Science.gov

Sample records for combined travel demand

  1. Travel Demand Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Southworth, Frank; Garrow, Dr. Laurie

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes the principal types of both passenger and freight demand models in use today, providing a brief history of model development supported by references to a number of popular texts on the subject, and directing the reader to papers covering some of the more recent technical developments in the area. Over the past half century a variety of methods have been used to estimate and forecast travel demands, drawing concepts from economic/utility maximization theory, transportation system optimization and spatial interaction theory, using and often combining solution techniques as varied as Box-Jenkins methods, non-linear multivariate regression, non-linear mathematical programming, and agent-based microsimulation.

  2. Fundamental Travel Demand Model Example

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanssen, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Instances of transportation models are abundant and detailed "how to" instruction is available in the form of transportation software help documentation. The purpose of this paper is to look at the fundamental inputs required to build a transportation model by developing an example passenger travel demand model. The example model reduces the scale to a manageable size for the purpose of illustrating the data collection and analysis required before the first step of the model begins. This aspect of the model development would not reasonably be discussed in software help documentation (it is assumed the model developer comes prepared). Recommendations are derived from the example passenger travel demand model to suggest future work regarding the data collection and analysis required for a freight travel demand model.

  3. World Air Travel Demand, 1950-1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarames, G. N.

    1972-01-01

    Total world scheduled air passenger traffic carried by the airlines of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), excluding the U.S.S.R., increased from 17.4 billion passenger miles in 1950 to 237.4 billion in 1970. This represents an average annual growth rate of 14% during the past two decades. The U.S.S.R. became a member of ICAO in 1970, and Aeroflot - the only Russian airline - reported 49 billion passenger miles for 1970. This traffic, which encompasses both domestic and international travel as well as some nonscheduled flights, is not included in the ICAO world totals shown in this report.

  4. A unifying framework of the demand for transnational medical travel.

    PubMed

    Osterle, August; Johnson, Tricia; Delgado, Jose

    2013-01-01

    Transnational medical travel has gained attention recently as a strategy for patients to obtain care that is higher quality, costs less, or offers improved access relative to care provided within their home countries. This article examines institutional environments in the European Union and United States that influence transnational medical travel, describes the conceptual model of demand for medical travel, and illustrates individual dimensions in the conceptual model of medical travel using a series of case studies. The conceptual model of medical travel is predicated on Andersen's behavioral model of health services. Transnational medical travel is a heterogeneous phenomenon that is influenced by a number of patient-related factors and by the institutional environment in which the patient resides. While cost, access, and quality are commonly cited factors that influence a patient's decision regarding where to seek care, multiple factors may simultaneously influence the decision about the destination for care, including culture, social factors, and the institutional environment. The conceptual framework addresses the patient-related factors that influence where a patient seeks care. This framework can help researchers and regulatory bodies to evaluate the opportunities and the risks of transnational medical travel and help providers and governments to develop international patient programs.

  5. Community structure in traffic zones based on travel demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Li; Ling, Ximan; He, Kun; Tan, Qian

    2016-09-01

    Large structure in complex networks can be studied by dividing it into communities or modules. Urban traffic system is one of the most critical infrastructures. It can be abstracted into a complex network composed of tightly connected groups. Here, we analyze community structure in urban traffic zones based on the community detection method in network science. Spectral algorithm using the eigenvectors of matrices is employed. Our empirical results indicate that the traffic communities are variant with the travel demand distribution, since in the morning the majority of the passengers are traveling from home to work and in the evening they are traveling a contrary direction. Meanwhile, the origin-destination pairs with large number of trips play a significant role in urban traffic network's community division. The layout of traffic community in a city also depends on the residents' trajectories.

  6. Responding to traveling patients' seasonal demand for health care services.

    PubMed

    Al-Haque, Shahed; Ceyhan, Mehmet Erkan; Chan, Stephanie H; Nightingale, Deborah J

    2015-01-01

    The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) provides care to over 8 million Veterans and operates over 1,700 sites of care across 21 regional networks in the United States. Health care providers within VHA report large seasonal variation in the demand for services, especially in the southern United States because of arrival of "snowbirds" during the winter. Because resource allocation activities are primarily carried out through an annual budgeting process, the seasonal load imposed by "traveling Veterans"-Veterans that seek care at VHA sites outside of their home network-make providing high-quality services more challenging. This work constitutes the first major effort within VHA to understand the impact of traveling Veterans. We discovered strong seasonal fluctuations in demand at a clinic located in the southeastern United States and developed a seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average model to help the clinic forecast demand for its services with significantly less error than historical averaging. Monte Carlo simulation of the clinic revealed that physicians are overutilized, suggesting the need to re-evaluate how the clinic is currently staffed. More broadly, this study demonstrates how operations management methods can assist operational decision making at other clinics and medical centers both within and outside VHA. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  7. Utilizing Traveler Demand Modeling to Predict Future Commercial Flight Schedules in the NAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viken, Jeff; Dollyhigh, Samuel; Smith, Jeremy; Trani, Antonio; Baik, Hojong; Hinze, Nicholas; Ashiabor, Senanu

    2006-01-01

    The current work incorporates the Transportation Systems Analysis Model (TSAM) to predict the future demand for airline travel. TSAM is a multi-mode, national model that predicts the demand for all long distance travel at a county level based upon population and demographics. The model conducts a mode choice analysis to compute the demand for commercial airline travel based upon the traveler s purpose of the trip, value of time, cost and time of the trip,. The county demand for airline travel is then aggregated (or distributed) to the airport level, and the enplanement demand at commercial airports is modeled. With the growth in flight demand, and utilizing current airline flight schedules, the Fratar algorithm is used to develop future flight schedules in the NAS. The projected flights can then be flown through air transportation simulators to quantify the ability of the NAS to meet future demand. A major strength of the TSAM analysis is that scenario planning can be conducted to quantify capacity requirements at individual airports, based upon different future scenarios. Different demographic scenarios can be analyzed to model the demand sensitivity to them. Also, it is fairly well know, but not well modeled at the airport level, that the demand for travel is highly dependent on the cost of travel, or the fare yield of the airline industry. The FAA projects the fare yield (in constant year dollars) to keep decreasing into the future. The magnitude and/or direction of these projections can be suspect in light of the general lack of airline profits and the large rises in airline fuel cost. Also, changes in travel time and convenience have an influence on the demand for air travel, especially for business travel. Future planners cannot easily conduct sensitivity studies of future demand with the FAA TAF data, nor with the Boeing or Airbus projections. In TSAM many factors can be parameterized and various demand sensitivities can be predicted for future travel. These

  8. Wilderness Recreation Demand: A Comparison of Travel Cost and On-Site Cost Models

    Treesearch

    J.M. Bowker; A. Askew; L. Seymour; J.P. Zhu; D. English; C.M. Starbuck

    2009-01-01

    This study used travel cost and on-site day cost models, coupled with the Forest Service’s National Visitor Use Monitoring data, to examine the demand for and value of recreation access to designated Wilderness.

  9. Effect of fare and travel time on the demand for domestic air transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eriksen, S. E.; Liu, E. W.

    1979-01-01

    An econometric travel demand model was presented. The model was used for analyzing long haul domestic passenger markets in the United States. The results showed the sensitivities of demand to changes in fares and speed reflecting technology through more efficient aircraft designs.

  10. Demand modelling of passenger air travel: An analysis and extension. Volume 1: Background and summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.

    1978-01-01

    The framework for a model of travel demand which will be useful in predicting the total market for air travel between two cities is discussed. Variables to be used in determining the need for air transportation where none currently exists and the effect of changes in system characteristics on attracting latent demand are identified. Existing models are examined in order to provide insight into their strong points and shortcomings. Much of the existing behavioral research in travel demand is incorporated to allow the inclusion of non-economic factors, such as convenience. The model developed is characterized as a market segmentation model. This is a consequence of the strengths of disaggregation and its natural evolution to a usable aggregate formulation. The need for this approach both pedagogically and mathematically is discussed.

  11. Demand modelling of passenger air travel: An analysis and extension, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.

    1978-01-01

    Previous intercity travel demand models in terms of their ability to predict air travel in a useful way and the need for disaggregation in the approach to demand modelling are evaluated. The viability of incorporating non-conventional factors (i.e. non-econometric, such as time and cost) in travel demand forecasting models are determined. The investigation of existing models is carried out in order to provide insight into their strong points and shortcomings. The model is characterized as a market segmentation model. This is a consequence of the strengths of disaggregation and its natural evolution to a usable aggregate formulation. The need for this approach both pedagogically and mathematically is discussed. In addition this volume contains two appendices which should prove useful to the non-specialist in the area.

  12. How Travel Demand Affects Detection of Non-Recurrent Traffic Congestion on Urban Road Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anbaroglu, B.; Heydecker, B.; Cheng, T.

    2016-06-01

    Occurrence of non-recurrent traffic congestion hinders the economic activity of a city, as travellers could miss appointments or be late for work or important meetings. Similarly, for shippers, unexpected delays may disrupt just-in-time delivery and manufacturing processes, which could lose them payment. Consequently, research on non-recurrent congestion detection on urban road networks has recently gained attention. By analysing large amounts of traffic data collected on a daily basis, traffic operation centres can improve their methods to detect non-recurrent congestion rapidly and then revise their existing plans to mitigate its effects. Space-time clusters of high link journey time estimates correspond to non-recurrent congestion events. Existing research, however, has not considered the effect of travel demand on the effectiveness of non-recurrent congestion detection methods. Therefore, this paper investigates how travel demand affects detection of non-recurrent traffic congestion detection on urban road networks. Travel demand has been classified into three categories as low, normal and high. The experiments are carried out on London's urban road network, and the results demonstrate the necessity to adjust the relative importance of the component evaluation criteria depending on the travel demand level.

  13. STUDYING TRAVEL-RELATED INDIVIDUAL ASSESSMENTS AND DESIRES BY COMBINING HIERARCHICALLY STRUCTURED ORDINAL VARIABLES

    PubMed Central

    Song, Tingting; Wittkowski, Knut M.

    2010-01-01

    Ordinal measures are frequently encountered in travel behavior research. This paper presents a new method for combining them when a hierarchical structure of the data can be presumed. This method is applied to study the subjective assessment of the amount of travel by different transportation modes among a group of French clerical workers, along with the desire to increase or decrease the use of such modes. Some advantages of this approach over traditional data reduction technique such as factor analysis when applied to ordinal data are then illustrated. In this study, combining evidence from several variables sheds light on the observed moderately negative relationship between the personal assessment of the amount of travel and the desire to increase or decrease it, thus integrating previous partial (univariate) results. We find a latent demand for travel, thus contributing to clarify the behavioral mechanisms behind the induced traffic phenomenon. Categorizing the above relationship by transportation mode shows a desire for a less environmental-friendly mix of modes (i.e. a greater desire to use heavy motorized modes and a lower desire to use two-wheeled modes), whenever the respondents do not feel to travel extensively. This result, combined with previous theoretical investigations concerning the determinants of the desire to alter trips consumption levels, shows the importance of making people aware of how much they travel. PMID:20953273

  14. STUDYING TRAVEL-RELATED INDIVIDUAL ASSESSMENTS AND DESIRES BY COMBINING HIERARCHICALLY STRUCTURED ORDINAL VARIABLES.

    PubMed

    Diana, Marco; Song, Tingting; Wittkowski, Knut M

    2009-03-01

    Ordinal measures are frequently encountered in travel behavior research. This paper presents a new method for combining them when a hierarchical structure of the data can be presumed. This method is applied to study the subjective assessment of the amount of travel by different transportation modes among a group of French clerical workers, along with the desire to increase or decrease the use of such modes. Some advantages of this approach over traditional data reduction technique such as factor analysis when applied to ordinal data are then illustrated. In this study, combining evidence from several variables sheds light on the observed moderately negative relationship between the personal assessment of the amount of travel and the desire to increase or decrease it, thus integrating previous partial (univariate) results. We find a latent demand for travel, thus contributing to clarify the behavioral mechanisms behind the induced traffic phenomenon. Categorizing the above relationship by transportation mode shows a desire for a less environmental-friendly mix of modes (i.e. a greater desire to use heavy motorized modes and a lower desire to use two-wheeled modes), whenever the respondents do not feel to travel extensively. This result, combined with previous theoretical investigations concerning the determinants of the desire to alter trips consumption levels, shows the importance of making people aware of how much they travel.

  15. Analysis of the Effects of Connected–Automated Vehicle Technologies on Travel Demand

    SciTech Connect

    Auld, Joshua; Sokolov, Vadim; Stephens, Thomas S.

    2017-01-01

    Connected–automated vehicle (CAV) technologies are likely to have significant effects not only on how vehicles operate in the transportation system, but also on how individuals behave and use their vehicles. While many CAV technologies—such as connected adaptive cruise control and ecosignals—have the potential to increase network throughput and efficiency, many of these same technologies have a secondary effect of reducing driver burden, which can drive changes in travel behavior. Such changes in travel behavior—in effect, lowering the cost of driving—have the potential to increase greatly the utilization of the transportation system with concurrent negative externalities, such as congestion, energy use, and emissions, working against the positive effects on the transportation system resulting from increased capacity. To date, few studies have analyzed the potential effects on CAV technologies from a systems perspective; studies often focus on gains and losses to an individual vehicle, at a single intersection, or along a corridor. However, travel demand and traffic flow constitute a complex, adaptive, nonlinear system. Therefore, in this study, an advanced transportation systems simulation model—POLARIS—was used. POLARIS includes cosimulation of travel behavior and traffic flow to study the potential effects of several CAV technologies at the regional level. Various technology penetration levels and changes in travel time sensitivity have been analyzed to determine a potential range of effects on vehicle miles traveled from various CAV technologies.

  16. Estimating the demand for drop-off recycling sites: a random utility travel cost approach.

    PubMed

    Sidique, Shaufique F; Lupi, Frank; Joshi, Satish V

    2013-09-30

    Drop-off recycling is one of the most widely adopted recycling programs in the United States. Despite its wide implementation, relatively little literature addresses the demand for drop-off recycling. This study examines the demand for drop-off recycling sites as a function of travel costs and various site characteristics using the random utility model (RUM). The findings of this study indicate that increased travel costs significantly reduce the frequency of visits to drop-off sites implying that the usage pattern of a site is influenced by its location relative to where people live. This study also demonstrates that site specific characteristics such as hours of operation, the number of recyclables accepted, acceptance of commingled recyclables, and acceptance of yard-waste affect the frequency of visits to drop-off sites. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of travel distance on household demand for typhoid vaccines: implications for planning.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dohyeong; Lauria, Donald T; Poulos, Christine; Dong, Baiqing; Whittington, Dale

    2014-01-01

    Typhoid fever causes millions of illnesses and hundreds of thousands of deaths yearly. Vaccinations would mitigate this problem, but the users would probably have to pay some or most of the cost. Several willingness-to-pay studies have assessed the effect of price on private demand to provide a basis for financial planning of campaigns, but the effect of travel distance, which is a potentially important determinant of demand, has not been studied. This paper thus has two objectives: (i) conduct a willingness-to-pay survey to assess the effects of distance, price and other variables on the private demand for typhoid vaccinations in a rural township of China where a campaign is under consideration; and (ii) embed the demand function in a mathematical model to address three planning questions; should each village have its own clinic, would one clinic be best or should the number of clinics be something in-between? Private vaccine demand was found to depend on and be inelastic with respect to both price and travel distance. A 1-km increase in distance caused the number of vaccinations demanded to decrease the same as a $0.5 increase in price. Thus, the marginal rate of substitution was $0.5 per km. A single clinic would be best for the township only if diseconomies of scale in supplying vaccinations exceeded the marginal rate of substitution. Otherwise, multiple clinics close to users would be optimal. Thus, deciding the number, location and capacities of clinics for vaccination planning is as important as deciding what price(s) to charge. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Combined Standby Transvenous Defibrillator and Demand Pacemaker.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-12-01

    AD-A097 441 CARDIAC CARE SYSTEMS INC RED BANK NJ F/B 6/5 COM13INED STANDBY TRANSVENOJS DEFIBRILLATOR AND DEMAND PACEMAKER--ETC(U) DEC 75 L RUBIN...Development Command Fort Detrick, Frederick, MD 21701 Contract Number DAMD17-74-C-4108. Cardiac Care Systems, Inc. 80 E. Front Street Red Bank , NJ...8217 Cardiac Care Systems, Inc. 4I 80 E. Front Street 61 3121A1j0.4 Red Bank , NJ 07701 a .0_ e- /i\\ - -__________ I1. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 1.)42

  19. Study of an intraurban travel demand model incorporating commuter preference variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holligan, P. E.; Coote, M. A.; Rushmer, C. R.; Fanning, M. L.

    1971-01-01

    The model is based on the substantial travel data base for the nine-county San Francisco Bay Area, provided by the Metropolitan Transportation Commission. The model is of the abstract type, and makes use of commuter attitudes towards modes and simple demographic characteristics of zones in a region to predict interzonal travel by mode for the region. A characterization of the STOL/VTOL mode was extrapolated by means of a subjective comparison of its expected characteristics with those of modes characterized by the survey. Predictions of STOL demand were made for the Bay Area and an aircraft network was developed to serve this demand. When this aircraft system is compared to the base case system, the demand for STOL service has increased five fold and the resulting economics show considerable benefit from the increased scale of operations. In the previous study all systems required subsidy in varying amounts. The new system shows a substantial profit at an average fare of $3.55 per trip.

  20. Travel and electricity demand analysis of potential US high-speed rail and maglev corridors. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, A.D.; Pitstick, M.E.; Rote, D.M.; Johnson, L.R.; Bernard, M.J. III

    1994-01-01

    High-speed rail (HSR) and magnetically levitated (maglev) vehicles will provide an alternative mode of transportation for intercity travel, particularly for short and medium-length trips between 100 and 600 miles (160 to 960 kilometers). A significant portion of highway and air travel can potentially be diverted to such high-speed ground transportation (HSGT) systems. Also, electric utilities will have to meet the energy demands of these systems. Because these systems require significant investments and time to construct an extensive network, they need more time for analysis and planning. This study evaluates the patterns of growth for these systems and the factors affecting that growth for the year 2010 to determine the magnitude of intercity travel, the basis for HSGT use and electricity demand. To forecast the number and frequency of intercity trips, a methodology was developed that accounts for the travelers` socioeconomic status and the attractiveness of metropolitan areas. The study revealed that aggregate travel demand relied upon population growth, the employment status of the traveler, their household size, and income. Further, the study projects travel for 78 major metropolitan areas via air and highway, and identifies the 12 highest density corridors, describing the potential for HSGT systems to substitute some of that travel. In addition, the study estimates the energy demand and power requirements for a representative high-speed rail and maglev system for each corridor and the corridor connections.

  1. Wildfire effects on hiking and biking demand in New Mexico: a travel cost study.

    PubMed

    Hesseln, Hayley; Loomis, John B; González-Cabán, Armando; Alexander, Susan

    2003-12-01

    We use a travel cost model to test the effects of wild and prescribed fire on visitation by hikers and mountain bikers in New Mexico. Our results indicate that net benefits for mountain bikers is $150 per trip and that they take an average of 6.2 trips per year. Hikers take 2.8 trips per year with individual net benefits per trip of $130. Both hikers' and mountain bikers' demand functions react adversely to prescribed burning. Net benefits for both groups fall as areas recover from prescribed burns. Because both visitation and annual recreation benefits decrease to these two types of visitors, this gives rise to multiple use costs associated with prescribed burning. With respect to wildfire, hikers and mountain bikers both exhibit decreased visitation as areas recover from wildfires, however, only hikers indicate an increase in per trip net benefits. Bikers' demand effectively drops to zero. These results differ from previous findings in the literature and have implications for efficient implementation of the National Fire Plan and whether prescribed burning is a cost effective tool for multiple use management of National Forests. Specifically, that fire and recreation managers cannot expect recreation users to react similarly to fire across recreation activities, or different geographic regions. What is cost effective in one region may not be so in another.

  2. Responses of Lower-Body Power and Match Running Demands Following Long-Haul Travel in International Rugby Sevens Players.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, John A; Pumpa, Kate L; Pyne, David B

    2017-03-01

    Mitchell, JA, Pumpa, KL, and Pyne, DB. Responses of lowerbody power and match running demands after long-haul travel in international rugby sevens players. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 686-695, 2017-This study determined the effect of long-haul (>5 hours) travel on lower-body power and match running demands in international rugby sevens players. Lower-body power was assessed in 22 male international rugby sevens players (age 21.7 ± 2.7 years, mass 89.0 ± 6.7 kg, stature 180.5 ± 6.2 cm; mean ± SD) monitored over 17 rugby sevens tournaments. A countermovement jump was used to monitor lower-body power (peak and mean power) over repeated three week travel and competition periods (pretravel, posttravel, and posttournament). Small decreases were evident in peak power after both short and long-haul travel (-4.0%, ±3.2%; mean, ±90% confidence limits) with further reductions in peak and mean power posttournament (-4.5%, ±2.3% and -3.8%, ±1.5%) culminating in a moderate decrease in peak power overall (-7.4%, ±4.0%). A subset of 12 players (completing a minimum of 8 tournaments) had the effects of match running demands assessed with lower-body power. In this subset, long-haul travel elicited a large decrease in lower-body peak (-9.4%, ±3.5%) and mean power (-5.6%, ±2.9%) over the monitoring period, with a small decrease (-4.3%, ±3.0% and -2.2%, ±1.7%) posttravel and moderate decrease (-5.4%, ±2.5% and -3.5%, ±1.9%) posttournament, respectively. Match running demands were monitored through global positioning system. In long-haul tournaments, the 12 players covered ∼13%, ±13% greater total distance (meter) and ∼11%, ±10% higher average game meters >5 m·s when compared with short-haul (<5 hours) travel. Effective pretravel and posttravel player management strategies are indicated to reduce neuromuscular fatigue and running load demands in rugby sevens tournaments after long-haul travel.

  3. Solidarity by demand? Exit and voice in international medical travel - the case of Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Ormond, Meghann

    2015-01-01

    Globally, more patients are intentionally travelling abroad as consumers for medical care. However, while scholars have begun to examine international medical travel's (IMT) impacts on the people and places that receive medical travellers, study of its impacts on medical travellers' home contexts has been negligible and largely speculative. While proponents praise IMT's potential to make home health systems more responsive to the needs of market-savvy healthcare consumers, critics identify it as a way to further de-politicise the satisfaction of healthcare needs. This article draws from work on political consumerism, health advocacy and social movements to argue for a reframing of IMT not as a 'one-off' statement about or an event external to struggles over access, rights and recognition within medical travellers' home health systems but rather as one of a range of critical forms of on-going engagement embedded within these struggles. To do this, the limited extant empirical work addressing domestic impacts of IMT is reviewed and a case study of Indonesian medical travel to Malaysia is presented. The case study material draws from 85 interviews undertaken in 2007-08 and 2012 with Indonesian and Malaysian respondents involved in IMT as care recipients, formal and informal care-providers, intermediaries, promoters and policy-makers. Evidence from the review and case study suggests that IMT may effect political and social change within medical travellers' home contexts at micro and macro levels by altering the perspectives, habits, expectations and accountability of, and complicity among, medical travellers, their families, communities, formal and informal intermediaries, and medical providers both within and beyond the container of the nation-state. Impacts are conditioned by the ideological foundations underpinning home political and social systems, the status of a medical traveller's ailment or therapy, and the existence of organised support for recognition and

  4. Prediction of a service demand using combined forecasting approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ling

    2017-08-01

    Forecasting facilitates cutting down operational and management costs while ensuring service level for a logistics service provider. Our case study here is to investigate how to forecast short-term logistic demand for a LTL carrier. Combined approach depends on several forecasting methods simultaneously, instead of a single method. It can offset the weakness of a forecasting method with the strength of another, which could improve the precision performance of prediction. Main issues of combined forecast modeling are how to select methods for combination, and how to find out weight coefficients among methods. The principles of method selection include that each method should apply to the problem of forecasting itself, also methods should differ in categorical feature as much as possible. Based on these principles, exponential smoothing, ARIMA and Neural Network are chosen to form the combined approach. Besides, least square technique is employed to settle the optimal weight coefficients among forecasting methods. Simulation results show the advantage of combined approach over the three single methods. The work done in the paper helps manager to select prediction method in practice.

  5. Traveling wave device for combining or splitting symmetric and asymmetric waves

    DOEpatents

    Möbius, Arnold; Ives, Robert Lawrence

    2005-07-19

    A traveling wave device for the combining or splitting of symmetric and asymmetric traveling wave energy includes a feed waveguide for traveling wave energy, the feed waveguide having an input port and a launching port, a reflector for coupling wave energy between the feed waveguide and a final waveguide for the collection and transport of wave energy to or from the reflector. The power combiner has a launching port for symmetrical waves which includes a cylindrical section coaxial to the feed waveguide, and a launching port for asymmetric waves which includes a sawtooth rotated about a central axis.

  6. Understanding Air Transportation Market Dynamics Using a Search Algorithm for Calibrating Travel Demand and Price

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Vivek; Horio, Brant M.; DeCicco, Anthony H.; Hasan, Shahab; Stouffer, Virginia L.; Smith, Jeremy C.; Guerreiro, Nelson M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a search algorithm based framework to calibrate origin-destination (O-D) market specific airline ticket demands and prices for the Air Transportation System (ATS). This framework is used for calibrating an agent based model of the air ticket buy-sell process - Airline Evolutionary Simulation (Airline EVOS) -that has fidelity of detail that accounts for airline and consumer behaviors and the interdependencies they share between themselves and the NAS. More specificially, this algorithm simultaneous calibrates demand and airfares for each O-D market, to within specified threshold of a pre-specified target value. The proposed algorithm is illustrated with market data targets provided by the Transportation System Analysis Model (TSAM) and Airline Origin and Destination Survey (DB1B). Although we specify these models and datasources for this calibration exercise, the methods described in this paper are applicable to calibrating any low-level model of the ATS to some other demand forecast model-based data. We argue that using a calibration algorithm such as the one we present here to synchronize ATS models with specialized forecast demand models, is a powerful tool for establishing credible baseline conditions in experiments analyzing the effects of proposed policy changes to the ATS.

  7. Combination of Chaotic Neurodynamics with the 2-opt Algorithm to Solve Traveling Salesman Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, M.; Ikeguchi, T.; Aihara, K.

    1997-09-01

    We propose a novel approach for combinatorial optimization problems. For solving the traveling salesman problems, we combine chaotic neurodynamics with heuristic algorithm. We select the heuristic algorithm of 2-opt as a basic part, because it is well understood that this simple algorithm is very effective for the traveling salesman problems. Although the conventional approaches with chaotic neurodynamics were only applied to such very small problems as 10 cities, our method exhibits higher performance for larger size problems with the order of 102.

  8. Consumer Expectations of Capacity Constrains and Their Effect on the Demand for Multi-Class Air Travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Battersby, Bryn D.

    2003-01-01

    This paper argues that a consumer's decision on ticket class takes into account the expected likelihood of obtaining a seat in a particular class which, in turn, partially depends on an optimum "transaction cost". Taking into account the preferences of the consumer and the information that the consumer is endowed with, the consumer will select a ticket that includes its own optimal transaction cost. This motivates the inclusion of the capacity constraint as a proxy independent variable for these consumer expectations This then forms the basis of a model of air-travel demand with specific reference to Australia. A censored likelihood function allowing for correlation in the disturbance term across k classes is introduced. The correlation in the disturbances arises as a result of the interdependence of the capacity constraints in k different ticket classes on each flight.

  9. Reagan's Challenger Tribute: Combining Generic Constraints and Situational Demands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mister, Steven M.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses President Reagan's televised address following the space shuttle tragedy and the unique rhetorical demands of the situation. Examines how generic constraints that establish commonalities among all eulogies are interwoven with the responses to the specific needs of a nation in crisis. (NKA)

  10. Reagan's Challenger Tribute: Combining Generic Constraints and Situational Demands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mister, Steven M.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses President Reagan's televised address following the space shuttle tragedy and the unique rhetorical demands of the situation. Examines how generic constraints that establish commonalities among all eulogies are interwoven with the responses to the specific needs of a nation in crisis. (NKA)

  11. POLARIS: Agent-Based Modeling Framework Development and Implementation for Integrated Travel Demand and Network and Operations Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Auld, Joshua; Hope, Michael; Ley, Hubert; Sokolov, Vadim; Xu, Bo; Zhang, Kuilin

    2016-03-01

    This paper discusses the development of an agent-based modelling software development kit, and the implementation and validation of a model using it that integrates dynamic simulation of travel demand, network supply and network operations. A description is given of the core utilities in the kit: a parallel discrete event engine, interprocess exchange engine, and memory allocator, as well as a number of ancillary utilities: visualization library, database IO library, and scenario manager. The overall framework emphasizes the design goals of: generality, code agility, and high performance. This framework allows the modeling of several aspects of transportation system that are typically done with separate stand-alone software applications, in a high-performance and extensible manner. The issue of integrating such models as dynamic traffic assignment and disaggregate demand models has been a long standing issue for transportation modelers. The integrated approach shows a possible way to resolve this difficulty. The simulation model built from the POLARIS framework is a single, shared-memory process for handling all aspects of the integrated urban simulation. The resulting gains in computational efficiency and performance allow planning models to be extended to include previously separate aspects of the urban system, enhancing the utility of such models from the planning perspective. Initial tests with case studies involving traffic management center impacts on various network events such as accidents, congestion and weather events, show the potential of the system.

  12. A Forecasting Model for Feed Grain Demand Based on Combined Dynamic Model.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tiejun; Yang, Na; Zhu, Chunhua

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the long-term prediction accuracy of feed grain demand, a dynamic forecast model of long-term feed grain demand is realized with joint multivariate regression model, of which the correlation between the feed grain demand and its influence factors is analyzed firstly; then the change trend of various factors that affect the feed grain demand is predicted by using ARIMA model. The simulation results show that the accuracy of proposed combined dynamic forecasting model is obviously higher than that of the grey system model. Thus, it indicates that the proposed algorithm is effective.

  13. A Forecasting Model for Feed Grain Demand Based on Combined Dynamic Model

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tiejun

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the long-term prediction accuracy of feed grain demand, a dynamic forecast model of long-term feed grain demand is realized with joint multivariate regression model, of which the correlation between the feed grain demand and its influence factors is analyzed firstly; then the change trend of various factors that affect the feed grain demand is predicted by using ARIMA model. The simulation results show that the accuracy of proposed combined dynamic forecasting model is obviously higher than that of the grey system model. Thus, it indicates that the proposed algorithm is effective. PMID:27698661

  14. RAPID COMMUNICATION: A combined travelling wave dielectrophoresis and electrorotation device: applied to the concentration and viability determination of Cryptosporidium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goater, Andrew D.; Burt, Julian P. H.; Pethig, Ronald

    1997-09-01

    We describe a microelectrode device, fabricated using photolithography and laser ablation, that combines the electrokinetic effects of travelling wave dielectrophoresis and electrorotation. Here it has been used to concentrate and then assay the viability of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts.

  15. Automatic Combination of Operators in a Genetic Algorithm to Solve the Traveling Salesman Problem

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Genetic algorithms are powerful search methods inspired by Darwinian evolution. To date, they have been applied to the solution of many optimization problems because of the easy use of their properties and their robustness in finding good solutions to difficult problems. The good operation of genetic algorithms is due in part to its two main variation operators, namely, crossover and mutation operators. Typically, in the literature, we find the use of a single crossover and mutation operator. However, there are studies that have shown that using multi-operators produces synergy and that the operators are mutually complementary. Using multi-operators is not a simple task because which operators to use and how to combine them must be determined, which in itself is an optimization problem. In this paper, it is proposed that the task of exploring the different combinations of the crossover and mutation operators can be carried out by evolutionary computing. The crossover and mutation operators used are those typically used for solving the traveling salesman problem. The process of searching for good combinations was effective, yielding appropriate and synergic combinations of the crossover and mutation operators. The numerical results show that the use of the combination of operators obtained by evolutionary computing is better than the use of a single operator and the use of multi-operators combined in the standard way. The results were also better than those of the last operators reported in the literature. PMID:26367182

  16. Emergency management training in Korea: combining and balancing supply- and demand-centered paradigms.

    PubMed

    Ha, Kyoo-Man; Park, Sosoon; Yoon, Yi; Nam, Ki-Hun; Oh, Hyeon-Mun

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to encourage NEMA (or newly named as MPSS) to combine its supply-centered paradigm with a newly proposed "demand-centered paradigm" in the Korean field of emergency management training (EMT). Based on qualitative content analysis, this paper defined the current field of EMT to be a supply-centered paradigm via three components: locations, courses, and participants. This paradigm focuses on EMT provision as supplied and dictated by the national government. On the other hand, a demand-centered model is about looking into stakeholders' actual needs for EMT. In this regard, alternatives with reference to the demand-centered paradigm via the same three components were discussed and considered. The key tenet is that having revealed that NEMA has unequivocally focused on the results side or effectiveness of EMT via a supply-centered paradigm, Korea should address and consider the same three components, this time by fusing and incorporating a fair process of EMT by enlisting active roles from the local community, academic scholars, and civilian training attendees in a demand-centered paradigm.

  17. Estimation of Biological Oxygen Demand and Chemical Oxygen Demand for Combined Sewer Systems Using Synchronous Fluorescence Spectra

    PubMed Central

    Hur, Jin; Lee, Bo-Mi; Lee, Tae-Hwan; Park, Dae-Hee

    2010-01-01

    Real-time monitoring of water quality for sewer system is required for efficient sewer network design because it provides information on the precise loading of pollutant to wastewater treatment facilities and the impact of loading on receiving water. In this study, synchronous fluorescence spectra and its first derivatives were investigated using a number of wastewater samples collected in sewer systems in urban and non-urban areas, and the optimum fluorescence feature was explored for the estimation of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations of sewer samples. The temporal variations in BOD and COD showed a regular pattern for urban areas whereas they were relatively irregular for non-urban areas. Irrespective of the sewer pipes and the types of the areas, two distinct peaks were identified from the synchronous fluorescence spectra, which correspond to protein-like fluorescence (PLF) and humic-like fluorescence (HLF), respectively. HLF in sewer samples appears to be associated with fluorescent whitening agents. Five fluorescence characteristics were selected from the synchronous spectra and the first-derivatives. Among the selected fluorescence indices, a peak in the PLF region (i.e., Index I) showed the highest correlation coefficient with both BOD and COD. A multiple regression approach based on suspended solid (SS) and Index I used to compensate for the contribution of SS to BOD and COD revealed an improvement in the estimation capability, showing good correlation coefficients of 0.92 and 0.94 for BOD and COD, respectively. PMID:22319257

  18. Estimation of biological oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand for combined sewer systems using synchronous fluorescence spectra.

    PubMed

    Hur, Jin; Lee, Bo-Mi; Lee, Tae-Hwan; Park, Dae-Hee

    2010-01-01

    Real-time monitoring of water quality for sewer system is required for efficient sewer network design because it provides information on the precise loading of pollutant to wastewater treatment facilities and the impact of loading on receiving water. In this study, synchronous fluorescence spectra and its first derivatives were investigated using a number of wastewater samples collected in sewer systems in urban and non-urban areas, and the optimum fluorescence feature was explored for the estimation of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations of sewer samples. The temporal variations in BOD and COD showed a regular pattern for urban areas whereas they were relatively irregular for non-urban areas. Irrespective of the sewer pipes and the types of the areas, two distinct peaks were identified from the synchronous fluorescence spectra, which correspond to protein-like fluorescence (PLF) and humic-like fluorescence (HLF), respectively. HLF in sewer samples appears to be associated with fluorescent whitening agents. Five fluorescence characteristics were selected from the synchronous spectra and the first-derivatives. Among the selected fluorescence indices, a peak in the PLF region (i.e., Index I) showed the highest correlation coefficient with both BOD and COD. A multiple regression approach based on suspended solid (SS) and Index I used to compensate for the contribution of SS to BOD and COD revealed an improvement in the estimation capability, showing good correlation coefficients of 0.92 and 0.94 for BOD and COD, respectively.

  19. A combined photocatalytic determination system for chemical oxygen demand with a highly oxidative reagent.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Aiyong; Zhou, Minghua; Zhou, Qixing

    2011-02-07

    This study focuses on the proposal and validation of a combined photocatalytic (PC) system and a three-parameterized procedure for the determination of chemical oxygen demand (COD; PcCOD(combined)), with a highly oxidative reagent utilized as a photoelectron scavenger and signal indicator. The PcCOD(combined) was the functional combination of photon-efficient thin-layer photocatalytic oxidation, conventional bulk-phase photocatalytic oxidation and photocarrier-efficient high-activity photocatalytic reduction in one single photodigestion system, and consequently, this system possessed high photon-utilization efficiency, automatic stirring function and satisfactory determination characteristics. In comparison with the conventional one-parameterized procedure, the three-parameterized procedure introduces the blank and total photocatalytic reduction responses as two of the three significant analytical parameters. Under the optimized pH value of 3.0-4.5 and a rotating rate of 40 rpm, the representative KMnO(4) species was used for the PcCOD(combined) system as the combined high-activity oxidant, and a narrow and reliable analytical linear range of 0-260 mg L(-1) was achieved during the 10 min duration of the determinations. No observable interference of Cl(-) was found at concentration of the ion up to 2000 mg L(-1). A real sample analysis indicated that the measured values for the PcCOD(combined) were all within a relative deviation below 5% of COD(Cr) of the standard method, which further validates the practical feasibility of the proposed PcCOD(combined) system.

  20. Travelers' Health: Immunocompromised Travelers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Books, Journals, Articles & Websites Resources for the Travel Industry Yellow Book Contents Chapter 8 (15) Immunocompromised Travelers ... with the patient’s permission) to discuss the traveler’s fitness to travel, give specific medical advice for the ...

  1. Combining a Spatial Model and Demand Forecasts to Map Future Surface Coal Mining in Appalachia

    PubMed Central

    Strager, Michael P.; Strager, Jacquelyn M.; Evans, Jeffrey S.; Dunscomb, Judy K.; Kreps, Brad J.; Maxwell, Aaron E.

    2015-01-01

    Predicting the locations of future surface coal mining in Appalachia is challenging for a number of reasons. Economic and regulatory factors impact the coal mining industry and forecasts of future coal production do not specifically predict changes in location of future coal production. With the potential environmental impacts from surface coal mining, prediction of the location of future activity would be valuable to decision makers. The goal of this study was to provide a method for predicting future surface coal mining extents under changing economic and regulatory forecasts through the year 2035. This was accomplished by integrating a spatial model with production demand forecasts to predict (1 km2) gridded cell size land cover change. Combining these two inputs was possible with a ratio which linked coal extraction quantities to a unit area extent. The result was a spatial distribution of probabilities allocated over forecasted demand for the Appalachian region including northern, central, southern, and eastern Illinois coal regions. The results can be used to better plan for land use alterations and potential cumulative impacts. PMID:26090883

  2. Combining a Spatial Model and Demand Forecasts to Map Future Surface Coal Mining in Appalachia.

    PubMed

    Strager, Michael P; Strager, Jacquelyn M; Evans, Jeffrey S; Dunscomb, Judy K; Kreps, Brad J; Maxwell, Aaron E

    2015-01-01

    Predicting the locations of future surface coal mining in Appalachia is challenging for a number of reasons. Economic and regulatory factors impact the coal mining industry and forecasts of future coal production do not specifically predict changes in location of future coal production. With the potential environmental impacts from surface coal mining, prediction of the location of future activity would be valuable to decision makers. The goal of this study was to provide a method for predicting future surface coal mining extents under changing economic and regulatory forecasts through the year 2035. This was accomplished by integrating a spatial model with production demand forecasts to predict (1 km2) gridded cell size land cover change. Combining these two inputs was possible with a ratio which linked coal extraction quantities to a unit area extent. The result was a spatial distribution of probabilities allocated over forecasted demand for the Appalachian region including northern, central, southern, and eastern Illinois coal regions. The results can be used to better plan for land use alterations and potential cumulative impacts.

  3. Travelers' Health: Pregnant Travelers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Travel Families with Children Fish Poisoning in Travelers Food and Water Getting Health Care Abroad Getting Sick After Travel High Altitudes Hot Climates Humanitarian Aid Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador Insurance International Adoption Jet Lag Last-Minute Travel Long-Term ...

  4. Intercity Travel Data Search.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Intercity Travel Data Search is an annotated bibliography on U.S. domestic intercity passenger travel by the four major modes of air, auto, bus and...socioeconomic, attitudinal and trip behavior characteristics of intercity travelers , and (3) demand models for predicting point-to-point intercity... travel . The bibliography totals 422 items, almost all published after 1964. Approximately 100 of these are in the first two subject areas and the

  5. [Clinical studies using the combination atovaquone-proguanil as malaria prophylaxis in non-immune adult and child travelers].

    PubMed

    Camus, D; Dutoit, E; Masson, V; Inglebert, P; Delhaes, L

    2002-01-01

    Prophylaxis for short-term travel in malaria-endemic areas can be difficult for two reasons. The first is that currently available antimalarial drugs are becoming less effective because of the ability of the parasite to adapt to drug pressure. The second involves poor compliance with chemoprophylactic regimens due to the highly restrictive conditions of administration and adverse drug side-effects, especially in "healthy" subjects. The combination of atovaquone/proguanil (Malarone) could provide an answer to both these problems since it is not only effective on multiresistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum but also simplifies the conditions of administration and shows good tolerance in adults and children.

  6. A Phosphorus Index that Combines Critical Source Areas and Transport Pathways using a Travel Time Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchanan, B. P.; Walter, T.; Shaw, S. B.; Easton, Z. M.

    2012-12-01

    Spatially distributed nonpoint source (NPS) pollution indices are used to identify areas in a watershed where potential pollutant loading coincides with runoff generating areas. However, most such indices either ignore the degree of hydrologic connectivity to the stream network or they estimate it based simply on the distance of the pollution generating area from an open channel. We propose an NPS pollution index based on runoff travel times from saturated variable source areas (VSA) to the natural stream network as a means for including hydrologic connectivity between source areas and streams. Although this method could be generalized to any pollutant transported by storm runoff, here we focus on phosphorus and refer to the index as the travel-time phosphorus index (TTPI). The TTPI was applied to a 38 km2 agricultural watershed in central New York and shown to yield realistic, spatially explicit predictions of critical phosphorus loading areas and routing pathways. One interesting finding is the potential role of man-made drainage networks (e.g., road- or agricultural-ditches) in NPS pollution and the possibilities of targeting water quality protection practices around or within these networks. Because the technique is GIS-based, relatively simple to apply, uses readily available geospatial data, and the theoretical underpinnings are transparent, it can provide a useful screening tool for water resource managers charged with the identification and remediation of critical NPS pollution source areas.

  7. A phosphorus index that combines critical source areas and transport pathways using a travel time approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchanan, Brian P.; Archibald, Josephine A.; Easton, Zachary M.; Shaw, Stephen B.; Schneider, Rebecca L.; Todd Walter, M.

    2013-04-01

    SummarySpatially distributed nonpoint source (NPS) pollution indices are used to identify areas in a watershed where potential pollutant loading coincides with runoff generating areas. However, most such indices either ignore the degree of hydrologic connectivity to the stream network or they estimate it based simply on the distance of the pollution generating area from an open channel. We propose an NPS pollution index based on runoff travel times from saturated variable source areas (VSAs) to the natural stream network as a means for including hydrologic connectivity between source areas and streams. Although this method could be generalized to any pollutant transported by storm runoff, here we focus on phosphorus and refer to the index as the travel-time phosphorus index (TTPI). The TTPI was applied to a 38 km2 agricultural watershed in central New York and shown to yield realistic, spatially explicit predictions of critical phosphorus loading areas and routing pathways. One interesting finding is the potential role of man-made drainage networks (e.g., road- or agricultural-ditches) in NPS pollution and the possibilities of targeting water quality protection practices around or within these networks. Because the technique is GIS-based, relatively simple to apply, uses readily available geospatial data, and the theoretical underpinnings are transparent, it can provide a useful screening tool for water resource managers charged with the identification and remediation of critical NPS pollution source areas.

  8. Differentiated Products Demand Systems from a Combination of Micro and Macro Data: The New Car Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Steven; Levinsohn, James; Pakes, Ariel

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we consider how rich sources of information on consumer choice can help to identify demand parameters in a widely used class of differentiated products demand models. Most important, we show how to use "second-choice" data on automotive purchases to obtain good estimates of substitution patterns in the automobile industry. We use…

  9. Differentiated Products Demand Systems from a Combination of Micro and Macro Data: The New Car Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Steven; Levinsohn, James; Pakes, Ariel

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we consider how rich sources of information on consumer choice can help to identify demand parameters in a widely used class of differentiated products demand models. Most important, we show how to use "second-choice" data on automotive purchases to obtain good estimates of substitution patterns in the automobile industry. We use…

  10. Management of traveller's diarrhoea with a combination of sodium butyrate, organic acids, and A-300 silicon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Krokowicz, Lukasz; Mackiewicz, Jacek; Wejman-Matela, Anna; Krokowicz, Piotr; Drews, Michal; Banasiewicz, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Traveller's diarrhoea (TD), defined by UNICEF/WHO as three or more unformed stools with or without other symptoms, imposes a considerable burden on travellers from developed countries. Various efforts have focused on decreasing the prevalence and severity of this condition. To assess the efficacy of a combination of sodium butyrate, organic acids, and A-300 silicon dioxide in treatment providing symptomatic relief of TD. The study was conducted in accordance with a protocol presented to the Bioethical committee of Poznan University of Medical Sciences. A total of 278 patients travelling to countries with higher risk of diarrhoea for at least 10 days were divided into a study arm being administered, in case of TD, a combination of sodium butyrate, organic acids, and A-300 silicon dioxide (n = 139) and a placebo arm (n = 139) with placebo administration. Forty-seven patients completed the study (22 in the study arm and 25 in the placebo arm). The diarrhoea occurrence after initiation of treatment at first symptoms was significantly lower in the study arm as compared to the placebo arm (9% vs. 36%, p = 0.041). Also, subjects from the study arm more frequently reported that the regimen administered had been efficient for their symptoms in comparison to the placebo arm (72.7% vs. 32%, p = 0.008). No adverse effects of the administered medication were noted during the study. Sodium butyrate, organic acids, and A-300 silicon dioxide can be successful in decreasing symptoms of TD. Because of its efficacy and lack of observed side effects it has a strong potential in the treatment of patients with TD.

  11. Management of traveller's diarrhoea with a combination of sodium butyrate, organic acids, and A-300 silicon dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Mackiewicz, Jacek; Wejman-Matela, Anna; Krokowicz, Piotr; Drews, Michal; Banasiewicz, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Traveller's diarrhoea (TD), defined by UNICEF/WHO as three or more unformed stools with or without other symptoms, imposes a considerable burden on travellers from developed countries. Various efforts have focused on decreasing the prevalence and severity of this condition. Aim To assess the efficacy of a combination of sodium butyrate, organic acids, and A-300 silicon dioxide in treatment providing symptomatic relief of TD. Material and methods The study was conducted in accordance with a protocol presented to the Bioethical committee of Poznan University of Medical Sciences. A total of 278 patients travelling to countries with higher risk of diarrhoea for at least 10 days were divided into a study arm being administered, in case of TD, a combination of sodium butyrate, organic acids, and A-300 silicon dioxide (n = 139) and a placebo arm (n = 139) with placebo administration. Results Forty-seven patients completed the study (22 in the study arm and 25 in the placebo arm). The diarrhoea occurrence after initiation of treatment at first symptoms was significantly lower in the study arm as compared to the placebo arm (9% vs. 36%, p = 0.041). Also, subjects from the study arm more frequently reported that the regimen administered had been efficient for their symptoms in comparison to the placebo arm (72.7% vs. 32%, p = 0.008). No adverse effects of the administered medication were noted during the study. Conclusions Sodium butyrate, organic acids, and A-300 silicon dioxide can be successful in decreasing symptoms of TD. Because of its efficacy and lack of observed side effects it has a strong potential in the treatment of patients with TD. PMID:25396003

  12. Valuing river characteristics using combined site choice and participation travel cost models.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, C; Markandya, A

    2006-08-01

    This paper presents new welfare measures for marginal changes in river quality in selected English rivers. The river quality indicators used include chemical, biological and habitat-level attributes. Economic values for recreational use of three types of river-upland, lowland and chalk-are presented. A survey of anglers was carried out and using these data, two travel cost models were estimated, one to predict the numbers of trips and the other to predict angling site choice. These models were then linked to estimate the welfare associated with marginal changes in river quality using the participation levels as estimated in the trip prediction model. The model results showed that higher flow rates, biological quality and nutrient pollution levels affect site choice and influence the likelihood of a fishing trip. Consumer surplus values per trip for a 10% change in river attributes range from pound 0.04 to pound 3.93 ( pound 2001) depending on the attribute.

  13. Physiological demand and pacing strategy during the new combined event in elite pentathletes.

    PubMed

    Le Meur, Yann; Dorel, Sylvain; Baup, Yann; Guyomarch, Jean Pierre; Roudaut, Christian; Hausswirth, Christophe

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate the physiological demands and effects of different pacing strategies on performance during the new combined event (CE) of the modern pentathlon (consisting of three pistol shooting sessions interspersed by three 1-km running legs). Nine elite pentathletes realised five tests: a free-paced CE during an international competition; an incremental running test to determine [Formula: see text] and its related velocity ([Formula: see text]) and three experimental time-trial CE, where the pacing strategy was manipulated (CE(ref), CE(100%), CE(105%)). CE(ref) reproduced the international competition strategy with a 170-m fast running start within the first 2 km. CE(100%) and CE(105%) imposed a constant strategy over km-1 and km-2 with a velocity of 100 and 105% of the mean speed adopted over the same sections during the international competition, respectively. Km-3 was always self-paced. The subjects ran CE(ref) at 99 ± 4% of [Formula: see text] and reached 100 ± 5, 100 ± 7, 99 ± 8% of [Formula: see text] at the end of kilometres 1, 2 and 3, respectively ([Formula: see text]: 72 ± 6 mL O(2) min(-1) kg(-1)), with a peak blood lactate concentration of 13.6 ± 1.5 mmol L(-1). No significant differences in overall performance were found between the pacing conditions (753 ± 30, 770 ± 39, 768 ± 27 s for CE(ref), CE(100%) and CE(105%), respectively, p = 0.63), but all of the shooting performance parameters were only stable in CE(ref). Completion of CE by elite pentathletes elicits a maximal aerobic contribution coupled with a high glycolytic supply. Manipulating the mean running speed over km-1 and km-2 had strong influence on the overall pacing strategy and induced minor differences in shooting performance, but it did not affect overall performance.

  14. Task Demands Interact with the Single and Combined Effects of Medication and Contingencies on Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamm, Leanne; Carlson, Caryn L.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate single and combined effects of stimulant medication and contingencies on the performance of ADHD children with tasks involving different cognitive demands. Method: Children diagnosed with ADHD participated in a within-subjects design. At two separate sessions, children on either medication or placebo (administered in a…

  15. Task Demands Interact with the Single and Combined Effects of Medication and Contingencies on Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamm, Leanne; Carlson, Caryn L.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate single and combined effects of stimulant medication and contingencies on the performance of ADHD children with tasks involving different cognitive demands. Method: Children diagnosed with ADHD participated in a within-subjects design. At two separate sessions, children on either medication or placebo (administered in a…

  16. Combination of a multimode antenna and TIAMO for traveling-wave imaging at 9.4 Tesla.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Jens; Mirkes, Christian; Shajan, G; Scheffler, Klaus; Pohmann, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the performance of a multimode antenna combined with time-interleaved acquisition of modes (TIAMO) for improved (1)H image homogeneity as compared to conventional traveling-wave imaging in the human brain at 9.4 Tesla (T). An adjustable three-port antenna was built to stimulate the propagation of three basic waveguide modes within a 9.4 T scanner bore. For TIAMO, two time-interleaved acquisitions using different linear combinations of these modes were optimized to achieve a homogeneous rooted sum-of-squares combination of their B1+ patterns ( B1,RSS+). The antenna's transmit and receive performance, as well as local specific absorption rate, were analyzed using experiments and numerical simulations. The optimized TIAMO B1,RSS+ combination was superior to radiofrequency shimming. Across the entire brain, it improved the homogeneity of the excitation field by a factor of two and its maximum-to-minimum ratio by almost a factor of five as compared to the circularly polarized mode. The two-fold increase in "virtual" receive channels enhanced the parallel imaging performance and enabled the use of higher acceleration factors. Despite the limited number of channels, a remote three-port antenna combined with TIAMO represents an easily implementable setup to achieve void-free (1)H images from the entire brain at 9.4 T, which can be used for anatomical localization and B0 shimming. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Impulsivity and alcohol demand in relation to combined alcohol and caffeine use.

    PubMed

    Amlung, Michael; Few, Lauren R; Howland, Jonathan; Rohsenow, Damaris J; Metrik, Jane; MacKillop, James

    2013-12-01

    Problematic alcohol use among college students continues to be a prominent concern in the United States, including the growing trend of consuming caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs). Epidemiologically, CAB use is associated with incremental risks from drinking, although these relationships could be due to common predisposing factors rather than specifically due to CABs. This study investigated the relationship between CAB use, alcohol misuse, and person-level characteristics, including impulsive personality traits, delayed reward discounting, and behavioral economic demand for alcohol use. Participants were 273 regularly drinking undergraduate students. Frequency of CAB use was assessed over the past month. A multidimensional assessment of impulsivity included the UPPS-P questionnaire, which measures positive and negative urgency, premeditation (lack thereof), perseverance (lack thereof), and sensation seeking (Lynam, Smith, Whiteside, & Cyders, 2007), and a validated questionnaire-based measure of delayed reward discounting. Demand was assessed via a hypothetical alcohol purchase task. Frequency of CAB consumption was significantly higher in men than in women and was also associated with higher impulsivity on the majority of the UPPS-P subscales, steeper delayed reward discounting, and greater demand for alcohol. Significant correlations between CAB use and both alcohol demand and lack of premeditation remained present after including level of alcohol misuse in partial correlations. In a hierarchical linear regression incorporating demographic, demand, and impulsivity variables, CAB frequency continued to be a significant predictor of hazardous alcohol use. These results suggest that although there are significant associations between CAB consumption and gender, impulsivity, and alcohol demand, CAB use continues to be associated with alcohol misuse after controlling for these variables.

  18. Combined Task and Physical Demands Analyses towards a Comprehensive Human Work Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    the task hierarchy) that exert forces and moments on neck joints along with any head -borne mass. These low level tasks clearly overlap with the...and whole missions. The result is a comprehensive model of tasks and associated physical demands from which one can estimate the accumulative neck ...Griffon Helicopter aircrew (Pilots and Flight Engineers) reported neck pain particularly when wearing Night Vision Goggles (NVGs) (Forde et al. , 2011

  19. Traveling Wave Tube (TVT) RF Power Combining Demonstration for use in the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downey, Joseph A.

    2004-01-01

    The Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) is set to launch between the years 2012 and 2015. It will possibly utilize a nuclear reactor power source and ion engines as it travels to the moons of Jupiter. The nuclear reactor will produce hundreds of kilowatts of power for propulsion, communication and various scientific instruments. Hence, the RF amplification devices aboard will be able to operate at a higher power level and data rate. The initial plan for the communications system is for an output of 1000 watts of RF power, a data rate of at least 10 megabits a second, and a frequency of 32 GHz. A higher data rate would be ideal to fully utilize the instruments aboard JIMO. At NASA Glenn, one of our roles in the JIMO project is to demonstrate RF power combining using multiple traveling wave tubes (TWT). In order for the power of separate TWT s to be combined, the RF output waves from each must be in-phase and have the same amplitude. Since different tubes act differently, we had to characterize each tube using a Network Analyzer. We took frequency sweeps and power sweeps to characterize each tube to ensure that they will behave similarly under the same conditions. The 200 watt Dornier tubes had been optimized to run at a lower power level (120 watts) for their extensive use in the ACTS program, so we also had to experiment with adjusting the voltage settings on several internal components (helix, anode, collector) of the tubes to reach the full 200 watt potential. from the ACTS program. Phase shifters and power attenuators were placed in the waveguide circuit at the inputs to the tubes so that adjustments could be made individually to match them exactly. A magic tee was used to route and combine the amplified electromagnetic RF waves on the tube output side. The demonstration of 200 watts of combined power was successful with efficiencies greater than 90% over a 500 MHz bandwidth. The next step will be to demonstrate the use of three amplifiers using two magic tees by

  20. Traveling Wave Tube (TVT) RF Power Combining Demonstration for use in the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downey, Joseph A.

    2004-01-01

    The Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) is set to launch between the years 2012 and 2015. It will possibly utilize a nuclear reactor power source and ion engines as it travels to the moons of Jupiter. The nuclear reactor will produce hundreds of kilowatts of power for propulsion, communication and various scientific instruments. Hence, the RF amplification devices aboard will be able to operate at a higher power level and data rate. The initial plan for the communications system is for an output of 1000 watts of RF power, a data rate of at least 10 megabits a second, and a frequency of 32 GHz. A higher data rate would be ideal to fully utilize the instruments aboard JIMO. At NASA Glenn, one of our roles in the JIMO project is to demonstrate RF power combining using multiple traveling wave tubes (TWT). In order for the power of separate TWT s to be combined, the RF output waves from each must be in-phase and have the same amplitude. Since different tubes act differently, we had to characterize each tube using a Network Analyzer. We took frequency sweeps and power sweeps to characterize each tube to ensure that they will behave similarly under the same conditions. The 200 watt Dornier tubes had been optimized to run at a lower power level (120 watts) for their extensive use in the ACTS program, so we also had to experiment with adjusting the voltage settings on several internal components (helix, anode, collector) of the tubes to reach the full 200 watt potential. from the ACTS program. Phase shifters and power attenuators were placed in the waveguide circuit at the inputs to the tubes so that adjustments could be made individually to match them exactly. A magic tee was used to route and combine the amplified electromagnetic RF waves on the tube output side. The demonstration of 200 watts of combined power was successful with efficiencies greater than 90% over a 500 MHz bandwidth. The next step will be to demonstrate the use of three amplifiers using two magic tees by

  1. Travelers' Health: Immunocompromised Travelers

    MedlinePlus

    ... data are lacking. Box 8-01. Key patient education points for the immunocompromised traveler Develop plan in ... waterborne infections, patients should avoid swallowing water during swimming and other water-based recreational activities and should ...

  2. Traveling with breathing problems

    MedlinePlus

    Oxygen - travel; Collaped lung - travel; Chest surgery - travel; COPD - travel; Chronic obstructive airways disease - travel; Chronic obstructive lung disease - travel; Chronic bronchitis - travel; ...

  3. [Research on chemical oxygen demand optical detection method based on the combination of multi-source spectral characteristics].

    PubMed

    Wu, Guo-Qing; Bi, Wei-Hong

    2014-11-01

    A novel method based on multi-source spectral characteristics of the combination is proposed for chemical oxygen demand detection. First, the ultraviolet and near infrared spectrum of the actual water samples are collected respectively. After pretreatment of the spectrum data, the features of the spectrum are extracted by the nonnegative matrix factorization algorithm for training after normalization. Particle swarm and least squares support vector machines algorithm are applied to predicting chemical oxygen demand of the validation set of water samples. The effect of spectrum's base number on the predicted results is discussed. The experimental results show that the best base number of the ultraviolet spectrum is 5, the best base number of the near infrared spectrum is 2; The validation set correlation coefficient of the prediction model is 0.999 8, and the root mean square error of prediction is 3.26 mg x L(-1). Experimental results demonstrate that the nonnegative matrix factorization algorithm is more suitable for feature extraction of spectral data, and the least squares support vector machines algorithm as a quantitative model correction method of the actual water samples can get good prediction accuracy with different feature extraction methods (principal component analysis, independent component analysis), spectroscopic methods (ultraviolet spectrum method, near infrared spectrum method) and different combination pattern (data direct combination, combining data first, then feature extraction) respectively.

  4. Connected Traveler

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, Alex

    2015-11-01

    The Connected Traveler project is a multi-disciplinary undertaking that seeks to validate potential for transformative transportation system energy savings by incentivizing efficient traveler behavior. This poster outlines various aspects of the Connected Traveler project, including market opportunity, understanding traveler behavior and decision-making, automation and connectivity, and a projected timeline for Connected Traveler's key milestones.

  5. Comment on "Forecasting dengue vaccine demand in disease endemic and non-endemic countries" Amarasinghe et al; Human Vaccines 2010; 6:9, 745-753.

    PubMed

    Miller, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    Recent forecasts of dengue travel vaccine demand, while worthy, might be improved by modelling future travel flows, and by accounting for incremental reductions in demand at the different points in the sequence of events leading to travel vaccine purchase. In particular, we suggest that an alternative method of projecting dengue travel vaccine uptake would account for (1) future flows of travellers from all non-endemic source to all endemic destination countries, based on data that are comparable between countries, and corrected for double-counting and other sources of error; (2) the proportion of such travellers that seek premedical travel advice within a timescale compatible with the probable dengue vaccine schedule; (3) the proportion of these travellers that will present with a combination of risk factors (above and beyond destination country) sufficient to prompt a physician to prescribe a dengue vaccine; and (4) the proportion of these travellers that actually purchase a vaccine when advised to do so.

  6. Travelers' Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safety Blood Clots Bug Bites Business Travel Cold Climates Counterfeit Drugs Cruise Ship Travel Families with Children ... Abroad Getting Sick After Travel High Altitudes Hot Climates Humanitarian Aid Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador ...

  7. Travelers' Diarrhea

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safety Blood Clots Bug Bites Business Travel Cold Climates Counterfeit Drugs Cruise Ship Travel Families with Children ... Abroad Getting Sick After Travel High Altitudes Hot Climates Humanitarian Aid Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador ...

  8. Travelers' Health: Travel and Breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador Insurance International Adoption Jet Lag Last-Minute Travel Long-Term Travel ... Vaccine Recommendations for Infants & Children Travel & Breastfeeding International Adoption Tables Maps Figures Boxes Updates About the Yellow ...

  9. Measuring demand for flat water recreation using a two-stage/disequilibrium travel cost model with adjustment for overdispersion and self-selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKean, John R.; Johnson, Donn; Taylor, R. Garth

    2003-04-01

    An alternate travel cost model is applied to an on-site sample to estimate the value of flat water recreation on the impounded lower Snake River. Four contiguous reservoirs would be eliminated if the dams are breached to protect endangered Pacific salmon and steelhead trout. The empirical method applies truncated negative binomial regression with adjustment for endogenous stratification. The two-stage decision model assumes that recreationists allocate their time among work and leisure prior to deciding among consumer goods. The allocation of time and money among goods in the second stage is conditional on the predetermined work time and income. The second stage is a disequilibrium labor market which also applies if employers set work hours or if recreationists are not in the labor force. When work time is either predetermined, fixed by contract, or nonexistent, recreationists must consider separate prices and budgets for time and money.

  10. Depth Imaging by Combining Time-of-Flight and On-Demand Stereo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahne, Uwe; Alexa, Marc

    In this paper we present a framework for computing depth images at interactive rates. Our approach is based on combining time-of-flight (TOF) range data with stereo vision. We use a per-frame confidence map extracted from the TOF sensor data in two ways for improving the disparity estimation in the stereo part: first, together with the TOF range data for initializing and constraining the disparity range; and, second, together with the color image information for segmenting the data into depth continuous areas, enabling the use of adaptive windows for the disparity search. The resulting depth images are more accurate than from either of the sensors. In an example application we use the depth map to initialize the z-buffer so that virtual objects can be occluded by real objects in an augmented reality scenario.

  11. [Travelers' vaccines].

    PubMed

    Ouchi, Kazunobu

    2011-09-01

    The number of Japanese oversea travelers has gradually increased year by year, however they usually pay less attention to the poor physical condition at the voyage place. Many oversea travelers caught vaccine preventable diseases in developing countries. The Vaccine Guideline for Oversea Travelers 2010 published by Japanese Society of Travel Health will be helpful for spreading the knowledge of travelers' vaccine and vaccine preventable diseases in developing countries. Many travelers' vaccines have not licensed in Japan. I hope these travelers' vaccines, such as typhoid vaccine, meningococcal vaccine, cholera vaccine and so on will be licensed in the near future.

  12. Travelers' Health: Travel and Breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Travel Families with Children Fish Poisoning in Travelers Food and Water Getting Health Care Abroad Getting Sick After Travel High Altitudes Hot Climates Humanitarian Aid Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador Insurance International Adoption Jet Lag Last-Minute Travel Long-Term ...

  13. How tight are the limits to land and water use? - Combined impacts of food demand and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotze-Campen, H.; Lucht, W.; Müller, C.; Bondeau, A.; Smith, P.

    2005-08-01

    In the coming decades, world agricultural systems will face serious transitions. Population growth, income and lifestyle changes will lead to considerable increases in food demand. Moreover, a rising demand for renewable energy and biodiversity protection may restrict the area available for food production. On the other hand, global climate change will affect production conditions, for better or worse depending on regional conditions. In order to simulate these combined effects consistently and in a spatially explicit way, we have linked the Lund-Potsdam-Jena Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (LPJ) with a "Management model of Agricultural Production and its Impact on the Environment" (MAgPIE). LPJ represents the global biosphere with a spatial resolution of 0.5 degree. MAgPIE covers the most important agricultural crop and livestock production types. A prototype has been developed for one sample region. In the next stage this will be expanded to several economically relevant regions on a global scale, including international trade. The two models are coupled through a layer of productivity zones. In the paper we present the modelling approach, develop first joint scenarios and discuss selected results from the coupled modelling system.

  14. Illness in Returned Travellers

    PubMed Central

    Lawee, D.; Scappatura, P.; Gutman, E.

    1989-01-01

    Intercontinental travel is more common now than it has ever been before, and so are travel-related diseases. A thorough history and physical examination provide many clues to possible pathogens, particularly when combined with knowledge of the geographic distribution of specific diseases. Prompt diagnosis and proper treatment are imperative. PMID:21249095

  15. On-demand combinational delivery of curcumin and doxorubicin via a pH-labile micellar nanocarrier.

    PubMed

    Li, Haoyu; Li, Man; Chen, Chao; Fan, Aiping; Kong, Deling; Wang, Zheng; Zhao, Yanjun

    2015-11-10

    The combinational delivery of doxorubicin and curcumin in a physically loaded nanocarrier offers the benefits of enhanced therapeutic efficacy and reduced adverse effects, but this strategy often suffers from the slow drug release followed by delayed onset of pharmacological action. This work reported the hydrazone-linked polymer-curcumin conjugate micelles containing physically loaded doxorubicin to address this problem; the ester-linked conjugate micelles were produced as the control. The pH-labile spherical micelles were less than 100 nm with a loading at 9.3 ± 0.5% (w/w, Curcumin) and 2.5 ± 0.1(w/w, Doxorubicin). Both agents were released at a faster rate in the pH-labile micelles compared to the control. The confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed a time-dependent co-localization of both agents in HepG2 cells. The IC50 of pH-labile conjugate micelles without doxorubicin in HepG2 cells was 27.7 ± 5.3 (μM), whereas the co-loaded micelles was lowered to 10.8 ± 3.4 (μM) (Cur-equivalent dose). The combination index calculation demonstrated a synergistic action of both agents in the co-loading nanocarrier. The current work provided an efficient nanocarrier system to achieve rapid on-demand drug release without onset delay of therapeutic action, which might add value to the clinical translation of the combinational delivery systems.

  16. Travel medicine

    PubMed Central

    Aw, Brian; Boraston, Suni; Botten, David; Cherniwchan, Darin; Fazal, Hyder; Kelton, Timothy; Libman, Michael; Saldanha, Colin; Scappatura, Philip; Stowe, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To define the practice of travel medicine, provide the basics of a comprehensive pretravel consultation for international travelers, and assist in identifying patients who might require referral to travel medicine professionals. Sources of information Guidelines and recommendations on travel medicine and travel-related illnesses by national and international travel health authorities were reviewed. MEDLINE and EMBASE searches for related literature were also performed. Main message Travel medicine is a highly dynamic specialty that focuses on pretravel preventive care. A comprehensive risk assessment for each individual traveler is essential in order to accurately evaluate traveler-, itinerary-, and destination-specific risks, and to advise on the most appropriate risk management interventions to promote health and prevent adverse health outcomes during travel. Vaccinations might also be required and should be personalized according to the individual traveler’s immunization history, travel itinerary, and the amount of time available before departure. Conclusion A traveler’s health and safety depends on a practitioner’s level of expertise in providing pretravel counseling and vaccinations, if required. Those who advise travelers are encouraged to be aware of the extent of this responsibility and to refer all high-risk travelers to travel medicine professionals whenever possible. PMID:25500599

  17. Connected Traveler

    SciTech Connect

    2016-06-01

    The Connected Traveler framework seeks to boost the energy efficiency of personal travel and the overall transportation system by maximizing the accuracy of predicted traveler behavior in response to real-time feedback and incentives. It is anticipated that this approach will establish a feedback loop that 'learns' traveler preferences and customizes incentives to meet or exceed energy efficiency targets by empowering individual travelers with information needed to make energy-efficient choices and reducing the complexity required to validate transportation system energy savings. This handout provides an overview of NREL's Connected Traveler project, including graphics, milestones, and contact information.

  18. Regional demand and supply projections for outdoor recreation

    Treesearch

    Donald B. K. English; Carter J. Betz; J. Mark Young; John C. Bergstrom; H. Ken Cordell

    1993-01-01

    This paper develops regional recreation supply and demand projections, by combining coefficients from the national 1989 RPA Assessment models with regional regressor values. Regional recreation opportunity estimates also are developed, based on regional travel behavior. Results show important regional variations in projections of recreation opportunities, trip supply,...

  19. An analysis of short haul air passenger demand, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blumer, T. P.; Swan, W. M.

    1978-01-01

    Several demand models for short haul air travel are proposed and calibrated on pooled data. The models are designed to predict demand and analyze some of the motivating phenomena behind demand generation. In particular, an attempt is made to include the effects of competing modes and of alternate destinations. The results support three conclusions: (1) the auto mode is the air mode's major competitor; (2) trip time is an overriding factor in intermodal competition, with air fare at its present level appearing unimportant to the typical short haul air traveler; and (3) distance appears to underly several demand generating phenomena, and therefore, must be considered very carefully to any intercity demand model. It may be the cause of the wide range of fare elasticities reported by researchers over the past 15 years. A behavioral demand model is proposed and calibrated. It combines the travel generating effects of income and population, the effects of modal split, the sensitivity of travel to price and time, and the effect of alternative destinations satisfying the trip purpose.

  20. Travel health: sun protection and skin cancer prevention for travellers.

    PubMed

    Wood, Cate

    The UK population likes to travel to sunny parts of the world, where the risk of sunburn is greater than it is at home. Sunburn and the cultural desire for a tan is one of the risk factors for the increase in skin cancer. The rise in foreign travel has resulted in an increased demand for pre-travel health services, with nurses in primary care acting as the main providers.Within these consultations, the traveller and their travel plans are risk assessed.Travel health consultations give an ideal opportunity to discuss and advise the public regarding sun burn and skin cancer protection. However, there are also other ways to impart safety in the sun message to travellers. Skin protection is a health promoting activity provided as a part of public health provision and all nurses can play a role in prevention.

  1. Travelers' diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Hill, David R; Beeching, Nick J

    2010-10-01

    Travelers' diarrhea affects 20-60% of travelers to low-income regions of the world. Much of the evidence for the clinical description and management of travelers' diarrhea was generated years ago, however, there is new information on geographic and host risk, etiology, and prevention strategies. Travel to South Asia, followed by sub-Saharan Africa and South America, carries the highest risk for diarrheal syndromes in returned travelers. Women are more susceptible to travel-related diarrhea than men. Host genetic studies have demonstrated that single nucleotide polymorphisms in the lactoferrin, osteoprotegerin, and IL-10 genes are associated with small but increased risks for diarrhea and enteric pathogens. Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis is likely to be a new agent identified as causing travelers' diarrhea, and heat-stable toxin-producing Escherichia coli appears to be more common than heat-labile toxin E. coli. Overall levels of sanitation at the travel destination, including individual eating establishments, are strong predictors for acquisition of travelers' diarrhea. A new transdermal LT vaccine shows promise in modifying the severity of travelers' diarrhea. It remains uncertain whether prophylaxis or prompt self-treatment of travelers' diarrhea will prevent late-onset irritable bowel syndrome. For self-treatment, azithromycin is the drug of choice in travelers to areas where there is a high risk of fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter spp., such as South and Southeast Asia and possibly North Africa, Central and South America. There is increased understanding of the determinants of travelers' diarrhea. Despite this travelers' diarrhea remains one of the most common illnesses in travelers. Continued focus on intervention strategies may ultimately lead to decreased incidence.

  2. Traveller's diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Al-Abri, Seif S; Beeching, Nick J; Nye, Fred J

    2005-06-01

    Traveller's diarrhoea affects over 50% of travellers to some destinations and can disrupt holidays and business trips. This review examines the main causes and epidemiology of the syndrome, which is associated with poor public health infrastructure and hygiene practices, particularly in warmer climates. Although travellers may be given common sense advice on avoidance of high-risk foods and other measures to prevent traveller's diarrhoea, adherence to such advice is sometimes difficult and the evidence for its effectiveness is contradictory. However, non-antimicrobial means for prevention of traveller's diarrhoea are favoured in most settings. A simple stepwise approach to the management of traveller's diarrhoea includes single doses or 3-day courses of antimicrobials, often self administered. The antibiotics of choice are currently fluoroquinolones or azithromycin, with an emerging role for rifaximin. In the long term, there will be greater benefit and effect on the health of local inhabitants and travellers from improving public health and hygiene standards at tourist destinations.

  3. Monitoring the size and protagonists of the drug market: combining supply and demand data sources and estimates.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Carla

    2013-06-01

    The size of the illicit drug market is an important indicator to assess the impact on society of an important part of the illegal economy and to evaluate drug policy and law enforcement interventions. The extent of illicit drug use and of the drug market can essentially only be estimated by indirect methods based on indirect measures and on data from various sources, as administrative data sets and surveys. The combined use of several methodologies and data sets allows to reduce biases and inaccuracies of estimates obtained on the basis of each of them separately. This approach has been applied to Italian data. The estimation methods applied are capture-recapture methods with latent heterogeneity and multiplier methods. Several data sets have been used, both administrative and survey data sets. First, the retail dealer prevalence has been estimated on the basis of administrative data, then the user prevalence by multiplier methods. Using information about behaviour of dealers and consumers from survey data, the average amount of a substance used or sold and the average unit cost have been estimated and allow estimating the size of the drug market. The estimates have been obtained using a supply-side approach and a demand-side approach and have been compared. These results are in turn used for estimating the interception rate for the different substances in term of the value of the substance seized with respect to the total value of the substance to be sold at retail prices.

  4. Turnkey Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning and Lighting Retrofit Solution Combining Energy Efficiency and Demand Response Benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Doebber, Ian; Deru, Michael; Trenbath, Kim

    2016-04-12

    NREL worked with the Bonneville Power Administration's Technology Innovation Office to demonstrate a turnkey, retrofit technology that combines demand response (DR) and energy efficiency (EE) benefits for HVAC and lighting in retail buildings. As a secondary benefit, we also controlled various plug loads and electric hot water heaters (EHWH). The technology demonstrated was Transformative Wave's eIQ Building Management System (BMS) automatically responding to DR signals. The BMS controlled the HVAC rooftop units (RTU) using the CATALYST retrofit solution also developed by Transformative Wave. The non-HVAC loads were controlled using both hardwired and ZigBee wireless communication. The wireless controllers, manufactured by Autani, were used when the building's electrical layout was too disorganized to leverage less expensive hardwired control. The six demonstration locations are within the Seattle metro area. Based on the assets curtailed by the BMS at each location, we projected the DR resource. We were targeting a 1.7 W/ft2 shed for the summer Day-Ahead events and a 0.7 W/ft2 shed for the winter events. While summarized in Table ES-1, only one summer DR event was conducted at Casino #2.

  5. Travelers' thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Raymond V; Hudson, Martin F

    2014-02-01

    The suggestion that venous thromboembolism (VTE) is associated with air travel has for several decades been the subject of both "media hype" and extensive debate in the medical literature. As emotion and anecdote is often a feature in this debate, it is therefore necessary to separate evidence from anecdote. "Travelers' thrombosis" is a more appropriate term because the evidence suggests that any form of travel involving immobility lasting more than 4 h can predispose to thrombosis. There is no unique factor in the air travel cabin environment that has been shown to have any effect on the coagulation cascade. Prevention of thrombosis in any form of travel, including air travel, requires being aware of the issue and making an adequate risk assessment together with appropriate prophylactic measures.

  6. Traveler's Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Giddings, Stanley L; Stevens, A Michal; Leung, Daniel T

    2016-03-01

    Traveler's diarrhea (TD) is the most common travel-related illness, and it can have a significant impact on the traveler. Pretravel consultation provides an excellent opportunity for the clinician to counsel the traveler and discuss strategies such as food and water hygiene, vaccinations, and medications for prophylaxis or self-treatment that may decrease the incidence and impact of TD. Postinfectious sequelae, such as postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome, reactive arthritis, and Guillain-Barre syndrome, may develop weeks or months after return. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Meeting Rural Demand: A Case for Combining Community-Based Distribution and Social Marketing of Injectable Contraceptives in Tigray, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Prata, Ndola; Weidert, Karen; Fraser, Ashley; Gessessew, Amanuel

    2013-01-01

    Background In Sub-Saharan Africa, policy changes have begun to pave the way for community distribution of injectable contraceptives but sustaining such efforts remains challenging. Combining social marketing with community-based distribution provides an opportunity to recover some program costs and compensate workers with proceeds from contraceptive sales. This paper proposes a model for increasing access to injectable contraceptives in rural settings by using community-based distributers as social marketing agents and incorporating financing systems to improve sustainability. Methods This intervention was implemented in three districts of the Central Zone of Tigray, Ethiopia and program data has been collected from November 2011 through October 2012. A total of 137 Community Based Reproductive Health Agents (CBRHAs) were trained to provide injectable contraceptives and were provided with a loan of 25 injectable contraceptives from a drug revolving fund, created with project funds. The price of a single dose credited to a CBRHA was 3 birr ($0.17) and they provide injections to women for 5 birr ($0.29), determined with willingness-to-pay data. Social marketing was used to create awareness and generate demand. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to examine important feasibility aspects of the intervention. Results Forty-four percent of CBRHAs were providing family planning methods at the time of the training and 96% believed providing injectable contraceptives would improve their services. By October 2012, 137 CBRHAs had successfully completed training and provided 2541 injections. Of total injections, 47% were provided to new users of injectable contraceptives. Approximately 31% of injections were given for free to the poorest women, including adolescents. Conclusions Insights gained from the first year of implementation of the model provide a framework for further expansion in Tigray, Ethiopia. Our experience highlights how program planners can

  8. Meeting rural demand: a case for combining community-based distribution and social marketing of injectable contraceptives in Tigray, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Prata, Ndola; Weidert, Karen; Fraser, Ashley; Gessessew, Amanuel

    2013-01-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, policy changes have begun to pave the way for community distribution of injectable contraceptives but sustaining such efforts remains challenging. Combining social marketing with community-based distribution provides an opportunity to recover some program costs and compensate workers with proceeds from contraceptive sales. This paper proposes a model for increasing access to injectable contraceptives in rural settings by using community-based distributers as social marketing agents and incorporating financing systems to improve sustainability. This intervention was implemented in three districts of the Central Zone of Tigray, Ethiopia and program data has been collected from November 2011 through October 2012. A total of 137 Community Based Reproductive Health Agents (CBRHAs) were trained to provide injectable contraceptives and were provided with a loan of 25 injectable contraceptives from a drug revolving fund, created with project funds. The price of a single dose credited to a CBRHA was 3 birr ($0.17) and they provide injections to women for 5 birr ($0.29), determined with willingness-to-pay data. Social marketing was used to create awareness and generate demand. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to examine important feasibility aspects of the intervention. Forty-four percent of CBRHAs were providing family planning methods at the time of the training and 96% believed providing injectable contraceptives would improve their services. By October 2012, 137 CBRHAs had successfully completed training and provided 2541 injections. Of total injections, 47% were provided to new users of injectable contraceptives. Approximately 31% of injections were given for free to the poorest women, including adolescents. Insights gained from the first year of implementation of the model provide a framework for further expansion in Tigray, Ethiopia. Our experience highlights how program planners can tailor interventions to match family

  9. Combined effects of compact cevelopment, transportation investments, and road user pricing on vehicle miles traveled in urbanized areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ewing, Reid; Hamidi, Shima; Gallivan, Frank; Nelson, Arthur C.; Grace, James B.

    2014-01-01

    Vehicle miles traveled (VMT) is the primary determinant of traffic congestion, vehicle crashes, greenhouse gas emissions, and other effects of transportation. Two previous studies have sought to explain VMT levels in urbanized areas. This study updates and expands on previous work with more recent data, additional metrics, and structural equation modeling (SEM) to explain VMT levels in 315 urbanized areas. According to SEM, population, income, and gasoline prices are primary exogenous drivers of VMT. Development density is a primary endogenous driver. Urbanized areas with more freeway capacity are significantly less dense and have significantly higher VMT per capita. Areas with more transit service coverage and service frequency have higher development densities and per capita transit use, which leads to lower VMT per capita. The indirect effect of transit on VMT through land use, the so-called land use multiplier, is more than three times greater than the direct effect through transit ridership.

  10. Combination of inverse electron-demand Diels-Alder reaction with highly efficient oxime ligation expands the toolbox of site-selective peptide conjugations.

    PubMed

    Hörner, S; Uth, C; Avrutina, O; Frauendorf, H; Wiessler, M; Kolmar, H

    2015-07-14

    A modular approach combining inverse electron-demand Diels-Alder coupling (DARinv) and oxime ligation expands the toolbox of bioorthogonal peptide chemistry. Applicability of versatile site-specific bifunctional building blocks is demonstrated by generation of defined conjugates comprising linear, cystine-bridged and multi-disulfide functional peptides as well as their conjugation with hybrid silsesquioxane nanoparticles.

  11. Travelling diabetics.

    PubMed

    Chełmińska, Katarzyna; Jaremin, Bogdan

    2002-01-01

    During the past several decades, the number of both business and tourist travels has greatly increased. Among them are persons suffering from chronic diseases, including diabetics for whom travels pose the additional health-hazard. Irrespective of better education, self-control and constantly improving quality of specialistic equipment available, diabetics still are the group of patients requiring particular attention. In the case of travelling diabetics, problems may occur concerning the transport and storage of insulin, as well as control of glycaemia, all caused by irregularity of meals, variable diet, physical activity, stress, kinetosis (sea voyages), and the change of time zones. The travel may as well evoke ailments caused by the change of climate and concomitant diseases such as traveller's diarrhoea, malaria, etc. Apart from avoiding glycaemia fluctuations, important for retaining health of diabetics is the prevention of other diseases and carrying the necessary drugs.

  12. Health hazards of international travel.

    PubMed

    Cossar, J H; Reid, D

    1989-01-01

    The growth of travel and the increasing numbers of those affected by travel-related illnesses, some of a serious nature, will cause this subject to demand the attention of the medical profession, the travel trade, travellers themselves and the health authorities of countries receiving tourists. Provision of appropriate advice for the traveller is a shared responsibility, best channelled mainly through travel agencies; it can moreover be shown to be cost-beneficial. Continued monitoring of illness in travellers and provision of information systems geared to this problem and its prevention are fully justified. They should be based on traditional channels of communication and currently-available modern technology, and be readily accessible to medical and related workers. Increased collaboration between medical workers, health educators and those involved in the travel trade would be a positive and useful contribution towards the reduction of illness and discomfort among travellers and the associated expense incurred by the various national health services concerned. There are clearly economic benefits from the development of international tourism, but these have to be balanced in countries accepting tourists by attention to the prevention of illnesses associated with travel.

  13. Transferring 2001 National Household Travel Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Patricia S; Reuscher, Tim; Schmoyer, Richard L; Chin, Shih-Miao

    2007-05-01

    Policy makers rely on transportation statistics, including data on personal travel behavior, to formulate strategic transportation policies, and to improve the safety and efficiency of the U.S. transportation system. Data on personal travel trends are needed to examine the reliability, efficiency, capacity, and flexibility of the Nation's transportation system to meet current demands and to accommodate future demand. These data are also needed to assess the feasibility and efficiency of alternative congestion-mitigating technologies (e.g., high-speed rail, magnetically levitated trains, and intelligent vehicle and highway systems); to evaluate the merits of alternative transportation investment programs; and to assess the energy-use and air-quality impacts of various policies. To address these data needs, the U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT) initiated an effort in 1969 to collect detailed data on personal travel. The 1969 survey was the first Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey (NPTS). The survey was conducted again in 1977, 1983, 1990, 1995, and 2001. Data on daily travel were collected in 1969, 1977, 1983, 1990 and 1995. In 2001, the survey was renamed the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) and it collected both daily and long-distance trips. The 2001 survey was sponsored by three USDOT agencies: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), and National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). The primary objective of the survey was to collect trip-based data on the nature and characteristics of personal travel so that the relationships between the characteristics of personal travel and the demographics of the traveler can be established. Commercial and institutional travel were not part of the survey. Due to the survey's design, data in the NHTS survey series were not recommended for estimating travel statistics for categories smaller than the combination of Census division (e.g., New England, Middle

  14. [Travel medicine].

    PubMed

    Schubert, S; Grimm, M

    2009-07-01

    Travel medicine deals with travellers' diseases. The target group is therefore distinct from tropical medicine. It has gained in significance due to the increase in tourism and professional work abroad in the last 50 years. Dangerous and widespread diseases in tropical countries, in particular tropical malaria, have come into focus in industrialized countries because of their appearance in travellers. Travel medicine deals not only with infectious or transmittable diseases, but also with the ability of patients with chronic diseases to travel, the medical aspects of flying, as well as the health hazards of professional work or high-risk sports abroad. The risk of disease as a result of travelling can be minimized by advice and prophylactic measures, such as vaccinations and drug prophylaxis against malaria, if indicated. On return, medical symptoms should be investigated promptly to ensure early detection of life-threatening disease courses, particularly tropical malaria, as well as to prevent the occurrence of small-scale epidemics. A small number of diseases can also emerge after several years, such as benign types of malaria, amoebic liver abscess and visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar). Aids also belongs to these diseases. Therefore, in this era of HIV pandemic travellers concerned should be made aware of the risks.

  15. [Adventure travel].

    PubMed

    Beck, Bernhard R

    2013-06-01

    Extreme travelling experiences appear to be a quite popular kick offered by tourist operators and sought by some travellers. But some travellers expose themselves to increased risk also during normal holidays, either voluntarily by booking hikes or tours leading them to adventurous locations or to unexpectedly encountering dangerous situations. In planned adventures, precise information in advance, good physical condition, careful planning, and profound medical preparation may contribute to a less hazardous adventure. Advising medical persons may need an expert consultation for specific topics in order to optimise the preparation. Based on three specific environmental situations (jungle, desert, and cave) the specific conditions, dangers and some medical aspects are outlined.

  16. TRAVEL FORECASTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauldin, L. E.

    1994-01-01

    Business travel planning within an organization is often a time-consuming task. Travel Forecaster is a menu-driven, easy-to-use program which plans, forecasts cost, and tracks actual vs. planned cost for business-related travel of a division or branch of an organization and compiles this information into a database to aid the travel planner. The program's ability to handle multiple trip entries makes it a valuable time-saving device. Travel Forecaster takes full advantage of relational data base properties so that information that remains constant, such as per diem rates and airline fares (which are unique for each city), needs entering only once. A typical entry would include selection with the mouse of the traveler's name and destination city from pop-up lists, and typed entries for number of travel days and purpose of the trip. Multiple persons can be selected from the pop-up lists and multiple trips are accommodated by entering the number of days by each appropriate month on the entry form. An estimated travel cost is not required of the user as it is calculated by a Fourth Dimension formula. With this information, the program can produce output of trips by month with subtotal and total cost for either organization or sub-entity of an organization; or produce outputs of trips by month with subtotal and total cost for international-only travel. It will also provide monthly and cumulative formats of planned vs. actual outputs in data or graph form. Travel Forecaster users can do custom queries to search and sort information in the database, and it can create custom reports with the user-friendly report generator. Travel Forecaster 1.1 is a database program for use with Fourth Dimension Runtime 2.1.1. It requires a Macintosh Plus running System 6.0.3 or later, 2Mb of RAM and a hard disk. The standard distribution medium for this package is one 3.5 inch 800K Macintosh format diskette. Travel Forecaster was developed in 1991. Macintosh is a registered trademark of

  17. TRAVEL FORECASTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauldin, L. E.

    1994-01-01

    Business travel planning within an organization is often a time-consuming task. Travel Forecaster is a menu-driven, easy-to-use program which plans, forecasts cost, and tracks actual vs. planned cost for business-related travel of a division or branch of an organization and compiles this information into a database to aid the travel planner. The program's ability to handle multiple trip entries makes it a valuable time-saving device. Travel Forecaster takes full advantage of relational data base properties so that information that remains constant, such as per diem rates and airline fares (which are unique for each city), needs entering only once. A typical entry would include selection with the mouse of the traveler's name and destination city from pop-up lists, and typed entries for number of travel days and purpose of the trip. Multiple persons can be selected from the pop-up lists and multiple trips are accommodated by entering the number of days by each appropriate month on the entry form. An estimated travel cost is not required of the user as it is calculated by a Fourth Dimension formula. With this information, the program can produce output of trips by month with subtotal and total cost for either organization or sub-entity of an organization; or produce outputs of trips by month with subtotal and total cost for international-only travel. It will also provide monthly and cumulative formats of planned vs. actual outputs in data or graph form. Travel Forecaster users can do custom queries to search and sort information in the database, and it can create custom reports with the user-friendly report generator. Travel Forecaster 1.1 is a database program for use with Fourth Dimension Runtime 2.1.1. It requires a Macintosh Plus running System 6.0.3 or later, 2Mb of RAM and a hard disk. The standard distribution medium for this package is one 3.5 inch 800K Macintosh format diskette. Travel Forecaster was developed in 1991. Macintosh is a registered trademark of

  18. Traveling-wave photodetector

    SciTech Connect

    Hietala, V.M.; Vawter, G.A.

    1992-12-31

    The traveling-wave photodetector of the present invention combines an absorptive optical waveguide and an electrical transmission line, in which optical absorption in the waveguide results in a photocurrent at the electrodes of the electrical transmission line. The optical waveguide and electrical transmission line of the electrically distributed traveling-wave photodetector are designed to achieve matched velocities between the light in the optical waveguide and electrical signal generated on the transmission line. This velocity synchronization provides the traveling-wave photodetector with a large electrical bandwidth and a high quantum efficiency, because of the effective extended volume for optical absorption. The traveling-wave photodetector also provides large power dissipation, because of its large physical size.

  19. Traveling-wave photodetector

    DOEpatents

    Hietala, V.M.; Vawter, G.A.

    1993-12-14

    The traveling-wave photodetector of the present invention combines an absorptive optical waveguide and an electrical transmission line, in which optical absorption in the waveguide results in a photocurrent at the electrodes of the electrical transmission line. The optical waveguide and electrical transmission line of the electrically distributed traveling-wave photodetector are designed to achieve matched velocities between the light in the optical waveguide and electrical signal generated on the transmission line. This velocity synchronization provides the traveling-wave photodetector with a large electrical bandwidth and a high quantum efficiency, because of the effective extended volume for optical absorption. The traveling-wave photodetector also provides large power dissipation, because of its large physical size. 4 figures.

  20. Traveling-wave photodetector

    DOEpatents

    Hietala, Vincent M.; Vawter, Gregory A.

    1993-01-01

    The traveling-wave photodetector of the present invention combines an absorptive optical waveguide and an electrical transmission line, in which optical absorption in the waveguide results in a photocurrent at the electrodes of the electrical transmission line. The optical waveguide and electrical transmission line of the electrically distributed traveling-wave photodetector are designed to achieve matched velocities between the light in the optical waveguide and electrical signal generated on the transmission line. This velocity synchronization provides the traveling-wave photodetector with a large electrical bandwidth and a high quantum efficiency, because of the effective extended volume for optical absorption. The traveling-wave photodetector also provides large power dissipation, because of its large physical size.

  1. Nutrition for travel.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Thomas; Waterhouse, Jim; Burke, Louise M; Alonso, Juan Manuel

    2007-01-01

    The training and competitive programmes of elite athletes incorporate travel schedules, often long journeys, across multiple time zones. In such cases, travel causes both transient fatigue and a malaise known as "jet-lag" that persists for some days. Jet-lag is due to the disturbance of the body's circadian rhythms: diurnal and performance rhythms are displaced, depending on the direction of travel and the number of time zones crossed in flight. Attention to diet and hydration is relevant during the flight and following disembarkation until adjustment to the new meridian is complete. The consequences of jet-lag on rhythms in digestion may be compounded if food preparation and hygiene are inadequate in training camps or competitive venues overseas. The irony of travel is that it often places athletes at a greater risk of failing to meet their specific nutrition goals or succumbing to illness, at a time when the demands or outcomes of performance are of greatest importance. In addition, gastrointestinal infections related to travelling are frequent among athletes. Fastidious planning and organization among the support staff is recommended before the journey to prevent any such problems arising. Equally, athletes often need special education initiatives to assist them to cope with the challenges of a new and unusual food supply, or altered access to food.

  2. Development and Evaluation of the Air Travel Stress Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bricker, Jonathan B.

    2005-01-01

    Despite anecdotal evidence suggesting that air travel is personally demanding, little research has examined air travel stress. To address these issues, the author developed and evaluated the 1st known measure of air travel stress-the Air Travel Stress Scale-in 3 studies. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis indicated 3 components: (a)…

  3. Development and Evaluation of the Air Travel Stress Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bricker, Jonathan B.

    2005-01-01

    Despite anecdotal evidence suggesting that air travel is personally demanding, little research has examined air travel stress. To address these issues, the author developed and evaluated the 1st known measure of air travel stress-the Air Travel Stress Scale-in 3 studies. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis indicated 3 components: (a)…

  4. [Traveller's diarrhoea].

    PubMed

    Vila, Jordi; Oliveira, Ines; Zboromyrska, Yuliya; Gascon, Joaquim

    2016-11-01

    Traveller's diarrhoea (TD) is acquired primarily through ingestion of food and drinks contaminated with pathogens that cause diarrhoea. They can be bacteria, protozoa, helminths, and viruses. Globally, the most common causes of TD are two pathotypes of Escherichia coli (enterotoxigenic and enteroaggregative) and Campylobacter, although there are significant variations by geographic area visited. Most TD occurs in individuals traveling to low-middle income countries. The type of travel, length of stay, traveller's age, and the presence of certain underlying conditions are important risk factors to consider for the acquisition of TD. While TD is usually a mild and self-limiting disease, half of travellers with TD experience some limitation of activities during their trip, while up to 10% will experience persistent diarrhoea or other complications. The purpose of this article is to provide an updated microbiological, epidemiological, and clinical profile of traveller's diarrhoea, including known risk factors, as well as to make recommendations on the prevention and treatment of TD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  5. Further We Travel the Faster We Go

    PubMed Central

    Varga, Levente; Kovács, András; Tóth, Géza; Papp, István; Néda, Zoltán

    2016-01-01

    The average travelling speed increases in a nontrivial manner with the travel distance. This leads to scaling-like relations on quite extended spatial scales, for all mobility modes taken together and also for a given mobility mode in part. We offer a wide range of experimental results, investigating and quantifying this universal effect and its measurable causes. The increasing travelling speed with the travel distance arises from the combined effects of: choosing the most appropriate travelling mode; the structure of the travel networks; the travel times lost in the main hubs, starting or target cities; and the speed limit of roads and vehicles. PMID:26863605

  6. Further We Travel the Faster We Go.

    PubMed

    Varga, Levente; Kovács, András; Tóth, Géza; Papp, István; Néda, Zoltán

    2016-01-01

    The average travelling speed increases in a nontrivial manner with the travel distance. This leads to scaling-like relations on quite extended spatial scales, for all mobility modes taken together and also for a given mobility mode in part. We offer a wide range of experimental results, investigating and quantifying this universal effect and its measurable causes. The increasing travelling speed with the travel distance arises from the combined effects of: choosing the most appropriate travelling mode; the structure of the travel networks; the travel times lost in the main hubs, starting or target cities; and the speed limit of roads and vehicles.

  7. Ultra High Power and Efficiency Space Traveling-Wave Tube Amplifier Power Combiner with Reduced Size and Mass for NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Wintucky, Edwin G.; Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Force, Dale A.

    2009-01-01

    In the 2008 International Microwave Symposium (IMS) Digest version of our paper, recent advances in high power and efficiency space traveling-wave tube amplifiers (TWTAs) for NASA s space-to-Earth communications are presented. The RF power and efficiency of a new K-Band amplifier are 40 W and 50 percent and that of a new Ka-Band amplifier are 200 W and 60 percent. An important figure-of-merit, which is defined as the ratio of the RF power output to the mass (W/kg) of a TWT, has improved by a factor of ten over the previous generation Ka-Band devices. In this extended paper, a high power, high efficiency Ka-band combiner for multiple TWTs, based on a novel hybrid magic-T waveguide circuit design, is presented. The measured combiner efficiency is as high as 90 percent. In addition, at the design frequency of 32.05 GHz, error-free uncoded BPSK/QPSK data transmission at 8 megabits per second (Mbps), which is typical for deep space communications is demonstrated. Furthermore, QPSK data transmission at 622 Mbps is demonstrated with a low bit error rate of 2.4x10(exp -8), which exceeds the deep space state-of-the-art data rate transmission capability by more than two orders of magnitude. A potential application of the TWT combiner is in deep space communication systems for planetary exploration requiring transmitter power on the order of a kilowatt or higher.

  8. Hydropeaking in Nordic rivers - combined analysis from effects of changing climate conditions and energy demands to river regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashraf, Faisal Bin; Marttila, Hannu; Torabi Haghighi, Ali; Alfredsen, Knut; Riml, Joakim; Kløve, Bjørn

    2017-04-01

    Increasing national and international demands for more flexible management of the energy resources with more non-storable renewables being used in adapting to the ongoing climate change will influence hydropower operations. Damming and regulation practices of river systems causes homogenization of long term river dynamics but also higher temporal sub-daily flow variations i.e. hydropeaking. In Nordic countries, many major rivers and lakes are regulated for hydropower purposes, which have caused considerable changes in river biotic, hydrologic and morphologic structures. Due to rapidly changing energy markets in the Nordic countries (deregulation of the power market and adding of renewable but intermittent sources of energy like, wind, solar, etc.) sub-daily flow conditions are under change within regulated river systems due to the increased demand on hydropower for providing balancing power. However, holistic analysis from changes in energy markets and its effect on sub-daily river regimes is lacking. This study analyzes the effects of hydropeaking on river regime in Finland, Sweden and Norway using long term high resolution data (15 minutes to hourly time interval) from 72 pristine and 136 regulated rivers with large spatial coverage across Fennoscandia. Since the sub-daily discharge variation is masked through the monthly or daily analyzes, in order to quantify these changes high resolution data is needed. In our study we will document, characterize and classify the impacts of sub-daily flow variation due to regulation and climatic variation on various river systems in Fennoscandia. Further, with increasing social demands for ecosystem services in regulated rivers, it is important to evaluate the new demand and update hydropower operation plan accordingly. We will analyse ecological response relationships along gradients of hydrological alteration for the biological communities, processes of river ecosystems and climate boundaries together with considering the

  9. Travel medicine advice to UK based international motor sport teams.

    PubMed

    Walters, A

    2000-01-01

    International motor sport teams travel extensively. Over the years, the design and build of racing cars has improved so that morbidity and mortality in motor sport has been lessened. Those team members supporting the competitors need to be physically and mentally fit to perform complicated tasks, despite having traveled. This group of travelers has not been studied to any extent previously. An anonymous questionnaire asking some basic travel medicine related questions was distributed to the support team members of a Rally team, and Formula One Grand Prix team. Both teams were based in the UK, and competed in all the rounds of their respective world championships. Ten Rally team members and 18 Formula One team members responded to the questionnaire. The results showed moderate coverage of commonly used vaccinations; appropriate use of antimalarials and insect repellents, but by no means by all team members; little or no problems with traveler's diarrhea; some tendencies to problems related to jet lag, but no real attempt to prevent the problem; and finally some attempt at skin protection against solar damage. Support teams are reasonably well prepared for the combination of, the rigors of frequent travel, and a demanding job. There is a deficit in vaccine coverage, especially of both hepatitis A and B, some education is needed in preventing skin problems later in life due to sun exposure, and further study of jet lag and its implications might be appropriate.

  10. Plerixafor on-demand combined with chemotherapy and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor: significant improvement in peripheral blood stem cells mobilization and harvest with no increase in costs.

    PubMed

    Milone, Giuseppe; Martino, Massimo; Spadaro, Andrea; Leotta, Salvatore; Di Marco, Annalia; Scalzulli, Potito; Cupri, Alessandra; Di Martina, Valentina; Schinocca, Elena; Spina, Eleonora; Tripepi, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    To date, no prospective study on Plerixafor 'on-demand' in combination with chemotherapy and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) has been reported. We present an interim analysis of the first prospective study in which Plerixafor was administered on-demand in patients affected by multiple myeloma and lymphoma who received high dose cyclophosphamide or DHAP (dexamethasone, cytarabine, cisplatin) plus G-CSF to mobilize peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC). One hundred and two patients were evaluable for response. A cohort of 240 patients receiving the same mobilizing chemotherapy was retrospectively studied. Failure to mobilize CD34(+) cells in peripheral blood was reduced by 'on-demand' strategy compared to conventional mobilization; from 13·0 to 3·0% (P = 0·004). Failure to harvest CD34(+) cells 2 × 10(6) /kg decreased from 20·9 to 4·0% (P = 0·0001). The on-demand Plerixafor strategy also resulted in a lower rate of mobilization failure (P = 0·03) and harvest failure (P = 0·0008) when compared to a 'bias-adjusted set of controls'. Evaluation of economic costs of the two strategies showed that the overall cost of the two treatments were comparable when salvage mobilizations were taken into account. When in combination with cyclophosphamide or DHAP plus G-CSF, the 'on-demand' use of Plerixafor showed, in comparison to conventionally treated patients, a significant improvement in mobilization of PBSC with no increase in overall cost.

  11. Travelers' diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Barrett-Connor, E

    1973-03-01

    On the average, one-fourth of North Americans visiting developing countries experience a self-limited diarrheal illness that interferes with holiday or business activities. Recent work suggests that these episodes are caused by a small inoculum of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli which are common in the country visited and rare in the country of origin. Neither antimicrobial treatment nor anti-diarrheal agents have proven benefit once the illness has begun. Despite its frequent use, iodochlorhydroxyquin has not been shown in double blind studies to be effective as a preventive agent, and may be dangerous. The status of furazolidone for prevention of tourist diarrhea is questionable. Both neomycin sulfate and phythalylsulfathiazole have demonstrated efficacy as chemoprophylactics in Mexico. However, their use should be restricted to limited types of travel and travelers. General admonitions concerning avoidance of certain ingestibles are recommended; despite questionable value in preventing travelers' diarrhea such precautions may prevent more serious gastrointestinal illness.

  12. Benefits from using combined dynamical-statistical downscaling approaches in building crop water demand scenarios in a semi-arid Mediterranean region.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guyennon, Nicolas; Portoghese, Ivan; Romano, Emanuele; Calmanti, Sandro

    2013-04-01

    Various downscaling techniques have been developed to bridge the scale gap between global climate models (GCMs) and finer scales required to assess hydrological impacts of climate change. Although statistical downscaling (SD) has been traditionally seen as an alternative to dynamical downscaling (DD), recent works on statistical downscaling have aimed to combine the benefits of these two approaches. The overall objective of this study is to assess whether a DD processing performed before the SD permits to obtain more suitable scenarios of crop water demand. The case study presented here focuses on the north-western part of the Apulia region named Capitanata plain (South East of Italy, surface area about 4000 km2), dominated by agriculture (about 15% of the national production of cereals and olive trees) and mainly depending on surface water. The fifth-generation ECHAM model from the Max-Planck-Institute for Meteorology was adopted as GCM. The DD was carried out with the Protheus system (ENEA), while the SD was performed through a monthly quantile-quantile correction. Finally the crop water demand is estimated through the water mass-balance model G-MAP, considering monthly precipitation, monthly temperature and the major landscape features that determine the soil water balance. The latter introduces a strong non linearity with respect to the meteorological input, due to the non-linear solution of soil infiltration and moisture-dependent evapotranspiration and the threshold-based runoff mechanism, which prevents from forecasting the crop water demand as simple linear combination of the precipitation and temperature scenarios. The crop water demand scenarios resulting from the different downscaling and their combination are then compared in terms of bias, long term non stationarity and spatial variability.

  13. Reconciliation of Travel Advances and Travel Liquidations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    AD-A236 677 NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California DTIC ELECTE JN12 1981’ THESIS RECONCILIATION OF TRAVEL ADVANCES AND TRAVEL LIQUIDATIONS by...Classification) RECONCILIATION OF TRAVEL ADVANCES AND TRAVEL LIQUIDATIONS 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Conzales. Dnmingo 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b TIME COVERED 14 DATE OF...TERMS (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block numoer) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Travel orders, Travel advance, Travel liquida- tion

  14. The Value of Time in Air Travel: Theory and Evidence,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The roles of time and money cost in the demand for air travel are analyzed. The first step is to construct the theory of consumer demand under a...time constraint and to deduce its theorems. Then these theorems are applied to air travel through use of a total price demand function. This analysis...air travel . Many results concerning elasticities are obtained, including a necessary relationship between the time, price, and total price

  15. Traveler's Diarrhea

    MedlinePlus

    ... cola).Hot drinks, such as tea or coffee.Carbonated or noncarbonated bottled water, as long as you are the one who ... borne illness, infectious gastroenteritis, intestinal flu, traveler's ... to your family doctor to find out if this information applies to you and to ...

  16. Traveling Apples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland Unified School District, Rowland Heights, CA.

    Teacher-developed materials for a basic computer literacy and utilization program for elementary students in grades 3-6 are included in this 4-part packet, which was originally prepared for use with or without the Apple IIe "traveling" microcomputers shared by 15 Rowland Unified School District elementary schools. Implementation…

  17. Plains Traveler

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-04-10

    This MOC image shows a dust devil traveling across a plain west-southwest of Schiaparelli Crater, in far eastern Sinus Meridiani. The dust devil is casting a shadow toward the northeast, just south below of an egg-shaped crater

  18. Travelers' Health: International Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Yellow Fever Vaccine Course Travel Medicine References: Books, Journals, Articles & Websites Resources for the Travel Industry Yellow Book Contents Chapter 7 Traveling Safely with Infants & Children ...

  19. HOME ENERGY SUPPLY-DEMAND ANALYSIS FOR COMBINED SYSTEM OF SOLAR HEAT COLLECTOR AND HEAT PUMP WATER HEATER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikegami, Takashi; Kataoka, Kazuto; Iwafune, Yumiko; Ogimoto, Kazuhiko

    In order to evaluate effectiveness of a combined system of solar heat collecctor (SHC) and heat pump water heater (HPWH), optimum operation scheduling moldel of domestic electric appliances using the mixed integer linear programming was enhanced. Applying this model with one house data in Tokyo, it was found that the combined system of the SHC and the HPWH has the enough energy-saving and CO2 emission reduction potential under the existing electricity late and the operation method of the HPWH. Furthermore, the calculation results under the future system show that the combined system of the SHC and the HPWH has also the reduction effect of reverse power flow from residential photovoltaic system.

  20. An Assessment of Demand for a Combined PharmD-MBA Program at the University of Saskatchewan.

    PubMed

    Mansell, Kerry; Bruneau-Bouchard, Antoine; Bruni-Bossio, Vincent

    2016-05-13

    (1) Background: Combined MBA programs are becoming increasingly popular, and it is anticipated that there will be 60 combined pharmacy-MBA programs across North America in 2015. We aimed to see if there would be support for a combined PharmD-MBA program at the University of Saskatchewan. (2) Methods: A questionnaire was distributed to 1st, 2nd, and 3rd year pharmacy students at the University of Saskatchewan. A separate questionnaire was developed and all practicing pharmacists in Saskatchewan were emailed a link to SurveyMonkey(®) (Palo Alto, CA, USA) to fill it out online. In-person and phone interviews were conducted with pharmacy stakeholders in Saskatchewan and across the country. (3) Results: Of the 265 students, 193 (72.8%) were present on the days the questionnaires were distributed, and they all completed the questionnaires. When asked if they would have pursued a combined degree if the U of S had offered it when they entered the pharmacy program, 16.6% (32/193) and 37.3% (72/193) either strongly agreed or agreed and 29.0% (56/193) were unsure. When pharmacists were asked if an MBA would be valuable or applicable in their current job, 42.2% (128/303) agreed and 13.9% (42/303) strongly agreed. When asked if they felt students graduating with a combined degree would be at an advantage for certain job opportunities upon graduation, 33.6% (100/298) strongly agreed and 55.4% (165/298) agreed. A total of 8 interviews were conducted with key stakeholders from across Canada. Of these 8 stakeholders, only 2 were aware that other combined programs were offered. All of the stakeholders were in favour of the idea of a combined degree. Some felt it was important for the program to have a clear value proposition and healthcare related content would be desirable. (4) Conclusions: Overall, pharmacist, pharmacy student, and stakeholder input indicate that a combined program could be supported at the University of Saskatchewan.

  1. An Assessment of Demand for a Combined PharmD–MBA Program at the University of Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    Mansell, Kerry; Bruneau-Bouchard, Antoine; Bruni-Bossio, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    (1) Background: Combined MBA programs are becoming increasingly popular, and it is anticipated that there will be 60 combined pharmacy–MBA programs across North America in 2015. We aimed to see if there would be support for a combined PharmD–MBA program at the University of Saskatchewan. (2) Methods: A questionnaire was distributed to 1st, 2nd, and 3rd year pharmacy students at the University of Saskatchewan. A separate questionnaire was developed and all practicing pharmacists in Saskatchewan were emailed a link to SurveyMonkey® (Palo Alto, CA, USA) to fill it out online. In-person and phone interviews were conducted with pharmacy stakeholders in Saskatchewan and across the country. (3) Results: Of the 265 students, 193 (72.8%) were present on the days the questionnaires were distributed, and they all completed the questionnaires. When asked if they would have pursued a combined degree if the U of S had offered it when they entered the pharmacy program, 16.6% (32/193) and 37.3% (72/193) either strongly agreed or agreed and 29.0% (56/193) were unsure. When pharmacists were asked if an MBA would be valuable or applicable in their current job, 42.2% (128/303) agreed and 13.9% (42/303) strongly agreed. When asked if they felt students graduating with a combined degree would be at an advantage for certain job opportunities upon graduation, 33.6% (100/298) strongly agreed and 55.4% (165/298) agreed. A total of 8 interviews were conducted with key stakeholders from across Canada. Of these 8 stakeholders, only 2 were aware that other combined programs were offered. All of the stakeholders were in favour of the idea of a combined degree. Some felt it was important for the program to have a clear value proposition and healthcare related content would be desirable. (4) Conclusions: Overall, pharmacist, pharmacy student, and stakeholder input indicate that a combined program could be supported at the University of Saskatchewan. PMID:28970393

  2. Travelers' Health: Cruise Ship Travel

    MedlinePlus

    ... as well as unaccustomed changes in diet and physical activity. Foreign travel may increase the likelihood of risk-taking behaviors such as alcohol misuse, drug use, and unsafe sex. In spite of modern stabilizer systems, seasickness is a common complaint (affecting ...

  3. Combined energy production and waste management in manned spacecraft utilizing on-demand hydrogen production and fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elitzur, Shani; Rosenband, Valery; Gany, Alon

    2016-11-01

    Energy supply and waste management are among the most significant challenges in human spacecraft. Great efforts are invested in managing solid waste, recycling grey water and urine, cleaning the atmosphere, removing CO2, generating and saving energy, and making further use of components and products. This paper describes and investigates a concept for managing waste water and urine to simultaneously produce electric and heat energies as well as fresh water. It utilizes an original technique for aluminum activation to react spontaneously with water at room temperature to produce hydrogen on-site and on-demand. This reaction has further been proven to be effective also when using waste water and urine. Applying the hydrogen produced in a fuel cell, one obtains electric energy as well as fresh (drinking) water. The method was compared to the traditional energy production technology of the Space Shuttle, which is based on storing the fuel cell reactants, hydrogen and oxygen, in cryogenic tanks. It is shown that the alternative concept presented here may provide improved safety, compactness (reduction of more than one half of the volume of the hydrogen storage system), and management of waste liquids for energy generation and drinking water production. Nevertheless, it adds mass compared to the cryogenic hydrogen technology. It is concluded that the proposed method may be used as an emergency and backup power system as well as an additional hydrogen source for extended missions in human spacecraft.

  4. Granted travel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Geological Society of America (GSA)is accepting applications for the 30th International Geological Congress (IGC) Travel Grant Program. The 1996 congress will be held in Beijing, China, August 4-14. The program was formed at the end of the 28th IGC, held in Washington, D.C. in July 1989. The fund is to be used to support the attendance of young geoscientists to future IGCs until the United States again hosts an IGC. Travel grants consist of economy air-fare to China. To be eligible, an applicant must be a resident or citizen of the United States; must have been born after August 31, 1956; and must have an abstract included in the program of the 30th IGC. Official application forms are available from the grants administrator, GSA Headquarters, 3300 Penrose Place, P.O. Box 9140, Boulder, CO 80301.

  5. [Immunocompromised travelers].

    PubMed

    Delmont, J; Igo-Kemenes, A; Peyron, F; Ruiz, J M; Moreau, J; Bourgeade, A

    1997-01-01

    More and more immunocompromised people travel abroad especially in tropical countries where infectious risks are high. Before leaving, these subjects must consult their general practitioner who will determine their fitness in function of type of immunodeficiency, travel destination, availability of medical care at the destination, and possibility of medical evacuation. Counseling should also be provided concerning the precautions necessary to avoid the hazards of exposure to fecal material, venereal disease, insect bites, and sun. Antimalarial drug prophylaxis is the same as for uncompromised subjects. Advising immunocompromised subjects about vaccinations is difficult since there is no consensus on the subject. Administration of inert vaccines is usually recommended but their effectiveness is often diminished and harmful effects have been observed in HIV-infected subjects. Administration of live vaccines is always contraindicated in severely immunocompromised subjects but some live vaccines can be used in moderately immunocompromised subjects. The guidelines for vaccination differ depending on the underlying cause of immunodeficiency: congenital defects, cancer, hemopathy, treatment with immunosuppressors or corticosteroids (transplant patients and patients with systemic disease), HIV-infection, or spleen dysfunction. If there is a high risk of contracting a disease for which vaccination is contraindicated, drug prophylaxis or administration of immunoglobulins can be an alternative. If not, travel should either be postponed or the destination should be changed.

  6. Travel during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Travel During Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs Travel During Pregnancy ... Pregnancy FAQ055, April 2017 PDF Format Travel During Pregnancy Pregnancy Is travel safe during pregnancy? When is ...

  7. Travel Medical Kit.

    PubMed

    Terry, Anne C; Haulman, N Jean

    2016-03-01

    "The traveler's medical kit is an essential tool for both the novice and expert traveler. It is designed to treat travel-related illness and injury and to ensure preexisting medical conditions are managed appropriately. Travelers are at increased risk for common gastrointestinal issues during travel. Respiratory illnesses make up approximately 8% of the ailments present in returned international travelers. Approximately 12% of travelers experience a travel-related skin condition. First aid treatment for minor injuries is essential to all travel medical kits. The complexity ranges from a small, simple case for the urban traveler to a larger, extensive case for wilderness travel."

  8. Transportation and Travel: Travel Overseas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    responsibility of the soldier or the family members. It is expected that, in some cases, soldiers will have insufficient funds to defray the cost of...ports of embarkation (for example, billeting and food costs ). (See app C, fig C–6 for format of space available travel orders.) e. Family members who... cost of the move from the old PDS, to the new PDS. The designated place may be— (1) Any place in CONUS the soldier designates. (2) The place outside

  9. On demand Gamma-Knife strategy can be safely combined with BRAF inhibitors for the treatment of melanoma brain metastases.

    PubMed

    Gaudy-Marqueste, C; Carron, R; Delsanti, C; Loundou, A; Monestier, S; Archier, E; Richard, M A; Regis, J; Grob, J J

    2014-10-01

    Both Gamma-Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) and BRAF inhibitors (BRAF-I) have been shown to be useful in melanoma patients with brain metastases (BMs), thus suggesting that it could be interesting to combine their respective advantages. However, cases of radiosensitization following conventional radiation therapy in BRAF-I treated patients have raised serious concerns about the real feasibility and risk/benefit ratio of this combination. Review by two independent observers of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) follow-up pictures, and volume and edema quantifications, and survival assessment in all patients who had been treated by GKRS and BRAF-I at a single institution. Among 53 GKRS carried out in 30 patients who ever received BRAF-I and GKRS, 33 GKRS were carried out in 24 patients while under BRAF-I treatment, from which only 4 with an interruption of BRAF-I. The 20 other GKRS were carried out in 15 patients (including 9 of the 24) before initiation of BRAF-I treatment. No case of radiation-induced necrosis and no scalp radiation dermatitis occurred. A >20% increase in volume was observed in 35 of the 263 BM treated by GKRS (13.3%), but only 3 clear-cut edemas and 3 hemorrhages were detected within 2 months after GKRS, and 4 edemas and 7 hemorrhages later. Neither the MRI features nor the incidence of the volume changes, hemorrhage and edema were deemed unexpected for melanoma BM treated by GKRS. Median survival from first GKRS under BRAF-I and first dose of BRAF-I were 24.8 and 48.8 weeks, respectively. This series does not show immediate radiotoxicity nor radiation recall, in melanoma patients with BRAF-I whose BMs are treated by GKRS. Interrupting BRAF-I for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) of BM seems useless, although it is still advised for other radiation therapies. The potential benefit of combining SRS and BRAF-I can be safely tested. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights

  10. Amphiphilic Imbalance and Stabilization of Block Copolymer Micelles on-Demand through Combinational Photo-Cleavage and Photo-Crosslinking.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuan; Wang, Youpeng; Li, Guo; Liu, Zhaotie; Liu, Zhongwen; Jiang, Jinqiang

    2017-01-01

    An amphiphilic block copolymer of poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly((N-methacryloxy phthalimide)-co-(7-(4-vinyl-benzyloxyl)-4-methylcoumarin)) (PEO45 -b-P(MAPI36 -co-VBC4 )) is designed to improve the micellar stability during the photo-triggered release of hydrophobic cargoes. Analysis of absorption and emission spectra, solution transmittance, dynamic light scattering, and transmission electron microscopy supports that polymer micelles of PEO45 -b-P(MAPI36 -co-VBC4 ) upon the combinational irradiation of 365 and 254 nm light can be solubilized through the photolysis of phthalimide esters and simultaneously crosslinked via the partially reversible photo-dimerization of coumarins. The photo-triggered release experiment shows that the leakage of doxorubicin molecules from crosslinked micelles can be predictably regulated by controlling the irradiation time of 365 and 254 nm light.

  11. Plains Traveler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    10 April 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a dust devil traveling across a plain west-southwest of Schiaparelli Crater, in far eastern Sinus Meridiani. The dust devil is casting a shadow toward the northeast, just south (below) of an egg-shaped crater.

    Location near: 6.4oS, 349.3oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Summer

  12. Plains Traveler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    10 April 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a dust devil traveling across a plain west-southwest of Schiaparelli Crater, in far eastern Sinus Meridiani. The dust devil is casting a shadow toward the northeast, just south (below) of an egg-shaped crater.

    Location near: 6.4oS, 349.3oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Summer

  13. Assessing regional crop water demand using a satellite-based combination equation with a land surface temperature component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyano, Maria Carmen; Garcia, Monica; Tornos, Lucia; Recuero, Laura; Palacios-Orueta, Alicia; Juana, Luis

    2015-04-01

    Quantification of daily evapotranspiration at regional levels is fundamental for improving agricultural and hydrological management, especially in water-scarce and climatic change vulnerable regions, like the Mediterranean basin. Regional estimates of daily crop evapotranspiration (ET) have been historically based on combination equations, such as Penman-Monteith or Priestley-Taylor, forced with weather-data inputs. However, the requirements for long term in-situ data, limit the application of such traditional approaches and algorithms using satellite-data without field calibrations bridge this gap by estimating long-term ET at the pixel level from local to global scales. Land surface temperature is a key variable tracking land surface moisture status. However, it has not been included in satellite ET approaches based on combination equations. In this study, a land surface temperature component was used to estimate soil surface conductance based on an apparent thermal inertia index. A process-based model was applied to estimate surface energy fluxes including daily ET based on a modified version of the Priestley-Taylor Jet Propulsion Laboratory (PT-JPL) model at 1km pixel resolution during a chrono-sequence spanning for more than a decade (2002-2013). The thermal-PT-JPL model was forced with vegetation, albedo, reflectance and temperature products from the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) from both Aqua and Terra satellites. The study region, B-XII Irrigation District of the Lower Guadalquivir, is one of the largest irrigated areas in Spain but it has scarce in-situ micrometeorological or eddy covariance data. The final aim of this study is to evaluate the thermal version of PT-JPL model versus a lumped hydrological model to assess crop evapotranspiration deficits and long-term water consumption trends in the area. The results showed that the thermal-PT-JPL model is a suitable and simple tool requiring only air temperature and incoming solar

  14. Use of travel cost models in planning: A case study

    Treesearch

    Allan Marsinko; William T. Zawacki; J. Michael Bowker

    2002-01-01

    This article examines the use of the travel cost, method in tourism-related decision making in the area of nonconsumptive wildlife-associated recreation. A travel cost model of nonconsumptive wildlife-associated recreation, developed by Zawacki, Maninko, and Bowker, is used as a case study for this analysis. The travel cost model estimates the demand for the activity...

  15. Travel health preparation and travel-related morbidity of splenectomised individuals.

    PubMed

    Boeddha, Christien; de Graaf, Wilmar; Overbosch, David; van Genderen, Perry J J

    2012-07-01

    Asplenic or hyposplenic patients are at an increased risk of encapsulated bacterial and intraerythrocytic parasitic infections, which are endemic at many travel destinations. With proper travel health advice and preparation splenectomised individuals could have comparable travel-related morbidity as healthy control subjects. We conducted a prospective case-control study with 21 travel pairs. Each pair consisted of a splenectomised patient (case) and a healthy, non-splenectomised travel companion (control) in order to match for travel destination, duration and potential exposures to travel-related health risks. All participants filled out a questionnaire detailing travel health preparation including vaccination and malaria prophylaxis as well as travel-related morbidity. Cases and controls were comparable for age and gender. Cases received significantly more information about on demand use of antibiotics in case of fever. Immunisation coverage against encapsulated bacteria and adherence to malaria prophylaxis guidelines was suboptimal. There were no significant differences in the occurrence of travel-related ailments nor differences in severity of ailments. The immunisation coverage against encapsulated bacteria and adherence to malaria prophylaxis guidelines was suboptimal in some splenectomised patients and should be improved. Strict adherence to national travel health advice guidelines and specific guidelines for asplenic patients is advisable. However, with regard to travel-related morbidity there are no significant differences in morbidity between splenectomised patients and healthy controls, at least in the setting of short-term travel.

  16. Network structure and travel time perception.

    PubMed

    Parthasarathi, Pavithra; Levinson, David; Hochmair, Hartwig

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to test the systematic variation in the perception of travel time among travelers and relate the variation to the underlying street network structure. Travel survey data from the Twin Cities metropolitan area (which includes the cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul) is used for the analysis. Travelers are classified into two groups based on the ratio of perceived and estimated commute travel time. The measures of network structure are estimated using the street network along the identified commute route. T-test comparisons are conducted to identify statistically significant differences in estimated network measures between the two traveler groups. The combined effect of these estimated network measures on travel time is then analyzed using regression models. The results from the t-test and regression analyses confirm the influence of the underlying network structure on the perception of travel time.

  17. Network Structure and Travel Time Perception

    PubMed Central

    Parthasarathi, Pavithra; Levinson, David; Hochmair, Hartwig

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to test the systematic variation in the perception of travel time among travelers and relate the variation to the underlying street network structure. Travel survey data from the Twin Cities metropolitan area (which includes the cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul) is used for the analysis. Travelers are classified into two groups based on the ratio of perceived and estimated commute travel time. The measures of network structure are estimated using the street network along the identified commute route. T-test comparisons are conducted to identify statistically significant differences in estimated network measures between the two traveler groups. The combined effect of these estimated network measures on travel time is then analyzed using regression models. The results from the t-test and regression analyses confirm the influence of the underlying network structure on the perception of travel time. PMID:24204932

  18. An evaluation of a progressive high-probability instructional sequence combined with low-probability demand fading in the treatment of food selectivity.

    PubMed

    Penrod, Becky; Gardella, Laura; Fernand, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have examined the effects of the high-probability instructional sequence in the treatment of food selectivity, and results of these studies have been mixed (e.g., Dawson et al., 2003; Patel et al., 2007). The present study extended previous research on the high-probability instructional sequence by combining this procedure with low-probability demand fading with 2 boys with autism (9 and 10 years old) who had a history of food selectivity and engaged in active food refusal behaviors when presented with novel foods. Response requirements were faded gradually from responses the child would tolerate (e.g., touching the food) to the final requirement of chewing and swallowing the food. The antecedent-based intervention was implemented in the absence of escape extinction and was effective in increasing food consumption for both participants. Possible mechanisms responsible for the effectiveness of the intervention are discussed along with directions for future research.

  19. Understanding congested travel in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çolak, Serdar; Lima, Antonio; González, Marta C.

    2016-03-01

    Rapid urbanization and increasing demand for transportation burdens urban road infrastructures. The interplay of number of vehicles and available road capacity on their routes determines the level of congestion. Although approaches to modify demand and capacity exist, the possible limits of congestion alleviation by only modifying route choices have not been systematically studied. Here we couple the road networks of five diverse cities with the travel demand profiles in the morning peak hour obtained from billions of mobile phone traces to comprehensively analyse urban traffic. We present that a dimensionless ratio of the road supply to the travel demand explains the percentage of time lost in congestion. Finally, we examine congestion relief under a centralized routing scheme with varying levels of awareness of social good and quantify the benefits to show that moderate levels are enough to achieve significant collective travel time savings.

  20. Understanding congested travel in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Çolak, Serdar; Lima, Antonio; González, Marta C

    2016-03-15

    Rapid urbanization and increasing demand for transportation burdens urban road infrastructures. The interplay of number of vehicles and available road capacity on their routes determines the level of congestion. Although approaches to modify demand and capacity exist, the possible limits of congestion alleviation by only modifying route choices have not been systematically studied. Here we couple the road networks of five diverse cities with the travel demand profiles in the morning peak hour obtained from billions of mobile phone traces to comprehensively analyse urban traffic. We present that a dimensionless ratio of the road supply to the travel demand explains the percentage of time lost in congestion. Finally, we examine congestion relief under a centralized routing scheme with varying levels of awareness of social good and quantify the benefits to show that moderate levels are enough to achieve significant collective travel time savings.

  1. Understanding congested travel in urban areas

    PubMed Central

    Çolak, Serdar; Lima, Antonio; González, Marta C.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid urbanization and increasing demand for transportation burdens urban road infrastructures. The interplay of number of vehicles and available road capacity on their routes determines the level of congestion. Although approaches to modify demand and capacity exist, the possible limits of congestion alleviation by only modifying route choices have not been systematically studied. Here we couple the road networks of five diverse cities with the travel demand profiles in the morning peak hour obtained from billions of mobile phone traces to comprehensively analyse urban traffic. We present that a dimensionless ratio of the road supply to the travel demand explains the percentage of time lost in congestion. Finally, we examine congestion relief under a centralized routing scheme with varying levels of awareness of social good and quantify the benefits to show that moderate levels are enough to achieve significant collective travel time savings. PMID:26978719

  2. Combined coagulation-flocculation and sequencing batch reactor with phosphorus adjustment for the treatment of high-strength landfill leachate: experimental kinetics and chemical oxygen demand fractionation.

    PubMed

    El-Fadel, M; Matar, F; Hashisho, J

    2013-05-01

    The treatability of high-strength landfill leachate is challenging and relatively limited. This study examines the feasibility of treating high-strength landfill leachate (chemical oxygen demand [COD]: 7,760-11,770 mg/L, biochemical oxygen demand [BOD5]: 2,760-3,569 mg/L, total nitrogen [TN] = 980-1,160 mg/L) using a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) preceded by a coagulation-flocculation process with phosphorus nutritional balance under various mixing and aeration patterns. Simulations were also conducted to define kinetic parameters and COD fractionation. Removal efficiencies reached 89% for BOD5, 60% for COD, and 72% for TN, similar to and better than reported studies, albeit with a relatively lower hydraulic retention time (HRT) and solid retention time (SRT). The coupled experimental and simulation results contribute in filling a gap toward managing high-strength landfill leachate and providing guidelines for corresponding SBR applications. The treatability of high-strength landfill leachate, which is challenging and relatively limited, was demonstrated using a combined coagulation-flocculation with SBR technology and nutrient balance adjustment. The most suitable coagulant, kinetic design parameters, and COD fractionation were defined using coupled experimental and simulation results contributing in filling a gap toward managing high-strength leachate by providing guidelines for corresponding SBR applications and anticipating potential constraints related to the non-biodegradable COD fraction. In this context, while the combined coagulation-flocculation and SBR process improved removal efficiencies, posttreatment may be required for high-strength leachate, depending on discharge standards and ultimate usage of the treated leachate.

  3. Travelers' Health: Leishmaniasis, Visceral

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safety Blood Clots Bug Bites Business Travel Cold Climates Counterfeit Drugs Cruise Ship Travel Families with Children ... Abroad Getting Sick After Travel High Altitudes Hot Climates Humanitarian Aid Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador ...

  4. Travelers' Health: Varicella (Chickenpox)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safety Blood Clots Bug Bites Business Travel Cold Climates Counterfeit Drugs Cruise Ship Travel Families with Children ... Abroad Getting Sick After Travel High Altitudes Hot Climates Humanitarian Aid Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador ...

  5. Travelers' Health: Yellow Fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safety Blood Clots Bug Bites Business Travel Cold Climates Counterfeit Drugs Cruise Ship Travel Families with Children ... Abroad Getting Sick After Travel High Altitudes Hot Climates Humanitarian Aid Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador ...

  6. Travelers' Health: Japanese Encephalitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safety Blood Clots Bug Bites Business Travel Cold Climates Counterfeit Drugs Cruise Ship Travel Families with Children ... Abroad Getting Sick After Travel High Altitudes Hot Climates Humanitarian Aid Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador ...

  7. Travelers' Health: Meningococcal Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safety Blood Clots Bug Bites Business Travel Cold Climates Counterfeit Drugs Cruise Ship Travel Families with Children ... Abroad Getting Sick After Travel High Altitudes Hot Climates Humanitarian Aid Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador ...

  8. Travelers' Health: Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safety Blood Clots Bug Bites Business Travel Cold Climates Counterfeit Drugs Cruise Ship Travel Families with Children ... Abroad Getting Sick After Travel High Altitudes Hot Climates Humanitarian Aid Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador ...

  9. Travelers' Health: Motion Sickness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safety Blood Clots Bug Bites Business Travel Cold Climates Counterfeit Drugs Cruise Ship Travel Families with Children ... Abroad Getting Sick After Travel High Altitudes Hot Climates Humanitarian Aid Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador ...

  10. Travelers' Health: Scabies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safety Blood Clots Bug Bites Business Travel Cold Climates Counterfeit Drugs Cruise Ship Travel Families with Children ... Abroad Getting Sick After Travel High Altitudes Hot Climates Humanitarian Aid Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador ...

  11. Travelers' Health: Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safety Blood Clots Bug Bites Business Travel Cold Climates Counterfeit Drugs Cruise Ship Travel Families with Children ... Abroad Getting Sick After Travel High Altitudes Hot Climates Humanitarian Aid Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador ...

  12. Travelers' Health: Pertussis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safety Blood Clots Bug Bites Business Travel Cold Climates Counterfeit Drugs Cruise Ship Travel Families with Children ... Abroad Getting Sick After Travel High Altitudes Hot Climates Humanitarian Aid Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador ...

  13. Travelers' Health: Giardiasis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safety Blood Clots Bug Bites Business Travel Cold Climates Counterfeit Drugs Cruise Ship Travel Families with Children ... Abroad Getting Sick After Travel High Altitudes Hot Climates Humanitarian Aid Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador ...

  14. The Traveler with Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Willen, Shaina M.; Thornburg, Courtney D.; Lantos, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sickle cell disease (SCD) is the most common genetic disease among persons with African ancestry. This article provides a background on SCD and reviews many important aspects of travel preparation in this population. Methods The medical literature was searched for studies about travel-associated preparedness and complications in individuals with SCD. Topics researched included malaria, bacterial infections, vaccinations, dehydration, altitude, air travel, and travel preparedness. Results There is very little published literature that specifically addresses the risks faced by travelers with SCD. Rates of medical complications during travel appear to be high. There is a body of literature that describes complications of SCD in indigenous populations, particularly within Africa. The generalizability of these data to a traveler are uncertain. Combining these sources of data and the broader medical literature we address major travel-related questions that may face a provider preparing an individual with SCD for safe travel. Conclusions Travelers with SCD face considerable medical risks when traveling to developing tropical countries; these include malaria, bacterial infections, hypovolemia, and sickle cell-associated vaso-occlusive crises. Frank counseling about risks, vigilant preventative measures, and contingency planning for illness while abroad are necessary parts of the pre-travel visit for individuals with SCD. PMID:24947546

  15. Travelers' Health: Japanese Encephalitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Yellow Fever Vaccine Course Travel Medicine References: Books, Journals, Articles & Websites Resources for the Travel Industry Yellow Book Contents Chapter 3 (81) Japanese Encephalitis more Tables ...

  16. Traveling-Wave Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kory, Carol L.

    1998-01-01

    The traveling-wave tube (TWT) is a vacuum device invented in the early 1940's used for amplification at microwave frequencies. Amplification is attained by surrendering kinetic energy from an electron beam to a radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic wave. The demand for vacuum devices has been decreased largely by the advent of solid-state devices. However, although solid state devices have replaced vacuum devices in many areas, there are still many applications such as radar, electronic countermeasures and satellite communications, that require operating characteristics such as high power (Watts to Megawatts), high frequency (below 1 GHz to over 100 GHz) and large bandwidth that only vacuum devices can provide. Vacuum devices are also deemed irreplaceable in the music industry where musicians treasure their tube-based amplifiers claiming that the solid-state and digital counterparts could never provide the same "warmth" (3). The term traveling-wave tube includes both fast-wave and slow-wave devices. This article will concentrate on slow-wave devices as the vast majority of TWTs in operation fall into this category.

  17. Business travelers: vaccination considerations for this population.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin H; Leder, Karin; Wilson, Mary E

    2013-04-01

    Illness in business travelers is associated with reduced productivity on the part of the employee as well as the employer. Immunizations offer a reliable method of preventing infectious diseases for international business travelers. The authors review the travel patterns of business travelers, available data on illnesses they encounter, their potential travel-associated risks for vaccine-preventable diseases and recommendations on immunizations for this population. Routine vaccines (e.g., measles, tetanus and influenza) should be reviewed to assure that they provide current coverage. The combined hepatitis A and hepatitis B vaccine with a rapid schedule offers options for those with time constraints. Other vaccine recommendations for business travelers need to focus on their destinations and activities and underlying health, taking into account the concept of cumulative risk for those with frequent travel, multiple trips or long stays.

  18. [Travel medicine for HIV-infected patients].

    PubMed

    Rossi, M; Furrer, H

    2001-06-01

    Many HIV-infected persons travel from temperate zones to (sub)tropical destinations. HIV-specific immigration issues, medical resources abroad and problems regarding travelling with multiple medications have to be anticipated. When prescribing immunizations and specific chemoprophylaxis, the stage of immunodeficiency as well as drug interactions with antiretrovirals and medicaments against opportunistic infections have to be taken into account. Live vaccines may be contraindicated. Immunocompromised HIV-infected travellers have a higher risk for serious courses of diseases by enteropathogens. Therefore a good information about food hygiene is important and a prescription of an antibiotic to take in case of severe diarrhea may be indicated. A new antiretroviral combination therapy should not be started immediately before travelling to the tropics. The possibility to continue an established HIV treatment during travel has to be evaluated cautiously. With good pre-travel advice the risk of severe health problems is low for most HIV-infected travellers.

  19. Forecasting the demand potential for STOL air transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, S.; Horonjeff, R.; Kanafani, A.; Mogharabi, A.

    1973-01-01

    A process for predicting the potential demand for STOL aircraft was investigated to provide a conceptual framework, and an analytical methodology for estimating the STOL air transportation market. It was found that: (1) schedule frequency has the strongest effect on the traveler's choice among available routes, (2) work related business constitutes approximately 50% of total travel volume, and (3) air travel demand follows economic trends.

  20. Childhood and Travel Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espey, David

    If children are not present in most travel literature--precisely because the genre has most typically been the domain of solitary male travelers who are escaping domestic obligation, routine, the familiar, and the family--they nevertheless are an integral part of the genre. The traveler is in many ways a child, an innocent abroad. Traveler writers…

  1. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis E

    MedlinePlus

    ... Travel Families with Children Fish Poisoning in Travelers Food and Water Getting Health Care Abroad Getting Sick After Travel High Altitudes Hot Climates Humanitarian Aid Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador Insurance International Adoption Jet Lag Last-Minute Travel Long-Term ...

  2. Travelers' Health: Cryptosporidiosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Travel Families with Children Fish Poisoning in Travelers Food and Water Getting Health Care Abroad Getting Sick After Travel High Altitudes Hot Climates Humanitarian Aid Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador Insurance International Adoption Jet Lag Last-Minute Travel Long-Term ...

  3. Travelers' Health: Giardiasis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Travel Families with Children Fish Poisoning in Travelers Food and Water Getting Health Care Abroad Getting Sick After Travel High Altitudes Hot Climates Humanitarian Aid Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador Insurance International Adoption Jet Lag Last-Minute Travel Long-Term ...

  4. Travelers' Health: Scabies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Travel Families with Children Fish Poisoning in Travelers Food and Water Getting Health Care Abroad Getting Sick After Travel High Altitudes Hot Climates Humanitarian Aid Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador Insurance International Adoption Jet Lag Last-Minute Travel Long-Term ...

  5. Travelers' Health: Motion Sickness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Travel Families with Children Fish Poisoning in Travelers Food and Water Getting Health Care Abroad Getting Sick After Travel High Altitudes Hot Climates Humanitarian Aid Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador Insurance International Adoption Jet Lag Last-Minute Travel Long-Term ...

  6. Travel-related illness.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Carol C

    2013-06-01

    Travel abroad for business and pleasure should be safe and meaningful for the traveler. To assure that safe experience, certain processes should be considered before travel. A thorough pretravel health assessment will offer patients and health care providers valuable information for anticipatory guidance before travel. The destination-based risk assessment will help determine the risks involved in travel to specific locations and guide in the development of contingency plans for all travelers, especially those with chronic conditions. Diseases are more prevalent overseas, and immunizations and vaccinations are all important considerations for persons traveling abroad.

  7. Demanding Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oguntoyinbo, Lekan

    2010-01-01

    It was the kind of crisis most universities dread. In November 2006, a group of minority student leaders at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) threatened to sue the university if administrators did not heed demands that included providing more funding for multicultural student groups. This article discusses how this threat…

  8. POTENTIAL FOR NITROSAMINE FORMATION RESULTING FROM THE USE OF RHODAMINE WT FOR TIME-OF-TRAVEL STUDIES: A COMBINED LABORATORY AND FIELD INVESTIGATION.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Sharon M.; Steinheimer, Thomas R.

    1984-01-01

    Rhodamine WT is used by surface water hydrologists for time of travel and dispersion studies in which flow characteristics of surface streams are determined. Surface water contamination by nitrosamines formed from Rhodamine WT and nitrite ion has been studied. A method for residue analysis of N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) has been developed and evaluated using river samples spiked with Rhodamine WT and nitrite ion. It permits rapid and reliable determination of NDEA at a minimum concentration of 0. 03 mu g/L. The method uses solid-phase extraction and capillary gas chromatography.

  9. Home range and travels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.; King, John A.

    1968-01-01

    . Peromyscus generally used and maintained several or many different home sites and refuges in various parts of their home ranges, and frequently shifted about so that their principal activities centered on different sets of holes at different times. Once established, many Peromyscus remained in the same general area for a long time, perhaps for the duration of their lives. Extent of their travels in different directions and intensity of use of different portions of their home ranges varied within a general area in response to habitat changes, loss of neighbors, or other factors. Various authors have obtained both direct and indirect evidence of territoriality, in some degree, among certain species of Peromyscus. Young mice dispersed from their birth sites to establish home ranges of their own. Adults also sometimes left their home areas; some re-established elsewhere; others returned after exploratory travels. Most populations contained a certain proportion of transients; these may have been wanderers or individuals exploring out from established home ranges or seeking new ones. When areas were depopulated by removal trapping, other Peromyscus invaded. Invasion rates generally followed seasonal trends of reproduction and population density. Peromyscus removed from their home areas and released elsewhere returned home from various distances, but fewer returned from greater distances than from nearby; speed of return increased with successive trials. The consensus from present evidence is that ho-ming is made possible by a combination of random wandering and familiarity with a larger area than the day-to-day range. Records of juvenile wanderings during the dispersal phase and of adult explorations very nearly encompassed the distances over which any substantial amount of successful homing occurred. Methods of measuring sizes of home ranges and the limitations of these measurements were discussed in brief synopsis. It was co

  10. Rabies in travelers.

    PubMed

    Gautret, Philippe; Parola, Philippe

    2014-03-01

    Most cases of rabies in travelers are associated with dog bites and occur in adults who are commonly migrants. The incidence of injuries to travelers caused by potentially rabid animals is approximately 0.4 % per month of stay. Dogs account for 51 % of cases, but nonhuman primates are the leading animals responsible for injuries in travelers returning from Southeast Asia. Travel to Southeast Asia, India and North Africa, young age, and traveling for tourism are risk factors for potential exposure. More than 70 % of travelers are not immunized prior to departing and do not receive adequate care when injured. The intradermal vaccination route has been proven economical, safe and immunogenic in travelers. The immunity provided by the three-dose series is long-lasting and should be considered an investment for future travel. Abbreviated schedules may be used for last-minute travelers.

  11. Development of variable pathlength UV-vis spectroscopy combined with partial-least-squares regression for wastewater chemical oxygen demand (COD) monitoring.

    PubMed

    Chen, Baisheng; Wu, Huanan; Li, Sam Fong Yau

    2014-03-01

    To overcome the challenging task to select an appropriate pathlength for wastewater chemical oxygen demand (COD) monitoring with high accuracy by UV-vis spectroscopy in wastewater treatment process, a variable pathlength approach combined with partial-least squares regression (PLSR) was developed in this study. Two new strategies were proposed to extract relevant information of UV-vis spectral data from variable pathlength measurements. The first strategy was by data fusion with two data fusion levels: low-level data fusion (LLDF) and mid-level data fusion (MLDF). Predictive accuracy was found to improve, indicated by the lower root-mean-square errors of prediction (RMSEP) compared with those obtained for single pathlength measurements. Both fusion levels were found to deliver very robust PLSR models with residual predictive deviations (RPD) greater than 3 (i.e. 3.22 and 3.29, respectively). The second strategy involved calculating the slopes of absorbance against pathlength at each wavelength to generate slope-derived spectra. Without the requirement to select the optimal pathlength, the predictive accuracy (RMSEP) was improved by 20-43% as compared to single pathlength spectroscopy. Comparing to nine-factor models from fusion strategy, the PLSR model from slope-derived spectroscopy was found to be more parsimonious with only five factors and more robust with residual predictive deviation (RPD) of 3.72. It also offered excellent correlation of predicted and measured COD values with R(2) of 0.936. In sum, variable pathlength spectroscopy with the two proposed data analysis strategies proved to be successful in enhancing prediction performance of COD in wastewater and showed high potential to be applied in on-line water quality monitoring. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Traveling Lamb wave in elastic metamaterial layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Haisheng; Xu, Lihuan; Shi, Xiaona; Zhao, Lei; Zhu, Jie

    2016-10-01

    The propagation of traveling Lamb wave in single layer of elastic metamaterial is investigated in this paper. We first categorized the traveling Lamb wave modes inside an elastic metamaterial layer according to different combinations (positive or negative) of effective medium parameters. Then the impacts of the frequency dependence of effective parameters on dispersion characteristics of traveling Lamb wave were studied. Distinct differences could be observed when comparing the traveling Lamb wave along an elastic metamaterial layer with one inside the traditional elastic layer. We further examined in detail the traveling Lamb wave mode supported in elastic metamaterial layer, when the effective P and S wave velocities were simultaneously imaginary. It was found that the effective modulus ratio is the key factor for the existence of special traveling wave mode, and the main results were verified by FEM simulations from two levels: the level of effective medium and the level of microstructure unit cell.

  13. Market and energy demand analysis of a US maglev system

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, A.D.; Rote, D.M.

    1993-01-01

    High-speed magnetically levitated (maglev) vehicles can provide an alternative mode of transportation for intercity travel, particularly for short- and medium-distance trips between 100 to 600 mi (160 and 960 km). The patterns of growth and the underlying factors affecting that growth In the year 2010 are evaluated to determine the magnitude of US Intercity travel that would become the basis for maglev demand. A methodology that is sensitive to the travelers' socioeconomic attributes was developed to Forecast intercity travel. Travel between 78 major metropolitan areas by air and highway modes is projected, and 12 high-density travel corridors are Identified and selected. The potential for a maglev system to substitute for part or that travel is calculated by using a model that estimates the extent of diversion from highway and air to maglev. Energy demand is estimated on the basis of energy usage during acceleration and cruise phases for each corridor and corridor connections.

  14. Market and energy demand analysis of a US maglev system

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, A.D.; Rote, D.M.

    1993-06-01

    High-speed magnetically levitated (maglev) vehicles can provide an alternative mode of transportation for intercity travel, particularly for short- and medium-distance trips between 100 to 600 mi (160 and 960 km). The patterns of growth and the underlying factors affecting that growth In the year 2010 are evaluated to determine the magnitude of US Intercity travel that would become the basis for maglev demand. A methodology that is sensitive to the travelers` socioeconomic attributes was developed to Forecast intercity travel. Travel between 78 major metropolitan areas by air and highway modes is projected, and 12 high-density travel corridors are Identified and selected. The potential for a maglev system to substitute for part or that travel is calculated by using a model that estimates the extent of diversion from highway and air to maglev. Energy demand is estimated on the basis of energy usage during acceleration and cruise phases for each corridor and corridor connections.

  15. International travel and vaccinations.

    PubMed Central

    Rizvon, M K; Qazi, S; Ward, L A

    1999-01-01

    With the increase in global travel, no disease is beyond the reach of any population. Traveling patients should be advised to follow food and water precautions and encouraged to receive the recommended immunizations. Travel medicine plays a vital role not only in limiting the morbidity of travel-related illnesses but also in limiting the spread of diseases. This article addresses the common issues related to travel, reviews the care of the immunocompromised traveler, and updates the available vaccinations and prophylactic regimens available to limit sickness abroad. PMID:10063396

  16. Travellers and influenza: risks and prevention

    PubMed Central

    van Genderen, P.; Ward, B. J.; Wilder-Smith, A.; Steffen, R.; Osterhaus, A. D. M. E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Influenza viruses are among the major causes of serious human respiratory tract infection worldwide. In line with the high disease burden attributable to influenza, these viruses play an important, but often neglected, role in travel medicine. Guidelines and recommendations regarding prevention and management of influenza in travellers are scarce. Of special interest for travel medicine are risk populations and also circumstances that facilitate influenza virus transmission and spread, like travel by airplane or cruise ship and mass gatherings. Methods: We conducted a PUBMED/MEDLINE search for a combination of the MeSH terms Influenza virus, travel, mass gathering, large scale events and cruise ship. In addition we gathered guidelines and recommendations from selected countries and regarding influenza prevention and management in travellers. By reviewing these search results in the light of published knowledge in the fields of influenza prevention and management, we present best practice advice for the prevention and management of influenza in travel medicine. Results: Seasonal influenza is among the most prevalent infectious diseases in travellers. Known host-associated risk factors include extremes of age and being immune-compromised, while the most relevant environmental factors are associated with holiday cruises and mass gatherings. Conclusions: Pre-travel advice should address influenza and its prevention for travellers, whenever appropriate on the basis of the epidemiological situation concerned. Preventative measures should be strongly recommended for travellers at high-risk for developing complications. In addition, seasonal influenza vaccination should be considered for any traveller wishing to reduce the risk of incapacitation, particularly cruise ship crew and passengers, as well as those participating in mass gatherings. Besides advice concerning preventive measures and vaccination, advice on the use of antivirals may be considered for some

  17. Travel and Heart Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... medical records with you while traveling. High Altitudes, Exotic Spots Traveling to higher altitudes shouldn’t necessarily ... The bigger concern, Gandy said, is that an exotic place may have less access to good medical ...

  18. Traveler's diarrhea diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... diarrhea. Function Bacteria and other substances in the water and food can cause traveler's diarrhea. People who live in ... your risk for getting traveler's diarrhea by avoiding water, ice, and food that may be contaminated. The goal of the ...

  19. Zika Travel Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... GeoSentinel Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Zika Travel Information Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Language: ... Map of Areas with Risk of Zika Zika Travel Notices Zika Virus in Cape Verde Zika Virus ...

  20. Travelers' Health: Meningococcal Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Counterfeit Drugs Cruise Ship Travel Families with Children Fish Poisoning in Travelers Food and Water Getting Health ... Suppl 2: B26–36. Rosenstein NE, Perkins BA, Stephens DS, Popovic T, Hughes JM. Meningococcal disease. N ...

  1. Vaccines for international travel.

    PubMed

    McKinney, W P

    2001-12-01

    American travelers increasingly are selecting exotic destinations in the developing world. This poses a challenge to primary care clinicians who wish to provide recommendations to their patients regarding optimal protection from infectious disease risks. Recommendations should be individualized for each traveler and journey, accounting for personal health, health risks of specific destinations, style of travel, and activities anticipated. This article updates practitioners on the essentials of immunization before international travel.

  2. Travel Agent Course Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    Written for college entry-level travel agent training courses, this course outline can also be used for inservice training programs offered by travel agencies. The outline provides information on the work of a travel agent and gives clear statements on what learners must be able to do by the end of their training. Material is divided into eight…

  3. Traveling and Asthma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Traveling and Asthma KidsHealth > For Kids > Traveling and Asthma A A A What's in this ... t have to get in the way of travel fun. Let's find out how to be prepared ...

  4. The Jet Travel Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2007-01-01

    Airplane travelers are dismayed by the long lines and seemingly chaotic activities that precede boarding a full airplane. Surely, the one who can solve this problem is going to make many travelers happy. This article describes the Jet Travel Challenge, an activity that challenges students to create some alternatives to this now frustrating…

  5. The Jet Travel Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2007-01-01

    Airplane travelers are dismayed by the long lines and seemingly chaotic activities that precede boarding a full airplane. Surely, the one who can solve this problem is going to make many travelers happy. This article describes the Jet Travel Challenge, an activity that challenges students to create some alternatives to this now frustrating…

  6. A Review of Demand Forecast for Charging Facilities of Electric Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiming, Han; Lingyu, Kong; Yaqi, Shen; Ying, Li; Wenting, Xiong; Hao, Wang

    2017-05-01

    The demand forecasting of charging facilities is the basis of its planning and locating, which has important role in promoting the development of electric vehicles and alleviating the energy crisis. Firstly, this paper analyzes the influence of the charging mode, the electric vehicle population and the user’s charging habits on the demand of charging facilities; Secondly, considering these factors, the recent analysis on charging and switching equipment demand forecast is divided into two methods—forecast based on electric vehicle population and user traveling behavior. Then, the article analyzes the two methods and puts forward the advantages and disadvantages. Finally, in view of the defects of current research, combined with the current situation of the development of the city and comprehensive consideration of economic, political, environmental and other factors, this paper proposes an improved demand forecasting method which has great practicability and pertinence and lays the foundation for the plan of city electric facilities.

  7. Observational Study of Travelers' Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Meuris

    1995-03-01

    Background: European air travelers returning from Algeria, Egypt, Mexico, Morocco, and Tunisia were interviewed about their experience of travelers' diseases upon arrival in Brussels. Diarrhea was mentioned by 37% of the adults and 27% of the children. These subjects were questioned about the types of measures taken, type and duration of drug treatment (if any), and about duration of diarrhea and side effects experienced. Methods: Final analysis was performed based on 2160 interviews. The largest proportion of diarrhea was reported in the age group 15-24 years (46%). Results: The majority of the 2160 subjects had opted for drug treatment (81%): 927 subjects for loperamide alone, 235 for loperamide in combination with nifuroxazide, and 178 for nifuroxazide alone. Other drugs had been used less frequently. The median time to recovery was 2.4 days with loperamide compared to 3.2 days with nifuroxazide and to 3.4 days for the no-treatment group. Conclusions: A stratification of the results by severity of the diarrhea suggests a rank of antidiarrheal potency as follows: loperamide > nifuroxazide > no-drug treatment. The side effect with the highest incidence was constipation (2.4% with loperamide). (J Travel Med 2:11-15, 1995) Travelers' diarrhea is usually defined as the passage of at least three unformed stools per day or any number of such stools when accompanied by fever, abdominal cramping, or vomiting. The definition may be broadened to include more trivial bowel disturbance.1,2 The duration of this self-limited disease generally is 3 to 5 days. Medical intervention aims at shortening the duration of disease, thus allowing the sufferer to resume his or her usual activities at an early stage. A shortened period of recovery to physical well-being has obvious favorable economic implications if the traveler is on business and may help the maintenance of a desired level of quality of life while a traveler is on holiday. An observational study of various medical

  8. Preparing the traveller.

    PubMed

    Spira, Alan M

    2003-04-19

    The four steps for giving travellers the foundation for healthy journeys are to assess their health, analyse their itineraries, select vaccines, and provide education about prevention and self-treatment of travel-related diseases. This process takes time. Since there is a risk of information overload, travellers should leave the clinic with some written advice for reinforcement. The order of these steps can be tailored to what best suits the travel clinic, but vaccinating early in the process allows monitoring for adverse reactions. Face-to-face discussion is vital for explaining the use and side-effects of medications. Those who provide a travel medicine service should be seeing many travellers and should seek specialist training. In 2003, the International Society of Travel Medicine introduced a certificate of knowledge examination in travel medicine. We cannot make travellers bullet-proof but it is possible to make them bullet-resistant. The pre-travel visit should minimise health risks specific to the journey, give travellers the capability to handle most minor medical problems, and allow them to identify when to seek local care during the trip or on return.

  9. Travel/Travelers and Parasitic Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can Be Acquired During Travel* Contaminated Food and Water More Common giardiasis cryptosporidiosis cyclosporiasis Less Common amebiasis ... Page last updated: July 28, 2016 Content source: Global Health - Division of Parasitic Diseases Email Recommend Tweet ...

  10. Improving health sector travel.

    PubMed

    Hurdle, David; Davis, Adrian

    2004-10-01

    Preventing ill health and obesity and building more physical activity into our daily lives have never been so high on the agenda, and the way we travel can help. Many workplaces and schools are drawing up travel plans, with the aims usually to minimise car use and encourage healthier and more environmentally friendly travel. The Transport White Paper of 1998 advocated travel plans and singled out hospitals for action. Travel plans continue to be a focus within the latest Transport White Paper, launched in July 2004. This article covers various prompts to the health sector to implement travel plans. It addresses issues and concerns facing NHS Trusts, the practical things Trusts can do, and the increasing amount of good practice available. Finally, it demonstrates that travel plans can work, and are working, in the health sector.

  11. Schistosomiasis in Travelers and Expatriates.

    PubMed

    Jelinek; Nothdurft; Löscher

    1996-09-01

    Background: Several outbreaks of schistosomiasis among travelers, expatriates, and military serviceman have been reported in recent years. Methods: The travel histories and anamnestic and clinical features of 62 patients with schistosomiasis, who presented to a German outpatient clinic specializing in infectious and tropical diseases, were investigated to identify risk factors that could lead to infection in travelers and expatriates. Results: All patients remembered incidents that led to a likely exposure to cercariae of Schistosoma sp. Fifty nine patients (95%) acquired infection in Africa, two (3%) in South America, and one each (2% each) in Iraq and the Mekong River, respectively. The highest proportion of infection (45%) was imported from West Africa. Patients returning from West Africa reported either contact with tributaries of the Niger (including freshwater pools in the Dogon country, Mali) or with waters of the Volta River, notably Lake Volta and/or its delta. Six patients (10%) acquired infection in little-visited areas such as Central Africa and the Congo Basin. East Africa (especially Lake Victoria) and Lake Malawi contributed 14 patients (22%) to our study group; a further nine patients (14%) became infected after contact with waters of the Zambezi River. Conclusions: The most sensitive method for detection of possible infection with schistosomiasis appeared to be a combination of thorough travel history and serologic testing by indirect hemagglutination (IHA), immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Most infections were acquired by travelers on lengthy and adventurous journeys or by expatriates venturing outside their normal areas of activity. Most patients knew that they had traveled in an area endemic for schistosomiasis, but were uninformed about behavioral risks they had taken in specific settings.

  12. Internet Offenders: Traders, Travelers, and Combination Trader-Travelers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexy, Eileen M.; Burgess, Ann W.; Baker, Timothy

    2005-01-01

    The Internet opens a vast array of communication, entertainment, and educational resources for children; however, it also opens a gateway to home and school for offenders who wish to exploit children. A convenience sample of 225 cases published in the news media was examined. The cases were classified using law enforcement terminology to describe…

  13. Internet Offenders: Traders, Travelers, and Combination Trader-Travelers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexy, Eileen M.; Burgess, Ann W.; Baker, Timothy

    2005-01-01

    The Internet opens a vast array of communication, entertainment, and educational resources for children; however, it also opens a gateway to home and school for offenders who wish to exploit children. A convenience sample of 225 cases published in the news media was examined. The cases were classified using law enforcement terminology to describe…

  14. Immunizations for foreign travel.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, D. R.

    1992-01-01

    One of the most important aspects of preparing travelers for destinations throughout the world is providing them with immunizations. Before administering any vaccines, however, a careful health and immunization history and travel itinerary should be obtained in order to determine vaccine indications and contraindications. There are three categories of immunizations for foreign travel. The first category includes immunizations which are routinely recommended whether or not the individual is traveling. Many travelers are due for primary vaccination or boosting against tetanus-diphtheria, measles-mumps-rubella, pneumococcal pneumonia, and influenza, for example, and the pre-travel visit is an ideal time to administer these. The second category are immunizations which might be required by a country as a condition for entry; these are yellow fever and cholera. The final category contains immunizations which are recommended because there is a risk of acquiring a particular disease during travel. Typhoid fever, meningococcal disease, rabies, and hepatitis are some examples. Travelers who are pregnant or who are infected with the human immunodeficiency virus require special consideration. Provision of appropriate immunizations for foreign travel is an important aspect of preventing illness in travelers. PMID:1337807

  15. Travel and the emergence of infectious diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, M. E.

    1995-01-01

    Travel is a potent force in the emergence of disease. Migration of humans has been the pathway for disseminating infectious diseases throughout recorded history and will continue to shape the emergence, frequency, and spread of infections in geographic areas and populations. The current volume, speed, and reach of travel are unprecedented. The consequences of travel extend beyond the traveler to the population visited and the ecosystem. When they travel, humans carry their genetic makeup, immunologic sequelae of past infections, cultural preferences, customs, and behavioral patterns. Microbes, animals, and other biologic life also accompany them. Today's massive movement of humans and materials sets the stage for mixing diverse genetic pools at rates and in combinations previously unknown. Concomitant changes in the environment, climate, technology, land use, human behavior, and demographics converge to favor the emergence of infectious diseases caused by a broad range of organisms in humans, as well as in plants and animals. PMID:8903157

  16. Studies in the demand for short haul air transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanafani, A.; Gosling, G.; Taghavi, S.

    1975-01-01

    Demand is analyzed in a short haul air transportation corridor. Emphasis is placed on traveler selection from available routes. Model formulations, estimation techniques, and traffic data handling are included.

  17. Nonlinear refraction and reflection travel time tomography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, Jiahua; ten Brink, U.S.; Toksoz, M.N.

    1998-01-01

    We develop a rapid nonlinear travel time tomography method that simultaneously inverts refraction and reflection travel times on a regular velocity grid. For travel time and ray path calculations, we apply a wave front method employing graph theory. The first-arrival refraction travel times are calculated on the basis of cell velocities, and the later refraction and reflection travel times are computed using both cell velocities and given interfaces. We solve a regularized nonlinear inverse problem. A Laplacian operator is applied to regularize the model parameters (cell slownesses and reflector geometry) so that the inverse problem is valid for a continuum. The travel times are also regularized such that we invert travel time curves rather than travel time points. A conjugate gradient method is applied to minimize the nonlinear objective function. After obtaining a solution, we perform nonlinear Monte Carlo inversions for uncertainty analysis and compute the posterior model covariance. In numerical experiments, we demonstrate that combining the first arrival refraction travel times with later reflection travel times can better reconstruct the velocity field as well as the reflector geometry. This combination is particularly important for modeling crustal structures where large velocity variations occur in the upper crust. We apply this approach to model the crustal structure of the California Borderland using ocean bottom seismometer and land data collected during the Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment along two marine survey lines. Details of our image include a high-velocity zone under the Catalina Ridge, but a smooth gradient zone between. Catalina Ridge and San Clemente Ridge. The Moho depth is about 22 km with lateral variations. Copyright 1998 by the American Geophysical Union.

  18. Effects of travel cost and participation in recreational activities on national forest visits

    Treesearch

    Seong-Hoon Cho; J.M. Bowker; Donald B.K. English; Roland K. Roberts; Taeyoung Kim

    2014-01-01

    In the face of higher travel costs due to rising gasoline prices and scarce budget resources,we explored differences in the impacts of travel costs on recreational demand for visitors participating in various recreational activities. Five individual travel cost models were estimated, one for each of 5 national forests (i.e., Allegheny, Coconino, Mount Baker-Snoqualmie...

  19. Histoplasmosis in Israeli Travelers

    PubMed Central

    Segel, Michael J.; Rozenman, Judith; Lindsley, Mark D.; Lachish, Tamar; Berkman, Neville; Neuberger, Ami; Schwartz, Eli

    2015-01-01

    Histoplasmosis is a common endemic human mycoses acquired mostly in the Americas. We reviewed 23 cases of histoplasmosis in Israeli travelers; 22 had traveled to Central or South America and one to North America. Fourteen cases had been exposed to bat habitats and were symptomatic, presenting ≤ 3 months after their return. Asymptomatic patients (N = 9) were diagnosed during the evaluation of incidental radiological findings or because a travel partner had been suspected of Histoplasma infection, 16–120 months after their return. Serological testing was positive in 75% of symptomatic cases but only 22% of asymptomatic cases. Histoplasmosis should be considered in travelers returning from the Americas with respiratory or febrile illness within weeks of return, particularly if exposed to bat habitats. Travel history is essential in patients presenting with pulmonary nodules, even years after travel to endemic countries. PMID:25918200

  20. Histoplasmosis in Israeli travelers.

    PubMed

    Segel, Michael J; Rozenman, Judith; Lindsley, Mark D; Lachish, Tamar; Berkman, Neville; Neuberger, Ami; Schwartz, Eli

    2015-06-01

    Histoplasmosis is a common endemic human mycoses acquired mostly in the Americas. We reviewed 23 cases of histoplasmosis in Israeli travelers; 22 had traveled to Central or South America and one to North America. Fourteen cases had been exposed to bat habitats and were symptomatic, presenting ≤ 3 months after their return. Asymptomatic patients (N = 9) were diagnosed during the evaluation of incidental radiological findings or because a travel partner had been suspected of Histoplasma infection, 16-120 months after their return. Serological testing was positive in 75% of symptomatic cases but only 22% of asymptomatic cases. Histoplasmosis should be considered in travelers returning from the Americas with respiratory or febrile illness within weeks of return, particularly if exposed to bat habitats. Travel history is essential in patients presenting with pulmonary nodules, even years after travel to endemic countries.

  1. Cybermediation in the Tourism and Travel Industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Killion, Les

    Travel and tourism are second only to pornography in adopting Internet-based technologies to intermediate between those supplying the total travel experience, and those seeking to satisfy leisure needs by engaging in tourism. From Thomas Cook in the 1800s, traditional ‘travel trade networks’ have provided the components of the travel experience: transport, accommodation and attractions. However, the Internet has encouraged customer self-service, and on-going debate regarding the future of traditional travel trade intermediaries. The intermediation debate suggests the emergence of ‘hybrid’ intermediation systems combining customer self-service with face-to-face customer contacts characteristic of traditional travel agents. A focus group investigation identified profiles and motives of customers using the Internet to make holiday arrangements. Potential cost savings are a primary motivation for customer self-service. Using the Internet for travel and tourism is becoming commonplace among older travellers as well as younger people. In gathering information before making holiday decisions, potential tourists also engage in a Web 2.0 environment where family and friends, not established intermediaries, provide reliable and authentic information via their individual blogs.

  2. [Travel and venous thromboembolism].

    PubMed

    Hallundbæk Mikkelsen, Kristian; Knudsen, Stine Ulrik; Nannestad Jørgensen, Lars

    2013-10-28

    A literature study on the association between travel and venous thromboembolism (VTE) is conducted. Studies examining the risk of travel-associated VTE, predisposing factors and prophylactic measures are presented. It is concluded that the absolute risk of travel-associated VTE is low and holds a 2-4 fold increase after travel. The risk increases with duration, presence of other risk factors for VTE and extremes of height. Stockings reduces the risk of asymptomatic VTE. Heparin is presumed to constitute protection whereas there is no evidence of a prophylactic effect of acetylsalicylic acid.

  3. Pregnancy and travel.

    PubMed

    Barry, M; Bia, F

    1989-02-03

    The special problems of travel during pregnancy have become clinically important as more women are traveling to remote places for business or recreation. Optimal maintenance of fetal and maternal health under these circumstances entails specific considerations for which data, unfortunately, remain incomplete. Nevertheless, questions regarding immunizations, antimalarials, therapy for traveler's diarrhea, and even the risks of high altitude or vigorous exercise for the pregnant woman may be examined clinically. With a few important exceptions, sufficient information is available to ensure relatively safe travel in pregnancy provided precautions are taken and preparations are made.

  4. An Analysis of the Demand for and Value of Outdoor Recreation in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergstrom, John C.; Cordell, H. Ken

    1991-01-01

    Results of a study of demand equations for 37 outdoor recreational activities using a multicommunity, multisite travel cost model suggest that determinants of the demand for outdoor recreation include population, residence, income, age, price, quality, and recreational opportunity substitutes. (JD)

  5. Pre-Travel Medical Preparation of Business and Occupational Travelers

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Nomana M.; Jentes, Emily S.; Brown, Clive; Han, Pauline; Rao, Sowmya R.; Kozarsky, Phyllis; Hagmann, Stefan H.F.; LaRocque, Regina C.; Ryan, Edward T.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to understand more about pre-travel preparations and itineraries of business and occupational travelers. Methods: De-identified data from 18 Global TravEpiNet clinics from January 2009 to December 2012 were analyzed. Results: Of 23,534 travelers, 61% were non-occupational and 39% occupational. Business travelers were more likely to be men, had short times to departure and shorter trip durations, and commonly refused influenza, meningococcal, and hepatitis B vaccines. Most business travelers indicated that employers suggested the pre-travel health consultation, whereas non-occupational travelers sought consultations because of travel health concerns. Conclusions: Sub-groups of occupational travelers have characteristic profiles, with business travelers being particularly distinct. Employers play a role in encouraging business travelers to seek pre-travel consultations. Such consultations, even if scheduled immediately before travel, can identify vaccination gaps and increase coverage. PMID:26479857

  6. Minimizing travel claims cost with minimal-spanning tree model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamalluddin, Mohd Helmi; Jaafar, Mohd Azrul; Amran, Mohd Iskandar; Ainul, Mohd Sharizal; Hamid, Aqmar; Mansor, Zafirah Mohd; Nopiah, Zulkifli Mohd

    2014-06-01

    Travel demand necessitates a big expenditure in spending, as has been proven by the National Audit Department (NAD). Every year the auditing process is carried out throughout the country involving official travel claims. This study focuses on the use of the Spanning Tree model to determine the shortest path to minimize the cost of the NAD's official travel claims. The objective is to study the possibility of running a network based in the Kluang District Health Office to eight Rural Clinics in Johor state using the Spanning Tree model applications for optimizing travelling distances and make recommendations to the senior management of the Audit Department to analyze travelling details before an audit is conducted. Result of this study reveals that there were claims of savings of up to 47.4% of the original claims, over the course of the travel distance.

  7. Seismic Travel Time Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The report consists of an introduction in which is given a list of published papers on the travel times of body waves together with brief comments on...velocity distribution in the outer core have been based on the travel times of SKS. However, SKS arrivals can only be observed satisfactorily for arc

  8. Information for Travellers' Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Allison, David J.; Blinco, Kimberley

    1990-01-01

    Physicians can obtain advice about international travel for their patients from many different sources of information. The authors review some of the most common sources based on their experience at the International Travellers' Clinic operated by the New Brunswick Department of Health and Community Services in Fredericton. They identify readily available handbooks and periodicals and compare two computer software programs. PMID:21233910

  9. Air Travel Health Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... improved health Before your flightOne key to air travel is to prepare ahead of time. If you are carrying on a bag, make ... need to change if your eating and sleeping times will change at your destination.If you have diabetes or epilepsy, you should travel with your ID card. For instance, the American ...

  10. Dengue infections in travellers

    PubMed Central

    Wilder-Smith, Annelies

    2012-01-01

    Dengue has been designated a major international public health problem by the World Health Organization (WHO). It is endemic in most tropical and sub-tropical countries, which are also popular tourist destinations. Travellers are not only at significant risk of acquiring dengue but they also contribute to its spread to non-endemic regions. Furthermore, they may serve as sentinels to alert the international community to epidemics in dengue-endemic regions. GeoSentinel, a global surveillance network, monitors all travel-related illnesses and estimates that dengue accounts for 2% of all illness in travellers returning from dengue-endemic regions. In fact, in travellers returning from South-east Asia, dengue is now a more frequent cause of febrile illness than malaria. Dengue-infected travellers returning home to countries where the vector exists can place the local population at risk of further spread of the disease with subsequent autochthonous cycles of infection. The true incidence of dengue amongst travellers may be underestimated because of variability in reporting requirements in different countries and under-diagnosis owing to the non-specific clinical presentation of the disease. Risk factors for acquiring dengue include duration of stay, season of travel and epidemic activity at the destination. Any pre-travel advice on the risks of developing dengue infections should consider these factors. PMID:22668447

  11. Travelers' Health: Mumps

    MedlinePlus

    ... about this message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Home Destinations Travel Notices Zika Travel Information World Map of Zika Questions and ... confirmation of mumps involves virus isolation with RT-PCR or culture. For further information on laboratory testing, see ... ...

  12. Information for travellers' physicians.

    PubMed

    Allison, D J; Blinco, K

    1990-07-01

    Physicians can obtain advice about international travel for their patients from many different sources of information. The authors review some of the most common sources based on their experience at the International Travellers' Clinic operated by the New Brunswick Department of Health and Community Services in Fredericton. They identify readily available handbooks and periodicals and compare two computer software programs.

  13. [Fever after travel return].

    PubMed

    Schedel, I

    2004-06-01

    Between 20 and 70 percent of the 50 million people who travel from the industrialized world to the developing world each year report some illness associated with their travel. Approximately 3 percent of people traveling internationally for short periods (<2 weeks) report fever even after travel. Careful assessment of the travel history, likely incubation period, exposure history, associated signs and symptoms, duration of fever, immunization status use or nonuse of antimalarial chemoprophylaxis, and degree of compliance with a chemoprophylactic regimen, if used, helps to establish the diagnosis. Determining an approximate incubation period can be particular helpful in ruling out possible causes of fever. Specific examinations targeting the individual infection, assumed to be responsible for the development of febrile disease may ascertain diagnosis and lead to effective treatment.

  14. Travelers' Health: Traveling Safely with Infants and Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safety Blood Clots Bug Bites Business Travel Cold Climates Counterfeit Drugs Cruise Ship Travel Families with Children ... Abroad Getting Sick After Travel High Altitudes Hot Climates Humanitarian Aid Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador ...

  15. Regional recreation demand and benefits model

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, R.J.

    1983-03-01

    This report describes a regional recreation demand and benefits model that is used to estimate recreation demand and value (consumers' surplus) of four activities at each of 195 sites in Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and western Montana. The recreation activities considered are camping, fishing, swimming, and boating. The model is a generalization of the single-site travel-cost method of estimating a recreation demand curve to virtually an unlimited number of sites. The major components of the analysis include the theory of recreation benefits, a travel-cost recreation demand curve, and a gravity model of regional recreation travel flows. Existing recreation benefits are estimated for each site in the region and for each activity. Recreation benefits of improved water quality in degraded rivers and streams in the Pacific Northwest are estimated on a county basis for Washington, Oregon, and Idaho. Although water quality is emphasized, the model has the capability of estimating demand and value for new or improved recreation sites at lakes, streams, or reservoirs.

  16. A multi-material coating containing chemically-modified apatites for combined enhanced bioactivity and reduced infection via a drop-on-demand micro-dispensing technique.

    PubMed

    Lim, Poon Nian; Wang, Zuyong; Chang, Lei; Konishi, Toshiisa; Choong, Cleo; Ho, Bow; Thian, Eng San

    2017-01-01

    Prevention of infection and enhanced osseointegration are closely related, and required for a successful orthopaedic implant, which necessitate implant designs to consider both criteria in tandem. A multi-material coating containing 1:1 ratio of silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite and silver-substituted hydroxyapatite as the top functional layer, and hydroxyapatite as the base layer, was produced via the drop-on-demand micro-dispensing technique, as a strategic approach in the fight against infection along with the promotion of bone tissue regeneration. The homogeneous distribution of silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite and silver-substituted hydroxyapatite micro-droplets at alternate position in silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite-silver-substituted hydroxyapatite/hydroxyapatite coating delayed the exponential growth of Staphylococcus aureus for up to 24 h, and gave rise to up-regulated expression of alkaline phosphatase activity, type I collagen and osteocalcin as compared to hydroxyapatite and silver-substituted hydroxyapatite coatings. Despite containing reduced amounts of silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite and silver-substituted hydroxyapatite micro-droplets over the coated area than silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite and silver-substituted hydroxyapatite coatings, silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite-silver-substituted hydroxyapatite/hydroxyapatite coating exhibited effective antibacterial property with enhanced bioactivity. By exhibiting good controllability of distributing silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite, silver-substituted hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite micro-droplets, it was demonstrated that drop-on-demand micro-dispensing technique was capable in harnessing the advantages of silver-substituted hydroxyapatite, silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite to produce a multi-material coating along with enhanced bioactivity and reduced infection.

  17. Traveler's Health: Avoid Bug Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safety Blood Clots Bug Bites Business Travel Cold Climates Counterfeit Drugs Cruise Ship Travel Families with Children ... Abroad Getting Sick After Travel High Altitudes Hot Climates Humanitarian Aid Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador ...

  18. Understanding taxi travel patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Hua; Zhan, Xiaowei; Zhu, Ji; Jia, Xiaoping; Chiu, Anthony S. F.; Xu, Ming

    2016-09-01

    Taxis play important roles in modern urban transportation systems, especially in mega cities. While providing necessary amenities, taxis also significantly contribute to traffic congestion, urban energy consumption, and air pollution. Understanding the travel patterns of taxis is thus important for addressing many urban sustainability challenges. Previous research has primarily focused on examining the statistical properties of passenger trips, which include only taxi trips occupied with passengers. However, unoccupied trips are also important for urban sustainability issues because they represent potential opportunities to improve the efficiency of the transportation system. Therefore, we need to understand the travel patterns of taxis as an integrated system, instead of focusing only on the occupied trips. In this study we examine GPS trajectory data of 11,880 taxis in Beijing, China for a period of three weeks. Our results show that taxi travel patterns share similar traits with travel patterns of individuals but also exhibit differences. Trip displacement distribution of taxi travels is statistically greater than the exponential distribution and smaller than the truncated power-law distribution. The distribution of short trips (less than 30 miles) can be best fitted with power-law while long trips follow exponential decay. We use radius of gyration to characterize individual taxi's travel distance and find that it does not follow a truncated power-law as observed in previous studies. Spatial and temporal regularities exist in taxi travels. However, with increasing spatial coverage, taxi trips can exhibit dual high probability density centers.

  19. [Vaccinations for international travelers].

    PubMed

    Berens-Riha, N; Alberer, M; Löscher, T

    2014-03-01

    Vaccinations are a prominent part of health preparations before international travel. They can avoid or significantly reduce the risk of numerous infectious diseases. Until recently, vaccination against yellow fever was the only obligatory vaccination. However, according to updated international health regulations, other vaccinations and prophylactic measures may be required at entry from certain countries. For all routine vaccinations as recommended in Germany, necessary revaccination and catch-up of missed vaccinations should be administered before travel. At most destinations the risk of infection is higher than in Germany. Hepatitis A vaccine is generally recommended for travelers to areas of increased risk, polio vaccine for all destinations where eradication is not yet confirmed (Asia and Africa). The indications for other travel vaccines must take into consideration travel destination and itinerary, type and duration of travel, individual risk of exposure as well as the epidemiology of the disease to be prevented. Several vaccines of potential interest for travel medicine, e.g., new vaccines against malaria and dengue fever, are under development.

  20. An Evaluation of a Progressive High-Probability Instructional Sequence Combined with Low-Probability Demand Fading in the Treatment of Food Selectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penrod, Becky; Gardella, Laura; Fernand, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have examined the effects of the high-probability instructional sequence in the treatment of food selectivity, and results of these studies have been mixed (e.g., Dawson et al., 2003; Patel et al., 2007). The present study extended previous research on the high-probability instructional sequence by combining this procedure with…

  1. An Evaluation of a Progressive High-Probability Instructional Sequence Combined with Low-Probability Demand Fading in the Treatment of Food Selectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penrod, Becky; Gardella, Laura; Fernand, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have examined the effects of the high-probability instructional sequence in the treatment of food selectivity, and results of these studies have been mixed (e.g., Dawson et al., 2003; Patel et al., 2007). The present study extended previous research on the high-probability instructional sequence by combining this procedure with…

  2. [Traveling with immunosuppression].

    PubMed

    Birkenfeld, G

    2014-03-01

    The rapidly increasing number of patients with immunosuppression is followed by their expectation to lead-as much as possible-a "normal" life, including long-distance travel. The advice and preventive measures for diseases associated with travelling depend overall on the mode of the patient's immunosuppression. This report explains the individual preventive possibilities, limits and risks for travellers with asplenia, common variable immunodeficiency, chronic inflammatory bowel and rheumatic diseases, HIV, as well as for patients having undergone solid organ or bone marrow transplantation or chemotherapy.

  3. [Travel destinations South America].

    PubMed

    Neumayr, Andreas

    2013-06-01

    The number of tourists visiting South America comprises only a small fraction of the worldwide stream of international travellers (approx. 980 Mio. in 2011). Nevertheless, their number has markedly increased in the last years (2000: 15.3 Mio.; 2005: 18.3 Mio.; 2010: 23.6 Mio.; 2011: 26.1 Mio.) and in 2011, South America was ranked top in the list of worldwide travel destinations with the highest increase in annual international tourist arrivals (10.4 %)[1]. This article aims at providing a practice-oriented overview on vaccinations, malaria prophylaxis, and other relevant health risks to be considered when counselling travellers visiting South America.

  4. Demand Response for Ancillary Services

    SciTech Connect

    Alkadi, Nasr E; Starke, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Many demand response resources are technically capable of providing ancillary services. In some cases, they can provide superior response to generators, as the curtailment of load is typically much faster than ramping thermal and hydropower plants. Analysis and quantification of demand response resources providing ancillary services is necessary to understand the resources economic value and impact on the power system. Methodologies used to study grid integration of variable generation can be adapted to the study of demand response. In the present work, we describe and illustrate a methodology to construct detailed temporal and spatial representations of the demand response resource and to examine how to incorporate those resources into power system models. In addition, the paper outlines ways to evaluate barriers to implementation. We demonstrate how the combination of these three analyses can be used to translate the technical potential for demand response providing ancillary services into a realizable potential.

  5. A Contingent Trip Model for Estimating Rail-trail Demand

    Treesearch

    Carter J. Betz; John C. Bergstrom; J. Michael Bowker

    2003-01-01

    The authors develop a contingent trip model to estimate the recreation demand for and value of a potential rail-trail site in north-east Georgia. The contingent trip model is an alternative to travel cost modelling useful for ex ante evaluation of proposed recreation resources or management alternatives. The authors estimate the empirical demand for trips using a...

  6. Traveling baseball players' problem in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Hyang Min; Kim, Sang-Woo; Choi, Younguk; Kim, Aaram J.; Eun, Jonghyoun; Kim, Beom Jun

    2012-08-01

    We study the so-called traveling tournament problem (TTP) to find an optimal tournament schedule. Differently from the original TTP, in which the total travel distance of all the participants is the objective function to minimize, we instead seek to maximize the fairness of the round robin tournament schedule of the Korean Baseball League. The standard deviation of the travel distances of teams is defined as the energy function, and the Metropolis Monte-Carlo method combined with the simulated annealing technique is applied to find the ground-state configuration. The resulting tournament schedule is found to satisfy all the constraint rules set by the Korean Baseball Organization, but with drastically increased fairness in traveling distances.

  7. Space Traveler Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructor, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Describes the winners of the Space Traveler Project, a contest jointly sponsored by Rockwell International, NASA, and this magazine to identify worthwhile elementary science programs relating to the Space Shuttle. (SJL)

  8. Tips for Travel

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Avoid bringing bed bugs home by taking precautions when traveling such as inspecting bedding and luggage racks in hotel rooms, and upon returning home unpacking directly into a washing machine and dry at high temperatures.

  9. Travelers' Health: Scuba Diving

    MedlinePlus

    ... Books, Journals, Articles & Websites Resources for the Travel Industry Yellow Book Contents Chapter 2 (21) Scuba Diving ... disease, and pregnancy raise special concerns about diving fitness. Special mention must be made regarding cardiovascular fitness. ...

  10. Travelers' Health: HIV Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share Compartir Chapter 3 - Histoplasmosis Chapter 3 - Influenza HIV Infection Philip J. Peters, John T. Brooks INFECTIOUS ... at 888-448-4911 ( www.nccc.ucsf.edu ). HIV TESTING REQUIREMENTS FOR US TRAVELERS ENTERING FOREIGN COUNTRIES ...

  11. [Diabetes and travel].

    PubMed

    Bauduceau, B; Mayaudon, H; Ducorps, M; Belmejdoub, G; Thiolet, C; Pellan, M; Cosson, E

    1997-01-01

    With the continuing expansion in international air travel, increasing numbers of diabetic patients consult physicians for advice before going abroad. Careful planning is required taking into account climatic and medical conditions at the destination. Diabetic travelers should pack an appropriate treatment kit and contract special insurance coverage for medical evacuation. Precautions are necessary to limit the effects of motion sickness and time differences on diabetes control and especially the risk of hypoglycemia. Special attention is needed to avoid digestive problems and prevent foot injuries which can lead to serious complications in diabetic patients. Diabetic patients cannot forget their health problem during vacation and must be especially cautious when traveling. However with proper training, the risks of foreign travel can be reduced to acceptable levels.

  12. Space Traveler Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructor, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Describes the winners of the Space Traveler Project, a contest jointly sponsored by Rockwell International, NASA, and this magazine to identify worthwhile elementary science programs relating to the Space Shuttle. (SJL)

  13. Traveling Space Museum

    NASA Image and Video Library

    In an effort to inspire and motivate the next generation of space explorers, NASA’s Ames Research Center teamed up with the Traveling Space Museum to teach students the way astronauts are taughtâ...

  14. Malaria and Travelers

    MedlinePlus

    ... a CDC Malaria Branch clinician. malaria@cdc.gov Malaria and Travelers Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... may be at risk for infection. Determine if malaria transmission occurs at the destinations Obtain a detailed ...

  15. Pregnancy and travel

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2016. Freedman DO. Protection of travelers. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and ... TP, Rothman AL, Barrett AD. Flaviviruses. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and ...

  16. Traveling Safely with Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... means taking a trip. To be sure that you can stay healthy on your trip, ask your pharmacist about how to travel safely with your medicines. Make sure that you always carry a list of all the medicines ...

  17. Travel Patterns in China

    PubMed Central

    Garske, Tini; Yu, Hongjie; Peng, Zhibin; Ye, Min; Zhou, Hang; Cheng, Xiaowen; Wu, Jiabing; Ferguson, Neil

    2011-01-01

    The spread of infectious disease epidemics is mediated by human travel. Yet human mobility patterns vary substantially between countries and regions. Quantifying the frequency of travel and length of journeys in well-defined population is therefore critical for predicting the likely speed and pattern of spread of emerging infectious diseases, such as a new influenza pandemic. Here we present the results of a large population survey undertaken in 2007 in two areas of China: Shenzhen city in Guangdong province, and Huangshan city in Anhui province. In each area, 10,000 randomly selected individuals were interviewed, and data on regular and occasional journeys collected. Travel behaviour was examined as a function of age, sex, economic status and home location. Women and children were generally found to travel shorter distances than men. Travel patterns in the economically developed Shenzhen region are shown to resemble those in developed and economically advanced middle income countries with a significant fraction of the population commuting over distances in excess of 50 km. Conversely, in the less developed rural region of Anhui, travel was much more local, with very few journeys over 30 km. Travel patterns in both populations were well-fitted by a gravity model with a lognormal kernel function. The results provide the first quantitative information on human travel patterns in modern China, and suggest that a pandemic emerging in a less developed area of rural China might spread geographically sufficiently slowly for containment to be feasible, while spatial spread in the more economically developed areas might be expected to be much more rapid, making containment more difficult. PMID:21311745

  18. Infections in travelers.

    PubMed

    Bomsztyk, Mayan; Arnold, Richard W

    2013-07-01

    Travel medicine continues to grow as international tourism and patient medical complexity increases. This article reflects the state of the current field, but new recommendations on immunizations, resistance patterns, and treatment modalities constantly change. The US Centers for Disease Control and the World Health Organization maintain helpful Web sites for both patient and physician. With thoughtful preparation and prevention, risks can be minimized and travel can continue as safely as possible.

  19. The New England travel market: changes in generational travel patterns

    Treesearch

    Rodney B. Warnick

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine and explore the New England domestic travel market trends, from 1979 through 1991 within the context of generations. The existing travel markets, who travel to New England, are changing by age cohorts and specifically within different generations. The New England changes in generational travel patterns do not reflect national...

  20. Travelers' Health: Traveling Safely with Infants and Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... Travel Families with Children Fish Poisoning in Travelers Food and Water Getting Health Care Abroad Getting Sick After Travel High Altitudes Hot Climates Humanitarian Aid Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador Insurance International Adoption Jet Lag Last-Minute Travel Long-Term ...

  1. [Vaccination for international travelers].

    PubMed

    Arrazola, M Pilar; Serrano, Almudena; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2016-05-01

    Traveler's vaccination is one of the key strategies for the prevention of infectious diseases during international travel. The risk of acquiring an infectious disease is determined in each case by the characteristics of the traveler and the travel, so the pre-departure medical advice of the traveler must be individualized. The World Health Organization classifies travelerś vaccines into three groups. - Vaccines for routine use in national immunization programs: Haemophilus influenzae type b, hepatitis B, polio, measles-mumps-rubella, tetanus-diphtheria-whooping a cough, and chickenpox. - Vaccinations required by law in certain countries before to enter them: yellow fever, meningococcal disease and poliomyelitis. - Vaccines recommended depending on the circumstances: cholera, japanese encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis, meningococcal disease, typhoid fever, influenza, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, rabies and BCG. This review is intended to introduce the reader to the field of international vaccination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  2. [Travel thrombosis, 2008].

    PubMed

    Sándor, Tamás

    2009-01-18

    In Hungary, the first studies on travel thrombosis were published at the beginning of the 2000s. In this paper recent investigational results of this special type of venous thrombosis have been reviewed. Travel thrombosis is a subgroup of sitting thromboses. It is a consequence of prolonged sitting which is common of ground transportation and air travel. More and more computer-linked sitting thromboses have been observed as well. Long-haul air travel related venous thrombosis is a multifactorial disease. Possible contributory risk factors are in connection with the milieu of the cabin. Various investigations evaluated the effect of immobilization and hypobaric hypoxia on thrombin generation and fibrinolysis. The studies differed much in participants' characteristics, duration and type of exposure and statistical analysis, so the results are contradictory. Personal, traveller-related risk factors may be regarded as triggers. The presently available evidences do not permit to assess the exact actual risk. For healthy young passengers there seem to be low risk. However, passengers suffering from predisposing factors for venous thromboembolism can be exposed to serious hazards, if they fly more than 5000 km or travel more than 8 hours. Proper safety measures are summarized on the basis of recent international recommendations.

  3. Rural electric demand research

    SciTech Connect

    Stetson, L.E.; Stark, G.L.

    1985-09-01

    In cooperative research with rural power suppliers in Nebraska, 35 recording demand meters were installed. The demand study was started in December of 1980 and concluded in March of 1983. Data collection in Nebraska was concentrated in a five-county area in eastcentral Nebraska. Customers were sampled based on a stratified randomized design. Electrical demands were recorded for 5-min intervals. Coincidental peak demands for 60-min intervals were determined for selected peak power use days in 1981 and 1982. In addition, 15-min coincidental demands showing maximum average and minimum demands for each month for the two-year study are presented. Demands predicted by the Rural Electrification Administration demand tables were generally lower than the measured demands while demands predicted by linear regression analysis were higher than the measured demands. Measured coincidental peak demands per customer for the total of all stratified groups ranged from 5.7 to 8.6 kW.

  4. Travel health attitudes among Turkish business travellers to African countries.

    PubMed

    Selcuk, Engin Burak; Kayabas, Uner; Binbasioglu, Hulisi; Otlu, Baris; Bayindir, Yasar; Bozdogan, Bulent; Karatas, Mehmet

    The number of international travellers is increasing worldwide. Although health risks related to international travel are important and generally well-understood, the perception of these risks was unclear among Turkish travellers. We aimed to evaluate the attitudes and health risk awareness of Turkish travellers travelling to African countries. A survey was performed of Turkish travellers bound for Africa from Istanbul International Ataturk Airport in July 2013. A total of 124 travellers were enrolled in the study. Among them, 62.9% had information about their destination but only 11.3% had looked for information on health problems related to travel and their destination. Of all travellers, 53.2% had at least one vaccination before travelling. The most commonly administered vaccine was for typhoid. Among the travellers, 69.3% and 80.6% had "no idea" about yellow fever vaccination and malaria prophylaxis, respectively. A positive correlation was found between a higher level of travellers' education and receiving the recommended vaccination for the destination. Our study revealed significant gaps in the vaccination and chemoprophylaxis uptake of Turkish travellers departing to Africa. An awareness and training program should be developed for travellers, as well as public health workers, to address health risks related to travel. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Spatial variations in travel behavior within greater Toronto area

    SciTech Connect

    Ghaeli, R.; Hutchinson, B.G.

    1998-03-01

    Rapid suburbanization of housing and employment has produced severe traffic congestion in North American cities. One response to this problem in the greater Toronto area (GTA) has been to identify urban forms that are more supportive of public transport and require less vehicle kilometers of travel to support. The analytical tools used to assess the travel implications of different urban forms normally use travel demand parameters that are uniform across an area. This has yielded misleading estimates of travel demands. This paper describes analyses of the intraregional differences in travel behavior in the greater Toronto area. The analyses described are at two spatial scales: the suburb (municipality/planning district) level and the much finer traffic analysis zone level. The analysis units were grouped into high-growth, developing,a nd low-growth categories at both spatial scales. The analyses reported in this paper show that household characteristics and travel behavior are quite similar for both established and redeveloping zones in the older, stable suburbs. Significant differences in travel characteristics exist between the older, established zones and the growing zones in the developing suburbs. Household trip rates are shown to vary with household size, car ownership, and whether a household is located in a stable or growing suburb. Accessibility to public transport is shown to affect trip behavior differently in growing areas than in established areas. The paper concludes by discussing the public policy and transport systems analysis implications of the results.

  6. Risk assessment in travel medicine.

    PubMed

    Leggat, Peter A

    2006-01-01

    Risk assessment is an integral part of pre-travel and post- assessment. Risk assessment largely determines what health and safety advice and interventions are given within the relevant prevailing travel health guidelines. Risk assessment needs time and depends on information, including that given by the traveller. Risk assessment also needs to be documented. Risk assessment of the traveller preferably starts before they enter the consulting room, where travellers may complete a pre-travel health questionnaire. Armed with this information, risk assessment may be assisted by access to computerised travel health databases and the published literature. Experience of travel to the destination may also assist in risk assessment and the tour operator, overseas employer or agency, the traveller or even the travel health advisers themselves may provide this information.

  7. Travel Health Advisory Group: a joint travel industry and travel health Special Interest Group promoting healthy travel in Australia.

    PubMed

    Leggat, Peter A; Zwar, Nicholas; Hudson, Bernie

    2012-09-01

    The Travel Health Advisory Group (THAG), established in 1997, is a joint initiative between the travel industry and travel health professionals in Australia that aims to promote healthy travel. THAG seeks to promote cooperation in improving the health of travellers between the travel industry and travel medicine professionals and to raise public awareness of the importance of travel health. From 2011, THAG has been a Special Interest Group of The Australasian College of Tropical Medicine and its membership has been active in several areas, including web-based travel health information, travel health promotion, media releases, research and education in Australia. Information is given on the objectives, membership and an overview of the various activities of the group.

  8. Modal shifts in short-haul passenger travel and the consequent energy impacts. [Intercity travel under 500 miles

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    A study was performed to evaluate the impacts of strategies to effect modal shifts in short-haul passenger travel (defined herein as intercity travel under 500 miles) from energy-intensive modes to those modes that are less energy-intensive. A series of individual strategies, ranging from incentives to the less energy-intensive modes (bus, rail) to penalties to the more energy-intensive modes (auto, air) was examined to determine energy saved and policy implications relative to strategy implementation. The most effective of the individual strategies were then combined in all permutations, and the analysis was repeated. As part of the analytical process, effects of factors other than energy (user cost and time, emissions, government subsidy, and travel fatailities) were examined in a benefit/cost analysis. Finally, energy savings, benefit/cost impacts, implementation considerations, and policy implications were evaluated to arrive at conclusions as to the effectiveness of the more-influential strategies and to the overall effectiveness of induced modal shifts. The principal conclusion of the study is that the maximum 1980 energy saving that might be realized by modal shifts, discounting the concurrent effects of demand suppression and improvement of mode efficiency, is approximately 83 x 10/sup 12/ Btu (46,500 bbl gasoline per day), 3.8% of the total projected 1980 energy consumption in the short-haul transportation sector and 0.23% of the total US petroleum use. It was also concluded that strategies to achieve these small savings by modal shifts would result in significant economic, social, and business disruptions.

  9. Travel-related thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Cannegieter, Suzanne C

    2012-09-01

    Travel-related thrombosis is a serious public health concern considering the large and increasing number of travellers. Due to a lack of evidence, counselling air travellers on their venous thrombosis risk is not immediately straightforward, and advice will have to be based mostly on theoretical grounds. In this review a basis for these considerations is given. First of all it needs to be recognized that venous thrombosis is a multicausal disease, i.e. several risk factors have to be present before an event occurs. This is reflected in the literature where clearly increased risks have been described for certain groups, such as subjects with factor V Leiden, those who use oral contraceptives or are obese. Also, an increased risk for tall and short people has been reported. So, for subjects with a known risk factor who plan to travel, benefits and risks of thrombosis prophylaxis, (pharmacological or other), need to be weighed. This review provides some theoretical examples. For all other travellers, the advice to move and exercise as much as possible is likely to be sufficient.

  10. [Travellers to South America].

    PubMed

    Lloveras, Susana Cristina

    2011-12-01

    The geography, tourist attractions and the multiple sites of historical and cultural interest make South America as an important destination chosen by travelers. The continent has a wide climatic variation from north to south, making exposure to risk different between the tropics and the temperate or cold regions. In the countries of tropical South America, the greatest risk is associated with the possibility of acquiring vector-borne diseases, like yellow fever, dengue, malaria and leishmaniasis. The risk of acquiring traveler's diarrhea and food-borne illness is similar across the continent, with some variations according to country and to visit urban or rural areas. Rabies, pertussis and diphtheria have appeared as epidemics in several countries and other diseases such as rickettsiosis, hantavirosis and viral encephalitis have expanded their distribution. The geographic and epidemiological diversity of South America, promotes a challenge for travel medicine specialists because during the pre-travel advice they have to take in account the kind of trip, traveller's medical history, exposure to risk and the dynamics of endemic emerging and reemerging diseases in the region.

  11. [Counsel for traveling children].

    PubMed

    Sorge, F; Gendrel, D

    2013-01-01

    Consultation of child traveler has two main objectives: to assess of health risk related to the child's health status and history and also the risk related to travel environment; to counsel and prescribe preventive measure to reduce these travel health risks. The evaluation is based on physical examination and a detailed interview including personal history and information regarding the regions of proposed travel. Up to date knowledge of the epidemiology of visited sites, preventive measures and presumptive treatment is required. Essential health recommendations include, in case of exposure, prevention of malaria, arthropod borned diseases and vaccine preventable diseases. For all destinations advice regarding prevention of diarrhea, accident risks and aggravation of preexisting chronic diseases is needed. Universal primary prevention counselling is valuable for all travellers regardless of their age. In the case of children, special attention must be given to food and water hygiene, sun and heat exposure, swimming risks and transports security measures. Evaluation of risk and health education take time and often several visits are needed to complete the immunization schedule before departure.

  12. Speech measures indicating workload demand.

    PubMed

    Brenner, M; Doherty, E T; Shipp, T

    1994-01-01

    Heart rate and six speech measures were evaluated using a manual tracking task under different workload demands. Following training, 17 male subjects performed three task trials: a difficult trial, with a $50 incentive for successful performance at a very demanding level; an easy trial, with a $2 incentive for successful performance at a simple level; and a baseline trial, in which there was physiological monitoring but no tracking performance. Subjects counted aloud during the trials. It was found that heart rate, speaking fundamental frequency (pitch), and vocal intensity (loudness) increased significantly with workload demands. Speaking rate showed a marginal increase, while vocal jitter and vocal shimmer did not show reliable changes. A derived speech measure, which statistically combined information from all other speech measures except shimmer, was also evaluated. It increased significantly with workload demands and was surprisingly robust in showing differences for individual subjects. It appears that speech analysis can provide practical workload information.

  13. Travel, migration and HIV.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, S J; Hart, G J

    1993-01-01

    This is a review of recent publications on the subject of travel (taken in its widest sense) and HIV/AIDS. As with all epidemics caused by transmissible pathogens, AIDS has been seen in many countries as an imported problem. What this perspective fails to recognize is that with the explosion of international travel in the past thirty years it is virtually impossible to prevent the spread of infectious disease across international frontiers. Here we highlight the relative paucity of studies that describe or investigate the context in which sexual risk behaviour of travellers takes place, and suggest areas of further research which could increase understanding of the nature of sexual risk taking, and help in the design of health education programmes.

  14. Travel fosters tool use in wild chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, Thibaud; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Neumann, Christof

    2016-01-01

    Ecological variation influences the appearance and maintenance of tool use in animals, either due to necessity or opportunity, but little is known about the relative importance of these two factors. Here, we combined long-term behavioural data on feeding and travelling with six years of field experiments in a wild chimpanzee community. In the experiments, subjects engaged with natural logs, which contained energetically valuable honey that was only accessible through tool use. Engagement with the experiment was highest after periods of low fruit availability involving more travel between food patches, while instances of actual tool-using were significantly influenced by prior travel effort only. Additionally, combining data from the main chimpanzee study communities across Africa supported this result, insofar as groups with larger travel efforts had larger tool repertoires. Travel thus appears to foster tool use in wild chimpanzees and may also have been a driving force in early hominin technological evolution. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16371.001 PMID:27431611

  15. Air Charter - The Business Airline of the Future...But, Does the Business Traveler Know?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaps, Robert W.; Gardner, Robin C.; Hartung, Jeffrey W.

    2001-01-01

    Historically, FAR Part 121 commercial carriers have provided efficient, economical and safe air transportation for corporate and business users. Recently, however, corporate and business travelers find their travel plans disrupted by delays, bankruptcies, poor service, lost baggage, fare increases, labor strikes and other systemic difficulties that degrade their travel experience to unsatisfactory levels. This article examines these Part 121 service delivery problems and, utilizing a tripartite investigative methodology, examines an alternative air transport mode: FAR Part 135 on-demand charter travel products. This long extant segment of our national air transportation system is set prime to support increased demand for charter services. Corporate and business travelers are set prime to utilize viable, cost effective alternatives to commercial travel products. Two research questions emerge. First is whether corporate and business travelers are aware of Part 135 travel alternatives. Second is whether Part 135 charter service providers are aware of this latent demand and are effectively targeting this demand segment in their marketing efforts. The three-part surveys employed to investigate these questions examined demand side

  16. Culture shock and travelers.

    PubMed

    Stewart, L; Leggat, P A

    1998-06-01

    As travel has become easier and more affordable, the number of people traveling has risen sharply. People travel for many and varied reasons, from the business person on an overseas assignment to backpackers seeking new and exotic destinations. Others may take up residence in different regions, states or countries for family, business or political reasons. Other people are fleeing religious or political persecution. Wherever they go and for whatever reason they go, people take their culture with them. Culture, like language, is acquired innately in early childhood and is then reinforced through formal and complex informal social education into adulthood. Culture provides a framework for interpersonal and social interactions. Therefore, the contact with a new culture is often not the exciting or pleasurable experience anticipated. When immersed in a different culture, people no longer know how to act when faced with disparate value systems. Contact with the unfamiliar culture can lead to anxiety, stress, mental illness and, in extreme cases, physical illness and suicide. "Culture shock" is a term coined by the anthropologist Oberg. It is the shock of the new. It implies that the experience of the new culture is an unpleasant surprise or shock, partly because it is unexpected and partly because it can lead to a negative evaluation of one's own culture. It is also known as cross-cultural adjustment, being that period of anxiety and confusion experienced when entering a new culture. It affects people intellectually, emotionally, behaviorally and physically and is characterized by symptoms of psychological distress. Culture shock affects both adults and children. In travelers or workers who have prolonged sojourns in foreign countries, culture shock may occur not only as they enter the new culture, but also may occur on their return to their original culture. Children may also experience readjustment problems after returning from leading sheltered lives in expatriate

  17. Intergalactic Travel Bureau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koski, Olivia; Rosin, Mark; Guerilla Science Team

    2014-03-01

    The Intergalactic Travel Bureau is an interactive theater outreach experience that engages the public in the incredible possibilities of space tourism. The Bureau is staffed by professional actors, who play the role of space travel agents, and professional astrophysicists, who play the role of resident scientists. Members of the public of all ages were invited to visit with bureau staff to plan the vacation of their dreams-to space. We describe the project's successful nine day run in New York in August 2013. Funded by the American Physical Society Public Outreach and Informing the Public Grants.

  18. Mental time travel: animals anticipate the future.

    PubMed

    Roberts, William A

    2007-06-05

    Recent behavioral experiments with scrub jays and nonhuman primates indicate they can anticipate and plan for future needs not currently experienced. Combined with accumulating evidence for episodic-like memory in animals, these studies suggest that some animals can mentally time travel into both the past and future.

  19. An Integrated Urban Land Use and Transportation Demand Model Based on Lowry Linage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zargari, Shahriar A.; Araghi, Morteza

    Here, we concentrate on the equilibrium modeling of Integrated Land Use and Transportation Demand Model (ILUTDM). We propose two combined sub models to involve in the ILUTDM: 1- residential activity location choices, trip distribution, mode choices and route choices, 2-employment location choices, trip distribution, mode choices and route choices. In the both combined sub models is assumed each individual minimize his or her travel cost and maximize his or her living or service utility. The joint choice of the residential or the employment location and transportation destination and mode of the two sub models is formulated as a nested multinomial logit model. We reformulate the combined sub models as an Equivalent Minimization Problem (EMP). The Evans algorithm may be applied to the EMP, in purpose of a realistic application within a reasonable time period. Finally, we develop an ILUTDM that contains the economic-base mechanism, the proposed combined sub models and the constraint procedure and their interactions.

  20. Teaching Research: Retracing the Travels of William Bartram.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, Tom

    The process of travel can be combined with the parallel process of research by developing a writing project assignment that uses the "Travels of William Bartram," an eighteenth-century account of a naturalist's journey through the Carolinas. Students can be asked to select a point on Bartram's original itinerary and retrace his discovery…

  1. NAS Demand Predictions, Transportation Systems Analysis Model (TSAM) Compared with Other Forecasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viken, Jeff; Dollyhigh, Samuel; Smith, Jeremy; Trani, Antonio; Baik, Hojong; Hinze, Nicholas; Ashiabor, Senanu

    2006-01-01

    The current work incorporates the Transportation Systems Analysis Model (TSAM) to predict the future demand for airline travel. TSAM is a multi-mode, national model that predicts the demand for all long distance travel at a county level based upon population and demographics. The model conducts a mode choice analysis to compute the demand for commercial airline travel based upon the traveler s purpose of the trip, value of time, cost and time of the trip,. The county demand for airline travel is then aggregated (or distributed) to the airport level, and the enplanement demand at commercial airports is modeled. With the growth in flight demand, and utilizing current airline flight schedules, the Fratar algorithm is used to develop future flight schedules in the NAS. The projected flights can then be flown through air transportation simulators to quantify the ability of the NAS to meet future demand. A major strength of the TSAM analysis is that scenario planning can be conducted to quantify capacity requirements at individual airports, based upon different future scenarios. Different demographic scenarios can be analyzed to model the demand sensitivity to them. Also, it is fairly well know, but not well modeled at the airport level, that the demand for travel is highly dependent on the cost of travel, or the fare yield of the airline industry. The FAA projects the fare yield (in constant year dollars) to keep decreasing into the future. The magnitude and/or direction of these projections can be suspect in light of the general lack of airline profits and the large rises in airline fuel cost. Also, changes in travel time and convenience have an influence on the demand for air travel, especially for business travel. Future planners cannot easily conduct sensitivity studies of future demand with the FAA TAF data, nor with the Boeing or Airbus projections. In TSAM many factors can be parameterized and various demand sensitivities can be predicted for future travel. These

  2. Travel health. Part 1: preparing the tropical traveller.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Bernadette; Daniel, Amanda; Behrens, Ron H

    The health threats of modern day travel change as population, wealth and tourism increase across the world. A series of three articles have been written to describe the spectrum of health issues associated with travel. Pre-travel health advice has become more focused on risk assessment and educating the traveller about infectious disease and the more frequent non-infectious hazards associated with travel, while ensuring they are not unnecessarily exposed to injury from vaccines and drugs. In part one, the role of the health advisor and the needs of the traveller are examined. The importance of risk assessment during a consultation is described and factors that influence recommendations and prescribing are explored. As most travel-associated morbidity and mortality is non-vaccine preventable, the focus of the pre-travel consultation should be on educating the traveller and influencing behaviour change. The second article in this series deals with the highest risk group of travellers--residents who visit friends and relatives. It highlights their specific problems and special needs and how to influence their risk of disease by addressing their health beliefs and their cultural dimension of risk. The third article explores the common, and not so common, clinical problems found in returned travellers. Nurses have to deal with a large range of clinical problems and diagnostic dilemmas when attending to the returned traveller. The review provides a perspective on the frequency and severity of problems and how nurses should manage travel associated disease.

  3. The stress of travel.

    PubMed

    Waterhouse, J; Reilly, T; Edwards, B

    2004-10-01

    International travel is an essential part of the life of elite athletes, both for competition and training. It is also becoming increasingly common among recreational sportspersons. Long-distance travel is associated with a group of transient negative effects, collectively referred to as 'travel fatigue', which result from anxiety about the journey, the change to an individual's daily routine, and dehydration due to time spent in the dry air of the aircraft cabin. Travel fatigue lasts for only a day or so, but for those who fly across several time zones, there are also the longer-lasting difficulties associated with 'jet lag'. The problems of jet lag can last for over a week if the flight crosses 10 time zones or more, and they can reduce performance and the motivation to train effectively. Knowledge of the properties of the body clock enables the cause of the difficulties to be understood (an unadjusted body clock), and forms the basis of using light in the new time zone to promote adjustment of the body clock. Sleep loss and its effects are important components of jet lag, and attempts to promote sleep by the use of melatonin and other hypnotics are also relevant. Sleep loss is also found in those who undertake challenges that involve long periods where the normal consolidated sleep of 8 h length is not possible. Advice on sleep regimens in such circumstances is given.

  4. Family travel: an overview.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Karl

    2006-01-01

    Paediatric travel medicine involves the education of parents about the numerous health and safety issues related to traveling with infants and young children--whether overseas or a weekend at a local lake. It includes providing children with vaccines and medications, giving telephone advice to parents while they are traveling, and treating children should they come home ill. Practitioners must be knowledgeable about such varied topics like avoiding diarrhoea, infant safety seats for air travel, altitude sickness, sun exposure, waterfront safety, insect protection, dealing with hot and cold environments, and at what age it is safe to begin scuba diving, to name just a very few. Practitioners must also know when adult recommendations can--and cannot--be adapted for children; that vaccine doses, needle size, and injection site may vary with the size of the child; and the answers to hundreds of everyday questions such as how to administer an essential but bitter tasting medication to an uncooperative child--and what to do when the child refuses to take the medication or vomits it.

  5. Travel trends and energy

    Treesearch

    Thomas M. Corsi; Milton E. Harvey

    1980-01-01

    This paper utilizes available data sources to construct a picture of adjustment patterns in vacation/recreation travel with respect to both past and prospective fuel price/availability developments. The increases in fuel prices coupled with supply uncertainties that have occurred during the 1970's have strained the traditional vacation patterns of many American...

  6. Hyperspace for Space Travel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, Giorgio; Murad, Paul; Baker, Robert M. L.

    2007-01-01

    In the Theory of Relativity time is treated as a dimension. This property of time has never been completely understood and accepted because we instinctively perceive time only as a running parameter. In recent developments of the Theory of Relativity, it has been proposed to apply a coordinate transformation by which the four coordinates all acquire the dimension of space, with time defined as a running parameter related to the speed of light. The transformation formally defines the Four-Space or, using a common word for spaces with more than three dimensions, the ``Hyperspace''. Under this paradigm, the entire story of the Universe is similar to a set of nested trajectories in which our ``reality'' develops along a membrane moving through the nested trajectories at the speed of light. The new paradigm implies the existence of multiple ``parallel'' membranes, or parallel local universes or multiverses and ``crossing'' membranes, or ``orthogonal'' local Universes, which do not emerge from the plain Theory of Relativity. In the Hyperspace everything normally travels at the speed of light, but a localized strong gravitational field, which creates a propagation speed discontinuity in Hyperspace, may allow travel to different local universes or Faster Than Light (FTL) travel within the same local universe. The collision or focusing of gravitational waves can produce effects comparable to those of short-lived black holes that can be projected into the Hyperspace to produce the required speed modification. Well known optical effects and four-dimensional rotation may also find application to Hyperspace travel.

  7. Gulliver's Travels. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rooks, Kirsten; McLean, Mary

    Based on Jonathan Swift's novel "Gulliver's Travels," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that Swift comments on undesirable outcomes of advances in science; and other authors have also warned against abuse of science. The main activity of the lesson involves students developing a poster illustrating views of…

  8. Zika Travel Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... Partners GeoSentinel Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Zika Travel Information Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... visit CDC’s Zika website . Areas with Risk of Zika Because Zika infection during pregnancy can cause severe ...

  9. Teachers and Gypsy Travellers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Gwynedd; Stead, Joan; Jordan, Elizabeth; Norris, Claire

    1999-01-01

    Interviews in 12 Scottish schools examined how teachers and staff perceived and responded to the culture and behavior of Traveller children--both Gypsies and occupational migrants. The findings raise issues about "difference" versus deviance and the extent to which schools can accommodate cultural diversity when it challenges norms of…

  10. Mentors as Fellow Travelers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambrosino, Roberta

    2009-01-01

    A junior faculty member arrives at an unfamiliar university for a new teaching assignment. She is poised for the adventure, but feels like a traveler at the edge of long, unknown road. She does not know what obstacles or vistas may appear on the road, and wants to avoid major potholes. She takes a nervous look around and finds an experienced…

  11. Traveling in France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philyaw, Henry; And Others

    This minicourse guide for teachers of French is intended to help motivate and prepare students for travel in France. Activities are outlined in eleven related areas, including (1) planning for the trip, (2) currency, (3) going through customs, (4) tipping, (5) shopping, (6) guided tours, (7) touring on your own, (8) social life and entertainment,…

  12. Teachers and Gypsy Travellers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Gwynedd; Stead, Joan; Jordan, Elizabeth; Norris, Claire

    1999-01-01

    Interviews in 12 Scottish schools examined how teachers and staff perceived and responded to the culture and behavior of Traveller children--both Gypsies and occupational migrants. The findings raise issues about "difference" versus deviance and the extent to which schools can accommodate cultural diversity when it challenges norms of…

  13. The Road Less Travelled

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kewin, James

    2011-01-01

    Why are progression rates for Advanced Apprentices so low? Previous research points to a range of supply-side and demand-side barriers. Fundamentally, many employers do not exhibit the sort of demand for higher-level skills that could be used to justify the level of investment required. And, in some cases, employers just don't realise their…

  14. The Road Less Travelled

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kewin, James

    2011-01-01

    Why are progression rates for Advanced Apprentices so low? Previous research points to a range of supply-side and demand-side barriers. Fundamentally, many employers do not exhibit the sort of demand for higher-level skills that could be used to justify the level of investment required. And, in some cases, employers just don't realise their…

  15. Malaria: prevention in travellers

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Malaria transmission occurs most frequently in environments with humidity over 60% and ambient temperature of 25-30 °C. Risks increase with longer visits and depend on activity. Infection can follow a single mosquito bite. Incubation is usually 10-14 days but can be up to 18 months depending on the strain of parasite. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of non-drug preventive interventions in adult travellers? What are the effects of drug prophylaxis in adult travellers? What are the effects of antimalaria vaccines in travellers? What are the effects of antimalaria interventions in child travellers, pregnant travellers, and in airline pilots? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to February 2006 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 69 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: acoustic buzzers, aerosol insecticides, amodiaquine, air conditioning and electric fans, atovaquone-proguanil, biological control measures, chloroquine (alone or with proguanil), diethyltoluamide (DEET), doxycycline, full-length and light-coloured clothing, insecticide-treated clothing/nets, mefloquine, mosquito coils and vaporising mats, primaquine, pyrimethamine-dapsone, pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine, smoke, topical (skin-applied) insect repellents, and vaccines. PMID:19450348

  16. Malaria: prevention in travellers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Malaria transmission occurs most frequently in environments with humidity greater than 60% and ambient temperature of 25 °C to 30 °C. Risks increase with longer visits and depend on activity. Infection can follow a single mosquito bite. Incubation is usually 10 to 14 days but can be up to 18 months depending on the strain of parasite. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of non-drug preventive interventions in non-pregnant adult travellers? What are the effects of drug prophylaxis in non-pregnant adult travellers? What are the effects of antimalaria vaccines in adult and child travellers? What are the effects of antimalaria interventions in child travellers, pregnant travellers, and in airline pilots? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to November 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 79 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: aerosol insecticides, amodiaquine, air conditioning and electric fans, atovaquone–proguanil, biological control measures, chloroquine (alone or with proguanil), diethyltoluamide (DEET), dietary supplementation, doxycycline, electronic mosquito repellents, full-length and light-coloured clothing, insecticide-treated clothing/nets, mefloquine, mosquito coils and vapourising mats, primaquine, pyrimethamine–dapsone, pyrimethamine–sulfadoxine, smoke

  17. Do British travel agents provide adequate health advice for travellers?

    PubMed Central

    Lawlor, D A; Burke, J; Bouskill, E; Conn, G; Edwards, P; Gillespie, D

    2000-01-01

    Travel-related illness is a burden for primary care, with more than two million travellers consulting a general practitioner each year. The annual cost of travel-related illness in the United Kingdom is 11 million Pounds. Travel agents are in a unique position to influence this burden as the most common and most serious problems are preventable with simple advice and/or immunisation. This study, using covert researchers, suggests this potential is not being fully utilised. PMID:10954940

  18. Evaluating School Travel Initiatives and Promoting "Healthy Travel" through PSHCE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baslington, Hazel

    2010-01-01

    The number of primary school children travelling to school by car in the UK has almost doubled from 22% to 43% in 20 years. A governmental policy response is school travel plans (STPs). This paper reports the findings of an empirical evaluation designed to measure the effectiveness of the travel initiative at three schools. Quantitative and…

  19. Evaluating School Travel Initiatives and Promoting "Healthy Travel" through PSHCE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baslington, Hazel

    2010-01-01

    The number of primary school children travelling to school by car in the UK has almost doubled from 22% to 43% in 20 years. A governmental policy response is school travel plans (STPs). This paper reports the findings of an empirical evaluation designed to measure the effectiveness of the travel initiative at three schools. Quantitative and…

  20. Forecasting urban highway travel for year 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Miaou, Shaw-Pin . Transportation Center); Rathi, A.K.; Southworth, F.; Greene, D.L. )

    1990-08-01

    As part of a study aimed at estimating suburban highway needs for year 2005, models were developed for forecasting daily vehicle miles of travel (DVMT) for urban areas and its distribution by highway functional class, urban location, and urban area size. A regression model combining both time series and cross-sectional data is used to establish the relationship between the per capita DVMT of 339 urban areas in the United States and a set of explanatory variables including real income, employment, number of persons per household, number of driver licenses per 1000 persons, a variable representing highway supply deficiency, and a time variable. The dynamic shift over time in share of travel between urban locations and highway functional classes as urban areas grow in size is represented by conditional logit models. This paper presents the major findings from the forecasting and distribution models for urban highway travel in year 2005. 30 refs., 3 figs., 9 tabs.

  1. Power combiner

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Mobius; Ives, Robert Lawrence

    2006-09-05

    A power combiner for the combining of symmetric and asymmetric traveling wave energy comprises a feed waveguide having an input port and a launching port, a reflector for reflecting launched wave energy, and a final waveguide for the collection and transport of launched wave energy. The power combiner has a launching port for symmetrical waves which comprises a cylindrical section coaxial to the feed waveguide, and a launching port for asymmetric waves which comprises a sawtooth rotated about a central axis.

  2. International business travel: impact on families and travellers

    PubMed Central

    Espino, C; Sundstrom, S; Frick, H; Jacobs, M; Peters, M

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: Spouses and staff of the World Bank Group (WBG) were questioned about the impact of international business travel on families and travellers. Dependent variables were self reported stress, concern about the health of the traveller, and negative impact on the family. We hypothesised that several travel factors (independent variables) would be associated with these impacts. These travel factors had to do with the frequency, duration, and predictability of travel and its interference with family activities. Methods: Survey forms were developed and distributed to all spouses of travelling staff as well as a small sample of operational staff. Kendall's tau b correlation coefficients of response frequencies were computed with the data from scaled items. Written responses to open ended questions were categorised. Results: Response rates for spouses and staff were 24% and 36%, respectively. Half the spouse sample (n=533) and almost 75% of the staff sample (n=102) reported high or very high stress due to business travel. Self reported spouse stress was associated with six out of eight travel factors. Female spouses, those with children, and younger spouses reported greater stress. Self reported staff stress was significantly associated with four out of nine travel factors. Further insight into how business travel affects families and staff (including children's behavioural changes) and how families cope was gained through responses to written questions. Conclusions: The findings support the notion that lengthy and frequent travel and frequent changes in travel dates which affect family plans, all characteristic of WBG missions, negatively affects many spouses and children (particularly young children) and that the strain on families contributes significantly to the stress staff feel about their travel. Policies or management practices that take into consideration family activities and give staff greater leeway in controlling and refusing travel may help relieve

  3. Travel and Adventure Medicine Resources.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Christopher A; Pottinger, Paul S

    2016-03-01

    Given the ever-changing nature of travel medicine, practitioners who provide pretravel and posttravel care are obligatorily students for the duration of their professional careers. A large variety of resources are available for medical practitioners. Providers should join at least one travel or tropical medicine professional association, attend its annual meeting, and read its journal. The largest general travel medicine association is the International Society of Travel Medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [The fever of international travel].

    PubMed

    Hristea, Adriana; Luka, A I; Aramă, Victoria; Moroti, Ruxandra

    2008-01-01

    Between 20 and 70 percent of the 50 million people who travel from the industrialized world to the developing world each year report some illness associated with their travel. Although most illness reported by travellers are mild, 20-70% of travellers become ill enough to seek medical attention, either during or immediately after travel. The full spectrum of health complaints is unknown. Nevertheless the usual presentation of a returned traveller is a particular syndrome-fever, respiratory infection, diarrhoea, eosinophilia, or skin and soft tissue infection- or screening for asymptomatic infection. The most common diseases diagnosed in returning travellers are more often of cosmopolitan than exotic origin. However, fever in returned travelers always should raise suspicion for a severe or potentially life-threatening tropical infection. Therefore, fever in a returned traveller requires prompt investigation focused on infections that are life-threatening, treatable or transmissible. Careful assessment of the travel history, likely incubation period, exposure history, associated signs and symptoms, duration of fever, immunization status, use or non-use of antimalarial chemoprophylaxis and degree of compliance with the prescribed regimen, if used, helps to establish the diagnosis. Determining an approximate incubation period can be particularly helpful in ruling out possible causes of fever. Malaria is the most important cause of fever in the returned traveller. While most travel-related infections present within 6 months of return, some infections with long latent periods or potential for lifetime persistence might be seen in those who have lived abroad.

  5. Program Tracks Cost Of Travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauldin, Lemuel E., III

    1993-01-01

    Travel Forecaster is menu-driven, easy-to-use computer program that plans, forecasts cost, and tracks actual vs. planned cost of business-related travel of division or branch of organization and compiles information into data base to aid travel planner. Ability of program to handle multiple trip entries makes it valuable time-saving device.

  6. Including Gypsy Travellers in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Gwynned; Stead, Joan

    2002-01-01

    Examined the educational exclusion and inclusion of Gypsy Traveller students, exploring how some Scottish schools responded to Traveller student culture and how this led to exclusion. Interviews with school staff, Traveller students, and parents indicated that continuing prejudice and harassment promoted inappropriate school placement and…

  7. Program Tracks Cost Of Travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauldin, Lemuel E., III

    1993-01-01

    Travel Forecaster is menu-driven, easy-to-use computer program that plans, forecasts cost, and tracks actual vs. planned cost of business-related travel of division or branch of organization and compiles information into data base to aid travel planner. Ability of program to handle multiple trip entries makes it valuable time-saving device.

  8. Including Gypsy Travellers in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Gwynned; Stead, Joan

    2002-01-01

    Examined the educational exclusion and inclusion of Gypsy Traveller students, exploring how some Scottish schools responded to Traveller student culture and how this led to exclusion. Interviews with school staff, Traveller students, and parents indicated that continuing prejudice and harassment promoted inappropriate school placement and…

  9. [Travel and renal insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Lavelle, O; Berland, Y

    1997-01-01

    Traveling can be dangerous for subjects with kidney insufficiency. Water loss or septic episodes can further increase renal dysfunction. Poor diet can lead to hyperkaliemia. Immunosuppression not only enhances the risk of infection but also complicates administration of live vaccines. Some antimalarial drugs are contraindicated (e.g. mefloquine) and others must be used with precaution. Prior to departure persons requiring hemodialysis should book sessions at centers listed in specialized guidebooks. In addition to infection, risks for hemodialysis patients include thrombosis of the arteriovenous fistula in case of dehydration or hypotension. In subjects with transplanted kidney, the risk of rejection can be enhanced either by poor compliance with immunodepressor treatment or by vaccination-induced antigenic stimulation. Pre-travel evaluation is necessary to determine metabolic, nutritional, and immune status. Subjects with kidney insufficiency and transplanted kidneys should be informed of the dangers and appropriate action in case of trouble.

  10. Travelers In The Night

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grauer, Albert D.

    2014-11-01

    Travelers In The Night is an engaging and informative series of two minute radio programs about asteroids, comets, spacecraft, and other objects in space. The pieces are evergreen in that they are current but not dated. They are published on the Public Radio Exchange and carried by a number of radio stations. For teachers, students, and kids of all ages, the script for each piece and the start of a path for further inquiry can be found on the website travelersinthenight.org . The Travelers InThe Night Pieces are written and produced by an observing member of the Catalina Sky Survey Team at the University of Arizona. DPS members are encouraged to submit program ideas which can be developed to feature their research efforts.

  11. Electricity demand curtailment planning

    SciTech Connect

    Allentuck, J; Carroll, O; Schnader, M

    1980-01-01

    The state of electricity demand curtailment planning for long term electricity supply disruptions is reviewed. Legal, institutional and technological problems associated with demand curtailment plans are examined, and the existence of well defined social objectives on the part of planners is questioned. A linear programming approach to electricity demand curtailment planning is presented.

  12. Aging and space travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohler, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    The matter of aging and its relation to space vehicle crewmembers undertaking prolonged space missions is addressed. The capabilities of the older space traveler to recover from bone demineralization and muscle atrophy are discussed. Certain advantages of the older person are noted, for example, a greater tolerance of monotony and repetitious activities. Additional parameters are delineated including the cardiovascular system, the reproductive system, ionizing radiation, performance, and group dynamics.

  13. Family planning for travellers.

    PubMed

    Rustom, A

    1990-11-01

    A public health nurse from London describes the customs of nomadic people in the British Isles, known as "travellers," as they affect provision of family planning services. Most are of British or Irish stock, some migrate and others live in caravan sites all year. Their traditions dictate that men work and women are housewives. Early, often arranged, marriage, early childbearing and large families are the norm. Sex and contraception are not considered appropriate for discussion between the sexes, or in the presence of children. Large families and financial hardship force many women to space pregnancies. Women often have to hide contraceptives from their husbands, difficult in conditions without privacy. Therefore they prefer IUDs, but some use oral contraceptives, although sometimes erratically because most are illiterate. Traveller women are usually unwilling to do self-examination, as needed with IUDs. They often have difficulty attending regular Pap smear clinics. Cervical cancer rates are high. They experience discrimination in clinics, and need extra care about modesty. It is worth while to take time to develop trust in the clinical relationship, to deal with the traveller woman's uneasy among outsiders.

  14. Neurological disorders and travel.

    PubMed

    Awada, Adnan; Kojan, Suleiman

    2003-02-01

    Travel is associated with a number of neurological disorders that can be divided into two categories: (1) Neurological infections including encephalitides, neurotuberculosis, neurobrucellosis, cysticercosis and trichinosis. Some of these disorders can be prevented by vaccinations, such as Japanese B encephalitis and rabies, some by the use of insect repellents and some by avoiding raw milk products and undercooked meat. (2) Non-infective neurological disorders, such as acute mountain sickness and high altitude cerebral oedema, problems occurring during air travel such as syncope, seizures, strokes, nerve compression, barotrauma and vertigo, motion sickness and foodborne neurotoxic disorders such as ciguatera, shellfish poisoning and intoxication by cassava. This group of diseases and disorders could be prevented if the traveller knows about them, applies simple physiological rules, takes some specific medications and knows how to avoid intoxications in certain geographical areas. Meningococcal meningitis, malaria and jet lag syndrome are extensively discussed in other articles of this issue. The discussion in this paper will be limited to the other disorders.

  15. [Travelers, mad, wandering].

    PubMed

    Vaschetto, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the notion of "wandering" through the use of some phenomena enrolled at the dawn of modernity such as the Rousseau dromomanie's philosopher and writer, the origin of the first mad traveler (Albert Dadas), epidemics of mad travelers Europe and romantic tourism (with renewed acquires significance in the "beat generation" of the twentieth century). These historical facts are "mounting" as play contemporary manifestations such as loss, disorientation, to lose one's way, and wandering without reducing them only to clinical psychosis. Readings of classic psychiatrists such as Régis, Foville, Sérieux and Capgras, Tissié, go hand in hand with the current readings of the philosopher Ian Hacking and critics of pop culture as S. Reynolds and D. Diederichsen, illustrating how the travel's phenomenon can make different subjective configurations depending on historical times. In conclusion it is noted that not only psychosis exposes the wandering soul of suffering but there are also subject positions (as will be exemplified in a clinical case) and go no further nesting wandering into human existence.

  16. Time - A Traveler's Guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickover, Clifford A.

    1999-09-01

    "Bucky Fuller thought big," Wired magazine recently noted, "Arthur C. Clarke thinks big, but Cliff Pickover outdoes them both." In his newest book, Cliff Pickover outdoes even himself, probing a mystery that has baffled mystics, philosophers, and scientists throughout history--What is the nature of time?In Time: A Traveler's Guide , Pickover takes readers to the forefront of science as he illuminates the most mysterious phenomenon in the universe--time itself. Is time travel possible? Is time real? Does it flow in one direction only? Does it have a beginning and an end? What is eternity? Pickover's book offers a stimulating blend of Chopin, philosophy, Einstein, and modern physics, spiced with diverting side-trips to such topics as the history of clocks, the nature of free will, and the reason gold glitters. Numerous diagrams ensure readers will have no trouble following along.By the time we finish this book, we understand a wide variety of scientific concepts pertaining to time. And most important, we will understand that time travel is, indeed, possible.

  17. Update on traveler's diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Strum, W B

    1988-07-01

    Traveler's diarrhea affects a substantial number of travelers to high-risk areas of the world. The key to controlling this troublesome disease is prevention. The most important preventive measures depend on educating patients to consume only safe foods and pure water. Physicians cannot overemphasize the importance of avoiding high-risk foods and of boiling water if a safe water supply is not available. Prophylactic medications are a secondary consideration and should be prescribed with discretion. In most cases, diarrhea is mild and self-limited, requiring only fluid and electrolyte replacement and perhaps an antidiarrheal agent. In moderate to severe cases, the addition of an antimicrobial agent may be of benefit. Until an efficacious polyvalent vaccine is developed, caution and common sense, together with discretionary dietary and hygienic practices, are the best defenses against traveler's diarrhea. The ultimate solution is greatly improved sanitation and personal hygiene, especially in high-risk countries. However, only dreamers will consider waiting for this transformation to occur.

  18. Travel medicine: helping patients prepare for trips abroad.

    PubMed

    Dick, L

    1998-08-01

    One third of persons who travel abroad experience a travel-related illness, usually diarrhea or an upper respiratory infection. The risk of travelers' diarrhea can be reduced by eating only freshly prepared, hot foods. Combination therapy with a single dose of ofloxacin plus loperamide usually provides relief from travelers' diarrhea within 24 hours. Using a diethyltoluamide (deet)-containing insect repellent and wearing permethrin-coated clothing can reduce the risk of malaria, yellow fever and other diseases contracted from insects. Routine immunizations such as tetanus, measles, mumps and rubella, and influenza should be updated if necessary before the patient embarks on the trip. Hepatitis A immunization should be administered to persons traveling to places other than Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Japan and western European countries. Typhoid vaccination should be considered for travelers going to developing countries. Yellow fever immunization is indicated for travelers going to endemic areas of South America and Africa. Malaria prophylaxis with chloroquine is indicated for travelers going to Mexico and Central America. Mefloquine is recommended for those traveling to areas where malaria is resistant to prophylactic treatment with chloroquine. Medical advice for patients planning trips abroad must be individualized and based on the most current expert recommendations.

  19. The pre-travel medical evaluation: the traveler with chronic illness and the geriatric traveler.

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, J. E.

    1992-01-01

    The pre-travel medical evaluation of elderly patients and patients with chronic illness requires special assessment and advice. Screening and special precautions are reviewed for traveling patients with respiratory disease, cardiac disease, sinusitis, diabetes mellitus, HIV infection, and other chronic medical conditions. Current guidelines for empiric therapy and prophylaxis of travelers' diarrhea are reviewed, with emphasis on concerns in geriatric or chronically ill travelers. Special considerations such as potential drug-drug interactions and insurance coverage are also discussed. PMID:1290273

  20. Demand Response Analysis Tool

    SciTech Connect

    2012-03-01

    Demand Response Analysis Tool is a software developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. It is initially funded by Southern California Edison. Our goal in developing this tool is to provide an online, useable, with standardized methods, an analysis tool to evaluate demand and demand response performance of commercial and industrial facilities. The tool provides load variability and weather sensitivity analysis capabilities as well as development of various types of baselines. It can be used by researchers, real estate management firms, utilities, or any individuals who are interested in analyzing their demand and demand response capabilities.

  1. Evidence on global medical travel

    PubMed Central

    Záliš, Ladislav; Meurice, Christopher R; Hilton, Ian; Ly, Terry-Lisa; Zupan, Zorana; Hinrichs, Saba

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The potential benefits of travelling across national borders to obtain medical treatment include improved care, decreased costs and reduced waiting times. However, medical travel involves additional risks, compared to obtaining treatment domestically. We review the publicly-available evidence on medical travel. We suggest that medical travel needs to be understood in terms of its potential risks and benefits so that it can be evaluated against alternatives by patients who are seeking care. We propose three domains –quality standards, informed decision-making, economic and legal protection – in which better evidence could support the development of medical travel policies. PMID:26549906

  2. Evidence on global medical travel.

    PubMed

    Ruggeri, Kai; Záliš, Ladislav; Meurice, Christopher R; Hilton, Ian; Ly, Terry-Lisa; Zupan, Zorana; Hinrichs, Saba

    2015-11-01

    The potential benefits of travelling across national borders to obtain medical treatment include improved care, decreased costs and reduced waiting times. However, medical travel involves additional risks, compared to obtaining treatment domestically. We review the publicly-available evidence on medical travel. We suggest that medical travel needs to be understood in terms of its potential risks and benefits so that it can be evaluated against alternatives by patients who are seeking care. We propose three domains -quality standards, informed decision-making, economic and legal protection - in which better evidence could support the development of medical travel policies.

  3. Malaria: prevention in travellers

    PubMed Central

    Croft, Ashley

    2000-01-01

    Definition Malaria is caused by a protozoan infection of red blood cells with one of four species of the genus plasmodium: P falciparum, P vivax, P ovale, or P malariae.1 Clinically, malaria may present in different ways, but it is usually characterised by fever (which may be swinging), tachycardia, rigors, and sweating. Anaemia, hepatosplenomegaly, cerebral involvement, renal failure, and shock may occur. Incidence/prevalence Each year there are 300-500 million clinical cases of malaria. About 40% of the world's population is at risk of acquiring the disease.23 Each year 25-30 million people from non-tropical countries visit areas in which malaria is endemic,4 of whom between 10 000 and 30 000 contract malaria.5 Aetiology/risk factors Malaria is mainly a rural disease, requiring standing water nearby. It is transmitted by bites6 from infected female anopheline mosquitoes,7 mainly at dusk and during the night.18 In cities, mosquito bites are usually from female culicene mosquitoes, which are not vectors of malaria.9 Malaria is resurgent in most tropical countries and the risk to travellers is increasing.10 Prognosis Ninety per cent of travellers who contract malaria do not become ill until after they return home.5 “Imported malaria” is easily treated if diagnosed promptly, and it follows a serious course in only about 12% of people.1112 The most severe form of the disease is cerebral malaria, with a case fatality rate in adult travellers of 2-6%,3 mainly because of delays in diagnosis.5 Aims To reduce the risk of infection; to prevent illness and death. Outcomes Rates of malarial illness and death, and adverse effects of treatment. Proxy measures include number of mosquito bites and number of mosquitoes in indoor areas. We found limited evidence linking number of mosquito bites and risk of malaria.13 Methods Clinical Evidence search and appraisal in November 1999. We reviewed all identified systematic reviews and randomised controlled trials (RCTs

  4. Travelers with Disabilities and Medical Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Travel Redress Claims Travel Tips Travel Checklist FAQ Disabilities and Medical Conditions To ensure your security, all ... other questions or concerns about traveling with a disability please contact passenger support . If you are approved ...

  5. Rabies vaccination for international travelers.

    PubMed

    Gautret, Philippe; Parola, Philippe

    2012-01-05

    Rabies prevention in travelers is a controversial issue. According to experts, the decision to vaccinate results from an individual risk assessment based on the duration of stay, the likelihood of engagement in at-risk activities, the age of the traveler, the rabies endemicity and access to appropriate medical care in the country of destination. However, no detailed information is available regarding the last two determinants in many regions. Twenty-two cases of rabies were reported in tourists, expatriates and migrant travelers over the last decade, including three cases following short-term travel of no more than two weeks. Studies on rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) in travelers show that overall, 0.4% (range 0.01-2.3%) of travelers have experienced an at-risk bite per month of stay in a rabies-endemic country, while 31% of expatriates and 12% of tourists were vaccinated against rabies before traveling. The main reason cited by travelers for not being vaccinated is the cost of the vaccine. The majority of patients who sustained a high risk injury was not vaccinated against rabies before traveling and were not properly treated abroad. From available studies, the following risk factors for injuries sustained from potentially rabid animals may be identified: traveling to South-East Asia, India or North Africa, young age, and traveling for tourism. The duration of travel does not appear to be a risk factor. It should be noted that "at-risk activities" have not been addressed in these studies. Detailed rabies distribution maps and information on the availability of rabies biologics are urgently needed in order to identify those travelers who need pre-travel vaccination. Meanwhile, cost-minimization of rabies pre-exposure vaccination may be achieved in several ways, notably by using the intra-dermal method of vaccination.

  6. Fellow travellers: Working memory and mental time travel in rodents.

    PubMed

    Dere, Ekrem; Dere, Dorothea; de Souza Silva, Maria Angelica; Huston, Joseph P; Zlomuzica, Armin

    2017-03-19

    The impairment of mental time travel is a severe cognitive symptom in patients with brain lesions and a number of neuropsychiatric disorders. Whether animals are also able to mentally travel in time both forward and backward is still a matter of debate. In this regard, we have proposed a continuum of mental time travel abilities across different animal species, with humans being the species with the ability to perform most sophisticated forms of mental time travel. In this review and perspective article, we delineate a novel approach to understand the evolution, characteristics and function of human and animal mental time travel. Furthermore, we propose a novel approach to measure mental time travel in rodents in a comprehensive manner using a test battery composed of well-validated and easy applicable tests.

  7. Time, travel and infection.

    PubMed

    Cliff, Andrew; Haggett, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The collapse of geographical space over the last 200 years has had profound effects on the circulation of human populations and on the transfer of infectious diseases. Three examples are used to illustrate the process: (a) the impact of the switch from sail to steamships in importing measles into Fiji over a 40-year period; (b) changes in measles epidemic behaviour in Iceland over a 150-year period; and (c) changes in the spread of cholera within the United States over a 35-year period. In each case, the link between time, travel and disease has been an intimate one.

  8. Vaccines for foreign travel.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, M S

    1990-06-01

    Exotic infections are a significant threat to the child traveling to or going to live in the developing world. Vaccines are available that can prevent some of these infections. It is essential that basic routine childhood vaccination be up to date and that necessary modifications be made from the usual schedule in the United States. The current requirements and local disease conditions (both endemic and epidemic) for each country to be visited must be known so that appropriate vaccines are received. Resources for this information are listed. Details for each vaccine are given, including indications, dose, booster, side effects, contraindications, and other specific information.

  9. [Travel and accidents].

    PubMed

    Cha, Olivier

    2015-04-01

    Traumatic pathologies are the most frequent medical events to be observed among French travellers. Accidents on the public highway by lack of respect of the fundamental rules of road security, particularly abroad, traffic conditions in bad repair in numerous emergent countries, usually the destination of mass tourism and underdeveloped organization of health care and local urgency help. Sports activities are also a source of accidents. A good physical training is essential. Drowning is a real plague, especially among children due to a lack of vigilance. Preventive measures are simple, keep them constantly in mind and apply them carefully so as to have beautiful memories of our trip back home.

  10. Prevention and Self-Treatment of Traveler's Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Diemert, David J.

    2006-01-01

    Of the millions who travel from the industrialized world to developing countries every year, between 20% and 50% will develop at least one episode of diarrhea, making it the most common medical ailment afflicting travelers. Although usually a mild illness, traveler's diarrhea can result in significant morbidity and hardship overseas. Precautions can be taken to minimize the risk of developing traveler's diarrhea, either through avoidance of potentially contaminated food or drink or through various prophylactic measures, including both nonpharmacological and antimicrobial strategies. If diarrhea does develop despite the precautions taken, effective treatment—usually a combination of an antibiotic and an antimotility agent—can be brought by the traveler and initiated as soon as symptoms develop. In the future, vaccines—several of which are in the advanced stages of clinical testing—may be added to the list of prophylactic measures. PMID:16847088

  11. Mental maps and travel behaviour: meanings and models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannes, Els; Kusumastuti, Diana; Espinosa, Maikel León; Janssens, Davy; Vanhoof, Koen; Wets, Geert

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, the " mental map" concept is positioned with regard to individual travel behaviour to start with. Based on Ogden and Richards' triangle of meaning (The meaning of meaning: a study of the influence of language upon thought and of the science of symbolism. International library of psychology, philosophy and scientific method. Routledge and Kegan Paul, London, 1966) distinct thoughts, referents and symbols originating from different scientific disciplines are identified and explained in order to clear up the notion's fuzziness. Next, the use of this concept in two major areas of research relevant to travel demand modelling is indicated and discussed in detail: spatial cognition and decision-making. The relevance of these constructs to understand and model individual travel behaviour is explained and current research efforts to implement these concepts in travel demand models are addressed. Furthermore, these mental map notions are specified in two types of computational models, i.e. a Bayesian Inference Network (BIN) and a Fuzzy Cognitive Map (FCM). Both models are explained, and a numerical and a real-life example are provided. Both approaches yield a detailed quantitative representation of the mental map of decision-making problems in travel behaviour.

  12. Long-range airplane study: The consumer looks at SST travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landes, K. H.; Matter, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    The attitudes of long-range air travelers toward several basic air travel decisions, were surveyed. Of interest were tradeoffs involving time versus comfort and time versus cost as they pertain to supersonic versus conventional wide-body aircraft on overseas routes. The market focused upon was the segment of air travelers most likely to make that type of tradeoff decision: those having flown overseas routes for business or personal reasons in the recent past. The information generated is intended to provide quantifiable insight into consumer demand for supersonic as compared to wide-body aircraft alternatives for long-range overseas air travel.

  13. The severe acute respiratory syndrome: impact on travel and tourism.

    PubMed

    Wilder-Smith, Annelies

    2006-03-01

    SARS and travel are intricately interlinked. Travelers belonged to those primarily affected in the early stages of the outbreak, travelers became vectors of the disease, and finally, travel and tourism themselves became the victims. The outbreak of SARS created international anxiety because of its novelty, its ease of transmission in certain settings, and the speed of its spread through jet travel, combined with extensive media coverage. The psychological impacts of SARS, coupled with travel restrictions imposed by various national and international authorities, have diminished international travel in 2003, far beyond the limitations to truly SARS hit areas. Governments and press, especially in non SARS affected areas, have been slow to strike the right balance between timely and frequent risk communication and placing risk in the proper context. Screening at airport entry points is costly, has a low yield and is not sufficient in itself. The low yield in detecting SARS is most likely due to a combination of factors, such as travel advisories which resulted in reduced travel to and from SARS affected areas, implementation of effective pre-departure screening at airports in SARS-hit countries, and a rapid decline in new cases at the time when screening was finally introduced. Rather than investing in airport screening measures to detect rare infectious diseases, investments should be used to strengthen screening and infection control capacities at points of entry into the healthcare system. If SARS reoccurs, the subsequent outbreak will be smaller and more easily contained if the lessons learnt from the recent epidemic are applied. Lessons learnt during the outbreak in relation to international travel will be discussed.

  14. The Travelling Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murabona Oduori, Susan

    2015-08-01

    The telescope has been around for more than 400 years, and through good use of it scientists have made many astonishing discoveries and begun to understand our place in the universe. Most people, however, have never looked through one. Yet it is a great tool for cool science and observation especially in a continent and country with beautifully dark skies. The Travelling Telescope project aims to invite people outside under the stars to learn about those curious lights in the sky.The Travelling Telescope aims to promote science learning to a wide range of Kenyan schools in various locations exchanging knowledge about the sky through direct observations of celestial bodies using state of the art telescopes. In addition to direct observing we also teach science using various hands-on activities and astronomy software, ideal for explaining concepts which are hard to understand, and for a better grasp of the sights visible through the telescope. We are dedicated to promoting science using astronomy especially in schools, targeting children from as young as 3 years to the youth, teachers, their parents and members of the public. Our presentation focuses on the OAD funded project in rural coastal Kenya.

  15. 2001 New York State NHTS: Travel Patterns of Special Populations

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Patricia S; Reuscher, Tim

    2010-03-01

    Policymakers rely on transportation statistics, including data on personal travel behavior, to formulate strategic transportation policies, and to improve the safety and efficiency of the U.S. transportation system. Data on personal travel trends are needed to examine the reliability, efficiency, capacity, and flexibility of the Nation's transportation system to meet current demands and accommodate future demands; to assess the feasibility and efficiency of alternative congestion-alleviating technologies (e.g., high-speed rail, magnetically levitated trains, intelligent vehicle and highway systems); to evaluate the merits of alternative transportation investment programs; and to assess the energy-use and air-quality impacts of various policies. To address these data needs, the U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT) initiated an effort in 1969 to collect detailed data on personal travel. The 1969 survey was the first Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey (NPTS). The survey was conducted again in 1977, 1983, 1990, 1995, and 2001. Data on daily travel were collected in 1969, 1977, 1983, 1990 and 1995. Longer-distance travel was collected in 1977 and 1995. The 2001 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) collected both daily and longer-distance trips in one survey. The 2001 survey was sponsored by three USDOT agencies: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), and National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). The primary objective of the survey was to collect trip-based data on the nature and characteristics of personal travel so that the relationships between the characteristics of personal travel and the demographics of the traveler can be established. Commercial and institutional travel was not part of the survey. New York State participated in the 2001 NHTS by procuring additional 12,000 sample households. These additional sample households allowed New York State to address transportation planning issues

  16. Fungal infections in immunocompromised travelers.

    PubMed

    Lortholary, Olivier; Charlier, Caroline; Lebeaux, David; Lecuit, Marc; Consigny, Paul Henri

    2013-03-01

    Immunocompromised patients represent an increasing group of travelers, for business, tourism, and visiting friends and relatives. Those with severe cellular immunodeficiency (advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection and transplant recipients) display the highest risk of fungal infections. International travel is less risky in most other types of immunodeficiency (except those with neutropenia). A systematic visit in a travel clinic for immunocompromised patients traveling to the tropics ensures that the specific risks of acquiring fungal infections (and others) are understood. When immunocompromised hosts return to their area of residence, a nonbacteriologically documented, potentially severe, febrile pneumonia, with or without dissemination signs (skin lesions, cytopenia) should alert for travel-acquired fungal infection, even years after return. Localized subcutaneous nodule may be also ascribed to fungal infection. Finally, infectious diseases physicians should be aware of major clinical patterns of travel-acquired fungal infection, as well as the fungi involved, and risk factors according to the geographical area visited.

  17. Evaluation of the returned traveler.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, D. R.

    1992-01-01

    Recognition of clinical syndromes in returned travelers is an important part of providing care to international travelers. The first step is to take a history with attention to pre-travel preventive measures, the patient's itinerary, and potential exposure to infectious agents. The patient should then be examined to document physical signs, such as fever, rash, or hepatosplenomegaly, and to have basic laboratory data obtained. This evaluation will provide most physicians with the necessary information to generate a differential diagnosis. Each diagnosis should be matched against the incubation period of the disease, the geographic location of illness, the frequency of illness in returned travelers, and the pre-travel preventive measures. Careful attention to these aspects of patient care should result in the appropriate diagnosis and therapeutic intervention for the ill returned traveler. PMID:1290276

  18. Destination therapy: safety and feasibility of national and international travel.

    PubMed

    Coyle, Laura A; Martin, Michele M; Kurien, Sudha; Graham, Joel D; Gallagher, Colleen; Silver, Marc A; Slaughter, Mark S

    2008-01-01

    Results for Destination Therapy (DT) continue to improve with advanced technology, better patient selection, and experienced clinical management. Quality of life for these patients is an important component of the overall success of DT, and traveling is becoming more common. We reviewed our experience with long-distance travel in our DT population. All patients implanted with a left ventricular assist device for DT were followed prospectively. Long-distance travel was considered to be >200 miles, one way from their homes. There were 15 patients (14 men) with an average age of 66 years (range, 30-82) who traveled a combined total of 40 long-distance trips. Four trips were international (Spain, Canada (2), and Puerto Rico), 35 within the continental U.S., and one to Hawaii. The average one way distance traveled was 925 miles with a range of 218-4256 miles. The average time away from home was 8.3 days (range, 2-30). Patients traveled by airplane (17), car (23), and one trip included a 5 day cruise. Five complications occurred: driveline trauma, delay of reentry into the United States, missed flight, red heart alarm from bearing wear, and dehydration. All patients returned home safely for routine follow-up. Long-distance travel is possible for DT patients. Anticipating potential problems and careful planning is necessary for safe national and international travel.

  19. A travel cost analysis of nonconsumptive wildlife-associated recreation in the United States

    Treesearch

    William T. Zawacki; Allan Marsinko; J. Michael Bowker

    2000-01-01

    Increased emphasis on sustainable resource management in forestry has effectuated a demand for various nontimber values. Nonconsumptive wildlife recreation is an important nontimber service produced on forest and rangeland. Travel cost models and data from the 1991 National Survey of Fishing, Hunting and Wildlife-Associated Recreation are used to estimate the demand...

  20. Wood supply and demand

    Treesearch

    Peter J. Ince; David B. McKeever

    2011-01-01

    At times in history, there have been concerns that demand for wood (timber) would be greater than the ability to supply it, but that concern has recently dissipated. The wood supply and demand situation has changed because of market transitions, economic downturns, and continued forest growth. This article provides a concise overview of this change as it relates to the...

  1. Internet and computer-based resources for travel medicine practitioners.

    PubMed

    Keystone, J S; Kozarsky, P E; Freedman, D O

    2001-03-01

    The field of travel medicine is concerned primarily with ways to maintain the health of international travelers. Remaining current in this area requires up-to-date knowledge of global infectious diseases, patterns of drug resistance, advances in preventive measures, and public health regulations pertaining to the crossing of international borders. This review of off-line commercial databases and Internet sources will assist infectious disease consultants in accessing current reliable travel health information. Of the North American pretravel off-line databases, TRAVAX (United States) and The Medical Letter are the most comprehensive, whereas the Global Infectious Disease and Epidemiology Network is extraordinary in its provision of global infectious disease epidemiology for posttravel assessment. A total of 65 Web sites are listed within 9 categories, covering such areas as authoritative government travel health recommendations, commercially-oriented sites, and travel medicine listserv discussion groups. Even among reputable Web sites, contradictory information may be found that demands careful consideration by the clinician and by the traveling public.

  2. Quantifying travel behavior for infectious disease research: a comparison of data from surveys and mobile phones.

    PubMed

    Wesolowski, Amy; Stresman, Gillian; Eagle, Nathan; Stevenson, Jennifer; Owaga, Chrispin; Marube, Elizabeth; Bousema, Teun; Drakeley, Christopher; Cox, Jonathan; Buckee, Caroline O

    2014-07-14

    Human travel impacts the spread of infectious diseases across spatial and temporal scales, with broad implications for the biological and social sciences. Individual data on travel patterns have been difficult to obtain, particularly in low-income countries. Travel survey data provide detailed demographic information, but sample sizes are often small and travel histories are hard to validate. Mobile phone records can provide vast quantities of spatio-temporal travel data but vary in spatial resolution and explicitly do not include individual information in order to protect the privacy of subscribers. Here we compare and contrast both sources of data over the same time period in a rural area of Kenya. Although both data sets are able to quantify broad travel patterns and distinguish regional differences in travel, each provides different insights that can be combined to form a more detailed picture of travel in low-income settings to understand the spread of infectious diseases.

  3. Quantifying travel behavior for infectious disease research: a comparison of data from surveys and mobile phones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesolowski, Amy; Stresman, Gillian; Eagle, Nathan; Stevenson, Jennifer; Owaga, Chrispin; Marube, Elizabeth; Bousema, Teun; Drakeley, Christopher; Cox, Jonathan; Buckee, Caroline O.

    2014-07-01

    Human travel impacts the spread of infectious diseases across spatial and temporal scales, with broad implications for the biological and social sciences. Individual data on travel patterns have been difficult to obtain, particularly in low-income countries. Travel survey data provide detailed demographic information, but sample sizes are often small and travel histories are hard to validate. Mobile phone records can provide vast quantities of spatio-temporal travel data but vary in spatial resolution and explicitly do not include individual information in order to protect the privacy of subscribers. Here we compare and contrast both sources of data over the same time period in a rural area of Kenya. Although both data sets are able to quantify broad travel patterns and distinguish regional differences in travel, each provides different insights that can be combined to form a more detailed picture of travel in low-income settings to understand the spread of infectious diseases.

  4. Quantifying travel behavior for infectious disease research: a comparison of data from surveys and mobile phones

    PubMed Central

    Wesolowski, Amy; Stresman, Gillian; Eagle, Nathan; Stevenson, Jennifer; Owaga, Chrispin; Marube, Elizabeth; Bousema, Teun; Drakeley, Christopher; Cox, Jonathan; Buckee, Caroline O.

    2014-01-01

    Human travel impacts the spread of infectious diseases across spatial and temporal scales, with broad implications for the biological and social sciences. Individual data on travel patterns have been difficult to obtain, particularly in low-income countries. Travel survey data provide detailed demographic information, but sample sizes are often small and travel histories are hard to validate. Mobile phone records can provide vast quantities of spatio-temporal travel data but vary in spatial resolution and explicitly do not include individual information in order to protect the privacy of subscribers. Here we compare and contrast both sources of data over the same time period in a rural area of Kenya. Although both data sets are able to quantify broad travel patterns and distinguish regional differences in travel, each provides different insights that can be combined to form a more detailed picture of travel in low-income settings to understand the spread of infectious diseases. PMID:25022440

  5. Traveling wave model of uni-traveling carrier photodiode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanra, Senjuti; Das Barman, Abhirup

    2015-06-01

    A traveling wave time domain model of bulk InGaAs/InP uni-traveling carrier photodiode is presented in terms of integral carrier density rate equation. The wavelength dependent responsivity at different absorption width has been derived from quantum mechanical principle. Output photocurrent response with time is found in close agreement with the experimental value.

  6. Traveler: The Apiary Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, Carl R.

    Observing and debugging concurrent actor programs on a distributed architecture such as the Apiary poses new problems not found in sequential systems. Since events are only partially ordered, the chronological order of events no longer corresponds to their causal ordering, so the execution trace of a computation must be more structured than a simple stream. Many events may execute concurrently, so a stepper must give the programmer control over the order in which events are stepped. Because of the arrival order nondeterminism of the actor model, different actors may have different views on the ordering of events. We conquer these problems by recording the activation ordering, the transaction pairing, and the arrival ordering of messages in the Apiary and displaying the resulting structures in Traveler's window oriented interface under user control.

  7. A traveling opera troupe.

    PubMed

    Gao, M

    1995-08-01

    In China, Mr. Chang Junjie, a retired middle school principal has personally organized and financed the "Family Planning Retired Cadre's Troupe," which travels around the countryside performing newly written costume operas. In the six years since he first began to organize the troupe, Chang's players have performed more than 1700 times for more than a million people. The operas draw their material from the real life situations faced by farmers and emphasize the importance of family planning by setting good examples. Chang's operas have been well received, and it is not unusual for his audiences to be moved to laughter and tears. Despite his widespread success, Chang is not content with what he has accomplished and is currently organizing a children's opera troupe and seeking ways to make a greater impact on the promotion of family planning.

  8. [Morbidity of Israeli travelers after traveling to developing countries].

    PubMed

    Mizrachi, Edit; Steinlauf, Shmuel; Schwartz, Eli

    2010-09-01

    International tourism, including traveling to developing countries, has become increasingly popular. The number of Israeli travelers to developing countries is estimated at approximately 170,000 annually. This study aims to analyze the morbidity among returning Israeli travelers. A retrospective evaluation was conducted of patient files for those attending the Tropical Disease clinic at the Sheba Medical Center between 1994-2004. A total of 842 patients attended the clinic during this period, with 1126 different diagnoses, including 20.9% of patients who were hospitalized in Israel and 6.2% abroad. Slightly more than half (56.7%) were male, 70% were in the 20-29 year age group. Most of the patients attended the clinic shortly after returning from traveling, but some attended the clinic more than 1 year later. The main destinations were Asia (49.2%), Latin America (23.4%) and Africa (23.2%). The most common diagnoses were gastrointestinal disease (41%), fatigue (25.8%), dermatological conditions (23.4%) and febrile diseases (22.7%). The typical diagnoses in travelers returning from Asia were chronic diarrhea and dengue fever. Dermatological conditions including leishmaniasis were prominent in travelers returning from Latin America, and in travelers returning from Africa--malaria, and schistosomiasis. In addition, there were gender differences; males acquired malaria, leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis more often, while females had more gastrointestinal complaints and fatigue. Travelers acquired different health problems in different continents. This must be taken into consideration when patients seek medical advice either before or after their journey. Furthermore, physicians must be aware of the importance of having a thorough travel history of their patients, since medical problems acquired during travel may manifest long after returning home.

  9. International Travelers' Sociodemographic, Health, and Travel Characteristics: An Italian Study.

    PubMed

    Troiano, Gianmarco; Mercone, Astrid; Bagnoli, Alessandra; Nante, Nicola

    Approximately the 8% of travelers requires medical care, with the diagnosis of a vaccine-preventable disease. The aim of our study was to analyze the socio-demographic, health and travel characteristics of the Italian international travelers. We conducted a cross sectional study from January 2015 to June 2016, at the Travel Medicine Clinic of Siena, asking the doctor to interview patients who attended the Clinic, recording socio-demographic and travel information, malaria prophylaxis, vaccinations. The data were organized in a database and processed by software Stata®. We collected 419 questionnaires. Patients chose 71 countries for their travels; the favorite destinations were: India (6.31%), Thailand (6.31%), and Brazil (5.10%). The mean length of stay was 36.17 days. Italians, students, and freelancers tended to stay abroad for a longer time (mean: 36.4 days, 59.87 days and 64.16 days respectively). 33.17% of our sample used drugs for malaria chemoprophylaxis: 71.9% of them used Atovaquone/Proguanil (Malarone®), 26.6% used Mefloquine (Lariam®), 1.5% other drugs. The vaccinations that travelers mostly got in our study were to prevent hepatitis A (n = 264), the typhoid fever (n = 187), the Tetanus + Diphtheria + Pertussis (n = 165), the Yellow fever (n = 118) and the cholera (n = 78). Twenty-eight (6.68%) refused some recommended vaccinations. The vaccines mostly refused were for Typhoid fever (n = 20), hepatitis a (n = 9), and cholera (n = 9). Our results demonstrated that Italian international travelers are at-risk because of their poor vaccinations adherence. This implies that pre-travel counseling is fundamental to increase the knowledge of the risks and the compliance of future travelers. Copyright © 2016 Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Winter Wilderness Travel and Camping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilchrest, Norman

    Knowledge and skill are needed for safe and enjoyable travel and camping in the wilderness in winter. The beauty of snow and ice, reduced human use, and higher tolerance of animals toward humans make the wilderness attractive during winter. The uniqueness of winter travel presents several challenges that are not present in other seasons. Safety is…

  11. Preparing for Travel in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswald, James M.

    The complexity of the Indian society can be overwhelming, and preparation for travel in India requires careful and detailed advance planning. Practical suggestions are provided for travelers to help them understand cultural differences, avoid illnesses, and select appropriate clothing for the intense heat. Explanations are given about the monetary…

  12. Reengineering the Air Travel Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-04-01

    Thesis 3. DATES COVERED (FROM - TO) xx-xx-1999 to xx-xx-1999 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Reengineering the Air Travel Process Unclassified 5a. CONTRACT...RELEASE , 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Every year, Department of Defense (DOD) travelers make thousands of trips that include air transportation

  13. Travel and Adult Transformative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindstrom, Steven K.

    2011-01-01

    This phenomenological research study examines the lived experience of individual adult transformation in the context of travel. Adults throughout history have experienced profound personal and perception changes as a result of significant travel events. Transformative learning occurs through experience, crisis, and reflection, all of which are…

  14. Travel and Adult Transformative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindstrom, Steven K.

    2011-01-01

    This phenomenological research study examines the lived experience of individual adult transformation in the context of travel. Adults throughout history have experienced profound personal and perception changes as a result of significant travel events. Transformative learning occurs through experience, crisis, and reflection, all of which are…

  15. Create a Traveling Literacy Trunk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fromherz, Robin Wright

    2003-01-01

    Considers how the concept of Traveling Literacy Trunk was designed to reach all corners of the state of Oregon with compelling, student-centered, developmentally appropriate writing activities that could be shared with teaching professionals. Outlines 12 steps for developing a Traveling Literacy Trunk. Describes many benefits of the Literacy…

  16. Travel and the Consumer 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idleman, Hillis K.

    The State Education Department of New York has prepared a series of modules--Expanded Programs in Consumer Education. "Travel and the Consumer" is the most recently produced module. It can be used as a discrete unit or with others in the series. The module stresses the importance of making travel creative, getting the most for one's…

  17. Demand and Congestion in Multiplex Transportation Networks.

    PubMed

    Chodrow, Philip S; Al-Awwad, Zeyad; Jiang, Shan; González, Marta C

    Urban transportation systems are multimodal, sociotechnical systems; however, while their multimodal aspect has received extensive attention in recent literature on multiplex networks, their sociotechnical aspect has been largely neglected. We present the first study of an urban transportation system using multiplex network analysis and validated Origin-Destination travel demand, with Riyadh's planned metro as a case study. We develop methods for analyzing the impact of additional transportation layers on existing dynamics, and show that demand structure plays key quantitative and qualitative roles. There exist fundamental geometrical limits to the metro's impact on traffic dynamics, and the bulk of environmental accrue at metro speeds only slightly faster than those planned. We develop a simple model for informing the use of additional, "feeder" layers to maximize reductions in global congestion. Our techniques are computationally practical, easily extensible to arbitrary transportation layers with complex transfer logic, and implementable in open-source software.

  18. Demand and Congestion in Multiplex Transportation Networks

    PubMed Central

    al-Awwad, Zeyad; Jiang, Shan; González, Marta C.

    2016-01-01

    Urban transportation systems are multimodal, sociotechnical systems; however, while their multimodal aspect has received extensive attention in recent literature on multiplex networks, their sociotechnical aspect has been largely neglected. We present the first study of an urban transportation system using multiplex network analysis and validated Origin-Destination travel demand, with Riyadh’s planned metro as a case study. We develop methods for analyzing the impact of additional transportation layers on existing dynamics, and show that demand structure plays key quantitative and qualitative roles. There exist fundamental geometrical limits to the metro’s impact on traffic dynamics, and the bulk of environmental accrue at metro speeds only slightly faster than those planned. We develop a simple model for informing the use of additional, “feeder” layers to maximize reductions in global congestion. Our techniques are computationally practical, easily extensible to arbitrary transportation layers with complex transfer logic, and implementable in open-source software. PMID:27657738

  19. Pre-travel advice seeking from GPs by travellers with chronic illness seen at a travel clinic.

    PubMed

    Gagneux-Brunon, Amandine; Andrillat, Carole; Fouilloux, Pascale; Daoud, Fatiha; Defontaine, Christiane; Charles, Rodolphe; Lucht, Frédéric; Botelho-Nevers, Elisabeth

    2016-03-01

    Travellers are ageing and frequently report chronic illness. Pre-travel health advice is crucial, particularly in this subgroup, and general practitioners (GPs) are first in line for treatment adjustment before departure. Our aim is to evaluate pre-travel health advice seeking from GPs by travellers with chronic illness seen at a travel clinic. A cross-sectional observational survey using a questionnaire was conducted between August 2013 and July 2014 in travellers attending the travel medicine clinic of a tertiary university hospital in France. During the study, 2019 travellers were included. Mean age was 39.4 years (±18.8). Three hundred and ninety-one (19.4%) travellers reported a history of a chronic illness. Arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus were the most frequently reported illnesses, affecting, respectively, 168 (8.3%) travellers and 102 (5.1%). Hajj pilgrims were more likely to report a history of chronic illness than other travellers. Only 810 (40.1%) travellers sought pre-travel advice from their GP. Six hundred and fifty-two (40.1%) healthy travellers and 158 (40.5%) travellers reporting chronic illness sought pre-travel advice from their GP (P = 0.96). Travellers with a history of chronic illness do not seek pre-travel health advice from their GP more frequently than healthy travellers. Travel health specialists are generally not the best practitioners to manage the care of underlying medical conditions presenting risks during travel. However, GPs offer continuity and disease management expertise to improve the specificity of pre-travel planning. Thus, ongoing collaboration between the traveller, GP and travel health specialist is likely to yield the best outcomes. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2016. All rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Prophylaxis for the International Traveller

    PubMed Central

    MacPherson, D. W.

    1985-01-01

    Travellers should know as much as possible about the quality of food and drink in the areas of travel, and be prepared with safety measures if necessary. Routine immunization should be up to date; cholera and yellow fever vaccinations are required for travel to certain areas. Such prophylaxis should be sought, ideally, several months before departure. Resurgences of malaria are occurring in areas where the disease had previously been controlled, making prophylaxis essential for travel to endemic areas. Other mild disorders may be treated with medication appropriate to the type of travel and area. Patients may appreciate cautionary advice about behavior, to lessen the likelihood of physical or social harm. ImagesFig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:21274123

  1. [Travel and patients with allergies].

    PubMed

    Miltgen, J; N'Guyen, G; Cuguilliere, A; Marotel, C; Bonnet, D

    1997-01-01

    By changing their surroundings and lifestyle, travelers with allergic conditions exposed themselves to new risks. The main perennial allergens are house dust mites which thrive in tropical areas and can be especially sensitizing. The risk of seasonal reactions to grass-pollens varies from region to region. Reactions to some highly sensitizing respiratory allergens can occur in travelers who return to regions where they were previously exposed. Subjects with food allergies should beware of possible reactions to ingredients in exotic dishes. The bites of several insects can cause anaphylactic reactions. Some medications required for tropical travel (e.g. antimalarial drugs) can trigger severe hypersensitivity reactions. Avoidance of allergens is more difficult during travel. Travelers with allergic conditions should carry alert identification cards and medications for routine as well as emergency treatment including self-injectable adrenaline.

  2. [Prevention of malaria in travellers and expatriates].

    PubMed

    Bourgeade, A; Faugere, B; Nosny, Y

    1990-01-01

    Since the occurrence of the chloroquino-resistance, chemoprophylaxis for all is not anymore the sound principle to malaria prophylaxis for travellers and expatriates. Protection against malaria has now to be based on comprehensive actions (chemoprophylaxis, control of infecting bites, treatment of malaria cases as soon as first symptom occur), they have to be combined, as a whole or not, according to the area, the duration and the type of tropical stay, and even sometimes according to some parameters peculiar to an individual. The development of concepts concerning the epidemiology of human malaria and the use of antimalarial drugs, either as protective or curative, lead more and more to the necessity for any traveller or expatriate to take medical advice from a specialized physician.

  3. Submicron particle trapping using traveling wave dielectrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lungu, M.; Giugiulan, R.; Bunoiu, M.; Strambeanu, N.; Neculae, A.

    2013-11-01

    The manipulation of the submicron particles suspended in various fluid media using dielectrophoresis in microchannels with interdigitated electrodes had brought recently considerable attention in many scientific areas, both because of their various applications in industry or medicine and because of their harmful effects for human health when inhaled. The dielectrophoresis resulting from an electric field phase gradient is called "traveling wave dielectrophoresis". This paper analyses the behavior of a submicron particle suspension in a dense and viscous fluid under dielectrophoresis. The manipulation and controlled spatial separation of submicron particle suspensions is performed by a combination of dielectrophoretic (DEP) and traveling wave dielectrophoretic (twDEP) forces. The theoretical background, together with a set of numerical results obtained in the frame of a mathematical model (DEP and twDEP forces, particle trajectories and concentration profiles) in a separation micro system, were presented. The numerical solutions computed by the finite element method give important information for the optimization of the experimental setup.

  4. The Centauri project: Manned interstellar travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciesla, Thomas M.

    1990-01-01

    The development of antimatter engines for spacecraft propulsion will allow man to expand to the nearest stellar neighbors such as the Alpha Centuri system. Compared to chemically powered rockets like the Apollo mission class which would take 50,000 years to reach the Centauri system, antimatter propulsion would reduce one way trip time to 30 years or less. The challenges encountered by manned interstellar travel are formidable. The spacecraft must be a combination of sublight speed transportation system and a traveling microplanet serving an expanding population. As the population expands from the initial 100 people to approximately 300, the terraformed asteroid, enclosed by a man-made shell will allow for expansion over its surface in the fashion of a small terrestrial town. All aspects of human life - birth; death; physical, emotional, and educational needs; and government and law must be met by the structure, systems, and institutions on-board.

  5. Travel, venous thromboembolism, and thrombophilia.

    PubMed

    Gallus, Alexander S

    2005-02-01

    Current evidence indicates that prolonged air travel predisposes to venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. An effect is seen once travel duration exceeds 6 to 9 hours and becomes obvious in long-haul passengers traveling for 12 or more hours. A recent records linkage study found that increase in thrombosis rate among arriving passengers peaked during the first week and was no longer apparent after 2 weeks. Medium- to long-distance travelers have a 2- to 4-fold increase in relative thrombosis risk compared with nontravelers, but the averaged absolute risk is small (approximately one symptomatic event per 2 million arrivals, with a case-fatality rate of approximately 2%) and there is no evidence that thrombosis is more likely in economy class than in business- or first-class passengers. It remains uncertain whether and to what extent thrombosis risk is increased by short-distance air travel or prolonged travel by motorcar, train, or other means. Most travelers who develop venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism also have one or more other predisposing risk factors that may include older age, obesity, recent injury or surgery, previous thrombosis, venous insufficiency, malignancy, hormonal therapies, or pregnancy. Limited (though theoretically plausible) evidence suggests that factor V Leiden and the prothrombin gene mutation predispose to thrombosis in otherwise healthy travelers. Given that very many passengers with such predispositions do not develop thrombosis, and a lack of prospective studies to link predisposition with disease, it is not now possible to allocate absolute thrombosis risk among intending passengers or to estimate benefit-to-risk ratios or benefit-to-cost ratios for prophylaxis. Randomized comparisons using ultrasound imaging indicate a measurable incidence of subclinical leg vein thrombosis after prolonged air travel, which appears to increase with travel duration and is reduced by graded pressure elastic support stockings. Whether this

  6. A Low Cost Traveling Wave Tube for Wireless Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vancil, Bernard Kenneth; Wintucky, Edwin G.; Williams, W. D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Demand for high data rate wireless communications is pushing up amplifier power, bandwidth and frequency requirements. Some systems are using vacuum electron devices again because solid-state power amplifiers are not able to efficiently meet the new requirements. The traveling wave tube is the VED of choice because of its excellent broadband capability as well as high power efficiency and frequency. But TWTs are very expensive on a per watt basis below about 200 watts of output power. We propose a new traveling wave tube that utilizes cathode ray tube construction technology and electrostatic focusing. We believe the tube can be built in quantity for under $1,000 each. We discuss several traveling wave tube slow wave circuits that lend themselves to the new construction. We will present modeling results and data on prototype devices.

  7. President's address: travel medicine and principles of safe travel.

    PubMed

    DuPont, Herbert L

    2008-01-01

    Persons crossing international boundaries away from their medical support systems are put at risk for illness and injury. Travel medicine is a new medical discipline that quantifies these health risks and develops strategies for reducing them. Obtaining health and evacuation insurance for a future trip is important for persons with medical conditions, those planning trips to developing tropical or semi-tropical regions of the world or when an international stay anywhere will be as long as a month. Pre-travel medical evaluation, vaccines against endemic infectious diseases and medications to reduce the occurrence of diarrhea and malaria during trips to endemic areas, and medications for self-treatment of common illnesses such as diarrhea are fundamental to travel medicine. There are a number of miscellaneous areas to consider in travel medicine including preventing deep vein thrombosis and minimizing jet lag during long haul air travel and reducing the occurrence of accidents and water- and altitude-related illnesses. An important recently defined challenge to the field is the growing number of ill-prepared persons put at great risk for illness while visiting friends and relatives living in areas of reduced hygiene. All persons need to have an idea of how and where they may find medical care if they develop illness while abroad. This article summarizes essential elements in travel medicine and offers 10 recommendations for safe travel.

  8. President's Address: Travel Medicine and Principles of Safe Travel

    PubMed Central

    DuPont, Herbert L.

    2008-01-01

    Persons crossing international boundaries away from their medical support systems are put at risk for illness and injury. Travel medicine is a new medical discipline that quantifies these health risks and develops strategies for reducing them. Obtaining health and evacuation insurance for a future trip is important for persons with medical conditions, those planning trips to developing tropical or semi-tropical regions of the world or when an international stay anywhere will be as long as a month. Pre-travel medical evaluation, vaccines against endemic infectious diseases and medications to reduce the occurrence of diarrhea and malaria during trips to endemic areas, and medications for self-treatment of common illnesses such as diarrhea are fundamental to travel medicine. There are a number of miscellaneous areas to consider in travel medicine including preventing deep vein thrombosis and minimizing jet lag during long haul air travel and reducing the occurrence of accidents and water- and altitude-related illnesses. An important recently defined challenge to the field is the growing number of ill-prepared persons put at great risk for illness while visiting friends and relatives living in areas of reduced hygiene. All persons need to have an idea of how and where they may find medical care if they develop illness while abroad. This article summarizes essential elements in travel medicine and offers 10 recommendations for safe travel. PMID:18596858

  9. Impact of Energy Demands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cambel, Ali B.

    1970-01-01

    The types of pollutants associated with the process of power production are identified. A nine-point proposal is presented on the ways the increase in power demands might be achieved with the minimum threat to the environment. (PR)

  10. Latin American demand

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    From Mexico to Argentina, independent power companies are finding great demand for their services in Latin America. But while legal and economic conditions are increasingly favorable, political and financial uncertainties make power development challenging.

  11. Demand Response Dispatch Tool

    SciTech Connect

    2012-08-31

    The Demand Response (DR) Dispatch Tool uses price profiles to dispatch demand response resources and create load modifying profiles. These annual profiles are used as inputs to production cost models and regional planning tools (e.g., PROMOD). The tool has been effectively implemented in transmission planning studies conducted by the Western Electricity Coordinating Council via its Transmission Expansion Planning and Policy Committee. The DR Dispatch Tool can properly model the dispatch of DR resources for both reliability and economic conditions.

  12. Travelers' Health: MERS in the Arabian Peninsula

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safety Blood Clots Bug Bites Business Travel Cold Climates Counterfeit Drugs Cruise Ship Travel Families with Children ... Abroad Getting Sick After Travel High Altitudes Hot Climates Humanitarian Aid Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador ...

  13. Travelers' Health: Animal-Associated Hazards

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safety Blood Clots Bug Bites Business Travel Cold Climates Counterfeit Drugs Cruise Ship Travel Families with Children ... Abroad Getting Sick After Travel High Altitudes Hot Climates Humanitarian Aid Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador ...

  14. Travelers' Health: Trypanosomiasis, American (Chagas Disease)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safety Blood Clots Bug Bites Business Travel Cold Climates Counterfeit Drugs Cruise Ship Travel Families with Children ... Abroad Getting Sick After Travel High Altitudes Hot Climates Humanitarian Aid Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador ...

  15. Travelers' Health: Natural Disasters and Environmental Hazards

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safety Blood Clots Bug Bites Business Travel Cold Climates Counterfeit Drugs Cruise Ship Travel Families with Children ... Abroad Getting Sick After Travel High Altitudes Hot Climates Humanitarian Aid Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador ...

  16. 25 CFR 700.533 - Restrictions affecting travel and travel expense reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Restrictions affecting travel and travel expense... travel and travel expense reimbursement. (a) When an employee is on officially authorized travel his or... in cash or kind for travel expenses from any other source, even when the employee's expenses exceed...

  17. 25 CFR 700.533 - Restrictions affecting travel and travel expense reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Restrictions affecting travel and travel expense... travel and travel expense reimbursement. (a) When an employee is on officially authorized travel his or... in cash or kind for travel expenses from any other source, even when the employee's expenses exceed...

  18. 25 CFR 700.533 - Restrictions affecting travel and travel expense reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Restrictions affecting travel and travel expense... travel and travel expense reimbursement. (a) When an employee is on officially authorized travel his or... in cash or kind for travel expenses from any other source, even when the employee's expenses...

  19. 25 CFR 700.533 - Restrictions affecting travel and travel expense reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Restrictions affecting travel and travel expense... travel and travel expense reimbursement. (a) When an employee is on officially authorized travel his or... in cash or kind for travel expenses from any other source, even when the employee's expenses...

  20. 25 CFR 700.533 - Restrictions affecting travel and travel expense reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Restrictions affecting travel and travel expense... travel and travel expense reimbursement. (a) When an employee is on officially authorized travel his or... in cash or kind for travel expenses from any other source, even when the employee's expenses...

  1. 39 CFR 265.12 - Demands for testimony or records in certain legal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... RELEASE OF INFORMATION § 265.12 Demands for testimony or records in certain legal proceedings. (a) Scope..., hearing, or trial; (iii) Travel costs of the employee and agency attorney; (iv) Costs of materials and... attendance at a deposition, hearing, or trial, or is processing or responding to a request or demand. (3) At...

  2. 39 CFR 265.12 - Demands for testimony or records in certain legal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... RELEASE OF INFORMATION § 265.12 Demands for testimony or records in certain legal proceedings. (a) Scope..., hearing, or trial; (iii) Travel costs of the employee and agency attorney; (iv) Costs of materials and... attendance at a deposition, hearing, or trial, or is processing or responding to a request or demand. (3) At...

  3. Accounting for ethnicity in recreation demand: a flexible count data approach

    Treesearch

    J. Michael Bowker; V.R. Leeworthy

    1998-01-01

    The authors examine ethnicity and individual trip-taking behavior associated with natural resource based recreation in the Florida Keys. Bowker and Leeworthy estimate trip demand using the travel cost method. They then extend this model with a varying parameter adaptation to test the congruency of' demand and economic value across white and Hispanic user subgroups...

  4. Pre-travel advice, attitudes and hepatitis A and B vaccination rates among travellers from seven countries†.

    PubMed

    Heywood, Anita E; Nothdurft, Hans; Tessier, Dominique; Moodley, Melissa; Rombo, Lars; Marano, Cinzia; De Moerlooze, Laurence

    2016-07-01

    Knowledge about the travel-associated risks of hepatitis A and B, and the extent of pre-travel health-advice being sought may vary between countries. An online survey was undertaken to assess the awareness, advice-seeking behaviour, rates of vaccination against hepatitis A and B and adherence rates in Australia, Finland, Germany, Norway, Sweden, the UK and Canada between August and October 2014. Individuals aged 18-65 years were screened for eligibility based on: travel to hepatitis A and B endemic countries within the past 3 years, awareness of hepatitis A, and/or combined hepatitis A&B vaccines; awareness of their self-reported vaccination status and if vaccinated, vaccination within the last 3 years. Awareness and receipt of the vaccines, sources of advice, reasons for non-vaccination, adherence to recommended doses and the value of immunization reminders were analysed. Of 27 386 screened travellers, 19 817 (72%) were aware of monovalent hepatitis A or combined A&B vaccines. Of these 13 857 (70%) had sought advice from a healthcare provider (HCP) regarding combined hepatitis A&B or monovalent hepatitis A vaccination, and 9328 (67%) were vaccinated. Of 5225 individuals eligible for the main survey (recently vaccinated = 3576; unvaccinated = 1649), 27% (841/3111) and 37% (174/465) of vaccinated travellers had adhered to the 3-dose combined hepatitis A&B or 2-dose monovalent hepatitis A vaccination schedules, respectively. Of travellers partially vaccinated against combined hepatitis A&B or hepatitis A, 84% and 61%, respectively, believed that they had received the recommended number of doses. HCPs remain the main source of pre-travel health advice. The majority of travellers who received monovalent hepatitis A or combined hepatitis A&B vaccines did not complete the recommended course. These findings highlight the need for further training of HCPs and the provision of reminder services to improve traveller awareness and adherence to vaccination

  5. Demand management implementation in Southeast Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaboriboon, Y.

    1995-12-31

    The need to apply transportation system management, to developing countries is urgent. Attempts to alleviate severe traffic congestion in their metropolises have so far failed to provide adequate solutions. The countries are faced with many difficulties because of the lack of sufficient financial resources together with their complex internal administrative and political problems. They are incapable of providing sufficient road space to cope with the escalating demand in private automobiles. This has led to excessive delays in urban traveling, environmental pollution problems, decline of road-based public transit services and deterioration of the quality of life in these metropolises. Demand management, in use for decades in the Western world, has also been recognized in Singapore`s famous area licensing scheme (ALS) making other Southeast Asian Metropolises aware of its advantages as an alternative in solving their chaotic traffic problems. However, realization is far different from implementation and still many metropolises are not able to apply the technique. Singapore and Thailand, two leaders among many other Southeast Asian regions in economics, tourism, trade and industry handle their problems far differently, especially the traffic congestion problem. While a number of demand management schemes have been implemented successfully in Singapore since 1975, Bangkok is still struggling to implement such measures to alleviate severe traffic congestion problems. This article intends to high light the successful practices and unsuccessful attempts of demand management techniques applied in Singapore and Bangkok.

  6. Critical capacity, travel time delays and travel time distribution of rapid mass transit systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legara, Erika Fille; Monterola, Christopher; Lee, Kee Khoon; Hung, Gih Guang

    2014-07-01

    We set up a mechanistic agent-based model of a rapid mass transit system. Using empirical data from Singapore's unidentifiable smart fare card, we validate our model by reconstructing actual travel demand and duration of travel statistics. We subsequently use this model to investigate two phenomena that are known to significantly affect the dynamics within the RTS: (1) overloading in trains and (2) overcrowding in the RTS platform. We demonstrate that by varying the loading capacity of trains, a tipping point emerges at which an exponential increase in the duration of travel time delays is observed. We also probe the impact on the rail system dynamics of three types of passenger growth distribution across stations: (i) Dirac delta, (ii) uniform and (iii) geometric, which is reminiscent of the effect of land use on transport. Under the assumption of a fixed loading capacity, we demonstrate the dependence of a given origin-destination (OD) pair on the flow volume of commuters in station platforms.

  7. [Medical tourism: a new kind of traveler?].

    PubMed

    Bovier, Patrick A

    2008-05-14

    In an era of globalisation, an increasing number of patients are seeking medical care abroad, for a fraction of the price in their home country The reasons are numerous. Some countries face an increasing demand, either because of inappropriate health insurance coverage (e.g. United States) or long waiting lists (e.g. United-Kingdom, Canada). In parallel, medical care facilities and infrastructures of many countries of Asia and latin America offer now high quality care, if not better, than their European or North American counterparts. In theses conditions, more and more patients decide now to travel abroad for cardiovascular and orthopedic surgery that they cannot readily have in their home country. In Switzerland, this phenomenon is still marginal but changes could occur in a near future.

  8. Travel-associated skin disease.

    PubMed

    Morris-Jones, Rachael; Morris-Jones, Stephen

    2012-09-01

    Travel associated skin disease is extremely common and a frequent cause of the returning traveller seeking medical attention. Widespread cutaneous eruptions usually represent reactive rashes, indicating an underlying systemic infection or allergic reaction. Patients with disseminated or spreading rashes following travel often present with fever and malaise. In contrast, those presenting with localised skin disease such as a blister, nodule, plaque, ulcer etc are usually well in themselves but have sustained a bite/sting/penetrating injury or introduction of infection directly into the skin at the affected site. As a general rule widespread rashes are investigated with blood tests/serology and localised lesions with a skin biopsy for culture and histology.

  9. Cardiology and Travel (Part I): Risk Assessment Prior to Travel.

    PubMed

    Leon; Lateef; Fuentes

    1996-09-01

    Traveling has always been a distinction of man. In Homer's Odyssey, we find a narrative description of the astonishing and long-standing adventures of Odysseus returning to Ithaca from Troy, and later on Thoukedides and Herodotos described different civilizations and historic events based on personal experiences obtained from traveling. At that time, the only available means of transportation were animals and ships. Therefore the trips were time consuming and frequently accompanied by unpredictable events. Nowadays, the use of modern means of transportation has made traveling much more enjoyable and faster; however, it can occasionally become stressful and, as a result, can be associated with a variety of medical problems both in healthy patients and in subjects with cardiovascular diseases. Previous epidemiologic studies have consistently demonstrated that cardiovascular events (including myocardial infarctions and cerebrovascular events) are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among adult travelers.1-6 Since the population of many industrialized countries shows aging trends, the potential problems occurring in elderly passengers, many of whom are more likely to have cardiopulmonary problems, are anticipated to increase. Assessment of the risk of cardiopulmonary problems prior to travel in a mobile society becomes an issue for the public and, in particular, for physicians. The data regarding the cardiovascular risks prior to traveling are limited because of the lack of a central registry for the collection of information regarding health problems or emergencies among travelers. However, review of the literature provides us with important observations in which we can make specific recommendations for assessing cardiovascular status and risk prior to travel during a pretravel medical consultation.

  10. Travelers' Health: Typhoid and Paratyphoid Fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Yellow Fever Vaccine Course Travel Medicine References: Books, Journals, Articles & Websites Resources for the Travel Industry Yellow Book Contents Chapter 3 (81) Typhoid & Paratyphoid Fever more ...

  11. 49 CFR 230.76 - Piston travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and...) Maximum piston travel. The maximum piston travel when steam locomotive is standing shall be as follows...

  12. 49 CFR 230.76 - Piston travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and...) Maximum piston travel. The maximum piston travel when steam locomotive is standing shall be as follows...

  13. Malaria in a returning traveler from Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Kavanaugh, Michael; Bavaro, Mary

    2014-06-01

    Malaria in Jamaica is a real, but uncommon entity and poses a health risk to our Department of Defense personnel, which should not be overlooked in returning travelers. Malaria in Jamaica was actually considered eradicated in the 1960s, but there has been a reemergence attributed to the combination of Haitian nationals as well as endemic Anopheles mosquitoes in the Kingston area. Our facility recently admitted a 33-year-old Marine who had two Emergency Department visits before being evaluated for malaria. He had returned from Kingston 14 days before presentation, which included fever, night sweats, and headache followed by a period of malaise prior to the next paroxysm. He was found to have a 1.5% parasitemia with Malaria falciparum that borders on severe malaria. Fortunately, he was treated effectively with atovaquone/proguanil and had a favorable outcome. The Center for Disease Control acknowledges that malaria is present in Jamaica, but only recommends mosquito avoidance without prophylaxis. This case emphasizes the need to consider malaria in differential diagnosis in Jamaica as well as in any returning travelers with fever because of broad global travel. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  14. Travelling waves in hybrid chemotaxis models.

    PubMed

    Franz, Benjamin; Xue, Chuan; Painter, Kevin J; Erban, Radek

    2014-02-01

    Hybrid models of chemotaxis combine agent-based models of cells with partial differential equation models of extracellular chemical signals. In this paper, travelling wave properties of hybrid models of bacterial chemotaxis are investigated. Bacteria are modelled using an agent-based (individual-based) approach with internal dynamics describing signal transduction. In addition to the chemotactic behaviour of the bacteria, the individual-based model also includes cell proliferation and death. Cells consume the extracellular nutrient field (chemoattractant), which is modelled using a partial differential equation. Mesoscopic and macroscopic equations representing the behaviour of the hybrid model are derived and the existence of travelling wave solutions for these models is established. It is shown that cell proliferation is necessary for the existence of non-transient (stationary) travelling waves in hybrid models. Additionally, a numerical comparison between the wave speeds of the continuum models and the hybrid models shows good agreement in the case of weak chemotaxis and qualitative agreement for the strong chemotaxis case. In the case of slow cell adaptation, we detect oscillating behaviour of the wave, which cannot be explained by mean-field approximations.

  15. Commercial Travel Offices: Lessons Learned in the Fifth U.S. Army Region

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    jurisdiction of the Army and are relatively easy to solve. Keywords: Passenger traffic, Service contracting; Travel agency ; Travel contracting; Travel...management; Travel service; Commercial travel office; Travel service contractor; Travel support; Commercial travel services; Commercial travel agency .

  16. Travel and the home advantage.

    PubMed

    Pace, A; Carron, A V

    1992-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relative contributions of various travel related variables to visiting team success in the National Hockey League. A multiple regression design was used with game outcome as the dependent variable. The independent variables of interest included, as main effects and interactions, number of time zones crossed, direction of travel, distance traveled, preparation/adjustment time, time of season, game number on the road trip, and the home stand. Visiting team success was negatively associated with the interaction of number of time zones crossed and increased preparation time between games, and was positively associated with game number on the road. It was concluded that only a small portion of the variance in the home advantage/visitor disadvantage can be explained by travel related factors.

  17. Travelers' Health: Injuries and Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Afghanistan). Motor vehicle crashes—not crime or terrorism—are the number 1 killer of healthy US ... are related to natural disasters, aviation accidents, drugs, terrorism, falls, burns, and poisoning. If a traveler is ...

  18. Josephson Traveling-Wave Antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurin, V. V.; Vdovicheva, N. K.; Shereshevskii, I. A.

    2017-04-01

    We propose a new approach to the problem of obtaining coherent radiation from systems with a great number of Josephson junctions, which is based on the concept of traveling-wave antennas. The traveling wave in a line ensures identity of the electrodynamic conditions, under which the junctions operate, whereas the energy leakage to radiation in the lateral direction prevents saturation of the nonlinearity of the individual junctions having a small dynamic range. Simple analytical models, which demonstrate feasibility of the traveling-wave regime, are considered. A code for direct numerical simulation of Josephson microchips including microantennas, lumped elements, and power supply circuits have been developed. Using the direct numerical simulation, a version of the Josephson antenna, which is similar to the simplest single-wire antenna, is studied and the possibility to realize the traveling-wave regime is demonstrated.

  19. Influenza Prevention: Information for Travelers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine/Variant Pandemic Other Influenza Prevention: Information for Travelers Language: English (US) Españ ...

  20. Notification: Management of Travel Cards

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Project #OA-FY15-0156, April 20, 2015. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Office of Inspector General (OIG), plans to begin preliminary research for an audit of the management of travel cards.

  1. Immunizations for High Flyin' Travelers

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166883.html Immunizations for High Flyin' Travelers Don't leave home ... way to protect yourself is by getting certain vaccinations before you leave home. Regardless of your destination, ...

  2. Travelers' Health: Injuries and Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safety Senior Citizens Sex Tourism STDs Sun Exposure Swimming and Diving Study Abroad Tick Bites Travelers' Diarrhea ... during, and after a plane ride. Drowning Avoid swimming alone or in unfamiliar waters. Wear life jackets ...

  3. Tuberculosis Information for International Travelers

    MedlinePlus

    ... shelters). Travelers who will be working in clinics, hospitals, or other health care settings where TB patients are likely to be encountered should consult infection control or occupational health experts. They should ask about ...

  4. Sequentially pulsed traveling wave accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Caporaso, George J.; Nelson, Scott D.; Poole, Brian R.

    2009-08-18

    A sequentially pulsed traveling wave compact accelerator having two or more pulse forming lines each with a switch for producing a short acceleration pulse along a short length of a beam tube, and a trigger mechanism for sequentially triggering the switches so that a traveling axial electric field is produced along the beam tube in synchronism with an axially traversing pulsed beam of charged particles to serially impart energy to the particle beam.

  5. The returning traveler with fever.

    PubMed

    Saxe, S E; Gardner, P

    1992-06-01

    The febrile returning traveler tests a clinician's knowledge of tropical medicine as well as skills in differential diagnosis. A thorough history with special emphasis placed on the patient's travel itinerary and knowledge of the geographic location and incubation times of certain tropical diseases will narrow the diagnostic possibilities. This will allow the clinician to focus the diagnostic work-up and make wise choices of laboratory tests and procedures.

  6. Infectious Risks of Traveling Abroad.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin H; Blair, Barbra M

    2015-08-01

    A popular leisure activity, international travel can be associated with some infections. The most common travel-related illnesses appear to be gastrointestinal, dermatologic, respiratory, and systemic febrile syndromes. The pretravel medical consultation includes immunizations, malaria chemoprophylaxis, self-treatment for traveler's diarrhea, and advice on the prevention of a myriad of other infectious causes including dengue, chikungunya, rickettsiosis, leptospirosis, schistosomiasis, and strongyloidiasis. Travel to locations experiencing outbreaks such as Ebola virus disease, Middle East respiratory syndrome, avian influenza, and chikungunya call for specific alerts on preventive strategies. After travel, evaluation of an ill traveler must explore details of exposure, including destinations visited; activities; ingestion of contaminated food or drinks; contact with vectors, animals, fresh water, or blood and body fluids; and other potential exposures. Knowledge of the geographic distribution of infectious diseases is important in generating the differential diagnoses and testing accordingly. Empiric treatment is sometimes necessary when suspicion of a certain diagnosis is strong and confirmatory tests are delayed or lacking, particularly for infections that are rapidly progressive (for example, malaria) or for which timing of testing is prolonged (such as leptospirosis).

  7. [Sexually transmitted diseases and travel].

    PubMed

    Halioua, B; Prazuck, T; Malkin, J E

    1997-01-01

    Travelers are highly exposed to acquiring sexually transmitted diseases especially since the most popular destinations are high risk areas. While this risk applies to all travelers, it is highest for the "sex" tourist who is typically a male with a mean age of 38 years. Awareness of risks is still incomplete, especially with regard to HIV. Several studies have shown that only 20% to 70% of travelers use condoms. This finding accounts for the high incidence of sexually transmitted diseases in returning travelers: 2% to 10%. The risk of HIV infection is particularly high for persons living abroad. Based on available data, we can define the typical profile of the high risk traveler who should be targeted for prevention. Prevention depends on providing adequate information before departure, especially concerning HIV infection. Use of a condom throughout sexual contact is a basic safety rule. However condom quality is poor in many developing countries. Returning travelers should seek medical advice if manifestations involving the anogenital regions should appear.

  8. Pre-travel advice, attitudes and hepatitis A and B vaccination rates among travellers from seven countries†

    PubMed Central

    Heywood, Anita E.; Nothdurft, Hans; Tessier, Dominique; Moodley, Melissa; Rombo, Lars; Marano, Cinzia; De Moerlooze, Laurence

    2017-01-01

    Background: Knowledge about the travel-associated risks of hepatitis A and B, and the extent of pre-travel health-advice being sought may vary between countries. Methods: An online survey was undertaken to assess the awareness, advice-seeking behaviour, rates of vaccination against hepatitis A and B and adherence rates in Australia, Finland, Germany, Norway, Sweden, the UK and Canada between August and October 2014. Individuals aged 18–65 years were screened for eligibility based on: travel to hepatitis A and B endemic countries within the past 3 years, awareness of hepatitis A, and/or combined hepatitis A&B vaccines; awareness of their self-reported vaccination status and if vaccinated, vaccination within the last 3 years. Awareness and receipt of the vaccines, sources of advice, reasons for non-vaccination, adherence to recommended doses and the value of immunization reminders were analysed. Results: Of 27 386 screened travellers, 19 817 (72%) were aware of monovalent hepatitis A or combined A&B vaccines. Of these 13 857 (70%) had sought advice from a healthcare provider (HCP) regarding combined hepatitis A&B or monovalent hepatitis A vaccination, and 9328 (67%) were vaccinated. Of 5225 individuals eligible for the main survey (recently vaccinated = 3576; unvaccinated = 1649), 27% (841/3111) and 37% (174/465) of vaccinated travellers had adhered to the 3-dose combined hepatitis A&B or 2-dose monovalent hepatitis A vaccination schedules, respectively. Of travellers partially vaccinated against combined hepatitis A&B or hepatitis A, 84% and 61%, respectively, believed that they had received the recommended number of doses. Conclusions: HCPs remain the main source of pre-travel health advice. The majority of travellers who received monovalent hepatitis A or combined hepatitis A&B vaccines did not complete the recommended course. These findings highlight the need for further training of HCPs and the provision of reminder services to improve traveller

  9. Demanding Divestment from Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asquith, Christina

    2006-01-01

    Bowing to student demands to "stop supporting genocide," the University of California regents voted earlier this year to divest millions of dollars from companies working in the war-torn African nation of Sudan, the first major public university in the nation to take such action. Since student protests on the subject began at Harvard…

  10. 1985 Employment Outlook: Demand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Findings from an American Chemical Society survey show that the pessimism that characterized the job market in 1983 has given way to a much brighter outlook as employers hire more chemists and chemical engineers. Data from the survey on the supply and demand of chemical professionals are provided and discussed. (JN)

  11. Demands for School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley-Levine, Jill

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the ways that graduate courses in teacher leadership influenced the ways that teachers described the nature of leadership and their role as educational leaders. Using Foster's (1989) four demands for school leaders as a theoretical framework, participants' perceptions are examined to determine how teachers synthesized their…

  12. Demanding Divestment from Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asquith, Christina

    2006-01-01

    Bowing to student demands to "stop supporting genocide," the University of California regents voted earlier this year to divest millions of dollars from companies working in the war-torn African nation of Sudan, the first major public university in the nation to take such action. Since student protests on the subject began at Harvard…

  13. Textbook Factor Demand Curves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Joe C.

    1994-01-01

    Maintains that teachers and textbook graphics follow the same basic pattern in illustrating changes in demand curves when product prices increase. Asserts that the use of computer graphics will enable teachers to be more precise in their graphic presentation of price elasticity. (CFR)

  14. Demand, Growth, and Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoskins, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    The paradigm shift to engaged and collaborative learning delivered via distance education technologies has been led by practitioners in adult and continuing education. Online and blended courses are experiencing increased demand and continued growth at all levels of higher education, professional development, and K-12 education. Adult and…

  15. Textbook Factor Demand Curves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Joe C.

    1994-01-01

    Maintains that teachers and textbook graphics follow the same basic pattern in illustrating changes in demand curves when product prices increase. Asserts that the use of computer graphics will enable teachers to be more precise in their graphic presentation of price elasticity. (CFR)

  16. Travel with hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermans, L. J. F. Jo

    2017-03-01

    In the field of transportation, hydrogen does not have a particularly glorious history. Just think of the dozens of hydrogen airships destroyed by fire over the years, with the Hindenburg disaster in 1937 as the most famous example. Now H2 is trying a comeback on the road, often in combination with a fuel cell and an electric motor to power the car.

  17. Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, Charles; Reid, Michael; Levy, Roger; Silverstein, Alison

    2010-01-29

    This paper reviews the relationship between energy efficiency and demand response and discusses approaches and barriers to coordinating energy efficiency and demand response. The paper is intended to support the 10 implementation goals of the National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency's Vision to achieve all cost-effective energy efficiency by 2025. Improving energy efficiency in our homes, businesses, schools, governments, and industries - which consume more than 70 percent of the nation's natural gas and electricity - is one of the most constructive, cost-effective ways to address the challenges of high energy prices, energy security and independence, air pollution, and global climate change. While energy efficiency is an increasingly prominent component of efforts to supply affordable, reliable, secure, and clean electric power, demand response is becoming a valuable tool in utility and regional resource plans. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) estimated the contribution from existing U.S. demand response resources at about 41,000 megawatts (MW), about 5.8 percent of 2008 summer peak demand (FERC, 2008). Moreover, FERC recently estimated nationwide achievable demand response potential at 138,000 MW (14 percent of peak demand) by 2019 (FERC, 2009).2 A recent Electric Power Research Institute study estimates that 'the combination of demand response and energy efficiency programs has the potential to reduce non-coincident summer peak demand by 157 GW' by 2030, or 14-20 percent below projected levels (EPRI, 2009a). This paper supports the Action Plan's effort to coordinate energy efficiency and demand response programs to maximize value to customers. For information on the full suite of policy and programmatic options for removing barriers to energy efficiency, see the Vision for 2025 and the various other Action Plan papers and guides available at www.epa.gov/eeactionplan.

  18. Projected Demand and Potential Impacts to the National Airspace System of Autonomous, Electric, On-Demand Small Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeremy C.; Viken, Jeffrey K.; Guerreiro, Nelson M.; Dollyhigh, Samuel M.; Fenbert, James W.; Hartman, Christopher L.; Kwa, Teck-Seng; Moore, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    Electric propulsion and autonomy are technology frontiers that offer tremendous potential to achieve low operating costs for small-aircraft. Such technologies enable simple and safe to operate vehicles that could dramatically improve regional transportation accessibility and speed through point-to-point operations. This analysis develops an understanding of the potential traffic volume and National Airspace System (NAS) capacity for small on-demand aircraft operations. Future demand projections use the Transportation Systems Analysis Model (TSAM), a tool suite developed by NASA and the Transportation Laboratory of Virginia Polytechnic Institute. Demand projections from TSAM contain the mode of travel, number of trips and geographic distribution of trips. For this study, the mode of travel can be commercial aircraft, automobile and on-demand aircraft. NASA's Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES) is used to assess NAS impact. This simulation takes a schedule that includes all flights: commercial passenger and cargo; conventional General Aviation and on-demand small aircraft, and operates them in the simulated NAS. The results of this analysis projects very large trip numbers for an on-demand air transportation system competitive with automobiles in cost per passenger mile. The significance is this type of air transportation can enhance mobility for communities that currently lack access to commercial air transportation. Another significant finding is that the large numbers of operations can have an impact on the current NAS infrastructure used by commercial airlines and cargo operators, even if on-demand traffic does not use the 28 airports in the Continental U.S. designated as large hubs by the FAA. Some smaller airports will experience greater demand than their current capacity allows and will require upgrading. In addition, in future years as demand grows and vehicle performance improves other non-conventional facilities such as short runways incorporated into

  19. UNderstanding uptake of Immunisations in TravellIng aNd Gypsy communities (UNITING): a qualitative interview study.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Cath; Dyson, Lisa; Bedford, Helen; Cheater, Francine M; Condon, Louise; Crocker, Annie; Emslie, Carol; Ireland, Lana; Kemsley, Philippa; Kerr, Susan; Lewis, Helen J; Mytton, Julie; Overend, Karen; Redsell, Sarah; Richardson, Zoe; Shepherd, Christine; Smith, Lesley

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Gypsies, Travellers and Roma (referred to as Travellers) are less likely to access health services, including immunisation. To improve immunisation rates, we need to understand what helps and hinders individuals in these communities in taking up immunisations. AIMS (1) Investigate the barriers to and facilitators of acceptability and uptake of immunisations among six Traveller communities across four UK cities; and (2) identify possible interventions to increase uptake of immunisations in these Traveller communities that could be tested in a subsequent feasibility study. METHODS Three-phase qualitative study underpinned by the social ecological model. Phase 1: interviews with 174 Travellers from six communities: Romanian Roma (Bristol); English Gypsy/Irish Traveller (Bristol); English Gypsy (York); Romanian/Slovakian Roma (Glasgow); Scottish Showpeople (Glasgow); and Irish Traveller (London). Focus on childhood and adult vaccines. Phase 2: interviews with 39 service providers. Data were analysed using the framework approach. Interventions were identified using a modified intervention mapping approach. Phase 3: 51 Travellers and 25 service providers attended workshops and produced a prioritised list of potentially acceptable and feasible interventions. RESULTS There were many common accounts of barriers and facilitators across communities, particularly across the English-speaking communities. Scottish Showpeople were the most similar to the general population. Roma communities experienced additional barriers of language and being in a new country. Men, women and service providers described similar barriers and facilitators. There was widespread acceptance of childhood and adult immunisation, with current parents perceived as more positive than their elders. A minority of English-speaking Travellers worried about multiple/combined childhood vaccines, adult flu and whooping cough. Cultural concerns about vaccines offered during pregnancy and about human

  20. Travel medicine and the international athlete.

    PubMed

    Kary, Joel M; Lavallee, Mark

    2007-07-01

    International travel for athletic competition presents unique challenges for athletes and medical staff. This article provides strategies for all phases of an international trip, including travel preparation, travel, competition, and post competition. Adequate planning should encompass the needs of all members of the traveling team (athletes and nonathletes), proper documentation and licensure, emergency planning, venue set-up, and appropriate medical supplies and equipment.

  1. Segmenting Michigan tourists based on distance traveled

    Treesearch

    Xiamei Xu; Tsao-Fang Yuan; Edwin Gomez; Joseph D. Fridgen

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to segment Michigan travelers into short, medium and long distance traveler groups by distance that they traveled from home to a primary destination in Michigan, and to compare travel behavior, trip characteristics and sociodemographics among these segments. Significant differences were identified in past trip experiences in Michigan,...

  2. Community Travel for Physically Impaired Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millet Learning Center, Saginaw, MI.

    The community travel program for physically impaired children at the Millet Learning Center (Saginaw, Michigan) blends skills from two professions: orientation and mobility, and physical therapy. Program goals include enabling students to overcome travel fears, to learn travel skills, to learn to make adaptations necessary for successful travel,…

  3. 8 CFR 244.15 - Travel abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Travel abroad. 244.15 Section 244.15 Aliens... NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 244.15 Travel abroad. (a) After the grant of Temporary Protected Status... to travel abroad. Permission to travel may be granted by the director pursuant to the Service's...

  4. 8 CFR 244.15 - Travel abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Travel abroad. 244.15 Section 244.15 Aliens... NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 244.15 Travel abroad. (a) After the grant of Temporary Protected Status... to travel abroad. Permission to travel may be granted by the director pursuant to the Service's...

  5. 28 CFR 2.93 - Travel approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Travel approval. 2.93 Section 2.93... Travel approval. (a) A parolee's Supervision Officer may approve travel outside the district of... possibilities. (3) Recurring travel across a district boundary, not to exceed fifty miles outside the district...

  6. 8 CFR 1244.15 - Travel abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Travel abroad. 1244.15 Section 1244.15... REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 1244.15 Travel abroad. (a) After... Status shall not constitute permission to travel abroad. Permission to travel may be granted by the...

  7. 8 CFR 1244.15 - Travel abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Travel abroad. 1244.15 Section 1244.15... REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 1244.15 Travel abroad. (a) After... Status shall not constitute permission to travel abroad. Permission to travel may be granted by the...

  8. 28 CFR 2.93 - Travel approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Travel approval. 2.93 Section 2.93... Travel approval. (a) A parolee's Supervision Officer may approve travel outside the district of... possibilities. (3) Recurring travel across a district boundary, not to exceed fifty miles outside the...

  9. 8 CFR 244.15 - Travel abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Travel abroad. 244.15 Section 244.15 Aliens... NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 244.15 Travel abroad. (a) After the grant of Temporary Protected Status... to travel abroad. Permission to travel may be granted by the director pursuant to the...

  10. 8 CFR 244.15 - Travel abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Travel abroad. 244.15 Section 244.15 Aliens... NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 244.15 Travel abroad. (a) After the grant of Temporary Protected Status... to travel abroad. Permission to travel may be granted by the director pursuant to the...

  11. 8 CFR 1244.15 - Travel abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Travel abroad. 1244.15 Section 1244.15... REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 1244.15 Travel abroad. (a) After... Status shall not constitute permission to travel abroad. Permission to travel may be granted by...

  12. 8 CFR 244.15 - Travel abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Travel abroad. 244.15 Section 244.15 Aliens... NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 244.15 Travel abroad. (a) After the grant of Temporary Protected Status... to travel abroad. Permission to travel may be granted by the director pursuant to the...

  13. 28 CFR 2.93 - Travel approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Travel approval. 2.93 Section 2.93... Travel approval. (a) A parolee's Supervision Officer may approve travel outside the district of... possibilities. (3) Recurring travel across a district boundary, not to exceed fifty miles outside the...

  14. 28 CFR 2.93 - Travel approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Travel approval. 2.93 Section 2.93... Travel approval. (a) A parolee's Supervision Officer may approve travel outside the district of... possibilities. (3) Recurring travel across a district boundary, not to exceed fifty miles outside the...

  15. 8 CFR 1244.15 - Travel abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Travel abroad. 1244.15 Section 1244.15... REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 1244.15 Travel abroad. (a) After... Status shall not constitute permission to travel abroad. Permission to travel may be granted by...

  16. 8 CFR 1244.15 - Travel abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Travel abroad. 1244.15 Section 1244.15... REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 1244.15 Travel abroad. (a) After... Status shall not constitute permission to travel abroad. Permission to travel may be granted by...

  17. Travel medicine: what's involved? When to refer?

    PubMed

    Aw, Brian; Boraston, Suni; Botten, David; Cherniwchan, Darin; Fazal, Hyder; Kelton, Timothy; Libman, Michael; Saldanha, Colin; Scappatura, Philip; Stowe, Brian

    2014-12-01

    To define the practice of travel medicine, provide the basics of a comprehensive pretravel consultation for international travelers, and assist in identifying patients who might require referral to travel medicine professionals. Guidelines and recommendations on travel medicine and travel-related illnesses by national and international travel health authorities were reviewed. MEDLINE and EMBASE searches for related literature were also performed. Travel medicine is a highly dynamic specialty that focuses on pretravel preventive care. A comprehensive risk assessment for each individual traveler is essential in order to accurately evaluate traveler-, itinerary-, and destination-specific risks, and to advise on the most appropriate risk management interventions to promote health and prevent adverse health outcomes during travel. Vaccinations might also be required and should be personalized according to the individual traveler's immunization history, travel itinerary, and the amount of time available before departure. A traveler's health and safety depends on a practitioner's level of expertise in providing pretravel counseling and vaccinations, if required. Those who advise travelers are encouraged to be aware of the extent of this responsibility and to refer all high-risk travelers to travel medicine professionals whenever possible. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  18. Way-Finding Support in Public Transport Environments provided by the NAMO Mobile Travel Assistance System.

    PubMed

    Bühler, Christian; Heck, Helmut; Nietzio, Annika; Reins, Frank; Berker, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The NAMO travel assistance system is a mobile application providing support for elder travellers in public transport and on foot. The system combines technical and human support during the journey, especially in situations where many seniors experience orientation difficulties. Several approaches to way-finding and orientation support have been developed. This paper introduces the different approaches and presents the results of the extensive user evaluations, leading to recommendations for future development of mobile travel assistance applications for seniors.

  19. Paediatric travel medicine: vaccines and medications

    PubMed Central

    Starr, Mike

    2013-01-01

    The paediatric aspects of travel medicine can be complex, and individual advice is often required. Nonetheless, children are much more likely to acquire common infections than exotic tropical diseases whilst travelling. Important exceptions are malaria and tuberculosis, which are more frequent and severe in children. Overall, travellers' diarrhoea is the most common illness affecting travellers. This review discusses vaccines and medications that may be indicated for children who are travelling overseas. It focuses on immunizations that are given as part of the routine schedule, as well as those that are more specific to travel. Malaria and travellers' diarrhoea are also discussed. PMID:23163285

  20. "If You Don't Do Parking Management .. Forget Your Behaviour Change, It's Not Going to Work.": Health and Transport Practitioner Perspectives on Workplace Active Travel Promotion.

    PubMed

    Petrunoff, Nick; Rissel, Chris; Wen, Li Ming

    2017-01-01

    After having conducted two studies of the effectiveness of workplace travel plans for promoting active travel, we investigated health and transport practitioners' perspectives on implementing workplace travel plans to share some of the lessons learnt. The objectives of this study were to describe perceived elements of effective workplace travel plans, barriers and enablers to workplace travel planning, their experiences of working with the other profession on travel plan implementation, their recommendations for workplace travel planning, and also to explore similarities and differences in transport and health practitioner perspectives. Fourteen health and ten transport practitioners who had prior involvement in workplace travel plan programs were purposefully selected from workplaces in Australia. We conducted 20 in-depth interviews since data saturation had been reached at this point, and data were subject to framework analysis. Perceived essential elements of effective workplace travel plans included parking management; leadership, organisational commitment and governance; skills and other resources like a dedicated travel plan coordinator; and, pre-conditions including supportive transport infrastructure in the surrounds. Recommendations for promoting travel plans included supportive government policy, focusing on business benefits and working at different scales of implementation (e.g. single large worksites and business precincts). Health and transport practitioner perspectives differed, with transport practitioners believing that parking management is the key action for managing travel demand at a worksite. Health practitioners implementing travel plans may require training including concepts of travel demand management, and support from transport planners on parking management strategies. Promoting an understanding of the shared travel behaviour change skills of transport and health practitioners may assist further collaboration. For take-up by

  1. Investigation into the superposition of multiple mode shape composed traveling waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musgrave, Patrick F.; Malladi, V. V. N. Sriram; Tarazaga, Pablo A.

    2017-04-01

    Structural traveling waves have potential applications in numerous areas such as propulsion and skin friction drag reduction. Recent research has shown that via the two-mode excitation method, traveling waves can be generated in both one- and two-dimensional structures via the use of low-profile piezoelectric actuators. Traveling waves on a one-dimensional beam propagate in a single direction, while those on a two-dimensional structure, such as a plate, do not necessarily propagate uniformly across the surface. The propagation patterns can include unidirectional traveling waves with spatial phase shifts, wave fronts moving in opposing directions, or even rotationally moving waves. These propagation patterns depend on the participating modes and vary based on the excitation frequency, thus if multiple frequency traveling waves are generated on a plate, multiple propagation patterns are superimposed. In this study, traveling waves were generated in a plate at two different frequencies. Those frequencies were then simultaneously excited on the plate to generate a propagation pattern containing traveling waves at both frequencies. The superimposed propagation pattern was then analyzed by comparing it with a numerical combination of the individual frequency patterns. The experimentally superimposed traveling waves were found to be a linear combination of the individual frequency waves. In addition, by combining multiple frequency waves, the percentage of the plate containing traveling waves increased.

  2. Controlling Pandemic Flu: The Value of International Air Travel Restrictions

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Joshua M.; Goedecke, D. Michael; Yu, Feng; Morris, Robert J.; Wagener, Diane K.; Bobashev, Georgiy V.

    2007-01-01

    Background Planning for a possible influenza pandemic is an extremely high priority, as social and economic effects of an unmitigated pandemic would be devastating. Mathematical models can be used to explore different scenarios and provide insight into potential costs, benefits, and effectiveness of prevention and control strategies under consideration. Methods and Findings A stochastic, equation-based epidemic model is used to study global transmission of pandemic flu, including the effects of travel restrictions and vaccination. Economic costs of intervention are also considered. The distribution of First Passage Times (FPT) to the United States and the numbers of infected persons in metropolitan areas worldwide are studied assuming various times and locations of the initial outbreak. International air travel restrictions alone provide a small delay in FPT to the U.S. When other containment measures are applied at the source in conjunction with travel restrictions, delays could be much longer. If in addition, control measures are instituted worldwide, there is a significant reduction in cases worldwide and specifically in the U.S. However, if travel restrictions are not combined with other measures, local epidemic severity may increase, because restriction-induced delays can push local outbreaks into high epidemic season. The per annum cost to the U.S. economy of international and major domestic air passenger travel restrictions is minimal: on the order of 0.8% of Gross National Product. Conclusions International air travel restrictions may provide a small but important delay in the spread of a pandemic, especially if other disease control measures are implemented during the afforded time. However, if other measures are not instituted, delays may worsen regional epidemics by pushing the outbreak into high epidemic season. This important interaction between policy and seasonality is only evident with a global-scale model. Since the benefit of travel restrictions

  3. Poliomyelitis--prevention in travellers.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Cora A; Neilson, Amy A

    2010-03-01

    This article is the second in a series providing a summary of prevention strategies and vaccination for infections that may be acquired by travellers. The series aims to provide practical strategies to assist general practitioners in giving travel advice, as a synthesis of multiple information sources which must otherwise be consulted. Poliomyelitis is a potentially fatal viral illness, which may cause acute flaccid paralysis and permanent central nervous system damage. Ongoing global efforts to eradicate poliomyelitis have been under way since 1988. Travellers are at risk of infection in countries with endemic wild poliomyelitis virus or imported cases, and can spread the infection to areas where poliomyelitis has been eradicated. While all adults should be immune to poliomyelitis, it is important that at-risk travellers are vaccinated appropriately. Vaccine options and regions currently reporting poliomyelitis are presented from a number of sources, which may facilitate the process of giving travel advice in a general practice setting, although it is also important to seek up-to-date epidemiological information.

  4. Health, sustainability and student travel.

    PubMed

    Green, Gill; Morris, Jenny; Wade, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    A survey of 246 pre-registration nursing students in a University in the South West of England was carried out to explore the impact of course related travel on the student experience. Results from the survey indicated that students' main mode of transport to practice placements was by car which reflects the rural nature of the South West and the relative paucity of public transport. Long distances that many students travel to their study centre and to placements, and the concurrent financial strain that this creates, impacted negatively on the student experience. Students recognised the need to travel to a place of study and clinical placements and suggestions of minimising the negative impact of travel were offered. These included the increased use of electronic delivery of lectures, attendance at local university premises, the provision of shared transport to placements and placements closer to the student's home. Few students, however, considered the environmental impact of travel. Higher Education Institutions need to address issues of sustainability through promoting student wellbeing and taking steps to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. It is therefore important that student awareness of sustainability related issues is increased as well as focusing on reducing the environmental impact through organisational change. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Demand surge following earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, Anna H.

    2012-01-01

    Demand surge is understood to be a socio-economic phenomenon where repair costs for the same damage are higher after large- versus small-scale natural disasters. It has reportedly increased monetary losses by 20 to 50%. In previous work, a model for the increased costs of reconstruction labor and materials was developed for hurricanes in the Southeast United States. The model showed that labor cost increases, rather than the material component, drove the total repair cost increases, and this finding could be extended to earthquakes. A study of past large-scale disasters suggested that there may be additional explanations for demand surge. Two such explanations specific to earthquakes are the exclusion of insurance coverage for earthquake damage and possible concurrent causation of damage from an earthquake followed by fire or tsunami. Additional research into these aspects might provide a better explanation for increased monetary losses after large- vs. small-scale earthquakes.

  6. Global malaria connectivity through air travel

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Air travel has expanded at an unprecedented rate and continues to do so. Its effects have been seen on malaria in rates of imported cases, local outbreaks in non-endemic areas and the global spread of drug resistance. With elimination and global eradication back on the agenda, changing levels and compositions of imported malaria in malaria-free countries, and the threat of artemisinin resistance spreading from Southeast Asia, there is a need to better understand how the modern flow of air passengers connects each Plasmodium falciparum- and Plasmodium vivax-endemic region to the rest of the world. Methods Recently constructed global P. falciparum and P.vivax malaria risk maps, along with data on flight schedules and modelled passenger flows across the air network, were combined to describe and quantify global malaria connectivity through air travel. Network analysis approaches were then utilized to describe and quantify the patterns that exist in passenger flows weighted by malaria prevalence. Finally, the connectivity within and to the Southeast Asia region where the threat of imported artemisinin resistance arising is highest, was examined to highlight risk routes for its spread. Results The analyses demonstrate the substantial connectivity that now exists between and from malaria-endemic regions through air travel. While the air network provides connections to previously isolated malarious regions, it is clear that great variations exist, with significant regional communities of airports connected by higher rates of flow standing out. The structures of these communities are often not geographically coherent, with historical, economic and cultural ties evident, and variations between P. falciparum and P. vivax clear. Moreover, results highlight how well connected the malaria-endemic areas of Africa are now to Southeast Asia, illustrating the many possible routes that artemisinin-resistant strains could take. Discussion The continuing growth in air

  7. [Hospitals in Hesse in the view of enlightened travellers].

    PubMed

    Vanja, Christina

    2006-01-01

    The "Hohen Hospitäler", hospitals founded by landgrave Philipp dem Grossmütigen during the years 1533-1542, were seen as an expression of greatest caritas in Early Modern times. These protestant institutions for the poor and sick underlings of Hesse were appreciated as charitable shelters by noblemen and commoners. This situation changed dramatically at the end of the 18th century. The first critics were travelling philosophers of the Enlightenment, who visited the "mad houses" of Hesse as well as other oddities. They published their experiences in travel reports. Although the hospitals as integrated institutions still cared for both psychiatric and somatic patients, these authors only concentrated on the mad inmates. The fact that these were kept in "dark and dirty cloistral corridors" was the central point of criticism. This negative situation was confronted by the travellers not only with a demand for more hygiene but also with a call for an academically trained physician. Furthermore, they claimed for dissecting deceased patients in order to explore the nature of madness. A comparison of these travel reports with the first psychiatric publications of the early 19th century discloses a literary discourse. It leads from the reports of travellers with a general interest to specialist literature of early psychiatry. Obviously it had a formative influence on the self-conception of this new medical field, which benefited from the criticism concerning the allegedly inhumane conditions in the old hospitals. Three questions follow from this statement: 1. Which were the images produced or reproduced by the travellers in their reports? 2. Which were the standards against which the critics measured their reports? 3. In how far were the philanthropic aims of the enlightened travellers related to the self-conception of the hospitals and their inmates? Travelling reports are compared with the circumstances in the hospitals. This comparison throws light in the "invention" of

  8. Joint 3D seismic travel time and full channel electrical resistivity inversion with cross gradient structure constraint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, J.; Zhang, H.

    2015-12-01

    Near surface geophysical exploration for the purpose of engineering design or construction For this reason, geophysical imaging demands a higher resolution and a better quantitative interpretation. Seismic travel time tomography and direct current resistivity tomography are two main methods for the near surface survey. Because of the limited coverage of observation system and the complex physical relationship between physical parameters and observations, individual geophysical method suffers issues of non-uniqueness and resolution limitation to some degree. We have developed a joint inversion method to combine seismic travel time tomography and full channel resistivity tomography. For the full channel resistivity survey, it uses two electrodes for power supply and all the other electrodes for recording. Compared with the traditional resistivity method, it collects more data and has a better model converge. Our joint inversion strategy relies on the structure constraint enforced through minimizing cross gradients between seismic velocity and resistivity models (Gallardo, 2003). For resistivity tomography, sensitivity kernels are obtained through the adjoint method by solving the electrostatic field equation with the finite-difference method. For seismic travel time tomography, ray paths and travel times are calculated using the fast marching method. We have tested our joint inversion method for a 2D cross-hole problem where two small zones with high and low velocity/resistivity anomalies. Seismic/electrical sources/receivers are installed in two boreholes. For separate seismic inversion, the smearing effect is evident and two anomaly zones are distorted and misplaced. For separate electric resistivity inversion, although two anomaly zones are positioned correctly their values are not accurate. By joint inversion, two velocity anomaly zones are clearly imaged and the smearing effect is greatly reduced. In comparison, for the resistivity model, the two anomaly zones

  9. Future Trends in Business Travel Decision Making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Keith J.

    2002-01-01

    This research surveys twenty large companies and their travellers to identify and evaluate the effects of pressures on the business travel market in the future. The influence of the following areas on the decision making process are addressed: (1) Corporate travel policies and increasing professionalism in corporate purchasing; (2) The development of global strategic airline alliances; (3) The emergence of low cost airlines on short haul markets; and (4) The development of internet based booking tools and travel agency IT. The survey shows differences in views between travel managers, and travellers with regard to corporate travel policies. While travel managers see policy rules, travellers interpret these as guidelines, indicating travel managers will need to take further actions to exercise true control of travel budgets. The data shows that companies are more likely to prescribe a class of airline ticket, than the choice of airline itself. Corporate hierarchical bias in travel policies is still common both for short and particularly long haul flying. Other findings show that while travel managers believe that their companies are likely to sign global deals with strategic airline groups within a five year period in a bid to consolidating spending, they also believe that nearly a third of short haul flying will be taken with low cost carriers, indicating further penetration in this business travel market by these carriers. The paper also provides other predictions about the business travel market, based on the survey findings.

  10. Schizotypy and mental time travel.

    PubMed

    Winfield, Hannah; Kamboj, Sunjeev K

    2010-03-01

    Mental time travel is the capacity to imagine the autobiographical past and future. Schizotypy is a dimensional measure of psychosis-like traits found to be associated with creativity and imagination. Here, we examine the phenomenological qualities of mental time travel in highly schizotypal individuals. After recollecting past episodes (autobiographical memory) and imagining future events (episodic future thinking), those scoring highly on positive schizotypy reported a greater sense of 'autonoetic awareness,' defined as a greater feeling of mental time travel and re-living/'pre-living' imagined events. Furthermore, in contrast to other sensory domains, imagery of the past and future episodes contained more olfactory detail in these high scorers. The results are discussed in relation to previous reports of anomalous olfactory experiences in schizotypy and heightened vividness of olfactory imagery in post-traumatic stress disorder, for which schizotypy is a risk factor.

  11. [Protracted rheumatologic manifestations in travelers].

    PubMed

    Levy, Tali; Kivity, Shaye; Schwartz, Eli

    2010-09-01

    Protracted rheumatological manifestations especially arthralgia and or polyarthritis may occur as a consequence of a wide range of pathogens including viral, bacterial and parasites. Few pathogenetic mechanisms leading to these clinical presentations have been suggested including a direct invasion of the synovial cells by the pathogens, immune complex formation, and others. The natural history of infectious arthritis/arthralgia is altogether benign, with full recovery and without sequelae, albeit sometimes very long. Diagnosis of infections-related arthralgia/arthritis is important since these diseases have a better prognosis, and can relieve anxiety among patients who are afraid of developing a chronic rheumatic disease. Since many patients will seek medical advice with these chronic complaints a long time after travel, physicians should be aware of the possible association between these complaints and remote travel. Thus, travel history should be mandatory, even in a rheumatologic setting.

  12. [Malaria prevention in international travel].

    PubMed

    López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2003-05-01

    For travelers malaria represents the principal infectious risk of severe complications and death. Infection during traveling depends on the geographical area visited, the predominant species of parasite, the frequency of resistance to antimalarial agents, and whether preventive measures have been taken. Until a vaccine has been developed, prevention strategies consist of providing travelers with information, the use of barrier methods against vector bites, the correct use of chemoprophylaxis, and the possibility of self-diagnosis and treatment. The choice of chemoprophylaxis regimen should be individualized since no regimen guarantees 100% protection or is free of adverse effects or contraindications. The most effective drugs are doxycycline, atovaquone-proguanil and mefloquine while those producing severe adverse effects with the least frequency are atovaquone-proguanil and doxycycline.

  13. Toxoplasmosis as a travel risk.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda-Arias, Juan C; Gómez-Marin, Jorge E; Bobić, Branko; Naranjo-Galvis, Carlos A; Djurković-Djaković, Olgica

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite with worldwide distribution that infects more than one third of the global population. Primary infection in immunocompetent individuals is usually asymptomatic; however, different organs can be affected in immunocompromised individuals leading to the development of encephalitis, myocarditis or pneumonitis. The prevalence of infection with Toxoplasma as well as its genetic structure varies geographically and for that reason travel may be considered as a risk factor to acquire the infection. As toxoplasmosis is a foodborne disease, health care providers should give health education on prevention measures to all prospective travelers in order to decrease the risk of infection in endemic areas. This review presents an overview of the infection with T. gondii with some considerations for travelers to and from endemic zones.

  14. Intermittent Demand Forecasting in a Tertiary Pediatric Intensive Care Unit.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chen-Yang; Chiang, Kuo-Liang; Chen, Meng-Yin

    2016-10-01

    Forecasts of the demand for medical supplies both directly and indirectly affect the operating costs and the quality of the care provided by health care institutions. Specifically, overestimating demand induces an inventory surplus, whereas underestimating demand possibly compromises patient safety. Uncertainty in forecasting the consumption of medical supplies generates intermittent demand events. The intermittent demand patterns for medical supplies are generally classified as lumpy, erratic, smooth, and slow-moving demand. This study was conducted with the purpose of advancing a tertiary pediatric intensive care unit's efforts to achieve a high level of accuracy in its forecasting of the demand for medical supplies. On this point, several demand forecasting methods were compared in terms of the forecast accuracy of each. The results confirm that applying Croston's method combined with a single exponential smoothing method yields the most accurate results for forecasting lumpy, erratic, and slow-moving demand, whereas the Simple Moving Average (SMA) method is the most suitable for forecasting smooth demand. In addition, when the classification of demand consumption patterns were combined with the demand forecasting models, the forecasting errors were minimized, indicating that this classification framework can play a role in improving patient safety and reducing inventory management costs in health care institutions.

  15. Hematospermia in a returned traveler

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Raynell; Minion, Jessica; Wong, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Hematospermia is a common complaint among patients seen in outpatient urology clinics. The differential diagnosis is broad and includes inflammatory, infectious, neoplastic, structural, systemic, and traumatic causes. The most common infectious causes are uropathogens and sexually transmitted infections. However, with increasing global travel, physicians must maintain a high clinical suspicion for pathogens not endemic to their region, including Echinococcus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Schistosoma.1 We present a case of hematospermia in a traveler returning from Eastern Africa with exposure to Lake Malawi. The patient’s microscopic analysis of semen was positive for Schistosoma haematobium, revealing a rare presentation of S. haematobium infection. PMID:28163813

  16. Black Holes: A Traveler's Guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickover, Clifford A.

    1998-03-01

    BLACK HOLES A TRAVELER'S GUIDE Clifford Pickover's inventive and entertaining excursion beyond the curves of space and time. "I've enjoyed Clifford Pickover's earlier books . . . now he has ventured into the exploration of black holes. All would-be tourists are strongly advised to read his traveler's guide." -Arthur C. Clarke. "Many books have been written about black holes, but none surpass this one in arousing emotions of awe and wonder towards the mysterious structure of the universe." -Martin Gardner. "Bucky Fuller thought big. Arthur C. Clarke thinks big, but Cliff Pickover outdoes them both." -Wired. "The book is fun, zany, in-your-face, and refreshingly addictive." -Times Higher Education Supplement.

  17. Traveling-Wave Membrane Photomixers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyss, R. A.; Martin, S. C.; Nakamura, B. J.; Neto, A.; Pasqualini, D.; Siegel, P. H.; Kadow, C.; Gossard, A. C.

    2001-01-01

    Traveling-wave photomixers have superior performance when compared with lumped area photomixers in the 1 to 3 THz frequency range. Their large active area and distributed gain mechanism assure high thermal damage threshold and elimination of the capacitive frequency roll-off. However, the losses experienced by the radio frequency wave traveling along the coplanar strips waveguide (due to underlying semi-infinite GaAs substrate) were a serious drawback. In this paper we present device designs and an experimental setup that make possible the realization of photomixers on membranes which eliminate the losses.

  18. [Travel and chronic respiratory insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Bonnet, D; Marotel, C; Miltgen, J; N'Guyen, G; Cuguilliere, A; L'Her, P

    1997-01-01

    Changes in climate, altitude and lifestyle during travel confronts patients presenting chronic respiratory insufficiency with special problems. A major challenge is related to high altitude during air travel. To limit risks, a preflight examination is necessary to ascertain respiratory status. Patients requiring oxygen therapy must ensure availability both during the flight and at the destination. Patients with asthma or chronic bronchitis must bring along a sufficient supply of usual inhalers. All patients should carry a doctor's letter describing their condition and listing medications. Using these elementary precautions, patients with chronic respiratory insufficiency can safely enjoy sightseeing and outdoor leisure activities.

  19. Hematospermia in a returned traveler.

    PubMed

    Lang, Raynell; Minion, Jessica; Wong, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Hematospermia is a common complaint among patients seen in outpatient urology clinics. The differential diagnosis is broad and includes inflammatory, infectious, neoplastic, structural, systemic, and traumatic causes. The most common infectious causes are uropathogens and sexually transmitted infections. However, with increasing global travel, physicians must maintain a high clinical suspicion for pathogens not endemic to their region, including Echinococcus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Schistosoma.1 We present a case of hematospermia in a traveler returning from Eastern Africa with exposure to Lake Malawi. The patient's microscopic analysis of semen was positive for Schistosoma haematobium, revealing a rare presentation of S. haematobium infection.

  20. Navigation: traveling the water highways!

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, Marion; Vandas, Stephen; Farrar, Frank

    1996-01-01

    NAVIGATION is travel or transportation over water. Many different kinds of boats and ships are used on rivers and oceans to move people and products from one place to another. Navigation was extremely important for foreign and domestic trade and travel in the early days of our country before cars, trucks, trains, and airplanes were invented. In those days, rivers were used as "roads" to connect inland settlements to river and coastal ports. Communities established at these commercial ports became important economic, cultural, and social hubs in the development of our Nation.

  1. Collection Development "Mini-Travel Guides": Traveling Light

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufmann, Linda M.

    2009-01-01

    Predictions regarding how much traveling Americans will be doing this year and where they might go vary, but it is expected that many will cut back on what is increasingly considered a luxury. Even so, gasoline prices are down substantially from a year ago, the stronger dollar means better prices in Europe, and there are discounts in all areas of…

  2. Collection Development "Mini-Travel Guides": Traveling Light

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufmann, Linda M.

    2009-01-01

    Predictions regarding how much traveling Americans will be doing this year and where they might go vary, but it is expected that many will cut back on what is increasingly considered a luxury. Even so, gasoline prices are down substantially from a year ago, the stronger dollar means better prices in Europe, and there are discounts in all areas of…

  3. 48 CFR 970.3102-05-46 - Travel costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....3102-05-46 Travel costs. (a) Costs for transportation, lodging, meals, and incidental expenses. (1... lodging, meals, and incidental expenses may be based on per diem, actual expenses, or a combination...)(3) of this subsection, costs incurred for lodging, meals, and incidental expenses (as defined in the...

  4. 48 CFR 31.205-46 - Travel costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....205-46 Travel costs. (a) Costs for transportation, lodging, meals, and incidental expenses. (1) Costs... lodging, meals, and incidental expenses may be based on per diem, actual expenses, or a combination...)(3) of this section, costs incurred for lodging, meals, and incidental expenses (as defined in the...

  5. 48 CFR 970.3102-05-46 - Travel costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....3102-05-46 Travel costs. (a) Costs for transportation, lodging, meals, and incidental expenses. (1... lodging, meals, and incidental expenses may be based on per diem, actual expenses, or a combination...)(3) of this subsection, costs incurred for lodging, meals, and incidental expenses (as defined in the...

  6. Travel Writing in Children and Adolescent's Literature in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jalali, Maryam; Bagheri, Narges; Mahmoodi, Masoomeh

    2016-01-01

    Today children's literature and its place have attracted in the collection of literature, according to many writers the world. Making fun of the text by writer is best way to communicate with the Children and Adolescents. Travel writing is considered as an interdisciplinary literature combined by literature, history, geography and sociology. It is…

  7. Market Demand for Special Education Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montrosse, Bianca Elizabeth; Young, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Since 1988, researchers have monitored the extent and severity of the chronic special education (SE) faculty shortage. The present study sought to add to this knowledge base by (a) gathering data on the supply and demand of leadership personnel in SE since the "2001 Faculty Shortage Study"; (b) combining and comparing these data with other sources…

  8. An examination of sources of sensitivity of consumer surplus estimates in travel cost models.

    PubMed

    Blaine, Thomas W; Lichtkoppler, Frank R; Bader, Timothy J; Hartman, Travis J; Lucente, Joseph E

    2015-03-15

    We examine sensitivity of estimates of recreation demand using the Travel Cost Method (TCM) to four factors. Three of the four have been routinely and widely discussed in the TCM literature: a) Poisson verses negative binomial regression; b) application of Englin correction to account for endogenous stratification; c) truncation of the data set to eliminate outliers. A fourth issue we address has not been widely modeled: the potential effect on recreation demand of the interaction between income and travel cost. We provide a straightforward comparison of all four factors, analyzing the impact of each on regression parameters and consumer surplus estimates. Truncation has a modest effect on estimates obtained from the Poisson models but a radical effect on the estimates obtained by way of the negative binomial. Inclusion of an income-travel cost interaction term generally produces a more conservative but not a statistically significantly different estimate of consumer surplus in both Poisson and negative binomial models. It also generates broader confidence intervals. Application of truncation, the Englin correction and the income-travel cost interaction produced the most conservative estimates of consumer surplus and eliminated the statistical difference between the Poisson and the negative binomial. Use of the income-travel cost interaction term reveals that for visitors who face relatively low travel costs, the relationship between income and travel demand is negative, while it is positive for those who face high travel costs. This provides an explanation of the ambiguities on the findings regarding the role of income widely observed in the TCM literature. Our results suggest that policies that reduce access to publicly owned resources inordinately impact local low income recreationists and are contrary to environmental justice.

  9. Traveling wave type ultrasonic linear motor using twin bending bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Shuichi; Yamaura, Hiroshi; Koyama, Daisuke; Nakamura, Kentaro

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasonic linear motors with a small body are highly demanded since efficiency does not decrease very much with downsizing. In this study, we aim at realizing ultrasonic linear motor with the diameter less than 10 mm as an alternative to small air cylinder actuators. We propose a new stator structure using two PZT elements between two parallel bending bars. The PZT elements are bonded at the position of several mm from the bar end. In this structure, both bar ends vibrate resonantly in a bending mode, and high vibration displacement amplitude can be obtained along the bars. The length between the PZT element and the bar end determines the optimum driving frequency. The slider simply consists of three metal plates, which sandwich the bending bars, and the preload can be controlled by springs. The conditions in which the traveling wave can be generated along the bars were investigated. When the bars vibrate in a symmetric mode and traveling waves are generated, the slider moves in the direction to the opposite of traveling wave. Traveling wave could be generated by controlling the driving phase difference between the two PZT elements. It was found that the phase differences depend on the distance between the two PZT elements. We experimentally achieved the stroke of 10 mm and the thrust of 78 mN at 23 kHz.

  10. Projecting Future Scheduled Airline Demand, Schedules and NGATS Benefits Using TSAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dollyhigh, Samuel; Smith, Jeremy; Viken, Jeff; Trani, Antonio; Baik, Hojong; Hinze, Nickolas; Ashiabor, Senanu

    2006-01-01

    The Transportation Systems Analysis Model (TSAM) developed by Virginia Tech s Air Transportation Systems Lab and NASA Langley can provide detailed analysis of the effects on the demand for air travel of a full range of NASA and FAA aviation projects. TSAM has been used to project the passenger demand for very light jet (VLJ) air taxi service, scheduled airline demand growth and future schedules, Next Generation Air Transportation System (NGATS) benefits, and future passenger revenues for the Airport and Airway Trust Fund. TSAM can project the resulting demand when new vehicles and/or technology is inserted into the long distance (100 or more miles one-way) transportation system, as well as, changes in demand as a result of fare yield increases or decreases, airport transit times, scheduled flight times, ticket taxes, reductions or increases in flight delays, and so on. TSAM models all long distance travel in the contiguous U.S. and determines the mode choice of the traveler based on detailed trip costs, travel time, schedule frequency, purpose of the trip (business or non-business), and household income level of the traveler. Demand is modeled at the county level, with an airport choice module providing up to three airports as part of the mode choice. Future enplanements at airports can be projected for different scenarios. A Fratar algorithm and a schedule generator are applied to generate future flight schedules. This paper presents the application of TSAM to modeling future scheduled air passenger demand and resulting airline schedules, the impact of NGATS goals and objectives on passenger demand, along with projections for passenger fee receipts for several scenarios for the FAA Airport and Airway Trust Fund.

  11. Risk perception of travelers to tropical and subtropical countries visiting a swiss travel health center.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Rosalie; Hattendorf, Jan; Blum, Johannes; Nüesch, Reto; Hatz, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the risk perception ratings of travelers pre- and post-travel and in comparison to the ratings by travel health experts. While most surveys on travel health knowledge, attitudes, and practices focus on malaria and vaccine-preventable diseases, noninfectious travel risks were included in this study. Pre- and post-travel perception of nine travel-associated health risks was recorded among 314 travelers to tropical and subtropical destinations. All travelers sought pre-travel health advice at the Travel Clinic of the Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute in 2008 and 2009. In addition, 18 Swiss travel health experts provided an assessment of the respective risks. A validated visual psychometric measuring instrument was used [pictorial representation of illness and self measure (PRISM)]. Travelers and experts rated most risks similarly, except for accidents and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) which experts rated higher. Compared to other risks, accidents ranked highly in both groups and were the only risk perceived higher after travel. Pre- and post-travel perceptions of all other risks were similar with a tendency to be lower after travel. Travelers perceived mosquitoes to be the highest risk before travel and accidents after travel. Travelers' risk perception appears to be accurate for most risks stated in this study. However, travel health professionals should be aware that some perception patterns among travelers regarding travel-related health risks may be different from professional risk assessment. Important but insufficiently perceived health risks, such as sexual behavior/STIs and accidents, should be considered to be part of any pre-travel health advice package. © 2012 Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Medicine and Diagnostics, Basel, Switzerland.

  12. Oxide nanoelectronics on demand.

    PubMed

    Cen, Cheng; Thiel, Stefan; Mannhart, Jochen; Levy, Jeremy

    2009-02-20

    Electronic confinement at nanoscale dimensions remains a central means of science and technology. We demonstrate nanoscale lateral confinement of a quasi-two-dimensional electron gas at a lanthanum aluminate-strontium titanate interface. Control of this confinement using an atomic force microscope lithography technique enabled us to create tunnel junctions and field-effect transistors with characteristic dimensions as small as 2 nanometers. These electronic devices can be modified or erased without the need for complex lithographic procedures. Our on-demand nanoelectronics fabrication platform has the potential for widespread technological application.

  13. Dividends with Demand Response

    SciTech Connect

    Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Goldman, Charles; Sezgen, O.; Pratt, D.

    2003-10-31

    To assist facility managers in assessing whether and to what extent they should participate in demand response programs offered by ISOs, we introduce a systematic process by which a curtailment supply curve can be developed that integrates costs and other program provisions and features. This curtailment supply curve functions as bid curve, which allows the facility manager to incrementally offer load to the market under terms and conditions acceptable to the customer. We applied this load curtailment assessment process to a stylized example of an office building, using programs offered by NYISO to provide detail and realism.

  14. Ethanol Demand in United States Gasoline Production

    SciTech Connect

    Hadder, G.R.

    1998-11-24

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (OWL) Refinery Yield Model (RYM) has been used to estimate the demand for ethanol in U.S. gasoline production in year 2010. Study cases examine ethanol demand with variations in world oil price, cost of competing oxygenate, ethanol value, and gasoline specifications. For combined-regions outside California summer ethanol demand is dominated by conventional gasoline (CG) because the premised share of reformulated gasoline (RFG) production is relatively low and because CG offers greater flexibility for blending high vapor pressure components like ethanol. Vapor pressure advantages disappear for winter CG, but total ethanol used in winter RFG remains low because of the low RFG production share. In California, relatively less ethanol is used in CG because the RFG production share is very high. During the winter in California, there is a significant increase in use of ethanol in RFG, as ethanol displaces lower-vapor-pressure ethers. Estimated U.S. ethanol demand is a function of the refiner value of ethanol. For example, ethanol demand for reference conditions in year 2010 is 2 billion gallons per year (BGY) at a refiner value of $1.00 per gallon (1996 dollars), and 9 BGY at a refiner value of $0.60 per gallon. Ethanol demand could be increased with higher oil prices, or by changes in gasoline specifications for oxygen content, sulfur content, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCS), and octane numbers.

  15. Individual traveller health priorities and the pre-travel health consultation.

    PubMed

    Flaherty, Gerard T; Chen, Bingling; Avalos, Gloria

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the principal travel health priorities of travellers. The most frequently selected travel health concerns were accessing medical care abroad, dying abroad, insect bites, malaria, personal safety and travel security threats. The travel health risks of least concern were culture shock, fear of flying, jet lag and sexually transmitted infections. This study is the first to develop a hierarchy of self-declared travel health risk priorities among travellers. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Music Travel: Avoiding the Potholes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Cathy Applefeld

    2010-01-01

    Even given the countless hours clocked in class and rehearsal time, there's nothing that compares to a road trip to seal the bond among band, orchestra, and vocal music students. "Nothing can replace travel," says Peter Markes, orchestra director at Edmond North High School in Oklahoma. "It's safe, well-structured and, for many of…

  17. Your Travel Dollar. Money Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baran, Nancy H., Ed.

    This illustrated guide was designed to familiarize consumers with planning a vacation trip, whether domestic or abroad. The guide covers setting up a budget; package tours; cruises and charter flights; travel agencies and clubs; and arranging stays in hotels/motels, rental condominiums, bed-and-breakfasts, hostels, campsites, and private…

  18. Refractory giardiasis in Spanish travellers.

    PubMed

    Muñoz Gutiérrez, Jose; Aldasoro, Edelweiss; Requena, Ana; Comin, Ana M; Pinazo, Maria Jesús; Bardají, Azucena; Oliveira, Inés; Valls, Maria Eugenia; Gascon, Joaquim

    2013-01-01

    Drug failure is a common cause of symptom persistence after treatment of imported Giardia duodenalis. In this retrospective study we describe a high prevalence of refractory giardiasis in people attended in a travel clinic in Spain, especially those with infections acquired in Asia. Moreover, we discuss various treatment strategies to tackle G. duodenalis that is refractory to nitroimidazoles.

  19. 75 FR 43395 - Campaign Travel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... / Monday, July 26, 2010 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION 11 CFR Part 9004 Campaign Travel AGENCY: Federal Election Commission. ACTION: Announcement of effective date. SUMMARY: On... by and on behalf of presidential candidates receiving public funding for the general election, 11...

  20. Twitter for travel medicine providers.

    PubMed

    Mills, Deborah J; Kohl, Sarah E

    2016-03-01

    Travel medicine practitioners, perhaps more so than medical practitioners working in other areas of medicine, require a constant flow of information to stay up-to-date, and provide best practice information and care to their patients. Many travel medicine providers are unaware of the popularity and potential of the Twitter platform. Twitter use among our travellers, as well as by physicians and health providers, is growing exponentially. There is a rapidly expanding body of published literature on this information tool. This review provides a brief overview of the ways Twitter is being used by health practitioners, the advantages that are peculiar to Twitter as a platform of social media, and how the interested practitioner can get started. Some key points about the dark side of Twitter are highlighted, as well as the potential benefits of using Twitter as a way to disseminate accurate medical information to the public. This article will help readers develop an increased understanding of Twitter as a tool for extracting useful facts and insights from the ever increasing volume of health information. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2016. All rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Time Travel in the Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Donna W.

    2005-01-01

    A Time Travel project in the library gives enthusiasm to students to connect with the past and reinforces their research skills while instilling respect for the past years. The librarian should choose one specific decade to highlight in the library and create an extravaganza that would allow memorabilia from that time period to be located without…

  2. Time Travel in the Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Donna W.

    2005-01-01

    A Time Travel project in the library gives enthusiasm to students to connect with the past and reinforces their research skills while instilling respect for the past years. The librarian should choose one specific decade to highlight in the library and create an extravaganza that would allow memorabilia from that time period to be located without…

  3. Music Travel: Avoiding the Potholes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Cathy Applefeld

    2010-01-01

    Even given the countless hours clocked in class and rehearsal time, there's nothing that compares to a road trip to seal the bond among band, orchestra, and vocal music students. "Nothing can replace travel," says Peter Markes, orchestra director at Edmond North High School in Oklahoma. "It's safe, well-structured and, for many of…

  4. Preparing Students for Travel Abroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novotny, Jeanne

    1989-01-01

    This article outlines information which can be provided by the school nurse or health educator to help make student trips abroad healthy as well as educational. Topics covered include: food and water, traveler's diarrhea, handwashing, insect and animal bites, stress, and prior health problems. (IAH)

  5. Your Travel Dollar. Money Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baran, Nancy H., Ed.

    This illustrated guide was designed to familiarize consumers with planning a vacation trip, whether domestic or abroad. The guide covers setting up a budget; package tours; cruises and charter flights; travel agencies and clubs; and arranging stays in hotels/motels, rental condominiums, bed-and-breakfasts, hostels, campsites, and private…

  6. Economic Downturn Limits Conference Travel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeffrey R.

    2009-01-01

    Attendance is down at many academic and professional conferences in higher education this year, and next year's numbers are expected to be far worse, as campus budgets take further beatings. With many colleges limiting travel to professors or administrators who are speaking at events they are attending, will anyone be left in the audience? A new…

  7. Preparing Students for Travel Abroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novotny, Jeanne

    1989-01-01

    This article outlines information which can be provided by the school nurse or health educator to help make student trips abroad healthy as well as educational. Topics covered include: food and water, traveler's diarrhea, handwashing, insect and animal bites, stress, and prior health problems. (IAH)

  8. Economic Downturn Limits Conference Travel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeffrey R.

    2009-01-01

    Attendance is down at many academic and professional conferences in higher education this year, and next year's numbers are expected to be far worse, as campus budgets take further beatings. With many colleges limiting travel to professors or administrators who are speaking at events they are attending, will anyone be left in the audience? A new…

  9. 39 CFR 230.25 - Who pays the costs incurred when the Office of Inspector General responds to a demand for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... charges, and any necessary travel expenses as follows: (1) The Office of Inspector General is authorized... time expended by Office of Inspector General employees, including attorneys, to process and respond to the demand; attorney time for reviewing the demand and for legal work in connection with the demand...

  10. The 'selfie' phenomenon: reducing the risk of harm while using smartphones during international travel.

    PubMed

    Flaherty, Gerard T; Choi, Joonkoo

    2016-02-01

    Photography is an integral component of the international travel experience. Self-photography is becoming a mainstream behaviour in society and it has implications for the practice of travel medicine. Travellers who take selfies, including with the use of selfie sticks, may be subject to traumatic injuries associated with this activity. This review article is the first in the medical literature to address this emerging phenomenon. Articles indexed on PubMed and Scopus databases through 2015 were retrieved, using the search terms 'travel', combined with 'selfie', 'self-photography', 'smartphone', 'mobile phone' and 'social media'. The reference lists of articles were manually searched for additional publications, and published media reports of travel-related self-photography were examined. The lack of situational awareness and temporary distraction inherent in selfie-taking exposes the traveller to potential hazards. A diverse group of selfie injuries has been reported, including injury and death secondary to selfie-related falls, attacks from wild animals, electrocution, lightning strikes, trauma at sporting events, road traffic and pedestrian accidents. Public health measures adopted by the Russian Federation in response to over 100 reported selfie injuries in 2015 alone are presented. The review also discusses the potential for direct trauma from the use of selfie sticks. Travel-related scenarios where selfies should be avoided include photographs taken from a height, on a bridge, in the vicinity of vehicular traffic, during thunderstorms, at sporting events, and where wild animals are in the background. Recommendations exist which discourage use of mobile phones in drivers and pedestrians. The travel medicine practitioner should routinely counsel travellers about responsible self-photography during international travel and should include this advice in printed material given to the patient. The travel and mobile phone industries should reinforce these health

  11. Do Travellers Accept m-Health Technologies? A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Gallos, Parisis; Kolokathi, Aikaterini; Minou, Ioannis; Mantas, John

    2016-01-01

    A literature review was conducted to present if travellers accept the mobile healthcare (m-Health) technologies. The research was run on international scientific databases using certain keywords to cover the content of the review. From the online search results, 21 publications were selected which combine the "m-Health", "travellers" and "technology acceptance" topics. The majority of the papers are using the Technology Acceptance Model (or a variation of it) on their methodology. Only few papers discuss about the above three topics simultaneously. All of the publications highlight the acceptance of the mobile technologies by their users. Based on this, it can be assumed that travellers may accept the m-Health applications. Further investigation is needed on this subject to give more accurate results.

  12. GIS Based Application of Advanced Traveler Information System in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, P.; Singh, V.

    2012-02-01

    Developed countries like USA, Canada, Japan, UK, Australia and Germany have adopted advanced traveler information technologies expeditiously in comparison to developing countries. But, unlike developed countries, developing countries face considerable financial and framework constraints. Moreover local traffic, roadway, signalization, demographic, topological and social conditions in developing countries are quite different from those in developed countries. In this paper, a comprehensive framework comprising of system architecture, development methodology and salient features of a developed Advanced Traveler Information System (ATIS) for metropolitan cities in developing countries has been discussed. Development of proposed system is based on integration of two well known information technologies viz. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and World Wide Web (WWW). Combination of these technologies can be utilized to develop an integrated ATIS that targets different types of travelers like private vehicle owners, transit users and casual outside visitors.

  13. Risk factors and pre-travel healthcare of international travellers attending a Dutch travel clinic: a cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed

    Wieten, Rosanne W; van der Schalie, Maurice; Visser, Benjamin J; Grobusch, Martin P; van Vugt, Michèle

    2014-01-01

    The number of international travellers is currently estimated to exceed one billion annually. To address travel related health risks and facilitate risk reduction strategies, detailed knowledge of travellers' characteristics is important. In this cross-sectional study, data of a 20% sample of travellers visiting the Academic Medical Center (AMC) travel clinic Amsterdam from July 2011 to July 2012 was collected. Itineraries and protection versus exposure rates of preventable infectious diseases were mapped and reported according to STROBE guidelines. 1749 travellers were included. South-Eastern Asia, South-America and West-Africa were most frequently visited. 26.2% of the population had pre-existing medical conditions (often cardiovascular). Young and VFR travellers had a longer median travel time (28 and 30 days) compared to the overall population (21 days). Young adult travellers were relatively often vaccinated against hepatitis B (43.9% vs. 20.5%, p < .001) and rabies (16.6% vs. 4.3%, p < .001). VFRs were less often vaccinated against hepatitis B (11.6% vs. 30.6%, p < .001) and rabies (1.3% vs. 9.0%, p .012) compared to non-VFR travellers. Pre-travel guidelines were well adhered to. Young adult travellers had high-risk itineraries but were adequately protected. Improvement of hepatitis B and rabies protection would be desirable, specifically for VFRs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Automated highways: Effects on travel, emissions, and traveler welfare

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, R.A.; Rodier, C.J.

    1999-05-01

    A recent project simulating automated freeways in the Sacramento, Calif., region is described. Of special interest is the economic welfare model applied in this project. It was found that travel and emissions increase with capacity. Traveler economic welfare increased (over the no-build case) only in modest [97 km/h (60 mi/h) or one lane] automated highway system scenarios. Peak-period freeway tolls and parking pricing with land-use intensification at outer freeway ramps greatly increased user benefits, as did automating only single HOV lanes. Future automated highway system research should consider incremental automation (one lane at a time), tolls and parking cash-out, and land-use intensification near freeway ramps.

  15. New technology for traveling with less energy

    SciTech Connect

    Oman, H.

    1997-12-31

    Better airplane performance came from jet engines with turbine blades that operate in a 1426 C (2600 F) inlet-gas temperature. An important by-product of this development is the aeroderivative gas turbine, which when installed in a combined-cycle power plant, converts natural-gas energy to electric power with 60% efficiency. Independent power producers are selling this power for 3 cents per kWh. Another new and pertinent development has been computer simulation which predicts the aerodynamic performance of a given design. The Raven, a human-powered airplane with a 100-mile nonstop range, illustrates the usefulness of modeling. It uses a carbon-fiber reinforced structure. The resulting airplane, with a 35-meter (115-foot) wingspan, weighs only 34 kg (75 pounds). Ten years ago the author had calculated the cost of traveling 1609 km (1000 miles) in 12 different vehicles. The cost energy for this travel ranged from $127.40 to $3.29. Now a battery-powered electric bicycle offers the lowest energy cost for the trip--$2.12.

  16. Coupling between air travel and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karnauskas, Kristopher B.; Donnelly, Jeffrey P.; Barkley, Hannah C.; Martin, Jonathan E.

    2015-12-01

    The airline industry closely monitors the midlatitude jet stream for short-term planning of flight paths and arrival times. In addition to passenger safety and on-time metrics, this is due to the acute sensitivity of airline profits to fuel cost. US carriers spent US$47 billion on jet fuel in 2011, compared with a total industry operating revenue of US$192 billion. Beyond the timescale of synoptic weather, the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Arctic Oscillation (AO) and other modes of variability modulate the strength and position of the Aleutian low and Pacific high on interannual timescales, which influence the tendency of the exit region of the midlatitude Pacific jet stream to extend, retract and meander poleward and equatorward. The impact of global aviation on climate change has been studied for decades owing to the radiative forcing of emitted greenhouse gases, contrails and other effects. The impact of climate variability on air travel, however, has only recently come into focus, primarily in terms of turbulence. Shifting attention to flight durations, here we show that 88% of the interannual variance in domestic flight times between Hawaii and the continental US is explained by a linear combination of ENSO and the AO. Further, we extend our analysis to CMIP5 model projections to explore potential feedbacks between anthropogenic climate change and air travel.

  17. 49 CFR 230.76 - Piston travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and...) Maximum piston travel. The maximum piston travel when steam locomotive is standing shall be as follows... Driving Wheel Brake 6 Engine Truck Brake 8 Tender Brake 9...

  18. 49 CFR 230.76 - Piston travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and...) Maximum piston travel. The maximum piston travel when steam locomotive is standing shall be as follows... Driving Wheel Brake 6 Engine Truck Brake 8 Tender Brake 9...

  19. 49 CFR 230.76 - Piston travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and...) Maximum piston travel. The maximum piston travel when steam locomotive is standing shall be as follows... Driving Wheel Brake 6 Engine Truck Brake 8 Tender Brake 9...

  20. Travel Recommendations for the Nursing Mother

    MedlinePlus

    ... can be reunited, regardless if milk is stored. Air Travel No special precautions are necessary for airport ... Electric breast pumps are considered personal items during air travel and may be carried on and stowed ...

  1. The practice of travel medicine in Europe.

    PubMed

    Schlagenhauf, P; Santos-O'Connor, F; Parola, P

    2010-03-01

    Europe, because of its geographical location, strategic position on trade routes, and colonial past, has a long history of caring for travellers' health. Within Europe, there is great diversity in the practice of travel medicine. Some countries have travel medicine societies and provisions for a periodic distribution of recommendations, but many countries have no national pre-travel guidelines and follow international recommendations such as those provided by the WHO. Providers of travel medicine include tropical medicine specialists, general practice nurses and physicians, specialist 'travel clinics', occupational physicians, and pharmacists. One of the core functions of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control-funded network of travel and tropical medicine professionals, EuroTravNet, is to document the status quo of travel medicine in Europe. A three-pronged approach is used, with a real-time online questionnaire, a structured interview with experts in each country, and web searching.

  2. Tips for Traveling with HomePEN

    MedlinePlus

    ... assistance and on-the-spot resolution to any passenger concerns at the checkpoint. What to Expect - National ... Traveling with Medication (9/26/13) Screening for Passengers Requiring Special Assistance (6/2013) Travelers with Disabilities ...

  3. Report: EPA Travel Program Lacks Necessary Controls

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #10-P-0078, March 9, 2010. The EPA travel program, which comprises EPA policies and GovTrip, lacks necessary control procedures to assure all travel authorizations were necessary and in the best interest of the government.

  4. Safe travels? HIV transmission among Britons travelling abroad.

    PubMed

    Rice, B; Gilbart, V L; Lawrence, J; Smith, R; Kall, M; Delpech, V

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the study was to identify and describe the characteristics of persons born in the UK who acquire HIV infection abroad. Analyses using case reports and follow-up data from the national HIV database held at the Health Protection Agency were performed. Fifteen per cent (2066 of 13 891) of UK-born adults diagnosed in England, Wales and Northern Ireland between 2002 and 2010 acquired HIV infection abroad. Thailand (534), the USA (117) and South Africa (108) were the countries most commonly reported. As compared with UK-born adults acquiring HIV infection in the UK, those acquiring HIV infection abroad were significantly (P < 0.01) more likely to have acquired it heterosexually (70% vs. 22%, respectively), to be of older age at diagnosis (median 42 years vs. 36 years, respectively), and to have reported sex with a commercial sex worker (5.6% vs. 1%, respectively). Among men infected in Thailand, 11% reported sex with a commercial sex worker. A substantial number of UK-born adults are acquiring HIV infection in countries with generalized HIV epidemics, and in common holiday destinations. Of particular concern is the high proportion of men infected reporting sex with a commercial sex worker. We recommend HIV prevention and testing efforts be extended to include travellers abroad, and that sexual health advice be provided routinely in travel health consultations and in occupational health travel advice packs, particularly to those travelling to high HIV prevalence areas and destinations for sex tourism. Safer sex messages should include an awareness of the potential detrimental health and social impacts of the sex industry. © 2012 British HIV Association.

  5. Travel-time sensitivity kernels in ocean acoustic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skarsoulis, E. K.; Cornuelle, B. D.

    2004-07-01

    Wave-theoretic ocean acoustic propagation modeling is combined with the peak arrival approach for tomographic travel-time observables to derive the sensitivity kernel of travel times with respect to sound-speed variations. This is the Born-Fréchet kernel relating the three-dimensional spatial distribution of sound-speed variations with the induced travel-time variations. The derivation is based on the first Born approximation of the Green's function. The application of the travel-time sensitivity kernel to an ocean acoustic waveguide gives a picture close to the ray-theoretic one in the case of high frequencies. However, in the low-frequency case, of interest in ocean acoustic tomography, for example, there are significant deviations. Low-frequency travel times are sensitive to sound-speed changes in Fresnel-zone-scale areas surrounding the eigenrays, but not on the eigenrays themselves, where the sensitivity is zero. Further, there are areas of positive sensitivity, where, e.g., a sound-speed increase results in an increase of arrival times, i.e., a further delay of arrivals, in contrast with the common expectation. These findings are confirmed by forward acoustic predictions from a coupled-mode code.

  6. Pediatric travel consultation in an integrated clinic.

    PubMed

    Christenson, J C; Fischer, P R; Hale, D C; Derrick, D

    2001-01-01

    In May 1997, a pediatric travel service was created within a larger integrated University-County Health Department international travel clinic. The purpose of the service was to further enhance the travel advice and care provided to children and their parents or guardians. The current study was designed to describe the care of children in this setting and to compare the care of children seen in the Pediatric Travel Service with that of children seen by other providers. All pediatric patients (defined as individuals < or = 18 years of age) receiving care in the travel clinic were considered candidates for inclusion in the analysis. Patients seen by the Pediatric Travel Service were compared to those seen by other staff members in the travel clinic (referred to as Regular Clinic). The following information was noted: basic demographic data, medical history including allergies, prior immunization records, intended place and duration of travel, and immunizations and medications prescribed at the time of visit. Travel advice covering water and food precautions, preventive measures against insect bites, injury prevention, malaria prevention, prevention of parasitic infections, and environmental-related problems was provided to all patients in both groups when necessary. Between May 1997 and December 1999, 287 pediatric age individuals were given pretravel care by the Pediatric Travel Service (median age, 6 years; range, 1 month-18 years). During the same time period, 722 pediatric age travelers (median age, 14 years; range, 8 months-18 years) were evaluated in the Regular Clinic by other staff members. Travel destinations most commonly traveled by both groups in descending order were: Africa, Central America and Mexico, South America, and Southeast Asia. When compared to travelers seen in the Regular Clinic, individuals in the Pediatric Travel Service group were more likely to travel for humanitarian work, and for parental work relocation. Persons in the Regular Clinic

  7. Why do medical tourists travel to where they do? The role of networks in determining medical travel.

    PubMed

    Hanefeld, J; Lunt, N; Smith, R; Horsfall, D

    2015-01-01

    patients and providers opens up novel conception of medical tourism, deepening understanding of patterns of travel by combining investigation of industry with patient motivation.

  8. National Strategy to Combat Terrorist Travel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-02

    Terrorist Travel Visa Waiver Program The Visa Waiver Program (VWP) generally enables citizens of 27 countries to travel to the United States for tourism or...NATIONAL STRATEGY TO COMBAT TERRORIST TRAVEL May 2, 2006 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the...Strategy to Combat Terorist Travel 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER

  9. Travel and Tourism Module. An Advanced-Level Option For Distribution and Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational Education Curriculum Development.

    Intended as an advanced option for distributive education students in the twelfth grade, this travel and tourism module is designed to cover a minimum of ten weeks or a maximum of twenty weeks. Introductory material includes information on employment demands, administrative considerations, course format, teaching suggestions, expected outcomes,…

  10. Travel and Tourism Module. An Advanced-Level Option For Distribution and Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational Education Curriculum Development.

    Intended as an advanced option for distributive education students in the twelfth grade, this travel and tourism module is designed to cover a minimum of ten weeks or a maximum of twenty weeks. Introductory material includes information on employment demands, administrative considerations, course format, teaching suggestions, expected outcomes,…

  11. Distance traveled for Medicaid-covered abortion care in California.

    PubMed

    Johns, Nicole E; Foster, Diana Greene; Upadhyay, Ushma D

    2017-04-19

    Access to abortion care in the United States is limited by the availability of abortion providers and their geographic distribution. We aimed to assess how far women travel for Medicaid-funded abortion in California and identify disparities in access to abortion care. We obtained data on all abortions reimbursed by the fee-for-service California state Medicaid program (Medi-Cal) in 2011 and 2012 and examined distance traveled to obtain abortion care by several demographic and abortion-related factors. Mixed-effects multivariable logistic regression models were constructed to examine factors associated with traveling 50 miles or more. County-level t-tests and linear regressions were conducted to examine the effects of a Medi-Cal abortion provider in a county on overall and urban/rural differences in utilization. 11.9% (95% CI: 11.5-12.2%) of women traveled 50 miles or more. Women obtaining second trimester or later abortions (21.7%), women obtaining abortions at hospitals (19.9%), and rural women (51.0%) were most likely to travel 50 miles or more. Across the state, 28 counties, home to 10% of eligible women, did not have a facility routinely providing Medi-Cal-covered abortions. Efforts are needed to expand the number of abortion providers that accept Medi-Cal. This could be accomplished by increasing Medi-Cal reimbursement rates, increasing the types of providers who can provide abortions, and expanding the use of telemedicine. If national trends in declining unintended pregnancy and abortion rates continue, careful attention should be paid to ensure that reduced demand does not lead to greater disparities in geographic and financial access to abortion care by ensuring that providers accepting Medicaid payment are available and widely distributed.

  12. Severe Histoplasmosis in Travelers to Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Weeks, Julia; Lance-Parker, Susan; Traeger, Marc; Wiersma, Steven; Phan, Quyen; Dennison, David; MacDonald, Pia; Lindsley, Mark; Guarner, Jeannette; Connolly, Patricia; Cetron, Martin; Hajjeh, Rana

    2003-01-01

    We investigated an outbreak of unexpectedly severe histoplasmosis among 14 healthy adventure travelers from the United States who visited a bat-infested cave in Nicaragua. Although histoplasmosis has rarely been reported to cause serious illness among travelers, this outbreak demonstrates that cases may be severe among travelers, even young, healthy persons. PMID:14609473

  13. 5 CFR 630.207 - Travel time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Travel time. 630.207 Section 630.207... and General Provisions for Annual and Sick Leave § 630.207 Travel time. The travel time granted an employee under section 6303(d) of title 5, United States Code, is inclusive of the time necessarily...

  14. 5 CFR 630.207 - Travel time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Travel time. 630.207 Section 630.207... and General Provisions for Annual and Sick Leave § 630.207 Travel time. The travel time granted an employee under section 6303(d) of title 5, United States Code, is inclusive of the time necessarily...

  15. Travelling Safely on Ice: Algonquin Park.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Craig

    1994-01-01

    Provides safety considerations for snowshoe travel on iced waterways such as those of Algonquin Park (Ontario). Addresses what season is safe for waterway travel, how to determine the strength of the ice, reasonable travel time per day, what to do if you fall through the ice, and appropriate sites for winter camping. (LP)

  16. Recommended vaccines for international travelers to India.

    PubMed

    Verma, Ramesh; Khanna, Pardeep; Chawla, Suraj

    2015-01-01

    India's tourism industry generated 6.6% of the nation's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) during 2012. International travel to India is predicted to grow at an average annual rate of ∼ 8% over the next decade. The number of foreign tourists has increased by 9% to 5.8 million. Approximately 8% of travelers to developing countries require medical care during or after travel; the main diagnoses are vaccine-preventable diseases. Travelers to India can be exposed to various infectious diseases; water-borne, water-related, and zoonotic diseases may be imported to India where the disease is not endemic. The World Health Organization (WHO) emphasizes that all international travelers should be up to date with routine vaccinations. The recommended vaccinations for travelers to India vary according to the traveler's age, immunization history, existing medical conditions, duration, legal requirements for entry into countries being visited, travelers preferences, and values. Travelers should consult with a doctor so that there is sufficient time for completion of optimal vaccination schedules. No matter where traveling, one should be aware of potential exposure to certain organisms that can cause severely illnesses, even death. There is no doubt that vaccines have reduced or virtually eliminated many diseases that killed or severely disabled children and adults just a few generations ago. Thus, travelers must take recommended vaccines per schedule before traveling to India.

  17. Recommended vaccines for international travelers to India.

    PubMed

    Verma, Ramesh; Khanna, Pardeep; Chawla, Suraj

    2014-06-18

    India's tourism industry generated 6.6% of the nation's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) during 2012. International travel to India is predicted to grow at an average annual rate of ~8% over the next decade. The number of foreign tourists has increased by 9% to 5.8 million. Approximately 8% of travelers to developing countries require medical care during or after travel; the main diagnoses are vaccine-preventable diseases. Travelers to India can be exposed to various infectious diseases; water-borne, water-related, and zoonotic diseases may be imported to India where the disease is not endemic. The World Health Organization (WHO) emphasizes that all international travelers should be up to date with routine vaccinations. The recommended vaccinations for travelers to India vary according to the traveler's age, immunization history, existing medical conditions, duration, legal requirements for entry into countries being visited, travelers preferences, and values. Travelers should consult with a doctor so that there is sufficient time for completion of optimal vaccination schedules. No matter where traveling, one should be aware of potential exposure to certain organisms that can cause severely illnesses, even death. There is no doubt that vaccines have reduced or virtually eliminated many diseases that killed or severely disabled children and adults just a few generations ago. Thus, travelers must take recommended vaccines per schedule before traveling to India.

  18. Family structure and its relationship to travel

    Treesearch

    Christine Cornell McCreedy; Joseph T. O' Leary; Daniel Fesenmaier

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between family structure and travel to further understand what differences exist between family groups. Results indicate that the absence of a husband delays travel for single mothers and that they are not as well-off as their married counterparts. We examine other travel and leisure studies to make comparisons with these data,...

  19. 38 CFR 21.7103 - Travel expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION All Volunteer Force Educational Assistance Program (Montgomery GI Bill-Active Duty) Counseling § 21.7103 Travel expenses. (a) Travel for veterans and servicemembers. (1... travel to and from the place of counseling for individuals who are required to receive counseling if— (i...

  20. 38 CFR 21.7103 - Travel expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION All Volunteer Force Educational Assistance Program (Montgomery GI Bill-Active Duty) Counseling § 21.7103 Travel expenses. (a) Travel for veterans and servicemembers. (1... travel to and from the place of counseling for individuals who are required to receive counseling if— (i...