a consequence the need to apply advanced oxidation treatments for their removal. The successful application of solar-driven photo-Fenton to treat highly polluted wastewaters (g/L and mg/L of pollutants) has prompted its application to lowly polluted effluents. However, a decrease in contaminant concentration may involve an alteration in the intrinsic process phenomenon, which until now has only been widely studied at the milligram-per-litre level or higher with this process. The aim of this research was to study the combined influence of the operating variable (iron concentration) and the environmental variable (irradiance) and application on the photo-Fenton process at pH2.8 when removing micropollutants. For this purpose, experimentation was carried out at laboratory and pilot plant scales with a biocide mixture of acetamiprid (ACTM), thiabendazole (TBZ) and imazalil (IMZ) (100 μg/L each) as the model pollutant. Results indicated that above 15 WUV/m(2) and a light path length of 5 cm (the most commonly used path for this type of application) iron concentration limited the process and there was irradiance excess under these conditions. On the other hand, and given the circumstances of irradiance excess, a higher light path length (10 cm) was assessed. Results showed that path lengths wider than 5 cm are recommended since more wastewater volume could be treated with a higher process rate per surface unit.

  9. Facile preparation of carbon coated magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles by a combined reduction/CVD process

    SciTech Connect

    Tristao, Juliana C.; Oliveira, Aline A.S.; Ardisson, Jose D.; Dias, Anderson; Lago, Rochel M.

    2011-05-15

    Graphical abstract: Magnetic carbon coated Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles are prepared by a one step combined reduction of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} together with a CVD process of using methane. Analyses show that the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} is reduced by methane to produce mainly Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles coated with amorphous carbon. These materials can be separated into two fractions by simple dispersion in water and can be used as adsorbents, catalyst supports and rapid coagulation systems. Research highlights: {yields} Magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles coated with a very thin layer of amorphous carbon (4 wt%). {yields} Combined reduction of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} with a Chemical Vapor Deposition process using methane. {yields} Nanoparticles with an average size of 100-200 nm. {yields} Uses as adsorbent, catalyst support and rapid coagulation systems. -- Abstract: In this work, we report a simple method for the preparation of magnetic carbon coated Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles by a single step combined reduction of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} together with a Chemical Vapor Deposition process using methane. The temperature programmed reaction monitored by Moessbauer, X-ray Diffraction and Raman analyses showed that Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} is directly reduced by methane at temperatures between 600 and 900 {sup o}C to produce mainly Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles coated with up to 4 wt% of amorphous carbon. These magnetic materials can be separated into two fractions by simple dispersion in water, i.e., a settled material composed of large magnetic particles and a suspended material composed of nanoparticles with an average size of 100-200 nm as revealed by Scanning Electron Microscopy and High-resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy. Different uses for these materials, e.g., adsorbents, catalyst supports, rapid coagulation systems, are proposed.

  10. Expansive Open-Door Cervical Laminoplasty: In Situ Reconstruction of Extensor Muscle Insertion on the C2 Spinous Process Combined With Titanium Miniplates Internal Fixation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhaohui; Chen, Weishan; Yan, Shigui; Li, Wanli; Qian, Shengjun

    2015-07-01

    Retrospective cohort study. To evaluate efficacy and relevant problems of in situ reconstruction of extensor muscle insertion on the C2 spinous process combined with titanium miniplates internal fixation in expansive open-door cervical laminoplasty in order to improve surgical treatment effect. Expansive open-door cervical laminoplasty has been widely applied in clinical practice, but there are a series of postoperative problems. Therefore, decreasing postoperative complications in order to more effectively relieve symptoms remains a subject for additional research. From October 2011 to September 2013, a total of 60 patients who suffered cervical canal stenosis were treated by expansive open-door laminoplasty with in situ reconstruction of extensor muscle insertion on the C2 spinous process combined with titanium miniplates internal fixation. Changes of cervical curvature index (CI) and range of motion (ROM) were calculated using data from preoperative and postoperative cervical spine X-ray examinations. Clinical function was scored using the Japanese Orthopedics Association Scoring System (JOA) and the neck disability index (NDI). The mean CI before the operation and at 1-year postoperation were 10.49% ± 3.93% and 14.14 ± 2.85 (P < 0.05). The mean ROM values were 43.35 ± 7.55 before the operation, 34.83 ± 7.41 at 1-year postoperation (P < 0.05). The NDI scores decreased from 19.42 ± 4.12 to 7.37 ± 2.58, and the JOA scores increased from 8.87 ± 1.99 to 13.55 ± 1.72, representing significant improvement (P < 0.05). One patient had postoperative C5 nerve root palsy and completely recovered 1 month later. Neither collapse nor door closure in the open-door side occurred in any of the patients. Expansive open-door cervical laminoplasty with in situ reconstruction of extensor muscle insertion on the C2 spinous process combined with titanium miniplates internal fixation is a safe and effective surgical method, and can

  11. Quantification of Listeria monocytogenes in minimally processed leafy vegetables using a combined method based on enrichment and 16S rRNA real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Aparecida de Oliveira, Maria; Abeid Ribeiro, Eliana Guimarães; Morato Bergamini, Alzira Maria; Pereira De Martinis, Elaine Cristina

    2010-02-01

    Modern lifestyle markedly changed eating habits worldwide, with an increasing demand for ready-to-eat foods, such as minimally processed fruits and leafy greens. Packaging and storage conditions of those products may favor the growth of psychrotrophic bacteria, including the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. In this work, minimally processed leafy vegetables samples (n = 162) from retail market from Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil, were tested for the presence or absence of Listeria spp. by the immunoassay Listeria Rapid Test, Oxoid. Two L. monocytogenes positive and six artificially contaminated samples of minimally processed leafy vegetables were evaluated by the Most Probable Number (MPN) with detection by classical culture method and also culture method combined with real-time PCR (RTi-PCR) for 16S rRNA genes of L. monocytogenes. Positive MPN enrichment tubes were analyzed by RTi-PCR with primers specific for L. monocytogenes using the commercial preparation ABSOLUTE QPCR SYBR Green Mix (ABgene, UK). Real-time PCR assay presented good exclusivity and inclusivity results and no statistical significant difference was found in comparison with the conventional culture method (p < 0.05). Moreover, RTi-PCR was fast and easy to perform, with MPN results obtained in ca. 48 h for RTi-PCR in comparison to 7 days for conventional method.

  12. Tunable hydrogel composite with two-step processing in combination with innovative hardware upgrade for cell-based three-dimensional bioprinting.

    PubMed

    Wüst, Silke; Godla, Marie E; Müller, Ralph; Hofmann, Sandra

    2014-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) bioprinting is the layer-by-layer deposition of biological material with the aim of achieving stable 3-D constructs for application in tissue engineering. It is a powerful tool for the spatially directed placement of multiple materials and/or cells within the 3-D sample. Encapsulated cells are protected by the bioink during the printing process. Very few materials are available that fulfill requirements for bioprinting as well as provide adequate properties for cell encapsulation during and after the printing process. A hydrogel composite including alginate and gelatin precursors was tuned with different concentrations of hydroxyapatite (HA) and characterized in terms of rheology, swelling behavior and mechanical properties to assess the versatility of the system. Instantaneous as well as long-term structural integrity of the printed hydrogel was achieved with a two-step mechanism combining the thermosensitive properties of gelatin with chemical crosslinking of alginate. Novel syringe tip heaters were developed for improved temperature control of the bioink to avoid clogging. Human mesenchymal stem cells mixed into the hydrogel precursor survived the printing process and showed high cell viability of 85% living cells after 3 days of subsequent in vitro culture. HA enabled the visualization of the printed structures with micro-computed tomography. The inclusion of HA also favors the use of the bioink for bone tissue engineering applications. By adding factors other than HA, the composite could be used as a bioink for applications in drug delivery, microsphere deposition or soft tissue engineering.

  13. The color removal and fate of organic pollutants in a pilot-scale MBR-NF combined process treating textile wastewater with high water recovery.

    PubMed

    Li, Kun; Jiang, Chao; Wang, Jianxing; Wei, Yuansong

    2016-01-01

    A combination of membrane bioreactor (MBR) and nanofiltration (NF) was tested at pilot-scale treating textile wastewater from the wastewater treatment station of a textile mill in Wuqing District of Tianjin (China). The MBR-NF process showed a much better treatment efficiency on the removal of the chemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon, color and turbidity in comparison with the conventional processes. The water recovery rate was enhanced to over 90% through the recycling of NF concentrate to the MBR, while the MBR-NF showed a stable permeate water quality that met with standards and could be directly discharged or further reused. The recycled NF concentrate caused an accumulation of refractory compounds in the MBR, which significantly influenced the treatment efficiency of the MBR. However, the sludge characteristics showed that the activated sludge activity was not obviously inhibited. The results of fluorescence spectra and molecular weight distribution indicated that those recalcitrant pollutants were mostly protein-like substances and a small amount of humic acid-like substances (650-6,000 Da), which contributed to membrane fouling of NF. Although the penetrated protein-like substances caused the residual color in NF permeate, the MBR-NF process was suitable for the advanced treatment and reclamation of textile wastewater under high water yield.

  14. Process for producing enriched uranium having a {sup 235}U content of at least 4 wt. % via combination of a gaseous diffusion process and an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process to eliminate uranium hexafluoride tails storage

    DOEpatents

    Horton, J.A.; Hayden, H.W. Jr.

    1995-05-30

    An uranium enrichment process capable of producing an enriched uranium, having a {sup 235}U content greater than about 4 wt. %, is disclosed which will consume less energy and produce metallic uranium tails having a lower {sup 235}U content than the tails normally produced in a gaseous diffusion separation process and, therefore, eliminate UF{sub 6} tails storage and sharply reduce fluorine use. The uranium enrichment process comprises feeding metallic uranium into an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process to produce an enriched metallic uranium isotopic mixture having a {sup 235} U content of at least about 2 wt. % and a metallic uranium residue containing from about 0.1 wt. % to about 0.2 wt. % {sup 235} U; fluorinating this enriched metallic uranium isotopic mixture to form UF{sub 6}; processing the resultant isotopic mixture of UF{sub 6} in a gaseous diffusion process to produce a final enriched uranium product having a {sup 235}U content of at least 4 wt. %, and up to 93.5 wt. % or higher, of the total uranium content of the product, and a low {sup 235}U content UF{sub 6} having a {sup 235}U content of about 0.71 wt. % of the total uranium content of the low {sup 235}U content UF{sub 6}; and converting this low {sup 235}U content UF{sub 6} to metallic uranium for recycle to the atomic vapor laser isotope separation process. 4 figs.

  15. Process for producing enriched uranium having a .sup.235 U content of at least 4 wt. % via combination of a gaseous diffusion process and an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process to eliminate uranium hexafluoride tails storage

    DOEpatents

    Horton, James A.; Hayden, Jr., Howard W.

    1995-01-01

    An uranium enrichment process capable of producing an enriched uranium, having a .sup.235 U content greater than about 4 wt. %, is disclosed which will consume less energy and produce metallic uranium tails having a lower .sup.235 U content than the tails normally produced in a gaseous diffusion separation process and, therefore, eliminate UF.sub.6 tails storage and sharply reduce fluorine use. The uranium enrichment process comprises feeding metallic uranium into an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process to produce an enriched metallic uranium isotopic mixture having a .sup.235 U content of at least about 2 wt. % and a metallic uranium residue containing from about 0.1 wt. % to about 0.2 wt. % .sup.235 U; fluorinating this enriched metallic uranium isotopic mixture to form UF.sub.6 ; processing the resultant isotopic mixture of UF.sub.6 in a gaseous diffusion process to produce a final enriched uranium product having a .sup.235 U content of at least 4 wt. %, and up to 93.5 wt. % or higher, of the total uranium content of the product, and a low .sup.235 U content UF.sub.6 having a .sup.235 U content of about 0.71 wt. % of the total uranium content of the low .sup.235 U content UF.sub.6 ; and converting this low .sup.235 U content UF.sub.6 to metallic uranium for recycle to the atomic vapor laser isotope separation process.

  16. Comparison of different combined treatment processes to address the source water with high concentration of natural organic matter during snowmelt period.

    PubMed

    Lin, Pengfei; Zhang, Xiaojian; Wang, Jun; Zeng, Yani; Liu, Shuming; Chen, Chao

    2015-01-01

    The source water in one forest region of the Northeast China had very high natural organic matter (NOM) concentration and heavy color during snowmelt period. The efficiency of five combined treatment processes was compared to address the high concentration of NOM and the mechanisms were also analyzed. Conventional treatment can hardly remove dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the source water. KMnO4 pre-oxidization could improve the DOC removal to 22.0%. Post activated carbon adsorption improved the DOC removal of conventional treatment to 28.8%. The non-sufficient NOM removal could be attributed to the dominance of large molecular weight organic matters in raw water, which cannot be adsorbed by the micropore upon activated carbon. O3+activated carbon treatment are another available technology for eliminating the color and UV254 in water. However, its performance of DOC removal was only 36.4%, which could not satisfy the requirement for organic matter. The limited ozone dosage is not sufficient to mineralize the high concentration of NOM. Magnetic ion-exchange resin combined with conventional treatment could remove 96.2% of color, 96.0% of UV254 and 87.1% of DOC, enabling effluents to meet the drinking water quality standard. The high removal efficiency could be explained by the negative charge on the surface of NOM which benefits the static adsorption of NOM on the anion exchange resin. The results indicated that magnetic ion-exchange resin combined with conventional treatment is the best available technology to remove high concentration of NOM.

  17. Quantum control of electron wave packet during high harmonic process of H2(+) in a combination of a circularly polarized laser field and a Terahertz field.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xin-Lei; Du, Hui; Guo, Jing; Liu, Xue-Shen

    2015-04-06

    By solving a two-dimensional time-dependent Schrödinger equation we investigate high harmonic generation (HHG) and isolated attosecond pulse generation for the H2+ molecular ion in a circularly polarized laser pulse combined with a Terahertz (THz) field. The harmonic intensity can be greatly enhanced and a continuum spectrum can be obtained when a THz field is added. The HHG process is studied by the semi-classical three-step model and the time-frequency analysis. Our studies show that only short trajectories contribute to HHG. Furthermore, we present the temporal evolution of the probability density of electron wave packet, which perfectly shows a clear picture of the electron's two-time recombination when a THz field is added, and it is the main mechanism of HHG. By superposing the harmonics in the range of 216-249 eV, an isolated attosecond pulse with a duration of about 69 attoseconds can be generated.

  18. Chemical formulation and combined process for inhibiting deposition and corrosion in cooling water and gypsum scaling in flue gas desulfurization scrubber systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mouche, R.J.; Lin, M.L.; Ekis, E.W. Jr.

    1989-05-30

    A combined cooling water/flue gas desulfurization process is described comprising: (a) contacting a gas with water in a cooling tower the gas having a lower temperature than the water such that upon contact the water is cooled by the transfer of thermal energy from the water to the gas. The water comprising between about 0.2 and about 100 ppm active by weight of an inhibitor formulation comprising polyacrylate, polymaleic anhydride, and phosphonate; (b) contacting a sulfur-containing gas with reagent slurry in a flue gas desulfurizer thereby desulfurizing the sulfur containing gas; and (c) supplying at least a portion of the water from the cooling tower to make up at least a portion of wash water in the desulfurizer, the water being supplied in an amount sufficient to maintain between about 0.01 and about 20 ppm active by weight of the inhibitor formulation in the reagent wash water.

  19. Analysis of grating profiles of phase holograms recorded in silver halide emulsions and processed with combinations of various developers and bleaching agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banyasz, Istvan

    2004-09-01

    A large number of plane-wave holograms were recorded in Agfa-Gevaert 8E75HD holographic plates, at a wide range of bias exposures and fringe visibilities. The plates were processed by various combinations of developers (AAC, Pyrogallol and Catechol) and bleaching agents (R-9 and EDTA). The phase gratings were studied by phase-contrast microscopy, using a high-power immersion (100 X) objective. The phase contrast photomicrographs were Fourier-analyzed. Thus first- second- and third-order modulation of the refractive index as a function of the bias exposure and the visibility of the recording interference pattern could be determined. The ratio of the amplitudes of the higher-order modulations to that of the first-order one can serve as a measure of the nonlinearity of the holographic recording.

  20. Investigating infection processes with a workflow from organic chemistry to biophysics: the combination of metabolic glycoengineering, super-resolution fluorescence imaging and proteomics.

    PubMed

    Seibel, Jürgen; König, Simone; Göhler, Antonia; Doose, Sören; Memmel, Elisabeth; Bertleff, Nadja; Sauer, Markus

    2013-02-01

    Infectious diseases continue to be one of the major threats to public health. In the initial events of infection, glycoproteins of human cells interact with surface proteins of bacteria or viruses, the so-called environmental adhesins. In order to pinpoint the driving forces during infection, it is necessary to study the adhesive properties of human cell surface glycoproteins with regard to their primary amino acid sequence and post-translational modifications. The authors discuss how recent developments in seemingly independent fields of the natural sciences, bio-organic synthesis, biophysical visualization and bioanalysis, open the door for a promising interdisciplinary approach to study human infection processes. The use of special synthesized carbohydrate labels, in combination with new super-resolution imaging approaches, allows access to both mapping and identification of cell surface glycoproteins well below the diffraction limit. The methodology will clarify which surface molecules are involved in bacterial adherence with potential implications for bacterial and viral infection prevention.

  1. Flavor characteristics of the juices from fresh market tomatoes differentiated from those from processing tomatoes by combined analysis of volatile profiles with sensory evaluation.

    PubMed

    Iijima, Yoko; Iwasaki, Yumi; Otagiri, Yuji; Tsugawa, Hiroshi; Sato, Tsuneo; Otomo, Hiroe; Sekine, Yukio; Obata, Akio

    2016-12-01

    Various commercial tomato juices with different flavors are available at markets worldwide. To clarify the marker compounds related to the flavor characteristics of tomato juice, we analyzed 15 pure commercial tomato juices by a combination of volatile profiling and sensory evaluation. The correlations among volatiles and the relationship between volatiles and sensory descriptors were elucidated by multivariate analyses. Consequently, the tomato juices made from fresh market tomatoes (including the popular Japanese tomato variety "Momotaro") were clearly separated from other juices made from processing tomatoes, by both the volatile composition and sensory profiles. cis-3-Hexenol, hexanal, and apocarotenoids negatively contributed to the juices from fresh market tomatoes, whereas Strecker aldehydes and furfural showed positive contributions to the juices. Accordingly, the sensory characteristics of juices from fresh market tomatoes were related to cooked and fruity flavors but not to green or fresh notes.

  2. Techno-economical optimization of Reactive Blue 19 removal by combined electrocoagulation/coagulation process through MOPSO using RSM and ANFIS models.

    PubMed

    Taheri, M; Alavi Moghaddam, M R; Arami, M

    2013-10-15

    In this research, Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) models were applied for optimization of Reactive Blue 19 removal using combined electrocoagulation/coagulation process through Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization (MOPSO). By applying RSM, the effects of five independent parameters including applied current, reaction time, initial dye concentration, initial pH and dosage of Poly Aluminum Chloride were studied. According to the RSM results, all the independent parameters are equally important in dye removal efficiency. In addition, ANFIS was applied for dye removal efficiency and operating costs modeling. High R(2) values (≥85%) indicate that the predictions of RSM and ANFIS models are acceptable for both responses. ANFIS was also used in MOPSO for finding the best techno-economical Reactive Blue 19 elimination conditions according to RSM design. Through MOPSO and the selected ANFIS model, Minimum and maximum values of 58.27% and 99.67% dye removal efficiencies were obtained, respectively.

  3. Correlating the Integral Sensing Properties of Zeolites with Molecular Processes by Combining Broadband Impedance and DRIFT Spectroscopy—A New Approach for Bridging the Scales

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Peirong; Schönebaum, Simon; Simons, Thomas; Rauch, Dieter; Dietrich, Markus; Moos, Ralf; Simon, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Zeolites have been found to be promising sensor materials for a variety of gas molecules such as NH3, NOx, hydrocarbons, etc. The sensing effect results from the interaction of the adsorbed gas molecules with mobile cations, which are non-covalently bound to the zeolite lattice. The mobility of the cations can be accessed by electrical low-frequency (LF; mHz to MHz) and high-frequency (HF; GHz) impedance measurements. Recent developments allow in situ monitoring of catalytic reactions on proton-conducting zeolites used as catalysts. The combination of such in situ impedance measurements with diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS), which was applied to monitor the selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides (DeNOx-SCR), not only improves our understanding of the sensing properties of zeolite catalysts from integral electric signal to molecular processes, but also bridges the length scales being studied, from centimeters to nanometers. In this work, recent developments of zeolite-based, impedimetric sensors for automotive exhaust gases, in particular NH3, are summarized. The electrical response to NH3 obtained from LF impedance measurements will be compared with that from HF impedance measurements, and correlated with the infrared spectroscopic characteristics obtained from the DRIFTS studies of molecules involved in the catalytic conversion. The future perspectives, which arise from the combination of these methods, will be discussed. PMID:26580627

  4. Development of lysozyme-combined antibacterial system to reduce sulfur dioxide and to stabilize Italian Riesling ice wine during aging process

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kai; Han, Shun-yu; Zhang, Bo; Li, Min; Sheng, Wen-jun

    2015-01-01

    For the purpose of SO2 reduction and stabilizing ice wine, a new antibacterial technique was developed and verified in order to reduce the content of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and simultaneously maintain protein stability during ice wine aging process. Hazardous bacterial strain (lactic acid bacteria, LAB) and protein stability of Italian Riesling ice wine were evaluated in terms of different amounts of lysozyme, SO2, polyphenols, and wine pH by single-factor experiments. Subsequently, a quadratic rotation-orthogonal composite design with four variables was conducted to establish the multiple linear regression model that demonstrated the influence of different treatments on synthesis score between LAB inhibition and protein stability of ice wine. The results showed that, synthesis score can be influenced by lysozyme and SO2 concentrations on an extremely significant level (P < 0.01). Furthermore, the lysozyme-combined antibacterial system, which is specially designed for ice wine aging, was optimized step by step by response surface methodology and ridge analysis. As a result, the optimal proportion should be control in ice wine as follows: 179.31 mg L−1 lysozyme, 177.14 mg L−1 SO2, 0.60 g L−1 polyphenols, and 4.01 ice wine pH. Based on this system, the normalized synthesis score between LAB inhibition and protein stability can reach the highest point 0.920. Finally, by the experiments of verification and comparison, it was indicated that lysozyme-combined antibacterial system, which was a practical and prospective method to reduce SO2 concentration and effectively prevent contamination from hazardous LAB, can be used to stabilize ice wine during aging process. PMID:26405531

  5. Investigations into the application of a combination of bioventing and biotrickling filter technologies for soil decontamination processes--a transition regime between bioventing and soil vapour extraction.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, S M C; Ferreira Jorge, R M; Castro, P M L

    2009-10-30

    Bioventing has emerged as one of the most cost-effective in situ technologies available to address petroleum light-hydrocarbon spills, one of the most common sources of soil pollution. However, the major drawback associated with this technology is the extended treatment time often required. The present study aimed to illustrate how an intended air-injection bioventing technology can be transformed into a soil vapour extraction effort when the air flow rates are pushed to a stripping mode, thus leading to the treatment of the off-gas resulting from volatilisation. As such, a combination of an air-injection bioventing system and a biotrickling filter was applied for the treatment of contaminated soil, the latter aiming at the treatment of the emissions resulting from the bioventing process. With a moisture content of 10%, soil contaminated with toluene at two different concentrations, namely 2 and 14 mg g soil(-1), were treated successfully using an air-injection bioventing system at a constant air flow rate of ca. 0.13 dm(3) min(-1), which led to the removal of ca. 99% toluene, after a period of ca. 5 days of treatment. A biotrickling filter was simultaneously used to treat the outlet gas emissions, which presented average removal efficiencies of ca. 86%. The proposed combination of biotechnologies proved to be an efficient solution for the decontamination process, when an excessive air flow rate was applied, reducing both the soil contamination and the outlet gas emissions, whilst being able to reduce the treatment time required by bioventing only.

  6. Effects of steam pretreatment and co-production with ethanol on the energy efficiency and process economics of combined biogas, heat and electricity production from industrial hemp

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The study presented here has used the commercial flow sheeting program Aspen Plus™ to evaluate techno-economic aspects of large-scale hemp-based processes for producing transportation fuels. The co-production of biogas, district heat and power from chopped and steam-pretreated hemp, and the co-production of ethanol, biogas, heat and power from steam-pretreated hemp were analysed. The analyses include assessments of heat demand, energy efficiency and process economics in terms of annual cash flows and minimum biogas and ethanol selling prices (MBSP and MESP). Results Producing biogas, heat and power from chopped hemp has the highest overall energy efficiency, 84% of the theoretical maximum (based on lower heating values), providing that the maximum capacity of district heat is delivered. The combined production of ethanol, biogas, heat and power has the highest energy efficiency (49%) if district heat is not produced. Neither the inclusion of steam pretreatment nor co-production with ethanol has a large impact on the MBSP. Ethanol is more expensive to produce than biogas is, but this is compensated for by its higher market price. None of the scenarios examined are economically viable, since the MBSP (EUR 103–128 per MWh) is higher than the market price of biogas (EUR 67 per MWh). The largest contribution to the cost is the cost of feedstock. Decreasing the retention time in the biogas process for low solids streams by partly replacing continuous stirred tank reactors by high-rate bioreactors decreases the MBSP. Also, recycling part of the liquid from the effluent from anaerobic digestion decreases the MBSP. The production and prices of methane and ethanol influence the process economics more than the production and prices of electricity and district heat. Conclusions To reduce the production cost of ethanol and biogas from biomass, the use of feedstocks that are cheaper than hemp, give higher output of ethanol and biogas, or combined production with

  7. Combined high pressure and thermal processing on inactivation of type E and nonproteolytic type B and F spores of Clostridium botulinum.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Guy E; Marshall, Kristin M; Morrissey, Travis R; Loeza, Viviana; Patazca, Eduardo; Reddy, N Rukma; Larkin, John W

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the resistance of multiple strains of the three nonproteolytic types of Clostridium botulinum (seven strains of type E, eight of type B, and two of type F) spores exposed to combined high pressure and thermal processing. The resistance of spores suspended in N-(2-acetamido)-2-aminoethanesulfonic acid (ACES) buffer (0.05 M, pH 7) was determined at a process temperature of 80°C with high pressures of 600, 650, and 700 MPa using a laboratory-scale pressure test system. Spores of C. botulinum serotype E strains demonstrated less resistance than nonproteolytic spores of type B or F strains when processed at 80°C and 600 MPa for up to 15 min. All C. botulinum type E strains were reduced by . 6.0 log units within 5 min under these conditions. Among the nonproteolytic type B strains, KAP 9-B was the most resistant, resulting in reductions of 2.7, 5.3, and 5.5 log, coinciding with D-values of 7.7, 3.4, and 1.8 min at 80°C and 600, 650, and 700 MPa, respectively. Of the two nonproteolytic type F strains, 610F was the most resistant, showing 2.6-, 4.5-, and 5.3-log reductions with D-values of 8.9, 4.3, and 1.8 min at 80°C and 600, 650, and 700 MPa, respectively. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was performed to examine the genetic relatedness of strains tested and to determine if strains with similar banding patterns also exhibited similar D-values. No correlation between the genetic fingerprint of a particular strain and its resistance to high pressure processing was observed.

  8. Combined coagulation-disk filtration process as a pretreatment of ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis membrane for wastewater reclamation: an autopsy study of a pilot plant.

    PubMed

    Chon, Kangmin; Kim, Seung Joon; Moon, Jihee; Cho, Jaeweon

    2012-04-15

    The effects of the combined coagulation-disk filtration (CC-DF) process on the fouling characteristics and behavior caused by interactions between effluent organic matter (EfOM) and the membrane surfaces of the ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes in a pilot plant for municipal wastewater reclamation (MWR) were investigated. The feed water from secondary effluents was treated by the CC-DF process used as a pretreatment for the UF membrane to mitigate fouling formation and the permeate from the CC-DF process was further filtered by two UF membrane units in parallel arrangement and fed into four RO modules in a series connection. The CC-DF process was not sufficient to mitigate biofouling but the UF membrane was effective in mitigating biofouling on the RO membrane surfaces. Fouling of the UF and RO membranes was dominated by hydrophilic fractions of EfOM (e.g., polysaccharide-like and protein-like substances) and inorganic scaling (e.g., aluminum, calcium and silica). The desorbed UF membrane foulants included more aluminum species and hydrophobic fractions than the desorbed RO membrane foulants, which was presumably due to the residual coagulants and aluminum-humic substance complexes. The significant change in the surface chemistry of the RO membrane (a decrease in surface charge and an increase in contact angle of the fouled RO membranes) induced by the accumulation of hydrophilic EfOM onto the negatively charged RO membrane surface intensified the fouling formation of the fouled RO membrane by hydrophobic interaction between the humic substances of EfOM with relatively high hydrophobicity and the fouled RO membranes with decreased surface charge and increased contract angle.

  9. Near infrared spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis for monitoring the ethanol precipitation process of fraction I + II + III supernatant in human albumin separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Can; Wang, Fei; Zang, Lixuan; Zang, Hengchang; Alcalà, Manel; Nie, Lei; Wang, Mingyu; Li, Lian

    2017-03-01

    Nowadays, as a powerful process analytical tool, near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been widely applied in process monitoring. In present work, NIRS combined with multivariate analysis was used to monitor the ethanol precipitation process of fraction I + II + III (FI + II + III) supernatant in human albumin (HA) separation to achieve qualitative and quantitative monitoring at the same time and assure the product's quality. First, a qualitative model was established by using principal component analysis (PCA) with 6 of 8 normal batches samples, and evaluated by the remaining 2 normal batches and 3 abnormal batches. The results showed that the first principal component (PC1) score chart could be successfully used for fault detection and diagnosis. Then, two quantitative models were built with 6 of 8 normal batches to determine the content of the total protein (TP) and HA separately by using partial least squares regression (PLS-R) strategy, and the models were validated by 2 remaining normal batches. The determination coefficient of validation (Rp2), root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV), root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and ratio of performance deviation (RPD) were 0.975, 0.501 g/L, 0.465 g/L and 5.57 for TP, and 0.969, 0.530 g/L, 0.341 g/L and 5.47 for HA, respectively. The results showed that the established models could give a rapid and accurate measurement of the content of TP and HA. The results of this study indicated that NIRS is an effective tool and could be successfully used for qualitative and quantitative monitoring the ethanol precipitation process of FI + II + III supernatant simultaneously. This research has significant reference value for assuring the quality and improving the recovery ratio of HA in industrialization scale by using NIRS.

  10. Near infrared spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis for monitoring the ethanol precipitation process of fraction I+II+III supernatant in human albumin separation.

    PubMed

    Li, Can; Wang, Fei; Zang, Lixuan; Zang, Hengchang; Alcalà, Manel; Nie, Lei; Wang, Mingyu; Li, Lian

    2017-03-15

    Nowadays, as a powerful process analytical tool, near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been widely applied in process monitoring. In present work, NIRS combined with multivariate analysis was used to monitor the ethanol precipitation process of fraction I+II+III (FI+II+III) supernatant in human albumin (HA) separation to achieve qualitative and quantitative monitoring at the same time and assure the product's quality. First, a qualitative model was established by using principal component analysis (PCA) with 6 of 8 normal batches samples, and evaluated by the remaining 2 normal batches and 3 abnormal batches. The results showed that the first principal component (PC1) score chart could be successfully used for fault detection and diagnosis. Then, two quantitative models were built with 6 of 8 normal batches to determine the content of the total protein (TP) and HA separately by using partial least squares regression (PLS-R) strategy, and the models were validated by 2 remaining normal batches. The determination coefficient of validation (Rp(2)), root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV), root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and ratio of performance deviation (RPD) were 0.975, 0.501g/L, 0.465g/L and 5.57 for TP, and 0.969, 0.530g/L, 0.341g/L and 5.47 for HA, respectively. The results showed that the established models could give a rapid and accurate measurement of the content of TP and HA. The results of this study indicated that NIRS is an effective tool and could be successfully used for qualitative and quantitative monitoring the ethanol precipitation process of FI+II+III supernatant simultaneously. This research has significant reference value for assuring the quality and improving the recovery ratio of HA in industrialization scale by using NIRS.

  11. A three-dimensional hierarchical collagen scaffold fabricated by a combined solid freeform fabrication (SFF) and electrospinning process to enhance mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) proliferation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, SeungHyun; Koh, Young Ho; Kim, GeunHyung

    2010-06-01

    Collagen has the advantage of being very similar to macromolecular substances that can be recognized and metabolized in the biological environment. Although the natural material has superior property for this purpose, its use to fabricate reproducible and pore-structure-controlled 3D structures, which are designed to allow the entry of sufficient cells and the easy diffusion of nutrients, has been limited due to its low processability. Here, we propose a hybrid technology that combines a cryogenic plotting system with an electrospinning process. Using this technique, an easily pore-size-controllable hierarchical 3D scaffold consisting of micro-sized highly porous collagen strands and micro/nano-sized collagen fibers was fabricated. The pore structure of the collagen scaffold was controlled by the collagen micro/nanofibers, which were layered in the scaffold. The hierarchical scaffolds were characterized with respect to initial cell attachment and proliferation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells within the scaffolds. The hierarchical scaffold exhibited incredibly enhanced initial cell attachment and cell compactness between pores of the plotted scaffold relative to the normally designed 3D collagen scaffold.

  12. Development of enteric-coated fixed dose combinations of amorphous solid dispersions of ezetimibe and lovastatin: Investigation of formulation and process parameters.

    PubMed

    Riekes, Manoela K; Dereymaker, Aswin; Berben, Philippe; Augustijns, Patrick; Stulzer, Hellen K; Van den Mooter, Guy

    2017-03-30

    Enteric-coated fixed-dose combinations of ezetimibe and lovastatin were prepared by fluid bed coating aiming to avoid the acidic conversion of lovastatin to its hydroxyacid derivative. In a two-step process, sucrose beads were layered with a glass solution of ezetimibe, lovastatin and Soluplus(®), top-coated with an enteric layer. The impact of different bead size, enteric polymers (Eudragit L100(®) and Eudragit L100-55(®)) and coating time was investigated. Samples were evaluated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, laser diffraction and in vitro studies in 0.1M HCl and phosphate buffer pH 6.8. Results showed that smaller beads tend to agglomerate and release was jeopardized in acidic conditions, most likely due to irregular coating layer. Eudragit L100-55(®) required longer processing, but thinner coating layers provided lower drug release. Both polymers showed low drug release in acidic environment and fast release at pH 6.8. The off-line measurement of the coating thickness determined the ideal coating time as 15 and 30min for Eudragit L100-55(®) and Eudragit L100(®)-based samples, respectively. Both compounds were molecularly dispersed in Soluplus(®), and Eudragit L100(®) formulations showed concave pores on the surface, presenting higher drug release in acidic conditions. Stability studies after 6 months showed unaltered physical properties and drug release.

  13. Time course of gamma-band oscillation associated with face processing in the inferior occipital gyrus and fusiform gyrus: A combined fMRI and MEG study.

    PubMed

    Uono, Shota; Sato, Wataru; Kochiyama, Takanori; Kubota, Yasutaka; Sawada, Reiko; Yoshimura, Sayaka; Toichi, Motomi

    2017-04-01

    Debate continues over whether the inferior occipital gyrus (IOG) or the fusiform gyrus (FG) represents the first stage of face processing and what role these brain regions play. We investigated this issue by combining functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) in normal adults. Participants passively observed upright and inverted faces and houses. First, we identified the IOG and FG as face-specific regions using fMRI. We applied beamforming source reconstruction and time-frequency analysis to MEG source signals to reveal the time course of gamma-band activations in these regions. The results revealed that the right IOG showed higher gamma-band activation in response to upright faces than to upright houses at 100 ms from the stimulus onset. Subsequently, the right FG showed greater gamma-band response to upright faces versus upright houses at around 170 ms. The gamma-band activation in the right IOG and right FG was larger in response to inverted faces than to upright faces at the later time window. These results suggest that (1) the gamma-band activities occurs rapidly first in the IOG and next in the FG and (2) the gamma-band activity in the right IOG at later time stages is involved in configuration processing for faces. Hum Brain Mapp 38:2067-2079, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Clinical efficacy of a combination of Percoll continuous density gradient and swim-up techniques for semen processing in HIV-1 serodiscordant couples

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Osamu; Kuji, Naoaki; Ito, Hiroe; Yamada, Mitsutoshi; Hamatani, Toshio; Oyadomari, Aimi; Kato, Shingo; Hanabusa, Hideji; Isaka, Keiichi; Tanaka, Mamoru

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical efficacy of a procedure comprising a combination of Percoll continuous density gradient and modified swim-up techniques for the removal of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) from the semen of HIV-1 infected males, a total of 129 couples with an HIV-1 positive male partner and an HIV-1 negative female partner (serodiscordant couples) who were tr