Science.gov

Sample records for combined sustainable technology

  1. Combining Sustainable Land Management Technologies to Combat Land Degradation and Improve Rural Livelihoods in Semi-arid Lands in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mganga, K Z; Musimba, N K R; Nyariki, D M

    2015-12-01

    Drylands occupy more than 80% of Kenya's total land mass and contribute immensely to the national economy and society through agriculture, livestock production, tourism, and wild product harvesting. Dryland ecosystems are areas of high climate variability making them vulnerable to the threats of land degradation. Consequently, agropastoralists inhabiting these ecosystems develop mechanisms and technologies to cope with the impacts of climate variability. This study is aimed to; (1) determine what agropastoralists inhabiting a semi-arid ecosystem in Kenya attribute to be the causes and indicators of land degradation, (2) document sustainable land management (SLM) technologies being undertaken to combat land degradation, and (3) identify the factors that influence the choice of these SLM technologies. Vegetation change from preferred indigenous forage grass species to woody vegetation was cited as the main indicator of land degradation. Land degradation was attributed to recurrent droughts and low amounts of rainfall, overgrazing, and unsustainable harvesting of trees for fuelwood production. However, despite the challenges posed by climate variability and recurrent droughts, the local community is engaging in simple SLM technologies including grass reseeding, rainwater harvesting and soil conservation, and dryland agroforestry as a holistic approach combating land degradation and improving their rural livelihoods. The choice of these SLM technologies was mainly driven by their additional benefits to combating land degradation. In conclusion, promoting such simple SLM technologies can help reverse the land degradation trend, improve agricultural production, food security including access to food, and subsequently improve livelihoods of communities inhabiting dryland ecosystems.

  2. Combining Sustainable Land Management Technologies to Combat Land Degradation and Improve Rural Livelihoods in Semi-arid Lands in Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mganga, K. Z.; Musimba, N. K. R.; Nyariki, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    Drylands occupy more than 80 % of Kenya's total land mass and contribute immensely to the national economy and society through agriculture, livestock production, tourism, and wild product harvesting. Dryland ecosystems are areas of high climate variability making them vulnerable to the threats of land degradation. Consequently, agropastoralists inhabiting these ecosystems develop mechanisms and technologies to cope with the impacts of climate variability. This study is aimed to; (1) determine what agropastoralists inhabiting a semi-arid ecosystem in Kenya attribute to be the causes and indicators of land degradation, (2) document sustainable land management (SLM) technologies being undertaken to combat land degradation, and (3) identify the factors that influence the choice of these SLM technologies. Vegetation change from preferred indigenous forage grass species to woody vegetation was cited as the main indicator of land degradation. Land degradation was attributed to recurrent droughts and low amounts of rainfall, overgrazing, and unsustainable harvesting of trees for fuelwood production. However, despite the challenges posed by climate variability and recurrent droughts, the local community is engaging in simple SLM technologies including grass reseeding, rainwater harvesting and soil conservation, and dryland agroforestry as a holistic approach combating land degradation and improving their rural livelihoods. The choice of these SLM technologies was mainly driven by their additional benefits to combating land degradation. In conclusion, promoting such simple SLM technologies can help reverse the land degradation trend, improve agricultural production, food security including access to food, and subsequently improve livelihoods of communities inhabiting dryland ecosystems.

  3. Combining Sustainable Land Management Technologies to Combat Land Degradation and Improve Rural Livelihoods in Semi-arid Lands in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mganga, K Z; Musimba, N K R; Nyariki, D M

    2015-12-01

    Drylands occupy more than 80% of Kenya's total land mass and contribute immensely to the national economy and society through agriculture, livestock production, tourism, and wild product harvesting. Dryland ecosystems are areas of high climate variability making them vulnerable to the threats of land degradation. Consequently, agropastoralists inhabiting these ecosystems develop mechanisms and technologies to cope with the impacts of climate variability. This study is aimed to; (1) determine what agropastoralists inhabiting a semi-arid ecosystem in Kenya attribute to be the causes and indicators of land degradation, (2) document sustainable land management (SLM) technologies being undertaken to combat land degradation, and (3) identify the factors that influence the choice of these SLM technologies. Vegetation change from preferred indigenous forage grass species to woody vegetation was cited as the main indicator of land degradation. Land degradation was attributed to recurrent droughts and low amounts of rainfall, overgrazing, and unsustainable harvesting of trees for fuelwood production. However, despite the challenges posed by climate variability and recurrent droughts, the local community is engaging in simple SLM technologies including grass reseeding, rainwater harvesting and soil conservation, and dryland agroforestry as a holistic approach combating land degradation and improving their rural livelihoods. The choice of these SLM technologies was mainly driven by their additional benefits to combating land degradation. In conclusion, promoting such simple SLM technologies can help reverse the land degradation trend, improve agricultural production, food security including access to food, and subsequently improve livelihoods of communities inhabiting dryland ecosystems. PMID:26178534

  4. Sustainable Technology at WPI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartelson, Jon

    2009-01-01

    Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) seeks to foster a community that produces sustainable solutions in all facets of campus life: (1) teaching; (2) research; (3) service; and (4) administrative operations. The university strives to model the three tenets of sustainability (environmental preservation, economic prosperity, and social equity for…

  5. Sustaining Innovation in Technological Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrenz, Frances; Keiser, Nanette; Lavoie, Bethann

    2003-01-01

    Examines the sustainability of technological innovation in community colleges. Reports on a Web-based survey that was followed up with site visits, which revealed that innovation was sustained by sharing power with collaborative partners, designing flexible programs, rewarding professional development, and using program data for marketing. Makes…

  6. Sustainability of wastewater treatment technologies.

    PubMed

    Muga, Helen E; Mihelcic, James R

    2008-08-01

    A set of indicators that incorporate environmental, societal, and economic sustainability were developed and used to investigate the sustainability of different wastewater treatment technologies, for plant capacities of <5 million gallons per day (MGD) or 18.9 x 10(3) cubic meters (m(3)/day). The technologies evaluated were mechanical (i.e., activated sludge with secondary treatment), lagoon (facultative, anaerobic, and aerobic), and land treatment systems (e.g., slow rate irrigation, rapid infiltration, and overland flow). The economic indicators selected were capital, operation and management, and user costs because they determine the economic affordability of a particular technology to a community. Environmental indicators include energy use, because it indirectly measures resource utilization, and performance of the technology in removing conventional wastewater constituents such as biochemical oxygen demand, ammonia nitrogen, phosphorus, and pathogens. These indicators also determine the reuse potential of the treated wastewater. Societal indicators capture cultural acceptance of the technology through public participation and also measure whether there is improvement in the community from the specific technology through increased job opportunities, better education, or an improved local environment. While selection of a set of indicators is dependent on the geographic and demographic context of a particular community, the overall results of this study show that there are varying degrees of sustainability with each treatment technology. PMID:17467148

  7. Sustainability and Sustainable Technologies fo a Better World

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainability and Sustainable Technologies for a Better World Subhas K. Sikdar National Risk Management Research Laboratory United States Environmental protection Agency 26 W. M.L. King Dr. Cincinnati, OH 45237 Sikdar.subhas@epa.gov ABSTRACT Students of engineering...

  8. Technology in the Classroom versus Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knott, Cynthia L.; Steube, G.; Yang, Hongqiang

    2013-01-01

    The use of technology in universities and colleges is an issue of interest and speculation. One issue related to technology use in the classroom is sustainability of resources that support the technology. This paper explores faculty perceptions about technology use and sustainability in an east coast university. This university has initiated a new…

  9. A technological infrastructure to sustain Internetworked Enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Mattina, Ernesto; Savarino, Vincenzo; Vicari, Claudia; Storelli, Davide; Bianchini, Devis

    In the Web 3.0 scenario, where information and services are connected by means of their semantics, organizations can improve their competitive advantage by publishing their business and service descriptions. In this scenario, Semantic Peer to Peer (P2P) can play a key role in defining dynamic and highly reconfigurable infrastructures. Organizations can share knowledge and services, using this infrastructure to move towards value networks, an emerging organizational model characterized by fluid boundaries and complex relationships. This chapter collects and defines the technological requirements and architecture of a modular and multi-Layer Peer to Peer infrastructure for SOA-based applications. This technological infrastructure, based on the combination of Semantic Web and P2P technologies, is intended to sustain Internetworked Enterprise configurations, defining a distributed registry and enabling more expressive queries and efficient routing mechanisms. The following sections focus on the overall architecture, while describing the layers that form it.

  10. Conceptualisation of Technology Education within the Paradigm of Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlova, Margarita

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of how sustainable development might be conceptualised and used to advance technology education practice. It is argued that a conceptualisation of sustainable development based on a combination of weak anthropocentrism and value based approaches within particular social, environmental and economic contexts provides…

  11. Toward Sustainable Practices in Technology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elshof, Leo

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the problematic relationship between technology education, consumption and environmental sustainability. The emerging global sustainability crisis demands an educational response that moves beyond mere "tinkering" with classroom practices, toward technology education which embraces life cycle thinking and "eco-innovation". It…

  12. Combined optimization model for sustainable energization strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abtew, Mohammed Seid

    Access to energy is a foundation to establish a positive impact on multiple aspects of human development. Both developed and developing countries have a common concern of achieving a sustainable energy supply to fuel economic growth and improve the quality of life with minimal environmental impacts. The Least Developing Countries (LDCs), however, have different economic, social, and energy systems. Prevalence of power outage, lack of access to electricity, structural dissimilarity between rural and urban regions, and traditional fuel dominance for cooking and the resultant health and environmental hazards are some of the distinguishing characteristics of these nations. Most energy planning models have been designed for developed countries' socio-economic demographics and have missed the opportunity to address special features of the poor countries. An improved mixed-integer programming energy-source optimization model is developed to address limitations associated with using current energy optimization models for LDCs, tackle development of the sustainable energization strategies, and ensure diversification and risk management provisions in the selected energy mix. The Model predicted a shift from traditional fuels reliant and weather vulnerable energy source mix to a least cost and reliable modern clean energy sources portfolio, a climb on the energy ladder, and scored multifaceted economic, social, and environmental benefits. At the same time, it represented a transition strategy that evolves to increasingly cleaner energy technologies with growth as opposed to an expensive solution that leapfrogs immediately to the cleanest possible, overreaching technologies.

  13. Sustainability assessment of advanced wastewater treatment technologies.

    PubMed

    Høibye, L; Clauson-Kaas, J; Wenzel, H; Larsen, H F; Jacobsen, B N; Dalgaard, O

    2008-01-01

    As a consequence of the EU Water Framework Directive more focus is now on discharges of hazardous substances from wastewater treatment plants and sewers. Thus, many municipalities in Denmark may have to adopt to future advanced treatment technologies. This paper describes a holistic assessment, which includes technical, economical and environmental aspects. The technical and economical assessment is performed on 5 advanced treatment technologies: sand filtration, ozone treatment, UV exclusively for disinfection of pathogenic microorganisms, membrane bioreactor (MBR) and UV in combination with advanced oxidation. The technical assessment is based on 12 hazardous substances comprising heavy metals, organic pollutants, endocrine disruptors as well as pathogenic microorganisms. The environmental assessment is performed by life cycle assessment (LCA) comprising 9 of the specific hazardous substances and three advanced treatment methods; sand filtration, ozone treatment and MBR. The technical and economic assessment showed that UV solely for disinfection purposes or ozone treatment is the most advantageous advanced treatment methods if the demands are restricted to pathogenic microorganisms. In terms of sustainability, sand filtration is the most advantageous method based on the technical and environmental assessment due to the low energy consumption and high efficiency with regards to removal of heavy metals.

  14. QUEST: Qualifying Environmentally Sustainable Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Over the years, pollution prevention has proven to be a means to comply with environmental regulations, improve product performance and reduce costs. The NASA Acquisition Pollution Prevention (AP2) Program was created to help individual NASA Centers and programs work together to evaluate and adopt environmentally preferable technologies and practices. The AP2 Program accomplishes its mission using a variety of tools such as networking, information/technology exchange and partnering. Due to its extensive network of contacts, the AP2 Program is an excellent resource for finding existing solutions to problems. If no solution is readily known, the AP2 Program works to identify potential solutions and partners for demonstration/ validation projects. Partnering to prevent pollution is a cornerstone of NASA's prime mission and the One NASA Initiative. This annual newsletter highlights some of our program's collaborative efforts. I believe you will discover how the AP2 Program is responsive in meeting the Agency's environmental management strategic plans.

  15. Making technological innovation work for sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Anadon, Laura Diaz; Chan, Gabriel; Harley, Alicia G; Matus, Kira; Moon, Suerie; Murthy, Sharmila L; Clark, William C

    2016-08-30

    This paper presents insights and action proposals to better harness technological innovation for sustainable development. We begin with three key insights from scholarship and practice. First, technological innovation processes do not follow a set sequence but rather emerge from complex adaptive systems involving many actors and institutions operating simultaneously from local to global scales. Barriers arise at all stages of innovation, from the invention of a technology through its selection, production, adaptation, adoption, and retirement. Second, learning from past efforts to mobilize innovation for sustainable development can be greatly improved through structured cross-sectoral comparisons that recognize the socio-technical nature of innovation systems. Third, current institutions (rules, norms, and incentives) shaping technological innovation are often not aligned toward the goals of sustainable development because impoverished, marginalized, and unborn populations too often lack the economic and political power to shape innovation systems to meet their needs. However, these institutions can be reformed, and many actors have the power to do so through research, advocacy, training, convening, policymaking, and financing. We conclude with three practice-oriented recommendations to further realize the potential of innovation for sustainable development: (i) channels for regularized learning across domains of practice should be established; (ii) measures that systematically take into account the interests of underserved populations throughout the innovation process should be developed; and (iii) institutions should be reformed to reorient innovation systems toward sustainable development and ensure that all innovation stages and scales are considered at the outset.

  16. Making technological innovation work for sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Anadon, Laura Diaz; Chan, Gabriel; Harley, Alicia G; Matus, Kira; Moon, Suerie; Murthy, Sharmila L; Clark, William C

    2016-08-30

    This paper presents insights and action proposals to better harness technological innovation for sustainable development. We begin with three key insights from scholarship and practice. First, technological innovation processes do not follow a set sequence but rather emerge from complex adaptive systems involving many actors and institutions operating simultaneously from local to global scales. Barriers arise at all stages of innovation, from the invention of a technology through its selection, production, adaptation, adoption, and retirement. Second, learning from past efforts to mobilize innovation for sustainable development can be greatly improved through structured cross-sectoral comparisons that recognize the socio-technical nature of innovation systems. Third, current institutions (rules, norms, and incentives) shaping technological innovation are often not aligned toward the goals of sustainable development because impoverished, marginalized, and unborn populations too often lack the economic and political power to shape innovation systems to meet their needs. However, these institutions can be reformed, and many actors have the power to do so through research, advocacy, training, convening, policymaking, and financing. We conclude with three practice-oriented recommendations to further realize the potential of innovation for sustainable development: (i) channels for regularized learning across domains of practice should be established; (ii) measures that systematically take into account the interests of underserved populations throughout the innovation process should be developed; and (iii) institutions should be reformed to reorient innovation systems toward sustainable development and ensure that all innovation stages and scales are considered at the outset. PMID:27519800

  17. Technology in Sustainable Development Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uno, Kimio

    The economic and demographic growth in Asia has put increased importance to this part of the world whose contribution to the global community is vital in meeting global challenges. International cooperation in engineering education assumes a pivotal role in providing access to the frontiers of scientific and technological knowledge to the growing youths in the region. The thrust for advancement has been provided by the logic coming from the academic world itself, whereas expectations are high that the engineering education responds to challenges that are coming from outside the universities, such as environmental management, disaster management, and provision of common knowledge platform across disciplinary lines. Some cases are introduced in curriculum development that incorporates fieldwork and laboratory work intended to enhance the ability to cooperate. The new mode is discussed with focus on production, screening, storing/delivery, and leaning phases of knowledge. The strength of shared information will be enhanced through international cooperation.

  18. Sustaining integrated technology in undergraduate mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oates, Greg

    2011-09-01

    The effective integration of technology into the teaching and learning of mathematics remains one of the critical challenges facing contemporary tertiary mathematics. This article reports on some significant findings of a wider study investigating the use of technology in undergraduate mathematics. It first discusses a taxonomy developed to describe and compare technology use within individual courses and departments that identifies a complex range of factors, summarized under six defining characteristics of an integrated technology mathematics curriculum (ITMC). An instrument for a simple comparison of technology use employing the elements of this taxonomy is provided. It then presents evidence gathered from an observational study of technology implementation at The University of Auckland, and examines this evidence against the taxonomy. The findings suggest that while the underlying complexity of the taxonomy limits a categorical definition of integrated technology, it does provide an effective means for examining the issues confronting those wishing to implement and sustain integrated technology in undergraduate mathematics. An integrated, holistic approach, which aims for curricular consistency across all the characteristics described in the taxonomy, provides the basis for a more effective and sustainable ITMC. Key findings, some of which will be considered in more detail in this discussion, include: the importance of mandating technology use in official departmental policy; paying attention to consistency and fairness in assessment; re-evaluating the value of topics in the curriculum; re-establishing the goals of undergraduate courses; and developing the pedagogical technical knowledge of teaching staff.

  19. Hydrazine Catalyst Production: Sustaining S-405 Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wucherer, E. J.; Cook, Timothy; Stiefel, Mark; Humphries, Randy, Jr.; Parker, Janet

    2003-01-01

    The development of the iridium-based Shell 405 catalyst for spontaneous decomposition of hydrazine was one of the key enabling technologies for today's spacecraft and launch vehicles. To ensure that this crucial technology was not lost when Shell elected to exit the business, Aerojet, supported by NASA, has developed a dedicated catalyst production facility that will supply catalyst for future spacecraft and launch vehicle requirements. We have undertaken a program to transfer catalyst production from Shell Chemical USA (Houston, TX) to Aerojet's Redmond, WA location. This technology transition was aided by Aerojet's 30 years of catalyst manufacturing experience and NASA diligence and support in sustaining essential technologies. The facility has produced and tested S-405 catalyst to existing Shell 405 specifications and standards. Our presentation will describe the technology transition effort including development of the manufacturing facility, capture of the manufacturing process, test equipment validation, initial batch build and final testing.

  20. Sustainable technologies for the building construction industry

    SciTech Connect

    Vanegas, J.A.; DuBose, J.R.; Pearce, A.R.

    1995-12-31

    As the dawn of the twenty-first century approaches, the current pattern of unsustainable, inequitable and unstable asymmetric demographic and economic growth has forced many segments of society to come together in facing a critical challenge: how can societies across the world meet their current basic human needs, aspirations and desires, without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs? At the core of this challenge is the question: how can the human race maintain in perpetuity a healthy, physically attractive and biologically productive environment. The development path that we have been taking, in the past few centuries, has been ultimately detrimental to the health of our surrounding ecological context. We are consuming an increasing share of the natural resources available to use on this planet, and we are creating sufficiently large amounts of waste and pollution such that the earth can no longer assimilate our wastes and recover from the negative impacts. This is a result of a growing population as well as new technologies which make it easier for use to access natural resources and also require the consumption of more resources. Unsustainable technology has been the result of linear rather than cyclic thinking. The paradigm shift from linear to cyclic thinking in technological design is the crux of the shift from unsustainability to sustainability. This paper discusses the implications for the building design and construction industries. Strategies, technologies, and opportunities are presented to improve the sustainability of the built environment.

  1. Combining sustainable energy development and employment strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Olesen, G.B.

    1994-12-31

    International Network for Sustainable Energy--Europe (INforSE--Europe) is developing proposals to focus on the important connections between CO,-abatement strategies and employment. Basically, support for unemployed people in industrialized countries can be used to support job-creating sustainable energy measures. This paper describes the first version of the proposals for the European Union (EU), covering estimates of potential employment effects of wind energy, solar thermal energy, combustible and digestible biomass, and increased energy efficiency in heat and electricity. The result of these first estimates is that these proposals can create directly about 600,000 jobs and by induced effects an additional 1,300,000 jobs lasting for more than 10 years. The proposed elements of a sustainable energy strategy will have a significant role in reducing the unemployment of 17 million persons in EU. Because of reduced expenses of the states for unemployment benefits and increased tax revenue, it is estimated that the states can support the implementation of the proposals with at least 25% of the investments and still have a positive effect on the state budgets, The paper also describes the worldwide INforSE campaign and a number of other NGO activities on environment, energy, and employment.

  2. Security Technology Demonstration and Validation Sustainability Plan

    SciTech Connect

    2008-08-31

    This report describes the process of creating continuity and sustainability for demonstration and validation (DEMVAL) assets at the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI). The DEMVAL asset program is being developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The mission of the NSTI program is to identify, incubate, and accelerate technologies with national security applications at various stages of development by providing hands-on mentoring and business assistance to small businesses and emerging or growing companies. Part of this support is envisioned to be research and development of companies’ technology initiatives, at the same time providing robust test and evaluation of actual development activities. This program assists companies in developing technologies under the NSTI program through demonstration and validation of technologies applicable to national security created by incubators and other sources. The NSPP also will support the creation of an integrated demonstration and validation environment. Development of the commercial potential for national security technologies is a significant NSTI focus. As part of the process of commercialization, a comprehensive DEMVAL program has been recognized as an essential part of the overall incubator mission. A number of resources have been integrated into the NSTI program to support such a DEMVAL program.

  3. Sustainable sanitation technology options for urban slums.

    PubMed

    Katukiza, A Y; Ronteltap, M; Niwagaba, C B; Foppen, J W A; Kansiime, F; Lens, P N L

    2012-01-01

    Poor sanitation in urban slums results in increased prevalence of diseases and pollution of the environment. Excreta, grey water and solid wastes are the major contributors to the pollution load into the slum environment and pose a risk to public health. The high rates of urbanization and population growth, poor accessibility and lack of legal status in urban slums make it difficult to improve their level of sanitation. New approaches may help to achieve the sanitation target of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 7; ensuring environmental sustainability. This paper reviews the characteristics of waste streams and the potential treatment processes and technologies that can be adopted and applied in urban slums in a sustainable way. Resource recovery oriented technologies minimise health risks and negative environmental impacts. In particular, there has been increasing recognition of the potential of anaerobic co-digestion for treatment of excreta and organic solid waste for energy recovery as an alternative to composting. Soil and sand filters have also been found suitable for removal of organic matter, pathogens, nutrients and micro-pollutants from grey water.

  4. Sustainable Technology: Community Surveys of Requisite Skills, Spring 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pezzoli, Jean A.; Ainsworth, Don

    The goal of this study was to obtain feedback from relevant community businesses regarding skills needed by employees in Sustainable Technologies. Survey results will help design the innovative Sustainable Technologies curriculum, which is under development at the Maui Community College. In the fall 1999 semester, the Sustainable Technologies…

  5. EVALUATION OF CURRENT SUSTAINABILITY ASSESSMENT OF BIOBASED TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainable technology is driven by economic competitiveness, government policies and public pressure. The claim of inherent cleanliness for biotechnology is too simplistic. Each application of biotechnology must be evaluated for suitable characteristics of sustainability. The ...

  6. Combined Corex/DRI technology

    SciTech Connect

    Flickenschild, A.J.; Reufer, F.; Eberle, A.; Siuka, D.

    1996-08-01

    A feasible steelmaking alternative, the Corex/direct reduction/electric arc furnace combination, provides an economic route for the production of high quality steel products. This combination is a major step into a new generation of iron and steel mills. These mills are based on the production of liquid steel using noncoking coal and comply with the increasing demands of environmental protection. The favorable production costs are based on: Utilization of Corex and DRI/HBI plants; Production of hot metal equal to blast furnace quality; Use of low cost raw materials such as noncoking coal and lump ore; Use of process gas as reducing agent for DRI/HBI production; and Use of electric arc furnace with high hot metal input as the steelmaking process. The high flexibility of the process permits the adjustment of production in accordance with the strategy of the steel mills. New but proven technologies and applications of the latest state of art steelmaking process, e.g., Corex, in conjunction with DRI production as basic raw material for an electric arc furnace, will insure high quality, high availability, optimized energy generation at high efficiency rates, and high product quality for steelmaking.

  7. Combining ESP and baghouse technology

    SciTech Connect

    Rowland, B.; Ganatra, C.P.; Woolston, J.

    1994-12-31

    The authors present a progressive application in the field of air pollution control technology. The content of this paper should appeal to operators who must operate out-of-compliance electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), or to those who strive for optimal emission control. St. Lawrence Cement Company, a plant in Beauport Canada, has been in operation since 1955. Their two wet process kilns have utilized electrostatic precipitator (ESP) filters since inception. Since 1965, this company has strived to reduce energy consumption by using alternative waste fuel. This, combined with the increased demand of low alkali cement, took its toll on the ESPs, causing the equipment and its performance to deteriorate. Pressure from environmental agencies to lower outlet emissions forced the company to consider ESP modifications. After investigating several alternatives, the optimal modification was to combine the ESP with bag filters. In addition to being the best choice from a performance standpoint, it was also the least expensive. This modification also allowed a reduced alkali dust from the ESP hoppers to be recirculated to the kilns. The latter two-thirds of the ESP were converted to a baghouse, and optimal system performance was achieved by using high efficiency expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membrane filter bags. Despite the high moisture, submicron particle size, and cohesive nature of the alkaline dust, very low pressure differentials and extremely low emissions were achieved. Most notably, this complex project was completed within nine months, from concept to commissioning. The plant was shut down for only six weeks during the entire retrofit process. This economically attractive idea was readily accepted by St. Lawrence Cement personnel and the permitting agencies. After the first successful kiln/ESP retrofit, the second kiln/ESP conversion was completed the following year.

  8. The Limits of Technological Solutions to Sustainable Development

    SciTech Connect

    Huesemann, Michael H. )

    2003-03-01

    Sustainable development has been defined by political and corporate leaders as the combination of environmental protection and economic growth. As a result, the concept of eco-efficiency has been promoted as the primary tool for achieving industrial sustainability. However, there are at least four reasons why technological improvements in eco-efficiency alone will be insufficient to bring about a transition to sustainability. First, considering that the very foundations of western industrial societies are based on the exploitation of non-renewable minerals and fuels, it will be extremely difficult to switch to an industrial and economic system based solely on renewable resources. Clearly, the continuing use of non-renewables is inherently unsustainable because of finite material supplies and the fact that 100% recycling is impossible. Second, given the limited supply of non-renewable fuels, long-term sustainability can only be guaranteed if all energy is derived - directly or indirectly - from the sun. However, if the current U.S. energy demand would have to be supplied solely from solar sources, a wide range of serious and unavoidable negative environmental impacts are likely to result. Third, even the best of human ingenuity and the greatest technological optimism are bounded by the second law of thermodynamics which dictates that all industrial and economic activities have unavoidable negative environmental consequences. Finally, improvements in eco-efficiency alone will not guarantee a reduction in the total environmental impact if economic growth is allowed to continue. Unless growth in both population and consumption is restrained, these technological improvements only delay the onset of negative consequences that, as a result, will have increased in severity, thereby reducing our freedom to choose satisfying solutions.

  9. Relative Sustainability and Making Technological Choices

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT System sustainability is a dynamic concept. Sustainability analysis is thus about making decisions on the overall, relative desirability of a system under study. The appropriate approach is to consider environmental, societal, and economic impacts of the system and de...

  10. MCC Instruction in Sustainable Technologies. Follow-Up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pezzoli, Jean A.; Ainsworth, Donald

    The purposes of this study were to collect feedback from Sustainable Technologies interns regarding the usefulness and effectiveness of their education and training from the Maui Community College Instruction in Sustainable Technologies (MIST) program, and to further assess community need for a new Associate Degree program in Sustainable…

  11. Ceramic Technologies for Sustainability: Perspectives from Siemens Corporate Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossner, W.

    2011-05-01

    Climate change, environmental care, energy efficiency, scarcity of resources, population growth, demographic change, urbanization and globalization are the most pressing questions in the coming century. They will have an effect on all regions and groups of global society. Effective solutions will require immediate, efficient and concerted activities in all areas at the social, economic and environmental level. Since the 1980s it has been understood that developments should examine their sustainability more seriously to ensure that they do not compromise the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. This has also attributes to the sustainability demand of ceramic technologies. In the last decades a wide variety of ceramics developments have been brought to the markets, ranging from human implants to thermal barrier coatings in fossil power plants. There are innovative developments which should enter the market within the next years like solid oxide fuel cells or separation membranes for gas and liquids. Further ahead there will be ceramics with self-adapting, self-healing and multifunctional features to generate novel applications to save energy and to reduce carbon footprints across the entire value creation process of energy, industry, transportation and manufacturing.

  12. Ventilator Technologies Sustain Critically Injured Patients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    Consider this scenario: A soldier has been critically wounded in a sudden firefight in a remote region of Afghanistan. The soldier s comrades attend to him and radio for help, but the soldier needs immediate medical expertise and treatment that is currently miles away. The connection between medical support for soldiers on the battlefield and astronauts in space may not be immediately obvious. But when it comes to providing adequate critical care, NASA and the military have very similar operational challenges, says Shannon Melton of NASA contractor Wyle Integrated Science and Engineering. Melton works within Johnson Space Center s Space Medicine Division, which supports astronaut crew health before, during, and after flight. In space, we have a limited number of care providers, and those providers are not always clinicians with extensive medical training. We have limited room to provide care, limited consumables, and our environment is not like that of a hospital, she says. The Space Medicine Division s Advanced Projects Group works on combining the expertise of both clinicians and engineers to develop new capabilities that address the challenges of medical support in space, including providing care to distant patients. This field, called telemedicine, blends advanced communications practices and technologies with innovative medical devices and techniques to allow caregivers with limited or no medical experience to support a patient s needs. NASA, just by its nature, has been doing remote medicine since the beginning of the Space Program, says Melton, an engineer in the Advanced Projects Group. Since part of NASA s mandate is to transfer the results of its technological innovation for the benefit of the public, the Agency has worked with doctors and private industry to find ways to apply the benefits of space medicine on Earth. In one such case, a NASA partnership has resulted in new technologies that may improve the quality of emergency medicine for wounded

  13. A Decision Tool for Selecting a Sustainable Learning Technology Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raji, Maryam; Zualkernan, Imran

    2016-01-01

    Education is a basic human right. In pursuit of this right, governments in developing countries and their donors often invest scarce resources in educational initiatives that are sometimes not sustainable. This paper addresses the problem of selecting a sustainable learning technology intervention (LTI) for a typical developing country. By solving…

  14. QuEST: Qualifying Environmentally Sustainable Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Pattie

    2012-01-01

    Articles in this issue inlude: (1) Foundation of Technology Evaluation for Environmental Risk Mitigation Principal Center (TEERM) Technology Evaluation is Testing and Qualification, (2) Materials Management and Substitution Efforts, (3 Recycling and Pollution Control Efforts, and (4) Remediation Efforts

  15. Sustaining Integrated Technology in Undergraduate Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oates, Greg

    2011-01-01

    The effective integration of technology into the teaching and learning of mathematics remains one of the critical challenges facing contemporary tertiary mathematics. This article reports on some significant findings of a wider study investigating the use of technology in undergraduate mathematics. It first discusses a taxonomy developed to…

  16. Technological solution for vulnerable communities: Questioning the sustainability of Appropriate Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sianipar, C. P. M.; Dowaki, K.; Yudoko, G.

    2015-01-01

    Vulnerability eradication has become an emerging concern in today's society following the increasing uncertainties in achieving societal resilience, particularly in vulnerable communities. Furthermore, incorporating technological solution, especially appropriate technology (AT), into such concern requires interdisciplinary understandings to achieve a holistic eradication based on the particularities of each community. This study aims to briefly reveal existing scholarly discourses and investigate potential gap(s) between previous researches. Literatures, particularly consisting meta-analysis on previous scholarly discussions, are surveyed. The findings reveal three progress among scientific discourses. The first one is the paradigm shift of developmental purposes from typical development to empowerment. Next, concerns in technology development indicate the parallel movement toward empowerment. Then, previous methodological developments, including approach in sustaining AT, indicate the needs to assess the future based on sustainability. Therefore, a new research is proposed to develop an assessment framework on AT for vulnerability eradication on the basis of empowerment paradigm, extended focuses in technology development, and extended coverage of future changes in dynamic matter. The framework needs to be developed based on the combination of positivist-deductive-qualitative research paradigms. This is intended to generalize the framework for being used in different cases, to build an applicative framework as an integral part of existing body of knowledge, and to develop an enriched and flexible construction of framework. Looking at existing researches, this brief study proposes insights to move scientific progress toward a more holistic vulnerability eradication using AT solution both in conceptual and practical levels.

  17. Meeting Challenges to Sustainable Development through Science and Technology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holbrook, Jack

    2009-01-01

    This paper is intended to stimulate discussion and recommendations related to science and technology education and its role in sustainable development. It puts forward points of view and addresses concerns in science education. The paper recognizes that all in not well within science and technology education and that there are concerns related to…

  18. Information Technology, Core Competencies, and Sustained Competitive Advantage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Terry Anthony

    2001-01-01

    Presents a model that depicts a possible connection between competitive advantage and information technology. Focuses on flexibility of the information technology infrastructure as an enabler of core competencies, especially mass customization and time-to-market, that have a relationship to sustained competitive advantage. (Contains 82…

  19. Sustainable LED Fluorescent Light Replacement Technology

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2011-09-30

    Ilumisys and the National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS) partnered on a three-year project awarded by the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE), to quantify the impacts of LED lamps, incandescent lamps and fluorescent benchmark lamps over a product lifecycle – i.e. to develop a sustainable design and manufacturing strategy that addresses product manufacturing, use, recycling and disposal scenarios for LED-based lighting. Based on the knowledge gained from extensive product tear-down studies of fluorescent and screw-in lighting products, lifecycle assessment tools, and accelerated lifecycle testing protocols, an interactive Sustainable LED Design Guide has been developed to aid architectural and lighting designers and engineers in making design decisions that consider three important environmental impacts (greenhouse gas emissions, energy use and mercury emission) across all phases of the life of an LED lighting product. Critical information developed for the lifecycle analysis and product feature comparisons is the useful life of the lighting product as well as its performance. The Design Guide is available at www.ncms.org, and was developed based on operational and durability testing of a variety of lighting products including power consumption, light output, and useful life of a lamp in order to allow a more realistic comparison of lamp designs. This report describes the main project tasks, results and innovative features of the lifecycle assessment (LCA)-based design tools, and the key considerations driving the sustainable design of LED lighting systems. The Design Guide incorporates the following three novel features for efficiently evaluating LED lighting features in value-chains: Bill-of-Materials (BOM) Builder – Designers may import process data for each component and supply functional data for the product, including power, consumption, lumen output and expected useful life: Environmental Impact Review – Designs are comparable

  20. Critical materialism: science, technology, and environmental sustainability.

    PubMed

    York, Richard; Clark, Brett

    2010-01-01

    There are widely divergent views on how science and technology are connected to environmental problems. A view commonly held among natural scientists and policy makers is that environmental problems are primarily technical problems that can be solved via the development and implementation of technological innovations. This technologically optimistic view tends to ignore power relationships in society and the political-economic order that drives environmental degradation. An opposed view, common among postmodernist and poststructuralist scholars, is that the emergence of the scientific worldview is one of the fundamental causes of human oppression. This postmodernist view rejects scientific epistemology and often is associated with an anti-realist stance, which ultimately serves to deny the reality of environmental problems, thus (unintentionally) abetting right-wing efforts to scuttle environmental protection. We argue that both the technologically optimistic and the postmodernist views are misguided, and both undermine our ability to address environmental crises. We advocate the adoption of a critical materialist stance, which recognizes the importance of natural science for helping us to understand the world while also recognizing the social embeddedness of the scientific establishment and the need to challenge the manipulation of science by the elite. PMID:20795298

  1. Wind Energy Technology: Training a Sustainable Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krull, Kimberly W.; Graham, Bruce; Underbakke, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Through innovative teaching and technology, industry and educational institution partnerships, Cloud County Community College is preparing a qualified workforce for the emerging wind industry estimated to create 80,000 jobs by 2020. The curriculum blends on-campus, on-line and distance learning, land-lab, and field training opportunities for…

  2. Critical materialism: science, technology, and environmental sustainability.

    PubMed

    York, Richard; Clark, Brett

    2010-01-01

    There are widely divergent views on how science and technology are connected to environmental problems. A view commonly held among natural scientists and policy makers is that environmental problems are primarily technical problems that can be solved via the development and implementation of technological innovations. This technologically optimistic view tends to ignore power relationships in society and the political-economic order that drives environmental degradation. An opposed view, common among postmodernist and poststructuralist scholars, is that the emergence of the scientific worldview is one of the fundamental causes of human oppression. This postmodernist view rejects scientific epistemology and often is associated with an anti-realist stance, which ultimately serves to deny the reality of environmental problems, thus (unintentionally) abetting right-wing efforts to scuttle environmental protection. We argue that both the technologically optimistic and the postmodernist views are misguided, and both undermine our ability to address environmental crises. We advocate the adoption of a critical materialist stance, which recognizes the importance of natural science for helping us to understand the world while also recognizing the social embeddedness of the scientific establishment and the need to challenge the manipulation of science by the elite.

  3. Changing behavior towards sustainable practices using Information Technology.

    PubMed

    Iveroth, Einar; Bengtsson, Fredrik

    2014-06-15

    This article addresses the question of how to change individuals' behavior towards more sustainable practices using Information Technology (IT). By following a multidisciplinary and socio-technical perspective, this inquiry is answered by applying a new framework-The Commonality Framework for IT-enabled Change-on a case study of sustainable behavioral change. The framework is grounded in practice theory and is used to analyze the implementation of an IT-system aimed at changing citizens' behavior towards more sustainable transport logistics and procurement in Uppsala, Sweden. The article applies case study research design and the empirical data consists of surveys, in-depth and semi-structured interviews, observations and archival documents. The results show how the change towards sustainable practices is an entanglement of both social and technical-structural elements across time. In this process, structures such as IT are the enablers, and the actors and their social activities are the tipping-point factors that ultimately determine the success of changing individuals' behavior towards a more sustainable direction. This article provides a more balanced view of how both actor and structure related properties interact during the on-going work with change towards greater sustainability practices than earlier research has offered. More specifically, the article offers both a lower-level theory and a method from which we can analyze change processes where technology is seen in its context, and where both technology and the human actor is brought forth to center stage.

  4. Changing behavior towards sustainable practices using Information Technology.

    PubMed

    Iveroth, Einar; Bengtsson, Fredrik

    2014-06-15

    This article addresses the question of how to change individuals' behavior towards more sustainable practices using Information Technology (IT). By following a multidisciplinary and socio-technical perspective, this inquiry is answered by applying a new framework-The Commonality Framework for IT-enabled Change-on a case study of sustainable behavioral change. The framework is grounded in practice theory and is used to analyze the implementation of an IT-system aimed at changing citizens' behavior towards more sustainable transport logistics and procurement in Uppsala, Sweden. The article applies case study research design and the empirical data consists of surveys, in-depth and semi-structured interviews, observations and archival documents. The results show how the change towards sustainable practices is an entanglement of both social and technical-structural elements across time. In this process, structures such as IT are the enablers, and the actors and their social activities are the tipping-point factors that ultimately determine the success of changing individuals' behavior towards a more sustainable direction. This article provides a more balanced view of how both actor and structure related properties interact during the on-going work with change towards greater sustainability practices than earlier research has offered. More specifically, the article offers both a lower-level theory and a method from which we can analyze change processes where technology is seen in its context, and where both technology and the human actor is brought forth to center stage. PMID:24681365

  5. Scientific challenges in sustainable energy technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Nathan

    2006-04-01

    We describe and evaluate the technical, political, and economic challenges involved with widespread adoption of renewable energy technologies. First, we estimate fossil fuel resources and reserves and, together with the current and projected global primary power production rates, estimate the remaining years of oil, gas, and coal. We then compare the conventional price of fossil energy with that from renewable energy technologies (wind, solar thermal, solar electric, biomass, hydroelectric, and geothermal) to evaluate the potential for a transition to renewable energy in the next 20-50 years. Secondly, we evaluate - per the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change - the greenhouse constraint on carbon-based power consumption as an unpriced externality to fossil-fuel use, considering global population growth, increased global gross domestic product, and increased energy efficiency per unit GDP. This constraint is projected to drive the demand for carbon-free power well beyond that produced by conventional supply/demand pricing tradeoffs, to levels far greater than current renewable energy demand. Thirdly, we evaluate the level and timescale of R&D investment needed to produce the required quantity of carbon-free power by the 2050 timeframe. Fourth, we evaluate the energy potential of various renewable energy resources to ascertain which resources are adequately available globally to support the projected demand. Fifth, we evaluate the challenges to the chemical sciences to enable the cost-effective production of carbon-free power required. Finally, we discuss the effects of a change in primary power technology on the energy supply infrastructure and discuss the impact of such a change on the modes of energy consumption by the energy consumer and additional demands on the chemical sciences to support such a transition in energy supply.

  6. Scientific Challenges in Sustainable Energy Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Nathan

    2006-03-01

    This presentation will describe and evaluate the challenges, both technical, political, and economic, involved with widespread adoption of renewable energy technologies. First, we estimate the available fossil fuel resources and reserves based on data from the World Energy Assessment and World Energy Council. In conjunction with the current and projected global primary power production rates, we then estimate the remaining years of supply of oil, gas, and coal for use in primary power production. We then compare the price per unit of energy of these sources to those of renewable energy technologies (wind, solar thermal, solar electric, biomass, hydroelectric, and geothermal) to evaluate the degree to which supply/demand forces stimulate a transition to renewable energy technologies in the next 20-50 years. Secondly, we evaluate the greenhouse gas buildup limitations on carbon-based power consumption as an unpriced externality to fossil-fuel consumption, considering global population growth, increased global gross domestic product, and increased energy efficiency per unit of globally averaged GDP, as produced by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). A greenhouse gas constraint on total carbon emissions, in conjunction with global population growth, is projected to drive the demand for carbon-free power well beyond that produced by conventional supply/demand pricing tradeoffs, at potentially daunting levels relative to current renewable energy demand levels. Thirdly, we evaluate the level and timescale of R&D investment that is needed to produce the required quantity of carbon-free power by the 2050 timeframe, to support the expected global energy demand for carbon-free power. Fourth, we evaluate the energy potential of various renewable energy resources to ascertain which resources are adequately available globally to support the projected global carbon-free energy demand requirements. Fifth, we evaluate the challenges to the chemical sciences to

  7. Sustainability, arid grasslands and grazing: New applications for technology

    SciTech Connect

    Pregenzer, A.L.; Parmenter, R.; Passell, H.D.; Budge, T.; Vande Caste, J.

    1999-12-08

    The study of ecology is taking on increasing global importance as the value of well-functioning ecosystems to human well-being becomes better understood. However, the use of technological systems for the study of ecology lags behind the use of technologies in the study of other disciplines important to human well-being, such as medicine, chemistry and physics. The authors outline four different kinds of large-scale data needs required by land managers for the development of sustainable land use strategies, and which can be obtained with current or future technological systems. They then outline a hypothetical resource management scenario in which data on all those needs are collected using remote and in situ technologies, transmitted to a central location, analyzed, and then disseminated for regional use in maintaining sustainable grazing systems. They conclude by highlighting various data-collection systems and data-sharing networks already in operation.

  8. Bridge to a sustainable future: National environmental technology strategy

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    For the past two years the Administration has sought the views of Congress, the states, communities, industry, academia, nongovernmental organizations, and interested citizens on ways to spur the development and use of a new generation of environmental technologies. This document represents the views of thousands of individuals who participated in events around the country to help craft a national environmental technology strategy that will put us on the path to sustainable development.

  9. Developing a Global Mindset: Integrating Demographics, Sustainability, Technology, and Globalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aggarwal, Raj

    2011-01-01

    Business schools face a number of challenges in responding to the business influences of demographics, sustainability, and technology--all three of which are also the fundamental driving forces for globalization. Demographic forces are creating global imbalances in worker populations and in government finances; the world economy faces…

  10. Needs Assessment for Education in Sustainable Technologies on Maui.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pezzoli, Jean A.

    In Spring 1997, Maui Community College (MCC), in Hawaii, conducted a survey of Maui businesses to determine perceived needs for a certificate or associate degree program in sustainable technologies. Questionnaires were mailed to 500 businesses, including building, electrical, and plumbing contractors, architects, waste disposal, power generators,…

  11. Technology for sustainability: the role of onsite, small and community scale technology.

    PubMed

    Ho, G

    2005-01-01

    An overview of available onsite, small and community scale wastewater treatment technology shows that it is diverse compared to current technology for centralised collection and treatment of wastewater. An analysis of the onsite, small and community scale technology for achieving sustainability shows that it more conducive to achieving sustainability than the centralised technology. It is likely, however, that its application is in remote and rural areas, where the technology should be improved and integrated with other technology sectors (energy, food production) for improved sustainability. Opportunities exist in new urban developments to achieve similar outcomes, but concerted efforts are required to demonstrate or showcase sustainability benefits in real situations. A huge potential also exists for the use of onsite, small and community scale technology in developing countries for achieving the same sustainability outcomes. It is likely to succeed if the technology is modified to be of lower cost but based on the same science, and that research, development and demonstrations in developed countries are shown to be successful.

  12. The Social Agenda of Education for Sustainable Development within Design & Technology: The Case of the Sustainable Design Award

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitt, James; Lubben, Fred

    2009-01-01

    The paper explores the adoption of the social dimensions of sustainability in technological design tasks. It uses a lens which contrasts education for sustainability as "a frame of mind" with an attempt to bridge a "value-action gap". This lens is used to analyse the effectiveness of the Sustainable Design Award, an intervention in post-16…

  13. Silk materials--a road to sustainable high technology.

    PubMed

    Tao, Hu; Kaplan, David L; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G

    2012-06-01

    This review addresses the use of silk protein as a sustainable material in optics and photonics, electronics and optoelectronic applications. These options represent additional developments for this technology platform that compound the broad utility and impact of this material for medical needs that have been recently described in the literature. The favorable properties of the material certainly make a favorable case for the use of silk, yet serve as a broad inspiration to further develop biological foundries for both the synthesis and processing of Nature's materials for technological applications.

  14. Education for Sustainable Development: Current Discourses and Practices and Their Relevance to Technology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leal Filho, Walter; Manolas, Evangelos; Pace, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Technology education is a well-established field of knowledge whose applications have many ramifications. For example, technology education may be used as a tool in meeting the challenges of sustainable development. However, the usefulness of technology education to the sustainability debate as a whole and to education for sustainable development…

  15. Towards a sustainable diet combining economic, environmental and nutritional objectives.

    PubMed

    Donati, Michele; Menozzi, Davide; Zighetti, Camilla; Rosi, Alice; Zinetti, Anna; Scazzina, Francesca

    2016-11-01

    Foods consumed and dietary patterns are strong determinants of health status. Diet and nutrition have a key role in health promotion and maintenance during the entire lifetime, but what we choose to eat and drink greatly affects the environmental impact on ecosystems as well as monetary resources. Some studies suggest that a healthy diet with a low environmental impact is not necessarily more expensive. This paper aims to identify a healthy, greener and cheaper diet based on current consumption patterns. Dietary information was collected from 104 young adults in the last year of high school in Parma (Italy). Diet was monitored with 7-day dietary records. Subsequently, food items were decoded to obtain nutritional, economic and environmental impact data. An optimization tool based on mathematical programming (Multi-Objective Linear Programming) was used to identify sustainable diet. Three different 7-day diets were identified, based on nutrition recommendations for the healthy Italian adult population, characterized by different targets and optimizing different impacts: first the diet at the lowest cost (Minimum Cost Diet - MCD), then the Environmentally Sustainable Diet (ESD) obtained by minimizing the three environmental indicators (CO2e emissions, H2O consumption and amount of land to regenerate the resources - m(2)). Finally, the Sustainable Diet (SD) was identified by integrating environmental and economic sustainability objectives. Lastly, suggestions and recommendations for communication campaigns and other interventions to achieve sustainable diet are suggested.

  16. Recent developments in microbial fuel cell technologies for sustainable bioenergy.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kazuya

    2008-12-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are devices that exploit microbial catabolic activities to generate electricity from a variety of materials, including complex organic waste and renewable biomass. These sources provide MFCs with a great advantage over chemical fuel cells that can utilize only purified reactive fuels (e.g., hydrogen). A developing primary application of MFCs is its use in the production of sustainable bioenergy, e.g., organic waste treatment coupled with electricity generation, although further technical developments are necessary for its practical use. In this article, recent advances in MFC technologies that can become fundamentals for future practical MFC developments are summarized. Results of recent studies suggest that MFCs will be of practical use in the near future and will become a preferred option among sustainable bioenergy processes.

  17. An algorithmic interactive planning framework in support of sustainable technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prica, Marija D.

    This thesis addresses the difficult problem of generation expansion planning that employs the most effective technologies in today's changing electric energy industry. The electrical energy industry, in both the industrialized world and in developing countries, is experiencing transformation in a number of different ways. This transformation is driven by major technological breakthroughs (such as the influx of unconventional smaller-scale resources), by industry restructuring, changing environmental objectives, and the ultimate threat of resource scarcity. This thesis proposes a possible planning framework in support of sustainable technologies where sustainability is viewed as a mix of multiple attributes ranging from reliability and environmental impact to short- and long-term efficiency. The idea of centralized peak-load pricing, which accounts for the tradeoffs between cumulative operational effects and the cost of new investments, is the key concept in support of long-term planning in the changing industry. To start with, an interactive planning framework for generation expansion is posed as a distributed decision-making model. In order to reconcile the distributed sub-objectives of different decision makers with system-wide sustainability objectives, a new concept of distributed interactive peak load pricing is proposed. To be able to make the right decisions, the decision makers must have sufficient information about the estimated long-term electricity prices. The sub-objectives of power plant owners and load-serving entities are profit maximization. Optimized long-term expansion plans based on predicted electricity prices are communicated to the system-wide planning authority as long-run bids. The long-term expansion bids are cleared by the coordinating planner so that the system-wide long-term performance criteria are satisfied. The interactions between generation owners and the coordinating planning authority are repeated annually. We view the proposed

  18. A combined ANP-delphi approach to evaluate sustainable tourism

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Melon, Monica

    2012-04-15

    The evaluation of sustainable tourism strategies promoted by National Parks (NP) related stakeholders is a key concern for NP managers. To help them in their strategic evaluation procedures, in this paper we propose a methodology based on the Analytic Network Process and a Delphi-type judgment-ensuring procedure. The approach aims at involving stakeholders in a participatory and consensus-building process. The methodology was applied to Los Roques NP in Venezuela. The problem included three sustainable tourism strategies defined by the stakeholders: eco-efficient resorts, eco-friendly leisure activities and ecological transportation systems. Representatives of eight stakeholders participated in the methodology. 13 sustainability criteria were selected. Results provide some important insights into the overall philosophy and underlying participants' conception of what sustainable development of Los Roques NP means. This conception is broadly shared by stakeholders as they coincided in the weights of most of the criteria, which were assigned individually through the questionnaire. It is particularly noteworthy that tourists and environmentalists almost fully match in their assessments of criteria but not of the alternatives. Moreover, there is a great agreement in the final assessment. This suggests that the regular contact among the different stakeholders, i.e. tourists with inhabitants, authorities with environmentalists, tour operators with representatives of the ministry, etc. has led to a common understanding of the opportunities and threats for the NP. They all agreed that the procedure enhances participation and transparency and it is a necessary source of information and support for their decisions.

  19. Evaluation of the Sustainable Development Graduation Track at Delft University of Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Werk, G.; Kamp, L. M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper evaluates the sustainable development graduation track at TU Delft. This track can be followed by all students of TU Delft. It consists of an interdisciplinary colloquium "Technology in Sustainable Development", 300 h of self-chosen courses on sustainable development and a graduation project in which sustainable development is…

  20. Functional materials for sustainable energy technologies: four case studies.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, V L; Edwards, P P

    2010-01-01

    The critical topic of energy and the environment has rarely had such a high profile, nor have the associated materials challenges been more exciting. The subject of functional materials for sustainable energy technologies is demanding and recognized as a top priority in providing many of the key underpinning technological solutions for a sustainable energy future. Energy generation, consumption, storage, and supply security will continue to be major drivers for this subject. There exists, in particular, an urgent need for new functional materials for next-generation energy conversion and storage systems. Many limitations on the performances and costs of these systems are mainly due to the materials' intrinsic performance. We highlight four areas of activity where functional materials are already a significant element of world-wide research efforts. These four areas are transparent conducting oxides, solar energy materials for converting solar radiation into electricity and chemical fuels, materials for thermoelectric energy conversion, and hydrogen storage materials. We outline recent advances in the development of these classes of energy materials, major factors limiting their intrinsic functional performance, and potential ways to overcome these limitations.

  1. What would an environmentally sustainable reproductive technology industry look like?

    PubMed

    Richie, Cristina

    2015-05-01

    Through the use of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs), multiple children are born adding to worldwide carbon emissions. Evaluating the ethics of offering reproductive services against its overall harm to the environment makes unregulated ARTs unjustified, yet the ART business can move towards sustainability as a part of the larger green bioethics movement. By integrating ecological ethos into the ART industry, climate change can be mitigated and the conversation about consumption can become a broader public discourse. Although the impact of naturally made children on the environment is undeniable, I will focus on the ART industry as an anthropogenic source of carbon emissions which lead to climate change. The ART industry is an often overlooked source of environmental degradation and decidedly different from natural reproduction as fertility centres provide a service for a fee and therefore can be subject to economic, policy and bioethical scrutiny. In this article, I will provide a brief background on the current state of human-driven climate change before suggesting two conservationist strategies that can be employed in the ART business. First, endorsing a carbon capping programme that limits the carbon emissions of ART businesses will be proposed. Second, I will recommend that policymakers eliminate funded ARTs for those who are not biologically infertile. I will conclude the article by urging policymakers and all those concerned with climate change to consider the effects of the reproductive technologies industry in light of climate change and move towards sustainability.

  2. Sustainability.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chein-Chi; DiGiovanni, Kimberly; Mei, Ying; Wei, Li

    2016-10-01

    This review on Sustainability covers selected 2015 publications on the focus of Sustainability. It is divided into the following sections : • Sustainable water and wastewater utilities • Sustainable water resources management • Stormwater and green infrastructure • Sustainability in wastewater treatment • Life cycle assessment (LCA) applications • Sustainability and energy in wastewater industry, • Sustainability and asset management.

  3. Sustainability.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chein-Chi; DiGiovanni, Kimberly; Mei, Ying; Wei, Li

    2016-10-01

    This review on Sustainability covers selected 2015 publications on the focus of Sustainability. It is divided into the following sections : • Sustainable water and wastewater utilities • Sustainable water resources management • Stormwater and green infrastructure • Sustainability in wastewater treatment • Life cycle assessment (LCA) applications • Sustainability and energy in wastewater industry, • Sustainability and asset management. PMID:27620092

  4. Harnessing: Technologies for Sustainable Reindeer Husbandry in the Arctic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Nancy G.; Yurchak, Boris; Turi, Johan Mathis; Mathiesen, Svein

    2004-01-01

    To accelerate the development of sustainable reindeer husbandry under the lead of indigenous reindeer herders, it is critical to empower reindeer herders with the best available technologies and to promote a new kind of science where traditional knowledge is fully integrated into the scientific management of the natural environment in the Arctic. This is particularly true given the dramatic environmental, climatic, economic, social and industrial changes, which have taken place across the Arctic in recent years, all of which have had serious impacts on the reindeer herding communities of the North. The Anar Declaration, adopted by the 2d World Reindeer Herders Congress (WRHC), in Inari, Finland, June 2001drew guidelines for the development of a sustainable reindeer husbandry based on reindeer peoples values and goals. The declaration calls for the reindeer herding peoples to be given the possibilities to develop and influence the management of the reindeer industry and its natural environment because of their knowledge and traditional practices. At the same time, Arctic scientists from many institutions and governments are carrying out increasingly highly technical reindeer related research activities. It is important that the technologies and results of these activities be more commonly co-produced with the reindeer herder community and/or made more readily available to the reindeer peoples for comparison with traditional knowledge for improved herd management. This paper describes a project in which reindeer herders and scientists are utilizing technologies to create a system for collecting and sharing knowledge. The project, Reindeer Mapper, is creating an information management and knowledge sharing system, which will help make technologies more readily available to the herder community for observing, data collection and analysis, monitoring, sharing, communications, and dissemination of information - to be integrated with traditional, local knowledge. The

  5. Designing Catalysts for Clean Technology, Green Chemistry, and Sustainable Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meurig Thomas, John; Raja, Robert

    2005-08-01

    There is a pressing need for cleaner fuels (free or aromatics and of minimal sulfur content) or ones that convert chemical energy directly to electricity, silently and without production of noxious oxides and particulates; chemical, petrochemical and pharmaceutical processes that may be conducted in a one-step, solvent-free manner and that use air as the preferred oxidant; and industrial processes that minimize consumption of energy, production of waste, or the use of corrosive, explosive, volatile, and nonbiodegradable materials. All these needs and other desiderata, such as the in situ production and containment of aggressive and hazardous reagents, and the avoidance of use of ecologically harmful elements, may be achieved by designing the appropriate heterogeneous inorganic catalyst, which ideally should be cheap, readily preparable and fully characterizable, preferably under in situ reaction conditions. A range of nanoporous and nanoparticle catalysts that meet most of the stringent demands of sustainable development and responsible (clean) technology is described. Specific examples that are highlighted include the production of adipic acid (precursor of polyamides and urethanes) without the use of concentrated nitric acid nor the production of greenhouse gases such as nitrous oxide; the production of caprolactam (precursor of nylon) without the use of oleum and hydroxylamine sulfate; and the terminal oxyfunctionalization of linear alkanes in air. The topic of biocatalysis and sustainable development is also briefly discussed for the epoxidation of terpenes and fatty acid methyl esters; for the generation of polymers, polylactides, and polyesters; and for the production of 1,3-propanediol from corn.

  6. Indicators for technological, environmental and economic sustainability of ozone contactors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Tejada-Martinez, Andres E; Lei, Hongxia; Zhang, Qiong

    2016-09-15

    Various studies have attempted to improve disinfection efficiency as a way to improve the sustainability of ozone disinfection which is a critical unit process for water treatment. Baffling factor, CT10, and log-inactivation are commonly used indicators for quantifying disinfection credits. However the applicability of these indicators and the relationship between these indicators have not been investigated in depth. This study simulated flow, tracer transport, and chemical species transport in a full-scale ozone contactor operated by the City of Tampa Water Department and six other modified designs using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Through analysis of the simulation results, we found that baffling factor and CT10 are not optimal indicators of disinfection performance. We also found that the relationship between effluent CT obtained from CT transport simulation and baffling factor depends on the location of ozone release. In addition, we analyzed the environmental and economic impacts of ozone contactor designs and upgrades and developed a composite indicator to quantify the sustainability in technological, environmental and economic dimensions.

  7. Indicators for technological, environmental and economic sustainability of ozone contactors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Tejada-Martinez, Andres E; Lei, Hongxia; Zhang, Qiong

    2016-09-15

    Various studies have attempted to improve disinfection efficiency as a way to improve the sustainability of ozone disinfection which is a critical unit process for water treatment. Baffling factor, CT10, and log-inactivation are commonly used indicators for quantifying disinfection credits. However the applicability of these indicators and the relationship between these indicators have not been investigated in depth. This study simulated flow, tracer transport, and chemical species transport in a full-scale ozone contactor operated by the City of Tampa Water Department and six other modified designs using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Through analysis of the simulation results, we found that baffling factor and CT10 are not optimal indicators of disinfection performance. We also found that the relationship between effluent CT obtained from CT transport simulation and baffling factor depends on the location of ozone release. In addition, we analyzed the environmental and economic impacts of ozone contactor designs and upgrades and developed a composite indicator to quantify the sustainability in technological, environmental and economic dimensions. PMID:27322565

  8. Teaching Sustainable Entrepreneurship to Engineering Students: The Case of Delft University of Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnet, Hans; Quist, Jaco; Hoogwater, Daan; Spaans, Johan; Wehrmann, Caroline

    2006-01-01

    Sustainability, enhancement of personal skills, social aspects of technology, management and entrepreneurship are of increasing concern for engineers and therefore for engineering education. In 1996 at Delft University of Technology this led to the introduction of a subject on sustainable entrepreneurship and technology in the course programmes of…

  9. Gas laser for efficient sustaining a continuous optical discharge plasma in scientific and technological applications

    SciTech Connect

    Zimakov, V P; Kuznetsov, V A; Kedrov, A Yu; Solov'ev, N G; Shemyakin, A N; Yakimov, M Yu

    2009-09-30

    A stable high-power laser is developed for the study and technical applications of a continuous optical discharge (COD). The laser based on the technology of a combined discharge in a scheme with a fast axial gas flow emits 2.2 kW at 10.6 {mu}m per meter of the active medium in continuous and repetitively pulsed regimes with the electrooptical efficiency 20%. The sustaining of the COD plasma in argon and air is demonstrated at the atmospheric pressure. The emission properties of the COD plasma are studied and its possible applications are discussed. (lasers)

  10. Design and technology combine to good effect.

    PubMed

    Harris, Virginia

    2015-04-01

    As flooring specialist, Gerflor, marks over 60 years supplying the healthcare sector, Virginia Harris, the company's Scottish sales and specification executive, takes a look at some of the recent trends in healthcare flooring, where attractive aesthetics, sustainability, a hard-wearing and robust construction, and cleaning and infection control considerations, are among the key criteria on specifiers' lists. She also considers the crossover between design and new product development.

  11. Artificial photosynthesis combines biology with technology for sustainable energy transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Thomas A.; Moore, Ana L.; Gust, Devens

    2013-03-01

    Photosynthesis supports the biosphere. Currently, human activity appropriates about one fourth of terrestrial photosynthetic net primary production (NPP) to support our GDP and nutrition. The cost to Earth systems of "our cut" of NPP is thought to be rapidly driving several Earth systems outside of bounds that were established on the geological time scale. Even with a fundamental realignment of human priorities, changing the unsustainable trajectory of the anthropocene will require reengineering photosynthesis to more efficiently meet human needs. Artificial photosynthetic systems are envisioned that can both supply renewable fuels and serve as platforms for exploring redesign strategies for photosynthesis. These strategies can be used in the nascent field of synthetic biology to make vast, much needed improvements in the biomass production efficiency of photosynthesis.

  12. Technological innovation, human capital and social change for sustainability. Lessons learnt from the industrial technologies theme of the EU's Research Framework Programme.

    PubMed

    Sabadie, Jesús Alquézar

    2014-05-15

    Europe is facing a twofold challenge. It must maintain or even increase its competitiveness, a basic requirement in a globalised economy and under the current demographic threat. It needs also to tackle the so-called "grand challenges", especially environmental issues, through a sustainable model of production and consumption. Such challenges should lead to new business and industrial models, based on more sustainable production and consumption chains, from design to end of life. This implies a need for new industrial materials and processes, new skills and, indeed, new values and life-styles. Sustainability and innovation are key elements of EU's Research and Innovation Framework Programmes, particularly in the field of industrial technologies (nanotechnologies, materials and industrial technologies), which objective is to "improve the competitiveness of the European industry and generate knowledge to ensure its transformation from a resource intensive to a knowledge intensive industry". Sustainability and innovation are interrelated challenges for R&D. Research can develop technical solutions to tackle environmental or societal challenges, but such technologies need to be successfully commercialised to have a real environmental impact. Several socio-economic studies carried-out by the European Commission show not only the emerging technological and industrial trends, but they also emphasise the need for linking sustainable technologies with social change. Human capital and new social behaviours are critical factors to combine economic competitiveness and sustainability: technology alone is no longer able to solve global challenges. But what kind of human capital (skills, behaviours, and values) are we referring to? How to encourage the shift towards a greener society through human capital? Which reforms are needed in education systems to move towards a sustainable economy? Are there examples of social innovation to be extrapolated and/or generalised? PMID

  13. Technological innovation, human capital and social change for sustainability. Lessons learnt from the industrial technologies theme of the EU's Research Framework Programme.

    PubMed

    Sabadie, Jesús Alquézar

    2014-05-15

    Europe is facing a twofold challenge. It must maintain or even increase its competitiveness, a basic requirement in a globalised economy and under the current demographic threat. It needs also to tackle the so-called "grand challenges", especially environmental issues, through a sustainable model of production and consumption. Such challenges should lead to new business and industrial models, based on more sustainable production and consumption chains, from design to end of life. This implies a need for new industrial materials and processes, new skills and, indeed, new values and life-styles. Sustainability and innovation are key elements of EU's Research and Innovation Framework Programmes, particularly in the field of industrial technologies (nanotechnologies, materials and industrial technologies), which objective is to "improve the competitiveness of the European industry and generate knowledge to ensure its transformation from a resource intensive to a knowledge intensive industry". Sustainability and innovation are interrelated challenges for R&D. Research can develop technical solutions to tackle environmental or societal challenges, but such technologies need to be successfully commercialised to have a real environmental impact. Several socio-economic studies carried-out by the European Commission show not only the emerging technological and industrial trends, but they also emphasise the need for linking sustainable technologies with social change. Human capital and new social behaviours are critical factors to combine economic competitiveness and sustainability: technology alone is no longer able to solve global challenges. But what kind of human capital (skills, behaviours, and values) are we referring to? How to encourage the shift towards a greener society through human capital? Which reforms are needed in education systems to move towards a sustainable economy? Are there examples of social innovation to be extrapolated and/or generalised?

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL AND SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION: BIOMASS CO-FIRING IN INDUSTRIAL BOILERS--UNIVERSITY OF IOWA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA operates the Environmental and Sustainable Technology Evaluation (ESTE) program to facilitate the deployment of innovative technologies through performance verification and information dissemination. This ESTE project involved evaluation of co-firing common woody bio...

  15. Combining Aesthetic with Ecological Values for Landscape Sustainability

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dewei; Luo, Tao; Lin, Tao; Qiu, Quanyi; Luo, Yunjian

    2014-01-01

    Humans receive multiple benefits from various landscapes that foster ecological services and aesthetic attractiveness. In this study, a hybrid framework was proposed to evaluate ecological and aesthetic values of five landscape types in Houguanhu Region of central China. Data from the public aesthetic survey and professional ecological assessment were converted into a two-dimensional coordinate system and distribution maps of landscape values. Results showed that natural landscapes (i.e. water body and forest) contributed positively more to both aesthetic and ecological values than semi-natural and human-dominated landscapes (i.e. farmland and non-ecological land). The distribution maps of landscape values indicated that the aesthetic, ecological and integrated landscape values were significantly associated with landscape attributes and human activity intensity. To combine aesthetic preferences with ecological services, the methods (i.e. field survey, landscape value coefficients, normalized method, a two-dimensional coordinate system, and landscape value distribution maps) were employed in landscape assessment. Our results could facilitate to identify the underlying structure-function-value chain, and also improve the understanding of multiple functions in landscape planning. The situation context could also be emphasized to bring ecological and aesthetic goals into better alignment. PMID:25050886

  16. Combined Sustainability Assessment and Techno-Economic Analysis for the Production of Biomass-Derived High-Octane Gasoline Blendstock

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Eric C. D.; Talmadge, Michael; Dutta, Abhijit

    2015-11-13

    Conversion technologies for biomass to liquid hydrocarbon fuels are being actively developed. Converting biomass into advanced hydrocarbon fuels requires detailed assessments to help prioritize research; techno-economic analysis (TEA) is a long established tool used to assess feasibility and progress. TEA provides information needed to make informed judgments about the viability of any given conceptual conversion process; it is particularly useful to identify technical barriers and measure progress toward overcoming those barriers. Expansion of the cellulosic biofuels industry at the scale needed to meet the Renewable Fuel Standard goals is also expected to have environmental impacts. Hence, the success of the biofuels industry depends not only on economic viability, but also on environmental sustainability. A biorefinery process that is economically feasible but suffers from key sustainability drawbacks is not likely to represent a long-term solution to replace fossil-derived fuels. Overarching concerns like environmental sustainability need to be addressed for biofuels production. Combined TEA and environmental sustainability assessment of emerging pathways helps facilitate biorefinery designs that are both economically feasible and minimally impactful to the environment. This study focuses on environmental sustainability assessment and techno-economic analysis for the production of high-octane gasoline blendstock via gasification and methanol/dimethyl ether intermediates. Results from the conceptual process design with economic analysis, along with the quantification and assessment of the environmental sustainability, are presented and discussed. Sustainability metrics associated with the production of high-octane gasoline include carbon conversion efficiency, consumptive water use, life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions, fossil energy consumption, energy return on investment and net energy value.

  17. Impact of Sustainable Cool Roof Technology on Building Energy Consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuppuluri, Prem Kiran

    Highly reflective roofing systems have been analyzed over several decades to evaluate their ability to meet sustainability goals, including reducing building energy consumption and mitigating the urban heat island. Studies have isolated and evaluated the effects of climate, surface reflectivity, and roof insulation on energy savings, thermal load mitigation and also ameliorating the urban heat island. Other sustainable roofing systems, like green-roofs and solar panels have been similarly evaluated. The motivation for the present study is twofold: the first goal is to present a method for simultaneous evaluation and inter-comparison of multiple roofing systems, and the second goal is to quantitatively evaluate the realized heating and cooling energy savings associated with a white roof system compared to the reduction in roof-top heat flux. To address the first research goal a field experiment was conducted at the International Harvester Building located in Portland, OR. Thermal data was collected for a white roof, vegetated roof, and a solar panel shaded vegetated roof, and the heat flux through these roofing systems was compared against a control patch of conventional dark roof membrane. The second research goal was accomplished using a building energy simulation program to determine the impact of roof area and roof insulation on the savings from a white roof, in both Portland and Phoenix. The ratio of cooling energy savings to roof heat flux reduction from replacing a dark roof with a white roof was 1:4 for the month of July, and 1:5 annually in Portland. The COP of the associated chillers ranges from 2.8-4.2, indicating that the ratio of cooling energy savings to heat flux reduction is not accounted for solely by the COP of the chillers. The results of the building simulation indicate that based on energy savings alone, white roofs are not an optimal choice for Portland. The benefits associated with cooling energy savings relative to a black roof are offset by

  18. An engineering dilemma: sustainability in the eyes of future technology professionals.

    PubMed

    Haase, S

    2013-09-01

    The ability to design technological solutions that address sustainability is considered pivotal to the future of the planet and its people. As technology professionals engineers are expected to play an important role in sustaining society. The present article aims at exploring sustainability concepts of newly enrolled engineering students in Denmark. Their understandings of sustainability and the role they ascribe to sustainability in their future professional practice is investigated by means of a critical discourse analysis including metaphor analysis and semiotic analysis. The sustainability construal is considered to delimit possible ways of dealing with the concept in practice along the engineering education pathway and in professional problem solving. Five different metaphors used by the engineering students to illustrate sustainability are identified, and their different connotative and interpretive implications are discussed. It is found that sustainability represents a dilemma to the engineering students that situates them in a tension between their technology fascination and the blame they find that technological progress bears. Their sustainability descriptions are collected as part of a survey containing among other questions one open-ended, qualitative question on sustainability. The survey covers an entire year group of Danish engineering students in the first month of their degree study.

  19. Technological innovation and developmental strategies for sustainable management of aquatic resources in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Agboola, Julius Ibukun

    2014-12-01

    Sustainable use and allocation of aquatic resources including water resources require implementation of ecologically appropriate technologies, efficient and relevant to local needs. Despite the numerous international agreements and provisions on transfer of technology, this has not been successfully achieved in developing countries. While reviewing some challenges to technological innovations and developments (TID), this paper analyzes five TID strategic approaches centered on grassroots technology development and provision of localized capacity for sustainable aquatic resources management. Three case studies provide examples of successful implementation of these strategies. Success requires the provision of localized capacity to manage technology through knowledge empowerment in rural communities situated within a framework of clear national priorities for technology development.

  20. Technological Innovation and Developmental Strategies for Sustainable Management of Aquatic Resources in Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agboola, Julius Ibukun

    2014-12-01

    Sustainable use and allocation of aquatic resources including water resources require implementation of ecologically appropriate technologies, efficient and relevant to local needs. Despite the numerous international agreements and provisions on transfer of technology, this has not been successfully achieved in developing countries. While reviewing some challenges to technological innovations and developments (TID), this paper analyzes five TID strategic approaches centered on grassroots technology development and provision of localized capacity for sustainable aquatic resources management. Three case studies provide examples of successful implementation of these strategies. Success requires the provision of localized capacity to manage technology through knowledge empowerment in rural communities situated within a framework of clear national priorities for technology development.

  1. Combined Heat and Power: Effective Energy Solutions for a Sustainable Future

    SciTech Connect

    Shipley, Ms. Anna; Hampson, Anne; Hedman, Mr. Bruce; Garland, Patricia W; Bautista, Paul

    2008-12-01

    Combined Heat and Power (CHP) solutions represent a proven and effective near-term energy option to help the United States enhance energy efficiency, ensure environmental quality, promote economic growth, and foster a robust energy infrastructure. Using CHP today, the United States already avoids more than 1.9 Quadrillion British thermal units (Quads) of fuel consumption and 248 million metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions annually compared to traditional separate production of electricity and thermal energy. This CO{sub 2} reduction is the equivalent of removing more than 45 million cars from the road. In addition, CHP is one of the few options in the portfolio of energy alternatives that combines environmental effectiveness with economic viability and improved competitiveness. This report describes in detail the four key areas where CHP has proven its effectiveness and holds promise for the future as an: (1) Environmental Solution: Significantly reducing CO{sub 2} emissions through greater energy efficiency; (2) Competitive Business Solution: Increasing efficiency, reducing business costs, and creating green-collar jobs; (3) Local Energy Solution: Deployable throughout the US; and (4) Infrastructure Modernization Solution: Relieving grid congestion and improving energy security. CHP should be one of the first technologies deployed for near-term carbon reductions. The cost-effectiveness and near-term viability of widespread CHP deployment place the technology at the forefront of practical alternative energy solutions such as wind, solar, clean coal, biofuels, and nuclear power. Clear synergies exist between CHP and most other technologies that dominate the energy and environmental policy dialogue in the country today. As the Nation transforms how it produces, transports, and uses the many forms of energy, it must seize the clear opportunity afforded by CHP in terms of climate change, economic competitiveness, energy security, and infrastructure

  2. SUSTAINABILITY: ECOLOGICAL, SOCIAL, ECONOMIC, TECHNOLOGICAL, AND SYSTEMS ASPECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainability is generally associated with a definition by the World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987: "? development that ?meets the needs and aspirations of the present without compromising the ability to meet those of the future' ?" However, a mathematical theo...

  3. Technology policy and sustainability: An empirical study of renewable energy development in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyer, Maithili

    In the debate over sustainability and development paradigms, energy assumes a unique position by virtue of its direct link with environmental sustainability and its role as an essential vehicle for development. Agenda 21 recognizes that coupling end-use energy efficiency with renewable sources of energy will help meet a large share of the world's energy needs while reducing the environmental impacts of energy use. Nevertheless, the extent and scope of diffusion of new and renewable energy technologies is contingent upon the capabilities of the countries concerned to realize firstly, a need, and subsequently, the resources for utilizing the technologies. India has one of the largest renewable energy programs (REPs) in the world, however, renewables continue to remain a marginal contributor to the total energy supply. The need to fundamentally change the program design of REPs has been suggested by many critics and experts in view of the implementation problems. However, mainstream thinking maintains that Poor financial conditions in the energy sector, not program design flaws, are at the heart of poor implementation results, leading to the premise that infusion of capital and efforts at market transformation through the involvement of the private sector could solve the problem. This dissertation uses case studies on solar photovoltaics, wind energy, and biogas in India to analyze the implementation of renewable energy technologies. Based on stakeholder interviews, documents, and site visits, this dissertation argues that the problems currently recognized are in reality symptomatic of a combination of three underlying problems: (1) An inadequate understanding of the needs of energy users and the complex interplay of existing policies and technological choices with user needs and behavior; (2) An institutional network, both at the local and the national level, that lacks the capacity to facilitate information exchange within and between institutions, thereby losing

  4. The University and Transformation towards Sustainability: The Strategy Used at Chalmers University of Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmberg, John; Lundqvist, Ulrika; Svanstrom, Magdalena; Arehag, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the strategy used for achieving change towards sustainability at Chalmers University of Technology (Chalmers). Examples of how this strategy has been used are described and discussed, and exemplified with different lines of activities in a project on Education for Sustainable Development, the ESD…

  5. Horizontal directional drilling: a green and sustainable technology for site remediation.

    PubMed

    Lubrecht, Michael D

    2012-03-01

    Sustainability has become an important factor in the selection of remedies to clean up contaminated sites. Horizontal directional drilling (HDD) is a relatively new drilling technology that has been successfully adapted to site remediation. In addition to the benefits that HDD provides for the logistics of site cleanup, it also delivers sustainability advantages, compared to alternative construction methods.

  6. Sustain

    SciTech Connect

    2013-08-20

    Current building energy simulation technology requires excessive labor, time and expertise to create building energy models, excessive computational time for accurate simulations and difficulties with the interpretation of the results. These deficiencies can be ameliorated using modern graphical user interfaces and algorithms which take advantage of modern computer architectures and display capabilities. To prove this hypothesis, we developed an experimental test bed for building energy simulation. This novel test bed environment offers an easy-to-use interactive graphical interface, provides access to innovative simulation modules that run at accelerated computational speeds, and presents new graphics visualization methods to interpret simulation results. Our system offers the promise of dramatic ease of use in comparison with currently available building energy simulation tools. Its modular structure makes it suitable for early stage building design, as a research platform for the investigation of new simulation methods, and as a tool for teaching concepts of sustainable design. Improvements in the accuracy and execution speed of many of the simulation modules are based on the modification of advanced computer graphics rendering algorithms. Significant performance improvements are demonstrated in several computationally expensive energy simulation modules. The incorporation of these modern graphical techniques should advance the state of the art in the domain of whole building energy analysis and building performance simulation, particularly at the conceptual design stage when decisions have the greatest impact. More importantly, these better simulation tools will enable the transition from prescriptive to performative energy codes, resulting in better, more efficient designs for our future built environment.

  7. Geospatial technologies for conservation planning: An approach to build more sustainable cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current agricultural production systems must adapt to meet increasing demands for more economically and environmentally sustainable cropping systems. The application of precision agricultural technologies and geospatial and environmental modeling for conservation planning can aid in this transition....

  8. Applying Sustainable Systems Development Approach to Educational Technology Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Information technology (IT) is an essential part of modern education. The roles and contributions of technology to education have been thoroughly documented in academic and professional literature. Despite the benefits, the use of educational technology systems (ETS) also creates a significant impact on the environment, primarily due to energy…

  9. Appropriate Technology for Sustainable Living. 50th Yearbook, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wicklein, Robert C., Ed.

    These eleven papers focus on the need for technology education (TE) to address technological problem solving from a more holistic and appropriate level--less high tech, more thoughtful, and using available resources. "Philosophical Rationale for Appropriate Technology (AT)" (Robert C. Wicklein, Charles J. Kachmar) discusses concerns and issues…

  10. Technology-Driven and Innovative Training for Sustainable Agriculture in The Face of Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wishart, D. N.

    2015-12-01

    Innovative training in 'Sustainable Agriculture' for an increasingly STEM-dependent agricultural sector will require a combination of approaches and technologies for global agricultural production to increase while offsetting climate change. Climate change impacts the water resources of nations as normal global weather patterns are altered during El Nino events. Agricultural curricula must incorporate awareness of 'climate change' in order to find novel ways to (1) assure global food security; (2) improve soil productivity and conservation; (3) improve crop yields and irrigation; (4) inexpensively develop site specific principles of crop management based on variable soil and associated hydrological properties; and (5) improve precision farming. In February 2015, Central State University (CSU), Ohio became an 1890 Land-Grant institution vital to the sustainability of Ohio's agricultural sector. Besides agricultural extension, the agriculture curriculum at CSU integrates multidisciplinary courses in science, technology engineering, agriculture, and mathematics (STEAM). The agriculture program could benefit from a technology-driven, interdisciplinary soil science course that promotes climate change education and climate literacy while being offered in both a blended and collaborative learning environment. The course will focus on the dynamics of microscale to mesoscale processes occurring in farming systems, those of which impact climate change or could be impacted by climate change. Elements of this course will include: climate change webinars; soil-climate interactions; carbon cycling; the balance of carbon fluxes between soil storage and atmosphere; microorganisms and soil carbon storage; paleoclimate and soil forming processes; geophysical techniques used in the characterization of soil horizons; impact of climate change on soil fertility; experiments; and demonstrations.

  11. Sustaining Research Innovations in Educational Technology through Communities of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, David; Lee, Shu-Shing; Lim, Kenneth Y. T.

    2012-01-01

    The diffusion of innovation is critical to societal progression. In the field of education, such diffusion takes on added significance because of the many stakeholders and accountabilities involved. This article presents the argument that efforts at diffusion which are designed from a top-down perspective are not sustainable over the long term…

  12. SIMULATED EXPERIMENTS WITH COMPLEX SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS: ECOLOGY AND TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory


    The concept of sustainability is associated with the statement from the World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987: "... development that meets the needs and aspirations of the present without compromising the ability to meet those of the future..." However, this s...

  13. SUSTAINABILITY: ECOLOGICAL, SOCIAL, ECONOMIC, TECHNOLOGICAL, AND SYSTEMS PERSPECTIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainability is generally associated with a definition by the World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987: "Development that meets the needs and aspirations of the present without compromising the ability to meet those of the future". However, a mathematical theory e...

  14. Possibility of Low Carbon Society Formation by Using Aqua Science & Technologies (Establishment of an Ecologically Sustainable Society)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamasaki, Nakamichi

    2010-11-01

    Basic resolution of environmental problems needs a change of paradigm. In order to form a closed system and sustainable society, Japanese culture and civilization of EDO period (esthetics of self-control) must be considered. Quality technology of Japan is leading the world in environmental resolution. Many Japanese forget the traditional spirit (the original fail is in education). The combination of esthetics and technology is a characteristics of Japanese Goods. The origin of Japanese religion (ethos) is Japanese language and situation of Japan. The global aspects of closed earth system was showed. Practical examples of closed system, Biomass Applications, PVC recycling, poly-diamond synthesis are shown.

  15. QuEST: Qualifying Environmentally Sustainable Technologies. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Christina (Editor)

    2007-01-01

    TEERM focuses its validation efforts on technologies that have shown promise in laboratory testing, but lack testing under realistic or field environment. Mature technologies have advantages over those that are still in the developmental stage such as being more likely to be transitioned into a working environment. One way TEERM begins to evaluate the suitability of technologies is through Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs). TRLs are a systematic metric/measurement system that supports assessments of the maturity of a particular technology and the consistent comparison of maturity between different types of technology. TEERM generally works on demonstrating/validating alternatives that fall within TRLs 5-9. In instances where a mature technology does not exist for a particular Agency application, TEERM works with technology development groups and programs such as NASA's Innovative Partnerships Program (IPP). The IPP's purpose is to identify and document available technologies in light of NASA's needs, evaluate and prioritize those technologies, and reach out to find new partners. All TEERM projects involve multiple partners. Partnering reduces duplication of effort that otherwise might occur if individuals worked their problems alone. Partnering also helps reduce individual contributors' shares of the total cost of technology validation. Through collaboration and financial commitment from project stakeholders and third-party sources, it is possible to fully fund expensive demonstration/validation efforts.

  16. Factors affecting food security and contribution of modern technologies in food sustainability.

    PubMed

    Premanandh, Jagadeesan

    2011-12-01

    The concept of food insecurity is complex and goes beyond the simplistic idea of a country's inability to feed its population. The global food situation is redefined by many driving forces such as population growth, availability of arable lands, water resources, climate change and food availability, accessibility and loss. The combined effect of these factors has undeniably impacted global food production and security. This article reviews the key factors influencing global food insecurity and emphasises the need to adapt science-based technological innovations to address the issue. Although anticipated benefits of modern technologies suggest a level of food production that will sustain the global population, both political will and sufficient investments in modern agriculture are needed to alleviate the food crisis in developing countries. In this globalised era of the 21st century, many determinants of food security are trans-boundary and require multilateral agreements and actions for an effective solution. Food security and hunger alleviation on a global scale are within reach provided that technological innovations are accepted and implemented at all levels.

  17. An instrument design to measure the sustainability of technology in risky environments: Case study of Iraq

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Sammarraie, Munadil Khaleel Faaeq; Faieq, Alaa K.; Al-Qasa, Khaled

    2016-08-01

    Electronic Government (eG) has become a vital tool to serve the beneficiaries; therefore, it has received the attention of many Information System (IS) researchers. Due to the importance of the sustainability of IS, this paper identifies the emergence of a clear gape to measure the sustainability of IS in risky circumstances, such as wars, conflicts and violence; nowadays, the risky issue is increasing remarkably. This paper expands previous studies whose focus was on investigating the sustainability of electronic services unsecured countries in the world. Consequently, a need for a specific tool to measure the sustainability of technology among the users in risky conditions has become urgent. Based on the findings, it can be confirmed that this instrument is reliable to measure the sustainability of technology in risky environments.

  18. Sustain

    2013-08-20

    Current building energy simulation technology requires excessive labor, time and expertise to create building energy models, excessive computational time for accurate simulations and difficulties with the interpretation of the results. These deficiencies can be ameliorated using modern graphical user interfaces and algorithms which take advantage of modern computer architectures and display capabilities. To prove this hypothesis, we developed an experimental test bed for building energy simulation. This novel test bed environment offers an easy-to-use interactivemore » graphical interface, provides access to innovative simulation modules that run at accelerated computational speeds, and presents new graphics visualization methods to interpret simulation results. Our system offers the promise of dramatic ease of use in comparison with currently available building energy simulation tools. Its modular structure makes it suitable for early stage building design, as a research platform for the investigation of new simulation methods, and as a tool for teaching concepts of sustainable design. Improvements in the accuracy and execution speed of many of the simulation modules are based on the modification of advanced computer graphics rendering algorithms. Significant performance improvements are demonstrated in several computationally expensive energy simulation modules. The incorporation of these modern graphical techniques should advance the state of the art in the domain of whole building energy analysis and building performance simulation, particularly at the conceptual design stage when decisions have the greatest impact. More importantly, these better simulation tools will enable the transition from prescriptive to performative energy codes, resulting in better, more efficient designs for our future built environment.« less

  19. Video Tutorials: A Sustainable Method for Campus Technology Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, John; Dent, Julie; Barnes, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    Technology training is a resource-intensive endeavor with inherent potential for waste. Such training is commonly offered in live, face-to-face workshops on campus, without charge, by colleges and universities who value technology skills in their faculty, staff, and students. The true cost to the institution begins with the space used for…

  20. Sustaining Innovation: Developing an Instructional Technology Assessment Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmo, Monica Cristina

    2013-01-01

    This case study developed an instructional technology assessment process for the Gevirtz Graduate School of Education (GGSE). The theoretical framework of Adelman and Taylor (2001) guided the development of this instructional technology assessment process and the tools to aid in its facilitation. GGSE faculty, staff, and graduate students…

  1. Teachers' Initial and Sustained Use of an Instructional Assistive Technology Tool: Exploring the Mitigating Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouck, Emily C.; Flanagan, Sara; Heutsche, Anne; Okolo, Cynthia M.; Englert, Carol Sue

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative research project explored factors that mitigated teachers implementing an instructional assistive technology and factors that mitigated its sustained use. Specifically, it explored these issues in relation to a social studies based instructional assistive technology (Virtual History Museum [VHM]), which was originally implemented…

  2. Education for Sustainable Development in Technology Education in Irish Schools: A Curriculum Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGarr, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the integration of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) in technology education and the extent to which it is currently addressed in curriculum documents and state examinations in technology education at post-primary level in Ireland. This analysis is conducted amidst the backdrop of considerable change in technology…

  3. Problem-Solving in Technology Education as an Approach to Education for Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middleton, Howard

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the issue of how students might learn about sustainability in technology--education classrooms and the relevance of problem-solving in that learning. One of the emerging issues in technology education research is the nature of problem-solving specified in curriculum documents and the kinds of learning activities undertaken by…

  4. Teaching Methods Influencing the Sustainability of the Teaching Process in Technology Education in General Education Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soobik, Mart

    2014-01-01

    The sustainability of technology education is related to a traditional understanding of craft and the methods used to teach it; however, the methods used in the teaching process have been influenced by the innovative changes accompanying the development of technology. In respect to social and economic development, it is important to prepare young…

  5. Identifying Effective Policy and Technologic Reforms for Sustainable Groundwater Management in Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madani, K.; Zekri, S.; Karimi, A.

    2014-12-01

    Oman has gone through three decades of efforts aimed at addressing groundwater over-pumping and the consequent seawater intrusion. Example of measures adopted by the government since the 1990's include a vast subsidy program of irrigation modernization, a freeze on drilling new wells, delimitation of several no-drill zones, a crop substitution program, re-use of treated wastewater and construction of recharge dams. With no major success through these measures, the government laid the ground for water quotas by creating a new regulation in 1995. Nevertheless, groundwater quotas have not been enforced to date due to the high implementation and monitoring costs of traditional flow meters. This presentation discusses how sustainable groundwater management can be secured in Oman using a suit of policy and technologic reforms at a reasonable economic, political and practical cost. Data collected from farms with smart meters and low-cost wireless smart irrigation systems have been used to propose sustainable groundwater withdrawal strategies for Oman using a detailed hydro-economic model that couples a MODFLOW-SEAWAT model of the coastal aquifers with a dynamic profit maximization model. The hydro-economic optimization model was flexible to be run both as a social planner model to maximize the social welfare in the region, and as an agent-based model to capture the behavior of farmers interested in maximizing their profits independently. This flexibility helped capturing the trade-off between the optimality of the social planner solution developed at the system's level and its practicality (stability) with respect to the concerns and behaviors of the profit-maximizing farmers. The idetified promising policy and technolgical reforms for Oman include strict enforcement of groundwater quotas, smart metering, changing crop mixes, improving irrigation technologies, and revising geographical distribution of the farming activities. The presentation will discuss how different

  6. QuEST: Qualifying Environmentally Sustainable Technologies. Volume 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Pattie

    2011-01-01

    QuEST is a publication of the NASA Technology Evaluation for Environmental Risk Mitigation Principal Center (TEERM). This issue contains brief articles on: Risk Identification and Mitigation, Material Management and Substitution Efforts--Hexavalent Chrome-free Coatings and Low volatile organic compounds (VOCs) Coatings, Lead-Free Electronics, Corn-Based Depainting Media; Alternative Energy Efforts Hydrogen Sensors and Solar Air Conditioning. Other TEERM Efforts include: Energy and Water Management and Remediation Technology Collaboration.

  7. Technological innovation and developmental strategies for sustainable management of aquatic resources in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Agboola, Julius Ibukun

    2014-12-01

    Sustainable use and allocation of aquatic resources including water resources require implementation of ecologically appropriate technologies, efficient and relevant to local needs. Despite the numerous international agreements and provisions on transfer of technology, this has not been successfully achieved in developing countries. While reviewing some challenges to technological innovations and developments (TID), this paper analyzes five TID strategic approaches centered on grassroots technology development and provision of localized capacity for sustainable aquatic resources management. Three case studies provide examples of successful implementation of these strategies. Success requires the provision of localized capacity to manage technology through knowledge empowerment in rural communities situated within a framework of clear national priorities for technology development. PMID:25201321

  8. Human Exploration Missions - Maturing Technologies to Sustain Crews

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukai, Chiaki; Koch, Bernhard; Reese, Terrence G.

    2012-01-01

    Human exploration missions beyond low earth orbit will be long duration with abort scenarios of days to months. Providing crews with the essentials of life such as clean air and potable water means recycling human metabolic wastes back to useful products. Individual technologies are under development for such things as CO2 scrubbing, recovery of O2 from CO2, turning waste water into potable water, and so on. But in order to fully evaluate and mature technologies fully they must be tested in a relevant, high-functionality environment; a systems environment where technologies are challenged with real human metabolic wastes. It is for this purpose that an integrated systems ground testing capability at the Johnson Space Center is being readied for testing. The relevant environment will include deep space habitat human accommodations, sealed atmosphere of 8 psi total pressure and 32% oxygen concentration, life support systems (food, air, water), communications, crew accommodations, medical, EVA, tools, etc. Testing periods will approximate those of the expected missions (such as a near Earth asteroid, Earth ]Moon L2 or L1, the moon, and Mars). This type of integrated testing is needed not only for research and technology development but later during the mission design, development, test, and evaluation phases of preparing for the mission.

  9. Reduced Emissions and Lower Costs: Combining Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency into a Sustainable Energy Portfolio Standard

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Marilyn A

    2007-01-01

    Combining renewable energy and energy efficiency in Sustainable Energy Portfolio Standards has emerged as a key state and national policy option to achieve greater levels of sustainable energy resources with maximum economic efficiency and equity. One advantage of the SEPS relative to a renewable portfolio standard or a stand-along energy efficiency resource standard is enhanced flexibility and broader options for meeting targets.

  10. QuEST: Qualifying Environmentally Sustainable Technologies. Vol. 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Pattie (Editor)

    2008-01-01

    This is an exciting new chapter for the NASA Technology Evaluation for Environmental Risk Mitigation Principal Center (TEERM). The Principal Center's past successes have created new opportunities for partnership and technology implementation. TEERM is continuing to support the current NASA Programs while reaching out and offering our assistance and experience to Constellation. NASA has also assumed Chairmanship responsibility of the Joint Group on Pollution Prevention (JG-PP) and Chairmanship of the JG-PP Working Group (WG). Both JG-PP and TEERM strive to improve mission readiness and reduce risk to personnel and assets by solving joint problems through cooperation. JG-PP and TEERM not only show our commitment to environmental stewardship, but also our commitment to fiscal responsibility.

  11. The right of all nations to access science, new technologies and sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Majidi, Mohammad Reza; Dehshiri, Mohammad Reza

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the need for reflection on the right of developing countries to science and technology in addition to explaining the place of the scientific rights of nations in human rights as a whole. The discussion was conducted in relation to sustainable development. Through the examination of the current situation and the challenges to sustainable development, and taking into account the imbalance in the distribution of the benefits of science and new technologies, the authors advocate a comprehensive approach to promote cooperation and capacity-building in this area. They argue that linkages should be adopted between micro-levels and macro-levels of analysis by elevating rights and related issues from individuals to the national level in the field of the right to science and technology, and from the national to the international level in the field of sustainable development in order to institutionalise and ensure individual and national rights to science, technology and sustainable development. The authors also believe in a multidimensional perspective based on the balanced flourishing of the material and immaterial aspects of humankind in order to realise these rights in the context of dialogue and cultural diversity and to promote the culture of sustainable and dynamic peace based on justice in knowledge societies. PMID:20726143

  12. The right of all nations to access science, new technologies and sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Majidi, Mohammad Reza; Dehshiri, Mohammad Reza

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the need for reflection on the right of developing countries to science and technology in addition to explaining the place of the scientific rights of nations in human rights as a whole. The discussion was conducted in relation to sustainable development. Through the examination of the current situation and the challenges to sustainable development, and taking into account the imbalance in the distribution of the benefits of science and new technologies, the authors advocate a comprehensive approach to promote cooperation and capacity-building in this area. They argue that linkages should be adopted between micro-levels and macro-levels of analysis by elevating rights and related issues from individuals to the national level in the field of the right to science and technology, and from the national to the international level in the field of sustainable development in order to institutionalise and ensure individual and national rights to science, technology and sustainable development. The authors also believe in a multidimensional perspective based on the balanced flourishing of the material and immaterial aspects of humankind in order to realise these rights in the context of dialogue and cultural diversity and to promote the culture of sustainable and dynamic peace based on justice in knowledge societies.

  13. Oil spill problems and sustainable response strategies through new technologies.

    PubMed

    Ivshina, Irena B; Kuyukina, Maria S; Krivoruchko, Anastasiya V; Elkin, Andrey A; Makarov, Sergey O; Cunningham, Colin J; Peshkur, Tatyana A; Atlas, Ronald M; Philp, James C

    2015-07-01

    Crude oil and petroleum products are widespread water and soil pollutants resulting from marine and terrestrial spillages. International statistics of oil spill sizes for all incidents indicate that the majority of oil spills are small (less than 7 tonnes). The major accidents that happen in the oil industry contribute only a small fraction of the total oil which enters the environment. However, the nature of accidental releases is that they highly pollute small areas and have the potential to devastate the biota locally. There are several routes by which oil can get back to humans from accidental spills, e.g. through accumulation in fish and shellfish, through consumption of contaminated groundwater. Although advances have been made in the prevention of accidents, this does not apply in all countries, and by the random nature of oil spill events, total prevention is not feasible. Therefore, considerable world-wide effort has gone into strategies for minimising accidental spills and the design of new remedial technologies. This paper summarizes new knowledge as well as research and technology gaps essential for developing appropriate decision-making tools in actual spill scenarios. Since oil exploration is being driven into deeper waters and more remote, fragile environments, the risk of future accidents becomes much higher. The innovative safety and accident prevention approaches summarized in this paper are currently important for a range of stakeholders, including the oil industry, the scientific community and the public. Ultimately an integrated approach to prevention and remediation that accelerates an early warning protocol in the event of a spill would get the most appropriate technology selected and implemented as early as possible - the first few hours after a spill are crucial to the outcome of the remedial effort. A particular focus is made on bioremediation as environmentally harmless, cost-effective and relatively inexpensive technology. Greater

  14. QuEST: Qualifying Environmentally Sustainable Technologies, Volume 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Pattie

    2010-01-01

    This edition of the QuEST newsletter contains brief articles that discuss the NASA Technology Evaluation for Environmental Risk Mitigation (TEERM) program, and the importance of collaboration, efforts in materials management and substitution for coatings for launch structures, Low volatile organic compound (VOC) Coatings Field Testing, Non-Chrome Coating Systems, Life Cycle Corrosion Testing, Lead-Free Electronics Testing and Corn Based Depainting and efforts in Pollution Control in the area of Hypergolic Propellant Destruction Evaluation, efforts in development of alternative energy in particular Hydrogen Sensors, Energy and Water Management, and efforts in remediation in the removal of Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) contamination

  15. QuEST: Qualifying Environmentally Sustainable Technologies. Volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Pattie L.

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, in one of their first collaborative efforts, Centro Para Prevencao da Poluicao (Portuguese Center for Pollution Prevention or C3P). teamed with Technology Evaluation for Environmental Risk Mitigation Principal Center (TEERM) and two Portuguese entities, TAP Portugal (Portuguese National Airline) and OGMA Indtistria Aeron utica de Portugal (Portuguese Aeronautics Industry), to target the reduction of hexavalent chromium, cadmium, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in aircraft maintenance operations. This project focused on two coating systems that utilize non-chrome pretreatments and low-VOC primers and topcoats.

  16. Sustainability assessment of tertiary wastewater treatment technologies: a multi-criteria analysis.

    PubMed

    Plakas, K V; Georgiadis, A A; Karabelas, A J

    2016-01-01

    The multi-criteria analysis gives the opportunity to researchers, designers and decision-makers to examine decision options in a multi-dimensional fashion. On this basis, four tertiary wastewater treatment (WWT) technologies were assessed regarding their sustainability performance in producing recycled wastewater, considering a 'triple bottom line' approach (i.e. economic, environmental, and social). These are powdered activated carbon adsorption coupled with ultrafiltration membrane separation (PAC-UF), reverse osmosis, ozone/ultraviolet-light oxidation and heterogeneous photo-catalysis coupled with low-pressure membrane separation (photocatalytic membrane reactor, PMR). The participatory method called simple multi-attribute rating technique exploiting ranks was employed for assigning weights to selected sustainability indicators. This sustainability assessment approach resulted in the development of a composite index as a final metric, for each WWT technology evaluated. The PAC-UF technology appears to be the most appropriate technology, attaining the highest composite value regarding the sustainability performance. A scenario analysis confirmed the results of the original scenario in five out of seven cases. In parallel, the PMR was highlighted as the technology with the least variability in its performance. Nevertheless, additional actions and approaches are proposed to strengthen the objectivity of the final results.

  17. Sustainability assessment of tertiary wastewater treatment technologies: a multi-criteria analysis.

    PubMed

    Plakas, K V; Georgiadis, A A; Karabelas, A J

    2016-01-01

    The multi-criteria analysis gives the opportunity to researchers, designers and decision-makers to examine decision options in a multi-dimensional fashion. On this basis, four tertiary wastewater treatment (WWT) technologies were assessed regarding their sustainability performance in producing recycled wastewater, considering a 'triple bottom line' approach (i.e. economic, environmental, and social). These are powdered activated carbon adsorption coupled with ultrafiltration membrane separation (PAC-UF), reverse osmosis, ozone/ultraviolet-light oxidation and heterogeneous photo-catalysis coupled with low-pressure membrane separation (photocatalytic membrane reactor, PMR). The participatory method called simple multi-attribute rating technique exploiting ranks was employed for assigning weights to selected sustainability indicators. This sustainability assessment approach resulted in the development of a composite index as a final metric, for each WWT technology evaluated. The PAC-UF technology appears to be the most appropriate technology, attaining the highest composite value regarding the sustainability performance. A scenario analysis confirmed the results of the original scenario in five out of seven cases. In parallel, the PMR was highlighted as the technology with the least variability in its performance. Nevertheless, additional actions and approaches are proposed to strengthen the objectivity of the final results. PMID:27054724

  18. Subtask 5.3 - Water and Energy Sustainability and Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce Folkedahl; Christopher Martin; David Dunham

    2010-09-30

    The overall goal of this Energy & Environmental Research Center project was to evaluate water capture technologies in a carbon capture and sequestration system and perform a complete systems analysis of the process to determine potential water minimization opportunities within the entire system. To achieve that goal, a pilot-scale liquid desiccant dehumidification system (LDDS) was fabricated and tested in conjunction with a coal-fired combustion test furnace outfitted with CO{sub 2} mitigation technologies, including the options of oxy-fired operation and postcombustion CO{sub 2} capture using an amine scrubber. The process gas stream for these tests was a coal-derived flue gas that had undergone conventional pollutant control (particulates, SO{sub 2}) and CO{sub 2} capture with an amine-based scrubber. The water balance data from the pilot-scale tests show that the packed-bed absorber design was very effective at capturing moisture down to levels that approach equilibrium conditions.

  19. Subsea manifolds optimization -- The combination of mature and new technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Paulo, C.A.S.

    1996-12-31

    Subsea equipment can now be considered a mature option for offshore field developments. In Brazil, since the first oil in Campos Basin, different concepts ranging from one-atmosphere chambers to deepwater guidelineless X-mas trees, have been tested, contributing to this development. The experience acquired during these years makes it possible to combine the proven systems with new technologies being developed, for the design of subsea manifolds. The main target is more efficiency and cost reduction. When choosing a manifold concept, a usual rule is applicable: the simpler the better. The maturity, confidence and reliability obtained, allow the usage of resident hydraulically actuated valves, simplifying considerably the manifold arrangement. Other contributions come from: the reduction of piping bend radius allowed by the new pigs; the increased reliability of subsea instrumentation and chokes, allowing elimination of the gas-lift-test flowline; and the development of the direct vertical connection, that turns subsea tie-ins into very fast and easy operations. Combining all that with the new technology of a multiphase meter (to eliminate the test flowline and even the test separator on the platform), one can achieve a cost effective solution. This paper describes the possibilities of simplifying the subsea manifolds and presents a comparison of different designs. The usage of mature technology combined with the new developments, can help the industry to make deep water developments profitable, worldwide.

  20. Feeding nine billion people sustainably: conserving land and water through shifting diets and changes in technologies.

    PubMed

    Springer, Nathaniel P; Duchin, Faye

    2014-04-15

    In the early 21st century the extensive clearing of forestland, fresh water scarcity, and sharp rises in the price of food have become causes for concern. These concerns may be substantially exacerbated over the next few decades by the need to provide improved diets for a growing global population. This study applies an inter-regional input-output model of the world economy, the World Trade Model, for analysis of alternative scenarios about satisfying future food requirements by midcentury. The scenario analysis indicates that relying only on more extensive use of arable land and fresh water would require clearing forests and exacerbating regional water scarcities. However, a combination of less resource-intensive diets and improved agricultural productivity, the latter especially in Africa, could make it possible to use these resources sustainably while also constraining increases in food prices. Unlike the scenario outcomes from other kinds of economic models, our framework reveals the potential for a decisive shift of production and export of agricultural products away from developed countries toward Africa and Latin America. Although the assumed changes in diets and technologies may not be realizable without incentives, our results suggest that these regions exhibit comparative advantages in agricultural production due to their large remaining resource endowments and their potential for higher yields. PMID:24635667

  1. Feeding nine billion people sustainably: conserving land and water through shifting diets and changes in technologies.

    PubMed

    Springer, Nathaniel P; Duchin, Faye

    2014-04-15

    In the early 21st century the extensive clearing of forestland, fresh water scarcity, and sharp rises in the price of food have become causes for concern. These concerns may be substantially exacerbated over the next few decades by the need to provide improved diets for a growing global population. This study applies an inter-regional input-output model of the world economy, the World Trade Model, for analysis of alternative scenarios about satisfying future food requirements by midcentury. The scenario analysis indicates that relying only on more extensive use of arable land and fresh water would require clearing forests and exacerbating regional water scarcities. However, a combination of less resource-intensive diets and improved agricultural productivity, the latter especially in Africa, could make it possible to use these resources sustainably while also constraining increases in food prices. Unlike the scenario outcomes from other kinds of economic models, our framework reveals the potential for a decisive shift of production and export of agricultural products away from developed countries toward Africa and Latin America. Although the assumed changes in diets and technologies may not be realizable without incentives, our results suggest that these regions exhibit comparative advantages in agricultural production due to their large remaining resource endowments and their potential for higher yields.

  2. Program Proposal: Certificates of Competence, Certificate of Achievement, Associate in Applied Science Degree in Sustainable Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pezzoli, Jean A.; Ainsworth, Don

    This document proposes a program in sustainable technology at Maui Community College (Hawaii). This new career program would be designed to provide four Certificates of Competence, a Certificate of Achievement, and an Associate in Applied Science degree. The primary objectives of the program are to meet student, county, and state needs for…

  3. Using Smartphone Technology in Environmental Sustainability Education: The Case of the Maasai Mara Region in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogbey, James; Quigley, Cassie; Che, Megan; Hallo, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    This study engaged key stakeholders in an economically and environmentally fragile region in Kenya in a unique, interdisciplinary, and integrative approach to explore the extent to which the use of smartphone technology helps access the environmental values and sustainability perspectives of the people of the Maasai land. The results of the study…

  4. Community Outreach Projects as a Sustainable Way of Introducing Information Technology in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zlotnikova, Irina; van der Weide, Theo

    2015-01-01

    The paper describes an approach to the sustainable introduction of IT in developing countries based on international collaboration between students taking the form of a knowledge bridge. The authors consider the challenges for introducing information technologies in developing countries; one of these is lack of reading materials ultimately leading…

  5. Engineering Curricula in Sustainable Development. An Evaluation of Changes at Delft University of Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulder, Karel F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper will first sketch some basic features of the engineering profession, and the need for change. It will analyse the political process that resulted in the decision at Delft University of Technology (DUT) to emphasise Sustainable Development (SD) in its curricula. The main goal of this education is to show that SD is not a burden, but a…

  6. Integrating Social Sustainability in Engineering Education at the KTH Royal Institute of Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Björnberg, Karin Edvardsson; Skogh, Inga-Britt; Strömberg, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate what are perceived to be the main challenges associated with the integration of social sustainability into engineering education at the KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm. Design/methodology/approach: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with programme leaders and teachers from…

  7. Innovate-Ideagora: A Call for Sustainable Development in Instructional Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easton, Denise; McCord, Alan

    2009-01-01

    In this edition of Innovate-Ideagora, Al McCord and Denise Easton report on developments in this online community, which now boasts over 400 members. As members engaged in active discussions about ways to support sustainable, accessible technologies, discussion coalesced around rumors of a $10 laptop and what such a development might mean for…

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL AND SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION: BIOMASS CO-FIRING IN INDUSTRIAL BOILERS--MINNESOTA POWER'S RAPIDS ENERGY CENTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA operates the Environmental and Sustainable Technology Evaluation (ESTE) program to facilitate the deployment of innovative technologies through performance verification and information dissemination. This ESTE project involved evaluation of co-firing common woody bio...

  9. Bridging the gap between sustainable technology adoption and protecting natural resources: Predicting intentions to adopt energy management technologies in California

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Bingye; Sintov, Nicole

    2016-10-24

    To achieve energy savings, emerging energy management technologies and programs require customer adoption. Although a variety of models can be used to explain the adoption of energy management technologies and programs, they overlook the seemingly unconventional element of level of affiliation with nature. In fact, connectedness to nature has been identified as an important driver of many pro-environmental behaviors, but its role in pro-environmental technology adoption is also not well understood. Can affiliation with nature help to bridge the apparent gap—and complex chain of events—between sustainable technology adoption and protecting natural resources? Based on survey data from 856 southern Californiamore » residents, this study investigated the influence of connectedness to nature and other factors on intentions to adopt five energy management technologies and programs: using three platforms to monitor home energy use (website, mobile phone application, in-home display); signing up for a time-of-use pricing plan; and participating in demand response events. Regression results showed that nature connectedness was the strongest predictor of all outcomes such that higher nature connectedness predicted greater likelihood of technology and program adoption. In conclusion, these findings suggest that connectedness to nature may facilitate “bridging the logic gap” between sustainable innovation adoption and environmental protection.« less

  10. Overcoming systemic roadblocks to sustainability: The evolutionary redesign of worldviews, institutions, and technologies

    PubMed Central

    Beddoe, Rachael; Costanza, Robert; Farley, Joshua; Garza, Eric; Kent, Jennifer; Kubiszewski, Ida; Martinez, Luz; McCowen, Tracy; Murphy, Kathleen; Myers, Norman; Ogden, Zach; Stapleton, Kevin; Woodward, John

    2009-01-01

    A high and sustainable quality of life is a central goal for humanity. Our current socio-ecological regime and its set of interconnected worldviews, institutions, and technologies all support the goal of unlimited growth of material production and consumption as a proxy for quality of life. However, abundant evidence shows that, beyond a certain threshold, further material growth no longer significantly contributes to improvement in quality of life. Not only does further material growth not meet humanity's central goal, there is mounting evidence that it creates significant roadblocks to sustainability through increasing resource constraints (i.e., peak oil, water limitations) and sink constraints (i.e., climate disruption). Overcoming these roadblocks and creating a sustainable and desirable future will require an integrated, systems level redesign of our socio-ecological regime focused explicitly and directly on the goal of sustainable quality of life rather than the proxy of unlimited material growth. This transition, like all cultural transitions, will occur through an evolutionary process, but one that we, to a certain extent, can control and direct. We suggest an integrated set of worldviews, institutions, and technologies to stimulate and seed this evolutionary redesign of the current socio-ecological regime to achieve global sustainability. PMID:19240221

  11. Describing an Environment for a Self-Sustaining Technology Transfer Service in a Small Research Budget University: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieb, Sharon Lynn

    2014-01-01

    This single-site qualitative study sought to identify the characteristics that contribute to the self sustainability of technology transfer services at universities with small research budgets through a case study analysis of a small research budget university that has been operating a financially self-sustainable technology transfer service for…

  12. Combined Technologies for Microfabricating Elastomeric Cardiac Tissue Engineering Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Guillemette, Maxime D.; Park, Hyoungshin; Hsiao, James C.; Jain, Saloni R.; Larson, Benjamin L.; Langer, Robert; Freed, Lisa E.

    2012-01-01

    Polymer scaffolds that direct elongation and orientation of cultured cells can enable tissue engineered muscle to act as a mechanically functional unit. We combined micromolding and microablation technologies to create muscle tissue engineering scaffolds from the biodegradable elastomer poly(glycerol sebacate). These scaffolds exhibited well defined surface patterns and pores and robust elastomeric tensile mechanical properties. Cultured C2C12 muscle cells penetrated the pores to form spatially controlled engineered tissues. Scanning electron and confocal microscopy revealed muscle cell orientation in a preferential direction, parallel to micromolded gratings and long axes of microablated anisotropic pores, with significant individual and interactive effects of gratings and pore design. PMID:20718054

  13. Sustainable bioethanol production combining biorefinery principles using combined raw materials from wheat undersown with clover-grass.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Haugaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2008-05-01

    To obtain the best possible net energy balance of the bioethanol production the biomass raw materials used need to be produced with limited use of non-renewable fossil fuels. Intercropping strategies are known to maximize growth and productivity by including more than one species in the crop stand, very often with legumes as one of the components. In the present study clover-grass is undersown in a traditional wheat crop. Thereby, it is possible to increase input of symbiotic fixation of atmospheric nitrogen into the cropping systems and reduce the need for fertilizer applications. Furthermore, when using such wheat and clover-grass mixtures as raw material, addition of urea and other fermentation nutrients produced from fossil fuels can be reduced in the whole ethanol manufacturing chain. Using second generation ethanol technology mixtures of relative proportions of wheat straw and clover-grass (15:85, 50:50, and 85:15) were pretreated by wet oxidation. The results showed that supplementing wheat straw with clover-grass had a positive effect on the ethanol yield in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation experiments, and the effect was more pronounced in inhibitory substrates. The highest ethanol yield (80% of theoretical) was obtained in the experiment with high fraction (85%) of clover-grass. In order to improve the sugar recovery of clover-grass, it should be separated into a green juice (containing free sugars, fructan, amino acids, vitamins and soluble minerals) for direct fermentation and a fibre pulp for pretreatment together with wheat straw. Based on the obtained results a decentralized biorefinery concept for production of biofuel is suggested emphasizing sustainability, localness, and recycling principles. PMID:18338188

  14. Sustainable bioethanol production combining biorefinery principles using combined raw materials from wheat undersown with clover-grass.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Haugaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2008-05-01

    To obtain the best possible net energy balance of the bioethanol production the biomass raw materials used need to be produced with limited use of non-renewable fossil fuels. Intercropping strategies are known to maximize growth and productivity by including more than one species in the crop stand, very often with legumes as one of the components. In the present study clover-grass is undersown in a traditional wheat crop. Thereby, it is possible to increase input of symbiotic fixation of atmospheric nitrogen into the cropping systems and reduce the need for fertilizer applications. Furthermore, when using such wheat and clover-grass mixtures as raw material, addition of urea and other fermentation nutrients produced from fossil fuels can be reduced in the whole ethanol manufacturing chain. Using second generation ethanol technology mixtures of relative proportions of wheat straw and clover-grass (15:85, 50:50, and 85:15) were pretreated by wet oxidation. The results showed that supplementing wheat straw with clover-grass had a positive effect on the ethanol yield in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation experiments, and the effect was more pronounced in inhibitory substrates. The highest ethanol yield (80% of theoretical) was obtained in the experiment with high fraction (85%) of clover-grass. In order to improve the sugar recovery of clover-grass, it should be separated into a green juice (containing free sugars, fructan, amino acids, vitamins and soluble minerals) for direct fermentation and a fibre pulp for pretreatment together with wheat straw. Based on the obtained results a decentralized biorefinery concept for production of biofuel is suggested emphasizing sustainability, localness, and recycling principles.

  15. Systems architecture: a new model for sustainability and the built environment using nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, and cognitive science with living technology.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    This report details a workshop held at the Bartlett School of Architecture, University College London, to initiate interdisciplinary collaborations for the practice of systems architecture, which is a new model for the generation of sustainable architecture that combines the discipline of the study of the built environment with the scientific study of complexity, or systems science, and adopts the perspective of systems theory. Systems architecture offers new perspectives on the organization of the built environment that enable architects to consider architecture as a series of interconnected networks with embedded links into natural systems. The public workshop brought together architects and scientists working with the convergence of nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, and cognitive science and with living technology to investigate the possibility of a new generation of smart materials that are implied by this approach.

  16. A Unique Master's Program in Combined Nuclear Technology and Nuclear Chemistry at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skarnemark, Gunnar; Allard, Stefan; Ekberg, Christian; Nordlund, Anders

    2009-08-01

    The need for engineers and scientists who can ensure safe and secure use of nuclear energy is large in Sweden and internationally. Chalmers University of Technology is therefore launching a new 2-year master's program in Nuclear Engineering, with start from the autumn of 2009. The program is open to Swedish and foreign students. The program starts with compulsory courses dealing with the basics of nuclear chemistry and physics, radiation protection, nuclear power and reactors, nuclear fuel supply, nuclear waste management and nuclear safety and security. There are also compulsory courses in nuclear industry applications and sustainable energy futures. The subsequent elective courses can be chosen freely but there is also a possibility to choose informal tracks that concentrate on nuclear chemistry or reactor technology and physics. The nuclear chemistry track comprises courses in e.g. chemistry of lanthanides, actinides and transactinides, solvent extraction, radioecology and radioanalytical chemistry and radiopharmaceuticals. The program is finished with a one semester thesis project. This is probably a unique master program in the sense of its combination of deep courses in both nuclear technology and nuclear chemistry.

  17. A Unique Master's Program in Combined Nuclear Technology and Nuclear Chemistry at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Skarnemark, Gunnar; Allard, Stefan; Ekberg, Christian; Nordlund, Anders

    2009-08-19

    The need for engineers and scientists who can ensure safe and secure use of nuclear energy is large in Sweden and internationally. Chalmers University of Technology is therefore launching a new 2-year master's program in Nuclear Engineering, with start from the autumn of 2009. The program is open to Swedish and foreign students. The program starts with compulsory courses dealing with the basics of nuclear chemistry and physics, radiation protection, nuclear power and reactors, nuclear fuel supply, nuclear waste management and nuclear safety and security. There are also compulsory courses in nuclear industry applications and sustainable energy futures. The subsequent elective courses can be chosen freely but there is also a possibility to choose informal tracks that concentrate on nuclear chemistry or reactor technology and physics. The nuclear chemistry track comprises courses in e.g. chemistry of lanthanides, actinides and transactinides, solvent extraction, radioecology and radioanalytical chemistry and radiopharmaceuticals. The program is finished with a one semester thesis project. This is probably a unique master program in the sense of its combination of deep courses in both nuclear technology and nuclear chemistry.

  18. Sustainability Through Technology Licensing and Commercialization: Lessons Learned from the TRIAD Project.

    PubMed

    Payne, Philip R O

    2014-01-01

    Ongoing transformation relative to the funding climate for healthcare research programs housed in academic and non-profit research organizations has led to a new (or renewed) emphasis on the pursuit of non-traditional sustainability models. This need is often particularly acute in the context of data management and sharing infrastructure that is developed under the auspices of such research initiatives. One option for achieving sustainability of such data management and sharing infrastructure is the pursuit of technology licensing and commercialization, in an effort to establish public-private or equivalent partnerships that sustain and even expand upon the development and dissemination of research-oriented data management and sharing technologies. However, the critical success factors for technology licensing and commercialization efforts are often unknown to individuals outside of the private sector, thus making this type of endeavor challenging to investigators in academic and non-profit settings. In response to such a gap in knowledge, this article will review a number of generalizable lessons learned from an effort undertaken at The Ohio State University to commercialize a prototypical research-oriented data management and sharing infrastructure, known as the Translational Research Informatics and Data Management (TRIAD) Grid. It is important to note that the specific emphasis of these lessons learned is on the early stages of moving a technology from the research setting into a private-sector entity and as such are particularly relevant to academic investigators interested in pursuing such activities. PMID:25848609

  19. Sustainability Through Technology Licensing and Commercialization: Lessons Learned from the TRIAD Project

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Philip R.O.

    2014-01-01

    Ongoing transformation relative to the funding climate for healthcare research programs housed in academic and non-profit research organizations has led to a new (or renewed) emphasis on the pursuit of non-traditional sustainability models. This need is often particularly acute in the context of data management and sharing infrastructure that is developed under the auspices of such research initiatives. One option for achieving sustainability of such data management and sharing infrastructure is the pursuit of technology licensing and commercialization, in an effort to establish public-private or equivalent partnerships that sustain and even expand upon the development and dissemination of research-oriented data management and sharing technologies. However, the critical success factors for technology licensing and commercialization efforts are often unknown to individuals outside of the private sector, thus making this type of endeavor challenging to investigators in academic and non-profit settings. In response to such a gap in knowledge, this article will review a number of generalizable lessons learned from an effort undertaken at The Ohio State University to commercialize a prototypical research-oriented data management and sharing infrastructure, known as the Translational Research Informatics and Data Management (TRIAD) Grid. It is important to note that the specific emphasis of these lessons learned is on the early stages of moving a technology from the research setting into a private-sector entity and as such are particularly relevant to academic investigators interested in pursuing such activities. PMID:25848609

  20. Supporting Sustainable Markets Through Life Cycle Assessment: Evaluating emerging technologies, incorporating uncertainty and the consumer perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merugula, Laura

    As civilization's collective knowledge grows, we are met with the realization that human-induced physical and biological transformations influenced by exogenous psychosocial and economic factors affect virtually every ecosystem on the planet. Despite improvements in energy generation and efficiencies, demand of material goods and energy services increases with no sign of a slowing pace. Sustainable development requires a multi-prong approach that involves reshaping demand, consumer education, sustainability-oriented policy, and supply chain management that does not serve the expansionist mentality. Thus, decision support tools are needed that inform developers, consumers, and policy-makers for short-term and long-term planning. These tools should incorporate uncertainty through quantitative methods as well as qualitatively informing the nature of the model as imperfect but necessary and adequate. A case study is presented of the manufacture and deployment of utility-scale wind turbines evaluated for a proposed change in blade manufacturing. It provides the first life cycle assessment (LCA) evaluating impact of carbon nanofibers, an emerging material, proposed for integration to wind power generation systems as blade reinforcement. Few LCAs of nanoproducts are available in scientific literature due to research and development (R&D) for applications that continues to outpace R&D for environmental, health, and safety (EHS) and life cycle impacts. LCAs of emerging technologies are crucial for informing developers of potential impacts, especially where market growth is swift and dissipative. A second case study is presented that evaluates consumer choice between disposable and reusable beverage cups. While there are a few studies that attempt to make the comparison using LCA, none adequately address uncertainty, nor are they representative for the typical American consumer. By disaggregating U.S. power generation into 26 subregional grid production mixes and evaluating

  1. Dissolving and biodegradable microneedle technologies for transdermal sustained delivery of drug and vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Xiaoyun; Wei, Liangming; Wu, Fei; Wu, Zaozhan; Chen, Lizhu; Liu, Zhenguo; Yuan, Weien

    2013-01-01

    Microneedles were first conceptualized for drug delivery many decades ago, overcoming the shortages and preserving the advantages of hypodermic needle and conventional transdermal drug-delivery systems to some extent. Dissolving and biodegradable microneedle technologies have been used for transdermal sustained deliveries of different drugs and vaccines. This review describes microneedle geometry and the representative dissolving and biodegradable microneedle delivery methods via the skin, followed by the fabricating methods. Finally, this review puts forward some perspectives that require further investigation. PMID:24039404

  2. Participatory Evaluation of Monitoring and Modeling of Sustainable Land Management Technologies in Areas Prone to Land Degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stringer, L. C.; Fleskens, L.; Reed, M. S.; de Vente, J.; Zengin, M.

    2014-11-01

    Examples of sustainable land management (SLM) exist throughout the world. In many cases, SLM has largely evolved through local traditional practices and incremental experimentation rather than being adopted on the basis of scientific evidence. This means that SLM technologies are often only adopted across small areas. The DESIRE (DESertIfication mitigation and REmediation of degraded land) project combined local traditional knowledge on SLM with empirical evaluation of SLM technologies. The purpose of this was to evaluate and select options for dissemination in 16 sites across 12 countries. It involved (i) an initial workshop to evaluate stakeholder priorities (reported elsewhere), (ii) field trials/empirical modeling, and then, (iii) further stakeholder evaluation workshops. This paper focuses on workshops in which stakeholders evaluated the performance of SLM technologies based on the scientific monitoring and modeling results from 15 study sites. It analyses workshop outcomes to evaluate how scientific results affected stakeholders' perceptions of local SLM technologies. It also assessed the potential of this participatory approach in facilitating wider acceptance and implementation of SLM. In several sites, stakeholder preferences for SLM technologies changed as a consequence of empirical measurements and modeling assessments of each technology. Two workshop examples are presented in depth to: (a) explore the scientific results that triggered stakeholders to change their views; and (b) discuss stakeholders' suggestions on how the adoption of SLM technologies could be up-scaled. The overall multi-stakeholder participatory approach taken is then evaluated. It is concluded that to facilitate broad-scale adoption of SLM technologies, de-contextualized, scientific generalisations must be given local context; scientific findings must be viewed alongside traditional beliefs and both scrutinized with equal rigor; and the knowledge of all kinds of experts must be

  3. Enhancing technology development through integrated environmental analysis: toward sustainable nonlethal military systems.

    PubMed

    Saulters, Oral S; Erickson, Larry E; Leven, Blase A; Pickrel, John A; Green, Ryan M; Jamka, Leslie; Prill, Amanda

    2010-04-01

    New technologies are not only critical in supporting traditional industrial and military success but also play a pivotal role in advancing sustainability and sustainable development. With the current global economic challenges, resulting in tighter budgets and increased uncertainty, synergistic paradigms and tools that streamline the design and dissemination of key technologies are more important than ever. Accordingly, a proactive and holistic approach can facilitate efficient research, design, testing, evaluation, and fielding for novel and off-the-shelf products, thereby assisting developers, end users, and other diverse stakeholders in better understanding tradeoffs in the defense industry and beyond. By prioritizing mechanisms such as strategic life-cycle environmental assessments (LCEA); programmatic environment, safety, and occupational health evaluations (PESHE); health hazard assessments (HHA); and other innovative platforms and studies early within systems engineering, various nonlethal military technologies have been successfully developed and deployed. These efforts provide a framework for addressing complex environment, safety, and occupational health risks that affect personnel, infrastructure, property, socioeconomic, and natural/cultural resources. Moreover, integrated, comprehensive, multidisciplinary, and iterative analyses involving flexible groups of specialists/subject matter experts can be applied at various spatiotemporal scales in support of collaborations. This paper highlights the Urban Operations Laboratory process utilized for inclusive and transformative environmental analysis, which can translate into advantages and progress toward sustainable systems. PMID:19886729

  4. Enhancing technology development through integrated environmental analysis: toward sustainable nonlethal military systems.

    PubMed

    Saulters, Oral S; Erickson, Larry E; Leven, Blase A; Pickrel, John A; Green, Ryan M; Jamka, Leslie; Prill, Amanda

    2010-04-01

    New technologies are not only critical in supporting traditional industrial and military success but also play a pivotal role in advancing sustainability and sustainable development. With the current global economic challenges, resulting in tighter budgets and increased uncertainty, synergistic paradigms and tools that streamline the design and dissemination of key technologies are more important than ever. Accordingly, a proactive and holistic approach can facilitate efficient research, design, testing, evaluation, and fielding for novel and off-the-shelf products, thereby assisting developers, end users, and other diverse stakeholders in better understanding tradeoffs in the defense industry and beyond. By prioritizing mechanisms such as strategic life-cycle environmental assessments (LCEA); programmatic environment, safety, and occupational health evaluations (PESHE); health hazard assessments (HHA); and other innovative platforms and studies early within systems engineering, various nonlethal military technologies have been successfully developed and deployed. These efforts provide a framework for addressing complex environment, safety, and occupational health risks that affect personnel, infrastructure, property, socioeconomic, and natural/cultural resources. Moreover, integrated, comprehensive, multidisciplinary, and iterative analyses involving flexible groups of specialists/subject matter experts can be applied at various spatiotemporal scales in support of collaborations. This paper highlights the Urban Operations Laboratory process utilized for inclusive and transformative environmental analysis, which can translate into advantages and progress toward sustainable systems.

  5. NYU3T: teaching, technology, teamwork: a model for interprofessional education scalability and sustainability.

    PubMed

    Djukic, Maja; Fulmer, Terry; Adams, Jennifer G; Lee, Sabrina; Triola, Marc M

    2012-09-01

    Interprofessional education is a critical precursor to effective teamwork and the collaboration of health care professionals in clinical settings. Numerous barriers have been identified that preclude scalable and sustainable interprofessional education (IPE) efforts. This article describes NYU3T: Teaching, Technology, Teamwork, a model that uses novel technologies such as Web-based learning, virtual patients, and high-fidelity simulation to overcome some of the common barriers and drive implementation of evidence-based teamwork curricula. It outlines the program's curricular components, implementation strategy, evaluation methods, and lessons learned from the first year of delivery and describes implications for future large-scale IPE initiatives. PMID:22920424

  6. NYU3T: teaching, technology, teamwork: a model for interprofessional education scalability and sustainability.

    PubMed

    Djukic, Maja; Fulmer, Terry; Adams, Jennifer G; Lee, Sabrina; Triola, Marc M

    2012-09-01

    Interprofessional education is a critical precursor to effective teamwork and the collaboration of health care professionals in clinical settings. Numerous barriers have been identified that preclude scalable and sustainable interprofessional education (IPE) efforts. This article describes NYU3T: Teaching, Technology, Teamwork, a model that uses novel technologies such as Web-based learning, virtual patients, and high-fidelity simulation to overcome some of the common barriers and drive implementation of evidence-based teamwork curricula. It outlines the program's curricular components, implementation strategy, evaluation methods, and lessons learned from the first year of delivery and describes implications for future large-scale IPE initiatives.

  7. Incentives to create and sustain healthy behaviors: technology solutions and research needs.

    PubMed

    Teyhen, Deydre S; Aldag, Matt; Centola, Damon; Edinborough, Elton; Ghannadian, Jason D; Haught, Andrea; Jackson, Theresa; Kinn, Julie; Kunkler, Kevin J; Levine, Betty; Martindale, Valerie E; Neal, David; Snyder, Leslie B; Styn, Mindi A; Thorndike, Frances; Trabosh, Valerie; Parramore, David J

    2014-12-01

    Health-related technology, its relevance, and its availability are rapidly evolving. Technology offers great potential to minimize and/or mitigate barriers associated with achieving optimal health, performance, and readiness. In support of the U.S. Army Surgeon General's vision for a "System for Health" and its Performance Triad initiative, the U.S. Army Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center hosted a workshop in April 2013 titled "Incentives to Create and Sustain Change for Health." Members of government and academia participated to identify and define the opportunities, gain clarity in leading practices and research gaps, and articulate the characteristics of future technology solutions to create and sustain real change in the health of individuals, the Army, and the nation. The key factors discussed included (1) public health messaging, (2) changing health habits and the environmental influence on health, (3) goal setting and tracking, (4) the role of incentives in behavior change intervention, and (5) the role of peer and social networks in change. This report summarizes the recommendations on how technology solutions could be employed to leverage evidence-based best practices and identifies gaps in research where further investigation is needed.

  8. Incentives to create and sustain healthy behaviors: technology solutions and research needs.

    PubMed

    Teyhen, Deydre S; Aldag, Matt; Centola, Damon; Edinborough, Elton; Ghannadian, Jason D; Haught, Andrea; Jackson, Theresa; Kinn, Julie; Kunkler, Kevin J; Levine, Betty; Martindale, Valerie E; Neal, David; Snyder, Leslie B; Styn, Mindi A; Thorndike, Frances; Trabosh, Valerie; Parramore, David J

    2014-12-01

    Health-related technology, its relevance, and its availability are rapidly evolving. Technology offers great potential to minimize and/or mitigate barriers associated with achieving optimal health, performance, and readiness. In support of the U.S. Army Surgeon General's vision for a "System for Health" and its Performance Triad initiative, the U.S. Army Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center hosted a workshop in April 2013 titled "Incentives to Create and Sustain Change for Health." Members of government and academia participated to identify and define the opportunities, gain clarity in leading practices and research gaps, and articulate the characteristics of future technology solutions to create and sustain real change in the health of individuals, the Army, and the nation. The key factors discussed included (1) public health messaging, (2) changing health habits and the environmental influence on health, (3) goal setting and tracking, (4) the role of incentives in behavior change intervention, and (5) the role of peer and social networks in change. This report summarizes the recommendations on how technology solutions could be employed to leverage evidence-based best practices and identifies gaps in research where further investigation is needed. PMID:25469962

  9. Report from the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Workshop on On-Line Monitoring Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Baldwin; Magdy Tawfik; Leonard Bond

    2010-06-01

    In support of expanding the use of nuclear power, interest is growing in methods of determining the feasibility of longer term operation for the U.S. fleet of nuclear power plants, particularly operation beyond 60 years. To help establish the scientific and technical basis for such longer term operation, the DOE-NE has established a research and development (R&D) objective. This objective seeks to develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of current reactors. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program, which addresses the needs of this objective, is being developed in collaboration with industry R&D programs to provide the technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe, and economical operation of nuclear power plants. The LWRS Program focus is on longer-term and higher-risk/reward research that contributes to the national policy objectives of energy and environmental security. In moving to identify priorities and plan activities, the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Workshop on On-Line Monitoring (OLM) Technologies was held June 10–12, 2010, in Seattle, Washington. The workshop was run to enable industry stakeholders and researchers to identify the nuclear industry needs in the areas of future OLM technologies and corresponding technology gaps and research capabilities. It also sought to identify approaches for collaboration that would be able to bridge or fill the technology gaps. This report is the meeting proceedings, documenting the presentations and discussions of the workshop and is intended to serve as a basis for a plan which is under development that will enable the I&C research pathway to achieve its goals. Benefits to the nuclear industry accruing from On Line Monitoring Technology cannot be ignored. Information gathered thus far has contributed significantly to the Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program. DOE has

  10. Next-generation cellulosic ethanol technologies and their contribution to a sustainable Africa

    PubMed Central

    van Zyl, W. H.; Chimphango, A. F. A.; den Haan, R.; Görgens, J. F.; Chirwa, P. W. C.

    2011-01-01

    The world is currently heavily dependent on oil, especially in the transport sector. However, rising oil prices, concern about environmental impact and supply instability are among the factors that have led to greater interest in renewable fuel and green chemistry alternatives. Lignocellulose is the only foreseeable renewable feedstock for sustainable production of transport fuels. The main technological impediment to more widespread utilization of lignocellulose for production of fuels and chemicals in the past has been the lack of low-cost technologies to overcome the recalcitrance of its structure. Both biological and thermochemical second-generation conversion technologies are currently coming online for the commercial production of cellulosic ethanol concomitantly with heat and electricity production. The latest advances in biological conversion of lignocellulosics to ethanol with a focus on consolidated bioprocessing are highlighted. Furthermore, integration of cellulosic ethanol production into existing bio-based industries also using thermochemical processes to optimize energy balances is discussed. Biofuels have played a pivotal yet suboptimal role in supplementing Africa's energy requirements in the past. Capitalizing on sub-Saharan Africa's total biomass potential and using second-generation technologies merit a fresh look at the potential role of bioethanol production towards developing a sustainable Africa while addressing food security, human needs and local wealth creation. PMID:22482027

  11. Next-generation cellulosic ethanol technologies and their contribution to a sustainable Africa.

    PubMed

    van Zyl, W H; Chimphango, A F A; den Haan, R; Görgens, J F; Chirwa, P W C

    2011-04-01

    The world is currently heavily dependent on oil, especially in the transport sector. However, rising oil prices, concern about environmental impact and supply instability are among the factors that have led to greater interest in renewable fuel and green chemistry alternatives. Lignocellulose is the only foreseeable renewable feedstock for sustainable production of transport fuels. The main technological impediment to more widespread utilization of lignocellulose for production of fuels and chemicals in the past has been the lack of low-cost technologies to overcome the recalcitrance of its structure. Both biological and thermochemical second-generation conversion technologies are currently coming online for the commercial production of cellulosic ethanol concomitantly with heat and electricity production. The latest advances in biological conversion of lignocellulosics to ethanol with a focus on consolidated bioprocessing are highlighted. Furthermore, integration of cellulosic ethanol production into existing bio-based industries also using thermochemical processes to optimize energy balances is discussed. Biofuels have played a pivotal yet suboptimal role in supplementing Africa's energy requirements in the past. Capitalizing on sub-Saharan Africa's total biomass potential and using second-generation technologies merit a fresh look at the potential role of bioethanol production towards developing a sustainable Africa while addressing food security, human needs and local wealth creation. PMID:22482027

  12. Comparative assessment of the environmental sustainability of existing and emerging perchlorate treatment technologies for drinking water.

    PubMed

    Choe, Jong Kwon; Mehnert, Michelle H; Guest, Jeremy S; Strathmann, Timothy J; Werth, Charles J

    2013-05-01

    Environmental impacts of conventional and emerging perchlorate drinking water treatment technologies were assessed using life cycle assessment (LCA). Comparison of two ion exchange (IX) technologies (i.e., nonselective IX with periodic regeneration using brines and perchlorate-selective IX without regeneration) at an existing plant shows that brine is the dominant contributor for nonselective IX, which shows higher impact than perchlorate-selective IX. Resource consumption during the operational phase comprises >80% of the total impacts. Having identified consumables as the driving force behind environmental impacts, the relative environmental sustainability of IX, biological treatment, and catalytic reduction technologies are compared more generally using consumable inputs. The analysis indicates that the environmental impacts of heterotrophic biological treatment are 2-5 times more sensitive to influent conditions (i.e., nitrate/oxygen concentration) and are 3-14 times higher compared to IX. However, autotrophic biological treatment is most environmentally beneficial among all. Catalytic treatment using carbon-supported Re-Pd has a higher (ca. 4600 times) impact than others, but is within 0.9-30 times the impact of IX with a newly developed ligand-complexed Re-Pd catalyst formulation. This suggests catalytic reduction can be competitive with increased activity. Our assessment shows that while IX is an environmentally competitive, emerging technologies also show great promise from an environmental sustainability perspective.

  13. Proceedings of the International Conferences on Education Technologies (ICEduTech) and Sustainability, Technology and Education (STE) (New Tapei City, Taiwan, December 10-12, 2014)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kommers, Piet, Ed.; Issa, Tomayess, Ed.; Issa, Theodora, Ed.; Chang, Dian-Fu, Ed.; Isias, Pedro, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers of the International Conferences on Educational Technologies (ICEduTech 2014), and Sustainability, Technology and Education (STE 2014). The International Conference on Educational Technologies (ICEduTech 2014) is the scientific conference addressing the real topics as seen by teachers, students, parents and…

  14. Inventory of Content in Basic Courses in Environment and Sustainable Development at Chalmers University of Technology in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundqvist, U.; Svanstrom, M.

    2008-01-01

    Chalmers University of Technology is actively promoting learning for sustainable development in its educational programmes. A compulsory part of the bachelor curricula is five full-time weeks of studies on environment and sustainable development. This paper presents an inventory of the contents in these courses performed as a series of discussions…

  15. Combination of multispectral remote sensing, variable rate technology and environmental modeling for citrus pest management.

    PubMed

    Du, Qian; Chang, Ni-Bin; Yang, Chenghai; Srilakshmi, Kanth R

    2008-01-01

    The Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) of south Texas is an agriculturally rich area supporting intensive production of vegetables, fruits, grain sorghum, and cotton. Modern agricultural practices involve the combined use of irrigation with the application of large amounts of agrochemicals to maximize crop yields. Intensive agricultural activities in past decades might have caused potential contamination of soil, surface water, and groundwater due to leaching of pesticides in the vadose zone. In an effort to promote precision farming in citrus production, this paper aims at developing an airborne multispectral technique for identifying tree health problems in a citrus grove that can be combined with variable rate technology (VRT) for required pesticide application and environmental modeling for assessment of pollution prevention. An unsupervised linear unmixing method was applied to classify the image for the grove and quantify the symptom severity for appropriate infection control. The PRZM-3 model was used to estimate environmental impacts that contribute to nonpoint source pollution with and without the use of multispectral remote sensing and VRT. Research findings using site-specific environmental assessment clearly indicate that combination of remote sensing and VRT may result in benefit to the environment by reducing the nonpoint source pollution by 92.15%. Overall, this study demonstrates the potential of precision farming for citrus production in the nexus of industrial ecology and agricultural sustainability.

  16. ElectroChemical Arsenic Removal (ECAR) for Rural Bangladesh--Merging Technology with Sustainable Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Addy, Susan E.A.; Gadgil, Ashok J.; Kowolik, Kristin; Kostecki, Robert

    2009-12-01

    Today, 35-77 million Bangladeshis drink arsenic-contaminated groundwater from shallow tube wells. Arsenic remediation efforts have focused on the development and dissemination of household filters that frequently fall into disuse due to the amount of attention and maintenance that they require. A community scale clean water center has many advantages over household filters and allows for both chemical and electricity-based technologies to be beneficial to rural areas. Full cost recovery would enable the treatment center to be sustainable over time. ElectroChemical Arsenic Remediation (ECAR) is compatible with community scale water treatment for rural Bangladesh. We demonstrate the ability of ECAR to reduce arsenic levels> 500 ppb to less than 10 ppb in synthetic and real Bangladesh groundwater samples and examine the influence of several operating parameters on arsenic removal effectiveness. Operating cost and waste estimates are provided. Policy implication recommendations that encourage sustainable community treatment centers are discussed.

  17. Authentication and dating of biomass components of industrial materials; links to sustainable technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, L. A.; Klinedinst, D. B.; Burch, R.; Feltham, N.; Dorsch, R.

    2000-10-01

    There are twin pressures mounting in US industry for increased utilization of biomass feedstocks and biotechnology in production. The more demanding pressure relates to economic sustainability, that is, because of increased competition globally, businesses will fail unless a minimum margin of profit is maintained while meeting the demands of consumers for less expensive products. The second pressure relates to "Green Technology" where environmental sustainability, linked for example to concerns about climate change and the preservation of natural resources, represents a worldwide driving force to reduce the consumption of fossil hydrocarbons. The resulting transition of biomass production in the industrial plant, as opposed to the agricultural plant, has resulted in an increasing need for isotopic methods of authenticating and dating feedstocks, intermediates and industrial products. The research described represents a prototypical case study leading to the definition of a unique dual isotopic ( 13C, 14C) signature or "fingerprint" for a new biomass-based commercial polymer, polypropylene terephthalate (3GT).

  18. Sustained Manned Mars Presence Enabled by E-sail Technology and Asteroid Water Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janhunen, Pekka; Merikallio, Sini; Toivanen, Petri; Envall, M. Jouni

    The Electric Solar Wind Sail (E-sail) can produce 0.5-1 N of inexhaustible and controllable propellantless thrust [1]. The E-sail is based on electrostatic Coulomb interaction between charged thin tethers and solar wind ions. It was invented in 2006, was developed to TRL 4-5 in 2011-2013 with ESAIL FP7 project (http://www.electric-sailing.fi/fp7) and a CubeSat small-scale flight test is in course (ESTCube-1). The E-sail provides a flexible and efficient way of moving 0-2 tonne sized cargo payloads in the solar system without consuming propellant. Given the E-sail, one could use it to make manned exploration of the solar system more affordable by combining it with asteroid water mining. One first sends a miner spacecraft to an asteroid or asteroids, either by E-sail or traditional means. Many asteroids are known to contain water and liberating it only requires heating the material one piece at a time in a leak tight container. About 2 tonne miner can produce 50 tonnes of water per year which is sufficient to sustain continuous manned traffic between Earth and Mars. If the ice-bearing asteroid resides roughly at Mars distance, it takes 3 years for a 0.7 N E-sailer to transport a 10 tonne water/ice payload to Mars orbit or Earth C3 orbit. Thus one needs a fleet of 15 E-sail transport spacecraft plus replacements to ferry 50 tonnes of water yearly to Earth C3 (1/3) and Mars orbit (2/3). The mass of one transporter is 300 kg [2]. One needs to launch max 1.5 tonne mass of new E-sail transporters per year and in practice much less since it is simple to reuse them. This infrastructure is enough to supply 17 tonnes of water yearly at Earth C3 and 33 tonnes in Mars orbit. Orbital water can be used by manned exploration in three ways: (1) for potable water and for making oxygen, (2) for radiation shielding, (3) for LH2/LOX propellant. Up to 75 % of the wet mass of the manned module could be water (50 % propellant and 25 % radiation shield water). On top of this the total mass

  19. Developing sustainable global health technologies: insight from an initiative to address neonatal hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rajesh; Patel, Rajan; Murty, Naganand; Panicker, Rahul; Chen, Jane

    2015-02-01

    Relative to drugs, diagnostics, and vaccines, efforts to develop other global health technologies, such as medical devices, are limited and often focus on the short-term goal of prototype development instead of the long-term goal of a sustainable business model. To develop a medical device to address neonatal hypothermia for use in resource-limited settings, we turned to principles of design theory: (1) define the problem with consideration of appropriate integration into relevant health policies, (2) identify the users of the technology and the scenarios in which the technology would be used, and (3) use a highly iterative product design and development process that incorporates the perspective of the user of the technology at the outset and addresses scalability. In contrast to our initial idea, to create a single device, the process guided us to create two separate devices, both strikingly different from current solutions. We offer insights from our initial experience that may be helpful to others engaging in global health technology development.

  20. Developing sustainable global health technologies: insight from an initiative to address neonatal hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rajesh; Patel, Rajan; Murty, Naganand; Panicker, Rahul; Chen, Jane

    2015-02-01

    Relative to drugs, diagnostics, and vaccines, efforts to develop other global health technologies, such as medical devices, are limited and often focus on the short-term goal of prototype development instead of the long-term goal of a sustainable business model. To develop a medical device to address neonatal hypothermia for use in resource-limited settings, we turned to principles of design theory: (1) define the problem with consideration of appropriate integration into relevant health policies, (2) identify the users of the technology and the scenarios in which the technology would be used, and (3) use a highly iterative product design and development process that incorporates the perspective of the user of the technology at the outset and addresses scalability. In contrast to our initial idea, to create a single device, the process guided us to create two separate devices, both strikingly different from current solutions. We offer insights from our initial experience that may be helpful to others engaging in global health technology development. PMID:25355235

  1. An Integrated Water Treatment Technology Solution for Sustainable Water Resource Management in the Marcellus Shale

    SciTech Connect

    Matthew Bruff; Ned Godshall; Karen Evans

    2011-04-30

    This Final Scientific/ Technical Report submitted with respect to Project DE-FE0000833 titled 'An Integrated Water Treatment Technology Solution for Sustainable Water Resource Management in the Marcellus Shale' in support of final reporting requirements. This final report contains a compilation of previous reports with the most current data in order to produce one final complete document. The goal of this research was to provide an integrated approach aimed at addressing the increasing water resource challenges between natural gas production and other water stakeholders in shale gas basins. The objective was to demonstrate that the AltelaRain{reg_sign} technology could be successfully deployed in the Marcellus Shale Basin to treat frac flow-back water. That objective has been successfully met.

  2. The mini climatic city a dedicated space for technological innovations devoted to Sustainable City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derkx, François; Lebental, Bérengère; Merliot, Erick; Dumoulin, Jean; Bourquin, Frédéric

    2015-04-01

    Our cities, from megalopolis to rural commune, are systems of an extraordinary technological and human complexity. Their balance is threatened by the growing population and rarefaction of resources. Massive urbanization endanges the environment, while global climate change, through natural hazards generated (climatic, hydrological and geological), threats people and goods. Connect the city, that is to say, design and spread systems able to route, between multiple actors, a very large amount of heterogeneous information natures and analyzed for various purposes, is at the heart of the hopes to make our cities more sustainable: climate-resilient, energy efficient and actresses of the energy transition, attractive to individuals and companies, health and environment friendly. If multiple players are already aware of this need, progress is slow because, beyond the only connectivity, it is the urban intelligence that will create the sustainable city, through coordinated capabilities of Perception, Decision and Action: to measure phenomena; to analyze their impact on urban sustainability in order to define strategies for improvement; to effectively act on the cause of the phenomenon. In this very active context with a strong societal impact, the Sense-City project aims to accelerate research and innovation in the field of sustainable city, particularly in the field of micro and nanosensors. The project is centered around a "mini climatic City", a unique mobile environmental chamber in Europe of 400m² that can accommodate realistic models of city main components, namely buildings, infrastructures, distribution networks or basements. This R&D test place, available in draft form from January 2015 and in finalized version in 2016, will allow to validate, in realistic conditions, innovative technologies performances for the sustainable city, especially micro- and nano-sensors, at the end of their development laboratory and upstream of industrialization. R & D platform

  3. Factors related to the economic sustainability of two-year chemistry-based technology training programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backus, Bridgid A.

    Two-year chemistry-based technology training (CBTT) programs in the U.S. are important in the preparation of the professional technical workforce. The purpose of this study was to identify, examine, and analyze factors related to the economic sustainability of CBTT programs. A review of literature identified four clustered categories of 31 sub-factors related to program sustainability. Three research questions relating to program sustainability were: (1) What is the relative importance of the identified factors?, (2) What differences exist between the opinions of administrators and faculty?, and (3) What are the interrelationships among the factors? In order to answer these questions, survey data gathered from CBTT programs throughout the United States were analyzed statistically. Conclusions included the following: (1) Rank order of the importance to sustainability of the clustered categories was: (1) Partnerships, (2) Employer and Student Educational Goals, (3) Faculty and Their Resources, and (4) Community Perceptions and Marketing Strategies. (2) Significant correlations between ratings of sustainability and the sub-factors included: degree of partnering, college responsiveness, administration involvement in partnerships, experiential learning opportunities, employer input in curriculum development, use of skill standards, number of program graduates, student job placement, professional development opportunities, administrator support, presence of a champion, flexible scheduling, program visibility, perception of chemical technicians, marketing plans, and promotion to secondary students. (3) Faculty and administrators differed significantly on only two sub-factor ratings: employer assisted curriculum development, and faculty workloads. (4) Significant differences in ratings by small program faculty and administrators and large program faculty and administrators were indicated, with most between small program faculty and large program administrators. The study

  4. Improving sustainability by technology assessment and systems analysis: the case of IWRM Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayono, S.; Lehmann, A.; Kopfmüller, J.; Lehn, H.

    2016-09-01

    To support the implementation of the IWRM-Indonesia process in a water scarce and sanitation poor region of Central Java (Indonesia), sustainability assessments of several technology options of water supply and sanitation were carried out based on the conceptual framework of the integrative sustainability concept of the German Helmholtz association. In the case of water supply, the assessment was based on the life-cycle analysis and life-cycle-costing approach. In the sanitation sector, the focus was set on developing an analytical tool to improve planning procedures in the area of investigation, which can be applied in general to developing and newly emerging countries. Because sanitation systems in particular can be regarded as socio-technical systems, their permanent operability is closely related to cultural or religious preferences which influence acceptability. Therefore, the design of the tool and the assessment of sanitation technologies took into account the views of relevant stakeholders. The key results of the analyses are presented in this article.

  5. Improving sustainability by technology assessment and systems analysis: the case of IWRM Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayono, S.; Lehmann, A.; Kopfmüller, J.; Lehn, H.

    2016-06-01

    To support the implementation of the IWRM-Indonesia process in a water scarce and sanitation poor region of Central Java (Indonesia), sustainability assessments of several technology options of water supply and sanitation were carried out based on the conceptual framework of the integrative sustainability concept of the German Helmholtz association. In the case of water supply, the assessment was based on the life-cycle analysis and life-cycle-costing approach. In the sanitation sector, the focus was set on developing an analytical tool to improve planning procedures in the area of investigation, which can be applied in general to developing and newly emerging countries. Because sanitation systems in particular can be regarded as socio-technical systems, their permanent operability is closely related to cultural or religious preferences which influence acceptability. Therefore, the design of the tool and the assessment of sanitation technologies took into account the views of relevant stakeholders. The key results of the analyses are presented in this article.

  6. Social Influence on Information Technology Adoption and Sustained Use in Healthcare: A Hierarchical Bayesian Learning Method Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hao, Haijing

    2013-01-01

    Information technology adoption and diffusion is currently a significant challenge in the healthcare delivery setting. This thesis includes three papers that explore social influence on information technology adoption and sustained use in the healthcare delivery environment using conventional regression models and novel hierarchical Bayesian…

  7. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Digital Technology Business Case Methodology Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Ken; Lawrie, Sean; Hart, Adam; Vlahoplus, Chris

    2014-09-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program aims to develop and deploy technologies that will make the existing U.S. nuclear fleet more efficient and competitive. The program has developed a standard methodology for determining the impact of new technologies in order to assist nuclear power plant (NPP) operators in building sound business cases. The Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control (II&C) Systems Technologies Pathway is part of the DOE’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program. It conducts targeted research and development (R&D) to address aging and reliability concerns with the legacy instrumentation and control and related information systems of the U.S. operating light water reactor (LWR) fleet. This work involves two major goals: (1) to ensure that legacy analog II&C systems are not life-limiting issues for the LWR fleet and (2) to implement digital II&C technology in a manner that enables broad innovation and business improvement in the NPP operating model. Resolving long-term operational concerns with the II&C systems contributes to the long-term sustainability of the LWR fleet, which is vital to the nation’s energy and environmental security. The II&C Pathway is conducting a series of pilot projects that enable the development and deployment of new II&C technologies in existing nuclear plants. Through the LWRS program, individual utilities and plants are able to participate in these projects or otherwise leverage the results of projects conducted at demonstration plants. Performance advantages of the new pilot project technologies are widely acknowledged, but it has proven difficult for utilities to derive business cases for justifying investment in these new capabilities. Lack of a business case is often cited by utilities as a barrier to pursuing wide-scale application of digital technologies to nuclear plant work activities. The decision to move forward with funding usually hinges on

  8. A methodology for the sustainability assessment of arsenic mitigation technology for drinking water.

    PubMed

    Etmannski, T R; Darton, R C

    2014-08-01

    In this paper we show how the process analysis method (PAM) can be applied to assess the sustainability of options to mitigate arsenic in drinking water in rural India. Stakeholder perspectives, gathered from a fieldwork survey of 933 households in West Bengal in 2012 played a significant role in this assessment. This research found that the 'most important' issues as specified by the technology users are cost, trust, distance from their home to the clean water source (an indicator of convenience), and understanding the health effects of arsenic. We show that utilisation of a technology is related to levels of trust and confidence in a community, making use of a composite trust-confidence indicator. Measures to improve trust between community and organisers of mitigation projects, and to raise confidence in technology and also in fair costing, would help to promote successful deployment of appropriate technology. Attitudes to cost revealed in the surveys are related to the low value placed on arsenic-free water, as also found by other investigators, consistent with a lack of public awareness about the arsenic problem. It is suggested that increased awareness might change attitudes to arsenic-rich waste and its disposal protocols. This waste is often currently discarded in an uncontrolled manner in the local environment, giving rise to the possibility of point-source recontamination.

  9. A methodology for the sustainability assessment of arsenic mitigation technology for drinking water.

    PubMed

    Etmannski, T R; Darton, R C

    2014-08-01

    In this paper we show how the process analysis method (PAM) can be applied to assess the sustainability of options to mitigate arsenic in drinking water in rural India. Stakeholder perspectives, gathered from a fieldwork survey of 933 households in West Bengal in 2012 played a significant role in this assessment. This research found that the 'most important' issues as specified by the technology users are cost, trust, distance from their home to the clean water source (an indicator of convenience), and understanding the health effects of arsenic. We show that utilisation of a technology is related to levels of trust and confidence in a community, making use of a composite trust-confidence indicator. Measures to improve trust between community and organisers of mitigation projects, and to raise confidence in technology and also in fair costing, would help to promote successful deployment of appropriate technology. Attitudes to cost revealed in the surveys are related to the low value placed on arsenic-free water, as also found by other investigators, consistent with a lack of public awareness about the arsenic problem. It is suggested that increased awareness might change attitudes to arsenic-rich waste and its disposal protocols. This waste is often currently discarded in an uncontrolled manner in the local environment, giving rise to the possibility of point-source recontamination. PMID:24284264

  10. Combining Attractants and Larvicides in Biodegradable Matrices for Sustainable Mosquito Vector Control

    PubMed Central

    Schorkopf, Dirk Louis P.; Spanoudis, Christos G.; Mboera, Leonard E. G.; Mafra-Neto, Agenor; Ignell, Rickard; Dekker, Teun

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a global need for cost-effective and environmentally friendly tools for control of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases. One potential way to achieve this is to combine already available tools to gain synergistic effects to reduce vector mosquito populations. Another possible way to improve mosquito control is to extend the active period of a given control agent, enabling less frequent applications and consequently, more efficient and longer lasting vector population suppression. Methodology/principal findings We investigated the potential of biodegradable wax emulsions to improve the performance of semiochemical attractants for gravid female culicine vectors of disease, as well as to achieve more effective control of their aquatic larval offspring. As an attractant for gravid females, we selected acetoxy hexadecanolide (AHD), the Culex oviposition pheromone. As toxicant for mosquito larvae, we chose the biological larvicides Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) and Bacillus sphaericus (Bs). These attractant and larvicidal agents were incorporated, separately and in combination, into a biodegradable wax emulsion, a commercially available product called SPLAT (Specialized Pheromone & Lure Application Technology) and SPLATbac, which contains 8.33% Bti and 8.33% Bs. Wax emulsions were applied to water surfaces as buoyant pellets of 20 mg each. Dose-mortality analyses of Culex quinquefasciatus Say larvae demonstrated that a single 20 mg pellet of a 10−1 dilution of SPLATbac in a larval tray containing 1 L of water caused 100% mortality of neonate (1st instar) larvae for at least five weeks after application. Mortality of 3rd instar larvae remained equally high with SPLATbac dilutions down to 10−2 for over two weeks post application. Subsequently, AHD was added to SPLAT (emulsion only, without Bs or Bti) to attract gravid females (SPLATahd), or together with biological larvicides to attract ovipositing females and kill emerging larvae

  11. Economic and environmental sustainability of submerged anaerobic MBR-based (AnMBR-based) technology as compared to aerobic-based technologies for moderate-/high-loaded urban wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Pretel, R; Robles, A; Ruano, M V; Seco, A; Ferrer, J

    2016-01-15

    The objective of this study was to assess the economic and environmental sustainability of submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) in comparison with aerobic-based technologies for moderate-/high-loaded urban wastewater (UWW) treatment. To this aim, a combined approach of steady-state performance modelling, life cycle analysis (LCA) and life cycle costing (LCC) was used, in which AnMBR (coupled with an aerobic-based post-treatment) was compared to aerobic membrane bioreactor (AeMBR) and conventional activated sludge (CAS). AnMBR with CAS-based post-treatment for nutrient removal was identified as a sustainable option for moderate-/high-loaded UWW treatment: low energy consumption and reduced sludge production could be obtained at given operating conditions. In addition, significant reductions can be achieved in different aspects of environmental impact (global warming potential (GWP), abiotic depletion, acidification, etc.) and LCC over existing UWW treatment technologies. PMID:26473754

  12. Economic and environmental sustainability of submerged anaerobic MBR-based (AnMBR-based) technology as compared to aerobic-based technologies for moderate-/high-loaded urban wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Pretel, R; Robles, A; Ruano, M V; Seco, A; Ferrer, J

    2016-01-15

    The objective of this study was to assess the economic and environmental sustainability of submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) in comparison with aerobic-based technologies for moderate-/high-loaded urban wastewater (UWW) treatment. To this aim, a combined approach of steady-state performance modelling, life cycle analysis (LCA) and life cycle costing (LCC) was used, in which AnMBR (coupled with an aerobic-based post-treatment) was compared to aerobic membrane bioreactor (AeMBR) and conventional activated sludge (CAS). AnMBR with CAS-based post-treatment for nutrient removal was identified as a sustainable option for moderate-/high-loaded UWW treatment: low energy consumption and reduced sludge production could be obtained at given operating conditions. In addition, significant reductions can be achieved in different aspects of environmental impact (global warming potential (GWP), abiotic depletion, acidification, etc.) and LCC over existing UWW treatment technologies.

  13. Synergistic benefits of combined technologies in complex, minimally invasive surgical procedures. Clinical experience and educational processes.

    PubMed

    Geis, W P; Kim, H C; McAfee, P C; Kang, J G; Brennan, E J

    1996-10-01

    The new burden surgical technology must assume demands not only improved efficiency and reduced risk, but also diminished cost and resource utilization. To this end, we have instituted the use of multiple, sequential technologies in complex, minimally invasive procedures: laparoscopic gastric surgery (44 cases), spine procedures (38 cases), and colectomies (96 cases). The technologies include head-mounted display, 3-D optics, robotic arm, harmonic scalpel, and optical access trocars. The combined use of these technologies shortened operative times, diminished use of personnel, and as associated with no technical mishap. Surgeon concentration and control of the operative environment were increased. In an effort to promote combined use of technologies, a structured teaching process was designed and implemented. It required five (average) experiences for efficient, hands-on implementation of combined technologies. We conclude that combined use of sophisticated technologies is safe and efficient; is accomplished by structured, moderately intense educational experience; and diminishes cost and use of human resources.

  14. Space Technologies for Enhancing the Resilience and Sustainability of Indigenous Reindeer Husbandry in the Russian Arctic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Nancy G.; Yurchak, Boris S.; Sleptsov, Yuri A.; Turi, Johan Mathis; Mathlesen, Svein D.

    2005-01-01

    To adapt successfully to the major changes - climate, environment, economic, social and industrial - which have taken place across the Arctic. in recent years, indigenous communities such as reindeer herders must become increasingly empowered with the best available technologies to add to their storehouse of traditional knowledge. Remotely-sensed data and observations are providing increased capabilities for monitoring, risk mapping, and surveillance of parameters critical to the characterization of pasture quality and migratory routes, such as vegetation distribution, snow cover, infrastructure development, and pasture damages due to fires. This paper describes a series of remote sensing capabilities, which are useful to reindeer husbandry, and gives the results of the first year of a project, "Reindeer Mapper", which is a remote sensing and GIs-based system to bring together space technologies with indigenous knowledge for sustainable reindeer husbandry in the Russian Arctic. In this project, reindeer herders and scientists are joining together to utilize technologies to create a system for collecting and sharing space-based and indigenous knowledge in the Russian Arctic. The "Reindeer Mapper" system will help make technologies more readily available to the herder community for observing, data collection and analysis, monitoring, sharing, communications, and dissemination of information - to be integrated with traditional, local knowledge. This paper describes some of the technologies which comprise the system including an intranet system to enable to the team members to work together and share information electronically, remote sensing data for monitoring environmental parameters important to reindeer husbandry (e.g., SAR, Landsat, AVHRR, MODIS), indigenous knowledge about important environmental parameters, acquisition of ground- based measurements, and the integration of all useful data sets for more informed decision-making.

  15. Double Wall Framing Technique An Example of High Performance, Sustainable Building Envelope Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Kosny, Dr. Jan; Asiz, Andi; Shrestha, Som S; Biswas, Kaushik; Nitin, Shukla

    2015-01-01

    Double wall technologies utilizing wood framing have been well-known and used in North American buildings for decades. Most of double wall designs use only natural materials such as wood products, gypsum, and cellulose fiber insulation, being one of few building envelope technologies achieving high thermal performance without use of plastic foams or fiberglass. Today, after several material and structural design modifications, these technologies are considered as highly thermally efficient, sustainable option for new constructions and sometimes, for retrofit projects. Following earlier analysis performed for U.S. Department of Energy by Fraunhofer CSE, this paper discusses different ways to build double walls and to optimize their thermal performance to minimize the space conditioning energy consumption. Description of structural configuration alternatives and thermal performance analysis are presented as well. Laboratory tests to evaluate thermal properties of used insulation and whole wall system thermal performance are also discussed in this paper. Finally, the thermal loads generated in field conditions by double walls are discussed utilizing results from a joined project performed by Zero Energy Building Research Alliance and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), which made possible evaluation of the market viability of low-energy homes built in the Tennessee Valley. Experimental data recorded in two of the test houses built during this field study is presented in this work.

  16. Sustainable intensive livestock production demands manure and exhaust air treatment technologies.

    PubMed

    Melse, Roland W; Timmerman, Maikel

    2009-11-01

    Intensive livestock production is connected with a number of environmental effects, including discharges to soils and surface waters and emissions to the atmosphere. In areas with a high livestock density the low availability of nearby arable land, together with the preferred use of chemical fertilizer by arable farmers, results in high off-farm disposal costs for manure. Furthermore, ammonia abatement technologies, such as treatment of exhaust air, are important as ammonia emissions may account up to a quarter of the total nitrogen flux. Firstly, the paper describes and discusses the development of manure treatment in the Netherlands since the 1970's. Manure treatment processes that result in products that compete with and replace the use of chemical fertilizers can (partly) close the nutrient cycle again. From this point of view aerobic treatment of manure (nitrification/denitrification) can not be considered sustainable as nitrogen is taken out of the cycle at high environmental costs. Secondly, the state-of-the-art of techniques for treatment of exhaust air is presented. Besides ammonia, application of air treatment may also reduce environmental emissions of odour and particulate matter (dust). Both manure treatment and treatment of exhaust air are considered essential for sustainable livestock operations in areas with a high livestock density.

  17. An interpretive summary of the 1997 conference on policies for fostering sustainable transportation technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Santini, D.J.

    1997-12-31

    T.R. Lakshmanan, director of the Bureau of Transportation Statistics, offered the following definition from the Bruntland Commission: ``Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present generations without compromising the ability of future generations.`` The technologies and policies that received the most attention would provide per-unit-of-service reduction of three kinds of social costs (external costs, in economist`s terminology) with respect to light duty transportation. The main factors to be reduced were oil use, greenhouse gases, and air pollution. Undesirable side effects of continually expanding transportation activity, including congestion and habitat loss, were also discussed. The conference included debate about priorities among these five categories of social cost, about which organizations should take action to achieve the reductions needed in each, and about what specific actions these organizations should take.

  18. The environmental sustainability of anaerobic digestion as a biomass valorization technology.

    PubMed

    De Meester, Steven; Demeyer, Jens; Velghe, Filip; Peene, Andy; Van Langenhove, Herman; Dewulf, Jo

    2012-10-01

    This paper studies the environmental sustainability of anaerobic digestion from three perspectives. First, reference electricity is compared to electricity production from domestic organic waste and energy crop digestion. Second, different digester feed possibilities in an agricultural context are studied. Third, the influence of applying digestate as fertilizer is investigated. Results highlight that biomass is converted at a rational exergy (energy) efficiency ranging from 15.3% (22.6) to 33.3% (36.0). From a life cycle perspective, a saving of over 90% resources is achieved in most categories when comparing biobased electricity to conventional electricity. However, operation without heat valorization results in 32% loss of this performance while using organic waste (domestic and agricultural residues) as feedstock avoids land resources. The use of digestate as a fertilizer is beneficial from a resource perspective, but causes increased nitrogen and methane emissions, which can be reduced by 50%, making anaerobic digestion an environmentally competitive bioenergy technology.

  19. A streamlined search technology for identification of synergistic drug combinations

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Andrea; Berndsen, Robert H.; Ding, Xianting; Ho, Chih-Ming; Dyson, Paul J.; van den Bergh, Hubert; Griffioen, Arjan W.; Nowak-Sliwinska, Patrycja

    2015-01-01

    A major key to improvement of cancer therapy is the combination of drugs. Mixing drugs that already exist on the market may offer an attractive alternative. Here we report on a new model-based streamlined feedback system control (s-FSC) method, based on a design of experiment approach, for rapidly finding optimal drug mixtures with minimal experimental effort. We tested combinations in an in vitro assay for the viability of a renal cell adenocarcinoma (RCC) cell line, 786-O. An iterative cycle of in vitro testing and s-FSC analysis was repeated a few times until an optimal low dose combination was reached. Starting with ten drugs that target parallel pathways known to play a role in the development and progression of RCC, we identified the best overall drug combination, being a mixture of four drugs (axitinib, erlotinib, dasatinib and AZD4547) at low doses, inhibiting 90% of cell viability. The removal of AZD4547 from the optimized drug combination resulted in 80% of cell viability inhibition, while still maintaining the synergistic interaction. These optimized drug combinations were significantly more potent than monotherapies of all individual drugs (p < 0.001, CI < 0.3). PMID:26416286

  20. Combining Two Technologies for Full Genome Sequencing of Human

    PubMed Central

    Skryabin, K.G.; Mazur, A.M.; Boulygina, E.S.; Tsygankova, S.V.; Nedoluzhko, A.V.; Rastorguev, S.M.; Matveev, V.B.; Chekanov, N.N.; D.A., Goranskaya; Teslyuk, A.B.; Gruzdeva, N.M.; Velikhov, V.E.; Zaridze, D.G.; Kovalchuk, M.V.

    2009-01-01

    At present, the new technologies of DNA sequencing are rapidly developing allowing quick and efficient characterisation of organisms at the level of the genome structure. In this study, the whole genome sequencing of a human (Russian man) was performed using two technologies currently present on the market - Sequencing by Oligonucleotide Ligation and Detection (SOLiD™) (Applied Biosystems) and sequencing technologies of molecular clusters using fluorescently labeled precursors (Illumina). The total number of generated data resulted in 108.3 billion base pairs (60.2 billion from Illumina technology and 48.1 billion from SOLiD technology). Statistics performed on reads generated by GAII and SOLiD showed that they covered 75% and 96% of the genome respectively. Short polymorphic regions were detected with comparable accuracy however, the absolute amount of them revealed by SOLiD was several times less than by GAII. Optimal algorithm for using the latest methods of sequencing was established for the analysis of individual human genomes. The study is the first Russian effort towards whole human genome sequencing. PMID:22649622

  1. Combining two technologies for full genome sequencing of human.

    PubMed

    Skryabin, K G; Prokhortchouk, E B; Mazur, A M; Boulygina, E S; Tsygankova, S V; Nedoluzhko, A V; Rastorguev, S M; Matveev, V B; Chekanov, N N; D A, Goranskaya; Teslyuk, A B; Gruzdeva, N M; Velikhov, V E; Zaridze, D G; Kovalchuk, M V

    2009-10-01

    At present, the new technologies of DNA sequencing are rapidly developing allowing quick and efficient characterisation of organisms at the level of the genome structure. In this study, the whole genome sequencing of a human (Russian man) was performed using two technologies currently present on the market - Sequencing by Oligonucleotide Ligation and Detection (SOLiD™) (Applied Biosystems) and sequencing technologies of molecular clusters using fluorescently labeled precursors (Illumina). The total number of generated data resulted in 108.3 billion base pairs (60.2 billion from Illumina technology and 48.1 billion from SOLiD technology). Statistics performed on reads generated by GAII and SOLiD showed that they covered 75% and 96% of the genome respectively. Short polymorphic regions were detected with comparable accuracy however, the absolute amount of them revealed by SOLiD was several times less than by GAII. Optimal algorithm for using the latest methods of sequencing was established for the analysis of individual human genomes. The study is the first Russian effort towards whole human genome sequencing.

  2. Technology, Teachers, and Training: Combining Theory with Macedonia's Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosman, Laura; Cvetanoska, Maja

    2013-01-01

    Numerous developing countries are currently planning or executing projects that introduce technology into their educational systems. This article asserts that such projects will have limited long-term success or impact until they are reconceptualized to incorporate three transformative concepts: teachers play the key role in determining the…

  3. Development and characterization of gastroretentive sustained-release formulation by combination of swelling and mucoadhesive approach: a mechanistic study

    PubMed Central

    Sankar, R; Jain, Subheet Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Background Acyclovir has pharmacokinetic limitations, including poor oral bioavailability of 15%–30%, high variability, and short elimination half-life of 2.3 hours. These limitations necessitate frequent administration of acyclovir, up to five times daily, leading to poor patient compliance, which in turn leads to a reduction in therapeutic efficacy and development of resistance. Methods A gastroretentive sustained-release (GR) formulation of acyclovir, based on a combination of swelling and mucoadhesive mechanisms, has been developed. Composition has been optimized after evaluation of different polymers, carbomer, polyethylene oxide, and sodium alginate alone and/or in combination. GR formulations were characterized for in-process quality-control tests, drug release and release rate kinetics, similarity factor analysis, swelling index, and matrix erosion. Results A formulation containing a combination of carbomer and polyethylene oxide had the highest similarity of drug release compared with a target drug-release profile obtained by pharmacokinetic simulations. The measurement of mucoadhesive strength, carried out with a texture analyzer, showed that the mucoadhesive strength of the GR formulation was significantly higher than that of the immediate-release (IR) tablet. The optimized GR formulation was found to be retained in the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract for 480 minutes; the IR tablet was retained for only 90 minutes as measured using a gastrointestinal retention study in albino rabbits. The GR formulation was also found to maintain more sustained plasma concentrations than the IR tablet. Mean residence time of the GR formulation was 7 hours versus 3.3 hours for the IR formulation. The relative bioavailability of the GR formulation was 261% of the IR formulation. Conclusion The GR formulation of acyclovir, based on swelling and mucoadhesive mechanisms, has prolonged retention in the upper gastrointestinal tract, sustained in vitro drug release

  4. Combining Ontologies and Peer-to-Peer Technologies for Inter-Organizational Knowledge Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuckenschmidt, Heiner; Siberski, Wolf; Nejdl, Wolfgang

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to review the characteristics of systems that combine P2P technology with explicit ontologies and assess the benefits of these technologies for inter-organizational knowledge management. Design/methodology/approach: We characterize existing technologies with respect to a number of aspects that are relevant to…

  5. Life Cycle Assessment of Titania Perovskite Solar Cell Technology for Sustainable Design and Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingyi; Gao, Xianfeng; Deng, Yelin; Li, Bingbing; Yuan, Chris

    2015-11-01

    Perovskite solar cells have attracted enormous attention in recent years due to their low cost and superior technical performance. However, the use of toxic metals, such as lead, in the perovskite dye and toxic chemicals in perovskite solar cell manufacturing causes grave concerns for its environmental performance. To understand and facilitate the sustainable development of perovskite solar cell technology from its design to manufacturing, a comprehensive environmental impact assessment has been conducted on titanium dioxide nanotube based perovskite solar cells by using an attributional life cycle assessment approach, from cradle to gate, with manufacturing data from our laboratory-scale experiments and upstream data collected from professional databases and the literature. The results indicate that the perovskite dye is the primary source of environmental impact, associated with 64.77% total embodied energy and 31.38% embodied materials consumption, contributing to more than 50% of the life cycle impact in almost all impact categories, although lead used in the perovskite dye only contributes to about 1.14% of the human toxicity potential. A comparison of perovskite solar cells with commercial silicon and cadmium-tellurium solar cells reveals that perovskite solar cells could be a promising alternative technology for future large-scale industrial applications.

  6. Life Cycle Assessment of Titania Perovskite Solar Cell Technology for Sustainable Design and Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingyi; Gao, Xianfeng; Deng, Yelin; Li, Bingbing; Yuan, Chris

    2015-11-01

    Perovskite solar cells have attracted enormous attention in recent years due to their low cost and superior technical performance. However, the use of toxic metals, such as lead, in the perovskite dye and toxic chemicals in perovskite solar cell manufacturing causes grave concerns for its environmental performance. To understand and facilitate the sustainable development of perovskite solar cell technology from its design to manufacturing, a comprehensive environmental impact assessment has been conducted on titanium dioxide nanotube based perovskite solar cells by using an attributional life cycle assessment approach, from cradle to gate, with manufacturing data from our laboratory-scale experiments and upstream data collected from professional databases and the literature. The results indicate that the perovskite dye is the primary source of environmental impact, associated with 64.77% total embodied energy and 31.38% embodied materials consumption, contributing to more than 50% of the life cycle impact in almost all impact categories, although lead used in the perovskite dye only contributes to about 1.14% of the human toxicity potential. A comparison of perovskite solar cells with commercial silicon and cadmium-tellurium solar cells reveals that perovskite solar cells could be a promising alternative technology for future large-scale industrial applications. PMID:26489525

  7. A "win-win" scenario: the use of sustainable land management technologies to improve rural livelihoods and combat desertification in semi-arid lands in Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mganga, Kevin; Musimba, Nashon; Nyariki, Dickson; Nyangito, Moses; Mwang'ombe, Agnes

    2014-05-01

    Dryland ecosystems support over 2 billion people and are major providers of critical ecosystems goods and services globally. However, desertification continues to pose a serious threat to the sustainability of the drylands and livelihoods of communities inhabiting them. The desertification problem is well exemplified in the arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs) in Kenya which cover approximately 80% of the total land area. This study aimed to 1) determine what agropastoralists attribute to be the causes of desertification in a semi-arid land in Kenya, 2) document sustainable land management (SLM) technologies being undertaken to improve livelihoods and combat desertification, and 3) identify the factors that influence the choice of the sustainable land management (SLM) technologies. Results show that agropastoralists inhabiting the semi-arid lands in southeastern Kenya mainly attribute desertification to the recurrent droughts and low amounts of rainfall. Despite the challenges posed by desertification and climate variability, agropastoralists in the study area are using a combination of SLM technologies notably dryland agroforestry using drought tolerant species (indigenous and exotic), grass reseeding using perennial native and drought tolerant grass species (vegetation reestablishment) and in-situ rainwater harvesting to improve livelihoods and by extension combat desertification. Interestingly, the choice and adoption of these SLM technologies is influenced more by the additional benefits the agropastoralists can derive from them. Therefore, it is rationale to conclude that success in dryland restoration and combating desertification lies in programs and technologies that offer a "win-win" scenario to the communities inhabiting the drylands. Key words: Agroforestry; Agropastoralists; Drylands; Grass Reseeding; Rainwater Harvesting

  8. Sustainable resource recovery and energy conversion processes using microbial electrochemical technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yates, Matthew D.

    Microbial Electrochemical Technologies (METs) are emerging technological platforms for the conversion of waste into usable products. METs utilize naturally occurring bacteria, called exoelectrogens, capable of transferring electrons to insoluble terminal electron acceptors. Electron transfer processes in the exoelectrogen Geobacter sulfurreducens were exploited here to develop sustainable processes for synthesis of industrially and socially relevant end products. The first process examined was the removal of soluble metals from solution to form catalytic nanoparticles and nanoporous structures. The second process examined was the biocatalytic conversion of electrons into hydrogen gas using electrons supplied directly to an electrode. Nanoparticle formation is desirable because materials on the nanoscale possess different physical, optical, electronic, and mechanical properties compared to bulk materials. In the first process, soluble palladium was used to form catalytic palladium nanoparticles using extracellular electron transfer (EET) processes of G. sulfurreducens, typically the dominant member of mixedculture METs. Geobacter cells reduced the palladium extracellularly using naturally produced pili, which provided extracellular adsorption and reduction sites to help delay the diffusion of soluble metals into the cell. The extracellular reduction prevented cell inactivation due to formation of intracellular particles, and therefore the cells could be reused in multiple palladium reduction cycles. A G. sulfurreducens biofilm was next investigated as a biotemplate for the formation of a nanoporous catalytic palladium structure. G. sulfurreducens biofilms have a dense network of pili and extracellular cytochromes capable of high rates of electron transfer directly to an electrode surface. These pili and cytochromes provide a dense number of reduction sites for nanoparticle formation without the need for any synthetic components. The cells within the biofilm also can

  9. Visions for a sustainable world: A conference on science, technology and social responsibility. Conference report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    This report summarizes the organization, activities, and outcomes of Student Pugwash USA`s 1992 International Conference, Visions for a Sustainable World: A Conference on Science, Technology and Social Responsibility. The conference was held June 14--20, 1992 at Emory University, and brought together 94 students and over 65 experts from industry, academe, and government. The conference addressed issues ranging from global environmental cooperation to the social impacts of the Human Genome Project to minority concerns in the sciences. It provided a valuable forum for talented students and professionals to engage in critical dialogue on many interdisciplinary issues at the juncture of science, technology and society. The conference challenged students -- the world`s future scientists, engineers, and political leaders -- to think broadly about global problems and to devise policy options that are viable and innovative. The success of the conference in stimulating interest, understanding, and enthusiasm about interdisciplinary global issues is clearly evident from both the participants` feedback and their continued involvement in Student Pugwash USA programs. Six working groups met each morning. The working group themes included: environmental challenges for developing countries; energy options: their social and environmental impact; health care in developing countries; changing dynamics of peace and global security; educating for the socially responsible use of technology; ethics and the use of genetic information. The conference was specifically designed to include mechanisms for ensuring its long-term impact. Participants were encouraged to focus on their individual role in helping resolve global issues. This was achieved through each participant`s development of a Personal Plan of Action, a plan which mapped out activities the student could undertake after the conference to continue the dialogue and work towards the resolution of global and local problems.

  10. Mapping Research Activities and Technologies for Sustainability and Environmental Studies--A Case Study at University Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hara, Keishiro; Uwasu, Michinori; Kurimoto, Shuji; Yamanaka, Shinsuke; Umeda, Yasushi; Shimoda, Yoshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    Systemic understanding of potential research activities and available technology seeds at university level is an essential condition to promote interdisciplinary and vision-driven collaboration in an attempt to cope with complex sustainability and environmental problems. Nonetheless, any such practices have been hardly conducted at universities…

  11. 3D printing of five-in-one dose combination polypill with defined immediate and sustained release profiles.

    PubMed

    Khaled, Shaban A; Burley, Jonathan C; Alexander, Morgan R; Yang, Jing; Roberts, Clive J

    2015-11-10

    We have used three dimensional (3D) extrusion printing to manufacture a multi-active solid dosage form or so called polypill. This contains five compartmentalised drugs with two independently controlled and well-defined release profiles. This polypill demonstrates that complex medication regimes can be combined in a single personalised tablet. This could potentially improve adherence for those patients currently taking many separate tablets and also allow ready tailoring of a particular drug combination/drug release for the needs of an individual. The polypill here represents a cardiovascular treatment regime with the incorporation of an immediate release compartment with aspirin and hydrochlorothiazide and three sustained release compartments containing pravastatin, atenolol, and ramipril. X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) were used to assess drug-excipient interaction. The printed polypills were evaluated for drug release using USP dissolution testing. We found that the polypill showed the intended immediate and sustained release profiles based upon the active/excipient ratio used. PMID:26390808

  12. Empowering Sustained Patient Safety: The Benefits of Combining Top-down and Bottom-up Approaches.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Greg L; Manges, Kirstin A; Ward, Marcia M

    2015-01-01

    Implementation of TeamSTEPPS for improving patient safety is examined via descriptive qualitative analysis of semistructured interviews with 21 informants at 12 hospitals. Implementation approaches fit 3 strategies: top-down, bottom-up, and combination. The top-down approach failed to develop enough commitment to spread implementation. The bottom-up approach was unable to marshal the resources necessary to spread implementation. Combining top-down and bottom-up processes best facilitated the implementation and spread of the TeamSTEPPS safety initiative.

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) PROGRAM: MICROTURBINES AND COMBINED HEAT AND POWER TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Environmental Technology Verification(ETV) Program evaluates the performance of innovatiave air, water, pollution prevention and monitoring technologies that have the potential to improve human health and the environment. This techno...

  14. Advancing Access to New Technology for Sustained High Resolution Observations of Plankton: From Bloom Dynamics to Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosik, H. M.; Olson, R. J.

    2012-12-01

    The combination of ocean observatory infrastructure and automated submersible flow cytometry can provide unprecedented capability for sustained high resolution time series of plankton, including taxa that are harmful or early indicators of ecosystem response to environmental change. Over the past decade, we have developed the FlowCytobot series of instruments that exemplify this capability. FlowCytobot and Imaging FlowCytobot use a combination of laser-based scattering and fluorescence measurements and video imaging of individual particles to enumerate and characterize cells ranging from picocyanobacteria to large chaining-forming diatoms. The process of developing these complex instruments was streamlined by access to the Martha's Vineyard Coastal Observatory (MVCO), a cabled facility on the New England Shelf, where real time two-way communications and access to shore power expedited cycles of instrument evaluation and design refinement. Repeated deployments at MVCO, typically 6 months in duration, have produced multi-year high resolution (hourly to daily) time series that are providing new insights into dynamics of community structure such as blooms, seasonality, and possibly even trends linked to regional climate change. The high temporal resolution observations of single cell properties make it possible not only to characterize taxonomic composition and size structure, but also to quantify taxon-specific growth rates. To meet the challenge of broadening access to this enabling technology, we have taken a two-step approach. First, we are partnering with a few scientific collaborators interested in using the instruments in different environments and to address different applications, notably the detection and characterization of harmful algal bloom events. Collaboration at this stage ensured that these first users outside the developers' lab had access to technical know-how required for successful outcomes; it also provided additional feedback that could be

  15. Advising and Optimizing the Deployment of Sustainability-Oriented Technologies in the Integrated Electricity, Light-Duty Transportation, and Water Supply System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarroja, Brian

    The convergence of increasing populations, decreasing primary resource availability, and uncertain climates have drawn attention to the challenge of shifting the operations of key resource sectors towards a sustainable paradigm. This is prevalent in California, which has set sustainability-oriented policies such as the Renewable Portfolio Standards and Zero-Emission Vehicle mandates. To meet these goals, many options have been identified to potentially carry out these shifts. The electricity sector is focusing on accommodating renewable power generation, the transportation sector on alternative fuel drivetrains and infrastructure, and the water supply sector on conservation, reuse, and unconventional supplies. Historical performance evaluations of these options, however, have not adequately taken into account the impacts on and constraints of co-dependent infrastructures that must accommodate them and their interactions with other simultaneously deployed options. These aspects are critical for optimally choosing options to meet sustainability goals, since the combined system of all resource sectors must satisfy them. Certain operations should not be made sustainable at the expense of rendering others as unsustainable, and certain resource sectors should not meet their individual goals in a way that hinders the ability of the entire system to do so. Therefore, this work develops and utilizes an integrated platform of the electricity, transportation, and water supply sectors to characterize the performance of emerging technology and management options while taking into account their impacts on co-dependent infrastructures and identify synergistic or detrimental interactions between the deployment of different options. This is carried out by first evaluating the performance of each option in the context of individual resource sectors to determine infrastructure impacts, then again in the context of paired resource sectors (electricity-transportation, electricity

  16. 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase inhibitors in combination with safeners: solutions for modern and sustainable agriculture.

    PubMed

    Ahrens, Hartmut; Lange, Gudrun; Müller, Thomas; Rosinger, Chris; Willms, Lothar; van Almsick, Andreas

    2013-09-01

    Inhibitors of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) prevent plant carotenoid pigment formation, which in turn leads to chlorophyll degradation. This "bleaching" herbicide mode of action provides weed-control products for various crops, such as rice, corn, and cereals. Combinations with suitable safeners allow the full exploitation of the potential of this compound class to selectively control major weed problems, including rapidly increasing cases of resistance against other important herbicide classes.

  17. Assessment of Renewable Energy Technology and a Case of Sustainable Energy in Mobile Telecommunication Sector

    PubMed Central

    Okundamiya, Michael S.; Emagbetere, Joy O.; Ogujor, Emmanuel A.

    2014-01-01

    The rapid growth of the mobile telecommunication sectors of many emerging countries creates a number of problems such as network congestion and poor service delivery for network operators. This results primarily from the lack of a reliable and cost-effective power solution within such regions. This study presents a comprehensive review of the underlying principles of the renewable energy technology (RET) with the objective of ensuring a reliable and cost-effective energy solution for a sustainable development in the emerging world. The grid-connected hybrid renewable energy system incorporating a power conversion and battery storage unit has been proposed based on the availability, dynamism, and technoeconomic viability of energy resources within the region. The proposed system's performance validation applied a simulation model developed in MATLAB, using a practical load data for different locations with varying climatic conditions in Nigeria. Results indicate that, apart from being environmentally friendly, the increase in the overall energy throughput of about 4 kWh/$ of the proposed system would not only improve the quality of mobile services, by making the operations of GSM base stations more reliable and cost effective, but also better the living standards of the host communities. PMID:24578673

  18. Assessment of renewable energy technology and a case of sustainable energy in mobile telecommunication sector.

    PubMed

    Okundamiya, Michael S; Emagbetere, Joy O; Ogujor, Emmanuel A

    2014-01-01

    The rapid growth of the mobile telecommunication sectors of many emerging countries creates a number of problems such as network congestion and poor service delivery for network operators. This results primarily from the lack of a reliable and cost-effective power solution within such regions. This study presents a comprehensive review of the underlying principles of the renewable energy technology (RET) with the objective of ensuring a reliable and cost-effective energy solution for a sustainable development in the emerging world. The grid-connected hybrid renewable energy system incorporating a power conversion and battery storage unit has been proposed based on the availability, dynamism, and technoeconomic viability of energy resources within the region. The proposed system's performance validation applied a simulation model developed in MATLAB, using a practical load data for different locations with varying climatic conditions in Nigeria. Results indicate that, apart from being environmentally friendly, the increase in the overall energy throughput of about 4 kWh/$ of the proposed system would not only improve the quality of mobile services, by making the operations of GSM base stations more reliable and cost effective, but also better the living standards of the host communities.

  19. Remote sensing, GIS, and GPS technologies for assessment potentialities of sustainable eco-agriculture development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlova, Albena V.; Tsvetkovski, Mitko M.

    2004-02-01

    The problem of ecological agriculture production is a question of present interest all over the world. For the past few years in Bulgaria were performed a number of reforms associated with utilization and management of agricultural and forest areas. Contemporary the problem cover eco-monitoring, specification of the trends and rehabilitation criteria determination on the basis of satellite technologies. The recent work presents a methodic for determination of suitable areas for sustainable ecoagriculture development. The main item in this methodic is test area definition based on remote sensing basis. It is proposed "point-polygon" method for correlation links between test point objects and certain test polygon. The test point objects are defined by GPS techniques. This approach enables complex quantitative assessment of the region with minimum resources consumption. For precise results obtaining is performed interpretatation of multispectral and panchromatic aerophoto and satellite images of different time periods, it is specified crop phenology and field check. Data are integrated in GIS for more efficient monitoring of the characteristics of the region of interest. The methodologies developed during these investigations can be applied to other regions, and have potential for providing modelers with extended data sets of independently derived agriculture data and monitoring studies.

  20. Assessment of the sustainability of technology by means of a thermodynamically based life cycle analysis.

    PubMed

    Dewulf, Jo; van Langenhove, Herman

    2002-01-01

    Life cycle analysis is one of the tools in the assessment of the sustainability of technological options. It takes into account all effects on the ecosystem and the population which may endanger the possibilities of current and future generations. However, the main bottleneck in current LCA methodologies is the balancing of different effects, being all quantified on different scales. In this work, a methodology is proposed, which allows one to quantify different effects of the production, consumption and disposal of goods, and services on a single scale. The basis of the methodology is the second law of thermodynamics. All production, consumption and disposal processes affecting the ecosystem and the population, are quantified in terms of loss of exergy. The exergy content of a material is the maximum amount of energy which can be transformed into work at given environmental conditions. Next to the elaboration of the methodology, the new approach is illustrated by examples of the production of synthetic organic polymers, inorganic building insulation materials and different waste gas treatment options.

  1. Dual-drug delivery by porous silicon nanoparticles for improved cellular uptake, sustained release, and combination therapy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chang-Fang; Mäkilä, Ermei M; Kaasalainen, Martti H; Hagström, Marja V; Salonen, Jarno J; Hirvonen, Jouni T; Santos, Hélder A

    2015-04-01

    Dual-drug delivery of antiangiogenic and chemotherapeutic drugs can enhance the therapeutic effect for cancer therapy. Conjugation of methotrexate (MTX) to porous silicon (PSi) nanoparticles (MTX-PSi) with positively charged surface can improve the cellular uptake of MTX and inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells. Herein, MTX-PSi conjugates sustained the release of MTX up to 96 h, and the released fragments including MTX were confirmed by mass spectrometry. The intracellular distribution of the MTX-PSi nanoparticles was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. Compared to pure MTX, the MTX-PSi achieved similar inhibition of cell proliferation in folate receptor (FR) over-expressing U87 MG cancer cells, and a higher effect in low FR-expressing EA.hy926 cells. Nuclear fragmentation analysis demonstrated programmed cell apoptosis of MTX-PSi in the high/low FR-expressing cancer cells, whereas PSi alone at the same dose had a minor effect on cell apoptosis. Finally, the porous structure of MTX-PSi enabled a successful concomitant loading of another anti-angiogenic hydrophobic drug, sorafenib, and considerably enhanced the dissolution rate of sorafenib. Overall, the MTX-PSi nanoparticles can be used as a platform for combination chemotherapy by simultaneously enhancing the dissolution rate of a hydrophobic drug and sustaining the release of a conjugated chemotherapeutic drug.

  2. A Hydro-Economic Model for Water Level Fluctuations: Combining Limnology with Economics for Sustainable Development of Hydropower

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, Philipp Emanuel; Schillinger, Sebastian; Weigt, Hannes; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Water level fluctuations in lakes lead to shoreline displacement. The seasonality of flooding or beaching of the littoral area affects nutrient cycling, redox gradients in sediments, and life cycles of aquatic organisms. Despite the ecological importance of water level fluctuations, we still lack a method that assesses water levels in the context of hydropower operations. Water levels in reservoirs are influenced by the operator of a hydropower plant, who discharges water through the turbines or stores water in the reservoir, in a fashion that maximizes profit. This rationale governs the seasonal operation scheme and hence determines the water levels within the boundaries of the reservoir's water balance. For progress towards a sustainable development of hydropower, the benefits of this form of electricity generation have to be weighed against the possible detrimental effects of the anthropogenic water level fluctuations. We developed a hydro-economic model that combines an economic optimization function with hydrological estimators of the water balance of a reservoir. Applying this model allowed us to accurately predict water level fluctuations in a reservoir. The hydro-economic model also allowed for scenario calculation of how water levels change with climate change scenarios and with a change in operating scheme of the reservoir (increase in turbine capacity). Further model development will enable the consideration of a variety of additional parameters, such as water withdrawal for irrigation, drinking water supply, or altered energy policies. This advances our ability to sustainably manage water resources that must meet both economic and environmental demands. PMID:25526619

  3. A hydro-economic model for water level fluctuations: combining limnology with economics for sustainable development of hydropower.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Philipp Emanuel; Schillinger, Sebastian; Weigt, Hannes; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Water level fluctuations in lakes lead to shoreline displacement. The seasonality of flooding or beaching of the littoral area affects nutrient cycling, redox gradients in sediments, and life cycles of aquatic organisms. Despite the ecological importance of water level fluctuations, we still lack a method that assesses water levels in the context of hydropower operations. Water levels in reservoirs are influenced by the operator of a hydropower plant, who discharges water through the turbines or stores water in the reservoir, in a fashion that maximizes profit. This rationale governs the seasonal operation scheme and hence determines the water levels within the boundaries of the reservoir's water balance. For progress towards a sustainable development of hydropower, the benefits of this form of electricity generation have to be weighed against the possible detrimental effects of the anthropogenic water level fluctuations. We developed a hydro-economic model that combines an economic optimization function with hydrological estimators of the water balance of a reservoir. Applying this model allowed us to accurately predict water level fluctuations in a reservoir. The hydro-economic model also allowed for scenario calculation of how water levels change with climate change scenarios and with a change in operating scheme of the reservoir (increase in turbine capacity). Further model development will enable the consideration of a variety of additional parameters, such as water withdrawal for irrigation, drinking water supply, or altered energy policies. This advances our ability to sustainably manage water resources that must meet both economic and environmental demands.

  4. Power of the Mashup: Combining Essential Learning with New Technology Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boss, Suzie; Krauss, Jane

    2007-01-01

    Jerome Burg, after 34 years of teaching, left his own classroom last year and now helps other teachers integrate technology into the curriculum at Granada High School in Livermore, California. One new project he designed is heightening global interest in literary road trips by creating a resource that combines a new technology with a time-tested…

  5. Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) Propulsion Technology Workshop. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chojnacki, Kent T.

    1992-01-01

    The goal of the Rocket-Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) Propulsion Technology Workshop was to assess the RBCC propulsion system's viability for Earth-to-Orbit (ETO) transportation systems. This was accomplished by creating a forum (workshop) in which past work in the field of RBCC propulsion systems was reviewed, current technology status was evaluated, and future technology programs in the field of RBCC propulsion systems were postulated, discussed, and recommended.

  6. How to start and sustain a successful pediatric cardiac intensive care program: A combined clinical and administrative strategy.

    PubMed

    Chang, Anthony C.

    2002-04-01

    OBJECTIVE: To delineate key clinical and administrative factors in starting a pediatric cardiac intensive care program and to introduce a scorecard concept to measure excellence in such a new program. Methods: Review of current clinical research data in pediatric cardiac intensive care and administrative business concepts for their application to the pediatric cardiac intensive care program. RESULTS: Although clinical concepts in cardiac intensive care are useful as basic philosophical strategies at the bedside, administrative principles are essential in operational strategies vital to the success of such a program. Using both clinical and business administrative concepts, a balanced strategy can be formulated. CONCLUSIONS: Starting a pediatric cardiac intensive care program is a difficult endeavor. A combined clinical and administrative approach is needed in starting and sustaining excellence in a pediatric cardiac intensive care program. Monitoring excellence in such a program warrants application of a scorecard system. PMID:12780977

  7. A survey of beam-combining technologies for laser space power transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwon, J. H.; Williams, M. D.; Lee, J. H.

    1988-01-01

    The combination of laser beams holds much promise for obtaining powerful beams. Methods are surveyed for beam combination (coherent and incoherent) and two of them are identified as the most effective means for achieving high power transmission in space. The two methods as applied to laser diode arrays are analyzed, and potentially productive work areas for the advancement of technology are delineated.

  8. Sustained response to combination therapy in a patient with chronic hepatitis C and thrombocytopenia secondary to alpha-interferon.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Sáenz, M; Rojas, M; Piñar, A; Salas, E; Rebollo, J; Carmona, I; Herrerías-Esteban, J M; Herrerías-Gutiérrez, J M

    2000-05-01

    Recent data suggest that hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection may induce a significant autoimmune reaction to platelets, but the mechanism is unknown. Many patients with chronic hepatitis C, in fact, have high levels of platelet-associated immunoglobulin G (PAIgG) and HCV-RNA is present in the platelets of 100% of those patients with thrombocytopenia and high PAIgG levels. Hepatitis C virus infection has been associated with the development of thrombocytopenic purpura, sometimes triggered during interferon (IFN) therapy. In such cases, the treatment of the underlying disease is a difficult problem to solve. We report the case of a patient with chronic hepatitis C, who developed life-threatening thrombocytopenic purpura after a prolonged course of IFN-alpha2b over a 4-year period. Treatment with anti-immunoglobulin gammaglobulin (Polyglobin; Química Farmaceutica Bayer, Barcelona, Spain) had a transient effect on the platelet count, but prolonged therapy with prednisone was necessary for definitive relief of the haematological complication. Two years later, the patient was treated with combined therapy, including ribavirin (1200 mg/day) and IFN-alpha2b (5 mU, t.i.w.) for 12 months. This therapy induced a sustained response, both biochemical and virological, without haematological complications. This observation suggests that ribavirin may be of benefit in the treatment of immune-mediated thrombocytopenia in patients with chronic hepatitis C, preventing the harmful effect of IFN-alpha but also allowing both drugs to be combined so as to increase the probability of sustained remission of the liver disease.

  9. Economic comparison of clean coal generating technologies with natural gas-combined cycle systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sebesta, J.J.; Hoskins, W.W. )

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that there are four combustion technologies upon which U.S. electric utilities are expected to rely for the majority of their future power generating needs. These technologies are pulverized coal- fired combustion (PC); coal-fired fluidized bed combustion (AFBC); coal gasification, combined cycle systems (CGCC); and natural gas-fired combined cycle systems (NGCC). The engineering and economic parameters which affect the choice of a technology include capital costs, operating and maintenance costs, fuel costs, construction schedule, process risk, environmental and site impacts, fuel efficiency and flexibility, plant availability, capacity factors, timing of startup, and the importance of utility economic and financial factors.

  10. Addressing sustainable contributions to GEO/GEOSS from Science and Technology Communities: the EGIDA Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzetti, P.; Nativi, S.

    2012-04-01

    The European Project EGIDA (Coordinating Earth and Environmental cross-disciplinary projects to promote GEOSS) co-funded by the European Commission under the Seventh Framework programme, has started in September 2010. It aims to prepare a sustainable process of contribution to GEO/GEOSS promoting coordination of activities carried out by: the GEO Science & Technology (S&T) Committee; S&T national and European initiatives; and other S&T Communities. This will be done by supporting broader implementation and effectiveness of the GEOSS S&T Roadmap and the GEOSS mission through coherent and interoperable networking of National and European projects, and International initiatives. The definition of a general methodology for a sustainable contribution to GEO/GEOSS through the implementation of a System-of-System (re-) engineering process is one of the objectives of the EGIDA Project in order to consolidate the results of the actions carried out in support of the GEO Science and Technology Committee (STC) Road Map. The EGIDA Methodology is based on several sources including GEO activities and documents, activities of the EGIDA project in support of the GEO STC Road Map, lessons learned from the initiatives and projects already contributing, in different ways, to the building of advanced infrastructures as direct or indirect part to GEO/GEOSS. The design of the EGIDA Methodology included several steps: a) an operational definition of the EGIDA Methodology, b) the identification of the target audience for the EGIDA Methodology, c) the identification of typical scenarios for the application of the EGIDA Methodology. Basing on these design activities the EGIDA Methodology is defined as a set of two activities running in parallel: Networking Activities - to identify and address the relevant S&T community(-ies) and actors (Community Engagement) - and Technical Activities: - to guide the infrastructure development and align it with the GEO/GEOSS interoperability principles

  11. Combining Interactive Infrastructure Modeling and Evolutionary Algorithm Optimization for Sustainable Water Resources Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, R.; Kasprzyk, J. R.; Zagona, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    Population growth and climate change, combined with difficulties in building new infrastructure, motivate portfolio-based solutions to ensuring sufficient water supply. Powerful simulation models with graphical user interfaces (GUI) are often used to evaluate infrastructure portfolios; these GUI based models require manual modification of the system parameters, such as reservoir operation rules, water transfer schemes, or system capacities. Multiobjective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA) based optimization can be employed to balance multiple objectives and automatically suggest designs for infrastructure systems, but MOEA based decision support typically uses a fixed problem formulation (i.e., a single set of objectives, decisions, and constraints). This presentation suggests a dynamic framework for linking GUI-based infrastructure models with MOEA search. The framework begins with an initial formulation which is solved using a MOEA. Then, stakeholders can interact with candidate solutions, viewing their properties in the GUI model. This is followed by changes in the formulation which represent users' evolving understanding of exigent system properties. Our case study is built using RiverWare, an object-oriented, data-centered model that facilitates the representation of a diverse array of water resources systems. Results suggest that assumptions within the initial MOEA search are violated after investigating tradeoffs and reveal how formulations should be modified to better capture stakeholders' preferences.

  12. Integrating developed and developing world knowledge into global discussions and strategies for sustainability. 1. Science and technology.

    PubMed

    Mihelcic, James R; Zimmerman, Julie B; Ramaswami, Anu

    2007-05-15

    Sustainable development in both the developed and developing world has the common fundamental themes of advancing economic and social prosperity while protecting and restoring natural systems. While many recent efforts have been undertaken to transfer knowledge from the developed to the developing world to achieve a more sustainable future, indigenous knowledge that often originates in developing nations also can contribute significantly to this global dialogue. Selected case studies are presented to describe important knowledge, methodologies, techniques, principles, and practices for sustainable development emerging from developing countries in two critical challenge areas to sustainability: water and energy. These, with additional analysis and quantification, can be adapted and expanded for transfer throughout the developed and developing world in advancing sustainability. A common theme in all of the case studies presented is the integration of natural processes and material flows into the anthropogenic system. Some of these techniques, originating in rural settings, have recently been adapted for use in cities, which is especially important as the global trend of urban population growth accelerates. Innovations in science and technology, specifically applied to two critical issues of today, water and energy, are expected to fundamentally shift the type and efficiency of energy and materials utilized to advance prosperity while protecting and restoring natural systems.

  13. Biochronomer™ technology and the development of APF530, a sustained release formulation of granisetron.

    PubMed

    Ottoboni, Thomas; Gelder, Mark S; O'Boyle, Erin

    2014-01-01

    Granisetron and other 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists are first-line agents for preventing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). Current treatment guidelines prefer the longer-acting agent, palonosetron, for CINV prevention in some chemotherapy regimens. A new granisetron formulation, APF530, has been developed as an alternative long-acting agent. APF530 utilizes Biochronomer(™) technology to formulate a viscous tri(ethylene glycol) poly(orthoester)-based formulation that delivers - by single subcutaneous (SC) injection - therapeutic granisetron concentrations over 5 days. The poly(orthoester) polymer family contain an orthoester linkage; these bioerodible polymer systems are specifically designed for controlled, sustained drug delivery. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of APF530 250, 500, or 750 mg SC (granisetron 5, 10, or 15 mg, respectively) administered 30-60 minutes before chemotherapy were evaluated in two Phase II trials in cancer patients receiving moderately (MEC) or highly (HEC) emetogenic chemotherapy. Pharmacokinetics were dose proportional, with slow granisetron absorption and elimination. Both trials demonstrated similar results for median half-life, time to maximum concentration, and exposure for APF530 250 and 500 mg, with no differences between patients receiving MEC or HEC. A randomized Phase III trial demonstrated noninferiority of APF530 500 mg SC (granisetron 10 mg) to intravenous palonosetron 0.25 mg in preventing CINV in patients receiving MEC or HEC in acute (0-24 hours) and delayed (24-120 hours) settings, with activity over 120 hours. Mean maximum granisetron plasma concentrations were 10.8 and 17.8 ng/mL, and mean half-lives were 30.8 and 35.9 hours after SC administration of APF530 250 and 500 mg, respectively. Therapeutic granisetron concentrations were maintained for greater than 120 hours (5 days) in both APF530 dose groups. These data suggest that APF530 - an SC-administered formulation of

  14. Biochronomer™ technology and the development of APF530, a sustained release formulation of granisetron

    PubMed Central

    Ottoboni, Thomas; Gelder, Mark S; O’Boyle, Erin

    2014-01-01

    Granisetron and other 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists are first-line agents for preventing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). Current treatment guidelines prefer the longer-acting agent, palonosetron, for CINV prevention in some chemotherapy regimens. A new granisetron formulation, APF530, has been developed as an alternative long-acting agent. APF530 utilizes Biochronomer™ technology to formulate a viscous tri(ethylene glycol) poly(orthoester)-based formulation that delivers – by single subcutaneous (SC) injection – therapeutic granisetron concentrations over 5 days. The poly(orthoester) polymer family contain an orthoester linkage; these bioerodible polymer systems are specifically designed for controlled, sustained drug delivery. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of APF530 250, 500, or 750 mg SC (granisetron 5, 10, or 15 mg, respectively) administered 30–60 minutes before chemotherapy were evaluated in two Phase II trials in cancer patients receiving moderately (MEC) or highly (HEC) emetogenic chemotherapy. Pharmacokinetics were dose proportional, with slow granisetron absorption and elimination. Both trials demonstrated similar results for median half-life, time to maximum concentration, and exposure for APF530 250 and 500 mg, with no differences between patients receiving MEC or HEC. A randomized Phase III trial demonstrated noninferiority of APF530 500 mg SC (granisetron 10 mg) to intravenous palonosetron 0.25 mg in preventing CINV in patients receiving MEC or HEC in acute (0–24 hours) and delayed (24–120 hours) settings, with activity over 120 hours. Mean maximum granisetron plasma concentrations were 10.8 and 17.8 ng/mL, and mean half-lives were 30.8 and 35.9 hours after SC administration of APF530 250 and 500 mg, respectively. Therapeutic granisetron concentrations were maintained for greater than 120 hours (5 days) in both APF530 dose groups. These data suggest that APF530 – an SC

  15. Sustainable control of mosquito larvae in the field by the combined actions of the biological insecticide Bti and natural competitors.

    PubMed

    Kroeger, Iris; Liess, Matthias; Dziock, Frank; Duquesne, Sabine

    2013-06-01

    Integrated management of mosquitoes is becoming increasingly important, particularly in relation to avoiding recolonization of ponds after larvicide treatment. We conducted for the first time field experiments that involved exposing natural populations of the mosquito species Culex pipiens to: a) application of the biological insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti), b) the introduction of natural competitors (a crustacean community composed mainly of Daphnia spp.), or c) a combined treatment that involved both introduction of a crustacean community and the application of Bti. The treatment that involved only the introduction of crustaceans had no significant effect on mosquito larval populations, while treatment with Bti alone caused only a significant reduction in the abundance of mosquito larvae in the short-term (within 3-10 days after treatment). In contrast, the combined treatment rapidly reduced the abundance of mosquito larvae, which remained low throughout the entire observation period of 28 days. Growth of the introduced crustacean communities was favored by the immediate reduction in the abundance of mosquito larvae following Bti administration, thus preventing recolonization of ponds by mosquito larvae at the late period (days 14-28 after treatment). Both competition and the temporal order of establishment of different species are hence important mechanisms for efficient and sustainable mosquito control.

  16. Contribution to the sustainable management of resources by novel combination of industrial solid residues into red ceramics.

    PubMed

    Karayannis, V; Spiliotis, X; Papastergiadis, E; Ntampegliotis, K; Papapolymerou, G; Samaras, P

    2015-03-01

    Limited amounts of industrial residues are recycled while the remaining huge quantities are stockpiled or disposed of, thus frequently leading to soil contamination. The utilization of industrial residues as valuable secondary resources into ceramics can contribute to efficient waste management and substitution for massive amounts of natural resources (clayey minerals) demanded for ceramic production. The low cost of these residues and even possible energy savings during mixture firing may also be beneficial. In the present study, the innovative combination of lignite fly ash with steel-making dust into clay-based red ceramics is undertaken, to contribute both to sustainable use of resources and prevention of soil contamination. Brick specimens were shaped by extrusion and fired, their microstructure was examined and the effect of the mixture composition and firing temperature on physico-mechanical properties was determined. Ceramic microstructures were successfully obtained by a suitable combination of fly ash with steel dust (5 + 5 wt%) into clays. Properties can be predicted and tailored to meet the needs for specific applications by appropriately adjusting the mixture composition and sintering temperature.

  17. Parabolic-Trough Technology Roadmap: A Pathway for Sustained Commercial Development and Deployment of Parabolic-Trough Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Price, H.; Kearney, D.

    1999-01-31

    Technology roadmapping is a needs-driven technology planning process to help identify, select, and develop technology alternatives to satisfy a set of market needs. The DOE's Office of Power Technologies' Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program recently sponsored a technology roadmapping workshop for parabolic trough technology. The workshop was attended by an impressive cross section of industry and research experts. The goals of the workshop were to evaluate the market potential for trough power projects, develop a better understanding of the current state of the technology, and to develop a conceptual plan for advancing the state of parabolic trough technology. This report documents and extends the roadmap that was conceptually developed during the workshop.

  18. Sustainable Urban Infrastructure Development and the Role of Water Technologies in the U.S.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased climate variability and rapid urbanization are fundamentally changing the urban watershed hydrology and consequently sustainability of water systems. However, our urban planning and engineering practices are based on decades-old hydrological theory and guidance based o...

  19. Predicting the aquatic stage sustainability of a restored backwater channel combining in-situ and airborne remotely sensed bathymetric models.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jérôme, Lejot; Jérémie, Riquier; Hervé, Piégay

    2014-05-01

    As other large river floodplain worldwide, the floodplain of the Rhône has been deeply altered by human activities and infrastructures over the last centuries both in term of structure and functioning. An ambitious restoration plan of selected by-passed reaches has been implemented since 1999, in order to improve their ecological conditions. One of the main action aimed to increase the aquatic areas in floodplain channels (i.e. secondary channels, backwaters, …). In practice, fine and/or coarse alluvium were dredged, either locally or over the entire cut-off channel length. Sometimes the upstream or downstream alluvial plugs were also removed to reconnect the restored feature to the main channel. Such operation aims to restore forms and associated habitats of biotic communities, which are no more created or maintained by the river itself. In this context, assessing the sustainability of such restoration actions is a major issue. In this study, we focus on 1 of the 24 floodplain channels which have been restored along the Rhône River since 1999, the Malourdie channel (Chautagne reach, France). A monitoring of the geomorphologic evolution of the channel has been conducted during a decade to assess the aquatic stage sustainability of this former fully isolated channel, which has been restored as a backwater in 2004. Two main types of measures were performed: (a) water depth and fine sediment thickness were surveyed with an auger every 10 m along the channel centerline in average every year and a half allowing to establish an exponential decay model of terrestrialization rates through time; (b) three airborne campaigns (2006, 2007, 2012) by Ultra Aerial Vehicle (UAV) provided images from which bathymetry were inferred in combination with observed field measures. Coupling field and airborne models allows us to simulate different states of terrestrialization at the scale of the whole restore feature (e.g. 2020/2030/2050). Raw results indicate that terrestrialization

  20. Technological Alternatives or Use of Wood Fuel in Combined Heat and Power Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusanova, Jekaterina; Markova, Darja; Bazbauers, Gatis; Valters, Kārlis

    2013-12-01

    Abstract Latvia aims for 40% share of renewable energy in the total final energy use. Latvia has large resources of biomass and developed district heating systems. Therefore, use of biomass for heat and power production is an economically attractive path for increase of the share of renewable energy. The optimum technological solution for use of biomass and required fuel resources have to be identified for energy planning and policy purposes. The aim of this study was to compare several wood fuel based energy conversion technologies from the technical and economical point of view. Three biomass conversion technologies for combined heat and electricity production (CHP) were analyzed: • CHP with steam turbine technology; • gasification CHP using gas engine; • bio-methane combined cycle CHP. Electricity prices for each alternative are presented. The results show the level of support needed for the analyzed renewable energy technologies and time period needed to reach price parity with the natural gas - fired combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) CHPss. The results also show that bio-methane technology is most competitive when compared with CCGT among the considered technologies regarding fuel consumption and electricity production, but it is necessary to reduce investment costs to reach the electricity price parity with the natural gas CCGT.

  1. Combined remediation technologies: results from field trials at chlorinated solvent impacted sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Carroll, D. M.; Chowdhury, A. I.; Lomheim, L.; Boparai, H. K.; Weber, K.; Austrins, L. M.; Edwards, E.; Sleep, B.; de Boer, C. V.; Garcia, A. N.

    2015-12-01

    Non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) are one class of waste liquids often generated from waste mixtures in industrial processes containing surfactants, chlorinated hydrocarbons and other compounds. Chlorinated solvents, a particularly persistent NAPL contaminant, frequently contaminate water sources for decades and are one of the more common contaminants at brownfield and industrialized sites. Although considerable advances in our understanding of the phenomena governing NAPL remediation have been made, and a number of innovative remediation technologies have been developed, existing technologies are rarely able to achieve clean up goals in contaminated aquifers at the completion of remedial activities. The development and pilot scale testing of new and innovative remediation technologies is, therefore, crucial to achieve clean up goals at contaminated sites. Our research group is currently investigating a number of innovative remediation technologies, either individually or as combined remedies. This includes the applicability of nanometals and ISCO (e.g., persulfate) for contaminated site remediation. These technologies can be combined with technologies to enhance amendment delivery (e.g., electrokinetics) or create conditions favorable for enhanced biotic contaminant degradation. This presentation will discuss outcomes from a number of field trials conducted at chlorinated solvent impacted sites by our group with a particular focus on combined remediation technologies.

  2. Impact of combined intermittent preventive treatment of malaria and helminths on anaemia, sustained attention, and recall in Northern Ghanaian schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Opoku, Ernest Cudjoe; Olsen, Annette; Browne, Edmund; Hodgson, Abraham; Awoonor-Williams, John K.; Yelifari, Lawrence; Williams, John; Magnussen, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    .5% (from 2.83 to 3.56, p=0.01) respectively, compared to 5.75% in Control Arm 3 (from 2.95 to 3.13, p=0.09). Likewise, mean recall test score improvements after interventions were 16.9% (from 2.07 to 2.49, p=0.01) and 27.9% (from 1.91 to 2.65, p=0.01) in Study Arms 1 and 2, respectively, compared to 18.3% (from 1.92 to 2.35, p=0.01) in Control Arm 3. Conclusion Combined intermittent preventive treatment of malaria and deworming reduced prevalence of anaemia and improved sustained attention and recall in schoolchildren. Best results for sustained attention and recall were seen in Study Arm 2. PMID:27633035

  3. Evaluating odour control technologies using reliability and sustainability criteria--a case study for water treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Kraakman, N J R; Estrada, J M; Lebrero, R; Cesca, J; Muñoz, R

    2014-01-01

    Technologies for odour control have been widely reviewed and their optimal range of application and performance has been clearly established. Selection criteria, mainly driven by process economics, are usually based on the air flow volume, the inlet concentrations and the required removal efficiency. However, these criteria are shifting with social and environmental issues becoming as important as process economics. A methodology is illustrated to quantify sustainability and robustness of odour control technology in the context of odour control at wastewater treatment or water recycling plants. The most commonly used odour abatement techniques (biofiltration, biotrickling filtration, activated carbon adsorption, chemical scrubbing, activated sludge diffusion and biotrickling filtration coupled with activated carbon adsorption) are evaluated in terms of: (1) sustainability, with quantification of process economics, environmental performance and social impact using the sustainability metrics of the Institution of Chemical Engineers; (2) sensitivity towards design and operating parameters like utility prices (energy and labour), inlet odour concentration (H2S) and design safety (gas contact time); (3) robustness, quantifications of operating reliability, with recommendations to improve reliability during their lifespan of operations. The results show that the odour treatment technologies with the highest investments presented the lowest operating costs, which means that the net present value (NPV) should be used as a selection criterion rather than investment costs. Economies of scale are more important in biotechniques (biofiltration and biotrickling filtration) as, at increased airflows, their reduction in overall costs over 20 years (NPV20) is more extreme when compared to the physical/chemical technologies (chemical scrubbing and activated carbon filtration). Due to their low NPV and their low environmental impact, activated sludge diffusion and biotrickling

  4. Evaluating odour control technologies using reliability and sustainability criteria--a case study for water treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Kraakman, N J R; Estrada, J M; Lebrero, R; Cesca, J; Muñoz, R

    2014-01-01

    Technologies for odour control have been widely reviewed and their optimal range of application and performance has been clearly established. Selection criteria, mainly driven by process economics, are usually based on the air flow volume, the inlet concentrations and the required removal efficiency. However, these criteria are shifting with social and environmental issues becoming as important as process economics. A methodology is illustrated to quantify sustainability and robustness of odour control technology in the context of odour control at wastewater treatment or water recycling plants. The most commonly used odour abatement techniques (biofiltration, biotrickling filtration, activated carbon adsorption, chemical scrubbing, activated sludge diffusion and biotrickling filtration coupled with activated carbon adsorption) are evaluated in terms of: (1) sustainability, with quantification of process economics, environmental performance and social impact using the sustainability metrics of the Institution of Chemical Engineers; (2) sensitivity towards design and operating parameters like utility prices (energy and labour), inlet odour concentration (H2S) and design safety (gas contact time); (3) robustness, quantifications of operating reliability, with recommendations to improve reliability during their lifespan of operations. The results show that the odour treatment technologies with the highest investments presented the lowest operating costs, which means that the net present value (NPV) should be used as a selection criterion rather than investment costs. Economies of scale are more important in biotechniques (biofiltration and biotrickling filtration) as, at increased airflows, their reduction in overall costs over 20 years (NPV20) is more extreme when compared to the physical/chemical technologies (chemical scrubbing and activated carbon filtration). Due to their low NPV and their low environmental impact, activated sludge diffusion and biotrickling

  5. Development of Sustained Release “NanoFDC (Fixed Dose Combination)” for Hypertension – An Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Anjuman; Shafiq, Nusrat; Jain, Sanjay; Khuller, G. K.; Sharma, Sadhana; Malhotra, Samir

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The present study was planned to formulate, characterize and evaluate the pharmacokinetics of a novel “NanoFDC” comprising three commonly prescribed anti-hypertensive drugs, hydrochlorothiazide (a diuretic), candesartan (ARB) and amlodipine (a calcium channel blocker). Basic Methods The candidate drugs were loaded in Poly (DL-lactide-co-gycolide) (PLGA) by emulsion- diffusion-evaporation method. The formulations were evaluated for their size, morphology, drug loading and in vitro release individually. Single dose pharmacokinetic profiles of the nanoformulations alone and in combination, as a NanoFDC, were evaluated in Wistar rats. Results The candidate drugs encapsulated inside PLGA showed entrapment efficiencies ranging from 30%, 33.5% and 32% for hydrochlorothiazide, candesartan and amlodipine respectively. The nanoparticles ranged in size from 110 to 180 nm. In vitro release profile of the nanoformulation showed 100% release by day 6 in the physiological pH 7.4 set up with PBS (phosphate buffer saline) and by day 4-5 in the intestinal pH 1.2 and 8.0 set up SGF (simulated gastric fluid) and SIF (simulated intestinal fluid) respectively. In pharmacokinetic analysis a sustained-release for 6 days and significant increase in the mean residence time (MRT), as compared to the respective free drugs was noted [MRT of amlodipine, hydrochlorothiazide and candesartan changed from 8.9 to 80.59 hours, 11 to 69.20 hours and 9 to 101.49 hours respectively]. Conclusion We have shown for the first time that encapsulating amlodipine, hydrochlorothiazide and candesartan into a single nanoformulation, to get the “NanoFDC (Fixed Dose Combination)” is a feasible strategy which aims to decrease pill burden. PMID:26047011

  6. Soil ecology and agricultural technology; An integrated approach towards improved soil management for sustainable farming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulleman, Mirjam; Pérès, Guénola; Crittenden, Stephen; Heddadj, Djilali; Sukkel, Wijnand

    2014-05-01

    Intensive arable food production systems are in need of smart solutions that combine ecological knowledge and farm technology to maximize yields while protecting natural resources. The huge diversity of soil organisms and their interactions is of crucial importance for soil functions and ecosystem services, such as organic matter incorporation and break down, nutrient mineralization, soil structure formation, water regulation and disease and pest control. Soil management decisions that take into account the soil biodiversity and associated functions are thus essential to (i) maintain soil productivity in the long term, (ii) reduce the dependency on external inputs and non-renewables such as fossil fuels, and (iii) make agroecosystems more resilient against biotic and abiotic stresses. Organic farming systems and reduced tillage systems are two approaches that aim to increase soil biodiversity and general soil quality, through improved management of organic matter but differ in their emphasis on the use of chemical inputs for crop protection or soil disturbance, respectively. In North-western Europe experience with and knowledge of reduced tillage systems is still scarce, both in conventional and organic farming. Our study targeted both conventional and organic farming and aimed at 1) documenting reduced tillage practices within different agroecological contexts in NW Europe; 2) evaluating the effects of reduced tillage systems on soil biodiversity and soil ecosystem services; 3) increase understanding of agroecological factors that determine trade-offs between different ecosystem services. Earthworm species and nematode taxa were selected as indicator organisms to be studied for their known response to soil management and effects on soil functions. Additionally, soil organic matter, physical soil parameters and processes, and crop yields have been measured across multiple sites. Data have been collected over several cropping seasons in long term field experiments

  7. Institutionalization and Sustainability of the National Science Foundation's Advanced Technological Education Program. CCRC Brief. Number 20

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Thomas R.; Matsuzuka, Yukari; Jacobs, James; Morest, Vanessa Smith; Hughes, Katherine L.

    2004-01-01

    In response to the 1992 Scientific and Advanced Technology Act (SATA), the National Science Foundation (NSF) initiated the Advanced Technological Education (ATE) program to promote systemic reform of the nation's science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. The Act gave community colleges the central role for the…

  8. A Learning Ecology Perspective: School Systems Sustaining Art Teaching with Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Ching-Chiu

    2011-01-01

    Infusing technology into art education practice has been a continuous endeavor for preservice and in-service art teacher education. In recent years, art educators around the world have researched issues related to the preparation of art teacher technology competencies, including art teacher perceptions of working with technology, implementations…

  9. Developing and Sustaining Schools as Technology­ Enriched Learning Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Linda Cole; O'Hair, Mary John; O'Hair, H. Dan; Williams, Leslie Ann

    2008-01-01

    During the last two decades, an assumption was advanced by policy makers that making technology available would result in effective technology transfer and integration in the teaching and learning process (Cuban, 2001); however, reality has been less kind with research presenting a pessimistic picture regarding the impact of technology in the…

  10. Sustainable Innovations: Bringing Digital Media and Emerging Technologies to the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herro, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    Because traditional schools struggle to effectively understand, implement, and sustain digital learning initiatives, innovating with digital media in classrooms is a difficult endeavor. Practitioners need examples to better understand conditions necessary to move forward with digital media and learning (DML) in schools. This article provides…

  11. Using Innovative Technology to Develop Sustainable Assessment Practices in Marketing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debuse, Justin C. W.; Lawley, Meredith

    2011-01-01

    Timely, constructive feedback on assessment is critically important to students and yet is increasingly difficult for time-poor academics to consistently provide. Marketing educators also face pressure to incorporate sustainability into both the curriculum and practices such as assessment. This article outlines the development of an innovative…

  12. Leading Sustainable Pedagogical Reform with Technology for Student-Centred Learning: A Complexity Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toh, Yancy

    2016-01-01

    The literature on school improvement is littered with sombre reports of how ICT-mediated innovations have failed to create impact on teaching and learning. Even when evidence-based successes are palpable, they are sporadic and rarely sustainable. Against the backdrop of the litany of such studies, this paper reports the case of a primary school in…

  13. Developing and Applying Green Building Technology in an Indigenous Community: An Engaged Approach to Sustainability Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, David R.; Thatcher, Corinne E.; Workman, Elizabeth A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to disseminate an innovative approach to sustainability education in construction-related fields in which teaching, research, and service are integrated to provide a unique learning experience for undergraduate students, faculty members, and community partners. Design/methodology/approach: The paper identifies the need for…

  14. Teaching and Learning for Sustainable Development: ESD Research in Technology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlova, Margarita

    2013-01-01

    When education for sustainable development (ESD) emerged as part of the educational agenda in the international arena, it was associated with significant shifts in the educational debate about the purpose and nature of education and with the need to respond to crises caused by the modern idea of progress. Scientists from different fields warn…

  15. Combinative Particle Size Reduction Technologies for the Production of Drug Nanocrystals

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, Jaime; Müller, Rainer H.; Möschwitzer, Jan P.

    2014-01-01

    Nanosizing is a suitable method to enhance the dissolution rate and therefore the bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. The success of the particle size reduction processes depends on critical factors such as the employed technology, equipment, and drug physicochemical properties. High pressure homogenization and wet bead milling are standard comminution techniques that have been already employed to successfully formulate poorly soluble drugs and bring them to market. However, these techniques have limitations in their particle size reduction performance, such as long production times and the necessity of employing a micronized drug as the starting material. This review article discusses the development of combinative methods, such as the NANOEDGE, H 96, H 69, H 42, and CT technologies. These processes were developed to improve the particle size reduction effectiveness of the standard techniques. These novel technologies can combine bottom-up and/or top-down techniques in a two-step process. The combinative processes lead in general to improved particle size reduction effectiveness. Faster production of drug nanocrystals and smaller final mean particle sizes are among the main advantages. The combinative particle size reduction technologies are very useful formulation tools, and they will continue acquiring importance for the production of drug nanocrystals. PMID:26556191

  16. A City Parking Integration System Combined with Cloud Computing Technologies and Smart Mobile Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Her-Tyan; Chen, Bing-Chang; Wang, Bo-Xun

    2016-01-01

    The current study applied cloud computing technology and smart mobile devices combined with a streaming server for parking lots to plan a city parking integration system. It is also equipped with a parking search system, parking navigation system, parking reservation service, and car retrieval service. With this system, users can quickly find…

  17. Combining Technology and Narrative in a Learning Environment for Workplace Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Wayne A.; Wellings, Paula; Palumbo, David; Gupton, Christine

    In a project designed to provide training for entry-level job skills in high tech industries, a combination of narrative and technology was employed to aid learners in developing the necessary soft skills (dependability, responsibility, listening comprehension, collaboration, et cetera) sought by employers. The EnterTech Project brought together a…

  18. [Rules of acupoints combination of ancient acupuncture for Xiaoke based on data mining technology].

    PubMed

    Xu, LinLing; Xu, Tianshu; Zhang, Jianbin

    2015-08-01

    The rules of acupoints combination of ancient acupuncture for Xiaoke are mainly explored. By retrieval on ancient literature, the database of acupuncture and moxibustion for Xiaoke is established; based on the database, association analysis between acupoints and symptoms is performed. According to the association analysis in 5 databases of Xiaoke database, Xiaoke database of kidney deficiency, Xiaoke-database of dry mnouth and thirst, Xiaoke database of difficult urination, Xiaoke database of drinking addiction, the results are mainly characterized with symptom differentiation combination, distal-local combination, local combination and front-back combination, which can nourish yin and clear heat. It is believed that establishment of TCM ancient literature database and exploration of data mining technology is a potential research orientation.

  19. Providing Semantic Metadata to Online Learning Resources on Sustainable Agriculture and Farming: Combining Values and Technical Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Barriocanal, Elena; Sicilia, Miguel-Angel; Sanchez-Alonso, Salvador

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable or organic agriculture aims at harmonizing the efficient production of food with the preservation of the environmental conditions for continuing production in a sustained way. As such, it embodies a set of environmental values that are currently taught and learnt worldwide in specific courses or as part of broader programs or…

  20. Factors influencing communication and decision-making about life-sustaining technology during serious illness: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Kryworuchko, Jennifer; Strachan, P H; Nouvet, E; Downar, J; You, J J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to identify factors influencing communication and decision-making, and to learn how physicians and nurses view their roles in deciding about the use of life-sustaining technology for seriously ill hospitalised patients and their families. Design The qualitative study used Flanagan's critical incident technique to guide interpretive description of open-ended in-depth individual interviews. Setting Participants were recruited from the medical wards at 3 Canadian hospitals. Participants Interviews were completed with 30 healthcare professionals (9 staff physicians, 9 residents and 12 nurses; aged 25–63 years; 73% female) involved in decisions about the care of seriously ill hospitalised patients and their families. Measures Participants described encounters with patients and families in which communication and decision-making about life-sustaining technology went particularly well and unwell (ie, critical incidents). We further explored their roles, context and challenges. Analysis proceeded using constant comparative methods to form themes independently and with the interprofessional research team. Results We identified several key factors that influenced communication and decision-making about life-sustaining technology. The overarching factor was how those involved in such communication and decision-making (healthcare providers, patients and families) conceptualised the goals of medical practice. Additional key factors related to how preferences and decision-making were shaped through relationships, particularly how people worked toward ‘making sense of the situation’, how physicians and nurses approached the inherent and systemic tensions in achieving consensus with families, and how physicians and nurses conducted professional work within teams. Participants described incidents in which these key factors interacted in dynamic and unpredictable ways to influence decision-making for any particular patient and family. Conclusions A focus

  1. Combining Multidisciplinary Science, Quantitative Reasoning and Social Context to Teach Global Sustainability and Prepare Students for 21st Grand Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, J. D.

    2011-12-01

    The Earth's seven billion humans are consuming a growing proportion of the world's ecosystem products and services. Human activity has also wrought changes that rival the scale of many natural geologic processes, e.g. erosion, transport and deposition, leading to recognition of a new geological epoch, the Anthropocene. Because of these impacts, several natural systems have been pushed beyond the planetary boundaries that made the Holocene favorable for the expansion of humanity. Given these human-induced stresses on natural systems, global citizens will face an increasing number of grand challenges. Unfortunately, traditional discipline-based introductory science courses do little to prepare students for these complex, scientifically-based and technologically-centered challenges. With NSF funding, an introductory, integrated science course stressing quantitative reasoning and social context has been created at UW. The course (GEOL1600: Global Sustainability: Managing the Earth's Resources) is a lower division course designed around the energy-water-climate (EWC) nexus and integrating biology, chemistry, Earth science and physics. It melds lectures, lecture activities, reading questionnaires and labs to create a learning environment that examines the EWT nexus from a global through regional context. The focus on the EWC nexus, while important socially and intended to motivate students, also provides a coherent framework for identifying which disciplinary scientific principles and concepts to include in the course: photosynthesis and deep time (fossil fuels), biogeochemical cycles (climate), chemical reactions (combustion), electromagnetic radiation (solar power), nuclear physics (nuclear power), phase changes and diagrams (water and climate), etc. Lecture activities are used to give students the practice they need to make quantitative skills routine and automatic. Laboratory exercises on energy (coal, petroleum, nuclear power), water (in Bangladesh), energy

  2. In-situ Adsorption-Biological Combined Technology Treating Sediment Phosphorus in all Fractions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Y.; Wang, C.; He, F.; Liu, B.; Xu, D.; Xia, S.; Zhou, Q.; Wu, Z.

    2016-01-01

    The removal efficiency of sediment phosphorus (P) in all fractions with in-situ adsorption-biological combined technology was studied in West Lake, Hangzhou, China. The removal amounts of sediment Ca-P, Fe/Al-P, IP, OP and TP by the combined effect of PCFM (Porous ceramic filter media) and V. spiralis was 61 mg/kg, 249 mg/kg, 318 mg/kg, 85 mg/kg and 416 mg/kg, respectively, and the corresponding removing rate reached 10.5%, 44.6%, 27.5%, 30.6% and 29.2%. This study suggested that the combination of PCFM and V. spiralis could achieve a synergetic sediment P removal because the removal rates of the combinations were higher than the sum of that of PCFM and macrophytes used separately. From analysis of sediment microbial community and predicted function, we found that the combined PCFM and V. spiralis enhanced the function of P metabolism by increasing specific genus that belong to phylum Firmicutes and Nitrospirae. Thus it can be seen the in-situ adsorption-biological combined technology could be further applied to treat internal P loading in eutrophic waters. PMID:27418242

  3. In-situ Adsorption-Biological Combined Technology Treating Sediment Phosphorus in all Fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Wang, C.; He, F.; Liu, B.; Xu, D.; Xia, S.; Zhou, Q.; Wu, Z.

    2016-07-01

    The removal efficiency of sediment phosphorus (P) in all fractions with in-situ adsorption-biological combined technology was studied in West Lake, Hangzhou, China. The removal amounts of sediment Ca-P, Fe/Al-P, IP, OP and TP by the combined effect of PCFM (Porous ceramic filter media) and V. spiralis was 61 mg/kg, 249 mg/kg, 318 mg/kg, 85 mg/kg and 416 mg/kg, respectively, and the corresponding removing rate reached 10.5%, 44.6%, 27.5%, 30.6% and 29.2%. This study suggested that the combination of PCFM and V. spiralis could achieve a synergetic sediment P removal because the removal rates of the combinations were higher than the sum of that of PCFM and macrophytes used separately. From analysis of sediment microbial community and predicted function, we found that the combined PCFM and V. spiralis enhanced the function of P metabolism by increasing specific genus that belong to phylum Firmicutes and Nitrospirae. Thus it can be seen the in-situ adsorption-biological combined technology could be further applied to treat internal P loading in eutrophic waters.

  4. In-situ Adsorption-Biological Combined Technology Treating Sediment Phosphorus in all Fractions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Wang, C; He, F; Liu, B; Xu, D; Xia, S; Zhou, Q; Wu, Z

    2016-01-01

    The removal efficiency of sediment phosphorus (P) in all fractions with in-situ adsorption-biological combined technology was studied in West Lake, Hangzhou, China. The removal amounts of sediment Ca-P, Fe/Al-P, IP, OP and TP by the combined effect of PCFM (Porous ceramic filter media) and V. spiralis was 61 mg/kg, 249 mg/kg, 318 mg/kg, 85 mg/kg and 416 mg/kg, respectively, and the corresponding removing rate reached 10.5%, 44.6%, 27.5%, 30.6% and 29.2%. This study suggested that the combination of PCFM and V. spiralis could achieve a synergetic sediment P removal because the removal rates of the combinations were higher than the sum of that of PCFM and macrophytes used separately. From analysis of sediment microbial community and predicted function, we found that the combined PCFM and V. spiralis enhanced the function of P metabolism by increasing specific genus that belong to phylum Firmicutes and Nitrospirae. Thus it can be seen the in-situ adsorption-biological combined technology could be further applied to treat internal P loading in eutrophic waters. PMID:27418242

  5. Combination Chemotherapy with Suboptimal Doses of Benznidazole and Pentoxifylline Sustains Partial Reversion of Experimental Chagas' Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Vilar-Pereira, Glaucia; Resende Pereira, Isabela; de Souza Ruivo, Leonardo Alexandre; Cruz Moreira, Otacilio; da Silva, Andrea Alice; Britto, Constança; Lannes-Vieira, Joseli

    2016-07-01

    Chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy (CCC) progresses with parasite persistence, fibrosis, and electrical alterations associated with an unbalanced immune response such as high plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and nitric oxide (NO). Presently, the available treatments only mitigate the symptoms of CCC. To improve CCC prognosis, we interfered with the parasite load and unbalanced immune response using the trypanocidal drug benznidazole (Bz) and the immunoregulator pentoxifylline (PTX). C57BL/6 mice chronically infected with the Colombian strain of Trypanosoma cruzi and with signs of CCC were treated for 30 days with a suboptimal dose of Bz (25 mg/kg of body weight), PTX (20 mg/kg), or their combination (Bz plus PTX) and analyzed for electrocardiographic, histopathological, and immunological changes. Bz (76%) and Bz-plus-PTX (79%) therapies decreased parasite loads. Although the three therapies reduced myocarditis and fibrosis and ameliorated electrical alterations, only Bz plus PTX restored normal heart rate-corrected QT (QTc) intervals. Bz-plus-PTX-treated mice presented complementary effects of Bz and PTX, which reduced TNF expression (37%) in heart tissue and restored normal TNF receptor 1 expression on CD8(+) T cells, respectively. Bz (85%) and PTX (70%) therapies reduced the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS/NOS2) in heart tissue, but only Bz (58%) reduced NO levels in serum. These effects were more pronounced after Bz-plus-PTX therapy. Moreover, 30 to 50 days after treatment cessation, reductions of the prolonged QTc and QRS intervals were sustained in Bz-plus-PTX-treated mice. Our findings support the importance of interfering with the etiological agent and immunological abnormalities to improve CCC prognosis, opening an opportunity for a better quality of life for Chagas' disease (CD) patients. PMID:27161638

  6. Environmental and social cues can be used in combination to develop sustainable breeding techniques for goat reproduction in the subtropics.

    PubMed

    Delgadillo, J A

    2011-01-01

    Goat breeds from subtropical latitudes show different annual reproductive cycles. Some of them display large seasonal variations in their annual breeding season, while others display a moderate seasonality or sexual activity all year round. This reproductive seasonality causes seasonality of milk, cheese and meat productions and, as a consequence, induces wide variation in producer incomes. To solve this problem and provide methods allowing producers to breed animals during the anestrous period and stabilize production all year round, it is necessary to have a deep knowledge of their annual sexual activity and to identify the environmental factors controlling the timing of the annual reproductive cycle. Then, it is possible to build on these knowledge sustainable breeding techniques adapted to the environmental, economic and social characteristics of the local breeding system. In this review, I will illustrate this strategy through the example of our experiments in subtropical goats. First, we determined the characteristics of the annual breeding season in both male and female goats. Second, we identified the photoperiod as the major environmental factor controlling the timing of this annual breeding season. Third, we used the photoperiod to stimulate indirectly the sexual behavior of does. Indeed, we used photoperiodic treatments to stimulate the sexual activity of bucks during the non-breeding season. These sexually active male goats were then used to induce and synchronize the estrous behavior and ovulatory activity of anestrous females in confined or grazing conditions by using the 'male effect'. Under subtropical conditions, these results constitute an original manner to control the reproductive activity of local goats using the photoperiod combined with the 'male effect.'

  7. Combination Chemotherapy with Suboptimal Doses of Benznidazole and Pentoxifylline Sustains Partial Reversion of Experimental Chagas' Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Vilar-Pereira, Glaucia; Resende Pereira, Isabela; de Souza Ruivo, Leonardo Alexandre; Cruz Moreira, Otacilio; da Silva, Andrea Alice; Britto, Constança

    2016-01-01

    Chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy (CCC) progresses with parasite persistence, fibrosis, and electrical alterations associated with an unbalanced immune response such as high plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and nitric oxide (NO). Presently, the available treatments only mitigate the symptoms of CCC. To improve CCC prognosis, we interfered with the parasite load and unbalanced immune response using the trypanocidal drug benznidazole (Bz) and the immunoregulator pentoxifylline (PTX). C57BL/6 mice chronically infected with the Colombian strain of Trypanosoma cruzi and with signs of CCC were treated for 30 days with a suboptimal dose of Bz (25 mg/kg of body weight), PTX (20 mg/kg), or their combination (Bz plus PTX) and analyzed for electrocardiographic, histopathological, and immunological changes. Bz (76%) and Bz-plus-PTX (79%) therapies decreased parasite loads. Although the three therapies reduced myocarditis and fibrosis and ameliorated electrical alterations, only Bz plus PTX restored normal heart rate-corrected QT (QTc) intervals. Bz-plus-PTX-treated mice presented complementary effects of Bz and PTX, which reduced TNF expression (37%) in heart tissue and restored normal TNF receptor 1 expression on CD8+ T cells, respectively. Bz (85%) and PTX (70%) therapies reduced the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS/NOS2) in heart tissue, but only Bz (58%) reduced NO levels in serum. These effects were more pronounced after Bz-plus-PTX therapy. Moreover, 30 to 50 days after treatment cessation, reductions of the prolonged QTc and QRS intervals were sustained in Bz-plus-PTX-treated mice. Our findings support the importance of interfering with the etiological agent and immunological abnormalities to improve CCC prognosis, opening an opportunity for a better quality of life for Chagas' disease (CD) patients. PMID:27161638

  8. Universities in capacity building in sustainable development: focus on solid waste management and technology.

    PubMed

    Agamuthu, P; Hansen, Jens Aage

    2007-06-01

    This paper analyses some of the higher education and research capacity building experiences gained from 1998-2006 by Danish and Malaysian universities. The focus is on waste management, directly relating to both the environmental and socio-economic dimensions of sustainable development. Primary benefits, available as an educational legacy to universities, were obtained in terms of new and enhanced study curricula established on Problem-oriented Project-based Learning (POPBL) pedagogy, which strengthened academic environmental programmes at Malaysian and Danish universities. It involved more direct and mutually beneficial cooperation between academia and businesses in both countries. This kind of university reach-out is considered vital to development in all countries actively striving for global and sustainable development. Supplementary benefits were accrued for those involved directly in activities such as the 4 months of field studies, workshops, field courses and joint research projects. For students and academics, the gains have been new international dimensions in university curricula, enhanced career development and research collaboration based on realworld cases. It is suggested that the area of solid waste management offers opportunities for much needed capacity building in higher education and research, contributing to sustainable waste management on a global scale. Universities should be more actively involved in such educational, research and innovation programmes to make the necessary progress. ISWA can support capacity building activities by utilizing its resources--providing a lively platform for debate, securing dissemination of new knowledge, and furthering international networking beyond that which universities already do by themselves. A special challenge to ISWA may be to improve national and international professional networks between academia and business, thereby making education, research and innovation the key driving mechanisms in

  9. Universities in capacity building in sustainable development: focus on solid waste management and technology.

    PubMed

    Agamuthu, P; Hansen, Jens Aage

    2007-06-01

    This paper analyses some of the higher education and research capacity building experiences gained from 1998-2006 by Danish and Malaysian universities. The focus is on waste management, directly relating to both the environmental and socio-economic dimensions of sustainable development. Primary benefits, available as an educational legacy to universities, were obtained in terms of new and enhanced study curricula established on Problem-oriented Project-based Learning (POPBL) pedagogy, which strengthened academic environmental programmes at Malaysian and Danish universities. It involved more direct and mutually beneficial cooperation between academia and businesses in both countries. This kind of university reach-out is considered vital to development in all countries actively striving for global and sustainable development. Supplementary benefits were accrued for those involved directly in activities such as the 4 months of field studies, workshops, field courses and joint research projects. For students and academics, the gains have been new international dimensions in university curricula, enhanced career development and research collaboration based on realworld cases. It is suggested that the area of solid waste management offers opportunities for much needed capacity building in higher education and research, contributing to sustainable waste management on a global scale. Universities should be more actively involved in such educational, research and innovation programmes to make the necessary progress. ISWA can support capacity building activities by utilizing its resources--providing a lively platform for debate, securing dissemination of new knowledge, and furthering international networking beyond that which universities already do by themselves. A special challenge to ISWA may be to improve national and international professional networks between academia and business, thereby making education, research and innovation the key driving mechanisms in

  10. The use of Space Technology for the Benefit of Society in Context of Planning and Sustainable Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuldeep, Kuldeep; Banu, Vijaya

    2016-07-01

    The introduction of the novel technology mostly leads to a number of advantages to the society. The space technology has shown such benefits in many fields including the areas of health and education, communication sectors, land and water resources management, weather forecasting and disaster management. It has vast potential for addressing a variety of societal problems of the developing countries especially in India in a effective manner. Large population which is spread over vast and remote areas of the nation, reaching out to them is a difficult task. This manuscript aims to explain the benefits originated from the application of space technology. The satellite imagery and its derived products can better be utilized for local level planning and sustainable development of a region. A case-study using Bhuvan Panchayat Portal developed by National Remote Sensing Centre, ISRO under the project "Space Based Information Support for De-Centralised Planning" towards Digital Empowerment of Society for Panchayat level Planning and Governance has been carried out, which list out the benefits that have accrued from the use of space technology for planning and development at grass root level in India. It covers, in particular, the benefits expected to be derived from the Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS) Images and derived products. Certain conclusions about the benefits from space based inputs have been drawn that may be generally applicable to all developing countries. This paper also investigates the various possibilities and potentials of Remote Sensing technologies for societal applications.

  11. Delivering an Automated and Integrated Approach to Combination Screening Using Acoustic-Droplet Technology.

    PubMed

    Cross, Kevin; Craggs, Richard; Swift, Denise; Sitaram, Anesh; Daya, Sandeep; Roberts, Mark; Hawley, Shaun; Owen, Paul; Isherwood, Bev

    2016-02-01

    Drug combination testing in the pharmaceutical industry has typically been driven by late-stage opportunistic strategies rather than by early testing to identify drug combinations for clinical investigation that may deliver improved efficacy. A rationale for combinations exists across a number of diseases in which pathway redundancy or resistance to therapeutics are evident. However, early assays are complicated by the absence of both assay formats representative of disease biology and robust infrastructure to screen drug combinations in a medium-throughput capacity. When applying drug combination testing studies, it may be difficult to translate a study design into the required well contents for assay plates because of the number of compounds and concentrations involved. Dispensing these plates increases in difficulty as the number of compounds and concentration points increase and compounds are subsequently rolled onto additional labware. We describe the development of a software tool, in conjunction with the use of acoustic droplet technology, as part of a compound management platform, which allows the design of an assay incorporating combinations of compounds. These enhancements to infrastructure facilitate the design and ordering of assay-ready compound combination plates and the processing of combinations data from high-content organotypic assays. PMID:25835292

  12. Assessing the biophysical and socio-economic potential of Sustainable Land Management and Water Harvesting Technologies for rainfed agriculture across semi-arid Africa.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvine, Brian; Fleskens, Luuk; Kirkby, Mike

    2016-04-01

    Stakeholders in recent EU projects identified soil erosion as the most frequent driver of land degradation in semi-arid environments. In a number of sites, historic land management and rainfall variability are recognised as contributing to the serious environmental impact. In order to consider the potential of sustainable land management and water harvesting techniques stakeholders and study sites from the projects selected and trialled both local technologies and promising technologies reported from other sites . The combined PESERA and DESMICE modelling approach considered the regional effects of the technologies in combating desertification both in environmental and socio-economical terms. Initial analysis was based on long term average climate data with the model run to equilibrium. Current analysis, primarily based on the WAHARA study sites considers rainfall variability more explicitly in time series mode. The PESERA-DESMICE approach considers the difference between a baseline scenario and a (water harvesting) technology scenario, typically, in terms of productivity, financial viability and scope for reducing erosion risk. A series of 50 year rainfall realisations are generated from observed data to capture a full range of the climatic variability. Each realisation provides a unique time-series of rainfall and through modelling can provide a simulated time-series of crop yield and erosion risk for both baseline conditions and technology scenarios. Subsequent realisations and model simulations add to an envelope of the potential crop yield and cost-benefit relations. The development of such envelopes helps express the agricultural and erosional risk associated with climate variability and the potential for conservation measures to absorb the risk, highlighting the probability of achieving a given crop yield or erosion limit. Information that can directly inform or influence the local adoption of conservation measures under the climatic variability in semi

  13. Barriers to Systemic, Effective, and Sustainable Technology Use in High School Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Jason Scott; Jacobsen, Michele; Varnhagen, Stanley; Friesen, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the Technology and High School Success (THSS) initiative was to encourage innovative strategies focused on improving provincial high school completion rates, using technology and student-centered learning to engage student interest. The primary purpose of this paper is to report on barriers that impede systemic, effective and…

  14. Sustainable and consumer-friendly emerging technologies for application within the meat industry: An overview.

    PubMed

    Troy, Declan J; Ojha, Kumari Shikha; Kerry, Joseph P; Tiwari, Brijesh K

    2016-10-01

    New and emerging robust technologies can play an important role in ensuring a more resilient meat value chain and satisfying consumer demands and needs. This paper outlines various novel thermal and non-thermal technologies which have shown potential for meat processing applications. A number of process analytical techniques which have shown potential for rapid, real-time assessment of meat quality are also discussed. The commercial uptake and consumer acceptance of novel technologies in meat processing have been subjects of great interest over the past decade. Consumer focus group studies have shown that consumer expectations and liking for novel technologies, applicable to meat processing applications, vary significantly. This overview also highlights the necessity for meat processors to address consumer risk-benefit perceptions, knowledge and trust in order to be commercially successful in the application of novel technologies within the meat sector.

  15. Ensuring sustainability of non-networked sanitation technologies: an approach to standardization.

    PubMed

    Starkl, Markus; Brunner, Norbert; Feil, Magdalena; Hauser, Andreas

    2015-06-01

    Non-networked sanitation technologies use no sewer, water or electricity lines. Based on a review of 45 commercially distributed technologies, 12 (representing three concepts) were selected for a detailed audit. They were located in six countries of Africa and Asia. The safety of users was generally assured and the costs per use were not excessive, whereas costs were fully transparent for only one technology surveyed. A main drawback was insufficient quality of the byproducts from on-site treatment, making recycling in agriculture a hygienic and environmental risk. Further, no technology was sufficiently mature (requiring e.g. to shift wastes by hand). In order to promote further development and give producers of mature products a competitive advantage, the paper proposes a certification of technologies to confirm the fulfillment of basic requirements to make them attractive for future users. PMID:25961898

  16. Sustainable and consumer-friendly emerging technologies for application within the meat industry: An overview.

    PubMed

    Troy, Declan J; Ojha, Kumari Shikha; Kerry, Joseph P; Tiwari, Brijesh K

    2016-10-01

    New and emerging robust technologies can play an important role in ensuring a more resilient meat value chain and satisfying consumer demands and needs. This paper outlines various novel thermal and non-thermal technologies which have shown potential for meat processing applications. A number of process analytical techniques which have shown potential for rapid, real-time assessment of meat quality are also discussed. The commercial uptake and consumer acceptance of novel technologies in meat processing have been subjects of great interest over the past decade. Consumer focus group studies have shown that consumer expectations and liking for novel technologies, applicable to meat processing applications, vary significantly. This overview also highlights the necessity for meat processors to address consumer risk-benefit perceptions, knowledge and trust in order to be commercially successful in the application of novel technologies within the meat sector. PMID:27162095

  17. The Long-Term Impact of an Education for Sustainability Course on Israeli Science and Technology Teachers' Pro-Environment Awareness, Commitment and Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramovich, Anat; Loria, Yahavit

    2015-01-01

    The impact of an Education for Sustainability (EfS) course for science and technology junior high school teachers on the intentional and actual environmental behaviour of participants was studied by researching the EfS implementation of 13 science and technology teachers within their family, community, and work environment. The research was…

  18. Large Porous Particles for Sustained Release of a Decoy Oligonucelotide and Poly(ethylenimine): Potential for Combined Therapy of Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa Lung Infections.

    PubMed

    d'Angelo, Ivana; Perfetto, Brunella; Costabile, Gabriella; Ambrosini, Veronica; Caputo, Pina; Miro, Agnese; d'Emmanuele di Villa Bianca, Roberta; Sorrentino, Raffaella; Donnarumma, Giovanna; Quaglia, Fabiana; Ungaro, Francesca

    2016-05-01

    We have recently demonstrated that the specific inhibition of nuclear factor-κB by a decoy oligonucleotide (dec-ODN) delivered through inhalable large porous particles (LPP) made of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) may be highly beneficial for long-term treatment of lung inflammation. Nevertheless, besides chronic inflammation, multifunctional systems aimed to control also infection are required in chronic lung diseases, such as cystic fibrosis (CF). In this work, we tested the hypothesis that engineering PLGA-based LPP with branched poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) may improve LPP properties for pulmonary delivery of dec-ODN, with particular regard to the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infections. After getting insight into the role of PEI on the technological properties of PLGA-based LPP for delivery of dec-ODN, the putative synergistic effect of PEI free or PEI released from LPP on in vitro antimicrobial activity of tobramycin (Tb) and aztreonam (AZT) against P. aeruginosa was elucidated. Meanwhile, cytotoxicity studies on A549 cells were carried out. Results clearly demonstrate that the dry powders have promising aerosolization properties and afford a prolonged in vitro release of both dec-ODN and PEI. The encapsulation of PEI into LPP results in a 2-fold reduction of the minimum inhibitory concentration of AZT, while reducing the cytotoxic effect of PEI. Of note, the developed ODN/PLGA/PEI LPP persisted at lung at least for 14 days after intratracheal administration in rats where they can provide sustained and combined release of dec-ODN and PEI. dec-ODN will likely act as an anti-inflammatory drug, while PEI may enhance the therapeutic activity of inhaled antibiotics, which are commonly employed for the treatment of concomitant lung infections. PMID:27002689

  19. Developing a sustainable energy strategy for a water utility. Part II: A review of potential technologies and approaches.

    PubMed

    Zakkour, P D; Gaterell, M R; Griffin, P; Gochin, R J; Lester, J N

    2002-10-01

    Environmental legislation is increasing the amounts of bought-in electricity required for sewage treatment, and generating larger volumes of sewage sludge to be treated and disposed of. Concurrently, concerns over global warming and food safety from sewage sludge recycling on agricultural land is augmenting the costs of conventional sewage and sludge treatment technologies and practices. This paper reviews some emerging technologies and practices that may assist in mitigating these problems in the future. In addition, a number of potential renewable energy technologies available to water companies are reviewed. Results suggest that through the take-up of new technologies, current and future water quality standards could be delivered in a more sustainable way. However, this series of papers also highlights that institutional and political conflicts may have inadvertently failed to recognise the wider effects of improving water quality and lessened the financial support necessary for their widespread take-up. It is also suggested that through the use of a Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) approach, stakeholders could gain a better understanding of the broader environmental effects of achieving certain water quality standards and develop policy and long-term investment strategies accordingly. However, to fulfill the information requirements of an SEA, an appropriate appraisal tool that considers many of these factors in unison is required, and a possible technique is suggested.

  20. Combining Brain–Computer Interfaces and Assistive Technologies: State-of-the-Art and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Millán, J. d. R.; Rupp, R.; Müller-Putz, G. R.; Murray-Smith, R.; Giugliemma, C.; Tangermann, M.; Vidaurre, C.; Cincotti, F.; Kübler, A.; Leeb, R.; Neuper, C.; Müller, K.-R.; Mattia, D.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, new research has brought the field of electroencephalogram (EEG)-based brain–computer interfacing (BCI) out of its infancy and into a phase of relative maturity through many demonstrated prototypes such as brain-controlled wheelchairs, keyboards, and computer games. With this proof-of-concept phase in the past, the time is now ripe to focus on the development of practical BCI technologies that can be brought out of the lab and into real-world applications. In particular, we focus on the prospect of improving the lives of countless disabled individuals through a combination of BCI technology with existing assistive technologies (AT). In pursuit of more practical BCIs for use outside of the lab, in this paper, we identify four application areas where disabled individuals could greatly benefit from advancements in BCI technology, namely, “Communication and Control”, “Motor Substitution”, “Entertainment”, and “Motor Recovery”. We review the current state of the art and possible future developments, while discussing the main research issues in these four areas. In particular, we expect the most progress in the development of technologies such as hybrid BCI architectures, user–machine adaptation algorithms, the exploitation of users’ mental states for BCI reliability and confidence measures, the incorporation of principles in human–computer interaction (HCI) to improve BCI usability, and the development of novel BCI technology including better EEG devices. PMID:20877434

  1. Balloon catheter dilation technology combined with a fibrolaryngoscope to treat a maxillary sinus cyst.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jianxin; Chen, Junming; Wang, Yuejian

    2016-02-01

    A prospective randomized controlled study was conducted to investigate the effect of balloon catheter dilation technology combined with a fibrolaryngoscope in the treatment of a maxillary sinus cyst. The clinical data of 14 cases (19 maxillary sinuses) with balloon catheter dilation technology combined with a fibrolaryngoscope to remove sinus cysts (balloon group) and 16 cases (23 maxillary sinuses) with conventional nasal endoscopic sinus surgery to remove sinus cysts (conventional group) were analyzed. All cases have completed the preoperative and postoperative SNOT-20, nasal endoscopy and coronal sinus CT scan. Lund-Kennedy endoscopic and Lund-Mackay CT scan staging scores were recorded. All patients were followed up for 24 weeks after the operation. The SNOT-20 scores, Lund-Kennedy endoscopic and Lund-Mackay CT scan staging scores were lower in the balloon group than that in the control group. Balloon catheter dilation technology combined with a fibrolaryngoscope can effectively preserve the function and structures of the nasal cavity and sinus, making it a good choice in the treatment of a retention cyst of the maxillary sinus.

  2. Conceptual design and techno-economic assessment of integrated solar combined cycle system with DSG technology

    SciTech Connect

    Nezammahalleh, H.; Farhadi, F.; Tanhaemami, M.

    2010-09-15

    Direct steam generation (DSG) in parabolic trough collectors causes an increase to competitiveness of solar thermal power plants (STPP) by substitution of oil with direct steam generation that results in lower investment and operating costs. In this study the integrated solar combined cycle system with DSG technology is introduced and techno-economic assessment of this plant is reported compared with two conventional cases. Three considered cases are: an integrated solar combined cycle system with DSG technology (ISCCS-DSG), a solar electric generating system (SEGS), and an integrated solar combined cycle system with HTF (heat transfer fluid) technology (ISCCS-HTF). This study shows that levelized energy cost (LEC) for the ISCCS-DSG is lower than the two other cases due to reducing O and M costs and also due to increasing the heat to electricity net efficiency of the power plant. Among the three STPPs, SEGS has the lowest CO{sub 2} emissions, but it will operate during daytime only. (author)

  3. Photovoltaics as a renewable energy technology in Bangladesh and its potential for increasing welfare, gender equity, and environmental sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Sarwat

    Situated in the northeast corner of the South Asian sub-continent, Bangladesh is a developing country with high population density, low life expectancy, low rate of literacy and extremely low access to modern energy sources. Lack of access to electrification remains a major constraint to the country's economic development. In this context, as in other countries, Bangladeshi development practitioners have tended to pursue outputs that rely on new technologies as a means to leapfrog to higher levels of development. However, independent analysis of such efforts, in terms of achieving sustainable development outcomes, remains lacking. The full potential of renewable energy technologies in Bangladesh has yet to attract widespread recognition from policy makers. In this thesis, I review solar PV technology since it has already been attempted as a rural off-grid electrification option in Bangladesh. I argue that the applications of technology should follow, and not precede, considerations for human well-being. It is also important to have a more holistic perspective on human welfare, which should include the basic dimensions of choice and opportunities, and not just income levels. The Government of Bangladesh and its development partners need to expand support to renewable energy technologies and so redirect the focus of policy formulation and implementation to sustainable human development. I emphasize that people-centered public policy has a key role to play in the introduction of a technology such as the solar photovoltaics pioneered by Grameen Shakti, a not-for-profit company in Bangladesh. While equity in terms of a fair distribution of wealth and income may continue to be an illusion, innovations such as solar PV are indeed promising with respect to opening up opportunities and possible benefits for women, the environment and---more generally---human well-being. This thesis is based on work in rural areas complementary to various professional responsibilities that I

  4. Hybrid system combined SNCR plus SCR technologies for post-combustion NO{sub x} reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Carli, A.; Heide, B. von der

    1998-07-01

    Among the numerous processes and technologies available for post-combustion NO{sub x} control, the two most commonly known are Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) and Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR). SNCR involves injection of urea or ammonia based reagents in the high temperature zone of a boiler where the thermal decomposition results in the reduction of NO{sub x}, while SCR selectively reduces NO{sub x} in the presence of a catalyst at a substantially lower temperature. The paper discusses a novel approach to combine both SNCR and SCR techniques resulting in an economical and effective technology for NO{sub x} reduction. In fact while these post-combustion technologies have been used individually, there are merits to combining the technologies into a staged concept that utilizes both SNCR and SCR, in order to eliminate or reduce the limitations of each. In that approach the SCR is represented by two different types of catalyst: In-Duct or stationary catalyst (IDSCR), and the catalyzed hot end portion of an Air Heater (AHSCR).

  5. An impact assessment of sustainable technologies for the Chinese urban residential sector at provincial level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Rui; Hanaoka, Tatsuya; Kanamori, Yuko; Dai, Hancheng; Masui, Toshihiko

    2015-06-01

    Recently, energy use in the urban residential sector of China has drastically increased due to higher incomes and urbanization. The fossil fuels dominant energy supply has since worsened the air quality, especially in urban areas. In this study we estimate the future energy service demands in Chinese urban residential areas, and then use an AIM/Enduse model to evaluate the emission reduction potential of CO2, SO2, NOx and PM. Considering the climate diversity and its impact on household energy service demands, our analysis is down-scaled to the provincial-level. The results show that in most of the regions, penetration of efficient technologies will bring CO2 emission reductions of over 20% compared to the baseline by the year 2030. Deployment of energy efficient technologies also co-benefits GHG emission reduction. However, efficient technology selection appears to differ across provinces due to climatic variation and economic disparity. For instance, geothermal heating technology is effective for the cold Northern areas while biomass technology contributes to emission reduction the most in the warm Southern areas.

  6. Cell surface engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae combined with membrane separation technology for xylitol production from rice straw hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Guirimand, Gregory; Sasaki, Kengo; Inokuma, Kentaro; Bamba, Takahiro; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Kondo, Akihiko

    2016-04-01

    Xylitol, a value-added polyol deriving from D-xylose, is widely used in both the food and pharmaceutical industries. Despite extensive studies aiming to streamline the production of xylitol, the manufacturing cost of this product remains high while demand is constantly growing worldwide. Biotechnological production of xylitol from lignocellulosic waste may constitute an advantageous and sustainable option to address this issue. However, to date, there have been few reports of biomass conversion to xylitol. In the present study, xylitol was directly produced from rice straw hydrolysate using a recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae YPH499 strain expressing cytosolic xylose reductase (XR), along with β-glucosidase (BGL), xylosidase (XYL), and xylanase (XYN) enzymes (co-)displayed on the cell surface; xylitol production by this strain did not require addition of any commercial enzymes. All of these enzymes contributed to the consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) of the lignocellulosic hydrolysate to xylitol to produce 5.8 g/L xylitol with 79.5 % of theoretical yield from xylose contained in the biomass. Furthermore, nanofiltration of the rice straw hydrolysate provided removal of fermentation inhibitors while simultaneously increasing sugar concentrations, facilitating high concentration xylitol production (37.9 g/L) in the CBP. This study is the first report (to our knowledge) of the combination of cell surface engineering approach and membrane separation technology for xylitol production, which could be extended to further industrial applications. PMID:26631184

  7. ALDUO(TM) Algae Cultivation Technology for Delivering Sustainable Omega-3s, Feed, and Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Xuemei

    2012-09-24

    * ALDUO(TM) Algae Production Technology Cellana?s Proprietary, Photosynthetic, & Proven * ALDUO(TM) Enables Economic Algae Production Unencumbered by Contamination by Balancing Higher-Cost PBRs with Lower-Cost Open Ponds * ALDUO(TM) Advantages * ALDUO(TM) Today o Large collection of strains for high value co-products o Powerful Mid-scale Screening & Optimization System o Solution to a Conflicting Interest o Split Pond Yield Enhancement o Heterotrophy & mixotrophy as a "finishing step" o CO2 Mitigation-flue Gas Operation o Worldwide Feed Trials with Livestock & Aquatic Species * ALDUO(TM) Technology Summarized

  8. Striking the Right Chord and Sustaining Successful Professional Development in Information and Communications Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Bryn; Gardner, John; Galanouli, Despina

    2007-01-01

    This article argues that most variants of professional development in information and communications technologies are merely "in-between" processes, the design of which does not pay sufficient attention to important antecedent and post-engagement activities. These we identify as preparing the ground before the main engagement with the teachers…

  9. Sustaining a Professional Dimension in the Use of Educational Technology in European Higher Educational Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindberg, J. Ola; Olofsson, Anders D.

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the professional dimension of making technology-enhanced learning (TEL) a part of European higher educational practices. In order to position the article in a European context, three of the most important European research Networks of Excellence (NoEs) aimed at understanding, developing, and implementing TEL and educational…

  10. User localization in complex environments by multimodal combination of GPS, WiFi, RFID, and pedometer technologies.

    PubMed

    Dao, Trung-Kien; Nguyen, Hung-Long; Pham, Thanh-Thuy; Castelli, Eric; Nguyen, Viet-Tung; Nguyen, Dinh-Van

    2014-01-01

    Many user localization technologies and methods have been proposed for either indoor or outdoor environments. However, each technology has its own drawbacks. Recently, many researches and designs have been proposed to build a combination of multiple localization technologies system which can provide higher precision results and solve the limitation in each localization technology alone. In this paper, a conceptual design of a general localization platform using combination of multiple localization technologies is introduced. The combination is realized by dividing spaces into grid points. To demonstrate this platform, a system with GPS, RFID, WiFi, and pedometer technologies is established. Experiment results show that the accuracy and availability are improved in comparison with each technology individually. PMID:25147866

  11. User localization in complex environments by multimodal combination of GPS, WiFi, RFID, and pedometer technologies.

    PubMed

    Dao, Trung-Kien; Nguyen, Hung-Long; Pham, Thanh-Thuy; Castelli, Eric; Nguyen, Viet-Tung; Nguyen, Dinh-Van

    2014-01-01

    Many user localization technologies and methods have been proposed for either indoor or outdoor environments. However, each technology has its own drawbacks. Recently, many researches and designs have been proposed to build a combination of multiple localization technologies system which can provide higher precision results and solve the limitation in each localization technology alone. In this paper, a conceptual design of a general localization platform using combination of multiple localization technologies is introduced. The combination is realized by dividing spaces into grid points. To demonstrate this platform, a system with GPS, RFID, WiFi, and pedometer technologies is established. Experiment results show that the accuracy and availability are improved in comparison with each technology individually.

  12. A multimedia adult literacy program: Combining NASA technology, instructional design theory, and authentic literacy concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Jerry W.

    1993-01-01

    For a number of years, the Software Technology Branch of the Information Systems Directorate has been involved in the application of cutting edge hardware and software technologies to instructional tasks related to NASA projects. The branch has developed intelligent computer aided training shells, instructional applications of virtual reality and multimedia, and computer-based instructional packages that use fuzzy logic for both instructional and diagnostic decision making. One outcome of the work on space-related technology-supported instruction has been the creation of a significant pool of human talent in the branch with current expertise on the cutting edges of instructional technologies. When the human talent is combined with advanced technologies for graphics, sound, video, CD-ROM, and high speed computing, the result is a powerful research and development group that both contributes to the applied foundations of instructional technology and creates effective instructional packages that take advantage of a range of advanced technologies. Several branch projects are currently underway that combine NASA-developed expertise to significant instructional problems in public education. The branch, for example, has developed intelligent computer aided software to help high school students learn physics and staff are currently working on a project to produce educational software for young children with language deficits. This report deals with another project, the adult literacy tutor. Unfortunately, while there are a number of computer-based instructional packages available for adult literacy instruction, most of them are based on the same instructional models that failed these students when they were in school. The teacher-centered, discrete skill and drill-oriented, instructional strategies, even when they are supported by color computer graphics and animation, that form the foundation for most of the computer-based literacy packages currently on the market may not

  13. Sustainable Retrofit of Residential Roofs Using Metal Roofing Panels, Thin-Film Photovoltaic Laminates, and PCM Heat Sink Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Kosny, Jan; Miller, William A; Childs, Phillip W; Biswas, Kaushik

    2011-01-01

    During September-October 2009, research teams representing Metal Construction Association (the largest North American trade association representing metal building manufacturers, builders, and material suppliers), CertainTeed (one of the largest U.S. manufacturers of thermal insulation and building envelope materials), Unisolar (largest U.S. producer of amorphous silicone photo-voltaic (PV) laminates), Phase Change Energy (manufacturer of bio-based PCM), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) installed three experimental attics utilizing different roof retrofit strategies in the ORNL campus. The main goal of this project was experimental evaluation of a newly-developed sustainable re-roofing technology utilizing amorphous silicone PV laminates integrated with metal roof and PCM heat sink. The experimental attic with PV laminate was expected to work during the winter time as a passive solar collector with PCM storing solar heat, absorbed during the day, and increasing overall attic air temperature during the night.

  14. [Evaluation of sustainable development of Dalian Economic and Technological Development Zone based on MuSIASEM theory].

    PubMed

    Geng, Yong; Liu, Xiao-qing; Zhang, Pan; Liu, Ye

    2010-10-01

    Based on the theory of multiple-scale integrated assessment of societal and ecosystem metabolism (MuSIASEM), a comprehensive evaluation was made on the human activity time, exosomatic energy input, and added value of Dalian Economic and Technological Development Zone in 2000-2007. During the study period, the life quality of local citizens increased year after year, while the agricultural industry dwindled. Manufacturing industry was still the main pillar industry, but its energy consumption was greater. Service industry was at its early stage, falling behind manufacturing industry. The exosomatic metabolic level of the whole zone and its various industries had an obvious increase, and the energy intensity decreased continuously. With the fact that both the human activity time and the exosomatic energy input had a ceaseless decrease, the economic added value increased steadily, and the zone was under its way towards sustainable development.

  15. The combination design for open and endoscopic surgery using fluorescence molecular imaging technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Yamin; Jiang, Shixin; Ye, Jinzuo; An, Yu; Yang, Xin; Chi, Chongwei; Tian, Jie

    2015-03-01

    For clinical surgery, it is still a challenge to objectively determine tumor margins during surgery. With the development of medical imaging technology, fluorescence molecular imaging (FMI) method can provide real-time intraoperative tumor margin information. Furthermore, surgical navigation system based on FMI technology plays an important role for the aid of surgeons' precise tumor margin decision. However, detection depth is the most limitation exists in the FMI technique and the method convenient for either macro superficial detection or micro deep tissue detection is needed. In this study, we combined advantages of both open surgery and endoscopic imaging systems with FMI technology. Indocyanine green (ICG) experiments were performed to confirm the feasibility of fluorescence detection in our system. Then, the ICG signal was photographed in the detection area with our system. When the system connected with endoscope lens, the minimum quantity of ICG detected by our system was 0.195 ug. For aspect of C mount lens, the sensitivity of ICG detection with our system was 0.195ug. Our experiments results proved that it was feasible to detect fluorescence images with this combination method. Our system shows great potential in the clinical applications of precise dissection of various tumors

  16. Solid oxide electrolysis--a key enabling technology for sustainable energy scenarios.

    PubMed

    Hansen, John Bøgild

    2015-01-01

    Production of fuels and chemicals from steam and/or CO2 with solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOEC) and electricity have attracted considerable interest recently. This paper is an extended version of the introductory lecture presented at the first Faraday Discussions meeting on the subject. The focus is on the state of the art of cells, stacks and systems. Thermodynamics, performance and degradation are addressed. Remaining challenges and potential application of the technology are discussed from an industrial perspective.

  17. Modular, Adaptive, Reconfigurable Systems: Technology for Sustainable, Reliable, Effective, and Affordable Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esper, Jaime

    2004-01-01

    In order to execute the Vision for Space Exploration, we must find ways to reduce cost, system complexity, design, build, and test times, and at the same time increase flexibility to satisfy multiple functions. Modular, Adaptive, Reconfigurable System (MARS) technologies promise to set the stage for the delivery of system elements that form the building blocks of increasingly ambitious missions involving humans and robots. Today, space systems are largely specialized and built on a case-by-case basis. The notion of modularity however, is nothing new to NASA. The 1970's saw the development of the Multi-Mission Modular spacecraft (MMS). From 1980 to 1992 at least six satellites were built under this paradigm, and included such Goddard Space Flight Center missions as SSM, EUVE, UARS, and Landsat 4 and 5. Earlier versions consisted of standard subsystem "module" or "box" components that could be replaced within a structure based on predefined form factors. Although the primary motivation for MMS was faster/cheaper integration and test, standardization of interfaces, and ease of incorporating new subsystem technology, it lacked the technology maturity and programmatic "upgrade infrastructure" needed to satisfy varied mission requirements, and ultimately it lacked user buy-in. Consequently, it never evolved and was phased out. Such concepts as the Rapid Spacecraft Development Office (RSDO) with its regularly updated catalogue of prequalified busses became the preferred method for acquiring satellites. Notwithstanding, over the past 30 years since MMS inception, technology has advanced considerably and now modularity can be extended beyond the traditional MMS module or box to cover levels of integration, from the chip, card, box, subsystem, to the space system and to the system-of-systems. This paper will present the MARS architecture, cast within the historical context of MMS. Its application will be highlighted by comparing a state-of-the-art point design vs. a MARS

  18. Sustainable Innovative Technologies for Life in Closed Habitats - on Earth, Moon and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slenzka, Klaus; Dünne, Matthias; Rischka, Klaus

    Many of the projects are co-funded by organisations out of the space area, demonstrating the high relevance of applications also in the closed biosphere Earth. The results of the development of a biomimetic adhesive in the ESA-ITI-project "Alternative Glues in Space and on Earth based on Biomimetic Strategies" (Glue2Space) (ESA-ITI 19585/06/NL/CP) will be presented intensively. Additionally, a short overview of the other technology items will be given.

  19. Analysis of energetic and exergetic efficiency, and environmental benefits of biomass integrated gasification combined cycle technology.

    PubMed

    Mínguez, María; Jiménez, Angel; Rodríguez, Javier; González, Celina; López, Ignacio; Nieto, Rafael

    2013-04-01

    The problem of the high carbon dioxide emissions linked to power generation makes necessary active research on the use of biofuels in gas turbine systems as a promising alternative to fossil fuels. Gasification of biomass waste is particularly of interest in obtaining a fuel to be run in gas turbines, as it is an efficient biomass-to-biofuel conversion process, and an integration into a combined cycle power plant leads to a high performance with regard to energetic efficiency. The goal of this study was to carry out an energetic, exergetic and environmental analysis of the behaviour of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant fuelled with different kinds of biomass waste by means of simulations. A preliminary economic study is also included. Although a technological development in gasification technology is necessary, the results of simulations indicate a high technical and environmental interest in the use of biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BioIGCC) systems for large-scale power generation from biomass waste. PMID:23444152

  20. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Status of Silicon Carbide Joining Technology Development

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon M. Bragg-Sitton

    2013-09-01

    Advanced, accident tolerant nuclear fuel systems are currently being investigated for potential application in currently operating light water reactors (LWR) or in reactors that have attained design certification. Evaluation of potential options for accident tolerant nuclear fuel systems point to the potential benefits of silicon carbide (SiC) relative to Zr-based alloys, including increased corrosion resistance, reduced oxidation and heat of oxidation, and reduced hydrogen generation under steam attack (off-normal conditions). If demonstrated to be applicable in the intended LWR environment, SiC could be used in nuclear fuel cladding or other in-core structural components. Achieving a SiC-SiC joint that resists corrosion with hot, flowing water, is stable under irradiation and retains hermeticity is a significant challenge. This report summarizes the current status of SiC-SiC joint development work supported by the Department of Energy Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program. Significant progress has been made toward SiC-SiC joint development for nuclear service, but additional development and testing work (including irradiation testing) is still required to present a candidate joint for use in nuclear fuel cladding.

  1. Towards using space technology( satellite information) for the attainment of sustainable economic development- Nigerian Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akeh, L. E.; Okpara, J. N.

    This paper attempts to x-ray the important role NigeriaSat1 and Meteorological satellites in constellation with other satellites have played in the recent time in attaining sustainable economic development in Nigeria Instead of the usual discrete observations scattered all over the surface of the earth especially the more populated areas and major trading routes or inferring to the shape and movement of weather systems from few widely scattered observations scientists in Nigeria can now enjoy a bird s eye view of the planet and see the movement and evolution of the storm system in animated sequences on computer screen as well as the continuous surveillance of the entire planet With satellite data Nigerian Meteorological Agency NIMET is able to determine the location and intensity of storms diagnose weather producing system heavy rainfall and tracking of meso-scale convective systems This have been very helpful in improving the quality of short and medium range weather forecast specialized forecasts also have greatly increased public confidence in the usage of our products Also with launching of NigeriaSat 1 by the National Space Research and Development Agency NASRDA there has been improved Famine Early Warning System FEWS and appropriate decision- making in the country coupled with thorough environmental monitoring

  2. Effects of Naltrexone Sustained- Release/Bupropion Sustained-Release Combination Therapy on Body Weight and Glycemic Parameters in Overweight and Obese Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Hollander, Priscilla; Gupta, Alok K.; Plodkowski, Raymond; Greenway, Frank; Bays, Harold; Burns, Colleen; Klassen, Preston; Fujioka, Ken

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the efficacy and safety of 32 mg naltrexone sustained-release (SR)/360 mg bupropion SR (NB) in overweight/obese individuals with type 2 diabetes with or without background oral antidiabetes drugs. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a 56-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in which 505 patients received standardized lifestyle intervention and were randomized 2:1 to NB or placebo. Coprimary end points were percent weight change and achievement of ≥5% weight loss. Secondary end points included achievement of HbA1c <7% (53 mmol/mol), achievement of weight loss ≥10%, and change in HbA1c, waist circumference, fasting blood glucose, and lipids. RESULTS In the modified intent-to-treat population (54% female, 80% Caucasian, and mean age 54 years, weight 106 kg, BMI 37 kg/m2, and HbA1c 8.0% [64 mmol/mol]), NB resulted in significantly greater weight reduction (−5.0 vs. −1.8%; P < 0.001) and proportion of patients achieving ≥5% weight loss (44.5 vs. 18.9%, P < 0.001) compared with placebo. NB also resulted in significantly greater HbA1c reduction (−0.6 vs. −0.1% [6.6 vs. 1.1 mmol/mol]; P < 0.001), percent of patients achieving HbA1c <7% (53 mmol/mol) (44.1 vs. 26.3%; P < 0.001), and improvement in triglycerides and HDL cholesterol compared with placebo. NB was associated with higher incidence of nausea (42.3 vs. 7.1%), constipation (17.7 vs. 7.1%), and vomiting (18.3 vs. 3.6%). No difference was observed between groups in the incidence of depression, suicidal ideation, or hypoglycemia. CONCLUSIONS NB therapy in overweight/obese patients with type 2 diabetes induced weight loss, which was associated with improvements in glycemic control and select cardiovascular risk factors and was generally well tolerated with a safety profile similar to that in patients without diabetes. PMID:24144653

  3. Design and in vitro evaluation of novel sustained- release matrix tablets for lornoxicam based on the combination of hydrophilic matrix formers and basic pH-modifiers.

    PubMed

    Hamza, Yassin El-Said; Aburahma, Mona Hassan

    2010-01-01

    The short half-life of lornoxicam, a potent non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, makes the development of sustained-release (SR) forms extremely advantageous. However, due to its weak acidic nature, its release from SR delivery systems is limited to the lower gastrointestinal tract which consequently leads to a delayed onset of its analgesic action. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to develop lornoxicam SR matrix tablets that provide complete drug release that starts in the stomach to rapidly alleviate the painful symptoms and continues in the intestine to maintain protracted analgesic effect as well as meets the reported SR specifications. The proposed strategy was based on preparing directly compressed hydroxypropylmethylcellulose matrix tablets to sustain lornoxicam release. Basic pH-modifiers, either sodium bicarbonate or magnesium oxide, were incorporated into these matrix tablets to create basic micro-environmental pH inside the tablets favorable to drug release in acidic conditions. All the prepared matrix tablets containing basic pH-modifiers showed acceptable physical properties before and after storage. Release studies, performed in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids used in sequence to mimic the GI transit, demonstrate the possibility of sustaining lornoxicam release by combining hydrophilic matrix formers and basic pH-Modifiers to prepare tablets that meet the reported sustained-release specifications. PMID:19895367

  4. Novel Direct Steelmaking by Combining Microwave, Electric Arc, and Exothermal Heating Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Xiaodi Huang; Dr. J. Y. Hwang

    2005-03-28

    Steel is a basic material broadly used by perhaps every industry and individual. It is critical to our nation's economy and national security. Unfortunately, the American steel industry is losing competitiveness in the world steel production field. There is an urgent need to develop the next generation of steelmaking technology for the American steel industry. Direct steelmaking through the combination of microwave, electric arc, and exothermal heating is a revolutionary change from current steelmaking technology. This technology can produce molten steel directly from a shippable agglomerate, consisting of iron oxide fines, powdered coal, and ground limestone. This technology is projected to eliminate many current intermediate steelmaking steps including coking, pellet sintering, blast furnace (BF) ironmaking, and basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steelmaking. This technology has the potential to (a) save up to 45% of the energy consumed by conventional steelmaking; (b) dramatically reduce the emission of CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, VOCs, fine particulates, and air toxics; (c) substantially reduce waste and emission control costs; (d) greatly lower capital cost; and (e) considerably reduce steel production costs. This technology is based on the unique capability of microwaves to rapidly heat steelmaking raw materials to elevated temperature, then rapidly reduce iron oxides to metal by volumetric heating. Microwave heating, augmented with electric arc and exothermal reactions, is capable of producing molten steel. This technology has the components necessary to establish the ''future'' domestic steel industry as a technology leader with a strong economically competitive position in world markets. The project goals were to assess the utilization of a new steelmaking technology for its potential to achieve better overall energy efficiency, minimize pollutants and wastes, lower capital and operating costs, and increase the competitiveness of the U.S. steel industry. The

  5. On Singularities and Black Holes in Combination-Driven Models of Technological Innovation Networks.

    PubMed

    Solé, Ricard; Amor, Daniel R; Valverde, Sergi

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that innovations occur mainly by combination: the more inventions accumulate, the higher the probability that new inventions are obtained from previous designs. Additionally, it has been conjectured that the combinatorial nature of innovations naturally leads to a singularity: at some finite time, the number of innovations should diverge. Although these ideas are certainly appealing, no general models have been yet developed to test the conditions under which combinatorial technology should become explosive. Here we present a generalised model of technological evolution that takes into account two major properties: the number of previous technologies needed to create a novel one and how rapidly technology ages. Two different models of combinatorial growth are considered, involving different forms of ageing. When long-range memory is used and thus old inventions are available for novel innovations, singularities can emerge under some conditions with two phases separated by a critical boundary. If the ageing has a characteristic time scale, it is shown that no singularities will be observed. Instead, a "black hole" of old innovations appears and expands in time, making the rate of invention creation slow down into a linear regime.

  6. On Singularities and Black Holes in Combination-Driven Models of Technological Innovation Networks.

    PubMed

    Solé, Ricard; Amor, Daniel R; Valverde, Sergi

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that innovations occur mainly by combination: the more inventions accumulate, the higher the probability that new inventions are obtained from previous designs. Additionally, it has been conjectured that the combinatorial nature of innovations naturally leads to a singularity: at some finite time, the number of innovations should diverge. Although these ideas are certainly appealing, no general models have been yet developed to test the conditions under which combinatorial technology should become explosive. Here we present a generalised model of technological evolution that takes into account two major properties: the number of previous technologies needed to create a novel one and how rapidly technology ages. Two different models of combinatorial growth are considered, involving different forms of ageing. When long-range memory is used and thus old inventions are available for novel innovations, singularities can emerge under some conditions with two phases separated by a critical boundary. If the ageing has a characteristic time scale, it is shown that no singularities will be observed. Instead, a "black hole" of old innovations appears and expands in time, making the rate of invention creation slow down into a linear regime. PMID:26821277

  7. On Singularities and Black Holes in Combination-Driven Models of Technological Innovation Networks

    PubMed Central

    Solé, Ricard; Amor, Daniel R.; Valverde, Sergi

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that innovations occur mainly by combination: the more inventions accumulate, the higher the probability that new inventions are obtained from previous designs. Additionally, it has been conjectured that the combinatorial nature of innovations naturally leads to a singularity: at some finite time, the number of innovations should diverge. Although these ideas are certainly appealing, no general models have been yet developed to test the conditions under which combinatorial technology should become explosive. Here we present a generalised model of technological evolution that takes into account two major properties: the number of previous technologies needed to create a novel one and how rapidly technology ages. Two different models of combinatorial growth are considered, involving different forms of ageing. When long-range memory is used and thus old inventions are available for novel innovations, singularities can emerge under some conditions with two phases separated by a critical boundary. If the ageing has a characteristic time scale, it is shown that no singularities will be observed. Instead, a “black hole” of old innovations appears and expands in time, making the rate of invention creation slow down into a linear regime. PMID:26821277

  8. Detection of phosphorylation patterns in rat cortical neurons by combining phosphatase treatment and DIGE technology.

    PubMed

    Raggiaschi, Roberto; Lorenzetto, Chiara; Diodato, Enrica; Caricasole, Andrea; Gotta, Stefano; Terstappen, Georg C

    2006-02-01

    Although protein phosphorylation is probably the most studied post-translational modification occurring in cells, the number of proteins, which are the target of this modification, is still largely unknown. Increasing the coverage of the phosphoproteome as well as the detection of variation at the phosphorylation level would be very helpful for understanding the mechanisms of cell life and the modifications of the cell state leading to pathological conditions such as neurodegeneration. In order to further investigate variations occurring at the phosphorylation level, we have initiated the creation of a reference map of phosphorylated proteins in rat cortical neurons, employing a combination of phosphatase treatment and 2-DE/differential in gel electrophoresis technology. About 131 spots were recognized as phosphorylated proteins as they showed different migration behaviour after phosphatase treatment. The analysis of 42 selected spots was carried out by LC/MS/MS technology resulting in the identification of two new phosphoproteins.

  9. The Sustainable Nuclear Future: Fission and Fusion E.M. Campbell Logos Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, E. Michael

    2010-02-01

    Global industrialization, the concern over rising CO2 levels in the atmosphere and other negative environmental effects due to the burning of hydrocarbon fuels and the need to insulate the cost of energy from fuel price volatility have led to a renewed interest in nuclear power. Many of the plants under construction are similar to the existing light water reactors but incorporate modern engineering and enhanced safety features. These reactors, while mature, safe and reliable sources of electrical power have limited efficiency in converting fission power to useful work, require significant amounts of water, and must deal with the issues of nuclear waste (spent fuel), safety, and weapons proliferation. If nuclear power is to sustain its present share of the world's growing energy needs let alone displace carbon based fuels, more than 1000 reactors will be needed by mid century. For this to occur new reactors that are more efficient, versatile in their energy markets, require minimal or no water, produce less waste and more robust waste forms, are inherently safe and minimize proliferation concerns will be necessary. Graphite moderated, ceramic coated fuel, and He cooled designs are reactors that can satisfy these requirements. Along with other generation IV fast reactors that can further reduce the amounts of spent fuel and extend fuel resources, such a nuclear expansion is possible. Furthermore, facilities either in early operations or under construction should demonstrate the next step in fusion energy development in which energy gain is produced. This demonstration will catalyze fusion energy development and lead to the ultimate development of the next generation of nuclear reactors. In this presentation the role of advanced fission reactors and future fusion reactors in the expansion of nuclear power will be discussed including synergies with the existing worldwide nuclear fleet. )

  10. Welding of titanium and nickel alloy by combination of explosive welding and spark plasma sintering technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Malyutina, Yu. N. Bataev, A. A. Shevtsova, L. I.; Mali, V. I. Anisimov, A. G.

    2015-10-27

    A possibility of titanium and nickel-based alloys composite materials formation using combination of explosive welding and spark plasma sintering technologies was demonstrated in the current research. An employment of interlayer consisting of copper and tantalum thin plates makes possible to eliminate a contact between metallurgical incompatible titanium and nickel that are susceptible to intermetallic compounds formation during their interaction. By the following spark plasma sintering process the bonding has been received between titanium and titanium alloy VT20 through the thin powder layer of pure titanium that is distinguished by low defectiveness and fine dispersive structure.

  11. Technologies and combination therapies for enhancing movement training for people with a disability

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    There has been a dramatic increase over the last decade in research on technologies for enhancing movement training and exercise for people with a disability. This paper reviews some of the recent developments in this area, using examples from a National Science Foundation initiated study of mobility research projects in Europe to illustrate important themes and key directions for future research. This paper also reviews several recent studies aimed at combining movement training with plasticity or regeneration therapies, again drawing in part from European research examples. Such combination therapies will likely involve complex interactions with motor training that must be understood in order to achieve the goal of eliminating severe motor impairment. PMID:22463132

  12. Anaerobic digestion as a core technology in sustainable management of organic matter.

    PubMed

    Verstraete, W; Morgan-Sagastume, F; Aiyuk, S; Waweru, M; Rabaey, K; Lissens, G

    2005-01-01

    In the past decades, anaerobic digestion (AD) has steadily gained importance. However, the technology is not regarded as a top priority in science policy and in industrial development at present. In order for AD to further develop, it is crucial that AD profits from the current fuel issues emerging in the international arena. AD can provide low-cost treatment of sewage and solid domestic wastes, which represents a vast application potential that should be promoted in the developing world. Furthermore, the developments in the last decades in the domain of anaerobic microbiology and technology have generated some interesting niches for the application of AD, such as anaerobic nitrogen removal and the treatment of chlorinated organics. Recently, AD has also generated some serendipities, such as the use of AD in processes for sulphur and calcium removal and the coupling of AD with microbial fuel cells. The international developments in terms of bio-refineries and CO2-emission abatement are of crucial importance with respect to the impetus that AD will receive in the coming decade. There should be little doubt that by placing the focus of AD on the production of green energy and clean nutrients, the future of AD will be assured. PMID:16180409

  13. Application of electro-Fenton technology to remediation of polluted effluents by self-sustaining process.

    PubMed

    Fernández de Dios, Maria Ángeles; Iglesias, Olaia; Pazos, Marta; Sanromán, Maria Ángeles

    2014-01-01

    The applicability of electro-Fenton technology to remediation of wastewater contaminated by several organic pollutants such as dyes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons has been evaluated using iron-enriched zeolite as heterogeneous catalyst. The electro-Fenton technology is an advanced oxidation process that is efficient for the degradation of organic pollutants, but it suffers from the high operating costs due to the need for power investment. For this reason, in this study microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were designed in order to supply electricity to electro-Fenton processes and to achieve high treatment efficiency at low cost. Initially, the effect of key parameters on the MFC power generation was evaluated. Afterwards, the degradation of Reactive Black 5 dye and phenanthrene was evaluated in an electro-Fenton reactor, containing iron-enriched zeolite as catalyst, using the electricity supplied by the MFC. Near complete dye decolourization and 78% of phenanthrene degradation were reached after 90 min and 30 h, respectively. Furthermore, preliminary reusability tests of the developed catalyst showed high degradation levels for successive cycles. The results permit concluding that the integrated system is adequate to achieve high treatment efficiency with low electrical consumption. PMID:24723828

  14. Application of Electro-Fenton Technology to Remediation of Polluted Effluents by Self-Sustaining Process

    PubMed Central

    Fernández de Dios, Maria Ángeles; Iglesias, Olaia; Pazos, Marta; Sanromán, Maria Ángeles

    2014-01-01

    The applicability of electro-Fenton technology to remediation of wastewater contaminated by several organic pollutants such as dyes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons has been evaluated using iron-enriched zeolite as heterogeneous catalyst. The electro-Fenton technology is an advanced oxidation process that is efficient for the degradation of organic pollutants, but it suffers from the high operating costs due to the need for power investment. For this reason, in this study microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were designed in order to supply electricity to electro-Fenton processes and to achieve high treatment efficiency at low cost. Initially, the effect of key parameters on the MFC power generation was evaluated. Afterwards, the degradation of Reactive Black 5 dye and phenanthrene was evaluated in an electro-Fenton reactor, containing iron-enriched zeolite as catalyst, using the electricity supplied by the MFC. Near complete dye decolourization and 78% of phenanthrene degradation were reached after 90 min and 30 h, respectively. Furthermore, preliminary reusability tests of the developed catalyst showed high degradation levels for successive cycles. The results permit concluding that the integrated system is adequate to achieve high treatment efficiency with low electrical consumption. PMID:24723828

  15. Application of electro-Fenton technology to remediation of polluted effluents by self-sustaining process.

    PubMed

    Fernández de Dios, Maria Ángeles; Iglesias, Olaia; Pazos, Marta; Sanromán, Maria Ángeles

    2014-01-01

    The applicability of electro-Fenton technology to remediation of wastewater contaminated by several organic pollutants such as dyes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons has been evaluated using iron-enriched zeolite as heterogeneous catalyst. The electro-Fenton technology is an advanced oxidation process that is efficient for the degradation of organic pollutants, but it suffers from the high operating costs due to the need for power investment. For this reason, in this study microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were designed in order to supply electricity to electro-Fenton processes and to achieve high treatment efficiency at low cost. Initially, the effect of key parameters on the MFC power generation was evaluated. Afterwards, the degradation of Reactive Black 5 dye and phenanthrene was evaluated in an electro-Fenton reactor, containing iron-enriched zeolite as catalyst, using the electricity supplied by the MFC. Near complete dye decolourization and 78% of phenanthrene degradation were reached after 90 min and 30 h, respectively. Furthermore, preliminary reusability tests of the developed catalyst showed high degradation levels for successive cycles. The results permit concluding that the integrated system is adequate to achieve high treatment efficiency with low electrical consumption.

  16. Humic acids enhanced removal of aromatic hydrocarbons from contaminated aquifers: developing a sustainable technology.

    PubMed

    Lesage, S; Brown, S; Millar, K; Novakowski, K

    2001-09-01

    Contamination by gasoline and diesel fuels is a threat to groundwater resources. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) which can represent up to 60% of volume in diesel fuels are of particular concern because many of them are carcinogenic and they are persistent, especially in oxygen-limited environment. Despite the development of alternative approaches, pump and treat continues to be the leading technology for the remediation of groundwater contaminated by gasoline and diesel fuels. The efficiency of this technology is however limited by the low solubility of the aromatic hydrocarbons. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of humic acids on the removal of aromatic hydrocarbons from petroleum products in groundwater aquifers and to evaluate the potential use of humic acids, as a cost effective additive, in groundwater and soil remediation. In order to prove the feasibility of using humic acid in the field, a pilot scale experiment was conducted in a model aquifer with a very dense monitoring network, providing controlled conditions only possible in a semi-artificial system. In addition, different sources of humic acids were compared with surfactants for their ability to bind PAHs.

  17. Combining technologies to create bioactive hybrid scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Nandakumar, Anandkumar; Barradas, Ana; de Boer, Jan; Moroni, Lorenzo; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Habibovic, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Combining technologies to engineer scaffolds that can offer physical and chemical cues to cells is an attractive approach in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In this study, we have fabricated polymer-ceramic hybrid scaffolds for bone regeneration by combining rapid prototyping (RP), electrospinning (ESP) and a biomimetic coating method in order to provide mechanical support and a physico-chemical environment mimicking both the organic and inorganic phases of bone extracellular matrix (ECM). Poly(ethylene oxide terephthalate)-poly(buthylene terephthalate) (PEOT/PBT) block copolymer was used to produce three dimensional scaffolds by combining 3D fiber (3DF) deposition, and ESP, and these constructs were then coated with a Ca-P layer in a simulated physiological solution. Scaffold morphology and composition were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled to energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (EDX) and Fourier Tranform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Bone marrow derived human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) were cultured on coated and uncoated 3DF and 3DF + ESP scaffolds for up to 21 d in basic and mineralization medium and cell attachment, proliferation, and expression of genes related to osteogenesis were assessed. Cells attached, proliferated and secreted ECM on all the scaffolds. There were no significant differences in metabolic activity among the different groups on days 7 and 21. Coated 3DF scaffolds showed a significantly higher DNA amount in basic medium at 21 d compared with the coated 3DF + ESP scaffolds, whereas in mineralization medium, the presence of coating in 3DF+ESP scaffolds led to a significant decrease in the amount of DNA. An effect of combining different scaffolding technologies and material types on expression of a number of osteogenic markers (cbfa1, BMP-2, OP, OC and ON) was observed, suggesting the potential use of this approach in bone tissue engineering. PMID:23507924

  18. The Use of Space Technology for Environmental Security, Disaster Rehabilitation and Sustainable Development in Afghanistan and Iraq

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovett, Kian

    Since the dawn of time, humans have engaged in war. In the last 5,600 years of recorded history 14,600 wars have been waged1. The United Nations has sought to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war and to foster peace. Wars have recently taken place in Afghanistan and Iraq. Both countries are now faced with a range of complex problems. In-depth country assessments reveal significant shortcomings in the areas of water, sanitation, health, security and natural resource management. These are key factors when examining environmental security, sustainable development and trans-boundary problems, all of which are issues relevant to the Middle East and Central Asian states. Space technology can be applied to support the reconstruction and development plans for Afghanistan and Iraq; however, there needs to be an investigation and open discussion of how these resources can best be used. Already, agencies within the United Nations possess considerable expertise in the use of space technologies in the area of disaster management. If this capability is to be used, there will need to be inter-agency coordination, not to mention a further expansion and development of the United Nations role in both Afghanistan and Iraq.

  19. Modeling technology innovation: How science, engineering, and industry methods can combine to generate beneficial socioeconomic impacts

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Government-sponsored science, technology, and innovation (STI) programs support the socioeconomic aspects of public policies, in addition to expanding the knowledge base. For example, beneficial healthcare services and devices are expected to result from investments in research and development (R&D) programs, which assume a causal link to commercial innovation. Such programs are increasingly held accountable for evidence of impact—that is, innovative goods and services resulting from R&D activity. However, the absence of comprehensive models and metrics skews evidence gathering toward bibliometrics about research outputs (published discoveries), with less focus on transfer metrics about development outputs (patented prototypes) and almost none on econometrics related to production outputs (commercial innovations). This disparity is particularly problematic for the expressed intent of such programs, as most measurable socioeconomic benefits result from the last category of outputs. Methods This paper proposes a conceptual framework integrating all three knowledge-generating methods into a logic model, useful for planning, obtaining, and measuring the intended beneficial impacts through the implementation of knowledge in practice. Additionally, the integration of the Context-Input-Process-Product (CIPP) model of evaluation proactively builds relevance into STI policies and programs while sustaining rigor. Results The resulting logic model framework explicitly traces the progress of knowledge from inputs, following it through the three knowledge-generating processes and their respective knowledge outputs (discovery, invention, innovation), as it generates the intended socio-beneficial impacts. It is a hybrid model for generating technology-based innovations, where best practices in new product development merge with a widely accepted knowledge-translation approach. Given the emphasis on evidence-based practice in the medical and health fields and

  20. Low Impact Development (LID) Technologies for Sustainable Water Management: Studies from a Green Roof

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Digiovanni, K. A.; Montalto, F. A.; Gaffin, S.

    2009-12-01

    Anthropogenic induced landscape alterations, such as urbanization, can cause drastic alterations to predevelopment hydrologic conditions and the systems linked to these cycles. Low impact development (LID) technologies, such as green roofs, can help to minimize these impacts given their ability to retain and detain stormwater and subsequently evapotranspire or infiltrate excess water. An innovative technique for simultaneously monitoring stormwater retention, allowing for runoff quantification, as well as evapotranspiration from a small scale green roof box was employed for a green roof at the Ethical Culture Fieldston School located in the Bronx, NY. A 1.2 meter long by 0.6 meter wide green roof box was created as a replica section of the 525 m2 green roof on the building. The layers of the green roof box consisted of a roof membrane, drainage layer, four inch media layer, and vegetative Sedum layer. Monitoring equipment on the green roof included a weather station and real time environmental sensors which quantify wind speed, precipitation, soil moisture, temperature, humidity, albedo, and incident solar radiation. In addition to this equipment, a platform scale was positioned beneath the green roof box. Data was collected at 5 minute time intervals over a six month monitoring period between Spring and Fall 2009. A mass balance technique was utilized to quantify runoff from the green roof box. Evapotranspiration during antecedent conditions was also quantified utilizing a mass balance methodology and compared to energy balance estimates based on climatic conditions measured on the green roof. Results of runoff generation under a variety of rainfall conditions, as well as a comparison between mass balance and energy balance measures of evapotranspiration will be presented. The incorporation of this and further data collection into model development and calibration activities will be informative in predicting the impact that the implementation of green roof

  1. Technology targeting for sustainable intensification of crop production in the Delta region of Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulthess, U.; Krupnik, T. J.; Ahmed, Z. U.; McDonald, A. J.

    2015-04-01

    Remote sensing data are nowadays being acquired within short intervals and made available at a low cost or for free. This opens up opportunities for new remote sensing applications, such as the characterization of entire regions to identify most suitable areas for technology targeting. Increasing population growth and changing dietary habits in South Asia call for higher cereal production to ensure future food security. In the Delta area of Bangladesh, surface water is considered to be available in quantities large enough to support intensification by adding an irrigated dry season crop. Fuel-efficient, low lift axial flow pumps have shown to be suitable to carry water to fields that are within a buffer of four hundred meters of the rivers. However, information on how and where to target surface water irrigation efforts is currently lacking. We describe the opportunities and constraints encountered in developing a procedure to identify cropland for which axial flow pumps could be successfully deployed upon in a 43'000 km2 area. First, we isolated cropland and waterways using Landsat 5 and 7 scenes using image segmentation followed by classification with the random forest algorithm. Based on Landsat 7 and 8 scenes, we extracted maximum dry season enhanced vegetation index (EVI) values, which we classified into fallow, low-, and high-intensity cropland for the last three years. Last, we investigated the potential for surface water irrigation on fallow and low-intensity land by applying a cropping risk matrix to address the twin threats of soil and water salinity. Our analysis indicates that there are at least 20,000 ha of fallow land under the low-risk category, while more than 100,000 ha of low-intensity cropland can be brought into intensified production. This information will aid in technology targeting for the efficient deployment of surface water irrigation as a tool for intensification.

  2. A Framework for Successful Research Experiences in the Classroom: Combining the Power of Technology and Mentors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graff, P. V.; Stefanov, W. L.; Willis, K.; Runco, S.; McCollum, T.; Lindgren, C. F.; Baker, M.; Mailhot, M.

    2011-12-01

    Authentic research opportunities in the classroom are most impactful when they are student-driven and inquiry-based. These experiences are even more powerful when they involve technology and meaningful connections with scientists. In today's classrooms, activities are driven by state required skills, education standards, and state mandated testing. Therefore, programs that incorporate authentic research must address the needs of teachers. NASA's Expedition Earth and Beyond (EEAB) Program has developed a framework that addresses teacher needs and incorporates the use of technology and access to mentors to promote and enhance authentic research in the classroom. EEAB is a student involvement program that facilitates student investigations of Earth or planetary comparisons using NASA data. To promote student-led research, EEAB provides standards-aligned, inquiry-based curricular resources, an implementation structure to facilitate research, educator professional development, and ongoing support. This framework also provides teachers with the option to incorporate the use of technology and connect students with a mentor, both of which can enrich student research experiences. The framework is structured by a modeled 9-step process of science which helps students organize their research. With more schools gaining increased access to technology, EEAB has created an option to help schools take advantage of students' interest and comfort with technology by leveraging the use of available technologies to enhance student research. The use of technology not only allows students to collaborate and share their research, it also provides a mechanism for them to work with a mentor. This framework was tested during the 2010/2011 school year. Team workspaces hosted on Wikispaces for Educators allow students to initiate their research and refine their research question initially without external input. This allows teams to work independently and rely on the skills and interests of

  3. A Framework for Successful Research Experiences in the Classroom: Combining the Power of Technology and Mentors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, Paige Valderrama; Stefanov, William L.; Willis, Kim; Runco, Susan; McCollum, Tim; Lindgren, Charles F.; Baker, Marshalyn; Mailhot, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Authentic research opportunities in the classroom are most impactful when they are student-driven and inquiry-based. These experiences are even more powerful when they involve technology and meaningful connections with scientists. In today's classrooms, activities are driven by state required skills, education standards, and state mandated testing. Therefore, programs that incorporate authentic research must address the needs of teachers. NASA's Expedition Earth and Beyond (EEAB) Program has developed a framework that addresses teacher needs and incorporates the use of technology and access to mentors to promote and enhance authentic research in the classroom. EEAB is a student involvement program that facilitates student investigations of Earth or planetary comparisons using NASA data. To promote student-led research, EEAB provides standards-aligned, inquiry-based curricular resources, an implementation structure to facilitate research, educator professional development, and ongoing support. This framework also provides teachers with the option to incorporate the use of technology and connect students with a mentor, both of which can enrich student research experiences. The framework is structured by a modeled 9-step process of science which helps students organize their research. With more schools gaining increased access to technology, EEAB has created an option to help schools take advantage of students' interest and comfort with technology by leveraging the use of available technologies to enhance student research. The use of technology not only allows students to collaborate and share their research, it also provides a mechanism for them to work with a mentor. This framework was tested during the 2010/2011 school year. Team workspaces hosted on Wikispaces for Educators allow students to initiate their research and refine their research question initially without external input. This allows teams to work independently and rely on the skills and interests of

  4. Single-Site Heterogeneous Catalysts: Innovations, Advantages, and Future Potential in Green Chemistry and Sustainable Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raja, Robert; Thomas, John Meurig

    The advantages that flow from the availability of single-site heterogeneous catalysts are many. They facilitate the determination of the kinetics and mechanism of catalytic turnover and render accessible the energetics of various intermediates. More importantly, it is possible to prepare soluble molecular fragments that circumscribe the single site, thus enabling a direct comparison to be made between the catalytic performance of the same active site when functioning as a heterogeneous or a homogeneous catalyst. Our approach adopts the principles and practices of solid-state chemistry, augmented by lessons derived from enzymology, as well as computational chemistry. We have succeeded in designing a range of new catalysts to effect, inter alia, shape-selective, regioselective, bifunctional, and enantioselective catalytic conversions. In particular, large fractions of these catalysts are ideally suited for the era of clean technology in which single-step and/or solvent-free processes abound, and in which benign oxidants such as air or oxygen and inexpensive nanoporous materials are employed.

  5. Emerging technologies for sustainable irrigation – a tribute to the career of Terry Howell, Sr. Selected papers from the 2015 ASABE and IA irrigation symposium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article is an introduction to the “Emerging Technologies in Sustainable Irrigation – A Tribute to the Career of Terry Howell, Sr.” Special Collection in this issue of Transactions ASABE and the next issue of Applied Engineering in Agriculture, consisting of 15 articles selected from 62 papers a...

  6. Implementation of Information Communication Technology in the Teaching/Learning Process for Sustainable Development of Adults in West Africa Sub Sahara Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwobi, Anthonia; Ngozi, Ugwuoke; Rufina, Nwachukwu; Ogbonnaya, Kingsley A.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the implementation of information technology in the teaching/learning process for sustainable development of adults in West Africa Sub Sahara Region (WASSR). Three research questions and two hypotheses guided the study. The population for the study was 3071 participants and instructors drawn from 10 education centres that were…

  7. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Reactor Safety Technologies Pathway Technical Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Corradini, M. L.

    2015-06-01

    In the aftermath of the March 2011 multi-unit accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (Fukushima), the nuclear community has been reassessing certain safety assumptions about nuclear reactor plant design, operations and emergency actions, particularly with respect to extreme events that might occur and that are beyond each plant’s current design basis. Because of our significant domestic investment in nuclear reactor technology (99 operating reactors in the fleet of commercial LWRs with five under construction), the United States has been a major leader internationally in these activities. The U.S. nuclear industry is voluntarily pursuing a number of additional safety initiatives. The NRC continues to evaluate and, where deemed appropriate, establish new requirements for ensuring adequate protection of public health and safety in the occurrence of low probability events at nuclear plants; (e.g., mitigation strategies for beyond design basis events initiated by external events like seismic or flooding initiators). The DOE has also played a major role in the U.S. response to the Fukushima accident. Initially, DOE worked with the Japanese and the international community to help develop a more complete understanding of the Fukushima accident progression and its consequences, and to respond to various safety concerns emerging from uncertainties about the nature of and the effects from the accident. DOE R&D activities are focused on providing scientific and technical insights, data, analyses methods that ultimately support industry efforts to enhance safety. These activities are expected to further enhance the safety performance of currently operating U.S. nuclear power plants as well as better characterize the safety performance of future U.S. plants. In pursuing this area of R&D, DOE recognizes that the commercial nuclear industry is ultimately responsible for the safe operation of licensed nuclear facilities. As such, industry is considered the primary

  8. Biodrying process: A sustainable technology for treatment of municipal solid waste with high moisture content.

    PubMed

    Tom, Asha P; Pawels, Renu; Haridas, Ajit

    2016-03-01

    Municipal solid waste with high moisture content is the major hindrance in the field of waste to energy conversion technologies and here comes the importance of biodrying process. Biodrying is a convective evaporation process, which utilizes the biological heat developed from the aerobic reactions of organic components. The numerous end use possibilities of the output are making the biodrying process versatile, which is possible by achieving the required moisture reduction, volume reduction and bulk density enhancement through the effective utilization of biological heat. In the present case study the detailed research and development of an innovative biodrying reactor has been carried out for the treatment of mixed municipal solid waste with high moisture content. A pilot scale biodrying reactor of capacity 565 cm(3) was designed and set up in the laboratory. The reactor dimensions consisted of an acrylic chamber of 60 cm diameter and 200 cm height, and it was enveloped by an insulation chamber. The insulation chamber was provided to minimise the heat losses through the side walls of the reactor. It simulates the actual condition in scaling up of the reactor, since in bigger scale reactors the heat losses through side walls will be negligible while comparing the volume to surface area ratio. The mixed municipal solid waste with initial moisture content of 61.25% was synthetically prepared in the laboratory and the reactor was fed with 109 kg of this substrate. Aerobic conditions were ensured inside the reactor chamber by providing the air at a constant rate of 40 litre per minute, and the direction of air flow was from the specially designed bottom air chamber to the reactor matrix top. The self heating inside reactor matrix was assumed in the range of 50-60°C during the design stage. Innovative biodrying reactor was found to be efficiently working with the temperature inside the reactor matrix rising to a peak value of 59°C by the fourth day of experiment (the

  9. Biodrying process: A sustainable technology for treatment of municipal solid waste with high moisture content.

    PubMed

    Tom, Asha P; Pawels, Renu; Haridas, Ajit

    2016-03-01

    Municipal solid waste with high moisture content is the major hindrance in the field of waste to energy conversion technologies and here comes the importance of biodrying process. Biodrying is a convective evaporation process, which utilizes the biological heat developed from the aerobic reactions of organic components. The numerous end use possibilities of the output are making the biodrying process versatile, which is possible by achieving the required moisture reduction, volume reduction and bulk density enhancement through the effective utilization of biological heat. In the present case study the detailed research and development of an innovative biodrying reactor has been carried out for the treatment of mixed municipal solid waste with high moisture content. A pilot scale biodrying reactor of capacity 565 cm(3) was designed and set up in the laboratory. The reactor dimensions consisted of an acrylic chamber of 60 cm diameter and 200 cm height, and it was enveloped by an insulation chamber. The insulation chamber was provided to minimise the heat losses through the side walls of the reactor. It simulates the actual condition in scaling up of the reactor, since in bigger scale reactors the heat losses through side walls will be negligible while comparing the volume to surface area ratio. The mixed municipal solid waste with initial moisture content of 61.25% was synthetically prepared in the laboratory and the reactor was fed with 109 kg of this substrate. Aerobic conditions were ensured inside the reactor chamber by providing the air at a constant rate of 40 litre per minute, and the direction of air flow was from the specially designed bottom air chamber to the reactor matrix top. The self heating inside reactor matrix was assumed in the range of 50-60°C during the design stage. Innovative biodrying reactor was found to be efficiently working with the temperature inside the reactor matrix rising to a peak value of 59°C by the fourth day of experiment (the

  10. Sustainable land-use by regional energy and material flow management using "Terra-Preta-Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friede, K.; Rößler, K.; Terytze, K.; Vogel, I.; Worzyk, F.; Schatten, R.; Wagner, R.; Haubold-Rosar, M.; Rademacher, A.; Weiß, U.; Weinfurtner, K.; Drabkin, D.; Zundel, S.; Trabelsi, S.

    2012-04-01

    The interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary joint research project seeks innovative system solutions for resource efficiency, climate protection and area revaluation by means of an integrative approach. The project's fundament is set by implementing the zero-emission-strategy, launching a regional resource efficient material flow management as well as utilising "Terra-Preta-Technology" as an innovative system component. As the centrepiece of optimised regional biogenic material flows Terra Preta Substrate (TPS) contains biochar shall be utilised exemplarily in model regions. In regional project 1 (state of Brandenburg, county Teltow-Fläming) TPS shall be used on military conversion areas, which are contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and mineral oil hydrocarbons. It will be examined, whether the use of TPS causes accelerated pollutant reduction and whether this area is available for renewable raw material production. In regional project 2 (Western Lusatia, county Oberspreewald-Lusatia) reclamation and renaturation of post-mining-landscapes is first priority. In this case, the project seeks for an upgrade of devastated soils for plant production as well as for restoration of soil functions and setup of organic soil substances. In regional project 3 (state of North Rhine-Westphalia, city of Schmallenberg) reforestations of large scale windbreakage areas shall be supported by using TPS. Soil stabilisation, increased growth and survival of young trees and decreased nutrient losses are desired achievements. The crop production effectiveness and environmental compatibility of TPS will be determined by tests in laboratories, by lysimeter and open land taking into account chemical and physical as well as biological parameters. Currently diverse chemical, physical and biological examinations are performed. First results will be presented. The focus will be set on the use of TPS on military conversion areas to reduce specific organic contaminations.

  11. Beyond Monitoring: A Brief Review of the Use of Remote Sensing Technology for Assessing Dryland Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washington-Allen, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    Drylands cover 41% of the terrestrial surface and provide > $1 trillion in ecosystem services to one-third of the global population, yet are not well studied with estimates of degradation ranging from 10 - 80%. Here I will present an abbreviated history of the use of remote sensing (RS) to monitor Dryland degradation, review contemporary applications, and provide guidance for future directions. These early monitoring attempts (and some recent efforts) assumed the social model of "Tragedy of the Commons" and the ecological model of "the Balance of Nature". These assumptions justified a monitoring approach rather than an assessment, where land degradation was understood to be primarily a function of human action through livestock grazing management. The perceived linear impact of grazing on grassland biomass led to the early development of a remote sensing-based proxy of vegetation response: the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). Many RS studies of Drylands are biased towards the NDVI or variants, whereas the contemporary view of Drylands as complex systems has led to a new synthesis of approaches from ecological modeling, ecohydrology, landscape ecology, and remote sensing that now explicitly confront both multiple drivers that include land-use policy, droughts & floods, fire, and responses that include increased soil erosion and changes in soil quality, landscape composition, pattern, and structure. However, problems still abound including 1) a consensus on the definition of Drylands, 2) the need for time series of drivers to conduct assessments, 3) a lack of understanding of below-ground biomass dynamics, 4) improved mapping of grassland, shrubland, and savanna dryland cover types and their 3D structure. There are new technologies in Dryland RS including multi-frequency ground penetrating radar (GPR), RADAR, IFSAR, LIDAR, and MISR that may lead to the development of new indicators to address these issues.

  12. Combining communication technology utilization and organizational innovation: evidence from Canadian healthcare decision makers.

    PubMed

    Jbilou, Jalila; Landry, Réjean; Amara, Nabil; El Adlouni, Salaheddine

    2009-08-01

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and Organizational Innovation (OI) are seen as the miracle of post-modernity in organizations. In this way, they are supposed to resolve most organizational problems, efficiently and rapidly. OI is highly dependent on the capacity and the investment in knowledge management (internal and external) to support decision making process and to implement significant changes. We know what explains ICT utilization (ICTU) and what determines OI development (OID) in healthcare services. Moreover, the literature tends to link ICTU to OID and vice versa. However, this dependency has never been explored empirically through the lens of roles combination. To identify the existing combined roles profiles of ICTU and OID among healthcare decision makers and determine factors of the shift from a profile to another. We did the following: (1) a structured review of the literature on healthcare management by focusing on ICTU and OID which allowed us to build two indexes and a comprehensive framework; (2) a copula methodology to identify with high precision the thresholds for ICTU and OID; and (3) a cross-sectional study based on a survey done with a sample of 942 decision makers from Canadian healthcare organizations through a multinomial logit model to identify determinants of the shift. ICTU and OID are correlated at 22% (Kendal's Tau). The joint distribution (combination) of ICTU and OID shows that four major profiles exist among decision makers in Canadian healthcare organizations: the traditional decision maker, the innovative decision maker, the technologic decision maker and the contemporary decision maker. We found out that classic factors act as barriers to the shift from one profile to the desired profile (from 1 to 4, from 2 to 4 and from 3 to 4). We have identified that the attitude toward research and relational capital are transversal barriers of shift. We have also found that some factors have a specific impact such as

  13. Developing and Sustaining a Science and Technology Center Education Program: "Inquiry" as a Means for Organizational Change and Institutional Legitimacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, T.; Hunter, L.

    2010-12-01

    Formal organizations have become ubiquitous in contemporary society and since so many of us spend so much of our daily lives working, learning, and socializing in them it is important to understand not only how they govern our interactions but also how we can incite (and sustain) organizational change. This is especially true for STEM education; learning about science, technology, engineering or mathematics rarely occurs outside of formal settings and educators need to be aware of how learning goals, priorities and practices are permeable to the institutional processes that structure sponsoring organizations. Adopting a historical perspective, this paper reports on organizational changes at the Center for Adaptive Optics in relation to an emerging emphasis on inquiry learning. The results of our analysis show how the inquiry model functioned as a boundary object and was instrumental in transforming members' expectations and assumptions about educational practice in STEM while securing the institutional legitimacy of the CfAO as a whole. Our findings can inform the advancement of educational initiatives within the STEM research community and are particularly useful in relation to concerns around accommodating and integrating individuals from non-dominant backgrounds.

  14. Sustained long-term immune responses after in situ gene therapy combined with radiotherapy and hormonal therapy in prostate cancer patients

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, Tetsuo; Teh, Bin S.; Mai, W.-Y.; Kusaka, Nobuyuki; Naruishi, Koji; Fattah, Elmoataz Abdel; Aguilar-Cordova, Estuardo; Butler, E. Brian; Thompson, Timothy C.

    2006-05-01

    Purpose: To explore long-term immune responses after combined radio-gene-hormonal therapy. Methods and Materials: Thirty-three patients with prostate specific antigen 10 or higher or Gleason score of 7 or higher or clinical stage T2b to T3 were treated with gene therapy that consisted of 3 separate intraprostatic injections of AdHSV-tk on Days 0, 56, and 70. Each injection was followed by 2 weeks of valacyclovir. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy was delivered 2 days after the second AdHSV-tk injection for 7 weeks. Hormonal therapy was initiated on Day 0 and continued for 4 months or 2.3 years. Blood samples were taken before, during, and after treatment. Lymphocytes were analyzed by fluorescent antibody cell sorting (FACS). Results: Median follow-up was 26 months (range, 4-48 months). The mean percentages of DR{sup +}CD8{sup +} T cells were increased at all timepoints up to 8 months. The mean percentages of DR{sup +}CD4{sup +} T cells were increased later and sustained longer until 12 months. Long-term (2.3 years) use of hormonal therapy did not affect the percentage of any lymphocyte population. Conclusions: Sustained long-term (up to 8 to 12 months) systemic T-cell responses were noted after combined radio-gene-hormonal therapy for prostate cancer. Prolonged use of hormonal therapy does not suppress this response. These results suggest the potential for sustained activation of cell-mediated immune responses against cancer.

  15. Combustion Engineering Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle Repowering Project: Clean Coal Technology Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    On February 22, 1988, DOE issued Program Opportunity Notice (PON) Number-DE-PS01-88FE61530 for Round II of the CCT Program. The purpose of the PON was to solicit proposals to conduct cost-shared ICCT projects to demonstrate technologies that are capable of being commercialized in the 1990s, that are more cost-effective than current technologies, and that are capable of achieving significant reduction of SO[sub 2] and/or NO[sub x] emissions from existing coal burning facilities, particularly those that contribute to transboundary and interstate pollution. The Combustion Engineering (C-E) Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Repowering Project was one of 16 proposals selected by DOE for negotiation of cost-shared federal funding support from among the 55 proposals that were received in response to the PON. The ICCT Program has developed a three-level strategy for complying with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) that is consistent with the President's Council on Environmental Quality regulations implementing NEPA (40 CFR 1500-1508) and the DOE guidelines for compliance with NEPA (10 CFR 1021). The strategy includes the consideration of programmatic and project-specific environmental impacts during and subsequent to the reject selection process.

  16. Coal diesel combined-cycle project. Comprehensive report to Congress: Clean Coal Technology Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    One of the projects selected for funding is a project for the design, construction, and operation of a nominal 90 ton-per-day 14-megawatt electrical (MWe), diesel engine-based, combined-cycle demonstration plant using coal-water fuels (CWF). The project, named the Coal Diesel Combined-Cycle Project, is to be located at a power generation facility at Easton Utilities Commission`s Plant No. 2 in Easton, Talbot County, Maryland, and will use Cooper-Bessemer diesel engine technology. The integrated system performance to be demonstrated will involve all of the subsystems, including coal-cleaning and slurrying systems; a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit, a dry flue gas scrubber, and a baghouse; two modified diesel engines; a heat recovery steam generation system; a steam cycle; and the required balance of plant systems. The base feedstock for the project is bituminous coal from Ohio. The purpose of this Comprehensive Report is to comply with Public Law 102-154, which directs the DOE to prepare a full and comprehensive report to Congress on each project selected for award under the CCT-V Program.

  17. Full Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Inhibition Combined with Partial Monoacylglycerol Lipase Inhibition: Augmented and Sustained Antinociceptive Effects with Reduced Cannabimimetic Side Effects in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Sudeshna; Kinsey, Steven G.; Liu, Qing-song; Hruba, Lenka; McMahon, Lance R.; Grim, Travis W.; Merritt, Christina R.; Wise, Laura E.; Abdullah, Rehab A.; Selley, Dana E.; Sim-Selley, Laura J.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.

    2015-01-01

    Inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) or monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), the primary hydrolytic enzymes for the respective endocannabinoids N-arachidonoylethanolamine (AEA) and 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG), produces antinociception but with minimal cannabimimetic side effects. Although selective inhibitors of either enzyme often show partial efficacy in various nociceptive models, their combined blockade elicits augmented antinociceptive effects, but side effects emerge. Moreover, complete and prolonged MAGL blockade leads to cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) receptor functional tolerance, which represents another challenge in this potential therapeutic strategy. Therefore, the present study tested whether full FAAH inhibition combined with partial MAGL inhibition would produce sustained antinociceptive effects with minimal cannabimimetic side effects. Accordingly, we tested a high dose of the FAAH inhibitor PF-3845 (N-​3-​pyridinyl-​4-​[[3-​[[5-​(trifluoromethyl)-​2-​pyridinyl]oxy]phenyl]methyl]-​1-​piperidinecarboxamide; 10 mg/kg) given in combination with a low dose of the MAGL inhibitor JZL184 [4-nitrophenyl 4-(dibenzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl(hydroxy)methyl)piperidine-1-carboxylate] (4 mg/kg) in mouse models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. This combination of inhibitors elicited profound increases in brain AEA levels (>10-fold) but only 2- to 3-fold increases in brain 2-AG levels. This combination produced significantly greater antinociceptive effects than single enzyme inhibition and did not elicit common cannabimimetic effects (e.g., catalepsy, hypomotility, hypothermia, and substitution for Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in the drug-discrimination assay), although these side effects emerged with high-dose JZL184 (i.e., 100 mg/kg). Finally, repeated administration of this combination did not lead to tolerance to its antiallodynic actions in the carrageenan assay or CB1 receptor functional tolerance. Thus, full FAAH inhibition combined

  18. Full Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Inhibition Combined with Partial Monoacylglycerol Lipase Inhibition: Augmented and Sustained Antinociceptive Effects with Reduced Cannabimimetic Side Effects in Mice.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sudeshna; Kinsey, Steven G; Liu, Qing-Song; Hruba, Lenka; McMahon, Lance R; Grim, Travis W; Merritt, Christina R; Wise, Laura E; Abdullah, Rehab A; Selley, Dana E; Sim-Selley, Laura J; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Lichtman, Aron H

    2015-08-01

    Inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) or monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), the primary hydrolytic enzymes for the respective endocannabinoids N-arachidonoylethanolamine (AEA) and 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG), produces antinociception but with minimal cannabimimetic side effects. Although selective inhibitors of either enzyme often show partial efficacy in various nociceptive models, their combined blockade elicits augmented antinociceptive effects, but side effects emerge. Moreover, complete and prolonged MAGL blockade leads to cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) receptor functional tolerance, which represents another challenge in this potential therapeutic strategy. Therefore, the present study tested whether full FAAH inhibition combined with partial MAGL inhibition would produce sustained antinociceptive effects with minimal cannabimimetic side effects. Accordingly, we tested a high dose of the FAAH inhibitor PF-3845 (N-​3-​pyridinyl-​4-​[[3-​[[5-​(trifluoromethyl)-​2-​pyridinyl]oxy]phenyl]methyl]-​1-​piperidinecarboxamide; 10 mg/kg) given in combination with a low dose of the MAGL inhibitor JZL184 [4-nitrophenyl 4-(dibenzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl(hydroxy)methyl)piperidine-1-carboxylate] (4 mg/kg) in mouse models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. This combination of inhibitors elicited profound increases in brain AEA levels (>10-fold) but only 2- to 3-fold increases in brain 2-AG levels. This combination produced significantly greater antinociceptive effects than single enzyme inhibition and did not elicit common cannabimimetic effects (e.g., catalepsy, hypomotility, hypothermia, and substitution for Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol in the drug-discrimination assay), although these side effects emerged with high-dose JZL184 (i.e., 100 mg/kg). Finally, repeated administration of this combination did not lead to tolerance to its antiallodynic actions in the carrageenan assay or CB1 receptor functional tolerance. Thus, full FAAH inhibition

  19. Challenges of Implementing New Technologies for Sustainable Energy. Opening address at the Sixth Grove Fuel Cell Symposium, London, 13-16 September 1999

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jørgen Koch, Hans

    To meet the commitments made in Kyoto, energy-related CO 2 emissions would have to fall to almost 30% below the level projected for a "Business-As-Usual" scenario. Meeting this goal will require a large-scale shift toward climate-friendly technologies such as fuel cells, which have a large long-term potential for both stationary generation and transportation. The deployment of a technology is the last major stage in the process of technological shift. Climate-friendly technologies are not being deployed at a sufficient rate or in sufficient amount to allow IEA countries to meet their targets. Hence, if technology is to play an important roll in reducing emissions within the Kyoto time frame (2008-2012) and beyond, immediate and sustained action to accelerate technology deployment will be required. Obstacles in the way of the deployment of technologies that are ready or near-ready for normal use have come to be referred to as market barriers. The simplest yet most significant form of market barrier to a new technology is the out-of-pocket cost to the user relative to the cost of technologies currently in use. Some market barriers also involve market failure, where the market fails to take account of all the costs and benefits involved, such as omitting external environmental costs, and therefore retard the deployment of more environmentally sustainable technologies. Other barriers include poor information dissemination, excessive and costly regulations, slow capital turnover rates, and inadequate financing. Efforts by governments to alleviate market barriers play an important role to complement private-sector activities, and there are many policies and measures each government could take. In addition, international technology collaboration can help promote the best use of available R&D resources and can contribute to more effective deployment of the result of research and development by sharing costs, pooling information and avoiding duplication of efforts.

  20. Making Friends with the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinshelwood, Emily

    2003-01-01

    A renewable energy project in South Wales was enriched by elements of the sustainable livelihood approach: people centered, holistic, and dynamic. The approach shifted the focus from technology to people and from product to process; it combined micro and macro issues. (SK)

  1. Is Sustainability Sustainable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonevac, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The most important concept in current environmental thinking is "sustainability". Environmental policies, economic policies, development, resource use--all of these things, according to the consensus, ought to be sustainable. But what is sustainability? What is its ethical foundation? There is little consensus about how these questions ought to be…

  2. Combined nanoprobes for scanning probe microscopy: laser technology for processing and testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veiko, V. P.; Golubok, A. O.; Zuong, Z.; Varkentina, N. V.; Yakovlev, E. B.

    2008-02-01

    Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is a high spatial resolution method of surface topography visualization and measurement of its local properties. The detecting of interaction arising between the sharp solid-state probe and the sample surface is the foundation of SPM. In dependence from nature of this interaction the scanning tunnel microscopy (STM), scanning force microscopy (SFM), scanning near field optical microscopy (SNOM), etc. are distinguished. The spatial resolution of all types of probe microscopy determins both sharpness of increasing of interaction between a probe and a sample at their approach, and shape and size of a top of a solid-state probe. So, the progress in SPM information capabilities is highly depends from probe properties and first of all from properly fabricated aperture size. Fabrication procedures are rather complicated because of nanometric scale size of aperture and hard requirements to reproducibility and need to be improved. The way how to do it is involving of feed-back in a processing procedure-results in two types of feedback for the process of drawing-out has been suggested, tested and installed into the technological set-up. Different probes have been fabricated by laser-assisted drawing-out during this work: SNOM types from optical fibers, micropipettes from quartz glass capillaries, micropipettes with microwires inside and with metallic covers outside. Some examples of application of above mentioned combined probes for cell membrane technology are described. Most important from them are topographical studying of cells and bacteria in living condition (in liquid) and studying of the mechanical properties of cell (rigidity of cell membrane) using the nanopipette as a tip of a force sensor. Also measurement of ion current that runs through cell membrane during its metabolic process using the nanopipette as well as in the well-known patch-clamp method have been done.

  3. Earthdata Search: Combining New Services and Technologies for Earth Science Data Discovery, Visualization, and Access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, P.; Pilone, D.

    2014-12-01

    A host of new services are revolutionizing discovery, visualization, and access of NASA's Earth science data holdings. At the same time, web browsers have become far more capable and open source libraries have grown to take advantage of these capabilities. Earthdata Search is a web application which combines modern browser features with the latest Earthdata services from NASA to produce a cutting-edge search and access client with features far beyond what was possible only a couple of years ago. Earthdata Search provides data discovery through the Common Metadata Repository (CMR), which provides a high-speed REST API for searching across hundreds of millions of data granules using temporal, spatial, and other constraints. It produces data visualizations by combining CMR data with Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) image tiles. Earthdata Search renders its visualizations using custom plugins built on Leaflet.js, a lightweight mobile-friendly open source web mapping library. The client further features an SVG-based interactive timeline view of search results. For data access, Earthdata Search provides easy temporal and spatial subsetting as well as format conversion by making use of OPeNDAP. While the client hopes to drive adoption of these services and standards, it provides fallback behavior for working with data that has not yet adopted them. This allows the client to remain on the cutting-edge of service offerings while still boasting a catalog containing thousands of data collections. In this session, we will walk through Earthdata Search and explain how it incorporates these new technologies and service offerings.

  4. Wabash River Coal Gasification Combined Cycle Repowering Project: Clean Coal Technology Program. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The proposed project would result in a combined-cycle power plant with lower emissions and higher efficiency than most existing coal-fired power plants of comparable size. The net plant heat rate (energy content of the fuel input per useable electrical generation output; i.e., Btu/kilowatt hour) for the new repowered unit would be a 21% improvement over the existing unit, while reducing SO{sub 2} emissions by greater than 90% and limiting NO{sub x} emissions by greater than 85% over that produced by conventional coal-fired boilers. The technology, which relies on gasified coal, is capable of producing as much as 25% more electricity from a given amount of coal than today`s conventional coal-burning methods. Besides having the positive environmental benefit of producing less pollutants per unit of power generated, the higher overall efficiency of the proposed CGCC project encourages greater utilization to meet base load requirements in order to realize the associated economic benefits. This greater utilization (i.e., increased capacity factor) of a cleaner operating plant has global environmental benefits in that it is likely that such power would replace power currently being produced by less efficient plants emitting a greater volume of pollutants per unit of power generated.

  5. Report from the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Workshop on Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems and Human-System Interface Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce P. Hallbert; J. J. Persensky; Carol Smidts; Tunc Aldemir; Joseph Naser

    2009-08-01

    The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is a research and development (R&D) program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The program is operated in close collaboration with industry R&D programs to provide the technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe, and economical operation of Nuclear Power Plants that are currently in operation. The LWRS Program focus is on longer-term and higher-risk/reward research that contributes to the national policy objectives of energy and environmental security. Advanced instruments and control (I&C) technologies are needed to support the safe and reliable production of power from nuclear energy systems during sustained periods of operation up to and beyond their expected licensed lifetime. This requires that new capabilities to achieve process control be developed and eventually implemented in existing nuclear assets. It also requires that approaches be developed and proven to achieve sustainability of I&C systems throughout the period of extended operation. The strategic objective of the LWRS Program Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems Technology R&D pathway is to establish a technical basis for new technologies needed to achieve safety and reliability of operating nuclear assets and to implement new technologies in nuclear energy systems. This will be achieved by carrying out a program of R&D to develop scientific knowledge in the areas of: • Sensors, diagnostics, and prognostics to support characterization and prediction of the effects of aging and degradation phenomena effects on critical systems, structures, and components (SSCs) • Online monitoring of SSCs and active components, generation of information, and methods to analyze and employ online monitoring information • New methods for visualization, integration, and information use to enhance state awareness and leverage expertise to achieve safer, more readily available electricity generation

  6. Combination of DNA Prime – Adenovirus Boost Immunization with Entecavir Elicits Sustained Control of Chronic Hepatitis B in the Woodchuck Model

    PubMed Central

    Kosinska, Anna D.; Zhang, Ejuan; Johrden, Lena; Liu, Jia; Seiz, Pia L.; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Ma, Zhiyong; Kemper, Thekla; Fiedler, Melanie; Glebe, Dieter; Wildner, Oliver; Dittmer, Ulf; Lu, Mengji; Roggendorf, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A potent therapeutic T-cell vaccine may be an alternative treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Previously, we developed a DNA prime-adenovirus (AdV) boost vaccination protocol that could elicit strong and specific CD8+ T-cell responses to woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) core antigen (WHcAg) in mice. In the present study, we first examined whether this new prime-boost immunization could induce WHcAg-specific T-cell responses and effectively control WHV replication in the WHV-transgenic mouse model. Secondly, we evaluated the therapeutic effect of this new vaccination strategy in chronically WHV-infected woodchucks in combination with a potent antiviral treatment. Immunization of WHV-transgenic mice by DNA prime-AdV boost regimen elicited potent and functional WHcAg-specific CD8+ T-cell response that consequently resulted in the reduction of the WHV load below the detection limit in more than 70% of animals. The combination therapy of entecavir (ETV) treatment and DNA prime-AdV boost immunization in chronic WHV carriers resulted in WHsAg- and WHcAg-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses, which were not detectable in ETV-only treated controls. Woodchucks receiving the combination therapy showed a prolonged suppression of WHV replication and lower WHsAg levels compared to controls. Moreover, two of four immunized carriers remained WHV negative after the end of ETV treatment and developed anti-WHs antibodies. These results demonstrate that the combined antiviral and vaccination approach efficiently elicited sustained immunological control of chronic hepadnaviral infection in woodchucks and may be a new promising therapeutic strategy in patients. PMID:23785279

  7. The Road to Sustainability. Sustainability Workbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afterschool Alliance, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Sustainability seems generally thought to mean raising money. But money is only part of the equation. Money cannot be raised without a quality program, a quality program demonstrates results, effective results are based on sound management practices, etc. Sustainability therefore, is many things that in combination make something capable of…

  8. Selective detection of live bacteria combining propidium monoazide sample treatment with microarray technology.

    PubMed

    Nocker, Andreas; Mazza, Alberto; Masson, Luke; Camper, Anne K; Brousseau, Roland

    2009-03-01

    The use of DNA-based molecular detection tools for bacterial diagnostics is hampered by the inability to distinguish signals originating from live and dead cells. The detection of live cells is typically most relevant in molecular diagnostics. DNA-intercalating dyes like ethidium monoazide and propidium monoazide (PMA) offer a possibility to selectively remove cells with compromised cell membranes from the analysis. Once these dyes enter a cell, they bind to DNA and can be covalently crosslinked to it by light exposure. PCR amplification of such modified DNA is strongly inhibited. In this study we evaluated the suitability of propidium monoazide treatment to exclude isopropanol-killed cells from detection in defined mixtures using diagnostic microarray technology. The organisms comprised Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, Serratia marcescens, and Escherichia coli O157:H7. PCR products obtained from amplification of chaperonin 60 genes (cpn60; coding for GroEL) were hybridized to a custom-designed microarray containing strain-specific cpn60-based 35-mer oligonucleotide probes. Results were compared with data from quantitative PCR, which confirmed that PMA could successfully inhibit amplification of DNA from killed cells in the mixtures. Although microarray data based on analysis of end-point PCR amplicons is not quantitative, results showed a significant signal reduction when targeting killed cells and consistently agreed with qPCR results. Treatment of samples with PMA in combination with diagnostic microarray detection can therefore be considered beneficial when analyzing mixtures of intact and membrane-compromised cells. Minimization of detection signals deriving from dead cells will render data more relevant in studies including pathogen risk assessment.

  9. Sustained release hGH microsphere formulation produced by a novel supercritical fluid technology: in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Jordan, F; Naylor, A; Kelly, C A; Howdle, S M; Lewis, A; Illum, L

    2010-01-25

    Novel sustained release formulations of hGH prepared by supercritical fluid processing of PLGA/PLA (the CriticalMix process) were produced in the form of microparticles for subcutaneous injection. The basis of the process is that PLGA/PLA polymers liquefy when exposed to supercritical CO(2), thereby allowing the hGH to be mixed efficiently into the polymers at an ambient temperature and in the absence of solvents. The CO(2) was removed from the mixture by depressurisation through a nozzle, resulting in the production of microparticles containing the hGH, which were collected in a cyclone. The best microparticle formulations showed an initial in vitro burst of around 35% and a sustained release over 14 days. When tested in the rat model, which displays a faster clearance rate of hGH than other animal models, two formulations showed prolonged release over 2-3 days with sustained plasma levels at 1-5 ng/ml whereas the soluble hGH formulation was cleared within 24h. Two selected sustained release formulations were tested in cynomolgus monkeys and compared to a single injection of soluble hGH. The burst release from the sustained release formulations was similar in magnitude to a daily dose of hGH and serum hGH levels were maintained for a seven day period. It is probable from the data that the sustained release would have continued for up to 14 days if sampling had been continued. The IGF-1 results showed there was no significant difference between the levels obtained for once daily injection of soluble hGH and the two sustained release formulations.

  10. Sustaining Effect of Intensive Nutritional Intervention Combined with Health Education on Dietary Behavior and Plasma Glucose in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients.

    PubMed

    Fan, Rui; Xu, Meihong; Wang, Junbo; Zhang, Zhaofeng; Chen, Qihe; Li, Ye; Gu, Jiaojiao; Cai, Xiaxia; Guo, Qianying; Bao, Lei; Li, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is very common in elderly Chinese individuals. Although nutritional intervention can provide a balanced diet, the sustaining effect on at-home dietary behavior and long-term plasma glucose control is not clear. Consequently, we conducted a long-term survey following one month of experiential nutritional intervention combined with health education. Based on the Dietary Guidelines for a Chinese Resident, we found that the food items met the recommended values, the percentages of energy provided from fat, protein, and carbohydrate were more reasonable after one year. The newly formed dietary patterns were "Healthy", "Monotonous", "Vegetarian", "Japanese", "Low energy", and "Traditional" diets. The 2h-PG of female participants as well as those favoring the "Japanese diet" decreased above 12 mmol/L. Participants who selected "Japanese" and "Healthy" diets showed an obvious reduction in FPG while the FPG of participants from Group A declined slightly. "Japanese" and "Healthy" diets also obtained the highest DDP scores, and thus can be considered suitable for T2DM treatment in China. The results of the newly formed dietary patterns, "Japanese" and "Healthy" diets, confirmed the profound efficacy of nutritional intervention combined with health education for improving dietary behavior and glycemic control although health education played a more important role. The present study is encouraging with regard to further exploration of comprehensive diabetes care. PMID:27649232

  11. Sustaining Effect of Intensive Nutritional Intervention Combined with Health Education on Dietary Behavior and Plasma Glucose in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients.

    PubMed

    Fan, Rui; Xu, Meihong; Wang, Junbo; Zhang, Zhaofeng; Chen, Qihe; Li, Ye; Gu, Jiaojiao; Cai, Xiaxia; Guo, Qianying; Bao, Lei; Li, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is very common in elderly Chinese individuals. Although nutritional intervention can provide a balanced diet, the sustaining effect on at-home dietary behavior and long-term plasma glucose control is not clear. Consequently, we conducted a long-term survey following one month of experiential nutritional intervention combined with health education. Based on the Dietary Guidelines for a Chinese Resident, we found that the food items met the recommended values, the percentages of energy provided from fat, protein, and carbohydrate were more reasonable after one year. The newly formed dietary patterns were "Healthy", "Monotonous", "Vegetarian", "Japanese", "Low energy", and "Traditional" diets. The 2h-PG of female participants as well as those favoring the "Japanese diet" decreased above 12 mmol/L. Participants who selected "Japanese" and "Healthy" diets showed an obvious reduction in FPG while the FPG of participants from Group A declined slightly. "Japanese" and "Healthy" diets also obtained the highest DDP scores, and thus can be considered suitable for T2DM treatment in China. The results of the newly formed dietary patterns, "Japanese" and "Healthy" diets, confirmed the profound efficacy of nutritional intervention combined with health education for improving dietary behavior and glycemic control although health education played a more important role. The present study is encouraging with regard to further exploration of comprehensive diabetes care.

  12. Sustaining Effect of Intensive Nutritional Intervention Combined with Health Education on Dietary Behavior and Plasma Glucose in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Rui; Xu, Meihong; Wang, Junbo; Zhang, Zhaofeng; Chen, Qihe; Li, Ye; Gu, Jiaojiao; Cai, Xiaxia; Guo, Qianying; Bao, Lei; Li, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is very common in elderly Chinese individuals. Although nutritional intervention can provide a balanced diet, the sustaining effect on at-home dietary behavior and long-term plasma glucose control is not clear. Consequently, we conducted a long-term survey following one month of experiential nutritional intervention combined with health education. Based on the Dietary Guidelines for a Chinese Resident, we found that the food items met the recommended values, the percentages of energy provided from fat, protein, and carbohydrate were more reasonable after one year. The newly formed dietary patterns were “Healthy”, “Monotonous”, “Vegetarian”, “Japanese”, “Low energy”, and “Traditional” diets. The 2h-PG of female participants as well as those favoring the “Japanese diet” decreased above 12 mmol/L. Participants who selected “Japanese” and “Healthy” diets showed an obvious reduction in FPG while the FPG of participants from Group A declined slightly. “Japanese” and “Healthy” diets also obtained the highest DDP scores, and thus can be considered suitable for T2DM treatment in China. The results of the newly formed dietary patterns, “Japanese” and “Healthy” diets, confirmed the profound efficacy of nutritional intervention combined with health education for improving dietary behavior and glycemic control although health education played a more important role. The present study is encouraging with regard to further exploration of comprehensive diabetes care. PMID:27649232

  13. Exergy sustainability.

    SciTech Connect

    Robinett, Rush D. III; Wilson, David Gerald; Reed, Alfred W.

    2006-05-01

    Exergy is the elixir of life. Exergy is that portion of energy available to do work. Elixir is defined as a substance held capable of prolonging life indefinitely, which implies sustainability of life. In terms of mathematics and engineering, exergy sustainability is defined as the continuous compensation of irreversible entropy production in an open system with an impedance and capacity-matched persistent exergy source. Irreversible and nonequilibrium thermodynamic concepts are combined with self-organizing systems theories as well as nonlinear control and stability analyses to explain this definition. In particular, this paper provides a missing link in the analysis of self-organizing systems: a tie between irreversible thermodynamics and Hamiltonian systems. As a result of this work, the concept of ''on the edge of chaos'' is formulated as a set of necessary and sufficient conditions for stability and performance of sustainable systems. This interplay between exergy rate and irreversible entropy production rate can be described as Yin and Yang control: the dialectic synthesis of opposing power flows. In addition, exergy is shown to be a fundamental driver and necessary input for sustainable systems, since exergy input in the form of power is a single point of failure for self-organizing, adaptable systems.

  14. Sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Dudani, A T

    1996-01-01

    Many attempts have been made over the last decade to define sustainable development (SD). However, it is much easier to describe one's expectations of SD. The discussion over SD grew in the wake of the Brundlandt Commission report, Our Common Future (OCF), which describes SD as a process of change in which resources, the direction of investment, orientation of technological development, and institutional change all enhance the potential to meet human needs today and in the future. The OCF stresses the interrelationship between SD and economic development such that nothing can be at the expense of environmental destruction. Close cooperation is needed at the domestic and international political, social, and economic levels and spheres in order to achieve long-term SD. The author discusses the state of affairs in the US and sustainable agriculture and SD.

  15. [Research on identification of cabbages and weeds combining spectral imaging technology and SAM taxonomy].

    PubMed

    Zu, Qin; Zhang, Shui-fa; Cao, Yang; Zhao, Hui-yi; Dang, Chang-qing

    2015-02-01

    Weeds automatic identification is the key technique and also the bottleneck for implementation of variable spraying and precision pesticide. Therefore, accurate, rapid and non-destructive automatic identification of weeds has become a very important research direction for precision agriculture. Hyperspectral imaging system was used to capture the hyperspectral images of cabbage seedlings and five kinds of weeds such as pigweed, barnyard grass, goosegrass, crabgrass and setaria with the wavelength ranging from 1000 to 2500 nm. In ENVI, by utilizing the MNF rotation to implement the noise reduction and de-correlation of hyperspectral data and reduce the band dimensions from 256 to 11, and extracting the region of interest to get the spectral library as standard spectra, finally, using the SAM taxonomy to identify cabbages and weeds, the classification effect was good when the spectral angle threshold was set as 0. 1 radians. In HSI Analyzer, after selecting the training pixels to obtain the standard spectrum, the SAM taxonomy was used to distinguish weeds from cabbages. Furthermore, in order to measure the recognition accuracy of weeds quantificationally, the statistical data of the weeds and non-weeds were obtained by comparing the SAM classification image with the best classification effects to the manual classification image. The experimental results demonstrated that, when the parameters were set as 5-point smoothing, 0-order derivative and 7-degree spectral angle, the best classification result was acquired and the recognition rate of weeds, non-weeds and overall samples was 80%, 97.3% and 96.8% respectively. The method that combined the spectral imaging technology and the SAM taxonomy together took full advantage of fusion information of spectrum and image. By applying the spatial classification algorithms to establishing training sets for spectral identification, checking the similarity among spectral vectors in the pixel level, integrating the advantages of

  16. [Research on identification of cabbages and weeds combining spectral imaging technology and SAM taxonomy].

    PubMed

    Zu, Qin; Zhang, Shui-fa; Cao, Yang; Zhao, Hui-yi; Dang, Chang-qing

    2015-02-01

    Weeds automatic identification is the key technique and also the bottleneck for implementation of variable spraying and precision pesticide. Therefore, accurate, rapid and non-destructive automatic identification of weeds has become a very important research direction for precision agriculture. Hyperspectral imaging system was used to capture the hyperspectral images of cabbage seedlings and five kinds of weeds such as pigweed, barnyard grass, goosegrass, crabgrass and setaria with the wavelength ranging from 1000 to 2500 nm. In ENVI, by utilizing the MNF rotation to implement the noise reduction and de-correlation of hyperspectral data and reduce the band dimensions from 256 to 11, and extracting the region of interest to get the spectral library as standard spectra, finally, using the SAM taxonomy to identify cabbages and weeds, the classification effect was good when the spectral angle threshold was set as 0. 1 radians. In HSI Analyzer, after selecting the training pixels to obtain the standard spectrum, the SAM taxonomy was used to distinguish weeds from cabbages. Furthermore, in order to measure the recognition accuracy of weeds quantificationally, the statistical data of the weeds and non-weeds were obtained by comparing the SAM classification image with the best classification effects to the manual classification image. The experimental results demonstrated that, when the parameters were set as 5-point smoothing, 0-order derivative and 7-degree spectral angle, the best classification result was acquired and the recognition rate of weeds, non-weeds and overall samples was 80%, 97.3% and 96.8% respectively. The method that combined the spectral imaging technology and the SAM taxonomy together took full advantage of fusion information of spectrum and image. By applying the spatial classification algorithms to establishing training sets for spectral identification, checking the similarity among spectral vectors in the pixel level, integrating the advantages of

  17. Estimating GHG Reduction from Combinations of Current Best-Available and Future Powertrain and Vehicle Technologies for a Midsized Car Using EPA’s ALPHA Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA identified the best, or most efficient, engines, transmissions and vehicle technologies, and then used ALPHA to predict the GHG emissions would be from a midsized car incorporating the best combination of these technologies.

  18. Digital Libraries with Embedded Values: Combining Insights from LIS and Science and Technology Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleischmann, Kenneth R.

    2007-01-01

    In the digital age, libraries are increasingly being augmented or even replaced by information technology (IT), which is often accompanied by implicit assumptions of objectivity and neutrality, yet the field of science and technology studies (STS) has a long history of studying what values are embedded in IT and how they are embedded. This article…

  19. Novel methodology to examine cognitive and experiential factors in language development: combining eye-tracking and LENA technology

    PubMed Central

    Odean, Rosalie; Nazareth, Alina; Pruden, Shannon M.

    2015-01-01

    Developmental systems theory posits that development cannot be segmented by influences acting in isolation, but should be studied through a scientific lens that highlights the complex interactions between these forces over time (Overton, 2013a). This poses a unique challenge for developmental psychologists studying complex processes like language development. In this paper, we advocate for the combining of highly sophisticated data collection technologies in an effort to move toward a more systemic approach to studying language development. We investigate the efficiency and appropriateness of combining eye-tracking technology and the LENA (Language Environment Analysis) system, an automated language analysis tool, in an effort to explore the relation between language processing in early development, and external dynamic influences like parent and educator language input in the home and school environments. Eye-tracking allows us to study language processing via eye movement analysis; these eye movements have been linked to both conscious and unconscious cognitive processing, and thus provide one means of evaluating cognitive processes underlying language development that does not require the use of subjective parent reports or checklists. The LENA system, on the other hand, provides automated language output that describes a child’s language-rich environment. In combination, these technologies provide critical information not only about a child’s language processing abilities but also about the complexity of the child’s language environment. Thus, when used in conjunction these technologies allow researchers to explore the nature of interacting systems involved in language development. PMID:26379591

  20. Environmental and Sustainable Technology Evaluations (ESTE): Verification of Fuel Characteristics and Emissions from Biomass-fired Boilers 09/2008

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is an ESTE project summary brief. With increasing concern about climate change and fossil fuel energy supplies, there continues to be an interest in biomass as a renewable and sustainable energy source. EPA’s Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards has expressed an int...

  1. A Feasibility Study of Sustainable Distributed Generation Technologies to Improve the electrical System on the Duck Valley Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Herman Atkins, Shoshone-Paiute; Mark Hannifan, New West Technologies

    2005-06-30

    A range of sustainable energy options were assessed for feasibility in addressing chronic electric grid reliability problems at Duck Valley IR. Wind power and building energy efficiency were determined to have the most merit, with the Duck Valley Tribes now well positioned to pursue large scale wind power development for on- and off-reservation sales.

  2. Novel in silico technology in combination with microarrays: a state-of-the-art technology for allergy diagnosis and management?

    PubMed

    Melioli, Giovanni; Passalacqua, Giovanni; Canonica, Giorgio W

    2014-12-01

    'Allergen microarrays, in poly-sensitized allergic patients, represent a real value added in the accurate IgE profiling and in the identification of allergen(s) to administer for an effective allergen immunotherapy.' Allergen microarrays (AMA) were developed in the early 2000s to improve the diagnostic pathway of patients with allergic reactions. Nowadays, AMA are constituted by more than 100 different components (either purified or recombinant), representing genuine and cross-reacting molecules from plants and animals. The cost of the procedure had suggested its use as third-level diagnostics (following in vivo- and in vitro-specific IgE tests) in poly-sensitized patients. The complexity of the interpretation had inspired the development of in silico technologies to help clinicians in their work. Both machine learning techniques and expert systems are now available. In particular, an expert system that has been recently developed not only identifies positive and negative components but also lists dangerous components and classifies patients based on their potential responsiveness to allergen immunotherapy, on the basis of published algorithms. For these characteristics, AMA represents the state-of-the-art technology for allergy diagnosis in poly-sensitized patients.

  3. SCIENCE AND LAW IN SUSTAINABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding sustainability depends in large part on research in science and technology, subjects that provide basic knowledge about humankind's interaction with the natural environment and how much impact and development the environment can sustain without suffering irreparable...

  4. Combined Heat and Power Systems Technology Development and Demonstration 370 kW High Efficiency Microturbine

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2015-10-14

    The C370 Program was awarded in October 2010 with the ambitious goal of designing and testing the most electrically efficient recuperated microturbine engine at a rated power of less than 500 kW. The aggressive targets for electrical efficiency, emission regulatory compliance, and the estimated price point make the system state-of-the-art for microturbine engine systems. These goals will be met by designing a two stage microturbine engine identified as the low pressure spool and high pressure spool that are based on derivative hardware of Capstone’s current commercially available engines. The development and testing of the engine occurred in two phases. Phase I focused on developing a higher power and more efficient engine, that would become the low pressure spool which is based on Capstone’s C200 (200kW) engine architecture. Phase II integrated the low pressure spool created in Phase I with the high pressure spool, which is based on Capstone’s C65 (65 kW) commercially available engine. Integration of the engines, based on preliminary research, would allow the dual spool engine to provide electrical power in excess of 370 kW, with electrical efficiency approaching 42%. If both of these targets were met coupled with the overall CHP target of 85% total combined heating and electrical efficiency California Air Resources Board (CARB) level emissions, and a price target of $600 per kW, the system would represent a step change in the currently available commercial generation technology. Phase I of the C370 program required the development of the C370 low pressure spool. The goal was to increase the C200 engine power by a minimum of 25% — 250 kW — and efficiency from 32% to 37%. These increases in the C200 engine output were imperative to meet the power requirements of the engine when both spools were integrated. An additional benefit of designing and testing the C370 low pressure spool was the possibility of developing a stand-alone product for possible

  5. A Combination of Various Technologies in the Fabrication of a Removable Partial Denture--A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Seitz, Stefanie; Cox, Nicholas; Jones, John D; Zimmermann, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Digital dentistry is increasing prevalent throughout general dental practice. Scanned impression systems, CAD/CAM software, milling units, and 3D printers are becoming used with regularity by some private practitioners. This case report describes a combination of multiple technologies including intraoral scanning, 3D printing, and traditional impression and processing techniques used for fabricating a removable partial denture. The patient indicated that he was highly satisfied throughout the course of treatment and especially with the final result. Future technology will continue to evolve and be more widely used in removable prosthodontics and other areas of dentistry.

  6. A Combination of Various Technologies in the Fabrication of a Removable Partial Denture--A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Seitz, Stefanie; Cox, Nicholas; Jones, John D; Zimmermann, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Digital dentistry is increasing prevalent throughout general dental practice. Scanned impression systems, CAD/CAM software, milling units, and 3D printers are becoming used with regularity by some private practitioners. This case report describes a combination of multiple technologies including intraoral scanning, 3D printing, and traditional impression and processing techniques used for fabricating a removable partial denture. The patient indicated that he was highly satisfied throughout the course of treatment and especially with the final result. Future technology will continue to evolve and be more widely used in removable prosthodontics and other areas of dentistry. PMID:27008841

  7. The sustainability solutions agenda.

    PubMed

    Sarewitz, Daniel; Clapp, Richard; Crumbley, Cathy; Kriebel, David; Tickner, Joel

    2012-01-01

    Progress toward a more sustainable society is usually described in a "knowledge-first" framework, where science characterizes a problem in terms of its causes and mechanisms as a basis for subsequent action. Here we present a different approach-A Sustainability Solutions Agenda (SSA)-which seeks from the outset to identify the possible pathways to solutions. SSA focuses on uncovering paths to sustainability by improving current technological practice, and applying existing knowledge to identify and evaluate technological alternatives. SSA allows people and organizations to transition toward greater sustainability without sacrificing essential technological functions, and therefore does not threaten the interests that depend on those functions. Whereas knowledge-first approaches view scientific information as sufficient to convince people to take the right actions, even if those actions are perceived as against their immediate interests, SSA allows values to evolve toward greater attention to sustainability as a result of the positive experience of solving a problem. PMID:22776577

  8. The sustainability solutions agenda.

    PubMed

    Sarewitz, Daniel; Clapp, Richard; Crumbley, Cathy; Kriebel, David; Tickner, Joel

    2012-01-01

    Progress toward a more sustainable society is usually described in a "knowledge-first" framework, where science characterizes a problem in terms of its causes and mechanisms as a basis for subsequent action. Here we present a different approach-A Sustainability Solutions Agenda (SSA)-which seeks from the outset to identify the possible pathways to solutions. SSA focuses on uncovering paths to sustainability by improving current technological practice, and applying existing knowledge to identify and evaluate technological alternatives. SSA allows people and organizations to transition toward greater sustainability without sacrificing essential technological functions, and therefore does not threaten the interests that depend on those functions. Whereas knowledge-first approaches view scientific information as sufficient to convince people to take the right actions, even if those actions are perceived as against their immediate interests, SSA allows values to evolve toward greater attention to sustainability as a result of the positive experience of solving a problem.

  9. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems Technologies Technical Program Plan for 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Hallbert, Bruce; Thomas, Ken

    2014-09-01

    Reliable instrumentation, information, and control (II&C) systems technologies are essential to ensuring safe and efficient operation of the U.S. light water reactor (LWR) fleet. These technologies affect every aspect of nuclear power plant (NPP) and balance-of-plant operations. In 1997, the National Research Council conducted a study concerning the challenges involved in modernization of digital instrumentation and control systems in NPPs. Their findings identified the need for new II&C technology integration.

  10. A case study in innovative outreach--combining training, research, and technology transfer to address real-world problems.

    PubMed Central

    Chang, D P

    1998-01-01

    Outreach, training, technology transfer, and research are often treated as programmatically distinct activities. The interdisciplinary and applied aspects of the Superfund Basic Research Program offer an opportunity to explore different models. A case study is presented that describes a collaborative outreach effort that combines all of the above. It involves the University of California's Davis and Berkeley program projects, the University of California Systemwide Toxic Substances Research and Teaching Program, the U.S. Navy's civilian workforce at the former Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo, California (MINSY), a Department of Defense (DoD) Environmental Education Demonstration Grant program, and the Private Industry Council of Napa and Sonoma counties in California. The effort applied a Superfund-developed technology to a combined waste, radium and polychlorinated biphenyl contamination, stemming from a problematic removal action at an installation/restoration site at MINSY. The effort demonstrates that opportunities for similar collaborations are possible at DoD installations. PMID:9703494

  11. Long-term indigenous soil conservation technology in the Chencha area, southern Ethiopia: origin, characteristics, and sustainability.

    PubMed

    Engdawork, Assefa; Bork, Hans-Rudolf

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the origin, development, and characteristics of terraces (kella), plus their potentials and determinants for sustainable use in the Chencha-Dorze Belle area of southern Ethiopia. Field surveys were conducted to determine the various parameters of the indigenous terraces and in order to collect samples for radiocarbon dating. To identify farmers' views of the terrace systems, semi-structured interviews and group discussions were also carried out. Terraces were built and used-as radiocarbon dating proves-at least over the last 800 years. The long-term continued usage of the indigenous terraces is the result of social commitments, the structural features of the terraces, and the farmers' responses to the dynamics of social and cultural circumstances. We dubbed that the terraces are a success story of fruitful environmental management over generations. Thus, a strong need is to preserve and develop this important cultural heritage and example of sustainable land use.

  12. Wayanad widows: A study of sustainable rural economic development using renewable energy technology for micro enterprise in Kerala, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voorhees, Maire Claire

    This thesis examines the situation of the farmer widows of Wayanad, Kerala through exploration of the underlying agricultural and economic issues leading to farmers' suicides, the current state of the environment in the Wayanad District of Kerala, India, and an economic model of micro-entrepreneurship to address economic and social issues of the surviving widows. Quantitative and qualitative research methods were performed through the assessment and document analysis of archive, newspaper, and published reports to gain a macro perspective. The Environmental Vulnerability Index was used as a tool to evaluate and organize findings of the current environmental conditions in the region. This thesis supports the sustainability concept of considering the economic, ecological, and social impacts when identifying economic development pathways. The goal was to explore the appropriateness of small household solar systems as vehicle in the micro-enterprise model to be a sustainable alternative economic pathway to agriculture for the farmer widows of Wayanad.

  13. In vitro conservation and sustained production of breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis, Moraceae): modern technologies for a traditional tropical crop.

    PubMed

    Murch, Susan J; Ragone, Diane; Shi, Wendy Lei; Alan, Ali R; Saxena, Praveen K

    2008-02-01

    Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis, Moraceae) is a traditionally cultivated, high-energy, high-yield crop, but widespread use of the plant for food is limited by poor quality and poor storage properties of the fruit. A unique field genebank of breadfruit species and cultivars exists at the National Tropical Botanical Garden in the Hawaiian Islands and is an important global resource for conservation and sustainable use of breadfruit. However, this plant collection could be damaged by a random natural disaster such as a hurricane. We have developed a highly efficient in vitro plant propagation system to maintain, conserve, mass propagate, and distribute elite varieties of this important tree species. Mature axillary shoot buds were collected from three different cultivars of breadfruit and proliferated using a cytokinin-supplemented medium. The multiple shoots were maintained as stock cultures and repeatedly used to develop whole plants after root differentiation on a basal or an auxin-containing medium. The plantlets were successfully grown under greenhouse conditions and were reused to initiate additional shoot cultures for sustained production of plants. Flow cytometry was used to determine the nuclear deoxyribonucleic acid content and the ploidy status of the in vitro grown population. The efficacy of the micropropagation protocols developed in this study represents a significant advancement in the conservation and sustained mass propagation of breadfruit germplasm in a controlled environment free from contamination.

  14. In vitro conservation and sustained production of breadfruit ( Artocarpus altilis, Moraceae): modern technologies for a traditional tropical crop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murch, Susan J.; Ragone, Diane; Shi, Wendy Lei; Alan, Ali R.; Saxena, Praveen K.

    2008-02-01

    Breadfruit ( Artocarpus altilis, Moraceae) is a traditionally cultivated, high-energy, high-yield crop, but widespread use of the plant for food is limited by poor quality and poor storage properties of the fruit. A unique field genebank of breadfruit species and cultivars exists at the National Tropical Botanical Garden in the Hawaiian Islands and is an important global resource for conservation and sustainable use of breadfruit. However, this plant collection could be damaged by a random natural disaster such as a hurricane. We have developed a highly efficient in vitro plant propagation system to maintain, conserve, mass propagate, and distribute elite varieties of this important tree species. Mature axillary shoot buds were collected from three different cultivars of breadfruit and proliferated using a cytokinin-supplemented medium. The multiple shoots were maintained as stock cultures and repeatedly used to develop whole plants after root differentiation on a basal or an auxin-containing medium. The plantlets were successfully grown under greenhouse conditions and were reused to initiate additional shoot cultures for sustained production of plants. Flow cytometry was used to determine the nuclear deoxyribonucleic acid content and the ploidy status of the in vitro grown population. The efficacy of the micropropagation protocols developed in this study represents a significant advancement in the conservation and sustained mass propagation of breadfruit germplasm in a controlled environment free from contamination.

  15. ESTABLISHING SUSTAINABLE US HEV/PHEV MANUFACTURING BASE: STABILIZED LITHIUM METAL POWDER, ENABLING MATERIAL AND REVOLUTIONARY TECHNOLOGY FOR HIGH ENERGY LI-ION BATTERIES

    SciTech Connect

    Yakovleva, Marina

    2012-12-31

    FMC Lithium Division has successfully completed the project “Establishing Sustainable US PHEV/EV Manufacturing Base: Stabilized Lithium Metal Powder, Enabling Material and Revolutionary Technology for High Energy Li-ion Batteries”. The project included design, acquisition and process development for the production scale units to 1) produce stabilized lithium dispersions in oil medium, 2) to produce dry stabilized lithium metal powders, 3) to evaluate, design and acquire pilot-scale unit for alternative production technology to further decrease the cost, and 4) to demonstrate concepts for integrating SLMP technology into the Li- ion batteries to increase energy density. It is very difficult to satisfy safety, cost and performance requirements for the PHEV and EV applications. As the initial step in SLMP Technology introduction, industry can use commercially available LiMn2O4 or LiFePO4, for example, that are the only proven safer and cheaper lithium providing cathodes available on the market. Unfortunately, these cathodes alone are inferior to the energy density of the conventional LiCoO2 cathode and, even when paired with the advanced anode materials, such as silicon composite material, the resulting cell will still not meet the energy density requirements. We have demonstrated, however, if SLMP Technology is used to compensate for the irreversible capacity in the anode, the efficiency of the cathode utilization will be improved and the cost of the cell, based on the materials, will decrease.

  16. Synergistic Combination Agent for Cancer Therapy | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Cancer.gov

    The Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory of the Frederick National Laboratory for Biomedical Research seeks parties interested in collaborative research to co-develop a ceramide and vinca alkaloid combination therapy for treatment of cancer.

  17. A combined remote sensing and modeling based approach to identify sustainable pathways for urban and peri-urban agriculture in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wattenbach, M.; Delgado, J. M.; Roessner, S.; Bochow, M.; Güntner, A.; Kropp, J.; Cantu Ros, A. G.; Hattermann, F.; Kolbe, T.; Sodoudi, S.; Cubasch, U. Ulrich; Zeitz, J.; Ross, L.; Böckel, K.; Fang, C.; Bo, L.; Pan, G.

    2012-04-01

    As the world's biggest economy, China is becoming the biggest consumer of resources globally. Given this trend, the over-proportional fast increase in urbanization presents China with fundamental problems. Among the most urgent ones is the increasing loss of agricultural land as urbanization takes place in the most productive regions along the coast. The latter is being responsible for a shift in agriculture production towards climatically less favorable areas. At the same time, the loss of green areas in and around growing cities is increasing the effect of the urban heat island. The perception of the potential risks related to this phenomenon, in the context of climate change, has led the Shanghai city administration to increase its urban-greening efforts, expanding the per capita area of green from 1m2 in 1990 to 12.5m2 in 2008. In this context, this paper aims at identifying the influence of urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA) on the sustainability of the urban regions of Shanghai and Nanjing. In particular, it focuses on the effects of UPA on the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, soil nutrients and water balances, local climate and the structure and functions of the urbanized areas. We propose an interdisciplinary framework combining remote sensing, model simulations and GHG field observations and targeted at identifying "win-win" strategies for sustainable planning pathways showing high potentials for UPA. The framework is based on spatial scenario modeling, automatic classification of urban structure types and on a prototype of a high-quality spatial database consisting of a 3D city model. Dynamic boundary conditions for climate and urban development are provided by state of the art models. These approaches meet the needs of stakeholders and planners in China. A special emphasis is put on interdependencies between small holder farming in the urban and peri-urban zone and climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies focusing on improved management of

  18. Implementing interactive decision support: A case for combining cyberinfrastructure, data fusion, and social process to mobilize scientific knowledge in sustainability problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    Geosciences are becoming increasingly data intensive, particularly in relation to sustainability problems, which are multi-dimensional, weakly structured and characterized by high levels of uncertainty. In the case of complex resource management problems, the challenge is to extract meaningful information from data and make sense of it. Simultaneously, scientific knowledge alone is insufficient to change practice. Creating tools, and group decision support processes for end users to interact with data are key challenges to transforming science-based information into actionable knowledge. The ENCOMPASS project began as a multi-year case study in the Atacama Desert of Chile to design and implement a knowledge transfer model for energy-water-mining conflicts in the region. ENCOMPASS combines the use of cyberinfrastructure (CI), automated data collection, interactive interfaces for dynamic decision support, and participatory modelling to support social learning. A pilot version of the ENCOMPASS CI uses open source systems and serves as a structure to integrate and store multiple forms of data and knowledge, such as DEM, meteorological, water quality, geomicrobiological, energy demand, and groundwater models. In the case study, informatics and data fusion needs related to scientific uncertainty around deep groundwater flowpaths and energy-water connections. Users may upload data from field sites with handheld devices or desktops. Once uploaded, data assets are accessible for a variety of uses. To address multi-attributed decision problems in the Atacama region a standalone application with touch-enabled interfaces was created to improve real-time interactions with datasets by groups. The tool was used to merge datasets from the ENCOMPASS CI to support exploration among alternatives and build shared understanding among stakeholders. To date, the project has increased technical capacity among stakeholders, resulted in the creation of both for-profit and non

  19. Combined effects of moisture, temperature, fiber architecture, and sustained load on the mechanical and microstructural properties of notched and unnotched e-glass/vinyl ester composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, Stephanie E.

    Structural composite materials are being investigated for use in applications which will require long-term durability in the presence of various environments and external loading conditions. Flaws may be created in these composite materials during manufacturing, machining, or use. Adverse use conditions may result in significantly reduced mechanical properties and changes in the microstructural properties and damage mechanisms of composites with seemingly minor flaws. E-glass/vinyl ester composite coupons, some with a preexisting flaw, have been conditioned in a wet environment for periods of up to nearly 8000 hours at several temperatures, mostly with a sustained tensile load, to determine the changes in the mechanical properties and damage mechanisms which occur with the introduction of a flaw. The fiber architectures used for the unnotched coupons were [0/90/+/-45]2s, [0/90/+/-45]3s, and [90/0]2s, all containing a chopped strand mat in each set, while those used for the notched coupons were [90/0]2s, [0] 16, [0/90]8, and [0/90]f8, with only the first containing the random mat. The combination of moisture and temperature was found to degrade the mechanical properties of the unnotched materials, particularly the tensile strength. The addition of a sustained load was found to further degrade these properties. During conditioning, the damage mechanisms were found to change from matrix microcracking, fiber damage, and occasional edge delaminations for unnotched specimens to the growth of a significant transverse crack from the notch tip and longitudinal tow debonding for notched specimens. Moisture and elevated temperature were found to affect the extent of damage, but not the dual nature of damage, in the vicinity of the notch tip, while the fiber architecture affected some of the patterns of damage. The unidirectional samples, not loaded during conditioning, were tested in load cycles to determine the strain energy release rates for increments of growth of

  20. Combined treatment technology based on synergism between hydrodynamic cavitation and advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Gogate, Parag R; Patil, Pankaj N

    2015-07-01

    The present work highlights the novel approach of combination of hydrodynamic cavitation and advanced oxidation processes for wastewater treatment. The initial part of the work concentrates on the critical analysis of the literature related to the combined approaches based on hydrodynamic cavitation followed by a case study of triazophos degradation using different approaches. The analysis of different combinations based on hydrodynamic cavitation with the Fenton chemistry, advanced Fenton chemistry, ozonation, photocatalytic oxidation, and use of hydrogen peroxide has been highlighted with recommendations for important design parameters. Subsequently degradation of triazophos pesticide in aqueous solution (20 ppm solution of commercially available triazophos pesticide) has been investigated using hydrodynamic cavitation and ozonation operated individually and in combination for the first time. Effect of different operating parameters like inlet pressure (1-8 bar) and initial pH (2.5-8) have been investigated initially. The effect of addition of Fenton's reagent at different loadings on the extent of degradation has also been investigated. The combined method of hydrodynamic cavitation and ozone has been studied using two approaches of injecting ozone in the solution tank and at the orifice (at the flow rate of 0.576 g/h and 1.95 g/h). About 50% degradation of triazophos was achieved by hydrodynamic cavitation alone under optimized operating parameters. About 80% degradation of triazophos was achieved by combination of hydrodynamic cavitation and Fenton's reagent whereas complete degradation was achieved using combination of hydrodynamic cavitation and ozonation. TOC removal of 96% was also obtained for the combination of ozone and hydrodynamic cavitation making it the best treatment strategy for removal of triazophos.

  1. NEWS - SUSTAINABILITY SCIENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of papers contributed by a diversified collection of researchers endeavor to depict sustainability science as an incomplete but necessary global endeavor. Their concern rests on the perceived inability of science and technology to solely lead the development of sustain...

  2. Sustainability at BPA 2012

    SciTech Connect

    2012-12-01

    BPA’s Sustainability Action Plan is grounded in our commitment to environmental stewardship and Executive Order 13514 that calls on the federal agencies to “lead by example” by setting a 2020 greenhouse gas emissions target, increasing energy efficiency; reducing fleet petroleum consumption; conserving water; reducing waste; supporting sustainable communities; and leveraging federal purchasing power to promoting environmentally responsible products and technologies.

  3. Day, night and all-weather security surveillance automation synergy from combining two powerful technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Morellas, Vassilios; Johnson, Andrew; Johnston, Chris; Roberts, Sharon D.; Francisco, Glen L.

    2006-07-01

    Thermal imaging is rightfully a real-world technology proven to bring confidence to daytime, night-time and all weather security surveillance. Automatic image processing intrusion detection algorithms are also a real world technology proven to bring confidence to system surveillance security solutions. Together, day, night and all weather video imagery sensors and automated intrusion detection software systems create the real power to protect early against crime, providing real-time global homeland protection, rather than simply being able to monitor and record activities for post event analysis. These solutions, whether providing automatic security system surveillance at airports (to automatically detect unauthorized aircraft takeoff and landing activities) or at high risk private, public or government facilities (to automatically detect unauthorized people or vehicle intrusion activities) are on the move to provide end users the power to protect people, capital equipment and intellectual property against acts of vandalism and terrorism. As with any technology, infrared sensors and automatic image intrusion detection systems for global homeland security protection have clear technological strengths and limitations compared to other more common day and night vision technologies or more traditional manual man-in-the-loop intrusion detection security systems. This paper addresses these strength and limitation capabilities. False Alarm (FAR) and False Positive Rate (FPR) is an example of some of the key customer system acceptability metrics and Noise Equivalent Temperature Difference (NETD) and Minimum Resolvable Temperature are examples of some of the sensor level performance acceptability metrics. (authors)

  4. Day, night, and all-weather security surveillance automation: synergy from combining two powerful technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morellas, Vassilios; Johnston, Chris; Johnson, Andrew; Roberts, Sharon D.; Francisco, Glen L.

    2005-05-01

    Thermal imaging is rightfully a real-world technology proven to bring confidence to daytime, nighttime and all weather security surveillance. Automatic image processing intrusion detection algorithms are also a real world technology proven to bring confidence to system surveillance security solutions. Together, day, night and all weather video imagery sensors and automated intrusion detection software systems create the real power to protect early against crime, providing real-time global homeland protection, rather than simply being able to monitor and record activities for post event analysis. These solutions, whether providing automatic security system surveillance at airports (to automatically detect unauthorized aircraft takeoff and landing activities) or at high risk private, public or government facilities (to automatically detect unauthorized people or vehicle intrusion activities) are on the move to provide end users the power to protect people, capital equipment and intellectual property against acts of vandalism and terrorism. As with any technology, infrared sensors and automatic image intrusion detection systems for global homeland security protection have clear technological strengths and limitations compared to other more common day and night vision technologies or more traditional manual man-in-the-loop intrusion detection security systems. This paper addresses these strength and limitation capabilities. False Alarm (FAR) and False Positive Rate (FPR) is an example of some of the key customer system acceptability metrics and Noise Equivalent Temperature Difference (NETD) and Minimum Resolvable Temperature are examples of some of the sensor level performance acceptability metrics.

  5. Regional Sustainable Environmental Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regional sustainable environmental management is an interdisciplinary effort to develop a sufficient understanding of the interactions between ecosystems, the economy, law, and technology to formulate effective long-term management strategies on a regional scale. Regional sustai...

  6. The Impact of High School Principal's Technology Leadership on the Sustainability of Corporate Sponsored Information Communication Technology Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottwig, Bruce Ryan

    2013-01-01

    The proliferation of information communication technology (ICT) has placed educational institutions in the forefront in educating and training students as skilled consumers, engineers, and technicians of this widely used technology. Corporations that develop and use ICT are continually building a skilled workforce; however, because of the growth…

  7. Combining Semantic Web technologies with Multi-Agent Systems for integrated access to biological resources.

    PubMed

    García-Sánchez, Francisco; Fernández-Breis, Jesualdo Tomás; Valencia-García, Rafael; Gómez, Juan Miguel; Martínez-Béjar, Rodrigo

    2008-10-01

    The increasing volume and diversity of information in biomedical research is demanding new approaches for data integration in this domain. Semantic Web technologies and applications can leverage the potential of biomedical information integration and discovery, facing the problem of semantic heterogeneity of biomedical information sources. In such an environment, agent technology can assist users in discovering and invoking the services available on the Internet. In this paper we present SEMMAS, an ontology-based, domain-independent framework for seamlessly integrating Intelligent Agents and Semantic Web Services. Our approach is backed with a proof-of-concept implementation where the breakthrough and efficiency of integrating disparate biomedical information sources have been tested.

  8. Integrating Sustainable Development in Higher Education through Experience-Based Learning: Insights from Experts in Team (EiT) for Developing a Combined Theoretical Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otte, Pia Piroschka

    2016-01-01

    Universities are understood to play an essential role in the promotion of sustainable development. However, the recognition of sustainable development in higher education poses multiple challenges to the traditional higher education system. This article introduces a course concept called "Experts in Teams" (EiT) as a new platform of…

  9. [Experimental research on combined water and air backwashing reactor technology for biological activated carbon].

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhi-Gang; Qiu, Xue-Min; Zhao, Yan-Ling

    2012-01-01

    To proper control the backwashing process of biological activated carbon (BAC) reactor and improve the overall operation performance, the evaluative indexes such as backwashing wastewater turbidity, organic pollutants removal rate of pre and post-backwashing, and the variation of biomass and biological activity in carbon column are used to compare and analyze the effect of three different combined water and air backwashing methods on the operation of BAC reactor. The result shows that intermittent combined water and air backwashing method is most suitable to BAC reactor. The biological activaty obviously increases by 62.5% after intermittent combined water and air backwashing process. While, the biological activaty using the backwashing method of air plus water and the backwashing method of water and air compounded plus water washing increases by 55.6%, 38.5%, respectively. After backwashing 308h, the reactor recovered to its normal function after intermittent combined water and air backwashing process with the removal rate of UV254 reaching to 60.0%. The fulvic-like fluorescence peak of backwashing water are very weak, and are characterized by low-excitation wavelength tryptophan like (peak S) and high excitation wavelength of tryptophan (peak T), which are caused by the microbial debris washed down. The three-dimensional fluorescence spectra also show that microbial fragments are easy to be washed clean with intermittent combined water and air backwashing. PMID:22452199

  10. [Experimental research on combined water and air backwashing reactor technology for biological activated carbon].

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhi-Gang; Qiu, Xue-Min; Zhao, Yan-Ling

    2012-01-01

    To proper control the backwashing process of biological activated carbon (BAC) reactor and improve the overall operation performance, the evaluative indexes such as backwashing wastewater turbidity, organic pollutants removal rate of pre and post-backwashing, and the variation of biomass and biological activity in carbon column are used to compare and analyze the effect of three different combined water and air backwashing methods on the operation of BAC reactor. The result shows that intermittent combined water and air backwashing method is most suitable to BAC reactor. The biological activaty obviously increases by 62.5% after intermittent combined water and air backwashing process. While, the biological activaty using the backwashing method of air plus water and the backwashing method of water and air compounded plus water washing increases by 55.6%, 38.5%, respectively. After backwashing 308h, the reactor recovered to its normal function after intermittent combined water and air backwashing process with the removal rate of UV254 reaching to 60.0%. The fulvic-like fluorescence peak of backwashing water are very weak, and are characterized by low-excitation wavelength tryptophan like (peak S) and high excitation wavelength of tryptophan (peak T), which are caused by the microbial debris washed down. The three-dimensional fluorescence spectra also show that microbial fragments are easy to be washed clean with intermittent combined water and air backwashing.

  11. The Learning Environment Associated with Information Technology Education in Taiwan: Combining Psychosocial and Physical Aspects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Chia-Ju; Zandvliet, David B.; Hou, I.-Ling

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated perceptions of senior high school students towards the Taiwanese information technology (IT) classroom with the What Is Happening in this Class? (WIHIC) survey and explored the physical learning environment of the IT classroom using the Computerised Classroom Environment Inventory (CCEI). The participants included 2,869…

  12. Combining ARS Process-Based Water and Wind Erosion Prediction Technologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Erosion process research in the United States has long been separated by location, experimental data collection, and prediction technologies. Erosion experiment stations were established in the l930’s throughout the country, however most examined erosion by water while a few in the Plains states we...

  13. Becoming allies: Combining social science and technological perspectives to improve energy research and policy making

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, Rick; Moezzi, Mithra

    2002-07-01

    Within the energy research community, social sciences tends to be viewed fairly narrowly, often as simply a marketing tool to change the behavior of consumers and decision makers, and to ''attack market barriers''. As we see it, social sciences, which draws on sociology, psychology, political science, business administration, and other academic disciplines, is capable of far more. A social science perspective can re-align questions in ways that can lead to the development of technologies and technology policy that are much stronger and potentially more successful than they would be otherwise. In most energy policies governing commercial buildings, the prevailing R and D directives are firmly rooted in a technology framework, one that is generally more quantitative and evaluative than that fostered by the social sciences. To illustrate how social science thinking would approach the goal of achieving high energy performance in the commercial building sector, they focus on the US Department of Energy's Roadmap for commercial buildings (DOE 2000) as a starting point. By ''deconstructing'' the four strategies provided by the Roadmap, they set the stage for proposing a closer partnership between advocates of technology-based and social science-based approaches.

  14. Exploration and Sustainability Expo Welcome

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Ames Deputy Associate Director Dr. Yvonne Pendleton welcomes attendees to the 2009 Exploration and Sustainability Expo held at NASA Ames Research Center. She highlights the emerging technologi...

  15. IGR combined NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} control technology. Phase 1, volume 1.

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, A.Z.

    1995-10-01

    The objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a new, simple, modular, all solid-state electrochemical technology for the simultaneous removal of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} pollutants from coal-fired combustors, in a cost effective, reliable and practical manner. The work accomplished in this Phase 1 project involved the formulation and testing of proprietary materials for NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} removal under conditions appropriate to coal-fired combustors for electric power production. The Phase 1 work also explored methods for reduction of the operating temperatures of the process, reduction of its power requirements, and increasing the levels of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} removal at higher levels of oxygen. The Phase 1 work has demonstrated the basic technical feasibility of IGR`s NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} removal technology. We have successfully achieved NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} removal in the presence of large concentrations of oxygen (including the range of oxygen levels in coal-fired combustors). We have demonstrated successful operation of IGR`s NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} removal technology at greatly reduced operating temperatures. Significant progress has been made in the reduction of the electrical power requirement of the removal process. In particular, NO{sub x} removal has been accomplished at power consumption levels that are economically feasible. In addition, the ability of this technology to remove SO{sub 2} from a high concentration gas stream (such as that generated from the copper oxide absorption process) has been demonstrated. In summary, the Phase 1 work has served to resolve the basic feasibility questions associated with this technology. The importance of the Phase 1 work is that it has greatly reduced the technical risk associated with IGR`s NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} removal technology, which makes the development of commercially feasible devices highly probable.

  16. Environmental Technology Verification Report: Climate Energy freewatt™ Micro-Combined Heat and Power System

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA GHG Center collaborated with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) to evaluate the performance of the Climate Energy freewatt Micro-Combined Heat and Power System. The system is a reciprocating internal combustion (IC) engine distributed e...

  17. Cryogenic hydrogen-induced air-liquefaction technologies for combined-cycle propulsion applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escher, William J. D.

    1992-01-01

    Given here is a technical assessment of the realization of cryogenic hydrogen induced air liquefaction technologies in a prospective onboard aerospace vehicle process setting. The technical findings related to the status of air liquefaction technologies are reviewed. Compact lightweight cryogenic heat exchangers, heat exchanger atmospheric constituent fouling alleviation measures, para/ortho-hydrogen shift-conversion catalysts, cryogenic air compressors and liquid air pumps, hydrogen recycling using slush hydrogen as a heat sink, liquid hydrogen/liquid air rocket-type combustion devices, and technically related engine concepts are discussed. Much of the LACE work is related to aerospaceplane propulsion concepts that were developed in the 1960's. Emphasis is placed on the Liquid Air Cycle Engine (LACE).

  18. Surveying and optical tooling technologies combined to align a skewed beamline at the LAMPF accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Bauke, W.; Clark, D.A.; Trujillo, P.B.

    1985-01-01

    Optical Tooling evolved from traditional surveying, and both technologies are sometimes used interchangeably in large industrial installations, since the instruments and their specialized adapters and supports complement each other well. A unique marriage of both technologies was accomplished in a novel application at LAMPF, the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility. LAMPF consists of a linear accelerator with multiple target systems, one of which had to be altered to accommodate a new beamline for a neutrino experiment. The new line was to be installed into a crowded beam tunnel and had to be skewed and tilted in compound angles to avoid existing equipment. In this paper we describe how Optical Tooling was used in conjunction with simple alignment and reference fixtures to set fiducials on the magnets and other mechanical components of the beamline, and how theodolites and sight levels were then adapted to align these components along the calculated skew planes. Design tolerances are compared with measured alignment results.

  19. Mixed application MMIC technologies - Progress in combining RF, digital and photonic circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swirhun, S.; Bendett, M.; Sokolov, V.; Bauhahn, P.; Sullivan, C.; Mactaggart, R.; Mukherjee, S.; Hibbs-Brenner, M.; Mondal, J.

    1991-01-01

    Approaches for future 'mixed application' monolithic integrated circuits (ICs) employing optical receive/transmit, RF amplification and modulation and digital control functions are discussed. We focus on compatibility of the photonic component fabrication with conventional RF and digital IC technologies. Recent progress at Honeywell in integrating several parts of the desired RF/digital/photonic circuit integration suite required for construction of a future millimeter-wave optically-controlled phased-array element are illustrated.

  20. Literacity: A multimedia adult literacy package combining NASA technology, recursive ID theory, and authentic instruction theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Jerry; Willis, Dee Anna; Walsh, Clare; Stephens, Elizabeth; Murphy, Timothy; Price, Jerry; Stevens, William; Jackson, Kevin; Villareal, James A.; Way, Bob

    1994-01-01

    An important part of NASA's mission involves the secondary application of its technologies in the public and private sectors. One current application under development is LiteraCity, a simulation-based instructional package for adults who do not have functional reading skills. Using fuzzy logic routines and other technologies developed by NASA's Information Systems Directorate and hypermedia sound, graphics, and animation technologies the project attempts to overcome the limited impact of adult literacy assessment and instruction by involving the adult in an interactive simulation of real-life literacy activities. The project uses a recursive instructional development model and authentic instruction theory. This paper describes one component of a project to design, develop, and produce a series of computer-based, multimedia instructional packages. The packages are being developed for use in adult literacy programs, particularly in correctional education centers. They use the concepts of authentic instruction and authentic assessment to guide development. All the packages to be developed are instructional simulations. The first is a simulation of 'finding a friend a job.'

  1. A Technology Pathway for Airbreathing, Combined-Cycle, Horizontal Space Launch Through SR-71 Based Trajectory Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kloesel, Kurt J.; Ratnayake, Nalin A.; Clark, Casie M.

    2011-01-01

    Access to space is in the early stages of commercialization. Private enterprises, mainly under direct or indirect subsidy by the government, have been making headway into the LEO launch systems infrastructure, of small-weight-class payloads of approximately 1000 lbs. These moderate gains have emboldened the launch industry and they are poised to move into the middle-weight class (roughly 5000 lbs). These commercially successful systems are based on relatively straightforward LOX-RP, two-stage, bi-propellant rocket technology developed by the government 40 years ago, accompanied by many technology improvements. In this paper we examine a known generic LOX-RP system with the focus on the booster stage (1st stage). The booster stage is then compared to modeled Rocket-Based and Turbine-Based Combined Cycle booster stages. The air-breathing propulsion stages are based on/or extrapolated from known performance parameters of ground tested RBCC (the Marquardt Ejector Ramjet) and TBCC (the SR-71/J-58 engine) data. Validated engine models using GECAT and SCCREAM are coupled with trajectory optimization and analysis in POST-II to explore viable launch scenarios using hypothetical aerospaceplane platform obeying the aerodynamic model of the SR-71. Finally, and assessment is made of the requisite research technology advances necessary for successful commercial and government adoption of combined-cycle engine systems for space access.

  2. The challenge of sustainability

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, D.W.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses sustainability in a world that has changed rapidly. The author suggests that ecological assumptions embedded in communism and capitalism are badly flawed, but the flaws were not apparent when there were fewer than a billion people on earth living at low technology levels. Sustaining the earth's vital signs is a challenge to our perception of time, and the numbers - population, environmental damage, oil consumption, waste disposal - are too large to comprehend easily. There is a global debate about what sustainability means. In fact the challenge of sustainability is 6 different challenges: overcoming the tendency to deny inconvenient realities; establishing accurate indicators of human and ecological health; questions about the kinds of technology necessary to make the transition to sustainability; education; the need for an emotional bond between man and nature; rebuilding the existing democratic institutions. 16 refs.

  3. Emerging technology in surgical education: combining real-time augmented reality and wearable computing devices.

    PubMed

    Ponce, Brent A; Menendez, Mariano E; Oladeji, Lasun O; Fryberger, Charles T; Dantuluri, Phani K

    2014-11-01

    The authors describe the first surgical case adopting the combination of real-time augmented reality and wearable computing devices such as Google Glass (Google Inc, Mountain View, California). A 66-year-old man presented to their institution for a total shoulder replacement after 5 years of progressive right shoulder pain and decreased range of motion. Throughout the surgical procedure, Google Glass was integrated with the Virtual Interactive Presence and Augmented Reality system (University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama), enabling the local surgeon to interact with the remote surgeon within the local surgical field. Surgery was well tolerated by the patient and early surgical results were encouraging, with an improvement of shoulder pain and greater range of motion. The combination of real-time augmented reality and wearable computing devices such as Google Glass holds much promise in the field of surgery.

  4. Rocket-Based Combined-Cycle (RBCC) Propulsion Technology Workshop. Tutorial session

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The goal of this workshop was to illuminate the nation's space transportation and propulsion engineering community on the potential of hypersonic combined cycle (airbreathing/rocket) propulsion systems for future space transportation applications. Four general topics were examined: (1) selections from the expansive advanced propulsion archival resource; (2) related propulsion systems technical backgrounds; (3) RBCC engine multimode operations related subsystem background; and (4) focused review of propulsion aspects of current related programs.

  5. Engineered small diameter vascular grafts by combining cell sheet engineering and electrospinning technology.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Hyunhee; Ju, Young Min; Takahashi, Hironobu; Williams, David F; Yoo, James J; Lee, Sang Jin; Okano, Teruo; Atala, Anthony

    2015-04-01

    Tissue engineering offers an attractive approach to creating functional small-diameter (<5mm) blood vessels by combining autologous cells with a natural and/or synthetic scaffold under suitable culture conditions, which results in a tubular construct that can be implanted in vivo. We have previously developed a vascular scaffold fabricated by electrospinning poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and type I collagen that mimics the structural and biomechanical properties of native vessels. In this study, we investigated whether a smooth muscle cell (SMC) sheet could be combined with the electrospun vascular scaffolds to produce a more mature smooth muscle layer as compared to the conventional cell seeding method. The pre-fabricated SMC sheet, wrapped around the vascular scaffold, provided high cell seeding efficiency (approx. 100%) and a mature smooth muscle layer that expressed strong cell-to-cell junction, connexin 43 (CX43), and contractile proteins, α smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and myosin light chain kinase (MLCK). Moreover, bioreactor-associated preconditioning of the SMC sheet-combined vascular scaffold maintained high cell viability (95.9 ± 2.7%) and phenotypes and improved cellular infiltration and mechanical properties (35.7% of tensile strength, 47.5% of elasticity, and 113.2% of elongation at break).

  6. Forest products industry of the future: Building a sustainable technology advantage for America`s forest products industry

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    The US forest, wood, and paper industry ranks as one of the most competitive forest products industries in the world. With annual shipments valued at nearly $267 billion, it employs over 1.3 million people and is currently among the top 10 manufacturing employers in 46 out of 50 states. Retaining this leadership position will depend largely on the industry`s success in developing and using advanced technologies. These technologies will enable manufacturing plants and forestry enterprises to maximize energy and materials efficiency and reduce waste and emissions, while producing high-quality, competitively priced wood and paper products. In a unique partnership, leaders in the forest products industry have teamed with the US Department of Energy`s Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) to encourage cooperative research efforts that will help position the US forest products industry for continuing prosperity while advancing national energy efficiency and environmental goals.

  7. U.S.-MEXICO TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER; BILATERAL TECHNICAL EXCHANGES FOR SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC GROWTH IN THE BORDER REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, Richard, D., Dr.

    2007-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) maintains a strong commitment to transfer the results of its science and technology programs to the private sector. The intent is to apply innovative and sometimes advanced technologies to address needs while simultaneously stimulating new commercial business opportunities. Such focused “technology transfer” was evident in the late 1990s as the results of DOE investments in environmental management technology development led to new tools for characterizing and remediating contaminated sites as well as handling and minimizing the generation of hazardous wastes. The Department’s Office of Environmental Management was attempting to reduce the cost, accelerate the schedule, and improve the efficacy of clean-up efforts in the nuclear weapons complex. It recognized that resulting technologies had broader world market applications and that their commercialization would further reduce costs and facilitate deployment of improved technology at DOE sites. DOE’s Albuquerque Operations Office (now part of the National Nuclear Security Administration) began in 1995 to build the foundation for a technology exchange program with Mexico. Initial sponsorship for this work was provided by the Department’s Office of Environmental Management. As part of this effort, Applied Sciences Laboratory, Inc. (ASL) was contracted by the DOE Albuquerque office to identify Mexico’s priority environmental management needs, identify and evaluate DOE-sponsored technologies as potential solutions for those needs, and coordinate these opportunities with decision makers from Mexico’s federal government. That work led to an improved understanding of many key environmental challenges that Mexico faces and the many opportunities to apply DOE’s technologies to help resolve them. The above results constituted, in large part, the foundation for an initial DOE-funded program to apply the Department’s technology base to help address some of Mexico

  8. Evaluation of the sustainability of contrasted pig farming systems: development of a market conformity tool for pork products based on technological quality traits.

    PubMed

    Gonzàlez, J; Gispert, M; Gil, M; Hviid, M; Dourmad, J Y; de Greef, K H; Zimmer, C; Fàbrega, E

    2014-12-01

    A market conformity tool, based on technological meat quality parameters, was developed within the Q-PorkChains project, to be included in a global sustainability evaluation of pig farming systems. The specific objective of the market conformity tool was to define a scoring system based on the suitability of meat to elaborate the main pork products, according to their market shares based on industry requirements, in different pig farming systems. The tool was based on carcass and meat quality parameters that are commonly used for the assessment of technological quality, which provide representative and repeatable data and are easily measurable. They were the following: cold carcass weight; lean meat percentage; minimum subcutaneous back fat depth at m. gluteus medius level, 45 postmortem and ultimate pH (measured at 24-h postmortem) in m. longissimus lumborum and semimembranosus; meat colour; drip losses and intramuscular fat content in a m. longissimus sample. Five categories of pork products produced at large scale in Europe were considered in the study: fresh meat, cooked products, dry products, specialties and other meat products. For each of the studied farming systems, the technological meat quality requirements, as well as the market shares for each product category within farming system, were obtained from the literature and personal communications from experts. The tool resulted in an overall conformity score that enabled to discriminate among systems according to the degree of matching of the achieved carcass and meat quality with the requirements of the targeted market. In order to improve feasibility, the tool was simplified by selecting ultimate pH at m. longissimus or semimembranosus, minimum fat thickness measured at the left half carcass over m. gluteus medius and intramuscular fat content in a m. longissimus sample as iceberg indicators. The overall suitability scores calculated by using both the complete and the reduced tools presented good

  9. Evaluation of the sustainability of contrasted pig farming systems: development of a market conformity tool for pork products based on technological quality traits.

    PubMed

    Gonzàlez, J; Gispert, M; Gil, M; Hviid, M; Dourmad, J Y; de Greef, K H; Zimmer, C; Fàbrega, E

    2014-12-01

    A market conformity tool, based on technological meat quality parameters, was developed within the Q-PorkChains project, to be included in a global sustainability evaluation of pig farming systems. The specific objective of the market conformity tool was to define a scoring system based on the suitability of meat to elaborate the main pork products, according to their market shares based on industry requirements, in different pig farming systems. The tool was based on carcass and meat quality parameters that are commonly used for the assessment of technological quality, which provide representative and repeatable data and are easily measurable. They were the following: cold carcass weight; lean meat percentage; minimum subcutaneous back fat depth at m. gluteus medius level, 45 postmortem and ultimate pH (measured at 24-h postmortem) in m. longissimus lumborum and semimembranosus; meat colour; drip losses and intramuscular fat content in a m. longissimus sample. Five categories of pork products produced at large scale in Europe were considered in the study: fresh meat, cooked products, dry products, specialties and other meat products. For each of the studied farming systems, the technological meat quality requirements, as well as the market shares for each product category within farming system, were obtained from the literature and personal communications from experts. The tool resulted in an overall conformity score that enabled to discriminate among systems according to the degree of matching of the achieved carcass and meat quality with the requirements of the targeted market. In order to improve feasibility, the tool was simplified by selecting ultimate pH at m. longissimus or semimembranosus, minimum fat thickness measured at the left half carcass over m. gluteus medius and intramuscular fat content in a m. longissimus sample as iceberg indicators. The overall suitability scores calculated by using both the complete and the reduced tools presented good

  10. [Rapid Identification of Epicarpium Citri Grandis via Infrared Spectroscopy and Fluorescence Spectrum Imaging Technology Combined with Neural Network].

    PubMed

    Pan, Sha-sha; Huang, Fu-rong; Xiao, Chi; Xian, Rui-yi; Ma, Zhi-guo

    2015-10-01

    To explore rapid reliable methods for detection of Epicarpium citri grandis (ECG), the experiment using Fourier Transform Attenuated Total Reflection Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR/ATR) and Fluorescence Spectrum Imaging Technology combined with Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) Neural Network pattern recognition, for the identification of ECG, and the two methods are compared. Infrared spectra and fluorescence spectral images of 118 samples, 81 ECG and 37 other kinds of ECG, are collected. According to the differences in tspectrum, the spectra data in the 550-1 800 cm(-1) wavenumber range and 400-720 nm wavelength are regarded as the study objects of discriminant analysis. Then principal component analysis (PCA) is applied to reduce the dimension of spectroscopic data of ECG and MLP Neural Network is used in combination to classify them. During the experiment were compared the effects of different methods of data preprocessing on the model: multiplicative scatter correction (MSC), standard normal variable correction (SNV), first-order derivative(FD), second-order derivative(SD) and Savitzky-Golay (SG). The results showed that: after the infrared spectra data via the Savitzky-Golay (SG) pretreatment through the MLP Neural Network with the hidden layer function as sigmoid, we can get the best discrimination of ECG, the correct percent of training set and testing set are both 100%. Using fluorescence spectral imaging technology, corrected by the multiple scattering (MSC) results in the pretreatment is the most ideal. After data preprocessing, the three layers of the MLP Neural Network of the hidden layer function as sigmoid function can get 100% correct percent of training set and 96.7% correct percent of testing set. It was shown that the FTIR/ATR and fluorescent spectral imaging technology combined with MLP Neural Network can be used for the identification study of ECG and has the advantages of rapid, reliable effect. PMID:26904814

  11. [Rapid Identification of Epicarpium Citri Grandis via Infrared Spectroscopy and Fluorescence Spectrum Imaging Technology Combined with Neural Network].

    PubMed

    Pan, Sha-sha; Huang, Fu-rong; Xiao, Chi; Xian, Rui-yi; Ma, Zhi-guo

    2015-10-01

    To explore rapid reliable methods for detection of Epicarpium citri grandis (ECG), the experiment using Fourier Transform Attenuated Total Reflection Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR/ATR) and Fluorescence Spectrum Imaging Technology combined with Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) Neural Network pattern recognition, for the identification of ECG, and the two methods are compared. Infrared spectra and fluorescence spectral images of 118 samples, 81 ECG and 37 other kinds of ECG, are collected. According to the differences in tspectrum, the spectra data in the 550-1 800 cm(-1) wavenumber range and 400-720 nm wavelength are regarded as the study objects of discriminant analysis. Then principal component analysis (PCA) is applied to reduce the dimension of spectroscopic data of ECG and MLP Neural Network is used in combination to classify them. During the experiment were compared the effects of different methods of data preprocessing on the model: multiplicative scatter correction (MSC), standard normal variable correction (SNV), first-order derivative(FD), second-order derivative(SD) and Savitzky-Golay (SG). The results showed that: after the infrared spectra data via the Savitzky-Golay (SG) pretreatment through the MLP Neural Network with the hidden layer function as sigmoid, we can get the best discrimination of ECG, the correct percent of training set and testing set are both 100%. Using fluorescence spectral imaging technology, corrected by the multiple scattering (MSC) results in the pretreatment is the most ideal. After data preprocessing, the three layers of the MLP Neural Network of the hidden layer function as sigmoid function can get 100% correct percent of training set and 96.7% correct percent of testing set. It was shown that the FTIR/ATR and fluorescent spectral imaging technology combined with MLP Neural Network can be used for the identification study of ECG and has the advantages of rapid, reliable effect.

  12. Combining Google Earth and GIS mapping technologies in a dengue surveillance system for developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Aileen Y; Parrales, Maria E; Jimenez, Javier; Sobieszczyk, Magdalena E; Hammer, Scott M; Copenhaver, David J; Kulkarni, Rajan P

    2009-01-01

    Background Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne illness that places significant burden on tropical developing countries with unplanned urbanization. A surveillance system using Google Earth and GIS mapping technologies was developed in Nicaragua as a management tool. Methods and Results Satellite imagery of the town of Bluefields, Nicaragua captured from Google Earth was used to create a base-map in ArcGIS 9. Indices of larval infestation, locations of tire dumps, cemeteries, large areas of standing water, etc. that may act as larval development sites, and locations of the homes of dengue cases collected during routine epidemiologic surveying were overlaid onto this map. Visual imagery of the location of dengue cases, larval infestation, and locations of potential larval development sites were used by dengue control specialists to prioritize specific neighborhoods for targeted control interventions. Conclusion This dengue surveillance program allows public health workers in resource-limited settings to accurately identify areas with high indices of mosquito infestation and interpret the spatial relationship of these areas with potential larval development sites such as garbage piles and large pools of standing water. As a result, it is possible to prioritize control strategies and to target interventions to highest risk areas in order to eliminate the likely origin of the mosquito vector. This program is well-suited for resource-limited settings since it utilizes readily available technologies that do not rely on Internet access for daily use and can easily be implemented in many developing countries for very little cost. PMID:19627614

  13. Imaging genetics and the power of combined technologies: a perspective from neuroethics.

    PubMed

    Tairyan, K; Illes, J

    2009-11-24

    Imaging genetics has emerged as a powerful and sensitive approach to the study of functional genetic variations and brain responses in psychiatric and neurologic disorders. Ethics issues in contemporary neuroscience as they apply separately to genetics and neuroimaging have been a growing focus for research but, to date, there has not yet been a rigorous exploration of the ethical dimensions of the territory in which they overlap. Here we propose that the ethics challenges associated with the combination of these methods call for an expanded "neuro-space" in which societal and ethical values are closely and explicitly integrated with the new science. We build specifically on the model delivered by Roffman et al. [Roffman JL, Weiss AP, Goff DC, Rauch SL, Weinberger DR (2006) Neuroimaging-genetic paradigms: a new approach to investigate the pathophysiology and treatment of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Harv Rev Psychiatry 14:78-91] for neuroimaging, and develop the argument that the ethics issues parallel the heightened discriminative and cumulative power of imaging genetics. In the new combined space, features of discriminative power concern better differentiation of disease, sometimes by ethnicity, and incidental findings. Clinical utility, prediction and intervention, and stigma and labeling reflect a common ground between discriminative and cumulative power. Privacy, autonomy, response sensitivity and attitudes, resource allocation for research and for health care, and commercialization, are features of cumulative power. Parallel to the clinical features highlighted in the Roffman et al. map, the combined space yields additional neuroethics features. These are characterized by new knowledge and new implications for health care, justice, and policy. We conclude by examining these features in the context of public health at the interface of emerging new neurotechnologies.

  14. ICT for Education: A Conceptual Framework for the Sustainable Adoption of Technology-Enhanced Learning Environments in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Patricio; Nussbaum, Miguel; Dombrovskaia, Lioubov

    2012-01-01

    Currently, the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in education does not conclusively demonstrate significant effects on learning. However, not all ICT usage models are designed to affect student outcomes. Therefore, to accurately study the impact of ICT, the concept of an educational programme supported by ICT must first be…

  15. Cistanches identification based on fluorescent spectral imaging technology combined with principal component analysis and artificial neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Jia; Huang, Furong; Li, Yuanpeng; Xiao, Chi; Xian, Ruiyi; Ma, Zhiguo

    2015-03-01

    In this study, fluorescent spectral imaging technology combined with principal component analysis (PCA) and artificial neural networks (ANNs) was used to identify Cistanche deserticola, Cistanche tubulosa and Cistanche sinensis, which are traditional Chinese medicinal herbs. The fluorescence spectroscopy imaging system acquired the spectral images of 40 cistanche samples, and through image denoising, binarization processing to make sure the effective pixels. Furthermore, drew the spectral curves whose data in the wavelength range of 450-680 nm for the study. Then preprocessed the data by first-order derivative, analyzed the data through principal component analysis and artificial neural network. The results shows: Principal component analysis can generally distinguish cistanches, through further identification by neural networks makes the results more accurate, the correct rate of the testing and training sets is as high as 100%. Based on the fluorescence spectral imaging technique and combined with principal component analysis and artificial neural network to identify cistanches is feasible.

  16. Combining X-ray based methods to study the protohistoric bronze technology in Western Iberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valério, P.; Silva, R. J. C.; Soares, A. M. M.; Araújo, M. F.; Gonçalves, A. P.; Soares, R. M.

    2015-09-01

    The Phoenician arrival at Iberian coastal regions had an actual influence on indigenous technology. A collection of coeval metallurgical remains and artefacts was studied by EDXRF, micro-EDXRF, SEM-EDS and XRD, to identify certain features of the production and utilisation of metal in protohistoric Western Iberia. The composition of artefacts indicates a prevalence of Cu-Sn alloys with low content of impurities (Pb, As, Sb and Fe) during Late Bronze and Early Iron Ages, while the composition of slags points to a smaller loss of copper in Phoenician smelting operations. Moreover, the amount of iron impurities in metal proved to be a helpful discriminator between indigenous and Phoenician-based metallurgies, showing that later alloys have higher amounts of iron. Besides, the indigenous alloys have higher tin contents that can probably be explained by the easier access to metal sources of local communities.

  17. Combined mineralogical and EXAFS characterization of polluted sediments for the definition of technological variables and constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brigatti, M. F.; Elmi, C.; Laurora, A.; Malferrari, D.; Medici, L.

    2009-04-01

    An extremely severe aspect, both from environmental and economic viewpoint, is the management of polluted sediments removed from drainage and irrigation canals. Canals, in order to retain their functionality over the time, need to have their beds, periodically cleaned from sediments there accumulating. The management of removed sediments is extremely demanding, also from an economical perspective, if these latter needs to be treated as dangerous waste materials, as stated in numerous international standards. Furthermore the disposal of such a large amount of material may introduce a significant environmental impact as well. An appealing alternative is the recovery or reuse of these materials, for example in brick and tile industry, after obviously the application of appropriate techniques and protocols that could render these latter no longer a threat for human health. The assessment of the effective potential danger for human health and ecosystem of sediments before and after treatment obviously requires both a careful chemical and mineralogical characterization and, even if not always considered in the international standards, the definition of the coordination shell of heavy metals dangerous for human health, as a function of their oxidation state and coordination (e.g. Cr and Pb), and introducing technological constraints or affecting the features of the end products. Fe is a good representative for this second category, as the features of the end product, such as color, strongly depend not only from Fe concentration but also from its oxidation state, speciation and coordination. This work will first of all provide mineralogical characterization of sediments from various sampling points of irrigation and drainage canals of Po river region in the north-eastern of Italy. Samples were investigated with various approaches including X-ray powder diffraction under non-ambient conditions, thermal analysis and EXAFS spectroscopy. Obtained results, and in particular

  18. Adaptive modification of the cats vestibulospinal reflex during sustained and combined roll tilt of the whole animal and forepaw rotation: cerebellar mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Andre, P; Pompeiano, O; Manzoni, D

    2005-01-01

    In decerebrate cats, the electromyogram (EMG) activity of the forelimb extensor triceps brachii (TB) increases during side-down roll tilt of the whole animal (vestibulospinal reflex, VSR) at about 0.15 Hz. (+/-10 degrees ), while decreases during side up tilt. On the other hand, the TB activity increases during dorsal flexion of the ipsilateral forepaw (0.15 Hz, +/-5 degrees-10 degrees ), but decreases during ventral flexion. In six experiments, these stimuli were synergistically associated (side-down tilt coincided with dorsal flexion of the forepaw), so that the EMG modulation of the TB activity was greater than that induced by the individual stimuli. During a 3-h period of this sustained stimulation, the amplitude of the pure VSR progressively increased to reach the maximum value at the end of the third hour and persisted unmodified during the post-adaptation period (1 h). In three experiments, animal tilt and forepaw rotation were antagonistically associated (side-down tilt coincided with ventral flexion of the forepaw). In these instances the VSR gain remained on the average stable, but, at the end of the 3-h period of combined stimulation, a proportion of TB responses to animal tilt showed a phase reversal. In a digitigrade animal like the cat, a dorsal flexion of the wrist is associated with a decrease in limb length and would occur when the extensor tone is not appropriate to support body weight; we propose, therefore, that somatosensory volleys elicited by wrist rotation modify the gain of VSR so as to maintain postural stability. Inactivation, on the side of muscle recording, of the corticocerebellar region which projects to the lateral vestibular nucleus of Deiters, by local microinjection of the GABA-A agonist muscimol (0.5 microl at 16 microg/microl), decreased the already adapted gain of VSR. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that somatosensory reafferent inputs to the cerebellar vermis are used to plastically modify the gain of VSR

  19. Nuclear Symbiosis - A Means to Achieve Sustainable Nuclear Growth while Limiting the Spread of Sensititive Nuclear Technology

    SciTech Connect

    David Shropshire

    2009-09-01

    Global growth of nuclear energy in the 21st century is creating new challenges to limit the spread of nuclear technology without hindering adoption in countries now considering nuclear power. Independent nuclear states desire autonomy over energy choices and seek energy independence. However, this independence comes with high costs for development of new indigenous fuel cycle capabilities. Nuclear supplier states and expert groups have proposed fuel supply assurance mechanisms such as fuel take-back services, international enrichment services and fuel banks in exchange for recipient state concessions on the development of sensitive technologies. Nuclear states are slow to accept any concessions to their rights under the Non-Proliferation Treaty. To date, decisions not to develop indigenous fuel cycle capabilities have been driven primarily by economics. However, additional incentives may be required to offset a nuclear state’s perceived loss of energy independence. This paper proposes alternative economic development incentives that could help countries decide to forgo development of sensitive nuclear technologies. The incentives are created through a nuclear-centered industrial complex with “symbiotic” links to indigenous economic opportunities. This paper also describes a practical tool called the “Nuclear Materials Exchange” for identifying these opportunities.

  20. Combined technology for clomazone herbicide wastewater treatment: three-dimensional packed-bed electrochemical oxidation and biological contact degradation.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yujie; Liu, Junfeng; Zhu, Limin; Wei, Jinzhi

    2013-01-01

    The clomazone herbicide wastewater was treated using a combined technology composed of electrochemical catalytic oxidation and biological contact degradation. A new type of electrochemical reactor was fabricated and a Ti/SnO2 electrode was chosen as the anode in electrochemical-oxidation reactor and stainless steel as the cathode. Ceramic rings loaded with SnO2 were used as three-dimensional electrodes forming a packed bed. The operation parameters that might influence the degradation of organic contaminants in the clomazone wastewater were optimized. When the cell voltage was set at 30 V and the volume of particle electrodes was designed as two-thirds of the volume of the total reactor bed, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate could reach 82% after 120 min electrolysis, and the ratio of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)/COD of wastewater increased from 0.12 to 0.38. After 12 h degradation with biological contact oxidation, the total COD removal rate of the combined technology reached 95%, and effluent COD was below 120 mg/L. The results demonstrated that this electrocatalytic oxidation method can be used as a pretreatment for refractory organic wastewater before biological treatment.

  1. On the leading edge; Combining maturity and advanced technology on the F404 turbofan engine

    SciTech Connect

    Powel, S.F. IV )

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the overall design concept of the F404 afterburning turbofan engine is reviewed together with some of the lessons learned from over 2 million flight hours in service. GE Aircraft Engines' derivative and growth plans for the F404 family are then reviewed including the Building Block component development approach. Examples of advanced technologies under development for introduction into new F404 derivative engine models are presented in the areas of materials, digital and fiber optic controls systems, and vectoring exhaust nozzles. The design concept and details of the F404-GE-402, F412-GE-400, and other derivative engines under full-scale development are described. Studies for future growth variants and the benefits of the F404 derivative approach to development of afterburning engines in the 18,000-24,000 lb (80--107 kN) thrust class and non- afterburning engines in the 12,000--19,000 lb (53--85 kN) class are discussed.

  2. Using Bitmap Indexing Technology for Combined Numerical and TextQueries

    SciTech Connect

    Stockinger, Kurt; Cieslewicz, John; Wu, Kesheng; Rotem, Doron; Shoshani, Arie

    2006-10-16

    In this paper, we describe a strategy of using compressedbitmap indices to speed up queries on both numerical data and textdocuments. By using an efficient compression algorithm, these compressedbitmap indices are compact even for indices with millions of distinctterms. Moreover, bitmap indices can be used very efficiently to answerBoolean queries over text documents involving multiple query terms.Existing inverted indices for text searches are usually inefficient forcorpora with a very large number of terms as well as for queriesinvolving a large number of hits. We demonstrate that our compressedbitmap index technology overcomes both of those short-comings. In aperformance comparison against a commonly used database system, ourindices answer queries 30 times faster on average. To provide full SQLsupport, we integrated our indexing software, called FastBit, withMonetDB. The integrated system MonetDB/FastBit provides not onlyefficient searches on a single table as FastBit does, but also answersjoin queries efficiently. Furthermore, MonetDB/FastBit also provides avery efficient retrieval mechanism of result records.

  3. Characterization of aqueous two phase systems by combining lab-on-a-chip technology with robotic liquid handling stations.

    PubMed

    Amrhein, Sven; Schwab, Marie-Luise; Hoffmann, Marc; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2014-11-01

    Over the last decade, the use of design of experiment approaches in combination with fully automated high throughput (HTP) compatible screenings supported by robotic liquid handling stations (LHS), adequate fast analytics and data processing has been developed in the biopharmaceutical industry into a strategy of high throughput process development (HTPD) resulting in lower experimental effort, sample reduction and an overall higher degree of process optimization. Apart from HTP technologies, lab-on-a-chip technology has experienced an enormous growth in the last years and allows further reduction of sample consumption. A combination of LHS and lab-on-a-chip technology is highly desirable and realized in the present work to characterize aqueous two phase systems with respect to tie lines. In particular, a new high throughput compatible approach for the characterization of aqueous two phase systems regarding tie lines by exploiting differences in phase densities is presented. Densities were measured by a standalone micro fluidic liquid density sensor, which was integrated into a liquid handling station by means of a developed generic Tip2World interface. This combination of liquid handling stations and lab-on-a-chip technology enables fast, fully automated, and highly accurate density measurements. The presented approach was used to determine the phase diagram of ATPSs composed of potassium phosphate (pH 7) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) with a molecular weight of 300, 400, 600 and 1000 Da respectively in the presence and in the absence of 3% (w/w) sodium chloride. Considering the whole ATPS characterization process, two complete ATPSs could be characterized within 24h, including four runs per ATPS for binodal curve determination (less than 45 min/run), and tie line determination (less than 45 min/run for ATPS preparation and 8h for density determination), which can be performed fully automated over night without requiring man power. The presented methodology provides

  4. Characterization of aqueous two phase systems by combining lab-on-a-chip technology with robotic liquid handling stations.

    PubMed

    Amrhein, Sven; Schwab, Marie-Luise; Hoffmann, Marc; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2014-11-01

    Over the last decade, the use of design of experiment approaches in combination with fully automated high throughput (HTP) compatible screenings supported by robotic liquid handling stations (LHS), adequate fast analytics and data processing has been developed in the biopharmaceutical industry into a strategy of high throughput process development (HTPD) resulting in lower experimental effort, sample reduction and an overall higher degree of process optimization. Apart from HTP technologies, lab-on-a-chip technology has experienced an enormous growth in the last years and allows further reduction of sample consumption. A combination of LHS and lab-on-a-chip technology is highly desirable and realized in the present work to characterize aqueous two phase systems with respect to tie lines. In particular, a new high throughput compatible approach for the characterization of aqueous two phase systems regarding tie lines by exploiting differences in phase densities is presented. Densities were measured by a standalone micro fluidic liquid density sensor, which was integrated into a liquid handling station by means of a developed generic Tip2World interface. This combination of liquid handling stations and lab-on-a-chip technology enables fast, fully automated, and highly accurate density measurements. The presented approach was used to determine the phase diagram of ATPSs composed of potassium phosphate (pH 7) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) with a molecular weight of 300, 400, 600 and 1000 Da respectively in the presence and in the absence of 3% (w/w) sodium chloride. Considering the whole ATPS characterization process, two complete ATPSs could be characterized within 24h, including four runs per ATPS for binodal curve determination (less than 45 min/run), and tie line determination (less than 45 min/run for ATPS preparation and 8h for density determination), which can be performed fully automated over night without requiring man power. The presented methodology provides

  5. Rapid prototyping of multi-scale biomedical microdevices by combining additive manufacturing technologies.

    PubMed

    Hengsbach, Stefan; Lantada, Andrés Díaz

    2014-08-01

    The possibility of designing and manufacturing biomedical microdevices with multiple length-scale geometries can help to promote special interactions both with their environment and with surrounding biological systems. These interactions aim to enhance biocompatibility and overall performance by using biomimetic approaches. In this paper, we present a design and manufacturing procedure for obtaining multi-scale biomedical microsystems based on the combination of two additive manufacturing processes: a conventional laser writer to manufacture the overall device structure, and a direct-laser writer based on two-photon polymerization to yield finer details. The process excels for its versatility, accuracy and manufacturing speed and allows for the manufacture of microsystems and implants with overall sizes up to several millimeters and with details down to sub-micrometric structures. As an application example we have focused on manufacturing a biomedical microsystem to analyze the impact of microtextured surfaces on cell motility. This process yielded a relevant increase in precision and manufacturing speed when compared with more conventional rapid prototyping procedures.

  6. Refrigerated Fruit Storage Monitoring Combining Two Different Wireless Sensing Technologies: RFID and WSN

    PubMed Central

    Badia-Melis, Ricardo; Ruiz-Garcia, Luis; Garcia-Hierro, Javier; Villalba, Jose I. Robla

    2015-01-01

    Every day, millions of tons of temperature-sensitive goods are produced, transported, stored or distributed worldwide, thus making their temperature and humidity control essential. Quality control and monitoring of goods during the cold chain is an increasing concern for producers, suppliers, logistic decision makers and consumers. In this paper we present the results of a combination of RFID and WSN devices in a set of studies performed in three commercial wholesale chambers of 1848 m3 with different set points and products. Up to 90 semi-passive RFID temperature loggers were installed simultaneously together with seven motes, during one week in each chamber. 3D temperature mapping charts were obtained and also the psychrometric data model from ASABE was implemented for the calculation of enthalpy changes and the absolute water content of air. Thus thank to the feedback of data, between RFID and WSN it is possible to estimate energy consumption in the cold room, water loss from the products and detect any condensation over the stored commodities. PMID:25730482

  7. Rocket-Based Combined Cycle Engine Technology Development: Inlet CFD Validation and Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeBonis, J. R.; Yungster, S.

    1996-01-01

    A CFD methodology has been developed for inlet analyses of Rocket-Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) Engines. A full Navier-Stokes analysis code, NPARC, was used in conjunction with pre- and post-processing tools to obtain a complete description of the flow field and integrated inlet performance. This methodology was developed and validated using results from a subscale test of the inlet to a RBCC 'Strut-Jet' engine performed in the NASA Lewis 1 x 1 ft. supersonic wind tunnel. Results obtained from this study include analyses at flight Mach numbers of 5 and 6 for super-critical operating conditions. These results showed excellent agreement with experimental data. The analysis tools were also used to obtain pre-test performance and operability predictions for the RBCC demonstrator engine planned for testing in the NASA Lewis Hypersonic Test Facility. This analysis calculated the baseline fuel-off internal force of the engine which is needed to determine the net thrust with fuel on.

  8. Teaching with technology: learning outcomes for a combined dental and dental hygiene online hybrid oral histology course.

    PubMed

    Gadbury-Amyot, Cynthia C; Singh, Amul H; Overman, Pamela R

    2013-06-01

    Among the challenges leaders in dental and allied dental education have faced in recent years is a shortage of well-qualified faculty members, especially in some specialty areas of dentistry. One proposed solution has been the use of technology. At the University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Dentistry, the departure of a faculty member who taught the highly specialized content in oral histology and embryology provided the opportunity to implement distance delivery of that course. The course is taught once a year to a combined group of dental and dental hygiene students. Previous to spring semester of 2009, the course was taught using traditional face-to-face, in-class lectures and multiple-choice examinations. During the spring semesters of 2009, 2010, and 2011, the course was taught using synchronous and asynchronous distance delivery technology. Outcomes for these courses (including course grades and performance on the National Board Dental Examination Part I) were compared to those from the 2006, 2007, and 2008 courses. Students participating in the online hybrid course were also given an author-designed survey, and the perceptions of the faculty member who made the transition from teaching the course in a traditional face-to-face format to teaching in an online hybrid format were solicited. Overall, student and faculty perceptions and student outcomes and course reviews have been positive. The results of this study can provide guidance to those seeking to use technology as one method of curricular delivery.

  9. [Mechanism and kinetics of phenol degradation by TiO2 photocatalytic combined technologies].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Huang, Ruo-Nan; Wang, Xiao-Min; Wang, Qi; Cong, Yan-Qing

    2013-02-01

    The combination H2O2, or electrical catalytic (EC) system with TiO2 photbcatalytic system for phenol degradation was investigated. The catalytic systems of TiO2/UV, H2O2/UV, TiO2/UV/H2O2 and TiO2/UV/EC were compared to investigate the phenol degradation mechanism and kinetic model. The degradation of phenol in TiO2/UV/H2O2 and TiO2/UV/EC system is more effective than that in TiO2/UV system. With the solution pH of 6, TiO, concentration of 0.2 g.L-1, UV illumination of 2 h, the photocatalysis removal efficiency of phenol reaches to 86%, if the current density of 12 mA.cm-2 is added, the removal efficiency of phenol could reach to 100%. The energy utilization in different catalytic systems was also compared. When phenol is degraded in 15 min, in TiO2/UV/EC system the energy utilization is the highest of 0.0306 g.(kW. h)-1 with the energy consumption of 0.0640 kW.h-1. It indicates that much more energy is used in TiO2/UV/EC system for phenol degradation. During the analysis of intermediate products in different catalysis systems, the first-order kinetic model of phenol degradation and intermediate products such as hydroquinone, catechol and benzoquinone formation were established. The kinetic model is validated the phenol degradation pathway in different catalysis systems, and also indicates the TiO2/UV/EC system could enhance phenol and intermediate products degradation.

  10. Terra-Preta-Technology as an innovative system component to create circulation oriented, sustainable land use systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dotterweich, M.; Böttcher, J.; Krieger, A.

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents current research and application projects on innovative system solutions which are based on the implementation of a regional resource efficient material flow management as well as utilising "Terra-Preta-Technology" as an innovative system component. Terra Preta Substrate (TPS) is a recently developed substance composed of liquid and solid organic matter, including biochar, altered by acid-lactic fermentation. Based on their properties, positive effects on water and nutrient retention, soil microbiological activity, and cation-exchange capacity are expected and currently investigated by different projects. TPS further sequesters carbon and decreases NO2 emissions from fertilized soils as observed by the use of biochar. The production of TPS is based on a circulation oriented organic waste management system directly adapted to the local available inputs and desired soil amendment properties. The production of TPS is possible with simple box systems for subsistence farming but also on a much larger scale as modular industrial plants for farmers or commercial and municipal waste management companies in sizes from 500 and 50,000 m3. The Terra-Preta-Technology enhances solutions to soil conservation, soil amelioration, humic formation, reduced water consumption, long term carbon sequestration, nutrient retention, containment binding, and to biodiversity on local to a regional scale. The projects also involve research of ancient land management systems to enhance resource efficiency by means of an integrative and transdisciplinary approach.

  11. Tracking Health Data Is Not Enough: A Qualitative Exploration of the Role of Healthcare Partnerships and mHealth Technology to Promote Physical Activity and to Sustain Behavior Change

    PubMed Central

    Young, Heather M; Pande, Amit; Han, Jay J

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the recent explosion of the mobile health (mHealth) industry and consumer acquisition of mHealth tools such as wearable sensors and applications (apps), limited information is known about how this technology can sustain health behavior change and be integrated into health care. Objective The objective of the study was to understand potential users’ views of mHealth technology, the role this technology may have in promoting individual activity goals aimed at improving health, and the value of integrating mHealth technology with traditional health care. Methods Four focus groups were conducted with adults interested in sharing their views on how mHealth technology could support wellness programs and improve health. Participants (n=30) were enrolled from an employee population at an academic health institution. Qualitative thematic analysis was used to code transcripts and identify overarching themes. Results Our findings suggest that tracking health data alone may result in heightened awareness of daily activity, yet may not be sufficient to sustain use of mHealth technology and apps, which often have low reuse rates. Participants suggested that context, meaning, and health care partnerships need to be incorporated to engage and retain users. In addition to these findings, drivers for mHealth technology previously identified in the literature, including integration and control of health data were confirmed in this study. Conclusions This study explores ways that mHealth technologies may be used to not only track data, but to encourage sustained engagement to achieve individual health goals. Implications of these findings include recommendations for mHealth technology design and health care partnership models to sustain motivation and engagement, allowing individuals to achieve meaningful behavior change. PMID:26792225

  12. Sustainable conversion of coffee and other crop wastes to biofuels and bioproducts using combined biochemical and thermochemical processes in a multi-stage biorefinery concept

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The environmental impact of agricultural waste from processing of food and feed crops is an increasing concern worldwide. Concerted efforts are underway to develop sustainable practices for the disposal of residues from processing of such crops as coffee, sugarcane, or corn. Coffee is crucial to the...

  13. Biomass Gasification Combined Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Judith A. Kieffer

    2000-07-01

    Gasification combined cycle continues to represent an important defining technology area for the forest products industry. The ''Forest Products Gasification Initiative'', organized under the Industry's Agenda 2020 technology vision and supported by the DOE ''Industries of the Future'' program, is well positioned to guide these technologies to commercial success within a five-to ten-year timeframe given supportive federal budgets and public policy. Commercial success will result in significant environmental and renewable energy goals that are shared by the Industry and the Nation. The Battelle/FERCO LIVG technology, which is the technology of choice for the application reported here, remains of high interest due to characteristics that make it well suited for integration with the infrastructure of a pulp production facility. The capital cost, operating economics and long-term demonstration of this technology area key input to future economically sustainable projects and must be verified by the 200 BDT/day demonstration facility currently operating in Burlington, Vermont. The New Bern application that was the initial objective of this project is not currently economically viable and will not be implemented at this time due to several changes at and around the mill which have occurred since the inception of the project in 1995. The analysis shows that for this technology, and likely other gasification technologies as well, the first few installations will require unique circumstances, or supportive public policies, or both to attract host sites and investors.

  14. Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callison, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of technology focuses on instructional technology. Topics include inquiry and technology; curriculum development; reflection and curriculum evaluation; criteria for technological innovations that will increase student motivation; standards; impact of new technologies on library media centers; software; and future trends. (LRW)

  15. Developing Sustainable Life Support System Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Evan A.

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable spacecraft life support concepts may allow the development of more reliable technologies for long duration space missions. Currently, life support technologies at different levels of development are not well evaluated against each other, and evaluation methods do not account for long term reliability and sustainability of the hardware. This paper presents point-of-departure sustainability evaluation criteria for life support systems, that may allow more robust technology development, testing and comparison. An example sustainable water recovery system concept is presented.

  16. Research on distributed strain separation technology of fiber Brillouin sensing system combining an electric power optical fiber cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Yuqing; Chen, Xi; Li, Jihui; Tong, Jie

    2013-12-01

    Brillouin-based optical fiber sensing system has been taken more and more attentions in power transmission line in recent years. However, there exists a temperature cross sensitivity problem in sensing system. Hence, researching on strain separation technology of fiber brillouin sensing system is an urgent requirement in its practical area. In this paper, a real-time online distributed strain separation calculation technology of fiber Brillouin sensing combining an electric power optical fiber cable is proposed. The technology is mainly composed of the Brillouin temperature-strain distributed measurement system and the Raman temperature distributed measurement system. In this technology, the electric power optical fiber cable is a special optical phase conductor (OPPC); the Brillouin sensing system uses the Brillouin optical time domain analysis (BOTDA) method. The optical unit of the OPPC includes single-mode and multimode fibers which can be used as sensing channel for Brillouin sensing system and Raman sensing system respectively. In the system networking aspect, the data processor of fiber Brillouin sensing system works as the host processor and the data processor of fiber Raman sensing system works as the auxiliary processor. And the auxiliary processor transfers the data to the host processor via the Ethernet interface. In the experiment, the BOTDA monitoring system and the Raman monitoring system work on the same optical unit of the OPPC simultaneously; In the data processing aspect, the auxiliary processor of Raman transfers the temperature data to the host processor of Brillouin via the Ethernet interface, and then the host processor of Brillouin uses the temperature data combining itself strain-temperature data to achieve the high sampling rate and high-precision strain separation via data decoupling calculation. The data decoupling calculation is achieved through the interpolation, filtering, feature point alignment, and the singular point prediction

  17. Solvents and sustainable chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Welton, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Solvents are widely recognized to be of great environmental concern. The reduction of their use is one of the most important aims of green chemistry. In addition to this, the appropriate selection of solvent for a process can greatly improve the sustainability of a chemical production process. There has also been extensive research into the application of so-called green solvents, such as ionic liquids and supercritical fluids. However, most examples of solvent technologies that give improved sustainability come from the application of well-established solvents. It is also apparent that the successful implementation of environmentally sustainable processes must be accompanied by improvements in commercial performance. PMID:26730217

  18. Sustainability Frontiers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selby, David

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces Sustainability Frontiers, a newly formed, international, not-for-profit alliance of sustainability and global educators dedicated to challenging and laying bare the assumptions, exposing the blind spots, and transgressing the boundaries of mainstream understandings of sustainability-related education. Among the orthodoxies…

  19. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A SUSTAINABLE AND ENERGY EFFICIENT RE-ROOFING TECHNOLOGY USING FIELD-TEST DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Kaushik; Miller, William A; Childs, Phillip W; Kosny, Jan; Kriner, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Three test attics were constructed to evaluate a new sustainable method of re-roofing utilizing photo-voltaic (PV) laminates, metal roofing panels, and PCM heat sink in the Envelope Systems Research Apparatus (ESRA) facility in the ORNL campus. Figure 1 is a picture of the three attic roofs located adjacent to each other. The leftmost roof is the conventional shingle roof, followed by the metal panel roof incorporating the cool-roof coating, and third from left is the roof with the PCM. On the PCM roof, the PV panels are seen as well; they're labelled from left-to-right as panels 5, 6 and 7. The metal panel roof consists of three metal panels with the cool-roof coating; in further discussion this is referred to as the infrared reflective (IRR) metal roof. The IRR metal panels reflect the incoming solar radiation and then quickly re-emit the remaining absorbed portion, thereby reducing the solar heat gain of the attic. Surface reflectance of the panels were measured using a Solar Spectrum Reflectometer. In the 0.35-2.0 {mu}m wavelength interval, which accounts for more than 94% of the solar energy, the IRR panels have an average reflectance of 0.303. In the infrared portion of the spectrum, the IRR panel reflectance is 0.633. The PCM roof consists of a layer of macro-encapsulated bio-based PCM at the bottom, followed by a 2-cm thick layer of dense fiberglass insulation with a reflective surface on top, and metal panels with pre-installed PV laminates on top. The PCM has a melting point of 29 C (84.2 F) and total enthalpy between 180 and 190 J/g. The PCM was macro-packaged in between two layers of heavy-duty plastic foil forming arrays of PCM cells. Two air cavities, between PCM cells and above the fiberglass insulation, helped the over-the-deck natural air ventilation. It is anticipated that during summer, this extra ventilation will help in reducing the attic-generated cooling loads. The extra ventilation, in conjunction with the PCM heat sink, are used to minimize

  20. Extreme health sensing: the challenges, technologies, and strategies for active health sustainment of military personnel during training and combat missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buller, Mark; Welles, Alexander; Chadwicke Jenkins, Odest; Hoyt, Reed

    2010-04-01

    Military personnel are often asked to accomplish rigorous missions in extremes of climate, terrain, and terrestrial altitude. Personal protective clothing and individual equipment such as body armor or chemical biological suits and excessive equipment loads, exacerbate the physiological strain. Health, over even short mission durations, can easily be compromised. Measuring and acting upon health information can provide a means to dynamically manage both health and mission goals. However, the measurement of health state in austere military environments is challenging; (1) body worn sensors must be of minimal weight and size, consume little power, and be comfortable and unobtrusive enough for prolonged wear; (2) health states are not directly measureable and must be estimated; (3) sensor measurements are prone to noise, artifact, and failure. Given these constraints we examine current successful ambulatory physiological status monitoring technologies, review maturing sensors that may provide key health state insights in the future, and discuss unconventional analytical techniques that optimize health, mission goals, and doctrine from the perspective of thermal work strain assessment and management.

  1. Emerging flue-gas cleanup technologies for combined control of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}

    SciTech Connect

    Livengood, C.D.; Markussen, J.M.

    1994-06-01

    Enactment of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, as well as passage of legislation at the state level has raised the prospect of more stringent nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emission regulations and has fueled research and development efforts on a number technologies for the combined control of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and NO{sub x}. The integrated removal of both SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} in a single system can offer significant advantages over the use of several separate processes, including such factors as reduced system complexity, better operability, and lower costs. This paper reviews the status of a number of integrated flue-gas-cleanup systems that have reached a significant stage of development, focusing on post-combustion processes that have been tested or are ready for testing at the pilot scale or larger. A brief process description, a summary of the development status and performance achieved to date, pending commercialization issues, and process economics (when available) are given for each technology.

  2. A methodological combined framework for roadmapping biosensor research: a fault tree analysis approach within a strategic technology evaluation frame.

    PubMed

    Siontorou, Christina G; Batzias, Fragiskos A

    2014-03-01

    Biosensor technology began in the 1960s to revolutionize instrumentation and measurement. Despite the glucose sensor market success that revolutionized medical diagnostics, and artificial pancreas promise currently the approval stage, the industry is reluctant to capitalize on other relevant university-produced knowledge and innovation. On the other hand, the scientific literature is extensive and persisting, while the number of university-hosted biosensor groups is growing. Considering the limited marketability of biosensors compared to the available research output, the biosensor field has been used by the present authors as a suitable paradigm for developing a methodological combined framework for "roadmapping" university research output in this discipline. This framework adopts the basic principles of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), replacing the lower level of technology alternatives with internal barriers (drawbacks, limitations, disadvantages), modeled through fault tree analysis (FTA) relying on fuzzy reasoning to count for uncertainty. The proposed methodology is validated retrospectively using ion selective field effect transistor (ISFET) - based biosensors as a case example, and then implemented prospectively membrane biosensors, putting an emphasis on the manufacturability issues. The analysis performed the trajectory of membrane platforms differently than the available market roadmaps that, considering the vast industrial experience in tailoring and handling crystallic forms, suggest the technology path of biomimetic and synthetic materials. The results presented herein indicate that future trajectories lie along with nanotechnology, and especially nanofabrication and nano-bioinformatics, and focused, more on the science-path, that is, on controlling the natural process of self-assembly and the thermodynamics of bioelement-lipid interaction. This retained the nature-derived sensitivity of the biosensor platform, pointing out the differences

  3. A methodological combined framework for roadmapping biosensor research: a fault tree analysis approach within a strategic technology evaluation frame.

    PubMed

    Siontorou, Christina G; Batzias, Fragiskos A

    2014-03-01

    Biosensor technology began in the 1960s to revolutionize instrumentation and measurement. Despite the glucose sensor market success that revolutionized medical diagnostics, and artificial pancreas promise currently the approval stage, the industry is reluctant to capitalize on other relevant university-produced knowledge and innovation. On the other hand, the scientific literature is extensive and persisting, while the number of university-hosted biosensor groups is growing. Considering the limited marketability of biosensors compared to the available research output, the biosensor field has been used by the present authors as a suitable paradigm for developing a methodological combined framework for "roadmapping" university research output in this discipline. This framework adopts the basic principles of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), replacing the lower level of technology alternatives with internal barriers (drawbacks, limitations, disadvantages), modeled through fault tree analysis (FTA) relying on fuzzy reasoning to count for uncertainty. The proposed methodology is validated retrospectively using ion selective field effect transistor (ISFET) - based biosensors as a case example, and then implemented prospectively membrane biosensors, putting an emphasis on the manufacturability issues. The analysis performed the trajectory of membrane platforms differently than the available market roadmaps that, considering the vast industrial experience in tailoring and handling crystallic forms, suggest the technology path of biomimetic and synthetic materials. The results presented herein indicate that future trajectories lie along with nanotechnology, and especially nanofabrication and nano-bioinformatics, and focused, more on the science-path, that is, on controlling the natural process of self-assembly and the thermodynamics of bioelement-lipid interaction. This retained the nature-derived sensitivity of the biosensor platform, pointing out the differences

  4. Measuring Energy Sustainability

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, David L

    2009-01-01

    For the purpose of measurement, energy sustainability is defined as ensuring that future generations have energy resources that enable them to achieve a level of well-being at least as good as that of the current generation. It is recognized that there are valid, more comprehensive understandings of sustainability and that energy sustainability as defined here is only meaningful when placed in a broader context. Still, measuring energy sustainability is important to society because the rates of consumption of some fossil resources are now substantial in relation to measures of ultimate resources, and because conflicts between fossil energy use and environmental sustainability are intensifying. Starting from the definition, an equation for energy sustainability is derived that reconciles renewable fl ows and nonrenewable stocks, includes the transformation of energy into energy services, incorporates technological change and, at least notionally, allows for changes in the relationship between energy services and societal well-being. Energy sustainability must be measured retrospectively as well as prospectively, and methods for doing each are discussed. Connections to the sustainability of other resources are also critical. The framework presented is merely a starting point; much remains to be done to make it operational.

  5. How NASA is building and sustaining a community of scientist-communicators through virtual technology, graphic facilitation and other community-building tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeWitt, S.; Bovaird, E.; Stewart, N.; Reaves, J.; Tenenbaum, L. F.; Betz, L.; Kuchner, M. J.; Dodson, K. E.; Miller, A.

    2013-12-01

    In 2013 NASA launched its first agency-wide effort to cultivate and support scientist-communicators. The multiple motivations behind this effort are complex and overlapping, and include a desire to connect the agency's workforce to its mission and to each other in the post-Space Shuttle era; a shift in how the agency and the world communicates about science; the current public perception of science and of NASA, and a desire to share the stories of the real people behind the agency's technical work. Leaders in the NASA science, communications and public outreach communities partnered with the agency's training and leadership development organization to: identify and fully characterize the need for training and development in science communication, experiment with various learning models, and invite early-adopter scientists to evaluate these models for future agency investment. Using virtual collaboration technology, graphic facilitation, and leadership development methods, we set out to create an environment where scientist-communicators can emerge and excel. First, we asked scientists from across the agency to identify their motivations, opportunities, barriers and areas of interest in science communication. Scientists identified a need to go beyond traditional media training, a need for continuous practice and peer feedback, and a need for agency incentives and sustained support for this kind of work. This community-driven approach also uncovered a serious need for communication support in the wake of diminishing resources for travel and conference attendance. As a first step, we offered a series of virtual learning events - highly collaborative working sessions for scientists to practice their communication technique, develop and apply new skills to real-world situations, and gain valuable feedback from external subject matter experts and fellow scientists from across the agency in a supportive environment. Scientists from ten NASA centers and a broad range of

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION--FUELCELL ENERGY, INC.: DFC 300A MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL COMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA operates the Environmental Technology Verification program to facilitate the deployment of innovative technologies through performance verification and information dissemination. A technology area of interest is distributed electrical power generation, particularly w...

  7. Sustainable Forest Bioenergy Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Breger, Dwayne; Rizzo, Rob

    2011-09-20

    In the state’s Electricity Restructuring Act of 1998, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts recognized the opportunity and strategic benefits to diversifying its electric generation capacity with renewable energy. Through this legislation, the Commonwealth established one of the nation’s first Renewable Energy Portfolio Standard (RPS) programs, mandating the increasing use of renewable resources in its energy mix. Bioenergy, meeting low emissions and advanced technology standards, was recognized as an eligible renewable energy technology. Stimulated by the state’s RPS program, several project development groups have been looking seriously at building large woody biomass generation units in western Massachusetts to utilize the woody biomass resource. As a direct result of this development, numerous stakeholders have raised concerns and have prompted the state to take a leadership position in pursuing a science based analysis of biomass impacts on forest and carbon emissions, and proceed through a rulemaking process to establish prudent policy to support biomass development which can contribute to the state’s carbon reduction commitments and maintain safeguards for forest sustainability. The Massachusetts Sustainable Forest Bioenergy Initiative (SFBI) was funded by the Department of Energy and started by the Department of Energy Resources before these contentious biomass issues were fully raised in the state, and continued throughout the substantive periods of this policy development. Thereby, while SFBI maintained its focus on the initially proposed Scope of Work, some aspects of this scope were expanded or realigned to meet the needs for groundbreaking research and policy development being advanced by DOER. SFBI provided DOER and the Commonwealth with a foundation of state specific information on biomass technology and the biomass industry and markets, the most comprehensive biomass fuel supply assessment for the region, the economic development impact

  8. Sustainable Biofuels Development Center

    SciTech Connect

    Reardon, Kenneth F.

    2015-03-01

    The mission of the Sustainable Bioenergy Development Center (SBDC) is to enhance the capability of America’s bioenergy industry to produce transportation fuels and chemical feedstocks on a large scale, with significant energy yields, at competitive cost, through sustainable production techniques. Research within the SBDC is organized in five areas: (1) Development of Sustainable Crops and Agricultural Strategies, (2) Improvement of Biomass Processing Technologies, (3) Biofuel Characterization and Engine Adaptation, (4) Production of Byproducts for Sustainable Biorefining, and (5) Sustainability Assessment, including evaluation of the ecosystem/climate change implication of center research and evaluation of the policy implications of widespread production and utilization of bioenergy. The overall goal of this project is to develop new sustainable bioenergy-related technologies. To achieve that goal, three specific activities were supported with DOE funds: bioenergy-related research initiation projects, bioenergy research and education via support of undergraduate and graduate students, and Research Support Activities (equipment purchases, travel to attend bioenergy conferences, and seminars). Numerous research findings in diverse fields related to bioenergy were produced from these activities and are summarized in this report.

  9. Sustainable water management in rural and peri-urban areas: what technology do we need to meet the UN millennium development goals?

    PubMed

    Wilderer, P A

    2005-01-01

    Installation of advanced urban water management systems is one of the most important first steps in the attempt to overcome poverty on earth, outbreak of diseases, crime and even terrorism. Because world wide application of traditional water supply, sewerage and wastewater treatment technology requires financial resources which are basically not available within a reasonable short time frame novel solutions must be found, developed and implemented. The combination of high-tech on-site treatment of the various waste streams generated in households, enterprises and industrial sites, and reuse of the valuable materials obtained from the treatment plants, including the purified water, is one of the options which is investigated by various groups of researchers and technology developers, nowadays. This concept may help meeting the UN Millennium Development Goals, provided people are ready to accept this new way of dealing with household wastes. Education is necessary to build up the foundation which modern water technology can be based upon. In parallel, tailored modifications are to be considered to satisfy the specific demands of local communities. In this context, female participation appears to be extremely important in the decision making process.

  10. 48 CFR 23.103 - Sustainable acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Sustainable Acquisition Policy 23.103 Sustainable acquisitions. (a... the products are— (1) Energy-efficient (ENERGY STAR® or Federal Energy Management Program...

  11. Teaching sustainable design

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, P.; Haggard, K.; Knuckles, A.; Le Noble, J.

    1995-11-01

    Sustainable design is inclusive, holistic and integrative. It require humility and guts, caring and a certain degree of stubbornness. It helps to do it cooperatively in a group. Human interest in sustainability has gained a great deal of impetus over the last several years as the problems of the late 20th and the early 21st century have become clearer. Design for sustainability broadens and integrates many previously separate design concerns to create a unified approach that is both compelling and ripe with new possibilities. Ecosystem regeneration, ecological land use planning, biometric design, regional environmental and economic viability, natural landscape maintenance, resource optimization, integrated infrastructure system, neotraditional and pedestrian oriented urban design, passive solar architecture, appropriate technology, renewable building materials, healthy buildings, and the aesthetics of place; are a few of these design concerns that, when welded together, can create sustainability.

  12. A Meta-Analysis Method to Advance Design of Technology-Based Learning Tool: Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Research to Understand Learning in Relation to Different Technology Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Educators design and create various technology tools to scaffold students' learning. As more and more technology designs are incorporated into learning, growing attention has been paid to the study of technology-based learning tool. This paper discusses the emerging issues, such as how can learning effectiveness be understood in relation to…

  13. Prospects for Sustainable Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassedy, Edward S., Jr.

    2000-04-01

    Fossil fuels are a finite resource, and their continued use as the world's dominant energy supply is damaging the environment. Future use of alternative methods of energy supply is inescapable. This book offers a critical assessment of all possible sustainable energy technologies and energy storage. Coverage explores the historical origins, technical features, marketability, and environmental impacts of the complete range of sustainable energy technologies: solar, biomass, wind, hydropower, geothermal power, ocean-energy sources, solar-derived hydrogen fuel, and energy storage. The aim is to inform policy analysts and decision makers of the options available for sustainable energy production. This accessible volume will be a valuable resource for a broad group of academics and researchers with a wide range of backgrounds and scientific training. It will also be an ideal supplementary next for advanced courses in environmental studies, energy economics and policy, and engineering.

  14. Collaboration across disciplines for sustainability: green chemistry as an emerging multistakeholder community.

    PubMed

    Iles, Alastair; Mulvihill, Martin J

    2012-06-01

    Sustainable solutions to our nation's material and energy needs must consider environmental, health, and social impacts while developing new technologies. Building a framework to support interdisciplinary interactions and incorporate sustainability goals into the research and development process will benefit green chemistry and other sciences. This paper explores the contributions that diverse disciplines can provide to the design of greener technologies. These interactions have the potential to create technologies that simultaneously minimize environmental and health impacts by drawing on the combined expertise of students and faculty in chemical sciences, engineering, environmental health, social sciences, public policy, and business. PMID:22574828

  15. Collaboration across disciplines for sustainability: green chemistry as an emerging multistakeholder community.

    PubMed

    Iles, Alastair; Mulvihill, Martin J

    2012-06-01

    Sustainable solutions to our nation's material and energy needs must consider environmental, health, and social impacts while developing new technologies. Building a framework to support interdisciplinary interactions and incorporate sustainability goals into the research and development process will benefit green chemistry and other sciences. This paper explores the contributions that diverse disciplines can provide to the design of greener technologies. These interactions have the potential to create technologies that simultaneously minimize environmental and health impacts by drawing on the combined expertise of students and faculty in chemical sciences, engineering, environmental health, social sciences, public policy, and business.

  16. A MEMS thermal shear stress sensor produced by a combination of substrate-free structures with anodic bonding technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Yi; Qu, Furong; Wang, Guanya; Nie, Mengyan; Li, Zhigang; Ou, Wen; Xie, Changqing

    2016-07-01

    By combining substrate-free structures with anodic bonding technology, we present a simple and efficient micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) thermal shear stress sensor. Significantly, the resulting depth of the vacuum cavity of the sensor is determined by the thickness of the silicon substrate at which Si is removed by the anisotropic wet etching process. Compared with the sensor based on a sacrificial layer technique, the proposed MEMS thermal shear-stress sensor exhibits dramatically improved sensitivity due to the much larger vacuum cavity depth. The fabricated MEMS thermal shear-stress sensor with a vacuum cavity depth as large as 525 μm and a vacuum of 5 × 10-2 Pa exhibits a sensitivity of 184.5 mV/Pa and a response time of 180 μs. We also experimentally demonstrate that the sensor power is indeed proportional to the 1/3-power of the applied shear stress. The substrate-free structures offer the ability to precisely measure the shear stress fluctuations in low speed turbulent boundary layer wind tunnels.

  17. The Ethical Role of Information in Sustainable Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockway, Larry

    1995-01-01

    Discussion of sustainable communities, or sustainable development, focuses on the ethical role of information in fostering sustainable environmental development. Topics include background information, developments in information technology, permaculture in the area of horticulture and information ethics, information ethics models, hardware…

  18. Sustainable Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadwell, Louise; Dillon, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Green schools have moved into a new era that focuses on building a culture of sustainability in every aspect of learning in schools. In the early stages of sustainability education, the focus was on recycling and turning off the lights. Now, students and adults together are moving into the areas of advocacy and action that are based on a deep…

  19. Sustainability 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, David

    2008-01-01

    Sustainability is one of the leading issues of this time. Climate change is real, and widespread commitment and creativity are needed to combat its negative effects. Higher education is the seedbed of the sustainability movement. Much climate research and environmental science takes place on college and university campuses, which are, by their…

  20. Geodiversity and geohazards of the Susa Valley (W-Alps, Italy): combining scientific research and new technologies for enhanced knowledge and proactive management of geoheritage in mountain regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giardino, Marco; Bacenetti, Marco; Perotti, Luigi; Giordano, Enrico; Ghiraldi, Luca; Palomba, Mauro

    2013-04-01

    and digital evolutionary models have been prepared for didactic trails and virtual laboratory, for contributing to the popularization of geological history, climate and environmental changes, natural hazards and related risk management practices in the Susa Valley. By combining geodiversity and geohazards knowledge, a new conceptual and operational discipline has been achieved in the management of the geoheritage of the Susa Valley. New techniques for recognizing and managing its rich geodiversity have been developed and applied to the territory of the "Alpi Cozie Geopark" (Interreg Alcotra 2007-2013, Project 2) for geosites selection, geo-trails preparation and management and dissemination activities. As final results, better recognition of the economic value of geodiversity and stronger perception of natural risks have been achieved: both valuable contributions to reduce local vulnerability to disasters and to support a territorial integrated quality management system of geoheritage, suitable for tourism and sustainable development.

  1. Sustainable deforestation evaluation model and system dynamics analysis.

    PubMed

    Feng, Huirong; Lim, C W; Chen, Liqun; Zhou, Xinnian; Zhou, Chengjun; Lin, Yi

    2014-01-01

    The current study used the improved fuzzy analytic hierarchy process to construct a sustainable deforestation development evaluation system and evaluation model, which has refined a diversified system to evaluate the theory of sustainable deforestation development. Leveraging the visual image of the system dynamics causal and power flow diagram, we illustrated here that sustainable forestry development is a complex system that encompasses the interaction and dynamic development of ecology, economy, and society and has reflected the time dynamic effect of sustainable forestry development from the three combined effects. We compared experimental programs to prove the direct and indirect impacts of the ecological, economic, and social effects of the corresponding deforest techniques and fully reflected the importance of developing scientific and rational ecological harvesting and transportation technologies. Experimental and theoretical results illustrated that light cableway skidding is an ecoskidding method that is beneficial for the sustainable development of resources, the environment, the economy, and society and forecasted the broad potential applications of light cableway skidding in timber production technology. Furthermore, we discussed the sustainable development countermeasures of forest ecosystems from the aspects of causality, interaction, and harmony. PMID:25254225

  2. Silk-Based Biomaterials for Sustained Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Yucel, Tuna; Lovett, Michael L.; Kaplan, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Silk presents a rare combination of desirable properties for sustained drug delivery, including aqueous-based purification and processing options without chemical cross-linkers, compatibility with common sterilization methods, controllable and surface-mediated biodegradation into non-inflammatory by-products, biocompatibility, utility in drug stabilization, and robust mechanical properties. A versatile silk-based toolkit is currently available for sustained drug delivery formulations of small molecule through macromolecular drugs, with a promise to mitigate several drawbacks associated with other degradable sustained delivery technologies in the market. Silk-based formulations utilize silk’s well-defined nano- through microscale structural hierarchy, stimuli-responsive self-assembly pathways and crystal polymorphism, as well as sequence and genetic modification options towards targeted pharmaceutical outcomes. Furthermore, by manipulating the interactions between silk and drug molecules, near-zero order sustained release may be achieved through diffusion- and degradation-based release mechanisms. Because of these desirable properties, there has been increasing industrial interest in silk-based drug delivery systems currently at various stages of the developmental pipeline from pre-clinical to FDA-approved products. Here, we discuss the unique aspects of silk technology as a sustained drug delivery platform and highlight the current state of the art in silk-based drug delivery. We also offer a potential early development pathway for silk-based sustained delivery products. PMID:24910193

  3. Sustainable deforestation evaluation model and system dynamics analysis.

    PubMed

    Feng, Huirong; Lim, C W; Chen, Liqun; Zhou, Xinnian; Zhou, Chengjun; Lin, Yi

    2014-01-01

    The current study used the improved fuzzy analytic hierarchy process to construct a sustainable deforestation development evaluation system and evaluation model, which has refined a diversified system to evaluate the theory of sustainable deforestation development. Leveraging the visual image of the system dynamics causal and power flow diagram, we illustrated here that sustainable forestry development is a complex system that encompasses the interaction and dynamic development of ecology, economy, and society and has reflected the time dynamic effect of sustainable forestry development from the three combined effects. We compared experimental programs to prove the direct and indirect impacts of the ecological, economic, and social effects of the corresponding deforest techniques and fully reflected the importance of developing scientific and rational ecological harvesting and transportation technologies. Experimental and theoretical results illustrated that light cableway skidding is an ecoskidding method that is beneficial for the sustainable development of resources, the environment, the economy, and society and forecasted the broad potential applications of light cableway skidding in timber production technology. Furthermore, we discussed the sustainable development countermeasures of forest ecosystems from the aspects of causality, interaction, and harmony.

  4. Sustainable Deforestation Evaluation Model and System Dynamics Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Huirong; Lim, C. W.; Chen, Liqun; Zhou, Xinnian; Zhou, Chengjun; Lin, Yi

    2014-01-01

    The current study used the improved fuzzy analytic hierarchy process to construct a sustainable deforestation development evaluation system and evaluation model, which has refined a diversified system to evaluate the theory of sustainable deforestation development. Leveraging the visual image of the system dynamics causal and power flow diagram, we illustrated here that sustainable forestry development is a complex system that encompasses the interaction and dynamic development of ecology, economy, and society and has reflected the time dynamic effect of sustainable forestry development from the three combined effects. We compared experimental programs to prove the direct and indirect impacts of the ecological, economic, and social effects of the corresponding deforest techniques and fully reflected the importance of developing scientific and rational ecological harvesting and transportation technologies. Experimental and theoretical results illustrated that light cableway skidding is an ecoskidding method that is beneficial for the sustainable development of resources, the environment, the economy, and society and forecasted the broad potential applications of light cableway skidding in timber production technology. Furthermore, we discussed the sustainable development countermeasures of forest ecosystems from the aspects of causality, interaction, and harmony. PMID:25254225

  5. The Combination Design of Enabling Technologies in Group Learning: New Study Support Service for Visually Impaired University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tangsri, Chatcai; Na-Takuatoong, Onjaree; Sophatsathit, Peraphon

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to show how the process of new service technology-based development improves the current study support service for visually impaired university students. Numerous studies have contributed to improving assisted aid technology such as screen readers, the development and the use of audiobooks, and technology that supports individual…

  6. Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giorgis, Cyndi; Johnson, Nancy J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents annotations of 30 works of children's literature that support the topic of technology and its influences on readers' daily lives. Notes some stories tell about a time when simple tools enabled individuals to accomplish tasks, and others feature visionaries who used technology to create buildings, bridges, roads, and inventions. Considers…

  7. Multi-loaded ceramic beads/matrix scaffolds obtained by combining ionotropic and freeze gelation for sustained and tuneable vancomycin release.

    PubMed

    Hess, Ulrike; Mikolajczyk, Gerd; Treccani, Laura; Streckbein, Philipp; Heiss, Christian; Odenbach, Stefan; Rezwan, Kurosch

    2016-10-01

    For a targeted release against bacteria-associated bone diseases (osteomyelitis) ceramic beads with a high drug loading capacity, loaded with vancomycin as model antibiotic, are synthesized as drug carrier and successfully incorporated in an open porous hydroxyapatite matrix scaffold via freeze gelation to prevent bead migration at the implantation site and to extend drug release. We demonstrate that the quantity of loaded drug by the hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate beads, produced by ionotropic gelation, as well as drug release can be tuned and controlled by the selected calcium phosphate powder, sintering temperature, and high initial vancomycin concentrations (100mg/ml) used for loading. Bead pore volume up to 68mm(3)/g, with sufficiently large open pores (pore size of up to 650nm with open porosity of 72%) and high surface area (91m(2)/g) account likewise for a maximum drug loading of 236mg/g beads or 26mg/sample. Multi-drug loading of the beads/matrix composite can further increase the maximum loadable amount of vancomycin to 37mg/sample and prolong release and antibacterial activity on Bacillus subtilis up to 5days. The results confirmed that our approach to incorporate ceramic beads as drug carrier for highly increased drug load in freeze-gelated matrix scaffolds is feasible and may lead to a sustained drug release and antibacterial activity. PMID:27287153

  8. Nitrogen removal from coal gasification wastewater by activated carbon technologies combined with short-cut nitrogen removal process.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qian; Han, Hongjun; Hou, Baolin; Zhuang, Haifeng; Jia, Shengyong; Fang, Fang

    2014-11-01

    A system combining granular activated carbon and powdered activated carbon technologies along with shortcut biological nitrogen removal (GAC-PACT-SBNR) was developed to enhance total nitrogen (TN) removal for anaerobically treated coal gasification wastewater with less need for external carbon resources. The TN removal efficiency in SBNR was significantly improved by introducing the effluent from the GAC process into SBNR during the anoxic stage, with removal percentage increasing from 43.8%-49.6% to 68.8%-75.8%. However, the TN removal rate decreased with the progressive deterioration of GAC adsorption. After adding activated sludge to the GAC compartment, the granular carbon had a longer service-life and the demand for external carbon resources became lower. Eventually, the TN removal rate in SBNR was almost constant at approx. 43.3%, as compared to approx. 20.0% before seeding with sludge. In addition, the production of some alkalinity during the denitrification resulted in a net savings in alkalinity requirements for the nitrification reaction and refractory chemical oxygen demand (COD) degradation by autotrophic bacteria in SBNR under oxic conditions. PACT showed excellent resilience to increasing organic loadings. The microbial community analysis revealed that the PACT had a greater variety of bacterial taxons and the dominant species associated with the three compartments were in good agreement with the removal of typical pollutants. The study demonstrated that pre-adsorption by the GAC-sludge process could be a technically and economically feasible method to enhance TN removal in coal gasification wastewater (CGW). PMID:25458677

  9. Physicochemical and Microstructural Characterization of Corn Starch Edible Films Obtained by a Combination of Extrusion Technology and Casting Technique.

    PubMed

    Fitch-Vargas, Perla Rosa; Aguilar-Palazuelos, Ernesto; de Jesús Zazueta-Morales, José; Vega-García, Misael Odín; Valdez-Morales, Jesús Enrique; Martínez-Bustos, Fernando; Jacobo-Valenzuela, Noelia

    2016-09-01

    Starch edible films (EFs) have been widely studied due to their potential in food preservation; however, their application is limited because of their poor mechanical and barrier properties. Because of that, the aim of this work was to use the extrusion technology (Ex T) as a pretreatment of casting technique to change the starch structure in order to obtain EFs with improved physicochemical properties. To this, corn starch and a mixture of plasticizers (sorbitol and glycerol, in different ratios) were processed in a twin screw extruder to generate the starch modification and subsequently casting technique was used for EFs formation. The best conditions of the Ex T and plasticizers concentration were obtained using response surface methodology. All the response variables evaluated, were affected significatively by the Plasticizers Ratio (Sorbitol:Glycerol) (PR (S:G)) and Extrusion Temperature (ET), while the Screw Speed (SS) did not show significant effect on any of these variables. The optimization study showed that the appropriate conditions to obtain EFs with the best mechanical and barrier properties were ET = 89 °C, SS = 66 rpm and PR (S:G) = 79.7:20.3. Once the best conditions were obtained, the optimal treatment was characterized according to its microstructural properties (X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy) to determine the damage caused in the starch during Ex T and casting technique. In conclusion, with the combination of Ex T and casting technique were obtained EFs with greater breaking strength and deformation, as well as lower water vapor permeability than those reported in the literature. PMID:27550869

  10. Combining Drama Pedagogy with Digital Technologies to Support the Language Learning Needs of Newly Arrived Refugee Children: A Classroom Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Julie; Bundy, Penny; Woodrow, Nina

    2012-01-01

    Although significant research has been completed that examines the effectiveness of process drama as a pedagogical approach for developing additional languages and further work has focused on the affordances of digital technologies within drama work, scant attention has been paid to the possibilities which a combination of these approaches might…

  11. Sustainable Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auerbach, Raymond

    1994-01-01

    Discusses South African national development priorities, sustainable development, and the future of agriculture and presents three scenarios of possible national action: production for sale and export, household food security, and conservation of natural resources. (MKR)

  12. Sustainable Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmandt, Jurgen; Ward, C. H.; Marilu Hastings, Assisted By

    2000-04-01

    Demographers predict that the world population will double during the first half of the 21st century before it will begin to level off. In this volume, a group of prominent authors examine what societal changes must occur to meet this challenge to the natural environment and the transformational changes that we must experience to achieve sustainability. Frances Cairncross, Herman E. Daly, Stephen H. Schneider and others provide a broad discussion of sustainable development. They detail economic and environmental, as well as spiritual and religious, corporate and social, scientific and political factors. Sustainable Development: The Challenge of Transition offers many insightful policy recommendations about how business, government, and individuals must change their current values, priorities, and behavior to meet present and future challenges. It will appeal to scholars and decision makers interested in global change, environmental policy, population growth, and sustainable development, and also to corporate environmental managers.

  13. The road to sustainability

    SciTech Connect

    Sarrao, John L; Crabtree, George

    2009-01-01

    Sustainability is the hottest topic in energy research today, but what does it actually mean? George Crabtree and John Sarrao describe what makes a technology sustainable, and outline the materials-science challenges standing between us and clean, long-lasting energy. Although most people agree that more-sustainable energy technologies are desirable, they often find it harder to agree on exactly how sustainable these technologies need to be, and even precisely what is meant by sustainability. To clarify the debate, we suggest three criteria for sustainability, each of which captures a different feature of the problem. While we do not have the lUxury of achieving full sustainability for all of our next-generation energy technologies, we can use these definitions to select our strategic sustainability targets and track our progress toward achieving them. As will become clear, the most sustainable energy technologies require the most challenging fundamental science breakthroughs. The first criterion for sustainability is 'lasts a long time'. This quality has been a feature of many energy sources we have used historically, including wood in ancient times and oil throughout most of the 20th century. The definition of 'long time' is, of course, relative: the world's demand for energy long ago outpaced the ability of wood to supply it, and the production of oil is likely to peak sometime within the next few decades. Substantial reductions in the rate of oil consumption through higher-efficiency processes can significantly impact on how long non-renewable resources last. In applying the 'long time' criterion, we need to distinguish between energy sources that are effectively limitless and those that are finite but, for the moment, adequate. The second criterion for sustainability is 'does no harm'. Burning fossil fuels releases pollutants such as sulphur and mercury that endanger human health, as well as greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide that threaten climate stability

  14. Sustainable markets for sustainable energy

    SciTech Connect

    Millan, J.; Smyser, C.

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses how the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) is involved in sustainable energy development. It presently has 50 loans and grants for non conventional renewable energy projects and ten grants for efficiency programs for $600 and $17 million respectively, representing 100 MW of power. The IDB is concerned with how to create a sustainable market for sustainable energy projects. The IDB is trying to work with government, private sector, NGOs, trading allies, credit sources, and regulators to find proper roles for such projects. He discusses how the IDB is working to expand its vision and objectives in renewable energy projects in Central and South America.

  15. Sustainability of Fossil Fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lackner, K. S.

    2002-05-01

    For a sustainable world economy, energy is a bottleneck. Energy is at the basis of a modern, technological society, but unlike materials it cannot be recycled. Energy or more precisely "negentropy" (the opposite of entropy) is always consumed. Thus, one either accepts the use of large but finite resources or must stay within the limits imposed by dilute but self-renewing resources like sunlight. The challenge of sustainable energy is exacerbated by likely growth in world energy demand due to increased population and increased wealth. Most of the world still has to undergo the transition to a wealthy, stable society with the near zero population growth that characterizes a modern industrial society. This represents a huge unmet demand. If ten billion people were to consume energy like North Americans do today, world energy demand would be ten times higher. In addition, technological advances while often improving energy efficiency tend to raise energy demand by offering more opportunity for consumption. Energy consumption still increases at close to the 2.3% per year that would lead to a tenfold increase over the course of the next century. Meeting future energy demands while phasing out fossil fuels appears extremely difficult. Instead, the world needs sustainable or nearly sustainable fossil fuels. I propose the following definition of sustainable under which fossil fuels would well qualify: The use of a technology or resource is sustainable if the intended and unintended consequences will not force its abandonment within a reasonable planning horizon. Of course sustainable technologies must not be limited by resource depletion but this is only one of many concerns. Environmental impacts, excessive land use, and other constraints can equally limit the use of a technology and thus render it unsustainable. In the foreseeable future, fossil fuels are not limited by resource depletion. However, environmental concerns based on climate change and other environmental

  16. Principles of ecosystem sustainability

    SciTech Connect

    Chapin, F.S. III; Torn, M.S.; Tateno, Masaki

    1996-12-01

    Many natural ecosystems are self-sustaining, maintaining an characteristic mosaic of vegetation types of hundreds to thousands of years. In this article we present a new framework for defining the conditions that sustain natural ecosystems and apply these principles to sustainability of managed ecosystems. A sustainable ecosystem is one that, over the normal cycle of disturbance events, maintains its characteristics diversity of major functional groups, productivity, and rates of biogeochemical cycling. These traits are determined by a set of four {open_quotes}interactive controls{close_quotes} (climate, soil resource supply, major functional groups of organisms, and disturbance regime) that both govern and respond to ecosystem processes. Ecosystems cannot be sustained unless the interactive controls oscillate within stable bounds. This occurs when negative feedbacks constrain changes in these controls. For example, negative feedbacks associated with food availability and predation often constrain changes in the population size of a species. Linkages among ecosystems in a landscape can contribute to sustainability by creating or extending the feedback network beyond a single patch. The sustainability of managed systems can be increased by maintaining interactive controls so that they form negative feedbacks within ecosystems and by using laws and regulations to create negative feedbacks between ecosystems and human activities, such as between ocean ecosystems and marine fisheries. Degraded ecosystems can be restored through practices that enhance positive feedbacks to bring the ecosystem to a state where the interactive controls are commensurate with desired ecosystem characteristics. The possible combinations of interactive controls that govern ecosystem traits are limited by the environment, constraining the extent to which ecosystems can be managed sustainably for human purposes. 111 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. The Combination of Laser Scanning and Structure from Motion Technology for Creation of Accurate Exterior and Interior Orthophotos of ST. Nicholas Baroque Church

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koska, B.; Křemen, T.

    2013-02-01

    Terrestrial laser scanning technology is used for creation of building documentation and 3D building model from its emerging at the turn of the millennium. Photogrammetry has even longer tradition in this field. Both technologies have some technical limitations if they are used for creation of a façade or even an interior orthophoto, but combination of both technologies seems profitable. Laser scanning can be used for creation of an accurate 3D model and photogrammetry for consequent application of high quality colour information. Both technologies were used in synergy to create the building plans, 2D drawing documentation of facades and interior views and the orthophotos of St. Nicholas Baroque church in Prague. The case study is described in details in the paper.

  18. Estimating GHG Reduction from Combinations of Current Best-Available and Future Powertrain and Vehicle Technologies for a Midsized Car Using EPA’s ALPHA Model (SAE 2016-01-0910)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA identified the best, or most efficient, engines, transmissions and vehicle technologies, and then used ALPHA to predict the GHG emissions would be from a midsized car incorporating the best combination of these technologies.

  19. Sustaining Inquiry-Based Teaching Methods in the Middle School Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Amy Fowler

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation used a combination of case study and phenomenological research methods to investigate how individual teachers of middle school science in the Alabama Math, Science, and Technology Initiative (AMSTI) program sustain their use of inquiry-based methods of teaching and learning. While the overall context for the cases was the AMSTI…

  20. From Concept to Commercialisation: Student Learning in a Sustainable Engineering Innovation Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Andrea I.; Richards, Bryce S.

    2007-01-01

    An interdisciplinary sustainable design project that combines membrane technology with renewable energy to provide water for remote communities and developing countries was offered to students for voluntary participation. Through continuous design stages and improvements on several prototypes, laboratory testing and several field trials in…

  1. EVALUATION OF TWO LEAD-BASED PAINT REMOVAL AND WASTE STABILIZATION TECHNOLOGY COMBINATIONS ON TYPICAL EXTERIOR SURFACES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of a wet abrasive blasting technology to remove lead-based paint from exterior wood siding and brick substrates as well as to evaluate the effectiveness of two waste stabilization technologies to stabilize the resulting blast...

  2. Microplasma radiofrequency technology combined with triamcinolone improved the therapeutic effect on Chinese patients with hypertrophic scar and reduced the risk of tissue atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shui; Li, Hengjin

    2016-01-01

    Objective The current study aimed to assess the value of microplasma radiofrequency technology combined with triamcinolone for the therapy of Chinese patients with hypertrophic scar. Methods A total of 120 participants with hypertrophic scars were enrolled in the current study. Participants were divided into two groups based on sex, and then randomly and evenly divided into four groups (Groups A, B, C, and D). Participants in Group A received microplasma radiofrequency technology combined with triamcinolone. Participants in Group B received microplasma radiofrequency technology combined with normal saline. Participants in Groups C and D received triamcinolone (40 and 10 mg/mL) injected directly into scar. Experienced physicians evaluated the condition of scars according to the Vancouver Scar Scale 1 month before and after the therapy. Results There was no difference in age, sex, area, height and location of scars, and Vancouver Scar Scale scores before the therapy between any groups (P>0.05 for all). Vancouver Scar Scale scores after the therapy were significantly lower than those before the therapy in all groups (P<0.05 for all). Vancouver Scar Scale scores after the therapy in Group A were significantly lower than those after the therapy in Groups B and C (P<0.05 for all). Vancouver Scar Scale scores after the therapy in Group B were significantly higher than those after the therapy in Group C (P<0.05 for all) and similar to those after the therapy in Group D (P>0.05 for all). Incidences of tissue atrophy after the therapy were significantly lower in Groups A and B than in Group C (P<0.05 for all) and similar among Groups A, B, and D (P>0.05 for all). Conclusion Microplasma radiofrequency technology combined with triamcinolone improved the therapeutic effect on Chinese patients with hypertrophic scar and reduced the risk of tissue atrophy compared with the use of either microplasma radiofrequency technology or triamcinolone injection alone. PMID:27274259

  3. Is rangeland agriculture sustainable?

    PubMed

    Heitschmidt, R K; Vermeire, L T; Grings, E E

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to examine the sustainability of rangeland agriculture (i.e., managed grazing) on a world-wide basis, with a focus on North America. Sustainability is addressed on three fronts: 1) ecological, 2) economic, and 3) social acceptance. Based on previous and on-going research, we suggest that employment of science-based rangeland grazing management strategies and tactics can ensure ecological sustainability. The formidable challenge in employing such technology centers around the need to balance efficiency of solar energy capture and subsequent harvest efficiencies across an array of highly spatially and temporally variable vegetation growing conditions using animals that graze selectively. Failure to meet this fundamental challenge often accelerates rangeland desertification processes, and in some instances, enhances rate and extent of the invasion of noxious weeds. We also suggest that the fundamental reason that ecologically sound grazing management technologies are often not employed in the management of grazed ecological systems is because social values drive management decisions more so than ecological science issues. This is true in both well-developed societies with substantial economic resources and in less-developed societies with few economic resources. However, the social issues driving management are often entirely different, ranging from multiple-use issues in developed countries to human day-to-day survival issues in poorly developed countries. We conclude that the long-term sustainability of rangeland agriculture in 1) developed societies depends on the ability of rangeland agriculturalists to continually respond in a dynamic, positive, proactive manner to ever-changing social values and 2) less-developed societies on their ability to address the ecological and social consequences arising from unsustainable human populations before the adoption of science-based sustainable rangeland management technologies. PMID:15471792

  4. Sustainable aquaculture systems

    SciTech Connect

    Brune, D.E.

    1994-08-01

    The goal of this paper is to examine and assess the technical feasibility of the integration of plant and/or animal aquaculture systems into a sustainable agriculture. Although most researchers tend to avoid a precise definition of sustainable aquaculture, the implication that one gets from `reading between the lines` is that a sustainable agro-ecosystem is one which recycles materials at maximum energy efficiency. The `unspoken` standard against which comparisons of sustainability are often made is that of a mature natural ecosystem at a steady state. Cost comparisons of alternative systems will be used whenever possible, however, in many cases, conventional cost/benefit analysis will be of limited value in such an analysis. For aquaculture, such an analysis can best be conducted by analyzing the possibilities of integrating nutrients, water, and energy flow from aquaculture systems both to and from, conventional agricultural systems. The various aquaculture options are then qualitatively compared as their potential, limitations, environmental soundness, productivity, socio-economic viability and the availability of supporting technology. It is important to realize that the usefulness or applicability of any sustainable or integrated aquaculture practice is highly site specific.

  5. Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technology, on advances in such areas as aeronautics, electronics, physics, the space sciences, as well as computers and the attendant progress in medicine, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books,…

  6. Techno-ecological synergy: a framework for sustainable engineering.

    PubMed

    Bakshi, Bhavik R; Ziv, Guy; Lepech, Michael D

    2015-02-01

    Even though the importance of ecosystems in sustaining all human activities is well-known, methods for sustainable engineering fail to fully account for this role of nature. Most methods account for the demand for ecosystem services, but almost none account for the supply. Incomplete accounting of the very foundation of human well-being can result in perverse outcomes from decisions meant to enhance sustainability and lost opportunities for benefiting from the ability of nature to satisfy human needs in an economically and environmentally superior manner. This paper develops a framework for understanding and designing synergies between technological and ecological systems to encourage greater harmony between human activities and nature. This framework considers technological systems ranging from individual processes to supply chains and life cycles, along with corresponding ecological systems at multiple spatial scales ranging from local to global. The demand for specific ecosystem services is determined from information about emissions and resource use, while the supply is obtained from information about the capacity of relevant ecosystems. Metrics calculate the sustainability of individual ecosystem services at multiple spatial scales and help define necessary but not sufficient conditions for local and global sustainability. Efforts to reduce ecological overshoot encourage enhancement of life cycle efficiency, development of industrial symbiosis, innovative designs and policies, and ecological restoration, thus combining the best features of many existing methods. Opportunities for theoretical and applied research to make this framework practical are also discussed.

  7. Techno-ecological synergy: a framework for sustainable engineering.

    PubMed

    Bakshi, Bhavik R; Ziv, Guy; Lepech, Michael D

    2015-02-01

    Even though the importance of ecosystems in sustaining all human activities is well-known, methods for sustainable engineering fail to fully account for this role of nature. Most methods account for the demand for ecosystem services, but almost none account for the supply. Incomplete accounting of the very foundation of human well-being can result in perverse outcomes from decisions meant to enhance sustainability and lost opportunities for benefiting from the ability of nature to satisfy human needs in an economically and environmentally superior manner. This paper develops a framework for understanding and designing synergies between technological and ecological systems to encourage greater harmony between human activities and nature. This framework considers technological systems ranging from individual processes to supply chains and life cycles, along with corresponding ecological systems at multiple spatial scales ranging from local to global. The demand for specific ecosystem services is determined from information about emissions and resource use, while the supply is obtained from information about the capacity of relevant ecosystems. Metrics calculate the sustainability of individual ecosystem services at multiple spatial scales and help define necessary but not sufficient conditions for local and global sustainability. Efforts to reduce ecological overshoot encourage enhancement of life cycle efficiency, development of industrial symbiosis, innovative designs and policies, and ecological restoration, thus combining the best features of many existing methods. Opportunities for theoretical and applied research to make this framework practical are also discussed. PMID:25560912

  8. Sustainability, Student Affairs, and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Kathleen G.; Hart-Steffes, Jeanne S.

    2012-01-01

    Colleges and universities are developing both the next generation of leaders as well as state-of-the-art technology that allow climate reduction aspirations and triple bottom-line outcomes to become realities. Divisions of student affairs play a crucial role in the sustainability movement in colleges and universities. The technology-savvy,…

  9. Combined Natural Gas and Solar Technologies for Heating and Cooling in the City of NIS in Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanović, Velimir P.; Bojić, Milorad Lj.

    2010-06-01

    The use of conventional systems for heat and electricity production in Niš and Serbia means a constant waste of energy, and money. This problem is present in both industrial and public sector. Using conventional systems, means not only low-energy efficient systems, and technologies, but also using very "dirty" technologies, which cause heavy environment pollution. The lack of electricity in our country, and region is also present. The gas pipeline in Niš was finished not long ago, and second gas pipeline is about to be made in the next couple of years. This opens a door for implementing new technologies and the use of new methods for production of heat and electricity, while preserving our environment. This paper reports discussion of this technology with management of public institutions, which use both heat and electricity.

  10. NREL's Sustainable Campus Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Rukavina, Frank; Pless, Shanti

    2015-04-06

    The high-performance buildings across the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) South Table Mountain campus incorporate a number of state-of-the art energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies, making them models for sustainability. Each building, designed to meet the Gold or Platinum standards of the U.S. Green Building Council's Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED®) program, brings NREL closer to developing the campus of the future.

  11. Sustainable intensification in agricultural systems

    PubMed Central

    Pretty, Jules; Bharucha, Zareen Pervez

    2014-01-01

    Background Agricultural systems are amended ecosystems with a variety of properties. Modern agroecosystems have tended towards high through-flow systems, with energy supplied by fossil fuels directed out of the system (either deliberately for harvests or accidentally through side effects). In the coming decades, resource constraints over water, soil, biodiversity and land will affect agricultural systems. Sustainable agroecosystems are those tending to have a positive impact on natural, social and human capital, while unsustainable systems feed back to deplete these assets, leaving fewer for the future. Sustainable intensification (SI) is defined as a process or system where agricultural yields are increased without adverse environmental impact and without the conversion of additional non-agricultural land. The concept does not articulate or privilege any particular vision or method of agricultural production. Rather, it emphasizes ends rather than means, and does not pre-determine technologies, species mix or particular design components. The combination of the terms ‘sustainable’ and ‘intensification’ is an attempt to indicate that desirable outcomes around both more food and improved environmental goods and services could be achieved by a variety of means. Nonetheless, it remains controversial to some. Scope and Conclusions This review analyses recent evidence of the impacts of SI in both developing and industrialized countries, and demonstrates that both yield and natural capital dividends can occur. The review begins with analysis of the emergence of combined agricultural–environmental systems, the environmental and social outcomes of recent agricultural revolutions, and analyses the challenges for food production this century as populations grow and consumption patterns change. Emergent criticisms are highlighted, and the positive impacts of SI on food outputs and renewable capital assets detailed. It concludes with observations on policies and

  12. Methods for Selection of Cancer Patients and Predicting Efficacy of Combination Therapy | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Cancer.gov

    The Lung Cancer Biomarkers Group of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) seeks parties interested in collaborative research to further co-develop methods for selecting cancer patients for combination therapy.

  13. Annual Sustainability Report FY 2014. Incorporates NREL Site Sustainability Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Rukavina, Frank

    2015-07-01

    NREL's Sustainability Program is responsible for upholding all executive orders, federal regulations, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) orders, and goals related to sustainable and resilient facility operations. But NREL continues to expand sustainable practices above and beyond the laboratory's regulations and requirements to ensure that the laboratory fulfills its mission into the future, leaves the smallest possible legacy footprint, and models sustainable operations and behaviors on national, regional, and local levels. The report, per the GRI reporting format, elaborates on multi-year goals relative to executive orders, achievements, and challenges; and success stories provide specific examples. A section called 'Sustaining NREL's Future Through Integration' provides insight into how NREL is successfully expanding the adoption of renewable energy technologies through integration.

  14. Evaluation of two lead-based paint removal and waste stabilization technology combinations on typical exterior surfaces.

    PubMed

    Daniels, A E; Kominsky, J R; Clark, P J

    2001-10-12

    A study was conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of a wet abrasive blasting technology to remove lead-based paint from exterior wood siding and brick substrates as well as to evaluate the effectiveness of two waste stabilization technologies to stabilize the resulting blast media (coal slag and mineral sand) paint debris thereby reducing the leachable lead content. The lead-based paint removal technology effectiveness was determined by the use of an X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrum analyzer (L- and K-shell). The effectiveness of the technologies to stabilize the debris was evaluated through the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP). Wet abrasive blasting effectively removed the lead-based paint coating from both the wood and brick substrates to below the US Department of Housing and Urban Development Guideline (1mg/cm(2)) with no minimal or no damage to the underlying substrates (P<0.0001). The mean area air levels of lead-containing particulate generated during paint removal were significantly below the personal exposure limit (PEL) (P<0.0001). However, the mean personal breathing zone lead levels were approximately three times higher than the PEL. Neither of the two stabilization technologies consistently stabilized the resultant paint debris to achieve a leachable lead content below the RCRA regulatory threshold of <5 mg/l.

  15. The combined use of Building Information Modelling (BIM) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technologies for the 3D illustration of the progress of works in infrastructure construction projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vacanas, Yiannis; Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Agapiou, Athos; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos

    2016-08-01

    Building Information Modelling (BIM) technology is already part of the construction industry and is considered by professionals as a very useful tool for all phases of a construction project. BIM technology, with the particularly useful 3D illustrations which it provides, can be used to illustrate and monitor the progress of works effectively through the entire lifetime of the project. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have undergone significant advances in equipment capabilities and now have the capacity to acquire high resolution imagery from different angles in a cost effective and efficient manner. By using photogrammetry, characteristics such as distances, areas, volumes, elevations, object sizes, and object shape can be determined within overlapping areas. This paper explores the combined use of BIM and UAV technologies in order to achieve efficient and accurate as-built data collection and 3D illustrations of the works progress during an infrastructure construction project.

  16. Effective Utilization of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) for Sustainable Manpower Development among Computer Educators in Colleges of Education in South East Geo-Political Zone of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olelewe, Chijioke Jonathan; Amaka, Eugenia Ngozi

    2011-01-01

    The challenges for TVET today is to re-orient and redirect its curricula to imbue trainers and trainees on sustainable use of resources to enhance appropriate work skill development as new and employment opportunities emerge such as recycling, ICT, repair, waste management, etc. This paper is therefore focused on the effective utilization of ICT…

  17. Sustainable Development of Natural Resources in the Third World: Technological and Institutional Challenges. An International Symposium (Columbus, OH, September 3-6, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. School of Natural Resources.

    This booket contains abstracts of papers presented at a symposium which focused on sustainable development of natural resources in third world countries. The abstracts are organized under these headings: (1) factors affecting individual's resource use decisions; (2) resource conservation and economic development; (3) research on alternative…

  18. Early Initiation of Combination Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV-1–Infected Newborns Can Achieve Sustained Virologic Suppression With Low Frequency of CD4+ T Cells Carrying HIV in Peripheral Blood

    PubMed Central

    Bitnun, Ari; Samson, Lindy; Chun, Tae-Wook; Kakkar, Fatima; Brophy, Jason; Murray, Danielle; Justement, Shawn; Soudeyns, Hugo; Ostrowski, Mario; Mujib, Shariq; Harrigan, P. Richard; Kim, John; Sandstrom, Paul; Read, Stanley E.

    2014-01-01

    Background. A human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)–infected infant started on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) at 30 hours of life was recently reported to have no detectable plasma viremia after discontinuing cART. The current study investigated the impact of early cART initiation on measures of HIV-1 reservoir size in HIV-1–infected children with sustained virologic suppression. Methods. Children born to HIV-1–infected mothers and started on cART within 72 hours of birth at 3 Canadian centers were assessed. HIV serology, HIV-1–specific cell-mediated immune responses, plasma viremia, cell-associated HIV-1 DNA and RNA, presence of replication-competent HIV-1, and HLA genotype were determined for HIV-1–infected children with sustained virologic suppression. Results. Of 136 cART-treated children, 12 were vertically infected (8.8%). In the 4 who achieved sustained virologic suppression, HIV serology, HIV-1–specific cell-mediated immune responses (Gag, Nef), and ultrasensitive viral load were negative. HIV-1 DNA was not detected in enriched CD4+ T cells of the 4 children (<2.6 copies/106 CD4+ T cells), whereas HIV-1 RNA was detected (19.5–130 copies/1.5 µg RNA). No virion-associated HIV-1 RNA was detected following mitogenic stimulation of peripheral blood CD4+ T cells (5.4–8.0 million CD4+ T cells) in these 4 children, but replication competent virus was detected by quantitative co-culture involving a higher number of cells in 1 of 2 children tested (0.1 infectious units/106 CD4+ T cells). Conclusions. In perinatally HIV-1–infected newborns, initiation of cART within 72 hours of birth may significantly reduce the size of the HIV-1 reservoirs. Cessation of cART may be necessary to determine whether functional HIV cure can be achieved in such children. PMID:24917662

  19. Teaching Sustainability/Teaching Sustainably

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartels, Kirsten Allen, Ed.; Parker, Kelly A., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Over the coming decades, every academic discipline will have to respond to the paradigm of more sustainable life practices because students will be living in a world challenged by competition for resources and climate change, and will demand that every academic discipline demonstrate substantial and corresponding relevance. This book takes as its…

  20. Effects of the combination of aeration and biofilm technology on transformation of nitrogen in black-odor river.

    PubMed

    Pan, Mei; Zhao, Jun; Zhen, Shucong; Heng, Sheng; Wu, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Excess nitrogen in urban river networks leading to eutrophication has become one of the most urgent environmental problems. Combinations of different aeration and biofilm techniques was designed to remove nitrogen from rivers. In laboratory water tank simulation experiments, we assessed the removal efficiency of nitrogen in both the overlying water and sediments by using the combination of the aeration and biofilm techniques, and then analyzed the transformation of nitrogen during the experiments. Aeration (especially sediment aeration) combined with the biofilms techniques was proved efficient in removing nitrogen from polluted rivers. Results indicated that the combination of sediment aeration and biofilms, with the highest nitrogen removal rate from the overlying water and sediments, was the most effective combined process, which especially inhibited the potential release of nitrogen from sediments by reducing the enzyme activity. It was found that the content of dissolved oxygen in water could be restored on the basis of the application of aeration techniques ahead, and the biofilm technique would be effective in purifying water in black-odor rivers. PMID:27508370

  1. Effects of the combination of aeration and biofilm technology on transformation of nitrogen in black-odor river.

    PubMed

    Pan, Mei; Zhao, Jun; Zhen, Shucong; Heng, Sheng; Wu, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Excess nitrogen in urban river networks leading to eutrophication has become one of the most urgent environmental problems. Combinations of different aeration and biofilm techniques was designed to remove nitrogen from rivers. In laboratory water tank simulation experiments, we assessed the removal efficiency of nitrogen in both the overlying water and sediments by using the combination of the aeration and biofilm techniques, and then analyzed the transformation of nitrogen during the experiments. Aeration (especially sediment aeration) combined with the biofilms techniques was proved efficient in removing nitrogen from polluted rivers. Results indicated that the combination of sediment aeration and biofilms, with the highest nitrogen removal rate from the overlying water and sediments, was the most effective combined process, which especially inhibited the potential release of nitrogen from sediments by reducing the enzyme activity. It was found that the content of dissolved oxygen in water could be restored on the basis of the application of aeration techniques ahead, and the biofilm technique would be effective in purifying water in black-odor rivers.

  2. Y-12 Site Sustainability Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, Charles G

    2012-12-01

    The accomplishments to date and the long-range planning of the Y-12 Energy Management and Sustainability and Stewardship programs support the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) vision for a commitment to energy effi ciency and sustainability and to achievement of the Guiding Principles. Specifi cally, the Y-12 vision is to support the Environment, Safety and Health Policy and the DOE Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan, while promoting overall sustainability and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. The mission of the Y-12 Energy Management program is to incorporate energy-effi cient technologies site-wide and to position Y-12 to meet NNSA energy requirement needs through 2025 and beyond. The plan addresses greenhouse gases, buildings, fleet management, water use, pollution prevention, waste reduction, sustainable acquisition, electronic stewardship and data centers, site innovation and government-wide support.

  3. Automatic Vacuum Flushing Technology for Combined Sewer Solids: Laboratory Testing and Proposed Improvements (WERF Report INFR7SG09)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research study included an extensive literature review on existing sewer sediment flushing technologies. An innovative vacuum flush system previously developed by the U.S. EPA was tested under laboratory conditions. The tests revealed a strong correlation between the strengt...

  4. Sustainable NREL

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory prides itself on not only advancing the renewable energy, but "walking the talk" when it comes to sustainable practices. "When you look at our laboratories, you will see energy efficiency in action, but you'll also see renewable energy. We walk the walk and we talk the talk. We believe in it and we want to live it also."

  5. Sustainable NREL

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory prides itself on not only advancing the renewable energy, but "walking the talk" when it comes to sustainable practices. "When you look at our laboratories, you will see energy efficiency in action, but you'll also see renewable energy. We walk the walk and we talk the talk. We believe in it and we want to live it also."

  6. Partitioning ecosystems for sustainability.

    PubMed

    Murray, Martyn G

    2016-03-01

    Decline in the abundance of renewable natural resources (RNRs) coupled with increasing demands of an expanding human population will greatly intensify competition for Earth's natural resources during this century, yet curiously, analytical approaches to the management of productive ecosystems (ecological theory of wildlife harvesting, tragedy of the commons, green economics, and bioeconomics) give only peripheral attention to the driving influence of competition on resource exploitation. Here, I apply resource competition theory (RCT) to the exploitation of RNRs and derive four general policies in support of their sustainable and equitable use: (1) regulate resource extraction technology to avoid damage to the resource base; (2) increase efficiency of resource use and reduce waste at every step in the resource supply chain and distribution network; (3) partition ecosystems with the harvesting niche as the basic organizing principle for sustainable management of natural resources by multiple users; and (4) increase negative feedback between consumer and resource to bring about long-term sustainable use. A simple policy framework demonstrates how RCT integrates with other elements of sustainability science to better manage productive ecosystems. Several problem areas of RNR management are discussed in the light of RCT, including tragedy of the commons, overharvesting, resource collapse, bycatch, single species quotas, and simplification of ecosystems.

  7. Partitioning ecosystems for sustainability.

    PubMed

    Murray, Martyn G

    2016-03-01

    Decline in the abundance of renewable natural resources (RNRs) coupled with increasing demands of an expanding human population will greatly intensify competition for Earth's natural resources during this century, yet curiously, analytical approaches to the management of productive ecosystems (ecological theory of wildlife harvesting, tragedy of the commons, green economics, and bioeconomics) give only peripheral attention to the driving influence of competition on resource exploitation. Here, I apply resource competition theory (RCT) to the exploitation of RNRs and derive four general policies in support of their sustainable and equitable use: (1) regulate resource extraction technology to avoid damage to the resource base; (2) increase efficiency of resource use and reduce waste at every step in the resource supply chain and distribution network; (3) partition ecosystems with the harvesting niche as the basic organizing principle for sustainable management of natural resources by multiple users; and (4) increase negative feedback between consumer and resource to bring about long-term sustainable use. A simple policy framework demonstrates how RCT integrates with other elements of sustainability science to better manage productive ecosystems. Several problem areas of RNR management are discussed in the light of RCT, including tragedy of the commons, overharvesting, resource collapse, bycatch, single species quotas, and simplification of ecosystems. PMID:27209800

  8. Technology combined with a counseling protocol to stimulate physical activity of chronically ill patients in primary care.

    PubMed

    Verwey, R; van der Weegen, S; Spreeuwenberg, M; Tange, H; van der Weijden, T; de Witte, L

    2014-01-01

    An iterative user-centered design method was used to develop and test mobile technology (the It's LiFe! tool/monitor) embedded in primary care, followed by a three months feasibility study with 20 patients and three nurses. The tool consists of an accelerometer that transfers data to an app on a Smartphone, which is subsequently connected to a server. Physical activity levels are measured in minutes per day compared to pre-set activity goals, which are set by patients in dialogue with nurses. Nurses can monitor patients' physical activity via a secured website. The counseling protocol is based on the Five A's model and consists of a limited number of behavior change consultations intertwined with interaction with and responses from the tool. The technology supports nurses when performing physical activity counseling. Provided that no connectivity problems occur, the It's LiFe! intervention is feasible, and its longitudinal effects will be tested in a cluster RCT.

  9. The magic of mid-face three-dimensional contour alterations combining alloplastic and soft tissue suspension technologies.

    PubMed

    Terino, Edward O; Edward, Michael

    2008-07-01

    Recent advances in the technology of implant designs and shapes, as well as improved understanding of the principles of facial aesthetics, give the plastic surgeon, for the first time, tools to precisely and permanently change faces in specific areas and with minimum morbidity. Cosmetic facial surgeons must learn and understand the zonal anatomy of the malar-midface region to be prepared for growing patient demands regarding analysis and alteration of facial cheek contours. This article describes and illustrates contemporary technology that uses alloplastic implants throughout the face. Three-dimensional changes in facial form and shape using alloplastic augmentation techniques are essential for creating aesthetic beauty and are the "final chapter" of the development of cosmetic facial surgery.

  10. Y-12 Site Sustainability Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Sherry, T D; Kohlhorst, D P; Little, S K

    2011-12-01

    The accomplishments to date and the long-range planning of the Y-12 Energy Management and Sustainability and Stewardship programs support the DOE and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) vision for a commitment to energy efficiency and sustainability and to achievement of the Guiding Principles. Specifically, the Y-12 vision is to support the Environment, Safety and Health Policy and the DOE Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan (SSPP) while promoting overall sustainability and reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Table ES.2 gives a comprehensive overview of Y-12's performance status and planned actions. B&W Y-12's Energy Management mission is to incorporate renewable energy and energy efficient technologies site-wide and to position Y-12 to meet NNSA energy requirement needs through 2025 and beyond. During FY 2011, the site formed a sustainability team (Fig. ES.1). The sustainability team provides a coordinated approach to meeting the various sustainability requirements and serves as a forum for increased communication and consistent implementation of sustainability activities at Y-12. The sustainability team serves as an information exchange mechanism to promote general awareness of sustainability information, while providing a system to document progress and to identify resources. These resources are necessary to implement activities that support the overall goals of sustainability, including reducing the use of resources and conserving energy. Additionally, the team's objectives include: (1) Foster a Y-12-wide philosophy to conserve resources; (2) Reduce the impacts of production operations in a cost-effective manner; (3) Increase materials recycling; (4) Use a minimum amount of energy and fuel; (5) Create a minimum of waste and pollution in achieving Y-12-strategic objectives; (6) Develop and implement techniques, technologies, process modifications, and programs that support sustainable acquisition; (7) Minimize the impacts to

  11. Optimization of energy systems under the aspect of sustainability

    SciTech Connect

    Ludwig, B.

    1997-12-31

    One of the basic ideas of technology assessment (TA) is to point out alternatives to any approached problem solution. This includes, for instance, with respect to the aim of sustainable development, the requirement of better solutions for technical applications. This idea of TA can be taken as an optimization problem. Optimization of a technical application is aimed to its energy efficiency, its material intensity, or its sustainability, respectively. The application of usual optimization procedures is limited especially in the case of a multicriterial evaluation. Restraints could be nonlinear problems, or problems with many parameters, or many restrictions due to the programming effort and memory demand of the computer. Natural optimization techniques, named as selective, genetic, or evolutionary techniques, orient on principles of evolutionary biology. These techniques do not have requirements to linearity, differentiation or a certain problem structure and have often a less programming effort, for they are predestined to apply to TA. In this contribution a new optimization technique based on a combination of soft computing methods is presented and applied to energy conversion technologies. The technology mix building an energy supply system is evaluated with a fuzzy logic based approach and optimized with a genetic algorithm. The results are properties and compounds required to future energy conversion technologies under the aspects of a sustainable development.

  12. The comparison of removing plug by ultrasonic wave, chemical deplugging agent and ultrasound-chemical combination deplugging for near-well ultrasonic processing technology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenjun; Xu, Yuanming; Bajracharya, Suman

    2015-11-01

    Near-well ultrasonic processing technology is characterized by high adaptability, simple operation, low cost and zero pollution. The main plugs of oil production include paraffin deposition plug, polymer plug, and drilling fluid plug etc. Although some good results have been obtained through laboratory experiments and field tests, systematic and intensive studies are absent for certain major aspects, such as: effects of ultrasonic treatment for different kinds of plugs and whether effect of ultrasound-chemicals combination deplugging is better than that of ultrasonic deplugging. In this paper, the experiments of removing drilling fluid plug, paraffin deposition plug and polymer plug by ultrasonic wave, chemical deplugging agent and ultrasound-chemical combination deplugging respectively are carried out. Results show that the effect of ultrasound-chemical combination deplugging is clearly better than that of using ultrasonic wave and chemical deplugging agent separately, which indicates that ultrasonic deplugging and chemical deplugging can produce synergetic effects. On the one hand, ultrasonic treatment can boost the activity of chemical deplugging agent and turn chemical deplugging into dynamic chemical process, promoting chemical agent reaction speed and enhancing deplugging effect; on the other hand, chemical agent can reduce the adhesion strength of plugs so that ultrasonic deplugging effect can be improved significantly. Experimental results provide important reference for near-well ultrasonic processing technology.

  13. The comparison of removing plug by ultrasonic wave, chemical deplugging agent and ultrasound-chemical combination deplugging for near-well ultrasonic processing technology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenjun; Xu, Yuanming; Bajracharya, Suman

    2015-11-01

    Near-well ultrasonic processing technology is characterized by high adaptability, simple operation, low cost and zero pollution. The main plugs of oil production include paraffin deposition plug, polymer plug, and drilling fluid plug etc. Although some good results have been obtained through laboratory experiments and field tests, systematic and intensive studies are absent for certain major aspects, such as: effects of ultrasonic treatment for different kinds of plugs and whether effect of ultrasound-chemicals combination deplugging is better than that of ultrasonic deplugging. In this paper, the experiments of removing drilling fluid plug, paraffin deposition plug and polymer plug by ultrasonic wave, chemical deplugging agent and ultrasound-chemical combination deplugging respectively are carried out. Results show that the effect of ultrasound-chemical combination deplugging is clearly better than that of using ultrasonic wave and chemical deplugging agent separately, which indicates that ultrasonic deplugging and chemical deplugging can produce synergetic effects. On the one hand, ultrasonic treatment can boost the activity of chemical deplugging agent and turn chemical deplugging into dynamic chemical process, promoting chemical agent reaction speed and enhancing deplugging effect; on the other hand, chemical agent can reduce the adhesion strength of plugs so that ultrasonic deplugging effect can be improved significantly. Experimental results provide important reference for near-well ultrasonic processing technology. PMID:26186853

  14. Sustaining automobility

    SciTech Connect

    Pasek, J.E.; Schneider, R.W.; Sciance, F.S.

    1996-12-31

    This year marks the 100th anniversary of the automobile in America. This paper discusses the history of the automobile, its value to personal transportation, and the challenges faced in making the automobile energy efficient and environmentally compatible. Also included are some thoughts on how personal mobility can be sustained into the future. Understanding the history of transportation innovation and the reasons for the huge success of the automobile can help point the way to the successful innovations that will improve mankind`s mobility in the future and at the same time continue to make it cleaner, safer, and more energy efficient.

  15. Science, Open Communication, and Sustainable Development

    SciTech Connect

    Wilbanks, Thomas J; Wilbanks, John T.; Fulkerson, William

    2010-01-01

    One of the prerequisites for sustainable development is knowledge, in order to inform coping with sustainability threats and to support innovative sustainability pathways. Transferring knowledge is therefore a fundamental challenge for sustainability, in a context where external knowledge must be integrated with local knowledge in order to promote user-driven action. But effective local co-production of knowledge requires ongoing local access to existing scientific and technical knowledge so that users start on a level playing field. The information technology revolution can be a powerful enabler of such access if intellectual property obstacles can be overcome, with a potential to transform prospects for sustainability in many parts of the world.

  16. Development of closed-loop neural interface technology in a rat model: combining motor cortex operant conditioning with visual cortex microstimulation.

    PubMed

    Marzullo, Timothy Charles; Lehmkuhle, Mark J; Gage, Gregory J; Kipke, Daryl R

    2010-04-01

    Closed-loop neural interface technology that combines neural ensemble decoding with simultaneous electrical microstimulation feedback is hypothesized to improve deep brain stimulation techniques, neuromotor prosthetic applications, and epilepsy treatment. Here we describe our iterative results in a rat model of a sensory and motor neurophysiological feedback control system. Three rats were chronically implanted with microelectrode arrays in both the motor and visual cortices. The rats were subsequently trained over a period of weeks to modulate their motor cortex ensemble unit activity upon delivery of intra-cortical microstimulation (ICMS) of the visual cortex in order to receive a food reward. Rats were given continuous feedback via visual cortex ICMS during the response periods that was representative of the motor cortex ensemble dynamics. Analysis revealed that the feedback provided the animals with indicators of the behavioral trials. At the hardware level, this preparation provides a tractable test model for improving the technology of closed-loop neural devices.

  17. Combined effect of selected non-thermal technologies on Escherichia coli and Pichia fermentans inactivation in an apple and cranberry juice blend and on product shelf life.

    PubMed

    Palgan, I; Caminiti, I M; Muñoz, A; Noci, F; Whyte, P; Morgan, D J; Cronin, D A; Lyng, J G

    2011-11-15

    The combination of novel, non-thermal technologies for preservation purposes is a recent trend in food processing research. In the present study, non-thermal hurdles such as ultraviolet light (UV) (5.3 J/cm²), high intensity light pulses (HILP) (3.3 J/cm²), pulsed electric fields (PEF) (34 kV/cm, 18 Hz, 93 μs) or manothermosonication (MTS) (4bar, 43 °C, 750 W, 20 kHz) were examined. The objective was to establish the potential of these technologies, applied individually or in paired sequences, to inactivate Escherichia coli and Pichia fermentans inoculated in a fresh blend of apple and cranberry juice. The shelf-life evaluation of selected non-thermally treated samples was conducted over 35 days and compared to pasteurised samples and untreated juices. All treatments applied individually significantly reduced (1.8-6.0 log cfu/ml) microbial counts compared to the untreated sample (p<0.01). Furthermore, UV treatment produced significantly greater inactivation (p<0.05) for E. coli compared to P. fermentans. Combinations of non-thermal hurdles consisting of UV or HILP followed by either PEF or MTS resulted in comparable reductions for both microorganisms (p ≥ 0.05) to those observed in thermally pasteurised samples (approx. 6 log cfu/ml). Thermally pasteurised samples had a shelf life exceeding 35 days, while that of UV+PEF and HILP+PEF-treated samples was 14 and 21 days, respectively. These results indicate that combinations of these non-thermal technologies could successfully reduce levels of E. coli and P. fermentans in apple and cranberry juice, although optimisation is required in order to further extend shelf life.

  18. Sustainable regulation of construction.

    PubMed

    2000-11-01

    The seminar examined the role building codes and regulations can have in promoting a more sustainable approach to construction, particularly through their application to non-industrial building materials. A range of building materials such as straw, bamboo, rammed earth, adobe, and cob (a mixture of clay and chopped straw) were described and illustrated by slides to show their building potential. The current codes have a prime concern to protect the health and safety of people from the built environment. They have been developed almost exclusively for mainstream industrial materials and methods of construction, which makes them difficult to use with alternative, indigenous, or non-industrial building materials, even though those materials may be considered more sustainable. The argument was put forward that with only one-third of the world population living in modern industrial buildings today, it is not sustainable to re-house the remaining rapidly expanding population in high technology dwellings. Many of the low technology building materials and methods now used by the majority of people in the world need only incremental improvement to be equal or superior to many of their industrial replacements. Since these can be more sustainable methods of building, there needs to be an acceptance of the use of alternative materials, particularly in the developing parts of the world, where they are being rejected for less sustainable industrial methods. However, many codes make it difficult to use non-industrial materials; indeed, many of the industrial materials would not meet the demands that must be now met if they were now being introduced as new materials. Consequently, there is a need to develop codes to facilitate the use of a wider range of materials than in current use, and research is needed to assist this development. Sustainable regulation should take into account the full range of real impacts that materials and systems have in areas such as resource use and

  19. Automation of the CCTV-mediated detection of individuals illegally carrying firearms: combining psychological and technological approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darker, Iain T.; Kuo, Paul; Yang, Ming Yuan; Blechko, Anastassia; Grecos, Christos; Makris, Dimitrios; Nebel, Jean-Christophe; Gale, Alastair G.

    2009-05-01

    Findings from the current UK national research programme, MEDUSA (Multi Environment Deployable Universal Software Application), are presented. MEDUSA brings together two approaches to facilitate the design of an automatic, CCTV-based firearm detection system: psychological-to elicit strategies used by CCTV operators; and machine vision-to identify key cues derived from camera imagery. Potentially effective human- and machine-based strategies have been identified; these will form elements of the final system. The efficacies of these algorithms have been tested on staged CCTV footage in discriminating between firearms and matched distractor objects. Early results indicate the potential for this combined approach.

  20. Science and technology for a sustainable energy future: Accomplishments of the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.A.; Vaughan, K.H.

    1995-03-01

    Accomplishments of the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory are presented. Included are activities performed in the utilities, transportation, industrial, and buildings technology areas.