Science.gov

Sample records for combined travel demand

  1. Travel Demand Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Southworth, Frank; Garrow, Dr. Laurie

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes the principal types of both passenger and freight demand models in use today, providing a brief history of model development supported by references to a number of popular texts on the subject, and directing the reader to papers covering some of the more recent technical developments in the area. Over the past half century a variety of methods have been used to estimate and forecast travel demands, drawing concepts from economic/utility maximization theory, transportation system optimization and spatial interaction theory, using and often combining solution techniques as varied as Box-Jenkins methods, non-linear multivariate regression, non-linear mathematical programming, and agent-based microsimulation.

  2. Fundamental Travel Demand Model Example

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanssen, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Instances of transportation models are abundant and detailed "how to" instruction is available in the form of transportation software help documentation. The purpose of this paper is to look at the fundamental inputs required to build a transportation model by developing an example passenger travel demand model. The example model reduces the scale to a manageable size for the purpose of illustrating the data collection and analysis required before the first step of the model begins. This aspect of the model development would not reasonably be discussed in software help documentation (it is assumed the model developer comes prepared). Recommendations are derived from the example passenger travel demand model to suggest future work regarding the data collection and analysis required for a freight travel demand model.

  3. World Air Travel Demand, 1950-1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarames, G. N.

    1972-01-01

    Total world scheduled air passenger traffic carried by the airlines of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), excluding the U.S.S.R., increased from 17.4 billion passenger miles in 1950 to 237.4 billion in 1970. This represents an average annual growth rate of 14% during the past two decades. The U.S.S.R. became a member of ICAO in 1970, and Aeroflot - the only Russian airline - reported 49 billion passenger miles for 1970. This traffic, which encompasses both domestic and international travel as well as some nonscheduled flights, is not included in the ICAO world totals shown in this report.

  4. A unifying framework of the demand for transnational medical travel.

    PubMed

    Osterle, August; Johnson, Tricia; Delgado, Jose

    2013-01-01

    Transnational medical travel has gained attention recently as a strategy for patients to obtain care that is higher quality, costs less, or offers improved access relative to care provided within their home countries. This article examines institutional environments in the European Union and United States that influence transnational medical travel, describes the conceptual model of demand for medical travel, and illustrates individual dimensions in the conceptual model of medical travel using a series of case studies. The conceptual model of medical travel is predicated on Andersen's behavioral model of health services. Transnational medical travel is a heterogeneous phenomenon that is influenced by a number of patient-related factors and by the institutional environment in which the patient resides. While cost, access, and quality are commonly cited factors that influence a patient's decision regarding where to seek care, multiple factors may simultaneously influence the decision about the destination for care, including culture, social factors, and the institutional environment. The conceptual framework addresses the patient-related factors that influence where a patient seeks care. This framework can help researchers and regulatory bodies to evaluate the opportunities and the risks of transnational medical travel and help providers and governments to develop international patient programs.

  5. Community structure in traffic zones based on travel demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Li; Ling, Ximan; He, Kun; Tan, Qian

    2016-09-01

    Large structure in complex networks can be studied by dividing it into communities or modules. Urban traffic system is one of the most critical infrastructures. It can be abstracted into a complex network composed of tightly connected groups. Here, we analyze community structure in urban traffic zones based on the community detection method in network science. Spectral algorithm using the eigenvectors of matrices is employed. Our empirical results indicate that the traffic communities are variant with the travel demand distribution, since in the morning the majority of the passengers are traveling from home to work and in the evening they are traveling a contrary direction. Meanwhile, the origin-destination pairs with large number of trips play a significant role in urban traffic network's community division. The layout of traffic community in a city also depends on the residents' trajectories.

  6. Utilizing Traveler Demand Modeling to Predict Future Commercial Flight Schedules in the NAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viken, Jeff; Dollyhigh, Samuel; Smith, Jeremy; Trani, Antonio; Baik, Hojong; Hinze, Nicholas; Ashiabor, Senanu

    2006-01-01

    The current work incorporates the Transportation Systems Analysis Model (TSAM) to predict the future demand for airline travel. TSAM is a multi-mode, national model that predicts the demand for all long distance travel at a county level based upon population and demographics. The model conducts a mode choice analysis to compute the demand for commercial airline travel based upon the traveler s purpose of the trip, value of time, cost and time of the trip,. The county demand for airline travel is then aggregated (or distributed) to the airport level, and the enplanement demand at commercial airports is modeled. With the growth in flight demand, and utilizing current airline flight schedules, the Fratar algorithm is used to develop future flight schedules in the NAS. The projected flights can then be flown through air transportation simulators to quantify the ability of the NAS to meet future demand. A major strength of the TSAM analysis is that scenario planning can be conducted to quantify capacity requirements at individual airports, based upon different future scenarios. Different demographic scenarios can be analyzed to model the demand sensitivity to them. Also, it is fairly well know, but not well modeled at the airport level, that the demand for travel is highly dependent on the cost of travel, or the fare yield of the airline industry. The FAA projects the fare yield (in constant year dollars) to keep decreasing into the future. The magnitude and/or direction of these projections can be suspect in light of the general lack of airline profits and the large rises in airline fuel cost. Also, changes in travel time and convenience have an influence on the demand for air travel, especially for business travel. Future planners cannot easily conduct sensitivity studies of future demand with the FAA TAF data, nor with the Boeing or Airbus projections. In TSAM many factors can be parameterized and various demand sensitivities can be predicted for future travel. These

  7. Effect of fare and travel time on the demand for domestic air transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eriksen, S. E.; Liu, E. W.

    1979-01-01

    An econometric travel demand model was presented. The model was used for analyzing long haul domestic passenger markets in the United States. The results showed the sensitivities of demand to changes in fares and speed reflecting technology through more efficient aircraft designs.

  8. Demand modelling of passenger air travel: An analysis and extension, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.

    1978-01-01

    Previous intercity travel demand models in terms of their ability to predict air travel in a useful way and the need for disaggregation in the approach to demand modelling are evaluated. The viability of incorporating non-conventional factors (i.e. non-econometric, such as time and cost) in travel demand forecasting models are determined. The investigation of existing models is carried out in order to provide insight into their strong points and shortcomings. The model is characterized as a market segmentation model. This is a consequence of the strengths of disaggregation and its natural evolution to a usable aggregate formulation. The need for this approach both pedagogically and mathematically is discussed. In addition this volume contains two appendices which should prove useful to the non-specialist in the area.

  9. Demand modelling of passenger air travel: An analysis and extension. Volume 1: Background and summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.

    1978-01-01

    The framework for a model of travel demand which will be useful in predicting the total market for air travel between two cities is discussed. Variables to be used in determining the need for air transportation where none currently exists and the effect of changes in system characteristics on attracting latent demand are identified. Existing models are examined in order to provide insight into their strong points and shortcomings. Much of the existing behavioral research in travel demand is incorporated to allow the inclusion of non-economic factors, such as convenience. The model developed is characterized as a market segmentation model. This is a consequence of the strengths of disaggregation and its natural evolution to a usable aggregate formulation. The need for this approach both pedagogically and mathematically is discussed.

  10. How Travel Demand Affects Detection of Non-Recurrent Traffic Congestion on Urban Road Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anbaroglu, B.; Heydecker, B.; Cheng, T.

    2016-06-01

    Occurrence of non-recurrent traffic congestion hinders the economic activity of a city, as travellers could miss appointments or be late for work or important meetings. Similarly, for shippers, unexpected delays may disrupt just-in-time delivery and manufacturing processes, which could lose them payment. Consequently, research on non-recurrent congestion detection on urban road networks has recently gained attention. By analysing large amounts of traffic data collected on a daily basis, traffic operation centres can improve their methods to detect non-recurrent congestion rapidly and then revise their existing plans to mitigate its effects. Space-time clusters of high link journey time estimates correspond to non-recurrent congestion events. Existing research, however, has not considered the effect of travel demand on the effectiveness of non-recurrent congestion detection methods. Therefore, this paper investigates how travel demand affects detection of non-recurrent traffic congestion detection on urban road networks. Travel demand has been classified into three categories as low, normal and high. The experiments are carried out on London's urban road network, and the results demonstrate the necessity to adjust the relative importance of the component evaluation criteria depending on the travel demand level.

  11. STUDYING TRAVEL-RELATED INDIVIDUAL ASSESSMENTS AND DESIRES BY COMBINING HIERARCHICALLY STRUCTURED ORDINAL VARIABLES

    PubMed Central

    Song, Tingting; Wittkowski, Knut M.

    2010-01-01

    Ordinal measures are frequently encountered in travel behavior research. This paper presents a new method for combining them when a hierarchical structure of the data can be presumed. This method is applied to study the subjective assessment of the amount of travel by different transportation modes among a group of French clerical workers, along with the desire to increase or decrease the use of such modes. Some advantages of this approach over traditional data reduction technique such as factor analysis when applied to ordinal data are then illustrated. In this study, combining evidence from several variables sheds light on the observed moderately negative relationship between the personal assessment of the amount of travel and the desire to increase or decrease it, thus integrating previous partial (univariate) results. We find a latent demand for travel, thus contributing to clarify the behavioral mechanisms behind the induced traffic phenomenon. Categorizing the above relationship by transportation mode shows a desire for a less environmental-friendly mix of modes (i.e. a greater desire to use heavy motorized modes and a lower desire to use two-wheeled modes), whenever the respondents do not feel to travel extensively. This result, combined with previous theoretical investigations concerning the determinants of the desire to alter trips consumption levels, shows the importance of making people aware of how much they travel. PMID:20953273

  12. Estimating the demand for drop-off recycling sites: a random utility travel cost approach.

    PubMed

    Sidique, Shaufique F; Lupi, Frank; Joshi, Satish V

    2013-09-30

    Drop-off recycling is one of the most widely adopted recycling programs in the United States. Despite its wide implementation, relatively little literature addresses the demand for drop-off recycling. This study examines the demand for drop-off recycling sites as a function of travel costs and various site characteristics using the random utility model (RUM). The findings of this study indicate that increased travel costs significantly reduce the frequency of visits to drop-off sites implying that the usage pattern of a site is influenced by its location relative to where people live. This study also demonstrates that site specific characteristics such as hours of operation, the number of recyclables accepted, acceptance of commingled recyclables, and acceptance of yard-waste affect the frequency of visits to drop-off sites.

  13. Effect of travel distance on household demand for typhoid vaccines: implications for planning.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dohyeong; Lauria, Donald T; Poulos, Christine; Dong, Baiqing; Whittington, Dale

    2014-01-01

    Typhoid fever causes millions of illnesses and hundreds of thousands of deaths yearly. Vaccinations would mitigate this problem, but the users would probably have to pay some or most of the cost. Several willingness-to-pay studies have assessed the effect of price on private demand to provide a basis for financial planning of campaigns, but the effect of travel distance, which is a potentially important determinant of demand, has not been studied. This paper thus has two objectives: (i) conduct a willingness-to-pay survey to assess the effects of distance, price and other variables on the private demand for typhoid vaccinations in a rural township of China where a campaign is under consideration; and (ii) embed the demand function in a mathematical model to address three planning questions; should each village have its own clinic, would one clinic be best or should the number of clinics be something in-between? Private vaccine demand was found to depend on and be inelastic with respect to both price and travel distance. A 1-km increase in distance caused the number of vaccinations demanded to decrease the same as a $0.5 increase in price. Thus, the marginal rate of substitution was $0.5 per km. A single clinic would be best for the township only if diseconomies of scale in supplying vaccinations exceeded the marginal rate of substitution. Otherwise, multiple clinics close to users would be optimal. Thus, deciding the number, location and capacities of clinics for vaccination planning is as important as deciding what price(s) to charge.

  14. Study of an intraurban travel demand model incorporating commuter preference variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holligan, P. E.; Coote, M. A.; Rushmer, C. R.; Fanning, M. L.

    1971-01-01

    The model is based on the substantial travel data base for the nine-county San Francisco Bay Area, provided by the Metropolitan Transportation Commission. The model is of the abstract type, and makes use of commuter attitudes towards modes and simple demographic characteristics of zones in a region to predict interzonal travel by mode for the region. A characterization of the STOL/VTOL mode was extrapolated by means of a subjective comparison of its expected characteristics with those of modes characterized by the survey. Predictions of STOL demand were made for the Bay Area and an aircraft network was developed to serve this demand. When this aircraft system is compared to the base case system, the demand for STOL service has increased five fold and the resulting economics show considerable benefit from the increased scale of operations. In the previous study all systems required subsidy in varying amounts. The new system shows a substantial profit at an average fare of $3.55 per trip.

  15. Travel and electricity demand analysis of potential US high-speed rail and maglev corridors. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, A.D.; Pitstick, M.E.; Rote, D.M.; Johnson, L.R.; Bernard, M.J. III

    1994-01-01

    High-speed rail (HSR) and magnetically levitated (maglev) vehicles will provide an alternative mode of transportation for intercity travel, particularly for short and medium-length trips between 100 and 600 miles (160 to 960 kilometers). A significant portion of highway and air travel can potentially be diverted to such high-speed ground transportation (HSGT) systems. Also, electric utilities will have to meet the energy demands of these systems. Because these systems require significant investments and time to construct an extensive network, they need more time for analysis and planning. This study evaluates the patterns of growth for these systems and the factors affecting that growth for the year 2010 to determine the magnitude of intercity travel, the basis for HSGT use and electricity demand. To forecast the number and frequency of intercity trips, a methodology was developed that accounts for the travelers` socioeconomic status and the attractiveness of metropolitan areas. The study revealed that aggregate travel demand relied upon population growth, the employment status of the traveler, their household size, and income. Further, the study projects travel for 78 major metropolitan areas via air and highway, and identifies the 12 highest density corridors, describing the potential for HSGT systems to substitute some of that travel. In addition, the study estimates the energy demand and power requirements for a representative high-speed rail and maglev system for each corridor and the corridor connections.

  16. Solidarity by demand? Exit and voice in international medical travel - the case of Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Ormond, Meghann

    2015-01-01

    Globally, more patients are intentionally travelling abroad as consumers for medical care. However, while scholars have begun to examine international medical travel's (IMT) impacts on the people and places that receive medical travellers, study of its impacts on medical travellers' home contexts has been negligible and largely speculative. While proponents praise IMT's potential to make home health systems more responsive to the needs of market-savvy healthcare consumers, critics identify it as a way to further de-politicise the satisfaction of healthcare needs. This article draws from work on political consumerism, health advocacy and social movements to argue for a reframing of IMT not as a 'one-off' statement about or an event external to struggles over access, rights and recognition within medical travellers' home health systems but rather as one of a range of critical forms of on-going engagement embedded within these struggles. To do this, the limited extant empirical work addressing domestic impacts of IMT is reviewed and a case study of Indonesian medical travel to Malaysia is presented. The case study material draws from 85 interviews undertaken in 2007-08 and 2012 with Indonesian and Malaysian respondents involved in IMT as care recipients, formal and informal care-providers, intermediaries, promoters and policy-makers. Evidence from the review and case study suggests that IMT may effect political and social change within medical travellers' home contexts at micro and macro levels by altering the perspectives, habits, expectations and accountability of, and complicity among, medical travellers, their families, communities, formal and informal intermediaries, and medical providers both within and beyond the container of the nation-state. Impacts are conditioned by the ideological foundations underpinning home political and social systems, the status of a medical traveller's ailment or therapy, and the existence of organised support for recognition and

  17. Solidarity by demand? Exit and voice in international medical travel - the case of Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Ormond, Meghann

    2015-01-01

    Globally, more patients are intentionally travelling abroad as consumers for medical care. However, while scholars have begun to examine international medical travel's (IMT) impacts on the people and places that receive medical travellers, study of its impacts on medical travellers' home contexts has been negligible and largely speculative. While proponents praise IMT's potential to make home health systems more responsive to the needs of market-savvy healthcare consumers, critics identify it as a way to further de-politicise the satisfaction of healthcare needs. This article draws from work on political consumerism, health advocacy and social movements to argue for a reframing of IMT not as a 'one-off' statement about or an event external to struggles over access, rights and recognition within medical travellers' home health systems but rather as one of a range of critical forms of on-going engagement embedded within these struggles. To do this, the limited extant empirical work addressing domestic impacts of IMT is reviewed and a case study of Indonesian medical travel to Malaysia is presented. The case study material draws from 85 interviews undertaken in 2007-08 and 2012 with Indonesian and Malaysian respondents involved in IMT as care recipients, formal and informal care-providers, intermediaries, promoters and policy-makers. Evidence from the review and case study suggests that IMT may effect political and social change within medical travellers' home contexts at micro and macro levels by altering the perspectives, habits, expectations and accountability of, and complicity among, medical travellers, their families, communities, formal and informal intermediaries, and medical providers both within and beyond the container of the nation-state. Impacts are conditioned by the ideological foundations underpinning home political and social systems, the status of a medical traveller's ailment or therapy, and the existence of organised support for recognition and

  18. Traveling wave device for combining or splitting symmetric and asymmetric waves

    DOEpatents

    Möbius, Arnold; Ives, Robert Lawrence

    2005-07-19

    A traveling wave device for the combining or splitting of symmetric and asymmetric traveling wave energy includes a feed waveguide for traveling wave energy, the feed waveguide having an input port and a launching port, a reflector for coupling wave energy between the feed waveguide and a final waveguide for the collection and transport of wave energy to or from the reflector. The power combiner has a launching port for symmetrical waves which includes a cylindrical section coaxial to the feed waveguide, and a launching port for asymmetric waves which includes a sawtooth rotated about a central axis.

  19. Understanding Air Transportation Market Dynamics Using a Search Algorithm for Calibrating Travel Demand and Price

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Vivek; Horio, Brant M.; DeCicco, Anthony H.; Hasan, Shahab; Stouffer, Virginia L.; Smith, Jeremy C.; Guerreiro, Nelson M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a search algorithm based framework to calibrate origin-destination (O-D) market specific airline ticket demands and prices for the Air Transportation System (ATS). This framework is used for calibrating an agent based model of the air ticket buy-sell process - Airline Evolutionary Simulation (Airline EVOS) -that has fidelity of detail that accounts for airline and consumer behaviors and the interdependencies they share between themselves and the NAS. More specificially, this algorithm simultaneous calibrates demand and airfares for each O-D market, to within specified threshold of a pre-specified target value. The proposed algorithm is illustrated with market data targets provided by the Transportation System Analysis Model (TSAM) and Airline Origin and Destination Survey (DB1B). Although we specify these models and datasources for this calibration exercise, the methods described in this paper are applicable to calibrating any low-level model of the ATS to some other demand forecast model-based data. We argue that using a calibration algorithm such as the one we present here to synchronize ATS models with specialized forecast demand models, is a powerful tool for establishing credible baseline conditions in experiments analyzing the effects of proposed policy changes to the ATS.

  20. Consumer Expectations of Capacity Constrains and Their Effect on the Demand for Multi-Class Air Travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Battersby, Bryn D.

    2003-01-01

    This paper argues that a consumer's decision on ticket class takes into account the expected likelihood of obtaining a seat in a particular class which, in turn, partially depends on an optimum "transaction cost". Taking into account the preferences of the consumer and the information that the consumer is endowed with, the consumer will select a ticket that includes its own optimal transaction cost. This motivates the inclusion of the capacity constraint as a proxy independent variable for these consumer expectations This then forms the basis of a model of air-travel demand with specific reference to Australia. A censored likelihood function allowing for correlation in the disturbance term across k classes is introduced. The correlation in the disturbances arises as a result of the interdependence of the capacity constraints in k different ticket classes on each flight.

  1. A Forecasting Model for Feed Grain Demand Based on Combined Dynamic Model

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tiejun

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the long-term prediction accuracy of feed grain demand, a dynamic forecast model of long-term feed grain demand is realized with joint multivariate regression model, of which the correlation between the feed grain demand and its influence factors is analyzed firstly; then the change trend of various factors that affect the feed grain demand is predicted by using ARIMA model. The simulation results show that the accuracy of proposed combined dynamic forecasting model is obviously higher than that of the grey system model. Thus, it indicates that the proposed algorithm is effective.

  2. A Forecasting Model for Feed Grain Demand Based on Combined Dynamic Model

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tiejun

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the long-term prediction accuracy of feed grain demand, a dynamic forecast model of long-term feed grain demand is realized with joint multivariate regression model, of which the correlation between the feed grain demand and its influence factors is analyzed firstly; then the change trend of various factors that affect the feed grain demand is predicted by using ARIMA model. The simulation results show that the accuracy of proposed combined dynamic forecasting model is obviously higher than that of the grey system model. Thus, it indicates that the proposed algorithm is effective. PMID:27698661

  3. RAPID COMMUNICATION: A combined travelling wave dielectrophoresis and electrorotation device: applied to the concentration and viability determination of Cryptosporidium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goater, Andrew D.; Burt, Julian P. H.; Pethig, Ronald

    1997-09-01

    We describe a microelectrode device, fabricated using photolithography and laser ablation, that combines the electrokinetic effects of travelling wave dielectrophoresis and electrorotation. Here it has been used to concentrate and then assay the viability of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts.

  4. Automatic Combination of Operators in a Genetic Algorithm to Solve the Traveling Salesman Problem

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Genetic algorithms are powerful search methods inspired by Darwinian evolution. To date, they have been applied to the solution of many optimization problems because of the easy use of their properties and their robustness in finding good solutions to difficult problems. The good operation of genetic algorithms is due in part to its two main variation operators, namely, crossover and mutation operators. Typically, in the literature, we find the use of a single crossover and mutation operator. However, there are studies that have shown that using multi-operators produces synergy and that the operators are mutually complementary. Using multi-operators is not a simple task because which operators to use and how to combine them must be determined, which in itself is an optimization problem. In this paper, it is proposed that the task of exploring the different combinations of the crossover and mutation operators can be carried out by evolutionary computing. The crossover and mutation operators used are those typically used for solving the traveling salesman problem. The process of searching for good combinations was effective, yielding appropriate and synergic combinations of the crossover and mutation operators. The numerical results show that the use of the combination of operators obtained by evolutionary computing is better than the use of a single operator and the use of multi-operators combined in the standard way. The results were also better than those of the last operators reported in the literature. PMID:26367182

  5. Estimation of Biological Oxygen Demand and Chemical Oxygen Demand for Combined Sewer Systems Using Synchronous Fluorescence Spectra

    PubMed Central

    Hur, Jin; Lee, Bo-Mi; Lee, Tae-Hwan; Park, Dae-Hee

    2010-01-01

    Real-time monitoring of water quality for sewer system is required for efficient sewer network design because it provides information on the precise loading of pollutant to wastewater treatment facilities and the impact of loading on receiving water. In this study, synchronous fluorescence spectra and its first derivatives were investigated using a number of wastewater samples collected in sewer systems in urban and non-urban areas, and the optimum fluorescence feature was explored for the estimation of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations of sewer samples. The temporal variations in BOD and COD showed a regular pattern for urban areas whereas they were relatively irregular for non-urban areas. Irrespective of the sewer pipes and the types of the areas, two distinct peaks were identified from the synchronous fluorescence spectra, which correspond to protein-like fluorescence (PLF) and humic-like fluorescence (HLF), respectively. HLF in sewer samples appears to be associated with fluorescent whitening agents. Five fluorescence characteristics were selected from the synchronous spectra and the first-derivatives. Among the selected fluorescence indices, a peak in the PLF region (i.e., Index I) showed the highest correlation coefficient with both BOD and COD. A multiple regression approach based on suspended solid (SS) and Index I used to compensate for the contribution of SS to BOD and COD revealed an improvement in the estimation capability, showing good correlation coefficients of 0.92 and 0.94 for BOD and COD, respectively. PMID:22319257

  6. Estimation of biological oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand for combined sewer systems using synchronous fluorescence spectra.

    PubMed

    Hur, Jin; Lee, Bo-Mi; Lee, Tae-Hwan; Park, Dae-Hee

    2010-01-01

    Real-time monitoring of water quality for sewer system is required for efficient sewer network design because it provides information on the precise loading of pollutant to wastewater treatment facilities and the impact of loading on receiving water. In this study, synchronous fluorescence spectra and its first derivatives were investigated using a number of wastewater samples collected in sewer systems in urban and non-urban areas, and the optimum fluorescence feature was explored for the estimation of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations of sewer samples. The temporal variations in BOD and COD showed a regular pattern for urban areas whereas they were relatively irregular for non-urban areas. Irrespective of the sewer pipes and the types of the areas, two distinct peaks were identified from the synchronous fluorescence spectra, which correspond to protein-like fluorescence (PLF) and humic-like fluorescence (HLF), respectively. HLF in sewer samples appears to be associated with fluorescent whitening agents. Five fluorescence characteristics were selected from the synchronous spectra and the first-derivatives. Among the selected fluorescence indices, a peak in the PLF region (i.e., Index I) showed the highest correlation coefficient with both BOD and COD. A multiple regression approach based on suspended solid (SS) and Index I used to compensate for the contribution of SS to BOD and COD revealed an improvement in the estimation capability, showing good correlation coefficients of 0.92 and 0.94 for BOD and COD, respectively.

  7. Exact combined traveling wave solutions and multi-symplectic structure of the variant Boussinesq-Whitham-Broer-Kaup type equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiao-Feng; Deng, Zi-Chen; Li, Qing-Jun; Wei, Yi

    2016-07-01

    The homogeneous balance of undetermined coefficients method (HBUCM) is firstly proposed to construct not only the exact traveling wave solutions, three-wave solutions, homoclinic solutions, N-soliton solutions, but also multi-symplectic structures of some nonlinear partial differential equations (NLPDEs). By applying the proposed method to the variant Boussinesq equations (VBEs), the exact combined traveling wave solutions and a multi-symplectic structure of the VBEs are obtained directly. Then, the definition and a multi-symplectic structure of the variant Boussinesq-Whitham-Broer-Kaup type equations (VBWBKTEs) which can degenerate to the VBEs, the Whitham-Broer-Kaup equations (WBKEs) and the Broer-Kaup equations (BKEs) are given in the multi-symplectic sense. The HBUCM is also a standard and computable method, which can be generalized to obtain the exact solutions and multi-symplectic structures for some types of NLPDEs.

  8. Combining a Spatial Model and Demand Forecasts to Map Future Surface Coal Mining in Appalachia

    PubMed Central

    Strager, Michael P.; Strager, Jacquelyn M.; Evans, Jeffrey S.; Dunscomb, Judy K.; Kreps, Brad J.; Maxwell, Aaron E.

    2015-01-01

    Predicting the locations of future surface coal mining in Appalachia is challenging for a number of reasons. Economic and regulatory factors impact the coal mining industry and forecasts of future coal production do not specifically predict changes in location of future coal production. With the potential environmental impacts from surface coal mining, prediction of the location of future activity would be valuable to decision makers. The goal of this study was to provide a method for predicting future surface coal mining extents under changing economic and regulatory forecasts through the year 2035. This was accomplished by integrating a spatial model with production demand forecasts to predict (1 km2) gridded cell size land cover change. Combining these two inputs was possible with a ratio which linked coal extraction quantities to a unit area extent. The result was a spatial distribution of probabilities allocated over forecasted demand for the Appalachian region including northern, central, southern, and eastern Illinois coal regions. The results can be used to better plan for land use alterations and potential cumulative impacts. PMID:26090883

  9. [Clinical studies using the combination atovaquone-proguanil as malaria prophylaxis in non-immune adult and child travelers].

    PubMed

    Camus, D; Dutoit, E; Masson, V; Inglebert, P; Delhaes, L

    2002-01-01

    Prophylaxis for short-term travel in malaria-endemic areas can be difficult for two reasons. The first is that currently available antimalarial drugs are becoming less effective because of the ability of the parasite to adapt to drug pressure. The second involves poor compliance with chemoprophylactic regimens due to the highly restrictive conditions of administration and adverse drug side-effects, especially in "healthy" subjects. The combination of atovaquone/proguanil (Malarone) could provide an answer to both these problems since it is not only effective on multiresistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum but also simplifies the conditions of administration and shows good tolerance in adults and children.

  10. Management of traveller's diarrhoea with a combination of sodium butyrate, organic acids, and A-300 silicon dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Mackiewicz, Jacek; Wejman-Matela, Anna; Krokowicz, Piotr; Drews, Michal; Banasiewicz, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Traveller's diarrhoea (TD), defined by UNICEF/WHO as three or more unformed stools with or without other symptoms, imposes a considerable burden on travellers from developed countries. Various efforts have focused on decreasing the prevalence and severity of this condition. Aim To assess the efficacy of a combination of sodium butyrate, organic acids, and A-300 silicon dioxide in treatment providing symptomatic relief of TD. Material and methods The study was conducted in accordance with a protocol presented to the Bioethical committee of Poznan University of Medical Sciences. A total of 278 patients travelling to countries with higher risk of diarrhoea for at least 10 days were divided into a study arm being administered, in case of TD, a combination of sodium butyrate, organic acids, and A-300 silicon dioxide (n = 139) and a placebo arm (n = 139) with placebo administration. Results Forty-seven patients completed the study (22 in the study arm and 25 in the placebo arm). The diarrhoea occurrence after initiation of treatment at first symptoms was significantly lower in the study arm as compared to the placebo arm (9% vs. 36%, p = 0.041). Also, subjects from the study arm more frequently reported that the regimen administered had been efficient for their symptoms in comparison to the placebo arm (72.7% vs. 32%, p = 0.008). No adverse effects of the administered medication were noted during the study. Conclusions Sodium butyrate, organic acids, and A-300 silicon dioxide can be successful in decreasing symptoms of TD. Because of its efficacy and lack of observed side effects it has a strong potential in the treatment of patients with TD. PMID:25396003

  11. Differentiated Products Demand Systems from a Combination of Micro and Macro Data: The New Car Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Steven; Levinsohn, James; Pakes, Ariel

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we consider how rich sources of information on consumer choice can help to identify demand parameters in a widely used class of differentiated products demand models. Most important, we show how to use "second-choice" data on automotive purchases to obtain good estimates of substitution patterns in the automobile industry. We use…

  12. Coherent THz wave combiner composed of arrayed uni-traveling carrier photodiodes and planar lightwave circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakuma, K.; Haruki, J.; Sakano, G.; Kato, K.; Hisatake, S.; Nagatsuma, T.

    2016-02-01

    For high-power THz wave generation by photomixing of two lightwaves, we proposed the synchronous power combiner which consists of eight-arrayed photomixers/antennas and the THz phase control system. We experimentally confirmed the effectiveness of the power combination by synchronizing the phases of the THz wave by the mechanical optical delay lines and also demonstrated the same functionality at the lightwave-circuit-based optical phase control system. We found that the directional gain is increasing with increasing the number of photomixers from two to three and it reached up to 4.5 dB.

  13. Task Demands Interact with the Single and Combined Effects of Medication and Contingencies on Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamm, Leanne; Carlson, Caryn L.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate single and combined effects of stimulant medication and contingencies on the performance of ADHD children with tasks involving different cognitive demands. Method: Children diagnosed with ADHD participated in a within-subjects design. At two separate sessions, children on either medication or placebo (administered in a…

  14. Impulsivity and alcohol demand in relation to combined alcohol and caffeine use.

    PubMed

    Amlung, Michael; Few, Lauren R; Howland, Jonathan; Rohsenow, Damaris J; Metrik, Jane; MacKillop, James

    2013-12-01

    Problematic alcohol use among college students continues to be a prominent concern in the United States, including the growing trend of consuming caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs). Epidemiologically, CAB use is associated with incremental risks from drinking, although these relationships could be due to common predisposing factors rather than specifically due to CABs. This study investigated the relationship between CAB use, alcohol misuse, and person-level characteristics, including impulsive personality traits, delayed reward discounting, and behavioral economic demand for alcohol use. Participants were 273 regularly drinking undergraduate students. Frequency of CAB use was assessed over the past month. A multidimensional assessment of impulsivity included the UPPS-P questionnaire, which measures positive and negative urgency, premeditation (lack thereof), perseverance (lack thereof), and sensation seeking (Lynam, Smith, Whiteside, & Cyders, 2007), and a validated questionnaire-based measure of delayed reward discounting. Demand was assessed via a hypothetical alcohol purchase task. Frequency of CAB consumption was significantly higher in men than in women and was also associated with higher impulsivity on the majority of the UPPS-P subscales, steeper delayed reward discounting, and greater demand for alcohol. Significant correlations between CAB use and both alcohol demand and lack of premeditation remained present after including level of alcohol misuse in partial correlations. In a hierarchical linear regression incorporating demographic, demand, and impulsivity variables, CAB frequency continued to be a significant predictor of hazardous alcohol use. These results suggest that although there are significant associations between CAB consumption and gender, impulsivity, and alcohol demand, CAB use continues to be associated with alcohol misuse after controlling for these variables. PMID:24364537

  15. Traveling Wave Tube (TVT) RF Power Combining Demonstration for use in the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downey, Joseph A.

    2004-01-01

    The Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) is set to launch between the years 2012 and 2015. It will possibly utilize a nuclear reactor power source and ion engines as it travels to the moons of Jupiter. The nuclear reactor will produce hundreds of kilowatts of power for propulsion, communication and various scientific instruments. Hence, the RF amplification devices aboard will be able to operate at a higher power level and data rate. The initial plan for the communications system is for an output of 1000 watts of RF power, a data rate of at least 10 megabits a second, and a frequency of 32 GHz. A higher data rate would be ideal to fully utilize the instruments aboard JIMO. At NASA Glenn, one of our roles in the JIMO project is to demonstrate RF power combining using multiple traveling wave tubes (TWT). In order for the power of separate TWT s to be combined, the RF output waves from each must be in-phase and have the same amplitude. Since different tubes act differently, we had to characterize each tube using a Network Analyzer. We took frequency sweeps and power sweeps to characterize each tube to ensure that they will behave similarly under the same conditions. The 200 watt Dornier tubes had been optimized to run at a lower power level (120 watts) for their extensive use in the ACTS program, so we also had to experiment with adjusting the voltage settings on several internal components (helix, anode, collector) of the tubes to reach the full 200 watt potential. from the ACTS program. Phase shifters and power attenuators were placed in the waveguide circuit at the inputs to the tubes so that adjustments could be made individually to match them exactly. A magic tee was used to route and combine the amplified electromagnetic RF waves on the tube output side. The demonstration of 200 watts of combined power was successful with efficiencies greater than 90% over a 500 MHz bandwidth. The next step will be to demonstrate the use of three amplifiers using two magic tees by

  16. Traveling with breathing problems

    MedlinePlus

    Oxygen - travel; Collaped lung - travel; Chest surgery - travel; COPD - travel; Chronic obstructive airways disease - travel; Chronic obstructive lung disease - travel; Chronic bronchitis - travel; ...

  17. Connected Traveler

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, Alex

    2015-11-01

    The Connected Traveler project is a multi-disciplinary undertaking that seeks to validate potential for transformative transportation system energy savings by incentivizing efficient traveler behavior. This poster outlines various aspects of the Connected Traveler project, including market opportunity, understanding traveler behavior and decision-making, automation and connectivity, and a projected timeline for Connected Traveler's key milestones.

  18. Inversion of band-limited, downward continued multichannel seismic data by combination of travel-time and full waveform tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gras Andreu, Claudia; Estela Jiménez Tejero, Clara; Dagnino Vázquez, Daniel; Meléndez Catalán, Adrià; Sallarès Casas, Valentí; Rodríguez Ranero, César

    2016-04-01

    Seismic tomography methods and in particular full waveform inversion (FWI) of controlled source data are powerful tools to obtain accurate information of the physical properties of the subsurface. One of their main drawbacks is however the strong non-linearity of the problem, which makes the solution strongly dependent on the initial model and on the low frequency content of the data set. A common strategy to mitigate these issues is to combine the robustness of Travel Time Tomography (TTT) to obtain an appropriate reference model that is subsequently refined by FWI. This combined technique is often used for long-offset acquisition geometries, where refracted waves are present as first arrivals. Conversely, its application to streamer-type multichannel seismic (MCS) data is rare, because these data are intrinsically short offset so the presence of refractions is very limited. In this work we use synthetic data to show how the downward continuation (DC) or redatuming of the MCS data prior to TTT allows obtaining velocity models that can be then used as initial models for FWI even if data lack frequencies below 4 Hz. In summary, the proposed strategy consists of the following steps: 1) We compute the downward continued wavefield using a finite difference solution of the acoustic wave equation in time domain. The solver used for the propagation was developed by the Barcelona Centre for Subsurface Imaging (BCSI) and incorporates a mutli-shooting strategy necessary to back-propagate the wavefield and reduce the computational time. Our new datum level chosen corresponds to the bathymetry of the model. 2) We use the resultant DC MCS wavefield to identify the refracted phases (first arrivals) highlighted by the redatuming process and we invert them applying TTT. The resulting model, which has the low wavenumber information needed to reduce the non-linearity problems of the FWI, is then used as initial model to perform multi-scale FWI of the original MCS data starting at

  19. Measuring demand for flat water recreation using a two-stage/disequilibrium travel cost model with adjustment for overdispersion and self-selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKean, John R.; Johnson, Donn; Taylor, R. Garth

    2003-04-01

    An alternate travel cost model is applied to an on-site sample to estimate the value of flat water recreation on the impounded lower Snake River. Four contiguous reservoirs would be eliminated if the dams are breached to protect endangered Pacific salmon and steelhead trout. The empirical method applies truncated negative binomial regression with adjustment for endogenous stratification. The two-stage decision model assumes that recreationists allocate their time among work and leisure prior to deciding among consumer goods. The allocation of time and money among goods in the second stage is conditional on the predetermined work time and income. The second stage is a disequilibrium labor market which also applies if employers set work hours or if recreationists are not in the labor force. When work time is either predetermined, fixed by contract, or nonexistent, recreationists must consider separate prices and budgets for time and money.

  20. Illness in Returned Travellers

    PubMed Central

    Lawee, D.; Scappatura, P.; Gutman, E.

    1989-01-01

    Intercontinental travel is more common now than it has ever been before, and so are travel-related diseases. A thorough history and physical examination provide many clues to possible pathogens, particularly when combined with knowledge of the geographic distribution of specific diseases. Prompt diagnosis and proper treatment are imperative. PMID:21249095

  1. How tight are the limits to land and water use? - Combined impacts of food demand and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotze-Campen, H.; Lucht, W.; Müller, C.; Bondeau, A.; Smith, P.

    2005-08-01

    In the coming decades, world agricultural systems will face serious transitions. Population growth, income and lifestyle changes will lead to considerable increases in food demand. Moreover, a rising demand for renewable energy and biodiversity protection may restrict the area available for food production. On the other hand, global climate change will affect production conditions, for better or worse depending on regional conditions. In order to simulate these combined effects consistently and in a spatially explicit way, we have linked the Lund-Potsdam-Jena Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (LPJ) with a "Management model of Agricultural Production and its Impact on the Environment" (MAgPIE). LPJ represents the global biosphere with a spatial resolution of 0.5 degree. MAgPIE covers the most important agricultural crop and livestock production types. A prototype has been developed for one sample region. In the next stage this will be expanded to several economically relevant regions on a global scale, including international trade. The two models are coupled through a layer of productivity zones. In the paper we present the modelling approach, develop first joint scenarios and discuss selected results from the coupled modelling system.

  2. Travel medicine

    PubMed Central

    Aw, Brian; Boraston, Suni; Botten, David; Cherniwchan, Darin; Fazal, Hyder; Kelton, Timothy; Libman, Michael; Saldanha, Colin; Scappatura, Philip; Stowe, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To define the practice of travel medicine, provide the basics of a comprehensive pretravel consultation for international travelers, and assist in identifying patients who might require referral to travel medicine professionals. Sources of information Guidelines and recommendations on travel medicine and travel-related illnesses by national and international travel health authorities were reviewed. MEDLINE and EMBASE searches for related literature were also performed. Main message Travel medicine is a highly dynamic specialty that focuses on pretravel preventive care. A comprehensive risk assessment for each individual traveler is essential in order to accurately evaluate traveler-, itinerary-, and destination-specific risks, and to advise on the most appropriate risk management interventions to promote health and prevent adverse health outcomes during travel. Vaccinations might also be required and should be personalized according to the individual traveler’s immunization history, travel itinerary, and the amount of time available before departure. Conclusion A traveler’s health and safety depends on a practitioner’s level of expertise in providing pretravel counseling and vaccinations, if required. Those who advise travelers are encouraged to be aware of the extent of this responsibility and to refer all high-risk travelers to travel medicine professionals whenever possible. PMID:25500599

  3. Travelers' Diarrhea

    MedlinePlus

    ... or Zika Travel to the Olympics Infographic: Olympic Games in Brazil Olympics Freqently Asked Questions Find a ... Travelers Zika infographic: Enjoy Your Vacation Infographic: Olympic Games in Brazil Pack smart to prevent Zika Prevent ...

  4. Travelers' Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Citizens and Residents Living in Areas with Ongoing Zika Virus Transmission Guidelines for Travelers Visiting Friends and Family ... Vaccines. Medicines. Advice. Do you have questions about Zika virus or travel to the Olympics ? Destinations Who are ...

  5. Armchair Travels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    1994-01-01

    Includes ideas and activities for school library media specialists relating to vacationing and traveling, including the use of maps, travel brochures, travel diaries, postcards, videos, slides, and guest speakers. An annotated bibliography of 75 pertinent sources of information, including picture books, intermediate level, nonfiction,…

  6. Travelers' Health: Travel and Breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... providers should explain clearly to breastfeeding mothers the value of continuing breastfeeding during travel. For the first 6 months of life, exclusive breastfeeding is recommended. This is especially important during travel because exclusive breastfeeding means feeding only ...

  7. An analysis of short haul air passenger demand, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blumer, T. P.; Swan, W. M.

    1978-01-01

    Several demand models for short haul air travel are proposed and calibrated on pooled data. The models are designed to predict demand and analyze some of the motivating phenomena behind demand generation. In particular, an attempt is made to include the effects of competing modes and of alternate destinations. The results support three conclusions: (1) the auto mode is the air mode's major competitor; (2) trip time is an overriding factor in intermodal competition, with air fare at its present level appearing unimportant to the typical short haul air traveler; and (3) distance appears to underly several demand generating phenomena, and therefore, must be considered very carefully to any intercity demand model. It may be the cause of the wide range of fare elasticities reported by researchers over the past 15 years. A behavioral demand model is proposed and calibrated. It combines the travel generating effects of income and population, the effects of modal split, the sensitivity of travel to price and time, and the effect of alternative destinations satisfying the trip purpose.

  8. Come fly with me: review of clinically important arboviruses for global travelers.

    PubMed

    Cleton, Natalie; Koopmans, Marion; Reimerink, Johan; Godeke, Gert-Jan; Reusken, Chantal

    2012-11-01

    Western tourists are increasingly traveling to exotic locations often located in tropical or subtropical regions of the world. The magnitude of international travel and the constantly changing dynamics of arbovirus diseases across the globe demand up-to-date information about arbovirus threats to travelers and the countries they visit. In this review, the current knowledge on arbovirus threats to global travelers is summarized and prioritized per region. Based on most common clinical syndromes, currently known arboviruses can be grouped to develop diagnostic algorithms to support decision-making in diagnostics. This review systematically combines and structures the current knowledge on medically important travel-related arboviruses and illustrates the necessity of a detailed patient history (travel history, symptoms experienced, vaccination history, engaged activities, tick or mosquito bite and use of repellent and onset of symptoms), to guide the diagnosis.

  9. Monitoring the size and protagonists of the drug market: combining supply and demand data sources and estimates.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Carla

    2013-06-01

    The size of the illicit drug market is an important indicator to assess the impact on society of an important part of the illegal economy and to evaluate drug policy and law enforcement interventions. The extent of illicit drug use and of the drug market can essentially only be estimated by indirect methods based on indirect measures and on data from various sources, as administrative data sets and surveys. The combined use of several methodologies and data sets allows to reduce biases and inaccuracies of estimates obtained on the basis of each of them separately. This approach has been applied to Italian data. The estimation methods applied are capture-recapture methods with latent heterogeneity and multiplier methods. Several data sets have been used, both administrative and survey data sets. First, the retail dealer prevalence has been estimated on the basis of administrative data, then the user prevalence by multiplier methods. Using information about behaviour of dealers and consumers from survey data, the average amount of a substance used or sold and the average unit cost have been estimated and allow estimating the size of the drug market. The estimates have been obtained using a supply-side approach and a demand-side approach and have been compared. These results are in turn used for estimating the interception rate for the different substances in term of the value of the substance seized with respect to the total value of the substance to be sold at retail prices.

  10. Combined effects of compact cevelopment, transportation investments, and road user pricing on vehicle miles traveled in urbanized areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ewing, Reid; Hamidi, Shima; Gallivan, Frank; Nelson, Arthur C.; Grace, James B.

    2014-01-01

    Vehicle miles traveled (VMT) is the primary determinant of traffic congestion, vehicle crashes, greenhouse gas emissions, and other effects of transportation. Two previous studies have sought to explain VMT levels in urbanized areas. This study updates and expands on previous work with more recent data, additional metrics, and structural equation modeling (SEM) to explain VMT levels in 315 urbanized areas. According to SEM, population, income, and gasoline prices are primary exogenous drivers of VMT. Development density is a primary endogenous driver. Urbanized areas with more freeway capacity are significantly less dense and have significantly higher VMT per capita. Areas with more transit service coverage and service frequency have higher development densities and per capita transit use, which leads to lower VMT per capita. The indirect effect of transit on VMT through land use, the so-called land use multiplier, is more than three times greater than the direct effect through transit ridership.

  11. Travelers' thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Raymond V; Hudson, Martin F

    2014-02-01

    The suggestion that venous thromboembolism (VTE) is associated with air travel has for several decades been the subject of both "media hype" and extensive debate in the medical literature. As emotion and anecdote is often a feature in this debate, it is therefore necessary to separate evidence from anecdote. "Travelers' thrombosis" is a more appropriate term because the evidence suggests that any form of travel involving immobility lasting more than 4 h can predispose to thrombosis. There is no unique factor in the air travel cabin environment that has been shown to have any effect on the coagulation cascade. Prevention of thrombosis in any form of travel, including air travel, requires being aware of the issue and making an adequate risk assessment together with appropriate prophylactic measures.

  12. Travelers' thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Raymond V; Hudson, Martin F

    2014-02-01

    The suggestion that venous thromboembolism (VTE) is associated with air travel has for several decades been the subject of both "media hype" and extensive debate in the medical literature. As emotion and anecdote is often a feature in this debate, it is therefore necessary to separate evidence from anecdote. "Travelers' thrombosis" is a more appropriate term because the evidence suggests that any form of travel involving immobility lasting more than 4 h can predispose to thrombosis. There is no unique factor in the air travel cabin environment that has been shown to have any effect on the coagulation cascade. Prevention of thrombosis in any form of travel, including air travel, requires being aware of the issue and making an adequate risk assessment together with appropriate prophylactic measures. PMID:24597166

  13. Traveler's Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Giddings, Stanley L; Stevens, A Michal; Leung, Daniel T

    2016-03-01

    Traveler's diarrhea (TD) is the most common travel-related illness, and it can have a significant impact on the traveler. Pretravel consultation provides an excellent opportunity for the clinician to counsel the traveler and discuss strategies such as food and water hygiene, vaccinations, and medications for prophylaxis or self-treatment that may decrease the incidence and impact of TD. Postinfectious sequelae, such as postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome, reactive arthritis, and Guillain-Barre syndrome, may develop weeks or months after return. PMID:26900116

  14. Travelling diabetics.

    PubMed

    Chełmińska, Katarzyna; Jaremin, Bogdan

    2002-01-01

    During the past several decades, the number of both business and tourist travels has greatly increased. Among them are persons suffering from chronic diseases, including diabetics for whom travels pose the additional health-hazard. Irrespective of better education, self-control and constantly improving quality of specialistic equipment available, diabetics still are the group of patients requiring particular attention. In the case of travelling diabetics, problems may occur concerning the transport and storage of insulin, as well as control of glycaemia, all caused by irregularity of meals, variable diet, physical activity, stress, kinetosis (sea voyages), and the change of time zones. The travel may as well evoke ailments caused by the change of climate and concomitant diseases such as traveller's diarrhoea, malaria, etc. Apart from avoiding glycaemia fluctuations, important for retaining health of diabetics is the prevention of other diseases and carrying the necessary drugs.

  15. A neural network combined with a three-dimensional finite element method applied to optimize eddy current and temperature distributions of traveling wave induction heating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Youhua; Wang, Junhua; Ho, S. L.; Pang, Lingling; Fu, W. N.

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, neural networks with a finite element method (FEM) were introduced to predict eddy current distributions on the continuously moving thin conducting strips in traveling wave induction heating (TWIH) equipments. A method that combines a neural network with a finite element method (FEM) is proposed to optimize eddy current distributions of TWIH heater. The trained network used for tested examples shows quite good accuracy of the prediction. The results have then been used with reference to a double-side TWIH in order to analyze the distributions of the magnetic field and eddy current intensity, which accelerates the iterative solution process for the nonlinear coupled electromagnetic matters. The FEM computation of temperature converged conspicuously faster using the prediction results as initial values than using the zero values, and the number of iterations is reduced dramatically. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and characteristics of the proposed method.

  16. Transferring 2001 National Household Travel Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Patricia S; Reuscher, Tim; Schmoyer, Richard L; Chin, Shih-Miao

    2007-05-01

    Policy makers rely on transportation statistics, including data on personal travel behavior, to formulate strategic transportation policies, and to improve the safety and efficiency of the U.S. transportation system. Data on personal travel trends are needed to examine the reliability, efficiency, capacity, and flexibility of the Nation's transportation system to meet current demands and to accommodate future demand. These data are also needed to assess the feasibility and efficiency of alternative congestion-mitigating technologies (e.g., high-speed rail, magnetically levitated trains, and intelligent vehicle and highway systems); to evaluate the merits of alternative transportation investment programs; and to assess the energy-use and air-quality impacts of various policies. To address these data needs, the U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT) initiated an effort in 1969 to collect detailed data on personal travel. The 1969 survey was the first Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey (NPTS). The survey was conducted again in 1977, 1983, 1990, 1995, and 2001. Data on daily travel were collected in 1969, 1977, 1983, 1990 and 1995. In 2001, the survey was renamed the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) and it collected both daily and long-distance trips. The 2001 survey was sponsored by three USDOT agencies: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), and National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). The primary objective of the survey was to collect trip-based data on the nature and characteristics of personal travel so that the relationships between the characteristics of personal travel and the demographics of the traveler can be established. Commercial and institutional travel were not part of the survey. Due to the survey's design, data in the NHTS survey series were not recommended for estimating travel statistics for categories smaller than the combination of Census division (e.g., New England, Middle

  17. Traveling-wave photodetector

    DOEpatents

    Hietala, Vincent M.; Vawter, Gregory A.

    1993-01-01

    The traveling-wave photodetector of the present invention combines an absorptive optical waveguide and an electrical transmission line, in which optical absorption in the waveguide results in a photocurrent at the electrodes of the electrical transmission line. The optical waveguide and electrical transmission line of the electrically distributed traveling-wave photodetector are designed to achieve matched velocities between the light in the optical waveguide and electrical signal generated on the transmission line. This velocity synchronization provides the traveling-wave photodetector with a large electrical bandwidth and a high quantum efficiency, because of the effective extended volume for optical absorption. The traveling-wave photodetector also provides large power dissipation, because of its large physical size.

  18. Traveling-wave photodetector

    SciTech Connect

    Hietala, V.M.; Vawter, G.A.

    1992-12-31

    The traveling-wave photodetector of the present invention combines an absorptive optical waveguide and an electrical transmission line, in which optical absorption in the waveguide results in a photocurrent at the electrodes of the electrical transmission line. The optical waveguide and electrical transmission line of the electrically distributed traveling-wave photodetector are designed to achieve matched velocities between the light in the optical waveguide and electrical signal generated on the transmission line. This velocity synchronization provides the traveling-wave photodetector with a large electrical bandwidth and a high quantum efficiency, because of the effective extended volume for optical absorption. The traveling-wave photodetector also provides large power dissipation, because of its large physical size.

  19. Traveling-wave photodetector

    DOEpatents

    Hietala, V.M.; Vawter, G.A.

    1993-12-14

    The traveling-wave photodetector of the present invention combines an absorptive optical waveguide and an electrical transmission line, in which optical absorption in the waveguide results in a photocurrent at the electrodes of the electrical transmission line. The optical waveguide and electrical transmission line of the electrically distributed traveling-wave photodetector are designed to achieve matched velocities between the light in the optical waveguide and electrical signal generated on the transmission line. This velocity synchronization provides the traveling-wave photodetector with a large electrical bandwidth and a high quantum efficiency, because of the effective extended volume for optical absorption. The traveling-wave photodetector also provides large power dissipation, because of its large physical size. 4 figures.

  20. [Adventure travel].

    PubMed

    Beck, Bernhard R

    2013-06-01

    Extreme travelling experiences appear to be a quite popular kick offered by tourist operators and sought by some travellers. But some travellers expose themselves to increased risk also during normal holidays, either voluntarily by booking hikes or tours leading them to adventurous locations or to unexpectedly encountering dangerous situations. In planned adventures, precise information in advance, good physical condition, careful planning, and profound medical preparation may contribute to a less hazardous adventure. Advising medical persons may need an expert consultation for specific topics in order to optimise the preparation. Based on three specific environmental situations (jungle, desert, and cave) the specific conditions, dangers and some medical aspects are outlined. PMID:23732454

  1. TRAVEL FORECASTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauldin, L. E.

    1994-01-01

    Business travel planning within an organization is often a time-consuming task. Travel Forecaster is a menu-driven, easy-to-use program which plans, forecasts cost, and tracks actual vs. planned cost for business-related travel of a division or branch of an organization and compiles this information into a database to aid the travel planner. The program's ability to handle multiple trip entries makes it a valuable time-saving device. Travel Forecaster takes full advantage of relational data base properties so that information that remains constant, such as per diem rates and airline fares (which are unique for each city), needs entering only once. A typical entry would include selection with the mouse of the traveler's name and destination city from pop-up lists, and typed entries for number of travel days and purpose of the trip. Multiple persons can be selected from the pop-up lists and multiple trips are accommodated by entering the number of days by each appropriate month on the entry form. An estimated travel cost is not required of the user as it is calculated by a Fourth Dimension formula. With this information, the program can produce output of trips by month with subtotal and total cost for either organization or sub-entity of an organization; or produce outputs of trips by month with subtotal and total cost for international-only travel. It will also provide monthly and cumulative formats of planned vs. actual outputs in data or graph form. Travel Forecaster users can do custom queries to search and sort information in the database, and it can create custom reports with the user-friendly report generator. Travel Forecaster 1.1 is a database program for use with Fourth Dimension Runtime 2.1.1. It requires a Macintosh Plus running System 6.0.3 or later, 2Mb of RAM and a hard disk. The standard distribution medium for this package is one 3.5 inch 800K Macintosh format diskette. Travel Forecaster was developed in 1991. Macintosh is a registered trademark of

  2. Ultra High Power and Efficiency Space Traveling-Wave Tube Amplifier Power Combiner with Reduced Size and Mass for NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Wintucky, Edwin G.; Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Force, Dale A.

    2009-01-01

    In the 2008 International Microwave Symposium (IMS) Digest version of our paper, recent advances in high power and efficiency space traveling-wave tube amplifiers (TWTAs) for NASA s space-to-Earth communications are presented. The RF power and efficiency of a new K-Band amplifier are 40 W and 50 percent and that of a new Ka-Band amplifier are 200 W and 60 percent. An important figure-of-merit, which is defined as the ratio of the RF power output to the mass (W/kg) of a TWT, has improved by a factor of ten over the previous generation Ka-Band devices. In this extended paper, a high power, high efficiency Ka-band combiner for multiple TWTs, based on a novel hybrid magic-T waveguide circuit design, is presented. The measured combiner efficiency is as high as 90 percent. In addition, at the design frequency of 32.05 GHz, error-free uncoded BPSK/QPSK data transmission at 8 megabits per second (Mbps), which is typical for deep space communications is demonstrated. Furthermore, QPSK data transmission at 622 Mbps is demonstrated with a low bit error rate of 2.4x10(exp -8), which exceeds the deep space state-of-the-art data rate transmission capability by more than two orders of magnitude. A potential application of the TWT combiner is in deep space communication systems for planetary exploration requiring transmitter power on the order of a kilowatt or higher.

  3. Traveler's Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... water, boil it or use iodine tablets. Food poisoning can also be a risk. Eat only food that is fully cooked and served hot. Avoid unwashed or unpeeled raw fruits and vegetables. If you are traveling out of the country, ...

  4. Development and Evaluation of the Air Travel Stress Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bricker, Jonathan B.

    2005-01-01

    Despite anecdotal evidence suggesting that air travel is personally demanding, little research has examined air travel stress. To address these issues, the author developed and evaluated the 1st known measure of air travel stress-the Air Travel Stress Scale-in 3 studies. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis indicated 3 components: (a)…

  5. Further We Travel the Faster We Go

    PubMed Central

    Varga, Levente; Kovács, András; Tóth, Géza; Papp, István; Néda, Zoltán

    2016-01-01

    The average travelling speed increases in a nontrivial manner with the travel distance. This leads to scaling-like relations on quite extended spatial scales, for all mobility modes taken together and also for a given mobility mode in part. We offer a wide range of experimental results, investigating and quantifying this universal effect and its measurable causes. The increasing travelling speed with the travel distance arises from the combined effects of: choosing the most appropriate travelling mode; the structure of the travel networks; the travel times lost in the main hubs, starting or target cities; and the speed limit of roads and vehicles. PMID:26863605

  6. Further We Travel the Faster We Go.

    PubMed

    Varga, Levente; Kovács, András; Tóth, Géza; Papp, István; Néda, Zoltán

    2016-01-01

    The average travelling speed increases in a nontrivial manner with the travel distance. This leads to scaling-like relations on quite extended spatial scales, for all mobility modes taken together and also for a given mobility mode in part. We offer a wide range of experimental results, investigating and quantifying this universal effect and its measurable causes. The increasing travelling speed with the travel distance arises from the combined effects of: choosing the most appropriate travelling mode; the structure of the travel networks; the travel times lost in the main hubs, starting or target cities; and the speed limit of roads and vehicles.

  7. Further We Travel the Faster We Go.

    PubMed

    Varga, Levente; Kovács, András; Tóth, Géza; Papp, István; Néda, Zoltán

    2016-01-01

    The average travelling speed increases in a nontrivial manner with the travel distance. This leads to scaling-like relations on quite extended spatial scales, for all mobility modes taken together and also for a given mobility mode in part. We offer a wide range of experimental results, investigating and quantifying this universal effect and its measurable causes. The increasing travelling speed with the travel distance arises from the combined effects of: choosing the most appropriate travelling mode; the structure of the travel networks; the travel times lost in the main hubs, starting or target cities; and the speed limit of roads and vehicles. PMID:26863605

  8. Travelers' Health: Cruise Ship Travel

    MedlinePlus

    ... provider before travel. Passengers should practice good respiratory hygiene and cough etiquette. Passengers should report their respiratory ... from: http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/hygiene/ships/en/shipsancomp.pdf?ua=1 . Chapter 6 - ...

  9. Mental travel: some reservations.

    PubMed

    Richman, C L; Mitchell, D B; Reznick, J S

    1979-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess the extent of potential experimental demand characteristics inherent in the image-scanning paradigm. The results of the first "mental travel" experiment that pitted verbal versus imagery coding showed that (a) the positive correlation between physical distance and reaction time was replicated, and (b) when given a choice, subjects' reaction times varied as a function of verbal codes rather than imagery. To isolate the effects due to demand constraints from those produced by mode dominance, a nonexperiment in which subjects received only a description of the image-scanning procedure was conducted. Results demonstrated that subjects were capable of predicting the reaction time results for both verbal and imagery codes. The presence of experimental demand in the image-scanning paradigm necessitates caution when structural interpretations of visual images are considered.

  10. Plerixafor on-demand combined with chemotherapy and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor: significant improvement in peripheral blood stem cells mobilization and harvest with no increase in costs.

    PubMed

    Milone, Giuseppe; Martino, Massimo; Spadaro, Andrea; Leotta, Salvatore; Di Marco, Annalia; Scalzulli, Potito; Cupri, Alessandra; Di Martina, Valentina; Schinocca, Elena; Spina, Eleonora; Tripepi, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    To date, no prospective study on Plerixafor 'on-demand' in combination with chemotherapy and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) has been reported. We present an interim analysis of the first prospective study in which Plerixafor was administered on-demand in patients affected by multiple myeloma and lymphoma who received high dose cyclophosphamide or DHAP (dexamethasone, cytarabine, cisplatin) plus G-CSF to mobilize peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC). One hundred and two patients were evaluable for response. A cohort of 240 patients receiving the same mobilizing chemotherapy was retrospectively studied. Failure to mobilize CD34(+) cells in peripheral blood was reduced by 'on-demand' strategy compared to conventional mobilization; from 13·0 to 3·0% (P = 0·004). Failure to harvest CD34(+) cells 2 × 10(6) /kg decreased from 20·9 to 4·0% (P = 0·0001). The on-demand Plerixafor strategy also resulted in a lower rate of mobilization failure (P = 0·03) and harvest failure (P = 0·0008) when compared to a 'bias-adjusted set of controls'. Evaluation of economic costs of the two strategies showed that the overall cost of the two treatments were comparable when salvage mobilizations were taken into account. When in combination with cyclophosphamide or DHAP plus G-CSF, the 'on-demand' use of Plerixafor showed, in comparison to conventionally treated patients, a significant improvement in mobilization of PBSC with no increase in overall cost. PMID:24138497

  11. [Traveler's thrombosis].

    PubMed

    Riedel, M; Bohanes, V

    2002-08-01

    It is pathophysiologically conceivable that prolonged sitting in a tight space (e.g., in airplane or other transport vehicle) may lead to leg vein thrombosis. The association between the incidence of venous thromboembolism and long travel has not been sufficiently documented but seems probable. However, this association is only weak and the incidence of symptomatic thromboembolism much lower than the impression given by the recent publicity. In a healthy person, the risk of suffering a clinically relevant leg vein thrombosis solely because of a flight is extreme low. In persons with risk factors for venous thromboembolism, the flight represents an additional, as yet not quantifiable risk. This risk increases with the duration of the travel. The most important cause of thrombosis during long journeys seems to be venostasis due to relative immobilization. It is not clear whether flight travel represents a higher risk of thrombosis compared to other transport vehicles with comparable duration and immobilization. Until more exact information becomes available, it seems reasonable to recommend simple isometric and isotonic leg exercises during long travel. More aggressive measures must be considered for persons with risk factors for thromboembolism, but these measures should be individualized.

  12. HOME ENERGY SUPPLY-DEMAND ANALYSIS FOR COMBINED SYSTEM OF SOLAR HEAT COLLECTOR AND HEAT PUMP WATER HEATER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikegami, Takashi; Kataoka, Kazuto; Iwafune, Yumiko; Ogimoto, Kazuhiko

    In order to evaluate effectiveness of a combined system of solar heat collecctor (SHC) and heat pump water heater (HPWH), optimum operation scheduling moldel of domestic electric appliances using the mixed integer linear programming was enhanced. Applying this model with one house data in Tokyo, it was found that the combined system of the SHC and the HPWH has the enough energy-saving and CO2 emission reduction potential under the existing electricity late and the operation method of the HPWH. Furthermore, the calculation results under the future system show that the combined system of the SHC and the HPWH has also the reduction effect of reverse power flow from residential photovoltaic system.

  13. Combined energy production and waste management in manned spacecraft utilizing on-demand hydrogen production and fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elitzur, Shani; Rosenband, Valery; Gany, Alon

    2016-11-01

    Energy supply and waste management are among the most significant challenges in human spacecraft. Great efforts are invested in managing solid waste, recycling grey water and urine, cleaning the atmosphere, removing CO2, generating and saving energy, and making further use of components and products. This paper describes and investigates a concept for managing waste water and urine to simultaneously produce electric and heat energies as well as fresh water. It utilizes an original technique for aluminum activation to react spontaneously with water at room temperature to produce hydrogen on-site and on-demand. This reaction has further been proven to be effective also when using waste water and urine. Applying the hydrogen produced in a fuel cell, one obtains electric energy as well as fresh (drinking) water. The method was compared to the traditional energy production technology of the Space Shuttle, which is based on storing the fuel cell reactants, hydrogen and oxygen, in cryogenic tanks. It is shown that the alternative concept presented here may provide improved safety, compactness (reduction of more than one half of the volume of the hydrogen storage system), and management of waste liquids for energy generation and drinking water production. Nevertheless, it adds mass compared to the cryogenic hydrogen technology. It is concluded that the proposed method may be used as an emergency and backup power system as well as an additional hydrogen source for extended missions in human spacecraft.

  14. Travellers' diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Arduino, R C; DuPont, H L

    1993-06-01

    Although TD is usually a mild and self-limited illness, 30-50% of travellers from industrialized to less developed countries are affected. Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) remain the most frequent cause, being identified in 40-70% of cases. TD frequently occurs within the first 2 weeks of arrival in the foreign country. The clinical manifestation is variable, but watery diarrhoea is the most common clinical presentation. Chronic diarrhoea or remitting symptoms after empirical therapy in the returning traveller are indications for a stool culture and a careful search for stool parasites. Since the major precaution against TD is to avoid exposure to the infectious agents, careful selection of food and beverage is crucial. Bismuth subsalicylate has been proven to be safe and effective in the treatment and prophylaxis of TD. The tablet form has removed the inconvenience of previously required luggage space. Doxycycline, trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole, trimethoprim and the quinolones have been shown to be effective for prevention of diarrhoea. However, side-effects, superinfection, development of antibiotic resistance and easy-to-treat illness may limit the use of these antimicrobial agents to those travellers with concomitant serious medical conditions that would be adversely affected by diarrhoea, or travellers with unaffordable temporary incapacity. A new oral-killed whole-cell and B-subunit cholera toxin vaccine was demonstrated to induce protection against severe ETEC-associated diarrhoea. This is a promising field under investigation. Finally, fluid replacement is the most important aspect of treatment. Patients with moderate to severe TD can be treated with one of the above-mentioned antimicrobial agents for 3-5 days. Selection of the antimicrobial agent is based on the pattern of resistance and the enteric organism prevalent in the geographical area. While TMP-SMX remains active against the strains prevalent in Mexico during summertime, the quinolones represent

  15. [Immunocompromised travelers].

    PubMed

    Delmont, J; Igo-Kemenes, A; Peyron, F; Ruiz, J M; Moreau, J; Bourgeade, A

    1997-01-01

    More and more immunocompromised people travel abroad especially in tropical countries where infectious risks are high. Before leaving, these subjects must consult their general practitioner who will determine their fitness in function of type of immunodeficiency, travel destination, availability of medical care at the destination, and possibility of medical evacuation. Counseling should also be provided concerning the precautions necessary to avoid the hazards of exposure to fecal material, venereal disease, insect bites, and sun. Antimalarial drug prophylaxis is the same as for uncompromised subjects. Advising immunocompromised subjects about vaccinations is difficult since there is no consensus on the subject. Administration of inert vaccines is usually recommended but their effectiveness is often diminished and harmful effects have been observed in HIV-infected subjects. Administration of live vaccines is always contraindicated in severely immunocompromised subjects but some live vaccines can be used in moderately immunocompromised subjects. The guidelines for vaccination differ depending on the underlying cause of immunodeficiency: congenital defects, cancer, hemopathy, treatment with immunosuppressors or corticosteroids (transplant patients and patients with systemic disease), HIV-infection, or spleen dysfunction. If there is a high risk of contracting a disease for which vaccination is contraindicated, drug prophylaxis or administration of immunoglobulins can be an alternative. If not, travel should either be postponed or the destination should be changed.

  16. Travel Medical Kit.

    PubMed

    Terry, Anne C; Haulman, N Jean

    2016-03-01

    "The traveler's medical kit is an essential tool for both the novice and expert traveler. It is designed to treat travel-related illness and injury and to ensure preexisting medical conditions are managed appropriately. Travelers are at increased risk for common gastrointestinal issues during travel. Respiratory illnesses make up approximately 8% of the ailments present in returned international travelers. Approximately 12% of travelers experience a travel-related skin condition. First aid treatment for minor injuries is essential to all travel medical kits. The complexity ranges from a small, simple case for the urban traveler to a larger, extensive case for wilderness travel." PMID:26900112

  17. Assessing regional crop water demand using a satellite-based combination equation with a land surface temperature component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyano, Maria Carmen; Garcia, Monica; Tornos, Lucia; Recuero, Laura; Palacios-Orueta, Alicia; Juana, Luis

    2015-04-01

    Quantification of daily evapotranspiration at regional levels is fundamental for improving agricultural and hydrological management, especially in water-scarce and climatic change vulnerable regions, like the Mediterranean basin. Regional estimates of daily crop evapotranspiration (ET) have been historically based on combination equations, such as Penman-Monteith or Priestley-Taylor, forced with weather-data inputs. However, the requirements for long term in-situ data, limit the application of such traditional approaches and algorithms using satellite-data without field calibrations bridge this gap by estimating long-term ET at the pixel level from local to global scales. Land surface temperature is a key variable tracking land surface moisture status. However, it has not been included in satellite ET approaches based on combination equations. In this study, a land surface temperature component was used to estimate soil surface conductance based on an apparent thermal inertia index. A process-based model was applied to estimate surface energy fluxes including daily ET based on a modified version of the Priestley-Taylor Jet Propulsion Laboratory (PT-JPL) model at 1km pixel resolution during a chrono-sequence spanning for more than a decade (2002-2013). The thermal-PT-JPL model was forced with vegetation, albedo, reflectance and temperature products from the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) from both Aqua and Terra satellites. The study region, B-XII Irrigation District of the Lower Guadalquivir, is one of the largest irrigated areas in Spain but it has scarce in-situ micrometeorological or eddy covariance data. The final aim of this study is to evaluate the thermal version of PT-JPL model versus a lumped hydrological model to assess crop evapotranspiration deficits and long-term water consumption trends in the area. The results showed that the thermal-PT-JPL model is a suitable and simple tool requiring only air temperature and incoming solar

  18. Network Structure and Travel Time Perception

    PubMed Central

    Parthasarathi, Pavithra; Levinson, David; Hochmair, Hartwig

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to test the systematic variation in the perception of travel time among travelers and relate the variation to the underlying street network structure. Travel survey data from the Twin Cities metropolitan area (which includes the cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul) is used for the analysis. Travelers are classified into two groups based on the ratio of perceived and estimated commute travel time. The measures of network structure are estimated using the street network along the identified commute route. T-test comparisons are conducted to identify statistically significant differences in estimated network measures between the two traveler groups. The combined effect of these estimated network measures on travel time is then analyzed using regression models. The results from the t-test and regression analyses confirm the influence of the underlying network structure on the perception of travel time. PMID:24204932

  19. Network structure and travel time perception.

    PubMed

    Parthasarathi, Pavithra; Levinson, David; Hochmair, Hartwig

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to test the systematic variation in the perception of travel time among travelers and relate the variation to the underlying street network structure. Travel survey data from the Twin Cities metropolitan area (which includes the cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul) is used for the analysis. Travelers are classified into two groups based on the ratio of perceived and estimated commute travel time. The measures of network structure are estimated using the street network along the identified commute route. T-test comparisons are conducted to identify statistically significant differences in estimated network measures between the two traveler groups. The combined effect of these estimated network measures on travel time is then analyzed using regression models. The results from the t-test and regression analyses confirm the influence of the underlying network structure on the perception of travel time.

  20. Vaccinations for international travellers travelling from Greece.

    PubMed

    Pavli, Androula; Spilioti, Athina; Lymperi, Ioanna; Katerelos, Panagiotis; Maltezou, Helena C

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this prospective, questionnaire-based study is to assess pre-travel vaccinations for international travellers who receive pre-travel advice in Greece. A total of 2494 travellers were studied from January 1, 2009 through December 31, 2010. Travellers sought pre-travel advice at a median of 16 days (range: 0-349 days) before departure. Sub-Saharan Africa was the most common destination (34.7%). Most travellers (60.8%) travelled for <1 month, for recreation purposes (58.9%), stayed in hotels (65.3%), and in urban areas (53.6%). Yellow fever, tetravalent meningococcal, typhoid fever, cholera, and rabies vaccines were administered to 1629 (65.3%), 666 (26.7%), 615 (24.7%), 28 (1.1%), and/or 12 (0.5%) travellers, respectively. Of those who received Yellow fever vaccine, 737 (45.2%) travelled to sub-Saharan Africa, 332 (20.4%) travelled to South America, 949 (58.3%) stayed for short term, and 762 (46.8%) stayed in urban areas. Of the 1629 travellers vaccinated against Yellow fever, 150 (9.2%) and 226 (13.8%) travelled to areas of sub-Saharan Africa and South America respectively, where the vaccine is not or generally not recommended. Of those travellers who received meningococcal vaccine, 327 (49.1%) travelled to the Middle East for the Hajj, 251 (29%) travelled to sub-Saharan Africa, 410 (61.6%) for short term, and 540 (64.4%) stayed in urban areas. Of those travellers who received typhoid vaccine, 241 (39.2%) travelled to sub-Saharan Africa, 78 (12.7%) to the Indian subcontinent, 234 (38%) for short term, and 419 (68.1%) stayed in urban areas. Regarding routine vaccines, tetanus-diphtheria, poliomyelitis, and measles-mumps-rubella vaccines were administered to 707 (28.3%), 639 (25.6%) and/or 149 (6%) travellers, respectively. Of those to whom poliomyelitis vaccine was recommended, 295 (46.2%) and 137 (21.4%) travelled to sub-Saharan Africa and the Middle East, respectively, and 362 (56.7%) travelled for short term. In conclusion, this study revealed that

  1. Understanding congested travel in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çolak, Serdar; Lima, Antonio; González, Marta C.

    2016-03-01

    Rapid urbanization and increasing demand for transportation burdens urban road infrastructures. The interplay of number of vehicles and available road capacity on their routes determines the level of congestion. Although approaches to modify demand and capacity exist, the possible limits of congestion alleviation by only modifying route choices have not been systematically studied. Here we couple the road networks of five diverse cities with the travel demand profiles in the morning peak hour obtained from billions of mobile phone traces to comprehensively analyse urban traffic. We present that a dimensionless ratio of the road supply to the travel demand explains the percentage of time lost in congestion. Finally, we examine congestion relief under a centralized routing scheme with varying levels of awareness of social good and quantify the benefits to show that moderate levels are enough to achieve significant collective travel time savings.

  2. Understanding congested travel in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Çolak, Serdar; Lima, Antonio; González, Marta C

    2016-01-01

    Rapid urbanization and increasing demand for transportation burdens urban road infrastructures. The interplay of number of vehicles and available road capacity on their routes determines the level of congestion. Although approaches to modify demand and capacity exist, the possible limits of congestion alleviation by only modifying route choices have not been systematically studied. Here we couple the road networks of five diverse cities with the travel demand profiles in the morning peak hour obtained from billions of mobile phone traces to comprehensively analyse urban traffic. We present that a dimensionless ratio of the road supply to the travel demand explains the percentage of time lost in congestion. Finally, we examine congestion relief under a centralized routing scheme with varying levels of awareness of social good and quantify the benefits to show that moderate levels are enough to achieve significant collective travel time savings.

  3. Understanding congested travel in urban areas

    PubMed Central

    Çolak, Serdar; Lima, Antonio; González, Marta C.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid urbanization and increasing demand for transportation burdens urban road infrastructures. The interplay of number of vehicles and available road capacity on their routes determines the level of congestion. Although approaches to modify demand and capacity exist, the possible limits of congestion alleviation by only modifying route choices have not been systematically studied. Here we couple the road networks of five diverse cities with the travel demand profiles in the morning peak hour obtained from billions of mobile phone traces to comprehensively analyse urban traffic. We present that a dimensionless ratio of the road supply to the travel demand explains the percentage of time lost in congestion. Finally, we examine congestion relief under a centralized routing scheme with varying levels of awareness of social good and quantify the benefits to show that moderate levels are enough to achieve significant collective travel time savings. PMID:26978719

  4. Understanding congested travel in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Çolak, Serdar; Lima, Antonio; González, Marta C

    2016-01-01

    Rapid urbanization and increasing demand for transportation burdens urban road infrastructures. The interplay of number of vehicles and available road capacity on their routes determines the level of congestion. Although approaches to modify demand and capacity exist, the possible limits of congestion alleviation by only modifying route choices have not been systematically studied. Here we couple the road networks of five diverse cities with the travel demand profiles in the morning peak hour obtained from billions of mobile phone traces to comprehensively analyse urban traffic. We present that a dimensionless ratio of the road supply to the travel demand explains the percentage of time lost in congestion. Finally, we examine congestion relief under a centralized routing scheme with varying levels of awareness of social good and quantify the benefits to show that moderate levels are enough to achieve significant collective travel time savings. PMID:26978719

  5. The Traveler with Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Willen, Shaina M.; Thornburg, Courtney D.; Lantos, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sickle cell disease (SCD) is the most common genetic disease among persons with African ancestry. This article provides a background on SCD and reviews many important aspects of travel preparation in this population. Methods The medical literature was searched for studies about travel-associated preparedness and complications in individuals with SCD. Topics researched included malaria, bacterial infections, vaccinations, dehydration, altitude, air travel, and travel preparedness. Results There is very little published literature that specifically addresses the risks faced by travelers with SCD. Rates of medical complications during travel appear to be high. There is a body of literature that describes complications of SCD in indigenous populations, particularly within Africa. The generalizability of these data to a traveler are uncertain. Combining these sources of data and the broader medical literature we address major travel-related questions that may face a provider preparing an individual with SCD for safe travel. Conclusions Travelers with SCD face considerable medical risks when traveling to developing tropical countries; these include malaria, bacterial infections, hypovolemia, and sickle cell-associated vaso-occlusive crises. Frank counseling about risks, vigilant preventative measures, and contingency planning for illness while abroad are necessary parts of the pre-travel visit for individuals with SCD. PMID:24947546

  6. Travelers' Health: Water Disinfection for Travelers

    MedlinePlus

    ... be superior to tap water. Moreover, the plastic bottles create an ecological problem, since most developing countries do not recycle plastic bottles. All international travelers, especially long-term travelers or ...

  7. Business travelers: vaccination considerations for this population.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin H; Leder, Karin; Wilson, Mary E

    2013-04-01

    Illness in business travelers is associated with reduced productivity on the part of the employee as well as the employer. Immunizations offer a reliable method of preventing infectious diseases for international business travelers. The authors review the travel patterns of business travelers, available data on illnesses they encounter, their potential travel-associated risks for vaccine-preventable diseases and recommendations on immunizations for this population. Routine vaccines (e.g., measles, tetanus and influenza) should be reviewed to assure that they provide current coverage. The combined hepatitis A and hepatitis B vaccine with a rapid schedule offers options for those with time constraints. Other vaccine recommendations for business travelers need to focus on their destinations and activities and underlying health, taking into account the concept of cumulative risk for those with frequent travel, multiple trips or long stays.

  8. Business travelers: vaccination considerations for this population.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin H; Leder, Karin; Wilson, Mary E

    2013-04-01

    Illness in business travelers is associated with reduced productivity on the part of the employee as well as the employer. Immunizations offer a reliable method of preventing infectious diseases for international business travelers. The authors review the travel patterns of business travelers, available data on illnesses they encounter, their potential travel-associated risks for vaccine-preventable diseases and recommendations on immunizations for this population. Routine vaccines (e.g., measles, tetanus and influenza) should be reviewed to assure that they provide current coverage. The combined hepatitis A and hepatitis B vaccine with a rapid schedule offers options for those with time constraints. Other vaccine recommendations for business travelers need to focus on their destinations and activities and underlying health, taking into account the concept of cumulative risk for those with frequent travel, multiple trips or long stays. PMID:23560925

  9. Traveling-Wave Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kory, Carol L.

    1998-01-01

    The traveling-wave tube (TWT) is a vacuum device invented in the early 1940's used for amplification at microwave frequencies. Amplification is attained by surrendering kinetic energy from an electron beam to a radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic wave. The demand for vacuum devices has been decreased largely by the advent of solid-state devices. However, although solid state devices have replaced vacuum devices in many areas, there are still many applications such as radar, electronic countermeasures and satellite communications, that require operating characteristics such as high power (Watts to Megawatts), high frequency (below 1 GHz to over 100 GHz) and large bandwidth that only vacuum devices can provide. Vacuum devices are also deemed irreplaceable in the music industry where musicians treasure their tube-based amplifiers claiming that the solid-state and digital counterparts could never provide the same "warmth" (3). The term traveling-wave tube includes both fast-wave and slow-wave devices. This article will concentrate on slow-wave devices as the vast majority of TWTs in operation fall into this category.

  10. POTENTIAL FOR NITROSAMINE FORMATION RESULTING FROM THE USE OF RHODAMINE WT FOR TIME-OF-TRAVEL STUDIES: A COMBINED LABORATORY AND FIELD INVESTIGATION.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Sharon M.; Steinheimer, Thomas R.

    1984-01-01

    Rhodamine WT is used by surface water hydrologists for time of travel and dispersion studies in which flow characteristics of surface streams are determined. Surface water contamination by nitrosamines formed from Rhodamine WT and nitrite ion has been studied. A method for residue analysis of N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) has been developed and evaluated using river samples spiked with Rhodamine WT and nitrite ion. It permits rapid and reliable determination of NDEA at a minimum concentration of 0. 03 mu g/L. The method uses solid-phase extraction and capillary gas chromatography.

  11. Childhood and Travel Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espey, David

    If children are not present in most travel literature--precisely because the genre has most typically been the domain of solitary male travelers who are escaping domestic obligation, routine, the familiar, and the family--they nevertheless are an integral part of the genre. The traveler is in many ways a child, an innocent abroad. Traveler writers…

  12. Combined assessment and regulation on ecological land use and water demand of the river system: a case study in Luanhe River, North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, D. H.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Qin, T. L.

    2011-10-01

    With economic and social development, ecological water and land use of the river system were seriously misappropriated, which resulted in overall degradation of the river systems. In this study, theoretical and technical frameworks of regionalisation on the eco-environmental function of the river systems were preliminarily formulated. According to the river eco-environmental functions, Luanhe River was regionalised into four types of first-class functional areas, i.e., ecological preservation areas, habitat restoration areas, ecological buffer areas and development and utilisation areas. Combined with the main functions of all functional areas, ecological land use of the river system in Luanhe River was assessed and planned. The total area of basic ecological land use was 876.98 km2; that of restrictive ecological land use was 1745.52 km2; that of ecological land use of the river system returned from farmland was 284.25 km2; and that returned from construction land was 17.35 km2. Combined with prototype observation experiments, the average minimum ecological flow of mainstreams in upper and middle reaches of the Luanhe River was 4.896 m3 s-1 with the habitat method. The evaporation and seepage consumption of the river system in Luanhe River and vegetation consumption in riparian zones were about 133 million m3 and 145 million m3 per year, respectively. Downwards from the Panjiakou-Daheiting Reservoir system, the mainstream of the Luanhe River was the crucial reach for regulation on instream ecological water use. It was required to speed up ecological land use planning of the river system and strengthen the regulation of ecological water use in important lower reaches of the Luanhe River under the condition of competitive water demand.

  13. Travel-related illness.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Carol C

    2013-06-01

    Travel abroad for business and pleasure should be safe and meaningful for the traveler. To assure that safe experience, certain processes should be considered before travel. A thorough pretravel health assessment will offer patients and health care providers valuable information for anticipatory guidance before travel. The destination-based risk assessment will help determine the risks involved in travel to specific locations and guide in the development of contingency plans for all travelers, especially those with chronic conditions. Diseases are more prevalent overseas, and immunizations and vaccinations are all important considerations for persons traveling abroad.

  14. Traveling-wave thermoacoustic electric generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backhaus, S.; Tward, E.; Petach, M.

    2004-08-01

    Traveling-wave thermoacoustic heat engines have been demonstrated to convert high-temperature heat to acoustic power with high efficiency without using moving parts. Electrodynamic linear alternators and compressors have demonstrated high acoustic-to-electric transduction efficiency as well as long maintenance-free lifetimes. By optimizing a small-scale traveling-wave thermoacoustic engine for use with an electrodynamic linear alternator, we have created a traveling-wave thermoacoustic electric generator; a power conversion system suitable for demanding applications such as electricity generation aboard spacecraft.

  15. Traveling light

    SciTech Connect

    Tirello, E.J. Jr. )

    1993-07-01

    Today's electric utility industry has come a long way from its staid roots. Conceived as a completely regulated monopoly, the industry matured in a sheltered environment where competition was unknown. Utilities were basically construction/engineering companies that built new generation to meet their customers' ever-growing demands. In 1978 the Public Utilities Regulatory Policy Act came along and everything began to change. Only now, some 15 years later, is the industry finally beginning to realize that competition is not only here to stay, but is growing rapidly, accelerated by the National Energy Policy Act, which opened the doors to transmission access. Now any legitimate power generator can request that a utility open its transmission lines to move that power. To a great extent, the utility must comply. In a nutshell, companies must meet this competitive threat by cutting costs and squeezing margins to lower their rates. But in many cases lower system rates will not be enough, since a neighboring utility might be able to steal a customer by offering power from a specific plant at below-average cost. Competition comes not only from neighboring utilities, but from equally threatening independent power producers (IPPS) that can [open quotes]cherry-pick[close quotes] to serve more attractive loads. As a result, many utilities in the later 1980s looked to grow earnings by diversifying. The IPP industry held particular attraction. After all, it was a business utilities knew well and the potential returns (with the favorable capital structure) were well in excess of those allowed by regulators. This led to a wave of non-utility subsidiary creation that has yet to ebb. More utilities are joining the ranks every day; within the next few years two-thirds of electric utilities will likely have an IPP subsidiary. While transmission access tightens the competitive screws at home, it also opens the door to opportunity abroad.

  16. Forecasting the demand potential for STOL air transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, S.; Horonjeff, R.; Kanafani, A.; Mogharabi, A.

    1973-01-01

    A process for predicting the potential demand for STOL aircraft was investigated to provide a conceptual framework, and an analytical methodology for estimating the STOL air transportation market. It was found that: (1) schedule frequency has the strongest effect on the traveler's choice among available routes, (2) work related business constitutes approximately 50% of total travel volume, and (3) air travel demand follows economic trends.

  17. Home range and travels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.; King, John A.

    1968-01-01

    . Peromyscus generally used and maintained several or many different home sites and refuges in various parts of their home ranges, and frequently shifted about so that their principal activities centered on different sets of holes at different times. Once established, many Peromyscus remained in the same general area for a long time, perhaps for the duration of their lives. Extent of their travels in different directions and intensity of use of different portions of their home ranges varied within a general area in response to habitat changes, loss of neighbors, or other factors. Various authors have obtained both direct and indirect evidence of territoriality, in some degree, among certain species of Peromyscus. Young mice dispersed from their birth sites to establish home ranges of their own. Adults also sometimes left their home areas; some re-established elsewhere; others returned after exploratory travels. Most populations contained a certain proportion of transients; these may have been wanderers or individuals exploring out from established home ranges or seeking new ones. When areas were depopulated by removal trapping, other Peromyscus invaded. Invasion rates generally followed seasonal trends of reproduction and population density. Peromyscus removed from their home areas and released elsewhere returned home from various distances, but fewer returned from greater distances than from nearby; speed of return increased with successive trials. The consensus from present evidence is that ho-ming is made possible by a combination of random wandering and familiarity with a larger area than the day-to-day range. Records of juvenile wanderings during the dispersal phase and of adult explorations very nearly encompassed the distances over which any substantial amount of successful homing occurred. Methods of measuring sizes of home ranges and the limitations of these measurements were discussed in brief synopsis. It was co

  18. Rabies in travelers.

    PubMed

    Gautret, Philippe; Parola, Philippe

    2014-03-01

    Most cases of rabies in travelers are associated with dog bites and occur in adults who are commonly migrants. The incidence of injuries to travelers caused by potentially rabid animals is approximately 0.4 % per month of stay. Dogs account for 51 % of cases, but nonhuman primates are the leading animals responsible for injuries in travelers returning from Southeast Asia. Travel to Southeast Asia, India and North Africa, young age, and traveling for tourism are risk factors for potential exposure. More than 70 % of travelers are not immunized prior to departing and do not receive adequate care when injured. The intradermal vaccination route has been proven economical, safe and immunogenic in travelers. The immunity provided by the three-dose series is long-lasting and should be considered an investment for future travel. Abbreviated schedules may be used for last-minute travelers. PMID:24562541

  19. Development of variable pathlength UV-vis spectroscopy combined with partial-least-squares regression for wastewater chemical oxygen demand (COD) monitoring.

    PubMed

    Chen, Baisheng; Wu, Huanan; Li, Sam Fong Yau

    2014-03-01

    To overcome the challenging task to select an appropriate pathlength for wastewater chemical oxygen demand (COD) monitoring with high accuracy by UV-vis spectroscopy in wastewater treatment process, a variable pathlength approach combined with partial-least squares regression (PLSR) was developed in this study. Two new strategies were proposed to extract relevant information of UV-vis spectral data from variable pathlength measurements. The first strategy was by data fusion with two data fusion levels: low-level data fusion (LLDF) and mid-level data fusion (MLDF). Predictive accuracy was found to improve, indicated by the lower root-mean-square errors of prediction (RMSEP) compared with those obtained for single pathlength measurements. Both fusion levels were found to deliver very robust PLSR models with residual predictive deviations (RPD) greater than 3 (i.e. 3.22 and 3.29, respectively). The second strategy involved calculating the slopes of absorbance against pathlength at each wavelength to generate slope-derived spectra. Without the requirement to select the optimal pathlength, the predictive accuracy (RMSEP) was improved by 20-43% as compared to single pathlength spectroscopy. Comparing to nine-factor models from fusion strategy, the PLSR model from slope-derived spectroscopy was found to be more parsimonious with only five factors and more robust with residual predictive deviation (RPD) of 3.72. It also offered excellent correlation of predicted and measured COD values with R(2) of 0.936. In sum, variable pathlength spectroscopy with the two proposed data analysis strategies proved to be successful in enhancing prediction performance of COD in wastewater and showed high potential to be applied in on-line water quality monitoring.

  20. Travel fosters tool use in wild chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Thibaud; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Neumann, Christof

    2016-01-01

    Ecological variation influences the appearance and maintenance of tool use in animals, either due to necessity or opportunity, but little is known about the relative importance of these two factors. Here, we combined long-term behavioural data on feeding and travelling with six years of field experiments in a wild chimpanzee community. In the experiments, subjects engaged with natural logs, which contained energetically valuable honey that was only accessible through tool use. Engagement with the experiment was highest after periods of low fruit availability involving more travel between food patches, while instances of actual tool-using were significantly influenced by prior travel effort only. Additionally, combining data from the main chimpanzee study communities across Africa supported this result, insofar as groups with larger travel efforts had larger tool repertoires. Travel thus appears to foster tool use in wild chimpanzees and may also have been a driving force in early hominin technological evolution. PMID:27431611

  1. Travelers' Health: Leishmaniasis, Visceral

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Infected travelers should be advised to consult an infectious disease or tropical medicine specialist. Therapy for VL should ...

  2. Travelers' Health: HIV Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... 448-4911 ( www.nccc.ucsf.edu ). HIV TESTING REQUIREMENTS FOR US TRAVELERS ENTERING FOREIGN COUNTRIES International travelers ... extended stay should review that country’s policies and requirements. This information is usually available from the consular ...

  3. Zika Travel Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... Citizens and Residents Living in Areas with Ongoing Zika Virus Transmission Guidelines for Travelers Visiting Friends and Family ... with Zika . For the most current information about Zika virus, please visit CDC’s Zika website . Traveling soon? Get ...

  4. Demanding Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oguntoyinbo, Lekan

    2010-01-01

    It was the kind of crisis most universities dread. In November 2006, a group of minority student leaders at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) threatened to sue the university if administrators did not heed demands that included providing more funding for multicultural student groups. This article discusses how this threat…

  5. Market and energy demand analysis of a US maglev system

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, A.D.; Rote, D.M.

    1993-01-01

    High-speed magnetically levitated (maglev) vehicles can provide an alternative mode of transportation for intercity travel, particularly for short- and medium-distance trips between 100 to 600 mi (160 and 960 km). The patterns of growth and the underlying factors affecting that growth In the year 2010 are evaluated to determine the magnitude of US Intercity travel that would become the basis for maglev demand. A methodology that is sensitive to the travelers' socioeconomic attributes was developed to Forecast intercity travel. Travel between 78 major metropolitan areas by air and highway modes is projected, and 12 high-density travel corridors are Identified and selected. The potential for a maglev system to substitute for part or that travel is calculated by using a model that estimates the extent of diversion from highway and air to maglev. Energy demand is estimated on the basis of energy usage during acceleration and cruise phases for each corridor and corridor connections.

  6. Market and energy demand analysis of a US maglev system

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, A.D.; Rote, D.M.

    1993-06-01

    High-speed magnetically levitated (maglev) vehicles can provide an alternative mode of transportation for intercity travel, particularly for short- and medium-distance trips between 100 to 600 mi (160 and 960 km). The patterns of growth and the underlying factors affecting that growth In the year 2010 are evaluated to determine the magnitude of US Intercity travel that would become the basis for maglev demand. A methodology that is sensitive to the travelers` socioeconomic attributes was developed to Forecast intercity travel. Travel between 78 major metropolitan areas by air and highway modes is projected, and 12 high-density travel corridors are Identified and selected. The potential for a maglev system to substitute for part or that travel is calculated by using a model that estimates the extent of diversion from highway and air to maglev. Energy demand is estimated on the basis of energy usage during acceleration and cruise phases for each corridor and corridor connections.

  7. Travel Agent Course Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    Written for college entry-level travel agent training courses, this course outline can also be used for inservice training programs offered by travel agencies. The outline provides information on the work of a travel agent and gives clear statements on what learners must be able to do by the end of their training. Material is divided into eight…

  8. Air Travel Health Tips

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Air Travel Health Tips Air Travel Health Tips How can I improve plane travel? Most people don't have any problems when ... and dosages of all of your medicines. The air in airplanes is dry, so drink nonalcoholic, decaffeinated ...

  9. The Jet Travel Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2007-01-01

    Airplane travelers are dismayed by the long lines and seemingly chaotic activities that precede boarding a full airplane. Surely, the one who can solve this problem is going to make many travelers happy. This article describes the Jet Travel Challenge, an activity that challenges students to create some alternatives to this now frustrating…

  10. Observational Study of Travelers' Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Meuris

    1995-03-01

    Background: European air travelers returning from Algeria, Egypt, Mexico, Morocco, and Tunisia were interviewed about their experience of travelers' diseases upon arrival in Brussels. Diarrhea was mentioned by 37% of the adults and 27% of the children. These subjects were questioned about the types of measures taken, type and duration of drug treatment (if any), and about duration of diarrhea and side effects experienced. Methods: Final analysis was performed based on 2160 interviews. The largest proportion of diarrhea was reported in the age group 15-24 years (46%). Results: The majority of the 2160 subjects had opted for drug treatment (81%): 927 subjects for loperamide alone, 235 for loperamide in combination with nifuroxazide, and 178 for nifuroxazide alone. Other drugs had been used less frequently. The median time to recovery was 2.4 days with loperamide compared to 3.2 days with nifuroxazide and to 3.4 days for the no-treatment group. Conclusions: A stratification of the results by severity of the diarrhea suggests a rank of antidiarrheal potency as follows: loperamide > nifuroxazide > no-drug treatment. The side effect with the highest incidence was constipation (2.4% with loperamide). (J Travel Med 2:11-15, 1995) Travelers' diarrhea is usually defined as the passage of at least three unformed stools per day or any number of such stools when accompanied by fever, abdominal cramping, or vomiting. The definition may be broadened to include more trivial bowel disturbance.1,2 The duration of this self-limited disease generally is 3 to 5 days. Medical intervention aims at shortening the duration of disease, thus allowing the sufferer to resume his or her usual activities at an early stage. A shortened period of recovery to physical well-being has obvious favorable economic implications if the traveler is on business and may help the maintenance of a desired level of quality of life while a traveler is on holiday. An observational study of various medical

  11. Internet Offenders: Traders, Travelers, and Combination Trader-Travelers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexy, Eileen M.; Burgess, Ann W.; Baker, Timothy

    2005-01-01

    The Internet opens a vast array of communication, entertainment, and educational resources for children; however, it also opens a gateway to home and school for offenders who wish to exploit children. A convenience sample of 225 cases published in the news media was examined. The cases were classified using law enforcement terminology to describe…

  12. Schistosomiasis in Travelers and Expatriates.

    PubMed

    Jelinek; Nothdurft; Löscher

    1996-09-01

    Background: Several outbreaks of schistosomiasis among travelers, expatriates, and military serviceman have been reported in recent years. Methods: The travel histories and anamnestic and clinical features of 62 patients with schistosomiasis, who presented to a German outpatient clinic specializing in infectious and tropical diseases, were investigated to identify risk factors that could lead to infection in travelers and expatriates. Results: All patients remembered incidents that led to a likely exposure to cercariae of Schistosoma sp. Fifty nine patients (95%) acquired infection in Africa, two (3%) in South America, and one each (2% each) in Iraq and the Mekong River, respectively. The highest proportion of infection (45%) was imported from West Africa. Patients returning from West Africa reported either contact with tributaries of the Niger (including freshwater pools in the Dogon country, Mali) or with waters of the Volta River, notably Lake Volta and/or its delta. Six patients (10%) acquired infection in little-visited areas such as Central Africa and the Congo Basin. East Africa (especially Lake Victoria) and Lake Malawi contributed 14 patients (22%) to our study group; a further nine patients (14%) became infected after contact with waters of the Zambezi River. Conclusions: The most sensitive method for detection of possible infection with schistosomiasis appeared to be a combination of thorough travel history and serologic testing by indirect hemagglutination (IHA), immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Most infections were acquired by travelers on lengthy and adventurous journeys or by expatriates venturing outside their normal areas of activity. Most patients knew that they had traveled in an area endemic for schistosomiasis, but were uninformed about behavioral risks they had taken in specific settings. PMID:9815445

  13. Schistosomiasis in Travelers and Expatriates.

    PubMed

    Jelinek; Nothdurft; Löscher

    1996-09-01

    Background: Several outbreaks of schistosomiasis among travelers, expatriates, and military serviceman have been reported in recent years. Methods: The travel histories and anamnestic and clinical features of 62 patients with schistosomiasis, who presented to a German outpatient clinic specializing in infectious and tropical diseases, were investigated to identify risk factors that could lead to infection in travelers and expatriates. Results: All patients remembered incidents that led to a likely exposure to cercariae of Schistosoma sp. Fifty nine patients (95%) acquired infection in Africa, two (3%) in South America, and one each (2% each) in Iraq and the Mekong River, respectively. The highest proportion of infection (45%) was imported from West Africa. Patients returning from West Africa reported either contact with tributaries of the Niger (including freshwater pools in the Dogon country, Mali) or with waters of the Volta River, notably Lake Volta and/or its delta. Six patients (10%) acquired infection in little-visited areas such as Central Africa and the Congo Basin. East Africa (especially Lake Victoria) and Lake Malawi contributed 14 patients (22%) to our study group; a further nine patients (14%) became infected after contact with waters of the Zambezi River. Conclusions: The most sensitive method for detection of possible infection with schistosomiasis appeared to be a combination of thorough travel history and serologic testing by indirect hemagglutination (IHA), immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Most infections were acquired by travelers on lengthy and adventurous journeys or by expatriates venturing outside their normal areas of activity. Most patients knew that they had traveled in an area endemic for schistosomiasis, but were uninformed about behavioral risks they had taken in specific settings.

  14. Student Travel: Policies - Regulations - Exhibits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trujillo, Lorenzo A.; And Others

    The Jefferson County (Colorado) Public Schools' regulations and policies concerning student travel covers these forms of travel: student activity travel, extended student travel, district sponsored student travel, district authorized student travel, student exchange, and bonus learning trips. Issues and items addressed include: (1) authorization…

  15. Travel and the emergence of infectious diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, M. E.

    1995-01-01

    Travel is a potent force in the emergence of disease. Migration of humans has been the pathway for disseminating infectious diseases throughout recorded history and will continue to shape the emergence, frequency, and spread of infections in geographic areas and populations. The current volume, speed, and reach of travel are unprecedented. The consequences of travel extend beyond the traveler to the population visited and the ecosystem. When they travel, humans carry their genetic makeup, immunologic sequelae of past infections, cultural preferences, customs, and behavioral patterns. Microbes, animals, and other biologic life also accompany them. Today's massive movement of humans and materials sets the stage for mixing diverse genetic pools at rates and in combinations previously unknown. Concomitant changes in the environment, climate, technology, land use, human behavior, and demographics converge to favor the emergence of infectious diseases caused by a broad range of organisms in humans, as well as in plants and animals. PMID:8903157

  16. Travel and the emergence of infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Mary E

    2004-01-01

    Travel is a potent force in the emergence of disease. Migration of humans has been the pathway for disseminating infectious diseases throughout recorded history and will continue to shape the emergence, frequency, and spread of infections in geographic areas and populations. The current volume, speed, and reach of travel are unprecedented. The consequences of travel extend beyond the traveler to the population visited and the ecosystem. When they travel, humans carry their genetic makeup, immunologic sequelae of past infections, cultural preferences, customs, and behavioral patterns. Microbes, animals, and other biologic life also accompany them. Today's massive movement of humans and materials sets the stage for mixing diverse genetic pools at rates and in combinations previously unknown. Concomitant changes in the environment, climate, technology, land use, human behavior, and demographics converge to favor the emergence of infectious diseases caused by a broad range of organisms in humans, as well as in plants and animals. PMID:19785214

  17. Nonlinear refraction and reflection travel time tomography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, Jiahua; ten Brink, U.S.; Toksoz, M.N.

    1998-01-01

    We develop a rapid nonlinear travel time tomography method that simultaneously inverts refraction and reflection travel times on a regular velocity grid. For travel time and ray path calculations, we apply a wave front method employing graph theory. The first-arrival refraction travel times are calculated on the basis of cell velocities, and the later refraction and reflection travel times are computed using both cell velocities and given interfaces. We solve a regularized nonlinear inverse problem. A Laplacian operator is applied to regularize the model parameters (cell slownesses and reflector geometry) so that the inverse problem is valid for a continuum. The travel times are also regularized such that we invert travel time curves rather than travel time points. A conjugate gradient method is applied to minimize the nonlinear objective function. After obtaining a solution, we perform nonlinear Monte Carlo inversions for uncertainty analysis and compute the posterior model covariance. In numerical experiments, we demonstrate that combining the first arrival refraction travel times with later reflection travel times can better reconstruct the velocity field as well as the reflector geometry. This combination is particularly important for modeling crustal structures where large velocity variations occur in the upper crust. We apply this approach to model the crustal structure of the California Borderland using ocean bottom seismometer and land data collected during the Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment along two marine survey lines. Details of our image include a high-velocity zone under the Catalina Ridge, but a smooth gradient zone between. Catalina Ridge and San Clemente Ridge. The Moho depth is about 22 km with lateral variations. Copyright 1998 by the American Geophysical Union.

  18. Cybermediation in the Tourism and Travel Industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Killion, Les

    Travel and tourism are second only to pornography in adopting Internet-based technologies to intermediate between those supplying the total travel experience, and those seeking to satisfy leisure needs by engaging in tourism. From Thomas Cook in the 1800s, traditional ‘travel trade networks’ have provided the components of the travel experience: transport, accommodation and attractions. However, the Internet has encouraged customer self-service, and on-going debate regarding the future of traditional travel trade intermediaries. The intermediation debate suggests the emergence of ‘hybrid’ intermediation systems combining customer self-service with face-to-face customer contacts characteristic of traditional travel agents. A focus group investigation identified profiles and motives of customers using the Internet to make holiday arrangements. Potential cost savings are a primary motivation for customer self-service. Using the Internet for travel and tourism is becoming commonplace among older travellers as well as younger people. In gathering information before making holiday decisions, potential tourists also engage in a Web 2.0 environment where family and friends, not established intermediaries, provide reliable and authentic information via their individual blogs.

  19. [Vaccination for international travelers].

    PubMed

    Arrazola, M Pilar; Serrano, Almudena; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2016-05-01

    Traveler's vaccination is one of the key strategies for the prevention of infectious diseases during international travel. The risk of acquiring an infectious disease is determined in each case by the characteristics of the traveler and the travel, so the pre-departure medical advice of the traveler must be individualized. The World Health Organization classifies travelerś vaccines into three groups. - Vaccines for routine use in national immunization programs: Haemophilus influenzae type b, hepatitis B, polio, measles-mumps-rubella, tetanus-diphtheria-whooping a cough, and chickenpox. - Vaccinations required by law in certain countries before to enter them: yellow fever, meningococcal disease and poliomyelitis. - Vaccines recommended depending on the circumstances: cholera, japanese encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis, meningococcal disease, typhoid fever, influenza, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, rabies and BCG. This review is intended to introduce the reader to the field of international vaccination.

  20. [Vaccination for international travelers].

    PubMed

    Arrazola, M Pilar; Serrano, Almudena; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2016-05-01

    Traveler's vaccination is one of the key strategies for the prevention of infectious diseases during international travel. The risk of acquiring an infectious disease is determined in each case by the characteristics of the traveler and the travel, so the pre-departure medical advice of the traveler must be individualized. The World Health Organization classifies travelerś vaccines into three groups. - Vaccines for routine use in national immunization programs: Haemophilus influenzae type b, hepatitis B, polio, measles-mumps-rubella, tetanus-diphtheria-whooping a cough, and chickenpox. - Vaccinations required by law in certain countries before to enter them: yellow fever, meningococcal disease and poliomyelitis. - Vaccines recommended depending on the circumstances: cholera, japanese encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis, meningococcal disease, typhoid fever, influenza, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, rabies and BCG. This review is intended to introduce the reader to the field of international vaccination. PMID:26920587

  1. Travel trends and energy

    SciTech Connect

    Corsi, T.M.; Harvey, M.E.

    1980-04-01

    Available data sources are utilized to construct scenarios of adjustment patterns in vacation/recreation travel as affected by both past and prospective fuel price and availability developments. The increases in gasoline prices coupled with supply uncertainties that occurred during the 1970's have strained the traditional vacation patterns of many U.S. households. New travel patterns will prompt changes in the location of outdoor recreation centers/ such centers will be located closer to major population centers to shorten travel time.

  2. Prevention of traveler's diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Tellier, R; Keystone, J S

    1992-06-01

    Preventing traveler's diarrhea is usually a matter of common sense, good luck, and the host's ability to defend against enteric pathogens, particularly enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Untreated tap water, ice cubes, unpasteurized milk products, salads, food from street vendors, and dining in unhygienic-appearing restaurants should be avoided. Well-cooked food that is served hot and carbonated, commercially bottled beverages are usually safe. Food and water precautions, however, are no guarantee of success in preventing traveler's diarrhea. Bismuth subsalicylate used prophylactically is somewhat inconvenient and is only moderately effective. Although antibiotic prophylaxis is very effective for traveler's diarrhea, particularly the quinolones, it should be reserved for high-risk travelers. PMID:1624780

  3. Malaria Risk in Travelers

    PubMed Central

    Askling, Helena Hervius; Nilsson, Jenny; Tegnell, Anders; Janzon, Ragnhild

    2005-01-01

    Imported malaria has been an increasing problem in several Western countries in the last 2 decades. To calculate the risk factors of age, sex, and travel destination in Swedish travelers, we used data from the routine reporting system for malaria (mixture of patients with and without adequate prophylaxis), a database on travel patterns, and in-flight or visa data on Swedish travelers of 1997 to 2003. The crude risk for travelers varied from 1 per 100,000 travelers to Central America and the Caribbean to 357 per 100,000 in central Africa. Travelers to East Africa had the highest adjusted odds ratio (OR = 341; 95% confidence intervals [CI] 134–886) for being reported with malaria, closely followed by travelers to central Africa and West Africa. Male travelers as well as children <1–6 years of age had a higher risk of being reported with malaria (OR = 1,7; 95% CI 1.3–2.3 and OR = 4,8; 95%CI 1.5–14.8) than women and other age groups. PMID:15757560

  4. [Travel and venous thromboembolism].

    PubMed

    Hallundbæk Mikkelsen, Kristian; Knudsen, Stine Ulrik; Nannestad Jørgensen, Lars

    2013-10-28

    A literature study on the association between travel and venous thromboembolism (VTE) is conducted. Studies examining the risk of travel-associated VTE, predisposing factors and prophylactic measures are presented. It is concluded that the absolute risk of travel-associated VTE is low and holds a 2-4 fold increase after travel. The risk increases with duration, presence of other risk factors for VTE and extremes of height. Stockings reduces the risk of asymptomatic VTE. Heparin is presumed to constitute protection whereas there is no evidence of a prophylactic effect of acetylsalicylic acid.

  5. Pre-Travel Medical Preparation of Business and Occupational Travelers

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Nomana M.; Jentes, Emily S.; Brown, Clive; Han, Pauline; Rao, Sowmya R.; Kozarsky, Phyllis; Hagmann, Stefan H.F.; LaRocque, Regina C.; Ryan, Edward T.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to understand more about pre-travel preparations and itineraries of business and occupational travelers. Methods: De-identified data from 18 Global TravEpiNet clinics from January 2009 to December 2012 were analyzed. Results: Of 23,534 travelers, 61% were non-occupational and 39% occupational. Business travelers were more likely to be men, had short times to departure and shorter trip durations, and commonly refused influenza, meningococcal, and hepatitis B vaccines. Most business travelers indicated that employers suggested the pre-travel health consultation, whereas non-occupational travelers sought consultations because of travel health concerns. Conclusions: Sub-groups of occupational travelers have characteristic profiles, with business travelers being particularly distinct. Employers play a role in encouraging business travelers to seek pre-travel consultations. Such consultations, even if scheduled immediately before travel, can identify vaccination gaps and increase coverage. PMID:26479857

  6. Studies in the demand for short haul air transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanafani, A.; Gosling, G.; Taghavi, S.

    1975-01-01

    Demand is analyzed in a short haul air transportation corridor. Emphasis is placed on traveler selection from available routes. Model formulations, estimation techniques, and traffic data handling are included.

  7. Minimizing travel claims cost with minimal-spanning tree model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamalluddin, Mohd Helmi; Jaafar, Mohd Azrul; Amran, Mohd Iskandar; Ainul, Mohd Sharizal; Hamid, Aqmar; Mansor, Zafirah Mohd; Nopiah, Zulkifli Mohd

    2014-06-01

    Travel demand necessitates a big expenditure in spending, as has been proven by the National Audit Department (NAD). Every year the auditing process is carried out throughout the country involving official travel claims. This study focuses on the use of the Spanning Tree model to determine the shortest path to minimize the cost of the NAD's official travel claims. The objective is to study the possibility of running a network based in the Kluang District Health Office to eight Rural Clinics in Johor state using the Spanning Tree model applications for optimizing travelling distances and make recommendations to the senior management of the Audit Department to analyze travelling details before an audit is conducted. Result of this study reveals that there were claims of savings of up to 47.4% of the original claims, over the course of the travel distance.

  8. An Analysis of the Demand for and Value of Outdoor Recreation in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergstrom, John C.; Cordell, H. Ken

    1991-01-01

    Results of a study of demand equations for 37 outdoor recreational activities using a multicommunity, multisite travel cost model suggest that determinants of the demand for outdoor recreation include population, residence, income, age, price, quality, and recreational opportunity substitutes. (JD)

  9. Modeling the Demand for Outdoor Recreation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendelsohn, Robert

    1987-05-01

    This paper critically reviews several of the new methodologies developed in the last 10 years to model the demand for recreation. There are three competing approaches to modeling heterogeneous recreation sites: partitioning, hedonic, and index models. Partitioning involves grouping sites into small homogeneous sets and treating each set as a unique good (multiple-site travel cost models). Hedonic involves disaggregating goods into their component characteristics and modeling the prices and demands for the characteristics (hedonic property value and the hedonic travel cost method). The index models involve measuring choices among limited alternatives using an index of characteristics (generalized travel cost, gravity, and discrete choice models). Although much work has been done on each method, limitations are noted with each approach, and additional research needs are identified.

  10. Understanding taxi travel patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Hua; Zhan, Xiaowei; Zhu, Ji; Jia, Xiaoping; Chiu, Anthony S. F.; Xu, Ming

    2016-09-01

    Taxis play important roles in modern urban transportation systems, especially in mega cities. While providing necessary amenities, taxis also significantly contribute to traffic congestion, urban energy consumption, and air pollution. Understanding the travel patterns of taxis is thus important for addressing many urban sustainability challenges. Previous research has primarily focused on examining the statistical properties of passenger trips, which include only taxi trips occupied with passengers. However, unoccupied trips are also important for urban sustainability issues because they represent potential opportunities to improve the efficiency of the transportation system. Therefore, we need to understand the travel patterns of taxis as an integrated system, instead of focusing only on the occupied trips. In this study we examine GPS trajectory data of 11,880 taxis in Beijing, China for a period of three weeks. Our results show that taxi travel patterns share similar traits with travel patterns of individuals but also exhibit differences. Trip displacement distribution of taxi travels is statistically greater than the exponential distribution and smaller than the truncated power-law distribution. The distribution of short trips (less than 30 miles) can be best fitted with power-law while long trips follow exponential decay. We use radius of gyration to characterize individual taxi's travel distance and find that it does not follow a truncated power-law as observed in previous studies. Spatial and temporal regularities exist in taxi travels. However, with increasing spatial coverage, taxi trips can exhibit dual high probability density centers.

  11. Air travel and pneumothorax.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaowen; Cowl, Clayton T; Baqir, Misbah; Ryu, Jay H

    2014-04-01

    The number of medical emergencies onboard aircraft is increasing as commercial air traffic increases and the general population ages, becomes more mobile, and includes individuals with serious medical conditions. Travelers with respiratory diseases are at particular risk for in-flight events because exposure to lower atmospheric pressure in a pressurized cabin at cruising altitude may result in not only hypoxemia but also pneumothorax due to gas expansion within enclosed pulmonary parenchymal spaces based on Boyle's law. Risks of pneumothorax during air travel pertain particularly to those patients with cystic lung diseases, recent pneumothorax or thoracic surgery, and chronic pneumothorax. Currently available guidelines are admittedly based on sparse data and include recommendations to delay air travel for 1 to 3 weeks after thoracic surgery or resolution of the pneumothorax. One of these guidelines declares existing pneumothorax to be an absolute contraindication to air travel although there are reports of uneventful air travel for those with chronic stable pneumothorax. In this article, we review the available data regarding pneumothorax and air travel that consist mostly of case reports and retrospective surveys. There is clearly a need for additional data that will inform decisions regarding air travel for patients at risk for pneumothorax, including those with recent thoracic surgery and transthoracic needle biopsy. PMID:24687705

  12. [Vaccinations for international travelers].

    PubMed

    Berens-Riha, N; Alberer, M; Löscher, T

    2014-03-01

    Vaccinations are a prominent part of health preparations before international travel. They can avoid or significantly reduce the risk of numerous infectious diseases. Until recently, vaccination against yellow fever was the only obligatory vaccination. However, according to updated international health regulations, other vaccinations and prophylactic measures may be required at entry from certain countries. For all routine vaccinations as recommended in Germany, necessary revaccination and catch-up of missed vaccinations should be administered before travel. At most destinations the risk of infection is higher than in Germany. Hepatitis A vaccine is generally recommended for travelers to areas of increased risk, polio vaccine for all destinations where eradication is not yet confirmed (Asia and Africa). The indications for other travel vaccines must take into consideration travel destination and itinerary, type and duration of travel, individual risk of exposure as well as the epidemiology of the disease to be prevented. Several vaccines of potential interest for travel medicine, e.g., new vaccines against malaria and dengue fever, are under development.

  13. Air travel and pneumothorax.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaowen; Cowl, Clayton T; Baqir, Misbah; Ryu, Jay H

    2014-04-01

    The number of medical emergencies onboard aircraft is increasing as commercial air traffic increases and the general population ages, becomes more mobile, and includes individuals with serious medical conditions. Travelers with respiratory diseases are at particular risk for in-flight events because exposure to lower atmospheric pressure in a pressurized cabin at cruising altitude may result in not only hypoxemia but also pneumothorax due to gas expansion within enclosed pulmonary parenchymal spaces based on Boyle's law. Risks of pneumothorax during air travel pertain particularly to those patients with cystic lung diseases, recent pneumothorax or thoracic surgery, and chronic pneumothorax. Currently available guidelines are admittedly based on sparse data and include recommendations to delay air travel for 1 to 3 weeks after thoracic surgery or resolution of the pneumothorax. One of these guidelines declares existing pneumothorax to be an absolute contraindication to air travel although there are reports of uneventful air travel for those with chronic stable pneumothorax. In this article, we review the available data regarding pneumothorax and air travel that consist mostly of case reports and retrospective surveys. There is clearly a need for additional data that will inform decisions regarding air travel for patients at risk for pneumothorax, including those with recent thoracic surgery and transthoracic needle biopsy.

  14. Traveling baseball players' problem in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Hyang Min; Kim, Sang-Woo; Choi, Younguk; Kim, Aaram J.; Eun, Jonghyoun; Kim, Beom Jun

    2012-08-01

    We study the so-called traveling tournament problem (TTP) to find an optimal tournament schedule. Differently from the original TTP, in which the total travel distance of all the participants is the objective function to minimize, we instead seek to maximize the fairness of the round robin tournament schedule of the Korean Baseball League. The standard deviation of the travel distances of teams is defined as the energy function, and the Metropolis Monte-Carlo method combined with the simulated annealing technique is applied to find the ground-state configuration. The resulting tournament schedule is found to satisfy all the constraint rules set by the Korean Baseball Organization, but with drastically increased fairness in traveling distances.

  15. An Evaluation of a Progressive High-Probability Instructional Sequence Combined with Low-Probability Demand Fading in the Treatment of Food Selectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penrod, Becky; Gardella, Laura; Fernand, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have examined the effects of the high-probability instructional sequence in the treatment of food selectivity, and results of these studies have been mixed (e.g., Dawson et al., 2003; Patel et al., 2007). The present study extended previous research on the high-probability instructional sequence by combining this procedure with…

  16. [Travel destinations South America].

    PubMed

    Neumayr, Andreas

    2013-06-01

    The number of tourists visiting South America comprises only a small fraction of the worldwide stream of international travellers (approx. 980 Mio. in 2011). Nevertheless, their number has markedly increased in the last years (2000: 15.3 Mio.; 2005: 18.3 Mio.; 2010: 23.6 Mio.; 2011: 26.1 Mio.) and in 2011, South America was ranked top in the list of worldwide travel destinations with the highest increase in annual international tourist arrivals (10.4 %)[1]. This article aims at providing a practice-oriented overview on vaccinations, malaria prophylaxis, and other relevant health risks to be considered when counselling travellers visiting South America.

  17. Regional recreation demand and benefits model

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, R.J.

    1983-03-01

    This report describes a regional recreation demand and benefits model that is used to estimate recreation demand and value (consumers' surplus) of four activities at each of 195 sites in Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and western Montana. The recreation activities considered are camping, fishing, swimming, and boating. The model is a generalization of the single-site travel-cost method of estimating a recreation demand curve to virtually an unlimited number of sites. The major components of the analysis include the theory of recreation benefits, a travel-cost recreation demand curve, and a gravity model of regional recreation travel flows. Existing recreation benefits are estimated for each site in the region and for each activity. Recreation benefits of improved water quality in degraded rivers and streams in the Pacific Northwest are estimated on a county basis for Washington, Oregon, and Idaho. Although water quality is emphasized, the model has the capability of estimating demand and value for new or improved recreation sites at lakes, streams, or reservoirs.

  18. [The elderly traveler].

    PubMed

    Brousse, G

    1997-01-01

    An elderly traveler in good health is the same as any other traveler. However before departure elderly subjects should make sure that the proposed schedule of activities is compatible with their physical abilities. Medical counseling should be sought to determine that there are no conflicting health problems or physical impediments. Destination, itinerary, and transportation should selected accordingly. Immunization records should be checked and the main vaccination requirements for elderly subjects should be updated. To avoid running short of any prescribed mediation, an adequate supply for the whole trip must be packed. If air travel is planned, advice should be given on avoiding dehydration and thromboembolism. During his stay at the destination and especially in tropical areas, the subject should get adequate rest and guard against dehydration by drinking sufficiently, protecting against heat exposure, and controlling diarrhea promptly. Using these precautions, elderly subjects can travel as safely as possible.

  19. Travelers' Health: Rubella

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ) ...

  20. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis C

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... American Association for Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD), Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA). Recommendations for testing, managing, ...

  1. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis E

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ) ...

  2. Travelers' Health: Cryptosporidiosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ) ...

  3. Travelers' Health: Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ) ...

  4. Travelers' Health: Japanese Encephalitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ) ...

  5. Travelers' Health: Tickborne Encephalitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ) ...

  6. Travelers' Health: Diphtheria

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ) ...

  7. Travelers' Health: Mumps

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ) ...

  8. Travelers' Health: Giardiasis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Gabriel PS, Alonso M, et al. Prevalence of infectious diseases among internationally adopted children. Pediatrics. 2001 Sep 3; ...

  9. Travelers' Health: Varicella (Chickenpox)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Red Book: 2012 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. 29th ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy ...

  10. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis B

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ) ...

  11. Travelers' Health: Pertussis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Red Book: 2012 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. 29th ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy ...

  12. Travelers' Health: Coccidioidomycosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ) ...

  13. Travelers' Health: Meningococcal Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Red Book: 2012 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. 29th ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy ...

  14. Travelers' Health: Scabies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Red Book: 2012 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. 29th ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy ...

  15. Travelers' Health: Yellow Fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ) ...

  16. Space Traveler Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructor, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Describes the winners of the Space Traveler Project, a contest jointly sponsored by Rockwell International, NASA, and this magazine to identify worthwhile elementary science programs relating to the Space Shuttle. (SJL)

  17. Pregnancy and travel

    MedlinePlus

    ... a day. Always wear your seatbelt. Place the lap belt under your belly and across your hips so ... breasts and across your shoulder. Always wear the lap shoulder seat belt strap when traveling while pregnant. If you have ...

  18. [Diabetes and travel].

    PubMed

    Bauduceau, B; Mayaudon, H; Ducorps, M; Belmejdoub, G; Thiolet, C; Pellan, M; Cosson, E

    1997-01-01

    With the continuing expansion in international air travel, increasing numbers of diabetic patients consult physicians for advice before going abroad. Careful planning is required taking into account climatic and medical conditions at the destination. Diabetic travelers should pack an appropriate treatment kit and contract special insurance coverage for medical evacuation. Precautions are necessary to limit the effects of motion sickness and time differences on diabetes control and especially the risk of hypoglycemia. Special attention is needed to avoid digestive problems and prevent foot injuries which can lead to serious complications in diabetic patients. Diabetic patients cannot forget their health problem during vacation and must be especially cautious when traveling. However with proper training, the risks of foreign travel can be reduced to acceptable levels.

  19. Traveling Space Museum

    NASA Video Gallery

    In an effort to inspire and motivate the next generation of space explorers, NASA’s Ames Research Center teamed up with the Traveling Space Museum to teach students the way astronauts are taughtâ...

  20. Travel Inside the Ear

    MedlinePlus

    ... Menu Home Health Info Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Balance Taste and Smell Voice, Speech, and Language ... here Home » Health Info » Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Travel Inside the Ear Video When sound waves ...

  1. Traveling Wave Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kluger-Bell, Barry

    1995-01-01

    Describes a traveling-wave demonstration that uses inexpensive materials (crepe-paper streamers) and is simple to assemble and perform. Explains how the properties of light waves are illustrated using the demonstration apparatus. (LZ)

  2. Travel during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... of pregnancy. If you are planning an international flight, the cutoff point for traveling with international airlines ... up and stretch your legs during a long flight. Avoid gas-producing foods and carbonated drinks before ...

  3. Advice to Travelers

    PubMed Central

    Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

    1975-01-01

    Travelers, particularly those whose tastes or occupations lead to deviation from the usual tourist routes, are at a small but significant risk of acquiring certain diseases they would be unlikely to encounter had they remained in the continental United States. Many of these infections can be rendered unlikely even for the most adventuresome traveler through the appropriate use of immunization and chemoprophylaxis. Other infections are currently unpreventable and the physician's responsibility lies in their premorbid detection. PMID:1154779

  4. The Traveling Microbiome.

    PubMed

    Riddle, Mark S; Connor, Bradley A

    2016-09-01

    Given the recent interest in the human gut microbiome in health and disease, we have undertaken a review of the role of the gut microbiome as it relates to travel. Considering the microbiome as the interface with the external world of the traveler, not only from the perspective of protection from enteric infection by colonization resistance but also the possibility that a traveler's unique microbiome may place him or her at lesser or greater risk for enteric infection. We review available data on travel, travelers' diarrhea, and the use of antibiotics as it relates to changes in the microbiome and the acquisition of multi-drug-resistant bacteria and explore the interplay of these factors in the development of dysbiosis and the post-infectious sequelae of TD, specifically PI-IBS. In addition, we explore whether dietary changes in travel affect the gut microbiome in a way which modulates gastrointestinal function and susceptibility to infection and discuss whether pre- or probiotics have any meaningful role in prevention or treatment of TD. Finally, a discussion of important research gaps and opportunities in this area is identified. PMID:27447891

  5. [Travel thrombosis, 2008].

    PubMed

    Sándor, Tamás

    2009-01-18

    In Hungary, the first studies on travel thrombosis were published at the beginning of the 2000s. In this paper recent investigational results of this special type of venous thrombosis have been reviewed. Travel thrombosis is a subgroup of sitting thromboses. It is a consequence of prolonged sitting which is common of ground transportation and air travel. More and more computer-linked sitting thromboses have been observed as well. Long-haul air travel related venous thrombosis is a multifactorial disease. Possible contributory risk factors are in connection with the milieu of the cabin. Various investigations evaluated the effect of immobilization and hypobaric hypoxia on thrombin generation and fibrinolysis. The studies differed much in participants' characteristics, duration and type of exposure and statistical analysis, so the results are contradictory. Personal, traveller-related risk factors may be regarded as triggers. The presently available evidences do not permit to assess the exact actual risk. For healthy young passengers there seem to be low risk. However, passengers suffering from predisposing factors for venous thromboembolism can be exposed to serious hazards, if they fly more than 5000 km or travel more than 8 hours. Proper safety measures are summarized on the basis of recent international recommendations.

  6. 75 FR 43395 - Campaign Travel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... of 2007. See Final Rules on Campaign Travel, 74 FR 63951 (Dec. 7, 2009) (the ``Travel Rules... 11 CFR 9004.7 at a later date. Travel Rules, 74 FR at 63951. Through this Notice, the Commission... of the Honest Leadership and Open Government Act governing campaign travel on noncommercial...

  7. Power combiner

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, Mobius; Ives, Robert Lawrence

    2006-09-05

    A power combiner for the combining of symmetric and asymmetric traveling wave energy comprises a feed waveguide having an input port and a launching port, a reflector for reflecting launched wave energy, and a final waveguide for the collection and transport of launched wave energy. The power combiner has a launching port for symmetrical waves which comprises a cylindrical section coaxial to the feed waveguide, and a launching port for asymmetric waves which comprises a sawtooth rotated about a central axis.

  8. Modal shifts in short-haul passenger travel and the consequent energy impacts. [Intercity travel under 500 miles

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    A study was performed to evaluate the impacts of strategies to effect modal shifts in short-haul passenger travel (defined herein as intercity travel under 500 miles) from energy-intensive modes to those modes that are less energy-intensive. A series of individual strategies, ranging from incentives to the less energy-intensive modes (bus, rail) to penalties to the more energy-intensive modes (auto, air) was examined to determine energy saved and policy implications relative to strategy implementation. The most effective of the individual strategies were then combined in all permutations, and the analysis was repeated. As part of the analytical process, effects of factors other than energy (user cost and time, emissions, government subsidy, and travel fatailities) were examined in a benefit/cost analysis. Finally, energy savings, benefit/cost impacts, implementation considerations, and policy implications were evaluated to arrive at conclusions as to the effectiveness of the more-influential strategies and to the overall effectiveness of induced modal shifts. The principal conclusion of the study is that the maximum 1980 energy saving that might be realized by modal shifts, discounting the concurrent effects of demand suppression and improvement of mode efficiency, is approximately 83 x 10/sup 12/ Btu (46,500 bbl gasoline per day), 3.8% of the total projected 1980 energy consumption in the short-haul transportation sector and 0.23% of the total US petroleum use. It was also concluded that strategies to achieve these small savings by modal shifts would result in significant economic, social, and business disruptions.

  9. [Travellers to South America].

    PubMed

    Lloveras, Susana Cristina

    2011-12-01

    The geography, tourist attractions and the multiple sites of historical and cultural interest make South America as an important destination chosen by travelers. The continent has a wide climatic variation from north to south, making exposure to risk different between the tropics and the temperate or cold regions. In the countries of tropical South America, the greatest risk is associated with the possibility of acquiring vector-borne diseases, like yellow fever, dengue, malaria and leishmaniasis. The risk of acquiring traveler's diarrhea and food-borne illness is similar across the continent, with some variations according to country and to visit urban or rural areas. Rabies, pertussis and diphtheria have appeared as epidemics in several countries and other diseases such as rickettsiosis, hantavirosis and viral encephalitis have expanded their distribution. The geographic and epidemiological diversity of South America, promotes a challenge for travel medicine specialists because during the pre-travel advice they have to take in account the kind of trip, traveller's medical history, exposure to risk and the dynamics of endemic emerging and reemerging diseases in the region.

  10. Travel fosters tool use in wild chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, Thibaud; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Neumann, Christof

    2016-01-01

    Ecological variation influences the appearance and maintenance of tool use in animals, either due to necessity or opportunity, but little is known about the relative importance of these two factors. Here, we combined long-term behavioural data on feeding and travelling with six years of field experiments in a wild chimpanzee community. In the experiments, subjects engaged with natural logs, which contained energetically valuable honey that was only accessible through tool use. Engagement with the experiment was highest after periods of low fruit availability involving more travel between food patches, while instances of actual tool-using were significantly influenced by prior travel effort only. Additionally, combining data from the main chimpanzee study communities across Africa supported this result, insofar as groups with larger travel efforts had larger tool repertoires. Travel thus appears to foster tool use in wild chimpanzees and may also have been a driving force in early hominin technological evolution. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16371.001 PMID:27431611

  11. [Investigating fever after travel].

    PubMed

    D'Acremont, Valérie; Jaquérioz, Frédérique; Genton, Blaise

    2003-02-01

    Two questions are crucial in the evaluation of fever in returning travellers, i.e. "Where have you been?" and "When did you go and when did you return from your trip?". Prior to establishing practice guidelines for fever in returning travellers and migrants, we did a systematic review of the geographical distribution of all infectious diseases in the tropical and subtropical countries. In the present paper, results are summarized by disease per continent. We also reviewed the extreme ranges for the incubation of the same diseases. Results are expressed graphically. Detailed information on space and time should help the practitioner to do an appropriate differential diagnosis, in particular to exclude diseases that are absent in the country visited or diseases with an incubation period that is incompatible with the travel history and symptoms occurrence dates.

  12. [Pregnancy and traveling].

    PubMed

    Walentiny, C

    2009-03-01

    The second trimester is the safest time for travelling, because the pregnant woman feels generally most at ease and the risk of spontaneous abortion and pre-term labour is very low. Possible risks must be discussed with the obstetrician before travelling. If the pregnancy is uncomplicated most airlines allow flying up to the 36th (domestic flights) and 35th (international flights) week of gestation. Unless the fetal oxygen supply is already impaired at ground level due to an underlying disease, flying does not pose a risk of fetal hypoxia. Radiation exposure during a long distant flight is low compared to the average annual exposure dosage, but the risk of thrombosis is increased. Altitudes up to 2,500 m pose no problem. Sufficient time to acclimatize must be taken when travelling to high altitudes and exercise kept to a minimum. Scuba diving is contraindicated. Since only a few drugs are completely safe during pregnancy a thorough risk/benefit evaluation is mandatory. Treatment of infections can be considerably complicated, but any necessary treatment should not be withheld because of the fear of potential fetal injury. Good knowledge of local medical resources is essential before travelling. Several personal protective measures minimize the risk of infection: food and water precautions, protection from insect bites and avoidance of crowds, unsafe sex and, if need be, freshwater. Many vaccinations are recommended for travellers. However, live vaccines are contraindicated in pregnant women because of theoretical considerations. Exceptionally a yellow fever vaccination may be given after the first trimester. Killed, inactivated or polysaccharide vaccines can be given after the first trimester after a thorough risk/benefit evaluation. Because of the potentially devastating effect of malaria to the mother and the child, travelling to endemic malaria regions should be avoided. If the risk of infection is high chemoprophylaxis with mefloquine is indicated. In low

  13. Culture shock and travelers.

    PubMed

    Stewart, L; Leggat, P A

    1998-06-01

    As travel has become easier and more affordable, the number of people traveling has risen sharply. People travel for many and varied reasons, from the business person on an overseas assignment to backpackers seeking new and exotic destinations. Others may take up residence in different regions, states or countries for family, business or political reasons. Other people are fleeing religious or political persecution. Wherever they go and for whatever reason they go, people take their culture with them. Culture, like language, is acquired innately in early childhood and is then reinforced through formal and complex informal social education into adulthood. Culture provides a framework for interpersonal and social interactions. Therefore, the contact with a new culture is often not the exciting or pleasurable experience anticipated. When immersed in a different culture, people no longer know how to act when faced with disparate value systems. Contact with the unfamiliar culture can lead to anxiety, stress, mental illness and, in extreme cases, physical illness and suicide. "Culture shock" is a term coined by the anthropologist Oberg. It is the shock of the new. It implies that the experience of the new culture is an unpleasant surprise or shock, partly because it is unexpected and partly because it can lead to a negative evaluation of one's own culture. It is also known as cross-cultural adjustment, being that period of anxiety and confusion experienced when entering a new culture. It affects people intellectually, emotionally, behaviorally and physically and is characterized by symptoms of psychological distress. Culture shock affects both adults and children. In travelers or workers who have prolonged sojourns in foreign countries, culture shock may occur not only as they enter the new culture, but also may occur on their return to their original culture. Children may also experience readjustment problems after returning from leading sheltered lives in expatriate

  14. Malaria prevention in travelers.

    PubMed

    Genton, Blaise; D'Acremont, Valérie

    2012-09-01

    A common approach to malaria prevention is to follow the "A, B, C, D" rule: Awareness of risk, Bite avoidance, Compliance with chemoprophylaxis, and prompt Diagnosis in case of fever. The risk of acquiring malaria depends on the length and intensity of exposure; the risk of developing severe disease is primarily determined by the health status of the traveler. These parameters need to be assessed before recommending chemoprophylaxis and/or stand-by emergency treatment. This review discusses the different strategies and drug options available for the prevention of malaria during and post travel.

  15. Intergalactic Travel Bureau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koski, Olivia; Rosin, Mark; Guerilla Science Team

    2014-03-01

    The Intergalactic Travel Bureau is an interactive theater outreach experience that engages the public in the incredible possibilities of space tourism. The Bureau is staffed by professional actors, who play the role of space travel agents, and professional astrophysicists, who play the role of resident scientists. Members of the public of all ages were invited to visit with bureau staff to plan the vacation of their dreams-to space. We describe the project's successful nine day run in New York in August 2013. Funded by the American Physical Society Public Outreach and Informing the Public Grants.

  16. Air Charter - The Business Airline of the Future...But, Does the Business Traveler Know?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaps, Robert W.; Gardner, Robin C.; Hartung, Jeffrey W.

    2001-01-01

    Historically, FAR Part 121 commercial carriers have provided efficient, economical and safe air transportation for corporate and business users. Recently, however, corporate and business travelers find their travel plans disrupted by delays, bankruptcies, poor service, lost baggage, fare increases, labor strikes and other systemic difficulties that degrade their travel experience to unsatisfactory levels. This article examines these Part 121 service delivery problems and, utilizing a tripartite investigative methodology, examines an alternative air transport mode: FAR Part 135 on-demand charter travel products. This long extant segment of our national air transportation system is set prime to support increased demand for charter services. Corporate and business travelers are set prime to utilize viable, cost effective alternatives to commercial travel products. Two research questions emerge. First is whether corporate and business travelers are aware of Part 135 travel alternatives. Second is whether Part 135 charter service providers are aware of this latent demand and are effectively targeting this demand segment in their marketing efforts. The three-part surveys employed to investigate these questions examined demand side

  17. Mentors as Fellow Travelers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambrosino, Roberta

    2009-01-01

    A junior faculty member arrives at an unfamiliar university for a new teaching assignment. She is poised for the adventure, but feels like a traveler at the edge of long, unknown road. She does not know what obstacles or vistas may appear on the road, and wants to avoid major potholes. She takes a nervous look around and finds an experienced…

  18. Risk for Travelers

    MedlinePlus

    ... specified risk materials from animal feed and human food chains as of October 1, 2000; such bans had already been instituted in most member states. To reduce any risk of acquiring vCJD from food, concerned travelers to Europe or other areas with ...

  19. Family travel: an overview.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Karl

    2006-01-01

    Paediatric travel medicine involves the education of parents about the numerous health and safety issues related to traveling with infants and young children--whether overseas or a weekend at a local lake. It includes providing children with vaccines and medications, giving telephone advice to parents while they are traveling, and treating children should they come home ill. Practitioners must be knowledgeable about such varied topics like avoiding diarrhoea, infant safety seats for air travel, altitude sickness, sun exposure, waterfront safety, insect protection, dealing with hot and cold environments, and at what age it is safe to begin scuba diving, to name just a very few. Practitioners must also know when adult recommendations can--and cannot--be adapted for children; that vaccine doses, needle size, and injection site may vary with the size of the child; and the answers to hundreds of everyday questions such as how to administer an essential but bitter tasting medication to an uncooperative child--and what to do when the child refuses to take the medication or vomits it.

  20. Time travel paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnikov, S.

    2002-03-01

    We define the time travel paradox in physical terms and prove its existence by constructing an explicit example. We argue further that in theories-such as general relativity-where the spacetime geometry is subject to nothing but differential equations and initial data no paradoxes arise.

  1. The stress of travel.

    PubMed

    Waterhouse, J; Reilly, T; Edwards, B

    2004-10-01

    International travel is an essential part of the life of elite athletes, both for competition and training. It is also becoming increasingly common among recreational sportspersons. Long-distance travel is associated with a group of transient negative effects, collectively referred to as 'travel fatigue', which result from anxiety about the journey, the change to an individual's daily routine, and dehydration due to time spent in the dry air of the aircraft cabin. Travel fatigue lasts for only a day or so, but for those who fly across several time zones, there are also the longer-lasting difficulties associated with 'jet lag'. The problems of jet lag can last for over a week if the flight crosses 10 time zones or more, and they can reduce performance and the motivation to train effectively. Knowledge of the properties of the body clock enables the cause of the difficulties to be understood (an unadjusted body clock), and forms the basis of using light in the new time zone to promote adjustment of the body clock. Sleep loss and its effects are important components of jet lag, and attempts to promote sleep by the use of melatonin and other hypnotics are also relevant. Sleep loss is also found in those who undertake challenges that involve long periods where the normal consolidated sleep of 8 h length is not possible. Advice on sleep regimens in such circumstances is given. PMID:15768727

  2. Traveling in France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philyaw, Henry; And Others

    This minicourse guide for teachers of French is intended to help motivate and prepare students for travel in France. Activities are outlined in eleven related areas, including (1) planning for the trip, (2) currency, (3) going through customs, (4) tipping, (5) shopping, (6) guided tours, (7) touring on your own, (8) social life and entertainment,…

  3. Malaria: prevention in travellers

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Malaria transmission occurs most frequently in environments with humidity over 60% and ambient temperature of 25-30 °C. Risks increase with longer visits and depend on activity. Infection can follow a single mosquito bite. Incubation is usually 10-14 days but can be up to 18 months depending on the strain of parasite. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of non-drug preventive interventions in adult travellers? What are the effects of drug prophylaxis in adult travellers? What are the effects of antimalaria vaccines in travellers? What are the effects of antimalaria interventions in child travellers, pregnant travellers, and in airline pilots? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to February 2006 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 69 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: acoustic buzzers, aerosol insecticides, amodiaquine, air conditioning and electric fans, atovaquone-proguanil, biological control measures, chloroquine (alone or with proguanil), diethyltoluamide (DEET), doxycycline, full-length and light-coloured clothing, insecticide-treated clothing/nets, mefloquine, mosquito coils and vaporising mats, primaquine, pyrimethamine-dapsone, pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine, smoke, topical (skin-applied) insect repellents, and vaccines. PMID:19450348

  4. Malaria: prevention in travellers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Malaria transmission occurs most frequently in environments with humidity greater than 60% and ambient temperature of 25 °C to 30 °C. Risks increase with longer visits and depend on activity. Infection can follow a single mosquito bite. Incubation is usually 10 to 14 days but can be up to 18 months depending on the strain of parasite. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of non-drug preventive interventions in non-pregnant adult travellers? What are the effects of drug prophylaxis in non-pregnant adult travellers? What are the effects of antimalaria vaccines in adult and child travellers? What are the effects of antimalaria interventions in child travellers, pregnant travellers, and in airline pilots? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to November 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 79 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: aerosol insecticides, amodiaquine, air conditioning and electric fans, atovaquone–proguanil, biological control measures, chloroquine (alone or with proguanil), diethyltoluamide (DEET), dietary supplementation, doxycycline, electronic mosquito repellents, full-length and light-coloured clothing, insecticide-treated clothing/nets, mefloquine, mosquito coils and vapourising mats, primaquine, pyrimethamine–dapsone, pyrimethamine–sulfadoxine, smoke

  5. The Road Less Travelled

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kewin, James

    2011-01-01

    Why are progression rates for Advanced Apprentices so low? Previous research points to a range of supply-side and demand-side barriers. Fundamentally, many employers do not exhibit the sort of demand for higher-level skills that could be used to justify the level of investment required. And, in some cases, employers just don't realise their…

  6. Forecasting urban highway travel for year 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Miaou, Shaw-Pin . Transportation Center); Rathi, A.K.; Southworth, F.; Greene, D.L. )

    1990-08-01

    As part of a study aimed at estimating suburban highway needs for year 2005, models were developed for forecasting daily vehicle miles of travel (DVMT) for urban areas and its distribution by highway functional class, urban location, and urban area size. A regression model combining both time series and cross-sectional data is used to establish the relationship between the per capita DVMT of 339 urban areas in the United States and a set of explanatory variables including real income, employment, number of persons per household, number of driver licenses per 1000 persons, a variable representing highway supply deficiency, and a time variable. The dynamic shift over time in share of travel between urban locations and highway functional classes as urban areas grow in size is represented by conditional logit models. This paper presents the major findings from the forecasting and distribution models for urban highway travel in year 2005. 30 refs., 3 figs., 9 tabs.

  7. Evaluating School Travel Initiatives and Promoting "Healthy Travel" through PSHCE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baslington, Hazel

    2010-01-01

    The number of primary school children travelling to school by car in the UK has almost doubled from 22% to 43% in 20 years. A governmental policy response is school travel plans (STPs). This paper reports the findings of an empirical evaluation designed to measure the effectiveness of the travel initiative at three schools. Quantitative and…

  8. NAS Demand Predictions, Transportation Systems Analysis Model (TSAM) Compared with Other Forecasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viken, Jeff; Dollyhigh, Samuel; Smith, Jeremy; Trani, Antonio; Baik, Hojong; Hinze, Nicholas; Ashiabor, Senanu

    2006-01-01

    The current work incorporates the Transportation Systems Analysis Model (TSAM) to predict the future demand for airline travel. TSAM is a multi-mode, national model that predicts the demand for all long distance travel at a county level based upon population and demographics. The model conducts a mode choice analysis to compute the demand for commercial airline travel based upon the traveler s purpose of the trip, value of time, cost and time of the trip,. The county demand for airline travel is then aggregated (or distributed) to the airport level, and the enplanement demand at commercial airports is modeled. With the growth in flight demand, and utilizing current airline flight schedules, the Fratar algorithm is used to develop future flight schedules in the NAS. The projected flights can then be flown through air transportation simulators to quantify the ability of the NAS to meet future demand. A major strength of the TSAM analysis is that scenario planning can be conducted to quantify capacity requirements at individual airports, based upon different future scenarios. Different demographic scenarios can be analyzed to model the demand sensitivity to them. Also, it is fairly well know, but not well modeled at the airport level, that the demand for travel is highly dependent on the cost of travel, or the fare yield of the airline industry. The FAA projects the fare yield (in constant year dollars) to keep decreasing into the future. The magnitude and/or direction of these projections can be suspect in light of the general lack of airline profits and the large rises in airline fuel cost. Also, changes in travel time and convenience have an influence on the demand for air travel, especially for business travel. Future planners cannot easily conduct sensitivity studies of future demand with the FAA TAF data, nor with the Boeing or Airbus projections. In TSAM many factors can be parameterized and various demand sensitivities can be predicted for future travel. These

  9. International business travel: impact on families and travellers

    PubMed Central

    Espino, C; Sundstrom, S; Frick, H; Jacobs, M; Peters, M

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: Spouses and staff of the World Bank Group (WBG) were questioned about the impact of international business travel on families and travellers. Dependent variables were self reported stress, concern about the health of the traveller, and negative impact on the family. We hypothesised that several travel factors (independent variables) would be associated with these impacts. These travel factors had to do with the frequency, duration, and predictability of travel and its interference with family activities. Methods: Survey forms were developed and distributed to all spouses of travelling staff as well as a small sample of operational staff. Kendall's tau b correlation coefficients of response frequencies were computed with the data from scaled items. Written responses to open ended questions were categorised. Results: Response rates for spouses and staff were 24% and 36%, respectively. Half the spouse sample (n=533) and almost 75% of the staff sample (n=102) reported high or very high stress due to business travel. Self reported spouse stress was associated with six out of eight travel factors. Female spouses, those with children, and younger spouses reported greater stress. Self reported staff stress was significantly associated with four out of nine travel factors. Further insight into how business travel affects families and staff (including children's behavioural changes) and how families cope was gained through responses to written questions. Conclusions: The findings support the notion that lengthy and frequent travel and frequent changes in travel dates which affect family plans, all characteristic of WBG missions, negatively affects many spouses and children (particularly young children) and that the strain on families contributes significantly to the stress staff feel about their travel. Policies or management practices that take into consideration family activities and give staff greater leeway in controlling and refusing travel may help relieve

  10. Travel and Adventure Medicine Resources.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Christopher A; Pottinger, Paul S

    2016-03-01

    Given the ever-changing nature of travel medicine, practitioners who provide pretravel and posttravel care are obligatorily students for the duration of their professional careers. A large variety of resources are available for medical practitioners. Providers should join at least one travel or tropical medicine professional association, attend its annual meeting, and read its journal. The largest general travel medicine association is the International Society of Travel Medicine. PMID:26900122

  11. Travel and Adventure Medicine Resources.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Christopher A; Pottinger, Paul S

    2016-03-01

    Given the ever-changing nature of travel medicine, practitioners who provide pretravel and posttravel care are obligatorily students for the duration of their professional careers. A large variety of resources are available for medical practitioners. Providers should join at least one travel or tropical medicine professional association, attend its annual meeting, and read its journal. The largest general travel medicine association is the International Society of Travel Medicine.

  12. Including Gypsy Travellers in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Gwynned; Stead, Joan

    2002-01-01

    Examined the educational exclusion and inclusion of Gypsy Traveller students, exploring how some Scottish schools responded to Traveller student culture and how this led to exclusion. Interviews with school staff, Traveller students, and parents indicated that continuing prejudice and harassment promoted inappropriate school placement and…

  13. Program Tracks Cost Of Travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauldin, Lemuel E., III

    1993-01-01

    Travel Forecaster is menu-driven, easy-to-use computer program that plans, forecasts cost, and tracks actual vs. planned cost of business-related travel of division or branch of organization and compiles information into data base to aid travel planner. Ability of program to handle multiple trip entries makes it valuable time-saving device.

  14. Energy demand analysis and alternative fuels. Transportation research record

    SciTech Connect

    Dingemans, D.; Sperling, D.; Greene, D.L.; Hu, P.S.; Hallet, P.

    1986-01-01

    Contents include: Mental maps and the refueling behavior of vehicle drivers; A functional form analysis of the short-run demand for travel and gasoline by one-vehicle households; An assessment methodology for alternative fuels technologies; Drive-up windows, energy, and air quality; Travel characteristics and transportation energy consumption patterns of minority and poor households; An investigation into the use of market segmentation analysis for transportation energy planning.

  15. Travelers In The Night

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grauer, Albert D.

    2014-11-01

    Travelers In The Night is an engaging and informative series of two minute radio programs about asteroids, comets, spacecraft, and other objects in space. The pieces are evergreen in that they are current but not dated. They are published on the Public Radio Exchange and carried by a number of radio stations. For teachers, students, and kids of all ages, the script for each piece and the start of a path for further inquiry can be found on the website travelersinthenight.org . The Travelers InThe Night Pieces are written and produced by an observing member of the Catalina Sky Survey Team at the University of Arizona. DPS members are encouraged to submit program ideas which can be developed to feature their research efforts.

  16. [Travel and renal insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Lavelle, O; Berland, Y

    1997-01-01

    Traveling can be dangerous for subjects with kidney insufficiency. Water loss or septic episodes can further increase renal dysfunction. Poor diet can lead to hyperkaliemia. Immunosuppression not only enhances the risk of infection but also complicates administration of live vaccines. Some antimalarial drugs are contraindicated (e.g. mefloquine) and others must be used with precaution. Prior to departure persons requiring hemodialysis should book sessions at centers listed in specialized guidebooks. In addition to infection, risks for hemodialysis patients include thrombosis of the arteriovenous fistula in case of dehydration or hypotension. In subjects with transplanted kidney, the risk of rejection can be enhanced either by poor compliance with immunodepressor treatment or by vaccination-induced antigenic stimulation. Pre-travel evaluation is necessary to determine metabolic, nutritional, and immune status. Subjects with kidney insufficiency and transplanted kidneys should be informed of the dangers and appropriate action in case of trouble.

  17. Aging and space travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohler, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    The matter of aging and its relation to space vehicle crewmembers undertaking prolonged space missions is addressed. The capabilities of the older space traveler to recover from bone demineralization and muscle atrophy are discussed. Certain advantages of the older person are noted, for example, a greater tolerance of monotony and repetitious activities. Additional parameters are delineated including the cardiovascular system, the reproductive system, ionizing radiation, performance, and group dynamics.

  18. [Traveling with small children].

    PubMed

    Olivier, C

    1997-01-01

    Traveling with children especially in the tropics requires special planning. Contraindications are rare but care providers should obtain information about medical and transfusional facilities at the destination. Children should receive all vaccinations required for international travel and for specific countries, taking into account age, location, duration of stay, and purpose of trip. A first aid kit should be packed containing a thermometer, bandages, antiseptic agents, a total sunscreen preparation, a mosquito net, sterile compresses, tablets for water disinfection, and indispensable medications (antimalarial agents, antipyretics, oral rehydration solutions, antiemetics, and eye wash). The main indication for chemoprophylaxis is malaria. Chloroquine is recommended for most locations but proguanil may be necessary in areas of resistance. Special attention must be paid to skin care in infants: maintaining cleanliness, avoiding cuts insofar as possible, and treating any wounds. Clothing must be carefully laundered and adequate to prevent overexposure to sunlight and insect bites. Insect bites must also be prevented by applying repellents, using mosquito nets, and wearing insecticide-treated garments. Handwashing by people who prepare meals and by the children before eating is important to prevent food poisoning. Breast feeding is advisable for infants. Thorough cooking of meats, rinsing of fresh produce, drinking of bottled beverages, and sterilization of water are also important food safety measures. These precautions are usually adequate to allow safe travel with children.

  19. Time - A Traveler's Guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickover, Clifford A.

    1999-09-01

    "Bucky Fuller thought big," Wired magazine recently noted, "Arthur C. Clarke thinks big, but Cliff Pickover outdoes them both." In his newest book, Cliff Pickover outdoes even himself, probing a mystery that has baffled mystics, philosophers, and scientists throughout history--What is the nature of time?In Time: A Traveler's Guide , Pickover takes readers to the forefront of science as he illuminates the most mysterious phenomenon in the universe--time itself. Is time travel possible? Is time real? Does it flow in one direction only? Does it have a beginning and an end? What is eternity? Pickover's book offers a stimulating blend of Chopin, philosophy, Einstein, and modern physics, spiced with diverting side-trips to such topics as the history of clocks, the nature of free will, and the reason gold glitters. Numerous diagrams ensure readers will have no trouble following along.By the time we finish this book, we understand a wide variety of scientific concepts pertaining to time. And most important, we will understand that time travel is, indeed, possible.

  20. [Travelers, mad, wandering].

    PubMed

    Vaschetto, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the notion of "wandering" through the use of some phenomena enrolled at the dawn of modernity such as the Rousseau dromomanie's philosopher and writer, the origin of the first mad traveler (Albert Dadas), epidemics of mad travelers Europe and romantic tourism (with renewed acquires significance in the "beat generation" of the twentieth century). These historical facts are "mounting" as play contemporary manifestations such as loss, disorientation, to lose one's way, and wandering without reducing them only to clinical psychosis. Readings of classic psychiatrists such as Régis, Foville, Sérieux and Capgras, Tissié, go hand in hand with the current readings of the philosopher Ian Hacking and critics of pop culture as S. Reynolds and D. Diederichsen, illustrating how the travel's phenomenon can make different subjective configurations depending on historical times. In conclusion it is noted that not only psychosis exposes the wandering soul of suffering but there are also subject positions (as will be exemplified in a clinical case) and go no further nesting wandering into human existence. PMID:25153978

  1. Family planning for travellers.

    PubMed

    Rustom, A

    1990-11-01

    A public health nurse from London describes the customs of nomadic people in the British Isles, known as "travellers," as they affect provision of family planning services. Most are of British or Irish stock, some migrate and others live in caravan sites all year. Their traditions dictate that men work and women are housewives. Early, often arranged, marriage, early childbearing and large families are the norm. Sex and contraception are not considered appropriate for discussion between the sexes, or in the presence of children. Large families and financial hardship force many women to space pregnancies. Women often have to hide contraceptives from their husbands, difficult in conditions without privacy. Therefore they prefer IUDs, but some use oral contraceptives, although sometimes erratically because most are illiterate. Traveller women are usually unwilling to do self-examination, as needed with IUDs. They often have difficulty attending regular Pap smear clinics. Cervical cancer rates are high. They experience discrimination in clinics, and need extra care about modesty. It is worth while to take time to develop trust in the clinical relationship, to deal with the traveller woman's uneasy among outsiders.

  2. Ion acoustic traveling waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, G. M.; Burrows, R. H.; Ao, X.; Zank, G. P.; Zank

    2014-04-01

    Models for traveling waves in multi-fluid plasmas give essential insight into fully nonlinear wave structures in plasmas, not readily available from either numerical simulations or from weakly nonlinear wave theories. We illustrate these ideas using one of the simplest models of an electron-proton multi-fluid plasma for the case where there is no magnetic field or a constant normal magnetic field present. We show that the traveling waves can be reduced to a single first-order differential equation governing the dynamics. We also show that the equations admit a multi-symplectic Hamiltonian formulation in which both the space and time variables can act as the evolution variable. An integral equation useful for calculating adiabatic, electrostatic solitary wave signatures for multi-fluid plasmas with arbitrary mass ratios is presented. The integral equation arises naturally from a fluid dynamics approach for a two fluid plasma, with a given mass ratio of the two species (e.g. the plasma could be an electron-proton or an electron-positron plasma). Besides its intrinsic interest, the integral equation solution provides a useful analytical test for numerical codes that include a proton-electron mass ratio as a fundamental constant, such as for particle in cell (PIC) codes. The integral equation is used to delineate the physical characteristics of ion acoustic traveling waves consisting of hot electron and cold proton fluids.

  3. Evidence on global medical travel

    PubMed Central

    Záliš, Ladislav; Meurice, Christopher R; Hilton, Ian; Ly, Terry-Lisa; Zupan, Zorana; Hinrichs, Saba

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The potential benefits of travelling across national borders to obtain medical treatment include improved care, decreased costs and reduced waiting times. However, medical travel involves additional risks, compared to obtaining treatment domestically. We review the publicly-available evidence on medical travel. We suggest that medical travel needs to be understood in terms of its potential risks and benefits so that it can be evaluated against alternatives by patients who are seeking care. We propose three domains –quality standards, informed decision-making, economic and legal protection – in which better evidence could support the development of medical travel policies. PMID:26549906

  4. Evidence on global medical travel.

    PubMed

    Ruggeri, Kai; Záliš, Ladislav; Meurice, Christopher R; Hilton, Ian; Ly, Terry-Lisa; Zupan, Zorana; Hinrichs, Saba

    2015-11-01

    The potential benefits of travelling across national borders to obtain medical treatment include improved care, decreased costs and reduced waiting times. However, medical travel involves additional risks, compared to obtaining treatment domestically. We review the publicly-available evidence on medical travel. We suggest that medical travel needs to be understood in terms of its potential risks and benefits so that it can be evaluated against alternatives by patients who are seeking care. We propose three domains -quality standards, informed decision-making, economic and legal protection - in which better evidence could support the development of medical travel policies.

  5. Evidence on global medical travel.

    PubMed

    Ruggeri, Kai; Záliš, Ladislav; Meurice, Christopher R; Hilton, Ian; Ly, Terry-Lisa; Zupan, Zorana; Hinrichs, Saba

    2015-11-01

    The potential benefits of travelling across national borders to obtain medical treatment include improved care, decreased costs and reduced waiting times. However, medical travel involves additional risks, compared to obtaining treatment domestically. We review the publicly-available evidence on medical travel. We suggest that medical travel needs to be understood in terms of its potential risks and benefits so that it can be evaluated against alternatives by patients who are seeking care. We propose three domains -quality standards, informed decision-making, economic and legal protection - in which better evidence could support the development of medical travel policies. PMID:26549906

  6. Travelers with Disabilities and Medical Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Claims Travel Tips Travel Bulletin Travel Checklist FAQ Disabilities and Medical Conditions To ensure your security, all ... other questions or concerns about traveling with a disability please contact passenger support . If you are approved ...

  7. Malaria: prevention in travellers

    PubMed Central

    Croft, Ashley

    2000-01-01

    Definition Malaria is caused by a protozoan infection of red blood cells with one of four species of the genus plasmodium: P falciparum, P vivax, P ovale, or P malariae.1 Clinically, malaria may present in different ways, but it is usually characterised by fever (which may be swinging), tachycardia, rigors, and sweating. Anaemia, hepatosplenomegaly, cerebral involvement, renal failure, and shock may occur. Incidence/prevalence Each year there are 300-500 million clinical cases of malaria. About 40% of the world's population is at risk of acquiring the disease.23 Each year 25-30 million people from non-tropical countries visit areas in which malaria is endemic,4 of whom between 10 000 and 30 000 contract malaria.5 Aetiology/risk factors Malaria is mainly a rural disease, requiring standing water nearby. It is transmitted by bites6 from infected female anopheline mosquitoes,7 mainly at dusk and during the night.18 In cities, mosquito bites are usually from female culicene mosquitoes, which are not vectors of malaria.9 Malaria is resurgent in most tropical countries and the risk to travellers is increasing.10 Prognosis Ninety per cent of travellers who contract malaria do not become ill until after they return home.5 “Imported malaria” is easily treated if diagnosed promptly, and it follows a serious course in only about 12% of people.1112 The most severe form of the disease is cerebral malaria, with a case fatality rate in adult travellers of 2-6%,3 mainly because of delays in diagnosis.5 Aims To reduce the risk of infection; to prevent illness and death. Outcomes Rates of malarial illness and death, and adverse effects of treatment. Proxy measures include number of mosquito bites and number of mosquitoes in indoor areas. We found limited evidence linking number of mosquito bites and risk of malaria.13 Methods Clinical Evidence search and appraisal in November 1999. We reviewed all identified systematic reviews and randomised controlled trials (RCTs

  8. Prevention and Self-Treatment of Traveler's Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Diemert, David J.

    2006-01-01

    Of the millions who travel from the industrialized world to developing countries every year, between 20% and 50% will develop at least one episode of diarrhea, making it the most common medical ailment afflicting travelers. Although usually a mild illness, traveler's diarrhea can result in significant morbidity and hardship overseas. Precautions can be taken to minimize the risk of developing traveler's diarrhea, either through avoidance of potentially contaminated food or drink or through various prophylactic measures, including both nonpharmacological and antimicrobial strategies. If diarrhea does develop despite the precautions taken, effective treatment—usually a combination of an antibiotic and an antimotility agent—can be brought by the traveler and initiated as soon as symptoms develop. In the future, vaccines—several of which are in the advanced stages of clinical testing—may be added to the list of prophylactic measures. PMID:16847088

  9. Time, travel and infection.

    PubMed

    Cliff, Andrew; Haggett, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The collapse of geographical space over the last 200 years has had profound effects on the circulation of human populations and on the transfer of infectious diseases. Three examples are used to illustrate the process: (a) the impact of the switch from sail to steamships in importing measles into Fiji over a 40-year period; (b) changes in measles epidemic behaviour in Iceland over a 150-year period; and (c) changes in the spread of cholera within the United States over a 35-year period. In each case, the link between time, travel and disease has been an intimate one.

  10. Using transportation demand models to assess regional noise exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaliski, Kenneth

    2005-09-01

    In the United States, most metropolitan areas run some type of transportation demand model to estimate regional travel patterns, and, to some extent, air pollution. The more advanced of these models accurately represent the geographic contours of the roadways (in contrast to the older straight-line node and link models). This allows an almost seamless integration of these new transportation demand models into noise prediction models. Combined with the locations of individual homes from a separate E911 database, we can readily make estimates of the noise exposure of populations over large areas. In this paper, the regional traffic noise exposure of residences of Chittenden County, VT is estimated and mapped. It was found that 30% of the residences are exposed to noise levels exceeding the WHO sleep disturbance level of 45 dB LAeq(8) and 20% of residences are exposed to levels exceeding the WHO ``serious annoyance'' level of 55 dB LAeq(16). Maps show noise contours as well as individual homes color coded based on relative day and night noise exposure levels. Measured sound level data are given for particular locations to validate the predictions.

  11. Mental maps and travel behaviour: meanings and models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannes, Els; Kusumastuti, Diana; Espinosa, Maikel León; Janssens, Davy; Vanhoof, Koen; Wets, Geert

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, the " mental map" concept is positioned with regard to individual travel behaviour to start with. Based on Ogden and Richards' triangle of meaning (The meaning of meaning: a study of the influence of language upon thought and of the science of symbolism. International library of psychology, philosophy and scientific method. Routledge and Kegan Paul, London, 1966) distinct thoughts, referents and symbols originating from different scientific disciplines are identified and explained in order to clear up the notion's fuzziness. Next, the use of this concept in two major areas of research relevant to travel demand modelling is indicated and discussed in detail: spatial cognition and decision-making. The relevance of these constructs to understand and model individual travel behaviour is explained and current research efforts to implement these concepts in travel demand models are addressed. Furthermore, these mental map notions are specified in two types of computational models, i.e. a Bayesian Inference Network (BIN) and a Fuzzy Cognitive Map (FCM). Both models are explained, and a numerical and a real-life example are provided. Both approaches yield a detailed quantitative representation of the mental map of decision-making problems in travel behaviour.

  12. Long-range airplane study: The consumer looks at SST travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landes, K. H.; Matter, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    The attitudes of long-range air travelers toward several basic air travel decisions, were surveyed. Of interest were tradeoffs involving time versus comfort and time versus cost as they pertain to supersonic versus conventional wide-body aircraft on overseas routes. The market focused upon was the segment of air travelers most likely to make that type of tradeoff decision: those having flown overseas routes for business or personal reasons in the recent past. The information generated is intended to provide quantifiable insight into consumer demand for supersonic as compared to wide-body aircraft alternatives for long-range overseas air travel.

  13. [Travel-associated pneumonias].

    PubMed

    Geerdes-Fenge, H F

    2014-10-01

    Respiratory infections are responsible for up to 11% of febrile infections in travellers or immigrants from tropical and subtropical regions. The main pathogens are the same as in temperate climate zones: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, influenza viruses, Legionella pneumophila. However, some pulmonary diseases can be attributed to bacterial, parasitic, viral or fungal pathogens that are endemic in tropical and subtropical regions. The most commonly imported infections are malaria, dengue, and tuberculosis. Pulmonary symptoms and eosinophilia in returning travellers and migrants may be caused by several parasitic infections such as Katayama syndrome, Loeffler syndrome, tropical pulmonary eosinophilia, amebiasis, paragonimiasis, echinococcosis, and toxocariasis. In Asia, Tsutsugamushi fever is transmitted by chiggers, spotted fever rickettsiae are transmitted by ticks. Transmission of zoonotic diseases occurs mainly via contact with infected animals or their excretions, human-to-human transmission is generally rare: MERS-CoA (dromedary camels), pulmonary hantavirus infection (rodents), tularemia (rabbits and hares), leptospirosis (rats), Q-fever (sheep and goats), very rarely anthrax (hides of ruminants) and pest (infected rats and wildlife). Inhalation of contaminated dust can cause infections with dimorphic fungi: histoplasmosis (bat guano) and coccidioidomycosis in America and parts of Africa, blastomycosis in America. Some infections can cause symptoms years after a stay in tropical or subtropical regions (melioidosis, tuberculosis, histoplasmosis, schistosomiasis-associated pulmonary hypertension). Noninfectious respiratory diseases caused by inhalation of high amounts of air pollution or toxic dusts may also be considered. PMID:25290923

  14. The Travelling Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murabona Oduori, Susan

    2015-08-01

    The telescope has been around for more than 400 years, and through good use of it scientists have made many astonishing discoveries and begun to understand our place in the universe. Most people, however, have never looked through one. Yet it is a great tool for cool science and observation especially in a continent and country with beautifully dark skies. The Travelling Telescope project aims to invite people outside under the stars to learn about those curious lights in the sky.The Travelling Telescope aims to promote science learning to a wide range of Kenyan schools in various locations exchanging knowledge about the sky through direct observations of celestial bodies using state of the art telescopes. In addition to direct observing we also teach science using various hands-on activities and astronomy software, ideal for explaining concepts which are hard to understand, and for a better grasp of the sights visible through the telescope. We are dedicated to promoting science using astronomy especially in schools, targeting children from as young as 3 years to the youth, teachers, their parents and members of the public. Our presentation focuses on the OAD funded project in rural coastal Kenya.

  15. Evaluation of the returned traveler.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, D. R.

    1992-01-01

    Recognition of clinical syndromes in returned travelers is an important part of providing care to international travelers. The first step is to take a history with attention to pre-travel preventive measures, the patient's itinerary, and potential exposure to infectious agents. The patient should then be examined to document physical signs, such as fever, rash, or hepatosplenomegaly, and to have basic laboratory data obtained. This evaluation will provide most physicians with the necessary information to generate a differential diagnosis. Each diagnosis should be matched against the incubation period of the disease, the geographic location of illness, the frequency of illness in returned travelers, and the pre-travel preventive measures. Careful attention to these aspects of patient care should result in the appropriate diagnosis and therapeutic intervention for the ill returned traveler. PMID:1290276

  16. [Cardiovascular risk for the traveler].

    PubMed

    Touze, J E; Fourcade, L; Heno, P; Van de Walle, J P; Mafart, B; N'Guyen-Hai

    1997-01-01

    The incidence of cardiovascular events during travel is rising with the age of the population and number of traveling seniors. Cardiovascular events are the second most frequent reason for medical evacuation and the cause of 50% of deaths recorded during commercial air travel. In most cases the underlying disorder is coronary artery disease which is readily destabilized by stress and fatigue associated with travel. Inflight conditions that can cause problems include altitude-related hypoxia, pressurization, and cramped seating in most sections of the plane. Upon arrival the traveler is exposed to a variety of climatic, food, and environmental factors that can trigger manifestations of latent heart disease. Prophylactic drugs for tropical infectious disease (especially antimalarials of the quinidine group) should be used with caution due to possible adverse interaction with medications used to treat heart disease. A pre-travel examination is necessary to ascertain cardiovascular status and define simple preventive precautions.

  17. 2001 New York State NHTS: Travel Patterns of Special Populations

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Patricia S; Reuscher, Tim

    2010-03-01

    Policymakers rely on transportation statistics, including data on personal travel behavior, to formulate strategic transportation policies, and to improve the safety and efficiency of the U.S. transportation system. Data on personal travel trends are needed to examine the reliability, efficiency, capacity, and flexibility of the Nation's transportation system to meet current demands and accommodate future demands; to assess the feasibility and efficiency of alternative congestion-alleviating technologies (e.g., high-speed rail, magnetically levitated trains, intelligent vehicle and highway systems); to evaluate the merits of alternative transportation investment programs; and to assess the energy-use and air-quality impacts of various policies. To address these data needs, the U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT) initiated an effort in 1969 to collect detailed data on personal travel. The 1969 survey was the first Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey (NPTS). The survey was conducted again in 1977, 1983, 1990, 1995, and 2001. Data on daily travel were collected in 1969, 1977, 1983, 1990 and 1995. Longer-distance travel was collected in 1977 and 1995. The 2001 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) collected both daily and longer-distance trips in one survey. The 2001 survey was sponsored by three USDOT agencies: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), and National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). The primary objective of the survey was to collect trip-based data on the nature and characteristics of personal travel so that the relationships between the characteristics of personal travel and the demographics of the traveler can be established. Commercial and institutional travel was not part of the survey. New York State participated in the 2001 NHTS by procuring additional 12,000 sample households. These additional sample households allowed New York State to address transportation planning issues

  18. Demand Response Analysis Tool

    2012-03-01

    Demand Response Analysis Tool is a software developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. It is initially funded by Southern California Edison. Our goal in developing this tool is to provide an online, useable, with standardized methods, an analysis tool to evaluate demand and demand response performance of commercial and industrial facilities. The tool provides load variability and weather sensitivity analysis capabilities as well as development of various types of baselines. It can be usedmore » by researchers, real estate management firms, utilities, or any individuals who are interested in analyzing their demand and demand response capabilities.« less

  19. Modernizing Government Travel Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Moulton, Seth [D-MA-6

    2016-07-05

    09/20/2016 At the conclusion of debate, the Yeas and Nays were demanded and ordered. Pursuant to the provisions of clause 8, rule XX, the Chair announced that further proceedings on the motion would be postponed. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  20. Traveling waves in visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Sato, Tatsuo K; Nauhaus, Ian; Carandini, Matteo

    2012-07-26

    Electrode recordings and imaging studies have revealed that localized visual stimuli elicit waves of activity that travel across primary visual cortex. Traveling waves are present also during spontaneous activity, but they can be greatly reduced by widespread and intensive visual stimulation. In this Review, we summarize the evidence in favor of these traveling waves. We suggest that their substrate may lie in long-range horizontal connections and that their functional role may involve the integration of information over large regions of space.

  1. Quantifying travel behavior for infectious disease research: a comparison of data from surveys and mobile phones.

    PubMed

    Wesolowski, Amy; Stresman, Gillian; Eagle, Nathan; Stevenson, Jennifer; Owaga, Chrispin; Marube, Elizabeth; Bousema, Teun; Drakeley, Christopher; Cox, Jonathan; Buckee, Caroline O

    2014-07-14

    Human travel impacts the spread of infectious diseases across spatial and temporal scales, with broad implications for the biological and social sciences. Individual data on travel patterns have been difficult to obtain, particularly in low-income countries. Travel survey data provide detailed demographic information, but sample sizes are often small and travel histories are hard to validate. Mobile phone records can provide vast quantities of spatio-temporal travel data but vary in spatial resolution and explicitly do not include individual information in order to protect the privacy of subscribers. Here we compare and contrast both sources of data over the same time period in a rural area of Kenya. Although both data sets are able to quantify broad travel patterns and distinguish regional differences in travel, each provides different insights that can be combined to form a more detailed picture of travel in low-income settings to understand the spread of infectious diseases.

  2. Energy infrastructure: Mapping future electricity demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janetos, Anthony C.

    2016-08-01

    Electricity distribution system planners rely on estimations of future energy demand to build adequate supply, but these are complicated to achieve. An approach that combines spatially resolved projections of population movement and climate change offers a method for building better demand maps to mid-century.

  3. Skin lesions in returning travellers.

    PubMed

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Juszczak, Dariusz; Jerzemowski, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    Skin lesions, apart from diarrhoeas, fever of unknown origin, and respiratory tract infections belong to the most frequent medical problems in travellers returned from tropical and subtropical destinations, accounting more than 10% of reported cases. Most dermatoses have their clinical onset during travel, although some of them can occur after return. Travel-related dermatological problems can have a wide spectrum of clinical picture, from macular, popular or nodular rash, linear and migratory lesions, to plaques, vesicles, bullae, erosions or ulcers. Skin conditions in returning travellers may be of infectious and non-infectious aetiologies. Infectious lesions may be originally tropical (e.g. dengue, chikungunya, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, myiasis, tungiasis, loiasis), although the majority are cosmopolitan (arthropod bites, sunburns, allergic rashes). The evaluation of skin lesions depends on many factors, including immune status of patients, use of medicines, exposure on health hazards (fauna, flora, risky behaviours), as well as the time, duration and location of travel. As the number of travellers to tropical and subtropical destinations has been continuously rising, the number of skin illnesses has also been increasing. This means that specialists in travel medicine need to extend their knowledge of epidemiology, clinical features and diagnosis of travel-related health problems including skin lesions in returning travellers. PMID:26394319

  4. Skin lesions in returning travellers.

    PubMed

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Juszczak, Dariusz; Jerzemowski, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    Skin lesions, apart from diarrhoeas, fever of unknown origin, and respiratory tract infections belong to the most frequent medical problems in travellers returned from tropical and subtropical destinations, accounting more than 10% of reported cases. Most dermatoses have their clinical onset during travel, although some of them can occur after return. Travel-related dermatological problems can have a wide spectrum of clinical picture, from macular, popular or nodular rash, linear and migratory lesions, to plaques, vesicles, bullae, erosions or ulcers. Skin conditions in returning travellers may be of infectious and non-infectious aetiologies. Infectious lesions may be originally tropical (e.g. dengue, chikungunya, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, myiasis, tungiasis, loiasis), although the majority are cosmopolitan (arthropod bites, sunburns, allergic rashes). The evaluation of skin lesions depends on many factors, including immune status of patients, use of medicines, exposure on health hazards (fauna, flora, risky behaviours), as well as the time, duration and location of travel. As the number of travellers to tropical and subtropical destinations has been continuously rising, the number of skin illnesses has also been increasing. This means that specialists in travel medicine need to extend their knowledge of epidemiology, clinical features and diagnosis of travel-related health problems including skin lesions in returning travellers.

  5. Dengue fever in international travelers.

    PubMed

    Jelinek, T

    2000-07-01

    Dengue virus infection is becoming increasingly recognized as one of the world's major emerging infectious diseases. Although only a few systematic studies have been conducted to assess the incidence and clinical course of dengue fever in travelers, it is now possible to estimate risk factors for travelers to areas of endemicity. Dengue virus and its vector, Aedes mosquitoes, benefit from human habitation and travel-related aspects of human behavior. Thus, travelers serve an important double role as potential victims of the disease and as vehicles for further spread of dengue.

  6. Solar wind travel time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, C. T.

    A useful rule of thumb in solar terrestrial studies is that the solar wind travels 4 Earth radii (RE) per minute. Long-term studies of solar wind velocity [e.g., Luhmann et al., 1993; 1994] show that the median velocity is about 420 km/s, corresponding to 3.96 RE min-1. The quartiles are about 370 km/s and 495 km/s, corresponding to 3.48 Re min-1 and 4.66 Re min-1 respectively. This number helps estimate the delays expected when observing a discontinuity at a solar wind monitor; one example is ISEE-3 when it was at the forward libration point (about 60 min). It is also helpful for estimating how much time passes before the dayside magnetosphere is compressed as denser solar wind flows by (about 2.5 min).

  7. [Travel and skin diseases].

    PubMed

    Stüttgen, G

    1992-02-20

    The problem "travelling and dermatological diseases" is presented as a temporary change of place with associated changes in ecological conditions. Latent dermatoses may be provoked--but full-blown dermatoses may also improve with no specific treatment (climatic therapy of neurodermatitis). Physiological changes at the surface of the skin brought about by, for example, temperature or the effects of solar radiation, may allow fungal, bacterial or viral infections to develop. Direct contact with the living environment on land or in the water, in particular in the tropics, can lead to the development of diseases. Some dermatoses have a lengthy latency and develop only later at home. Recommendations for general and specific prophylaxis and treatment are made.

  8. Traveling wave tube circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, D. J. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A traveling wave tube (TWT) has a slow wave structure (SWS) which is severed into two or more sections. A signal path, connects the end of an SWS section to the beginning of the following SWS section. The signal path comprises an impedance matching coupler (IMC), followed by an isolator, a variable phase shifter, and a second IMC. The aggregate band pass characteristic of the components in the signal path is chosen to reject, or strongly attenuate, all frequencies outside the desired operating frequency range of the TWT and yet pass, with minimal attenuation in the forward direction, all frequencies within the desired operating frequency range. The isolator is chosen to reject, or strongly attenuate, waves, of all frequencies, which propagate in the backward direction. The aggregate phase shift characteristic of the components in the signal path is chosen to apply signal power to the beginning of the following SWS section with the phase angle yielding maximum efficiency.

  9. Sensitivity of ray travel times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, I. P.; Virovlyansky, A. L.; Zaslavsky, G. M.

    2002-09-01

    Ray in a waveguide can be considered as a trajectory of the corresponding Hamiltonian system, which appears to be chaotic in a nonuniform environment. From the experimental and practical viewpoints, the ray travel time is an important characteristic that, in some way, involves an information about the waveguide condition. It is shown that the ray travel time as a function of the initial momentum and propagation range in the unperturbed waveguide displays a scaling law. Some properties of the ray travel time predicted by this law still persist in periodically nonuniform waveguides with chaotic ray trajectories. As examples we consider few models with special attention to the underwater acoustic waveguide. It is demonstrated for a deep ocean propagation model that even under conditions of ray chaos the ray travel time is determined, to a considerable extent, by the coordinates of the ray endpoints and the number of turning points, i.e., by a topology of the ray path. We show how the closeness of travel times for rays with equal numbers of turning points reveals itself in ray travel time dependencies on the starting momentum and on the depth of the observation point. It has been shown that the same effect is associated with the appearance of the gap between travel times of chaotic and regular rays. The manifestation of the stickiness (the presence of such parts in a chaotic trajectory where the latter exhibits an almost regular behavior) in ray travel times is discussed.

  10. Travel and Adult Transformative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindstrom, Steven K.

    2011-01-01

    This phenomenological research study examines the lived experience of individual adult transformation in the context of travel. Adults throughout history have experienced profound personal and perception changes as a result of significant travel events. Transformative learning occurs through experience, crisis, and reflection, all of which are…

  11. Winter Wilderness Travel and Camping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilchrest, Norman

    Knowledge and skill are needed for safe and enjoyable travel and camping in the wilderness in winter. The beauty of snow and ice, reduced human use, and higher tolerance of animals toward humans make the wilderness attractive during winter. The uniqueness of winter travel presents several challenges that are not present in other seasons. Safety is…

  12. 49 CFR 229.55 - Piston travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piston travel. 229.55 Section 229.55... Piston travel. (a) Brake cylinder piston travel shall be sufficient to provide brake shoe clearance when... piston travel may not exceed 11/2 inches less than the total possible piston travel. The total...

  13. 49 CFR 229.55 - Piston travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Piston travel. 229.55 Section 229.55... Piston travel. (a) Brake cylinder piston travel shall be sufficient to provide brake shoe clearance when... piston travel may not exceed 11/2 inches less than the total possible piston travel. The total...

  14. The Centauri project: Manned interstellar travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciesla, Thomas M.

    1990-01-01

    The development of antimatter engines for spacecraft propulsion will allow man to expand to the nearest stellar neighbors such as the Alpha Centuri system. Compared to chemically powered rockets like the Apollo mission class which would take 50,000 years to reach the Centauri system, antimatter propulsion would reduce one way trip time to 30 years or less. The challenges encountered by manned interstellar travel are formidable. The spacecraft must be a combination of sublight speed transportation system and a traveling microplanet serving an expanding population. As the population expands from the initial 100 people to approximately 300, the terraformed asteroid, enclosed by a man-made shell will allow for expansion over its surface in the fashion of a small terrestrial town. All aspects of human life - birth; death; physical, emotional, and educational needs; and government and law must be met by the structure, systems, and institutions on-board.

  15. [Travel and patients with allergies].

    PubMed

    Miltgen, J; N'Guyen, G; Cuguilliere, A; Marotel, C; Bonnet, D

    1997-01-01

    By changing their surroundings and lifestyle, travelers with allergic conditions exposed themselves to new risks. The main perennial allergens are house dust mites which thrive in tropical areas and can be especially sensitizing. The risk of seasonal reactions to grass-pollens varies from region to region. Reactions to some highly sensitizing respiratory allergens can occur in travelers who return to regions where they were previously exposed. Subjects with food allergies should beware of possible reactions to ingredients in exotic dishes. The bites of several insects can cause anaphylactic reactions. Some medications required for tropical travel (e.g. antimalarial drugs) can trigger severe hypersensitivity reactions. Avoidance of allergens is more difficult during travel. Travelers with allergic conditions should carry alert identification cards and medications for routine as well as emergency treatment including self-injectable adrenaline.

  16. President's Address: Travel Medicine and Principles of Safe Travel

    PubMed Central

    DuPont, Herbert L.

    2008-01-01

    Persons crossing international boundaries away from their medical support systems are put at risk for illness and injury. Travel medicine is a new medical discipline that quantifies these health risks and develops strategies for reducing them. Obtaining health and evacuation insurance for a future trip is important for persons with medical conditions, those planning trips to developing tropical or semi-tropical regions of the world or when an international stay anywhere will be as long as a month. Pre-travel medical evaluation, vaccines against endemic infectious diseases and medications to reduce the occurrence of diarrhea and malaria during trips to endemic areas, and medications for self-treatment of common illnesses such as diarrhea are fundamental to travel medicine. There are a number of miscellaneous areas to consider in travel medicine including preventing deep vein thrombosis and minimizing jet lag during long haul air travel and reducing the occurrence of accidents and water- and altitude-related illnesses. An important recently defined challenge to the field is the growing number of ill-prepared persons put at great risk for illness while visiting friends and relatives living in areas of reduced hygiene. All persons need to have an idea of how and where they may find medical care if they develop illness while abroad. This article summarizes essential elements in travel medicine and offers 10 recommendations for safe travel. PMID:18596858

  17. A Low Cost Traveling Wave Tube for Wireless Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vancil, Bernard Kenneth; Wintucky, Edwin G.; Williams, W. D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Demand for high data rate wireless communications is pushing up amplifier power, bandwidth and frequency requirements. Some systems are using vacuum electron devices again because solid-state power amplifiers are not able to efficiently meet the new requirements. The traveling wave tube is the VED of choice because of its excellent broadband capability as well as high power efficiency and frequency. But TWTs are very expensive on a per watt basis below about 200 watts of output power. We propose a new traveling wave tube that utilizes cathode ray tube construction technology and electrostatic focusing. We believe the tube can be built in quantity for under $1,000 each. We discuss several traveling wave tube slow wave circuits that lend themselves to the new construction. We will present modeling results and data on prototype devices.

  18. Summer Travel: Plan Ahead To Stay Healthy

    MedlinePlus

    ... This Issue Features Summer Travel Strange Migrations and Killer Cramps Health Capsules How Secondhand Smoke Affects the ... healthy.” search Features Summer Travel Strange Migrations and Killer Cramps Wise Choices Links Plan for Healthy Travel ...

  19. Travelers' Health: Natural Disasters and Environmental Hazards

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safety Blood Clots Bug Bites Business Travel Cold Climates Counterfeit Drugs Cruise Ship Travel Families with Children ... Abroad Getting Sick After Travel High Altitudes Hot Climates Humanitarian Aid Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador ...

  20. 25 CFR 700.533 - Restrictions affecting travel and travel expense reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Restrictions affecting travel and travel expense... travel and travel expense reimbursement. (a) When an employee is on officially authorized travel his or... in cash or kind for travel expenses from any other source, even when the employee's expenses...

  1. 25 CFR 700.533 - Restrictions affecting travel and travel expense reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Restrictions affecting travel and travel expense... travel and travel expense reimbursement. (a) When an employee is on officially authorized travel his or... in cash or kind for travel expenses from any other source, even when the employee's expenses...

  2. 25 CFR 700.533 - Restrictions affecting travel and travel expense reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Restrictions affecting travel and travel expense... travel and travel expense reimbursement. (a) When an employee is on officially authorized travel his or... in cash or kind for travel expenses from any other source, even when the employee's expenses...

  3. 25 CFR 700.533 - Restrictions affecting travel and travel expense reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Restrictions affecting travel and travel expense... travel and travel expense reimbursement. (a) When an employee is on officially authorized travel his or... in cash or kind for travel expenses from any other source, even when the employee's expenses...

  4. 25 CFR 700.533 - Restrictions affecting travel and travel expense reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Restrictions affecting travel and travel expense... travel and travel expense reimbursement. (a) When an employee is on officially authorized travel his or... in cash or kind for travel expenses from any other source, even when the employee's expenses...

  5. Critical capacity, travel time delays and travel time distribution of rapid mass transit systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legara, Erika Fille; Monterola, Christopher; Lee, Kee Khoon; Hung, Gih Guang

    2014-07-01

    We set up a mechanistic agent-based model of a rapid mass transit system. Using empirical data from Singapore’s unidentifiable smart fare card, we validate our model by reconstructing actual travel demand and duration of travel statistics. We subsequently use this model to investigate two phenomena that are known to significantly affect the dynamics within the RTS: (1) overloading in trains and (2) overcrowding in the RTS platform. We demonstrate that by varying the loading capacity of trains, a tipping point emerges at which an exponential increase in the duration of travel time delays is observed. We also probe the impact on the rail system dynamics of three types of passenger growth distribution across stations: (i) Dirac delta, (ii) uniform and (iii) geometric, which is reminiscent of the effect of land use on transport. Under the assumption of a fixed loading capacity, we demonstrate the dependence of a given origin-destination (OD) pair on the flow volume of commuters in station platforms.

  6. 76 FR 18325 - Federal Travel Regulation; FTR Cases 2007-304 and 2003-309, Relocation Allowances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... agencies subject to the Federal Travel Regulation (FTR). This final rule is a combination of two previous... implications. This counseling can be provided by either the agencies or contractors. Separation Travel Timing... Affairs Manual (FAM) into their internal agency regulations for overseas travel will continue to...

  7. Travelling with a Tachograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, John R.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are activities which use data from an instrument which combines speedometer, odometer, and clock readings on a circular graph. Applications of linear graphs using actual and simulated tachographs are discussed. Examples of student work are given. (CW)

  8. Demand and Congestion in Multiplex Transportation Networks

    PubMed Central

    al-Awwad, Zeyad; Jiang, Shan; González, Marta C.

    2016-01-01

    Urban transportation systems are multimodal, sociotechnical systems; however, while their multimodal aspect has received extensive attention in recent literature on multiplex networks, their sociotechnical aspect has been largely neglected. We present the first study of an urban transportation system using multiplex network analysis and validated Origin-Destination travel demand, with Riyadh’s planned metro as a case study. We develop methods for analyzing the impact of additional transportation layers on existing dynamics, and show that demand structure plays key quantitative and qualitative roles. There exist fundamental geometrical limits to the metro’s impact on traffic dynamics, and the bulk of environmental accrue at metro speeds only slightly faster than those planned. We develop a simple model for informing the use of additional, “feeder” layers to maximize reductions in global congestion. Our techniques are computationally practical, easily extensible to arbitrary transportation layers with complex transfer logic, and implementable in open-source software. PMID:27657738

  9. [Medical tourism: a new kind of traveler?].

    PubMed

    Bovier, Patrick A

    2008-05-14

    In an era of globalisation, an increasing number of patients are seeking medical care abroad, for a fraction of the price in their home country The reasons are numerous. Some countries face an increasing demand, either because of inappropriate health insurance coverage (e.g. United States) or long waiting lists (e.g. United-Kingdom, Canada). In parallel, medical care facilities and infrastructures of many countries of Asia and latin America offer now high quality care, if not better, than their European or North American counterparts. In theses conditions, more and more patients decide now to travel abroad for cardiovascular and orthopedic surgery that they cannot readily have in their home country. In Switzerland, this phenomenon is still marginal but changes could occur in a near future.

  10. Travelling waves in hybrid chemotaxis models.

    PubMed

    Franz, Benjamin; Xue, Chuan; Painter, Kevin J; Erban, Radek

    2014-02-01

    Hybrid models of chemotaxis combine agent-based models of cells with partial differential equation models of extracellular chemical signals. In this paper, travelling wave properties of hybrid models of bacterial chemotaxis are investigated. Bacteria are modelled using an agent-based (individual-based) approach with internal dynamics describing signal transduction. In addition to the chemotactic behaviour of the bacteria, the individual-based model also includes cell proliferation and death. Cells consume the extracellular nutrient field (chemoattractant), which is modelled using a partial differential equation. Mesoscopic and macroscopic equations representing the behaviour of the hybrid model are derived and the existence of travelling wave solutions for these models is established. It is shown that cell proliferation is necessary for the existence of non-transient (stationary) travelling waves in hybrid models. Additionally, a numerical comparison between the wave speeds of the continuum models and the hybrid models shows good agreement in the case of weak chemotaxis and qualitative agreement for the strong chemotaxis case. In the case of slow cell adaptation, we detect oscillating behaviour of the wave, which cannot be explained by mean-field approximations.

  11. Travelers' Health: Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Guerrant RL, Walker DH, Weller PF, editors. Tropical Infectious Diseases: Principles, Pathogens and Practice. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier; ...

  12. Influenza Prevention: Information for Travelers

    MedlinePlus

    ... season and are traveling to parts of the world where influenza activity is ongoing should get a ... have been circulating in other parts of the world. People should get vaccinated at least 2 weeks ...

  13. Travelers' Health: Injuries and Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... optimal care for serious injuries are uncommon outside urban areas in many foreign destinations. Travelers should be ... poor in many countries, victims of injuries and violence can die before reaching a hospital, and there ...

  14. Before Departure: Advising Tropical Travellers

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Margaret

    1990-01-01

    Advising travellers to tropical and subtropical countries before their departure requires physician use of regularly updated information sources. The author outlines an approach to risk assessment and presents an overview of important issues and some information sources. PMID:21233911

  15. Tuberculosis Information for International Travelers

    MedlinePlus

    ... shelters). Travelers who will be working in clinics, hospitals, or other health care settings where TB patients are likely to be encountered should consult infection control or occupational health experts. They should ask about ...

  16. Sequentially pulsed traveling wave accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Caporaso, George J.; Nelson, Scott D.; Poole, Brian R.

    2009-08-18

    A sequentially pulsed traveling wave compact accelerator having two or more pulse forming lines each with a switch for producing a short acceleration pulse along a short length of a beam tube, and a trigger mechanism for sequentially triggering the switches so that a traveling axial electric field is produced along the beam tube in synchronism with an axially traversing pulsed beam of charged particles to serially impart energy to the particle beam.

  17. Pre-travel advice, attitudes and hepatitis A and B vaccination rates among travellers from seven countries†

    PubMed Central

    Heywood, Anita E.; Nothdurft, Hans; Tessier, Dominique; Moodley, Melissa; Rombo, Lars; Marano, Cinzia; De Moerlooze, Laurence

    2017-01-01

    Background: Knowledge about the travel-associated risks of hepatitis A and B, and the extent of pre-travel health-advice being sought may vary between countries. Methods: An online survey was undertaken to assess the awareness, advice-seeking behaviour, rates of vaccination against hepatitis A and B and adherence rates in Australia, Finland, Germany, Norway, Sweden, the UK and Canada between August and October 2014. Individuals aged 18–65 years were screened for eligibility based on: travel to hepatitis A and B endemic countries within the past 3 years, awareness of hepatitis A, and/or combined hepatitis A&B vaccines; awareness of their self-reported vaccination status and if vaccinated, vaccination within the last 3 years. Awareness and receipt of the vaccines, sources of advice, reasons for non-vaccination, adherence to recommended doses and the value of immunization reminders were analysed. Results: Of 27 386 screened travellers, 19 817 (72%) were aware of monovalent hepatitis A or combined A&B vaccines. Of these 13 857 (70%) had sought advice from a healthcare provider (HCP) regarding combined hepatitis A&B or monovalent hepatitis A vaccination, and 9328 (67%) were vaccinated. Of 5225 individuals eligible for the main survey (recently vaccinated = 3576; unvaccinated = 1649), 27% (841/3111) and 37% (174/465) of vaccinated travellers had adhered to the 3-dose combined hepatitis A&B or 2-dose monovalent hepatitis A vaccination schedules, respectively. Of travellers partially vaccinated against combined hepatitis A&B or hepatitis A, 84% and 61%, respectively, believed that they had received the recommended number of doses. Conclusions: HCPs remain the main source of pre-travel health advice. The majority of travellers who received monovalent hepatitis A or combined hepatitis A&B vaccines did not complete the recommended course. These findings highlight the need for further training of HCPs and the provision of reminder services to improve traveller

  18. Multiple-Use Site Demand Analysis: An Application to the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, George L.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A single-site, multiple-use model for analyzing trip demand is derived from a multiple site regional model based on utility maximizing choice theory. The model is used to analyze and compare trips to the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness for several types of use. Travel cost elasticities of demand are compared and discussed. (Authors/JN)

  19. 77 FR 40936 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Passport Demand Forecasting Study Phase III

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-11

    ..., along with other socio-demographic variables has left the future demand for U.S. Passport products as... U.S. Passport product using multiple methodologies. Methodologies can include mail, web/internet... respondents annually and will include topics covering passport demand, travel, and socio-demographic...

  20. Latin American demand

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    From Mexico to Argentina, independent power companies are finding great demand for their services in Latin America. But while legal and economic conditions are increasingly favorable, political and financial uncertainties make power development challenging.

  1. Impact of Energy Demands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cambel, Ali B.

    1970-01-01

    The types of pollutants associated with the process of power production are identified. A nine-point proposal is presented on the ways the increase in power demands might be achieved with the minimum threat to the environment. (PR)

  2. Supply and Demand

    MedlinePlus

    ... a good breastfeeding rhythm with your baby. In reality, the efficient supply-and-demand rhythm of normal ... is one reason it’s a good idea to alternate which breast you use to begin nursing. A ...

  3. [Sexually transmitted diseases and travel].

    PubMed

    Halioua, B; Prazuck, T; Malkin, J E

    1997-01-01

    Travelers are highly exposed to acquiring sexually transmitted diseases especially since the most popular destinations are high risk areas. While this risk applies to all travelers, it is highest for the "sex" tourist who is typically a male with a mean age of 38 years. Awareness of risks is still incomplete, especially with regard to HIV. Several studies have shown that only 20% to 70% of travelers use condoms. This finding accounts for the high incidence of sexually transmitted diseases in returning travelers: 2% to 10%. The risk of HIV infection is particularly high for persons living abroad. Based on available data, we can define the typical profile of the high risk traveler who should be targeted for prevention. Prevention depends on providing adequate information before departure, especially concerning HIV infection. Use of a condom throughout sexual contact is a basic safety rule. However condom quality is poor in many developing countries. Returning travelers should seek medical advice if manifestations involving the anogenital regions should appear. PMID:9612761

  4. [Sexually transmitted diseases and travel].

    PubMed

    Halioua, B; Prazuck, T; Malkin, J E

    1997-01-01

    Travelers are highly exposed to acquiring sexually transmitted diseases especially since the most popular destinations are high risk areas. While this risk applies to all travelers, it is highest for the "sex" tourist who is typically a male with a mean age of 38 years. Awareness of risks is still incomplete, especially with regard to HIV. Several studies have shown that only 20% to 70% of travelers use condoms. This finding accounts for the high incidence of sexually transmitted diseases in returning travelers: 2% to 10%. The risk of HIV infection is particularly high for persons living abroad. Based on available data, we can define the typical profile of the high risk traveler who should be targeted for prevention. Prevention depends on providing adequate information before departure, especially concerning HIV infection. Use of a condom throughout sexual contact is a basic safety rule. However condom quality is poor in many developing countries. Returning travelers should seek medical advice if manifestations involving the anogenital regions should appear.

  5. Transportation demand management and ridesharing. Transportation research record

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, N.

    1996-12-31

    ;Contents: Developing a Travel Time Congestion Index; Measuring and Estimating Congestion Using Travel Time-Based Procedures; Evaluation of Speed Measurement and Prediction Techniques for Signalized Arterials; Estimating the Effect of Operational Improvements in the Houston Area; Toward a Common Parking Policy: A Cross-Jurisdictional Matrix Comparison of Municipal Off-Street Parking Regulations in Metropolitan Dade County, Florida; Optimization Model for Parking in the Campus Environment; and How Do We Know Employer-Based Transportation Demand Mangement Works. The Need for Experimental Design.

  6. Demand management implementation in Southeast Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaboriboon, Y.

    1995-12-31

    The need to apply transportation system management, to developing countries is urgent. Attempts to alleviate severe traffic congestion in their metropolises have so far failed to provide adequate solutions. The countries are faced with many difficulties because of the lack of sufficient financial resources together with their complex internal administrative and political problems. They are incapable of providing sufficient road space to cope with the escalating demand in private automobiles. This has led to excessive delays in urban traveling, environmental pollution problems, decline of road-based public transit services and deterioration of the quality of life in these metropolises. Demand management, in use for decades in the Western world, has also been recognized in Singapore`s famous area licensing scheme (ALS) making other Southeast Asian Metropolises aware of its advantages as an alternative in solving their chaotic traffic problems. However, realization is far different from implementation and still many metropolises are not able to apply the technique. Singapore and Thailand, two leaders among many other Southeast Asian regions in economics, tourism, trade and industry handle their problems far differently, especially the traffic congestion problem. While a number of demand management schemes have been implemented successfully in Singapore since 1975, Bangkok is still struggling to implement such measures to alleviate severe traffic congestion problems. This article intends to high light the successful practices and unsuccessful attempts of demand management techniques applied in Singapore and Bangkok.

  7. UNderstanding uptake of Immunisations in TravellIng aNd Gypsy communities (UNITING): a qualitative interview study.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Cath; Dyson, Lisa; Bedford, Helen; Cheater, Francine M; Condon, Louise; Crocker, Annie; Emslie, Carol; Ireland, Lana; Kemsley, Philippa; Kerr, Susan; Lewis, Helen J; Mytton, Julie; Overend, Karen; Redsell, Sarah; Richardson, Zoe; Shepherd, Christine; Smith, Lesley

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Gypsies, Travellers and Roma (referred to as Travellers) are less likely to access health services, including immunisation. To improve immunisation rates, we need to understand what helps and hinders individuals in these communities in taking up immunisations. AIMS (1) Investigate the barriers to and facilitators of acceptability and uptake of immunisations among six Traveller communities across four UK cities; and (2) identify possible interventions to increase uptake of immunisations in these Traveller communities that could be tested in a subsequent feasibility study. METHODS Three-phase qualitative study underpinned by the social ecological model. Phase 1: interviews with 174 Travellers from six communities: Romanian Roma (Bristol); English Gypsy/Irish Traveller (Bristol); English Gypsy (York); Romanian/Slovakian Roma (Glasgow); Scottish Showpeople (Glasgow); and Irish Traveller (London). Focus on childhood and adult vaccines. Phase 2: interviews with 39 service providers. Data were analysed using the framework approach. Interventions were identified using a modified intervention mapping approach. Phase 3: 51 Travellers and 25 service providers attended workshops and produced a prioritised list of potentially acceptable and feasible interventions. RESULTS There were many common accounts of barriers and facilitators across communities, particularly across the English-speaking communities. Scottish Showpeople were the most similar to the general population. Roma communities experienced additional barriers of language and being in a new country. Men, women and service providers described similar barriers and facilitators. There was widespread acceptance of childhood and adult immunisation, with current parents perceived as more positive than their elders. A minority of English-speaking Travellers worried about multiple/combined childhood vaccines, adult flu and whooping cough. Cultural concerns about vaccines offered during pregnancy and about human

  8. 8 CFR 1244.15 - Travel abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Travel abroad. 1244.15 Section 1244.15... REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 1244.15 Travel abroad. (a) After... Status shall not constitute permission to travel abroad. Permission to travel may be granted by...

  9. 8 CFR 244.15 - Travel abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Travel abroad. 244.15 Section 244.15 Aliens... NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 244.15 Travel abroad. (a) After the grant of Temporary Protected Status... to travel abroad. Permission to travel may be granted by the director pursuant to the...

  10. 8 CFR 244.15 - Travel abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Travel abroad. 244.15 Section 244.15 Aliens... NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 244.15 Travel abroad. (a) After the grant of Temporary Protected Status... to travel abroad. Permission to travel may be granted by the director pursuant to the...

  11. 8 CFR 1244.15 - Travel abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Travel abroad. 1244.15 Section 1244.15... REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 1244.15 Travel abroad. (a) After... Status shall not constitute permission to travel abroad. Permission to travel may be granted by...

  12. 38 CFR 21.7103 - Travel expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Travel expenses. 21.7103... Bill-Active Duty) Counseling § 21.7103 Travel expenses. (a) Travel for veterans and servicemembers. (1... travel to and from the place of counseling for individuals who are required to receive counseling if—...

  13. 28 CFR 2.93 - Travel approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Travel approval. 2.93 Section 2.93... Travel approval. (a) A parolee's Supervision Officer may approve travel outside the district of... possibilities. (3) Recurring travel across a district boundary, not to exceed fifty miles outside the...

  14. 28 CFR 2.93 - Travel approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel approval. 2.93 Section 2.93... Travel approval. (a) A parolee's Supervision Officer may approve travel outside the district of... possibilities. (3) Recurring travel across a district boundary, not to exceed fifty miles outside the...

  15. A practical approach to common skin problems in returning travellers.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Brigid M

    2009-05-01

    Skin diseases are the third most common cause of morbidity in returning travellers and may affect 8% of travellers during travel. Classic tropical diseases account for one quarter and the remainder are cosmopolitan diseases. The majority are of infectious origin, and of these bacterial infections are the most common and lead to the most hospitalisations. The ten most frequently encountered diagnoses comprise four classical tropical infections (cutaneous larva migrans, myiasis, tungiasis and cutaneous leishmaniasis) and six nontropical diseases (bacterial skin infections, arthropod bites, allergic reactions, scabies, animal bites and superficial fungal infections). Other notable skin problems include swimmer's itch, dengue fever presenting with a rash and rickettsial infections presenting with a rash or eschar. Delayed diagnosis, especially of tropical diseases, is common and may be reduced by improved knowledge and a systematic approach to skin problems. This involves a thorough travel specific, traveller specific and skin problem based history, combined with targeted examination and investigations. A frequency weighted differential diagnosis of the most common skin lesions is presented. An increased emphasis on preventative advice in relation to skin disease is encouraged during pre-travel consultations.

  16. APPLICATION OF TRAVEL TIME RELIABILITY FOR PERFORMANCE ORIENTED OPERATIONAL PLANNING OF EXPRESSWAYS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehran, Babak; Nakamura, Hideki

    Evaluation of impacts of congestion improvement scheme s on travel time reliability is very significant for road authorities since travel time reliability repr esents operational performance of expressway segments. In this paper, a methodology is presented to estimate travel tim e reliability prior to implementation of congestion relief schemes based on travel time variation modeling as a function of demand, capacity, weather conditions and road accident s. For subject expressway segmen ts, traffic conditions are modeled over a whole year considering demand and capacity as random variables. Patterns of demand and capacity are generated for each five minute interval by appl ying Monte-Carlo simulation technique, and accidents are randomly generated based on a model that links acci dent rate to traffic conditions. A whole year analysis is performed by comparing de mand and available capacity for each scenario and queue length is estimated through shockwave analysis for each time in terval. Travel times are estimated from refined speed-flow relationships developed for intercity expressways and buffer time index is estimated consequently as a measure of travel time reliability. For validation, estimated reliability indices are compared with measured values from empirical data, and it is shown that the proposed method is suitable for operational evaluation and planning purposes.

  17. Tropical Skin Infections Among Israeli Travelers

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Michal; Benenson, Shmuel; Baum, Sharon; Schwartz, Eli

    2011-01-01

    Infectious skin disorders are common dermatologic illnesses in travelers. Knowledge of post-travel–related infectious skin disorders will allow for effective pre- and post-travel counseling. All cases of returning travelers seen in our center seeking care for infectious skin diseases were included in this study. For a comparison, data on returned travelers with non-infectious skin diseases and healthy travelers who had pre-travel consultations in our institution were also analyzed. Altogether, skin-related diagnosis was reported in 540 ill travelers, and among them, 286 (53%) had infectious skin diseases. Tropical skin infection was diagnosed in 64% of the infectious cases. Travelers returning from Latin America were significantly more ill with tropical skin infections than those traveling to Asia and Africa, The most common diagnoses were cutaneous leishmaniasis, myiasis, and cutaneous larva migrans. In conclusion, tropical skin infections are common among Israeli travelers, especially among those who visited Latin America. PMID:22049040

  18. Lesson on Demand. Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Sue

    This lesson plan helps students understand the role consumer demand plays in the market system, i.e., how interactions in the marketplace help determine pricing. Students will participate in an activity that demonstrates the concepts of demand, demand schedule, demand curve, and the law of demand. The lesson plan provides student objectives;…

  19. Global malaria connectivity through air travel

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Air travel has expanded at an unprecedented rate and continues to do so. Its effects have been seen on malaria in rates of imported cases, local outbreaks in non-endemic areas and the global spread of drug resistance. With elimination and global eradication back on the agenda, changing levels and compositions of imported malaria in malaria-free countries, and the threat of artemisinin resistance spreading from Southeast Asia, there is a need to better understand how the modern flow of air passengers connects each Plasmodium falciparum- and Plasmodium vivax-endemic region to the rest of the world. Methods Recently constructed global P. falciparum and P.vivax malaria risk maps, along with data on flight schedules and modelled passenger flows across the air network, were combined to describe and quantify global malaria connectivity through air travel. Network analysis approaches were then utilized to describe and quantify the patterns that exist in passenger flows weighted by malaria prevalence. Finally, the connectivity within and to the Southeast Asia region where the threat of imported artemisinin resistance arising is highest, was examined to highlight risk routes for its spread. Results The analyses demonstrate the substantial connectivity that now exists between and from malaria-endemic regions through air travel. While the air network provides connections to previously isolated malarious regions, it is clear that great variations exist, with significant regional communities of airports connected by higher rates of flow standing out. The structures of these communities are often not geographically coherent, with historical, economic and cultural ties evident, and variations between P. falciparum and P. vivax clear. Moreover, results highlight how well connected the malaria-endemic areas of Africa are now to Southeast Asia, illustrating the many possible routes that artemisinin-resistant strains could take. Discussion The continuing growth in air

  20. 76 FR 43236 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR): Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances: Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ... ADMINISTRATION 41 CFR Chapter 301 Federal Travel Regulation (FTR): Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances: Notice of Public Meeting AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide Policy, General Services Administration (GSA... Federal Travel Regulation (FTR) in an effort to streamline travel policies, increase travel efficiency...

  1. Poliomyelitis--prevention in travellers.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Cora A; Neilson, Amy A

    2010-03-01

    This article is the second in a series providing a summary of prevention strategies and vaccination for infections that may be acquired by travellers. The series aims to provide practical strategies to assist general practitioners in giving travel advice, as a synthesis of multiple information sources which must otherwise be consulted. Poliomyelitis is a potentially fatal viral illness, which may cause acute flaccid paralysis and permanent central nervous system damage. Ongoing global efforts to eradicate poliomyelitis have been under way since 1988. Travellers are at risk of infection in countries with endemic wild poliomyelitis virus or imported cases, and can spread the infection to areas where poliomyelitis has been eradicated. While all adults should be immune to poliomyelitis, it is important that at-risk travellers are vaccinated appropriately. Vaccine options and regions currently reporting poliomyelitis are presented from a number of sources, which may facilitate the process of giving travel advice in a general practice setting, although it is also important to seek up-to-date epidemiological information.

  2. Health, sustainability and student travel.

    PubMed

    Green, Gill; Morris, Jenny; Wade, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    A survey of 246 pre-registration nursing students in a University in the South West of England was carried out to explore the impact of course related travel on the student experience. Results from the survey indicated that students' main mode of transport to practice placements was by car which reflects the rural nature of the South West and the relative paucity of public transport. Long distances that many students travel to their study centre and to placements, and the concurrent financial strain that this creates, impacted negatively on the student experience. Students recognised the need to travel to a place of study and clinical placements and suggestions of minimising the negative impact of travel were offered. These included the increased use of electronic delivery of lectures, attendance at local university premises, the provision of shared transport to placements and placements closer to the student's home. Few students, however, considered the environmental impact of travel. Higher Education Institutions need to address issues of sustainability through promoting student wellbeing and taking steps to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. It is therefore important that student awareness of sustainability related issues is increased as well as focusing on reducing the environmental impact through organisational change.

  3. Joint 3D seismic travel time and full channel electrical resistivity inversion with cross gradient structure constraint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, J.; Zhang, H.

    2015-12-01

    Near surface geophysical exploration for the purpose of engineering design or construction For this reason, geophysical imaging demands a higher resolution and a better quantitative interpretation. Seismic travel time tomography and direct current resistivity tomography are two main methods for the near surface survey. Because of the limited coverage of observation system and the complex physical relationship between physical parameters and observations, individual geophysical method suffers issues of non-uniqueness and resolution limitation to some degree. We have developed a joint inversion method to combine seismic travel time tomography and full channel resistivity tomography. For the full channel resistivity survey, it uses two electrodes for power supply and all the other electrodes for recording. Compared with the traditional resistivity method, it collects more data and has a better model converge. Our joint inversion strategy relies on the structure constraint enforced through minimizing cross gradients between seismic velocity and resistivity models (Gallardo, 2003). For resistivity tomography, sensitivity kernels are obtained through the adjoint method by solving the electrostatic field equation with the finite-difference method. For seismic travel time tomography, ray paths and travel times are calculated using the fast marching method. We have tested our joint inversion method for a 2D cross-hole problem where two small zones with high and low velocity/resistivity anomalies. Seismic/electrical sources/receivers are installed in two boreholes. For separate seismic inversion, the smearing effect is evident and two anomaly zones are distorted and misplaced. For separate electric resistivity inversion, although two anomaly zones are positioned correctly their values are not accurate. By joint inversion, two velocity anomaly zones are clearly imaged and the smearing effect is greatly reduced. In comparison, for the resistivity model, the two anomaly zones

  4. [Hospitals in Hesse in the view of enlightened travellers].

    PubMed

    Vanja, Christina

    2006-01-01

    The "Hohen Hospitäler", hospitals founded by landgrave Philipp dem Grossmütigen during the years 1533-1542, were seen as an expression of greatest caritas in Early Modern times. These protestant institutions for the poor and sick underlings of Hesse were appreciated as charitable shelters by noblemen and commoners. This situation changed dramatically at the end of the 18th century. The first critics were travelling philosophers of the Enlightenment, who visited the "mad houses" of Hesse as well as other oddities. They published their experiences in travel reports. Although the hospitals as integrated institutions still cared for both psychiatric and somatic patients, these authors only concentrated on the mad inmates. The fact that these were kept in "dark and dirty cloistral corridors" was the central point of criticism. This negative situation was confronted by the travellers not only with a demand for more hygiene but also with a call for an academically trained physician. Furthermore, they claimed for dissecting deceased patients in order to explore the nature of madness. A comparison of these travel reports with the first psychiatric publications of the early 19th century discloses a literary discourse. It leads from the reports of travellers with a general interest to specialist literature of early psychiatry. Obviously it had a formative influence on the self-conception of this new medical field, which benefited from the criticism concerning the allegedly inhumane conditions in the old hospitals. Three questions follow from this statement: 1. Which were the images produced or reproduced by the travellers in their reports? 2. Which were the standards against which the critics measured their reports? 3. In how far were the philanthropic aims of the enlightened travellers related to the self-conception of the hospitals and their inmates? Travelling reports are compared with the circumstances in the hospitals. This comparison throws light in the "invention" of

  5. Future Trends in Business Travel Decision Making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Keith J.

    2002-01-01

    This research surveys twenty large companies and their travellers to identify and evaluate the effects of pressures on the business travel market in the future. The influence of the following areas on the decision making process are addressed: (1) Corporate travel policies and increasing professionalism in corporate purchasing; (2) The development of global strategic airline alliances; (3) The emergence of low cost airlines on short haul markets; and (4) The development of internet based booking tools and travel agency IT. The survey shows differences in views between travel managers, and travellers with regard to corporate travel policies. While travel managers see policy rules, travellers interpret these as guidelines, indicating travel managers will need to take further actions to exercise true control of travel budgets. The data shows that companies are more likely to prescribe a class of airline ticket, than the choice of airline itself. Corporate hierarchical bias in travel policies is still common both for short and particularly long haul flying. Other findings show that while travel managers believe that their companies are likely to sign global deals with strategic airline groups within a five year period in a bid to consolidating spending, they also believe that nearly a third of short haul flying will be taken with low cost carriers, indicating further penetration in this business travel market by these carriers. The paper also provides other predictions about the business travel market, based on the survey findings.

  6. Demand Response Dispatch Tool

    2012-08-31

    The Demand Response (DR) Dispatch Tool uses price profiles to dispatch demand response resources and create load modifying profiles. These annual profiles are used as inputs to production cost models and regional planning tools (e.g., PROMOD). The tool has been effectively implemented in transmission planning studies conducted by the Western Electricity Coordinating Council via its Transmission Expansion Planning and Policy Committee. The DR Dispatch Tool can properly model the dispatch of DR resources for bothmore » reliability and economic conditions.« less

  7. Toxoplasmosis as a travel risk.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda-Arias, Juan C; Gómez-Marin, Jorge E; Bobić, Branko; Naranjo-Galvis, Carlos A; Djurković-Djaković, Olgica

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite with worldwide distribution that infects more than one third of the global population. Primary infection in immunocompetent individuals is usually asymptomatic; however, different organs can be affected in immunocompromised individuals leading to the development of encephalitis, myocarditis or pneumonitis. The prevalence of infection with Toxoplasma as well as its genetic structure varies geographically and for that reason travel may be considered as a risk factor to acquire the infection. As toxoplasmosis is a foodborne disease, health care providers should give health education on prevention measures to all prospective travelers in order to decrease the risk of infection in endemic areas. This review presents an overview of the infection with T. gondii with some considerations for travelers to and from endemic zones. PMID:24951321

  8. Toxoplasmosis as a travel risk.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda-Arias, Juan C; Gómez-Marin, Jorge E; Bobić, Branko; Naranjo-Galvis, Carlos A; Djurković-Djaković, Olgica

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite with worldwide distribution that infects more than one third of the global population. Primary infection in immunocompetent individuals is usually asymptomatic; however, different organs can be affected in immunocompromised individuals leading to the development of encephalitis, myocarditis or pneumonitis. The prevalence of infection with Toxoplasma as well as its genetic structure varies geographically and for that reason travel may be considered as a risk factor to acquire the infection. As toxoplasmosis is a foodborne disease, health care providers should give health education on prevention measures to all prospective travelers in order to decrease the risk of infection in endemic areas. This review presents an overview of the infection with T. gondii with some considerations for travelers to and from endemic zones.

  9. Travel epidemiology: the Saudi perspective.

    PubMed

    Memish, Ziad A; Venkatesh, S; Ahmed, Qanta A

    2003-02-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia occupies four-fifths of the Arabian Peninsula, with a land area of 2 million square kilometres. Saudi Arabia holds a unique position in the Islamic world, as the custodian of the two holiest places of Islam, in Mecca and Medina. Annually, some 2 million Muslims from over 140 countries embark on Hajj. This extraordinary en masse migration is a unique forum for the study of travel epidemiology since the Hajj carries various health risks, both communicable and non-communicable, often on a colossal scale. Non-communicable hazards of the Hajj include stampede and motor vehicle trauma, fire-related burn injuries and accidental hand injury during animal slaughter. Communicable hazards in the form of outbreaks of multiple infectious diseases have been reported repeatedly, during and following the Hajj. Meningococcal meningitis, gastroenteritis, hepatitis A, B and C, and various zoonotic diseases comprise some of the possible infectious hazards at the Hajj. Many of these infectious and non-infectious hazards can be avoided or averted by adopting appropriate prophylactic measures. Physicians and health personnel must be aware of these risks to appropriately educate, immunize and prepare these travellers facing the unique epidemiological challenges of Hajj in an effort to minimize untoward effects. Travel epidemiology related to the Hajj is a new and exciting area, which offers valuable insights to the travel specialist. The sheer scale of numbers affords a rare view of migration medicine in action. As data is continually gathered and both national and international policy making is tailored to vital insights gained through travel epidemiology, the Hajj will be continually safeguarded. Practitioners will gain from findings of travel related epidemiological changes in evolution at the Hajj: the impact of vaccinating policies, infection control policies and public health are afforded a real-world laboratory setting at each annual Hajj, allowing us to

  10. Black Holes: A Traveler's Guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickover, Clifford A.

    1998-03-01

    BLACK HOLES A TRAVELER'S GUIDE Clifford Pickover's inventive and entertaining excursion beyond the curves of space and time. "I've enjoyed Clifford Pickover's earlier books . . . now he has ventured into the exploration of black holes. All would-be tourists are strongly advised to read his traveler's guide." -Arthur C. Clarke. "Many books have been written about black holes, but none surpass this one in arousing emotions of awe and wonder towards the mysterious structure of the universe." -Martin Gardner. "Bucky Fuller thought big. Arthur C. Clarke thinks big, but Cliff Pickover outdoes them both." -Wired. "The book is fun, zany, in-your-face, and refreshingly addictive." -Times Higher Education Supplement.

  11. Navigation: traveling the water highways!

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, Marion; Vandas, Stephen; Farrar, Frank

    1996-01-01

    NAVIGATION is travel or transportation over water. Many different kinds of boats and ships are used on rivers and oceans to move people and products from one place to another. Navigation was extremely important for foreign and domestic trade and travel in the early days of our country before cars, trucks, trains, and airplanes were invented. In those days, rivers were used as "roads" to connect inland settlements to river and coastal ports. Communities established at these commercial ports became important economic, cultural, and social hubs in the development of our Nation.

  12. [Travel and chronic respiratory insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Bonnet, D; Marotel, C; Miltgen, J; N'Guyen, G; Cuguilliere, A; L'Her, P

    1997-01-01

    Changes in climate, altitude and lifestyle during travel confronts patients presenting chronic respiratory insufficiency with special problems. A major challenge is related to high altitude during air travel. To limit risks, a preflight examination is necessary to ascertain respiratory status. Patients requiring oxygen therapy must ensure availability both during the flight and at the destination. Patients with asthma or chronic bronchitis must bring along a sufficient supply of usual inhalers. All patients should carry a doctor's letter describing their condition and listing medications. Using these elementary precautions, patients with chronic respiratory insufficiency can safely enjoy sightseeing and outdoor leisure activities.

  13. Fever in the returned traveler.

    PubMed

    Strickland, G T

    1992-11-01

    Febrile infections can be fatal in travelers to tropical countries unless the patient seeks medical care in a timely manner and the physician takes the time and has the skill to make a rapid diagnosis and prescribe appropriate therapy. In addition to the usual febrile illnesses present in temperate climates, the patient may have an "exotic" infection, e.g., malaria, infectious hepatitis, enteric fever, or dengue fever. The potential causes of fever in travelers are extensive. This article provides practical clues to assist the physician in making the correct diagnosis--by using exposure information, symptoms and signs, and concomitant symptom complexes.

  14. Cosmic-string traveling waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garfinkle, David

    1991-08-01

    An attempt to solve Einstein's equations by assuming the existence of symmetries and by treating metrics that possess a Killing vector is presented. A spacetime with a null Killing field can be regarded as the history of a disturbance that propagates at the speed of light without changing its amplitude or shape. Such spacetimes are referred to as traveling waves. A new technique for generating solutions of Einstein's equations is then presented. The technique produces a new traveling wave spacetime given an old one. It applies to both the vacuum Einstein equations and Einstein's equations coupled to various types of matter.

  15. Collection Development "Mini-Travel Guides": Traveling Light

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufmann, Linda M.

    2009-01-01

    Predictions regarding how much traveling Americans will be doing this year and where they might go vary, but it is expected that many will cut back on what is increasingly considered a luxury. Even so, gasoline prices are down substantially from a year ago, the stronger dollar means better prices in Europe, and there are discounts in all areas of…

  16. Projected Demand and Potential Impacts to the National Airspace System of Autonomous, Electric, On-Demand Small Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeremy C.; Viken, Jeffrey K.; Guerreiro, Nelson M.; Dollyhigh, Samuel M.; Fenbert, James W.; Hartman, Christopher L.; Kwa, Teck-Seng; Moore, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    Electric propulsion and autonomy are technology frontiers that offer tremendous potential to achieve low operating costs for small-aircraft. Such technologies enable simple and safe to operate vehicles that could dramatically improve regional transportation accessibility and speed through point-to-point operations. This analysis develops an understanding of the potential traffic volume and National Airspace System (NAS) capacity for small on-demand aircraft operations. Future demand projections use the Transportation Systems Analysis Model (TSAM), a tool suite developed by NASA and the Transportation Laboratory of Virginia Polytechnic Institute. Demand projections from TSAM contain the mode of travel, number of trips and geographic distribution of trips. For this study, the mode of travel can be commercial aircraft, automobile and on-demand aircraft. NASA's Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES) is used to assess NAS impact. This simulation takes a schedule that includes all flights: commercial passenger and cargo; conventional General Aviation and on-demand small aircraft, and operates them in the simulated NAS. The results of this analysis projects very large trip numbers for an on-demand air transportation system competitive with automobiles in cost per passenger mile. The significance is this type of air transportation can enhance mobility for communities that currently lack access to commercial air transportation. Another significant finding is that the large numbers of operations can have an impact on the current NAS infrastructure used by commercial airlines and cargo operators, even if on-demand traffic does not use the 28 airports in the Continental U.S. designated as large hubs by the FAA. Some smaller airports will experience greater demand than their current capacity allows and will require upgrading. In addition, in future years as demand grows and vehicle performance improves other non-conventional facilities such as short runways incorporated into

  17. Textbook Factor Demand Curves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Joe C.

    1994-01-01

    Maintains that teachers and textbook graphics follow the same basic pattern in illustrating changes in demand curves when product prices increase. Asserts that the use of computer graphics will enable teachers to be more precise in their graphic presentation of price elasticity. (CFR)

  18. Distribution of Childrearing Demands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Judith D.; And Others

    The tools of economic analysis were applied to demographic data in order to develop a social indicator measuring the extent of inequality in the distribution of childrearing responsibility in households from 1940 to 1980. With data drawn from the Current Population Survey of the Bureau of the Census, a "demand intensity" measure was developed.…

  19. Demanding Divestment from Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asquith, Christina

    2006-01-01

    Bowing to student demands to "stop supporting genocide," the University of California regents voted earlier this year to divest millions of dollars from companies working in the war-torn African nation of Sudan, the first major public university in the nation to take such action. Since student protests on the subject began at Harvard University in…

  20. 75 FR 24434 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Transportation in Conjunction With Official Travel and Relocation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... ``Official travel'' and ``Transit system''; clarifies reimbursement for transportation at an official station... and definitions for ``Official travel'' and ``Transit system'' and also removes references to ``local travel,'' ``local transit system,'' ``local transportation,'' ``local transportation system,''...

  1. Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, Charles; Reid, Michael; Levy, Roger; Silverstein, Alison

    2010-01-29

    This paper reviews the relationship between energy efficiency and demand response and discusses approaches and barriers to coordinating energy efficiency and demand response. The paper is intended to support the 10 implementation goals of the National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency's Vision to achieve all cost-effective energy efficiency by 2025. Improving energy efficiency in our homes, businesses, schools, governments, and industries - which consume more than 70 percent of the nation's natural gas and electricity - is one of the most constructive, cost-effective ways to address the challenges of high energy prices, energy security and independence, air pollution, and global climate change. While energy efficiency is an increasingly prominent component of efforts to supply affordable, reliable, secure, and clean electric power, demand response is becoming a valuable tool in utility and regional resource plans. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) estimated the contribution from existing U.S. demand response resources at about 41,000 megawatts (MW), about 5.8 percent of 2008 summer peak demand (FERC, 2008). Moreover, FERC recently estimated nationwide achievable demand response potential at 138,000 MW (14 percent of peak demand) by 2019 (FERC, 2009).2 A recent Electric Power Research Institute study estimates that 'the combination of demand response and energy efficiency programs has the potential to reduce non-coincident summer peak demand by 157 GW' by 2030, or 14-20 percent below projected levels (EPRI, 2009a). This paper supports the Action Plan's effort to coordinate energy efficiency and demand response programs to maximize value to customers. For information on the full suite of policy and programmatic options for removing barriers to energy efficiency, see the Vision for 2025 and the various other Action Plan papers and guides available at www.epa.gov/eeactionplan.

  2. An examination of sources of sensitivity of consumer surplus estimates in travel cost models.

    PubMed

    Blaine, Thomas W; Lichtkoppler, Frank R; Bader, Timothy J; Hartman, Travis J; Lucente, Joseph E

    2015-03-15

    We examine sensitivity of estimates of recreation demand using the Travel Cost Method (TCM) to four factors. Three of the four have been routinely and widely discussed in the TCM literature: a) Poisson verses negative binomial regression; b) application of Englin correction to account for endogenous stratification; c) truncation of the data set to eliminate outliers. A fourth issue we address has not been widely modeled: the potential effect on recreation demand of the interaction between income and travel cost. We provide a straightforward comparison of all four factors, analyzing the impact of each on regression parameters and consumer surplus estimates. Truncation has a modest effect on estimates obtained from the Poisson models but a radical effect on the estimates obtained by way of the negative binomial. Inclusion of an income-travel cost interaction term generally produces a more conservative but not a statistically significantly different estimate of consumer surplus in both Poisson and negative binomial models. It also generates broader confidence intervals. Application of truncation, the Englin correction and the income-travel cost interaction produced the most conservative estimates of consumer surplus and eliminated the statistical difference between the Poisson and the negative binomial. Use of the income-travel cost interaction term reveals that for visitors who face relatively low travel costs, the relationship between income and travel demand is negative, while it is positive for those who face high travel costs. This provides an explanation of the ambiguities on the findings regarding the role of income widely observed in the TCM literature. Our results suggest that policies that reduce access to publicly owned resources inordinately impact local low income recreationists and are contrary to environmental justice.

  3. Time Travel in the Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Donna W.

    2005-01-01

    A Time Travel project in the library gives enthusiasm to students to connect with the past and reinforces their research skills while instilling respect for the past years. The librarian should choose one specific decade to highlight in the library and create an extravaganza that would allow memorabilia from that time period to be located without…

  4. Your Travel Dollar. Money Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baran, Nancy H., Ed.

    This illustrated guide was designed to familiarize consumers with planning a vacation trip, whether domestic or abroad. The guide covers setting up a budget; package tours; cruises and charter flights; travel agencies and clubs; and arranging stays in hotels/motels, rental condominiums, bed-and-breakfasts, hostels, campsites, and private…

  5. Music Travel: Avoiding the Potholes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Cathy Applefeld

    2010-01-01

    Even given the countless hours clocked in class and rehearsal time, there's nothing that compares to a road trip to seal the bond among band, orchestra, and vocal music students. "Nothing can replace travel," says Peter Markes, orchestra director at Edmond North High School in Oklahoma. "It's safe, well-structured and, for many of the kids, it's…

  6. Transition Matrices and Time Travel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hwee Kuan

    It has been proven by Lee [1] that the grandfather paradox and Deutsch's unproven paradox are precluded for twoand three-state graphical models. We prove that both paradoxes are also precluded for a general n-state model. In addition, we present a new time travel paradox in this paper.

  7. Preparing Students for Travel Abroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novotny, Jeanne

    1989-01-01

    This article outlines information which can be provided by the school nurse or health educator to help make student trips abroad healthy as well as educational. Topics covered include: food and water, traveler's diarrhea, handwashing, insect and animal bites, stress, and prior health problems. (IAH)

  8. Demand surge following earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, Anna H.

    2012-01-01

    Demand surge is understood to be a socio-economic phenomenon where repair costs for the same damage are higher after large- versus small-scale natural disasters. It has reportedly increased monetary losses by 20 to 50%. In previous work, a model for the increased costs of reconstruction labor and materials was developed for hurricanes in the Southeast United States. The model showed that labor cost increases, rather than the material component, drove the total repair cost increases, and this finding could be extended to earthquakes. A study of past large-scale disasters suggested that there may be additional explanations for demand surge. Two such explanations specific to earthquakes are the exclusion of insurance coverage for earthquake damage and possible concurrent causation of damage from an earthquake followed by fire or tsunami. Additional research into these aspects might provide a better explanation for increased monetary losses after large- vs. small-scale earthquakes.

  9. Vacillations induced by interference of stationary and traveling planetary waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salby, Murry L.; Garcia, Rolando R.

    1987-01-01

    The interference pattern produced when a traveling planetary wave propagates over a stationary forced wave is explored, examining the interference signature in a variety of diagnostics. The wave field is first restricted to a diatomic spectrum consisting of two components: a single stationary wave and a single monochromatic traveling wave. A simple barotropic normal mode propagating over a simple stationary plane wave is considered, and closed form solutions are obtained. The wave fields are then restricted spatially, providing more realistic structures without sacrificing the advantages of an analytical solution. Both stationary and traveling wave fields are calculated numerically with the linearized Primitive Equations in a realistic basic state. The mean flow reaction to the fluctuating eddy forcing which results from interference is derived. Synoptic geopotential behavior corresponding to the combined wave and mean flow fields is presented, and the synoptic signature in potential vorticity on isentropic surfaces is examined.

  10. Intermittent Demand Forecasting in a Tertiary Pediatric Intensive Care Unit.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chen-Yang; Chiang, Kuo-Liang; Chen, Meng-Yin

    2016-10-01

    Forecasts of the demand for medical supplies both directly and indirectly affect the operating costs and the quality of the care provided by health care institutions. Specifically, overestimating demand induces an inventory surplus, whereas underestimating demand possibly compromises patient safety. Uncertainty in forecasting the consumption of medical supplies generates intermittent demand events. The intermittent demand patterns for medical supplies are generally classified as lumpy, erratic, smooth, and slow-moving demand. This study was conducted with the purpose of advancing a tertiary pediatric intensive care unit's efforts to achieve a high level of accuracy in its forecasting of the demand for medical supplies. On this point, several demand forecasting methods were compared in terms of the forecast accuracy of each. The results confirm that applying Croston's method combined with a single exponential smoothing method yields the most accurate results for forecasting lumpy, erratic, and slow-moving demand, whereas the Simple Moving Average (SMA) method is the most suitable for forecasting smooth demand. In addition, when the classification of demand consumption patterns were combined with the demand forecasting models, the forecasting errors were minimized, indicating that this classification framework can play a role in improving patient safety and reducing inventory management costs in health care institutions. PMID:27562485

  11. Intermittent Demand Forecasting in a Tertiary Pediatric Intensive Care Unit.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chen-Yang; Chiang, Kuo-Liang; Chen, Meng-Yin

    2016-10-01

    Forecasts of the demand for medical supplies both directly and indirectly affect the operating costs and the quality of the care provided by health care institutions. Specifically, overestimating demand induces an inventory surplus, whereas underestimating demand possibly compromises patient safety. Uncertainty in forecasting the consumption of medical supplies generates intermittent demand events. The intermittent demand patterns for medical supplies are generally classified as lumpy, erratic, smooth, and slow-moving demand. This study was conducted with the purpose of advancing a tertiary pediatric intensive care unit's efforts to achieve a high level of accuracy in its forecasting of the demand for medical supplies. On this point, several demand forecasting methods were compared in terms of the forecast accuracy of each. The results confirm that applying Croston's method combined with a single exponential smoothing method yields the most accurate results for forecasting lumpy, erratic, and slow-moving demand, whereas the Simple Moving Average (SMA) method is the most suitable for forecasting smooth demand. In addition, when the classification of demand consumption patterns were combined with the demand forecasting models, the forecasting errors were minimized, indicating that this classification framework can play a role in improving patient safety and reducing inventory management costs in health care institutions.

  12. Coupling between air travel and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karnauskas, Kristopher B.; Donnelly, Jeffrey P.; Barkley, Hannah C.; Martin, Jonathan E.

    2015-12-01

    The airline industry closely monitors the midlatitude jet stream for short-term planning of flight paths and arrival times. In addition to passenger safety and on-time metrics, this is due to the acute sensitivity of airline profits to fuel cost. US carriers spent US$47 billion on jet fuel in 2011, compared with a total industry operating revenue of US$192 billion. Beyond the timescale of synoptic weather, the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Arctic Oscillation (AO) and other modes of variability modulate the strength and position of the Aleutian low and Pacific high on interannual timescales, which influence the tendency of the exit region of the midlatitude Pacific jet stream to extend, retract and meander poleward and equatorward. The impact of global aviation on climate change has been studied for decades owing to the radiative forcing of emitted greenhouse gases, contrails and other effects. The impact of climate variability on air travel, however, has only recently come into focus, primarily in terms of turbulence. Shifting attention to flight durations, here we show that 88% of the interannual variance in domestic flight times between Hawaii and the continental US is explained by a linear combination of ENSO and the AO. Further, we extend our analysis to CMIP5 model projections to explore potential feedbacks between anthropogenic climate change and air travel.

  13. Tympanal travelling waves in migratory locusts.

    PubMed

    Windmill, James F C; Göpfert, Martin C; Robert, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Hearing animals, including many vertebrates and insects, have the capacity to analyse the frequency composition of sound. In mammals, frequency analysis relies on the mechanical response of the basilar membrane in the cochlear duct. These vibrations take the form of a slow vibrational wave propagating along the basilar membrane from base to apex. Known as von Békésy's travelling wave, this wave displays amplitude maxima at frequency-specific locations along the basilar membrane, providing a spatial map of the frequency of sound--a tonotopy. In their structure, insect auditory systems may not be as sophisticated at those of mammals, yet some are known to perform sound frequency analysis. In the desert locust, this analysis arises from the mechanical properties of the tympanal membrane. In effect, the spatial decomposition of incident sound into discrete frequency components involves a tympanal travelling wave that funnels mechanical energy to specific tympanal locations, where distinct groups of mechanoreceptor neurones project. Notably, observed tympanal deflections differ from those predicted by drum theory. Although phenomenologically equivalent, von Békésy's and the locust's waves differ in their physical implementation. von Békésy's wave is born from interactions between the anisotropic basilar membrane and the surrounding incompressible fluids, whereas the locust's wave rides on an anisotropic membrane suspended in air. The locust's ear thus combines in one structure the functions of sound reception and frequency decomposition.

  14. New technology for traveling with less energy

    SciTech Connect

    Oman, H.

    1997-12-31

    Better airplane performance came from jet engines with turbine blades that operate in a 1426 C (2600 F) inlet-gas temperature. An important by-product of this development is the aeroderivative gas turbine, which when installed in a combined-cycle power plant, converts natural-gas energy to electric power with 60% efficiency. Independent power producers are selling this power for 3 cents per kWh. Another new and pertinent development has been computer simulation which predicts the aerodynamic performance of a given design. The Raven, a human-powered airplane with a 100-mile nonstop range, illustrates the usefulness of modeling. It uses a carbon-fiber reinforced structure. The resulting airplane, with a 35-meter (115-foot) wingspan, weighs only 34 kg (75 pounds). Ten years ago the author had calculated the cost of traveling 1609 km (1000 miles) in 12 different vehicles. The cost energy for this travel ranged from $127.40 to $3.29. Now a battery-powered electric bicycle offers the lowest energy cost for the trip--$2.12.

  15. Projecting Future Scheduled Airline Demand, Schedules and NGATS Benefits Using TSAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dollyhigh, Samuel; Smith, Jeremy; Viken, Jeff; Trani, Antonio; Baik, Hojong; Hinze, Nickolas; Ashiabor, Senanu

    2006-01-01

    The Transportation Systems Analysis Model (TSAM) developed by Virginia Tech s Air Transportation Systems Lab and NASA Langley can provide detailed analysis of the effects on the demand for air travel of a full range of NASA and FAA aviation projects. TSAM has been used to project the passenger demand for very light jet (VLJ) air taxi service, scheduled airline demand growth and future schedules, Next Generation Air Transportation System (NGATS) benefits, and future passenger revenues for the Airport and Airway Trust Fund. TSAM can project the resulting demand when new vehicles and/or technology is inserted into the long distance (100 or more miles one-way) transportation system, as well as, changes in demand as a result of fare yield increases or decreases, airport transit times, scheduled flight times, ticket taxes, reductions or increases in flight delays, and so on. TSAM models all long distance travel in the contiguous U.S. and determines the mode choice of the traveler based on detailed trip costs, travel time, schedule frequency, purpose of the trip (business or non-business), and household income level of the traveler. Demand is modeled at the county level, with an airport choice module providing up to three airports as part of the mode choice. Future enplanements at airports can be projected for different scenarios. A Fratar algorithm and a schedule generator are applied to generate future flight schedules. This paper presents the application of TSAM to modeling future scheduled air passenger demand and resulting airline schedules, the impact of NGATS goals and objectives on passenger demand, along with projections for passenger fee receipts for several scenarios for the FAA Airport and Airway Trust Fund.

  16. The practice of travel medicine in Europe.

    PubMed

    Schlagenhauf, P; Santos-O'Connor, F; Parola, P

    2010-03-01

    Europe, because of its geographical location, strategic position on trade routes, and colonial past, has a long history of caring for travellers' health. Within Europe, there is great diversity in the practice of travel medicine. Some countries have travel medicine societies and provisions for a periodic distribution of recommendations, but many countries have no national pre-travel guidelines and follow international recommendations such as those provided by the WHO. Providers of travel medicine include tropical medicine specialists, general practice nurses and physicians, specialist 'travel clinics', occupational physicians, and pharmacists. One of the core functions of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control-funded network of travel and tropical medicine professionals, EuroTravNet, is to document the status quo of travel medicine in Europe. A three-pronged approach is used, with a real-time online questionnaire, a structured interview with experts in each country, and web searching.

  17. 49 CFR 230.76 - Piston travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and...) Maximum piston travel. The maximum piston travel when steam locomotive is standing shall be as follows... Driving Wheel Brake 6 Engine Truck Brake 8 Tender Brake 9...

  18. 49 CFR 230.76 - Piston travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and...) Maximum piston travel. The maximum piston travel when steam locomotive is standing shall be as follows... Driving Wheel Brake 6 Engine Truck Brake 8 Tender Brake 9...

  19. 49 CFR 230.76 - Piston travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and...) Maximum piston travel. The maximum piston travel when steam locomotive is standing shall be as follows... Driving Wheel Brake 6 Engine Truck Brake 8 Tender Brake 9...

  20. 49 CFR 230.76 - Piston travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and...) Maximum piston travel. The maximum piston travel when steam locomotive is standing shall be as follows... Driving Wheel Brake 6 Engine Truck Brake 8 Tender Brake 9...

  1. 49 CFR 230.76 - Piston travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and...) Maximum piston travel. The maximum piston travel when steam locomotive is standing shall be as follows... Driving Wheel Brake 6 Engine Truck Brake 8 Tender Brake 9...

  2. Market Demand for Special Education Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montrosse, Bianca Elizabeth; Young, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Since 1988, researchers have monitored the extent and severity of the chronic special education (SE) faculty shortage. The present study sought to add to this knowledge base by (a) gathering data on the supply and demand of leadership personnel in SE since the "2001 Faculty Shortage Study"; (b) combining and comparing these data with other sources…

  3. Why do medical tourists travel to where they do? The role of networks in determining medical travel.

    PubMed

    Hanefeld, J; Lunt, N; Smith, R; Horsfall, D

    2015-01-01

    patients and providers opens up novel conception of medical tourism, deepening understanding of patterns of travel by combining investigation of industry with patient motivation.

  4. Why do medical tourists travel to where they do? The role of networks in determining medical travel.

    PubMed

    Hanefeld, J; Lunt, N; Smith, R; Horsfall, D

    2015-01-01

    patients and providers opens up novel conception of medical tourism, deepening understanding of patterns of travel by combining investigation of industry with patient motivation. PMID:24976006

  5. 38 CFR 60.5 - Travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel. 60.5 Section 60.5... TEMPORARY LODGING § 60.5 Travel. As a condition for receiving temporary lodging under this part, a veteran must be required to travel either 50 or more miles, or at least two hours from his or her home to...

  6. 5 CFR 630.207 - Travel time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Travel time. 630.207 Section 630.207... and General Provisions for Annual and Sick Leave § 630.207 Travel time. The travel time granted an employee under section 6303(d) of title 5, United States Code, is inclusive of the time...

  7. 5 CFR 630.207 - Travel time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Travel time. 630.207 Section 630.207... and General Provisions for Annual and Sick Leave § 630.207 Travel time. The travel time granted an employee under section 6303(d) of title 5, United States Code, is inclusive of the time...

  8. 5 CFR 630.207 - Travel time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Travel time. 630.207 Section 630.207... and General Provisions for Annual and Sick Leave § 630.207 Travel time. The travel time granted an employee under section 6303(d) of title 5, United States Code, is inclusive of the time...

  9. 5 CFR 630.207 - Travel time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Travel time. 630.207 Section 630.207... and General Provisions for Annual and Sick Leave § 630.207 Travel time. The travel time granted an employee under section 6303(d) of title 5, United States Code, is inclusive of the time...

  10. 5 CFR 630.207 - Travel time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Travel time. 630.207 Section 630.207... and General Provisions for Annual and Sick Leave § 630.207 Travel time. The travel time granted an employee under section 6303(d) of title 5, United States Code, is inclusive of the time...

  11. 32 CFR 726.6 - Travel orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel orders. 726.6 Section 726.6 National... MENTALLY INCOMPETENT MEMBERS OF THE NAVAL SERVICE § 726.6 Travel orders. The Chief of Naval Personnel or the Deputy Commandant, Manpower & Reserve Affairs, may issue travel orders to a member to...

  12. 38 CFR 21.3105 - Travel expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Travel expenses. 21.3105.... Chapter 35 Counseling § 21.3105 Travel expenses. (a) General. VA shall determine and pay the necessary expense of travel to and from the place of counseling for an eligible person who is required to...

  13. 28 CFR 2.41 - Travel approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Travel approval. 2.41 Section 2.41..., YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2.41 Travel approval. (a) The probation officer may approve travel outside the district without approval of...

  14. 38 CFR 60.5 - Travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Travel. 60.5 Section 60.5... TEMPORARY LODGING § 60.5 Travel. As a condition for receiving temporary lodging under this part, a veteran must be required to travel either 50 or more miles, or at least two hours from his or her home to...

  15. 32 CFR 726.6 - Travel orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Travel orders. 726.6 Section 726.6 National... MENTALLY INCOMPETENT MEMBERS OF THE NAVAL SERVICE § 726.6 Travel orders. The Chief of Naval Personnel or the Deputy Commandant, Manpower & Reserve Affairs, may issue travel orders to a member to...

  16. 38 CFR 21.3105 - Travel expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel expenses. 21.3105.... Chapter 35 Counseling § 21.3105 Travel expenses. (a) General. VA shall determine and pay the necessary expense of travel to and from the place of counseling for an eligible person who is required to...

  17. 20 CFR 617.46 - Travel allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... mile at the prevailing mileage rate authorized under the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part... prevailing per diem allowance rate authorized under the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part 101-7... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Travel allowance. 617.46 Section...

  18. Acute Chagas Disease in a Returning Traveler

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Yvonne L.; Juliano, Jonathan J.; Montgomery, Susan P.; Qvarnstrom, Yvonne

    2012-01-01

    Acute Chagas disease is rarely recognized, and the risk for acquiring the disease is undefined in travelers to Central America. We describe a case of acute Chagas disease in a traveler to Costa Rica and highlight the need for increased awareness of this infection in travelers to Chagas-endemic areas. PMID:23091192

  19. Travel and Tourism Module. An Advanced-Level Option For Distribution and Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational Education Curriculum Development.

    Intended as an advanced option for distributive education students in the twelfth grade, this travel and tourism module is designed to cover a minimum of ten weeks or a maximum of twenty weeks. Introductory material includes information on employment demands, administrative considerations, course format, teaching suggestions, expected outcomes,…

  20. 76 FR 79226 - Travelers Insurance, a Subsidiary of the Travelers Indemnity Company, Personal Insurance Division...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... included workers and former workers of The Travelers Indemnity Company, a wholly-owned subsidiary of The... Employment and Training Administration Travelers Insurance, a Subsidiary of the Travelers Indemnity Company... response to a petition filed on May 4, 2011 on behalf of workers of Travelers Insurance, a subsidiary...

  1. 78 FR 73702 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Telework Travel Expenses Test Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ...] RIN 3090-AJ23 Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Telework Travel Expenses Test Programs AGENCY: Office... 2010, which establishes and authorizes telework travel expenses test programs, authorizes reimbursement for any necessary travel expenses in conjunction with such a test program in lieu of any...

  2. Plasma Colloquium Travel Grant Program

    SciTech Connect

    Hazeltine, R.D.

    1998-09-14

    OAK B188 Plasma Colloquium Travel Grant Program. The purpose of the Travel Grant Program is to increase the awareness of plasma research. The new results and techniques of plasma research in fusion plasmas, plasma processing space plasmas, basic plasma science, etc, have broad applicability throughout science. The benefits of these results are limited by the relatively low awareness and appreciation of plasma research in the larger scientific community. Whereas spontaneous interactions between plasma scientists and other scientists are useful, a focused effort in education and outreach to other scientists is efficient and is needed. The academic scientific community is the initial focus of this effort, since that permits access to a broad cross-section of scientists and future scientists including undergraduates, graduate students, faculty, and research staff.

  3. Respiratory infections during air travel.

    PubMed

    Leder, K; Newman, D

    2005-01-01

    An increasing number of individuals undertake air travel annually. Issues regarding cabin air quality and the potential risks of transmission of respiratory infections during flight have been investigated and debated previously, but, with the advent of severe acute respiratory syndrome and influenza outbreaks, these issues have recently taken on heightened importance. Anecdotally, many people complain of respiratory symptoms following air travel. However, studies of ventilation systems and patient outcomes indicate the spread of pathogens during flight occurs rarely. In the present review, aspects of the aircraft cabin environment that affect the likelihood of transmission of respiratory pathogens on airplanes are outlined briefly and evidence for the occurrence of outbreaks of respiratory illness among airline passengers are reviewed.

  4. Aggregate vehicle travel forecasting model

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.; Chin, Shih-Miao; Gibson, R.

    1995-05-01

    This report describes a model for forecasting total US highway travel by all vehicle types, and its implementation in the form of a personal computer program. The model comprises a short-run, econometrically-based module for forecasting through the year 2000, as well as a structural, scenario-based longer term module for forecasting through 2030. The short-term module is driven primarily by economic variables. It includes a detailed vehicle stock model and permits the estimation of fuel use as well as vehicle travel. The longer-tenn module depends on demographic factors to a greater extent, but also on trends in key parameters such as vehicle load factors, and the dematerialization of GNP. Both passenger and freight vehicle movements are accounted for in both modules. The model has been implemented as a compiled program in the Fox-Pro database management system operating in the Windows environment.

  5. Dividends with Demand Response

    SciTech Connect

    Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Goldman, Charles; Sezgen, O.; Pratt, D.

    2003-10-31

    To assist facility managers in assessing whether and to what extent they should participate in demand response programs offered by ISOs, we introduce a systematic process by which a curtailment supply curve can be developed that integrates costs and other program provisions and features. This curtailment supply curve functions as bid curve, which allows the facility manager to incrementally offer load to the market under terms and conditions acceptable to the customer. We applied this load curtailment assessment process to a stylized example of an office building, using programs offered by NYISO to provide detail and realism.

  6. Ethanol Demand in United States Gasoline Production

    SciTech Connect

    Hadder, G.R.

    1998-11-24

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (OWL) Refinery Yield Model (RYM) has been used to estimate the demand for ethanol in U.S. gasoline production in year 2010. Study cases examine ethanol demand with variations in world oil price, cost of competing oxygenate, ethanol value, and gasoline specifications. For combined-regions outside California summer ethanol demand is dominated by conventional gasoline (CG) because the premised share of reformulated gasoline (RFG) production is relatively low and because CG offers greater flexibility for blending high vapor pressure components like ethanol. Vapor pressure advantages disappear for winter CG, but total ethanol used in winter RFG remains low because of the low RFG production share. In California, relatively less ethanol is used in CG because the RFG production share is very high. During the winter in California, there is a significant increase in use of ethanol in RFG, as ethanol displaces lower-vapor-pressure ethers. Estimated U.S. ethanol demand is a function of the refiner value of ethanol. For example, ethanol demand for reference conditions in year 2010 is 2 billion gallons per year (BGY) at a refiner value of $1.00 per gallon (1996 dollars), and 9 BGY at a refiner value of $0.60 per gallon. Ethanol demand could be increased with higher oil prices, or by changes in gasoline specifications for oxygen content, sulfur content, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCS), and octane numbers.

  7. Treating time travel quantum mechanically

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, John-Mark A.

    2014-10-01

    The fact that closed timelike curves (CTCs) are permitted by general relativity raises the question as to how quantum systems behave when time travel to the past occurs. Research into answering this question by utilizing the quantum circuit formalism has given rise to two theories: Deutschian-CTCs (D-CTCs) and "postselected" CTCs (P-CTCs). In this paper the quantum circuit approach is thoroughly reviewed, and the strengths and shortcomings of D-CTCs and P-CTCs are presented in view of their nonlinearity and time-travel paradoxes. In particular, the "equivalent circuit model"—which aims to make equivalent predictions to D-CTCs, while avoiding some of the difficulties of the original theory—is shown to contain errors. The discussion of D-CTCs and P-CTCs is used to motivate an analysis of the features one might require of a theory of quantum time travel, following which two overlapping classes of alternate theories are identified. One such theory, the theory of "transition probability" CTCs (T-CTCs), is fully developed. The theory of T-CTCs is shown not to have certain undesirable features—such as time-travel paradoxes, the ability to distinguish nonorthogonal states with certainty, and the ability to clone or delete arbitrary pure states—that are present with D-CTCs and P-CTCs. The problems with nonlinear extensions to quantum mechanics are discussed in relation to the interpretation of these theories, and the physical motivations of all three theories are discussed and compared.

  8. International travel and HIV infection.

    PubMed Central

    von Reyn, C. F.; Mann, J. M.; Chin, J.

    1990-01-01

    Although human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a worldwide problem, its prevalence and pattern vary from country to country. Accordingly, the risk to international travellers of acquiring HIV infection also varies widely in different parts of the world, and depends principally on their behaviour. The risk of sexual acquisition of HIV infection can be virtually eliminated by avoiding penetrative sexual intercourse with intravenous drug users and persons who have had multiple sexual partners (such as prostitutes) or reduced by the use of condoms. The risk of parenteral exposure to HIV can be reduced by avoiding parenteral drug use and behaviour that is likely to lead to injury (with its attendant risk of requiring blood transfusion) and by seeking medical facilities with adequate capabilities to screen blood donors for HIV and to sterilize instruments. HIV screening of international travellers is an ineffective, costly, and impractical public health strategy for limiting the worldwide spread of HIV infection. Travellers infected with HIV require specialized advice regarding health precautions, prophylactic medications, and immunization. PMID:2194689

  9. Traveling-wave induction launchers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, David G.

    1989-01-01

    An analysis of traveling-wave induction launchers shows that induction is a feasible method of producing armature current and that efficient accelerators can be built without sliding contacts or arcs. In a traveling-wave induction launcher the armature current is induced by a slip speed between the armature and a traveling magnetic field. At 9 m/s slip speed a 9 kg projectile with an aluminum armature weighing 25 percent of the total mass can be accelerated to 3000 m/s in a 5 m-long barrel with a total ohmic loss in the barrel coils and armature of 4 percent of the launch kinetic energy and with an average armature temperature rise of 220 deg C, but a peak excitation frequency of 8600 Hz is required. With a 2 kg launch mass the ohmic loss is 7 percent. A launcher system optimized for rotating generators would have a peak frequency of 4850 Hz; with an aluminum armature weighing 33 percent of the launch mass and a slip speed of 30 m/s the total ohmic loss in the generators, cables, and accelerator would be 43 percent of the launch kinetic energy, and the average armature temperature rise would be 510 deg C.

  10. Infectious Risks of Air Travel.

    PubMed

    Mangili, Alexandra; Vindenes, Tine; Gendreau, Mark

    2015-10-01

    Infectious diseases are still among the leading causes of death worldwide due to their persistence, emergence, and reemergence. As the recent Ebola virus disease and MERS-CoV outbreaks demonstrate, the modern epidemics and large-scale infectious outbreaks emerge and spread quickly. Air transportation is a major vehicle for the rapid spread and dissemination of communicable diseases, and there have been a number of reported outbreaks of serious airborne diseases aboard commercial flights including tuberculosis, severe acute respiratory syndrome, influenza, smallpox, and measles, to name a few. In 2014 alone, over 3.3 billion passengers (a number equivalent to 42% of the world population) and 50 million metric tons of cargo traveled by air from 41,000 airports and 50,000 routes worldwide, and significant growth is anticipated, with passenger numbers expected to reach 5.9 billion by 2030. Given the increasing numbers of travelers, the risk of infectious disease transmission during air travel is a significant concern, and this chapter focuses on the current knowledge about transmission of infectious diseases in the context of both transmissions within the aircraft passenger cabin and commercial aircraft serving as vehicles of worldwide infection spread. PMID:26542037

  11. Infectious Risks of Air Travel.

    PubMed

    Mangili, Alexandra; Vindenes, Tine; Gendreau, Mark

    2015-10-01

    Infectious diseases are still among the leading causes of death worldwide due to their persistence, emergence, and reemergence. As the recent Ebola virus disease and MERS-CoV outbreaks demonstrate, the modern epidemics and large-scale infectious outbreaks emerge and spread quickly. Air transportation is a major vehicle for the rapid spread and dissemination of communicable diseases, and there have been a number of reported outbreaks of serious airborne diseases aboard commercial flights including tuberculosis, severe acute respiratory syndrome, influenza, smallpox, and measles, to name a few. In 2014 alone, over 3.3 billion passengers (a number equivalent to 42% of the world population) and 50 million metric tons of cargo traveled by air from 41,000 airports and 50,000 routes worldwide, and significant growth is anticipated, with passenger numbers expected to reach 5.9 billion by 2030. Given the increasing numbers of travelers, the risk of infectious disease transmission during air travel is a significant concern, and this chapter focuses on the current knowledge about transmission of infectious diseases in the context of both transmissions within the aircraft passenger cabin and commercial aircraft serving as vehicles of worldwide infection spread.

  12. Air travel and venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed Central

    Mendis, Shanthi; Yach, Derek; Alwan, Ala

    2002-01-01

    There has recently been increased publicity on the risk of venous thrombosis after long-haul flights. This paper reviews the evidence base related to the association between air travel and venous thromboembolism. The evidence consists only of case reports, clinical case-control studies and observational studies involving the use of intermediate end-points, or expert opinion. Some studies have suggested that there is no clear association, whereas others have indicated a strong relationship. On the whole it appears that there is probably a link between air travel and venous thrombosis. However, the link is likely to be weak, mainly affecting passengers with additional risk factors for venous thromboembolism. The available evidence is not adequate to allow quantification of the risk. There are insufficient scientific data on which to base specific recommendations for prevention, other than that leg exercise should be taken during travel. Further studies are urgently needed in order to identify prospectively the incidence of the condition and those at risk. PMID:12077617

  13. Twitter for travel medicine providers.

    PubMed

    Mills, Deborah J; Kohl, Sarah E

    2016-03-01

    Travel medicine practitioners, perhaps more so than medical practitioners working in other areas of medicine, require a constant flow of information to stay up-to-date, and provide best practice information and care to their patients. Many travel medicine providers are unaware of the popularity and potential of the Twitter platform. Twitter use among our travellers, as well as by physicians and health providers, is growing exponentially. There is a rapidly expanding body of published literature on this information tool. This review provides a brief overview of the ways Twitter is being used by health practitioners, the advantages that are peculiar to Twitter as a platform of social media, and how the interested practitioner can get started. Some key points about the dark side of Twitter are highlighted, as well as the potential benefits of using Twitter as a way to disseminate accurate medical information to the public. This article will help readers develop an increased understanding of Twitter as a tool for extracting useful facts and insights from the ever increasing volume of health information.

  14. Twitter for travel medicine providers.

    PubMed

    Mills, Deborah J; Kohl, Sarah E

    2016-03-01

    Travel medicine practitioners, perhaps more so than medical practitioners working in other areas of medicine, require a constant flow of information to stay up-to-date, and provide best practice information and care to their patients. Many travel medicine providers are unaware of the popularity and potential of the Twitter platform. Twitter use among our travellers, as well as by physicians and health providers, is growing exponentially. There is a rapidly expanding body of published literature on this information tool. This review provides a brief overview of the ways Twitter is being used by health practitioners, the advantages that are peculiar to Twitter as a platform of social media, and how the interested practitioner can get started. Some key points about the dark side of Twitter are highlighted, as well as the potential benefits of using Twitter as a way to disseminate accurate medical information to the public. This article will help readers develop an increased understanding of Twitter as a tool for extracting useful facts and insights from the ever increasing volume of health information. PMID:26988200

  15. Apparatus and method for measuring and imaging traveling waves

    DOEpatents

    Telschow, Kenneth L.; Deason, Vance A.

    2001-01-01

    An apparatus is provided for imaging traveling waves in a medium. The apparatus includes a vibration excitation source configured to impart traveling waves within a medium. An emitter is configured to produce two or more wavefronts, at least one wavefront modulated by a vibrating medium. A modulator is configured to modulate another wavefront in synchronization with the vibrating medium. A sensing media is configured to receive in combination the modulated one wavefront and the another wavefront and having a detection resolution within a limited bandwidth. The another wavefront is modulated at a frequency such that a difference frequency between the one wavefront and the another wavefront is within a response range of the sensing media. Such modulation produces an image of the vibrating medium having an output intensity that is substantially linear with small physical variations within the vibrating medium for all vibration frequencies above the sensing media's response bandwidth. A detector is configured to detect an image of traveling waves in the vibrating medium resulting from interference between the modulated one wavefront and the another wavefront when combined in association with the sensing media. The traveling wave can be used to characterize certain material properties of the medium. Furthermore, a method is provided for imaging and characterizing material properties according to the apparatus.

  16. Causes of reduced automobile fuel demand and its implications for consumers: analysis memorandum

    SciTech Connect

    Difiglio, C.; McNutt, B.

    1982-01-01

    The changes in vehicle design and use that have reduced motor fuel consumption are examined. By concentration on disaggregated data, the specific factors which caused gasoline demand to drop are identified and any implications these factors have had for consumers are considered. The data reveal the extent to which consumers have had to reduce their demand for travel or increase their efficiency of travel to account for the 28 percent drop from projected 1981 fuel consumption. In particular, the industries impacted adversely by a decrease in fuel consumption are discussed. (MHR)

  17. [True and virtual risks of travellers].

    PubMed

    Hatz, C; Walz, A; Genton, B; Behrens, R

    2014-05-01

    Evidence-based information on travel associated mortality is scarce. Perception, intuition and the availability of interventions such as vaccinations and chemoprophylaxis often guide pre-travel advice. Important risks including accidents and cardiovascular events are not routinely included in pre-travel consultations although they cause more fatalities and costs than infectious diseases. The increased risk of sustaining a road accident in poor economy countries should always be mentioned. The general practitioner is further best placed to discuss possible problems of travellers with chronic diseases before travel.

  18. Impact of degrading permafrost on subsurface solute transport pathways and travel times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frampton, Andrew; Destouni, Georgia

    2015-09-01

    Subsurface solute transport under surface warming and degrading permafrost conditions is studied using a physically based model of coupled cryotic and hydrogeological flow processes combined with a particle tracking method. Changes in the subsurface water and inert solute pathways and travel times are analyzed for different modeled geological configurations. For all simulated cases, the minimum and mean travel times increase nonlinearly with warming irrespective of geological configuration and heterogeneity structure. The timing of the start of increase in travel time depends on heterogeneity structure, combined with the rate of permafrost degradation that also depends on material thermal and hydrogeological properties. The travel time changes depend on combined warming effects of: i) increase in pathway length due to deepening of the active layer, ii) reduced transport velocities due to a shift from horizontal saturated groundwater flow near the surface to vertical water percolation deeper into the subsurface, and iii) pathway length increase and temporary immobilization caused by cryosuction-induced seasonal freeze cycles.

  19. Demand Response Quick Assessment Tool

    2008-12-01

    DRQAT (Demand Response Quick Assessment Tool) is the tool for assessing demand response saving potentials for large commercial buildings. This tool is based on EnergyPlus simulations of prototypical buildings and HVAC equipment. The opportunities for demand reduction and cost savings with building demand responsive controls vary tremendously with building type and location. The assessment tools will predict the energy and demand savings, the economic savings, and the thermal comfor impact for various demand responsive strategies.more » Users of the tools will be asked to enter the basic building information such as types, square footage, building envelope, orientation, utility schedule, etc. The assessment tools will then use the prototypical simulation models to calculate the energy and demand reduction potential under certain demand responsive strategies, such as precooling, zonal temperature set up, and chilled water loop and air loop set points adjustment.« less

  20. Finger Tendon Travel Associated with Sequential Trigger Nail Gun Use

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Brian; Albers, James; Hudock, Stephen; Krieg, Edward

    2015-01-01

    TECHNICAL ABSTRACT Background Pneumatic nail guns used in wood framing are equipped with one of two triggering mechanisms. Sequential actuation triggers have been shown to be a safer alternative to contact actuation triggers because they reduce traumatic injury risk. However, the sequential actuation trigger must be depressed for each individual nail fired as opposed to the contact actuation trigger, which allows the trigger to be held depressed as nails are fired repeatedly by bumping the safety tip against the workpiece. As such, concerns have been raised about risks for cumulative trauma injury, and reduced productivity, due to repetitive finger motion with the sequential actuation trigger. Purpose This study developed a method to predict cumulative finger flexor tendon travel associated with the sequential actuation trigger nail gun from finger joint kinematics measured in the trigger actuation and productivity standards for wood-frame construction tasks. Methods Finger motions were measured from six users wearing an instrumented electrogoniometer glove in a simulation of two common framing tasks–wall building and flat nailing of material. Flexor tendon travel was calculated from the ensemble average kinematics for an individual nail fired. Results Finger flexor tendon travel was attributable mostly to proximal interphalangeal and distal interphalangeal joint motion. Tendon travel per nail fired appeared to be slightly greater for a wall-building task than a flat nailing task. The present study data, in combination with construction industry productivity standards, suggest that a high-production workday would be associated with less than 60 m/day cumulative tendon travel per worker (based on 1700 trigger presses/day). Conclusion and Applications These results suggest that exposure to finger tendon travel from sequential actuation trigger nail gun use may be below levels that have been previously associated with high musculoskeletal disorder risk. PMID

  1. New demands on desalter operations

    SciTech Connect

    Witzig, W.L.

    1987-01-01

    Increased demands for improved desalter performance focus primarily on salt content and BS and W (basic sediment and water) content of the desalted crude. Recent demands target removal of other inorganic impurities which deactivate catalysts and contaminate finish products. The specific demand or performance need is usually apparent and easily quantified. This paper focuses on methods to achieve these demands through process optimization, chemical treatment, and employing an integrated process approach to desalting.

  2. Physical demands in worklife.

    PubMed

    Astrand, I

    1988-01-01

    Industrial occupations which are physically strenuous in the traditional sense of the word have decreased in number. They have partly been replaced by "light," repetitive, monotonous work tasks performed in a sitting position. The number of heavy work tasks within the service sector has increased. Specialization has been intensified. The individual's capacity for strenuous work is still of importance to successful work performance. Many studies show that an optional choice of work pace in physically demanding occupational work results in an adaptation of pace or intensity until the worker is utilizing 40-50% of her or his capacity. When the work rate is constrained, the relative strain of the individual varies inversely with the physical work capacity. The frequency of musculoskeletal disorders has concurrently increased with the implementation of industrial mechanization. New, wise, ergonomic moves are needed to stop this development.

  3. Five Paradoxes and a General Question on Time Traveling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smarandache, Florentin

    2011-04-01

    We present five paradoxes about: traveling to the past, traveling to the future, time traveling of a pregnant woman, traveling in the past before the birth, and traveling in the future after death. And a general question about how long does the time traveling take by itself?

  4. Health problems associated with international business travel. A critical review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Rogers, H L; Reilly, S M

    2000-08-01

    1. Few studies examine the travel related health problems of international business travelers (IBTs). Research exists for other travelers, such as tourists, which begins to help clinicians understand the potential health problems faced by IBTs. 2. A review of the literature reveals 36% to 54% of travelers experience physical health problems such as traveler's diarrhea, insomnia, respiratory problems, and skin problems; 6% to 18% report accidents and injuries while abroad. 3. Psychosocial data are equally limited, but support the idea that IBTs may experience stress, anxiety, culture shock, and adjustment problems while overseas. 4. Multiple factors likely contribute to the physical and psychosocial health experiences of IBTs. The historical lack of data for this population of workers combined with the trend towards globalization confirm the need for further study from an occupational health perspective.

  5. Bites and stings in travellers

    PubMed Central

    Reid, H. Alistair

    1975-01-01

    As a rule, bites and stings in travellers are merely a nuisance. But it is sensible to be informed about the more serious possibilities which can result. Systemic diseases can be transmitted, the skin lesions from insects can be troublesome and finally, some bites and stings can cause envenoming. Thus, the bather may be harmed by venomous fish stings, sea urchins, jellyfish and in Asian-Pacific waters by sea-snakes. Land hazards include bites or stings by scorpions, spiders, ticks, centipedes, bees, wasps, caterpillars and snakes. The main clinical features of such bites and stings, including treatment and prevention, are outlined. PMID:1239754

  6. On traveling waves in beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, Robert W; Budiansky, Bernard

    1954-01-01

    The basic equations of Timoshenko for the motion of vibrating nonuniform beams, which allow for effects of transverse shear deformation and rotary inertia, are presented in several forms, including one in which the equations are written in the directions of the characteristics. The propagation of discontinuities in moment and shear, as governed by these equations, is discussed. Numerical traveling-wave solutions are obtained for some elementary problems of finite uniform beams for which the propagation velocities of bending and shear discontinuities are taken to be equal. These solutions are compared with modal solutions of Timoshenko's equations and, in some cases, with exact closed solutions. (author)

  7. Time Travel: Deutsch vs. Teleportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svetlichny, George

    2011-12-01

    The quantum teleportation protocol can be used to probabilistically simulate a quantum circuit with backward-in-time connections. This allows us to analyze some conceptual problems of time travel in the context of physically realizable situations free of paradoxes. As an example one can perform encrypted measurements of future states for which the decryption key becomes available in the future. Likewise, the gauge-like freedom of locally changing the direction of time flow in quantum circuits can lead to conceptual and computational simplifications. I contrast this situation with Deutsch's treatment of quantum mechanics in the presence of closed time-like curves pointing out some of its deficiencies and problems.

  8. 41 CFR 301-71.105 - Must we issue a written or electronic travel authorization in advance of travel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... or electronic travel authorization in advance of travel? 301-71.105 Section 301-71.105 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 71-AGENCY TRAVEL ACCOUNTABILITY REQUIREMENTS Travel Authorization §...

  9. 41 CFR 301-71.105 - Must we issue a written or electronic travel authorization in advance of travel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... or electronic travel authorization in advance of travel? 301-71.105 Section 301-71.105 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 71-AGENCY TRAVEL ACCOUNTABILITY REQUIREMENTS Travel Authorization §...

  10. Imported tropical infectious ulcers in travelers.

    PubMed

    Zeegelaar, Jim E; Faber, William R

    2008-01-01

    Skin ulcers are a commonly encountered problem at departments of tropical dermatology in the Western world. Furthermore, the general dermatologist is likely to be consulted more often for imported chronic skin ulcers because of the ever-increasing travel to and from tropical countries. The most common cause of chronic ulceration throughout the world is probably pyoderma. However, in some parts of the world, cutaneous leishmaniasis is one of the most prevalent causes. Mycobacterium ulcerans is an important cause of chronic ulcers in West Africa. Bacterial infections include pyoderma, mycobacterial infections, diphtheria, and anthrax. Pyoderma is caused by Staphylococcus aureus and/or beta-hemolytic streptococci group A. This condition is a common cause of ulcerative skin lesions in tropical countries and is often encountered as a secondary infection in travelers. The diagnosis is often made on clinical grounds. Antibacterial treatment for pyoderma should preferably be based on culture outcome. Floxacillin is generally active against S. aureus and beta-hemolytic streptococci. Infection with Mycobacterium ulcerans, M. marinum, and M. tuberculosis may cause ulcers. Buruli ulcers, which are caused by M. ulcerans, are endemic in foci in West Africa and have been reported as an imported disease in the Western world. Treatment is generally surgical, although a combination of rifampin (rifampicin) and streptomycin may be effective in the early stage. M. marinum causes occasional ulcerating lesions in humans. Treatment regimens consist of combinations containing clarithromycin, rifampin, or ethambutol. Cutaneous tuberculosis is rare in travelers but may be encountered in immigrants from developing countries. Treatment is with multiple drug regimens consisting of isoniazid, ethambutol, pyrazinamide, and rifampin. Cutaneous diphtheria is still endemic in many tropical countries. Cutaneous diphtheria ulcers are nonspecific and erythromycin and penicillin are both effective

  11. 77 FR 5252 - Federal Travel Regulation; GSA E-Gov Travel Service (ETS) Transition to E-Gov Travel Service 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ... ADMINISTRATION Federal Travel Regulation; GSA E-Gov Travel Service (ETS) Transition to E-Gov Travel Service 2... of a bulletin. SUMMARY: The attached bulletin announces GSA ETS Transition to ETS2. DATES: Effective.... Frank Robinson, ETS Program Manager Center for Travel Management (QMCD), Office of Travel...

  12. The impact of changing technology on the demand for air transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kneafsey, J. T.; Taneja, N. K.

    1978-01-01

    Demand models for air transportation that are sensitive to the impact of changing technology were developed. The models are responsive to potential changes in technology, and to changing economic, social, and political factors as well. In addition to anticipating the wide differences in the factors influencing the demand for long haul and short haul air travel, the models were designed to clearly distinguish among the unique features of these markets.

  13. Training on Demand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maliszewski, Casey; Nespoli, Lawrence; Rosa, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Nearly a decade ago officials at New Jersey's 19 community colleges sought a way for the state's two-year career and technical college system to work together to more efficiently serve the workforce development needs of the state. The goal was to say to businesses, "If you have a training need, we can help by delivering the "combined" training…

  14. [The status of travel by severely handicapped patients by railroads].

    PubMed

    Mittler, H

    1989-02-01

    An essential prerequisite for integrating disabled persons is their mobility. The special transport approach, both in terms of handling capacity and cost involved, is increasingly turning out to be unable to achieve future-oriented solutions in this context. Disabled people wish to use the transport services available to the general public. They therefore demand public transportation policies to provide for their access to the mainstream system, ideally independent of outside assistance. Deutsche Bundesbahn, the German federal railways, in the field of tension between the need to orient its business policies on economic and financial considerations and disabled persons' demands that vehicles and premises be designed in a barrier-free manner, seeks to achieve solutions that are responsive to users' needs and at the same time economically justifiable. On account of the 19th century infrastructure legacy and a wide range of rolling stock in long- and short-distance rail travel, this can however be realized only step by step. The facilities offered to disabled people so far range from free use of short-distance trains to the accessibility-oriented design of coaches for the Intercity Express, the future of the railways in the European rapid transit network. The various services and facilities provided are hoped to foster disabled persons' decision in favour of the environmentally compatible rail mode of travelling.

  15. Recent Advances and New Challenges in Travel Medicine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin H.; Wilson, Mary E.

    2002-02-01

    Recent advances in travel medicine include the use of computer resources to obtain information on outbreaks and recommendations to travelers, the introduction of atovaquone/proguanil as chemoprophylaxis and treatment for malaria, the use of azithromycin as an alternative in the self-treatment of traveler's diarrhea, and the combination of hepatitis A and hepatitis B vaccines. At the same time, new challenges continue to appear. Shifts in the distribution of infections, such as West Nile virus and dengue fever, underscore the need for up-to-date information. Well-known infectious diseases, such as polio, meningococcal meningitis, and influenza are appearing in unexpected ways and settings. It is increasingly clear that travelers, while at risk for infections, also play a role in the global dispersal of pathogens, such as certain serogroups of Neisseria meningitidis and influenza. Increasing drug resistance affects the choice of drugs for treatment and chemoprophylaxis, and decisions about use of vaccines. Newly identified adverse events associated with yellow fever vaccine have prompted enhanced surveillance after vaccination and careful scrutiny of appropriate indications for the vaccine. PMID:11853657

  16. Greenhouse Earth: A Traveling Exhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, W.H.; Caesar, S.

    1992-09-01

    The Franklin Institute Science Museum provided an exhibit entitled the Greenhouse Earth: A Traveling Exhibition. This 3500 square-foot exhibit on global climate change was developed in collaboration with the Association of Science-Technology Centers. The exhibit opened at The Franklin Institute on February 14, 1992, welcoming 291,000 visitors over its three-month stay. During its three-year tour, Greenhouse Earth will travel to ten US cities, reaching two million visitors. Greenhouse Earth aims to deepen public understanding of the scientific issues of global warming and the conservation measures that can be taken to slow its effects. The exhibit features hands-on exhibitry, interactive computer programs and videos, a theater production, a demonstration cart,'' guided tours, and lectures. supplemental educational programs at the Institute included a teachers preview, a symposium on climate change, and a satellite field trip.'' The development of Greenhouse Earth included front-end and formative evaluation procedures. Evaluation includes interviews with visitors, prototypes, and summative surveys for participating museums. During its stay in Philadelphia, Greenhouse Earth was covered by the local and national press, with reviews in print and broadcast media. Greenhouse Earth is the first large-scale museum exhibit to address global climate change.

  17. Medical oxygen and air travel.

    PubMed

    Lyznicki, J M; Williams, M A; Deitchman, S D; Howe, J P

    2000-08-01

    This report responds to a resolution that asked the American Medical Association (AMA) to take action to improve airport and airline accommodations for passengers requiring medical oxygen. Information for the report was derived from a search of the MEDLINE database and references listed in pertinent articles, as well as through communications with experts in aerospace and emergency medicine. Based on this information, the AMA Council on Scientific Affairs determined that commercial air travel exposes passengers to altitude-related hypoxia and gas expansion, which may cause some passengers to experience significant symptoms and medical complications during flight. Medical guidelines are available to help physicians evaluate and counsel potential passengers who are at increased risk of inflight hypoxemia. Supplemental oxygen may be needed for some passengers to maintain adequate tissue oxygenation and prevent hypoxemic complications. For safety and security reasons, federal regulations prohibit travelers from using their own portable oxygen system onboard commercial aircraft. Many U.S. airlines supply medical oxygen for use during flight but policies and procedures vary. Oxygen-dependent passengers must make additional arrangements for the use of supplemental oxygen in airports. Uniform standards are needed to specify procedures and equipment for the use of medical oxygen in airports and aboard commercial aircraft. Revision of federal regulations should be considered to accommodate oxygen-dependent passengers and permit them to have an uninterrupted source of oxygen from departure to destination.

  18. [Travellers and multi-drug resistance bacteria].

    PubMed

    Takeshita, Nozomi

    2012-02-01

    The number of international travellers has increased. There is enormous diversity in medical backgrounds, purposes of travel, and travelling styles among travellers. Travellers are hospitalized abroad because of exotic and common diseases via medical tourism. This is one way of transporting and importing human bacteria between countries, including multi-drug resistant organisms. In developing countries, the antimicrobial resistance in Shigella sp. and Salmonella sp. have been a problem, because of this trend, the first choice of antibiotics has changed in some countries. Community acquired infections as well as hospital acquired infections with MRSA, multi-drug resistance (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and ESBL have been a problem. This review will discuss the risk of MDR bacterial infectious diseases for travellers. PMID:22413540

  19. Medical advice for commercial air travelers.

    PubMed

    Bettes, T N; McKenas, D K

    1999-09-01

    Family physicians are often asked to advise patients who are preparing to travel. The Air Carrier Access Act of 1986 has enabled more passengers with medical disabilities to choose air travel. All domestic U.S. airlines are required to carry basic (but often limited) medical equipment, although several physiologic stresses associated with flight may predispose travelers with underlying medical conditions to require emergency care. Recommendations for passengers with respiratory, cardiac or postsurgical conditions must be individualized and should be based on objective testing measures. Specific advice for patients with diabetes, postsurgical or otolaryngologic conditions may make air travel less hazardous for these persons. Air travel should be delayed after scuba diving to minimize the chance of developing decompression sickness. Although no quick cure for jet lag exists, several simple suggestions may make travel across time zones more comfortable.

  20. Examining Traveling Waves in Mars Atmosphere Reanalyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greybush, Steven J.; Wilson, R. John

    2015-11-01

    Synoptic-scale eddies (traveling waves) are a key feature of the variability of Mars atmosphere weather in the extratropics, and are linked to the initiation of dust storms. Mars reanalyses, which combine satellite observations with simulations from a Mars Global Climate Model (MGCM), provide a four-dimensional picture of the evolution of these waves in terms of temperature, winds, pressure, and aerosol fields. The Ensemble Mars Atmosphere Reanalysis System (EMARS) has created multiple years of Mars weather maps through the assimilation of Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) and Mars Climate Sounder (MCS) temperature profiles using the ensemble Kalman filter and the GFDL MGCM. We investigate the robustness of the synoptic eddies to changes in the aerosol fields, model parameters, data assimilation system design, and observation dataset (TES vs. MCS). We examine the evolution of wavenumber regimes, their seasonal evolution, and interannual variability. Finally, reanalysis fields are combined with spacecraft visible imagery (e.g. MGS Mars Orbital Camera), demonstrating the link between meteorological fields (temperature, pressure, and wind) and dust fronts.

  1. Trends and characteristics among HIV-infected and diabetic travelers seeking pre-travel advice.

    PubMed

    Elfrink, Floor; van den Hoek, Anneke; Sonder, Gerard J B

    2014-01-01

    The number of individuals with a chronic disease increases. Better treatment options have improved chronic patients' quality of life, likely increasing their motivation for travel. This may have resulted in a change in the number of HIV-infected travelers and/or travelers with Diabetes Mellitus (DM) visiting our travel clinic. We retrospectively analyzed the database of the travel clinic of the Public Health Service Amsterdam, between January 2001 and December 2011 and examined the records for patients with these conditions. Of the 25,000 travelers who consult our clinic annually, the proportion of travelers with HIV or DM has increased significantly. A total of 564 HIV-infected travelers visited our clinic. The mean age was 41 years, 86% were male, 43% visited a yellow fever endemic country and 46.5% had a CD4 count <500 cells/mm(3). Travelers with low CD4 counts traveled significantly more often to visit friends or relatives. A total of 3704 diabetics visited our clinic. The mean age was 55 years, 52% were male, 27% visited a yellow fever endemic country and 36% were insulin-dependent. Insulin-dependent diabetics traveled more often for work than non-insulin-dependent diabetics. Adequately trained and qualified travel health professionals and up-to-date guidelines for travelers with chronic diseases are of increasing importance. PMID:23942389

  2. Demand illumination control apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, Carl (Inventor); Arline, Jimmie (Inventor); LaPalme, Julius (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    Solar illuminating compensating apparatus is disclosed whereby the interior of a building is illuminated to a substantially constant, predetermined level of light intensity by a combination of natural illumination from the sun and artificial illumination from electricity wherein the intensity of said artificial illumination is controlled by fully electronic means which increases the level of artificial illumination when the natural illumination is inadequate and vice versa.

  3. Central nervous system infections in travelers.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, H L; Thakur, K T; Birbeck, G L

    2013-12-01

    International travelers commonly contract infections while abroad, many of which are primary neurological diseases or have potential neurological sequelae. The implications of these neuroinfectious diseases extend beyond the individual, since returning travelers may contribute to the spread of infection in novel areas. In this review, we discuss signs, symptoms, treatments, and prophylaxes for these infections, as well as emerging trends with regard to neuroinfectious diseases of the returning traveler. PMID:24190735

  4. Physiological Demands of Flat Horse Racing Jockeys.

    PubMed

    Cullen, SarahJane; OʼLoughlin, Gillian; McGoldrick, Adrian; Smyth, Barry; May, Gregory; Warrington, Giles D

    2015-11-01

    The physiological demands of jockeys during competition remain largely unknown, thereby creating challenges when attempting to prescribe sport-specific nutrition and training guidelines. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physiological demands and energy requirements of jockeys during flat racing. Oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2) and heart rate (HR) were assessed in 18 male trainee jockeys during a race simulation trial on a mechanical horse racing simulator for the typical time duration to cover a common flat race distance of 1,400 m. In addition, 8 male apprentice jockeys participated in a competitive race, over distances ranging from 1,200 to 1,600 m, during which HR and respiratory rate (RR) were assessed. All participants performed a maximal incremental cycle ergometer test. During the simulated race, peak V[Combining Dot Above]O2 was 42.74 ± 5.6 ml·kg·min (75 ± 11% of V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak) and below the mean ventilatory threshold (81 ± 5% of V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak) reported in the maximal incremental cycle test. Peak HR was 161 ± 16 b·min (86 ± 7% of HRpeak). Energy expenditure was estimated as 92.5 ± 18.8 kJ with an associated value of 9.4 metabolic equivalents. During the competitive race trial, peak HR reached 189 ± 5 b·min (103 ± 4% of HRpeak) and peak RR was 50 ± 7 breaths per minute. Results suggest that horse racing is a physically demanding sport, requiring jockeys to perform close to their physiological limit to be successful. These findings may provide a useful insight when developing sport-specific nutrition and training strategies to optimally equip and prepare jockeys physically for the physiological demands of horse racing. PMID:25932980

  5. Vaccination for safe travel to India.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Bharti; Jindal, Harashish; Bhatt, Bhumika; Kumar, Vijay; Singh Choudhary, Satvinder

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide more than 900 million international journeys are undertaken every year. India is one of the favorite tourist destinations around the world. International travel exposes travelers to a range of health risks. Traveling to India possess a threat to travelers with waterborne diseases like bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever; vector borne diseases like dengue fever, Japanese encephalitis, and malaria; animal contact disease like rabies. Furthermore diseases spreading through behavior aspects cannot be ruled out hence posing a risk for hepatitis B, HIV/AIDS, hepatitis C as well. Hence, before travel the travelers are advised about the risk of disease in the country or countries they plan to visit and the steps to be taken to prevent illness. Vaccination offers the possibility of avoiding a number of infectious diseases that may be countered abroad. There is no single vaccination schedule that fits all travelers. Each schedule must be individualized according to the traveler's previous immunizations, countries to be visited, type and duration of travel, and the amount of time available before departure. PMID:24284411

  6. Have Diabetes? Get Tips for Safe Travels

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staying Healthy On-the-Go with Diabetes Video Transportation Security Administration instructions for passengers with diabetes Transportation Security Administration instructions for travelers with disabilities and ...

  7. [New approaches of malaria prevention for travelers].

    PubMed

    Voumard, Rachel; Berthod, Delphine; Rochat, Laurence; D'Acremont, Valérie; Genton, Blaise; De Vallière, Serge

    2016-05-01

    Malaria is declining in many tropical countries. This reduction challenges our usual preventive strategies. In moderate to low risk areas, the Swiss guidelines recommend a stand-by emergency treatment. Controversies between experts are numerous though. Professionals at the Travel Clinic in Lausanne has explored shared-decision making through three clinical studies. The first showed that travelers visiting moderate to low risk malaria areas prefer a standby emergency treatment rather than chemoprophylaxis. The second study investigates the use of rapid diagnostic tests by travelers. The third focuses on the prospects of tropical telemedicine. Involving the traveler into the debate is a priority, until a vaccine becomes available.

  8. Prospects for dengue vaccines for travelers.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sl-Ki; Lee, Yong Seok; Namkung, Suk; Lim, Jacqueline K; Yoon, In-Kyu

    2016-07-01

    Travel-acquired dengue cases have been increasing as the overall global dengue burden has expanded. In Korea, imported dengue cases have been reported since 2000 when it first became a notifiable disease. During the first four months of 2016, three times more dengue cases were reported in Korea than during the same period the previous year. A safe and efficacious vaccine for travelers would be beneficial to prevent dengue disease in individual travelers and potentially decrease the risk of virus spread to non-endemic areas. Here, we summarize the characteristics of dengue vaccines for travelers and review dengue vaccines currently licensed or in clinical development. PMID:27489798

  9. Prospects for dengue vaccines for travelers

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Travel-acquired dengue cases have been increasing as the overall global dengue burden has expanded. In Korea, imported dengue cases have been reported since 2000 when it first became a notifiable disease. During the first four months of 2016, three times more dengue cases were reported in Korea than during the same period the previous year. A safe and efficacious vaccine for travelers would be beneficial to prevent dengue disease in individual travelers and potentially decrease the risk of virus spread to non-endemic areas. Here, we summarize the characteristics of dengue vaccines for travelers and review dengue vaccines currently licensed or in clinical development. PMID:27489798

  10. Zika Virus in an American Recreational Traveler.

    PubMed

    Summers, Dyan J; Acosta, Rebecca Wolfe; Acosta, Alberto M

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a 48-year-old American traveler who presented to our clinic with diffuse rash, malaise, fatigue, fever, arthralgia, low back pain, and bilateral exudative conjunctivitis. The patient had an extensive vaccination and travel history: most notable for prior receipt of yellow fever vaccine; extensive travel or residence in areas endemic for dengue, chikungunya, and West Nile virus; and recent travel to French Polynesia. Clinical and laboratory findings were consistent with Zika virus (ZIKV) infection. Our report highlights the need to include ZIKV in the differential diagnosis, especially in febrile patients with a rash returning from endemic areas.

  11. Water disinfection for international and wilderness travelers.

    PubMed

    Backer, Howard

    2002-02-01

    Acquisition of waterborne disease is a substantial risk for international travelers to countries with inadequate sanitation facilities. It also poses smaller but still significant risks for wilderness travelers who rely on surface water in developed countries with low rates of diarrheal illness, such as the United States. This article reviews the etiology and risks associated with waterborne disease that might be encountered by both types of travelers. It also summarizes--and makes recommendations for--the various water-treatment methods available to travelers for reducing their risk of contracting waterborne disease. PMID:11774083

  12. Zika Virus in an American Recreational Traveler.

    PubMed

    Summers, Dyan J; Acosta, Rebecca Wolfe; Acosta, Alberto M

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a 48-year-old American traveler who presented to our clinic with diffuse rash, malaise, fatigue, fever, arthralgia, low back pain, and bilateral exudative conjunctivitis. The patient had an extensive vaccination and travel history: most notable for prior receipt of yellow fever vaccine; extensive travel or residence in areas endemic for dengue, chikungunya, and West Nile virus; and recent travel to French Polynesia. Clinical and laboratory findings were consistent with Zika virus (ZIKV) infection. Our report highlights the need to include ZIKV in the differential diagnosis, especially in febrile patients with a rash returning from endemic areas. PMID:25996909

  13. Vaccination for safe travel to India.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Bharti; Jindal, Harashish; Bhatt, Bhumika; Kumar, Vijay; Singh Choudhary, Satvinder

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide more than 900 million international journeys are undertaken every year. India is one of the favorite tourist destinations around the world. International travel exposes travelers to a range of health risks. Traveling to India possess a threat to travelers with waterborne diseases like bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever; vector borne diseases like dengue fever, Japanese encephalitis, and malaria; animal contact disease like rabies. Furthermore diseases spreading through behavior aspects cannot be ruled out hence posing a risk for hepatitis B, HIV/AIDS, hepatitis C as well. Hence, before travel the travelers are advised about the risk of disease in the country or countries they plan to visit and the steps to be taken to prevent illness. Vaccination offers the possibility of avoiding a number of infectious diseases that may be countered abroad. There is no single vaccination schedule that fits all travelers. Each schedule must be individualized according to the traveler's previous immunizations, countries to be visited, type and duration of travel, and the amount of time available before departure.

  14. Effect of Travel on Influenza Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Rimmelzwaan, Guus F.; van den Hoek, Anneke; Sonder, Gerard J.B.

    2013-01-01

    To assess the attack and incidence rates for influenza virus infections, during October 2006–October 2007 we prospectively studied 1,190 adult short-term travelers from the Netherlands to tropical and subtropical countries. Participants donated blood samples before and after travel and kept a travel diary. The samples were serologically tested for the epidemic strains during the study period. The attack rate for all infections was 7% (86 travelers) and for influenza-like illness (ILI), 0.8%. The incidence rate for all infections was 8.9 per 100 person-months and for ILI, 0.9%. Risk factors for infection were birth in a non-Western country, age 55–64 years, and ILI. In 15 travelers with fever or ILI, influenza virus infection was serologically confirmed; 7 of these travelers were considered contagious or incubating the infection while traveling home. Given the large number of travelers to (sub)tropical countries, travel-related infection most likely contributes to importation and further influenza spread worldwide. PMID:23735636

  15. Overlapping epidemiologies of hepatitis A and typhoid fever: the needs of the traveler.

    PubMed

    Luxemburger, Christine; Dutta, Anil K

    2005-04-01

    Hepatitis A and typhoid fever are endemic infectious diseases in many parts of the world. They share a common, simple mode of transmission--the fecal--oral route-associated with poor hygiene. The low endemicity of both diseases in developed countries, and the rise in travel to exotic destinations for business and leisure, mean that increasing numbers of travelers are being exposed to infection. Effective, established vaccines are available against both diseases, and recently new formulations combining both vaccines in one injection have been licensed. We review the present epidemiologic situation for both diseases, to determine the necessity to routinely vaccinate travelers against both diseases.

  16. ROUTING DEMAND CHANGES TO USERS ON THE WM LATERAL CANAL WITH SACMAN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most canals have either long travel times or insufficient in-canal storage to operate on-demand. Thus, most flow changes must be routed through the canal. Volume compensation has been proposed as a method for easily applying feedforward control to irrigation canals. SacMan (Software for Automated Ca...

  17. Social-Psychological Factors Influencing Recreation Demand: Evidence from Two Recreational Rivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jordan W.; Moore, Roger L.

    2013-01-01

    Traditional methods of estimating demand for recreation areas involve making inferences about individuals' preferences. Frequently, the assumption is made that recreationists' cost of traveling to a site is a reliable measure of the value they place on that resource and the recreation opportunities it provides. This assumption may ignore…

  18. 76 FR 53704 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Passport Demand Forecasting Study Phase III...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-29

    ... conduct monthly Passport Demand Forecasting Studies using multiple methodologies. Methodologies can.... The survey data will cover an estimated 48,000 respondents annually and will include variables covering passport, travel, and socio-demographic variables of interest to the Office of Passport...

  19. The 30/20 GHz fixed communications systems service demand assessment. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamble, R. B.; Seltzer, H. R.; Speter, K. M.; Westheimer, M.

    1979-01-01

    Demand for telecommunications services is forecasted for the period 1980-2000, with particular reference to that portion of the demand associated with satellite communications. Overall demand for telecommunications is predicted to increase by a factor of five over the period studied and the satellite portion of demand will increase even more rapidly. Traffic demand is separately estimated for voice, video, and data services and is also described as a function of distance traveled and city size. The satellite component of projected demand is compared with the capacity available in the C and Ku satellite bands and it is projected that new satellite technology and the implementation of Ka band transmission will be needed in the decade of the 1990's.

  20. An integrated communications demand model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doubleday, C. F.

    1980-11-01

    A computer model of communications demand is being developed to permit dynamic simulations of the long-term evolution of demand for communications media in the U.K. to be made under alternative assumptions about social, economic and technological trends in British Telecom's business environment. The context and objectives of the project and the potential uses of the model are reviewed, and four key concepts in the demand for communications media, around which the model is being structured are discussed: (1) the generation of communications demand; (2) substitution between media; (3) technological convergence; and (4) competition. Two outline perspectives on the model itself are given.

  1. Traveling wave magnetic particle imaging.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Patrick; Ruckert, Martin A; Klauer, Peter; Kullmann, Walter H; Jakob, Peter M; Behr, Volker C

    2014-02-01

    Most 3-D magnetic particle imaging (MPI) scanners currently use permanent magnets to create the strong gradient field required for high resolution MPI. However, using permanent magnets limits the field of view (FOV) due to the large amount of energy required to move the field free point (FFP) from the center of the scanner. To address this issue, an alternative approach called "Traveling Wave MPI" is here presented. This approach employs a novel gradient system, the dynamic linear gradient array, to cover a large FOV while dynamically creating a strong magnetic gradient. The proposed design also enables the use of a so-called line-scanning mode, which simplifies the FFP trajectory to a linear path through the 3-D volume. This results in simplified mathematics, which facilitates the image reconstruction. PMID:24132006

  2. The interactive surrogate travel system.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, I; Ichimura, A; Juzoji, H; Mugita, K

    1999-01-01

    The Interactive Surrogate Travel (IST) system is based on the super-miniaturized system of virtual technology, Cave Automatic Virtual Environment (CAVE). Using bilateral virtual reality (VR-to-VR) communications, IST enables the testing of subjects via interactive communications. It appears that IST will find practical applications in the near future. We examined the utility of IST in medical treatment and psychiatric tests. Psychiatric symptoms reflect human pathos, which in turn are greatly influenced by culture. If these culture-bound symptoms can be adequately communicated between providers and clients of different cultures, we can develop effective telepsychiatric services across different societies and cultures. IST requires high-speed transmission and gigabyte circuits. A pilot project tested the utility of IST (through the use of optical fiber communications on earth) as a basis for experiments via the Gigabit satellite, to be launched in the year 2002.

  3. Job resources buffer the impact of job demands on burnout.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Arnold B; Demerouti, Evangelia; Euwema, Martin C

    2005-04-01

    This study tested and refined the job demands-resources model, demonstrating that several job resources play a role in buffering the impact of several job demands on burnout. A total of 1,012 employees of a large institute for higher education participated in the study. Four demanding aspects of the job (e.g., work overload, emotional demands) and 4 job resources (e.g., autonomy, performance feedback) were used to test the central hypothesis that the interaction between (high) demands and (low) resources produces the highest levels of burnout (exhaustion, cynicism, reduced professional efficacy). The hypothesis was rejected for (reduced) professional efficacy but confirmed for exhaustion and cynicism regarding 18 out of 32 possible 2-way interactions (i.e., combinations of specific job demands and resources).

  4. Surgical Travellers: Tapestry to Bayeux

    PubMed Central

    Hedley-Whyte, John; Milamed, Debra R

    2014-01-01

    The planning for surgery in war was revisited in 1937 when Ian Fraser was elected a member of the Surgical Travellers. At their 1938 Surgical Travellers meeting in Vienna, Ian and Eleanor Fraser were evicted from their hotel room by the Nazis. The 1939 meeting in Belfast discussed the organization of surgery and the conduct of Emergency Medical Service Hospitals in the United Kingdom; the vast majority were to be under civilian government and military control. From 1943 lengthy and informative organizational meetings were held at least monthly under the chairmanship of Sir Alexander Hood, KBE, Head of the RAMC. Surgical Consultants, now Major Generals, Brigadiers or Full Colonels in the British and U.S. Armies stationed in the UK, prepared for the invasion of Europe. The allocation of medical, surgical, nursing and auxiliary responsibilities was delineated. Liaison with the RAF and US Army Air Force was close as it was with the proposed leaders, Ulstermen Brooke and Montgomery. Montgomery chose Arthur Porritt as Surgeon in Chief to Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force (SHAEF), and Eisenhower, General Albert W. Kenner. Just after D-Day, Porritt met Ian Fraser, who had waded in on Arromanches Beach. The triage and evacuation plans for Allied casualties had been controversial, particularly as regards Landing Ship Tanks (LSTs). The dispute with the Hood-selected surgeons on one side, against medical and surgical deployment of LSTs, and Admiral Ernest King and Winston Churchill on the other, favouring LST use for surgery and evacuation. King and Churchill were correct but total Allied air superiority allowed wide use of many of the Allies' Dakotas; 10,000 DC-3s were eventually in service. Supported by forty Allied combat planes to each Luftwaffe, the dispute about Landing Ship Tank use in about a fortnight became moot. The multifaceted role of the Princess Royal in the Emergency Medical Services of the United Kingdom and her close liaison with the Consultant

  5. Lewis Online Travel System: Preparer's/Traveler's Manual, Release 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seese, Michael

    1992-01-01

    The Lewis Online Travel System (LOTS) is a menu-driven interactive application that automates nearly all of the functions associated with government travel. The purpose of this manual is to provide LOTS users with concise instructions for using the computerized application. As such, it will not go into the details of travel regulations.

  6. Examining the Relationship between Online Travel Agency Information and Traveler Destination Transaction Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yerby, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the role that available Online Travel Agency (OTA) destination information may have on a traveler's perceptions and intent in transaction decisions with that respective OTA. Specifically, this research examined a pleasure traveler's transaction perceptions and intentions with an OTA…

  7. 41 CFR Appendix C to Chapter 301 - Standard Data Elements for Federal Travel [Traveler Identification

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... under 5 CFR 410.404, which states that “agencies may sponsor an employee's attendance at a conference as... for Federal Travel C Appendix C to Chapter 301 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES Ch. 301, App. C Appendix C to Chapter...

  8. Travel-Study as Part of the Urban Studies Curriculum: Or, Travel Need Not be Travail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prinz, Andrew K.

    Travel-study experiences offered as part of a college level urgan studies curriculum are described, and the mechanics involved in setting up such a course experience are discussed. The length of the travel experience varies from a 4-day mini-course involving local travel to a 3-week stay in a foreign country. Objectives are to help students gain a…

  9. 41 CFR Appendix C to Chapter 301 - Standard Data Elements for Federal Travel [Traveler Identification

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... under 5 CFR 410.404, which states that “agencies may sponsor an employee's attendance at a conference as... for Federal Travel C Appendix C to Chapter 301 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES Ch. 301, App. C Appendix C to Chapter...

  10. A hybrid inventory management system respondingto regular demand and surge demand

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammad S. Roni; Mingzhou Jin; Sandra D. Eksioglu

    2014-06-01

    This paper proposes a hybrid policy for a stochastic inventory system facing regular demand and surge demand. The combination of two different demand patterns can be observed in many areas, such as healthcare inventory and humanitarian supply chain management. The surge demand has a lower arrival rate but higher demand volume per arrival. The solution approach proposed in this paper incorporates the level crossing method and mixed integer programming technique to optimize the hybrid inventory policy with both regular orders and emergency orders. The level crossing method is applied to obtain the equilibrium distributions of inventory levels under a given policy. The model is further transformed into a mixed integer program to identify an optimal hybrid policy. A sensitivity analysis is conducted to investigate the impact of parameters on the optimal inventory policy and minimum cost. Numerical results clearly show the benefit of using the proposed hybrid inventory model. The model and solution approach could help healthcare providers or humanitarian logistics providers in managing their emergency supplies in responding to surge demands.

  11. Applications of Information-Processing Theory to the Analysis of Urban Travel Demand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louviere, Jordan J.; Norman, Kent L.

    1977-01-01

    Describes Anderson's information integration theory and its associated method of "policy capturing" as a regression approach to information processing in judgment. Experiments are described that yield practical and theoretical information regarding applications of models in predicting bus ridership. (CS)

  12. Beyond Europe: The New Student Travel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deresiewicz, William

    2009-01-01

    The academic year has ended, and over the past few weeks, thousands of students have traveled abroad for the summer or the first year after college. However, students aren't heading abroad in the same direction, or the same spirit, that their parents or grandparents did. This article examines why the patterns of student travel has changed.

  13. 38 CFR 21.9585 - Travel expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Travel expenses. 21.9585 Section 21.9585 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill Counseling § 21.9585 Travel expenses. VA will...

  14. 20 CFR 617.46 - Travel allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... mile at the prevailing mileage rate authorized under the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part... the same trip in the same vehicle. (2) Lodging and meals. The cost allowable for lodging and meals for... prevailing per diem allowance rate authorized under the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part...

  15. 20 CFR 617.46 - Travel allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... mile at the prevailing mileage rate authorized under the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part... the same trip in the same vehicle. (2) Lodging and meals. The cost allowable for lodging and meals for... prevailing per diem allowance rate authorized under the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part...

  16. 38 CFR 60.5 - Travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Travel. 60.5 Section 60.5 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) FISHER HOUSES AND OTHER TEMPORARY LODGING § 60.5 Travel. As a condition for receiving temporary lodging under this part, a...

  17. 38 CFR 21.9585 - Travel expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill Counseling § 21.9585 Travel expenses. VA will not pay for any costs of travel to and from the place of counseling regardless of whether the individual requests educational and vocational counseling or whether the counseling is required. (Authority: 38...

  18. 38 CFR 21.9585 - Travel expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill Counseling § 21.9585 Travel expenses. VA will not pay for any costs of travel to and from the place of counseling regardless of whether the individual requests educational and vocational counseling or whether the counseling is required. (Authority: 38...

  19. 38 CFR 21.9585 - Travel expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill Counseling § 21.9585 Travel expenses. VA will not pay for any costs of travel to and from the place of counseling regardless of whether the individual requests educational and vocational counseling or whether the counseling is required. (Authority: 38...

  20. 38 CFR 21.9585 - Travel expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill Counseling § 21.9585 Travel expenses. VA will not pay for any costs of travel to and from the place of counseling regardless of whether the individual requests educational and vocational counseling or whether the counseling is required. (Authority: 38...

  1. Just the Facts: Traveling on Dialysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... notice to fit in a traveler. Other units need a few months—or even a year. Ask your social worker for a list of the dialysis units ... who has time open on the dates you need. Have your home unit’s address, fax, ... be sent for your social worker or travel coordinator to fill out. Check ...

  2. Including Travel in Your Academic Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, David

    2004-01-01

    As teachers and principals prepare students to pass mandated academic tests, they should not overlook the role educational travel can play in motivating students to achieve. Travel brings curriculum to life and teaches lessons that students will remember--and need--throughout their lives. In this article, the author describes educational travel…

  3. Travelers' diarrhea: Risk reduction and management.

    PubMed

    Moore, Karen S

    2015-11-15

    Travelers' diarrhea is a common complaint for patients traveling abroad. Onset of illness, symptoms experienced, and the duration of symptoms are greatly impacted by the causative agent. This article explores the causes, prevention recommendations, and treatment methodologies recommended for this common condition.

  4. Travel-Study as Learning in Sociology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forster, Brenda; Prinz, Andrew K.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the objectives, characteristics, and outcomes associated with a joint "sociology-urban studies, travel-study, minicourse program." Describes how students in a four-day, two-credit-hour course travel to cities such as Washington, DC and Toronto to be exposed to different cultures, organizational structures, and social arrangements.…

  5. 33 CFR 118.150 - Traveller platforms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Traveller platforms. 118.150 Section 118.150 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.150 Traveller platforms. The District Commander may require...

  6. Traveling Policies: Hijacked in Central Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silova, Iveta

    2005-01-01

    Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, Central Asian education reform discourses have become increasingly similar to distinctive Western policy discourses traveling globally across national boundaries. Tracing the trajectory of "traveling policies" in Central Asia, this article discusses the way Western education discourses have been hybridized…

  7. Gibbon travel paths are goal oriented.

    PubMed

    Asensio, Norberto; Brockelman, Warren Y; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda; Reichard, Ulrich H

    2011-05-01

    Remembering locations of food resources is critical for animal survival. Gibbons are territorial primates which regularly travel through small and stable home ranges in search of preferred, limited and patchily distributed resources (primarily ripe fruit). They are predicted to profit from an ability to memorize the spatial characteristics of their home range and may increase their foraging efficiency by using a 'cognitive map' either with Euclidean or with topological properties. We collected ranging and feeding data from 11 gibbon groups (Hylobates lar) to test their navigation skills and to better understand gibbons' 'spatial intelligence'. We calculated the locations at which significant travel direction changes occurred using the change-point direction test and found that these locations primarily coincided with preferred fruit sources. Within the limits of biologically realistic visibility distances observed, gibbon travel paths were more efficient in detecting known preferred food sources than a heuristic travel model based on straight travel paths in random directions. Because consecutive travel change-points were far from the gibbons' sight, planned movement between preferred food sources was the most parsimonious explanation for the observed travel patterns. Gibbon travel appears to connect preferred food sources as expected under the assumption of a good mental representation of the most relevant sources in a large-scale space.

  8. Code for Calculating Regional Seismic Travel Time

    2009-07-10

    The RSTT software computes predictions of the travel time of seismic energy traveling from a source to a receiver through 2.5D models of the seismic velocity distribution within the Earth. The two primary applications for the RSTT library are tomographic inversion studies and seismic event location calculations. In tomographic inversions studies, a seismologist begins with number of source-receiver travel time observations and an initial starting model of the velocity distribution within the Earth. A forwardmore » travel time calculator, such as the RSTT library, is used to compute predictions of each observed travel time and all of the residuals (observed minus predicted travel time) are calculated. The Earth model is then modified in some systematic way with the goal of minimizing the residuals. The Earth model obtained in this way is assumed to be a better model than the starting model if it has lower residuals. The other major application for the RSTT library is seismic event location. Given an Earth model, an initial estimate of the location of a seismic event, and some number of observations of seismic travel time thought to have originated from that event, location codes systematically modify the estimate of the location of the event with the goal of minimizing the difference between the observed and predicted travel times. The second application, seismic event location, is routinely implemented by the military as part of its effort to monitor the Earth for nuclear tests conducted by foreign countries.« less

  9. Evolutionary Stability in the Traveler's Dilemma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Andrew T.

    2009-01-01

    The traveler's dilemma is a generalization of the prisoner's dilemma which shows clearly a paradox of game theory. In the traveler's dilemma, the strategy chosen by analysis and theory seems obviously wrong intuitively. Here we develop a measure of evolutionary stability and show that the evolutionarily stable equilibrium is in some sense not very…

  10. Gibbon travel paths are goal oriented.

    PubMed

    Asensio, Norberto; Brockelman, Warren Y; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda; Reichard, Ulrich H

    2011-05-01

    Remembering locations of food resources is critical for animal survival. Gibbons are territorial primates which regularly travel through small and stable home ranges in search of preferred, limited and patchily distributed resources (primarily ripe fruit). They are predicted to profit from an ability to memorize the spatial characteristics of their home range and may increase their foraging efficiency by using a 'cognitive map' either with Euclidean or with topological properties. We collected ranging and feeding data from 11 gibbon groups (Hylobates lar) to test their navigation skills and to better understand gibbons' 'spatial intelligence'. We calculated the locations at which significant travel direction changes occurred using the change-point direction test and found that these locations primarily coincided with preferred fruit sources. Within the limits of biologically realistic visibility distances observed, gibbon travel paths were more efficient in detecting known preferred food sources than a heuristic travel model based on straight travel paths in random directions. Because consecutive travel change-points were far from the gibbons' sight, planned movement between preferred food sources was the most parsimonious explanation for the observed travel patterns. Gibbon travel appears to connect preferred food sources as expected under the assumption of a good mental representation of the most relevant sources in a large-scale space. PMID:21221693

  11. Dengue: A reemerging concern for travelers.

    PubMed

    Hynes, Noreen A

    2012-07-01

    Dengue, a neglected tropical disease that is reemerging around the world, became a nationally notifiable disease in the United States in 2009. Travel to tropical and subtropical areas in the developing world poses the greatest risk of infection for US residents, and an increase in travel to these areas makes this infection more likely to be seen by primary care physicians in their practices.

  12. Dengue antibody prevalence in German travelers.

    PubMed

    Wichmann, Ole; Lauschke, Annekathrin; Frank, Christina; Shu, Pei-Yun; Niedrig, Matthias; Huang, Jyh-Hsiung; Stark, Klaus; Jelinek, Tomas

    2005-05-01

    We studied 2,259 German citizens after they returned from dengue-endemic countries from 1996 to 2004. Serotype-specific dengue antibodies indicated acute infections in 51 (4.7%) travelers with recent fever and 13 (1.1%) travelers with no recent fever, depending largely on destination and epidemic activity in the countries visited.

  13. Travel and the Social Studies Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince, Doris, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Travel allows teachers to gather the data and realia to enliven history or global education in the classroom. In this special issue teachers describe personal travel experiences to many parts of the globe. Points of interest, itineraries, budgets, and artifacts collected are discussed. (RM)

  14. Code for Calculating Regional Seismic Travel Time

    SciTech Connect

    BALLARD, SANFORD; HIPP, JAMES; & BARKER, GLENN

    2009-07-10

    The RSTT software computes predictions of the travel time of seismic energy traveling from a source to a receiver through 2.5D models of the seismic velocity distribution within the Earth. The two primary applications for the RSTT library are tomographic inversion studies and seismic event location calculations. In tomographic inversions studies, a seismologist begins with number of source-receiver travel time observations and an initial starting model of the velocity distribution within the Earth. A forward travel time calculator, such as the RSTT library, is used to compute predictions of each observed travel time and all of the residuals (observed minus predicted travel time) are calculated. The Earth model is then modified in some systematic way with the goal of minimizing the residuals. The Earth model obtained in this way is assumed to be a better model than the starting model if it has lower residuals. The other major application for the RSTT library is seismic event location. Given an Earth model, an initial estimate of the location of a seismic event, and some number of observations of seismic travel time thought to have originated from that event, location codes systematically modify the estimate of the location of the event with the goal of minimizing the difference between the observed and predicted travel times. The second application, seismic event location, is routinely implemented by the military as part of its effort to monitor the Earth for nuclear tests conducted by foreign countries.

  15. Home Education, School, Travellers and Educational Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Arcy, Kate

    2014-01-01

    The difficulties Traveller pupils experience in school are well documented. Yet those in home educating go unreported. Monk suggests this is because some groups are overlooked; that gypsies and Travellers are often not perceived as home educators. This article highlights how the move to home education is seldom a free choice for Traveller…

  16. Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, T.R.; Zimmerman, J.J.

    2001-02-07

    Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) engineers John Zimmerman and Tom Bender directed separate projects within this CRADA. This Project Accomplishments Summary contains their reports independently. Zimmerman: In 1998 Honeywell FM&T partnered with the Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) Cooperative Business Management Program to pilot the Supply Chain Integration Planning Prototype (SCIP). At the time, FM&T was developing an enterprise-wide supply chain management prototype called the Integrated Programmatic Scheduling System (IPSS) to improve the DOE's Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC) supply chain. In the CRADA partnership, FM&T provided the IPSS technical and business infrastructure as a test bed for SCIP technology, and this would provide FM&T the opportunity to evaluate SCIP as the central schedule engine and decision support tool for IPSS. FM&T agreed to do the bulk of the work for piloting SCIP. In support of that aim, DAMA needed specific DOE Defense Programs opportunities to prove the value of its supply chain architecture and tools. In this partnership, FM&T teamed with Sandia National Labs (SNL), Division 6534, the other DAMA partner and developer of SCIP. FM&T tested SCIP in 1998 and 1999. Testing ended in 1999 when DAMA CRADA funding for FM&T ceased. Before entering the partnership, FM&T discovered that the DAMA SCIP technology had an array of applications in strategic, tactical, and operational planning and scheduling. At the time, FM&T planned to improve its supply chain performance by modernizing the NWC-wide planning and scheduling business processes and tools. The modernization took the form of a distributed client-server planning and scheduling system (IPSS) for planners and schedulers to use throughout the NWC on desktops through an off-the-shelf WEB browser. The planning and scheduling process within the NWC then, and today, is a labor-intensive paper-based method that plans and schedules more than 8,000 shipped parts

  17. 5 CFR 550.1404 - Creditable travel time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Creditable travel time. 550.1404 Section... ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Compensatory Time Off for Travel § 550.1404 Creditable travel time. (a) General. Subject... off for time in a travel status if— (1) The employee is required to travel away from the official...

  18. 5 CFR 550.1404 - Creditable travel time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Creditable travel time. 550.1404 Section... ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Compensatory Time Off for Travel § 550.1404 Creditable travel time. (a) General. Subject... off for time in a travel status if— (1) The employee is required to travel away from the official...

  19. 26 CFR 1.162-2 - Traveling expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... expenses. (a) Traveling expenses include travel fares, meals and lodging, and expenses incident to travel... attributable to it may be deducted. If the trip is undertaken for other than business purposes, the travel fares and expenses incident to travel are personal expenses and the meals and lodging are...

  20. 41 CFR 301-30.1 - What is emergency travel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is emergency travel? 301-30.1 Section 301-30.1 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 30-EMERGENCY TRAVEL § 301-30.1 What...

  1. 29 CFR 785.39 - Travel away from home community.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Travel away from home community. 785.39 Section 785.39... Principles Traveltime § 785.39 Travel away from home community. Travel that keeps an employee away from home overnight is travel away from home. Travel away from home is clearly worktime when it cuts across...

  2. 41 CFR 301-30.1 - What is emergency travel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is emergency travel? 301-30.1 Section 301-30.1 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 30-EMERGENCY TRAVEL § 301-30.1 What...

  3. 41 CFR 301-30.1 - What is emergency travel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true What is emergency travel? 301-30.1 Section 301-30.1 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 30-EMERGENCY TRAVEL § 301-30.1 What...

  4. 5 CFR 550.1404 - Creditable travel time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Creditable travel time. 550.1404 Section... ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Compensatory Time Off for Travel § 550.1404 Creditable travel time. (a) General. Subject... off for time in a travel status if— (1) The employee is required to travel away from the official...

  5. 5 CFR 550.1404 - Creditable travel time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Creditable travel time. 550.1404 Section... ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Compensatory Time Off for Travel § 550.1404 Creditable travel time. (a) General. Subject... off for time in a travel status if— (1) The employee is required to travel away from the official...

  6. 5 CFR 550.1404 - Creditable travel time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Creditable travel time. 550.1404 Section... ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Compensatory Time Off for Travel § 550.1404 Creditable travel time. (a) General. Subject... off for time in a travel status if— (1) The employee is required to travel away from the official...

  7. Travelling for radiation cancer treatment: patient perspectives.

    PubMed

    Fitch, Margaret I; Gray, Ross E; McGowan, Tom; Brunskill, Ian; Steggles, Shawn; Sellick, Scott; Bezjak, Andrea; McLeese, Donna

    2003-01-01

    Radiation treatment for cancer requires patients to receive frequent administrations and attend the treatment facility on a daily basis for several weeks. Travelling for radiation treatment has the potential to add to the distress an individual may be feeling. This study utilized in-depth interviews to capture 118 patients' perspectives about travelling for cancer treatment. Four themes emerged during the analysis of the data: (1) waiting was the most difficult part of the experience; (2) the idea of travelling for treatment was distressing; (3) travelling for treatment was tiring and posed difficulties for patients; and (4) being away from home had both benefits and drawbacks. Given the inevitability of travelling for radiation treatment, and the issues that arises for patients, supportive strategies need to be designed and implemented. PMID:14502591

  8. Positioner with long travel in two dimensions

    DOEpatents

    Trumper, David L.; Williams, Mark E.

    1997-12-23

    A precision positioning system is provided which provides long travel in two of the linear dimensions, while using non-contact bearings for both a first subassembly which provides long travel in one of the linear dimension and a second subassembly which provides long travel in the second linear dimension. The first or upper subassembly is preferably a magnetic subassembly which, in addition to providing long travel, also compensates or positions in three rotary dimensions and in the third linear dimension. The second subassembly is preferably either an air bearing or magnetic subassembly and is normally used only to provide long travel. Angled surfaces may be provided for magnetic bearings and capacitive or other gap sensing probes may be mounted to the stage and ground flush with the bearing actuators to provide more precise gap measurements.

  9. Substituting telecommunications for travel - Feasible or desirable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Vleck, E. M.

    1974-01-01

    This paper reviews recent advances in telecommunications and examines the detailed structure of travel to estimate the feasibility of substituting telecommunications for various travel objectives. The impact of travel is analyzed from a social, economic, energy, and pollution standpoint to assess the desirability of substitution. Perhaps 35-50% of the nation's travel could, in theory, be replaced by very advanced telecommunications (such as a much improved large-screen teleconferencing network), but public resistance would be massive. Much economic dislocation would result since, for example, over 25% of retail sales are travel-related. The energy savings would be modest since only 25% of the nation's energy is consumed by transportation. However, all pollution would be reduced substantially since transportation accounts for 75% of the carbon monoxide, 60% of the hydrocarbon, and 55% of the nitrogen oxide pollution in the nation. Problems related to the implementation of large-scale substitution are discussed.

  10. Weak Energy Condition Violation and Superluminal Travel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobo, Francisco; Crawford, Paulo

    Recent solutions to the Einstein Field Equations involving negative energy densities, i.e., matter violating the weak-energy-condition, have been obtained, namely traversable wormholes, the Alcubierre warp drive and the Krasnikov tube. These solutions are related to superluminal travel, although locally the speed of light is not surpassed. It is difficult to define faster-than-light travel in generic space-times, and one can construct metrics which apparently allow superluminal travel, but are in fact flat Minkowski space-times. Therefore, to avoid these difficulties it is important to provide an appropriate definition of superluminal travel.We investigate these problems and the relationship between weak-energy-condition violation and superluminal travel.

  11. [Vaccinations and malaria prophylaxis for international travelers].

    PubMed

    Alberer, Martin; Löscher, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    The prevention of infectious diseases by vaccination and by counselling about malaria prophylaxis is a central aspect of travel medicine. Besides mandatory vaccinations required for entry to certain countries various vaccinations may be indicated depending on destination and type of travel as well as on individual risks of the traveler. In addition, pre-travel counselling should always include a check-up of standard vaccinations. Protection against mosquito bites is the basis of malaria prophylaxis. The addition of chemoprophylaxis is warranted in high risk areas. When regular chemoprophylaxis is not applied it is recommended to carry an appropriate antimalarial drug which can be used for emergency stand-by treatment in case of unexplained fever and when medical attention is not available within 24 hours. Travelers should realize that self-treatment is a first-aid measure and that they should still seek medical advice as soon as possible.

  12. Neurologic Aspects of Infections in International Travelers

    PubMed Central

    Han, May H.; Zunt, Joseph R.

    2009-01-01

    Background As international travel for business and pleasure becomes part of contemporary lifestyle, the clinician today is confronted with an increasing number of travelers returning ill with unfamiliar syndromes. The physician will encounter a myriad of patients with exotic infections, emerging infectious diseases, or resurgent Old-World infections. Review Summary This review article will discuss salient points of important infectious diseases associated with overseas travel, provide a syndromic approach to the traveler who returns with neurologic manifestations, and list resources for additional diagnostic, therapeutic, and preventive information. Conclusions As many of infections acquired in other countries can directly or indirectly affect the nervous system, the care of the ill traveler often falls into the hands of neurologists. The contemporary neurologist should therefore be knowledgeable of the clinical manifestations, potential complications, and appropriate management of region-specific infections. PMID:15631642

  13. Limitations of typhoid vaccination for travellers.

    PubMed

    Stephen, J; Mara, N; Nathwani, D

    1996-12-01

    Around one-third of travellers to endemic areas receive pre-travel typhoid vaccination, increasingly with the new parenteral vaccination Typhim Vi (Mérieux). More than 200 cases of Salmonella typhi and S. paratyphi infection are imported into the UK each year. Despite the widespread use of immunisation, non-specialist clinicians and the travelling public do not appear to fully appreciate the limitations of currently available vaccination. These limitations are not adequately highlighted in either the Green Book of Immunisation against Infectious Diseases (HMSO, 1992) or the new handbook Health Information for Overseas Travel (HMSO, 1995) which are important sources of reference for clinicians and practice nurses. This may delay consideration of diagnosis and presentation for treatment in immunised travellers.

  14. Schistosomiasis: current epidemiology and management in travelers.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, Eyal; Schwartz, Eli

    2013-06-01

    Schistosomiasis is increasingly encountered among travelers returning from the tropics, mainly from Africa. Schistosoma-infected travelers have served as sentinels for the existence of unknown foci of transmission even outside Africa. Acute schistosomiasis (also termed Katayama syndrome) is the common manifestation among travelers and may follow exposure to any of the Schistosoma species. Neuroschistosomiasis is a rare complication but may result in severe disability. Diagnosis in travelers is hampered by the poor sensitivity of microscopy in urine and stool, especially during acute infections, while seroconversion may be delayed for a period of weeks. During acute schistosomiasis, symptomatic treatment is the only available therapy, while for chronic schistosomiasis, praziquantel is the only drug available, despite reports of emerging resistance to it. Since the potential for exposure to Schistosoma through travel will probably continue to increase, it is clear that new, sensitive diagnostic methods and drugs affecting the parasite in all its stages are needed. PMID:23568567

  15. Harnessing the power of demand

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffrin, Anjali; Yoshimura, Henry; LaPlante, David; Neenan, Bernard

    2008-03-15

    Demand response can provide a series of economic services to the market and also provide ''insurance value'' under low-likelihood, but high-impact circumstances in which grid reliablity is enhanced. Here is how ISOs and RTOs are fostering demand response within wholesale electricity markets. (author)

  16. CAREER GUIDE FOR DEMAND OCCUPATIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LEE, E.R.; WELCH, JOHN L.

    THIS PUBLICATION UPDATES THE "CAREER GUIDE FOR DEMAND OCCUPATIONS" PUBLISHED IN 1959 AND PROVIDES COUNSELORS WITH INFORMATION ABOUT OCCUPATIONS IN DEMAND IN MANY AREAS WHICH REQUIRE PREEMPLOYMENT TRAINING. IT PRESENTS, IN COLUMN FORM, THE EDUCATION AND OTHER TRAINING USUALLY REQUIRED BY EMPLOYERS, HIGH SCHOOL SUBJECTS OF PARTICULAR PERTINENCE TO…

  17. Automated Demand Response and Commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David S.; Motegi, Naoya; Bourassa, Norman

    2005-04-01

    This paper describes the results from the second season of research to develop and evaluate the performance of new Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR) hardware and software technology in large facilities. Demand Response (DR) is a set of activities to reduce or shift electricity use to improve the electric grid reliability and manage electricity costs. Fully-Automated Demand Response does not involve human intervention, but is initiated at a home, building, or facility through receipt of an external communications signal. We refer to this as Auto-DR. The evaluation of the control and communications must be properly configured and pass through a set of test stages: Readiness, Approval, Price Client/Price Server Communication, Internet Gateway/Internet Relay Communication, Control of Equipment, and DR Shed Effectiveness. New commissioning tests are needed for such systems to improve connecting demand responsive building systems to the electric grid demand response systems.

  18. Health issues of air travel.

    PubMed

    DeHart, Roy L

    2003-01-01

    at least one physician on 85% of all its flights. Both passenger and cargo aircraft have proven to be vectors of disease in that they transport humans, mosquitoes, and other insects and animals who, in turn, transmit disease. Transmission to other passengers has occurred with tuberculosis and influenza. Vectors for yellow fever, malaria, and dengue have been identified on aircraft. Although there are numerous health issues associated with air travel they pale in comparison to the enormous benefits to the traveler, to commerce, to international affairs, and to the public's health.

  19. Travel expense reimbursement for HANDI 2000 business management system

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.

    1998-08-24

    The Travel and Treasury departments use the Operations Travel System to process business travel expenses and cash receipts. OTS feeds the payment information to either the payroll or payables system. ITS then feeds the cost information to Financial Data System.

  20. 77 FR 67366 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Travel Costs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; Travel Costs AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD), General Services... collection requirement concerning Travel Costs. Public comments are particularly invited on: Whether this... Information Collection 9000- 0088, Travel Costs by any of the following methods: Regulations.gov :...

  1. Estimating streambed travel times and respiration rates based on temperature and oxygen consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieweg, M.; Fleckenstein, J. H.; Schmidt, C.

    2015-12-01

    Oxygen consumption is a common proxy for aerobic respiration and novel in situ measurement techniques with high spatial resolution enable an accurate determination of the oxygen distribution in the streambed. The oxygen concentration at a certain location in the streambed depends on the input concentration, the respiration rate, temperature, and the travel time of the infiltrating flowpath. While oxygen concentrations and temperature can directly be measured, respiration rate and travel time must be estimated from the data. We investigated the interplay of these factors using a 6 month long, 5-min resolution dataset collected in a 3rdorder gravel-bed stream. Our objective was twofold, to determine transient rates of hyporheic respiration and to estimate travel times in the streambed based solely on oxygen and temperature measurements. Our results show that temperature and travel time explains ~70% of the variation in oxygen concentration in the streambed. Independent travel times were obtained using natural variations in the electrical conductivity (EC) of the stream water as tracer (µ=4.1 h; σ=2.3 h). By combining these travel times with the oxygen consumption, we calculated a first order respiration rate (µ=9.7 d-1; σ=6.1 d-1). Variations in the calculated respiration rate are largely explained by variations in streambed temperature. An empirical relationship between our respiration rate and temperature agrees with the theoretical Boltzmann-Arrhenius equation. With this relationship, a temperature-based respiration rate can be estimated and used to re-estimate subsurface travel times. The resulting travel times distinctively resemble the EC-derived travel times (R20.47; Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient 0.32). Both calculations of travel time are correlated to stream water levels and increase during discharge events, enhancing the oxygen consumption for these periods. No other physical factors besides temperature were significantly correlated with the respiration

  2. Agility in adversity: Vaccines on Demand.

    PubMed

    De Groot, Anne S; Moise, Leonard; Olive, David; Einck, Leo; Martin, William

    2016-09-01

    Is the US ready for a biological attack using Ebola virus or Anthrax? Will vaccine developers be able to produce a Zika virus vaccine, before the epidemic spreads around the world? A recent report by The Blue Ribbon Study Panel on Biodefense argues that the US is not ready for these challenges, however, technologies and capabilities that could address these deficiencies are within reach. Vaccine technologies have advanced and readiness has improved in recent years, due to advances in sequencing technology and computational power making the 'vaccines on demand' concept a reality. Building a robust strategy to design effective biodefense vaccines from genome sequences harvested by real-time biosurveillance will benefit from technologies that are being brought to bear on the cancer cure 'moonshot'. When combined with flexible vaccine production platforms, vaccines on demand will relegate expensive and, in some cases, insufficiently effective vaccine stockpiles to the dust heap of history. PMID:27389971

  3. Agility in adversity: Vaccines on Demand.

    PubMed

    De Groot, Anne S; Moise, Leonard; Olive, David; Einck, Leo; Martin, William

    2016-09-01

    Is the US ready for a biological attack using Ebola virus or Anthrax? Will vaccine developers be able to produce a Zika virus vaccine, before the epidemic spreads around the world? A recent report by The Blue Ribbon Study Panel on Biodefense argues that the US is not ready for these challenges, however, technologies and capabilities that could address these deficiencies are within reach. Vaccine technologies have advanced and readiness has improved in recent years, due to advances in sequencing technology and computational power making the 'vaccines on demand' concept a reality. Building a robust strategy to design effective biodefense vaccines from genome sequences harvested by real-time biosurveillance will benefit from technologies that are being brought to bear on the cancer cure 'moonshot'. When combined with flexible vaccine production platforms, vaccines on demand will relegate expensive and, in some cases, insufficiently effective vaccine stockpiles to the dust heap of history.

  4. Oil well pump traveling valve

    SciTech Connect

    Blassingame, D.L.

    1988-05-03

    A traveling valve for a sucker rod operated oil well pump having a standing valve and a working barrel is described comprising: pump head means vertically reciprocated by the depending end of the sucker rod and having a depending tubular end portion provided with fluid outlet ports; first sleeve means depending from the tubular end portion for forming a fluid passageway therewith; second sleeve means surrounding the first sleeve means for connecting the pump head to the working barrel, crosshead means including a generally rectangular crosshead extending transversely through the first sleeve means and connecting the first sleeve means to the second sleeve means by its respective end surfaces confronting the inner wall surface of the second sleeve means through the respective first sleeve slot; an outstanding pin on each end of the crosshead and projecting through the wall of the second sleeve means; and, valve means tethered in the first sleeve means for opening and closing the fluid passageway in response to and in cooperative sequence with the reciprocating fluid pumping movement of the first sleeve means.

  5. Travels with the Fossil Hunters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whybrow, Peter J.

    2000-04-01

    Whether dodging bullets in West Africa, or rabid dogs in Pakistan, surviving yak-butter tea in Tibet, or eating raw fish in China, the life of a globe-trotting fossil hunter is often hazardous and always filled with surprises. Travels with the Fossil Hunters lets readers share the wonder, joys of discovery, and excitement of these intrepid scientists. Packed with more than 100 beautiful, full-color photographs, the volume takes readers on twelve expeditions to remote parts of the world in search of diverse fossil remains, from those of dinosaurs to human ancestors. Each expedition by paleontologists from London's Natural History Museum reveals the problems and challenges of working in extreme conditions, from the deserts of the Sahara and Yemen to the frozen wastes of Antarctica, from the mountains of India to the forests of Latvia. Along the way they also describe the paleontology and geology of the countries they visit and the scientific reasons for their expeditions. With a foreword from Sir David Attenborough and an introduction from Richard Fortey, this fascinating book will appeal to amateur and professional fossil hunters alike and to readers interested in accounts of exotic locales. Peter Whybrow is a research scientist at the Natural History Museum, London. His research interests include Arabian Miocene vertebrates, paleoclimates, paleogeography, and biotic diversity. He is senior editor with A. Hill of Fossil Vertebrates of Arabia (Yale University Press, New Haven, 1999).

  6. Epidemiology of travelers' diarrhea: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, K L; Cohen, M L

    1986-01-01

    Identification of the characteristics that make certain travelers more likely to develop diarrhea, the most common illness affecting international travelers, can lead to prevention of the illness and to improved understanding of endemic diarrheal disease in developing countries. Travelers' diarrhea, a syndrome with a spectrum of clinical symptoms, is most frequently characterized by watery diarrhea, cramps, and nausea. The highest attack rates have been reported in travelers from the United States or northern Europe to less-developed, particularly tropical, countries. Among travelers from less-developed countries, diarrhea has been correlated with higher socioeconomic status. The findings that country of origin and socioeconomic status may affect the frequency of previous exposures to enteric pathogens suggest that persons with prolonged exposure acquire immunity and are at lower risk of developing travelers' diarrhea. Although few studies have shown a clear correlation between the eating of specific foods and the development of travelers' diarrhea, the syndrome has been associated with eating in public places. PMID:3523707

  7. Catchment mixing processes and travel time distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botter, Gianluca

    2012-05-01

    This work focuses on the description and the use of the probability density functions (pdfs) of travel, residence and evapotranspiration times, which are comprehensive descriptors of the fate of rainfall water particles traveling through catchments, and provide key information on hydrologic flowpaths, partitioning of precipitation, circulation and turnover of pollutants. Exploiting some analytical solutions to the transport problem derived by Botter et al. (2011), this paper analyzes the features of travel, residence and evapotranspiration time pdfs resulting from different assumptions on the mixing processes occurring during streamflow formation and plant uptake (namely, complete mixing and translatory flow). The ensuing analytical solutions are analyzed through numerical Monte Carlo simulations of a stochastic model of soil moisture and streamflow dynamics. Travel and residence time pdfs are shown to be time-variant as they mirror the variability of the relevant hydrological fluxes. In particular, the temporal fluctuations of the mean residence time are shown to reflect rainfall dynamics, whereas the variability of the mean travel time is chiefly driven by streamflow dynamics, with lower frequency and higher amplitude fluctuations. Dry climates enhance the effect of the type of mixing on catchment transport features (e.g., mean travel times and seasonal dynamics of stream concentrations). The implications for the interpretation of tracer experiments are also discussed, showing through specific examples that models disregarding nonstationarity may significantly misestimate travel time pdfs.

  8. Globalization of leptospirosis through travel and migration.

    PubMed

    Bandara, Medhani; Ananda, Mahesha; Wickramage, Kolitha; Berger, Elisabeth; Agampodi, Suneth

    2014-08-12

    Leptospirosis remains the most widespread zoonotic disease in the world, commonly found in tropical or temperate climates. While previous studies have offered insight into intra-national and intra-regional transmission, few have analyzed transmission across international borders. Our review aimed at examining the impact of human travel and migration on the re-emergence of Leptospirosis. Results suggest that alongside regional environmental and occupational exposure, international travel now constitute a major independent risk factor for disease acquisition. Contribution of travel associated leptospirosis to total caseload is as high as 41.7% in some countries. In countries where longitudinal data is available, a clear increase of proportion of travel-associated leptospirosis over the time is noted. Reporting patterns is clearly showing a gross underestimation of this disease due to lack of diagnostic facilities. The rise in global travel and eco-tourism has led to dramatic changes in the epidemiology of Leptospirosis. We explore the obstacles to prevention, screening and diagnosis of Leptopirosis in health systems of endemic countries and of the returning migrant or traveler. We highlight the need for developing guidelines and preventive strategies of Leptospirosis related to travel and migration, including enhancing awareness of the disease among health professionals in high-income countries.

  9. Globalization of leptospirosis through travel and migration

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Leptospirosis remains the most widespread zoonotic disease in the world, commonly found in tropical or temperate climates. While previous studies have offered insight into intra-national and intra-regional transmission, few have analyzed transmission across international borders. Our review aimed at examining the impact of human travel and migration on the re-emergence of Leptospirosis. Results suggest that alongside regional environmental and occupational exposure, international travel now constitute a major independent risk factor for disease acquisition. Contribution of travel associated leptospirosis to total caseload is as high as 41.7% in some countries. In countries where longitudinal data is available, a clear increase of proportion of travel-associated leptospirosis over the time is noted. Reporting patterns is clearly showing a gross underestimation of this disease due to lack of diagnostic facilities. The rise in global travel and eco-tourism has led to dramatic changes in the epidemiology of Leptospirosis. We explore the obstacles to prevention, screening and diagnosis of Leptopirosis in health systems of endemic countries and of the returning migrant or traveler. We highlight the need for developing guidelines and preventive strategies of Leptospirosis related to travel and migration, including enhancing awareness of the disease among health professionals in high-income countries. PMID:25112368

  10. Travel to Brazil: analysis of data from the Boston Area Travel Medicine Network (BATMN) and relevance to travelers attending world cup and olympics.

    PubMed

    Iliaki, Eirini; Chen, Lin H; Hamer, Davidson H; Macleod, William B; Jentes, Emily S; Barnett, Elizabeth D; Wilson, Mary E

    2014-01-01

    We describe travelers who were evaluated pre-travel to Brazil from March 2008 through July 2010 in the Boston area. Of 599 Brazil travelers, 71%, 58%, and 50% received vaccines for yellow fever (YF), typhoid, and hepatitis A, respectively. Fewer received influenza and hepatitis B vaccines (14%, 11%). A total of 60% traveled during Brazil's peak influenza season, and one fourth visited during peak dengue transmission. The 2014 World Cup and 2016 Olympics include events throughout Brazil. Travelers should seek pre-travel assessment including YF and malaria risk; travelers should be vaccinated against influenza, be up to date on other routine vaccines, and be prepared to protect themselves against mosquitoes.

  11. Travel to Asia and traveller's diarrhoea with antibiotic treatment are independent risk factors for acquiring ciprofloxacin-resistant and extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae-a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Reuland, E A; Sonder, G J B; Stolte, I; Al Naiemi, N; Koek, A; Linde, G B; van de Laar, T J W; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C M J E; van Dam, A P

    2016-08-01

    Travel to (sub)tropical countries is a well-known risk factor for acquiring resistant bacterial strains, which is especially of significance for travellers from countries with low resistance rates. In this study we investigated the rate of and risk factors for travel-related acquisition of extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E), ciprofloxacin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CIPR-E) and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. Data before and after travel were collected from 445 participants. Swabs were cultured with an enrichment broth and sub-cultured on selective agar plates for ESBL detection, and on plates with a ciprofloxacin disc. ESBL production was confirmed with the double-disc synergy test. Species identification and susceptibility testing were performed with the Vitek-2 system. All isolates were subjected to ertapenem Etest. ESBL and carbapenemase genes were characterized by PCR and sequencing. Twenty-seven out of 445 travellers (6.1%) already had ESBL-producing strains and 45 of 445 (10.1%) travellers had strains resistant to ciprofloxacin before travel. Ninety-eight out of 418 (23.4%) travellers acquired ESBL-E and 130 of 400 (32.5%) travellers acquired a ciprofloxacin-resistant strain. Of the 98 ESBL-E, predominantly Escherichia coli and predominantly blaCTX-M-15, 56% (55/98) were resistant to gentamicin, ciprofloxacin and co-trimoxazole. Multivariate analysis showed that Asia was a high-risk area for ESBL-E as well as CIPR-E acquisition. Travellers with diarrhoea combined with antimicrobial use were significantly at higher risk for acquisition of resistant strains. Only one carbapenemase-producing isolate was acquired, isolated from a participant after visiting Egypt. In conclusion, travelling to Asia and diarrhoea combined with antimicrobial use are important risk factors for acquiring ESBL-E and CIPR-E. PMID:27223840

  12. A computational study on traveling waves in the gerbil cochlea generated by electrical impulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Jong-Hoon; Liu, Yanju; Gracewski, Sheryle M.

    2015-12-01

    Through model simulations, we investigated the cochlear traveling waves formed by outer hair cell (OHC) motility. Two sets of governing equations, one representing the solid domain of the organ of Corti complex (OCC) and the other representing the fluid domain, were solved simultaneously in the time domain. The OHCs incorporated electro-mechanical motility driven by prestin molecules. The combined fluid-solid interaction model was verified by simulating passive traveling waves along the cochlear coil. When stimulated with an electrical impulse, the OCC formed traveling waves propagating toward the apex. Without the Y-shaped structures in the OCC formed by the OHCs and the Deiter's cell processes, the active OHCs form dispersive waves rather than traveling waves upon electrical stimulation.

  13. Hormonal contraceptives and travel to high altitude.

    PubMed

    Keyes, Linda E

    2015-03-01

    Women frequently ask about the safety and efficacy of using hormonal contraception (HC), either oral contraceptive pills (OC) or other forms, when traveling to high altitude locales. What are the risks and benefits of using HC at high altitude? Does HC affect acclimatization, exercise performance, or occurrence of acute mountain sickness? This article reviews current data regarding the risks and benefits of HC at high altitude, both demonstrated and theoretical, with the aim of helping health care providers to advise women traveling above 2500 meters. Most healthy women can safely use HC when traveling to high altitude, but should be aware of the potential risks and inconveniences.

  14. Ocean acoustic tomography - Travel time biases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiesberger, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    The travel times of acoustic rays traced through a climatological sound-speed profile are compared with travel times computed through the same profile containing an eddy field. The accuracy of linearizing the relations between the travel time difference and the sound-speed deviation at long ranges is assessed using calculations made for two different eddy fields measured in the eastern Atlantic. Significant nonlinearities are found in some cases, and the relationships of the values of these nonlinearities to the range between source and receiver, to the anomaly size associated with the eddies, and to the positions of the eddies are studied. An analytical model of the nonlinearities is discussed.

  15. Hormonal contraceptives and travel to high altitude.

    PubMed

    Keyes, Linda E

    2015-03-01

    Women frequently ask about the safety and efficacy of using hormonal contraception (HC), either oral contraceptive pills (OC) or other forms, when traveling to high altitude locales. What are the risks and benefits of using HC at high altitude? Does HC affect acclimatization, exercise performance, or occurrence of acute mountain sickness? This article reviews current data regarding the risks and benefits of HC at high altitude, both demonstrated and theoretical, with the aim of helping health care providers to advise women traveling above 2500 meters. Most healthy women can safely use HC when traveling to high altitude, but should be aware of the potential risks and inconveniences. PMID:25759908

  16. Quantifying the Effect of Fast Charger Deployments on Electric Vehicle Utility and Travel Patterns via Advanced Simulation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, E.; Neubauer, J.; Burton, E.

    2015-02-01

    The disparate characteristics between conventional (CVs) and battery electric vehicles (BEVs) in terms of driving range, refill/recharge time, and availability of refuel/recharge infrastructure inherently limit the relative utility of BEVs when benchmarked against traditional driver travel patterns. However, given a high penetration of high-power public charging combined with driver tolerance for rerouting travel to facilitate charging on long-distance trips, the difference in utility between CVs and BEVs could be marginalized. We quantify the relationships between BEV utility, the deployment of fast chargers, and driver tolerance for rerouting travel and extending travel durations by simulating BEVs operated over real-world travel patterns using the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles (BLAST-V). With support from the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office, BLAST-V has been developed to include algorithms for estimating the available range of BEVs prior to the start of trips, for rerouting baseline travel to utilize public charging infrastructure when necessary, and for making driver travel decisions for those trips in the presence of available public charging infrastructure, all while conducting advanced vehicle simulations that account for battery electrical, thermal, and degradation response. Results from BLAST-V simulations on vehicle utility, frequency of inserted stops, duration of charging events, and additional time and distance necessary for rerouting travel are presented to illustrate how BEV utility and travel patterns can be affected by various fast charge deployments.

  17. Risk factors for psychological stress among international business travellers

    PubMed Central

    Striker, J.; Luippold, R. S.; Nagy, L.; Liese, B.; Bigelow, C.; Mundt, K. A.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated sources of self reported psychological stress among international business travellers at the World Bank, following up on a previous study showing that travellers submitted more insurance claims for psychological disorders. Hypotheses were that work, personal, family, and health concerns, as well as time zone travel, contribute to travel stress. METHODS: A travel survey was developed from focus groups and consisted of questions about these potential sources of travel stress. Surveys were sent to a random sample of staff, stratified by number of travel missions, age range, and sex. Canonical correlation analyses estimated the association between key survey items on sources of stress and two measures of travel stress. RESULTS: 498 staff completed the survey. More than a third reported high to very high travel stress. Correlations between predictors and travel stress showed that social and emotional concerns (such as impact of travel on family and sense of isolation) contributed the most to such stress, followed by health concerns, and workload upon return from travel. Surprisingly, time zone travel did not contribute to the self reported stress of these travellers. There were few modifiers of stress, although respondents suggested that a day of rest after travel and reduced workloads would help. CONCLUSIONS: The current study confirms clinical impressions about several correlates of travel stress. Similar research with travellers in other organisations could help to determine whether the findings from this study are valid and what measures can be taken to reduce the psychological health risks to travellers.   PMID:10450241

  18. 39 CFR 230.25 - Who pays the costs incurred when the Office of Inspector General responds to a demand for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... charges, and any necessary travel expenses as follows: (1) The Office of Inspector General is authorized... time expended by Office of Inspector General employees, including attorneys, to process and respond to the demand; attorney time for reviewing the demand and for legal work in connection with the...

  19. Prevention and treatment of traveler's diarrhea: a clinical pharmacological approach.

    PubMed

    Scarpignato, C; Rampal, P

    1995-01-01

    Diarrhea represents a major health problem for travelers to developing countries. Although the syndrome is usually self-limited and recovery occurs in the majority of cases without any specific form of therapy, there is a need for safe and effective ways of preventing and treating it. Since the syndrome is most often caused by an infection acquired by ingesting fecally contaminated food or beverages, precautions regarding dietary habits remain the cornerstone of prophylaxis, but dietary self-restrictions do not always translate to reduced rates of diarrheal illness. Administration of probiotics (e.g. lactobacilli or Saccharomyces boulardii) and immunoprophylaxis with the newer oral cholera vaccines have been tried with promising results. Antimicrobials remain, however, the most successful form of prophylaxis, being effective in up to 90% of travelers. For those with impaired health who will take prophylaxis, systemic agents with proved efficacy should be recommended. For other otherwise healthy persons, poorly absorbed agents are preferable in order to avoid the serious, albeit rare, toxicity of systemic drugs. The key factor in the management of acute watery traveler's diarrhea, particularly in infants and young children, is the restoration of water and electrolyte balance. This does not reduce the duration of the illness but will limit dehydration and prevent acidosis. Many patients will require no additional therapy, whereas some will need pharmacologic treatment to shorten the duration of diarrhea or to relieve the accompanying symptoms, like abdominal discomfort, nausea and vomiting. A typical 3- to 5-day illness can be reduced to approximately 1 day by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) combination. Some other systemic antimicrobials have been successfully used but, during the last few years, the 4-fluoroquinolone drugs have received considerable attention and have been shown to be highly effective in reducing the duration of traveler's diarrhea. These

  20. Saving Electricity and Demand Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki

    A lot of people lost their lives in the tremendous earthquake in Tohoku region on March 11. A large capacity of electric power plants in TEPCO area was also damaged and large scale power shortage in this summer is predicted. In this situation, electricity customers are making great effort to save electricity to avoid planned outage. Customers take actions not only by their selves but also by some customers' cooperative movements. All actions taken actually are based on responses to request form the government or voluntary decision. On the other hand, demand response based on a financial stimulus is not observed as an actual behavior. Saving electricity by this demand response only discussed in the newspapers. In this commentary, the events regarding electricity-saving measure after this disaster are described and the discussions on demand response, especially a raise in power rate, are put into shapes in the context of this electricity supply-demand gap.

  1. Residential Demand Module - NEMS Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    Model Documentation - Documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Residential Sector Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and FORTRAN source code.

  2. Industrial Demand Module - NEMS Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    Documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Industrial Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

  3. Demand Response Spinning Reserve Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, Joseph H.; Nelson-Hoffman, Janine; Torres, Carlos; Hirth,Scott; Yinger, Bob; Kueck, John; Kirby, Brendan; Bernier, Clark; Wright,Roger; Barat, A.; Watson, David S.

    2007-05-01

    The Demand Response Spinning Reserve project is a pioneeringdemonstration of how existing utility load-management assets can providean important electricity system reliability resource known as spinningreserve. Using aggregated demand-side resources to provide spinningreserve will give grid operators at the California Independent SystemOperator (CAISO) and Southern California Edison (SCE) a powerful, newtool to improve system reliability, prevent rolling blackouts, and lowersystem operating costs.

  4. Highway travel and fuel comsumption from 1970 to 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The change in fuel price and availability (1970-80) has had a profound impact on the way and the extent of travel. Within the decade there were two precipitous increases in fuel price among a posture of steadily rising energy costs. In response to these price increases, a number of public policies were enacted. For instance, the 55-mph speed limit was imposed in 1974. At the end of that same year, the Federal Energy Administration and the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) were formulated to prescribe certain conservation guidelines for states to follow in formulating their own programs. Specifically, EPCA established a program for the development of plans designed for the promotion of energy conservation and a reduction of the energy demand growth rate. Parallel to the conservation measures are technological improvements in vehicle fuel consumption. EPCA mandated that automobile manufacturers achieve fuel efficiency incrementally through 1985 to reach an average fuel economy of 27.5 mpg. This article reviews the historical impact of these factors from 1970 through 1980. Its objective is to observe the relative significance of each of these energy-saving alternatives on the growth rate of travel and fuel use. This historical perspective is particularly interesting since it presents the before-and-after effects of two ''crises'' occurring during this 10-year period. 1 figure, 10 tables.

  5. Ocular Filariasis in US Residents, Returning Travelers, and Expatriates.

    PubMed

    Diaz, James H

    2015-01-01

    Several factors acting in concert now place US residents, returning travelers, and expatriates at risks of contracting ocular filariasis including increasing seroprevalence rates of zoonotic filariasis, international travel bringing tourists to and expatriates from filariasis-endemic regions, and warming temperatures extending distribution ranges of arthropod vectors. To describe the epidemiology and outcomes of ocular filariasis and to recommend strategies for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of ocular filariasis, internet search engines were queried with the key words in order to examine case reports and series of ocular filariasis in the US and elsewhere. Descriptive epidemiological, morphological, and molecular evidence now support increasing cases of ocular filariasis in domestic and wild animals and humans, with most cases caused by filarial worms including Dirofilaria repens and other zoonotic Dirofilaria species and Onchocerca lupi and other zoonotic Onchocerca species. Clinicians should maintain early suspicion of ocular filariasis in US residents, returning travelers, and expatriates who complain of combinations of red eye, eye pain, foreign body sensation, reduced visual acuity, and migrating ocular worms, even without significant peripheral eosinophilia or microfilaremia. Microfilariae of Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and O. volvulus may traverse the eye, but can usually be treated medically. Mobile adult worms trapped in the subconjunctiva or anterior chamber should be removed by ophthalmologists to permit species identification, prevent posterior uveitis and iritis, and stop worm migration into the posterior chamber which could require lens removal and vitrectomy for worm extraction causing further eye damage. PMID:27159510

  6. Ocular Filariasis in US Residents, Returning Travelers, and Expatriates.

    PubMed

    Diaz, James H

    2015-01-01

    Several factors acting in concert now place US residents, returning travelers, and expatriates at risks of contracting ocular filariasis including increasing seroprevalence rates of zoonotic filariasis, international travel bringing tourists to and expatriates from filariasis-endemic regions, and warming temperatures extending distribution ranges of arthropod vectors. To describe the epidemiology and outcomes of ocular filariasis and to recommend strategies for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of ocular filariasis, internet search engines were queried with the key words in order to examine case reports and series of ocular filariasis in the US and elsewhere. Descriptive epidemiological, morphological, and molecular evidence now support increasing cases of ocular filariasis in domestic and wild animals and humans, with most cases caused by filarial worms including Dirofilaria repens and other zoonotic Dirofilaria species and Onchocerca lupi and other zoonotic Onchocerca species. Clinicians should maintain early suspicion of ocular filariasis in US residents, returning travelers, and expatriates who complain of combinations of red eye, eye pain, foreign body sensation, reduced visual acuity, and migrating ocular worms, even without significant peripheral eosinophilia or microfilaremia. Microfilariae of Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and O. volvulus may traverse the eye, but can usually be treated medically. Mobile adult worms trapped in the subconjunctiva or anterior chamber should be removed by ophthalmologists to permit species identification, prevent posterior uveitis and iritis, and stop worm migration into the posterior chamber which could require lens removal and vitrectomy for worm extraction causing further eye damage.

  7. America's water: Agricultural water demands and the response of groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, M.; Parthasarathy, V.; Etienne, E.; Russo, T. A.; Devineni, N.; Lall, U.

    2016-07-01

    Agricultural, industrial, and urban water use in the conterminous United States (CONUS) is highly dependent on groundwater that is largely drawn from nonsurficial wells (>30 m). We use a Demand-Sensitive Drought Index to examine the impacts of agricultural water needs, driven by low precipitation, high agricultural water demand, or a combination of both, on the temporal variability of depth to groundwater across the CONUS. We characterize the relationship between changes in groundwater levels, agricultural water deficits relative to precipitation during the growing season, and winter precipitation. We find that declines in groundwater levels in the High Plains aquifer and around the Mississippi River Valley are driven by groundwater withdrawals used to supplement agricultural water demands. Reductions in agricultural water demands for crops do not, however, lead to immediate recovery of groundwater levels due to the demand for groundwater in other sectors in regions such as Utah, Maryland, and Texas.

  8. 41 CFR 301-70.904 - Must travelers whom we carry on Government aircraft be authorized to travel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY... the aircraft management office or its representative in the organization that owns or hires...

  9. Fever of unknown origin in returning travellers.

    PubMed

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Gaweł, Bartłomiej; Krankowska, Dagny; Wasilczuk, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the article is to discuss issues associated with the occurrence of febrile illnesses in leisure and business travellers, with a particular emphasis on fevers of unknown origin (FUO). FUO, apart from diarrhoeas, respiratory tract infections and skin lesions, are one of the most common health problems in travellers to tropical and subtropical countries. FUO are manifestations of various diseases, typically of infectious or invasive aetiology. In one out of 3 cases, the cause of a fever in travellers returning from the hot climate zone is malaria, and therefore diagnostic tests should first aim at ruling out this specific disease entity. Other illnesses with persistent fever include dengue, enteric fever, viral hepatitis A, bacterial diarrhoeas and rickettsioses. Fever may also occur in travellers suffering from diseases of non-tropical origin, e.g. cosmopolitan respiratory tract or urinary tract infections, also, fever may coexist with other illnesses or injuries (skin rashes, bites, burns).

  10. Travelers' Health: Trypanosomiasis, American (Chagas Disease)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ) ...

  11. Travelers' Health: Typhoid and Paratyphoid Fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ) ...

  12. Radiation exposure during travelling in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Omar, M; Hassan, A; Sulaiman, I

    2006-01-01

    Absorbed dose rates in vehicles during travelling by different modes of transport in Malaysia were measured. Radiation levels measured on roads in Peninsular Malaysia were within a broad range, i.e. between 36 and 1560 nGy h(-1). The highest reading, recorded while travelling near monazite and zircon mineral dumps, was 13 times the mean environmental radiation level of Malaysia. It is evident that radioactive material dumps on the roadsides can influence the radiation level on the road. The absorbed dose rates measured while travelling on an ordinary train were between 60 and 350 nGy h(-1). The highest reading was measured when the train passed a tunnel built through a granite rock hill. The measurement during sea travelling by ferries gave the lowest radiation level owing to merely cosmic radiation at the sea level.

  13. Travel Recommendations for the Nursing Mother

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Travel Recommendations for the ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs File Formats Help: How ...

  14. California Smart Traveler System. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Behnke, R.W.

    1992-02-01

    The report describes how audiotex and videotex information systems can be used to develop new modes of public transportation (e.g., parataxis or single-trip carpools) and how these new modes can be integrated with conventional transit, paratransit and ridesharing modes to reduce traffic congestion, gasoline consumption, air pollution and mobility problems at a low cost to taxpayers. This report also describes how these telephone-based information services can be used to develop low-cost, user-friendly Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS) that will tell drivers and riders the 'best' ways to get between any two points in an area via either private vehicle or public transportation. The proposed California Smart Traveler (CST) System will enable travelers to obtain more timely and accurate information on which to base their local or regional travel decisions.

  15. Cosmocultural Evolution: Cosmic Motivation for Interstellar Travel?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupisella, M.

    Motivations for interstellar travel can vary widely from practical survival motivations to wider-ranging moral obligations to future generations. But it may also be fruitful to explore what, if any, "cosmic" relevance there may be regarding interstellar travel. Cosmocultural evolution can be defined as the coevolution of cosmos and culture, with cultural evolution playing an important and perhaps critical role in the overall evolution of the universe. Strong versions of cosmocultural evolution might suggest that cultural evolution may have unlimited potential as a cosmic force. In such a worldview, the advancement of cultural beings throughout the universe could have significant cosmic relevance, perhaps providing additional motivation for interstellar travel. This paper will explore some potential philosophical and policy implications for interstellar travel of a cosmocultural evolutionary perspective and other related concepts, including some from a recent NASA book, Cosmos and Culture: Cultural Evolution in a Cosmic Context.

  16. Traveling with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Association for Medical Assistance to Travellers (1623 Military Road #279, Niagara Falls, NY 14304-1745; 716-754- ... book one in close proximity. When mapping a road trip, consult AAA or other trip planning guides ...

  17. Travelers' Health: MERS in the Arabian Peninsula

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share Compartir Warning - Level 3, Avoid Nonessential Travel Alert - Level 2, Practice Enhanced Precautions Watch - Level 1, ... overseas. Clinician Information: Health care providers should be alert to patients who develop fever and symptoms of ...

  18. Effectiveness of typhoid vaccination in US travelers

    PubMed Central

    Mahon, Barbara E.; Newton, Anna E.; Mintz, Eric D.

    2015-01-01

    Typhoid vaccination is recommended in the United States before travel to countries where typhoid fever is endemic, though little information is available on its effectiveness in travelers. We estimated typhoid vaccination effectiveness (VE) by comparing vaccination status in cases of typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever (Salmonella Paratyphi A infection, against which typhoid vaccine offers no protection) reported in the United States. We included travelers to Southern Asia and excluded persons <2 years old and cases in which vaccination status was not reported. From 2008 through 2011, 744 eligible cases (602 typhoid, 142 paratyphoid A) were reported to CDC. Typhoid vaccination was reported for 5% (29/602) of typhoid patients and for 20% (29/142) of paratyphoid A patients. Estimated VE was 80% (95% confidence interval, 66–89%). Because of missing data, we could not estimate VE for specific vaccines. We demonstrated moderate effectiveness of typhoid vaccination in US travelers, supporting vaccination recommendations. PMID:24837780

  19. Effectiveness of typhoid vaccination in US travelers.

    PubMed

    Mahon, Barbara E; Newton, Anna E; Mintz, Eric D

    2014-06-17

    Typhoid vaccination is recommended in the United States before travel to countries where typhoid fever is endemic, though little information is available on its effectiveness in travelers. We estimated typhoid vaccination effectiveness (VE) by comparing vaccination status in cases of typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever (Salmonella Paratyphi A infection, against which typhoid vaccine offers no protection) reported in the United States. We included travelers to Southern Asia and excluded persons <2 years old and cases in which vaccination status was not reported. From 2008 through 2011, 744 eligible cases (602 typhoid, 142 paratyphoid A) were reported to CDC. Typhoid vaccination was reported for 5% (29/602) of typhoid patients and for 20% (29/142) of paratyphoid A patients. Estimated VE was 80% (95% confidence interval, 66-89%). Because of missing data, we could not estimate VE for specific vaccines. We demonstrated moderate effectiveness of typhoid vaccination in US travelers, supporting vaccination recommendations.

  20. Traveling waves on a magnetic universe

    SciTech Connect

    Garfinkle, D. Department of Physics, Oakland University, Rochester, Michigan 48309 ); Melvin, M.A. )

    1992-02-15

    We find solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations representing gravitational and electromagnetic waves traveling along the axis direction in a cylindrical magnetic universe. The waves are strongly gravitating and can have an arbitrary profile.