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Sample records for combining ethnic populations

  1. Dyslipidemia in Special Ethnic Populations

    PubMed Central

    Romanelli, Robert; Zhao, Beinan; Azar, Kristen M.J.; Hastings, Katherine G.; Nimbal, Vani; Fortmann, Stephen P.; Palaniappan, Latha P.

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis This manuscript reviewed racial/ethnic differences in dyslipidemia, including prevalence of dyslipidemia, its relation to CHD and stroke mortality rates, response to lipid-lowering agents, and lifestyle modification. In particular, among all racial/ethnic groups, Asian Indians, Filipinos and Hispanics are at higher risk for dyslipidemia, which is consistent with the higher coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality rates in these groups. In addition, compared to other racial/ethnic groups, statins may have a higher efficacy for Asians. Studies suggest lower starting dosage in Asians, but the data are mixed. Genetic differences in statin metabolism can in part explain this racial/ethnic difference in statin sensitivity and adverse effects. Furthermore, lifestyle modification is recommended as part of dyslipidemia control and management. Both African Americans and Hispanics have more sedentary behavior and less favorable diet profile. Hispanic subgroups (i.e. Mexican, Puerto Rican, etc.) and Asian (i.e. Chinese, South Asian, etc.) subgroups should be disaggregated for lifestyle interventions due to cultural differences among the subgroups. Further studies are needed to better understand racial/ethnic-specific risk factors contributing to the observed differences in dyslipidemia, CHD, and stroke. Culturally-tailored prevention and intervention should be provided to the minority populations with elevated risk for dyslipidemia and considerably more research is needed to determine the best approaches to helping specific subgroups. PMID:25939303

  2. Dyslipidemia in special ethnic populations.

    PubMed

    Pu, Jia; Romanelli, Robert; Zhao, Beinan; Azar, Kristen M J; Hastings, Katherine G; Nimbal, Vani; Fortmann, Stephen P; Palaniappan, Latha P

    2015-05-01

    This article reviews racial/ethnic differences in dyslipidemia-prevalence of dyslipidemia, its relation to coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke mortality rates, response to lipid-lowering agents, and lifestyle modification. Asian Indians, Filipinos, and Hispanics are at higher risk for dyslipidemia, which is consistent with the higher CHD mortality rates in these groups. Statins may have greater efficacy for Asians, but the data are mixed. Lifestyle modifications are recommended. Culturally-tailored prevention and intervention should be provided to the minority populations with elevated risk for dyslipidemia and considerably more research is needed to determine the best approaches to helping specific subgroups.

  3. Y-chromosome polymorphisms and ethnic group – a combined STR and SNP approach in a population sample from northern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Cortellini, Venusia; Verzeletti, Andrea; Cerri, Nicoletta; Marino, Alberto; De Ferrari, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Aim To find an association between Y chromosome polymorphisms and some ethnic groups. Methods Short tandem repeats (STR) and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on the Y chromosome were typed in 311 unrelated men from four different ethnic groups – Italians from northern Italy, Albanians, Africans from the Maghreb region, and Indo-Pakistanis, using the AmpFlSTR® Yfiler PCR Amplification Kit and the SNaPshot Multiplex Kit. Results STRs analysis found 299 different haplotypes and SNPs analysis 11 different haplogroups. Haplotypes and haplogroups were analyzed and compared between different ethnic groups. Significant differences were found among all the population groups, except between Italians and Indo-Pakistanis and between Albanians and Indo-Pakistanis. Conclusions Typing both STRs and SNPs on the Y chromosome could become useful in determining ethnic origin of a potential suspect. PMID:23771759

  4. Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities in Incarcerated Populations.

    PubMed

    Borysova, Meghan E; Mitchell, Ojmarrh; Sultan, Dawood H; Williams, Arthur R

    2012-01-01

    Alarming disparities in population health and wellness in the United States have led to multidisciplinary research efforts to create health equity. Identifying disparities, elucidating the etiological bases of disparities, and implementing solutions to eliminate disparities are part of the U.S. national health agenda. Racial and ethnic disparities have been identified throughout the cancer control continuum, in cardiovascular disease, diabetes and a multitude of other conditions. The causes of disparities are complex, condition specific, and conjectured to result from combinations of biological and socio-behavioral factors. Racial and ethnic health disparities within the vast incarcerated communities have been excluded from most studies, yet are of significant ethical and fiscal concern to inmates, governing bodies, and non-incarcerated communities into which inmates return. Importantly, research on racial and ethnic disparities in this unique population may shed light on the relative etiologies of health disparities and solutions for creating health equity throughout the general population in the United States.

  5. Visually Translating Educational Materials for Ethnic Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiffman, Carole B.

    Growing populations of older adults, ethnic minorities, and the low-literate create unique concerns for the design of visual information. Those for whom text presents a barrier will respond most to legibility, use of familiar formats and symbols, and simplification. Guidelines for those processes are needed, and this paper, in particular,…

  6. Population census and ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Kalibova, K

    1995-01-01

    The author discusses the difficulties involved in collecting data on nationality in population censuses, as well as problems of international comparability of such data. Examples are provided from the Czech and Slovak Republics, Europe, and selected immigration states, including the United States, Canada, and Australia. (ANNOTATION)

  7. Polymorphic Admixture Typing in Human Ethnic Populations

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Michael; Stephens, J. Claiborne; Winkler, Cheryl; Lomb, Deborah A.; Ramsburg, Mark; Boaze, Raleigh; Stewart, Claudia; Charbonneau, Lauren; Goldman, David; Albaugh, Bernard J.; Goedert, James J.; Beasley, R. Palmer; Hwang, Lu-Yu; Buchbinder, Susan; Weedon, Michael; Johnson, Patricia A.; Eichelberger, Mary; O'Brien, Stephen J.

    1994-01-01

    A panel of 257 RFLP loci was selected on the basis of high heterozygosity in Caucasian DNA surveys and equivalent spacing throughout the human genome. Probes from each locus were used in a Southern blot survey of allele frequency distribution for four human ethnic groups: Caucasian, African American, Asian (Chinese), and American Indian (Cheyenne). Nearly all RFLP loci were polymorphic in each group, albeit with a broad range of differing allele frequencies (δ). The distribution of frequency differences (δ values) was used for three purposes: (1) to provide estimates for genetic distance (differentiation) among these ethnic groups, (2) to revisit with a large data set the proportion of human genetic variation attributable to differentiation within ethnic groups, and (3) to identify loci with high δ values between recently admixed populations of use in mapping by admixture linkage disequilibrium (MALD). Although most markers display significant allele frequency differences between ethnic groups, the overall genetic distances between ethnic groups were small (.066–.098), and <10% of the measured overall molecular genetic diversity in these human samples can be attributed to “racial” differentiation. The median δ values for pairwise comparisons between groups fell between .15 and .20, permitting identification of highly informative RFLP loci for MALD disease association studies. PMID:7942857

  8. Hair and scalp disorders in ethnic populations.

    PubMed

    Rodney, Ife J; Onwudiwe, Oge C; Callender, Valerie D; Halder, Rebat M

    2013-04-01

    Human hair has been classified into 3 major groups, as determined by ethnic origin. In these populations, significant structural and biochemical variations of the hair follicle and shaft are seen, as well as unique hair grooming practices. These structural variations of the hair are closely linked to the common disorders of the hair and scalp, such as acquired trichorrhexis nodosa, seborrheic dermatitis, traction alopecia, central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia, dissecting cellulitis, frontal fibrosing alopecia, and pseudofolliculitis barbae. PMID:23652889

  9. China's ethnic population and relevant policies.

    PubMed

    Zou, D

    1991-02-01

    In this article, a reporter from People's Daily interviews 2 government officials on the issue of rapid growth among China's ethnic minorities. A November 14, 1990 government communique reported that China's ethnic population has increased sharply, a 35.5% increase since 1982, compared to a 10.8% increase among the majority Han nationality. Furthermore, the number of minorities with a population over 1 million has increased from 15 to 18, and the population of 6 minorities has more than doubled. During the interview, Chen Xin and Yang Yixing, respectively vice-minister and deputy director of the Department of Policy, Laws, and Regulations of the State Nationalities Affairs Commission, explain that there are 2 reasons for the rapid growth of minority populations: natural increase and changes in nationality status. From 1982 to 1990, the minority populations increased by 23.97 million, 10 million of which was due to natural growth, the rest to changes in nationality status. The officials explain that the reason behind the natural increase is that the government does not implement its family planning policy indiscriminately. While all nationalities are supposed to practice family planning, the government takes into consideration the particular situation of nationalities--their historical background, religion, place of habitation, etc. The officials approve of this flexibility. The massive changes in nationality status began as early as 1979, when minorities no longer feared discrimination. Concerning the implementation of family planning policy among minorities, the officials recommend further refining the law that applies to each minority, strengthening family planning education and publicity among minorities, and improving the medical and health conditions in remote minority areas.

  10. Population genetic study of 34 X-Chromosome markers in 5 main ethnic groups of China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Suhua; Bian, Yingnan; Li, Li; Sun, Kuan; wang, Zheng; Zhao, Qi; Zha, Lagabaiyila; Cai, Jifeng; Gao, Yuzhen; Ji, Chaoneng; Li, Chengtao

    2015-01-01

    As a multi-ethnic country, China has some indigenous population groups which vary in culture and social customs, perhaps as a result of geographic isolation and different traditions. However, upon close interactions and intermarriage, admixture of different gene pools among these ethnic groups may occur. In order to gain more insight on the genetic background of X-Chromosome from these ethnic groups, a set of X-markers (18 X-STRs and 16 X-Indels) was genotyped in 5 main ethnic groups of China (HAN, HUI, Uygur, Mongolian, Tibetan). Twenty-three private alleles were detected in HAN, Uygur, Tibetan and Mongolian. Significant differences (p < 0.0001) were all observed for the 3 parameters of heterozygosity (Ho, He and UHe) among the 5 ethnic groups. Highest values of Nei genetic distance were always observed at HUI-Uygur pairwise when analyzed with X-STRs or X-Indels separately and combined. Phylogenetic tree and PCA analyses revealed a clear pattern of population differentiation of HUI and Uygur. However, the HAN, Tibetan and Mongolian ethnic groups were closely clustered. Eighteen X-Indels exhibited in general congruent phylogenetic signal and similar cluster among the 5 ethnic groups compared with 16 X-STRs. Aforementioned results proved the genetic polymorphism and potential of the 34 X-markers in the 5 ethnic groups. PMID:26634331

  11. Population genetic study of 34 X-Chromosome markers in 5 main ethnic groups of China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Suhua; Bian, Yingnan; Li, Li; Sun, Kuan; Wang, Zheng; Zhao, Qi; Zha, Lagabaiyila; Cai, Jifeng; Gao, Yuzhen; Ji, Chaoneng; Li, Chengtao

    2015-12-04

    As a multi-ethnic country, China has some indigenous population groups which vary in culture and social customs, perhaps as a result of geographic isolation and different traditions. However, upon close interactions and intermarriage, admixture of different gene pools among these ethnic groups may occur. In order to gain more insight on the genetic background of X-Chromosome from these ethnic groups, a set of X-markers (18 X-STRs and 16 X-Indels) was genotyped in 5 main ethnic groups of China (HAN, HUI, Uygur, Mongolian, Tibetan). Twenty-three private alleles were detected in HAN, Uygur, Tibetan and Mongolian. Significant differences (p < 0.0001) were all observed for the 3 parameters of heterozygosity (Ho, He and UHe) among the 5 ethnic groups. Highest values of Nei genetic distance were always observed at HUI-Uygur pairwise when analyzed with X-STRs or X-Indels separately and combined. Phylogenetic tree and PCA analyses revealed a clear pattern of population differentiation of HUI and Uygur. However, the HAN, Tibetan and Mongolian ethnic groups were closely clustered. Eighteen X-Indels exhibited in general congruent phylogenetic signal and similar cluster among the 5 ethnic groups compared with 16 X-STRs. Aforementioned results proved the genetic polymorphism and potential of the 34 X-markers in the 5 ethnic groups.

  12. Self-rated health and ethnicity: focus on indigenous populations

    PubMed Central

    Bombak, Andrea E.; Bruce, Sharon G.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Self-rated health (SRH) is a commonly used measure in surveys to assess general health status or health-related quality of life. Differences have been detected in how different ethnic groups and nationalities interpret the SRH measure and assess their health. This review summarizes the research conducted on SRH within and between ethnic groups, with a focus on indigenous groups. Study design and methods A search of published academic literature on SRH and ethnicity, including a comprehensive review of all relevant indigenous research, was conducted using PubMed and summarized. Results A wide variety of research on SRH within ethnic groups has been undertaken. SRH typically serves as an outcome measure. Minority respondents generally rated their health worse than the dominant population. Numerous culturally-specific determinants of SRH have been identified. Cross-national and cross-ethnicity comparisons of the associations of SRH have been conducted to assess the validity of SRH. While SRH is a valid measure within a variety of ethnicities, differences in how SRH is assessed by ethnicities have been detected. Research in indigenous groups remains generally under-represented in the SRH literature. Conclusions These results suggest that different ethnic groups and nationalities vary in SRH evaluations, interpretation of the SRH measure, and referents employed in rating health. To effectively assess and redress health disparities and establish culturally-relevant and effective health interventions, a greater understanding of SRH is required, particularly among indigenous groups, in which little research has been conducted. PMID:22663937

  13. Patient barriers to insulin use in multi-ethnic populations.

    PubMed

    Visram, Hasina

    2013-06-01

    Insulin administration is often required in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus for optimal glycemic control. Despite this, however, many patients are reluctant to initiate insulin treatment. In the general population, there are multiple factors leading to this reluctance including fear of hypoglycemia, needle phobia and weight gain. These barriers are also present in multi-ethnic populations. However, there are several patient barriers that are more prevalent in various ethnic backgrounds that need to be addressed. These barriers include language barriers, poor health literacy, social factors and religious implications. The awareness of these factors as well as potential strategies to help overcome them can lead to the improved management of patients with diabetes from multi-ethnic populations. PMID:24070844

  14. Hepatitis C in ethnic minority populations in England.

    PubMed

    Mann, A G; Trotter, C L; Balogun, M Adekoyejo; Ramsay, M E

    2008-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the differing epidemiology of hepatitis C-related end-stage liver disease in ethnic minorities in England. We used Hospital Episode Statistics from 1997/98 to 2004/05 to directly age-standardize numbers of episodes and deaths from hepatitis C-related end-stage liver disease in ethnic groups using the white English population as standard and the age-structured population by ethnic group from the 2001 Census. We estimated the odds of having a diagnosis of end-stage liver disease amongst hepatitis C-infected individuals in each ethnic group compared with whites using logistic regression. The main outcome measures were age-standardized morbidity and mortality ratios and morbidity and mortality odds ratios. Standardized ratios (95% confidence interval) for hepatitis C-related end-stage liver disease ranged from 73 (38-140) in Chinese people to 1063 (952-1186) for those from an 'Other' ethnic group. Amongst individuals with a diagnosis of hepatitis C infection, the odds ratios (95% CI) of severe liver disease were 1.42 (1.13-1.79), 1.57 (1.36-1.81), 2.44 (1.85-3.22), 1.73 (1.36-2.19) and 1.83 (1.08-3.10) comparing individuals of Black African, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Indian and Chinese origin with whites, respectively. Ethnic minority populations in England are more likely than whites to experience an admission or to die from severe liver disease as a result of hepatitis C infection. Ethnic minority populations may have a higher prevalence of hepatitis C or they may experience a poorer prognosis because of differential access to health services, longer duration of infection or the prevalence of co-morbidities.

  15. Targeting Interventions for Ethnic Minority and Low-Income Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumanyika, Shiriki; Grier, Sonya

    2006-01-01

    Although rates of childhood obesity among the general population are alarmingly high, they are higher still in ethnic minority and low-income communities. The disparities pose a major challenge for policymakers and practitioners planning strategies for obesity prevention. In this article Shiriki Kumanyika and Sonya Grier summarize differences in…

  16. Genomes, Populations and Diseases: Ethnic Genomics and Personalized Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Stepanov, V.A.

    2010-01-01

    This review discusses the progress of ethnic genetics, the genetics of common diseases, and the concepts of personalized medicine. We show the relationship between the structure of genetic diversity in human populations and the varying frequencies of Mendelian and multifactor diseases. We also examine the population basis of pharmacogenetics and evaluate the effectiveness of pharmacotherapy, along with a review of new achievements and prospects in personalized genomics. PMID:22649660

  17. Ancestral Heterogeneity in a Bi-ethnic Stroke Population

    PubMed Central

    Lisabeth, Lynda D; Morgenstern, Lewis B; Burke, David T; Sun, Yan V; Long, Jeffrey C

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY To test for and characterize heterogeneity in ancestral contributions to individuals among a population of Mexican American (MA) and non-Hispanic white (NHW) stroke/TIA cases, data from a community-based stroke surveillance study in south Texas were used. Strokes/TIA cases were identified (2004–2006) with a random sample asked to provide blood. Race-ethnicity was self-reported. Thirty-three ancestry informative markers (AIMs) were genotyped and individual genetic admixture estimated using maximum likelihood methods. Three hypotheses were tested for each MA using likelihood ratio tests: 1) H0: μi=0 (100% Native American), 2) H0: μi=1.00 (100% European), 3) H0: μi=0.59 (average European). Among 154 self-identified MAs, estimated European ancestry varied from 0.26–0.98, with an average of 0.59(se=0.014). We rejected hypothesis 1 for every MA and rejected hypothesis 2 for all but two MAs. We rejected hypothesis 3 for 40 MAs (20<59%, 20>59%). Among 84 self-identified NHWs, the estimated fraction of European ancestry ranged from 0.83–1.0, with an average of 0.97 (se=0.014). Self-identified MAs, and to a lesser extent NHWs, from an established bi-ethnic community were heterogeneous with respect to genetic admixture. Researchers should not use simple race-ethnic categories as proxies for homogeneous genetic populations when conducting gene mapping and disease association studies in multi-ethnic populations. PMID:21668907

  18. A macro analysis of population growth of China's ethnic groups in the 1980s.

    PubMed

    Yang, S; Liu, W

    1992-06-01

    8% of China's population is comprised of the 55 identified ethnic groups in 1990. The growth rate of this population between 1982 and 1990 was very high at 38.7/1000, or an increase of 1.43 over the previous 18 years. Natural increase was 18/1000. The total fertility rate was 2.9 in 1990. The causes for such rapid growth are reaffirmation of ethnic identity, a high fertility rate, and intermarriage with Han residents. 59% of the increased population reflected a new classification as an ethnic minority. Intermarriage with Han accounted for 4.4% of the increase. Since the revolution of 1949, there has been a release from the former oppression and population declines. In 1978, preferential policies were mandated for ethnic groups, which encouraged ethnic recognition. Ethnic status was enhanced and national awareness of ethnic groups was increased. The visual display of the ethnic age pyramid is evidence that the shape is quite different from the Han population. There are greater numbers of teenagers and those in reproductive ages. This cluster will affect population growth after the century's end. Ethnic population growth due to reaffirmation of ethnic identity also is different from natural increase in regional migration. A rise in population density within a location is not apparent. Carrying capacity of the local economy, resources, or environment is unaffected by the increase. It is inappropriate to measure the population pressure of high ethnic population growth. Eventually, ethnic growth will affect the growth rate of the national population. In ethnic areas, population growth should be planned in concert with economic development, use of resources, and protection of the ecology. Thus, ethnic area income/capita will be increased, inequality will be erased, and national autonomy achieved. The social stability and prosperity of all China is dependent on respect for happiness among ethnic minorities and economic and social development.

  19. Cancer in minority ethnic populations: priorities from epidemiological data.

    PubMed Central

    Bhopal, R. S.; Rankin, J.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to review the literature on the frequency of cancers to develop priorities for cancer policy, prevention, services and research for black and minority ethnic populations in Britain. Data on populations originating in the Indian sub-continent, and Caribbean and African Commonwealth were extracted from published works. Cancers were ranked (top seven) on the basis of the number of cases, actual frequency, and also on relative frequency (SMR, SRR, PMR). Cancer was found to be a common cause of death. For example, during 1979-83 the proportion of deaths resulting from neoplasms in immigrants living in England and Wales was 11% for Indian and African men aged 20-49, and 19% for Caribbeans. The corresponding proportions were higher among women. The pattern of cancer depended on the method used to assess rankings. On the basis of the number of cases the top 3 ranking cancers for adults were breast, long and neoplasms of the lymphatic system. Based on SMR's cancer of the gallbladder, liver and oral cavity ranked amongst the top 3 for adults. For children the top ranking cancers were acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, central nervous system tumours and neuroblastoma. Variations by ethnic group were more evident in the rankings of relative frequency than in rankings based on numbers of cases. In conclusion, the most common and preventable cancers among minority ethnic populations were the same as those for the general population. The different cancer pattern based on SMRs highlight additional needs and provide potential models for research into understanding the causes of these cancers. Health services policy and practice should ensure that the common and preventable cancers take priority over rare cancers and those for which there is no effective treatment or prevention. Priorities for policy, prevention, clinical care and research should be set separately, for they differ. PMID:8782795

  20. Ethnic discrimination and health: the relationship between experienced ethnic discrimination and multiple health domains in Norway's rural Sami population

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Ketil Lenert

    2015-01-01

    Objective Self-reported ethnic discrimination has been associated with a range of health outcomes. This study builds on previous efforts to investigate the prevalence of self-reported ethnic discrimination in the indigenous (Sami) population, and how such discrimination may be associated with key health indicators. Study design The study relies on data from the 2003/2004 (n=4,389) population-based study of adults (aged 36–79 years) in 24 rural municipalities of Central and North Norway (the SAMINOR study). Self-reported ethnic discrimination was measured using the question: “Have you ever experienced discrimination due to your ethnic background?” Health indicators included questions regarding cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic muscle pain, metabolic syndrome and obesity. Logistic regression was applied to examine the relationship between self-reported ethnic discrimination and health outcomes. Results The study finds that for Sami people living in minority areas, self-reported ethnic discrimination is associated with all the negative health indicators included in the study. Conclusion We conclude that ethnic discrimination affects a wide range of health outcomes. Our findings highlight the importance of ensuring freedom from discrimination for the Sami people of Norway. PMID:25683064

  1. Ethnicity and population structure in personal naming networks.

    PubMed

    Mateos, Pablo; Longley, Paul A; O'Sullivan, David

    2011-01-01

    Personal naming practices exist in all human groups and are far from random. Rather, they continue to reflect social norms and ethno-cultural customs that have developed over generations. As a consequence, contemporary name frequency distributions retain distinct geographic, social and ethno-cultural patterning that can be exploited to understand population structure in human biology, public health and social science. Previous attempts to detect and delineate such structure in large populations have entailed extensive empirical analysis of naming conventions in different parts of the world without seeking any general or automated methods of population classification by ethno-cultural origin. Here we show how 'naming networks', constructed from forename-surname pairs of a large sample of the contemporary human population in 17 countries, provide a valuable representation of cultural, ethnic and linguistic population structure around the world. This innovative approach enriches and adds value to automated population classification through conventional national data sources such as telephone directories and electoral registers. The method identifies clear social and ethno-cultural clusters in such naming networks that extend far beyond the geographic areas in which particular names originated, and that are preserved even after international migration. Moreover, one of the most striking findings of this approach is that these clusters simply 'emerge' from the aggregation of millions of individual decisions on parental naming practices for their children, without any prior knowledge introduced by the researcher. Our probabilistic approach to community assignment, both at city level as well as at a global scale, helps to reveal the degree of isolation, integration or overlap between human populations in our rapidly globalising world. As such, this work has important implications for research in population genetics, public health, and social science adding new

  2. Ethnicity and population structure in personal naming networks.

    PubMed

    Mateos, Pablo; Longley, Paul A; O'Sullivan, David

    2011-01-01

    Personal naming practices exist in all human groups and are far from random. Rather, they continue to reflect social norms and ethno-cultural customs that have developed over generations. As a consequence, contemporary name frequency distributions retain distinct geographic, social and ethno-cultural patterning that can be exploited to understand population structure in human biology, public health and social science. Previous attempts to detect and delineate such structure in large populations have entailed extensive empirical analysis of naming conventions in different parts of the world without seeking any general or automated methods of population classification by ethno-cultural origin. Here we show how 'naming networks', constructed from forename-surname pairs of a large sample of the contemporary human population in 17 countries, provide a valuable representation of cultural, ethnic and linguistic population structure around the world. This innovative approach enriches and adds value to automated population classification through conventional national data sources such as telephone directories and electoral registers. The method identifies clear social and ethno-cultural clusters in such naming networks that extend far beyond the geographic areas in which particular names originated, and that are preserved even after international migration. Moreover, one of the most striking findings of this approach is that these clusters simply 'emerge' from the aggregation of millions of individual decisions on parental naming practices for their children, without any prior knowledge introduced by the researcher. Our probabilistic approach to community assignment, both at city level as well as at a global scale, helps to reveal the degree of isolation, integration or overlap between human populations in our rapidly globalising world. As such, this work has important implications for research in population genetics, public health, and social science adding new

  3. [The indigenous population. Demographic expansion of ethnic groups].

    PubMed

    Valdes De Montano, L M

    1989-01-01

    Analysis of the vital statistics of the 450 Mexican municipios in which 70% or more of the population speak indigenous languages permits a rough analysis of the demographic behavior of 23 different ethnic groups. Statistics of government departments dealing with indigenous affairs and the various indigenous organizations created since the 1970s provide other estimates of the size of the indigenous population. The census indicated a population of 5,181,038 speakers of indigenous languages aged 5 or older in 1980. The public administration estimated the 1980 indigenous population at 10 million, and the indigenous organizations estimated 12 to 18 million in 1980 and 15 million in 1989. Census and vital statistics data indicate that each indigenous group has had unique patterns of mortality and fertility in the past 30 years. Mortality declined significantly in some groups, but fertility overall has not declined to the same extent. In 1970 and 1980 respectively for the sample as a whole, the average crude birth rates were 42.4 and 37.3/1000 and the average crude death rates were 13.8 and 8.2/1000. The average annual growth rate was estimated at 2.9% for both years. 1980 growth rates ranged from 3.5% for the Maya and Mixtec to a low of 0.5% for the Tzotzil. PMID:12158100

  4. Psychosocial treatment research with ethnic minority populations: ethical considerations in conducting clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Alvidrez, J; Arean, P A

    2002-01-01

    Because of historical mistreatment of ethnic minorities by research and medical institutions, it is particularly important for researchers to be mindful of ethical issues that arise when conducting research with ethnic minority populations. In this article, we focus on the ethical issues related to the inclusion of ethnic minorities in clinical trials of psychosocial treatments. We highlight 2 factors, skepticism and mistrust by ethnic minorities about research and current inequities in the mental health care system, that researchers should consider when developing psychosocial interventions studies that include ethnic minorities.

  5. Projections of the ethnic minority populations of the United Kingdom 2006-2056.

    PubMed

    Coleman, David

    2010-01-01

    The ethnic minority populations in the UK are growing substantially through immigration, a youthful age structure, and in some cases relatively high fertility. Their diverse demographic and socioeconomic characteristics have attracted considerable academic and policy attention, especially insofar as those distinctive characteristics have persisted in the generations born in the UK. No official projections of the UK ethnic populations have been published since 1979. This article provides projections to 2056 and beyond of 12 ethnic groups. Given overall net immigration and vital rates as assumed in the office for National Statistics 2008-based Principal Projection, and the ethnic characteristics estimated here, the ethnic minority populations (including the Other White) would increase from 13 percent of the UK population in 2006 to 28 percent by 2031 and 44 percent by 2056, and to about half the 0-4 age group in 2056. Alternative projections assume various lower levels of immigration. Possible implications of projected changes are discussed.

  6. Development of a Semi-Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire to Assess the Dietary Intake of a Multi-Ethnic Urban Asian Population.

    PubMed

    Neelakantan, Nithya; Whitton, Clare; Seah, Sharna; Koh, Hiromi; Rebello, Salome A; Lim, Jia Yi; Chen, Shiqi; Chan, Mei Fen; Chew, Ling; van Dam, Rob M

    2016-01-01

    Assessing habitual food consumption is challenging in multi-ethnic cosmopolitan settings. We systematically developed a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in a multi-ethnic population in Singapore, using data from two 24-h dietary recalls from a nationally representative sample of 805 Singapore residents of Chinese, Malay and Indian ethnicity aged 18-79 years. Key steps included combining reported items on 24-h recalls into standardized food groups, developing a food list for the FFQ, pilot testing of different question formats, and cognitive interviews. Percentage contribution analysis and stepwise regression analysis were used to identify foods contributing cumulatively ≥90% to intakes and individually ≥1% to intake variance of key nutrients, for the total study population and for each ethnic group separately. Differences between ethnic groups were observed in proportions of consumers of certain foods (e.g., lentil stews, 1%-47%; and pork dishes, 0%-50%). The number of foods needed to explain variability in nutrient intakes differed substantially by ethnic groups and was substantially larger for the total population than for separate ethnic groups. A 163-item FFQ covered >95% of total population intake for all key nutrients. The methodological insights provided in this paper may be useful in developing similar FFQs in other multi-ethnic settings. PMID:27618909

  7. Development of a Semi-Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire to Assess the Dietary Intake of a Multi-Ethnic Urban Asian Population

    PubMed Central

    Neelakantan, Nithya; Whitton, Clare; Seah, Sharna; Koh, Hiromi; Rebello, Salome A.; Lim, Jia Yi; Chen, Shiqi; Chan, Mei Fen; Chew, Ling; van Dam, Rob M.

    2016-01-01

    Assessing habitual food consumption is challenging in multi-ethnic cosmopolitan settings. We systematically developed a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in a multi-ethnic population in Singapore, using data from two 24-h dietary recalls from a nationally representative sample of 805 Singapore residents of Chinese, Malay and Indian ethnicity aged 18–79 years. Key steps included combining reported items on 24-h recalls into standardized food groups, developing a food list for the FFQ, pilot testing of different question formats, and cognitive interviews. Percentage contribution analysis and stepwise regression analysis were used to identify foods contributing cumulatively ≥90% to intakes and individually ≥1% to intake variance of key nutrients, for the total study population and for each ethnic group separately. Differences between ethnic groups were observed in proportions of consumers of certain foods (e.g., lentil stews, 1%–47%; and pork dishes, 0%–50%). The number of foods needed to explain variability in nutrient intakes differed substantially by ethnic groups and was substantially larger for the total population than for separate ethnic groups. A 163-item FFQ covered >95% of total population intake for all key nutrients. The methodological insights provided in this paper may be useful in developing similar FFQs in other multi-ethnic settings. PMID:27618909

  8. Ethnicity, obesity and health pattern among Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Mungreiphy, N. K.; Dhall, Meenal; Tyagi, Renu; Saluja, Kiran; Kumar, Aniket; Tungdim, Mary Grace; Sinha, Rashmi; Rongmei, K. S.; Tandon, Kajri; Bhardwaj, Shaila; Kapoor, Anup Kumar; Kapoor, Satwanti

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship of ethnicity with overweight/obesity, variation in adiposity levels, regional distribution of fat and its impact on cardio-respiratory health among selected ethnic groups. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 300 young adults of three ethnic groups from different geographical regions of India ranging in age from 20 to 30 years. Stature, weight, circumferences, body fat percentage, and skinfold thicknesses were measured. Obesity indices like body mass index (BMI), grand mean thickness (GMT), waist hip ratio (WHR), waist height ratio (WHtR), and conicity index (CI) were computed. Cardio-respiratory health indicators such as lung functions including forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1.0), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory ratio (FER), peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), breath holding time (BHT), and systolic and diastolic BP (blood pressure) were taken and associated with obesity indices. Results: General body fat deposition, assessed by BMI, GMT, and fat percentage, was found to be the highest among Delhi females and males. However, central adiposity as assessed from WHR, WHtR, and CI was found to be significantly higher among the Manipur subjects signifying a relatively more androidal pattern of fat deposition. Most of the inter-group differences for adiposity indices were significant; however, it was not so in the case of blood pressure among different ethnic groups. On the other hand, the respiratory efficiency varied significantly between different ethnic groups. Ethnicity, adiposity, and cardio-respiratory health were found to be interrelated. Conclusions: Subjects belonging to three ethnic groups showed marked differences in different body dimension, adiposity indices, and cardio-respiratory health. Central obesity has been found to be a better pointer for cardiovascular health risk. There were ethnic and gender differences with respect to adiposity measures and cardio

  9. The contribution of cultural competence to evidence-based care for ethnically diverse populations.

    PubMed

    Huey, Stanley J; Tilley, Jacqueline Lee; Jones, Eduardo O; Smith, Caitlin A

    2014-01-01

    Despite compelling arguments for the dissemination of evidence-based treatments (EBTs), questions regarding their relevance to ethnically diverse populations remain. This review summarizes what is known about psychotherapy effects with ethnic minorities, with a particular focus on the role of cultural competence when implementing EBTs. Specifically, we address three questions: (a) does psychotherapy work with ethnic minorities, (b) do psychotherapy effects differ by ethnicity, and (c) does cultural tailoring enhance treatment effects? The evidence suggests that psychotherapy is generally effective with ethnic minorities, and treatment effects are fairly robust across cultural groups and problem areas. However, evidence for cultural competence is mixed. Ethnic minority-focused treatments frequently incorporate culturally tailored strategies, and these tailored treatments are mostly efficacious; yet support for cultural competence as a useful supplement to standard treatment remains equivocal at best. We also discuss research limitations, areas for future research, and clinical implications.

  10. [Polymorphism of 17 Y-STR loci in She ethnic population in Fujian and genetic relationship with 11 populations].

    PubMed

    Bai, Ru-Feng; Yang, Li-Hai; Yuan, Li; Liang, Quan-Zeng; Lu, Di; Yang, Xue; Shi, Mei-Sen

    2012-08-01

    To investigate the genetic polymorphisms of 17 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats(Y-STR) loci in She ethnic population from Fujian province, and to evaluate their forensic application values and genetic relationship with other 11 populations, 152 unrelated male individuals of She ethnic population in Fujian were used to determine the distribution of allele frequencies and haplotypes by using Y-filerTM System. Cluster analysis and phylogenic trees were applied to show the genetic distance among the populations. As a result, 50 haplotypes were found in DYS385a/b loci, and 3~11 alleles were found in the rest 15 Y-STR loci. The GD value was from 0.4037(DYS391) to 0. 9725(DYS385a/b). This study has also revealed "off-ladder" alleles at several Y-loci, namely DYS448, DYS393, DYS458 and DYS635, and several occurrences of duplications at the DYS385a/b, DYS19 and DYS390 loci. One hundred and forty-four haplotypes were found in 17 Y-STR loci, of which 138 were unique, 5 were found in 2 individuals, 1 was found in 4 individuals, and the observed haplotypes diversity value was 0.9990. Comparing with 11 populations, the genetic distance between She ethnic and Han population in Zhejiang was the smallest (0.0042), while it was the largest between She ethnic and Tibet ethnic population (0.2380). Cluster analysis and phylogenetic tree both demonstrated that genetic distance between She ethnic and several south Han populations is closer than between She ethnic and non-Han populations. Multiplex detection of the 17 Y-STR loci revealed a highly polymorphic genetic distribution, which would be very powerful for establishing a Y-STR database, for population genetics and forensic practice.

  11. Estimating ancestral proportions in a multi-ethnic US sample: implications for studies of admixed populations.

    PubMed

    Levran, Orna; Awolesi, Olaoluwakitan; Shen, Pei-Hong; Adelson, Miriam; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2012-07-05

    This study was designed to determine the ancestral composition of a multi-ethnic sample collected for studies of drug addictions in New York City and Las Vegas, and to examine the reliability of self-identified ethnicity and three-generation family history data. Ancestry biographical scores for seven clusters corresponding to world major geographical regions were obtained using STRUCTURE, based on genotypes of 168 ancestry informative markers (AIMs), for a sample of 1,291 African Americans (AA), European Americans (EA), and Hispanic Americans (HA) along with data from 1,051 HGDP-CEPH 'diversity panel' as a reference. Self-identified ethnicity and family history data, obtained in an interview, were accurate in identifying the individual major ancestry in the AA and the EA samples (approximately 99% and 95%, respectively) but were not useful for the HA sample and could not predict the extent of admixture in any group. The mean proportions of the combined clusters corresponding to European and Middle Eastern populations in the AA sample, revealed by AIMs analysis, were 0.13. The HA subjects, predominantly Puerto Ricans, showed a highly variable hybrid contribution pattern of clusters corresponding to Europe (0.27), Middle East (0.27), Africa (0.20), and Central Asia (0.14). The effect of admixture on allele frequencies is demonstrated for two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (118A > G, 17 C > T) of the mu opioid receptor gene (OPRM1). This study reiterates the importance of AIMs in defining ancestry, especially in admixed populations.

  12. Fragmented life courses: the changing profile of Britain's ethnic populations.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, L

    2000-01-01

    This article describes the potential of the Longitudinal Study to analyse different ethnic groups by broad period of entry. This is illustrated with the use of one variable (childlessness), but could be the basis for further analytical work on other variables. Each group has a unique demographic profile, which is largely explained by its migration history. Migration influences important life course transitions. Differences between more established residents (present in 1981 and 1991) and less established residents (present in 1991 only) imply that generalisations for the entire ethnic group or future generations should not be made.

  13. Paradigm lost: race, ethnicity, and the search for a new population taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Oppenheimer, G M

    2001-07-01

    The Institute of Medicine (IOM) recently recommended that the National Institutes of Health (NIH) reevaluate its employment of "race," a concept lacking scientific or anthropological justification, in cancer surveillance and other population research. The IOM advised the NIH to use a different population classification, that of "ethnic group," instead of "race." A relatively new term, according to the IOM, "ethnic group" would turn research attention away from biological determinism and toward a focus on culture and behavior. This article examines the historically central role of racial categorization and its relationship to racism in the United States and questions whether dropping "race" from population taxonomies is either possible or, at least in the short run, preferable. In addition, a historical examination of "ethnicity" and "ethnic group" finds that these concepts, as used in the United States, derive in part from race and immigration and are not neutral terms; instead, they carry their own burden of political, social, and ideological meaning.

  14. Paradigm lost: race, ethnicity, and the search for a new population taxonomy.

    PubMed Central

    Oppenheimer, G M

    2001-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine (IOM) recently recommended that the National Institutes of Health (NIH) reevaluate its employment of "race," a concept lacking scientific or anthropological justification, in cancer surveillance and other population research. The IOM advised the NIH to use a different population classification, that of "ethnic group," instead of "race." A relatively new term, according to the IOM, "ethnic group" would turn research attention away from biological determinism and toward a focus on culture and behavior. This article examines the historically central role of racial categorization and its relationship to racism in the United States and questions whether dropping "race" from population taxonomies is either possible or, at least in the short run, preferable. In addition, a historical examination of "ethnicity" and "ethnic group" finds that these concepts, as used in the United States, derive in part from race and immigration and are not neutral terms; instead, they carry their own burden of political, social, and ideological meaning. PMID:11441730

  15. 77 FR 14341 - Establishment of the National Advisory Committee on Racial, Ethnic, and Other Populations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... Populations AGENCY: Bureau of the Census, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of Committee Establishment... Populations is necessary and in the public interest. The Committee will function solely as an advisory body... National Advisory Committee on Racial, Ethnic, and Other Populations will advise the Director of the...

  16. An anthropometric data bank for the Iranian working population with ethnic diversity.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Fatemeh; Mazloumi, Adel; Kazemi, Zeinab

    2015-05-01

    This study constructed an anthropometric data bank for the Iranian working population. In total, thirty-seven body dimensions were measured among 3720 Iranian workers with different ethnicities (3000 male and 720 female; aged 20-60 years). Statistical analysis revealed significant differences for most of body dimensions among the ethnical groups. Moreover, the authors compared Iranian anthropometric characteristics with those of four Asian populations: Taiwanese, Chinese, Japanese, and Korean. Overall, 16 body dimensions for the five Asian populations were selected and compared. Accordingly, different morphological characteristics of these five populations were observed. The Iranian population showed wide shoulders and hips and long legs; the Chinese population showed narrow hips and shoulders and a short height relative to the other populations. The Korean sample recorded moderate body size comparing the other populations. The Taiwanese had large hands, relatively wide shoulders and short upper limbs. These differences in population dimensions should be taken into consideration for product and process design when expanding regional markets.

  17. Shaping the nation state: ethnicity, class and the new population policy in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Drakakis-smith, D; Graham, E

    1996-03-01

    "This paper explores the relationships between ethnicity, class and the New Population Policy (NPP) in Singapore in the context of its nation state project.... The paper uses data from a sample of the Singaporean population to investigate the impact of the NPP on both ethnic and income (class) groups in order to assess the importance of the ethnic dimension in this aspect of Singapore's development strategy. It concludes that, although differences in fertility behaviour may be rooted in ethnic identity, the control that the government wishes to exert over that behaviour as part of its nation-building project has largely been effected through class interests, and may be better interpreted as part of a broader strategy of human resource management which is attracting the attention of other Asian newly industrialising countries."

  18. Ecodevelopmental contexts for preventing type 2 diabetes in Latino and other racial/ethnic minority populations

    PubMed Central

    Shaibi, Gabriel Q.; Boehm-Smith, Edna

    2009-01-01

    Diabetes is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States and it is now cited along with obesity as a global epidemic. Significant racial/ethnic disparities exist in the prevalence of diabetes within the US, with racial and ethnic minorities disproportionately affected by type 2 diabetes and its complications. Racial/ethnic and socioeconomic factors influence the development and course of diabetes at multiple levels, including genetic, individual, familial, community and national. From an ecodevelopmental perspective, cultural variables assessed at one level (e.g., family level dietary practices) may interact with other types of variables examined at other levels (e.g., the availability of healthy foods within a low-income neighborhood), thus prompting the need for a clear analysis of these systemic relationships as they may increase risks for disease. Therefore, the need exists for models that aid in “mapping out” these relationships. A more explicit conceptualization of such multi-level relationships would aid in the design of culturally relevant interventions that aim to maximize effectiveness when applied with Latinos and other racial/ethnic minority groups. This paper presents an expanded ecodevelopmental model intended to serve as a tool to aid in the design of multi-level diabetes prevention interventions for application with racial/ethnic minority populations. This discussion focuses primarily on risk factors and prevention intervention in Latino populations, although with implications for other racial/ethnic minority populations that are also at high risk for type 2 diabetes. PMID:19101788

  19. Ethnic Studies and Foreign Language Teacher Education in the United States: A Response to Population Shifts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zephir, Flore

    2000-01-01

    Looks at current changes in U.S. immigration patterns, resulting in a constant influx of non-white populations. Demonstrates how these changes have altered the nature of American society and school populations, in particular. Shows how ethnic studies, particularly with regard to foreign language teacher education programs, constitutes a reasonable…

  20. Bridging continual reassessment method for phase I clinical trials in different ethnic populations.

    PubMed

    Liu, Suyu; Pan, Haitao; Xia, Jielai; Huang, Qin; Yuan, Ying

    2015-05-10

    Accumulating evidence shows that the conventional one-size-fits-all dose-finding paradigm is problematic when applied to different ethnic populations. Because of inter-ethnic heterogeneity, the dosage established in a landmark trial for a certain population may not be generalizable to a different ethnic population, and a follow-up bridge trial is often needed to find the maximum tolerated dose for the new population. We propose the bridging continual reassessment method (B-CRM) to facilitate dose finding for such follow-up bridge trials. The B-CRM borrows information from the landmark trial through a novel estimate of the dose-toxicity curve and accommodates the inter-ethnic heterogeneity using the Bayesian model averaging approach. Extensive simulation studies show that the B-CRM has desirable operating characteristics with a high probability to select the target dose. This article focuses on ethnic heterogeneity, but the proposed method can be directly used to handle other types of patient heterogeneity, for example, patient subgroups defined by prognostic factors or biomarkers. The software to implement the B-CRM design is available for free download at http://odin.mdacc.tmc.edu/~yyuan/. PMID:25626429

  1. Advancing the science of recruitment and retention of ethnically diverse populations.

    PubMed

    Nápoles, Anna M; Chadiha, Letha A

    2011-06-01

    We highlight several critical challenges that must be addressed to accelerate the advancement of the science on recruitment and retention of ethnically diverse older adults into health research. These include the relative lack of attention by researchers to methodological issues related to recruitment and retention of ethnically diverse populations and the inadequacy of funding to advance systematically this field. We describe strategies used by the Resource Centers on Minority Aging Research and other National Institute of Aging-funded programs to advance the science of recruitment of ethnically diverse older adults. Finally, we propose a set of broad recommendations designed to generate a body of evidence on successful methods of recruitment and retention of ethnically diverse populations in health research. To eliminate health disparities and better understand aging processes in ethnically diverse populations, much more research is needed on effective strategies for increasing minority enrollment in health research. Comparative effectiveness research on more intensive recruitment and retention methods, which are often needed for including diverse populations, will require dedicated funding and concerted efforts by investigators.

  2. Advances in Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Interventions Among Racial, Ethnic, and Sexual Minority Populations.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Arthur W

    2016-01-01

    Substance abuse research among racial, ethnic, and sexual minority populations historically has lagged behind that conducted with majority samples. However, interesting and potentially important advances in prevention, brief interventions, and treatment have been made in the last few years, at least among some minority populations, such as American Indian youth. New prevention efforts have focused on point-of-sale interventions for alcohol, as well as on family-unit interventions designed with subpopulation cultural values in mind. In addition, previously established evidence-based and culturally relevant interventions are being combined with computer technology. Empirical data support using brief interventions with patients of color in medical settings, capitalizing on teachable and reachable moments during a physical trauma or other health crisis. Finally, use of empirically supported treatment may be helpful, with a caveat that these interventions must appropriately match cultural traditions and respect the values of the clients. More research clearly is needed, especially among certain minority populations in the United States. A greater emphasis should be placed on developing novel, culturally grounded interventions in partnership with communities, in addition to adapting existing mainstream interventions for use by other cultures.

  3. Advances in Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Interventions Among Racial, Ethnic, and Sexual Minority Populations.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Arthur W

    2016-01-01

    Substance abuse research among racial, ethnic, and sexual minority populations historically has lagged behind that conducted with majority samples. However, interesting and potentially important advances in prevention, brief interventions, and treatment have been made in the last few years, at least among some minority populations, such as American Indian youth. New prevention efforts have focused on point-of-sale interventions for alcohol, as well as on family-unit interventions designed with subpopulation cultural values in mind. In addition, previously established evidence-based and culturally relevant interventions are being combined with computer technology. Empirical data support using brief interventions with patients of color in medical settings, capitalizing on teachable and reachable moments during a physical trauma or other health crisis. Finally, use of empirically supported treatment may be helpful, with a caveat that these interventions must appropriately match cultural traditions and respect the values of the clients. More research clearly is needed, especially among certain minority populations in the United States. A greater emphasis should be placed on developing novel, culturally grounded interventions in partnership with communities, in addition to adapting existing mainstream interventions for use by other cultures. PMID:27159811

  4. Advances in Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Interventions Among Racial, Ethnic, and Sexual Minority Populations

    PubMed Central

    Blume, Arthur W.

    2016-01-01

    Substance abuse research among racial, ethnic, and sexual minority populations historically has lagged behind that conducted with majority samples. However, interesting and potentially important advances in prevention, brief interventions, and treatment have been made in the last few years, at least among some minority populations, such as American Indian youth. New prevention efforts have focused on point-of-sale interventions for alcohol, as well as on family-unit interventions designed with subpopulation cultural values in mind. In addition, previously established evidence-based and culturally relevant interventions are being combined with computer technology. Empirical data support using brief interventions with patients of color in medical settings, capitalizing on teachable and reachable moments during a physical trauma or other health crisis. Finally, use of empirically supported treatment may be helpful, with a caveat that these interventions must appropriately match cultural traditions and respect the values of the clients. More research clearly is needed, especially among certain minority populations in the United States. A greater emphasis should be placed on developing novel, culturally grounded interventions in partnership with communities, in addition to adapting existing mainstream interventions for use by other cultures. PMID:27159811

  5. Population genetics of 14 ethnic groups using phenotypic data from VNTR loci.

    PubMed

    Balazs, I

    1993-01-01

    Population genetic studies were performed using five VNTR loci (D2S44, D4S163, D14S13, D17S79, D18S27). The populations examined were Caucasian (Australia, Brazil and U.S.A.), Australian aborigine, Chinese, Amerindian (Cheyenne, Maya, Navajo, Pima, Tobas/Wicnis), North American Black, North American Hispanic (California, Miami, New York, Texas). The overall size range of the alleles for these loci, in PstI-digested DNA, was the same in all populations. The major difference among populations was the relative frequency of particular groups of alleles. These differences were small among similar ethnic groups, while sometimes varying several fold among some of the more distinct populations. However, groups of alleles that were rare in the major ethnic groups (Caucasian, Black, Chinese) were also rare in the other populations. The frequency databases generated by typing individuals for 4 loci were used to compare the random DNA profile frequencies among populations. The results show that the estimated frequency of any 4 locus profile is very low in all populations examined (e.g., median value < 10(-8)). Analysis of relative genetic similarity among populations was used to create the most likely clustering of these ethnic groups. Results show an uncanny similarity between the clusters generated and genetic distance measurements obtained with traditional calculations of conventional genetic markers. PMID:8104559

  6. Diseases of complex etiology in small populations: Ethnic differences and research approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, R.; Szathmary, E.J.E.

    1985-01-01

    These proceedings discuss the papers presented at the conference on the subject of complex diseases and genetics. Some of the papers discussed were on ethnic differences of epidemiology of diseases and research programs on genetics. Role of environment in diseases, genetic variability, diseases of unknown etiology like - multiple sclerosis and population dynamics are briefly discussed.

  7. Marketing Your Camp to Diverse Populations: Tips To Reach Ethnic Markets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicodemus, Teresa

    2000-01-01

    Cultural differences enhance the wonder of camp. Tips for reaching diverse populations include emphasizing multicultural programming in promotional materials, distributing flyers in diverse neighborhoods, having diverse staff, advertising on radio stations popular with ethnic communities, offering scholarships, advertising through national ethnic…

  8. Effect of blood pressure on the retinal vasculature in a multi-ethnic Asian population.

    PubMed

    Jeganathan, V Swetha E; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Tai, E Shyong; Lee, Jeannette; Sun, Cong; Kawasaki, Ryo; Nagarajan, Sangeetha; Huey-Shi, Maisie Ho; Sandar, Mya; Wong, Tien Yin

    2009-11-01

    Blood pressure has a significant effect on retinal arterioles. There are few data on whether this effect varies by race/ethnicity. We examined the relationship of blood pressure and retinal vascular caliber in a multi-ethnic Asian population. The study is population-based and cross sectional in design. A total of 3749 Chinese, Malay and Indian participants aged > or =24 years residing in Singapore were included in the study. Retinal vascular caliber was measured using a computer program from digital retinal photographs. The associations of retinal vascular caliber with blood pressure and hypertension in each racial/ethnic group were analyzed. The main outcome measures are retinal arteriolar caliber and venular caliber. The results show that retinal arterioles were narrower in persons with uncontrolled/untreated hypertension (140.0 microm) as compared with persons with controlled hypertension (142.1 microm, P=0.0001) and those with no hypertension (146.0 microm, P<0.0001). On controlling for age, gender, body mass index, lipids and smoking, each 10 mm Hg increase in mean arterial blood pressure was associated with a 3.1 microm decrease in arteriolar caliber (P<0.0001), with a similar magnitude seen in all three racial/ethnic groups: 3.1 microm in Chinese, 2.8 microm in Malays and 3.2 microm in Indians (P<0.0001 for all). Each 10 mm Hg increase in mean arterial blood pressure was associated with a 1.8 microm increase in venular caliber (P<0.0001); furthermore, the magnitude of this effect was similar across the three racial/ethnic groups. The effect of blood pressure on the retinal vasculature was similar across three major racial/ethnic groups in Asia. PMID:19713968

  9. Protection of racial/ethnic minority populations during an influenza pandemic.

    PubMed

    Hutchins, Sonja S; Fiscella, Kevin; Levine, Robert S; Ompad, Danielle C; McDonald, Marian

    2009-10-01

    Racial/ethnic minority populations experience worse health outcomes than do other groups during and after disasters. Evidence for a differential impact from pandemic influenza includes both higher rates of underlying health conditions in minority populations, increasing their risk of influenza-related complications, and larger socioeconomic (e.g., access to health care), cultural, educational, and linguistic barriers to adoption of pandemic interventions. Implementation of pandemic interventions could be optimized by (1) culturally competent preparedness and response that address specific needs of racial/ethnic minority populations, (2) improvements in public health and community health safety net systems, (3) social policies that minimize economic burdens and improve compliance with isolation and quarantine, and (4) relevant, practical, and culturally and linguistically tailored communications.

  10. Mean values of Arnett's soft tissue analysis in Maratha ethnic (Indian) population — A cephalometric study

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shikha; Deshmukh, Sonali; Merani, Varsha; Rejintal, Neeta

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this article is to evaluate the mean cephalometric values for Arnett's soft tissue analysis in the Maratha ethnic (Indian) population. Materials and Methods: Lateral cephalograms of 60 patients (30 males and 30 females) aged 18–26 years were obtained with the patients in the Natural Head Position (NHP), with teeth in maximum intercuspation and lips in the rest position. Moreover, hand tracings were also done. The statistical analysis was performed with the help of a statistical software, the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16, and Microsoft word and Excel (Microsoft office 2007) were used to generate the analytical data. Results: Statistical significance was tested atP level (1% and 5% level of significance). Statistical analysis using student's unpaired t-test were performed. Various cephalometric values for the Maratha ethnic (Indian) population differed from Caucasian cephalometric values such as nasolabial inclination, incisor proclination, and exposure, which may affect the outcome of the orthodontic and orthognathic treatment. Conclusion: Marathas have more proclined maxillary incisors, less prominent chin, less facial length, acute nasolabial angle, and all soft tissue thickness are greater in Marathas except lower lip thickness (in Maratha males and females) and upper lip angle (in Maratha males) than those of the Caucasian population. It is a fact that all different ethnic races have different facial characters. The variability of the soft tissue integument in people with different ethnic origin makes it necessary to study the soft tissue standards of a particular community and consider those norms when planning an orthodontic and orthognathic treatment for particular racial and ethnic patients. PMID:27583221

  11. Drug-induced QT interval prolongation: does ethnicity of the thorough QT study population matter?

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Rashmi R

    2013-01-01

    Inter-ethnic differences in drug responses have been well documented. Drug-induced QT interval prolongation is a major safety concern and therefore, regulatory authorities recommend a clinical thorough QT study (TQT) to investigate new drugs for their QT-prolonging potential. A positive study, determined by breach of a preset regulatory threshold, significantly influences late phase clinical trials by requiring intense ECG monitoring. A few studies that are currently available, although not statistically conclusive at present, question the assumption that ethnicity of the study population may not influence the outcome of a TQT study. Collective consideration of available pharmacogenetic and clinical information suggests that there may be inter-ethnic differences in QT-prolonging effects of drugs and that Caucasians may be more sensitive than other populations. The information also suggest s that (a) these differences may depend on the QT-prolonging potency of the drug and (b) exposure–response (E–R) analysis may be more sensitive than simple changes in QTc interval in unmasking this difference. If the QT response in Caucasians is generally found to be more intense than in non-Caucasians, there may be significant regulatory implications for domestic acceptance of data from a TQT study conducted in foreign populations. However, each drug will warrant an individual consideration when extrapolating the results of a TQT studyfrom one ethnic population to another and the ultimate clinical relevance of any difference. Further adequately designed and powered studies, investigating the pharmacologic properties and E–R relationships of additional drugs with different potencies, are needed in Caucasians, Oriental/Asian and African populations before firm conclusions can be drawn. PMID:22882246

  12. [Diversity of mitochondrial DNA haplotypes in ethnic populations of the Volga-Ural region of Russia].

    PubMed

    Bermisheva, M; Tambets, K; Villems, R; Khusnutdinova, E

    2002-01-01

    The mtDNA polymorphism was analyzed in eight ethnic groups (N = 979) of the Volga-Ural region. Most mtDNA variants belonged to haplogroups H, U, T, J, W, I, R, and N1 characteristic of West Eurasian populations. The most frequent were haplogroups H (12-42%) and U (18-44%). East Eurasian mtDNA types (A, B, Y, F, M, N9) were also observed. Genetic diversity was higher in Turkic than in Finno-Ugric populations. The frequency of mtDNA types characteristic of Siberian and Central Asian populations substantially increased in the ethnic groups living closer to the Urals, a boundary between Europe and Asia. Geographic distances, rather than linguistic barriers, were assumed to play the major role in distribution of mtDNA types in the Volga-Ural region. Thus, as concerns the maternal lineage, the Finno-Ugric populations of the region proved to be more similar to their Turkic neighbors rather than to linguistically related Balto-Finnish ethnic groups. PMID:12500536

  13. A comparison of palmar dermatoglyphics in two ethnic Indian populations of north Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Sen, Jaydip; Kanchan, Tanuj; Mondal, Nitish

    2011-01-01

    Dermatoglyphic print comparisons can be utilized to establish personal identification in forensic cases. The northern part of the state of West Bengal, India, is the home to many ethnic populations. Two such populations are the Rajbanshi and the Mech. Palm prints were collected from 192 adult Rajbanshi (105 men and 87 women) and 100 adult Mech (50 men and 50 women) individuals for print comparison using the standard ink and roll print method. The dermatoglyphic variables studied were mainline formulae, termination of mainline, positional variation of axial triradii, and true pattern of hypothenar and thenar configuration area. There were differences between the Rajbanshi and Mech individuals with respect to these dermatoglyphic variables. The uses of these variables appear to be limited only to ethnic identification, not personal identification. The present investigation further highlights the racial affinity, sex, and bilateral differences among Rajbanshi individuals using dermatoglyphic palmar variables.

  14. An examination of ethnic identity and self-esteem with diverse populations: exploring variation by ethnicity and geography.

    PubMed

    Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Shin, Nana

    2007-04-01

    The current study examined the relationships among ethnic identity and self-esteem across multiple ethnic groups within two distinct geographical locations (N = 1,344). In the current study, for same ethnic group members, the components of ethnic identity (i.e., exploration, resolution, and affirmation) were differentially related to self-esteem based on geographical context. Furthermore, within each geographical context, the strength of the relation between each ethnic identity component and self-esteem varied based on group membership, suggesting that the variables may be more or less influential on self-esteem depending on one's group membership. Based on these results, the exploration and resolution subscales of the Ethnic Identity scale (EIS) appear to be valid and reliable with diverse samples, whereas support for the affirmation subscale of the EIS is more tenuous. Finally, these findings suggest that ethnic identity may have varying salience and meaning for same ethnic group members in different geographical contexts (e.g., Asian Americans in California vs. Asian Americans in the Midwest). PMID:17500607

  15. An examination of ethnic identity and self-esteem with diverse populations: exploring variation by ethnicity and geography.

    PubMed

    Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Shin, Nana

    2007-04-01

    The current study examined the relationships among ethnic identity and self-esteem across multiple ethnic groups within two distinct geographical locations (N = 1,344). In the current study, for same ethnic group members, the components of ethnic identity (i.e., exploration, resolution, and affirmation) were differentially related to self-esteem based on geographical context. Furthermore, within each geographical context, the strength of the relation between each ethnic identity component and self-esteem varied based on group membership, suggesting that the variables may be more or less influential on self-esteem depending on one's group membership. Based on these results, the exploration and resolution subscales of the Ethnic Identity scale (EIS) appear to be valid and reliable with diverse samples, whereas support for the affirmation subscale of the EIS is more tenuous. Finally, these findings suggest that ethnic identity may have varying salience and meaning for same ethnic group members in different geographical contexts (e.g., Asian Americans in California vs. Asian Americans in the Midwest).

  16. Association study between SMPD1 p.L302P and sporadic Parkinson’s disease in ethnic Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kai; Tang, Bei-Sha; Yang, Nan-Nan; Kang, Ji-Feng; Liu, Zhen-Hua; Liu, Rui-Qi; Yan, Xin-Xiang; Shen, Lu; Guo, Ji-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The protein encoded by sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 1, acid lysosomal (SMPD1) is a lysosomal acid sphingomyelinase. While there are increasing evidences to suggest that lysosomal enzyme defects and Parkinson’s disease (PD) have strong associations, and recently, SMPD1 p.L302P (c.T911C, NM_000543) was found to be a risk factor for PD in Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry population, we try to investigate the possible association between SMPD1 p.L302P and sporadic PD in ethnic Chinese population. Methods: 455 sporadic PD and 476 health controls were included in our study. SMPD1 p.L302P (c.T911C) was genotyped by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and the results were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Results: Our results showed that none of 455 sporadic PD and 476 health controls carried p.L302P. All of the 931 subjects’ genotypes were wild type TT. Our data indicated that in an ethnic Chinese population, p.L302P did not appear to be enriched in sporadic PD, and p.L302P may not be a risk factor for Chinese sporadic PD. And combine our data with the results from previous studies, we found that all of the 2,268 participants of Chinese population carrying no p.L302P. Conclusions: We could make a conclusion that p.L302P may not be common events for Chinese population. Sequencing of SMPD1 gene to find additional novel rare variants in the SMPD1 gene in diverse populations is needed. PMID:26550340

  17. The magnitude of reciprocity in chronic pain management: experiences of dispersed ethnic populations of Muslim women.

    PubMed

    Müllersdorf, Maria; Zander, Viktoria; Eriksson, Henrik

    2011-12-01

    Dispersed ethnic populations believe their health to be worse than the ethnic majority group in Sweden. Most studies in rehabilitation exclude dispersed ethnic populations who can not read or speak the national language although this group seems to be in need of rehabilitation to a larger extent than privileged majority groups. The aim of the study was to examine the experience of living with musculoskeletal pain and experience of health care among dispersed ethnic populations of Muslim women. The method used was inspired by Grounded Theory in this study. Interviews were made with five first-generation Muslim immigrant women who had come to Sweden via Iraq as refugees. Two interviews were performed with interpreters. A preliminary core category 'The magnitude of reciprocity' based on three categories emerged from the analysis: (1) Impact of pain, (2) Managing pain and (3) Facing health care. Chronic pain limited the informants physically and emotionally, as well as impacting on their everyday life. Informants managed their pain primarily through medicine and physical activity, which gave at least temporary relief. Health care providers were perceived as doing their best but experiences of bad meetings were also witnessed. The factors important in achieving a good meeting in this study appeared to be; time, dialogue, honesty and understanding. Communication skills, feelings of being taken seriously and a sense of security were additional factors. Not being properly examined, or offered optimal treatment, not being believed or understood, were all seen as signs of dismissal within health care. The limitations of this study are primarily concerned with language difficulties resulting in various shortcomings. Reciprocal recognition and support connected to the specific life experiences of women that come with forced resettlement from the Muslim world to the European diaspora is a vital part of a holistic approach to pain management.

  18. Self-reported Ethnicity, Genetic Structure and the Impact of Population Stratification in a Multiethnic Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hansong; Haiman, Christopher A.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Henderson, Brian E.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Le Marchand, Loïc; Stram, Daniel O.

    2011-01-01

    It is well-known that population substructure may lead to confounding in case-control association studies. Here, we examined genetic structure in a large racially and ethnically diverse sample consisting of 5 ethnic groups of the Multiethnic Cohort study (African Americans, Japanese Americans, Latinos, European Americans and Native Hawaiians) using 2,509 SNPs distributed across the genome. Principal component analysis on 6,213 study participants, 18 Native Americans and 11 HapMap III populations revealed 4 important principal components (PCs): the first two separated Asians, Europeans and Africans, and the third and fourth corresponded to Native American and Native Hawaiian (Polynesian) ancestry, respectively. Individual ethnic composition derived from self-reported parental information matched well to genetic ancestry for Japanese and European Americans. STRUCTURE-estimated individual ancestral proportions for African Americans and Latinos are consistent with previous reports. We quantified the East Asian (mean 27%), European (mean 27%) and Polynesian (mean 46%) ancestral proportions for the first time, to our knowledge, for Native Hawaiians. Simulations based on realistic settings of case-control studies nested in the Multiethnic Cohort found that the effect of population stratification was modest and readily corrected by adjusting for race/ethnicity or by adjusting for top PCs derived from all SNPs or from ancestry informative markers; the power of these approaches was similar when averaged across causal variants simulated based on allele frequencies of the 2,509 genotyped markers. The bias may be large in case-only analysis of gene by gene interactions but it can be corrected by top PCs derived from all SNPs. PMID:20499252

  19. Allelic frequency distributions of 21 non-combined DNA index system STR loci in a Russian ethnic minority group from Inner Mongolia, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-dan; Shen, Chun-mei; Liu, Wen-juan; Zhang, Yu-dang; Yang, Guang; Yan, Jiang-wei; Qin, Hai-xia; Zhu, Bo-feng

    2013-06-01

    We studied the allelic frequency distributions and statistical forensic parameters of 21 new short tandem repeat (STR) loci and the amelogenin locus, which are not included in the combined DNA index system (CODIS), in a Russian ethnic minority group from the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China. A total of 114 bloodstain samples from unrelated individuals were extracted and co-amplified with four fluorescence-labeled primers in a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system. Using capillary electrophoresis, the PCR products of the 21 STR loci were separated and genotyped. A total of 161 alleles were observed in the Russian ethnic minority group, and corresponding allelic frequencies ranged from 0.0044 to 0.5965. The 21 non-CODIS STR loci of the Russian ethnic minority group were characterized by high genetic diversity and therefore may be useful for elucidating the population's genetic background, for individual identification, and for paternity testing in forensic practice.

  20. Ethnic Differences in Gestational Weight Gain: A Population-Based Cohort Study in Norway.

    PubMed

    Kinnunen, Tarja I; Waage, Christin W; Sommer, Christine; Sletner, Line; Raitanen, Jani; Jenum, Anne Karen

    2016-07-01

    Objectives To explore ethnic differences in gestational weight gain (GWG). Methods This was a population-based cohort study conducted in primary care child health clinics in Groruddalen, Oslo, Norway. Participants were healthy pregnant women (n = 632) categorised to six ethnic groups (43 % were Western European women, the reference group). Body weight was measured at 15 and 28 weeks' gestation on average. Data on pre-pregnancy weight and total GWG until delivery were self-reported. The main method of analysis was linear regression adjusting for age, weeks' gestation, pre-pregnancy body mass index, education and severe nausea. Results No ethnic differences were observed in GWG by 15 weeks' gestation. By 28 weeks' gestation, Eastern European women had gained 2.71 kg (95 % confidence interval, CI 1.10-4.33) and Middle Eastern women 1.32 kg (95 % CI 0.14-2.50) more weight on average than the Western European women in the fully adjusted model. Among Eastern European women, the total adjusted GWG was 3.47 kg (95 % CI 1.33-5.61) above the reference group. Other ethnic groups (South Asian, East Asian and African) did not differ from the reference group. When including non-smokers (n = 522) only, observed between-group differences increased and Middle Eastern women gained more weight than the reference group by all time points. Conclusions Eastern European and Middle Eastern women had higher GWG on average than Western European women, especially among the non-smokers. Although prevention of excessive GWG is important for all pregnant women, these ethnic groups might need special attention during pregnancy.

  1. Ethnicity and cardiovascular health research: pushing the boundaries by including comparison populations in the countries of origin.

    PubMed

    Agyemang, Charles; de-Graft Aikins, Ama; Bhopal, Raj

    2012-01-01

    Chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are major health problems in most ethnic minority and migrant populations living in high income countries. By the same token, CVD is a looming threat that is creating a double burden in most of the countries where these populations originate from. The causes of the rising burden are unclear, but they are likely to be multifaceted. Traditionally, ethnicity and health research have mostly concentrated on comparing the health of ethnic minority groups with the majority populations of the countries in which they live. This is an important area of research which illuminates ethnic inequalities in health. However, a few studies on international comparisons show that a lot can be learned from comparing similar ethnic groups living in different industrialised countries. Equally, comparing ethnic minority and migrant populations to similar populations in their countries of origin will generate new knowledge about factors that predispose them to poor health outcomes. Thus, to make progress in the field of ethnicity and health research, we need a new conceptual framework that simultaneously studies migrant/ethnic groups in the country of settlement, in similar countries of settlement, and in the countries of ancestral origin. Such studies need to go beyond the commonest design of cross-sectional studies to include more cohort studies, interventions and linkage studies. This article discusses (1) the burden of CVD in ethnic minority and migrant populations; (2) approaches to understanding predisposing factors; and (3) application of the results to give insight into the potential threats that their countries of origin are likely to face. PMID:23534505

  2. The Influence of Ethnicity on Warfarin Dosage Requirements in the Chilean Population

    PubMed Central

    Subiabre, Valeska; Palomo, Ivan; Guzmán, Neftalí; Retamales, Eduardo; Henríquez, Hugo; Gonzalez, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Background Vitamin K antagonists are drugs that are widely prescribed around the world and their use has helped improve the prognosis of patients with thromboembolic disease. However, a high interindividual variability has been observed in dosage requirements to reach the desired anticoagulation range that could be due to environmental and genetic factors. Studies suggest that ethnicity influences coumarin response, supporting the observed differences in dose requirements across various populations. Studies using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers have suggested that the Chilean population has a predominantly Amerindian genetic pool. Objective To evaluate the influence of ethnicity, defined by the presence of Amerindian mtDNA haplogroups, on the variability in therapeutic response to warfarin in the Chilean population. Methods A total of 191 patients treated with warfarin were included in this study. Analysis of the mitochondrial genome for detecting the presence of Amerindian mtDNA haplogroups was performed using polymerase chain reaction and polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism techniques. The evaluation of warfarin requirements according to each haplogroup was performed by ANOVA with a 95% CI and assuming statistical significance at P < 0.05. Results Based on the presence of an mtDNA haplogroup, 91% of the Chilean population had an Amerindian background. There were no significant differences in warfarin dosage requirements among the different Amerindian haplogroups (P = 0.083). Conclusions The presence of Amerindian mtDNA haplogroup does not influence warfarin dosage requirements in the Chilean population. PMID:25709720

  3. Validation of the SQUASH Physical Activity Questionnaire in a Multi-Ethnic Population: The HELIUS Study

    PubMed Central

    Gademan, M. G. J.; Snijder, M. B.; Engelbert, R. H. H.; Dijkshoorn, H.; Terwee, C. B.; Stronks, K.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the reliability and validity of the SQUASH physical activity (PA) questionnaire in a multi-ethnic population living in the Netherlands. Methods We included participants from the HELIUS study, a population-based cohort study. In this study we included Dutch (n = 114), Turkish (n = 88), Moroccan (n = 74), South-Asian Surinamese (n = 98) and African Surinamese (n = 91) adults, aged 18–70 years. The SQUASH was self-administered twice to assess test-re-test reliability (mean interval 6–7 weeks) and participants wore an accelerometer and heart rate monitor (Actiheart) to enable assessment of construct validity. Results We observed low test-re-test reliability; Intra class correlation coefficients ranged from low (0.05 for moderate/high intensity PA in African Surinamese women) to acceptable (0.78 for light intensity PA in Moroccan women). The discrepancy between self-reported and measured PA differed on the basis of the intensity of activity: self-reported light intensity PA was lower than measured but self-reported moderate/high intensity PA was higher than measured, with wide limits of agreement. The discrepancy between questionnaire and Actiheart measures of moderate intensity PA did not differ between ethnic minority and Dutch participants with correction for relevant confounders. Additionally, the SQUASH overestimated the number of participants meeting the Dutch PA norm; Cohen’s kappas for the agreement were poor, the highest being 0.30 in Dutch women. Conclusion We found considerable variation in the test-re-test reliability and validity of self-reported PA with no consistency based on ethnic origin. Our findings imply that the SQUASH does not provide a valid basis for comparison of PA between ethnic groups. PMID:27575490

  4. Ethnic and genetic factors in methadone pharmacokinetics: A population pharmacokinetic study☆

    PubMed Central

    Bart, Gavin; Lenz, Scott; Straka, Robert J.; Brundage, Richard C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Treatment of opiate use disorders with methadone is complicated by wide interindividual variability in pharmacokinetics. To identify potentially contributing covariates in methadone pharmacokinetics, we used population pharmacokinetic modeling to estimate clearance (CL/F) and volume of distribution (V/F) for each methadone enantiomer in an ethnically diverse methadone maintained population. Methods Plasma levels of the opiate-active R-methadone and opiate-inactive S-methadone were measured in 206 methadone maintained subjects approximately two and twenty-three hours after a daily oral dose of racmethadone. A linear one-compartment population pharmacokinetic model with first-order conditional estimation with interaction (FOCE-I) was used to evaluate methadone CL/F and V/F. The influence of covariates on parameter estimates was evaluated using stepwise covariate modeling. Covariates included ethnicity, gender, weight, BMI, age, methadone dose, and 21 single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes implicated in methadone pharmacokinetics. Results In the final model, for each enantiomer, Hmong ethnicity reduced CL/F by approximately 30% and the rs2032582 (ABCB1 2677G > T/A) GG genotype was associated with a 20% reduction in CL/F. The presence of the rs3745274 minor allele (CYP2B6 515G > T) reduced CL/F by up to 20% for S-methadone only. A smaller effect of age was noted on CL/F for R-methadone. Conclusion This is the first report showing the influence of the rs2032582 and rs3745274 variants on methadone pharmacokinetics rather than simply dose requirements or plasma levels. Population pharmacokinetics is a valuable method for identifying the influences on methadone pharmacokinetic variability. PMID:25456329

  5. Complementary and alternative therapy use by older adults in three ethnically diverse populations: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    King, Margaret O'Brien; Pettigrew, Amy C

    2004-01-01

    Americans have overwhelmingly embraced complementary and alternative therapies. Although the primary purpose of this study was to refine a questionnaire on complementary and alternative therapy use by older adults, the findings of this pilot study identified knowledge and use of complementary and alternative therapies in a convenience sample of 60 older adults, 54 to 92 years of age from three ethnically diverse senior centers. Eighty percent of the participants used two or more therapies. There were no significant differences in therapy use by ethnicity. The most commonly used therapies were prayer, vitamins, diet, massage, and meditation. The participants rated the effectiveness of therapies higher than their knowledge of the therapies. Older adults need accurate information from health care providers to make safe decisions regarding the combination of complementary therapies and prescribed treatments to reduce the risk of interaction.

  6. Implications of Changing Ethnic-Group Representation in Indiana's Population. Part 1: Highlights and Summary. Manpower Report 86-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lisack, J. P.; Shell, Kevin D.

    From 1970 to 1980, Indiana's population grew 5.7 percent, with the white population growing less than 4 percent as opposed to a 30 percent growth rate for minority groups. Nearly 64.4 of the state's minority population resided in Marion and Lake counties as of 1980. Except for Asian Americans, Indiana residents who belong to ethnic minority groups…

  7. Disparities in Early Transitions to Obesity in Contemporary Multi-Ethnic U.S. Populations

    PubMed Central

    Avery, Christy L.; Holliday, Katelyn M.; Chakladar, Sujatro; Engeda, Joseph C.; Hardy, Shakia T.; Reis, Jared P.; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Shay, Christina M.; Daviglus, Martha L.; Heiss, Gerardo; Lin, Dan Yu; Zeng, Donglin

    2016-01-01

    Background Few studies have examined weight transitions in contemporary multi-ethnic populations spanning early childhood through adulthood despite the ability of such research to inform obesity prevention, control, and disparities reduction. Methods and Results We characterized the ages at which African American, Caucasian, and Mexican American populations transitioned to overweight and obesity using contemporary and nationally representative cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data (n = 21,220; aged 2–80 years). Age-, sex-, and race/ethnic-specific one-year net transition probabilities between body mass index-classified normal weight, overweight, and obesity were estimated using calibrated and validated Markov-type models that accommodated complex sampling. At age two, the obesity prevalence ranged from 7.3% in Caucasian males to 16.1% in Mexican American males. For all populations, estimated one-year overweight to obesity net transition probabilities peaked at age two and were highest for Mexican American males and African American females, for whom a net 12.3% (95% CI: 7.6%-17.0%) and 11.9% (95% CI: 8.5%-15.3%) of the overweight populations transitioned to obesity by age three, respectively. However, extrapolation to the 2010 U.S. population demonstrated that Mexican American males were the only population for whom net increases in obesity peaked during early childhood; age-specific net increases in obesity were approximately constant through the second decade of life for African Americans and Mexican American females and peaked at age 20 for Caucasians. Conclusions African American and Mexican American populations shoulder elevated rates of many obesity-associated chronic diseases and disparities in early transitions to obesity could further increase these inequalities if left unaddressed. PMID:27348868

  8. Parental beliefs about vaccination among an ethnically diverse inner-city population.

    PubMed Central

    Fitch, Pamela; Racine, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    To characterize the knowledge and attitudes of an ethnically diverse group of inner-city parents regarding childhood immunizations, we conducted structured telephone interviews with 102 primary caretakers at an academic ambulatory pediatric practice during the winter of 2001-2002. The sample was ethnically diverse, with 36% African-American, 41% Hispanic, and 15% white. Half the households had infants or toddlers in the home, and 36% had children with conditions placing them at high risk for influenza. Almost all parents felt that their children should be immunized against diseases in general (98%), but significant proportions also believed that children received more immunizations than necessary (23%), that immunizations could weaken a child's immune system (36%), or that the influenza vaccine could itself make a child ill (48%). Younger parents, those with infants, and parents of children at risk for complications of influenza were less likely to hold these beliefs while race/ethnicity, marital status, parent's education, or socioeconomic status could not be shown to have any effect. We conclude that many inner-city parents question the effects of childhood immunizations and hold erroneous beliefs about them irrespective of age, race, socioeconomic status, or educational background. Practitioners should address these beliefs in efforts to diminish disparities in immunization levels associated with inner-city multiethnic populations. PMID:15303409

  9. A Population-Based Assessment of Human Rights Abuses Committed Against Ethnic Albanian Refugees From Kosovo

    PubMed Central

    Iacopino, Vincent; Frank, Martina W.; Bauer, Heidi M.; Keller, Allen S.; Fink, Sheri L.; Ford, Doug; Pallin, Daniel J.; Waldman, Ronald

    2001-01-01

    Objectives. This study assessed patterns of displacement and human rights abuses among Kosovar refugees in Macedonia and Albania. Methods. Between April 19 and May 3, 1999, 1180 ethnic Albanian refugees living in 31 refugee camps and collective centers in Macedonia and Albania were interviewed. Results. The majority (68%) of participants reported that their families were directly expelled from their homes by Serb forces. Overall, 50% of participants saw Serb police or soldiers burning the houses of others, 16% saw Serb police or soldiers burn their own home, and 14% witnessed Serb police or soldiers killing someone. Large percentages of participants saw destroyed mosques, schools, or medical facilities. Thirty-one percent of respondents reported human rights abuses committed against their household members, including beatings, killings, torture, forced separation and disappearances, gunshot wounds, and sexual assault. Conclusions. The present findings confirm that Serb forces engaged in a systematic and brutal campaign to forcibly expel the ethnic Albanian population of Kosovo. In the course of these mass deportations, Serb forces committed widespread abuses of human rights against ethnic Albanians. PMID:11726386

  10. Developing nutrition education resources for a multi-ethnic population in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Eyles, Helen; Mhurchu, Cliona Ni; Wharemate, Laurie; Funaki-Tahifote, Mafi; Lanumata, Tolotea; Rodgers, Anthony

    2009-08-01

    In New Zealand, the burden of nutrition-related disease is greatest among vulnerable and disadvantaged groups, including Maori and Pacific peoples. However, little research is currently available on effective ways to improve nutrition in these communities. This paper describes the development of six paper-based nutrition education resources for multi-ethnic participants in a large supermarket intervention trial. Six focus groups involving 15 Maori, 13 Pacific and 16 non-Maori, non-Pacific participants were held. A general inductive approach was applied to identify common themes around participants' understanding and thoughts on relevance and usefulness of the draft resources. Feedback from focus groups was used to modify resources accordingly. Five themes emerged across all focus groups and guided modification of the resources: (i) perceived higher cost of healthy food, (ii) difficulty in changing food-purchasing habits, (iii) lack of knowledge, understanding and information about healthy food, (iv) desire for personally relevant information that uses ethnically appropriate language and (v) other barriers to healthy eating, including limited availability of healthy food. Many issues affect the likelihood of purchase and consumption of healthy food. These issues should be taken into account when developing nutritional materials for New Zealanders and possibly other multi-ethnic populations worldwide.

  11. Distribution of cytokine gene single nucleotide polymorphisms among a multi-ethnic Iranian population

    PubMed Central

    Kurdistani, Zana Karimi; Saberi, Samaneh; Talebkhan, Yeganeh; Oghalaie, Akbar; Esmaeili, Maryam; Mohajerani, Nazanin; Bababeik, Maryam; Hassanpour, Parisa; Barani, Shaghik; Farjaddoost, Ameneh; Ebrahimzadeh, Fatemeh; Trejaut, Jean; Mohammadi, Marjan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cytokine gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are widely used to study susceptibility to complex diseases and as a tool for anthropological studies. Materials and Methods: To investigate cytokine SNPs in an Iranian multi-ethnic population, we have investigated 10 interleukin (IL) SNPs (IL-1β (C-511T, T-31C), IL-2 (G-384T), IL-4 (C-590T), IL-6 (G-174C), IL-8 (T-251A), IL-10 (G-1082A, C-819T, C-592A) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) (G-308A) in 415 Iranian subjects comprising of 6 different ethnicities. Allelic and genotypic frequencies as well as Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) were calculated by PyPop software. Population genetic indices including observed heterozygosity (Ho), expected heterozygosity (He), fixation index (FIS), the effective number of alleles (Ne) and polymorphism information content (PIC) were derived using Popgene 32 software. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) was constructed using Reynold's genetic distance obtained from the frequencies of cytokine gene polymorphism. Results: Genotypic distributions were consistent with the HWE assumptions, except for 3 loci (IL-4-590, IL-8-251 and IL-10-819) in Fars and 4 loci (IL-4-590, IL-6-174, IL-10-1082 and TNF-α-308) in Turks. Pairwise assessment of allelic frequencies, detected differences at the IL-4-590 locus in Gilakis versus Kurds (P = 0.028) and Lurs (P = 0.022). Mazanis and Gilakis displayed the highest (Ho= 0.50 ± 0.24) and lowest (Ho= 0.34 ± 0.16) mean observed heterozygosity, respectively. Conclusions: MDS analysis of our study population, in comparison with others, revealed that Iranian ethnicities except Kurds and Mazanis were tightly located within a single cluster with closest genetic affinity to Europeans. PMID:26436076

  12. Haptoglobin gene subtypes in three Brazilian population groups of different ethnicities

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Haptoglobin is a plasma hemoglobin-binding protein that limits iron loss during normal erythrocyte turnover and hemolysis, thereby preventing oxidative damage mediated by iron excess in the circulation. Haptoglobin polymorphism in humans, characterized by the Hp*1 and Hp *2 alleles, results in distinct phenotypes known as Hp1-1, Hp2-1 and Hp2-2, whose frequencies vary according to the ethnic origin of the population. The Hp*1 allele has two subtypes, Hp *1F and Hp *1S , that also vary in their frequencies among populations worldwide. In this work, we examined the distribution frequencies of haptoglobin subtypes in three Brazilian population groups of different ethnicities. The haptoglobin genotypes of Kayabi Amerindians (n = 56), Kalunga Afro-descendants (n = 70) and an urban population (n = 132) were determined by allele-specific PCR. The Hp*1F allele frequency was highest in Kalunga (29.3%) and lowest in Kayabi (2.6%). The Hp*1F/Hp*1S allele frequency ratios were 0.6, 1.0 and 0.26 for the Kayabi, Kalunga and urban populations, respectively. This variation was attributable largely to the Hp*1F allele. However, despite the large variation in Hp*1F frequencies, results of F ST (0.0291) indicated slight genetic differentiation among subpopulations of the general Brazilian population studied here. This is the first Brazilian report of variations in the Hp*1F and Hp*1S frequencies among non-Amerindian Brazilians. PMID:21637505

  13. Counting the cost of diabetic hospital admissions from a multi-ethnic population in Trinidad.

    PubMed

    Gulliford, M C; Ariyanayagam-Baksh, S M; Bickram, L; Picou, D; Mahabir, D

    1995-12-01

    Many middle-income countries are experiencing an increase in diabetes mellitus but patterns of morbidity and resource use from diabetes in developing countries have not been well described. We evaluated hospital admission with diabetes among different ethnic groups in Trinidad. We compiled a register of all patients with diabetes admitted to adult medical, general surgical, and ophthalmology wards at Port of Spain Hospital, Trinidad. During 26 weeks, 1447 patients with diabetes had 1722 admissions. Annual admission rates, standardized to the World Population, for the catchment population aged 30-64 years were 1031 (95% CI 928 to 1134) per 100,000 in men and 1354 (1240 to 1468) per 100,000 in women. Compared with the total population, admission rates were 33% higher in the Indian origin population and 47% lower in those of mixed ethnicity. The age-standardized rate of amputation with diabetes in the general population aged 30-64 years was 54 (37 to 71) per 100,000. The hospital admission fatality rate was 8.9% (95%CI 7.6% to 10.2%). Mortality was associated with increasing age, admission with hyperglycaemia, elevated serum creatinine, cardiac failure or stroke and with lower-limb amputation during admission. Diabetes accounted for 13.6% of hospital admissions and 23% of hospital bed occupancy. Admissions associated with disorders of blood glucose control or foot problems accounted for 52% of diabetic hospital bed occupancy. The annual cost of admissions with diabetes was conservatively estimated at TT+ 10.66 million (UK 1.24 million pounds). In this community diabetes admission rates were high and varied according to the prevalence of diabetes. Admissions, fatalities and resource use were associated with acute and chronic complications of diabetes. Investing in better quality preventive clinical care for diabetes might provide an economically advantageous policy for countries like Trinidad and Tobago.

  14. Contact Allergens Causing Hand Eczema in Ethnic Kashmiri Population: A Study of 7-years

    PubMed Central

    Majid, Imran

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hand eczema is one of the commonest eczemas encountered in dermatology practice. Contact allergens responsible for causing hand eczema vary from one geographical area of the world to another. Aim: The study tries to identify the commonest allergens causing hand eczema in ethnic Kashmiri population. Material and Methods: A total of 800 patients were patch tested at a sole patch testing facility for the local population over a 7-year period out of which 278 were diagnosed with hand eczema. The morphological type of hand eczema was noted and the patch testing results were analyzed. Past or present relevance of the patch-test result to the clinical diagnosis was also analyzed. Results: Hand eczema was the most common type of eczema patch tested over the 7-year period, constituting 34.75% of the patch-tested population. A positive patch-test result was obtained in 135 patients (48.5%) out of which it was found to be clinically relevant in about 65% cases. Nickel and potassium dichromate were found to be the two commonest allergens causing hand eczema in our population with positive patch test reactions in 45 and 27 patients respectively. Females showed a much higher incidence of hand eczema as well as higher patch test positivity than males (54.1% vs. 38.1%). Conclusions: Hand eczema with a positive patch-test report was found to be much more common in females than males and nickel and potassium dichromate were seen to be the commonest allergens causing hand eczema in ethnic Kashmiri population. PMID:26955125

  15. Vitamin K Dependent Protection of Renal Function in Multi-ethnic Population Studies

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Fang-Fei; Drummen, Nadja E.A.; Schutte, Aletta E.; Thijs, Lutgarde; Jacobs, Lotte; Petit, Thibaut; Yang, Wen-Yi; Smith, Wayne; Zhang, Zhen-Yu; Gu, Yu-Mei; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Verhamme, Peter; Allegaert, Karel; Schutte, Rudolph; Lerut, Evelyne; Evenepoel, Pieter; Vermeer, Cees; Staessen, Jan A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Following activation by vitamin K (VK), matrix Gla protein (MGP) inhibits arterial calcification, but its role in preserving renal function remains unknown. Methods In 1166 white Flemish (mean age, 38.2 years) and 714 South Africans (49.2% black; 40.6 years), we correlated estimated glomerular filtration (eGFR [CKD-EPI formula]) and stage of chronic kidney disease (CKD [KDOQI stages 2–3]) with inactive desphospho-uncarboxylated MGP (dp-ucMGP), using multivariable linear and logistic regression. Results Among Flemish and white and black Africans, between-group differences in eGFR (90, 100 and 122 mL/min/1.73 m2), dp-ucMGP (3.7, 6.5 and 3.2 μg/L), and CKD prevalence (53.5, 28.7 and 10.5%) were significant, but associations of eGFR with dp-ucMGP did not differ among ethnicities (P ≥ 0.075). For a doubling of dp-ucMGP, eGFR decreased by 1.5 (P = 0.023), 1.0 (P = 0.56), 2.8 (P = 0.0012) and 2.1 (P < 0.0001) mL/min/1.73 m2 in Flemish, white Africans, black Africans and all participants combined; the odds ratios for moving up one CKD stage were 1.17 (P = 0.033), 1.03 (P = 0.87), 1.29 (P = 0.12) and 1.17 (P = 0.011), respectively. Interpretation In the general population, eGFR decreases and CKD risk increases with higher dp-ucMGP, a marker of VK deficiency. These findings highlight the possibility that VK supplementation might promote renal health. PMID:26981580

  16. Status of Human Papillomavirus Infection in the Ethnic Population in Yunnan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Baloch, Zulqarnain; Yue, Lei; Yuan, Tao; Feng, Yue; Tai, Wenlin; Liu, Yanqing; Wang, Binghui; Li, Xiao; Liu, Li; Zhang, A-Mei; Wu, Xiaomei; Xia, Xueshan

    2015-01-01

    HPV genotypes have distinct distributions among various ethnic populations worldwide. In December 2013, 237 and 159 cervical samples were collected from Hani and Han ethnic women, respectively, in Mojiang, a rural county in southern Yunnan. The overall HPV infection rate (21.1%) among the Hani women was significantly higher than that among the Han women (12.6%). The high-risk (HR) and low-risk (LR) HPV and single- and multiple-genotype infection rates among the Hani women were 11.0%, 4.6%, 15.6%, and 5.5%, respectively. HPV-16 (3.8%) was the most prevalent genotype among the Hani women, followed by HPV-52 (1.7%), HPV-31 (0.8%), and HPV-33 (0.8%). Comparatively, the Han women had lower infection rates of high-risk (8.2%), low-risk (1.2%), single-genotype (9.4%), and multiple-genotype HPV infections (3.1%). HPV-16 (3.1%) was also the predominant genotype among the Han women, followed by HPV-52 (1.3%), HPV-33 (0.6%), HPV-44 (0.6%), and HPV-54 (0.6%). The area background, number of children, and past history of STIs were recognized as potential risk factors for HPV infection. Rural background, age, education level, number of children, and illness history were significantly associated with HPV infection among the Hani women. These findings highlight the urgent need for HPV prevention and control strategies in Yunnan, particularly for the Hani ethnic women. PMID:26819950

  17. Effects of Ethnicity and Socioeconomic Status on Body Composition in an Admixed, Multiethnic Population in Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Daniel E.; Hampson, Sarah E.; Dubanoski, Joan P.; Murai, Amy Stone; Hillier, Teresa A.

    2009-01-01

    This study determined ethnic differences in anthropometric measures of a sample of adults in Hawaii, examining the effects of differing degrees of ethnic admixing and socioeconomic status (SES) on the measures. Adults who had attended elementary school in Hawaii underwent anthropometric measurements and answered questionnaires about their educational attainment, income, age, cultural identity, ethnic ancestry, and health. Individuals reporting Asian American cultural identity had significantly lower mean body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) than others, while those with Hawaiian/Pacific Islander cultural identity had significantly higher BMI and WC. Educational attainment, but not reported family income and age, was significantly related to BMI and WC, and differences in educational attainment accounted for the increased mean BMI and WC in Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders, but did not account for the lower mean BMI and WC among Asian Americans. Higher percentage of Asian ancestry was significantly correlated with lower BMI and WC, whereas higher percentage of Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ancestry was significantly correlated with increased BMI and WC. Differences in education accounted for the significantly increased BMI in participants with a higher percentage of Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ancestry, but did not entirely account for the lower BMI in individuals with a higher percentage of Asian American ancestry. These results suggest that the high rate of obesity and its sequelae seen in Pacific Islanders may be more a result of socioeconomic status and lifestyle than of genetic propensity, while the lower rates of obesity observed in Asian American populations are less directly influenced by socioeconomic factors. PMID:19213005

  18. Ethnic and demographic incidence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in Brazil: A population based study.

    PubMed

    Moura, Mirian Conceicao; Casulari, Luiz Augusto; Carvalho Garbi Novaes, Maria Rita

    2016-01-01

    Our objectives were to examine demographic and ethnic factors associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Brazil. The method used was a retrospective study of death certificates performed in June 2015, identifying the incidence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis over 10 years, from January 2004 to December 2013, related to gender, age and race. Results revealed 8942 death certificates with 8152 as the underlying cause and 790 as a secondary cause. The average age was 62.7 ± 13.2 years, with a predominance of males (1·3:1). The adjusted mortality rate over 20 years was 0.61 to 0.89/100,000 person-years, and over 45 years was 1.77 to 2.3/100,000 person-years. There was a predominance of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Caucasians compared to the general population above 20 years (2010 Census), with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.92 (95% CI 2.78-3.07). The OR in blacks was 0.04 (95% CI: 0.03-0.04), in mestizos was 0.05 (0.04-0.07), and in Indians was 0.02 (0.01-0.04). The mean age was lower than in European populations (48.5 ± 12.3 years) (p < 0.0001). In conclusion, the incidence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Brazil is close to other Latin American populations, with a lower age at death and clear predominance in Caucasians.

  19. Comparison of Gender Differences in Intracerebral Hemorrhage in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Population

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Justin T.; Ang, Beng Ti; Ng, Yew Poh; Allen, John C.; King, Nicolas K. K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) accounts for 10–15% of all first time strokes and with incidence twice as high in the Asian compared to Western population. This study aims to investigate gender differences in ICH patient outcomes in a multi-ethnic Asian population. Method Data for 1,192 patients admitted for ICH were collected over a four-year period. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors and odds ratios were computed for 30-day mortality and Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) comparing males and females. Result Males suffered ICH at a younger age than females (62.2 ± 13.2 years vs. 66.3 ± 15.3 years; P<0.001). The occurrence of ICH was higher among males than females at all ages until 80 years old, beyond which the trend was reversed. Females exhibited increased severity on admission as measured by Glasgow Coma Scale compared to males (10.9 ± 4.03 vs. 11.4 ± 4.04; P = 0.030). No difference was found in 30-day mortality between females and males (F: 30.5% [155/508] vs. M: 27.0% [186/688]), with unadjusted and adjusted odds ratio (F/M) of 1.19 (P = 0.188) and 1.21 (P = 0.300). At discharge, there was a non-statistically significant but potentially clinically relevant morbidity difference between the genders as measured by GOS (dichotomized GOS of 4–5: F: 23.7% [119/503] vs. M: 28.7% [194/677]), with unadjusted and adjusted odds ratio (F/M) of 0.77 (P = 0.055) and 0.87 (P = 0.434). Conclusion In our multi-ethnic Asian population, males developed ICH at a younger age and were more susceptible to ICH than women at all ages other than the beyond 80-year old age group. In contrast to the Western population, neurological status of female ICH patients at admission was poorer and their 30-day mortality was not reduced. Although the study was not powered to detect significance, female showed a trend toward worse 30-day morbidity at discharge. PMID:27050549

  20. Analysis of Patterns of Gene Expression Variation within and between Ethnic Populations in Pediatric B-ALL.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Chindo; Miele, Lucio; Koganti, Tejaswi; Young-Gaylor, Lafarra; Rogers, Deidre; Vijayakumar, Vani; Megason, Gail

    2013-01-01

    B-Precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) is the most common childhood cancer. Although 80% of B-ALL patients are able to be cured, significant challenges persist. Significant disparities in clinical outcomes and mortality rates exist between racial/ethnic populations. The objective of this study was to determine whether gene expression levels significantly differ between ethnic populations. We compared gene expression levels between four ethnic populations (Whites, Blacks, Hispanics, and Asians) in the United States. Additionally, we performed network and pathway analysis to identify gene networks and pathways. Gene expression data involved 198 samples distributed as follows: 126 Whites, 51 Hispanics, 13 Blacks, and 8 Asians. We identified 300 highly significantly (P < 0.001) differentially expressed genes between the four ethnic populations. Among the identified genes included the genes PHF6, BRD3, CRLF2, and RNF135 which have been implicated in pediatric B-ALL. We identified key pathways implicated in B-ALL including the PDGF, PI3/AKT, ERBB2-ERBB3, and IL-15 signaling pathways.

  1. Acceptance and Mindfulness Techniques as Applied to Refugee and Ethnic Minority Populations with PTSD: Examples from "Culturally Adapted CBT"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Devon E.; Pich, Vuth; Hofmann, Stefan G.; Otto, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    In this article we illustrate how we utilize acceptance and mindfulness techniques in our treatment (Culturally Adapted CBT, or CA-CBT) for traumatized refugees and ethnic minority populations. We present a Nodal Network Model (NNM) of Affect to explain the treatment's emphasis on body-centered mindfulness techniques and its focus on psychological…

  2. Teaching handwashing with soap for schoolchildren in a multi-ethnic population in northern rural Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Xuan, Le Thi Thanh; Rheinländer, Thilde; Hoat, Luu Ngoc; Dalsgaard, Anders; Konradsen, Flemming

    2013-01-01

    Background In Vietnam, initiatives have been started aimed at increasing the practice of handwashing with soap (HWWS) among primary schoolchildren. However, compliance remains low. Objective This study aims to investigate responses to a teacher-centred participatory HWWS intervention in a multi-ethnic population of primary schoolchildren in northern rural Vietnam. Design This study was implemented in two phases: a formative research project over 5 months (July–November 2008) and an action research project with a school-based HWWS intervention study in two rural communes during 5 months (May, September–December 2010). Based upon knowledge from the formative research in 2008, schoolteachers from four selected schools in the study communes actively participated in designing and implementing a HWWS intervention. Qualitative data was collected during the intervention to evaluate the responses and reaction to the intervention of teachers, children and parents. This included semi-structured interviews with children (15), and their parents (15), focus group discussions (FGDs) with schoolchildren (32) and school staff (20) and observations during 15 HWWS involving children. Results Observations and interview data from children demonstrated that children were visibly excited and pleased with HWWS sessions where teachers applied active teaching methods including rewards, games and HWWS demonstrations. All children, schoolteachers and parents also viewed the HWWS intervention as positive and feasible, irrespective of ethnicity, gender of schoolchildren and background of schoolteachers. However, some important barriers were indicated for sustaining and transferring the HWWS practice to the home setting including limited emphasis on hygiene in the standard curriculum of schools, low priority and lack of time given to practical teaching methods and lack of guidance and reminding HWWS on a regular basis at home, in particular by highland parents, who spend most of their time

  3. Genetic variability of glutathione S-transferase enzymes in human populations: functional inter-ethnic differences in detoxification systems.

    PubMed

    Polimanti, Renato; Carboni, Cinzia; Baesso, Ilenia; Piacentini, Sara; Iorio, Andrea; De Stefano, Gian Franco; Fuciarelli, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Glutathione S-Transferase enzymes (GSTs) constitute the principal Phase II superfamily which plays a key role in cellular detoxification and in other biological processes. Studies of GSTs have revealed that genetic polymorphisms are present in these enzymes and that some of these are Loss-of-Function (LoF) variants, which affect enzymatic functions and are related to different aspects of human health. The aim of this study was to analyze functional genetic differences in GST enzymes among human populations. Attention was focused on LoF polymorphisms of GSTA1, GSTM1, GSTO1, GSTO2, GSTP1 and GSTT1 genes. These LoF variants were analyzed in 668 individuals belonging to six human groups with different ethnic backgrounds: Amhara and Oromo from Ethiopia; Colorado and Cayapa Amerindians and African Ecuadorians from Ecuador; and one sample from central Italy. The HapMap database was used to compare our data with reference populations and to analyze the haplotype and Linkage Disequilibrium diversity in different ethnic groups. Our results highlighted that ethnicity strongly affects the genetic variability of GST enzymes. In particular, GST haplotypes/variants with functional impact showed significant differences in human populations, according to their ethnic background. These data underline that human populations have different structures in detoxification genes, suggesting that these ethnic differences influence disease risk or response to drugs and therefore have implications for genetic association studies involving GST enzymes. In conclusion, our investigation provides data about the distribution of important LoF variants in GST genes in human populations. This information may be useful for designing and interpreting genetic association studies.

  4. Ethnic Association of Cusp of Carabelli Trait and Shoveling Trait in an Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Manju, M; Praveen, R; Umesh, W

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Variations in the structure of teeth have always been of great interest to the dentist from the scientific as well as practical point of view. Additionally, ever since decades inter trait relationships have been a useful means to categorize populations to which an individual belongs. Aim To determine the association between Cusp of Carabelli and Shoveling Trait in a selected Indian population native of Bangalore city, Karnataka, India. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in 1885 children aged between 7-10 years. Casts of the study subjects were made to study the presence of Cusp of Carabelli of right maxillary permanent molar and shoveling trait of right maxillary permanent central incisor using the Dahlberg’s classification and Hrdliucka’s classification respectively. Linear regression was used to assess the association of cusp of carabelli trait with the tooth dimensions and logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of the carabelli trait with gender and presence/absence of shoveling. Results A 40.5% of subjects had Cusp of Carabelli on first molar and 68.2% had shoveling on upper central incisor. The study revealed positive association between the two traits studied in the population. A significant difference was also found with presence of Cusp of Carabelli and the buccolingual tooth dimension of the maxillary molar (p<0.05). Conclusion There is an association between the Cusp of Carabelli and the shoveling trait in the present study population, and this will be valuable in the determination of ethnic origin of an individual. PMID:27135008

  5. Ethnic differences in sleep duration and morning–evening type in a population sample

    PubMed Central

    Malone, Susan Kohl; Patterson, Freda; Lu, Yinghui; Lozano, Alicia; Hanlon, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional population study examined associations of sleep duration and morning–evening type with sociodemographic and cardiometabolic disease in adults participating in the UK Biobank study (N = 439 933). Multivariable Poisson regression models of sleep duration and morning–evening type with a robust error variance were generated to estimate adjusted prevalence ratios and their 95% confidence intervals. All models were adjusted for sex, race, college attendance, employment status and age. Twenty five percent of the sample reported short sleep; 27% were morning, 64% intermediate and 9% evening type. Black ethnicity emerged as most strongly associated with sleep behavior. Short sleep was twice as prevalent, and morning versus intermediate type was 1.4 times more prevalent in Black than White participants. The greater prevalence of short sleep and morning type among Blacks suggests that sleep-based approaches to improving cardiometabolic outcomes may require a more multidimensional approach that encompasses adequate sleep and circadian alignment in this population. PMID:26654569

  6. Ethnic differences in sleep duration and morning-evening type in a population sample.

    PubMed

    Malone, Susan Kohl; Patterson, Freda; Lu, Yinghui; Lozano, Alicia; Hanlon, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional population study examined associations of sleep duration and morning-evening type with sociodemographic and cardiometabolic disease in adults participating in the UK Biobank study (N = 439 933). Multivariable Poisson regression models of sleep duration and morning-evening type with a robust error variance were generated to estimate adjusted prevalence ratios and their 95% confidence intervals. All models were adjusted for sex, race, college attendance, employment status and age. Twenty five percent of the sample reported short sleep; 27% were morning, 64% intermediate and 9% evening type. Black ethnicity emerged as most strongly associated with sleep behavior. Short sleep was twice as prevalent, and morning versus intermediate type was 1.4 times more prevalent in Black than White participants. The greater prevalence of short sleep and morning type among Blacks suggests that sleep-based approaches to improving cardiometabolic outcomes may require a more multidimensional approach that encompasses adequate sleep and circadian alignment in this population. PMID:26654569

  7. Large-scale mitochondrial DNA analysis in Southeast Asia reveals evolutionary effects of cultural isolation in the multi-ethnic population of Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Myanmar is the largest country in mainland Southeast Asia with a population of 55 million people subdivided into more than 100 ethnic groups. Ruled by changing kingdoms and dynasties and lying on the trade route between India and China, Myanmar was influenced by numerous cultures. Since its independence from British occupation, tensions between the ruling Bamar and ethnic minorities increased. Results Our aim was to search for genetic footprints of Myanmar’s geographic, historic and sociocultural characteristics and to contribute to the picture of human colonization by describing and dating of new mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups. Therefore, we sequenced the mtDNA control region of 327 unrelated donors and the complete mitochondrial genome of 44 selected individuals according to highest quality standards. Conclusion Phylogenetic analyses of the entire mtDNA genomes uncovered eight new haplogroups and three unclassified basal M-lineages. The multi-ethnic population and the complex history of Myanmar were reflected in its mtDNA heterogeneity. Population genetic analyses of Burmese control region sequences combined with population data from neighboring countries revealed that the Myanmar haplogroup distribution showed a typical Southeast Asian pattern, but also Northeast Asian and Indian influences. The population structure of the extraordinarily diverse Bamar differed from that of the Karen people who displayed signs of genetic isolation. Migration analyses indicated a considerable genetic exchange with an overall positive migration balance from Myanmar to neighboring countries. Age estimates of the newly described haplogroups point to the existence of evolutionary windows where climatic and cultural changes gave rise to mitochondrial haplogroup diversification in Asia. PMID:24467713

  8. European population genetic substructure: further definition of ancestry informative markers for distinguishing among diverse European ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Tian, Chao; Kosoy, Roman; Nassir, Rami; Lee, Annette; Villoslada, Pablo; Klareskog, Lars; Hammarström, Lennart; Garchon, Henri-Jean; Pulver, Ann E; Ransom, Michael; Gregersen, Peter K; Seldin, Michael F

    2009-01-01

    The definition of European population genetic substructure and its application to understanding complex phenotypes is becoming increasingly important. In the current study using over 4,000 subjects genotyped for 300,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we provide further insight into relationships among European population groups and identify sets of SNP ancestry informative markers (AIMs) for application in genetic studies. In general, the graphical description of these principal components analyses (PCA) of diverse European subjects showed a strong correspondence to the geographical relationships of specific countries or regions of origin. Clearer separation of different ethnic and regional populations was observed when northern and southern European groups were considered separately and the PCA results were influenced by the inclusion or exclusion of different self-identified population groups including Ashkenazi Jewish, Sardinian, and Orcadian ethnic groups. SNP AIM sets were identified that could distinguish the regional and ethnic population groups. Moreover, the studies demonstrated that most allele frequency differences between different European groups could be controlled effectively in analyses using these AIM sets. The European substructure AIMs should be widely applicable to ongoing studies to confirm and delineate specific disease susceptibility candidate regions without the necessity of performing additional genome-wide SNP studies in additional subject sets.

  9. Advancing the Science of Recruitment and Retention of Ethnically Diverse Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napoles, Anna M.; Chadiha, Letha A.

    2011-01-01

    We highlight several critical challenges that must be addressed to accelerate the advancement of the science on recruitment and retention of ethnically diverse older adults into health research. These include the relative lack of attention by researchers to methodological issues related to recruitment and retention of ethnically diverse…

  10. Investigation of Ethnic Self-Labeling in the Latina Population: Implications for Counselors and Counselor Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malott, Krista M.

    2009-01-01

    Using a qualitative approach, the author explored the process of ethnic label selection, change, and the meaning assigned to ethnic labels. Ten women of Mexican descent participated in semistructured, in-depth interviews. Phenomenological analysis of the data revealed several themes, including the importance of family, ancestral traditions, and…

  11. Genomics Study of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strains from Different Ethnic Populations in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Horng-Yunn; Chen, Yih-Yuan; Chen, Ying-Tsong; Chang, Jia-Ru; Lin, Chien-Hsing; Wu, Keh-Ming; Lin, Ming-Shian; Su, Ih-Jen; Tsai, Shih-Feng

    2016-01-01

    To better understand the transmission and evolution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in Taiwan, six different MTB isolates (representatives of the Beijing ancient sublineage, Beijing modern sublineage, Haarlem, East-African Indian, T1, and Latin-American Mediterranean (LAM)) were characterized and their genomes were sequenced. Discriminating among large sequence polymorphisms (LSPs) that occur once versus those that occur repeatedly in a genomic region may help to elucidate the biological roles of LSPs and to identify the useful phylogenetic relationships. In contrast to our previous LSP-based phylogeny, the sequencing data allowed us to determine actual genetic distances and to define precisely the phylogenetic relationships between the main lineages of the MTB complex. Comparative genomics analyses revealed more nonsynonymous substitutions than synonymous changes in the coding sequences. Furthermore, MTB isolate M7, a LAM-3 clinical strain isolated from a patient of Taiwanese aboriginal origin, is closely related to F11 (LAM), an epidemic tuberculosis strain isolated in the Western Cape of South Africa. The PE/PPE protein family showed a higher dn/ds ratio compared to that for all protein-coding genes. Finally, we found Haarlem-3 and LAM-3 isolates to be circulating in the aboriginal community in Taiwan, suggesting that they may have originated with post-Columbus Europeans. Taken together, our results revealed an interesting association with historical migrations of different ethnic populations, thus providing a good model to explore the global evolution and spread of MTB. PMID:27721649

  12. Population-based assessment of visual impairment among ethnic Dai adults in a rural community in China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wen-Yan; Li, Jun; Zhao, Chun-Hua; Qian, Deng-Juan; Niu, Zhiqiang; Shen, Wei; Yuan, Yuansheng; Zhong, Hua; Pan, Chen-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Dai ethnicity is one of the major Chinese ethnic minorities with a population of about 1.2 million. We aimed to determine the prevalence and potential causes of visual impairment (VI) among ethnic Dai adults aged 50 years or older in a rural community in China. A population-based survey including 2163 ethnic Dai people (80.5%) was undertaken using a random cluster sampling strategy. The detailed eye examination was performed after pupil dilation by trained study ophthalmologists and optometrists. Presenting visual acuity (PVA) and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was measured using the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study logMAR chart and VI was defined as a VA of less than 20/63 in the better-seeing eye. The overall prevalence of presenting blindness and low vision was 3.0% (95% CI, 2.3–3.7) and 13.3% (95% CI, 11.9–14.8), respectively. The prevalence estimates were reduced to 2.1% (95% CI, 1.5–2.8) and 6.7% (95% CI, 5.7–7.8) when BCVA was considered. Men were more likely to be affected by low vision but less likely to be blind compared with women. Cataract accounted for 62.7% of presenting low vision and 68.8% of presenting blindness, respectively. In conclusion, VI was a significant health concern in Dai Chinese in China. PMID:26932265

  13. Determinants of Posterior Corneal Biometric Measurements in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Population

    PubMed Central

    Ang, Marcus; Chong, Wesley; Huang, Huiqi; Wong, Tien Yin; He, Ming-Guang; Aung, Tin; Mehta, Jodhbir S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To describe the corneal and anterior segment determinants of posterior corneal arc length (PCAL) and posterior corneal curvature (PCC). Methods Cross-sectional, population-based study of 1069 subjects (1069 eyes) aged 40–80 years, from three major Asian ethnic groups. All underwent anterior segment optical coherence tomography imaging and analysis with Zhongshan Angle Assessment Program. Our main outcome measures were determinants of PCAL and PCC using adjusted, multivariate linear regression analysis, adjusted for confounders to obtain the estimated marginal means (EMM) with standard error (SE). Results The overall mean (± SD) of PCC was: 6.51±0.39 mm; and PCAL was: 12.52±0.59 mm. Malays had a relatively longer PCAL (EMM = 12.74 mm, SE = 0.04 mm) than Chinese (EMM = 12.48 mm, SE = 0.03 mm, P<0.001), and Indians (EMM = 12.42 mm, SE = 0.03 mm, P<0.001). Anterior segment parameters had weak-moderate correlations with PCAL, which included: anterior chamber depth (ACD) (r = 0.55, P<0.001), PCC (r = 0.27, P<0.001), anterior corneal curvature (ACC) (r = 0.14, P<0.001) and central corneal thickness (CCT) (r = −0.07, P = 0.023). In multivariate analysis, anterior segment parameters explained only 37.6% of the variance of PCAL, with ACD being the most important determinant (partial R2  = 0.300; P<0.001). The determinants of PCC included ACC, PCAL and CCT (explaining 72.1% variation of PCC), with ACC being the most important determinant (partial R2  = 0.683; P<0.001). Conclusion There was moderate correlation of PCAL with ACD, but anterior segment parameters accounted for only a small proportion of the variation in PCAL. The significant differences in PCAL and PCC amongst different Asian ethnic groups suggests that there is a need to consider this factor when planning for anterior segment surgeries such as endothelial keratoplasty. PMID:25006679

  14. Comparing genetic ancestry and self-reported race/ethnicity in a multiethnic population in New York City.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yin Leng; Teitelbaum, Susan; Wolff, Mary S; Wetmur, James G; Chen, Jia

    2010-12-01

    Self-reported race/ethnicity is frequently used in epidemiological studies to assess an individual's background origin. However, in admixed populations such as Hispanic, self-reported race/ethnicity may not accurately represent them genetically because they are admixed with European, African and Native American ancestry. We estimated the proportions of genetic admixture in an ethnically diverse population of 396 mothers and 188 of their children with 35 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) using the STRUCTURE version 2.2 program. The majority of the markers showed significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in our study population. In mothers self-identified as Black and White, the imputed ancestry proportions were 77.6% African and 75.1% European respectively, while the racial composition among self-identified Hispanics was 29.2% European, 26.0% African, and 44.8% Native American. We also investigated the utility of AIMs by showing the improved fitness of models in paraoxanase-1 genotype-phenotype associations after incorporating AIMs; however, the improvement was moderate at best. In summary, a minimal set of 35 AIMs is sufficient to detect population stratification and estimate the proportion of individual genetic admixture; however, the utility of these markers remains questionable.

  15. Leptin and leptin receptor gene polymorphisms and their association with plasma leptin levels and obesity in a multi-ethnic Malaysian suburban population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study was to investigate the prevalence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in leptin gene LEP (A19G and G2548A) and leptin receptor gene LEPR (K109R and Q223R) and their association with fasting plasma leptin level (PLL) and obesity in a Malaysian suburban population in Kampar, Perak. Methods Convenience sampling was performed with informed consents, and the study sample was drawn from patients who were patrons of the Kampar Health Clinic. A total of 408 subjects (mean age, 52.4 ± 13.7 years; 169 men, 239 women; 190 obese, 218 non-obese; 148 Malays, 177 ethnic Chinese, 83 ethnic Indians) participated. Socio-demographic data and anthropometric measurements were taken, and genotyping was performed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Results The LEP A19G, G2548A and LEPR K109R, Q223R variant allele frequencies were 0.74, 0.67 and 0.61, 0.79, respectively. The genotype and allele distributions of these gene variants were significantly different among ethnic groups, but not among body mass index (BMI) classes. Subjects with LEPR K109 and Q223 allele had significantly higher systolic blood pressure and adiposity indices after adjustment for ethnicity (higher BMI, total body and subcutaneous fat; lower skeletal muscle percentage). Subjects with LEPR 109R allele had lower PLL than their wild-type allele counterparts. The influence of LEP A19G and G2548A SNPs on blood pressures, anthropometrics, and PLL was not evident. Interestingly, synergistic effect of the LEP and LEPR SNPs was observed as subjects homozygous for all four SNPs studied exhibited significantly higher subcutaneous fat and PLL than those with other genotype combinations. Conclusions The LEP and LEPR SNPs in this study may not be an obesity marker among Malaysians in this population, but were associated with ethnicity. Our findings suggest that each of these SNPs contributes to minor but significant variation in obesity

  16. Dementia in a Black and minority ethnic population: characteristics of presentation to an inner London memory service.

    PubMed

    Tuerk, Rosalyn; Sauer, Justin

    2015-08-01

    Aims and method To examine data on referrals to an inner-city London memory service to explore any differences in referral rates, cognitive assessments and stages of dementia at presentation between ethnic groups. Results African-Caribbean patients were well represented in the memory service. They were diagnosed with dementia on average 4.5 years younger than their White British counterparts and were more likely to be diagnosed with a vascular or mixed type dementia. However, scores on initial cognitive testing were significantly lower in the African-Caribbean group, possibly representing more advanced disease at presentation. Clinical implications Initiatives to access Black and minority ethnic populations earlier in the course of their illness should be considered. Professionals need to consider the potential for cultural bias in memory testing and diagnosing dementia in these populations, and the importance of cultural competency in assessments. PMID:26755947

  17. INCREASING CULTURALLY COMPETENT NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL SERVICES FOR ETHNIC MINORITY POPULATIONS: A CALL TO ACTION

    PubMed Central

    Mindt, Monica Rivera; Byrd, Desiree; Saez, Pedro; Manly, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    US demographic and sociopolitical shifts have resulted in a rapidly growing need for culturally competent neuropsychological services. However, clinical neuropsychology as a field has not kept pace with the needs of ethnic minority clients. In this discussion we review: historical precedents and the limits of universalism in neuropsychology; ethical/professional guidelines pertinent to neuropsychological practice with ethnic minority clients; critical cultural considerations in neuropsychology; current disparities germane to practice; and challenges to the provision of services to racial/ethnic minority clients. We provide a call to action for neuropsychologists and related organizations to advance multiculturalism and diversity within the field by increasing multicultural awareness and knowledge, multicultural education and training, multicultural neuropsychological research, and the provision of culturally competent neuropsychological services to racial/ethnic minority clients. Lastly, we discuss strategies for increasing the provision of culturally competent neuropsychological services, and offer several resources to meet these goals. PMID:20373222

  18. Will "Combined Prevention" Eliminate Racial/Ethnic Disparities in HIV Infection among Persons Who Inject Drugs in New York City?

    PubMed

    Des Jarlais, Don; Arasteh, Kamyar; McKnight, Courtney; Feelemyer, Jonathan; Hagan, Holly; Cooper, Hannah; Campbell, Aimee; Tross, Susan; Perlman, David

    2015-01-01

    It has not been determined whether implementation of combined prevention programming for persons who inject drugs reduce racial/ethnic disparities in HIV infection. We examine racial/ethnic disparities in New York City among persons who inject drugs after implementation of the New York City Condom Social Marketing Program in 2007. Quantitative interviews and HIV testing were conducted among persons who inject drugs entering Mount Sinai Beth Israel drug treatment (2007-2014). 703 persons who inject drugs who began injecting after implementation of large-scale syringe exchange were included in the analyses. Factors independently associated with being HIV seropositive were identified and a published model was used to estimate HIV infections due to sexual transmission. Overall HIV prevalence was 4%; Whites 1%, African-Americans 17%, and Hispanics 4%. Adjusted odds ratios were 21.0 (95% CI 5.7, 77.5) for African-Americans to Whites and 4.5 (95% CI 1.3, 16.3) for Hispanics to Whites. There was an overall significant trend towards reduced HIV prevalence over time (adjusted odd ratio = 0.7 per year, 95% confidence interval (0.6-0.8). An estimated 75% or more of the HIV infections were due to sexual transmission. Racial/ethnic disparities among persons who inject drugs were not significantly different from previous disparities. Reducing these persistent disparities may require new interventions (treatment as prevention, pre-exposure prophylaxis) for all racial/ethnic groups.

  19. Behavioral and technological interventions targeting glycemic control in a racially/ethnically diverse population: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetes self-care by patients has been shown to assist in the reduction of disease severity and associated medical costs. We compared the effectiveness of two different diabetes self-care interventions on glycemic control in a racially/ethnically diverse population. We also explored whether reductions in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) will be more marked in minority persons. Methods We conducted an open-label randomized controlled trial of 376 patients with type 2 diabetes aged ≥18 years and whose last measured HbA1c was ≥7.5% (≥58 mmol/mol). Participants were randomized to: 1) a Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP; n = 101); 2) a diabetes self-care software on a personal digital assistant (PDA; n = 81); 3) a combination of interventions (CDSMP + PDA; n = 99); or 4) usual care (control; n = 95). Enrollment occurred January 2009-June 2011 at seven regional clinics of a university-affiliated multi-specialty group practice. The primary outcome was change in HbA1c from randomization to 12 months. Data were analyzed using a multilevel statistical model. Results Average baseline HbA1c in the CDSMP, PDA, CDSMP + PDA, and control arms were 9.4%, 9.3%, 9.2%, and 9.2%, respectively. HbA1c reductions at 12 months for the groups averaged 1.1%, 0.7%, 1.1%, and 0.7%, respectively and did not differ significantly from baseline based on the model (P = .771). Besides the participants in the PDA group reporting eating more high-fat foods compared to their counterparts (P < .004), no other significant differences were observed in participants’ diabetes self-care activities. Exploratory sub-analysis did not reveal any marked reductions in HbA1c for minority persons but rather modest reductions for all racial/ethnic groups. Conclusions Although behavioral and technological interventions can result in some modest improvements in glycemic control, these interventions did not fare significantly better than usual care in achieving glycemic control. More

  20. Association of P53 codon 72 polymorphism and lung cancer in an ethnic Iranian population.

    PubMed

    Eydian, Z; Asna'ashari, A M H; Behravan, J; Sharifi-Rad, J; Entezari Heravi, R

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer death worldwide. Molecular genetic studies indicated that activation of dominant oncogenes or inactivation of tumor suppressor genes and the presence of polymorphism in these genes correlated with prevalence of new lung cancers. P53 as a tumor suppressor gene located at 17p13 chromosome and it is one of the most well-known mutant genes in all cancer types. Mutation in P53 can disturb the transcriptional function and suppression of cell cycle control and increase in cell division and amplification. We can predict the susceptibility of people inside a society to lung cancer with evaluation of P53 gene polymorphism. A total of 200 patients with lung cancer and 200 healthy controls participated in this case-control study. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples and PCR-RFLP analyses were used to genotype the P53 gene polymorphism in codon 72 of exon 4, chromosome 17. Among 200 lung cancer patients and 200 controls, there was no significant correlation between sexuality and cigarette smoking status. We did not find any relationship between cigarette smoking status and genotypes or pack-years but there was a significant correlation between cigarette smoking status and adenocarcinoma patients (P=0.03). The results of the present study revealed that there is no association between P53 codon 72 polymorphism and increased risk of lung cancer in patients and controls but according to results of adenocarcinoma in never-smoker patients, it seems that environmental factors may have more important role than genetic susceptibility in our ethnic Iranian population. PMID:27585259

  1. Accuracy of genomic prediction when combining two related crossbred populations.

    PubMed

    Vallée, A; van Arendonk, J A M; Bovenhuis, H

    2014-10-01

    Charolais bulls are selected for their crossbreed performance when mated to Montbéliard or Holstein dams. To implement genomic prediction, one could build a reference population for each crossbred population independently. An alternative could be to combine both crossbred populations into a single reference population to increase size and accuracy of prediction. The objective of this study was to investigate the accuracy of genomic prediction by combining different crossbred populations. Three scenarios were considered: 1) using 1 crossbred population as reference to predict phenotype of animals from the same crossbred population, 2) combining the 2 crossbred populations into 1 reference to predict phenotype of animals from 1 crossbred population, and 3) using 1 crossbred population as reference to predict phenotype of animals from the other crossbred population. Traits studied were bone thinness, height, and muscular development. Phenotypes and 45,117 SNP genotypes were available for 1,764 Montbéliard × Charolais calves and 447 Holstein × Charolais calves. The population was randomly spilt into 10 subgroups, which were assigned to the validation one by one. To allow fair comparison between scenarios, size of the reference population was kept constant for all scenarios. Breeding values were estimated with BLUP and genomic BLUP. Accuracy of prediction was calculated as the correlation between the EBV and the phenotypic values of the calves in the validation divided by the square root of the heritability. Genomic BLUP showed higher accuracies (between 0.281 and 0.473) than BLUP (between 0.197 and 0.452). Accuracies tended to be highest when prediction was within 1 crossbred population, intermediate when populations were combined into the reference population, and lowest when prediction was across populations. Decrease in accuracy from a prediction within 1 population to a prediction across populations was more pronounced for bone thinness (-27%) and height (-29

  2. Ethnic elders.

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahim, S.

    1996-01-01

    The numbers of elderly people from ethnic groups within Britain is rising rapidly as postwar immigrants age. Ethnic elders face problems owing to age-associated increased risks of common chronic diseases, racial discrimination, and poor access to many health services and social services. This disadvantage will be alleviated through increased understanding of health beliefs held by ethnic elders and ensuring better access to services through mechanisms such as employment of more staff from ethnic minority groups in senior positions, better training of staff, and more appropriate and sensitive environments. The myths that family care is sufficient, that no use of services implies no need, and that assimilation into the majority population will occur must be discounted. Images p610-a Fig 1 PMID:8806256

  3. The Changing Ethnic Population and Its Impact on School Districts in California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Peter

    A report by the California State Department of Education described the impact of a major change in student ethnic enrollment throughout the state. Not only has there been an increase in the numbers of minority students, but there have also been shifts in the concentration of minority students and increases in the number of Limited English…

  4. Generic Tobacco Use among Four Ethnic Groups in a School Age Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Moor, Carl; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Compared generic tobacco use among Hispanic, White, Black, and Asian youths (N=4,980) in grades 4, 7, 10, and 12. Found prevalence of regular use was highest among Whites, followed by Hispanics, Blacks, and Asians. Marijuana, alcohol, and other drug use explained approximately 40 percent of variance in tobacco use in each ethnic group. Other…

  5. Are ethnic minorities synonymous for genetic isolates? Comparing Walser and Romance populations in the Upper Lys Valley (Western Alps).

    PubMed

    Boattini, Alessio; Griso, Clio; Pettener, Davide

    2011-01-01

    Cultural differences between neighbouring populations are often said to give rise to reproductive barriers. For ethnic minorities, these barriers can easily result in genetic isolation. In this study, we analyse the surname structure of the Walser of the upper Lys Valley, a German-speaking ethnic minority in the Italian Western Alps, to better understand the relationships between linguistic and genetic isolation. Analyses were based on 1713 marriages registered from 1838 to 1938 in four villages of the valley: three Walser communities (Issime, Gressoney-Saint-Jean, Gressoney-La-Trinité) and the Romance community of Gaby. The results show that endogamy and inbreeding are lower than in other Italian linguistic minorities, with the exception of Gaby, whose values rank among the highest ever found in Italy. Compared to the Walser communities' Gaby behaves as an outgroup and has an almost exclusively autochthonous surname set. The latter aspect is also true, but to a lesser extent, for the Walser villages, in particular for Issime on the one hand and Gressoney-Saint-Jean and Gressoney-La-Trinité on the other. These findings strongly suggest that the Walser communities' ethnic minority status is not associated with genetic isolation, whereas genetic isolation was found in the linguistically non-isolated Gaby. Finally, our results are consistent with two independent late medieval migration events at the origin of these Walser settlements.

  6. Are ethnic minorities synonymous for genetic isolates? Comparing Walser and Romance populations in the Upper Lys Valley (Western Alps).

    PubMed

    Boattini, Alessio; Griso, Clio; Pettener, Davide

    2011-01-01

    Cultural differences between neighbouring populations are often said to give rise to reproductive barriers. For ethnic minorities, these barriers can easily result in genetic isolation. In this study, we analyse the surname structure of the Walser of the upper Lys Valley, a German-speaking ethnic minority in the Italian Western Alps, to better understand the relationships between linguistic and genetic isolation. Analyses were based on 1713 marriages registered from 1838 to 1938 in four villages of the valley: three Walser communities (Issime, Gressoney-Saint-Jean, Gressoney-La-Trinité) and the Romance community of Gaby. The results show that endogamy and inbreeding are lower than in other Italian linguistic minorities, with the exception of Gaby, whose values rank among the highest ever found in Italy. Compared to the Walser communities' Gaby behaves as an outgroup and has an almost exclusively autochthonous surname set. The latter aspect is also true, but to a lesser extent, for the Walser villages, in particular for Issime on the one hand and Gressoney-Saint-Jean and Gressoney-La-Trinité on the other. These findings strongly suggest that the Walser communities' ethnic minority status is not associated with genetic isolation, whereas genetic isolation was found in the linguistically non-isolated Gaby. Finally, our results are consistent with two independent late medieval migration events at the origin of these Walser settlements. PMID:21757790

  7. Effects of racial and ethnic group and health literacy on responses to genomic risk information in a medically underserved population

    PubMed Central

    Kaphingst, Kimberly A.; Stafford, Jewel D.; McGowan, Lucy D’Agostino; Seo, Joann; Lachance, Christina R.; Goodman, Melody S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Few studies have examined how individuals respond to genomic risk information for common, chronic diseases. This randomized study examined differences in responses by type of genomic information [genetic test/family history] and disease condition [diabetes/heart disease] and by race/ethnicity in a medically underserved population. Methods 1057 English-speaking adults completed a survey containing one of four vignettes (two-by-two randomized design). Differences in dependent variables (i.e., interest in receiving genomic assessment, discussing with doctor or family, changing health habits) by experimental condition and race/ethnicity were examined using chi-squared tests and multivariable regression analysis. Results No significant differences were found in dependent variables by type of genomic information or disease condition. In multivariable models, Hispanics were more interested in receiving a genomic assessment than Whites (OR=1.93; p<0.0001); respondents with marginal (OR=1.54; p=0.005) or limited (OR=1.85; p=0.009) health literacy had greater interest than those with adequate health literacy. Blacks (OR=1.78; p=0.001) and Hispanics (OR=1.85; p=0.001) had greater interest in discussing information with family than Whites. Non-Hispanic Blacks (OR=1.45; p=0.04) had greater interest in discussing genomic information with a doctor than Whites. Blacks (β= −0.41; p<0.001) and Hispanics (β= −0.25; p=0.033) intended to change fewer health habits than Whites; health literacy was negatively associated with number of health habits participants intended to change. Conclusions Findings suggest that race/ethnicity may affect responses to genomic risk information. Additional research could examine how cognitive representations of this information differ across racial/ethnic groups. Health literacy is also critical to consider in developing approaches to communicating genomic information. PMID:25622080

  8. BMD Loci Contribute to Ethnic and Developmental Differences in Skeletal Fragility across Populations: Assessment of Evolutionary Selection Pressures

    PubMed Central

    Medina-Gómez, Carolina; Chesi, Alessandra; Heppe, Denise H.M.; Zemel, Babette S.; Yin, Jia-Lian; Kalkwarf, Heidi J.; Hofman, Albert; Lappe, Joan M.; Kelly, Andrea; Kayser, Manfred; Oberfield, Sharon E.; Gilsanz, Vicente; Uitterlinden, André G.; Shepherd, John A.; Jaddoe, Vincent W.V.; Grant, Struan F.A.; Lao, Oscar; Rivadeneira, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) is a highly heritable trait used both for the diagnosis of osteoporosis in adults and to assess bone health in children. Ethnic differences in BMD have been documented, with markedly higher levels in individuals of African descent, which partially explain disparity in osteoporosis risk across populations. To date, 63 independent genetic variants have been associated with BMD in adults of Northern-European ancestry. Here, we demonstrate that at least 61 of these variants are predictive of BMD early in life by studying their compound effect within two multiethnic pediatric cohorts. Furthermore, we show that within these cohorts and across populations worldwide the frequency of those alleles associated with increased BMD is systematically elevated in individuals of Sub-Saharan African ancestry. The amount of differentiation in the BMD genetic scores among Sub-Saharan and non-Sub-Saharan populations together with neutrality tests, suggest that these allelic differences are compatible with the hypothesis of selective pressures acting on the genetic determinants of BMD. These findings constitute an explorative contribution to the role of selection on ethnic BMD differences and likely a new example of polygenic adaptation acting on a human trait. PMID:26226985

  9. No evidence of interaction between known lipid-associated genetic variants and smoking in the multi-ethnic PAGE population.

    PubMed

    Dumitrescu, Logan; Carty, Cara L; Franceschini, Nora; Hindorff, Lucia A; Cole, Shelley A; Bůžková, Petra; Schumacher, Fredrick R; Eaton, Charles B; Goodloe, Robert J; Duggan, David J; Haessler, Jeff; Cochran, Barbara; Henderson, Brian E; Cheng, Iona; Johnson, Karen C; Carlson, Chris S; Love, Shelly-Anne; Brown-Gentry, Kristin; Nato, Alejandro Q; Quibrera, Miguel; Shohet, Ralph V; Ambite, José Luis; Wilkens, Lynne R; Le Marchand, Loïc; Haiman, Christopher A; Buyske, Steven; Kooperberg, Charles; North, Kari E; Fornage, Myriam; Crawford, Dana C

    2013-12-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified many variants that influence high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and/or triglycerides. However, environmental modifiers, such as smoking, of these known genotype-phenotype associations are just recently emerging in the literature. We have tested for interactions between smoking and 49 GWAS-identified variants in over 41,000 racially/ethnically diverse samples with lipid levels from the Population Architecture Using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) study. Despite their biological plausibility, we were unable to detect significant SNP × smoking interactions. PMID:24100633

  10. Quality of race, Hispanic ethnicity, and immigrant status in population-based cancer registry data: implications for health disparity studies.

    PubMed

    Clegg, Limin X; Reichman, Marsha E; Hankey, Benjamin F; Miller, Barry A; Lin, Yi D; Johnson, Norman J; Schwartz, Stephen M; Bernstein, Leslie; Chen, Vivien W; Goodman, Marc T; Gomez, Scarlett L; Graff, John J; Lynch, Charles F; Lin, Charles C; Edwards, Brenda K

    2007-03-01

    Population-based cancer registry data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program at the National Cancer Institute are based on medical records and administrative information. Although SEER data have been used extensively in health disparities research, the quality of information concerning race, Hispanic ethnicity, and immigrant status has not been systematically evaluated. The quality of this information was determined by comparing SEER data with self-reported data among 13,538 cancer patients diagnosed between 1973-2001 in the SEER--National Longitudinal Mortality Study linked database. The overall agreement was excellent on race (kappa = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.88-0.91), moderate to substantial on Hispanic ethnicity (kappa = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.58-0.64), and low on immigrant status (kappa = 0.21. 95% CI = 0.10, 0.23). The effect of these disagreements was that SEER data tended to under-classify patient numbers when compared to self-identifications, except for the non-Hispanic group which was slightly over-classified. These disagreements translated into varying racial-, ethnic-, and immigrant status-specific cancer statistics, depending on whether self-reported or SEER data were used. In particular, the 5-year Kaplan-Meier survival and the median survival time from all causes for American Indians/Alaska Natives were substantially higher when based on self-classification (59% and 140 months, respectively) than when based on SEER classification (44% and 53 months, respectively), although the number of patients is small. These results can serve as a useful guide to researchers contemplating the use of population-based registry data to ascertain disparities in cancer burden. In particular, the study results caution against evaluating health disparities by using birthplace as a measure of immigrant status and race information for American Indians/Alaska Natives.

  11. Behavior Change Interventions to Improve the Health of Racial and Ethnic Minority Populations: A Tool Kit of Adaptation Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Emma M; Liu, Jing Jing; Bhopal, Raj; White, Martin; Johnson, Mark RD; Netto, Gina; Wabnitz, Cecile; Sheikh, Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Context Adapting behavior change interventions to meet the needs of racial and ethnic minority populations has the potential to enhance their effectiveness in the target populations. But because there is little guidance on how best to undertake these adaptations, work in this field has proceeded without any firm foundations. In this article, we present our Tool Kit of Adaptation Approaches as a framework for policymakers, practitioners, and researchers interested in delivering behavior change interventions to ethnically diverse, underserved populations in the United Kingdom. Methods We undertook a mixed-method program of research on interventions for smoking cessation, increasing physical activity, and promoting healthy eating that had been adapted to improve salience and acceptability for African-, Chinese-, and South Asian–origin minority populations. This program included a systematic review (reported using PRISMA criteria), qualitative interviews, and a realist synthesis of data. Findings We compiled a richly informative data set of 161 publications and twenty-six interviews detailing the adaptation of behavior change interventions and the contexts in which they were undertaken. On the basis of these data, we developed our Tool Kit of Adaptation Approaches, which contains (1) a forty-six-item Typology of Adaptation Approaches; (2) a Pathway to Adaptation, which shows how to use the Typology to create a generic behavior change intervention; and (3) RESET, a decision tool that provides practical guidance on which adaptations to use in different contexts. Conclusions Our Tool Kit of Adaptation Approaches provides the first evidence-derived suite of materials to support the development, design, implementation, and reporting of health behavior change interventions for minority groups. The Tool Kit now needs prospective, empirical evaluation in a range of intervention and population settings. PMID:24320170

  12. [Polymorphism of the gene for subunit 6 of the NADh dehydrogenase complex (ND6) in ethnic russian population in Russia].

    PubMed

    Kornienko, I V; Vodolazhskiĭ, D I; Mikhalkovich, L S; Pavlichenko, G N; Ivanov, P L

    2003-01-01

    A sample of ethnic Russians of Russia was tested for polymorphism of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (ND6) gene mapping to the mtDNA region 14,170-14,569. Genetic diversity of ND6 haplotypes was estimated at 0.406, and probability of haplotype random match, at 0.598. Combined with typing the mtDNA control region, analysis of the ND6 gene polymorphism was assumed to improve the reliability of forensic identification. Several point substitutions in the ND6 gene region proved to be associated with particular transitions in the mtDNA control region; the association was characterized with the phi coefficient.

  13. Ataxia-telangiectasia: identification and detection of founder-effect mutations in the ATM gene in ethnic populations.

    PubMed Central

    Telatar, M; Teraoka, S; Wang, Z; Chun, H H; Liang, T; Castellvi-Bel, S; Udar, N; Borresen-Dale, A L; Chessa, L; Bernatowska-Matuszkiewicz, E; Porras, O; Watanabe, M; Junker, A; Concannon, P; Gatti, R A

    1998-01-01

    To facilitate the evaluation of ATM heterozygotes for susceptibility to other diseases, such as breast cancer, we have attempted to define the most common mutations and their frequencies in ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) homozygotes from 10 ethnic populations. Both genomic mutations and their effects on cDNA were characterized. Protein-truncation testing of the entire ATM cDNA detected 92 (66%) truncating mutations in 140 mutant alleles screened. The haplotyping of patients with identical mutations indicates that almost all of these represent common ancestry and that very few spontaneously recurring ATM mutations exist. Assays requiring minimal amounts of genomic DNA were designed to allow rapid screening for common ethnic mutations. These rapid assays detected mutations in 76% of Costa Rican patients (3), 50% of Norwegian patients (1), 25% of Polish patients (4), and 14% of Italian patients (1), as well as in patients of Amish/Mennonite and Irish English backgrounds. Additional mutations were observed in Japanese, Utah Mormon, and African American patients. These assays should facilitate screening for A-T heterozygotes in the populations studied. PMID:9443866

  14. Race/ethnicity and the 2000 census: recommendations for African American and other black populations in the United States.

    PubMed

    Williams, D R; Jackson, J S

    2000-11-01

    This commentary considers the implications of the assessment of racial/ethnic status for monitoring the health of African Americans and other Black populations in the United States. It argues that because racial disparities in health and other social indicators persist undiminished, the continued assessment of race is essential. However, efforts must be made to ensure that racial data are of the highest quality. This will require uniform assessment of racial status that includes identifiers for subgroups of the Black population. Research also indicates that the health of multiracial persons varies by maternal race. Thus, efforts to monitor multiracial status should assess the race of both parents. More attention should also be given to analysis and interpretation of racial data and to the collection of additional data that capture characteristics linked to race (such as socioeconomic factors and racism) that may adversely affect health.

  15. Prevalence and phenotype consequence of FRAXA and FRAXE alleles in a large, ethnically diverse, special education-needs population.

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, D C; Meadows, K L; Newman, J L; Taft, L F; Pettay, D L; Gold, L B; Hersey, S J; Hinkle, E F; Stanfield, M L; Holmgreen, P; Yeargin-Allsopp, M; Boyle, C; Sherman, S L

    1999-01-01

    We conducted a large population-based survey of fragile X (FRAXA) syndrome in ethnically diverse metropolitan Atlanta. The eligible study population consisted of public school children, aged 7-10 years, in special education-needs (SEN) classes. The purpose of the study was to estimate the prevalence among whites and, for the first time, African Americans, among a non-clinically referred population. At present, 5 males with FRAXA syndrome (4 whites and 1 African American), among 1,979 tested males, and no females, among 872 tested females, were identified. All males with FRAXA syndrome were mentally retarded and had been diagnosed previously. The prevalence for FRAXA syndrome was estimated to be 1/3,460 (confidence interval [CI] 1/7,143-1/1,742) for the general white male population and 1/4, 048 (CI 1/16,260-1/1,244) for the general African American male population. We also compared the frequency of intermediate and premutation FRAXA alleles (41-199 repeats) and fragile XE syndrome alleles (31-199 repeats) in the SEN population with that in a control population, to determine if there was a possible phenotype consequence of such high-repeat alleles, as has been reported previously. No difference was observed between our case and control populations, and no difference was observed between populations when the probands were grouped by a rough estimate of IQ based on class placement. These results suggest that there is no phenotype consequence of larger alleles that would cause carriers to be placed in an SEN class. PMID:9973286

  16. Differential host susceptibility and bacterial virulence factors driving Klebsiella liver abscess in an ethnically diverse population

    PubMed Central

    Lee, I. Russel; Molton, James S.; Wyres, Kelly L.; Gorrie, Claire; Wong, Jocelyn; Hoh, Chu Han; Teo, Jeanette; Kalimuddin, Shirin; Lye, David C.; Archuleta, Sophia; Holt, Kathryn E.; Gan, Yunn-Hwen

    2016-01-01

    Hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae is an emerging cause of community-acquired pyogenic liver abscess. First described in Asia, it is now increasingly recognized in Western countries, commonly afflicting those with Asian descent. This raises the question of genetic predisposition versus geospecific strain acquisition. We leveraged on the Antibiotics for Klebsiella Liver Abscess Syndrome Study (A-KLASS) clinical trial ongoing in ethnically diverse Singapore, to prospectively examine the profiles of 70 patients together with their isolates’ genotypic and phenotypic characteristics. The majority of isolates belonged to capsule type K1, a genetically homogenous group corresponding to sequence-type 23. The remaining K2, K5, K16, K28, K57 and K63 isolates as well as two novel cps isolates were genetically heterogeneous. K1 isolates carried higher frequencies of virulence-associated genes including rmpA (regulator of mucoid phenotype A), kfu (Klebsiella ferric uptake transporter), iuc (aerobactin), iro (salmochelin) and irp (yersiniabactin) than non-K1 isolates. The Chinese in our patient cohort, mostly non-diabetic, had higher prevalence of K1 infection than the predominantly diabetic non-Chinese (Malays, Indian and Caucasian). This differential susceptibility to different capsule types among the various ethnic groups suggests patterns of transmission (e.g. environmental source, familial transmission) and/or genetic predisposition unique to each race despite being in the same geographical location. PMID:27406977

  17. Differential host susceptibility and bacterial virulence factors driving Klebsiella liver abscess in an ethnically diverse population.

    PubMed

    Lee, I Russel; Molton, James S; Wyres, Kelly L; Gorrie, Claire; Wong, Jocelyn; Hoh, Chu Han; Teo, Jeanette; Kalimuddin, Shirin; Lye, David C; Archuleta, Sophia; Holt, Kathryn E; Gan, Yunn-Hwen

    2016-01-01

    Hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae is an emerging cause of community-acquired pyogenic liver abscess. First described in Asia, it is now increasingly recognized in Western countries, commonly afflicting those with Asian descent. This raises the question of genetic predisposition versus geospecific strain acquisition. We leveraged on the Antibiotics for Klebsiella Liver Abscess Syndrome Study (A-KLASS) clinical trial ongoing in ethnically diverse Singapore, to prospectively examine the profiles of 70 patients together with their isolates' genotypic and phenotypic characteristics. The majority of isolates belonged to capsule type K1, a genetically homogenous group corresponding to sequence-type 23. The remaining K2, K5, K16, K28, K57 and K63 isolates as well as two novel cps isolates were genetically heterogeneous. K1 isolates carried higher frequencies of virulence-associated genes including rmpA (regulator of mucoid phenotype A), kfu (Klebsiella ferric uptake transporter), iuc (aerobactin), iro (salmochelin) and irp (yersiniabactin) than non-K1 isolates. The Chinese in our patient cohort, mostly non-diabetic, had higher prevalence of K1 infection than the predominantly diabetic non-Chinese (Malays, Indian and Caucasian). This differential susceptibility to different capsule types among the various ethnic groups suggests patterns of transmission (e.g. environmental source, familial transmission) and/or genetic predisposition unique to each race despite being in the same geographical location. PMID:27406977

  18. Human genetic research, race, ethnicity and the labeling of populations: recommendations based on an interdisciplinary workshop in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A challenge in human genome research is how to describe the populations being studied. The use of improper and/or imprecise terms has the potential to both generate and reinforce prejudices and to diminish the clinical value of the research. The issue of population descriptors has not attracted enough academic attention outside North America and Europe. In January 2012, we held a two-day workshop, the first of its kind in Japan, to engage in interdisciplinary dialogue between scholars in the humanities, social sciences, medical sciences, and genetics to begin an ongoing discussion of the social and ethical issues associated with population descriptors. Discussion Through the interdisciplinary dialogue, we confirmed that the issue of race, ethnicity and genetic research has not been extensively discussed in certain Asian communities and other regions. We have found, for example, the continued use of the problematic term, “Mongoloid” or continental terms such as “European,” “African,” and “Asian,” as population descriptors in genetic studies. We, therefore, introduce guidelines for reporting human genetic studies aimed at scientists and researchers in these regions. Conclusion We need to anticipate the various potential social and ethical problems entailed in population descriptors. Scientists have a social responsibility to convey their research findings outside of their communities as accurately as possible, and to consider how the public may perceive and respond to the descriptors that appear in research papers and media articles. PMID:24758583

  19. Historical Trend of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Meeting Medicare Medication Therapy Management Eligibility Criteria in Non-Medicare Population

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junling; Surbhi, Satya; Zhang, Zhiping; Spivey, Christina A.; Chisholm-Burns, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Background Prior research examining racial and ethnic disparities in meeting Medicare medication therapy management (MTM) eligibility criteria among the non-Medicare population suggests minorities have lower likelihood of being eligible than non-Hispanic Whites (Whites). However, such research has not examined trends in disparities and whether these disparities may be expected to decrease over time based on historical data. Objectives To examine trends in MTM eligibility disparities among the non-Medicare population from 1996-1997 to 2009-2010. Methods This retrospective observational analysis used Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data from the study periods. The MTM eligibility criteria used by health insurance plans in 2008 and 2010 were analyzed. Trends in disparities were examined by including interaction terms between dummy variables for 2009-2010 and non-Hispanic Blacks (Blacks)/Hispanics in a logistic regression. The effect of interaction was estimated on both the multiplicative and additive terms. Main and sensitivity analyses were conducted to represent the ranges of the Medicare MTM eligibility thresholds used by health insurance plans. Results According to the main analysis, Blacks and Hispanics were less likely to be eligible than Whites for both sets of eligibility criteria in 1996-1997 and in 2009-2010. Trend analysis for both sets of criteria found that on the multiplicative term, there were generally no significant changes in disparities between Whites and Blacks/Hispanics from 1996-1997 to 2009-2010. Interaction on the additive term found evidence that disparities between Whites and Blacks/Hispanics may have increased from 1996-1997 to 2009-2010 (e.g., in the main analysis between Whites and Hispanics for 2010 eligibility criteria: difference in odds= -0.03, 95% CI: [-0.03]-[-0.02]). Conclusions Racial and ethnic minorities in the non-Medicare population experience persistent and often increasing disparities in meeting MTM eligibility criteria

  20. Racial and ethnic disparities in meeting Part D MTM eligibility criteria among the non-Medicare population.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junling; Brown, Lawrence M; Hong, Song Hee

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether racial and ethnic minorities were less likely to meet the Medicare Part D eligibility criteria for medication therapy management (MTM) services compared with whites among the adult non-Medicare population, because some non-Medicare health plans have followed the Medicare example. DESIGN Cross-sectional observational study. SETTING United States, 2007-08. PATIENTS 16,691 white, 5,923 black, and 9,242 Hispanic adults (>17 years) among the non-Medicare population. INTERVENTION Analysis of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. MTM eligibility criteria used by Part D plans in 2008 and 2010-11 were examined. Main and sensitivity analyses were conducted to represent the entire range of the eligibility thresholds used by Part D plans. Analyses also were conducted among individuals with heart disease, diabetes, and hypertension. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Proportions and odds of patients meeting Part D MTM eligibility criteria. RESULTS According to the main analysis examining 2008 eligibility criteria, whites had a higher proportion of eligible individuals than did blacks (3.73% vs. 2.57%) and Hispanics (1.53%, P < 0.05 for both comparisons). According to survey-weighted logistic regression adjusting for patient characteristics, blacks and Hispanics had odds ratios for MTM eligibility of 0.60 (95% CI 0.46-0.79) and 0.54 (0.40-0.72), respectively, compared with whites. Sensitivity analyses, analyses examining 2010-11 eligibility criteria, and analyses among individuals with heart disease, diabetes, and hypertension produced similar findings. CONCLUSION Racial and ethnic minorities have lower odds for meeting Part D MTM eligibility criteria than whites among the adult non-Medicare population. MTM eligibility criteria need to be modified to address these disparities.

  1. Prevalence, associated factors and relationship between prehypertension and hypertension: a study of two ethnic African populations in Northern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Isezuo, S A; Sabir, A A; Ohwovorilole, A E; Fasanmade, O A

    2011-04-01

    To determine the prevalence and relationship between prehypertension and hypertension, we studied 782 ethnic Hausa and Fulanis (men, 409; women, 373) aged 38.9±13.9 years recruited by multistage cluster sampling. Demographic, anthropometry, metabolic and JNC VII-based blood pressure categories were obtained and analysed using univariate and multivariate models. The prevalence rates of prehypertension and hypertension were 58.7% (men 59.2%, women 58.2%) and 24.8% (men 25.9%, women 23.6%), respectively. Only 16.5% of the population had JNC VII defined optimum blood pressure. Compared to hypertension, prehypertension had earlier onset (second versus third decade) and peak (fourth versus fifth decade) of life. The peak and trough prevalence of hypertension and prehypertension, respectively were observed in the 5th decade of life. Obesity, abnormalities of glucose metabolism and insulin resistance were the major factors associated with prehypertension and hypertension. Multivariate analysis identified obesity and impaired glucose tolerance as independent predictors of hypertension. Of those with hypertension, 13.9% were aware of their high blood pressure status of which 85.7% were commenced on treatment and 12.5% achieved blood pressure control. Overall, 1.5% of the study population had blood pressure <140/90 mm Hg. It is concluded that less than 20% of people of Hausa and Fulani ethnicities had optimum blood pressure. These are predominantly in their second decade of life suggesting that rise in blood pressure begins early in this population. The fifth decade of life may represent a period of transition from prehypertension to hypertension. PMID:20555358

  2. Absence of ethnic differences in the pharmacokinetics of moxifloxacin, simvastatin, and meloxicam among three East Asian populations and Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Hasunuma, Tomoko; Tohkin, Masahiro; Kaniwa, Nahoko; Jang, In‐Jin; Yimin, Cui; Kaneko, Masaru; Saito, Yoshiro; Takeuchi, Masahiro; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Yamazoe, Yasushi; Uyama, Yoshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Aim To examine whether strict control of clinical trial conditions could reduce apparent differences of pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters among ethnic groups. Methods Open‐label, single dose PK studies of moxifloxacin, simvastatin and meloxicam were conducted in healthy male subjects from three East Asian populations (Japanese, Chinese and Koreans) and one Caucasian population as a control. These three drugs were selected because differences in PK parameters have been reported, even though the backgrounds of these East Asian populations are similar. Moxifloxacin (400 mg) was administered orally to 20 subjects, and plasma and urine levels of moxifloxacin and its metabolite (M2) were measured. Simvastatin (20 mg) was given to 40 subjects, and plasma levels of simvastatin and simvastatin acid were measured. Meloxicam (7.5 mg) was given to 30 subjects and its plasma concentration was determined. Intrinsic factors (polymorphism of UGT1A1 for moxifloxacin, SLCO1B1 for simvastatin, and CYP2C9 for meloxicam) were also examined. Results AUCinf values for moxifloxacin, simvastatin and meloxicam showed no significant differences among the East Asian groups. Cmax values of moxifloxacin and simvastatin, but not meloxicam, showed significant differences. There were no significant differences of data for M2 or simvastatin acid. Genetic analysis identified significant differences in the frequencies of relevant polymorphisms, but these differences did not affect the PK parameters observed. Conclusions Although there were some differences in PK parameters among the three East Asian groups, the present study performed under strictly controlled conditions did not reproduce the major ethnic differences observed in previous studies. PMID:26774055

  3. Ethnic disparities in the clustering of risk factors for cardiovascular disease among the Kazakh, Uygur, Mongolian and Han populations of Xinjiang: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chinese Uygur, Kazakh, Mongolian and Han populations represent >90% of the total population of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, and their genetic backgrounds, customs, culture, and food consumption are different. The effect of ethnic differences on cardiovascular disease risk factors (CRFs; hypertension, obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia, smoking) can be striking but is rarely studied. We report here the findings of the relationship among these ethnic groups and their CRFs across the four largest ethnic groups of Xinjiang. Methods A cross-sectional survey of representative samples was conducted 2002–2008 in Chinese Uygur, Kazakh, Mongolian and Han populations (age >30 years; 4,421 Kazakh, 3884 Han, 3,218 Uygur, and 892 Mongolian individuals) in Xinjiang. Results A total of 90.4% of Kazakh, 91.9% of Uygur, 90.4% of Mongolian, 85.1% of Han individuals had at least one CRF. Clustering of ≥2 or ≥3 of these risk factors was noted in 65.2% or 32.1% of Kazakh, 64.8% or 33.0% of Uygur, 66.9% or 36.5% of Mongolian as well as 62.0% or 28.3% of Han subjects, respectively. Compared with the Han population, the adjusted odds ratios of ≥1, ≥2, and ≥3 CRFs for Kazakh, Uygur and Mongolian populations were higher (all P<0.001). The age-standardized prevalence of the clustering of ≥1, ≥2, and ≥3 CRFs in Kazakh, Uygur, Mongolian, and Han populations was lower than their counterparts in the NHANES Ш study (USA) but higher than in the InterASIA Study (China). Conclusions Ethnic groups living in Xinjiang had striking differences in CRFs. Ethnic-specific strategies should be developed to prevent cardiovascular disease in different ethnic groups. PMID:22759741

  4. Genetic admixture studies on four in situ evolved, two migrant and twenty-one ethnic populations of Tamil Nadu, south India.

    PubMed

    Suhasini, G; Sonaa, E; Shila, S; Srikumari, C R; Jayaraman, G; Ramesh, A

    2011-08-01

    We analysed the genetic structure of ≈ 1000 samples representing 27 ethnic groups settled in Tamil Nadu, south India, derived from two linguistic families (Dravidians and Indo-Europeans) representing four religious groups (Hinduism, Islam, Christianity and Jainism) using 11 mtDNA markers. Out of 27 ethnic groups, four are in situ populations (Anglo-Indian, Labbai Muslim, Nadar Christian and south Indian Jain) and two are migrants (Gypsy and north Indian Jain) from north India to Tamil Nadu, and 21 are native ethnic groups. Six of the markers we used were monomorphic (HaeIII663, HpaI3592, AluI5176, AluI7025, AluI13262, 9-bp deletion) and five markers were polymorphic (DdeI10394, AluI10397, HinfI12308, HincII13259 and HaeIII16517). Haplogroup frequencies, genetic affinities and admixture analysis are based on the genotype data of polymorphic markers observed in these populations. Haplogroup frequencies indicate that various ethnic groups entered Tamil Nadu during different time periods. Genetic affinities and admixture estimates revealed that the ethnic groups possessing advanced knowledge of farming cluster in a branch (C), and could be the late arrived settlers as agriculture, was introduced to this region at about 5 to 3 thousand years ago. In situ ethnic groups appear to have arisen at various times as a result of the prevailing dominant socio-cultural forces. Hierarchical Hindu caste system created many ethnic groups in the history of its existence; some of them became isolated for considerable period of time. Over all, among Tamil ethnic groups, in spite of caste systems' rigidity, built in flexibility in the system in the form of hypergamy and hypogamy had allowed maternal gene flow between them. PMID:21869467

  5. The use of ethnic minority populations in published psychological research, 1990-1999.

    PubMed

    Imada, Toshie; Schiavo, R Steven

    2005-09-01

    For this study, the authors analyzed the contents of 16 psychology journals for the presence of empirical articles on African Americans, Latinos, Asians, and Native Americans during the period ranging from 1990 to 1999. In 6 APA journals, there was a low percentage (4.7%) of such articles. African Americans were the most studied ethnic group. Data collected for this study also indicated that minority research has been increasing more in non-APA journals than in APA journals. In both APA and non-APA journals, counseling-oriented journals had higher percentages of minority articles than did journals of other subdisciplines. Possible explanations, consequences, and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  6. Patterns of reported rape in a tri-ethnic population: Houston, Texas, 1974--1975.

    PubMed Central

    Sanford, J; Cryer, L; Christensen, B L; Mattox, K L

    1979-01-01

    Police records of reported rape, compiled for the Federal Bureau of Investigation Uniform Crime Reports, in Houston, Texas for 1974 and 1975, were analyzed in relation to ethnicity and age of victim/offender, and time and place of occurrence. Blacks had the highest race-specific rates for both victims and offenders; the majority of all rapes were intraracial. The high-risk age group for both victims and offenders was from 20 to 24 years. Rapes increased slightly during the summer months, peaked during the hours of darkness, and were fairly evenly distributed among the days of the week. The weekend calculated as from 4:00 pm Friday to 8:00 am Monday accounted for 43.6 per cent of all rape occurrences. The majority of rape events involved the use of a lethal weapon and took place in a residence. PMID:434279

  7. A Population-Structured HIV Epidemic in Israel: Roles of Risk and Ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Grossman, Zehava; Avidor, Boaz; Mor, Zohar; Chowers, Michal; Levy, Itzchak; Shahar, Eduardo; Riesenberg, Klaris; Sthoeger, Zev; Maayan, Shlomo; Shao, Wei; Lorber, Margalit; Olstein-Pops, Karen; Elbirt, Daniel; Elinav, Hila; Asher, Ilan; Averbuch, Diana; Istomin, Valery; Gottesman, Bat Sheva; Kedem, Eynat; Girshengorn, Shirley; Kra-Oz, Zipi; Shemer Avni, Yonat; Radian Sade, Sara; Turner, Dan; Maldarelli, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Background HIV in Israel started with a subtype-B epidemic among men who have sex with men, followed in the 1980s and 1990s by introductions of subtype C from Ethiopia (predominantly acquired by heterosexual transmission) and subtype A from the former Soviet Union (FSU, most often acquired by intravenous drug use). The epidemic matured over the last 15 years without additional large influx of exogenous infections. Between 2005 and 2013 the number of infected men who have sex with men (MSM) increased 2.9-fold, compared to 1.6-fold and 1.3-fold for intravenous drug users (IVDU) and Ethiopian-origin residents. Understanding contemporary spread is essential for effective public health planning. Methods We analyzed demographic and virologic data from 1,427 HIV-infected individuals diagnosed with HIV-I during 1998–2012. HIV phylogenies were reconstructed with maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods. Results Subtype-B viruses, but not A or C, demonstrated a striking number of large clusters with common ancestors having posterior probability ≥0.95, including some suggesting presence of transmission networks. Transmitted drug resistance was highest in subtype B (13%). MSM represented a frequent risk factor in cross-ethnic transmission, demonstrated by the presence of Israeli-born with non-B virus infections and FSU immigrants with non-A subtypes. Conclusions Reconstructed phylogenetic trees demonstrated substantial grouping in subtype B, but not in non-MSM subtype-A or in subtype-C, reflecting differences in transmission dynamics linked to HIV transmission categories. Cross-ethnic spread occurred through multiple independent introductions, with MSM playing a prevalent role in the transmission of the virus. Such data provide a baseline to track epidemic trends and will be useful in informing and quantifying efforts to reduce HIV transmission. PMID:26302493

  8. Methyl mercury exposure from fish consumption in vulnerable racial/ethnic populations: probabilistic SHEDS-Dietary model analyses using 1999-2006 NHANES and 1990-2002 TDS data.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jianping; Zartarian, Valerie G; Liu, Shi V; Geller, Andrew M

    2012-01-01

    NHANES subjects self-identified as "Asian, Pacific Islander, Native American, or multiracial" (A/P/N/M) have higher levels of blood organic mercury than other racial/ethnic groups; however, the reasons for this have been unclear. This research uses exposure modeling to determine the reasons for elevated blood methylmercury (MeHg) levels, and also extends previous analyses of observed NHANES blood levels. The probabilistic SHEDS-Dietary model was applied, using MeHg fish residue data from FDA's Total Diet Study (1990-2002) combined with NHANES/WWEIA (1999-2006) fish consumption data, to generate exposure estimates by race/ethnicity, age group, and fish type. Statistical analyses of blood methylmercury levels in the (6 times larger) 1999-2006 NHANES data were compared against previous published results for 1999-2002 data. The A/P/N/M group has higher fish intake, modeled MeHg exposures, and blood levels than the general population and other racial/ethnic groups. Tuna, other saltwater fish, and other freshwater fish are key food types driving dietary MeHg exposure. The 1-<3 years-old A/P/N/M group has the highest mean dietary MeHg intake per body weight (0.06 μg/kg/day; ~2.3 times higher than the rest of the population). Fish intake and modeled exposure predictions correlate well with NHANES blood biomarker levels. This study, using the SHEDS-Dietary model with national data, reinforces and expands upon previous observations that dietary exposure via fish consumption is an important route for methylmercury intake by the general population, and especially for racial/ethnic groups with higher fish consumption. These probabilistic dietary modeling approaches could be applied for local populations (e.g., tribes) and other chemicals and foods, if data are available. PMID:22119327

  9. Mental Health Service Utilization and Drinking Outcomes in a National Population Sample: Are There Racial/ Ethnic Differences?

    PubMed Central

    Minich, Lisa M.; Rospenda, Kathleen M.; Richman, Judith A.

    2009-01-01

    Racial and ethnic disparities in alcohol use and alcohol-related problems have been well-documented. Less information is available about possible disparities in outcomes related to mental health services utilization. The differential effect of mental health services use by race on drinking outcomes was examined. Wave 2 of a national population sample of employed adults who reported having at least one alcoholic drink in the past year (n=1058) encompassed measures of the prevalence of mental health services use in response to stress, and alcohol-related outcomes. Nonwhite participants who reported using any mental health services, 4 or more mental health visits in the past year, and 8 or more mental health visits in the past year reported lower rates of problematic drinking behaviors, including frequency of drinking to intoxication, heavy episodic drinking, and modified Brief MAST scores, than whites who reported similar use of mental health services. PMID:20155599

  10. Ethnic differences in social participation and social capital in Malmö, Sweden: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Martin

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate ethnic differences in different aspects of social participation in Malmö, Sweden. The public health survey in Malmö 1994 is a cross-sectional study. A total of 5600 randomly chosen individuals aged 20-80 years were asked to complete a postal questionnaire. The participation rate was 71%. The population was divided into categories born in Sweden, Denmark/Norway, other Western countries, former Yugoslavia, Poland, Arabic speaking countries and all other countries. The age-adjusted and multivariate analyses were performed using a logistic regression model in order to investigate the importance of possible confounders (age, education, economic stress and unemployment) on the differences by country of origin in different aspects of social participation. Men and women born in Arabic speaking countries and other countries (Iran, Turkey, Vietnam, Chile and subsaharan Africa) participate to a significantly lower extent in a variety of civic and social activities when compared to the reference population born in Sweden. The differences in participation in these groups compared to the group born in Sweden are observed both for social participation items at the core of the definition of social capital and cultural and other activities unrelated to social capital. This pattern is particularly pronounced for women born in Arabic speaking countries. These women even sharply differ from the participation rates of men born in Arabic speaking countries. The ethnic differences in most cases do not seem to be explained satisfactorily by education, economic stress or possibly unemployment. PMID:15652685

  11. Understanding barriers and facilitators of fruit and vegetable consumption among a diverse multi-ethnic population in the USA.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Ming-Chin; Ickes, Scott B; Lowenstein, Lisa M; Shuval, Kerem; Ammerman, Alice S; Farris, Rosanne; Katz, David L

    2008-03-01

    A diet high in fruits and vegetables (F&V) has been associated with a decreased risk of certain cancers, reduced morbidity and mortality from heart disease, and enhanced weight management. Yet to date, most of the US population does not consume the recommended amount of F&V despite numerous interventions and government guidelines to promote consumption. Research has found various impediments to F&V consumption, such as high costs, an obesogenic environment and low socio-economic status. However, studies have not sufficiently focused on barriers and enablers to F&V intake among adult multi-ethnic populations. The present qualitative study examines 147 focus group participants' perceptions of impediments and enablers to F&V consumption. Twelve focus groups were conducted among African American, Hispanic and Caucasian men and women in North Carolina and Connecticut. Focus groups were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim and entered into QSR NVivo Software. Text data were systematically analyzed by investigators to identify recurrent themes both within and across groups and states. Focus group results indicate that most participants were aware of the health benefits associated with a diet rich in F&V. Yet many admitted not adhering to the Health and Human Service's recommendations. Individual impediments consisted of the high costs of F&V and a perceived lack of time. Early home food environment was perceived as affecting F&V consumption later in life. Other barriers reported were ethnic-specific. The African American participants reported limited access to fresh produce. This finding is consistent with numerous studies and must be addressed through health promotion intervention. Both the church and primary care clinics were described by African Americans as appropriate settings for health behavior interventions; these findings should be considered. Hispanic participants, mostly immigrants, cited inhibiting factors encountered in their adopted US environment. There is a

  12. Does Ethnicity Affect Where People with Cancer Die? A Population-Based 10 Year Study

    PubMed Central

    Koffman, Jonathan; Ho, Yuen King; Davies, Joanna; Gao, Wei; Higginson, Irene J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Ageing is a growing issue for people from UK black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) groups. The health experiences of these groups are recognised as a ‘tracer’ to measure success in end of life patient-preferred outcomes that includes place of death (PoD). Aim To examine patterns in PoD among BAME groups who died of cancer. Material and Methods Mortality data for 93,375 cancer deaths of those aged ≥65 years in London from 2001–2010 were obtained from the UK Office for National Statistics (ONS). Decedent's country of birth was used as a proxy for ethnicity. Linear regression examined trends in place of death across the eight ethnic groups and Poisson regression examined the association between country of birth and place of death. Results 76% decedents were born in the UK, followed by Ireland (5.9%), Europe(5.4%) and Caribbean(4.3%). Most deaths(52.5%) occurred in hospital, followed by home(18.7%). During the study period, deaths in hospital declined with an increase in home deaths; trend for time analysis for those born in UK(0.50%/yr[0.36–0.64%]p<0.001), Europe (1.00%/yr[0.64–1.30%]p<0.001), Asia(1.09%/yr[0.94–1.20%]p<0.001) and Caribbean(1.03%/yr[0.72–1.30%]p<0.001). However, time consistent gaps across the geographical groups remained. Following adjustment hospital deaths were more likely for those born in Asia(Proportion ratio(PR)1.12[95%CI1.08–1.15]p<0.001) and Africa(PR 1.11[95%CI1.07–1.16]p<0.001). Hospice deaths were less likely for those born in Asia(PR 0.73 [0.68–0.80] p<0.001), Africa (PR 0.83[95%CI0.74–0.93]p<0.001), and ‘other’ geographical regions (PR0.90[95% 0.82–0.98]p<0.001). Home deaths were less likely for those born in the Caribbean(PR0.91[95%CI 0.85–0.98]p<0.001). Conclusions Location of death varies by country of birth. BAME groups are more likely to die in a hospital and less likely to die at home or in a hospice. Further investigation is needed to determine whether these differences result from

  13. The mutation spectrum of the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene and associated haplotypes reveal ethnic heterogeneity in the Taiwanese population.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ying; Huang, Miao-Zeng; Cheng, Cheng-Yi; Chao, Hung-Kun; Fwu, Victor Tramjay; Chiang, Szu-Hui; Hsiao, Kwang-Jen; Niu, Dau-Ming; Su, Tsung-Sheng

    2014-03-01

    Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) deficiency is responsible for most cases of phenylketonuria (PKU). In this study of the PAH mutation spectrum in the Taiwanese population, 139 alleles were identified including 34 different mutations. The V190G, Q267R and F392I mutations are first reported in this study. The most common mutations, R241C, R408Q and Ex6-96A>G, account for 23.2%, 12.0% and 9.2%, of the mutant alleles, respectively. Haplotype analysis shows that R241C and Ex6-96A>G are exclusively associated with haplotype 4.3 to suggest founder effects. On the other hand, R408Q is found on two distinct haplotypes suggesting recurrent mutations. The spectrum of PAH mutations in Taiwan shows various links to those of other Asian regions, yet remarkable differences exist. Notably, R408Q, E286K and -4173_-407del, accounting for 21% of all mutant alleles in Taiwan, are very rare or are undetected among PKU cohorts of other Asian regions to suggest local founder effects. Moreover, the low homozygosity value of 0.092 hints at a high degree of ethnic heterogeneity within the Taiwanese population. Our study of PAH mutation spectrum and the associated haplotypes is useful for subsequent study on the origin and migration pattern via Taiwan, an island at the historical crossroad of migration of ancient populations.

  14. Perspiration Functions in Different Ethnic, Age, and Sex Populations: Modification of Sudomotor Function.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Beom; Kim, Jeong-Ho; Murota, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    The sudomotor mechanism, wich contributes to tolerating thermal environments, is affected by not only the body temperature, but also sex, ethnicity, exercise training, region, season, and heat adaptation. Aging attenuates the sudomotor function by the decreased peripheral sensitivity to acetylcholine and demyelination of innervating nerves. Women show less sudomotor activity than men. Heat adaptation with sudomotor modification is induced by repetitive physical and/or thermal training. Short-term heat acclimation increases sweat gland activity. Long-term heat acclimation results in a reduction in the sweating response to stimuli. Residents of tropical areas sweat less and more slowly than residents of temperate areas. Short-term heat acclimation enhances the sweating response. Long-term heat acclimation, from seasonal change or migration, diminishes the sweating response. Also, deacclimation can be induced by migration from a tropical area to a temperate area. Body composition, especially brown adipose tissue, and weight affect thermal responses. Further studies should investigate BAT and endocrinal pyrogens as additional factors. PMID:27584970

  15. Genetic population study of Y-chromosome markers in Benin and Ivory Coast ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Fortes-Lima, Cesar; Brucato, Nicolas; Croze, Myriam; Bellis, Gil; Schiavinato, Stephanie; Massougbodji, Achille; Migot-Nabias, Florence; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel

    2015-11-01

    Ninety-six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and seventeen short tandem repeat (STRs) were investigated on the Y-chromosome of 288 unrelated healthy individuals from populations in Benin (Bariba, Yoruba, and Fon) and the Ivory Coast (Ahizi and Yacouba). We performed a multidimensional scaling analysis based on FST and RST genetic distances using a large extensive database of sub-Saharan African populations. There is more genetic homogeneity in Ivory Coast populations compared with populations from Benin. Notably, the Beninese Yoruba are significantly differentiated from neighbouring groups, but also from the Yoruba from Nigeria (FST>0.05; P<0.01). The Y-chromosome dataset presented here provides new valuable data to understand the complex genetic diversity and human male demographic events in West Africa.

  16. Ethnicity of Scandinavian populations from 1050-1500 A.D.

    PubMed

    Iregren, E; Isberg, P E

    1993-09-01

    In a skeletal material of five individuals from a non-christian cemetery in Middle Sweden (Vivallen) non-metric traits in skulls and mandibles were studied. Burial gifts and burial customs indicate Saamisch/Lappish origin of these individuals. Their affinities are explored here by comparing the traits with data on crania of Saamish populations from Northern Norway as well a with data of Nordic populations from Middle Sweden and Middle Norway. The Nordic populations from Sweden and Norway are dated to the Medieval period and the Saamish population is post-Medieval. The individuals of the Vivallen burial ground were found to exhibit Saamish as well as Nordic traits. These anthropological investigations together with odontological and palaeopathological studies constitute parts of the South-Saami project, in which also archaeologists from Sweden and Norway participate.

  17. The positive mental health instrument: development and validation of a culturally relevant scale in a multi-ethnic asian population

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Instruments to measure mental health and well-being are largely developed and often used within Western populations and this compromises their validity in other cultures. A previous qualitative study in Singapore demonstrated the relevance of spiritual and religious practices to mental health, a dimension currently not included in exiting multi-dimensional measures. The objective of this study was to develop a self-administered measure that covers all key and culturally appropriate domains of mental health, which can be applied to compare levels of mental health across different age, gender and ethnic groups. We present the item reduction and validation of the Positive Mental Health (PMH) instrument in a community-based adult sample in Singapore. Methods Surveys were conducted among adult (21-65 years) residents belonging to Chinese, Malay and Indian ethnicities. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (EFA, CFA) were conducted and items were reduced using item response theory tests (IRT). The final version of the PMH instrument was tested for internal consistency and criterion validity. Items were tested for differential item functioning (DIF) to check if items functioned in the same way across all subgroups. Results: EFA and CFA identified six first-order factor structure (General coping, Personal growth and autonomy, Spirituality, Interpersonal skills, Emotional support, and Global affect) under one higher-order dimension of Positive Mental Health (RMSEA = 0.05, CFI = 0.96, TLI = 0.96). A 47-item self-administered multi-dimensional instrument with a six-point Likert response scale was constructed. The slope estimates and strength of the relation to the theta for all items in each six PMH subscales were high (range:1.39 to 5.69), suggesting good discrimination properties. The threshold estimates for the instrument ranged from -3.45 to 1.61 indicating that the instrument covers entire spectrums for the six dimensions. The instrument demonstrated

  18. Universal HbA1c Measurement in Early Pregnancy to Detect Type 2 Diabetes Reduces Ethnic Disparities in Antenatal Diabetes Screening: A Population-Based Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In response to the type 2 diabetes epidemic, measuring HbA1c with the first-antenatal blood screen was recently recommended in NZ. This would enable prompt treatment of women with unrecognised type 2 diabetes, who may otherwise go undetected until the gestational diabetes (GDM) screen. We compare inter-ethnic antenatal screening practices to examine whether the HbA1c test would be accessed by ethnicities most at risk of diabetes, and we determined the prevalence of unrecognised type 2 diabetes and prediabetes in our pregnant population. This is an observational study of pregnancies in Christchurch NZ during 2008–2010. Utilising electronic databases, we matched maternal characteristics to first-antenatal bloods, HbA1c, and GDM screens (glucose challenge tests and oral glucose tolerance tests). Overall uptake of the first-antenatal bloods versus GDM screening was 83.1% and 53.8% respectively in 11,580 pregnancies. GDM screening was lowest in Māori 39.3%, incidence proportion ratio (IPR) 0.77 (0.71, 0.84) compared with Europeans. By including HbA1c with the first-antenatal bloods, the number screened for diabetes increases by 28.5% in Europeans, 40.0% in Māori, 28.1% in Pacific People, and 26.7% in ‘Others’ (majority of Asian descent). The combined prevalence of unrecognised type 2 diabetes and prediabetes by NZ criteria, HbA1c ≥5.9% (41mmol/mol), was 2.1% in Europeans, Māori 4.7% IPR 2.59 (1.71, 3.93), Pacific People 9.5% IPR 4.76 (3.10, 7.30), and ‘Others’ 6.2% IPR 2.99 (2.19, 4.07). Applying these prevalence data to 2013 NZ national births data, routine antenatal HbA1c testing could have identified type 2 diabetes in 0.44% and prediabetes in 3.96% of women. Routine HbA1c measurement in early pregnancy is an ideal screening opportunity, particularly benefitting vulnerable groups, reducing ethnic disparities in antenatal diabetes screening. This approach is likely to have world-wide relevance and applicability. Further research is underway to establish

  19. Introduction to the science of recruitment and retention among ethnically diverse populations.

    PubMed

    Dilworth-Anderson, Peggye

    2011-06-01

    Recruitment and retention of research participants is evolving with the changing demographics of the American population, in particular its growing diversity. The cultural-historical background and sociopolitical conditions of each diverse group poses unique challenges in developing successful recruitment and retention methods and strategies. This critical collection of articles demonstrates important theoretical and conceptual frameworks that seek to address the shortcomings of previous models of recruiting diverse populations. Understanding the key components of cultural distinctions, such as values and beliefs, community cohesion, and collective history, has proven to be instrumental in reaching out to these diverse groups. This important strategy has allowed researchers to overcome the barriers that have been fostered in the past and has built the trust necessary to move forward into an inclusive approach to aging research. Not to be overlooked, an important factor to achieving success in recruitment and retention of diverse populations is having access to resources that allow for ongoing connection with research participants.

  20. Use of the Raven Progressive Matrices Test in an Ethnically Diverse Gifted Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saccuzzo, Dennis P.; And Others

    The efficacy of use of the Raven Progressive Matrices Test (RPM) in the selection of gifted children from traditionally underrepresented groups was investigated in a large-scale study with a diverse population. A total of 16,985 subjects were given the Raven Progressive Matrices Test. These included 22.7 percent Latinos, 37 percent Whites, 14…

  1. Evaluating the Spatial Distributions of Ethnic Populations: A Quantitative Exercise for Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivizzigno, Victoria L.

    This exercise teaches undergraduate geography students to use the Lorenz Curve and the Index of Dissimilarity to assess the spatial distributions of the White, Black, and American Indian populations of the United States in 1980. Specific procedures for implementing the exercise are provided; solutions to the exercise are also included. Students…

  2. Introduction to the Science of Recruitment and Retention among Ethnically Diverse Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilworth-Anderson, Peggye

    2011-01-01

    Recruitment and retention of research participants is evolving with the changing demographics of the American population, in particular its growing diversity. The cultural-historical background and sociopolitical conditions of each diverse group poses unique challenges in developing successful recruitment and retention methods and strategies. This…

  3. Population genetics and forensic efficiency of twenty-one novel microsatellite loci of Chinese Yi ethnic group.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bo-Feng; Pan, Feng; Shen, Chun-Mei; Yan, Jiang-Wei; Wang, Hong-Dan; Guo, Jian-Xin; Wang, Yan-Li; Meng, Hao-Tian; Liu, Wen-Juan; Zhang, Yu-Dang; Liu, Rui; Jing, Hang; Xu, Peng

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we investigated polymorphic distributions of allelic frequencies and forensic genetic parameters of 21 novel autosomal microsatellite loci from 110 unrelated healthy individuals of Chinese Yi ethnic group. Expected heterozygosity, power of discrimination, and polymorphic information content ranged from 0.617 to 0.812, 0.777 to 0.936 and 0.560 to 0.790. The microsatellite loci showed high forensic efficiency. The total discrimination power and cumulate probability of exclusion were 0.99999999999999999986902 and 0.999998818, respectively. Locus-by-locus allelic frequencies were compared using analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) method, and the statistically significant differences were observed between Yi group and Russian, Tujia, Kazak, Bai, Ningxia Han, Salar, Tibetan, and Uigur groups at 5, 6, 7, 7, 7, 8, 12, and 13 loci, respectively. The results of genetic distance comparisons, genetic structure analyses, and principal component analysis all indicated that the Yi group showed relatively short genetic relationships with Russian, Salar, and Bai group. The experimental results showed that the 21 loci in the multiplex system provided highly polymorphic information and forensic efficiency for forensic individual identification and paternity testing, also basic population data for population genetics and anthropological research.

  4. Race/Ethnicity and Primary Language: Health Beliefs about Colorectal Cancer Screening in a Diverse, Low-Income Population

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, Alison Tytell; Ko, Linda K.; Janz, Nancy; Gupta, Shivani; Inadomi, John

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is an important cause of cancer death in adults in the U.S.; screening is effective but underutilized, particularly among minorities. The purpose of this paper was to explore whether health belief model (HBM) constructs pertaining to CRC screening differ by race/ethnicity and primary language. Data were from the baseline surveys of 933 participants (93.5%) in a randomized trial promoting CRC screening in San Francisco. Composite scores for each construct were created from multiple items, dichotomized for analysis, and analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. Most participants were Asian (29.7%) or Hispanic (34.3%), and many were non-English speakers. Non-English speaking Hispanics (p<.001) and English-speaking Asians (p=.002) reported lower perceived susceptibility than non-Hispanic Whites (NHW). Non-English speaking Hispanics reported more and non-English speaking Asians fewer perceived barriers (psychological and structural) than NHW. Understanding how different populations think about CRC screening may be critical in promoting screening in diverse populations. PMID:26320917

  5. Huntington disease in the South African population occurs on diverse and ethnically distinct genetic haplotypes.

    PubMed

    Baine, Fiona K; Kay, Chris; Ketelaar, Maria E; Collins, Jennifer A; Semaka, Alicia; Doty, Crystal N; Krause, Amanda; Greenberg, L Jacquie; Hayden, Michael R

    2013-10-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder resulting from the expansion of a CAG trinucleotide repeat in the huntingtin (HTT) gene. Worldwide prevalence varies geographically with the highest figures reported in populations of European ancestry. HD in South Africa has been reported in Caucasian, black and mixed subpopulations, with similar estimated prevalence in the Caucasian and mixed groups and a lower estimate in the black subpopulation. Recent studies have associated specific HTT haplotypes with HD in distinct populations. Expanded HD alleles in Europe occur predominantly on haplogroup A (specifically high-risk variants A1/A2), whereas in East Asian populations, HD alleles are associated with haplogroup C. Whether specific HTT haplotypes associate with HD in black Africans and how these compare with haplotypes found in European and East Asian populations remains unknown. The current study genotyped the HTT region in unaffected individuals and HD patients from each of the South African subpopulations, and haplotypes were constructed. CAG repeat sizes were determined and phased to haplotype. Results indicate that HD alleles from Caucasian and mixed patients are predominantly associated with haplogroup A, signifying a similar European origin for HD. However, in black patients, HD occurs predominantly on haplogroup B, suggesting several distinct origins of the mutation in South Africa. The absence of high-risk variants (A1/A2) in the black subpopulation may also explain the reported low prevalence of HD. Identification of haplotypes associated with HD-expanded alleles is particularly relevant to the development of population-specific therapeutic targets for selective suppression of the expanded HTT transcript.

  6. Multiple ethnic origins of mitochondrial DNA lineages for the population of Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Fregel, Rosa; Seetah, Krish; Betancor, Eva; Suárez, Nicolás M; Čaval, Diego; Caval, Saša; Janoo, Anwar; Pestano, Jose

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on the first genetic assessment of the contemporary Mauritian population. Small island nodes such as Mauritius played a critical role in historic globalization processes and revealing high-resolution details of labour sourcing is crucial in order to better understand early-modern diaspora events. Mauritius is a particularly interesting case given detailed historic accounts attesting to European (Dutch, French and British), African and Asian points of origin. Ninety-seven samples were analysed for mitochondrial DNA to begin unravelling the complex dynamics of the island's modern population. In corroboration with general demographic information, the majority of maternal lineages were derived from South Asia (58.76%), with Malagasy (16.60%), East/Southeast Asian (11.34%) and Sub-Saharan African (10.21%) also making significant contributions. This study pinpoints specific regional origins for the South Asian genetic contribution, showing a greater influence on the contemporary population from northern and southeast India. Moreover, the analysis of lineages related to the slave trade demonstrated that Madagascar and East Asia were the main centres of origin, with less influence from West Africa.

  7. Ethnically distinct populations of historical Tibet exhibit distinct autosomal STR compositions.

    PubMed

    Tsering, Thupten; Gayden, Tenzin; Chennakrishnaiah, Shilpa; Bukhari, Areej; Garcia-Bertrand, Ralph; Herrera, Rene J

    2016-03-01

    At an average altitude of 4000m above sea level, the Tibetan plateau is one of the highest plains on the planet. It is surrounded on three sides by massive mountain ranges: the Kunlun, the Karakoram and the Himalayas. These natural barriers have kept Tibet relatively isolated. In the present study, 15 autosomal STR loci were genotyped in 338 unrelated individuals from three traditional provinces of historical Tibet: Amdo (86), Kham (101) and U-Tsang (151). All the studied loci were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium except for the D19S433 locus in the Kham province. FGA, D21S11 and D2S1338 show the highest observed heterozygosity values in Amdo (0.8954), Kham (0.9208) and U-Tsang (0.8940), respectively, whereas TPOX is the least variable marker displaying the lowest value for the same parameter. U-Tsang exhibits the highest total numbers of alleles (139) followed by Kham (130) and Amdo (128) groups. The allele frequency data from this study were compared to relevant global reference populations. Our results indicate that although these three Tibetan populations group together in both the Correspondence Analysis (CA) plot and the Neighbor Joining (NJ) tree, they exhibit some degree of genetic differentiation among themselves congruent with their unique dialects, cultures and traditions. The 15 autosomal STR loci studied were found to be informative and discriminating, thereby providing a useful set of markers for population genetic studies. PMID:26688553

  8. Multiple Ethnic Origins of Mitochondrial DNA Lineages for the Population of Mauritius

    PubMed Central

    Betancor, Eva; Suárez, Nicolás M.; Calaon, Diego; Čaval, Saša; Janoo, Anwar; Pestano, Jose

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on the first genetic assessment of the contemporary Mauritian population. Small island nodes such as Mauritius played a critical role in historic globalization processes and revealing high-resolution details of labour sourcing is crucial in order to better understand early-modern diaspora events. Mauritius is a particularly interesting case given detailed historic accounts attesting to European (Dutch, French and British), African and Asian points of origin. Ninety-seven samples were analysed for mitochondrial DNA to begin unravelling the complex dynamics of the island's modern population. In corroboration with general demographic information, the majority of maternal lineages were derived from South Asia (58.76%), with Malagasy (16.60%), East/Southeast Asian (11.34%) and Sub-Saharan African (10.21%) also making significant contributions. This study pinpoints specific regional origins for the South Asian genetic contribution, showing a greater influence on the contemporary population from northern and southeast India. Moreover, the analysis of lineages related to the slave trade demonstrated that Madagascar and East Asia were the main centres of origin, with less influence from West Africa. PMID:24676463

  9. Retail food safety risks for populations of different races, ethnicities, and income levels.

    PubMed

    Signs, Renata J; Darcey, Valerie L; Carney, Trish A; Evans, Alison A; Quinlan, Jennifer J

    2011-10-01

    Research has found that populations with low socioeconomic status (SES) and minority populations have greater access to small corner markets and less access to supermarkets than high-SES and Caucasian populations. This represents a significant difference in the farm-to-fork continuum that these populations experience. This research examined whether differential retail access to foods results in different food safety risks at the retail level for consumers with different demographics. U.S. Census Bureau census tracts with high African American, Asian, Hispanic, Caucasian, low-SES, and high-SES populations were identified in Philadelphia, PA. Approximately 60 retail food establishments were sampled in each census tract category from June 2008 to June 2010. Food samples collected at stores included milk, eggs, lunchmeat, sandwiches, and ready-to-eat (RTE) fresh fruit, greens, and herbs, when available. With the exception of milk and eggs, only food that had been handled and/or prepared at the retail level was sampled. Food samples were tested for temperature, aerobic plate count, coliforms, fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes. The results indicated that internal egg temperatures were higher in samples from low-SES census tracts than in eggs from Caucasian census tracts, and eggs were more often found unrefrigerated in markets in low-SES and Asian census tracts. Milk samples from markets in Hispanic and low-SES census tracts had higher aerobic plate counts than high-SES census tract samples. Sandwiches from markets in high-SES census tracts had higher coliform counts than sandwiches from markets in all other census tract categories. Markets in Asian census tracts had a higher incidence of fecal coliform contamination on sandwiches than markets in Caucasian census tracts. Fecal coliforms were present in a percentage of RTE greens from markets in all census tracts except African American, with the highest percentages of

  10. Allelic frequency distributions of 21 non-combined DNA index system STR loci in a Russian ethnic minority group from Inner Mongolia, China*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong-dan; Shen, Chun-mei; Liu, Wen-juan; Zhang, Yu-dang; Yang, Guang; Yan, Jiang-wei; Qin, Hai-xia; Zhu, Bo-feng

    2013-01-01

    We studied the allelic frequency distributions and statistical forensic parameters of 21 new short tandem repeat (STR) loci and the amelogenin locus, which are not included in the combined DNA index system (CODIS), in a Russian ethnic minority group from the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China. A total of 114 bloodstain samples from unrelated individuals were extracted and co-amplified with four fluorescence-labeled primers in a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system. Using capillary electrophoresis, the PCR products of the 21 STR loci were separated and genotyped. A total of 161 alleles were observed in the Russian ethnic minority group, and corresponding allelic frequencies ranged from 0.0044 to 0.5965. The 21 non-CODIS STR loci of the Russian ethnic minority group were characterized by high genetic diversity and therefore may be useful for elucidating the population’s genetic background, for individual identification, and for paternity testing in forensic practice. PMID:23733431

  11. Uncovering disparities in survival after non-small-cell lung cancer among Asian/Pacific Islander ethnic populations in California

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ellen T.; Shema, Sarah J.; Wakelee, Heather A.; Clarke, Christina A.; Gomez, Scarlett Lin

    2009-01-01

    Asians may have better survival after non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) than non-Asians. However, it is unknown whether survival varies among the heterogeneous U.S. Asian/Pacific Islander (API) populations. Therefore, this study aimed to quantify survival differences among APIs with NSCLC. Differences in overall and disease-specific survival were analyzed in the California Cancer Registry among 16,577 API patients diagnosed with incident NSCLC between 1988 and 2007. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression models with separate baseline hazards by disease stage. Despite better overall and disease-specific survival among APIs compared with non-Hispanic Whites, differences were evident across API populations. Among women, Japanese (overall survival HR=1.16, 95% CI=1.06–1.27) and APIs other than those in the six largest ethnic groups (“other APIs”; HR=1.19, 95% CI=1.07–1.33) had significantly poorer overall and disease-specific survival than Chinese. By contrast, South Asian women had significantly better survival than Chinese (HR=0.79, 95% CI=0.63–0.97). Among men, Japanese (HR=1.15, 95% CI=1.07–1.24), Vietnamese (HR=1.07, 95% CI=1.00–1.16), and other APIs (HR=1.18, 95% CI=1.08–1.28) had significantly poorer overall and disease-specific survival than Chinese. Other factors independently associated with poorer survival were lower neighborhood SES, involvement with a non-university-teaching hospital, unmarried status, older age, and earlier year of diagnosis. APIs have significant ethnic differences in NSCLC survival that may be related to disparate lifestyles, biology, and especially health care access or use. To reduce the nationwide burden of lung cancer mortality, it is critical to identify and ameliorate hidden survival disparities such as those among APIs. PMID:19622719

  12. Ethnic and Gender Differences in Smoking and Smoking Cessation in a Population of Young Adult Air Force Recruits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Kenneth D.; Vander Weg, Mark W.; Kovach, Kristen Wood; Klesges, Robert C.; DeBon, Margaret W.; Haddock, C. Keith; Talcott, G. Wayne; Lando, Harry A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated gender and ethnic differences in smoking and smoking cessation among young adult military recruits. Surveys administered at the start of basic training indicated that whites (especially white females) and Native Americans were more likely to smoke than other ethnic groups. Gender differences were not observed in cessation rates, which…

  13. Images of the "Other" with "Alien" Ethnicity in the Conscience of Russian Population Living in Border Regions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omelchenko, Daria A.; Maximova, Svetlana G.; Noyanzina, Oksana E.; Maximov, Maxim B.; Avdeeva, Galina S.

    2016-01-01

    In the age of dense international relations, heightened by intensive migration flows and local ethnic identity strengthening, the study of social representations of ethnic "others" in public consciousness permit to fulfill the evaluation of the current interethnic situation in the country, explore the latent unconscious groundings for…

  14. Cognitive Preferences and Ethnicity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, William J.; O'Donnell, Teresa Flores

    This document reports on a study into the relationships between cognitive preferences, achievement, and ethnicity of first year algebra students. The sample consisted of 175 students from two high schools in the Denver (Colorado) metropolitan area. The two schools were chosen because of the diversity of ethnic groups in the student populations.…

  15. Impact of CCL2 and Its Receptor CCR2 Gene Polymorphism in North Indian Population: A Comparative Study in Different Ethnic Groups Worldwide.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vibha; Srivastava, Neena; Srivastava, Priyanka; Mittal, Rama Devi

    2013-07-01

    Chemokine are small, inducible pro-inflammatory cytokines involved in many biological processes, such as migration of leukocytes, atherosclerosis, angiogenesis, tumor growth, and metastasis. Chemokine are also known to influence tumor cell's activity. Specifically, tumor cells express chemokine receptors in a non random manner suggesting a role of chemokine in metastatic destination of tumor cells. The present study was conducted to determine distribution of (Chemokine receptor 2) CCR2 V64I, Chemokine ligand 2 CCL2 I/D, and CCL2 2518 A>G gene polymorphisms in North Indian population and compare with different populations globally. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based analysis was conducted in 200 normal healthy individuals of similar ethnicity. Allelic frequencies in wild type (GG) of CCR2 V64I G>A were 63 % G; CCL2 I/D 42 % II; CCL2 2518 A>G 40.5 % A. The minor variant allele frequency in our population was as follows: 19.5 % for CCR2 V64I, 35.5 % for CCL2 I/D, 35.3 % for CCL2 2518 A>G. We further compared frequency distribution for these genes with various published studies in different ethnicity. Our results suggested that frequency in chemokine genes exhibit distinctive pattern in India that could be attributed to ethnicity variation. This could assist in high-risk screening of human exposed to environmental carcinogens and cancer predisposition in different ethnic groups. Thus, they signify an impact of ethnicity and provide a basis for future epidemiological and clinical studies.

  16. Trends in Breast Reconstruction by Ethnicity: An Institutional Review Centered on the Treatment of an Urban Population.

    PubMed

    Rodby, Katherine A; Danielson, Kirstie K; Shay, Elizabeth; Robinson, Emilie; Benjamin, Martin; Antony, Anuja K

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies have investigated reconstructive decisions after mastectomy and such studies document a preference among African American women for autologous tissue-based procedures and among Latin American women for implant-based reconstructions, however, there is a paucity of studies evaluating the current relationship between ethnicity and reconstructive preferences. This institutional review provides a unique, up-to-date evaluation of an understudied urban population composed of majority ethnic minority patients and explores reconstructive trends. Consecutive breast reconstruction patients were entered into a prospectively maintained database at the University of Illinois at Chicago and affiliate hospitals between July 2010 and October 2013. Demographics and oncologic characteristics including tumor stage, pathology, BRCA status, and adjuvant treatment were reviewed, and reconstructive trends were assessed by racial group with a focus on reconstructive procedure, mastectomy volume, and implant characteristics. Statistical analysis was performed using SAS (version 9.2). One-hundred and sixty breast reconstructions were performed in 105 women; of which 50 per cent were African American, 26 per cent Hispanic, 22 per cent Caucasian, and 2 per cent Asian. Age, tumor stage, prevalence of triple negative disease, chemotherapy, and radiation treatment was comparable between groups. Rates of obesity, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus were slightly higher in African American and Hispanic cohorts, with more African American patients having one or more of these comorbidities as compared with the Caucasian and Hispanic cohorts (P = 0.047). Despite comparable positive BRCA testing rates, significant differences were seen in the percentage of bilateral mastectomy; 68 per cent African American, 48 per cent Caucasian, and 30 per cent Hispanic (P = 0.004). Hispanics predominantly underwent flap-based reconstruction (56%), while African American (74%) and Caucasian (60

  17. Foodborne Illness Incidence Rates and Food Safety Risks for Populations of Low Socioeconomic Status and Minority Race/Ethnicity: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Quinlan, Jennifer J.

    2013-01-01

    While foodborne illness is not traditionally tracked by race, ethnicity or income, analyses of reported cases have found increased rates of some foodborne illnesses among minority racial/ethnic populations. In some cases (Listeria, Yersinia) increased rates are due to unique food consumption patterns, in other cases (Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter) it is unclear why this health disparity exists. Research on safe food handling knowledge and behaviors among low income and minority consumers suggest that there may be a need to target safe food handling messages to these vulnerable populations. Another possibility is that these populations are receiving food that is less safe at the level of the retail outlet or foodservice facility. Research examining the quality and safety of food available at small markets in the food desert environment indicates that small corner markets face unique challenges which may affect the quality and potential safety of perishable food. Finally, a growing body of research has found that independent ethnic foodservice facilities may present increased risks for foodborne illness. This review of the literature will examine the current state of what is known about foodborne illness among, and food safety risks for, minority and low socioeconomic populations, with an emphasis on the United States and Europe. PMID:23955239

  18. Vitamin-D status and mineral metabolism in two ethnic populations with sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Capolongo, Giovanna; Xu, Li Hao Richie; Accardo, Mariasofia; Sanduzzi, Alessandro; Stanziola, Anna Agnese; Colao, Annamaria; Agostini, Carlo; Zacchia, Miriam; Capasso, Giovambattista; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Moe, Orson W; Maalouf, Naim M; Sakhaee, Khashayar; Hsia, Connie C W

    2016-06-01

    Vitamin-D insufficiency and sarcoidosis are more common and severe in African Americans (AA) than Caucasians. In sarcoidosis, substrate-dependent extrarenal 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin-D (1,25-(OH)2D) production is thought to contribute to hypercalciuria and hypercalcemia, and vitamin-D repletion is often avoided. However, the anti-inflammatory properties of vitamin-D may also be beneficial. We prospectively examined serum vitamin-D levels, calcium balance, and the effects of vitamin-D repletion in 86 AA and Caucasian patients with biopsy-proven active sarcoidosis from the USA (US) and Italy (IT) in university-affiliated outpatient clinics. Clinical features, pulmonary function, and calciotropic hormones were measured. 16 patients with vitamin-D deficiency and normal serum ionized calcium (Ca(2+)) were treated with oral ergocalciferol (50,000 IU/week) for 12 weeks. Baseline mineral parameters were similar in US (93% AA) and IT (95% Caucasian) patients irrespective of glucocorticoid treatment. Pulmonary dysfunction was less pronounced in IT patients. Nephrolithiasis (in 11% US, 17% IT patients) was associated with higher urinary calcium excretion. Vitamin-D deficiency was not more prevalent in patients compared to the respective general populations. As serum 25-hydroxyvitamin-D (25-OHD) rose postrepletion, serum 1,25-(OH)2D, γ-globulins, and the previously elevated angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) levels declined. Asymptomatic reversible increases in Ca(2+) or urinary calcium/creatinine (Ca/Cr) developed in three patients during repletion. In conclusion, Caucasian and AA patients show similar calcium and vitamin D profiles. The higher prevalence of hypercalciuria and nephrolithiasis in sarcoidosis is unrelated to endogenous vitamin-D levels. Vitamin-D repletion in sarcoidosis is generally safe, although calcium balance should be monitored. A hypothesis that 25-OHD repletion suppresses granulomatous immune activity is provided. PMID:27053725

  19. What are effective approaches to increasing rates of organ donor registration among ethnic minority populations: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Deedat, Sarah; Kenten, Charlotte; Morgan, Myfanwy

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To identify effective interventions to increase organ donor registration and improve knowledge about organ donation among ethnic minorities in North America and the UK. Design Systematic review. Data Sources MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and Cochrane Central searched up to November 2012, together with four trials databases and the grey literature. Review methods A systematic search followed by assessment of eligibility and quality. An interpretive and thematic approach to synthesis was undertaken. This examined the nature and delivery of interventions in relation to a range of outcomes: verified registration, changing knowledge and a measured shift towards greater readiness. Results 18 studies were included in the review, comprising educational and mass media interventions. Mass media interventions alone reported no significant change in the intention or willingness to register. Educational interventions either alone or combined with mass media approaches were more effective in increasing registration rates, with a strong interpersonal component and an immediate opportunity to register identified as important characteristics in successful change. Conclusions Effective interventions need to be matched to the populations’ stage of readiness to register. Measured outcomes should include registration and shifts along the pathway towards this behavioural outcome. PMID:24362010

  20. Deciphering diversity in populations of various linguistic and ethnic affiliations of different geographical regions of India: analysis based on 15 microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Kashyap, V K; Ashma, Richa; Gaikwad, Sonali; Sarkar, B N; Trivedi, R

    2004-04-01

    The extent of genetic polymorphism at fifteen autosomal microsatellite markers in 54 ethnically, linguistically and geographically diverse human populations of India was studied to decipher intrapopulation diversity. The parameters used to quantify intrapopulation diversity were average allele diversity, average heterozygosity, allele range (base pairs), and number of alleles. Multilocus genotype frequencies calculated for selected populations were utilized for testing conformity with the assumption of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The exact test values, after Bonferroni correction, showed significant deviation amongst Gowda (vWA, Penta E); Dhangar, Satnami and Gounder (D8S1179); Hmar (FGA); Kuki and Balti (vWA) groups. Relatively low number of alleles and allelic diversity (base-pairs size) had been observed in populations of central India as compared with southern and northern regions of the country. The communities of Indo-Caucasoid ethnic origin and Indo-European linguistic family (Kshatriya of Uttar Pradesh) showed highest allelic diversity, as well as rare alleles, not reported in any other Indian populations. Analysis based on average heterozygosity was also found to be lowest among the populations of central India (0.729) and highest among the populations from north (0.777) and west (0.784) regions of the country, having Indo-Caucasoid ethnic origin and Austro-Asiatic linguistic affiliation. The maximum power of discrimination (85%-89%) had been observed at loci FGA, Penta E, D18S51 and D21S11, suggested high intrapopulation diversity in India. Genetic diversity revealed by STR markers was consistent with the known demographic histories of populations. Thus, the present study clearly demonstrated that the intrapopulation diversity is not only present at the national level, but also within smaller geographical regions of the country. This is the first attempt to understand the extent of diversity within populations of India at such a large scale at genomic

  1. [Polymorphism of 11 non-CODIS STRs in a population sample of ethnic minority of Polish Tatars residing in northeastern Poland].

    PubMed

    Pepiński, Witold; Niemcunowicz-Janica, Anna; Skawrońska, Małgorzata; Aleksandrowicz-Bukin, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Population genetic data for 11 STRs included in the Humantype Chimera kit were obtained by multiplex PCR and subsequent automated fluorescent detection (ABI 310) from a sample of 125 unrelated individuals of ethnic minority of Polish Tatars residing in Podlasie Region (NE Poland). The genotype distributions conformed to HWE for all the analyzed loci except D2S1360 and D21S2055. The highly polymorphic systems exhibit high informativeness and are a potential extension to CODIS loci.

  2. The Use of Television in the Development of Career Awareness for an Ethnically Diverse Elementary School Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Philip T. K.

    1982-01-01

    Explores the pattern of ethnic attitude formation toward careers among young children and how television influences these attitudes. Also discusses other influencers of children's attitudes: parents, teachers, and peers. (CT)

  3. Ethnic characterization of a population of children exposed to high doses of arsenic via drinking water and a possible correlation with metabolic processes.

    PubMed

    Bobillo, Cecilia; Navoni, Julio A; Olmos, Valentina; Merini, Luciano J; Villaamil Lepori, Edda; Corach, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Because the ratio between the two major arsenic metabolites is related to the adverse health effects of arsenic, numerous studies have been performed to establish a relationship between the ability to metabolically detoxify arsenic and other variables, including exposure level, gender, age and ethnicity. Because ethnicity may play a key role and provide relevant information for heterogeneous populations, we characterized a group of 70 children from rural schools in the Argentinean provinces of Chaco and Santiago del Estero who were exposed to high levels of arsenic. We used genetic markers for maternal, paternal and bi-parental ancestry to achieve this goal. Our results demonstrate that the Amerindian maternal linages are present in 100% of the samples, whereas the Amerindian component transmitted through the paternal line is less than 10%. Informative markers for autosomal ancestry show a predominantly European ancestry, in which 37% of the samples contained between 90 and 99% European ancestry. The native American component ranged from 50 to 80% in 15.7% of the samples, and in all but four samples, the African component was less than 10%. Correlation analysis demonstrated that the ethnicity and the ratio of the excreted arsenic metabolites monomethyl arsenic and dimethyl arsenic are not associated, dismissing a relationship between ethnic origin and differential metabolism.

  4. Ethnic characterization of a population of children exposed to high doses of arsenic via drinking water and a possible correlation with metabolic processes

    PubMed Central

    Bobillo, Cecilia; Navoni, Julio A; Olmos, Valentina; Merini, Luciano J; Villaamil Lepori, Edda; Corach, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Because the ratio between the two major arsenic metabolites is related to the adverse health effects of arsenic, numerous studies have been performed to establish a relationship between the ability to metabolically detoxify arsenic and other variables, including exposure level, gender, age and ethnicity. Because ethnicity may play a key role and provide relevant information for heterogeneous populations, we characterized a group of 70 children from rural schools in the Argentinean provinces of Chaco and Santiago del Estero who were exposed to high levels of arsenic. We used genetic markers for maternal, paternal and bi-parental ancestry to achieve this goal. Our results demonstrate that the Amerindian maternal linages are present in 100% of the samples, whereas the Amerindian component transmitted through the paternal line is less than 10%. Informative markers for autosomal ancestry show a predominantly European ancestry, in which 37% of the samples contained between 90 and 99% European ancestry. The native American component ranged from 50 to 80% in 15.7% of the samples, and in all but four samples, the African component was less than 10%. Correlation analysis demonstrated that the ethnicity and the ratio of the excreted arsenic metabolites monomethyl arsenic and dimethyl arsenic are not associated, dismissing a relationship between ethnic origin and differential metabolism. PMID:24596592

  5. Density estimation in tiger populations: combining information for strong inference.

    PubMed

    Gopalaswamy, Arjun M; Royle, J Andrew; Delampady, Mohan; Nichols, James D; Karanth, K Ullas; Macdonald, David W

    2012-07-01

    A productive way forward in studies of animal populations is to efficiently make use of all the information available, either as raw data or as published sources, on critical parameters of interest. In this study, we demonstrate two approaches to the use of multiple sources of information on a parameter of fundamental interest to ecologists: animal density. The first approach produces estimates simultaneously from two different sources of data. The second approach was developed for situations in which initial data collection and analysis are followed up by subsequent data collection and prior knowledge is updated with new data using a stepwise process. Both approaches are used to estimate density of a rare and elusive predator, the tiger, by combining photographic and fecal DNA spatial capture-recapture data. The model, which combined information, provided the most precise estimate of density (8.5 +/- 1.95 tigers/100 km2 [posterior mean +/- SD]) relative to a model that utilized only one data source (photographic, 12.02 +/- 3.02 tigers/100 km2 and fecal DNA, 6.65 +/- 2.37 tigers/100 km2). Our study demonstrates that, by accounting for multiple sources of available information, estimates of animal density can be significantly improved.

  6. Density estimation in tiger populations: combining information for strong inference

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gopalaswamy, Arjun M.; Royle, J. Andrew; Delampady, Mohan; Nichols, James D.; Karanth, K. Ullas; Macdonald, David W.

    2012-01-01

    A productive way forward in studies of animal populations is to efficiently make use of all the information available, either as raw data or as published sources, on critical parameters of interest. In this study, we demonstrate two approaches to the use of multiple sources of information on a parameter of fundamental interest to ecologists: animal density. The first approach produces estimates simultaneously from two different sources of data. The second approach was developed for situations in which initial data collection and analysis are followed up by subsequent data collection and prior knowledge is updated with new data using a stepwise process. Both approaches are used to estimate density of a rare and elusive predator, the tiger, by combining photographic and fecal DNA spatial capture–recapture data. The model, which combined information, provided the most precise estimate of density (8.5 ± 1.95 tigers/100 km2 [posterior mean ± SD]) relative to a model that utilized only one data source (photographic, 12.02 ± 3.02 tigers/100 km2 and fecal DNA, 6.65 ± 2.37 tigers/100 km2). Our study demonstrates that, by accounting for multiple sources of available information, estimates of animal density can be significantly improved.

  7. STR-based genetic structure of the Berber population of Bejaia (Northern Algeria) and its relationships to various ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Amir, Nadir; Sahnoune, Mohamed; Chikhi, Lounes; Atmani, Djebbar

    2015-12-10

    Patterns of genetic variation in human populations have been described for decades. However, North Africa has received little attention and Algeria, in particular, is poorly studied, Here we genotyped a Berber-speaking population from Algeria using 15 short tandem repeat (STR) loci D8S1179, D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO, D3S1358, TH01, D13S317, D16S539, D2S1338, D19S433, vWA, TPOX, D18S51, D5S818 and FGA from the commercially available AmpF/STR Identifiler kit. Altogether 150 unrelated North Algerian individuals were sampled across 10 administrative regions or towns from the Bejaia Wilaya (administrative district). We found that all of the STR loci met Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations, after Bonferroni correction and that the Berber-speaking population of Bejaia presented a high level of observed heterozygosity for the 15 STR system (>0.7). Genetic parameters of forensic interest such as combined power of discrimination (PD) and combined probability of exclusion (PE) showed values higher than 0.999, suggesting that this set of STRs can be used for forensic studies. Our results were also compared to those published for 42 other human populations analyzed with the same set. We found that the Bejaia sample clustered with several North African populations but that some geographically close populations, including the Berber-speaking Mozabite from Algeria were closer to Near-Eastern populations. While we were able to detect some genetic structure among samples, we found that it was not correlated to language (Berber-speaking versus Arab-speaking) or to geography (east versus west). In other words, no significant genetic differences were found between the Berber-speaking and the Arab-speaking populations of North Africa. The genetic closeness of European, North African and Near-Eastern populations suggest that North Africa should be integrated in models aiming at reconstructing the demographic history of Europe. Similarly, the genetic proximity with sub-Saharan Africa is

  8. A study of genetic polymorphisms in mitochondrial DNA hypervariable regions I and II of the five major ethnic groups and Vedda population in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Ranasinghe, Ruwandi; Tennekoon, Kamani H; Karunanayake, Eric H; Lembring, Maria; Allen, Marie

    2015-11-01

    Diversity of the hypervariable regions (HV) I and II of the mitochondrial genome was studied in maternally unrelated Sri Lankans (N=202) from six ethnic groups (i.e.: Sinhalese, Sri Lankan Tamil, Muslim, Malay, Indian Tamil and Vedda). DNA was extracted from blood and buccal swabs and HVI and HVII regions were PCR amplified and sequenced. Resulting sequences were aligned and edited between 16024-16365 and 73-340 regions and compared with revised Cambridge reference sequences (rCRS). One hundred and thirty-five unique haplotypes and 22 shared haplotypes were observed. A total of 145 polymorphic sites and 158 polymorphisms were observed. Hypervariable region I showed a higher polymorphic variation than hypervariable region II. Nucleotide diversities were quite low and similar for all ethnicities apart from a slightly higher value for Indian Tamils and a much lower value for the Vedda population compared to the other groups. When the total population was considered South Asian (Indian) haplogroups were predominant, but there were differences in the distribution of phylo-geographical haplogroups between ethnic groups. Sinhalese, Sri Lankan Tamil and Vedda populations had a considerable presence of West Eurasian haplogroups. About 2/3rd of the Vedda population comprised of macro-haplogroup N or its subclades R and U, whereas macro-haplogroup M was predominant in all other populations. The Vedda population clustered separately from other groups and Sri Lankan Tamils showed a closer genetic affiliation to Sinhalese than to Indian Tamils. Thus this study provides useful information for forensic analysis and anthropological studies of Sri Lankans.

  9. Geographical and Ethnic Distributions of the MTHFR C677T, A1298C and MTRR A66G Gene Polymorphisms in Chinese Populations: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Dingyuan

    2016-01-01

    Background The geographical and ethnic distributions of the polymorphic methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) mutations (C677T and A1298C) and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) mutation (A66G) remain heterogeneous in China. The goal of this study was to estimate the pooled frequencies of the alleles and associated genotypes of these gene polymorphisms among healthy populations in Mainland China. Objective and Methods We systematically reviewed published epidemiological studies on the distributions of 3 genetic variants in Chinese healthy populations living in Mainland China through a meta-analysis. The relevant electronic databases were searched. All of the raw data of the eligible citations were extracted. The frequency estimates were stratified by geography, ethnicity and sex. Results Sixty-six studies were identified with a total of 92277 study participants. The meta-analysis revealed that the frequencies of the MTHFR C677T, A1298C, and MTRR A66G gene polymorphisms varied significantly between different ethnic groups and along geographical gradients. The frequencies of the 677T allele and 677TT genotype increased along the southern-central-northern direction across Mainland China (all Pvalues≤0.001). The frequencies of the 1298C, 1298CC, 66G and 66GG genotypes decreased along the south-central-north direction across the country (all Pvalues≤0.001). Conclusions Our meta-analysis strongly indicates significant geographical and ethnic variations in the frequencies of the C677T, A1298C, and A66G gene polymorphisms in the folate metabolism pathway among Chinese populations. PMID:27089387

  10. Ethnic disparities in cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    Ofili, E

    2001-01-01

    Disparities in the cardiovascular outcomes of African-American patients is evident from national, regional, and local statistical data, as well as from the daily practice of medicine. This discussion highlights the complexity of ethnic disparities using a case-based approach with two typical cases from a cardiology practice. These cases underscore the complex interplay of the following factors in ethnic disparities. 1. Excess burden of cardiovascular risk factors in African Americans, with particular emphasis on high blood pressure, diabetes, obesity, physical inactivity, and psychosocial stress. 2. Inadequate knowledge of how personal risk factors are directly linked to atherosclerosis and heart disease. 3. Cultural factors in symptom recognition and health-care seeking behavior. 4. Economic factors influencing access to health care including prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. 5. A combination of psychosocial stress, racism, and frustration leading to sub-optimal interactions with the health care system. 6. Genetics of disease and predisposition to vascular disease and atherosclerosis. We must come to terms with these fundamental factors in the causation and, therefore, the resolution of ethnic disparities in cardiovascular health. Successful strategies must include: 1) partnerships for long-term, sustainable, population-wide strategies on risk factor modification; 2) models of culturally competent health care delivery; and 3) research on the gene-environment interactions, which cause the susceptibility of ethnic minorities to cardiovascular disease.

  11. Associations between soil lead concentrations and populations by race/ethnicity and income-to-poverty ratio in urban and rural areas

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Harley T.; Lawson, Andrew B.; Cai, Bo; McDermott, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is a well-studied environmental contaminant that has many negative health effects, especially for children. Both racial/ethnic and income disparities have been documented with respect to exposure to Pb in soils. The objectives of this study were to assess whether soil Pb concentrations in rural and urban areas of South Carolina USA, previously identified as having clusters of intellectual disabilities (ID) in children, were positively associated with populations of minority and low-income individuals and children (≤6 years of age). Surface soils from two rural and two urban areas with identified clusters of ID were analyzed for Pb and concentrations were spatially interpolated using inverse distance weighted analysis. Population race/ethnicity and income-to-poverty ratio (ITPR) from United States Census 2000 block group data were aerially interpolated by block group within each area. Urban areas had significantly higher concentrations of Pb than rural areas. Significant positive associations between black, non-Hispanic Latino, individuals and children ≤6 years of age and mean estimated Pb concentrations were observed in both urban (r = 0.38, p = 0.0007) and rural (r = 0.53, p = 0.04) areas. Significant positive associations also were observed between individuals and children with an ITPR < 1.00 and Pb concentrations, though primarily in urban areas. Racial/ethnic minorities and low ITPR individuals, including children, may be at elevated risk for exposure to Pb in soils. PMID:22752852

  12. The effect of ethnicity and age on palatal size and shape: a study in a northern Chilean healthy population.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, V F; Sforza, C; Colombo, A; Tartaglia, G M; Carvajal, R; Palomino, H

    2000-01-01

    Race and ethnicity influence the form of the human craniofacial complex in varying ways. The aim of the present investigation was to quantify the effects of ethnicity (mestizos, Aymara, non-Aymara), age (adolescents and adults), and sex on the form (size and shape) of the hard palate in normal Native American individuals. From the dental casts of 51 individuals with a complete permanent dentition, the x, y, and z coordinates of several standardized palatal landmarks were obtained with a computerized 3-dimensional digitizer. Palatal landmarks were used to derive a mathematical equation for palatal shape in the frontal and sagittal planes. Palatal width and length, frontal and sagittal heights, sagittal slope, and deviation of the raphe from the midline were also calculated. In the Aymara subjects, there was no effect of sex on palatal size, but there was an effect on palatal shape independent of size, especially with respect to male growth. Indeed, female palates apparently did not change their shape between adolescence and adulthood, while male palates increased their posterior "height." Overall, the 3 ethnic groups appeared to possess similar palatal size, with small significant differences. In the adult individuals, ethnicity did not seem to influence palatal shape. In contrast, adolescent males showed differences: non-Aymara subjects had the "highest" palatal shape, Aymara the "lowest," and mestizos an intermediate position. In conclusion, ethnicity does not seem to be a factor of major variability of human hard palate morphology, at least in the present 3 northern Chilean groups, as already found for dental arch shape. Age probably has a larger effect, particularly in the posterior part of the palate, where the eruption of the second and third molars between adolescence and young adulthood may play a role. A further development of the present investigation may involve larger samples of individuals from different ethnic groups.

  13. HLA-DRB1 and -DQB1 loci in three west African ethnic groups: genetic relationship with sub-Saharan African and European populations.

    PubMed

    Lulli, Patrizia; Mangano, Valentina D; Onori, Annamaria; Batini, Chiara; Luoni, Gaia; Sirima, Bienvenu S; Nebie, Issa; Chessa, Luciana; Petrarca, Vincenzo; Modiano, David

    2009-11-01

    The Fulani of west Africa have been shown to be less susceptible to malaria and to mount a stronger immune response to malaria than sympatric ethnic groups. The analysis of HLA diversity is useful for the assessment of the genetic distance between the Fulani and sympatric populations, which represents the necessary theoretical background for the investigation of genetic determinants of susceptibility to malaria. We assessed the polymorphism of HLA-DRB1 and -DQB1 loci and analyzed the distribution of alleles/haplotypes in Fulani, Mossi, and Rimaibé from Burkina Faso. We then investigated the genetic relationship of these three ethnic groups with other sub-Saharan African populations as well as with Europeans. We confirmed that the Fulani from Burkina Faso are genetically distinct from sympatric Mossi and Rimaibé. Furthermore the Fulani from Burkina Faso are close to those from The Gambia and, intriguingly, share the distribution of specific alleles with east African populations (Amhara and Oromo). It is noteworthy that the HLA-DRB1*04 and -DQB1*02 alleles, which are implicated in the development of several autoimmune diseases, are present at high frequency in the Fulani, suggesting their potential involvement in the enhanced immune reactivity observed in this population.

  14. Rurality and Ethnicity in Adolescent Physical Illness: Are Children of the Growing Rural Latino Population at Excess Health Risk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickrama, K. A. S.; Elder, Glen H.; Abraham, W. Todd

    2007-01-01

    Context and Purpose: This study's objectives are to: investigate potential additive and multiplicative influences of rurality and race/ethnicity on chronic physical illness in a nationally representative sample of youth; and examine intra-Latino processes using a Latino sub-sample. Specifically, we examine how rurality and individual psychosocial…

  15. Gambling in Ethnic Adolescent Populations: An Exploratory Study of the Utility of Problem Behaviour Theory as an Explanatory Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zangeneh, Masood; Mann, Robert E.; McCready, John; Oseni, Lola

    2010-01-01

    Problem gambling is a growing concern among adolescents today. According to recent studies, rates of problem gambling among youth are higher than those reported by adults. Though few in number, studies have also shown certain ethnic communities to be prone to gambling-related problems and related problematic behaviours. As yet, there is no…

  16. Racial and Ethnic Disparities: A Population-Based Examination of Risk Factors for Involvement with Child Protective Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam-Hornstein, Emily; Needell, Barbara; King, Bryn; Johnson-Motoyama, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Data from the United States indicate pronounced and persistent racial/ethnic differences in the rates at which children are referred and substantiated as victims of child abuse and neglect. In this study, we examined the extent to which aggregate racial differences are attributable to variations in the distribution of individual and…

  17. Educational Resources and Outcomes in California, by Race and Ethnicity. California Counts Population Trends and Profiles. Volume 6, Number 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    This issue of California Counts explores educational resources and outcomes across racial and ethnic groups in the state. Family and school resources, student outcomes, and public policy initiatives affecting California's students from early childhood through university are examined. Several factors that potentially contribute to racial and ethnic…

  18. Allele Frequencies of the Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Related to the Body Burden of Heavy Metals in the Korean Population and Their Ethnic Differences

    PubMed Central

    Eom, Sang-Yong; Lim, Ji-Ae; Kim, Yong-Dae; Choi, Byung-Sun; Hwang, Myung Sil; Park, Jung-Duck; Kim, Heon; Kwon, Ho-Jang

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to select single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to the body burden of heavy metals in Koreans, to provide Korean allele frequencies of selected SNPs, and to assess the difference in allele frequencies with other ethnicities. The candidate-gene approach method and genome-wide association screening were used to select SNPs related to the body burden of heavy metals. Genotyping analysis of the final 192 SNPs selected was performed on 1,483 subjects using the VeraCode Goldengate assay. Allele frequencies differences and genetic differentiations between the Korean population and Chinese (CHB), Japanese (JPT), Caucasian (CEU), and African (YIR) populations were tested by Fisher’s exact test and fixation index (FST), respectively. The Korean population was genetically similar to the CHB and JPT populations (FST < 0.05, for all SNPs in both populations). However, a significant difference in the allele frequencies between the Korean and CEU and YIR populations were observed in 99 SNPs (60.7%) and 120 SNPs (73.6%), respectively. Ten (6.1%) and 26 (16.0%) SNPs had genetic differentiation (FST > 0.05) among the Korean-CEU and Korean-YIR comparisons, respectively. The SNP with the largest FST value between the Korean and African populations was cystathionine-β-synthase rs234709 (FST: KOR-YIR, 0.309; KOR-CEU, 0.064). Our study suggests that interethnic differences exist in SNPs associated with heavy metals of Koreans, and it should be considered in future studies that address ethnic differences in heavy-metal concentrations in the body and genetic susceptibility to the body burden of heavy metals. PMID:27437086

  19. Impact of ethnicity on gestational diabetes identified with the WHO and the modified International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups criteria: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Jenum, Anne K; Mørkrid, Kjersti; Sletner, Line; Vange, Siri; Torper, Johan L; Nakstad, Britt; Voldner, Nanna; Rognerud-Jensen, Odd H; Berntsen, Sveinung; Mosdøl, Annhild; Skrivarhaug, Torild; Vårdal, Mari H; Holme, Ingar; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Birkeland, Kåre I

    2012-01-01

    Objective The International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) recently proposed new criteria for diagnosing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We compared prevalence rates, risk factors, and the effect of ethnicity using the World Health Organization (WHO) and modified IADPSG criteria. Methods This was a population-based cohort study of 823 (74% of eligible) healthy pregnant women, of whom 59% were from ethnic minorities. Universal screening was performed at 28±2 weeks of gestation with the 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Venous plasma glucose (PG) was measured on site. GDM was diagnosed as per the definition of WHO criteria as fasting PG (FPG) ≥7.0 or 2-h PG ≥7.8 mmol/l; and as per the modified IADPSG criteria as FPG ≥5.1 or 2-h PG ≥8.5 mmol/l. Results OGTT was performed in 759 women. Crude GDM prevalence was 13.0% with WHO (Western Europeans 11%, ethnic minorities 15%, P=0.14) and 31.5% with modified IADPSG criteria (Western Europeans 24%, ethnic minorities 37%, P< 0.001). Using the WHO criteria, ethnic minority origin was an independent predictor (South Asians, odds ratio (OR) 2.24 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26–3.97); Middle Easterners, OR 2.13 (1.12–4.08)) after adjustments for age, parity, and prepregnant body mass index (BMI). This increased OR was unapparent after further adjustments for body height (proxy for early life socioeconomic status), education and family history of diabetes. Using the modified IADPSG criteria, prepregnant BMI (1.09 (1.05–1.13)) and ethnic minority origin (South Asians, 2.54 (1.56–4.13)) were independent predictors, while education, body height and family history had little impact. Conclusion GDM prevalence was overall 2.4-times higher with the modified IADPSG criteria compared with the WHO criteria. The new criteria identified many subjects with a relatively mild increase in FPG, strongly associated with South Asian origin and prepregnant overweight. PMID:22108914

  20. Ultrasonographic fetal growth charts: an informatic approach by quantitative analysis of the impact of ethnicity on diagnoses based on a preliminary report on Salentinian population.

    PubMed

    Tinelli, Andrea; Bochicchio, Mario Alessandro; Vaira, Lucia; Malvasi, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Clear guidance on fetal growth assessment is important because of the strong links between growth restriction or macrosomia and adverse perinatal outcome in order to reduce associated morbidity and mortality. Fetal growth curves are extensively adopted to track fetal sizes from the early phases of pregnancy up to delivery. In the literature, a large variety of reference charts are reported but they are mostly up to five decades old. Furthermore, they do not address several variables and factors (e.g., ethnicity, foods, lifestyle, smoke, and physiological and pathological variables), which are very important for a correct evaluation of the fetal well-being. Therefore, currently adopted fetal growth charts are inadequate to support the melting pot of ethnic groups and lifestyles of our society. Customized fetal growth charts are needed to provide an accurate fetal assessment and to avoid unnecessary obstetric interventions at the time of delivery. Starting from the development of a growth chart purposely built for a specific population, in the paper, authors quantify and analyse the impact of the adoption of wrong growth charts on fetal diagnoses. These results come from a preliminary evaluation of a new open service developed to produce personalized growth charts for specific ethnicity, lifestyle, and other parameters.

  1. The Addicted-Self Model of addictive behavior cessation: does it predict recovery for gender, ethnic, age and drug preference populations?

    PubMed

    Fiorentine, Robert; Hillhouse, Maureen P

    2004-01-01

    Although previous research provided empirical support for the main assumptions of the Addicted-Self (A-S) Model of recovery, it is not known whether the model predicts recovery for various gender, ethnic, age, and drug preference populations. It may be that the model predicts recovery only for some groups of addicts and should not be viewed as a general theory of the recovery process. Addressing this concern using data from the Los Angeles Target Cities Drug Treatment Enhancement Project, it was determined that only trivial population differences exist in the primary variables associated with the A-S Model. The A-S Model predicts abstinence with about the same degree of accuracy and parsimony for all populations. The findings indicate that the A-S Model is a general theory of drug and alcohol addictive behavior cessation.

  2. 30-Year Trends in Stroke Rates and Outcome in Auckland, New Zealand (1981-2012): A Multi-Ethnic Population-Based Series of Studies

    PubMed Central

    Feigin, Valery L.; Krishnamurthi, Rita V.; Barker-Collo, Suzanne; McPherson, Kathryn M.; Barber, P. Alan; Parag, Varsha; Arroll, Bruce; Bennett, Derrick A.; Tobias, Martin; Jones, Amy; Witt, Emma; Brown, Paul; Abbott, Max; Bhattacharjee, Rohit; Rush, Elaine; Suh, Flora Minsun; Theadom, Alice; Rathnasabapathy, Yogini; Te Ao, Braden; Parmar, Priya G.; Anderson, Craig; Bonita, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Background Insufficient data exist on population-based trends in morbidity and mortality to determine the success of prevention strategies and improvements in health care delivery in stroke. The aim of this study was to determine trends in incidence and outcome (1-year mortality, 28-day case-fatality) in relation to management and risk factors for stroke in the multi-ethnic population of Auckland, New Zealand (NZ) over 30-years. Methods Four stroke incidence population-based register studies were undertaken in adult residents (aged ≥15 years) of Auckland NZ in 1981–1982, 1991–1992, 2002–2003 and 2011–2012. All used standard World Health Organization (WHO) diagnostic criteria and multiple overlapping sources of case-ascertainment for hospitalised and non-hospitalised, fatal and non-fatal, new stroke events. Ethnicity was consistently self-identified into four major groups. Crude and age-adjusted (WHO world population standard) annual incidence and mortality with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated per 100,000 people, assuming a Poisson distribution. Results 5400 new stroke patients were registered in four 12 month recruitment phases over the 30-year study period; 79% were NZ/European, 6% Māori, 8% Pacific people, and 7% were of Asian or other origin. Overall stroke incidence and 1-year mortality decreased by 23% (95% CI 5%-31%) and 62% (95% CI 36%-86%), respectively, from 1981 to 2012. Whilst stroke incidence and mortality declined across all groups in NZ from 1991, Māori and Pacific groups had the slowest rate of decline and continue to experience stroke at a significantly younger age (mean ages 60 and 62 years, respectively) compared with NZ/Europeans (mean age 75 years). There was also a decline in 28-day stroke case fatality (overall by 14%, 95% CI 11%-17%) across all ethnic groups from 1981 to 2012. However, there were significant increases in the frequencies of pre-morbid hypertension, myocardial infarction, and diabetes

  3. Ethnicity and health care in cervical cancer survival: comparisons between a Filipino resident population, Filipino-Americans, and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Redaniel, Maria Theresa; Laudico, Adriano; Mirasol-Lumague, Maria Rica; Gondos, Adam; Uy, Gemma Leonora; Toral, Jean Ann; Benavides, Doris; Brenner, Hermann

    2009-08-01

    Few studies have assessed and compared cervical cancer survival between developed and developing countries, or between ethnic groups within a country. Fewer still have addressed how much of the international or interracial survival differences can be attributed to ethnicity or health care. To determine the role of ethnicity and health care, 5-year survival of patients with cervical cancer was compared between patients in the Philippines and Filipino-Americans, who have the same ethnicity, and between Filipino-Americans and Caucasians, who have the same health care system. Cervical cancer databases from the Manila and Rizal Cancer Registries and Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results 13 were used. Age-adjusted 5-year survival estimates were computed and compared between the three patient groups. Using Cox proportional hazards modeling, potential determinants of survival differences were examined. Overall 5-year relative survival was similar in Filipino-Americans (68.8%) and Caucasians (66.6%), but was lower for Philippine residents (42.9%). Although late stage at diagnosis explained a large proportion of the survival differences between Philippine residents and Filipino-Americans, excess mortality prevailed after adjustment for stage, age, and morphology in multivariate analysis [relative risk (RR), 2.07; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.68-2.55]. Excess mortality decreased, but persisted, when treatments were included in the multivariate models (RR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.41-2.23). A moderate, marginally significant excess mortality was found among Caucasians compared with Filipino-Americans (adjusted RR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.01-1.47). The differences in cervical cancer survival between patients in the Philippines and in the United States highlight the importance of enhanced health care and access to diagnostic and treatment facilities in the Philippines.

  4. Racial/ethnic and sociodemographic factors associated with micronutrient intakes and inadequacies among pregnant women in an urban US population

    PubMed Central

    Brunst, Kelly J; Wright, Robert O; DiGioia, Kimberly; Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Fernandez, Harriet; Wright, Rosalind J; Kannan, Srimathi

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess sociodemographic correlates of micronutrient intakes from food and dietary supplements in an urban, ethnically diverse sample of pregnant women in the USA. Design Cross-sectional analyses of data collected using a validated semi-quantitative FFQ. Associations between racial, ethnic and sociodemographic factors and micronutrient intakes were examined using logistic regression controlling for pre-pregnancy BMI, maternal age and smoking status. Setting Prenatal clinics, Boston, MA, USA. Subjects Analyses included pregnant women (n 274) in the PRogramming of Intergenerational Stress Mechanisms (PRISM) study, an urban longitudinal cohort designed to examine how stress influences respiratory health in children when controlling for other environmental exposures (chemical stressors, nutrition). Results High frequencies of vitamin E (52%), Mg (38%), Fe (57%) and vitamin D (77%) inadequacies as well as suboptimal intakes of choline (95 %) and K (99%) were observed. Factors associated with multiple antioxidant inadequacies included being Hispanic or African American, lower education and self-reported economic-related food insecurity. Hispanics had a higher prevalence of multiple methyl-nutrient inadequacies compared with African Americans; both had suboptimal betaine intakes and higher odds for vitamin B6 and Fe inadequacies compared with Caucasians. Nearly all women (98%) reported Na intakes above the tolerable upper limit; excessive intakes of Mg (35 %), folate (37 %) and niacin (38 %) were also observed. Women reporting excessive intakes of these nutrients were more likely Caucasian or Hispanic, more highly educated, US-born and did not report food insecurity. Conclusions Racial/ethnic and other sociodemographic factors should be considered when tailoring periconceptional dietary interventions for urban ethnic women in the USA. PMID:24476840

  5. Survival Disparities within American and Israeli Dialysis Populations: Learning from Similarities and Distinctions across Race and Ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Golan, Eliezer; Shohat, Tamy; Streja, Elani; Norris, Keith C.; Kopple, Joel D.

    2013-01-01

    There are counterintuitive but consistent observations that African American maintenance dialysis patients have greater survival despite their less favorable socioeconomic status, high burden of cardiovascular risks including hypertension and diabetes, and excessively high chronic kidney disease prevalence. The fact that such individuals have a number of risk factors for lower survival and yet live longer when undergoing dialysis treatment is puzzling. Similar findings have been made among Israeli maintenance dialysis patients, in that those who are ethnically Arab have higher end-stage renal disease but exhibit greater survival than Jewish Israelis. The juxtaposition of these two situations may provide valuable insights into racial/ethnic-based mechanisms of survival in chronic diseases. Survival advantages of African American dialysis patients may be explained by differences in nutritional status, inflammatory profile, dietary intake habits, body composition, bone and mineral disorders, mental health and coping status, dialysis treatment differences, and genetic differences among other factors. Prospective studies are needed to examine similar models in other countries and to investigate the potential causes of these paradoxes in these societies. Better understanding the roots of racial/ethnic survival differences may help improve outcomes in both patients with chronic kidney disease and other individuals with chronic disease states. PMID:21175833

  6. Survival disparities within American and Israeli dialysis populations: learning from similarities and distinctions across race and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Golan, Eliezer; Shohat, Tamy; Streja, Elani; Norris, Keith C; Kopple, Joel D

    2010-01-01

    There are counterintuitive but consistent observations that African American maintenance dialysis patients have greater survival despite their less favorable socioeconomic status, high burden of cardiovascular risks including hypertension and diabetes, and excessively high chronic kidney disease prevalence. The fact that such individuals have a number of risk factors for lower survival and yet live longer when undergoing dialysis treatment is puzzling. Similar findings have been made among Israeli maintenance dialysis patients, in that those who are ethnically Arab have higher end-stage renal disease but exhibit greater survival than Jewish Israelis. The juxtaposition of these two situations may provide valuable insights into racial/ethnic-based mechanisms of survival in chronic diseases. Survival advantages of African American dialysis patients may be explained by differences in nutritional status, inflammatory profile, dietary intake habits, body composition, bone and mineral disorders, mental health and coping status, dialysis treatment differences, and genetic differences among other factors. Prospective studies are needed to examine similar models in other countries and to investigate the potential causes of these paradoxes in these societies. Better understanding the roots of racial/ethnic survival differences may help improve outcomes in both patients with chronic kidney disease and other individuals with chronic disease states.

  7. Liver biochemistry and associations with alcohol intake, hepatitis B virus infection and Inuit ethnicity: a population-based comparative epidemiological survey in Greenland and Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Rex, Karsten Fleischer; Krarup, Henrik Bygum; Laurberg, Peter; Andersen, Stig

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is common in Arctic populations and high alcohol intake has been associated with an increased risk of a number of diseases. Yet, a description of the influence of alcohol intake in persons with HBV infection on liver biochemistry is lacking. Objective We aimed to describe the association between reported alcohol intake and liver biochemistry taking into account also HBV infection, ethnicity, Inuit diet, body mass index (BMI), gender and age in an Arctic population. Design and methods Population-based investigation of Inuit (n=441) and non-Inuit (94) in Greenland and Inuit living in Denmark (n=136). Participants filled in a questionnaire on alcohol intake and other life style factors. Blood samples were tested for aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin, albumin, hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis B surface antibody and hepatitis B core antibody. We also performed physical examinations. Results Participation rate was 95% in Greenland and 52% in Denmark. An alcohol intake above the recommended level was reported by 12.9% of non-Inuit in Greenland, 9.1% of Inuit in East Greenland, 6.1% of Inuit migrants and 3.4% of Inuit in the capital of Greenland (p=0.035). Alcohol intake was associated with AST (p<0.001) and GGT (p=0.001), and HBV infection was associated with ALP (p=0.001) but not with AST, GGT, bilirubin or albumin in the adjusted analysis. Inuit had higher AST (p<0.001), GGT (p<0.001) and ALP (p=0.001) values than non-Inuit after adjustment for alcohol, diet, BMI and HBV exposure. Ethnic origin modified the association between alcohol and AST, while HBV infection did not modify the associations between alcohol and liver biochemistry. Conclusions Non-Inuit in Greenland reported a higher alcohol intake than Inuit. Ethnic origin was more markedly associated with liver biochemistry than was alcohol intake, and Greenlandic ethnicity modified the effect

  8. Population-based incidence of vulvar and vaginal melanoma in various races and ethnic groups with comparisons to other site-specific melanomas.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dan-Ning; Yu, Guo-Pei; McCormick, Steven A

    2010-04-01

    Little is known on the difference in the incidence of vulvar and vaginal melanomas in various racial/ethnic groups. Population-based incidence of these melanomas in Asian and Hispanic individuals is almost unknown. Using 1992-2005 data provided by the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program, we calculated age-adjusted incidence rates of vulvar and vaginal melanomas in various racial/ethnic groups. From 1992 to 2005, there were 324 vulvar melanomas and 125 vaginal melanomas diagnosed in this group. The annual age-adjusted incidence rates (per million female population) of vulvar and vaginal melanomas in the different racial/ethnic groups was 0.87 (Blacks), 0.75 (American-Indian), 1.03 (Asians and Pacific Islanders), 1.22 (Hispanics), and 1.90 (non-Hispanic Whites). The overall white/black incidence ratio in vulvar and vaginal melanomas was 3.14 : 1 and 1.02 : 1, respectively; which is much less than that of cutaneous melanoma (13 : 1-17 : 1) and uveal melanoma (18 : 1) and is similar to that of conjunctival melanoma (2.6 : 1) and other mucosal melanomas (2.1 : 1-2.3 : 1). The low racial difference in vulvar and vaginal melanomas (as well as conjunctival and other mucosal melanomas) may be determined by their microenvironment factors (all originate from mucosa or semi-mucosa tissues). The incidence of vulvar and vaginal melanomas has does not increased in recent decades or toward the south (more sun exposure), indicating that ultraviolet radiation is not a causative factor in these melanomas. The slight decrease of incidence of vulvar melanoma in dark pigmented individuals may be related to the biochemical protective effects of melanin (as an antioxidant) rather than their photo-screen effects. PMID:20147857

  9. Trans-ethnic fine-mapping of lipid loci identifies population-specific signals and allelic heterogeneity that increases the trait variance explained.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ying; Waite, Lindsay L; Jackson, Anne U; Sheu, Wayne H-H; Buyske, Steven; Absher, Devin; Arnett, Donna K; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Carty, Cara L; Cheng, Iona; Cochran, Barbara; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Dumitrescu, Logan; Eaton, Charles B; Franceschini, Nora; Guo, Xiuqing; Henderson, Brian E; Hindorff, Lucia A; Kim, Eric; Kinnunen, Leena; Komulainen, Pirjo; Lee, Wen-Jane; Le Marchand, Loic; Lin, Yi; Lindström, Jaana; Lingaas-Holmen, Oddgeir; Mitchell, Sabrina L; Narisu, Narisu; Robinson, Jennifer G; Schumacher, Fred; Stančáková, Alena; Sundvall, Jouko; Sung, Yun-Ju; Swift, Amy J; Wang, Wen-Chang; Wilkens, Lynne; Wilsgaard, Tom; Young, Alicia M; Adair, Linda S; Ballantyne, Christie M; Bůžková, Petra; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Collins, Francis S; Duggan, David; Feranil, Alan B; Ho, Low-Tone; Hung, Yi-Jen; Hunt, Steven C; Hveem, Kristian; Juang, Jyh-Ming J; Kesäniemi, Antero Y; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Lakka, Timo A; Lee, I-Te; Leppert, Mark F; Matise, Tara C; Moilanen, Leena; Njølstad, Inger; Peters, Ulrike; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Rotter, Jerome I; Saramies, Jouko; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti; Wang, Tzung-Dau; Boehnke, Michael; Haiman, Christopher A; Chen, Yii-Der I; Kooperberg, Charles; Assimes, Themistocles L; Crawford, Dana C; Hsiung, Chao A; North, Kari E; Mohlke, Karen L

    2013-03-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified ~100 loci associated with blood lipid levels, but much of the trait heritability remains unexplained, and at most loci the identities of the trait-influencing variants remain unknown. We conducted a trans-ethnic fine-mapping study at 18, 22, and 18 GWAS loci on the Metabochip for their association with triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), respectively, in individuals of African American (n = 6,832), East Asian (n = 9,449), and European (n = 10,829) ancestry. We aimed to identify the variants with strongest association at each locus, identify additional and population-specific signals, refine association signals, and assess the relative significance of previously described functional variants. Among the 58 loci, 33 exhibited evidence of association at P<1 × 10(-4) in at least one ancestry group. Sequential conditional analyses revealed that ten, nine, and four loci in African Americans, Europeans, and East Asians, respectively, exhibited two or more signals. At these loci, accounting for all signals led to a 1.3- to 1.8-fold increase in the explained phenotypic variance compared to the strongest signals. Distinct signals across ancestry groups were identified at PCSK9 and APOA5. Trans-ethnic analyses narrowed the signals to smaller sets of variants at GCKR, PPP1R3B, ABO, LCAT, and ABCA1. Of 27 variants reported previously to have functional effects, 74% exhibited the strongest association at the respective signal. In conclusion, trans-ethnic high-density genotyping and analysis confirm the presence of allelic heterogeneity, allow the identification of population-specific variants, and limit the number of candidate SNPs for functional studies. PMID:23555291

  10. Self-Reported Pigmentary Phenotypes and Race are Significant but Incomplete Predictors of Fitzpatrick Skin Phototype in an Ethnically Diverse Population

    PubMed Central

    He, Steven Y.; McCulloch, Charles E; Boscardin, W. John; Chren, Mary-Margaret; Linos, Eleni; Arron, Sarah T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Fitzpatrick skin phototype (FSPT) is the most common method used to assess sunburn risk and is an independent predictor of skin cancer risk. Due to a conventional assumption that FSPT is predictable based on pigmentary phenotypes, physicians frequently estimate FSPT based on patient appearance. Objective To determine the degree to which self-reported race and pigmentary phenotypes are predictive of FSPT in a large, ethnically diverse population. Methods A cross-sectional survey collected responses from 3386 individuals regarding self-reported FSPT, pigmentary phenotypes, race, age and sex. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to determine variables that significantly predict FSPT. Results Race, sex, skin color, eye color and hair color are significant but weak independent predictors of FSPT (P<0.0001). A multivariate model constructed using all independent predictors of FSPT only accurately predicted FSPT to within one point on the Fitzpatrick scale with 92% accuracy (weighted kappa statistic=0.53). Limitations Our study enriched for responses from ethnic minorities and does not fully represent the demographics of the U.S. population. Conclusions Patient self-reported race and pigmentary phenotypes are inaccurate predictors of sun sensitivity as defined by Fitzpatrick skin phototype. There are limitations to using patient-reported race and appearance in predicting individual sunburn risk. PMID:24928709

  11. Ethnic hair disorders.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Scott F; Tosti, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    The management of hair and scalp conditions is difficult in any patient, especially given the emotional and psychological implications of hair loss. This undertaking becomes even more challenging in the ethnic patient. Differences in hair care practices, hair shaft morphology, and follicular architecture add complexity to the task. It is imperative that the physician be knowledgeable about these practices and the phenotypic differences seen in ethnic hair in order to appropriately diagnose and treat these patients. In this chapter, we will discuss cultural practices and morphologic differences and explain how these relate to the specific disorders seen in ethnic populations. We will also review the most prominent of the ethnic hair conditions including acquired trichorrhexis nodosa, traction alopecia, central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia, pseudofolliculitis barbae, dissecting cellulitis, and acne keloidalis nuchae. PMID:26370652

  12. Ethnic hair disorders.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Scott F; Tosti, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    The management of hair and scalp conditions is difficult in any patient, especially given the emotional and psychological implications of hair loss. This undertaking becomes even more challenging in the ethnic patient. Differences in hair care practices, hair shaft morphology, and follicular architecture add complexity to the task. It is imperative that the physician be knowledgeable about these practices and the phenotypic differences seen in ethnic hair in order to appropriately diagnose and treat these patients. In this chapter, we will discuss cultural practices and morphologic differences and explain how these relate to the specific disorders seen in ethnic populations. We will also review the most prominent of the ethnic hair conditions including acquired trichorrhexis nodosa, traction alopecia, central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia, pseudofolliculitis barbae, dissecting cellulitis, and acne keloidalis nuchae.

  13. Associations between land cover categories, soil concentrations of arsenic, lead and barium, and population race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Davis, Harley T; Aelion, C Marjorie; Lawson, Andrew B; Cai, Bo; McDermott, Suzanne

    2014-08-15

    The potential of using land cover/use categories as a proxy for soil metal concentrations was examined by measuring associations between Anderson land cover category percentages and soil concentrations of As, Pb, and Ba in ten sampling areas. Land cover category and metal associations with ethnicity and socioeconomic status at the United States Census 2000 block and block group levels also were investigated. Arsenic and Pb were highest in urban locations; Ba was a function of geology. Consistent associations were observed between urban/built up land cover, and Pb and poverty. Land cover can be used as proxy for metal concentrations, although associations are metal-dependent.

  14. Associations between land cover categories, soil concentrations of arsenic, lead and barium, and population race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Davis, Harley T; Aelion, C Marjorie; Lawson, Andrew B; Cai, Bo; McDermott, Suzanne

    2014-08-15

    The potential of using land cover/use categories as a proxy for soil metal concentrations was examined by measuring associations between Anderson land cover category percentages and soil concentrations of As, Pb, and Ba in ten sampling areas. Land cover category and metal associations with ethnicity and socioeconomic status at the United States Census 2000 block and block group levels also were investigated. Arsenic and Pb were highest in urban locations; Ba was a function of geology. Consistent associations were observed between urban/built up land cover, and Pb and poverty. Land cover can be used as proxy for metal concentrations, although associations are metal-dependent. PMID:24914533

  15. Population genetics for 17 Y-STR loci(AmpFISTR®Y-filerTM) in Luzhou Han ethnic group.

    PubMed

    Bing, Long; Liang, Weibo; Pi, Jianhua; Zhang, Deming; Yong, Dai; Luo, Haibo; Zhang, Lushun; Lin, Zhang

    2013-02-01

    In this study, 17 Y-STR loci(AmpFISTR(®)Y-filerTM)-DYS456, DYS389I, DYS390, DYS389II, DYS458, DYS19, DYS385a/b, DYS393, DYS391, DYS439, DYS635, DYS392, Y-GATA H4, DYS437, DYS438, DYS448 were analyzed in 424 unrelated males from Luzhou Han ethnic group, Southwest China. 365 haplotypes were observed. The discrimination capacity was 0.8608 and the haplotype diversity was 0.9992. PMID:23298877

  16. Ethnic difference in the prevalence of pre-diabetes and diabetes mellitus in regions with Sami and non-Sami populations in Norway – the SAMINOR1 study

    PubMed Central

    Naseribafrouei, Ali; Eliassen, Bent-Martin; Melhus, Marita; Broderstad, Ann Ragnhild

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of pre-diabetes and diabetes mellitus in rural populations of Norway, as well as to explore potential ethnic disparities with respect to dysglycaemia in Sami and non-Sami populations. Design Cross-sectional population-based study. Methods The SAMINOR1 study was performed in 2003–2004. The study took place in regions with both Sami and non-Sami populations and had a response rate of 60.9%. Information in the SAMINOR1 study was collected using two self-administered questionnaires, clinical examination and laboratory tests. The present analysis included 15,208 men and women aged 36–79 years from the SAMINOR1 study. Results Age-standardised prevalence of pre-diabetes and diabetes mellitus among Sami men was 3.4 and 5.5%, respectively. Corresponding values for non-Sami men were 3.3 and 4.6%. Age-standardised prevalence of pre-diabetes and diabetes mellitus for Sami women was 2.7 and 4.8%, respectively, while corresponding values for non-Sami women were 2.3 and 4.5%. Relative risk ratios for dysglycaemia among Sami participants compared with non-Sami participants were significantly different in different geographical regions, with the southern region having the highest prevalence of pre-diabetes and diabetes mellitus among Sami participants. Conclusion We observed a heterogeneity in the prevalence of pre-diabetes and diabetes mellitus in different geographical regions both within and between different ethnic groups. PMID:27507149

  17. The Potential for Elimination of Racial-Ethnic Disparities in HIV Treatment Initiation in the Medicaid Population among 14 Southern States

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shun; McGoy, Shanell L.; Dawes, Daniel; Fransua, Mesfin; Rust, George; Satcher, David

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to explore the racial and ethnic disparities in initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ARV treatment or ART) among HIV-infected Medicaid enrollees 18–64 years of age in 14 southern states which have high prevalence of HIV/AIDS and high racial disparities in HIV treatment access and mortality. Methods We used Medicaid claims data from 2005 to 2007 for a retrospective cohort study. We compared frequency variances of HIV treatment uptake among persons of different racial- ethnic groups using univariate and multivariate methods. The unadjusted odds ratio was estimated through multinomial logistic regression. The multinomial logistic regression model was repeated with adjustment for multiple covariates. Results Of the 23,801 Medicaid enrollees who met criteria for initiation of ARV treatment, only one third (34.6%) received ART consistent with national guideline treatment protocols, and 21.5% received some ARV medication, but with sub-optimal treatment profiles. There was no significant difference in the proportion of people who received ARV treatment between black (35.8%) and non-Hispanic whites (35.7%), but Hispanic/Latino persons (26%) were significantly less likely to receive ARV treatment. Conclusions Overall ARV treatment levels for all segments of the population are less than optimal. Among the Medicaid population there are no racial HIV treatment disparities between Black and White persons living with HIV, which suggests the potential relevance of Medicaid to currently uninsured populations, and the potential to achieve similar levels of equality within Medicaid for Hispanic/Latino enrollees and other segments of the Medicaid population. PMID:24769625

  18. Smoking and Risk of Breast Cancer in a Racially/Ethnically Diverse Population of Mainly Women Who Do Not Drink Alcohol: The MEC Study.

    PubMed

    Gram, Inger T; Park, Song-Yi; Kolonel, Laurence N; Maskarinec, Gertraud; Wilkens, Lynne R; Henderson, Brian E; Le Marchand, Loïc

    2015-12-01

    We prospectively examined the association between smoking and the risk of breast cancer in a racially/ethnically diverse population comprising mainly women who did not drink alcohol. From 1993 to 2010, we followed 83,300 women who were enrolled in the Multiethnic Cohort Study at 45-75 years of age. We identified cancer cases via linkage to the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program cancer registries that covered the states of Hawaii and California through December 2010. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals while adjusting for confounders that were decided a priori. During a mean follow-up of 15 years, 4,484 women developed invasive breast cancer. Compared with parous never smokers, women who had smoked for more than 20 pack-years and initiated smoking more than 5 years before their first childbirth had an overall risk of breast cancer that was 35% higher (hazard ratio = 1.35, 95% confidence interval: 1.13, 1.63). Among women who did not drink alcohol, the risk was 40% higher (hazard ratio = 1.40, 95% confidence interval: 1.08, 1.81). This higher risk did not significantly differ among racial/ethnic groups (P(interaction) = 0.82). We found that various measures of smoking exposure were associated with a higher risk of breast cancer, especially smoking initiated many years before first childbirth, and that risk did not differ by alcohol consumption (yes vs. no) or racial/ethnic group.

  19. Urinary arsenic metabolism in a Western Chinese population exposed to high-dose inorganic arsenic in drinking water: influence of ethnicity and genetic polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Fu, Songbo; Wu, Jie; Li, Yuanyuan; Liu, Yan; Gao, Yanhui; Yao, Feifei; Qiu, Chuanying; Song, Li; Wu, Yu; Liao, Yongjian; Sun, Dianjun

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the differences in urinary arsenic metabolism patterns of individuals exposed to a high concentration of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in drinking water, an epidemiological investigation was conducted with 155 individuals living in a village where the arsenic concentration in the drinking water was 969μg/L. Blood and urine samples were collected from 66 individuals including 51 cases with skin lesions and 15 controls without skin lesions. The results showed that monomethylated arsenic (MMA), the percentage of MMA (%MMA) and the ratio of MMA to iAs (MMA/iAs) were significantly increased in patients with skin lesions as compared to controls, while dimethylated arsenic (DMA), the percentage of DMA (%DMA) and the ratio of DMA to MMA (DMA/MMA) were significantly reduced. The percent DMA of individuals with the Ala/Asp genotype of glutathione S-transferase omega 1 (GSTO1) was significantly lower than those with Ala/Ala. The percent MMA of individuals with the A2B/A2B genotype of arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT) was significantly lower than those with AB/A2B. The iAs and total arsenic (tAs) content in the urine of a Tibetan population were significantly higher than that of Han and Hui ethnicities, whereas MMA/iAs was significantly lower than that of Han and Hui ethnicities. Our results showed that when exposed to the same arsenic environment, different individuals exhibited different urinary arsenic metabolism patterns. Gender and ethnicity affect these differences and above polymorphisms may be effectors too.

  20. A holistic approach to education programs in thalassemia for a multi-ethnic population: consideration of perspectives, attitudes, and perceived needs.

    PubMed

    Wong, Li Ping; George, Elizabeth; Tan, Jin-Ai Mary Anne

    2011-06-01

    Hemoglobin disorders which include thalassemias are the most common heritable disorders. Effective treatment is available, and these disorders can be avoided as identification of carriers is achievable using simple hematological tests. An in-depth understanding of the awareness, attitudes, perceptions, and screening reservations towards thalassemia is necessary, as Malaysia has a multi-ethnic population with different religious beliefs. A total of 13 focus group discussions (70 participants) with members of the general lay public were conducted between November 2008 and January 2009. Lack of knowledge and understanding about thalassemia leads to general confusions over differences between thalassemia carriers and thalassemia major, inheritance patterns, and the physical and psychologically impact of the disorder in affected individuals and their families. Although most of the participants have not been tested for thalassemia, a large majority expressed willingness to be screened. Views on prenatal diagnosis and termination of fetuses with thalassemia major received mixed opinions from participants with different religions and practices. Perceived stigma and discrimination attached to being a carrier emerged as a vital topic in some group discussions where disparity in the answers exhibited differences in levels of participants' literacy and ethnic origins. The two most common needs identified from the discussion were information and screening facilities. Participants' interest in knowing the severity of the disease and assessing their risk of getting the disorder may imply the health belief model as a possible means of predicting thalassemia public screening services. Findings provide valuable insights for the development of more effective educational, screening, and prenatal diagnostic services in the multi-ethnic Asian society.

  1. Urinary arsenic metabolism in a Western Chinese population exposed to high-dose inorganic arsenic in drinking water: Influence of ethnicity and genetic polymorphisms

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Songbo; Wu, Jie; Li, Yuanyuan; Liu, Yan; Gao, Yanhui; Yao, Feifei; Qiu, Chuanying; Song, Li; Wu, Yu; Liao, Yongjian; Sun, Dianjun

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the differences in urinary arsenic metabolism patterns of individuals exposed to a high concentration of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in drinking water, an epidemiological investigation was conducted with 155 individuals living in a village where the arsenic concentration in the drinking water was 969 μg/L. Blood and urine samples were collected from 66 individuals including 51 cases with skin lesions and 15 controls without skin lesions. The results showed that monomethylated arsenic (MMA), the percentage of MMA (%MMA) and the ratio of MMA to iAs (MMA/iAs) were significantly increased in patients with skin lesions as compared to controls, while dimethylated arsenic (DMA), the percentage of DMA (%DMA) and the ratio of DMA to MMA (DMA/MMA) were significantly reduced. The percent DMA of individuals with the Ala/Asp genotype of glutathione S-transferase omega 1 (GSTO1) was significantly lower than those with Ala/Ala. The percent MMA of individuals with the A2B/A2B genotype of arsenic (+ 3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT) was significantly lower than those with AB/A2B. The iAs and total arsenic (tAs) content in the urine of a Tibetan population were significantly higher than that of Han and Hui ethnicities, whereas MMA/iAs was significantly lower than that of Han and Hui ethnicities. Our results showed that when exposed to the same arsenic environment, different individuals exhibited different urinary arsenic metabolism patterns. Gender and ethnicity affect these differences and above polymorphisms may be effectors too. - Highlights: • We first survey a village with high iAs content in the drinking water (969 μg/L). • 90 villagers suffered typical skin lesions with a morbidity rate of 58%. • Cases exhibited higher %MMA and MMA/iAs, and lower %DMA and DMA/MMA than controls. • Gender and ethnicity affect the differences of iAs methylation metabolism levels. • GSTO1 and AS3MT gene polymorphisms may be factors too.

  2. Ethnic trends in facial plastic surgery.

    PubMed

    Sturm-O'Brien, Angela K; Brissett, Annette E A; Brissett, Anthony E

    2010-05-01

    The appearance of patients seeking cosmetic surgery is changing to reflect our multicultural society. Integral to addressing the desires of a cross-cultural patient population is an understanding of one's perception of race, ethnicity, and culture. Race is an objective description, whereas ethnicity is a subjective description of a person's social group. Culture, on the other hand, defines the behaviors, beliefs, and values of a group. How a person perceives their place within these groups affects his or her self-image and approach to cosmetic surgery. These cultural perceptions are important, as patients of Asian, Hispanic, and African descent make up the fastest growing groups that desire cosmetic surgery. Factors contributing to this trend include population growth, especially within multicultural communities, improvements in social status, and increasing disposable income, combined with a positive perception of cosmetic surgery. Surgical philosophies have also changed, shifting from the perspective of racial transformation, defined as the use of a common set of surgical goals for all ethnicities, toward a view of racial preservation, with the goal of preserving one's racial and ethnic features. PMID:20446200

  3. Gaining insight in the interaction of zinc and population density with a combined dynamic energy budget and population model.

    PubMed

    Klok, Chris

    2008-12-01

    Laboratory tests are typically conducted under optimal conditions testing the single effect of a toxicant In the field, due to suboptimal conditions, density dependence can both diminish and enhance effects of toxicants on populations. A review of the literature indicated that general insight on interaction of density and toxicants is lacking, and therefore no predictions on their combined action can be made. In this paper the influence of zinc was tested at different population densities on the demographic rates: growth, reproduction, and survival in the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus. Changes in these rates were extrapolated with a combined Dynamic energy budget (DEB) and a population model to assess consequences at the population level. Inference from the DEB model indicated that density decreased the assimilation of food whereas zinc increased the maintenance costs. The combined effects of density and zinc resulted in a decrease in the intrinsic rate of population increase which suddenly dropped to zero at combinations of zinc and density where development is so strongly retarded that individuals do not mature. This already happened at zinc levels where zinc induced mortality is low and therefore density enhances zinc effects and density dependent compensation is not expected. PMID:19192801

  4. Population and forensic data for three sets of forensic genetic markers in four ethnic groups from Iran: Persians, Lurs, Kurds and Azeris.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, L; Farzad, M Sharafi; Børsting, C; Tomas, C; Pereira, V; Morling, N

    2015-07-01

    A total of 255 individuals (Persians, Lurs, Kurds and Azeris) from Iran were typed for three sets of forensic genetic markers with the NGM SElect™, DIPplex(®) and Argus X-12 kits. Statistically significant deviations (P≤0.002) from Hardy-Weinberg expectations were observed for the insertion-deletion markers HLD97 and HLD93 after Holm-Šidák correction. Statistically significant (P<0.05) levels of linkage disequilibrium were observed between markers within two of the four studied X-chromosomal linkage groups. AMOVA analyses of the three sets of markers did not show population structure when the individuals were grouped according to their ethnic group. The Iranian population grouped closely to populations living geographically near to Iran based on pairwise FST distances. The matching probabilities ranged from 1 in 3.2×10(7) males by using haplotype frequencies of four X-chromosomal haplogroups to 1 in 3.4×10(21) individuals for the 16 autosomal STRs. PMID:25814339

  5. Population and forensic data for three sets of forensic genetic markers in four ethnic groups from Iran: Persians, Lurs, Kurds and Azeris.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, L; Farzad, M Sharafi; Børsting, C; Tomas, C; Pereira, V; Morling, N

    2015-07-01

    A total of 255 individuals (Persians, Lurs, Kurds and Azeris) from Iran were typed for three sets of forensic genetic markers with the NGM SElect™, DIPplex(®) and Argus X-12 kits. Statistically significant deviations (P≤0.002) from Hardy-Weinberg expectations were observed for the insertion-deletion markers HLD97 and HLD93 after Holm-Šidák correction. Statistically significant (P<0.05) levels of linkage disequilibrium were observed between markers within two of the four studied X-chromosomal linkage groups. AMOVA analyses of the three sets of markers did not show population structure when the individuals were grouped according to their ethnic group. The Iranian population grouped closely to populations living geographically near to Iran based on pairwise FST distances. The matching probabilities ranged from 1 in 3.2×10(7) males by using haplotype frequencies of four X-chromosomal haplogroups to 1 in 3.4×10(21) individuals for the 16 autosomal STRs.

  6. Time-location patterns of a diverse population of older adults: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air).

    PubMed

    Spalt, Elizabeth W; Curl, Cynthia L; Allen, Ryan W; Cohen, Martin; Adar, Sara D; Stukovsky, Karen H; Avol, Ed; Castro-Diehl, Cecilia; Nunn, Cathy; Mancera-Cuevas, Karen; Kaufman, Joel D

    2016-06-01

    The primary aim of this analysis was to present and describe questionnaire data characterizing time-location patterns of an older, multiethnic population from six American cities. We evaluated the consistency of results from repeated administration of this questionnaire and between this questionnaire and other questionnaires collected from participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air). Participants reported spending most of their time inside their homes (average: 121 h/week or 72%). More than 50% of the participants reported spending no time in several of the location options, including at home outdoors, at work/volunteer/school locations indoors or outdoors, or in "other" locations outdoors. We observed consistency between self-reported time-location patterns from repeated administration of the time-location questionnaire and compared with other survey instruments. Comparisons with national cohorts demonstrated the differences in time-location patterns in the MESA Air cohort due to differences in demographics, but the data showed similar trends in patterns by age, gender, season, and employment status. This study was the first to explicitly examine the time-location patterns in an older, multiethnic population and the first to add data on Chinese participants. These data can be used to inform future epidemiological research of MESA Air and other studies that include diverse populations.

  7. Serum Vitamin D is Llow and Inversely Associated with LDL Cholesterol in the Kazak Ethnic Population: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ming Chen; Li, Hai Xia; Liu, Hai Ming; Lei, Hong; Han, Lu; Gao, Ming; Mao, Jiang Feng; Xu, Xin Juan

    2014-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence suggests that low concentrations of serum 25(OH)D is coupled with increased risks of hypertension, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. However, this relationship has not been established in populations with very low levels of 25(OH)D. Therefore, the aim of our study was to clarify the associations between 25(OH)D and blood pressure, obesity, sex, and lipid profiles in the Kazak ethnic population, who have an extremely low level of 25(OH)D. Material/Methods A multistage-cluster sampling survey was carried out for residents with Kazak ethnicity in Xinjiang, China. Anthropometric measurements of each participant were taken and the concentrations of 25(OH)D, calcium, alkaline phosphatase, and lipid profiles were measured. Individuals were classified into different groups in terms of vitamin D status, degree of adiposity, presence of hypertension, and other comorbidities. Results The madian concentration of 25(OH)D was 16.2 (11.8–20.5) ng/mL and the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 72.4% in this Kazak population (n=928, 59.0% women). Females had a lower 25(OH)D concentration than males – 14.6 (10.5–19.4) ng/mL vs. 17.7 (14.8–22.5) ng/mL, P<0.001. The subjects were classified into 3 groups according to their vitamin D status. There were significant differences in BMI (P=0.046), waist circumference (P=0.037), hip circumference (P=0.003), systolic BP (P=0.035), and LDL cholesterol (P=0.008) among the groups after adjustment for sex and age. On the other hand, there was no significant difference in vitamin D levels between groups with or without hypertension (P=0.586), and groups with or without obesity (P=0.639). A multifactor-regression analysis revealed that every increment of 1mg/dL in LDL cholesterol was associated with a 1.0 ng/mL decline in serum 25(OH)D. Conclusions The insufficiency of vitamin D is highly prevalent in Kazaks. Sex, LDL cholesterol, and hip circumference are 3 variables strongly associated with serum 25

  8. Different patterns of Toll-like receptor 2 polymorphisms in populations of various ethnic and geographic origins.

    PubMed

    Ioana, M; Ferwerda, B; Plantinga, T S; Stappers, M; Oosting, M; McCall, M; Cimpoeru, A; Burada, F; Panduru, N; Sauerwein, R; Doumbo, O; van der Meer, J W M; van Crevel, R; Joosten, L A B; Netea, M G

    2012-05-01

    Upon the invasion of the host by microorganisms, innate immunity is triggered through pathogen recognition by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the best-studied class of PRRs, and they recognize specific pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) from various microorganisms. A large number of studies have shown that genetic variation in TLRs may influence susceptibility to infections. We assessed the genetic variation of TLR2, which encodes one of the most important TLRs, in various populations around the globe and correlated it with changes in the function of the molecule. The three best-known nonsynonymous TLR2 polymorphisms (1892C>A, 2029C>T, and 2258G>A) were assessed in different populations from the main continental masses: Romanians, Vlax-Roma, Dutch (European populations), Han Chinese (East Asia), Dogon, Fulani (Africa), and Trio Indians (America). The 2029C>T polymorphism was absent in both European and non-European populations, with the exception of the Vlax-Roma, suggesting that this polymorphism most likely arose in Indo-Aryan people after migration into South Asia. The 1892C>A polymorphism that was found exclusively in European populations, but not in Asian, African, or American volunteers, probably occurred in proto-Indo-Europeans. Interestingly, 2258G>A was present only in Europeans, including Vlax-Roma, but at a very low frequency. The differential pattern of the TLR2 polymorphisms in various populations may explain some of the differences in susceptibility to infections between these populations.

  9. Explaining disparities in colorectal cancer screening among five Asian ethnic groups: A population-based study in California

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Data from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) indicate that levels and temporal trends in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening prevalence vary among Asian American groups; however, the reasons for these differences have not been fully investigated. Methods Using CHIS 2001, 2003 and 2005 data, we conducted hierarchical regression analyses progressively controlling for demographic characteristics, English proficiency and access to care in an attempt to identify factors explaining differences in screening prevalence and trends among Chinese, Filipino, Vietnamese, Korean and Japanese Americans (N = 4,188). Results After controlling for differences in gender and age, all Asian subgroups had significantly lower odds of having ever received screening in 2001 than the reference group of Japanese Americans. In addition, Korean Americans were the only subgroup that had a statistically significant decline in screening prevalence from 2001 to 2005 compared to the trend among Japanese Americans. After controlling for differences in education, marital status, employment status and federal poverty level, Korean Americans were the only group that had significantly lower screening prevalence than Japanese Americans in 2001, and their trend to 2005 remained significantly depressed. After controlling for differences in English proficiency and access to care, screening prevalences in 2001 were no longer significantly different among the Asian subgroups, but the trend among Korean Americans from 2001 to 2005 remained significantly depressed. Korean and Vietnamese Americans were less likely than other groups to report a recent doctor recommendation for screening and more likely to cite a lack of health problems as a reason for not obtaining screening. Conclusions Differences in CRC screening trends among Asian ethnic groups are not entirely explained by differences in demographic characteristics, English proficiency and access to care. A better understanding of mutable

  10. Evidence of Heterogeneity by Race/Ethnicity in Genetic Determinants of QT Interval

    PubMed Central

    Seyerle, Amanda A.; Young, Alicia M.; Jeff, Janina M.; Melton, Phillip E.; Jorgensen, Neal W.; Lin, Yi; Carty, Cara L.; Deelman, Ewa; Heckbert, Susan R.; Hindorff, Lucia A.; Jackson, Rebecca D.; Martin, Lisa W.; Okin, Peter M; Perez, Marco V.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Whitsel, Eric A.; North, Kari E; Laston, Sandra; Kooperberg, Charles; Avery, Christy L.

    2015-01-01

    Background QT-interval (QT) prolongation is an established risk factor for ventricular tachyarrhythmia and sudden cardiac death. Previous genome-wide association studies in populations of the European descent have identified multiple genetic loci that influence QT, but few have examined these loci in ethnically diverse populations. Methods Here, we examine the direction, magnitude, and precision of effect sizes for 21 previously reported SNPs from 12 QT loci, in populations of European (n=16,398), African (n=5,437), American Indian (n=5,032), Hispanic (n=1,143), and Asian (n=932) descent as part of the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) study. Estimates obtained from linear regression models stratified by race/ethnicity were combined using inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis. Heterogeneity was evaluated using Cochran's Q test. Results Of 21 SNPs, seven showed consistent direction of effect across all five populations, and an additional nine had estimated effects that were consistent across four populations. Despite consistent direction of effect, nine of 16 SNPs had evidence (P < 0.05) of heterogeneity by race/ethnicity. For these 9 SNPs, linkage disequilibrium plots often indicated substantial variation in linkage disequilibrium patterns among the various racial/ethnic groups, as well as possible allelic heterogeneity. Conclusions These results emphasize the importance of analyzing racial/ethnic groups separately in genetic studies. Furthermore, they underscore the possible utility of trans-ethnic studies to pinpoint underlying casual variants influencing heritable traits such as QT. PMID:25166880

  11. Birth data accessibility via primary care health records to classify health status in a multi-ethnic population of children: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Bonner, Rachel; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Stocks, Janet; Harding, Seeromanie; Wade, Angela; Griffiths, Chris; Sears, David; Fothergill, Helen; Slevin, Hannah; Lum, Sooky

    2015-01-01

    Background: Access to reliable birth data (birthweight (BW) and gestational age (GA)) is essential for the identification of individuals who are at subsequent health risk. Aims: This study aimed to explore the feasibility of retrospectively collecting birth data for schoolchildren from parental questionnaires (PQ) and general practitioners (GPs) in primary care clinics, in inner city neighbourhoods with high density of ethnic minority and disadvantaged populations. Methods: Attempts were made to obtain birth data from parents and GPs for 2,171 London primary schoolchildren (34% White, 29% Black African origin, 25% South Asians, 12% Other) as part of a larger study of respiratory health. Results: Information on BW and/or GA were obtained from parents for 2,052 (95%) children. Almost all parents (2,045) gave consent to access their children’s health records held by GPs. On the basis of parental information, GPs of 1,785 children were successfully contacted, and GPs of 1,202 children responded. Birth data were retrieved for only 482 children (22% of 2,052). Missing birth data from GPs were associated with non-white ethnicity, non-UK born, English not the dominant language at home or socioeconomic disadvantage. Paired data were available in 376 children for BW and in 407 children for GA. No significant difference in BW or GA was observed between PQ and GP data, with <5% difference between sources regardless of normal or low birth weight, or term or preterm status. Conclusions: Parental recall of birth data for primary schoolchildren yields high quality and rapid return of data, and it should be considered as a viable alternative in which there is limited access to birth records. It provides the potential to include children with an increased risk of health problems within epidemiological studies. PMID:25612149

  12. [The anthropometric parameters of the external nose in a Kazakh population with particular reference to the planning of ethnic-specific rhinoplasty].

    PubMed

    Rusetsky, Yu Yu; Makhambetova, E A; Reshetov, I V; Makhambetova, D E

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the anthropometric parameters of the external nose in a Kazakh population for the subsequent elaboration of the algorithms of and approaches to the planning of ethnic-specific rhinoplasty. The study included 500 ethnic Kazakhs (197 women and 303 men) at the age varying from 16 to 25 (mean 20.6±3.5) years. The following parameters were calculated; the height and the width of the nose, nasal index, lobular index, nasolabial angle, nasal projection index, projection and rotation of the tip of the nose. It was found that the nasal index in male and female Kazakhs was 80.8±0.53 and 79.4±3.17 respectively which corresponds to mesorhinia and is more characteristic of the Europeoid race. The nasofrontalindex in men andwomen was 138.94±5.71 ad 130.1±8.25 degrees respectively. Rotation of the tip of the nose in men was 78.45±2.24 degrees in men and 73.92±4.32 degrees in women. Goode's nasal projection index was 57.25±4.36%. The nasal tip projection was estimated at 67.9±5.21 and 76.72±4.17 in men and women respectively. It is concluded based on the results of the present study that noses in Kazakh men and women have certain specific masculine and feminine anthropometric features making them different from the typical «Asiatic» noses because some of their proportions are more characteristic of the Europeoid race. The height of the nose in the Kazakhs is lowest among the three races. It indicates that the main concern as regards rhinoplasty in the Kazakh population is the dorsal augmentation. The present study provided the reference information on the parameters of the external nose in the Kazakh population that may be of value not only in terms of reconstructive and aesthetic rhinosurgery but also for the purpose of forensic medical and other expertises. PMID:27500583

  13. [Nurses' and patients' experience of combined health service delivery to all population groups in a hospital].

    PubMed

    Poggenpoel, M; Uys, H; Botes, A; Dörfling, C; Greeff, M; Gross, E; Müller, M; Nolte, A

    1996-06-01

    In a community hospital in Gauteng, the hospital management had, on short notice, to provide combined health services to all population groups. In the past different health services were delivered to each population group. The integration of health service delivery was a sudden change. Based on this, research questions arose, namely: how do nurses and patients experience this change, and how could they be assisted to adjust to the change. The research objectives were twofold, namely: to explore and describe nurses and patients' experience of combined health delivery to all population groups and based on the results to make recommendations to assist them with adjustment to a combined health delivery system. An exploratory, descriptive and contextual research design was followed. Trustworthiness was ensured by applying Guba's approach. Phenomenological and individual focus interviews were conducted with forty nurses and patients who were selected purposively. Field notes were written after completion of each interview. The transcribed data was analysed by using Giorgi's and Kerlinger's methods combined. Results were discussed and a literature control completed. The most important conclusions reached were: there was an insufficient administrative structure in the hospital as a result of insufficient preparation for the combined health service delivery for all population groups; the whites' perception of different populations groups is based on an ethnocentric Western approach. This led to their experience of culture shock that resulted in feelings of anger/frustration, fear and sadness; the willingness of other populations groups to adjust to combined health service delivery led to their experience of happiness; there exists communication problems between population groups because of their not being able to communicate in their own language and the difference in communication styles; the verbalised Christian viewpoint and values of whites nurses and patients are not

  14. Secular trends in smoking during pregnancy according to income and ethnic group: four population-based perinatal surveys in a Brazilian city

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, Mariangela F; Matijasevich, Alicia; Menezes, Ana Maria B; Horta, Bernardo L; Santos, Ina S; Barros, Aluisio J D; Barros, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess socioeconomic and ethnic inequalities in smoking during pregnancy over three decades (1982–2011). Setting Population-based study in Pelotas City, Brazil. Participants All urban women giving birth in the city hospitals in 1982 (5909), 1993 (5223) and 2004 (4201), plus all urban and rural women delivering from January 2011 to April 2012 (6275). Primary outcome Self-reported smoking during pregnancy. Results The prevalence of smoking during pregnancy fell from 35.7% in 1982 to 21.0% in 2011. In each survey, prevalence decreased with increasing income (p<0.001). In the poorest quintile, smoking fell by 27.4% in the period studied compared to 67.1% in the wealthiest quintile. In all surveys, prevalence was lower among white women than among those who classified themselves as black or brown (p<0.001). Over time, smoking declined by 50.0% among the former and 30.7% among the latter. Absolute and relative inequalities both increased over time. Conclusions The reduction in smoking during pregnancy was primarily due to a decline among white, high-income women. Further efforts are needed to reduce smoking among all population groups. PMID:26832432

  15. DSM-IV “criterion A” schizophrenia symptoms across ethnically different populations: evidence for differing psychotic symptom content or structural organization?

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Duncan; Thara, Rangaswamy; John, Sujit; Barrett, Robert; Loa, Peter; McGrath, John; Mowry, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    There is significant variation in the expression of schizophrenia across ethnically different populations, and the optimal structural and diagnostic representation of schizophrenia is contested. We contrasted both lifetime frequencies of DSM-IV criterion A (the core symptom criterion of the internationally recognized DSM classification system) symptoms and types/content of delusions and hallucinations in transethnic schizophrenia populations from Australia (n=776), India (n=504) and Sarawak, Malaysia (n=259), to elucidate clinical heterogeneity. Differences in both criterion A symptom composition and symptom content were apparent. Indian individuals with schizophrenia reported negative symptoms more frequently than other sites, whereas individuals from Sarawak reported disorganized symptoms more frequently. Delusions of control and thought broadcast, insertion or withdrawal were less frequent in Sarawak than Australia. Curiously, a subgroup of 20 Indian individuals with schizophrenia reported no lifetime delusions or hallucinations. These findings potentially challenge the long-held view in psychiatry that schizophrenia is fundamentally similar across cultural groups, with differences in only the content of psychotic symptoms, but equivalence in structural form. PMID:24981830

  16. ADZE: a rarefaction approach for counting alleles private to combinations of populations

    PubMed Central

    Szpiech, Zachary A.; Jakobsson, Mattias; Rosenberg, Noah A.

    2008-01-01

    Motivation: Analysis of the distribution of alleles across populations is a useful tool for examining population diversity and relationships. However, sample sizes often differ across populations, sometimes making it difficult to assess allelic distributions across groups. Results: We introduce a generalized rarefaction approach for counting alleles private to combinations of populations. Our method evaluates the number of alleles found in each of a set of populations but absent in all remaining populations, considering equal-sized subsamples from each population. Applying this method to a worldwide human microsatellite dataset, we observe a high number of alleles private to the combination of African and Oceanian populations. This result supports the possibility of a migration out of Africa into Oceania separate from the migrations responsible for the majority of the ancestry of the modern populations of Asia, and it highlights the utility of our approach to sample size correction in evaluating hypotheses about population history. Availability: We have implemented our method in the computer pro-gram ADZE, which is available for download at http://rosenberglab.bioinformatics.med.umich.edu/adze.html. Contact: szpiechz@umich.edu PMID:18779233

  17. Ethnic minorities.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Jeanne; Lawson, William; Escobar, Javier

    2002-12-01

    Ethnic minorities have relatively similar rates of mood disorders as do white Americans, but they are much less likely to receive appropriate care. Barriers to care include lack of insurance, few minority providers' racism, and distrust of care providers. A priority in research is identifying practice interventions and policies that could eliminate disparities in care.

  18. Ethnic Hairdressing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oates, Flora B.

    The practical aspects of ethnic hairdressing for the beginning student in the field of Cosmetology are presented in this manual. Lessons and review questions are provided to give the student a knowledge of the problems encountered in dealing with the many different variations in hair, as well as to serve as a foundation for more complex material.…

  19. Prevalence of PALB2 Mutations in Breast Cancer Patients in Multi-Ethnic Asian Population in Malaysia and Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Phuah, Sze Yee; Lee, Sheau Yee; Kang, Peter; Kang, In Nee; Yoon, Sook-Yee; Thong, Meow Keong; Hartman, Mikael; Sng, Jen-Hwei; Yip, Cheng Har; Taib, Nur Aishah Mohd; Teo, Soo-Hwang

    2013-01-01

    Background The partner and localizer of breast cancer 2 (PALB2) is responsible for facilitating BRCA2-mediated DNA repair by serving as a bridging molecule, acting as the physical and functional link between the breast cancer 1 (BRCA1) and breast cancer 2 (BRCA2) proteins. Truncating mutations in the PALB2 gene are rare but are thought to be associated with increased risks of developing breast cancer in various populations. Methods We evaluated the contribution of PALB2 germline mutations in 122 Asian women with breast cancer, all of whom had significant family history of breast and other cancers. Further screening for nine PALB2 mutations was conducted in 874 Malaysian and 532 Singaporean breast cancer patients, and in 1342 unaffected Malaysian and 541 unaffected Singaporean women. Results By analyzing the entire coding region of PALB2, we found two novel truncating mutations and ten missense mutations in families tested negative for BRCA1/2-mutations. One additional novel truncating PALB2 mutation was identified in one patient through genotyping analysis. Our results indicate a low prevalence of deleterious PALB2 mutations and a specific mutation profile within the Malaysian and Singaporean populations. PMID:23977390

  20. Combined effects of chemical and temperature stress on Chironomus riparius populations with differing genetic variability.

    PubMed

    Oetken, Matthias; Jagodzinski, Lucas S; Vogt, Christian; Jochum, Adrienne; Oehlmann, Jörg

    2009-08-01

    Exposure to pollutants under multiple environmental stressors (e.g., climate change and global warming) and the genetic diversity of populations are suspected to have serious impacts on populations and ecosystems but have only rarely been analysed. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the biocide tributyltin (TBT) within a temperature gradient (17, 20 and 23 degrees C) on life history parameters of a genetically diverse (GEN+) and a highly inbred population (GEN-) of the midge Chironomus riparius. While endpoints, mortality and reproduction parameters were considered, the population growth rate as an integrative endpoint was determined. We found severe effects for GEN-, indicating that populations with lower genetic diversity are more endangered by combined stressors such as increasing temperature and chemical pollution compared to genetically diverse populations.

  1. Intensity and sulci landmark combined brain atlas construction for Chinese pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yishan; Shi, Lin; Weng, Jian; He, Hongjian; Chu, Winnie C W; Chen, Feiyan; Wang, Defeng

    2014-08-01

    Constructing an atlas from a population of brain images is of vital importance to medical image analysis. Especially in neuroscience study, creating a brain atlas is useful for intra- and inter-population comparison. Research on brain atlas construction has attracted great attention in recent years, but the research on pediatric population is still limited, mainly due to the limited availability and the relatively low quality of pediatric magnetic resonance brain images. This article is targeted at creating a high quality representative brain atlas for Chinese pediatric population. To achieve this goal, we have designed a set of preprocessing procedures to improve the image quality and developed an intensity and sulci landmark combined groupwise registration method to align the population of images for atlas construction. As demonstrated in experiments, the newly constructed atlas can better represent the size and shape of brains of Chinese pediatric population, and show better performance in Chinese pediatric brain image analysis compared with other standard atlases.

  2. Body Mass Index, Disordered Eating Behavior, and Acquisition of Health Information: Examining Ethnicity and Weight-Related Issues in a College Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Shannon S.; Thomas, Christina R.

    2008-01-01

    Objective and Participants: To investigate ethnic differences related to weight, the authors assessed body mass index, dysfunctional eating, receipt of health information, and perceived obstacles to healthy lifestyles of 210 ethnically diverse college women. Methods: The authors used the Eating Attitudes Test to assess dieting, food preoccupation,…

  3. An Exploratory Examination of the Associations among Racial and Ethnic Discrimination, Racial Climate, and Trauma-Related Symptoms in a College Student Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieterse, Alex L.; Carter, Robert T.; Evans, Sarah A.; Walter, Rebecca A.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we examined the association among perceptions of racial and/or ethnic discrimination, racial climate, and trauma-related symptoms among 289 racially diverse college undergraduates. Study measures included the Perceived Stress Scale, the Perceived Ethnic Discrimination Questionnaire, the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder…

  4. An Evaluation of Multiple Behavioral Risk Factors for Cancer in a Working Class, Multi-Ethnic Population

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Melody S.; Li, Yi; Bennett, Gary G.; Stoddard, Anne M.; Emmons, Karen M.

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral risk factors for cancer tend to cluster within individuals, which can compound risk beyond that associated with the individual risk factors alone. There has been increasing attention paid to the prevalence of multiple risk factors (MRF) for cancer, and to the importance of designing interventions that help individuals reduce their risks across multiple behaviors simultaneously. The purpose of this paper is to develop methodology to identify an optimal linear combination of multiple risk factors (score function) which would facilitate evaluation of cancer interventions. PMID:23227033

  5. Combining population and patient-specific characteristics for prostate segmentation on 3D CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ling; Guo, Rongrong; Tian, Zhiqiang; Venkataraman, Rajesh; Sarkar, Saradwata; Liu, Xiabi; Tade, Funmilayo; Schuster, David M.; Fei, Baowei

    2016-03-01

    Prostate segmentation on CT images is a challenging task. In this paper, we explore the population and patient-specific characteristics for the segmentation of the prostate on CT images. Because population learning does not consider the inter-patient variations and because patient-specific learning may not perform well for different patients, we are combining the population and patient-specific information to improve segmentation performance. Specifically, we train a population model based on the population data and train a patient-specific model based on the manual segmentation on three slice of the new patient. We compute the similarity between the two models to explore the influence of applicable population knowledge on the specific patient. By combining the patient-specific knowledge with the influence, we can capture the population and patient-specific characteristics to calculate the probability of a pixel belonging to the prostate. Finally, we smooth the prostate surface according to the prostate-density value of the pixels in the distance transform image. We conducted the leave-one-out validation experiments on a set of CT volumes from 15 patients. Manual segmentation results from a radiologist serve as the gold standard for the evaluation. Experimental results show that our method achieved an average DSC of 85.1% as compared to the manual segmentation gold standard. This method outperformed the population learning method and the patient-specific learning approach alone. The CT segmentation method can have various applications in prostate cancer diagnosis and therapy.

  6. Combining Population and Patient-Specific Characteristics for Prostate Segmentation on 3D CT Images

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ling; Guo, Rongrong; Tian, Zhiqiang; Venkataraman, Rajesh; Sarkar, Saradwata; Liu, Xiabi; Tade, Funmilayo; Schuster, David M.; Fei, Baowei

    2016-01-01

    Prostate segmentation on CT images is a challenging task. In this paper, we explore the population and patient-specific characteristics for the segmentation of the prostate on CT images. Because population learning does not consider the inter-patient variations and because patient-specific learning may not perform well for different patients, we are combining the population and patient-specific information to improve segmentation performance. Specifically, we train a population model based on the population data and train a patient-specific model based on the manual segmentation on three slice of the new patient. We compute the similarity between the two models to explore the influence of applicable population knowledge on the specific patient. By combining the patient-specific knowledge with the influence, we can capture the population and patient-specific characteristics to calculate the probability of a pixel belonging to the prostate. Finally, we smooth the prostate surface according to the prostate-density value of the pixels in the distance transform image. We conducted the leave-one-out validation experiments on a set of CT volumes from 15 patients. Manual segmentation results from a radiologist serve as the gold standard for the evaluation. Experimental results show that our method achieved an average DSC of 85.1% as compared to the manual segmentation gold standard. This method outperformed the population learning method and the patient-specific learning approach alone. The CT segmentation method can have various applications in prostate cancer diagnosis and therapy. PMID:27660382

  7. Patterns of physical activity in different domains and implications for intervention in a multi-ethnic Asian population: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The benefits of regular physical activity for quality of life and disease prevention have been well documented. Identification of low activity groups would facilitate interventional programs. Many studies have focussed on leisure time activity, which may not capture the spectrum of physical activity relevant to disease prevention. Furthermore, few studies have been conducted in urban Asian settings. Methods We evaluated physical activity in different domains (leisure time, occupational, household and transportation) and its sociodemographic determinants in 4750 adult Chinese, Malay, and Asian Indian Singaporeans. Physical activity was assessed using locally validated questionnaires. Results Occupational and household activity contributed substantially more to total physical activity than leisure time or transportation activity. However, when only activity of at least moderate intensity was considered leisure time activity contributed most to total physical activity. Higher socio-economic status was associated with more leisure time activity, but less total physical activity due to reduced activity in the other domains. Chinese ethnicity was also associated with less total physical activity as a result of less activity in non-leisure time domains. Conclusions In assessing levels of physical activity and recommending changes, it is important to consider physical activity in different domains. Focus on leisure-time physical activity alone could identify the wrong groups for intervention and miss opportunities for increasing physical activity in populations. PMID:20973981

  8. Genetic polymorphism analyses of 30 InDels in Chinese Xibe ethnic group and its population genetic differentiations with other groups.

    PubMed

    Meng, Hao-Tian; Zhang, Yu-Dang; Shen, Chun-Mei; Yuan, Guo-Lian; Yang, Chun-Hua; Jin, Rui; Yan, Jiang-Wei; Wang, Hong-Dan; Liu, Wen-Juan; Jing, Hang; Zhu, Bo-Feng

    2015-02-05

    In the present study, we obtained population genetic data and forensic parameters of 30 InDel loci in Chinese Xibe ethnic group from northwestern China and studied the genetic relationships between the studied Xibe group and other reference groups. The observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.1704 at HLD118 locus to 0.5247 at HLD92 locus while the expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.1559 at HLD118 locus to 0.4997 at HLD101 locus. The cumulative power of exclusion and total probability of discrimination power in the studied group were 0.9867 and 0.9999999999902 for the 30 loci, respectively. Analyses of structure, PCA, interpopulation differentiations and phylogenetic tree revealed that the Xibe group had close genetic relationships with South Korean, Beijing Han and Guangdong Han groups. The results indicated that these 30 loci should only be used as a complement for autosomal STRs in paternity cases but could provide an acceptable level of discrimination in forensic identification cases in the studied Xibe group. Further studies should be conducted for better understanding of the Xibe genetic background.

  9. Are symbols useful and culturally acceptable in health-state valuation studies? An exploratory study in a multi-ethnic Asian population

    PubMed Central

    Hwee-Lin, Wee; Li, Shu-Chuen; Zhang, Xu-Hao; Xie, Feng; Feeny, David; Luo, Nan; Cheung, Yin-Bun; Machin, David; Fong, Kok-Yong; Thumboo, Julian

    2008-01-01

    Background Symbols have been used in health state valuation studies to help subjects distinguish the severity of various characteristics of a given health state. Symbols used in such studies need to be evaluated for their cross-cultural appropriateness because a given symbol may have different meanings or acceptability in different cultures, which may affect results of such studies. Objectives To evaluate if using symbols to differentiate health states of different severity is useful and culturally acceptable in a multi-ethnic, urban Asian population. Methods Using in-depth interviews with adult Chinese, Malay, and Indian Singaporeans conducted in English/mother-tongue, subjects were shown a health state with 6 levels (Health Utilities Index 3 vision), each displayed with a symbol, and asked (1a) if symbols were useful in differentiating severity of each level (measured using dichotomous and 0–10 visual analog scale [VAS] scales) or (1b) offensive and (2) to assess 7 alternative sets of symbols. Results Of 63 subjects (91% response rate), 18 (29%) felt symbols were useful in differentiating severity of each level. Reported usefulness of symbols was fair (median VAS score: 3.0, score exceeding 5.0 for 33% of subjects). One Malay subject felt symbols were offensive. Conclusions Use of symbols for health state valuation was culturally acceptable and useful for some subjects. PMID:19920973

  10. Elimination of measles and of disparities in measles childhood vaccine coverage among racial and ethnic minority populations in the United States.

    PubMed

    Hutchins, Sonja S; Jiles, Ruth; Bernier, Roger

    2004-05-01

    The gap in measles vaccine coverage between white and nonwhite children was as large as 18% in 1970. During the measles epidemic of 1989-1991, attack rates among nonwhite children <5 years of age were 4- to 7-fold higher than rates among white children. Because of the epidemic and of the known disparity in vaccine coverage and risk of disease, a dual strategy to eliminate measles in the United States was implemented: universal interventions likely to reach the majority of children and targeted interventions more likely to reach nonwhite children. In 1992, the gap in coverage between white and nonwhite children was reduced to 6% (from 15% in 1985); the risk of disease among nonwhite children was narrowed to ethnic populations. This dual strategy deserves close scrutiny by health professionals and policy makers in devising programs to meet the Healthy People 2010 objectives for the elimination of other health disparities.

  11. Japanese population structure, based on SNP genotypes from 7003 individuals compared to other ethnic groups: effects on population-based association studies.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi-Kabata, Yumi; Nakazono, Kazuyuki; Takahashi, Atsushi; Saito, Susumu; Hosono, Naoya; Kubo, Michiaki; Nakamura, Yusuke; Kamatani, Naoyuki

    2008-10-01

    Because population stratification can cause spurious associations in case-control studies, understanding the population structure is important. Here, we examined Japanese population structure by "Eigenanalysis," using the genotypes for 140,387 SNPs in 7003 Japanese individuals, along with 60 European, 60 African, and 90 East-Asian individuals, in the HapMap project. Most Japanese individuals fell into two main clusters, Hondo and Ryukyu; the Hondo cluster includes most of the individuals from the main islands in Japan, and the Ryukyu cluster includes most of the individuals from Okinawa. The SNPs with the greatest frequency differences between the Hondo and Ryukyu clusters were found in the HLA region in chromosome 6. The nonsynonymous SNPs with the greatest frequency differences between the Hondo and Ryukyu clusters were the Val/Ala polymorphism (rs3827760) in the EDAR gene, associated with hair thickness, and the Gly/Ala polymorphism (rs17822931) in the ABCC11 gene, associated with ear-wax type. Genetic differentiation was observed, even among different regions in Honshu Island, the largest island of Japan. Simulation studies showed that the inclusion of different proportions of individuals from different regions of Japan in case and control groups can lead to an inflated rate of false-positive results when the sample sizes are large.

  12. Ethnicity and type 2 diabetes: focus on Asian Indians.

    PubMed

    Abate, N; Chandalia, M

    2001-01-01

    Though the overall prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing in US and in all other westernized countries, significant differences are noted among different ethnic groups. The reasons for ethnic differences in the risk of type 2 diabetes are not entirely understood. For example, Asian Indians (people from India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh) have remarkably high prevalence of type 2 diabetes compared to Caucasians. However, the incidence of obesity, an important risk factor in the development of type 2 diabetes, is significantly lower in Asian Indians compared to Caucasians. Though westernization of lifestyle with dietary changes and lack of exercise may play a role in increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes in migrant Asian Indians, various epidemiological studies have shown that these factors alone are not sufficient to explain this trend. One important factor contributing to increased type 2 diabetes in Asian Indians is excessive insulin resistance compared to Caucasians. This difference in the degree of insulin resistance may be explained by either an environmental or a genetic factor or by combination of both. The understanding of the etiology and mechanisms causing increased insulin resistance in Asian Indians will provide clues to more effective prevention and treatment of diabetes in this ethnic group. Furthermore, the information may help in understanding the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes in other ethnic groups and improve methods of treatment and prevention in all ethnic groups. Since the ethnic mix of the US population is changing rapidly and it is estimated that by the year 2020, over 50% of US population will include non-Caucasian ethnicity, the identification of the mechanism involved in the excessive development of type 2 diabetes in non-Caucasians becomes important. In this review, possible etiology of excessive insulin resistance and role of free fatty acids (FFA) in insulin resistance in Asian Indians is discussed. Finally, the role of

  13. Vacuolar protein sorting 35 Asp620Asn mutation is rare in the ethnic Chinese population with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Chen, Shuai; Xiao, Qin; Cao, Li; Liu, Jun; Rong, Tian-Yi; Ma, Jian-Fang; Wang, Gang; Wang, Ying; Chen, Sheng-Di

    2012-06-01

    Vacuolar protein sorting 35 (VPS35) Asp620Asn mutation has been identified in late-onset familial Parkinson's disease (PD) patients of Swiss and Austrian descent as well as sporadic PD patients in the United States. In order to determine the contribution of VPS35 mutations in mainland Chinese PD patients and to better understand the association between VPS35 and PD, we sequenced all 17 exons of VPS35 in 32 probands of presumed autosomal-dominant, late-onset familial PD and 35 normal controls. Meanwhile, we analyzed VPS35 Asp620Asn mutation in 512 PD patients. A total of 371 subjects without neurological disorders from the same region in China were set as a control group. We did not find any VPS35 coding region mutation in 32 familial PD patients. VPS35 Asp620Asn mutation was either not found in 480 PD patients. Our results suggested that VPS35 Asp620Asn may be not associated with PD in Chinese population.

  14. Acculturation, dietary practices and risk for childhood obesity in an ethnically heterogeneous population of Latino school children in the San Francisco bay area.

    PubMed

    Wojcicki, Janet M; Schwartz, Norah; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo; Bacardi-Gascon, Montserrat; Heyman, Melvin B

    2012-08-01

    Previous studies have found increased acculturation to the US lifestyle increases risk for obesity in Latinos. However, methodologies differ, and results in children are inconsistent. Moreover, previous studies have not evaluated risk factors within the heterogeneous US population. We recruited 144 self-identified Latino school children and their mother or father in grades 4-6 in San Francisco parochial schools and South San Francisco public schools using an information letter distributed to all students. Children and parents had weights, heights, demographic information, dietary patterns and lifestyle variables collected in English or Spanish through an interview format. A high percentage of our children were overweight [≥85th percentile body mass index (BMI)] (62.5%) and obese (≥95th percentile BMI) (45.2%). Correspondingly parents also had a high percentage of overweight (BMI ≥ 25 & <30) (40.8%) and obesity (BMI ≥ 30) (45.3%). Mexico was the country of origin for 62.2% of parents, and 26.6% were from Central or South America. In multivariate logistic analysis, speaking Spanish at home was an independent risk factor for obesity [odds ratio (OR) 2.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.28-6.86]. Eating breakfast daily (OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.15-0.78) and consumption of tortas (a Mexican fast food sandwich) (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.21-1.00) were associated with decreased risk. In stratified analysis, significant differences in risk factors existed between Mexican origin versus Central/South American Latino children. The processes of acculturation likely impact eating and lifestyle practices differentially among Latino groups. Interventions should focus on ensuring that all children eat a nutritious breakfast and take into consideration ethnicity when working with Latino populations. PMID:22101726

  15. Acculturation, dietary practices and risk for childhood obesity in an ethnically heterogeneous population of Latino school children in the San Francisco bay area.

    PubMed

    Wojcicki, Janet M; Schwartz, Norah; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo; Bacardi-Gascon, Montserrat; Heyman, Melvin B

    2012-08-01

    Previous studies have found increased acculturation to the US lifestyle increases risk for obesity in Latinos. However, methodologies differ, and results in children are inconsistent. Moreover, previous studies have not evaluated risk factors within the heterogeneous US population. We recruited 144 self-identified Latino school children and their mother or father in grades 4-6 in San Francisco parochial schools and South San Francisco public schools using an information letter distributed to all students. Children and parents had weights, heights, demographic information, dietary patterns and lifestyle variables collected in English or Spanish through an interview format. A high percentage of our children were overweight [≥85th percentile body mass index (BMI)] (62.5%) and obese (≥95th percentile BMI) (45.2%). Correspondingly parents also had a high percentage of overweight (BMI ≥ 25 & <30) (40.8%) and obesity (BMI ≥ 30) (45.3%). Mexico was the country of origin for 62.2% of parents, and 26.6% were from Central or South America. In multivariate logistic analysis, speaking Spanish at home was an independent risk factor for obesity [odds ratio (OR) 2.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.28-6.86]. Eating breakfast daily (OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.15-0.78) and consumption of tortas (a Mexican fast food sandwich) (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.21-1.00) were associated with decreased risk. In stratified analysis, significant differences in risk factors existed between Mexican origin versus Central/South American Latino children. The processes of acculturation likely impact eating and lifestyle practices differentially among Latino groups. Interventions should focus on ensuring that all children eat a nutritious breakfast and take into consideration ethnicity when working with Latino populations.

  16. A comparison of outcomes with coronary artery calcium scanning in Unselected Populations - The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study (HNR)

    PubMed Central

    Budoff, MJ; Möhlenkamp, Stefan; McClelland, Robyn; Delaney, Joseph A.; Bauer, Marcus; Jöckel, Heinz Karl; Kälsch, Hagen; Kronmal, Richard; Nasir, Khurram; Lehmann, Nils; Moebus, Susanne; Mukamal, Ken; Erbel, Raimund

    2013-01-01

    Background The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study (HNR)) differed in regards to informing physicians and patients of the results of their subclinical atherosclerosis. Objective This study investigates whether the association of coronary artery calcium (CAC) with incident non-fatal and fatal cardiovascular (CVD) events is different among these two large, population-based observational studies. Methods All Caucasian subjects aged 45–75 years, free of baseline cardiovascular disease were included (n=2232 in MESA, n=3119 HNR participants). We studied the association between CAC and event rates at 5 years, including hard cardiac events (MI, cardiac death, resuscitated cardiac arrest), and separately added revascularizations, and strokes (fatal and non-fatal) to determine adjusted hazard ratios (HR). Results Both cohorts demonstrated very low CHD (including revascularization) rates with zero calcium (1.13 and 1.16% over 5 years in MESA and HNR respectively) and increasing significantly in both groups with CAC 100–399 (6.71 and 4.52% in MESA and HNR) and CAC >400 (12.5 and 13.54% in MESA and HNR respectively) and demonstrating strong independent predictive values for scores of 100–399 and >400, despite multivariable adjustment for risk factors. Risk factor adjusted five year revascularization rates were nearly identical for HNR and MESA, and generally low for both studies (1.4% [45/3119] for HNR and 1.9% [43/2232] for MESA) over 5 years. Conclusions Across two culturally diverse populations, CAC >400 is a strong predictor of events. High CAC did not determininistically result in revascularization and knowledge of CAC did not increase revascularizations. PMID:23849491

  17. A disintegrin and metalloprotease 33 polymorphism association with COPD in long-term tobacco smokers of the ethnic Kashmiri population of India

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Sonaullah; Rashid, Amir; Shah, Zaffar A; Jan, Rafi Ahmad; Khan, Umar Hafiz; Bhat, Imtiyaz A; Mantoo, Suhail; Shah, Tajamul H; Koul, Parvaiz A

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by an interaction of various environmental influences especially cigarette smoking and genetic determinants. The prevalence of this disease is ever increasing and characterization of the genetic determinants of the disease has been undertaken globally. The ‘A disintegrin and metalloprotease 33’ (ADAM 33) gene is one candidate gene that has been studied. Objective: Our objective was to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms in ADAM33 gene are associated with COPD in long-term tobacco smokers in the ethnic Kashmiri population of northern India. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized case-control study, which included 78 stable COPD (GOLD stage11-IV) patients, who were compared with 77 age- and sex-matched long-term tobacco smokers (>20 pack years) without any evidence of COPD. Polymorphic analysis for three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), (T1, T2, and Q1) of the ADAM33 gene was done by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) followed by sequencing. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and comparative evaluation was done by parametric/non-parametric tests. Results: The analysis of the T1, T2, and Q1 SNPs, revealed that the frequencies of the T2GG, T1GG, and the Q1AG genotypes were significantly higher in patients with COPD in comparison with the controls (P < 0.001). Similarly, the T1G and T2G allele frequency was higher in the patients than in the controls (p = 0.177 and 0.43, respectively). Conclusion: Three SNPs of the ADAM33 gene were significantly associated with COPD in the Kashmiri population of India. This study establishes the possible role of ADAM33 SNPS in the causation of COPD. Further studies across different geographical areas in the country will unravel the contribution of this gene in the causation of COPD in India. PMID:25983406

  18. Allele and haplotype frequencies of HLA-A, B, C, DRB1 and DQB1 genes in polytransfused patients in ethnically diverse populations from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, C; Macedo, L C; Bruder, A V; Quintero, F d C; de Alencar, J B; Sell, A M; Visentainer, J E L

    2015-10-01

    The red blood transfusion is a practice often used in patients with haematological and oncological diseases. However, the investigation of human leucocyte antigen (HLA) system frequency in these individuals is of great importance because multiple transfusions may lead to HLA alloimmunization. Brazil is a country that was colonized by many other ethnicities, leading to a mixed ethnicity and regionalized population. In view of the importance of HLA typing in these patients, the aim of this study was to investigate the allele and haplotype frequencies from polytransfused patients from three different regions from Brazil. HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 genotyping of 366 patients was performed by PCR-SSO, based on the Luminex technology (One Lambda(®) ), and the anti-HLA class I and class II antibodies were analysed using LabScreen Single Antigen Antibody Detection (One Lambda, Inc.). Allele and haplotype frequencies of polytransfused patients of three regions from Brazil were obtained using the Arlequin program. The most frequent allele frequencies observed were HLA-A*02, A*03, B*15, B*35, B*51, C*07, C*04, C*03, DRB1*13, DRB1*11, DRB1*07, DRB1*03, DRB1*01, DQB1*03, DQB1*02, DQB1*06 and DQB1*05. There were differences between the groups for allele variants HLA-B*57 (between Group 1 and Group 2) and HLA-C*12 (between Group 1 and Group 3). The most frequent haplotypes found in the sample were HLA-A*01B*08DRB1*03, DRBI*07DQB1*02, DRB1*01DQB1*05, DRB1*13DQB1*06 and A*02B*35. HLA class I and II antibodies were detected in 77.9% and 63.9% patients, respectively, while the both alloantibodies were detected in 62 (50.9%) patients. In conclusion, the HLA typing for polytransfused patients in each region has a great importance, as seen in this study; individuals from different regions from Brazil have HLA distribution not completely homogeneous.

  19. Dynamics of resilience in forced migration: a 1-year follow-up study of longitudinal associations with mental health in a conflict-affected, ethnic Muslim population

    PubMed Central

    Siriwardhana, Chesmal; Abas, Melanie; Siribaddana, Sisira; Sumathipala, Athula; Stewart, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Objective The concept of ‘resilience’ is of increasing interest in studies of mental health in populations facing adversity. However, lack of longitudinal data on the dynamics of resilience and non-usage of resilience-specific measurements have prevented a better understanding of resilience-mental health interactions. Hence, the present study was conducted to investigate the stability of levels of resilience and its associations with sociodemographic and mental health exposures in a conflict-affected internal-migrant population in Sri Lanka. Design A prospective follow-up study of 1 year. Setting Puttalam district of North Western province in postconflict Sri Lanka (baseline in 2011, follow-up in 2012). Participants An ethnic Muslim population internally displaced 20 years ago (in 1990) from Northern Sri Lanka, aged 18 or above and currently in the process of return migration. Measures It was hypothesised that levels of resilience would be associated with mental health outcomes. Resilience was measured on both occasions using the 14-item Resilience Scale (RS-14), social support by the Multidimensional Social Support Scale and Lubben Social Network Scale and common mental disorders by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ). Results Of 450 participants interviewed at baseline in 2011, 338 (75.1%) were re-interviewed in 2012 after a 1-year follow-up. The mean resilience scores measured by RS-14 were 80.2 (95% CI 78.6 to 81.9) at baseline and 84.9 (83.5 to 86.3) at follow-up. At both time points, lower resilience was independently associated with food insecurity, lower social support availability and social isolation. At both time points, there were significant associations with common mental disorders (CMDs) in unadjusted analyses, but they only showed independence at baseline. The CMD prevalence, maintenance and incidence at follow-up was 8.3%, 28.2% and 2.2%, respectively. Conclusions In this displaced population facing a potential reduction in adversity

  20. Insights into recently fragmented vole populations from combined genetic and demographic data.

    PubMed

    Tallmon, D A; Draheim, H M; Mills, L Scott; Allendorf, F W

    2002-04-01

    We combined demographic and genetic data to evaluate the effects of habitat fragmentation on the population structure of the California red-backed vole (Clethrionomys californicus). We analysed variation in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region and five nuclear microsatellite loci in small samples collected from two forest fragments and an unfragmented control site in 1990-91. We intensively sampled the same forest fragments and two different control sites in 1998 and 1999. Vole abundances fluctuated greatly at sizes below 50 individuals per fragment. Fragment populations had significantly lower mtDNA allelic diversity than controls, but not nuclear heterozygosity or numbers of alleles. The use of only trapping and/or mtDNA marker data would imply that fragment populations are at least partially isolated and vulnerable to inbreeding depression. In contrast, the abundance estimates combined with microsatellite data show that small fragment populations must be linked to nearby forests by high rates of migration. These results provide evidence for the usefulness of combining genetic and demographic data to understand nonequilibrium population structure in recently fragmented habitats. PMID:11972758

  1. Tailored combination prevention packages and PrEP for young key populations

    PubMed Central

    Pettifor, Audrey; Nguyen, Nadia L; Celum, Connie; Cowan, Frances M; Go, Vivian; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Young key populations, defined in this article as men who have sex with men, transgender persons, people who sell sex and people who inject drugs, are at particularly high risk for HIV. Due to the often marginalized and sometimes criminalized status of young people who identify as members of key populations, there is a need for HIV prevention packages that account for the unique and challenging circumstances they face. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is likely to become an important element of combination prevention for many young key populations. Objective In this paper, we discuss important challenges to HIV prevention among young key populations, identify key components of a tailored combination prevention package for this population and examine the role of PrEP in these prevention packages. Methods We conducted a comprehensive review of the evidence to date on prevention strategies, challenges to prevention and combination prevention packages for young key populations. We focused specifically on the role of PrEP in these prevention packages and on young people under the age of 24, and 18 in particular. Results and discussion Combination prevention packages that include effective, acceptable and scalable behavioural, structural and biologic interventions are needed for all key populations to prevent new HIV infections. Interventions in these packages should meaningfully involve beneficiaries in the design and implementation of the intervention, and take into account the context in which the intervention is being delivered to thoughtfully address issues of stigma and discrimination. These interventions will likely be most effective if implemented in conjunction with strategies to facilitate an enabling environment, including increasing access to HIV testing and health services for PrEP and other prevention strategies, decriminalizing key populations’ practices, increasing access to prevention and care, reducing stigma and discrimination, and

  2. [Relationship between HLA-A, B alleles and red blood cell parameters of patients with --(SEA/αα) subtype of α(0)-thalassemia of Han ethnic population of Wuzhou city].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiu-Qun; Li, Jun; Cai, Yong-Lin; Li, Chuan-Jie; Ma, Yu-Yi; Huang, De-Wang; Li, Hai-Feng; Lu, Ai-Ying; Tang, Min-Zhong

    2013-06-01

    This study was purposed to investigate the relationship between HLA-A, B allele polymorphisms and red blood cell parameters of patients with --(SEA/αα) subtype of α(0)-thalassemia in Han ethnic population of Wuzhou city. The HLA genetic polymorphisms were determined by polymerase chain reaction-sequence-based typing (PCR-SBT) in 57 patients with --(SEA/αα) subtype of α(0)-thalassemia of Han ethnic population in Wuzhou city, Guangxi province, China. Mean corpuscular volume (MCV), hemoglobin (Hb), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were detected by automatic blood analyzer system. HbA2 were detected by electrophoretic method. The statistical analysis was performed by ordinal polytomous logistic regression. The results showed that Hb and HbA2 levels were significantly lower in patients positive for HLA-A*33:03, B*15:01 or B*55:02, and were significantly higher in patients positive for B*15:02 (P < 0.05). It is concluded that several HLA alleles may be associated with Hb level of --(SEA/αα) subtype of α(0)-thalassemia of Han ethnic population in Wuzhou city. This result has the value for understanding phenotype-genotype relationships in thalassemia.

  3. Combination implementation for HIV prevention: moving from evidence to population-level impact

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Larry W; Serwadda, David; Quinn, Thomas C; Wawer, Maria J; Gray, Ronald H; Reynolds, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    Summary The promise of combination HIV prevention—the application of multiple HIV prevention interventions to maximize population-level impact—has never been greater. However, to succeed in achieving significant reductions in HIV incidence, an additional concept needs to be considered—combination implementation. Combination implementation for HIV prevention is defined here as the pragmatic, localized application of evidence-based strategies to realize high sustained uptake and quality of HIV prevention interventions. This review explores diverse implementation strategies including HIV testing and counseling models, task shifting, linkage to and retention in care, antiretroviral therapy support, behavior change, demand creation, and structural interventions and discusses how they could be used in the provision of HIV prevention interventions such as medical male circumcision and treatment as prevention. Only through careful consideration of how to implement and operationalize HIV prevention interventions will the HIV community be able to move from clinical trial evidence to population-level impact. PMID:23257232

  4. “Complexities of holistic community based participatory research for a low-income, multi-ethnic population exposed to multiple built-environment stressors in Worcester, Massachusetts”

    PubMed Central

    Downs, Timothy J.; Ross, Laurie; Patton, Suzanne; Rulnick, Sarah; Sinha, Deb; Mucciarone, Danielle; Calvache, Maria; Parmenter, Sarah; Subedi, Rajendra; Wysokenski, Donna; Anderson, Erin; Dezan, Rebecca; Lowe, Kate; Bowen, Jennifer; Tejani, Amee; Piersanti, Kelly; Taylor, Octavia; Goble, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Low income, multi-ethnic communities in Main South/Piedmont neighborhoods of Worcester, Massachusetts are exposed to cumulative, chronic built-environment stressors, and have limited capacity to respond, magnifying their vulnerability to adverse health outcomes. “Neighborhood STRENGTH”, our community based participatory research (CBPR) project, comprised four partners: a youth center; an environmental non-profit; a community based health center; and a university. Unlike most CBPR projects that are single topic-focused, our ‘holistic’, systems-based project targeted five priorities. The three research-focused/action-oriented components were: 1) participatory monitoring of indoor and outdoor pollution; 2) learning about health needs and concerns of residents through community based listening sessions; and 3) engaging in collaborative survey work, including a household vulnerability survey and an asthma prevalence survey for schoolchildren. The two action-focused/research-informed components were: 4) tackling persistent street trash and illegal dumping strategically; and 5) educating and empowering youth to promote environmental justice. We used a coupled CBPR-capacity building approach to design, vulnerability theory to frame, and mixed methods: quantitative environmental testing and qualitative surveys. Process and outcomes yielded important lessons: vulnerability theory helps frame issues holistically; having several topic-based projects yielded useful information, but was hard to manage and articulate to the public; access to, and engagement with, the target population was very difficult and would have benefited greatly from having representative residents who were paid at the partners' table. Engagement with residents and conflict burden varied highly across components. Notwithstanding, we built enabling capacity, strengthened our understanding of vulnerability, and are able to share valuable experiential knowledge. PMID:19762014

  5. Racial and Ethnic Minority Populations

    MedlinePlus

    ... Affairs topic. Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Other Pacific Islanders There are about 18.2 million people ... also 1.4 million Native Hawaiians or Other Pacific Islanders in the United States. According to the ...

  6. Understanding macroalgal dispersal in a complex hydrodynamic environment: a combined population genetic and physical modelling approach

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Georgina; Kregting, Louise; Beatty, Gemma E.; Cole, Claudia; Elsäßer, Björn; Savidge, Graham; Provan, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Gene flow in macroalgal populations can be strongly influenced by spore or gamete dispersal. This, in turn, is influenced by a convolution of the effects of current flow and specific plant reproductive strategies. Although several studies have demonstrated genetic variability in macroalgal populations over a wide range of spatial scales, the associated current data have generally been poorly resolved spatially and temporally. In this study, we used a combination of population genetic analyses and high-resolution hydrodynamic modelling to investigate potential connectivity between populations of the kelp Laminaria digitata in the Strangford Narrows, a narrow channel characterized by strong currents linking the large semi-enclosed sea lough, Strangford Lough, to the Irish Sea. Levels of genetic structuring based on six microsatellite markers were very low, indicating high levels of gene flow and a pattern of isolation-by-distance, where populations are more likely to exchange migrants with geographically proximal populations, but with occasional long-distance dispersal. This was confirmed by the particle tracking model, which showed that, while the majority of spores settle near the release site, there is potential for dispersal over several kilometres. This combined population genetic and modelling approach suggests that the complex hydrodynamic environment at the entrance to Strangford Lough can facilitate dispersal on a scale exceeding that proposed for L. digitata in particular, and the majority of macroalgae in general. The study demonstrates the potential of integrated physical–biological approaches for the prediction of ecological changes resulting from factors such as anthropogenically induced coastal zone changes. PMID:24671941

  7. COMBINED AND INTERACTIVE EFFECTS OF GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE AND TOXICANTS ON POPULATIONS AND COMMUNITIES

    PubMed Central

    Moe, S Jannicke; De Schamphelaere, Karel; Clements, William H; Sorensen, Mary T; Van den Brink, Paul J; Liess, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Increased temperature and other environmental effects of global climate change (GCC) have documented impacts on many species (e.g., polar bears, amphibians, coral reefs) as well as on ecosystem processes and species interactions (e.g., the timing of predator–prey interactions). A challenge for ecotoxicologists is to predict how joint effects of climatic stress and toxicants measured at the individual level (e.g., reduced survival and reproduction) will be manifested at the population level (e.g., population growth rate, extinction risk) and community level (e.g., species richness, food-web structure). The authors discuss how population- and community-level responses to toxicants under GCC are likely to be influenced by various ecological mechanisms. Stress due to GCC may reduce the potential for resistance to and recovery from toxicant exposure. Long-term toxicant exposure can result in acquired tolerance to this stressor at the population or community level, but an associated cost of tolerance may be the reduced potential for tolerance to subsequent climatic stress (or vice versa). Moreover, GCC can induce large-scale shifts in community composition, which may affect the vulnerability of communities to other stressors. Ecological modeling based on species traits (representing life-history traits, population vulnerability, sensitivity to toxicants, and sensitivity to climate change) can be a promising approach for predicting combined impacts of GCC and toxicants on populations and communities. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2013;32:49–61. © 2012 SETAC PMID:23147390

  8. Combined and interactive effects of global climate change and toxicants on populations and communities.

    PubMed

    Moe, S Jannicke; De Schamphelaere, Karel; Clements, William H; Sorensen, Mary T; Van den Brink, Paul J; Liess, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Increased temperature and other environmental effects of global climate change (GCC) have documented impacts on many species (e.g., polar bears, amphibians, coral reefs) as well as on ecosystem processes and species interactions (e.g., the timing of predator-prey interactions). A challenge for ecotoxicologists is to predict how joint effects of climatic stress and toxicants measured at the individual level (e.g., reduced survival and reproduction) will be manifested at the population level (e.g., population growth rate, extinction risk) and community level (e.g., species richness, food-web structure). The authors discuss how population- and community-level responses to toxicants under GCC are likely to be influenced by various ecological mechanisms. Stress due to GCC may reduce the potential for resistance to and recovery from toxicant exposure. Long-term toxicant exposure can result in acquired tolerance to this stressor at the population or community level, but an associated cost of tolerance may be the reduced potential for tolerance to subsequent climatic stress (or vice versa). Moreover, GCC can induce large-scale shifts in community composition, which may affect the vulnerability of communities to other stressors. Ecological modeling based on species traits (representing life-history traits, population vulnerability, sensitivity to toxicants, and sensitivity to climate change) can be a promising approach for predicting combined impacts of GCC and toxicants on populations and communities.

  9. Emergent Ethnicity: A Review and Reformulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yancey, William L.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Reviews and partially reformulates the sociological literature on the persistence of ethnicity in American society. Ethnicity, it is concluded, is basically a manifestattion of the way populations are organized in terms of interaction patterns, institutions, personal values, attitudes, life styles, and presumed consciousness of kind: it is the…

  10. Rethinking Ethnic Conflict: Somalia and Fiji.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFerson, Hazel M.

    1996-01-01

    Compares and contrasts the recent years of ethnic conflict in Somali and Fiji. The widely divergent reactions of both populations dispels the belief that ethnic pluralism is both a necessary and sufficient condition for violent conflict in a society. Provides succinct portraits of both societies and their cultures. (MJP)

  11. Evolutionary genetics in wild primates: combining genetic approaches with field studies of natural populations

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Jenny; Alberts, Susan C; Wray, Gregory A

    2010-01-01

    Ecological and evolutionary studies of wild primates hold important keys to understanding both the shared characteristics of primate biology and the genetic and phenotypic differences that make specific lineages, including our own, unique. Although complementary genetic research on nonhuman primates has long been of interest, recent technological and methodological advances now enable functional and population genetic studies in an unprecedented manner. In the past several years, novel genetic data sets have revealed new information about the demographic history of primate populations and the genetics of adaptively important traits. In combination with the rich history of behavioral, ecological, and physiological work on natural primate populations, genetic approaches promise to provide a compelling picture of primate evolution in the past and in the present day. PMID:20580115

  12. Influence of combined pollution of antimony and arsenic on culturable soil microbial populations and enzyme activities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiongshan; He, Mengchang; Wang, Ying

    2011-01-01

    The effects of both combined and single pollution of antimony (Sb) and arsenic (As) in different concentrations on culturable soil microbial populations and enzyme activities were studied under laboratory conditions. Joint effects of both Sb and As were different from that of Sb or As alone. The inhibition rate of culturable soil microbial populations under Sb and As pollution followed the order: bacterial > fungi > actinomycetes. There existed antagonistic inhibiting effect on urease and acid phophatase and synergistic inhibiting effect on protease under the combined pollution of Sb (III) and As (III). Only urease appeared to be the most sensitive indicator under Sb (V) and As (V) pollution, and there existed antagonistic inhibiting effect on acid phophatase and synergistic inhibiting effect on urease and protease under Sb (V) and As (V) combined pollution at most time. In this study, we also confirmed that the trivalent states of Sb and As were more toxic to all the microbes tested and more inhibitory on microbial enzyme activities then their pentavalent counterparts. The results also suggest that not only the application rate of the two metalloids but also the chemical form of metalloids should be considered while assessing the effect of metalloid on culturable microbial populations and enzyme activities. Urease and acid phosphatase can be used as potential biomarkers to evaluate the intensity of Sb (III) and As (III) stress.

  13. Evaluation of ethnic disparities in detection of depression and anxiety in primary care during the maternal period: combined analysis of routine and cohort data

    PubMed Central

    Prady, Stephanie L.; Pickett, Kate E.; Petherick, Emily S.; Gilbody, Simon; Croudace, Tim; Mason, Dan; Sheldon, Trevor A.; Wright, John

    2016-01-01

    Background There are limited data on detection disparities of common mental disorders in minority ethnic women. Aims Describe the natural history of common mental disorders in primary care in the maternal period, characterise women with, and explore ethnic disparities in, detected and potentially missed common mental disorders. Method Secondary analyses of linked birth cohort and primary care data involving 8991 (39.4% White British) women in Bradford. Common mental disorders were characterised through indications in the electronic medical record. Potentially missed common mental disorders were defined as an elevated General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) score during pregnancy with no corresponding common mental disorder markers in the medical record. Results Estimated prevalence of pre-birth common mental disorders was 9.5%, rising to 14.0% 3 years postnatally. Up to half of cases were potentially missed. Compared with White British women, minority ethnic women were twice as likely to have potentially missed common mental disorders and half as likely to have a marker of screening for common mental disorders. Conclusions Common mental disorder detection disparities exist for minority ethnic women in the maternal period. PMID:26795424

  14. Metal mixtures in urban and rural populations in the US: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and the Strong Heart Study☆

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Yuanjie; Peng, Roger D.; Jones, Miranda R.; Francesconi, Kevin A.; Goessler, Walter; Howard, Barbara V.; Umans, Jason G.; Best, Lyle G.; Guallar, Eliseo; Post, Wendy S.; Kaufman, Joel D.; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Background Natural and anthropogenic sources of metal exposure differ for urban and rural residents. We searched to identify patterns of metal mixtures which could suggest common environmental sources and/or metabolic pathways of different urinary metals, and compared metal-mixtures in two population-based studies from urban/sub-urban and rural/town areas in the US: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and the Strong Heart Study (SHS). Methods We studied a random sample of 308 White, Black, Chinese-American, and Hispanic participants in MESA (2000–2002) and 277 American Indian participants in SHS (1998–2003). We used principal component analysis (PCA), cluster analysis (CA), and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to evaluate nine urinary metals (antimony [Sb], arsenic [As], cadmium [Cd], lead [Pb], molybdenum [Mo], selenium [Se], tungsten [W], uranium [U] and zinc [Zn]). For arsenic, we used the sum of inorganic and methylated species (∑As). Results All nine urinary metals were higher in SHS compared to MESA participants. PCA and CA revealed the same patterns in SHS, suggesting 4 distinct principal components (PC) or clusters (∑As-U-W, Pb-Sb, Cd-Zn, Mo-Se). In MESA, CA showed 2 large clusters (∑As-Mo-Sb-U-W, Cd-Pb-Se-Zn), while PCA showed 4 PCs (Sb-U-W, Pb-Se-Zn, Cd-Mo, ∑As). LDA indicated that ∑As, U, W, and Zn were the most discriminant variables distinguishing MESA and SHS participants. Conclusions In SHS, the ∑As-U-W cluster and PC might reflect groundwater contamination in rural areas, and the Cd-Zn cluster and PC could reflect common sources from meat products or metabolic interactions. Among the metals assayed, ∑As, U, W and Zn differed the most between MESA and SHS, possibly reflecting disproportionate exposure from drinking water and perhaps food in rural Native communities compared to urban communities around the US. PMID:26945432

  15. THERACOM: a systematic review of the evidence base for interventions to improve Therapeutic Communications between black and minority ethnic populations and staff in specialist mental health services

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) groups in receipt of specialist mental health care have reported higher rates of detention under the mental health act, less use of psychological therapies, and more dissatisfaction. Although many explanations have been put forward to explain this, a failure of therapeutic communications may explain poorer satisfaction, disengagement from services and ethnic variations in access to less coercive care. Interventions that improve therapeutic communications may offer new approaches to tackle ethnic inequalities in experiences and outcomes. Methods The THERACOM project is an HTA-funded evidence synthesis review of interventions to improve therapeutic communications between black and minority ethnic patients in contact with specialist mental health services and staff providing those services. This article sets out the protocol methods for a necessarily broad review topic, including appropriate search strategies, dilemmas for classifying different types of therapeutic communications and expectations of the types of interventions to improve them. The review methods will accommodate unexpected types of study and interventions. The findings will be reported in 2013, including a synthesis of the quantitative and grey literature. Discussion A particular methodological challenge is to identify and rate the quality of many different study types, for example, randomised controlled trials, observational quantitative studies, qualitative studies and case studies, which comprise the full range of hierarchies of evidence. We discuss the preliminary methodological challenges and some solutions. (PROSPERO registration number: CRD42011001661). PMID:23442299

  16. Ethnicity and Education in Thailand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, C. L.

    With over 95 percent of the people professing Buddhism, about 90 percent having a common or related racial origin, and almost 85 percent speaking the Thai language, the Thai society is fairly homogeneous. There are, however, a few ethnic minorities of which the significant ones are the Chinese (12 percent of the population), the Malays (2…

  17. Frequencies of two functionally significant SNPs and their haplotypes of organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 SLCO1B1 gene in six ethnic groups of Pakistani population

    PubMed Central

    Rajput, Tausif Ahmed; Naveed, Abdul Khaliq; Khan, Shakir; Farooqi, Zia-Ur-Rehman

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): Organic anion transporter polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1) encoded by solute carrier organic transporter 1B1 (SLCO1B1) gene; a transporter involved in the uptake of drugs and endogenous compounds is present in hepatocyte sinusoidal membrane. Aim of this study was to investigate the frequencies of functionally significant SNPs (388A>G and 521T>C) and their haplotypes in 6 ethnic groups of Pakistani population through the development of rapid and efficient Tetra amplification refractory mutation system (T. ARMS) genotyping assay. Materials and Methods: Frequencies of alleles, genotype, and haplotypes of two functionally significant Single nucleotide polymorphism in 180 healthy Pakistani subjects and distributions in six ethnic groups by using a single step T. ARMS genotyping assay. Results: The allelic frequency for 388A>G SNP was 50% in total Pakistani population with Single nucleotide polymorphism distributions of 9.7%, 15.1%, 19.4%, 16.1%, 18.3%, and 21.5% in Punjabi, Sindhi, Balouchi, Pathan, Kashmiri and Hazara/Baltistan groups respectively; and for 521T>C SNP it was 23.9% in total Pakistani population with distributions of 11.1%, 8.9%, 15.6%, 11.1%, 31.1% and 22.2% in Punjabi, Sindhi, Balouchi, Pathan, Kashmiri, and Hazara/Baltistan groups. Both functionally significant SNPs occurred in four major haplotypes with a frequency of 35.5% for 388A/521T (*1A), 40.5% for 388G/521T (*1B), 14.4% for 388A/521C (*5), and 9.4% for 388G/521C (*15) with varying distributions among six ethnic groups. Conclusion: The 388A>G and 521T>C genotypes and corresponding haplotypes are present at varying frequencies in various ethnic groups of Pakistani population. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiling is needed to assess and characterize the effects of these haplotypes in our population. PMID:25140206

  18. Race-ethnicity is a strong correlate of circulating fat-soluble nutrient concentrations in a representative sample of the U.S. population.

    PubMed

    Schleicher, Rosemary L; Sternberg, Maya R; Pfeiffer, Christine M

    2013-06-01

    Sociodemographic and lifestyle factors exert important influences on nutritional status; however, information on their association with biomarkers of fat-soluble nutrients is limited, particularly in a representative sample of adults. Serum or plasma concentrations of vitamin A, vitamin E, carotenes, xanthophylls, 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], SFAs, MUFAs, PUFAs, and total fatty acids (tFAs) were measured in adults (aged ≥ 20 y) during all or part of NHANES 2003-2006. Simple and multiple linear regression models were used to assess 5 sociodemographic variables (age, sex, race-ethnicity, education, and income) and 5 lifestyle behaviors (smoking, alcohol consumption, BMI, physical activity, and supplement use) and their relation to biomarker concentrations. Adjustment for total serum cholesterol and lipid-altering drug use was added to the full regression model. Adjustment for latitude and season was added to the full model for 25(OH)D. Based on simple linear regression, race-ethnicity, BMI, and supplement use were significantly related to all fat-soluble biomarkers. Sociodemographic variables as a group explained 5-17% of biomarker variability, whereas together, sociodemographic and lifestyle variables explained 22-23% [25(OH)D, vitamin E, xanthophylls], 17% (vitamin A), 15% (MUFAs), 10-11% (SFAs, carotenes, tFAs), and 6% (PUFAs) of biomarker variability. Although lipid adjustment explained additional variability for all biomarkers except for 25(OH)D, it appeared to be largely independent of sociodemographic and lifestyle variables. After adjusting for sociodemographic, lifestyle, and lipid-related variables, major differences in biomarkers were associated with race-ethnicity (from -44 to 57%), smoking (up to -25%), supplement use (up to 21%), and BMI (up to -15%). Latitude and season attenuated some race-ethnicity differences. Of the sociodemographic and lifestyle variables examined, with or without lipid adjustment, most fat-soluble nutrient biomarkers were

  19. Recruiting Ethnically Diverse Participants into Qualitative Health Research: Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renert, Hagar; Russell-Mayhew, Shelly; Arthur, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    The inclusion of ethnically diverse populations in health research is crucial for addressing ethnic disparities in health status and care. Despite this need, non-dominant ethnic groups continue to be under-represented in health studies. The reasons may be at least partly due to the difficulties inherent in recruiting such groups for research. In…

  20. Ecological divergence combined with ancient allopatry in lizard populations from a small volcanic island.

    PubMed

    Suárez, N M; Pestano, J; Brown, R P

    2014-10-01

    Population divergence and speciation are often explained by geographical isolation, but may also be possible under high gene flow due to strong ecology-related differences in selection pressures. This study combines coalescent analyses of genetic data (11 microsatellite loci and 1 Kbp of mtDNA) and ecological modelling to examine the relative contributions of isolation and ecology to incipient speciation in the scincid lizard Chalcides sexlineatus within the volcanic island of Gran Canaria. Bayesian multispecies coalescent dating of within-island genetic divergence of northern and southern populations showed correspondence with the timing of volcanic activity in the north of the island 1.5-3.0 Ma ago. Coalescent estimates of demographic changes reveal historical size increases in northern populations, consistent with expansions from a volcanic refuge. Nevertheless, ecological divergence is also supported. First, the two morphs showed non-equivalence of ecological niches and species distribution modelling associated the northern morph with mesic habitat types and the southern morph with xeric habitat types. It seems likely that the colour morphs are associated with different antipredator strategies in the different habitats. Second, coalescent estimation of gene copy migration (based on microsatellites and mtDNA) suggest high rates from northern to southern morphs demonstrating the strength of ecology-mediated selection pressures that maintain the divergent southern morph. Together, these findings underline the complexity of the speciation process by providing evidence for the combined effects of ecological divergence and ancient divergence in allopatry. PMID:25156032

  1. Combined Influences of Model Choice, Data Quality, and Data Quantity When Estimating Population Trends

    PubMed Central

    Rueda-Cediel, Pamela; Anderson, Kurt E.; Regan, Tracey J.; Franklin, Janet; Regan, Helen M.

    2015-01-01

    Estimating and projecting population trends using population viability analysis (PVA) are central to identifying species at risk of extinction and for informing conservation management strategies. Models for PVA generally fall within two categories, scalar (count-based) or matrix (demographic). Model structure, process error, measurement error, and time series length all have known impacts in population risk assessments, but their combined impact has not been thoroughly investigated. We tested the ability of scalar and matrix PVA models to predict percent decline over a ten-year interval, selected to coincide with the IUCN Red List criterion A.3, using data simulated for a hypothetical, short-lived organism with a simple life-history and for a threatened snail, Tasmaphena lamproides. PVA performance was assessed across different time series lengths, population growth rates, and levels of process and measurement error. We found that the magnitude of effects of measurement error, process error, and time series length, and interactions between these, depended on context. We found that high process and measurement error reduced the reliability of both models in predicted percent decline. Both sources of error contributed strongly to biased predictions, with process error tending to contribute to the spread of predictions more than measurement error. Increasing time series length improved precision and reduced bias of predicted population trends, but gains substantially diminished for time series lengths greater than 10–15 years. The simple parameterization scheme we employed contributed strongly to bias in matrix model predictions when both process and measurement error were high, causing scalar models to exhibit similar or greater precision and lower bias than matrix models. Our study provides evidence that, for short-lived species with structured but simple life histories, short time series and simple models can be sufficient for reasonably reliable conservation

  2. Combining demographic and genetic factors to assess population vulnerability in stream species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erin L, Landguth; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Jones, Leslie W.; Waples, Robin S.; Whited, Diane; Lowe, Winsor H.; Lucotch, John; Neville, Helen; Luikart, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    Accelerating climate change and other cumulative stressors create an urgent need to understand the influence of environmental variation and landscape features on the connectivity and vulnerability of freshwater species. Here, we introduce a novel modeling framework for aquatic systems that integrates spatially explicit, individual-based, demographic and genetic (demogenetic) assessments with environmental variables. To show its potential utility, we simulated a hypothetical network of 19 migratory riverine populations (e.g., salmonids) using a riverscape connectivity and demogenetic model (CDFISH). We assessed how stream resistance to movement (a function of water temperature, fluvial distance, and physical barriers) might influence demogenetic connectivity, and hence, population vulnerability. We present demographic metrics (abundance, immigration, and change in abundance) and genetic metrics (diversity, differentiation, and change in differentiation), and combine them into a single vulnerability index for identifying populations at risk of extirpation. We considered four realistic scenarios that illustrate the relative sensitivity of these metrics for early detection of reduced connectivity: (1) maximum resistance due to high water temperatures throughout the network, (2) minimum resistance due to low water temperatures throughout the network, (3) increased resistance at a tributary junction caused by a partial barrier, and (4) complete isolation of a tributary, leaving resident individuals only. We then applied this demogenetic framework using empirical data for a bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) metapopulation in the upper Flathead River system, Canada and USA, to assess how current and predicted future stream warming may influence population vulnerability. Results suggest that warmer water temperatures and associated barriers to movement (e.g., low flows, dewatering) are predicted to fragment suitable habitat for migratory salmonids, resulting in the loss

  3. Fitting complex population models by combining particle filters with Markov chain Monte Carlo.

    PubMed

    Knape, Jonas; de Valpine, Perry

    2012-02-01

    We show how a recent framework combining Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) with particle filters (PFMCMC) may be used to estimate population state-space models. With the purpose of utilizing the strengths of each method, PFMCMC explores hidden states by particle filters, while process and observation parameters are estimated using an MCMC algorithm. PFMCMC is exemplified by analyzing time series data on a red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) population in New South Wales, Australia, using MCMC over model parameters based on an adaptive Metropolis-Hastings algorithm. We fit three population models to these data; a density-dependent logistic diffusion model with environmental variance, an unregulated stochastic exponential growth model, and a random-walk model. Bayes factors and posterior model probabilities show that there is little support for density dependence and that the random-walk model is the most parsimonious model. The particle filter Metropolis-Hastings algorithm is a brute-force method that may be used to fit a range of complex population models. Implementation is straightforward and less involved than standard MCMC for many models, and marginal densities for model selection can be obtained with little additional effort. The cost is mainly computational, resulting in long running times that may be improved by parallelizing the algorithm.

  4. Fitting complex population models by combining particle filters with Markov chain Monte Carlo.

    PubMed

    Knape, Jonas; de Valpine, Perry

    2012-02-01

    We show how a recent framework combining Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) with particle filters (PFMCMC) may be used to estimate population state-space models. With the purpose of utilizing the strengths of each method, PFMCMC explores hidden states by particle filters, while process and observation parameters are estimated using an MCMC algorithm. PFMCMC is exemplified by analyzing time series data on a red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) population in New South Wales, Australia, using MCMC over model parameters based on an adaptive Metropolis-Hastings algorithm. We fit three population models to these data; a density-dependent logistic diffusion model with environmental variance, an unregulated stochastic exponential growth model, and a random-walk model. Bayes factors and posterior model probabilities show that there is little support for density dependence and that the random-walk model is the most parsimonious model. The particle filter Metropolis-Hastings algorithm is a brute-force method that may be used to fit a range of complex population models. Implementation is straightforward and less involved than standard MCMC for many models, and marginal densities for model selection can be obtained with little additional effort. The cost is mainly computational, resulting in long running times that may be improved by parallelizing the algorithm. PMID:22624307

  5. Combining a weed traits database with a population dynamics model predicts shifts in weed communities

    PubMed Central

    Storkey, J; Holst, N; Bøjer, O Q; Bigongiali, F; Bocci, G; Colbach, N; Dorner, Z; Riemens, M M; Sartorato, I; Sønderskov, M; Verschwele, A

    2015-01-01

    A functional approach to predicting shifts in weed floras in response to management or environmental change requires the combination of data on weed traits with analytical frameworks that capture the filtering effect of selection pressures on traits. A weed traits database (WTDB) was designed, populated and analysed, initially using data for 19 common European weeds, to begin to consolidate trait data in a single repository. The initial choice of traits was driven by the requirements of empirical models of weed population dynamics to identify correlations between traits and model parameters. These relationships were used to build a generic model, operating at the level of functional traits, to simulate the impact of increasing herbicide and fertiliser use on virtual weeds along gradients of seed weight and maximum height. The model generated ‘fitness contours’ (defined as population growth rates) within this trait space in different scenarios, onto which two sets of weed species, defined as common or declining in the UK, were mapped. The effect of increasing inputs on the weed flora was successfully simulated; 77% of common species were predicted to have stable or increasing populations under high fertiliser and herbicide use, in contrast with only 29% of the species that have declined. Future development of the WTDB will aim to increase the number of species covered, incorporate a wider range of traits and analyse intraspecific variability under contrasting management and environments. PMID:26190870

  6. Demographic, medical, and behavioral characteristics associated with over the counter non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use in a population based cohort: results from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Delaney, Joseph A C; Biggs, Mary L.; Kronmal, Richard A; Psaty, Bruce M

    2010-01-01

    Background Three types of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can be obtained both over the counter (OTC) and by prescription in the United States. OTC NSAID use is not recorded in prescription claims databases; this might lead to differential misclassification of NSAID exposure status in studies that use computerized pharmacy databases to study NSAID use. Objective To evaluate characteristics of OTC versus prescription NSAID users Methods This analysis is set within the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) study; a prospective cohort study of 6,814 adults from 4 ethnic groups (European descent, Asian, African-American and Hispanic) with a mean age of 62 years. The cohort was restricted to those who initiated NSAID use (aspirin, ibuprofen or naproxen) during follow-up. We compared information about age, sex, ethnicity, body mass index, smoking, diabetes, medication use, education, income, health insurance status and exercisebetween groups. Results OTC NSAID use was prevalent at baseline (25% Aspirin, 9% Ibuprofen, 2% Naproxen). Compared to prescribed NSAID use, OTC NSAID use was lower for users of non-European descent for all classes: aspirin (p<0.0001), ibuprofen (p<0.0001) and naproxen (p=0.0094). For aspirin, differences were seen for male gender (Relative Risk (RR):0.92; 95%(Confidence interval) CI:0.86–0.98), use of lipid lowering drugs (RR:0.88; 95% CI: 0.80–0.96), low income (RR:0.89; 95%CI:0.81–0.97), and participants one standard deviation above average in intentional exercise (RR:1.03; 95%CI:1.01–1.05). Conclusions OTC NSAID use is prevalent in an older multi-ethnic population and OTC users differ from prescription NSAID users. Caution should be exercised when using prescribed NSAIDs as a proxy for NSAID use. PMID:21182156

  7. Using variable combination population analysis for variable selection in multivariate calibration.

    PubMed

    Yun, Yong-Huan; Wang, Wei-Ting; Deng, Bai-Chuan; Lai, Guang-Bi; Liu, Xin-bo; Ren, Da-Bing; Liang, Yi-Zeng; Fan, Wei; Xu, Qing-Song

    2015-03-01

    Variable (wavelength or feature) selection techniques have become a critical step for the analysis of datasets with high number of variables and relatively few samples. In this study, a novel variable selection strategy, variable combination population analysis (VCPA), was proposed. This strategy consists of two crucial procedures. First, the exponentially decreasing function (EDF), which is the simple and effective principle of 'survival of the fittest' from Darwin's natural evolution theory, is employed to determine the number of variables to keep and continuously shrink the variable space. Second, in each EDF run, binary matrix sampling (BMS) strategy that gives each variable the same chance to be selected and generates different variable combinations, is used to produce a population of subsets to construct a population of sub-models. Then, model population analysis (MPA) is employed to find the variable subsets with the lower root mean squares error of cross validation (RMSECV). The frequency of each variable appearing in the best 10% sub-models is computed. The higher the frequency is, the more important the variable is. The performance of the proposed procedure was investigated using three real NIR datasets. The results indicate that VCPA is a good variable selection strategy when compared with four high performing variable selection methods: genetic algorithm-partial least squares (GA-PLS), Monte Carlo uninformative variable elimination by PLS (MC-UVE-PLS), competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) and iteratively retains informative variables (IRIV). The MATLAB source code of VCPA is available for academic research on the website: http://www.mathworks.com/matlabcentral/fileexchange/authors/498750. PMID:25682424

  8. Using variable combination population analysis for variable selection in multivariate calibration.

    PubMed

    Yun, Yong-Huan; Wang, Wei-Ting; Deng, Bai-Chuan; Lai, Guang-Bi; Liu, Xin-bo; Ren, Da-Bing; Liang, Yi-Zeng; Fan, Wei; Xu, Qing-Song

    2015-03-01

    Variable (wavelength or feature) selection techniques have become a critical step for the analysis of datasets with high number of variables and relatively few samples. In this study, a novel variable selection strategy, variable combination population analysis (VCPA), was proposed. This strategy consists of two crucial procedures. First, the exponentially decreasing function (EDF), which is the simple and effective principle of 'survival of the fittest' from Darwin's natural evolution theory, is employed to determine the number of variables to keep and continuously shrink the variable space. Second, in each EDF run, binary matrix sampling (BMS) strategy that gives each variable the same chance to be selected and generates different variable combinations, is used to produce a population of subsets to construct a population of sub-models. Then, model population analysis (MPA) is employed to find the variable subsets with the lower root mean squares error of cross validation (RMSECV). The frequency of each variable appearing in the best 10% sub-models is computed. The higher the frequency is, the more important the variable is. The performance of the proposed procedure was investigated using three real NIR datasets. The results indicate that VCPA is a good variable selection strategy when compared with four high performing variable selection methods: genetic algorithm-partial least squares (GA-PLS), Monte Carlo uninformative variable elimination by PLS (MC-UVE-PLS), competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) and iteratively retains informative variables (IRIV). The MATLAB source code of VCPA is available for academic research on the website: http://www.mathworks.com/matlabcentral/fileexchange/authors/498750.

  9. The mutation process in a chlorella population under the combined action of radionuclides and chemical mutagens

    SciTech Connect

    Ptitsyna, S.N.; Sergeeva, S.A.; Shevchenko, V.A.; Shvobene, R.Y.

    1985-09-01

    This paper investigates the dynamics of the mutation process under the combined chronic action of radionuclides (/sup 144/Ce, /sup 90/Sr) and inhibitors of repair, acriflavine and caffeine, as well as under the joint action of ethyleneimine and acriflavine, in a Chlorella population. It is shown that the modifying effect of acriflavine is more pronounced under the action of /sup 144/Ce, which is evidently due to its stronger genetic effect, in comparison with /sup 90/Sr. Experiments with inhibitors confirm the participation of the repair systems in the establishment of the visible picture of the mutation process induced by radionuclides and by ethyleneimine (EI).

  10. Disordered eating, socio-cultural media influencers, body image, and psychological factors among a racially/ethnically diverse population of college women.

    PubMed

    Quick, Virginia M; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2014-01-01

    This study examined disordered eating, socio-cultural media influencers, body image, and psychological factors among a large, racially/ethnically diverse sample of college women (n=1445; 58% White, 21% Asian, 11% Hispanic, 11% Black) who completed an online survey. Black women were significantly more satisfied with their weight and shape and had lower eating concerns, disinhibited eating, and emotional eating than all other racial/ethnic groups. Black women tended to have significantly higher levels of self-esteem, were less likely to compare their body to those of people in the media, felt less pressured to attain the physical appearance standard set by the media, and had less awareness of the societal appearance norms set by the media than other racial groups. Findings suggest that Black college women, independent of weight status, may be protected from disordered eating, negative body image, and societal media pressures. PMID:24411747

  11. Disordered eating, socio-cultural media influencers, body image, and psychological factors among a racially/ethnically diverse population of college women.

    PubMed

    Quick, Virginia M; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2014-01-01

    This study examined disordered eating, socio-cultural media influencers, body image, and psychological factors among a large, racially/ethnically diverse sample of college women (n=1445; 58% White, 21% Asian, 11% Hispanic, 11% Black) who completed an online survey. Black women were significantly more satisfied with their weight and shape and had lower eating concerns, disinhibited eating, and emotional eating than all other racial/ethnic groups. Black women tended to have significantly higher levels of self-esteem, were less likely to compare their body to those of people in the media, felt less pressured to attain the physical appearance standard set by the media, and had less awareness of the societal appearance norms set by the media than other racial groups. Findings suggest that Black college women, independent of weight status, may be protected from disordered eating, negative body image, and societal media pressures.

  12. Disordered eating, socio-cultural media influencers, body image, and psychological factors among a racially/ethnically diverse population of college women

    PubMed Central

    Quick, Virginia M.; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2013-01-01

    This study examined disordered eating, socio-cultural media influencers, body image, and psychological factors among a large, racially/ethnically diverse sample of college women (n=1445; 58% White, 21% Asian, 11% Hispanic, 11% Black) who completed an online survey. Black women were significantly more satisfied with their weight and shape and had lower eating concerns, disinhibited eating, and emotional eating than all other racial/ethnic groups. Black women tended to have significantly higher levels of self-esteem, were less likely to compare their body to those of people in the media, felt less pressured to attain the physical appearance standard set by the media, and had less awareness of the societal appearance norms set by the media than other racial groups. Findings suggest that Black college women, independent of weight status, may be protected from disordered eating, negative body image, and societal media pressures. PMID:24411747

  13. Will the Affordable Care Act (ACA) Improve Racial/Ethnic Disparity of Eye Examination Among US Working-Age Population with Diabetes?

    PubMed

    Shi, Qian; Fonseca, Vivian; Krousel-Wood, Marie; Zhao, Yingnan; Nellans, Frank P; Luo, Qingyang; Shi, Lizheng

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to examine the racial/ethnic disparity of eye examination rates among US adults with diabetes before and after the ACA. Working-age adults (18-64 years) with diabetes for years 2014-2017 were simulated by bootstrapping from the working-age diabetes patient sample of Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) Household Component 2011. Insurance coverage rates were separately predicted for each racial/ethnic group based on the Congressional Budgeting Office (CBO) report in 2014 and the proportions of Medicaid eligibility. Eye examination rates were weighted to national estimates and compared between racial/ethnic groups. Confidence intervals were estimated using the bootstrap percentile method. Health insurance coverage after the ACA is projected to increase from 90.23 % in 2011 to 98.33 % in 2014 among non-Hispanic Whites (NHW), reaching 98.96 % in 2017. Minorities are forecasted to have about 15 % expansion of insurance coverage from 2011 (80.65 %) to 2014 (96.00 %), reaching 97.25 % in 2017. In 2011, 63.01 % of NHW had eye examinations with forecasted increase to 65.83 % in 2014 and 66.05 % in 2017, while the eye examination rate in the minorities will increase from 55.75 % in 2011 to 59.23 % in 2014 and remain at 59.48 % in 2017. Therefore, racial disparity in eye examination rates is forecasted to persist (ranging from 6.57 % in 2017 to 6.69 % in 2016). The ACA is projected to improve the eye examination rate along with the expansion in insurance coverage. Although predicted racial/ethnic disparities will improve, some differences will persist. Comprehensive strategies need to be developed to eliminate the disparity.

  14. Introducing transgenes into insect populations using combined gene-drive strategies: modeling and analysis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yunxin; Magori, Krisztian; Lloyd, Alun L; Gould, Fred

    2007-10-01

    Engineered underdominance (EU), meiotic drive (MD) and Wolbachia have been proposed as mechanisms for driving anti-pathogen transgenes into natural populations of insect vectors of human diseases. EU can drive transgenes to high and stable frequencies but requires the release of sizeable numbers of engineered insects. MD and Wolbachia either cannot maintain high frequencies of transgenes or lack appropriate expression in critical tissues, but both can drive the transgenes to spread from very low initial frequencies. Here we use mathematical models to assess the utility of combining EU with MD or with Wolbachia. Under some conditions, the combination of EU and MD results in a more efficient transgene-drive strategy than either mechanism alone. This combined strategy could drive the transgenes to stable fixation and would require fewer released insects than EU alone, especially when only males are released. However, a combination of EU and Wolbachia does not work better than EU alone because it requires the release of even more engineered insects.

  15. Medical assistant coaching to support diabetes self-care among low-income racial/ethnic minority populations: Randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Ruggiero, Laurie; Riley, Barth B.; Hernandez, Rosalba; Quinn, Lauretta T.; Gerber, Ben S.; Castillo, Amparo; Day, Joseph; Ingram, Diana; Wang, Yamin; Butler, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Innovative, culturally tailored strategies are needed to extend diabetes education and support efforts in low-resourced primary care practices serving racial/ethnic minority groups. A randomized controlled trial examined the effect of a diabetes self-care coaching intervention delivered by medical assistants and the joint effect of intervention and ethnicity over time. The randomized repeated-measures design included 270 low-income African American and Hispanic/Latino patients with type 2 diabetes. The one-year clinic- and telephone-based medical assistant coaching intervention was culturally tailored and guided by theoretical frameworks. A1C was obtained, and a self-care measure was completed at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Data were analyzed using mixed-effects models with and without adjustment for covariates. There was significant overall improvement in mean self-care scores across time, but no intervention effect. Results revealed differences in self-care patterns across racial/ethnic subgroups. No differences were found for A1C levels across time or group. PMID:24569698

  16. Aging Differences in Ethnic Skin

    PubMed Central

    Buainain De Castro Maymone, Mayra; Kundu, Roopal V.

    2016-01-01

    Aging is an inevitable and complex process that can be described clinically as features of wrinkles, sunspots, uneven skin color, and sagging skin. These cutaneous effects are influenced by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors and often are varied based on ethnic origin given underlying structural and functional differences. The authors sought to provide updated information on facets of aging and how it relates to ethnic variation given innate differences in skin structure and function. Publications describing structural and functional principles of ethnic and aging skin were primarily found through a PubMed literature search and supplemented with a review of textbook chapters. The most common signs of skin aging despite skin type are dark spots, loss of elasticity, loss of volume, and rhytides. Skin of color has many characteristics that make its aging process unique. Those of Asian, Hispanic, and African American descent have distinct facial structures. Differences in the concentration of epidermal melanin makes darkly pigmented persons more vulnerable to dyspigmentation, while a thicker and more compact dermis makes facial lines less noticeable. Ethnic skin comprises a large portion of the world population. Therefore, it is important to understand the unique structural and functional differences among ethnicities to adequately treat the signs of aging. PMID:26962390

  17. Aging Differences in Ethnic Skin.

    PubMed

    Vashi, Neelam A; de Castro Maymone, Mayra Buainain; Kundu, Roopal V

    2016-01-01

    Aging is an inevitable and complex process that can be described clinically as features of wrinkles, sunspots, uneven skin color, and sagging skin. These cutaneous effects are influenced by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors and often are varied based on ethnic origin given underlying structural and functional differences. The authors sought to provide updated information on facets of aging and how it relates to ethnic variation given innate differences in skin structure and function. Publications describing structural and functional principles of ethnic and aging skin were primarily found through a PubMed literature search and supplemented with a review of textbook chapters. The most common signs of skin aging despite skin type are dark spots, loss of elasticity, loss of volume, and rhytides. Skin of color has many characteristics that make its aging process unique. Those of Asian, Hispanic, and African American descent have distinct facial structures. Differences in the concentration of epidermal melanin makes darkly pigmented persons more vulnerable to dyspigmentation, while a thicker and more compact dermis makes facial lines less noticeable. Ethnic skin comprises a large portion of the world population. Therefore, it is important to understand the unique structural and functional differences among ethnicities to adequately treat the signs of aging. PMID:26962390

  18. Combined Single-Cell Functional and Gene Expression Analysis Resolves Heterogeneity within Stem Cell Populations

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Nicola K.; Kent, David G.; Buettner, Florian; Shehata, Mona; Macaulay, Iain C.; Calero-Nieto, Fernando J.; Sánchez Castillo, Manuel; Oedekoven, Caroline A.; Diamanti, Evangelia; Schulte, Reiner; Ponting, Chris P.; Voet, Thierry; Caldas, Carlos; Stingl, John; Green, Anthony R.; Theis, Fabian J.; Göttgens, Berthold

    2015-01-01

    Summary Heterogeneity within the self-renewal durability of adult hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) challenges our understanding of the molecular framework underlying HSC function. Gene expression studies have been hampered by the presence of multiple HSC subtypes and contaminating non-HSCs in bulk HSC populations. To gain deeper insight into the gene expression program of murine HSCs, we combined single-cell functional assays with flow cytometric index sorting and single-cell gene expression assays. Through bioinformatic integration of these datasets, we designed an unbiased sorting strategy that separates non-HSCs away from HSCs, and single-cell transplantation experiments using the enriched population were combined with RNA-seq data to identify key molecules that associate with long-term durable self-renewal, producing a single-cell molecular dataset that is linked to functional stem cell activity. Finally, we demonstrated the broader applicability of this approach for linking key molecules with defined cellular functions in another stem cell system. PMID:26004780

  19. Development of a food frequency instrument: ethnic differences in food sources.

    PubMed

    Borrud, L G; McPherson, R S; Nichaman, M Z; Pillow, P C; Newell, G R

    1989-01-01

    Dietary intake was assessed among 431 black, white, and Mexican American men and women in southeast Texas using 24-hour dietary recall interviews. These data were collected to provide information on ethnic-specific food sources of selected nutrients; this information was used to construct a food frequency questionnaire for a study of nutrient intake and cancer. Nutrient content of total fat, total vitamin A, and vitamin C was determined for all foods consumed and was aggregated across unique food codes. These aggregated food codes were then ranked according to the contribution of each food to the total population intake of each nutrient. Ethnic differences existed in food sources of nutrients that would not be identified if data from only the analysis of the combined data set were used. Generally, however, the food sources identified from analyses of the combined data set included those foods that were important nutrient sources for each of the ethnic groups as well.

  20. Combining Aspirin with Cholecalciferol (Vitamin D3) – A Potential New Tool for Controlling Possum Populations

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, David R.; Arrow, Jane; Smith, Mark P.

    2013-01-01

    The introduced Australian brushtail possum is a major vertebrate pest in New Zealand, with impacts on conservation and agriculture being managed largely through poisoning operations. Cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) is registered for use in controlling possums and despite its many advantages it is expensive and relatively inhumane. Combination of a high proportion of aspirin with a low proportion of cholecalciferol was effective in killing high proportions of groups of acclimatised, caged possums: this is attributed to both an unexpectedly high toxicity of the type of cholecalciferol used, and a proposed synergistic mechanism between the two compounds. Death was caused by localised damage to heart ventricles by aspirin, and inhibition of tissue repair by both aspirin and cholecalciferol. The observed toxicosis had lower impact on the welfare of possums than either compound administered alone, particularly aspirin alone. Residue analyses of bait remains in the GI tract suggested a low risk of secondary poisoning by either compound. The combination of cholecalciferol and aspirin has the potential to meet key requirements of cost-effectiveness and humaneness in controlling possum populations, but the effect of the combination in non-target species has yet to be tested. PMID:23950982

  1. Associations between land cover/use categories and soil concentrations of arsenic, lead and barium, and population race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Harley T.; Aelion, C. Marjorie; Lawson, Andrew B.; Cai, Bo; McDermott, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    The potential of using land cover/use categories as a proxy for soil metal concentrations was examined by measuring associations between percentages of Anderson land cover categories with soil concentrations of As, Pb, and Ba in ten sampling areas. Land cover category and metal associations with ethnicity and socioeconomic status at the United States Census 2000 block and block group levels also were examined. Arsenic and Pb were highest in urban locations; Ba was a function of geology. Consistent associations were observed between urban/built up land cover, and Pb and poverty. Land cover can be used as proxy for metal concentrations, although associations are metal-dependent. PMID:24914533

  2. SLAP Repairs With Combined Procedures Have Lower Failure Rate Than Isolated Repairs in a Military Population

    PubMed Central

    Waterman, Brian R.; Arroyo, William; Heida, Kenneth; Burks, Robert; Pallis, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Background: Injuries to the superior glenoid labrum represent a significant cause of shoulder pain among active patients. The physical requirements of military service may contribute to an increased risk of injury. Limited data are available regarding the success of superior labral anterior posterior (SLAP) repairs in an active military population. Purpose: To quantify the rate of clinical failure and surgical revision after isolated and combined SLAP repair. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: All consecutive active-duty servicemembers undergoing arthroscopic repair of type II SLAP lesions at a single institution between 2006 and 2012 were identified. Patients with less than 2-year clinical follow-up and nonmilitary status were excluded. Demographic variables, surgical variables, and occupational outcomes were extracted from electronic medical records and confirmed with the US Army Physical Disability Agency database. Failure was defined as subsequent revision surgery or medical discharge with persistent shoulder complaints. Results: A total of 192 patients with SLAP repair were identified with a mean follow-up of 50.0 months (SD, 17.0 months). Isolated SLAP repair occurred in 31.3% (n = 60) versus 68.8% (n = 132) with concomitant procedures. At final follow-up, 37.0% (n = 71) of patients reported some subjective activity-related shoulder pain. Postoperative return to duty occurred in 79.6% (n = 153), and only 20.3% (n = 39) were discharged with continuing shoulder disability. The combined rotator cuff repair (96%; P = .023) and anteroinferior labral repair group (88%; P = .056) had a higher rate of functional return than isolated SLAP repair (70%). Thirty-one (16.1%) patients were classified as surgical failure and required revision. Of these, the majority of patients undergoing biceps tenodesis (76%) returned to active duty, as compared with revision SLAP repair (17%). Lower demand occupation and the presence of combined shoulder injuries

  3. Eating Healthy Ethnic Food

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can! ) Health Professional Resources Tipsheet: Eating Healthy Ethnic Food Trying different ethnic cuisines to give yourself a ... Looking for tips on how to order healthy foods when dining out? The Aim for a Healthy ...

  4. Combined Population Dynamics and Entropy Modelling Supports Patient Stratification in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Brehme, Marc; Koschmieder, Steffen; Montazeri, Maryam; Copland, Mhairi; Oehler, Vivian G.; Radich, Jerald P.; Brümmendorf, Tim H.; Schuppert, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Modelling the parameters of multistep carcinogenesis is key for a better understanding of cancer progression, biomarker identification and the design of individualized therapies. Using chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) as a paradigm for hierarchical disease evolution we show that combined population dynamic modelling and CML patient biopsy genomic analysis enables patient stratification at unprecedented resolution. Linking CD34+ similarity as a disease progression marker to patient-derived gene expression entropy separated established CML progression stages and uncovered additional heterogeneity within disease stages. Importantly, our patient data informed model enables quantitative approximation of individual patients’ disease history within chronic phase (CP) and significantly separates “early” from “late” CP. Our findings provide a novel rationale for personalized and genome-informed disease progression risk assessment that is independent and complementary to conventional measures of CML disease burden and prognosis. PMID:27048866

  5. Combined Population Dynamics and Entropy Modelling Supports Patient Stratification in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brehme, Marc; Koschmieder, Steffen; Montazeri, Maryam; Copland, Mhairi; Oehler, Vivian G.; Radich, Jerald P.; Brümmendorf, Tim H.; Schuppert, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Modelling the parameters of multistep carcinogenesis is key for a better understanding of cancer progression, biomarker identification and the design of individualized therapies. Using chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) as a paradigm for hierarchical disease evolution we show that combined population dynamic modelling and CML patient biopsy genomic analysis enables patient stratification at unprecedented resolution. Linking CD34+ similarity as a disease progression marker to patient-derived gene expression entropy separated established CML progression stages and uncovered additional heterogeneity within disease stages. Importantly, our patient data informed model enables quantitative approximation of individual patients’ disease history within chronic phase (CP) and significantly separates “early” from “late” CP. Our findings provide a novel rationale for personalized and genome-informed disease progression risk assessment that is independent and complementary to conventional measures of CML disease burden and prognosis.

  6. Stress tolerance of a subtropical Crassostrea virginica population to the combined effects of temperature and salinity

    SciTech Connect

    Heilmayer, Olaf; DiGialleonardo, Julian J.; Qian, Lianfen; Roesijadi, Guritno

    2008-08-10

    The combination of salinity and temperature has synergistic effects on virtually all aspects of the biology of estuarine organisms. Of interest were site-specific characteristics in the response of the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, from the St. Lucie River Estuary to the interactive effects of temperature and salinity. This estuary, one of the largest on the central east coast of Florida, is strongly influenced by anthropogenic modifications due to management needs to control the patterns of freshwater flow in the St. Lucie River watershed. C. virginica is designated a valued ecosystem component for monitoring the health of this estuary. Our approach used a multidimensional response surface design to study the effects of temperature and salinity on sublethal measures of oyster performance: (1) body condition index as an overall indicator of bioenergetic status and (2) the RNA/DNA ratio as a biochemical indicator of cellular stress. The results showed that there was a greater ability to withstand extreme salinity conditions at lower temperatures. However, there were no site-specific attributes that differentiated the response of the St. Lucie Estuary population from populations along the distribution range. Condition index was a less variable response than the RNA/DNA ratio, and the final models for mean condition index and the RNA:DNA ratios explained 77.3% and 35.8% of the respective variances.

  7. Combining allele frequency uncertainty and population substructure corrections in forensic DNA calculations.

    PubMed

    Cowell, Robert

    2016-07-01

    In forensic DNA calculations of relatedness of individuals and in DNA mixture analyses, at least two sources of uncertainty are present concerning the allele frequencies used for evaluating genotype probabilities when evaluating likelihoods. They are: (i) imprecision in the estimates of the allele frequencies in the population by using an inevitably finite database of DNA profiles to estimate them; and (ii) the existence of population substructure. Green and Mortera [6] showed that these effects may be taken into account individually using a common Dirichlet model within a Bayesian network formulation, but that when taken in combination this is not the case; however they suggested an approximation that could be used. Here we develop a slightly different approximation that is shown to be exact in the case of a single individual. We demonstrate the numerical closeness of the approximation using a published database of allele counts, and illustrate the effect of incorporating the approximation into calculations of a recently published statistical model of DNA mixtures. PMID:27231804

  8. Normal reference ranges for and variability in the levels of blood manganese and selenium by gender, age, and race/ethnicity for general U.S. population.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ram B; Choi, Y Sammy

    2015-04-01

    Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the period 2011-2012 were used to determine normal reference ranges and percentile distributions for manganese (Mn) and selenium (Se) in blood by gender, age, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status as determined by annual family income, and smoking status. The effect of gender, age, race/ethnicity, family income, and smoking status on the levels of Mn and Se was also determined by fitting regression models. Males had lower adjusted levels of Mn and higher adjusted levels of Se than females. Adjusted levels of Mn decreased with increase in age but adjusted levels of Se were lower in adolescents aged 12-19 years than adults aged 20-64 years. Non-Hispanic black (NHB) had the lowest levels of both Mn and Se and non-Hispanic Asians (NHAS) had the highest levels of both Mn and Se. Non-Hispanic white (NHW) and NHB had lower levels of Mn than Hispanics (HISP) and NHAS. NHB and HISP had lower levels of Se than NHW and NHAS. Low annual income (<$20,000) was associated with lower levels of Se than high annual income (≥$55,000). Smoking negatively affected the adjusted levels of Se among seniors aged ≥65 years but this was not observed in other age groups. Mn levels were not affected by smoking.

  9. Neighborhood-Level Socioeconomic Deprivation Predicts Weight Gain in a Multi-Ethnic Population: Longitudinal Data from the Dallas Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Powell-Wiley, Tiffany M.; Ayers, Colby; Agyemang, Priscilla; Leonard, Tammy; Berrigan, David; Barbash, Rachel Ballard; Lian, Min; Das, Sandeep R.; Hoehner, Christine M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine relationship between neighborhood-level socioeconomic deprivation and weight change in a multi-ethnic cohort from Dallas County, Texas and whether behavioral/psychosocial factors attenuate the relationship. Methods Non-movers (those in the same neighborhood throughout the study period) aged 18–65 (N=939) in Dallas Heart Study (DHS) underwent weight measurements between 2000–2009 (median 7-year follow-up). Geocoded home addresses defined block groups; a neighborhood deprivation index (NDI) was created (higher NDI=greater deprivation). Multi-level modeling determined weight change relative to NDI. Model fit improvement was examined with adding physical activity and neighborhood environment perceptions (higher score=more unfavorable perceptions) as covariates. A significant interaction between residence length and NDI was found (p-interaction=0.04); results were stratified by median residence length (11 years). Results Adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking, education/income, those who lived in neighborhood>11 years gained 1.0 kilograms (kg) per one-unit increment of NDI (p=0.03), or 6 kg for those in highest NDI tertile compared with those in the lowest tertile. Physical activity improved model fit; NDI remained associated with weight gain after adjustment for physical activity and neighborhood environment perceptions. There was no significant relationship between NDI and weight change for those in their neighborhood≤11 years. Conclusions Living in more socioeconomically deprived neighborhoods over a longer time period was associated with weight gain in DHS. PMID:24875231

  10. Suicide and ethnicity in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Murty, Om Prakash; Cheh, Lo Boon; Bakit, Pangie Anak; Hui, Foo Jhi; Ibrahim, Zarina Binti; Jusoh, Nazirah Binti

    2008-03-01

    This article highlights methods of ending life in different ethnic groups. This inference is drawn from analysis of data from suicidal cases from the University Malaya Medical Centre mortuary. This study also looked at sex, age, social, and employment factors. Kuala Lumpur has sizeable populations of Muslims, Chinese, Indians and Indonesian, etc. This study is based on 251 cases of suicide that were reported at the University Malaya Medical Centre from 2000 to 2004. Malaysia has a population of 22,662,365 people with 3 major ethnic groups: Malay (58%), Chinese (24%), and Indians (8%) with a minority of "others" (10%), which includes foreigners, Sabahan, and Sarawakian. This research found suicides of 164 male (65%) and 87 female (35%) victims. Their age ranged from 15 to 80 years. The age group from 21 to 30 had the highest total cases of suicide (83 of 251; 33.1%). Among ethnic groups highest rate of suicide was among Chinese with a total of 120 cases (120 of 251; 47.8%). As far as lone method of suicide is concerned, hangings accounted for the highest proportion of cases (108 of 251; 43%). Among ethnic groups, jumping from height was the commonest method used by Chinese (49 of 120; 41%), Malay (9 of 16; 56%), and others (15 of 28; 53.4%); whereas, hanging was the commonest method of committing suicide by Indians (49 of 87); Muslims showed the lowest cases of suicide (18 of 251; 7.2%). In poisoning group Indian was the highest ethnic group who used this method (20 of 37; 54.1%). PMID:19749611

  11. Breast screening and ethnic minorities.

    PubMed

    Hoare, T

    1996-09-01

    The concern for minority ethnic women is whether they are disadvantaged either in terms of the incidence of breast cancer or because of a lower uptake of screening. There are considerable worldwide variations in the incidence of breast cancer. The lowest rates are found in Chinese, Japanese and Arabic populations and women from the Indian subcontinent, and are 2-3 times lower than that of the UK. This may change in future generations. Although minority ethnic women are not a high risk group for the breast screening programme, in absolute terms breast cancer is a major health problem. Very few studies have measured ethnic differences in the uptake of screening, and they may be confounded by such factors as socio-economic group. When this is accounted for, uptake by Asian women may not necessarily be lower than by other women in the same area and can be higher for black than white women. One of the most important reasons for non-attendance is inaccurate screening registers, compounded for Asian women by their return, or extended visits, to the Indian subcontinent. A further organisational issue concerns poor awareness of minority ethnic naming systems, causing confusion over the receipt of invitations. Comprehension of the concept of screening may be difficult for minority ethnic women yet there has been little evaluation of strategies to promote understanding. However a randomised controlled trial of a linkworker intervention, designed to be feasible for implementation on a population basis, showed no increase in the uptake of breast screening by Asian women. This does not undermine linkworkers' role but suggests that their efforts should be used in other ways. It is essential to assess the relative importance of reasons for low uptake and evaluate measures to meet any unmet need, so that resources can be directed in the most effective way. PMID:8782797

  12. Relationship between ambient ultraviolet radiation and non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes: a U.S. population-based study of racial and ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Cahoon, Elizabeth K; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Wheeler, David C; Arhancet, Juan; Lin, Shih-Wen; Alexander, Bruce H; Linet, Martha S; Freedman, D Michal

    2015-03-01

    Associations between ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) have been inconsistent, but few studies have examined these associations for specific subtypes or across race/ethnicities. We evaluated the relationship between ambient UVR exposure and subtype-specific NHL incidence for whites, Hispanics and blacks in the United States for years 2001-2010 (n = 187,778 cases). Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for UVR quintiles using Poisson regression. Incidence was lower for the highest UVR quintile for chronic/small lymphocytic/leukemia (CLL/SLL) (IRR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.77-0.97), mantle cell (IRR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.69-0.97), lymphoplasmacytic (IRR = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.42-0.80), mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MZLMALT) (IRR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.60-0.90), follicular (FL) (IRR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.68-0.86), diffuse large B-cell (IRR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.76-0.94;), peripheral T-cell other (PTCL) (IRR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.61-0.95) and PTCL not otherwise specified (PNOS) (IRR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.61-0.98). Trends were significant for MZLMALT, FL, DLBCL, BNOS and PTCL, with FL and DLBCL still significant after Bonferroni correction. We found interaction by race/ethnicity for CLL/SLL, FL, Burkitt, PNOS and MF/SS, with CLL/SLL and FL still significant after Bonferroni correction. Some B-cell lymphomas (CLL/SLL, FL and Burkitt) suggested significant inverse relationships in whites and Hispanics, but not in blacks. Some T-cell lymphomas suggested the most reduced risk for the highest quintile of UVR among blacks (PNOS and MF/SS), though trends were not significant. These findings strengthen the case for an inverse association of UVR exposure, support modest heterogeneity between NHL subtypes and suggest some differences by race/ethnicity.

  13. Combining Breeding Bird Survey and Christmas Bird Count data to evaluate seasonal components of population change in Northern Bobwhite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, W.A.; Sauer, J.R.; Niven, D.K.

    2008-01-01

    Annual surveys of wildlife populations provide information about annual rates of change in populations but provide no information about when such changes occur. However, by combining data from 2 annual surveys, conducted in different parts of the year, seasonal components of population change can be estimated. We describe a hierarchical model for simultaneous analysis of 2 continent-scale monitoring programs. The Christmas Bird Count is an early winter survey, whereas the North American Breeding Bird Survey is conducted in June. Combining information from these surveys permits estimation of seasonal population variance components and improves estimation of long-term population trends. The composite analysis also controls for survey-specific sampling effects. We applied the model to estimation of population change in northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus). Over the interval 1969?2004, bobwhite populations declined, with trend estimate of -3.56% per year (95% CI = [-3.80%, -3.32%]) in the surveyed portion of their range. Our analysis of seasonal population variance components indicated that northern bobwhite populations changed more in the winter and spring portion of the year than in the summer and fall portion of the year.

  14. Combination with Anthropometric Measurements and MQSGA to Assess Nutritional Status in Chinese Hemodialysis Population

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jie; Peng, Hongquan; Yuan, Zhimin; Zhang, Kun; Xiao, Long; Huang, Jialian; Wang, Jingfeng; Huang, Hui

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To assess the nutritional status, combination with anthropometric measurements and modified quantitative subjective global assessment (MQSGA) was used in multi-center hemodialysis population in South China. Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive-analytic study was performed in 4 teaching hospitals in South China, dated from January 2010 to December 2011. Nutritional status was assessed with MQSGA and related anthropometric indexes. Serum albumin and transthyretin were also determined for nutritional assessment. Results: Eighty-two randomly selected hemodialysis patients participated in the nutritional assessment, of which 75 hemodialysis patients completed all assessments. The average age was 62.70 ± 14.21 years. The mean duration of hemodialysis was 3.29 ± 1.08 years. Of the included patients, 32% patients were well nourished, 60% were mild to moderately malnourished, and 8% were severely malnourished. Along with the malnutrition severity, the serum transthyretin significantly decreased. However, no obvious changes were found in serum albumin. The mean value (Mean ± SD; 25.78 ± 4.09 cm) of mid arm circumference (MAC) was negatively correlated with MQSGA (r = -0.365; P = 0.002). Body mass index (BMI) (Mean ± SD; 21.6 ± 3.1 kg/m2) was also significantly negatively correlated with MQSGA (r = -0.392; P = 0.001). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve were 0.664 and 0.726, respectively. Conclusions: Malnutrition is very common in South China hemodialysis population. Both BMI and MAC were effective markers for assessing nutritional status. PMID:23801883

  15. Gender and ethnic differences in incidence and survival of lymphoid neoplasm subtypes in an Asian population: Secular trends of a population-based cancer registry from 1998 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Lim, Raymond Boon Tar; Loy, En Yun; Lim, Gek Hsiang; Zheng, Huili; Chow, Khuan Yew; Lim, Soon Thye

    2015-12-01

    Descriptive epidemiology on incidence and survival by lymphoid neoplasm (LN) subtypes using the 2008 World Health Organisation (WHO) classification remained limited in Asia. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether gender and ethnic differences in incidence and survival of LN subtypes existed using the Singapore Cancer Registry (SCR) from 1998 to 2012. We derived age standardised incidence rates (ASIRs) by the direct standardisation method and 5-year relative survival (RSR) by the Ederer II method and period approach. Five-year observed survival (OS) was obtained for each ethnicity. Malays had the highest ASIR of total LNs among the three ethnicities for each time period. The largest increase in 5-year RSR subtypes was follicular lymphoma from 43.8% in 1998-2002 to 82.3% in 2008-2012; followed by chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL)/small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) from 48.1% in 1998-2002 to 77.9% in 2008-2012. Although males had higher incidence than females in each time period, females had greater 5-year RSR for follicular lymphoma (89.8% in 2008-2012 for females vs. 76.6% in 2008-2012 for males) and CLL/SLL (78.7% in 2008-2012 for females vs. 76.7% in 2008-2012 for males). All three ethnicities experienced an overall increase in 5-year OS for mature B-cell lymphoma, with Indians experiencing the greatest increase (37.1% in 1998-2002 to 61.1% in 2008-2012), followed by Malays (30.8% in 1998-2002 to 48.7% in 2008-2012) and then Chinese (36.4% in 1998-2002 to 51.3% in 2008-2012). Our study demonstrated that improved mature B-cell lymphoma survival was not only observed in the West, but also in Singapore.

  16. Longitudinal consistency of adolescent ethnic identification across varying school ethnic contexts.

    PubMed

    Nishina, Adrienne; Bellmore, Amy; Witkow, Melissa R; Nylund-Gibson, Karen

    2010-11-01

    The present study examined consistency and inconsistency in adolescents' ethnic identification (i.e., self-reported ethnicity) across the 6 middle-school semesters. The sample (N = 1,589, of whom 46% were boys and 54% were girls) included African American, Asian/Pacific Islander, Caucasian/White, Latino/Latina, Mexican/Mexican American, and multiethnic students. Latent class analyses yielded 3 key patterns in ethnic identification across the middle-school years: consistent, late consistent, and inconsistent. Ethnic identification remained consistent across fall and spring of 6th, 7th, and 8th grades for only about 60% of the students. Asian/Pacific Islander students were more consistent, and multiethnic students were less consistent than students from other ethnic groups. School ethnic composition was associated with systematic shifts in ethnic identification from the beginning to the end of middle school for those students who initially identified as Latino/Latina, African American, or multiethnic but not for Mexican-origin students. In combination, the results provide insight into the consistency of ethnic identification, the role of context in adolescents' self-representation, and considerations for longitudinal studies that examine ethnic differences.

  17. Ethnic identity of older Chinese in Canada.

    PubMed

    Lai, Daniel W L

    2012-06-01

    In Canada's multicultural society, ethnic identity is important to the elderly and can influence areas such as access to services, health promotion and care. Often, the complex nature of ethnic identity is underestimated when looking at cultural groups. This study aims to: (a) validate the factor structure of a Chinese ethnic identity measure for older Chinese in Canada, (b) examine the level of ethnic identity of the participants, and (c) examine the correlates of ethnic identity in these older individuals. Using data from a large, national research project on the elderly Chinese in Canada, this study analyzed the results gathered from a total of 2,272 participants. Principal component analysis, maximum-likelihood confirmatory factor analysis, and multiple regression analysis were performed. The results indicated that ethnic identity of the older Chinese is a multi-dimensional construct made up of three factors: (a) culture related activities, (b) community ties, (c) linkage with country of origin, and (d) cultural identification. The findings have provided a better understanding of how ethnic identity can be measured among the aging Chinese population in Canada.

  18. Screening a large, ethnically diverse population of human embryonic stem cells identifies a chromosome 20 minimal amplicon that confers a growth advantage

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The International Stem Cell Initiative analyzed 125 human embryonic stem (ES) cell lines and 11 induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell lines, from 38 laboratories worldwide, for genetic changes occurring during culture. Most lines were analyzed at an early and late passage. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis revealed that they included representatives of most major ethnic groups. Most lines remained karyotypically normal, but there was a progressive tendency to acquire changes on prolonged culture, commonly affecting chromosomes 1, 12, 17 and 20. DNA methylation patterns changed haphazardly with no link to time in culture. Structural variants, determined from the SNP arrays, also appeared sporadically. No common variants related to culture were observed on chromosomes 1, 12 and 17, but a minimal amplicon in chromosome 20q11.21, including three genes, ID1, BCL2L1 and HM13, expressed in human ES cells, occurred in >20% of the lines. Of these genes, BCL2L1 is a strong candidate for driving culture adaptation of ES cells. PMID:22119741

  19. Quantitative Modeling of Microbial Population Responses to Chronic Irradiation Combined with Other Stressors

    PubMed Central

    Shuryak, Igor; Dadachova, Ekaterina

    2016-01-01

    Microbial population responses to combined effects of chronic irradiation and other stressors (chemical contaminants, other sub-optimal conditions) are important for ecosystem functioning and bioremediation in radionuclide-contaminated areas. Quantitative mathematical modeling can improve our understanding of these phenomena. To identify general patterns of microbial responses to multiple stressors in radioactive environments, we analyzed three data sets on: (1) bacteria isolated from soil contaminated by nuclear waste at the Hanford site (USA); (2) fungi isolated from the Chernobyl nuclear-power plant (Ukraine) buildings after the accident; (3) yeast subjected to continuous γ-irradiation in the laboratory, where radiation dose rate and cell removal rate were independently varied. We applied generalized linear mixed-effects models to describe the first two data sets, whereas the third data set was amenable to mechanistic modeling using differential equations. Machine learning and information-theoretic approaches were used to select the best-supported formalism(s) among biologically-plausible alternatives. Our analysis suggests the following: (1) Both radionuclides and co-occurring chemical contaminants (e.g. NO2) are important for explaining microbial responses to radioactive contamination. (2) Radionuclides may produce non-monotonic dose responses: stimulation of microbial growth at low concentrations vs. inhibition at higher ones. (3) The extinction-defining critical radiation dose rate is dramatically lowered by additional stressors. (4) Reproduction suppression by radiation can be more important for determining the critical dose rate, than radiation-induced cell mortality. In conclusion, the modeling approaches used here on three diverse data sets provide insight into explaining and predicting multi-stressor effects on microbial communities: (1) the most severe effects (e.g. extinction) on microbial populations may occur when unfavorable environmental

  20. Quantitative Modeling of Microbial Population Responses to Chronic Irradiation Combined with Other Stressors.

    PubMed

    Shuryak, Igor; Dadachova, Ekaterina

    2016-01-01

    Microbial population responses to combined effects of chronic irradiation and other stressors (chemical contaminants, other sub-optimal conditions) are important for ecosystem functioning and bioremediation in radionuclide-contaminated areas. Quantitative mathematical modeling can improve our understanding of these phenomena. To identify general patterns of microbial responses to multiple stressors in radioactive environments, we analyzed three data sets on: (1) bacteria isolated from soil contaminated by nuclear waste at the Hanford site (USA); (2) fungi isolated from the Chernobyl nuclear-power plant (Ukraine) buildings after the accident; (3) yeast subjected to continuous γ-irradiation in the laboratory, where radiation dose rate and cell removal rate were independently varied. We applied generalized linear mixed-effects models to describe the first two data sets, whereas the third data set was amenable to mechanistic modeling using differential equations. Machine learning and information-theoretic approaches were used to select the best-supported formalism(s) among biologically-plausible alternatives. Our analysis suggests the following: (1) Both radionuclides and co-occurring chemical contaminants (e.g. NO2) are important for explaining microbial responses to radioactive contamination. (2) Radionuclides may produce non-monotonic dose responses: stimulation of microbial growth at low concentrations vs. inhibition at higher ones. (3) The extinction-defining critical radiation dose rate is dramatically lowered by additional stressors. (4) Reproduction suppression by radiation can be more important for determining the critical dose rate, than radiation-induced cell mortality. In conclusion, the modeling approaches used here on three diverse data sets provide insight into explaining and predicting multi-stressor effects on microbial communities: (1) the most severe effects (e.g. extinction) on microbial populations may occur when unfavorable environmental

  1. Optimum population-level use of artemisinin combination therapies: a modelling study

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Tran Dang; Olliaro, Piero; Dondorp, Arjen M; Baird, J Kevin; Lam, Ha Minh; Farrar, Jeremy; Thwaites, Guy E; White, Nicholas J; Boni, Maciej F

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) are used worldwide as first-line treatment against confirmed or suspected Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Despite the success of ACTs at reducing the global burden of malaria, emerging resistance to artemisinin threatens these gains. Countering onset of resistance might need deliberate tactics aimed at slowing the reduction in ACT effectiveness. We assessed optimum use of ACTs at the population level, specifically focusing on a strategy of multiple first-line therapies (MFT), and comparing it with strategies of cycling or sequential use of single first-line ACTs. Methods With an individual-based microsimulation of regional malaria transmission, we looked at how to apply a therapy as widely as possible without accelerating reduction of efficacy by drug resistance. We compared simultaneous distribution of artemether–lumefantrine, artesunate–amodiaquine, and dihydroartemisinin–piperaquine (ie, MFT) against strategies in which these ACTs would be cycled or used sequentially, either on a fixed schedule or when population-level efficacy reaches the WHO threshold of 10% treatment failure. The main assessment criterion was total number of treatment failures per 100 people per year. Additionally, we analysed the benefits of including a single non-ACT therapy in an MFT strategy, and did sensitivity analyses in which we varied transmission setting, treatment coverage, partner-drug half-life, fitness cost of drug resistance, and the relation between drug concentration and resistance evolution. Findings Use of MFT was predicted to reduce the long-term number of treatment failures compared with strategies in which a single first-line ACT is recommended. This result was robust to various epidemiological, pharmacological, and evolutionary features of malaria transmission. Inclusion of a single non-ACT therapy in an MFT strategy would have substantial benefits in reduction of pressure on artemisinin resistance

  2. Ethnic Minority-Majority Unions in Estonia.

    PubMed

    van Ham, Maarten; Tammaru, Tiit

    2011-08-01

    Ethnic minority-majority unions-also referred to as mixed ethnic unions-are often seen as the ultimate evidence of the integration of ethnic minorities into their host societies. We investigated minority-majority unions in Estonia, where ethnic minorities account for one-third of the total population (Russians 26%, followed by Ukrainians, Byelorussians, Finns and other smaller groups). Using data from the 2000 Estonian census and regression models, we found that Slavic women are less likely to be in minority-majority unions than are members of other minority groups, with Russians being the least likely. Finns, who are culturally most similar to the Estonian majority population, are the most likely to form a union with an Estonian. For ethnic minority women, the likelihood of being in minority-majority unions is highest in rural areas and increases over generations, with third-generation immigrants being the most likely. Estonian women are most likely to have a minority partner when they or their parents were born abroad and when they live in urban areas. Our findings suggest that both the opportunity to meet potential partners and openness to other ethnic groups are important factors for understanding the dynamics of minority-majority unions. PMID:21957324

  3. Racial and ethnic identity in nursing research.

    PubMed

    Gennaro, Susan; Fantasia, Heidi Collins; Keshinover, Tayra; Garry, David; Wilcox, Wendy; Uppal, Elyse

    2013-01-01

    Nurse researchers need to be able to identify the race and ethnicity of participants in their studies for several reasons including addressing health disparities, ensuring adequate representation from under-represented minorities, and making sure other nurses can understand how findings may or may not pertain to their own patient population. However, obtaining accurate information about race and ethnicity requires careful attention to norms of study participants. Race and ethnicity are not always viewed as 2 separate constructs and the definition of both changes over time. In fact, a random sample of 100 patients in 1 hospital found an 11% discrepancy between patients' self-identification of race using 2 different methodologies of self-identification. To optimize accuracy of self-identification of race and ethnicity, this paper discusses techniques learned in practice and in the literature for improving self-identification of these 2 constructs.

  4. Air Pollution and the Microvasculature: A Cross-Sectional Assessment of In Vivo Retinal Images in the Population-Based Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    PubMed Central

    Adar, Sara D.; Klein, Ronald; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Szpiro, Adam A.; Cotch, Mary Frances; Wong, Tien Y.; O'Neill, Marie S.; Shrager, Sandi; Barr, R. Graham; Siscovick, David S.; Daviglus, Martha L.; Sampson, Paul D.; Kaufman, Joel D.

    2010-01-01

    Background Long- and short-term exposures to air pollution, especially fine particulate matter (PM2.5), have been linked to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. One hypothesized mechanism for these associations involves microvascular effects. Retinal photography provides a novel, in vivo approach to examine the association of air pollution with changes in the human microvasculature. Methods and Findings Chronic and acute associations between residential air pollution concentrations and retinal vessel diameters, expressed as central retinal arteriolar equivalents (CRAE) and central retinal venular equivalents (CRVE), were examined using digital retinal images taken in Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) participants between 2002 and 2003. Study participants (46 to 87 years of age) were without clinical cardiovascular disease at the baseline examination (2000–2002). Long-term outdoor concentrations of PM2.5 were estimated at each participant's home for the 2 years preceding the clinical exam using a spatio-temporal model. Short-term concentrations were assigned using outdoor measurements on the day preceding the clinical exam. Residential proximity to roadways was also used as an indicator of long-term traffic exposures. All associations were examined using linear regression models adjusted for subject-specific age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, income, smoking status, alcohol use, physical activity, body mass index, family history of cardiovascular disease, diabetes status, serum cholesterol, glucose, blood pressure, emphysema, C-reactive protein, medication use, and fellow vessel diameter. Short-term associations were further controlled for weather and seasonality. Among the 4,607 participants with complete data, CRAE were found to be narrower among persons residing in regions with increased long- and short-term levels of PM2.5. These relationships were observed in a joint exposure model with −0.8 µm (95% confidence interval [CI] −1.1 to −0

  5. The State of Research on Racial/Ethnic Discrimination in The Receipt of Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Fagan, Pebbles; Jones, Dionne; Klein, William M. P.; Boyington, Josephine; Moten, Carmen; Rorie, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We conducted a review to examine current literature on the effects of interpersonal and institutional racism and discrimination occurring within health care settings on the health care received by racial/ethnic minority patients. Methods. We searched the PsychNet, PubMed, and Scopus databases for articles on US populations published between January 1, 2008 and November 1, 2011. We used various combinations of the following search terms: discrimination, perceived discrimination, race, ethnicity, racism, institutional racism, stereotype, prejudice or bias, and health or health care. Fifty-eight articles were reviewed. Results. Patient perception of discriminatory treatment and implicit provider biases were the most frequently examined topics in health care settings. Few studies examined the overall prevalence of racial/ethnic discrimination and none examined temporal trends. In general, measures used were insufficient for examining the impact of interpersonal discrimination or institutional racism within health care settings on racial/ethnic disparities in health care. Conclusions. Better instrumentation, innovative methodology, and strategies are needed for identifying and tracking racial/ethnic discrimination in health care settings. PMID:22494002

  6. [Population].

    PubMed

    1979-01-01

    Data on the population of Venezuela between 1975 and 1977 are presented in descriptive tables and graphs. Information is included on the employed population according to category, sex, and type of economic activity, and by sex, age, and area on the employment rate and the total, the economically active, and the unemployed population.

  7. The Combined Burden of Cognitive, Executive Function, and Psychosocial Problems in Children with Epilepsy: A Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoie, B.; Sommerfelt, K.; Waaler, P. E.; Alsaker, F. D.; Skeidsvoll, H.; Mykletun, A.

    2008-01-01

    The combined burden of psychosocial (Achenbach scales), cognitive (Raven matrices), and executive function (EF) problems was studied in a population-based sample of 6- to 12-year-old children with epilepsy (n = 162; 99 males, 63 females) and in an age- and sex-matched control group (n = 107; 62 males, 45 females). Approximately 35% of the children…

  8. Beyond Race and Ethnicity: Exploring the Effects of Ethnic Identity and Its Implications for Cancer Communication Efforts.

    PubMed

    Hovick, Shelly R; Holt, Lanier F

    2016-01-01

    Within the health communication literature there has been an increased focus on the use of cultural and identity-based message tailoring to enhance the effectiveness of messages and interventions, particularly among minority and underserved populations. Although this approach may be promising, little is known about the effect of ethnic identity on health behaviors and beliefs or how the effects of ethnic identity differ from those of race or ethnicity. This study is among the first to explore relationships between ethnic identity and cancer-related risk factors, knowledge characteristics, and cognitive and affective appraisals. This study utilized a national online sample of Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics (N = 1,452). Higher ethnic identity was associated with increased physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake and decreased body mass index among Whites (p < .05). Higher ethnic identity was also associated with increased cancer risk knowledge (p < .05) but not cancer risk perceptions or self-efficacy (p > .05). Hispanics and Blacks with higher ethnic identity had greater cancer worry. Our results suggest that the effect of ethnic identity is often distinct from that of race/ethnicity and that health communication interventions based solely on race/ethnicity may not be as effective as those that also take ethnic identity into account.

  9. Association of the HLA-DRB1*0301 and HLA-DQA1*0501 alleles with Graves' disease in a population representing the gene contribution from several ethnic backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Maciel, L M; Rodrigues, S S; Dibbern, R S; Navarro, P A; Donadi, E A

    2001-01-01

    Graves' disease (GD) is the most frequent cause of hyperthyroidism. Although the etiology is not completely elucidated, there are several lines of evidence suggesting multifactorial mechanisms. Genetic, constitutional, and environmental factors are involved in its pathogenesis. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II alleles have been associated with GD in several populations of distinct ethnic backgrounds and there is increasing evidence supporting an association between GD and HLA-DR3 in Caucasian populations. The MHC class II alleles were evaluated in 75 Brazilian patients presenting with GD and in 166 control individuals from the same geographic area. HLA-DRB, DQB, and DQA alleles were identified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified DNA hybridized with sequence-specific probes. The HLA-DRB1*0301 allele was significantly increased in patients (34/75, 45.3%) as compared with controls (37/166, 22.3%, p = 0.009), conferring a relative risk (RR) of 2.8 and an etiologic fraction (EF) of 0.287. The HLA-DQA1*0501 allele was also overrepresented in patients (48/71, 67.6%) in relation to controls (24/71, 33.8%; p = 0.004), conferring an RR of 3.74 and an EF of 0.351. The susceptibility conferred by HLA-DQA1*0501 was independent of the HLA-DRB1*0301 allele. On the other hand, the HLA-DQB1*0602 allele was significantly decreased in patients (6/75, 8.0%) in relation to controls (53/166, 31.9%, p = 0.0008), conferring an RR of 0.18 and a preventive fraction of 0.267. Although the Brazilian population comprises individuals of several ethnic backgrounds, these results corroborate the participation of the HLA-DRB1*0301 and HLA-DQA1*0501 alleles as susceptibility markers for GD, and emphasize the participation of the HLA-DQB1*0602 allele as conferring protection against the development of the disease. PMID:11272094

  10. Ethnicity/race, ethics, and epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Whaley, Arthur L

    2003-08-01

    Ethnicity/race is a much-studied variable in epidemiology. There has been little consensus about what self-reported ethnicity/race represents, but it is a measure of some combination of genetic, socioeconomic, and cultural factors. The present article will attempt to: 1.) Elucidate the limitations of contemporary discourse on ethnicity/race that emphasizes the genetic and socioeconomic dimensions as competing explanatory frameworks; 2.) Demonstrate how considerable attention to the cultural dimension facilitates understanding of race differences in health-related outcomes; and 3.) Discuss interpretations of disparities in health status of African Americans versus European Americans from an ethical perspective. A major challenge to the discourse on ethnicity/race and health being limited to socioeconomic and genetic considerations is the lack of attention to the third alternative of a cultural perspective. The combined cultural ideologies of individualism and racism undermine the utility of epidemiologic research in health promotion and disease prevention campaigns aimed at reducing the racial gaps in health status. An ethical analysis supplements the cultural perspective. Ethics converge with culture on the notion of values influencing the study of ethnicity/race in epidemiology. A cultural approach to the use of ethnicity/race in epidemiologic research addresses methodological limitations, public health traditions, and ethical imperatives.

  11. Understanding admixture patterns in supplemented populations: a case study combining molecular analyses and temporally explicit simulations in Atlantic salmon

    PubMed Central

    Perrier, Charles; Baglinière, Jean-Luc; Evanno, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    Genetic admixture between wild and introduced populations is a rising concern for the management of endangered species. Here, we use a dual approach based on molecular analyses of samples collected before and after hatchery fish introduction in combination with a simulation study to obtain insight into the mechanisms of admixture in wild populations. Using 17 microsatellites, we genotyped pre- and post-stocking samples from four Atlantic salmon populations supplemented with non-native fish to estimate genetic admixture. We also used individual-based temporally explicit simulations based on realistic demographic and stocking data to predict the extent of admixture. We found a low admixture by hatchery stocks within prestocking samples but moderate to high values in post-stocking samples (from 12% to 60%). The simulation scenarios best fitting the real data suggested a 10–25 times lower survival of stocked fish relative to wild individuals. Simulations also suggested relatively high dispersal rates of stocked and wild fish, which may explain some high levels of admixture in weakly stocked populations and the persistence of indigenous genotypes in heavily stocked populations. This study overall demonstrates that combining genetic analyses with simulations can significantly improve the understanding of admixture mechanisms in wild populations. PMID:23798972

  12. Ethnic Dimensions of Citizenship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Femminella, Francis X.

    The relationship between ethnic heritage and citizenship is explored in this paper. The author develops his analysis in four chapters. Chapter I examines levels of identity through which all individuals progress as they mature. These include identification with oneself, one's family, the extended family and ethnic group, the nation, and the world…

  13. Ethnic Studies Bulletins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Univ., Storrs. World Education Project.

    These six bulletins contain teaching suggestions for ethnic, global, and multicultural programs. "Doing Family and Local History in Ethnic Studies" lists Connecticut organizations concerned with family and local history, suggests six steps for implementing a family or local history project, provides a checklist for obtaining data, and includes a…

  14. Combining data on health care utilization and socioeconomic status of a defined population: use of a population oriented health information system for regional planning.

    PubMed

    Brommels, M; Heinonen, M O; Tuomola, S

    1987-01-01

    Health services planning on a regional or national level needs information on health care utilization as well as data on the population to be served. Health or hospital information systems usually cover services provision and utilization, and population data for planning purposes must be obtained from other sources. In the health information system presented, hospital performance data are combined with census and socioeconomic data of the population. That makes cautious analysis of reasons for variation in health care utilization within the planning area possible. The HIS is regional, including 11 health care providers, and population based, linking data to municipality (38 in all). The system is described, including its structure, input registration, file content and output formats. An output example is presented. Necessary conditions for use of the HIS in planning activities are that the corresponding health care delivery system is comprehensive, the population served well defined, and that good control of patient flow and user behaviour is achieved. Use is limited by the character of information stored in the HIS: it is registered retrospectively and by routine. In a system covering various hospitals and municipalities, engaging different types of clerical and health care personnel, data reliability is also a critical issue.

  15. Behavioural response to combined insecticide and temperature stress in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Fournier-Level, A; Neumann-Mondlak, A; Good, R T; Green, L M; Schmidt, J M; Robin, C

    2016-05-01

    Insecticide resistance evolves extremely rapidly, providing an illuminating model for the study of adaptation. With climate change reshaping species distribution, pest and disease vector control needs rethinking to include the effects of environmental variation and insect stress physiology. Here, we assessed how both long-term adaptation of populations to temperature and immediate temperature variation affect the genetic architecture of DDT insecticide response in Drosophila melanogaster. Mortality assays and behavioural assays based on continuous activity monitoring were used to assess the interaction between DDT and temperature on three field-derived populations from climate extremes (Raleigh for warm temperate, Tasmania for cold oceanic and Queensland for hot tropical). The Raleigh population showed the highest mortality to DDT, whereas the Queensland population, epicentre for derived alleles of the resistance gene Cyp6g1, showed the lowest. Interaction between insecticide and temperature strongly affected mortality, particularly for the Tasmanian population. Activity profiles analysed using self-organizing maps show that the insecticide promoted an early response, whereas elevated temperature promoted a later response. These distinctive early or later activity phases revealed similar responses to temperature and DDT dose alone but with more or less genetic variance depending on the population. This change in genetic variance among populations suggests that selection particularly depleted genetic variance for DDT response in the Queensland population. Finally, despite similar (co)variation between traits in benign conditions, the genetic responses across population differed under stressful conditions. This showed how stress-responsive genetic variation only reveals itself in specific conditions and thereby escapes potential trade-offs in benign environments.

  16. Ethnicity, Education, and Earnings in Bolivia and Guatemala.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Psacharopoulos, George

    1993-01-01

    In Guatemala and Bolivia, countries with high proportions of ethnic (Native) population, indigenous workers had lower educational attainment and earned less at every educational level, relative to nonindigenous workers. The differences between ethnic groups were greater in Guatemala than Bolivia. (SV)

  17. Symbolic Boundary Work in Schools: Demarcating and Denying Ethnic Boundaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabib-Calif, Yosepha; Lomsky-Feder, Edna

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the symbolic boundary work that is carried out at a school whose student population is heterogeneous in terms of ethnicity and class. Based on ethnography, the article demonstrates how the school's staff seeks to neutralize ethnic boundaries and their accompanying discourse, while the pupils try to bring ethnic…

  18. Dermatoglyphics from all Chinese ethnic groups reveal geographic patterning.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Guo; Chen, Yao-Fong; Ding, Ming; Jin, Li; Case, D Troy; Jiao, Yun-Ping; Wang, Xian-Ping; Bai, Chong-Xian; Jin, Gang; Yang, Jiang-Ming; Wang, Han; Yuan, Jian-Bing; Huang, Wei; Wang, Zhu-Gang; Chen, Ren-Biao

    2010-01-20

    Completion of a survey of dermatoglyphic variables for all ethnic groups in an ethnically diverse country like China is a huge research project, and an achievement that anthropological and dermatoglyphic scholars in the country could once only dream of. However, through the endeavors of scientists in China over the last 30 years, the dream has become reality. This paper reports the results of a comprehensive analysis of dermatoglyphics from all ethnic groups in China. Using cluster analysis and principal component analysis of dermatoglyphics, it has been found that Chinese populations can be generally divided into a southern group and a northern group. Furthermore, there has been considerable debate about the origins of many Chinese populations and about proper assignment of these peoples to larger ethnic groups. In this paper, we suggest that dermatoglyphic data can inform these debates by helping to classify a Chinese population as a northern or southern group, using selected reference populations and quantitative methods. This study is the first to assemble and investigate dermatoglyphics from all 56 Chinese ethnic groups. It is fortunate that data on population dermatoglyphics, a field of physical anthropology, have now been collected for all 56 Chinese ethnic groups, because intermarriage between individuals from different Chinese ethnic groups occurs more frequently in recent times, making population dermatoglyphic research an ever more challenging field of inquiry.

  19. Combination of Wearable Multi-Biosensor Platform and Resonance Frequency Training for Stress Management of the Unemployed Population

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wanqing; Gil, Yeongjoon; Lee, Jungtae

    2012-01-01

    Currently considerable research is being directed toward developing methodologies for controlling emotion or releasing stress. An applied branch of the basic field of psychophysiology, known as biofeedback, has been developed to fulfill clinical and non-clinical needs related to such control. Wearable medical devices have permitted unobtrusive monitoring of vital signs and emerging biofeedback services in a pervasive manner. With the global recession, unemployment has become one of the most serious social problems; therefore, the combination of biofeedback techniques with wearable technology for stress management of unemployed population is undoubtedly meaningful. This article describes a wearable biofeedback system based on combining integrated multi-biosensor platform with resonance frequency training (RFT) biofeedback strategy for stress management of unemployed population. Compared to commercial system, in situ experiments with multiple subjects indicated that our biofeedback system was discreet, easy to wear, and capable of offering ambulatory RFT biofeedback.Moreover, the comparative studies on the altered autonomic nervous system (ANS) modulation before and after three week RFT biofeedback training was performed in unemployed population with the aid of our wearable biofeedback system. The achieved results suggested that RFT biofeedback in combination with wearable technology was capable of significantly increasingoverall HRV, which indicated by decreasing sympathetic activities, increasing parasympathetic activities, and increasing ANS synchronization. After 3-week RFT-based respiration training, the ANS's regulating function and coping ability of unemployed population have doubled, and tended toward a dynamic balance. PMID:23201994

  20. Retrospective study evaluating the performance of a first-trimester combined screening for trisomy 21 in an Italian unselected population

    PubMed Central

    Padula, Francesco; Cignini, Pietro; Giannarelli, Diana; Brizzi, Cristiana; Coco, Claudio; D’Emidio, Laura; Giorgio, Elsa; Giorlandino, Maurizio; Mangiafico, Lucia; Mastrandrea, Marialuisa; Milite, Vincenzo; Mobili, Luisa; Nanni, Cinzia; Raffio, Raffaella; Taramanni, Cinzia; Vigna, Roberto; Mesoraca, Alvaro; Bizzoco, Domenico; Gabrielli, Ivan; Di Giacomo, Gianluca; Barone, Maria Antonietta; Cima, Antonella; Giorlandino, Francesca Romana; Emili, Sabrina; Cupellaro, Marina; Giorlandino, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Objectives to assess the performance of a combined first-trimester screening for trisomy 21 in an unselected Italian population referred to a specialized private center for prenatal medicine. Methods a retrospective validation of first-trimester screening algorithms [risk calculation based on maternal age and nuchal translucency (NT) alone, maternal age and serum parameters (free β-hCG and PAPP-A) alone and a combination of both] for fetal aneuploidies evaluated in an unselected Italian population at Artemisia Fetal-Maternal Medical Centre in Rome. All measurements were performed between 11+0 and 13+6 weeks of gestation, between April 2007 and December 2008. Results of 3,610 single fetuses included in the study, we had a complete follow-up on 2,984. Fourteen of 17 cases of trisomy 21 were detected when a cut-off of 1:300 was applied [detection rate (DR) 82.4%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 64.2–100; false-positive rate (FPR) 4.7%, 95% CI 3.9–5.4; false-negative rate (FNR) 17.6%, 95% CI 0–35.8%]. Conclusion in our study population the detection rate for trisomy 21, using the combined risk calculation based on maternal age, fetal NT, maternal PAPP-A and free β-hCG levels, was superior to the application of either parameter alone. The algorithm has been validated for first trimester screening in the Italian population. PMID:26266002

  1. Breeding signature of combining ability improvement revealed by a genomic variation map from recurrent selection population in Brassica napus

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xinwang; Li, Bao; Zhang, Ka; Hu, Kaining; Yi, Bin; Wen, Jing; Ma, Chaozhi; Shen, Jinxiong; Fu, Tingdong; Tu, Jinxing

    2016-01-01

    Combining ability is crucial for parent selection in crop hybrid breeding. The present investigation and results had revealed the underlying genetic factors which might contribute in adequate combining ability, further assisting in enhancing heterosis and stability. Here, we conducted a large-scale analysis of genomic variation in order to define genomic regions affecting the combining ability in recurrent selection population of rapeseed. A population of 175 individuals was genotyped with the Brassica60K SNP chip. 525 hybrids were assembled with three different testers and used to evaluate the general combining ability (GCA) in three environments. By detecting the changes of the genomic variation, we identified 376 potential genome regions, spanning 3.03% of rapeseed genome which provided QTL-level resolution on potentially selected variants. More than 96% of these regions were located in the C subgenome, indicating that C subgenome had sustained stronger selection pressure in the breeding program than the A subgenome. In addition, a high level of linkage disequilibrium in rapeseed genome was detected, suggesting that marker-assisted selection for the population improvement might be easily implemented. This study outlines the evidence for high GCA on a genomic level and provided underlying molecular mechanism for recurrent selection improvement in B. napus. PMID:27412721

  2. Heterosis and combining ability: a diallel cross of three geographically isolated populations of Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yuewen; Liu, Xiao; Zhang, Guofan; Wu, Fucun

    2010-11-01

    We conducted a complete diallel cross among three geographically isolated populations of Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino to determine the heterosis and the combining ability of growth traits at the spat stage. The three populations were collected from Qingdao (Q) and Dalian (D) in China, and Miyagi (M) in Japan. We measured the shell length, shell width, and total weight. The magnitude of the general combining ability (GCA) variance was more pronounced than the specific combining ability (SCA) variance, which is evidenced by both the ratio of the genetic component in total variation and the GCA/SCA values. The component variances of GCA and SCA were significant for all three traits ( P<0.05), indicating the importance of additive and non-additive genetic effects in determining the expression of these traits. The reciprocal maternal effects (RE) were also significant for these traits ( P<0.05). Our results suggest that population D was the best general combiner in breeding programs to improve growth traits. The DM cross had the highest heterosis values for all three traits.

  3. Breeding signature of combining ability improvement revealed by a genomic variation map from recurrent selection population in Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xinwang; Li, Bao; Zhang, Ka; Hu, Kaining; Yi, Bin; Wen, Jing; Ma, Chaozhi; Shen, Jinxiong; Fu, Tingdong; Tu, Jinxing

    2016-01-01

    Combining ability is crucial for parent selection in crop hybrid breeding. The present investigation and results had revealed the underlying genetic factors which might contribute in adequate combining ability, further assisting in enhancing heterosis and stability. Here, we conducted a large-scale analysis of genomic variation in order to define genomic regions affecting the combining ability in recurrent selection population of rapeseed. A population of 175 individuals was genotyped with the Brassica60K SNP chip. 525 hybrids were assembled with three different testers and used to evaluate the general combining ability (GCA) in three environments. By detecting the changes of the genomic variation, we identified 376 potential genome regions, spanning 3.03% of rapeseed genome which provided QTL-level resolution on potentially selected variants. More than 96% of these regions were located in the C subgenome, indicating that C subgenome had sustained stronger selection pressure in the breeding program than the A subgenome. In addition, a high level of linkage disequilibrium in rapeseed genome was detected, suggesting that marker-assisted selection for the population improvement might be easily implemented. This study outlines the evidence for high GCA on a genomic level and provided underlying molecular mechanism for recurrent selection improvement in B. napus. PMID:27412721

  4. The Protective Influence of Family Connectedness, Ethnic Identity, and Ethnic Engagement for New Zealand Ma¯ori Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Jaimee; Jose, Paul E.

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the associations among family connectedness, ethnic identity, and ethnic engagement on changes in well-being over time for the understudied population of Ma¯ori (indigenous New Zealand) youth. Data were collected as part of a longitudinal study of youth connectedness in New Zealand using self-report measures at 3…

  5. Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    In an effort to help meet the growing interest and concern about the problems created by the rapid growth of population, The International Planned Parenthood Federation has prepared this booklet with the aim of assisting the study of the history and future trends of population growth and its impact on individual and family welfare, national,…

  6. Racial/Ethnic disparities in depression and its theoretical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minjeong

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this review is to look at racial/ethnic disparities in the diagnosis of depression and its treatment and to explain the dynamics and causes of these racial/ethnic disparities in depression by looking at several theories, such as perceived racism, cultural competency, and other theories. Perceived racism is that the perceptions of an environmental stimulus as being racist affects the coping responses of ethnic/racial minorities, which alters psychological and physiological stress responses, and finally affects health outcomes negatively. A lower level of cultural competence can lead to health disparities. In addition, lower socioeconomic status and health care providers' beliefs and behaviors about patients' race/ethnicity and class can affect depressive symptoms as well as diagnosis and treatment. In order to reduce these racial/ethnic disparities in depression, diverse interventions should be developed to improve depression outcomes for ethnic minority populations based on these theoretical perspectives.

  7. Racial/Ethnic disparities in depression and its theoretical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minjeong

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this review is to look at racial/ethnic disparities in the diagnosis of depression and its treatment and to explain the dynamics and causes of these racial/ethnic disparities in depression by looking at several theories, such as perceived racism, cultural competency, and other theories. Perceived racism is that the perceptions of an environmental stimulus as being racist affects the coping responses of ethnic/racial minorities, which alters psychological and physiological stress responses, and finally affects health outcomes negatively. A lower level of cultural competence can lead to health disparities. In addition, lower socioeconomic status and health care providers' beliefs and behaviors about patients' race/ethnicity and class can affect depressive symptoms as well as diagnosis and treatment. In order to reduce these racial/ethnic disparities in depression, diverse interventions should be developed to improve depression outcomes for ethnic minority populations based on these theoretical perspectives. PMID:23801269

  8. Use of aspirin combinations with caffeine and increasing headache frequency: a prospective population-based study.

    PubMed

    Schramm, Sara H; Moebus, Susanne; Özyurt Kugumcu, Melek; Geisel, Marie H; Obermann, Mark; Yoon, Min-Suk; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Katsarava, Zaza

    2015-09-01

    Combinations of analgesics with caffeine have been discussed as bearing a risk for headache chronicity. We investigated whether aspirin with caffeine (ASA+) increases headache frequency compared with aspirin alone in migraine, tension-type headache (TTH), and migraine + TTH (MigTTH). The population-based German Headache Consortium Study, which included participants aged 18 to 65 years, collected information about headache and analgesics at baseline (2003-2007, t0, response rate: 55.2%), first follow-up after 1.87 ± 0.39 years (t1, 37.2%), and second follow-up after 3.26 ± 0.60 years (t2, 38.8%). We included participants with headache at t0, aspirin intake, ASA+ or no analgesics at t0 and t2, and known headache frequency. Linear regression was used to estimate changes of headache frequency (Δt2-t0) and 95% confidence intervals depending on analgesic intake, stratified by headache subtypes, adjusting for sex, age, analgesics at t1, changes of headache frequency at t1, drinking, smoking, body mass index, education, headache frequency at t0. Of 509 participants (56.0% women, 42.0 ± 11.8 years [mean ± SD]), 45.2% reported aspirin intake (41.3 ± 10.9 years, 59.6% women, headache days at t0: 2.8 ± 3.1 d/mo, t2: 3.6 ± 4.1 d/mo), 11.8% ASA+ intake (46.0 ± 9.8 years, 73.3%, t0: 4.8 ± 6.1 d/mo, t2: 5.3 ± 5.1 d/mo), and 43.0% no analgesics (41.6 ± 13.1 years, 47.5%, t0: 3.8 ± 6.2 d/mo, t2: 5.3 ± 6.6 d/mo). There was no increase in headache frequency in participants with ASA+ intake compared with aspirin (adjusted, all headache: -0.34 d/mo [95% confidence intervals: -2.50 to 1.82], migraine: -1.36 d/mo [-4.76 to 2.03], TTH: -0.57 d/mo [-4.97 to 3.84], MigTTH: 2.46 d/mo [-5.19 to 10.10]) or no analgesics (all headache: -2.24 d/mo [-4.54 to 0.07], migraine: -3.77 d/mo [-9.22 to 1.68], TTH: -4.68 d/mo [-9.62 to 0.27]; MigTTH: -3.22 d/mo [-10.16 to 3.71]). In our study, ASA+ intake did not increase headache frequency compared with aspirin or no analgesics. PMID

  9. Relationship between human LTA4H polymorphisms and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis in an ethnic Han Chinese population in Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jinghui; Chen, Jin; Yue, Jun; Liu, Lirong; Han, Min; Wang, Hongxiu

    2014-12-01

    Two single nucleotide polymorphisms in Leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H) gene were reported to be associated with protection from pulmonary tuberculosis in Vietnamese population. But these associations were not found in the Russians. To investigate the association of LTA4H polymorphisms with tuberculosis in a Han Chinese population in Eastern China, we genotyped 5 SNPs of LTA4H gene in 743 of pulmonary tuberculosis patients, 372 of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis patients and 888 of healthy controls individuals. The CC and TT homozygotes of rs1978331 and rs2540474 were identified to have higher rates (P < 0.01) and be risk factors in the patients with extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (OR = 1.412; 95% CI = 1.104-1.804 and(OR = 1.380; 95% CI = 1.080-1.764). However, no significant association was found between any of the SNPs and pulmonary tuberculosis. In the extra-pulmonary tuberculosis subgroups. LTA4H gene were significantly associated with tuberculous meningitis, lymph node tuberculosis, bone tuberculosis and other extra-pulmonary tuberculosis except for pleural tuberculosis. The present findings suggest that polymorphisms in the LTA4H gene may affect susceptibility to extra-pulmonary tuberculosis and change the risk of developing the disease in the Han nationality in the East China.

  10. Conditioning adaptive combination of P-values method to analyze case-parent trios with or without population controls.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wan-Yu; Liang, Yun-Chieh

    2016-01-01

    Detection of rare causal variants can help uncover the etiology of complex diseases. Recruiting case-parent trios is a popular study design in family-based studies. If researchers can obtain data from population controls, utilizing them in trio analyses can improve the power of methods. The transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) is a well-known method to analyze case-parent trio data. It has been extended to rare-variant association testing (abbreviated as "rvTDT"), with the flexibility to incorporate population controls. The rvTDT method is robust to population stratification. However, power loss may occur in the conditioning process. Here we propose a "conditioning adaptive combination of P-values method" (abbreviated as "conADA"), to analyze trios with/without unrelated controls. By first truncating the variants with larger P-values, we decrease the vulnerability of conADA to the inclusion of neutral variants. Moreover, because the test statistic is developed by conditioning on parental genotypes, conADA generates valid statistical inference in the presence of population stratification. With regard to statistical methods for next-generation sequencing data analyses, validity may be hampered by population stratification, whereas power may be affected by the inclusion of neutral variants. We recommend conADA for its robustness to these two factors (population stratification and the inclusion of neutral variants). PMID:27341039

  11. Conditioning adaptive combination of P-values method to analyze case-parent trios with or without population controls

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wan-Yu; Liang, Yun-Chieh

    2016-01-01

    Detection of rare causal variants can help uncover the etiology of complex diseases. Recruiting case-parent trios is a popular study design in family-based studies. If researchers can obtain data from population controls, utilizing them in trio analyses can improve the power of methods. The transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) is a well-known method to analyze case-parent trio data. It has been extended to rare-variant association testing (abbreviated as “rvTDT”), with the flexibility to incorporate population controls. The rvTDT method is robust to population stratification. However, power loss may occur in the conditioning process. Here we propose a “conditioning adaptive combination of P-values method” (abbreviated as “conADA”), to analyze trios with/without unrelated controls. By first truncating the variants with larger P-values, we decrease the vulnerability of conADA to the inclusion of neutral variants. Moreover, because the test statistic is developed by conditioning on parental genotypes, conADA generates valid statistical inference in the presence of population stratification. With regard to statistical methods for next-generation sequencing data analyses, validity may be hampered by population stratification, whereas power may be affected by the inclusion of neutral variants. We recommend conADA for its robustness to these two factors (population stratification and the inclusion of neutral variants). PMID:27341039

  12. Asking Differently about Race and Ethnicity: New Needs for a Changing Population. ETS GRE® Board Research Report. ETS GRE® GREB-11-01. ETS Research Report. RR-13-37

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klieger, David M.; Adler, Rachel; Ezzo, Chelsea

    2013-01-01

    Now is an opportune time to consider new ways to ask registrants for the "GRE"® General Test about their race and ethnicity. Growth in the percentage of Americans who identify as multiracial suggests the possibility that a sizeable percentage of registrants would self-report more than one race or ethnicity if given the opportunity to do…

  13. Race, Ethnicity, Psychosocial Factors, and Telomere Length in a Multicenter Setting

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Nandita; Ravichandran, Krithika; Branas, Charles; Spangler, Elaine; Zhou, Wenting; Paskett, Electra D.; Gehlert, Sarah; DeGraffinreid, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Background Leukocyte telomere length(LTL) has been associated with age, self-reported race/ethnicity, gender, education, and psychosocial factors, including perceived stress, and depression. However, inconsistencies in associations of LTL with disease and other phenotypes exist across studies. Population characteristics, including race/ethnicity, laboratory methods, and statistical approaches in LTL have not been comprehensively studied and could explain inconsistent LTL associations. Methods LTL was measured using Southern Blot in 1510 participants from a multi-ethnic, multi-center study combining data from 3 centers with different population characteristics and laboratory processing methods. Main associations between LTL and psychosocial factors and LTL and race/ethnicity were evaluated and then compared across generalized estimating equations(GEE) and linear regression models. Statistical models were adjusted for factors typically associated with LTL(age, gender, cancer status) and also accounted for factors related to center differences, including laboratory methods(i.e., DNA extraction). Associations between LTL and psychosocial factors were also evaluated within race/ethnicity subgroups (Non-hispanic Whites, African Americans, and Hispanics). Results Beyond adjustment for age, gender, and cancer status, additional adjustments for DNA extraction and clustering by center were needed given their effects on LTL measurements. In adjusted GEE models, longer LTL was associated with African American race (Beta(β)(standard error(SE)) = 0.09(0.04), p-value = 0.04) and Hispanic ethnicity (β(SE) = 0.06(0.01), p-value = 0.02) compared to Non-Hispanic Whites. Longer LTL was also associated with less than a high school education compared to having greater than a high school education (β(SE) = 0.06(0.02), p-value = 0.04). LTL was inversely related to perceived stress (β(SE) = -0.02(0.003), p<0.001). In subgroup analyses, there was a negative association with LTL in

  14. Diversity of sickle cell trait in Jharkhand state in India: Is it the zone of contact between two geographically and ethnically distinct populations in India?

    PubMed

    Nagar, Rachana; Raman, Rajiva

    2015-09-01

    Incidence of sickle cell trait in India is high in peninsular south, south-eastern, central and south-western India, while in north and north-eastern India, it is absent. Unicentric origin of SCD in the tribals of nilgiri hills in southern India has been proposed. The present study on the frequency of HbS trait and beta-globin gene haplotypes was conducted in the tribal-rich states of Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand to get an insight into the uneven distribution of HbS in India. Jharkhand borders with the HbS-high Odisha and Chhattisgarh, and HbS-low UP, Bihar and Bengal. Cellulose acetate gel electrophoresis was performed on the collected blood samples, to detect sickle haemoglobin (HbS) followed by DNA analysis. HbS associated beta-gene haplotype was constructed for the samples positive for HbS and all the tribals by PCR-RFLP. Out of 805 (Chhattisgarh - 261, Jharkhand - 544; greater than 36 percent tribals) samples analysed HbS frequency was 13 percent in Chhattisgarh and 3.3 percent in Jharkhand. Within Jharkhand, frequencies varied considerably from 10 percent in Tatanagar to nil in Sahibganj. The Arab-India (AI) haplotype of beta-globin cluster occurred in low frequency, confined mainly to Chhattisgarh. The most abundant haplotype in all the populations was the East Asian, + - - - - - +, rare in HbS, mainly in Sahibganj in east Jharkhand, which lacked AI. Our results indicate that besides the heterozygote advantage againstmalaria, the uneven regional distribution of HbS trait is because of restricted movement of two different populations, Dravidian from the south and Tibeto-Burman from the east into the Indianmainland which failed tomeet, we conjecture, due to severe climatic conditions (deserts and heat) prevailing through parts of central India. Apparently, Jharkhand became a zone of contact between them in recent times.

  15. Identification of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions within the fibrinogen gene cluster for fibrinogen levels in three ethnically diverse populations.

    PubMed

    Jeff, Janina M; Brown-Gentry, Kristin; Crawford, Dana C

    2015-01-01

    Elevated levels of plasma fibrinogen are associated with clot formation in the absence of inflammation or injury and is a biomarker for arterial clotting, the leading cause of cardiovascular disease. Fibrinogen levels are heritable with >50% attributed to genetic factors, however little is known about possible genetic modifiers that might explain the missing heritability. The fibrinogen gene cluster is comprised of three genes (FGA, FGB, and FGG) that make up the fibrinogen polypeptide essential for fibrinogen production in the blood. Given the known interaction with these genes, we tested 25 variants in the fibrinogen gene cluster for gene x gene and gene x environment interactions in 620 non-Hispanic blacks, 1,385 non-Hispanic whites, and 664 Mexican Americans from a cross-sectional dataset enriched with environmental data, the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Using a multiplicative approach, we added cross product terms (gene x gene or gene x environment) to a linear regression model and declared significance at p < 0.05. We identified 19 unique gene x gene and 13 unique gene x environment interactions that impact fibrinogen levels in at least one population at p < 0.05. Over 90% of the gene x gene interactions identified include a variant in the rate-limiting gene, FGB that is essential for the formation of the fibrinogen polypeptide. We also detected gene x environment interactions with fibrinogen variants and sex, smoking, and body mass index. These findings highlight the potential for the discovery of genetic modifiers for complex phenotypes in multiple populations and give a better understanding of the interaction between genes and/or the environment for fibrinogen levels. The need for more powerful and robust methods to identify genetic modifiers is still warranted. PMID:25592583

  16. IDENTIFICATION OF GENE-GENE AND GENE-ENVIRONMENT INTERACTIONS WITHIN THE FIBRINOGEN GENE CLUSTER FOR FIBRINOGEN LEVELS IN THREE ETHNICALLY DIVERSE POPULATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Jeff, Janina M.; Brown-Gentry, Kristin; Crawford, Dana C.

    2014-01-01

    Elevated levels of plasma fibrinogen are associated with clot formation in the absence of inflammation or injury and is a biomarker for arterial clotting, the leading cause of cardiovascular disease. Fibrinogen levels are heritable with >50% attributed to genetic factors, however little is known about possible genetic modifiers that might explain the missing heritability. The fibrinogen gene cluster is comprised of three genes (FGA, FGB, and FGG) that make up the fibrinogen polypeptide essential for fibrinogen production in the blood. Given the known interaction with these genes, we tested 25 variants in the fibrinogen gene cluster for gene × gene and gene × environment interactions in 620 non-Hispanic blacks, 1,385 non-Hispanic whites, and 664 Mexican Americans from a cross-sectional dataset enriched with environmental data, the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Using a multiplicative approach, we added cross product terms (gene × gene or gene × environment) to a linear regression model and declared significance at p < 0.05. We identified 19 unique gene × gene and 13 unique gene × environment interactions that impact fibrinogen levels in at least one population at p <0.05. Over 90% of the gene × gene interactions identified include a variant in the rate-limiting gene, FGB that is essential for the formation of the fibrinogen polypeptide. We also detected gene × environment interactions with fibrinogen variants and sex, smoking, and body mass index. These findings highlight the potential for the discovery of genetic modifiers for complex phenotypes in multiple populations and give a better understanding of the interaction between genes and/or the environment for fibrinogen levels. The need for more powerful and robust methods to identify genetic modifiers is still warranted. PMID:25592583

  17. Identification of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions within the fibrinogen gene cluster for fibrinogen levels in three ethnically diverse populations.

    PubMed

    Jeff, Janina M; Brown-Gentry, Kristin; Crawford, Dana C

    2015-01-01

    Elevated levels of plasma fibrinogen are associated with clot formation in the absence of inflammation or injury and is a biomarker for arterial clotting, the leading cause of cardiovascular disease. Fibrinogen levels are heritable with >50% attributed to genetic factors, however little is known about possible genetic modifiers that might explain the missing heritability. The fibrinogen gene cluster is comprised of three genes (FGA, FGB, and FGG) that make up the fibrinogen polypeptide essential for fibrinogen production in the blood. Given the known interaction with these genes, we tested 25 variants in the fibrinogen gene cluster for gene x gene and gene x environment interactions in 620 non-Hispanic blacks, 1,385 non-Hispanic whites, and 664 Mexican Americans from a cross-sectional dataset enriched with environmental data, the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Using a multiplicative approach, we added cross product terms (gene x gene or gene x environment) to a linear regression model and declared significance at p < 0.05. We identified 19 unique gene x gene and 13 unique gene x environment interactions that impact fibrinogen levels in at least one population at p < 0.05. Over 90% of the gene x gene interactions identified include a variant in the rate-limiting gene, FGB that is essential for the formation of the fibrinogen polypeptide. We also detected gene x environment interactions with fibrinogen variants and sex, smoking, and body mass index. These findings highlight the potential for the discovery of genetic modifiers for complex phenotypes in multiple populations and give a better understanding of the interaction between genes and/or the environment for fibrinogen levels. The need for more powerful and robust methods to identify genetic modifiers is still warranted.

  18. The Ongoing Pursuit of Educational Equity in Japan: The Accreditation of Ethnic High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tokunaga, Tomoko; Douthirt-Cohen, Beth

    2012-01-01

    In 2003, the Japanese Ministry of Education accredited the high school diplomas of most "ethnic high schools," which are schools by and for specific ethnic minority populations, such as Korean, Brazilian, or Chinese students in Japan. Prior to this policy, diplomas from most ethnic high schools were not recognized by the Japanese government as…

  19. Combination of sodium chlorite and calcium propionate reduces enzymatic browning and microbial population of fresh-cut "Granny Smith" apples.

    PubMed

    Guan, Wenqiang; Fan, Xuetong

    2010-03-01

    Tissue browning and microbial growth are the main concerns associated with fresh-cut apples. In this study, effects of sodium chlorite (SC) and calcium propionate (CP), individually and combined, on quality and microbial population of apple slices were investigated. "Granny Smith" apple slices, dipped for 5 min in CP solutions at 0%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2% (w/v) either alone or in combination with 0.05% (w/v) SC, were stored at 3 and 10 degrees C for up to 14 d. Color, firmness, and microflora population were measured at 1, 7, and 14 d of storage. Results showed that CP alone had no significant effect on the browning of cut apples. Even though SC significantly inhibited tissue browning initially, the apple slices turned brown during storage at 10 degrees C. The combination of CP and SC was able to inhibit apple browning during storage. Samples treated with the combination of SC with CP did not show any detectable yeast and mold growth during the entire storage period at 3 degrees C. At 10 degrees C, yeast and mold count increased on apple slices during storage while CP reduced the increase. However, high concentrations of CP reduced the efficacy of SC in inactivating E. coli inoculated on apples. Overall, our results suggested that combination of SC with 0.5% and 1% CP could be used to inhibit tissue browning and maintain firmness while reducing microbial population. Practical Application: Apple slices, which contain antioxidants and other nutrient components, have emerged as popular snacks in food service establishments, school lunch programs, and for family consumption. However, the further growth of the industry is limited by product quality deterioration caused by tissue browning, short shelf-life due to microbial growth, and possible contamination with human pathogens during processing. Therefore, this study was conducted to develop treatments to reduce microbial population and tissue browning of "Granny Smith" apple slices. Results showed that an antimicrobial

  20. Combination of sodium chlorite and calcium propionate reduces enzymatic browning and microbial population of fresh-cut "Granny Smith" apples.

    PubMed

    Guan, Wenqiang; Fan, Xuetong

    2010-03-01

    Tissue browning and microbial growth are the main concerns associated with fresh-cut apples. In this study, effects of sodium chlorite (SC) and calcium propionate (CP), individually and combined, on quality and microbial population of apple slices were investigated. "Granny Smith" apple slices, dipped for 5 min in CP solutions at 0%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2% (w/v) either alone or in combination with 0.05% (w/v) SC, were stored at 3 and 10 degrees C for up to 14 d. Color, firmness, and microflora population were measured at 1, 7, and 14 d of storage. Results showed that CP alone had no significant effect on the browning of cut apples. Even though SC significantly inhibited tissue browning initially, the apple slices turned brown during storage at 10 degrees C. The combination of CP and SC was able to inhibit apple browning during storage. Samples treated with the combination of SC with CP did not show any detectable yeast and mold growth during the entire storage period at 3 degrees C. At 10 degrees C, yeast and mold count increased on apple slices during storage while CP reduced the increase. However, high concentrations of CP reduced the efficacy of SC in inactivating E. coli inoculated on apples. Overall, our results suggested that combination of SC with 0.5% and 1% CP could be used to inhibit tissue browning and maintain firmness while reducing microbial population. Practical Application: Apple slices, which contain antioxidants and other nutrient components, have emerged as popular snacks in food service establishments, school lunch programs, and for family consumption. However, the further growth of the industry is limited by product quality deterioration caused by tissue browning, short shelf-life due to microbial growth, and possible contamination with human pathogens during processing. Therefore, this study was conducted to develop treatments to reduce microbial population and tissue browning of "Granny Smith" apple slices. Results showed that an antimicrobial

  1. Ethnicity and Nationalism. IREX Occasional Papers, Volume 1, Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massell, Gregory J.; Shoup, Paul S.

    Two papers examine the relationship between ethnicity and nationalism in the Soviet Union and in Yugoslavia. The first paper assesses the ethnicity in Soviet Central Asia. Because in recent years an increasing number of scholars has been placed in Soviet Central Asia, observation is now combined with commonly held hypotheses to determine regional…

  2. Novel mutations and mutation combinations of ryanodine receptor in a chlorantraniliprole resistant population of Plutella xylostella (L.)

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Lei; Liang, Pei; Zhou, Xuguo; Gao, Xiwu

    2014-01-01

    A previous study documented a glycine to glutamic acid mutation (G4946E) in ryanodine receptor (RyR) was highly correlated to diamide insecticide resistance in field populations of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). In this study, a field population collected in Yunnan province, China, exhibited a 2128-fold resistance to chlorantraniliprole. Sequence comparison between resistant and susceptible P. xylostella revealed three novel mutations including a glutamic acid to valine substitution (E1338D), a glutamine to leucine substitution (Q4594L) and an isoleucine to methionine substitution (I4790M) in highly conserved regions of RyR. Frequency analysis of all four mutations in this field population showed that the three new mutations showed a high frequency of 100%, while the G4946E had a frequency of 20%. Furthermore, the florescent ligand binding assay revealed that the RyR containing multiple mutations displayed a significantly lower affinity to the chlorantraniliprole. The combined results suggested that the co-existence of different combinations of the four mutations was involved in the chlorantraniliprole resistance. An allele-specific PCR based method was developed for the diagnosis of the four mutations in the field populations of P. xylostella. PMID:25377064

  3. Exploring ethnic and racial differences in falls among older adults.

    PubMed

    Han, Benjamin H; Ferris, Rosie; Blaum, Caroline

    2014-12-01

    Falls are common events that threaten the independence and health of older adults. Studies have found a wide range of fall statistics in different ethnic and racial groups throughout the world. These studies suggest that fall rates may differ between different racial and ethnic groups. Studies also suggest that the location of falls, circumstances of falls, and particular behaviors may also be different by population. Also migration to new locations may alter an individual's fall risk. However, there are few studies that directly compare ethnic and racial differences in falls statistics or examine how known fall risk factors change based on race and ethnicity. This paper reviews the existing literature on how falls may differ between different racial and ethnic groups, highlights gaps in the literature, and explores directions for future research. The focus of this paper is community dwelling older adults and immigrant populations in the United States.

  4. Combining waterfowl and breeding bird survey data to estimate wood duck breeding population size in the Atlantic Flyway

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guthrie Zimmerman,; Sauer, John; Fleming, Kathy; Link, William; Pamela R. Garrettson,

    2015-01-01

    We combined data from the Atlantic Flyway Breeding Waterfowl Survey (AFBWS) and the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) to estimate the number of wood ducks (Aix sponsa) in the United States portion of the Atlantic Flyway from 1993 to 2013. The AFBWS is a plot-based survey that covers most of the northern and central portions of the Flyway; when analyzed with adjustments for survey time of day effects, these data can be used to estimate population size. The BBS provides an index of wood duck abundance along roadside routes. Although factors influencing change in BBS counts over time can be controlled in BBS analysis, BBS indices alone cannot be used to derive population size estimates. We used AFBWS data to scale BBS indices for Bird Conservation Regions (BCR), basing the scaling factors on the ratio of estimated AFBWS population sizes to regional BBS indices for portions of BCRs that were common to both surveys. We summed scaled BBS results for portions of the Flyway not covered by the AFBWS with AFBWS population estimates to estimate a mean yearly total of 1,295,875 (mean 95% CI: 1,013,940–1,727,922) wood ducks. Scaling factors varied among BCRs from 16.7 to 148.0; the mean scaling factor was 68.9 (mean 95% CI: 53.5–90.9). Flyway-wide, population estimates from the combined analysis were consistent with alternative estimates derived from harvest data, and also provide population estimates within states and BCRs. We recommend their use in harvest and habitat management within the Atlantic Flyway.

  5. A Fever of Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alter, Robert

    1972-01-01

    Reviews two new books that argue for the political implementation of cultural pluralism in the United States: Peter Schrag's The Decline of the Wasp," and Michael Novak's The Rise of the Unmeltable Ethnics." (Author/JM)

  6. Cohort Profile: The Malaysian Cohort (TMC) project: a prospective study of non-communicable diseases in a multi-ethnic population

    PubMed Central

    Jamal, Rahman; Syed Zakaria, Syed Zulkifli; Kamaruddin, Mohd Arman; Abd Jalal, Nazihah; Ismail, Norliza; Mohd Kamil, Norkhamiwati; Abdullah, Noraidatulakma; Baharudin, Norhafizah; Hussin, Noor Hamidah; Othman, Hanita; Mahadi, Nor Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    The Malaysian Cohort study was initiated in 2005 by the Malaysian government. The top-down approach to this population-based cohort study ensured the allocation of sufficient funding for the project which aimed to recruit 100 000 individuals aged 35–70 years. Participants were recruited from rural and urban areas as well as from various socioeconomic groups. The main objectives of the study were to identify risk factors, to study gene-environment interaction and to discover biomarkers for the early detection of cancers and other diseases. At recruitment, a questionnaire-based interview was conducted, biophysical measurements were performed and biospecimens were collected, processed and stored. Baseline investigations included fasting blood sugar, fasting lipid profile, renal profile and full blood count. From April 2006 to the end of September 2012 we recruited a total of 106 527participants. The baseline prevalence data showed 16.6% participants with diabetes, 46.5% with hypertension, 44.9% with hypercholesterolaemia and 17.7% with obesity. The follow-up phase commenced in June 2013. This is the most comprehensive and biggest cohort study in Malaysia, and has become a valuable resource for epidemiological and biological research. For information on collaboration and also data access, investigators can contact the project leader at (rahmanj@ppukm.ukm.edu.my). PMID:24729425

  7. Cohort Profile: The Malaysian Cohort (TMC) project: a prospective study of non-communicable diseases in a multi-ethnic population.

    PubMed

    Jamal, Rahman; Syed Zakaria, Syed Zulkifli; Kamaruddin, Mohd Arman; Abd Jalal, Nazihah; Ismail, Norliza; Mohd Kamil, Norkhamiwati; Abdullah, Noraidatulakma; Baharudin, Norhafizah; Hussin, Noor Hamidah; Othman, Hanita; Mahadi, Nor Muhammad

    2015-04-01

    The Malaysian Cohort study was initiated in 2005 by the Malaysian government. The top-down approach to this population-based cohort study ensured the allocation of sufficient funding for the project which aimed to recruit 100,000 individuals aged 35-70 years. Participants were recruited from rural and urban areas as well as from various socioeconomic groups. The main objectives of the study were to identify risk factors, to study gene-environment interaction and to discover biomarkers for the early detection of cancers and other diseases. At recruitment, a questionnaire-based interview was conducted, biophysical measurements were performed and biospecimens were collected, processed and stored. Baseline investigations included fasting blood sugar, fasting lipid profile, renal profile and full blood count. From April 2006 to the end of September 2012 we recruited a total of 106,527 participants. The baseline prevalence data showed 16.6% participants with diabetes, 46.5% with hypertension, 44.9% with hypercholesterolaemia and 17.7% with obesity. The follow-up phase commenced in June 2013. This is the most comprehensive and biggest cohort study in Malaysia, and has become a valuable resource for epidemiological and biological research. For information on collaboration and also data access, investigators can contact the project leader at (rahmanj@ppukm.ukm.edu.my). PMID:24729425

  8. Stochastic population forecasting based on combinations of expert evaluations within the Bayesian paradigm.

    PubMed

    Billari, Francesco C; Graziani, Rebecca; Melilli, Eugenio

    2014-10-01

    This article suggests a procedure to derive stochastic population forecasts adopting an expert-based approach. As in previous work by Billari et al. (2012), experts are required to provide evaluations, in the form of conditional and unconditional scenarios, on summary indicators of the demographic components determining the population evolution: that is, fertility, mortality, and migration. Here, two main purposes are pursued. First, the demographic components are allowed to have some kind of dependence. Second, as a result of the existence of a body of shared information, possible correlations among experts are taken into account. In both cases, the dependence structure is not imposed by the researcher but rather is indirectly derived through the scenarios elicited from the experts. To address these issues, the method is based on a mixture model, within the so-called Supra-Bayesian approach, according to which expert evaluations are treated as data. The derived posterior distribution for the demographic indicators of interest is used as forecasting distribution, and a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm is designed to approximate this posterior. This article provides the questionnaire designed by the authors to collect expert opinions. Finally, an application to the forecast of the Italian population from 2010 to 2065 is proposed.

  9. Responding to the increased genetic risk associated with customary consanguineous marriage among minority ethnic populations: lessons from local innovations in England.

    PubMed

    Salway, Sarah; Ali, Parveen; Ratcliffe, Giles; Such, Elizabeth; Khan, Nasaim; Kingston, Helen; Quarrell, Oliver

    2016-07-01

    Populations practising customary consanguineous marriage have a higher incidence of autosomal recessive genetic disorders than those in which reproductive partners are usually unrelated. In the absence of any national-level response, English service developments to address the additional needs of families living with or at risk of such disorders have been locally led. These interventions remain in their infancy here, as elsewhere in Europe, and important questions remain regarding how appropriate, effective and sustainable responses can be operationalised in practice. This formative service review employed four local case studies together with wider consultation exercises over a 4-year period (2011-2015) to document recent responses to this area of need, issues arising and lessons to inform future work. Service components included the following: enhancements to genetic services to provide family-centred, culturally competent approaches to counselling and testing; community genetic literacy approaches; and capacity development among health professionals. Local approaches were, however, very varied in their detail, scope, level of investment and longevity. The provisions of culturally competent genetic counselling services and community-level genetic literacy interventions were generally well received by those who accessed them. Coordinated action across all service components appeared important for an effective service, but healthcare professionals, particularly general practitioners, were often difficult to engage in this agenda. An evaluative culture and engagement in a wider community of practice had supported service development across sites. However, sustaining investment was challenging, particularly where new services were not well integrated into core provision and where commissioning was driven by expectations of short-term reductions in infant mortality and disability.

  10. Responding to the increased genetic risk associated with customary consanguineous marriage among minority ethnic populations: lessons from local innovations in England.

    PubMed

    Salway, Sarah; Ali, Parveen; Ratcliffe, Giles; Such, Elizabeth; Khan, Nasaim; Kingston, Helen; Quarrell, Oliver

    2016-07-01

    Populations practising customary consanguineous marriage have a higher incidence of autosomal recessive genetic disorders than those in which reproductive partners are usually unrelated. In the absence of any national-level response, English service developments to address the additional needs of families living with or at risk of such disorders have been locally led. These interventions remain in their infancy here, as elsewhere in Europe, and important questions remain regarding how appropriate, effective and sustainable responses can be operationalised in practice. This formative service review employed four local case studies together with wider consultation exercises over a 4-year period (2011-2015) to document recent responses to this area of need, issues arising and lessons to inform future work. Service components included the following: enhancements to genetic services to provide family-centred, culturally competent approaches to counselling and testing; community genetic literacy approaches; and capacity development among health professionals. Local approaches were, however, very varied in their detail, scope, level of investment and longevity. The provisions of culturally competent genetic counselling services and community-level genetic literacy interventions were generally well received by those who accessed them. Coordinated action across all service components appeared important for an effective service, but healthcare professionals, particularly general practitioners, were often difficult to engage in this agenda. An evaluative culture and engagement in a wider community of practice had supported service development across sites. However, sustaining investment was challenging, particularly where new services were not well integrated into core provision and where commissioning was driven by expectations of short-term reductions in infant mortality and disability. PMID:27311843

  11. Ethnic differences in Internal Medicine referrals and diagnosis in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Lanting, Loes C; Bootsma, Aart H; Lamberts, Steven WJ; Mackenbach, Johan P; Joung, Inez MA

    2008-01-01

    Background As in other Western countries, the number of immigrants in the Netherlands is growing rapidly. In 1980 non-western immigrants constituted about 3% of the population, in 1990 it was 6% and currently it is more than 10%. Nearly half of the migrant population lives in the four major cities. In the municipality of Rotterdam 34% of the inhabitants are migrants. Health policy is based on the ideal that all inhabitants should have equal access to health care and this requires an efficient planning of health care resources, like staff and required time per patient. The aim of this study is to examine ethnic differences in the use of internal medicine outpatient care, specifically to examine ethnic differences in the reason for referral and diagnosis. Methods We conducted a study with an open cohort design. We registered the ethnicity, sex, age, referral reasons, diagnosis and living area of all new patients that visited the internal medicine outpatient clinic of the Erasmus Medical Centre in Rotterdam (Erasmus MC) for one year (March 2002–2003). Additionally, we coded referrals according to the International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC) and categorised diagnosis according to the Diagnosis Treatment Combination (DTC). We analysed data by using Poisson regression and logistic regression. Results All ethnic minority groups (Surinam, Turkish, Moroccan, Antillean/Aruban and Cape Verdean immigrants) living in Rotterdam municipality, make significantly more use of the outpatient clinic than native Dutch people (relative risk versus native Dutch people was 1.83, 1.97, 1.79, 1.65 and 1.88, respectively). Immigrant patients are more likely to be referred for analysis and treatment of 'gastro-intestinal signs & symptoms' and were less often referred for 'indefinite, general signs'. Ethnic minorities were more frequently diagnosed with 'Liver diseases', and less often with 'Analysis without diagnosis'. The increased use of the outpatient facilities seems to be

  12. Genotype-Phenotype Correlations by Ethnicity and Mutation Location in BRCA Mutation Carriers.

    PubMed

    Bayraktar, Soley; Jackson, Michelle; Gutierrez-Barrera, Angelica M; Liu, Diane; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Brandt, Amanda; Woodson, Ashley; Litton, Jennifer; Lu, Karen H; Valero, Vicente; Arun, Banu K

    2015-01-01

    The genotype-phenotype correlations of the specific BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in multi-ethnic populations in USA have not yet been fully investigated. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of ethnicity at specific mutation locations and breast/ovarian cancer phenotypes. Our cohort included 445 women with different ethnic backgrounds who underwent BRCA genetic testing between 1997 and 2010. Known clinical and pathologic characteristics were compared with Chi-Square Analysis or Fisher's Exact test as appropriate. The three most common mutation locations in BRCA1 (exons 2, 11, and 20) and BRCA2 (exons 10, 11, and 25) genes were chosen. Prevalence of BRCA1 exon 2 mutations were significantly higher in Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) women compared to Caucasians (41% versus 15%; p = 0.001). Similarly, AJ women with breast cancer were more likely to have BRCA1 exon 2 mutation (47% positivity in AJ women versus 0-12.5% positivity in other ethnicities; p = 0.004). Women carrying the exon 20 BRCA1 mutation had the highest probability of having combined breast and ovarian cancers compared to women carrying other exon mutations (p = 0.05). The median age at initial cancer diagnosis, phenotypic features of breast cancer tumors, and overall survival did not vary significantly by ethnicity or mutation location. Our data suggest that ethnicity does not affect age of onset, overall survival or confer different risks of breast and ovarian cancer development in BRCA carriers. These results also suggest that women carrying the exon 20 BRCA1 mutation may warrant mutation-specific counseling and be more aggressively managed for risk reduction.

  13. Effect of multiple-micronutrient supplementation on maternal nutrient status, infant birth weight and gestational age at birth in a low-income, multi-ethnic population.

    PubMed

    Brough, Louise; Rees, Gail A; Crawford, Michael A; Morton, R Hugh; Dorman, Edgar K

    2010-08-01

    Poor nutrient intake during pregnancy can adversely affect both infant and maternal health. The aim was to investigate the efficacy of multiple-micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy in a socially deprived population in the developed world. We conducted a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of multiple-micronutrient supplementation including 20 mg Fe and 400 microg folic acid, from the first trimester of pregnancy in 402 mothers, in East London, UK. Nutrient status was measured at recruitment, and at 26 and 34 weeks of gestation. Infants were weighed at birth. At recruitment the prevalence of anaemia was 13 %, vitamin D insufficiency 72 %, thiamin deficiency 12 % and folate deficiency 5 %, with no differences between groups. Only 39 % of women completed the study; rates of non-compliance were similar in both groups. Intention-to-treat analysis showed that participants receiving treatment had higher mean Hb at 26 weeks of gestation (110 (sd 10) v.108 (sd 10) g/l; P = 0.041) and 34 weeks of gestation (113 (sd 12) v.109 (sd 10) g/l; P = 0.003) and packed cell volume concentrations at 26 weeks of gestation (0.330 (sd 0.025) v. 0.323 (sd 0.026) l/l; P = 0.011) and 34 weeks of gestation (0.338 (sd 0.029) v. 0.330 (sd 0.028) l/l; P = 0.014) compared with controls. Analysis of compliant women showed supplemented women had higher median concentrations of serum ferritin, erythrocyte folate and 25-hydroxyvitamin D later in gestation than controls. In the compliant subset (n 149), placebo mothers had more small-for-gestational age (SGA) infants (eight SGA v. thirteen; P = 0.042) than treatment mothers. Baseline micronutrient deficiencies were common; the multiple-micronutrient supplement was well-tolerated and improved nutrient status. Multiple-micronutrient supplements from early pregnancy may be beneficial and larger studies are required to assess impact on birth outcomes and infant development.

  14. Combined use of principal component analysis and random forests identify population-informative single nucleotide polymorphisms: application in cattle breeds.

    PubMed

    Bertolini, F; Galimberti, G; Calò, D G; Schiavo, G; Matassino, D; Fontanesi, L

    2015-10-01

    The genetic identification of the population of origin of individuals, including animals, has several practical applications in forensics, evolution, conservation genetics, breeding and authentication of animal products. Commercial high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping tools that have been recently developed in many species provide information from a large number of polymorphic sites that can be used to identify population-/breed-informative markers. In this study, starting from Illumina BovineSNP50 v1 BeadChip array genotyping data available from 3711 cattle of four breeds (2091 Italian Holstein, 738 Italian Brown, 475 Italian Simmental and 407 Marchigiana), principal component analysis (PCA) and random forests (RFs) were combined to identify informative SNP panels useful for cattle breed identification. From a PCA preselected list of 580 SNPs, RFs were computed using ranking methods (Mean Decrease in the Gini Index and Mean Accuracy Decrease) to identify the most informative 48 and 96 SNPs for breed assignment. The out-of-bag (OOB) error rate for both ranking methods and SNP densities ranged from 0.0 to 0.1% in the reference population. Application of this approach in a test population (10% of individuals pre-extracted from the whole data set) achieved 100% of correct assignment with both classifiers. Linkage disequilibrium between selected SNPs was relevant (r(2) > 0.6) only in few pairs of markers indicating that most of the selected SNPs captured different fractions of variance. Several informative SNPs were in genes/QTL regions that affect or are associated with phenotypes or production traits that might differentiate the investigated breeds. The combination of PCA and RF to perform SNP selection and breed assignment can be easily implemented and is able to identify subsets of informative SNPs useful for population assignment starting from a large number of markers derived by high-throughput genotyping platforms.

  15. Mexican immigrant replenishment and the continuing significance of ethnicity and race.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Tomás R

    2008-05-01

    The literature on assimilation and ethnic identity formation largely assumes that the durability of ethnic boundaries is a function of the assimilation measures that sociologists commonly employ. But this literature fails to account adequately for the role of immigration patterns in explaining the durability and nature of ethnic boundaries. Using 123 in-depth interviews with later-generation Mexican Americans, this article shows that Mexican immigrant replenishment shapes ethnic boundaries and ethnic identity formation. The sizable immigrant population sharpens intergroup boundaries through the indirect effects of nativism and by contributing to the continuing significance of race in the lives of later-generation Mexican Americans. The presence of a large immigrant population also creates intragroup boundaries that run through the Mexican-origin population and that are animated by expectations about ethnic authenticity. The article illustrates the importance of immigrant replenishment to processes of assimilation and ethnic identity formation. PMID:19044142

  16. Mexican immigrant replenishment and the continuing significance of ethnicity and race.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Tomás R

    2008-05-01

    The literature on assimilation and ethnic identity formation largely assumes that the durability of ethnic boundaries is a function of the assimilation measures that sociologists commonly employ. But this literature fails to account adequately for the role of immigration patterns in explaining the durability and nature of ethnic boundaries. Using 123 in-depth interviews with later-generation Mexican Americans, this article shows that Mexican immigrant replenishment shapes ethnic boundaries and ethnic identity formation. The sizable immigrant population sharpens intergroup boundaries through the indirect effects of nativism and by contributing to the continuing significance of race in the lives of later-generation Mexican Americans. The presence of a large immigrant population also creates intragroup boundaries that run through the Mexican-origin population and that are animated by expectations about ethnic authenticity. The article illustrates the importance of immigrant replenishment to processes of assimilation and ethnic identity formation.

  17. Theories of ethnicity and the dynamics of ethnic change in multiethnic societies

    PubMed Central

    Blanton, Richard E.

    2015-01-01

    I modify Fredrik Barth’s approach, which sees ethnic group building as a signaling system, to place it within a framework that draws from collective action and costly signaling theories. From these perspectives, ethnic signaling, although representing a costly penalty to group members, is one effective form of communication that facilitates collective management of resources. I then identify three contexts in which the benefits of ethnic group building are likely to outweigh its signaling costs: in politically chaotic refuge and periphery zones; in the context of long-distance specialist trading groups; and within the territorial scope of failed states. I point to selected data from the Mughal and Aztec polities to illustrate how a combination of effective public goods management, in highly collective states, and the growth of highly integrated commercial economies will render ethnic group building superfluous. PMID:25775584

  18. Drug-Device Combinations: Are They Appropriate for the Aging Population?

    PubMed

    Kubus, Christine; Wick, Jeannette Y

    2016-05-01

    Hundreds of marketed products combine drugs with delivery devices. Experts estimate that these drug-device combinations (DDCs) generated nearly $24 billion in sales in 2014. DDCs appeal to clinicians and consumers for several reasons. Drugs delivered with a technology-assist may cause fewer side effects, avoid systemic exposure, result in a higher degree of efficacy, or create consistent blood levels. When physicians prescribe a DDC, consultant pharmacists have a unique role: ensuring patients can use the DDC appropriately. Available DDCs require some degree of eye-hand coordination, and older individuals often have difficulty with vision, dexterity, and grip strength. This review primarily discusses three types of DDC: those designed for diabetics, inhalers, and transdermal DDCs, and the characteristics that can challenge older patients.

  19. Drug-Device Combinations: Are They Appropriate for the Aging Population?

    PubMed

    Kubus, Christine; Wick, Jeannette Y

    2016-05-01

    Hundreds of marketed products combine drugs with delivery devices. Experts estimate that these drug-device combinations (DDCs) generated nearly $24 billion in sales in 2014. DDCs appeal to clinicians and consumers for several reasons. Drugs delivered with a technology-assist may cause fewer side effects, avoid systemic exposure, result in a higher degree of efficacy, or create consistent blood levels. When physicians prescribe a DDC, consultant pharmacists have a unique role: ensuring patients can use the DDC appropriately. Available DDCs require some degree of eye-hand coordination, and older individuals often have difficulty with vision, dexterity, and grip strength. This review primarily discusses three types of DDC: those designed for diabetics, inhalers, and transdermal DDCs, and the characteristics that can challenge older patients. PMID:27178653

  20. Multiculturalism and an Overarching Framework of Values: Some Educational Responses for Ethnically Plural Societies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smolicz, Jerzy

    1984-01-01

    If the majority group wishes to avoid fragmentation of education along ethnic lines, it must revise a policy of residual multiculturalism in the mainstream schools combined with encouragement of ethnic separatism through support of part- or full-time ethnic schools and apply a policy of full-scale multicultural education with national language at…

  1. Genome-Wide Association of Lipid-Lowering Response to Statins in Combined Study Populations

    PubMed Central

    Hyde, Craig L.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Smith, Joshua D.; McCarty, Catherine A.; Li, Xiaohui; Wilke, Russell A.; Rieder, Mark J.; Williams, Paul T.; Ridker, Paul M.; Chatterjee, Aurobindo; Rotter, Jerome I.; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Stephens, Matthew; Krauss, Ronald M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Statins effectively lower total and plasma LDL-cholesterol, but the magnitude of decrease varies among individuals. To identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) contributing to this variation, we performed a combined analysis of genome-wide association (GWA) results from three trials of statin efficacy. Methods and Principal Findings Bayesian and standard frequentist association analyses were performed on untreated and statin-mediated changes in LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and triglyceride on a total of 3932 subjects using data from three studies: Cholesterol and Pharmacogenetics (40 mg/day simvastatin, 6 weeks), Pravastatin/Inflammation CRP Evaluation (40 mg/day pravastatin, 24 weeks), and Treating to New Targets (10 mg/day atorvastatin, 8 weeks). Genotype imputation was used to maximize genomic coverage and to combine information across studies. Phenotypes were normalized within each study to account for systematic differences among studies, and fixed-effects combined analysis of the combined sample were performed to detect consistent effects across studies. Two SNP associations were assessed as having posterior probability greater than 50%, indicating that they were more likely than not to be genuinely associated with statin-mediated lipid response. SNP rs8014194, located within the CLMN gene on chromosome 14, was strongly associated with statin-mediated change in total cholesterol with an 84% probability by Bayesian analysis, and a p-value exceeding conventional levels of genome-wide significance by frequentist analysis (P = 1.8×10−8). This SNP was less significantly associated with change in LDL-cholesterol (posterior probability = 0.16, P = 4.0×10−6). Bayesian analysis also assigned a 51% probability that rs4420638, located in APOC1 and near APOE, was associated with change in LDL-cholesterol. Conclusions and Significance Using combined GWA analysis from three clinical trials involving nearly 4

  2. Measurement of a drowning incidence rate combining direct observation of an exposed population with mortality statistics.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Damian; Ozanne-Smith, Joan

    2015-01-01

    Drowning risk factors may be identified by comparing drowning incidence rates for comparable at-risk populations but precise methods are lacking. To address this knowledge gap, an ecological study extrapolated crude time-duration exposure to water for a specified at-risk sample of surf bathers to estimate the bather population for all wave-dominated beaches in Victoria, Australia, over a four-year summer season period. An incidence rate was calculated using surf bather drowning deaths frequencies matched for time and location. For the sample, 47,341 hours of surf bathing were estimated from 177,528 bathing episodes. Generalising these results to Victoria, the crude drowning deaths incidence rate in the summer season was 0.41 per 1,000,000 person-hours of surf bathing (95% CI 0.37-0.45). Further application of the method, particularly in open water settings, may be used to identify candidate drowning risk factors to advance drowning prevention strategies.

  3. Exploring Ethnic Differences in Taste Perception.

    PubMed

    Williams, Johnny A; Bartoshuk, Linda M; Fillingim, Roger B; Dotson, Cedrick D

    2016-06-01

    It is well known that nutritional intake can vary substantially as a function of demographic variables such as ethnicity and/or sex. Although a variety of factors are known to underlie the relationship between these demographic variables and nutritional intake, it is interesting to speculate that variation in food intake associated with ethnicity or sex may result, in part, from differences in the perceived taste of foods in these different populations. Thus, we initiated a study to evaluate taste responsiveness in different ethnic groups. Moreover, because of the known differences in taste responsiveness between males and females, analyses were stratified by sex. The ethnic groups tested differed significantly from one another in reported perceived taste intensity. Our results showed that Hispanics and African Americans rated taste sensations higher than non-Hispanic Whites and that these differences were more pronounced in males. Understanding the nature of these differences in taste perception is important, because taste perception may contribute to dietary health risk. When attempting to modify diet, individuals of different ethnicities may require personalized interventions that take into account the different sensory experience that these individuals may have when consuming foods.

  4. Projecting pest population dynamics under global warming: the combined effect of inter- and intra-annual variations.

    PubMed

    Zidon, Royi; Tsueda, Hirotsugu; Morin, Efrat; Morin, Shai

    2016-06-01

    The typical short generation length of insects makes their population dynamics highly sensitive not only to mean annual temperatures but also to their intra-annual variations. To consider the combined effect of both thermal factors under global warming, we propose a modeling framework that links general circulation models (GCMs) with a stochastic weather generator and population dynamics models to predict species population responses to inter- and intra-annual temperature changes. This framework was utilized to explore future changes in populations of Bemisia tabaci, an invasive insect pest-species that affects multiple agricultural systems in the Mediterranean region. We considered three locations representing different pest status and climatic conditions: Montpellier (France), Seville (Spain), and Beit-Jamal (Israel). We produced ensembles of local daily temperature realizations representing current and future (mid-21st century) climatic conditions under two emission scenarios for the three locations. Our simulations predicted a significant increase in the average number of annual generations and in population size, and a significant lengthening of the growing season in all three locations. A negative effect was found only in Seville for the summer season, where future temperatures lead to a reduction in population size. High variability in population size was observed between years with similar annual mean temperatures, suggesting a strong effect of intra-annual temperature variation. Critical periods were from late spring to late summer in Montpellier and from late winter to early summer in Seville and Beit-Jamal. Although our analysis suggested that earlier seasonal activity does not necessarily lead to increased populations load unless an additional generation is produced, it is highly likely that the insect will become a significant pest of open-fields at Mediterranean latitudes above 40° during the next 50 years. Our simulations also implied that current

  5. Projecting pest population dynamics under global warming: the combined effect of inter- and intra-annual variations.

    PubMed

    Zidon, Royi; Tsueda, Hirotsugu; Morin, Efrat; Morin, Shai

    2016-06-01

    The typical short generation length of insects makes their population dynamics highly sensitive not only to mean annual temperatures but also to their intra-annual variations. To consider the combined effect of both thermal factors under global warming, we propose a modeling framework that links general circulation models (GCMs) with a stochastic weather generator and population dynamics models to predict species population responses to inter- and intra-annual temperature changes. This framework was utilized to explore future changes in populations of Bemisia tabaci, an invasive insect pest-species that affects multiple agricultural systems in the Mediterranean region. We considered three locations representing different pest status and climatic conditions: Montpellier (France), Seville (Spain), and Beit-Jamal (Israel). We produced ensembles of local daily temperature realizations representing current and future (mid-21st century) climatic conditions under two emission scenarios for the three locations. Our simulations predicted a significant increase in the average number of annual generations and in population size, and a significant lengthening of the growing season in all three locations. A negative effect was found only in Seville for the summer season, where future temperatures lead to a reduction in population size. High variability in population size was observed between years with similar annual mean temperatures, suggesting a strong effect of intra-annual temperature variation. Critical periods were from late spring to late summer in Montpellier and from late winter to early summer in Seville and Beit-Jamal. Although our analysis suggested that earlier seasonal activity does not necessarily lead to increased populations load unless an additional generation is produced, it is highly likely that the insect will become a significant pest of open-fields at Mediterranean latitudes above 40° during the next 50 years. Our simulations also implied that current

  6. Combined analyses of kinship and FST suggest potential drivers of chaotic genetic patchiness in high gene-flow populations

    PubMed Central

    Iacchei, Matthew; Ben-Horin, Tal; Selkoe, Kimberly A; Bird, Christopher E; García-Rodríguez, Francisco J; Toonen, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    We combine kinship estimates with traditional F-statistics to explain contemporary drivers of population genetic differentiation despite high gene flow. We investigate range-wide population genetic structure of the California spiny (or red rock) lobster (Panulirus interruptus) and find slight, but significant global population differentiation in mtDNA (ΦST = 0.006, P = 0.001; Dest_Chao = 0.025) and seven nuclear microsatellites (FST = 0.004, P < 0.001; Dest_Chao = 0.03), despite the species’ 240- to 330-day pelagic larval duration. Significant population structure does not correlate with distance between sampling locations, and pairwise FST between adjacent sites often exceeds that among geographically distant locations. This result would typically be interpreted as unexplainable, chaotic genetic patchiness. However, kinship levels differ significantly among sites (pseudo-F16,988 = 1.39, P = 0.001), and ten of 17 sample sites have significantly greater numbers of kin than expected by chance (P < 0.05). Moreover, a higher proportion of kin within sites strongly correlates with greater genetic differentiation among sites (Dest_Chao, R2 = 0.66, P < 0.005). Sites with elevated mean kinship were geographically proximate to regions of high upwelling intensity (R2 = 0.41, P = 0.0009). These results indicate that P. interruptus does not maintain a single homogenous population, despite extreme dispersal potential. Instead, these lobsters appear to either have substantial localized recruitment or maintain planktonic larval cohesiveness whereby siblings more likely settle together than disperse across sites. More broadly, our results contribute to a growing number of studies showing that low FST and high family structure across populations can coexist, illuminating the foundations of cryptic genetic patterns and the nature of marine dispersal. PMID:23802550

  7. Recent immigration and studies of ethnic assimilation.

    PubMed

    Taeuber, A F; Taeuber, K E

    1967-06-01

    Studies of ethnic assimilation are frequently based upon status comparisons between the foreign born and their "children," the second generation. The assumption that recent immigration has been negligible and that the foreign born represent a closed population is implicit in that procedure. However, analysis of official statistics indicates that immigrants who arrived since World War II now comprise a substantial share of the foreign-born population, while the foreign born who arrived before quota restrictions are rapidly being depleted by mortality. Recent immigrants, as intended by quota legislation, are of much higher socioeconomic status than immigrants who arrived before World War 1. Hence, characteristics of both recent immigrants and earlier arrivals are confounded in data for the foreign-born population. Existing data do not permit rigorous assessment of this confusion or adequate control for it. This paper suggests that tabulations of the foreign born by "year of arrival" would improve the sociological utility of data for ethnic groups.

  8. Oral health-related cultural beliefs for four racial/ethnic groups: Assessment of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Butani, Yogita; Weintraub, Jane A; Barker, Judith C

    2008-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to assess information available in the dental literature on oral health-related cultural beliefs. In the US, as elsewhere, many racial/ethnic minority groups shoulder a disproportionate burden of oral disease. Cultural beliefs, values and practices are often implicated as causes of oral health disparities, yet little is known about the breadth or adequacy of literature about cultural issues that could support these assertions. Hence, this rigorous assessment was conducted of work published in English on cultural beliefs and values in relation to oral health status and dental practice. Four racial/ethnic groups in the US (African-American, Chinese, Filipino and Hispanic/Latino) were chosen as exemplar populations. Methods The dental literature published in English for the period 1980–2006 noted in the electronic database PUBMED was searched, using keywords and MeSH headings in different combinations for each racial/ethnic group to identify eligible articles. To be eligible the title and abstract when available had to describe the oral health-related cultural knowledge or orientation of the populations studied. Results Overall, the majority of the literature on racial/ethnic groups was epidemiologic in nature, mainly demonstrating disparities in oral health rather than the oral beliefs or practices of these groups. A total of 60 relevant articles were found: 16 for African-American, 30 for Chinese, 2 for Filipino and 12 for Hispanic/Latino populations. Data on beliefs and practices from these studies has been abstracted, compiled and assessed. Few research-based studies were located. Articles lacked adequate identification of groups studied, used limited methods and had poor conceptual base. Conclusion The scant information available from the published dental and medical literature provides at best a rudimentary framework of oral health related ideas and beliefs for specific populations. PMID:18793438

  9. Outcomes of combined trabecular micro-bypass and phacoemulsification in a predominantly Hispanic patient population

    PubMed Central

    Gallardo, Mark J; Supnet, Richard A; Giamporcaro, Jane Ellen; Hornbeak, Dana M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate intraocular pressure (IOP) and topical ocular hypotensive medication burden at 12 months postoperatively in a predominantly Hispanic patient population with primary open-angle glaucoma each implanted with one trabecular micro-bypass stent during cataract surgery. Methods This was a retrospective, consecutive case series. The main objective was to assess reduction of IOP and/or medication burden in all eyes at the 12-month postoperative exam. A secondary objective was to assess outcomes in 3 subgroups, distinguished preoperatively by IOP control and by medication burden (suboptimal or maximum therapy) and with different treatment goals. Group 1 had medication-controlled IOP and goal to reduce medications while maintaining IOP control (n=65); Group 2 had uncontrolled IOP on ≤2 medications and goal to reduce IOP and maintain/reduce medication burden (n=31); and Group 3 had uncontrolled IOP on ≥3 medications and goal to reduce IOP and avoid filtering surgery (n=38). Evaluations included IOP, medication use, cup-to-disc ratio, visual fields, complications, and interventions. One hundred subjects (134 eyes) have been followed for 12 months. Results Most patients (80%) were Hispanic and had moderate or severe glaucoma (87%). At 12 months, mean IOP reduced to 12.9 mmHg vs 16.5 mmHg preoperatively; 92% had an IOP ≤15 mmHg at 12 months (99% had ≤18 mmHg). Mean medication burden had decreased to 0.9 vs 2.3 preoperatively. At the 12-month time point, 94% of all eyes achieved their predefined treatment goal of reduced IOP and/or medications. Reductions in medication burden for Group 1, and in IOP for Groups 2 and 3, were highly statistically significant (P<0.001). Two eyes in Group 3 had filtering surgery; the remaining 95% avoided such treatment. No other complications were reported. Conclusion This mainly Hispanic population with predominantly moderate or severe glaucoma had substantial reduction of IOP and medication

  10. Examining differential treatment effects for depression in racial and ethnic minority women: a qualitative systematic review.

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Earlise C.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine effectiveness of depression treatment in racial and ethnic minority women. REVIEW METHODS: Inclusion criteria: 1) the study examined treatment of depression among racial and ethnic minority women age > 17, 2) data analysis was separated by race and ethnicity, and 3) the study was conducted in the United States. Interventions considered were: psychotropic medications, psychotherapy (including cognitive-behavioral, interpersonal therapy and any type of psychotherapy adapted for minority populations) and any type of psychotherapy combined with case management or a religious focus. Individual and group psychotherapy were eligible. Each study was critically reviewed to identify treatment effectiveness specific to racial and ethnic minority women. RESULTS: Ten published studies met the inclusion criteria (racial and ethnic minority participants n = 2,136). Seven of these were randomized clinical trials, one was a retrospective cohort study, one was a case series, and the remaining one had an indeterminate study design. Participants' age ranged from 18-74 years, with a higher proportion > 40 years. Most were low income. Differences in treatment responses between African-American, Latino and white women were found. Adapted models of care, including quality improvement and collaborative care, were found to be more effective than usual care and community referral in treating depression. Although medication and psychotherapy were both effective in treating depression, low-income women generally needed case management to address other social issues. CONCLUSION: Adapted models that allow patients to select the treatment of their choice (medication or psychotherapy or a combination) while providing outreach and other supportive services (case management, childcare and transportation) appear to result in optimal clinical benefits. PMID:17393951

  11. Combined effect of hemipteran control and liquid bait on Argentine ant populations.

    PubMed

    Brightwell, R J; Bambara, S B; Silverman, J

    2010-10-01

    The invasive Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), has become a worldwide problem capable of inflicting significant ecological and economic injury on urban, agricultural, and natural environments. The mobility of this pest ant has long been noted, rapidly moving nests to new food resources and then away as resources are depleted. This ant, like many pest ant species, has a special affinity for honeydew excreted by phloem-feeding Hemiptera. We investigated the effect of various hemipteran control strategies on terrapin scale densities and measured their indirect effect on local Argentine ant densities and foraging effort. We then determined whether this indirect treatment strategy improved the performance of an ant bait. We predicted that Argentine ants would move nests away from trees treated for Hemiptera and then move nests back when a liquid bait was offered, followed by a decline in ant numbers due to intake of the toxicant. A horticultural oil spray and soil application of the systemic insecticide, imidacloprid, had no effect on terrapin scale numbers. However, trunk-injected dicrotophos caused a reduction in scale and a decline in local Argentine ant nest density and canopy foraging effort. We also recorded a reduction in local Argentine ant ground foraging when large amounts of liquid bait were applied, and we found no evidence that combining dicrotophos with liquid ant bait performed better than each treatment alone. We suggest that a strategy of combined hemipteran control plus application of liquid ant bait can reduce local Argentine ant densities, when both components of this system are highly efficacious. PMID:21061981

  12. Ethnic Related Selection for an ADH Class I Variant within East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui; Gu, Sheng; Cai, Xiaoyun; Speed, William C.; Pakstis, Andrew J.; Golub, Efim I.; Kidd, Judith R.; Kidd, Kenneth K.

    2008-01-01

    Background The alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH) are widely studied enzymes and the evolution of the mammalian gene cluster encoding these enzymes is also well studied. Previous studies have shown that the ADH1B*47His allele at one of the seven genes in humans is associated with a decrease in the risk of alcoholism and the core molecular region with this allele has been selected for in some East Asian populations. As the frequency of ADH1B*47His is highest in East Asia, and very low in most of the rest of the world, we have undertaken more detailed investigation in this geographic region. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we report new data on 30 SNPs in the ADH7 and Class I ADH region in samples of 24 populations from China and Laos. These populations cover a wide geographic region and diverse ethnicities. Combined with our previously published East Asian data for these SNPs in 8 populations, we have typed populations from all of the 6 major linguistic phyla (Altaic including Korean-Japanese and inland Altaic, Sino-Tibetan, Hmong-Mien, Austro-Asiatic, Daic, and Austronesian). The ADH1B genotyping data are strongly related to ethnicity. Only some eastern ethnic phyla or subphyla (Korean-Japanese, Han Chinese, Hmong-Mien, Daic, and Austronesian) have a high frequency of ADH1B*47His. ADH1B haplotype data clustered the populations into linguistic subphyla, and divided the subphyla into eastern and western parts. In the Hmong-Mien and Altaic populations, the extended haplotype homozygosity (EHH) and relative EHH (REHH) tests for the ADH1B core were consistent with selection for the haplotype with derived SNP alleles. In the other ethnic phyla, the core showed only a weak signal of selection at best. Conclusions/Significance The selection distribution is more significantly correlated with the frequency of the derived ADH1B regulatory region polymorphism than the derived amino-acid altering allele ADH1B*47His. Thus, the real focus of selection may be the regulatory region

  13. The association between substance use disorders and early and combined use of alcohol and marijuana in two American Indian populations

    PubMed Central

    O'CONNELL, JOAN M.; NOVINS, DOUGLAS K.; BEALS, JANETTE; WHITESELL, NANCY R.; SPICER, PAUL

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the relationships between early and combined use of alcohol and marijuana with diagnoses of alcohol and marijuana use disorders in two American Indian (AI) populations. Method Data were drawn from a psychiatric epidemiologic study of 3084 AIs living on or near two reservations. We analysed data for adults aged 18–54 years at the time of interview (n = 2739). Logistic regression models were estimated to examine associations between early and combined use of alcohol and marijuana with lifetime diagnoses of abuse and dependence. Results Overall, younger AIs (18–29 years old) were more likely than older AIs (40–54 years old) to initiate substance use early and initiate use with marijuana, with or without alcohol. Persons who initiated alcohol use before age 14 were more than twice as likely as those who initiated use at older ages to meet criteria for alcohol or marijuana use disorders (p < 0.01). The odds of abuse or dependence were two to five times higher among persons who reported combined use of alcohol and marijuana (p < 0.01) than among those who reported use of either substance. Conclusions These findings document the need to address both early and combined use of alcohol and marijuana in prevention and treatment programmes. PMID:26582968

  14. Educational stratification by ethnicity in China: enrollment and attainment in the early reform years.

    PubMed

    Hannum, Emily

    2002-02-01

    Using evidence about educational disparities, this article demonstrates the need for attention to minority populations in studies of social stratification in China. Analyses of data from a 1992 survey of children demonstrate substantial ethnic differences in enrollment among rural 7- to 14 year olds, with rates for ethnic Chinese boys roughly double those for girls from certain ethnic groups. Multivariate analyses indicate that the ethnic gap can be attributed, in part, to compositional differences in geographic location of residence and socioeconomic background. There is no general tendency of a greater gender gap for minorities than for the ethnic Chinese, but significant differences in the gender gap emerge across individual ethnic groups. Together with evidence from census data showing that ethnic disparities in junior high school transitions increased between 1982 and 1990, these results stress the continuing significance of ethnicity as a fundamental factor that conditions status attainment opportunities in China.

  15. Combined trabeculotomy and trabeculectomy: outcome for primary congenital glaucoma in a West African population

    PubMed Central

    Essuman, V A; Braimah, I Z; Ndanu, T A; Ntim-Amponsah, C T

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the surgical outcome of combined trabeculotomy–trabeculectomy in Ghanaian children with primary congenital glaucoma. Materials and methods A retrospective case series involving 19 eyes of 12 consecutive children with primary congenital glaucoma who had primary trabeculotomy–trabeculectomy from 12 August 2004 to 30 June 2008, at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Ghana. Main outcome measures were preoperative and postoperative intraocular pressures, corneal diameter, corneal clarity, bleb characteristics, duration of follow-up, surgical success, and complications. Results A total of 19 eyes of 12 patients met the inclusion criteria. Six of the patients were males. Mean age at diagnosis was 4.4 (range 2–8) months. Mean age at surgery was 5.9 months (range 3–16). Eight (67%) infants had bilateral disease. Mean duration of follow-up was 13.1 (range 5–38) months. The preoperative mean horizontal corneal diameter was 13.4±1.1(range 12–16) mm. Complete success (intraocular pressure <21 mm Hg) was obtained in 15 (79%) eyes. The probability of success was 94.4, 83.3, 66.7, 44.4, 38.9, 33.3, and 13.3% at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, and 21 months, respectively (Kaplan–Meier analysis). All eyes had corneal oedema preoperatively. Seventeen eyes (90%) had clear cornea at their last follow-up. Mean preoperative and postoperative intraocular pressures were 30.3±8.8 and 18.1±6.8 mm Hg respectively (P<0.001, t-test). Twelve (63%) eyes had well-functioning blebs at the last follow-up. One eye (5%) developed seclusio pupillae and cataract postoperatively. Conclusion The overall success for combined trabeculotomy–trabeculectomy in Ghanaian children with primary congenital glaucoma was 79%. The probability of success reduced from more than 66% in the first 9 months postoperatively to below 45% after that. PMID:21057523

  16. Minneapolis Multi-Ethnic Curriculum Project--Ethnicity Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skjervold, Christian K.; And Others

    The student booklet presents short case studies illustrating the ethnicity unit of the Minneapolis Multi-Ethnic Curriculum Project for secondary schools. Twelve brief chapters describe various aspects of the life, values, behavior, education, culture, and religious ceremonies and feelings of different ethnic groups in the United States. They…

  17. Tobacco Use in Racial and Ethnic Populations

    MedlinePlus

    ... each(function(i){ var city = $(this).find('city').text(); var state = $(this).find('state').text(); var date = $(this).find('date').text(); if ((city != "") && (state != "")){ var citystate = ' | ' + city + ', ' + state; } else ...

  18. Long-term effects of single and combined introductions of antibiotics and bacteriophages on populations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Torres-Barceló, Clara; Franzon, Blaise; Vasse, Marie; Hochberg, Michael E

    2016-04-01

    With escalating resistance to antibiotics, there is an urgent need to develop alternative therapies against bacterial pathogens and pests. One of the most promising is the employment of bacteriophages (phages), which may be highly specific and evolve to counter antiphage resistance. Despite an increased understanding of how phages interact with bacteria, we know very little about how their interactions may be modified in antibiotic environments and, reciprocally, how phage may affect the evolution of antibiotic resistance. We experimentally evaluated the impacts of single and combined applications of antibiotics (different doses and different types) and phages on in vitro evolving populations of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. We also assessed the effects of past treatments on bacterial virulence in vivo, employing larvae of Galleria mellonella to survey the treatment consequences for the pathogen. We find a strong synergistic effect of combining antibiotics and phages on bacterial population density and in limiting their recovery rate. Our long-term study establishes that antibiotic dose is important, but that effects are relatively insensitive to antibiotic type. From an applied perspective, our results indicate that phages can contribute to managing antibiotic resistance levels, with limited consequences for the evolution of bacterial virulence.

  19. Plastic Surgery for Ethnic Patients

    MedlinePlus

    ... Briefing Papers > Plastic Surgery for Ethnic Patients Briefing Paper: Plastic Surgery for Ethnic Patients More than 3. ... 2067-2071. Share Related Links Plastic Surgery Briefing Papers Menu Cosmetic Reconstructive Patient Safety Before & After Find ...

  20. Interesting features in the combined Galex and Sloan color diagrams of solar-like galactic populations

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Myron A.; Shiao, Bernard; Bianchi, Luciana E-mail: shiao@stsci.edu

    2014-06-01

    We report on intriguing photometric properties of Galactic stars observed in the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) satellite's far-UV (FUV) and near-UV (NUV) bandpasses, as well as from the ground-based Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the Kepler Input Catalog. The first property is that the (FUV – NUV) color distribution of stars in the Kepler field consists of two well-separated peaks. A second and more perplexing property is that for stars with spectral types G or later the mean (FUV – NUV) color becomes much bluer, contrary to expectation. Investigating this tendency further, we found in two samples of mid-F through K type stars that 17%-22% of them exhibit FUV excesses relative to their NUV fluxes and spectral types. A correction for FUV incompleteness of the FUV magnitude-limited star sample brings this ratio to 14%-18%. Nearly the same fractions are also discovered among members of the Kepler Eclipsing Binary Catalog and in the published list of Kepler Objects of Interest. These UV-excess ('UVe') colors are confirmed by the negative UV continuum slopes in GALEX spectra of members of the population. The SDSS spectra of some UVe stars exhibit metallic line weakening, especially in the blue. This suggests an enhanced contribution of UV flux relative to photospheric flux of a solar-type single star. We consider the possibility that the UV excesses originate from various types of hot stars, including white dwarf DA and sdB stars, binaries, and strong chromosphere stars that are young or in active binaries. The space density of compact stars is too low to explain the observed frequency of the UVe stars. Our model atmosphere-derived simulations of colors for binaries with main-sequence pairs with a hot secondary demonstrate that the color loci conflict with the observed sequence. As a preferred alternative we are left with the active chromospheres explanation, whether in active close binaries or young single stars, despite the expected paucity of young

  1. [Autosomal recessive ethnic diseases of Czech Gypsies].

    PubMed

    Seeman, P; Sisková, D

    2006-01-01

    Roma (Gypsy ethnic) form a genetically isolated ethnical group of the identical origin with the world population of 10 to 14 millions derived from a limited number of so-called founders. Majority (about 8 millions) of Roma ethnic live in Europe, namely at Balkan and in the southwest of Europe. Roma have specific hereditary diseases, namely those caused by recessive genetic mutations. The molecular-genetic mechanism has been recently elucidated and confirmed in several diseases of the Roma population. Owing to the significant proportion of Roma in the population, patients with those diseases are possible to meet also in the Czech Republic. However, the diagnostics of those diseases is frequently difficult and they are often under diagnosed or misdiagnosed. The article gives examples of autosomal recessive diseases, which can be confirmed at the DNA level which occur in Roma population of the Czech Republic: syndrome of congenital cataract, facial dysmorphism and demyelinating neuropathy, non-syndromic prelingual deafness with GJB2 gene impairment and the congenital myastenic syndrome. PMID:16921785

  2. Influence of ethnicity on recreation and natural environment use patterns: Managing recreation sites for ethnic and racial diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baas, John M.; Ewert, Alan; Chavez, Deborah J.

    1993-07-01

    Management of natural environment sites is becoming increasingly complex because of the influx of urbanized society into wildland areas. This worldwide phenomenon impacts a wide range of countries. In southern California ethnicity is often a major factor influencing recreation site use and behavior at sites in the wildland-urban interface. This study investigated the role of ethnicity and race on the use patterns, perception of environment, and recreation behaviors at an outdoor recreation site visited by an ethnically diverse population. Two research questions were asked: (1) What ethnic groups engage in outdoor recreation at this site, and (2) what differences can be assigned to these various groups? Data were collected from 250 recreationists during 1991. Three major ethnic groups were identified, and statistically significant differences were found in the importance of site attributes, activity participation, and in preferred and actual communication channels. Management implications and strategies based on group differences are discussed.

  3. Disease Risk Estimation by Combining Case–Control Data with Aggregated Information on the Population at Risk

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Xiaohui; Waagepetersen, Rasmus; Yu, Herbert; Ma, Xiaomei; Holford, Theodore R.; Wang, Rong; Guan, Yongtao

    2016-01-01

    Summary We propose a novel statistical framework by supplementing case–control data with summary statistics on the population at risk for a subset of risk factors. Our approach is to first form two unbiased estimating equations, one based on the case–control data and the other on both the case data and the summary statistics, and then optimally combine them to derive another estimating equation to be used for the estimation. The proposed method is computationally simple and more efficient than standard approaches based on case–control data alone. We also establish asymptotic properties of the resulting estimator, and investigate its finite-sample performance through simulation. As a substantive application, we apply the proposed method to investigate risk factors for endometrial cancer, by using data from a recently completed population-based case–control study and summary statistics from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, the Population Estimates Program of the US Census Bureau, and the Connecticut Department of Transportation. PMID:25351292

  4. Ethnic variations in parental ethnic socialization and adolescent ethnic identity: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Else-Quest, Nicole M; Morse, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Achievement of a positive ethnic identity has been linked to positive outcomes for ethnic minority youth and is fostered by parental ethnic socialization practices. In light of findings of variability in developmental trajectories and outcomes, we examined ethnic group variations in parents' ethnic socialization practices and adolescents' ethnic identity. Within a sample of 370 adolescents who self-identified as White, African American, Latino/a, or Asian American, and their parents, parental ethnic socialization practices (including preparation for bias, promotion of mistrust, and cultural socialization) and adolescent ethnic identity development (including identity exploration and commitment) were assessed at 10th and 11th grades. Consistent with predictions, African American youth reported higher levels of ethnic identity exploration and commitment than youth from other ethnic groups, and parents of African American youth tended to report higher levels of ethnic socialization than other parents. Parental cultural socialization significantly predicted adolescent ethnic identity exploration and commitment 1 year later; ethnicity did not moderate this link. Findings are discussed in the context of the schools and urban community from which the sample was recruited, highlighting the importance of sociocultural context in development.

  5. Ethnic issues in the epidemiology of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Crawford, P B; Story, M; Wang, M C; Ritchie, L D; Sabry, Z I

    2001-08-01

    Childhood obesity may be seen as a marker for high-risk dietary and physical inactivity practices. Recent increases in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among American children are not limited to one age, gender, or ethnic group, which suggests that unique behaviors of the members of various racial or ethnic subgroups of the population are unlikely to be the major contributing factors. Rather, it seems that environmental changes promoting increased energy intake and decreased energy output are occurring and have widespread impact on children from various backgrounds. Although no ethnic group is immune from the current shift in energy balance, differential rates of overweight seem to exist among ethnic groups. National probability samples of African-American, Hispanic, and white children in the United States provide clear evidence that white children are at lower risk for childhood overweight than are African-American or Hispanic children. Of concern is the lack of national data on the prevalence of overweight and obesity for Native-American and Asian-American groups. Also of concern is the aggregation of racial and ethnic subgroups, which may render prevalence rates meaningless. This possibility is clearly true with some surveys of weight status that combine diverse populations, such as Asians and Pacific Islanders, into one group. The high rates of obesity in African-American, Hispanic, and Native-American children are of concern. Although parental SES is associated inversely with childhood obesity among whites, higher SES does not seem to protect African-American and Hispanic children against obesity. In these groups, childhood obesity does not seem to be associated significantly with parental income and education. Health consequences of childhood obesity include a higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes and an increased risk for adverse levels of lipids, lipoproteins, and blood pressure. The effects of recently reported unprecedented levels of childhood

  6. Caregiving and Ethnicity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glicksman, Allen

    This research examined the relationship between ethnicity and the psychological status and behavior of Jewish and non-Jewish caregivers in relation to the impaired elderly. It was hypothesized that Jewish caregivers would make significantly more use of formal services than non-Jewish (usually Christian) caregivers. Two separate data sets were…

  7. Ethnic Minorities and Telecommunications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes-Hull, Marion

    Developments in communications technology should become a major concern of minorities (native Americans and Americans of African, Asian, and Hispanic racial or ethnic origin). Although minorities are disillusioned with broadcast television because television decision makers have not been sensitive to minority needs, they have shown interest…

  8. Ethnicity in Poetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young Bear, Ray; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Poets Ray Young Bear (Mesquakie), James Mitsui (Japanese American), James McAuley (Irish-American), Alex Kuo (Chinese-America) and Elizabeth Cook-Lynn (Sioux) participated in this forum on the legacy of culture and the creative process. Genres, culture, and definitions of ethnicity were discussed; and an audience participation question-and-answer…

  9. Ethnic Lifestyles and Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valencia-Weber, Gloria, Ed.

    This document presents two overview essays (one on the ethnic history of the United States and one on multicultural society) and seven articles on various aspects of the relationship between ethnic values and mental health. Articles were originally presented as papers at a series of seminars convened to encourage humanists from four ethnic groups…

  10. Ethnic Conflict in Contemporary France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, James E.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the ethnic dimension in French society and politics, proposing to place it within a larger, introductory curriculum in French civilization. Specifically describes the ethnic cleavage in this society and the evolution of the ethnic "idea" in the nation's social and intellectual history since the Revolution. (Author/MES)

  11. Teaching about Ethnicities in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stedman, Caryn White

    2010-01-01

    A unit on China's ethnicities provides students rich opportunities to explore multiple themes in the social studies while helping them to develop a deeper understanding of recent events in western China. Studying China's ethnic minorities encompasses such topics as stereotyping, cultural diversity, the creation of ethnic identities, and key…

  12. Ethnicity and Children's TV Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastman, Harvey A.; Liss, Marsha B.

    1980-01-01

    A survey of California intermediate-grade children revealed that Anglo and Hispanic children showed a strong preference for action/adventure shows, while Black children chose situation comedies at more than twice the rate of the other ethnic groups. Other differences were observed between ethnic groups and between sexes within ethnic groups. (GT)

  13. Ethnic Awareness Through Curriculum Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordano, Michael Joseph

    This study compared the attitudes towards ethnic groups of high school students enrolled in a standard U.S. history course with the attitudes of students enrolled in a revised U.S. history course which emphasized ethnic awareness. A review of the literature indicated a need for ethnic awareness. The experimental group consisted of 16 students; the…

  14. Ethnic Studies Materials Analysis Instrument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Science Education Consortium, Inc., Boulder, CO.

    An instrument for analyzing ethnic studies curriculum materials for grades K-12 is presented. The Social Science Education Consortium (SSEC), Inc. staff designed the analysis instrument to check ethnic accuracy of materials as an aid to classroom teachers who are preparing ethnic studies curriculum. The booklet is divided into two main sections.…

  15. Investigating the Relationship between Ethnic Consciousness, Racial Discrimination and Self-Rated Health in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Ricci; Cormack, Donna; Stanley, James; Rameka, Ruruhira

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examine race/ethnic consciousness and its associations with experiences of racial discrimination and health in New Zealand. Racism is an important determinant of health and cause of ethnic inequities. However, conceptualising the mechanisms by which racism impacts on health requires racism to be contextualised within the broader social environment. Race/ethnic consciousness (how often people think about their race or ethnicity) is understood as part of a broader assessment of the ‘racial climate’. Higher race/ethnic consciousness has been demonstrated among non-dominant racial/ethnic groups and linked to adverse health outcomes in a limited number of studies. We analysed data from the 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey, a national population-based survey of New Zealand adults, to examine the distribution of ethnic consciousness by ethnicity, and its association with individual experiences of racial discrimination and self-rated health. Findings showed that European respondents were least likely to report thinking about their ethnicity, with people from non-European ethnic groupings all reporting relatively higher ethnic consciousness. Higher ethnic consciousness was associated with an increased likelihood of reporting experience of racial discrimination for all ethnic groupings and was also associated with fair/poor self-rated health after adjusting for age, sex and ethnicity. However, this difference in health was no longer evident after further adjustment for socioeconomic position and individual experience of racial discrimination. Our study suggests different experiences of racialised social environments by ethnicity in New Zealand and that, at an individual level, ethnic consciousness is related to experiences of racial discrimination. However, the relationship with health is less clear and needs further investigation with research to better understand the racialised social relations that create and maintain ethnic inequities in health in

  16. Investigating the relationship between ethnic consciousness, racial discrimination and self-rated health in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Harris, Ricci; Cormack, Donna; Stanley, James; Rameka, Ruruhira

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examine race/ethnic consciousness and its associations with experiences of racial discrimination and health in New Zealand. Racism is an important determinant of health and cause of ethnic inequities. However, conceptualising the mechanisms by which racism impacts on health requires racism to be contextualised within the broader social environment. Race/ethnic consciousness (how often people think about their race or ethnicity) is understood as part of a broader assessment of the 'racial climate'. Higher race/ethnic consciousness has been demonstrated among non-dominant racial/ethnic groups and linked to adverse health outcomes in a limited number of studies. We analysed data from the 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey, a national population-based survey of New Zealand adults, to examine the distribution of ethnic consciousness by ethnicity, and its association with individual experiences of racial discrimination and self-rated health. Findings showed that European respondents were least likely to report thinking about their ethnicity, with people from non-European ethnic groupings all reporting relatively higher ethnic consciousness. Higher ethnic consciousness was associated with an increased likelihood of reporting experience of racial discrimination for all ethnic groupings and was also associated with fair/poor self-rated health after adjusting for age, sex and ethnicity. However, this difference in health was no longer evident after further adjustment for socioeconomic position and individual experience of racial discrimination. Our study suggests different experiences of racialised social environments by ethnicity in New Zealand and that, at an individual level, ethnic consciousness is related to experiences of racial discrimination. However, the relationship with health is less clear and needs further investigation with research to better understand the racialised social relations that create and maintain ethnic inequities in health in

  17. Investigating the relationship between ethnic consciousness, racial discrimination and self-rated health in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Harris, Ricci; Cormack, Donna; Stanley, James; Rameka, Ruruhira

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examine race/ethnic consciousness and its associations with experiences of racial discrimination and health in New Zealand. Racism is an important determinant of health and cause of ethnic inequities. However, conceptualising the mechanisms by which racism impacts on health requires racism to be contextualised within the broader social environment. Race/ethnic consciousness (how often people think about their race or ethnicity) is understood as part of a broader assessment of the 'racial climate'. Higher race/ethnic consciousness has been demonstrated among non-dominant racial/ethnic groups and linked to adverse health outcomes in a limited number of studies. We analysed data from the 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey, a national population-based survey of New Zealand adults, to examine the distribution of ethnic consciousness by ethnicity, and its association with individual experiences of racial discrimination and self-rated health. Findings showed that European respondents were least likely to report thinking about their ethnicity, with people from non-European ethnic groupings all reporting relatively higher ethnic consciousness. Higher ethnic consciousness was associated with an increased likelihood of reporting experience of racial discrimination for all ethnic groupings and was also associated with fair/poor self-rated health after adjusting for age, sex and ethnicity. However, this difference in health was no longer evident after further adjustment for socioeconomic position and individual experience of racial discrimination. Our study suggests different experiences of racialised social environments by ethnicity in New Zealand and that, at an individual level, ethnic consciousness is related to experiences of racial discrimination. However, the relationship with health is less clear and needs further investigation with research to better understand the racialised social relations that create and maintain ethnic inequities in health in

  18. Pre-colonial Ethnic Institutions and Contemporary African Development*

    PubMed Central

    Michalopoulos, Stelios; Papaioannou, Elias

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the role of deeply-rooted pre-colonial ethnic institutions in shaping comparative regional development within African countries. We combine information on the spatial distribution of ethnicities before colonization with regional variation in contemporary economic performance, as proxied by satellite images of light density at night. We document a strong association between pre-colonial ethnic political centralization and regional development. This pattern is not driven by differences in local geographic features or by other observable ethnic-specific cultural and economic variables. The strong positive association between pre-colonial political complexity and contemporary development obtains also within pairs of adjacent ethnic homelands with different legacies of pre-colonial political institutions. PMID:25089052

  19. Evaluation of Combined Disinfection Methods for Reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7 Population on Fresh-Cut Vegetables

    PubMed Central

    Petri, Eva; Rodríguez, Mariola; García, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Most current disinfection strategies for fresh-cut industry are focused on the use of different chemical agents; however, very little has been reported on the effectiveness of the hurdle technology. The effect of combined decontamination methods based on the use of different sanitizers (peroxyacetic acid and chlorine dioxide) and the application of pressure (vacuum/positive pressure) on the inactivation of the foodborne pathogen E. coli O157:H7 on fresh-cut lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and carrots (Daucus carota) was studied. Fresh produce, inoculated with E. coli O157:H7, was immersed (4 °C, 2 min) in tap water (W), chlorine water (CW), chlorine dioxide (ClO2: 2 mg/L) and peroxyacetic acid (PAA: 100 mg/L) in combination with: (a) vacuum (V: 10 mbar) or (b) positive pressure application (P: 3 bar). The product quality and antimicrobial effects of the treatment on bacterial counts were determined both in process washing water and on fresh-cut produce. Evidence obtained in this study, suggests that the use of combined methods (P/V + sanitizers) results in a reduction on the microorganism population on produce similar to that found at atmospheric pressure. Moreover, the application of physical methods led to a significant detrimental effect on the visual quality of lettuce regardless of the solution used. Concerning the process water, PAA proved to be an effective alternative to chlorine for the avoidance of cross-contamination. PMID:26213954

  20. Evaluation of Combined Disinfection Methods for Reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7 Population on Fresh-Cut Vegetables.

    PubMed

    Petri, Eva; Rodríguez, Mariola; García, Silvia

    2015-08-01

    Most current disinfection strategies for fresh-cut industry are focused on the use of different chemical agents; however, very little has been reported on the effectiveness of the hurdle technology. The effect of combined decontamination methods based on the use of different sanitizers (peroxyacetic acid and chlorine dioxide) and the application of pressure (vacuum/positive pressure) on the inactivation of the foodborne pathogen E. coli O157:H7 on fresh-cut lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and carrots (Daucus carota) was studied. Fresh produce, inoculated with E. coli O157:H7, was immersed (4 °C, 2 min) in tap water (W), chlorine water (CW), chlorine dioxide (ClO2: 2 mg/L) and peroxyacetic acid (PAA: 100 mg/L) in combination with: (a) vacuum (V: 10 mbar) or (b) positive pressure application (P: 3 bar). The product quality and antimicrobial effects of the treatment on bacterial counts were determined both in process washing water and on fresh-cut produce. Evidence obtained in this study, suggests that the use of combined methods (P/V + sanitizers) results in a reduction on the microorganism population on produce similar to that found at atmospheric pressure. Moreover, the application of physical methods led to a significant detrimental effect on the visual quality of lettuce regardless of the solution used. Concerning the process water, PAA proved to be an effective alternative to chlorine for the avoidance of cross-contamination. PMID:26213954

  1. Ethnicity and children's diets: the practices and perceptions of mothers in two minority ethnic groups in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Annemette; Krasnik, Allan; Holm, Lotte

    2015-10-01

    This study explores concerns and dilemmas connected with diet, health and child-feeding in families with ethnic minority background. The aim is to contribute to better targeting of dietary advice to ethnic minority parents in Denmark. Four focus group interviews were carried out with mothers of children between 4 months and 2 and a half years who were descendants of Turkish or Pakistani immigrants. The focus groups investigated: (1) everyday feeding practices; (2) values and concerns behind food choice; (3) social and cultural norms influencing feeding and eating practices; (4) experienced dilemmas in dietary change; and (5) sources of nutritional advice. Public health authorities in Denmark tend to link diet-related health problems among ethnic minority populations with their ethnic identity, dichotomising ethnic and Danish dietary habits. This may overlook values and concerns other than those related to ethnicity that are sometimes more important in determining food habits. The present study found that child-feeding practices were shaped by two main aims: (1) securing and improving child health; and (2) ensuring multi-cultural eating competence in children. The results confirm that ethnic distinctions do matter in the concerns and dilemmas mothers experience when feeding their children, but they also challenge the health authorities' reliance on dichotomies in promoting health among immigrant families. The participants' ethnic self-identification through food practices did not refer primarily to the birthplaces of their parents. Rather, it was context dependent and directed simultaneously towards majority and minority culture.

  2. Ethnicity and etiology in burn trauma.

    PubMed

    Papp, Anthony; Haythornthwaite, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to retrieve data from the British Columbia Professional Firefighters Burn Unit registry, with a focus on ethnicity and how it is involved in burn trauma. It is hypothesized that mechanism, severity, and other patient characteristics are significantly different among different ethnic groups. Furthermore, it is believed that these data can be used to augment burn prevention strategies. Data for burn patients admitted from 1979 to 2009 were reviewed from the burn registry. The main focus was with differences seen among the four main ethnicities throughout the analysis, Caucasian, Aboriginal, Asian, and Indoasian, reflecting the population distribution of the region. Age and sex were also considered when looking at burn mechanism, severity, contributing and copresenting factors. Caucasians were the largest group (79.1%) and included the largest male:female ratio (3.3:1), with high numbers of flame injury (53.9%). Caucasians presented with the highest mortality (6.6% compared with 4.1% for all other ethnicities; P < .006). Asian patients (8.1%) showed significantly higher occurrences of urban (64%) and workplace (28.9%) injuries with a larger proportion of scald injury (38.9%). Indoasian patients included larger numbers of women (36.4%) and household scald injuries (33.9%) whereas Aboriginals suffered the most flame injuries (60.1%) in rural areas with more frequent contributing factors such as alcohol. The study found multiple significant differences in the burn injury population when segmented by ethnicity. Though the exact reasons for these differences are difficult to say with certainty, it allows a unique opportunity to focus communication and prevention efforts to specific communities. PMID:24503965

  3. Ethnicity and etiology in burn trauma.

    PubMed

    Papp, Anthony; Haythornthwaite, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to retrieve data from the British Columbia Professional Firefighters Burn Unit registry, with a focus on ethnicity and how it is involved in burn trauma. It is hypothesized that mechanism, severity, and other patient characteristics are significantly different among different ethnic groups. Furthermore, it is believed that these data can be used to augment burn prevention strategies. Data for burn patients admitted from 1979 to 2009 were reviewed from the burn registry. The main focus was with differences seen among the four main ethnicities throughout the analysis, Caucasian, Aboriginal, Asian, and Indoasian, reflecting the population distribution of the region. Age and sex were also considered when looking at burn mechanism, severity, contributing and copresenting factors. Caucasians were the largest group (79.1%) and included the largest male:female ratio (3.3:1), with high numbers of flame injury (53.9%). Caucasians presented with the highest mortality (6.6% compared with 4.1% for all other ethnicities; P < .006). Asian patients (8.1%) showed significantly higher occurrences of urban (64%) and workplace (28.9%) injuries with a larger proportion of scald injury (38.9%). Indoasian patients included larger numbers of women (36.4%) and household scald injuries (33.9%) whereas Aboriginals suffered the most flame injuries (60.1%) in rural areas with more frequent contributing factors such as alcohol. The study found multiple significant differences in the burn injury population when segmented by ethnicity. Though the exact reasons for these differences are difficult to say with certainty, it allows a unique opportunity to focus communication and prevention efforts to specific communities.

  4. Analysis of 17 Y-STR loci haplotype and Y-chromosome haplogroup distribution in five Chinese ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Chu-chu; Li, Ran; Li, Yue; Ou, Xue-ling; Sun, Hong-yu

    2015-10-01

    To investigate genetic diversity in Chinese populations, 706 unrelated male individuals from five ethnic groups (Han, Korean, Hui, Mongolian, and Tibetan, respectively) were analyzed with 17 Y-chromosomal STRs. The haplotype diversity was 0.99985 in the combined data. A total of 675 distinct haplotypes were observed, of which 649 were unique. Y-chromosome haplogroups in the five groups were also predicted with Y-STR haplotypes. Genetic distance between the five studied ethnic groups and other published groups was analyzed by analysis of molecular variance and visualized in a multidimensional scaling plot. In conclusion, the 17 Y-STR loci are highly polymorphic markers in the five groups and hence are very useful in forensic application, population genetics, and human evolution studies.

  5. Quantifying Ethnic Rank and Ethnic Inequality. Working Papers in Migration and Ethnicity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, William W.; Rahav, Michael

    This paper argues that ethnic status is a source of inequality conceptually independent from social class status. Many parallels exist between the development of measures and concepts for social class inequality and for ethnic inequality. Three measures of ethnic rank described in this paper correspond to dimensions of power, prestige, and wealth…

  6. Quantitative Analysis of Intestinal Flora of Uygur and Han Ethnic Chinese Patients with Ulcerative Colitis.

    PubMed

    Yao, Ping; Cui, Min; Wang, Haikun; Gao, Hongliang; Wang, Lei; Yang, Tao; Cheng, Yongbo

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To study the correlation between intestinal flora and ulcerative colitis by analyzing the abundance of Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, Clostridium, Bifidobacterium spp., and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in the intestinal of ulcerative colitis (UC) patients and healthy controls with Uygur and Han ethnic. Methods. Bacterial genomic DNA was extracted from fecal samples and analyzed with real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify the abundance of Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, Clostridium, Bifidobacterium spp., and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. Results. The samples from UC patients, Uygur and Han ethnic combined, had higher abundance of Bacteroides (P = 0.026) but lower Clostridium (P = 0.004), Bifidobacterium spp. (P = 0.009), and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (P = 0.008) than those from healthy controls. Among UC patients, Bacteroides population was raised in acute UC patients (P ≤ 0.05), while the abundance of Clostridium, Bifidobacterium spp., Fusobacterium, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii decreased (P ≤ 0.05) compared with the remission. In both UC patients group and control group, no difference was observed in the abundance of these 5 bacteria between the Han and the Uygur group. Conclusions. Variations in the abundance of these five bacterial strains in intestines may be associated with the occurrence of UC in Uygur and Han populations; however, these variations were not associated with ethnic difference.

  7. Quantitative Analysis of Intestinal Flora of Uygur and Han Ethnic Chinese Patients with Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Ping; Cui, Min; Wang, Haikun; Gao, Hongliang; Wang, Lei; Yang, Tao; Cheng, Yongbo

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To study the correlation between intestinal flora and ulcerative colitis by analyzing the abundance of Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, Clostridium, Bifidobacterium spp., and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in the intestinal of ulcerative colitis (UC) patients and healthy controls with Uygur and Han ethnic. Methods. Bacterial genomic DNA was extracted from fecal samples and analyzed with real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify the abundance of Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, Clostridium, Bifidobacterium spp., and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. Results. The samples from UC patients, Uygur and Han ethnic combined, had higher abundance of Bacteroides (P = 0.026) but lower Clostridium (P = 0.004), Bifidobacterium spp. (P = 0.009), and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (P = 0.008) than those from healthy controls. Among UC patients, Bacteroides population was raised in acute UC patients (P ≤ 0.05), while the abundance of Clostridium, Bifidobacterium spp., Fusobacterium, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii decreased (P ≤ 0.05) compared with the remission. In both UC patients group and control group, no difference was observed in the abundance of these 5 bacteria between the Han and the Uygur group. Conclusions. Variations in the abundance of these five bacterial strains in intestines may be associated with the occurrence of UC in Uygur and Han populations; however, these variations were not associated with ethnic difference. PMID:26839545

  8. Quantifying multi-ethnic representation in genetic studies of high mortality diseases.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rong; Dudley, Joel T; Ruau, David; Butte, Atul J

    2012-01-01

    Most GWASs were performed using study populations with Caucasian ethnicity or ancestry, and findings from one ethnic subpopulation might not always translate to another. We curated 4,573 genetic studies on 763 human diseases and identified 3,461 disease-susceptible SNPs with genome-wide significance; only 10% of these had been validated in at least two different ethnic populations. SNPs for autoimmune diseases demonstrated the lowest percentage of cross-ethnicity validation. We used the mortality data from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention and identified 19 diseases killing over 10,000 Americans per year that were still lacking publications of even a single cross-ethnic SNP. Fifteen of these diseases had never been studied in large GWAS in non-Caucasian populations, including chronic liver diseases and cirrhosis, leukemia, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Our results demonstrate that diseases killing most Americans are still lacking genetic studies across ethnicities.

  9. Inferring ethnic origin by means of an STR profile.

    PubMed

    Lowe, A L; Urquhart, A; Foreman, L A; Evett, I W

    2001-06-01

    We report the use of DNA profiles from six STR loci for inferring the ethnic origin of a crime stain and discuss how such inference may be used as intelligence information to reduce the expected number of interviews to resolve a case. To enable this work, databases have been created for five British ethnic groups (Caucasians, Afro-Caribbeans, Indian sub-continentals, Southeast Asians and Middle Easterners) that together comprise 99.7% of the UK population.

  10. Commodification of transitioning ethnic enclaves.

    PubMed

    Terzano, Kathryn

    2014-09-29

    This literature review examines the changing roles of ethnic enclaves, the question of their authenticity, and their value as commodified spaces, giving special attention to Little Italy neighborhoods in the United States. Understanding the roles of ethnic enclaves requires some understanding about immigrants' identities. For some theorists, immigrants become blended into society over the course of generations; for other theorists, descendants of immigrants sometimes retain their cultural heritage and traits, helping form a multicultural or pluralist society. In the traditional sense, ethnic enclaves consist of both ethnic residents and ethnic businesses (such as restaurants, shops, and grocers). One way that ethnic enclaves change is when the area experiences a demographic shift, and people from outside the ethnic group move their residences and businesses to the neighborhood, resulting in the area becoming diversified in people and businesses. A second way that an ethnic enclave changes is when the ethnic group shrinks, but the shops and other businesses remain, resulting in the area becoming diversified in residents but not businesses. This latter situation may encourage commodification of the neighborhood's ethnic identity, where a municipality or business association seeks to preserve an enclave's ethnic reputation for tourism purposes. This commodification has implications for many individuals and groups within the enclave as well as outside of it.

  11. Commodification of transitioning ethnic enclaves.

    PubMed

    Terzano, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    This literature review examines the changing roles of ethnic enclaves, the question of their authenticity, and their value as commodified spaces, giving special attention to Little Italy neighborhoods in the United States. Understanding the roles of ethnic enclaves requires some understanding about immigrants' identities. For some theorists, immigrants become blended into society over the course of generations; for other theorists, descendants of immigrants sometimes retain their cultural heritage and traits, helping form a multicultural or pluralist society. In the traditional sense, ethnic enclaves consist of both ethnic residents and ethnic businesses (such as restaurants, shops, and grocers). One way that ethnic enclaves change is when the area experiences a demographic shift, and people from outside the ethnic group move their residences and businesses to the neighborhood, resulting in the area becoming diversified in people and businesses. A second way that an ethnic enclave changes is when the ethnic group shrinks, but the shops and other businesses remain, resulting in the area becoming diversified in residents but not businesses. This latter situation may encourage commodification of the neighborhood's ethnic identity, where a municipality or business association seeks to preserve an enclave's ethnic reputation for tourism purposes. This commodification has implications for many individuals and groups within the enclave as well as outside of it. PMID:25431441

  12. Commodification of Transitioning Ethnic Enclaves

    PubMed Central

    Terzano, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    This literature review examines the changing roles of ethnic enclaves, the question of their authenticity, and their value as commodified spaces, giving special attention to Little Italy neighborhoods in the United States. Understanding the roles of ethnic enclaves requires some understanding about immigrants’ identities. For some theorists, immigrants become blended into society over the course of generations; for other theorists, descendants of immigrants sometimes retain their cultural heritage and traits, helping form a multicultural or pluralist society. In the traditional sense, ethnic enclaves consist of both ethnic residents and ethnic businesses (such as restaurants, shops, and grocers). One way that ethnic enclaves change is when the area experiences a demographic shift, and people from outside the ethnic group move their residences and businesses to the neighborhood, resulting in the area becoming diversified in people and businesses. A second way that an ethnic enclave changes is when the ethnic group shrinks, but the shops and other businesses remain, resulting in the area becoming diversified in residents but not businesses. This latter situation may encourage commodification of the neighborhood’s ethnic identity, where a municipality or business association seeks to preserve an enclave’s ethnic reputation for tourism purposes. This commodification has implications for many individuals and groups within the enclave as well as outside of it. PMID:25431441

  13. Ethnicity, education, and blood pressure in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Ordunez, Pedro; Munoz, Jose Luis Bernal; Espinosa-Brito, Alfredo; Silva, Luis Carlos; Cooper, Richard S

    2005-07-01

    The causes of variation in hypertension risk by ethnicity and educational level are not well understood. To gain further insight into this issue in a nonindustrialized country, a population-based sample of 1,667 persons aged 15-74 years was recruited in Cienfuegos, Cuba. In this 2001-2002 study, interviewers classified 29% of participants as Black or mulatto and 71% as White. Educational attainment was stratified at the median number of school years. Compared with White women, non-White women had higher blood pressures (3.0/1.7, systolic blood pressure/diastolic blood pressure) and a higher prevalence of hypertension (24%, 95% confidence interval: 20, 28 vs. 15%, 95% confidence interval: 12, 18). Among men, no differences in blood pressure were observed by ethnicity. Men with a lower level of education had a 14% lower risk of hypertension compared with men above the median. However, women with a lower level of education had a 24% increase in risk. The effect of education was equally strong among Whites alone and when occupation was used for stratification. No variation was observed for body mass index or self-reported health behaviors by ethnicity or education. The narrower ethnic gradient in hypertension prevalence than seen in North America and the gender-specific social status effect, in the context of relatively equal living conditions, suggest that the influence of psychosocial stressors may be specific to cultural contexts.

  14. Managing Legitimacy in the Educational Quasi-Market: A Study of Ethnically Diverse, Inclusive Schools in Flanders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mampaey, Jelle; Zanoni, Patrizia

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we examine how ethnically diverse, inclusive schools manage their legitimacy in an educational quasi-market. These schools are often threatened with a loss of legitimacy as ethnic majority parents perceive an ethnically diverse student population and radical pedagogical practices as signs of lower quality education. However,…

  15. Current State of Economic Returns from Education in China's Ethnic Regions and Explorations into Ways of Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lijun, Zhang; Fei, Wang

    2010-01-01

    Economic development and social progress in China's ethnic minority regions depend on improvements in population attributes brought about by education. Developing education in China's ethnic regions is a project of fundamental significance for realizing sustainable economic and social development in the ethnic regions. Improving the economic…

  16. Combined DNA and lipid analyses of sediments reveal changes in Holocene haptophyte and diatom populations in an Antarctic lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coolen, Marco J. L.; Muyzer, Gerard; Rijpstra, W. Irene C.; Schouten, Stefan; Volkman, John K.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    2004-06-01

    Preserved ribosomal DNA of planktonic phototrophic algae was recovered from Holocene anoxic sediments of Ace Lake (Antarctica), and the ancient community members were identified based on comparative sequence analysis. The similar concentration profiles of DNA of haptophytes and their traditional lipid biomarkers (alkenones and alkenoates) revealed that fossil rDNA also served as quantitative biomarkers in this environment. The DNA data clearly revealed the presence of six novel phylotypes related to known alkenone and alkenoate-biosynthesizing haptophytes with Isochrysis galbana UIO 102 as their closest relative. The relative abundance of these phylotypes changed as the lake chemistry, particularly salinity, evolved over time. Changes in the alkenone distributions reflect these population changes rather than a physiological response to salinity by a single haptophyte. Using this novel paleo-ecological approach of combining data from lipid biomarkers and preserved DNA, we showed that the post-glacial development of Ace Lake from freshwater basin to marine inlet and the present-day lacustrine saline system caused major qualitative and quantitative changes in the biodiversity of the planktonic populations over time.

  17. Methyl Mercury Exposure from Fish Consumption in Vulnerable Racial/Ethnic Populations: Probabilistic SHEDS-Dietary Model Analyses Using 1999-2006 NHANES and 1990-2002 TDS Data

    EPA Science Inventory

    NHANES subjects self-identified as “Asian, Pacific Islander, Native American, or multiracial” (A/P/N/M) have higher levels of blood organic mercury than other racial/ethnic groups; however, the reasons for this have been unclear. This research uses exposure modeling to determine ...

  18. Brief Intervention to Increase Emergency Department Uptake of Combined Rapid HIV and Hepatitis C Screening Among a Drug Misusing Population

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, Roland C.; Baird, Janette R.; Liu, Tao; Taylor, Lynn E.; Montague, Brian T.; Nirenberg, Ted D.

    2014-01-01

    .7%). Of the 256 screened, none had reactive HIV antibody tests, but seven (2.7%) had reactive HCV antibody tests. Multivariable logistic regression analysis results indicated that uptake of screening was not related to study arm assignment, total ASSIST drug scores, need for an intervention for drug misuse, or HIV/HCV sexual risk assessment scores. However, uptake of screening was greater among participants who indicated placing a higher value on combined rapid HIV/HCV screening for themselves and all ED patients, and those with higher levels of perceived HIV/HCV risk. Uptake of combined rapid HIV/HCV screening was not related to changes in beliefs regarding the value of combined HIV/HCV screening or self-perceived HIV/HCV risk (post- vs. pre-risk assessment with or without a brief intervention). Opinions regarding the ED as a venue for combined rapid HIV/HCV screening were not related to uptake of screening. Conclusions Uptake of combined rapid HIV/HCV screening is high and considered valuable among drug using and misusing ED patients with little concern about the ED as a screening venue. The brief intervention investigated in this study does not appear to change beliefs regarding screening, self-perceived risk, or uptake of screening for HIV/HCV in this population. Initial beliefs regarding the value of screening and self-perceived risk for these infections predict uptake of screening. PMID:25125271

  19. Aging in Multi-ethnic Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Tey, Nai Peng; Siraj, Saedah Binti; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul Bahyah Binti; Chin, Ai Vyrn; Tan, Maw Pin; Sinnappan, Glaret Shirley; Müller, Andre Matthias

    2016-08-01

    Multiethnic Malaysia provides a unique case study of divergence in population aging of different sociocultural subgroups within a country. Malaysia represents 3 major ethnicities in Asia-the Malay, Chinese, and Indian. The 3 ethnic groups are at different stages of population aging, as they have undergone demographic transition at different pace amidst rapid social and economic changes. Between 1991 and 2010, the Malaysian population aged 60 and over has more than doubled from about 1 million to 2.2 million, and this is projected to rise to about 7 million or 17.6% of the projected population of 40 million by 2040. In 2010, the aging index ranged from 22.8% among the Bumiputera (Malays and other indigenous groups), to 31.4% among the Indians and 55.0% among the Chinese. Population aging provides great challenges for Malaysia's social and economic development. The increasing prevalence of noncommunicable diseases in older adults, coupled with the erosion of the traditional family support system has increased demands on health care services with an overwhelming need for multidisciplinary and specialized geriatric care. Following the adoption of the National Policy for the Elderly in 1995, issues of population aging have gained increasing attention, especially among researchers. There is an urgent need to increase public awareness, develop infrastructure, as well as support action oriented research that will directly translate to comprehensive and cohesive social strategies, policies, and legislation to protect not just the current older Malaysians but the future of all Malaysians. PMID:26553738

  20. Aging in Multi-ethnic Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Tey, Nai Peng; Siraj, Saedah Binti; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul Bahyah Binti; Chin, Ai Vyrn; Tan, Maw Pin; Sinnappan, Glaret Shirley; Müller, Andre Matthias

    2016-08-01

    Multiethnic Malaysia provides a unique case study of divergence in population aging of different sociocultural subgroups within a country. Malaysia represents 3 major ethnicities in Asia-the Malay, Chinese, and Indian. The 3 ethnic groups are at different stages of population aging, as they have undergone demographic transition at different pace amidst rapid social and economic changes. Between 1991 and 2010, the Malaysian population aged 60 and over has more than doubled from about 1 million to 2.2 million, and this is projected to rise to about 7 million or 17.6% of the projected population of 40 million by 2040. In 2010, the aging index ranged from 22.8% among the Bumiputera (Malays and other indigenous groups), to 31.4% among the Indians and 55.0% among the Chinese. Population aging provides great challenges for Malaysia's social and economic development. The increasing prevalence of noncommunicable diseases in older adults, coupled with the erosion of the traditional family support system has increased demands on health care services with an overwhelming need for multidisciplinary and specialized geriatric care. Following the adoption of the National Policy for the Elderly in 1995, issues of population aging have gained increasing attention, especially among researchers. There is an urgent need to increase public awareness, develop infrastructure, as well as support action oriented research that will directly translate to comprehensive and cohesive social strategies, policies, and legislation to protect not just the current older Malaysians but the future of all Malaysians.

  1. An analysis of the population genetics of potential multi-drug resistance in Wuchereria bancrofti due to combination chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Schwab, A E; Churcher, T S; Schwab, A J; Basáñez, M-G; Prichard, R K

    2007-07-01

    Currently, annual mass treatments with albendazole (ABZ) plus ivermectin (IVM) or diethylcarbamazine (DEC) are administered under the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF). Drug resistance against both ABZ and IVM is prevalent in nematodes of veterinary importance, raising awareness that if anthelmintic resistance were to develop among Wuchereria bancrofti populations, this would jeopardize GPELF's goals. Genetic structure was incorporated into an existing transmission dynamics model for lymphatic filariasis (LF) to investigate the potential development of concurrent resistance to ABZ and IVM. The resultant models explore the impact of different inheritance modes of resistance to ABZ and IVM on the likely risk of treatment failure under our model assumptions. Results indicate that under ABZ+IVM combination, selection for resistance to one drug is enhanced if resistance to the other drug is already present. Excess parasite homozygosity may increase selection for dominant IVM resistance via enhancing the frequency of recessive ABZ resistance. The model predicts that if multiple resistance genes are associated with different efficacy properties of a drug combination, then examining changes at single loci may be misleading. Sampling schemes in genetic epidemiological surveys investigating the frequency of an allele under selection should consider host age, as individuals of different ages may acquire parasites at different rates.

  2. Ethnic Notions & Healthy Paranoias

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Colette Marie

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To report the firsthand perspectives of older Black women within healthcare encounters that impact the trajectories of health seeking behavior; to examine their perceptions, expectations, and beliefs about the role of cultural difference within predominantly White (US) health care settings; and to explore how sharing personal experiences (theirs and others’) as a fund of knowledge influences ethnic notions. This research is aimed at the development of community resource partnerships and effective healthcare service delivery with intervention and promotion efforts targeting older Black women. Design Ethnographic data collected over a twenty-four month period (2003 – 2005) from fifty older Black women in Tucson, Arizona is discussed on three levels: (1) expectations and beliefs, (2) the use of ethnic notions in the form of healthy paranoias as part of individual and communal health advocacy, and (3) perceptions of interethnic communication within healthcare settings, including feeling uncared for by healthcare providers and support staff. Results Disparities in older Black women's health and well-being are often constructed and filtered through "non-clinical" influences, such as cultural differences, individual experiences, and beliefs about "race" or "being" a Black female. Conclusions Unfamiliarity with ethnic notions may cause misinterpretations and misunderstandings and may influence interactions between older Black women and healthcare providers. PMID:20694867

  3. Modeling of Combined Processing Steps for Reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7 Populations in Apple Cider

    PubMed Central

    Uljas, Heidi E.; Schaffner, Donald W.; Duffy, Siobain; Zhao, Lihui; Ingham, Steven C.

    2001-01-01

    Probabilistic models were used as a systematic approach to describe the response of Escherichia coli O157:H7 populations to combinations of commonly used preservation methods in unpasteurized apple cider. Using a complete factorial experimental design, the effect of pH (3.1 to 4.3), storage temperature and time (5 to 35°C for 0 to 6 h or 12 h), preservatives (0, 0.05, or 0.1% potassium sorbate or sodium benzoate), and freeze-thaw (F-T; −20°C, 48 h and 4°C, 4 h) treatment combinations (a total of 1,600 treatments) on the probability of achieving a 5-log10-unit reduction in a three-strain E. coli O157:H7 mixture in cider was determined. Using logistic regression techniques, pH, temperature, time, and concentration were modeled in separate segments of the data set, resulting in prediction equations for: (i) no preservatives, before F-T; (ii) no preservatives, after F-T; (iii) sorbate, before F-T; (iv) sorbate, after F-T; (v) benzoate, before F-T; and (vi) benzoate, after F-T. Statistical analysis revealed a highly significant (P < 0.0001) effect of all four variables, with cider pH being the most important, followed by temperature and time, and finally by preservative concentration. All models predicted 92 to 99% of the responses correctly. To ensure safety, use of the models is most appropriate at a 0.9 probability level, where the percentage of false positives, i.e., falsely predicting a 5-log10-unit reduction, is the lowest (0 to 4.4%). The present study demonstrates the applicability of logistic regression approaches to describing the effectiveness of multiple treatment combinations in pathogen control in cider making. The resulting models can serve as valuable tools in designing safe apple cider processes. PMID:11133437

  4. Conceptualizing and Categorizing Race and Ethnicity in Health Services Research

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Marvella E; Kelly, P Adam

    2005-01-01

    Objectives Veterans Affairs (VA) patient populations are becoming increasingly diverse in race and ethnicity. The purpose of this paper is to (1) document the importance of using consistent standards of conceptualizing and categorizing race and ethnicity in health services research, (2) provide an overview of different methods currently used to assess race and ethnicity in health services research, and (3) suggest assessment methods that could be incorporated into health services research to ensure accurate assessment of disease prevalence and incidence, as well as accounts of appropriate health services use, in patients with different racial and ethnic backgrounds. Design A critical review of published literature was used. Principal Findings Race is a complex, multidimensional construct. For some individuals, institutionalized racism and internalized racism are intertwined in the effects of race on health outcomes and health services use. Ethnicity is most commonly used as a social–political construct and includes shared origin, shared language, and shared cultural traditions. Acculturation appears to affect the strength of the relationships among ethnicity, health outcomes, and health services use. Conclusions Improved and consistent methods of data collection need to be developed for use by VA researchers across the country. VA research sites with patients representing specific population groups could use a core set of demographic items in addition to expanded modules designed to assess the ethnic diversity within these population groups. Improved and consistent methods of data collection could result in the collection of higher-quality data, which could lead to the identification of race- and ethnic-specific health services needs. These investigations could in turn lead to the development of interventions designed to reduce or eliminate these disparities. PMID:16179001

  5. Assumptions about culture in discourse on ethnic minority health.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    This paper is interested in the way the concept of culture is deployed in documents aimed at investigating, informing on and promoting aspects of ethnic minority health. Within a health-political discourse focusing increasingly on individual lifestyles, ethnic minority health became subject to increased political and professional interest in the last decades of the twentieth and the first decade of the twenty-first century. Analysis of the discourse on ethnic minority health emerging in five texts addressing health professionals shows that the culture of ethnic minority citizens is primarily seen as contributing to low levels of knowledge about health and to adverse health behavior. Thus, the texts present cultural beliefs and practices as contributing to the high prevalence of lifestyle diseases among ethnic minority population groups. The analysis, however, demonstrates that a more nuanced discourse is evolving, taking the complexity of the culture concept into account. In accordance with Danish health-political priorities, the most recent text analyzed in this study promotes an individualistic approach to both ethnic minority and Danish ethnic majority citizens.

  6. Assumptions about culture in discourse on ethnic minority health.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    This paper is interested in the way the concept of culture is deployed in documents aimed at investigating, informing on and promoting aspects of ethnic minority health. Within a health-political discourse focusing increasingly on individual lifestyles, ethnic minority health became subject to increased political and professional interest in the last decades of the twentieth and the first decade of the twenty-first century. Analysis of the discourse on ethnic minority health emerging in five texts addressing health professionals shows that the culture of ethnic minority citizens is primarily seen as contributing to low levels of knowledge about health and to adverse health behavior. Thus, the texts present cultural beliefs and practices as contributing to the high prevalence of lifestyle diseases among ethnic minority population groups. The analysis, however, demonstrates that a more nuanced discourse is evolving, taking the complexity of the culture concept into account. In accordance with Danish health-political priorities, the most recent text analyzed in this study promotes an individualistic approach to both ethnic minority and Danish ethnic majority citizens. PMID:24851509

  7. Investigating the potential for ethnic group harm in collaborative genomics research in Africa: Is ethnic stigmatisation likely?

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Jantina; Jallow, Muminatou; Williams, Thomas N.; Kwiatkowski, Dominic; Parker, Michael; Fitzpatrick, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    A common assumption in genomics research is that the use of ethnic categories has the potential to lead to ethnic stigmatisation – particularly when the research is done on minority populations. Yet few empirical studies have sought to investigate the relation between genomics and stigma, and fewer still with a focus on Africa. In this paper, we investigate the potential for genomics research to lead to harms to ethnic groups. We carried out 49 semi-structured, open-ended interviews with stakeholders in a current medical genomics research project in Africa, MalariaGEN. Interviews were conducted with MalariaGEN researchers, fieldworkers, members of three ethics committees who reviewed MalariaGEN project proposals, and with members of the two funding bodies providing support to the MalariaGEN project. Interviews were conducted in Kenya, The Gambia and the UK between June 2008 and October 2009. They covered a range of aspects relating to the use of ethnicity in the genomics project, including views on adverse effects of the inclusion of ethnicity in such research. Drawing on the empirical data, we argue that the risk of harm to ethnic groups is likely to be more acute in specific types of genomics research. We develop a typology of research questions and projects that carry a greater risk of harm to the populations included in genomics research. We conclude that the potential of generating harm to ethnic groups in genomics research is present if research includes populations that are already stigmatised or discriminated against, or where the research investigates questions with particular normative implications. We identify a clear need for genomics researchers to take account of the social context of the work they are proposing to do, including understanding the local realities and relations between ethnic groups, and whether diseases are already stigmatised. PMID:22749442

  8. Ethnic Pride and Cardiovascular Health Among Mexican American Adults Along the U.S.-Mexico Border

    PubMed Central

    Balcazar, Hector G; Cardenas, Victor; Rosenthal, Lee; Schulz, Leslie O

    2012-01-01

    This study addressed the association between items from the General Acculturation Index (GAI) and cardiovascular health. Specifically, we assessed whether ethnic pride was associated with health outcomes after controlling for items regarding language, place where the childhood was spent and ethnic interaction. The study was a cross sectional analysis of demographic and clinical data from a border population of Mexican American adults (n=316) at risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Outcomes included smoking and diabetes status, Framingham risk, and metabolic syndrome. Ethnic pride was associated with lower diabetes prevalence, lower Framingham risk, and fewer risk factors for metabolic syndrome, but was not associated with smoking status. Ethnic pride was not associated with the other acculturation items of the GAI. Among an at-risk border population, ethnic pride functioned independently of other acculturation indicators. Ethnic pride may act as a protective factor for diabetes, metabolic syndrome and CVD risk status. PMID:22610060

  9. The protective influence of family connectedness, ethnic identity, and ethnic engagement for New Zealand Ma̅ori adolescents.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Jaimee; Jose, Paul E

    2014-06-01

    The present study examined the associations among family connectedness, ethnic identity, and ethnic engagement on changes in well-being over time for the understudied population of Ma̅ori (indigenous New Zealand) youth. Data were collected as part of a longitudinal study of youth connectedness in New Zealand using self-report measures at 3 measurement occasions separated by 1 year each. Participants in the current study were 431 self-identified Ma̅ori (ages 10-15 years at Time 1). As expected, the variables of family connectedness, ethnic identity, and well-being were all positively related to each other. Results of a latent growth curve model showed that, following normative trends for adolescents of this age, well-being diminished over time for Ma̅ori youth; however, high levels of family connectedness were found to mitigate this general decline in well-being over time. Furthermore, in a longitudinal path analysis, ethnic engagement was found to exert a positive indirect effect on residualized Time 3 well-being through Time 2 ethnic identity. These findings indicate that the quality of family relationships and affiliation with one's ethnic group are important predictors of positive adjustment for Ma̅ori youth over time. These results are discussed in the context of positive youth development for ethnic minority and indigenous youth.

  10. Single and combined effects of microplastics and copper on the population growth of the marine microalgae Tetraselmis chuii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davarpanah, Elham; Guilhermino, Lúcia

    2015-12-01

    As the accumulation of microplastics continues to rise in the marine environment, more knowledge on their potential toxic effects on marine organisms is needed to assess their risks to environmental and human health. Thus, the goal of the present study was to investigate the effects of fluorescent red polyethylene plastic micro-spheres 1-5 μm diameter (used as microplastic model and hereafter indicated as MP), alone and in mixture with copper, on the population growth of the marine microalgae Tetraselmis chuii. Two null hypotheses were tested: (H01) Exposure to MP concentrations in ppb range does not affect the average specific growth rate of T. chuii; (H02) MP do not interact with the toxicity of copper to T. chuii. In laboratory bioassays, T. chuii cultures were exposed for 96 h to MP concentrations ranging from 0.046 to 1.472 mg/l), concentrations of copper alone ranging from 0.02 to 0.64 mg/l, and the same concentrations of copper in the presence of 0.184 mg/l of MP in test media. No significant effects of MP on T. chuii population growth were found (p > 0.05), leading to the acceptance of H01. Copper alone significantly decreased the population growth of T. chuii with EC10, EC20 and EC50 of 0.009, 0.023 and 0.139 mg/l, respectively. The corresponding values in the presence of MP were 0.012, 0.029 and 0.145 mg/l, respectively. Moreover, the study found no significant differences between the toxicity curves of copper in the presence and absence of MP (p > 0.05), leading to the acceptance of H02. Despite these findings, because microplastics are known to adsorb and accumulate copper, aged pellets more than virgin ones, and the toxicity of smaller particles may be higher, further studies on the combined effects of copper and microplastics on microalgae should be performed, especially under long-term exposures to nano-sized aged microplastics.

  11. Perceived barriers for ethnically diverse students in nursing programs.

    PubMed

    Amaro, Debra J; Abriam-Yago, Katherine; Yoder, Marian

    2006-07-01

    This qualitative research study examined the perceived barriers and factors that hindered or facilitated ethnically diverse students' completing their nursing education. It builds on a large qualitative study conducted by Yoder in 1996, describing the processes nurse educators use when teaching ethnically diverse students and the perceived special needs of these students. Seventeen recently graduated ethnic minority RNs in Central Coastal California were interviewed using an open-ended questionnaire. These nurses represented Latino, Portuguese, Asian, and African-American population groups. Grounded theory methodology was used for data analysis. The findings identified the needs and barriers that ethnically diverse nursing students may encounter while completing their nursing education. In addition, data revealed supportive factors that helped these students cope with the barriers.

  12. New race and ethnicity standards: elucidating health disparities in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Staiano, Amanda E

    2012-04-30

    The concepts of race and ethnicity are useful for understanding the distribution of disease in the population and for identifying at-risk groups for prevention and treatment efforts. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services recently updated the race and ethnicity classifications in order to more effectively monitor health disparities. Differences in chronic disease mortality rates are contributing to race and ethnic health disparities in life expectancy in the United States. The prevalence of diabetes is higher in African Americans and Hispanics compared to white Americans, and parallel trends are seen in diabetes risk factors, including physical inactivity, dietary patterns, and obesity. Further research is required to determine the extent to which the observed differences in diabetes prevalence are attributable to differences in lifestyle versus other characteristics across race and ethnic groups.

  13. Meclizine in combination with ondansetron for prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting in a high-risk population.

    PubMed

    Forrester, Carrie M; Benfield, Dennis A; Matern, Christina E; Kelly, Joseph A; Pellegrini, Joseph E

    2007-02-01

    Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is prevalent in surgical patients with known risk factors: general anesthesia, female, nonsmoker, motion sickness history, and PONV history. Common treatment involves ondansetron; however, the effects are short-lived, and supplemental medication may be required. Meclizine, a long-acting drug with a low side-effect profile, may be ideal in combination with ondansetron for at-risk patients. We randomized 77 subjects scheduled for general anesthesia and screened for 4 of 5 PONV risk factors for experimental or control group assignment. Severity of PONV was measured using a 0 to 10 verbal numeric rating scale (VNRS). Other measured variables included time to onset and incidence of PONV and total antiemetic requirements. No significant differences in demographics (excluding weight), surgical or anesthesia time, analgesic requirements, or nausea incidence in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) and same-day surgery unit were noted. The meclizine group had lower VNRS scores in the PACU at 15 (P = .013) and 45 (P = .006) minutes following rescue treatment. The incidence of nausea was lower in the meclizine vs. placebo group (10% vs. 29%) following discharge (P = .038). Prophylactic meclizine resulted in lower incidence and severity of PONV in a high-risk population, especially after rescue treatment. PMID:17304780

  14. Marching cohort of Helicobacter pylori infection over two decades (1988-2007): combined effects of secular trend and population migration.

    PubMed

    Miendje Deyi, V Y; Vanderpas, J; Bontems, P; Van den Borre, C; De Koster, E; Cadranel, S; Burette, A

    2011-04-01

    The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection is decreasing in developed countries. In this study we included 22,612 patients in whom a first culture of gastric biopsy (routinely performed in our medical centres) yielded an interpretable result over a 20-year period (1988-2007) in Brussels. The effects of patients' age, gender and ethnic background were analysed. The overall proportion of H. pylori-infected patients was 37·7%, with a progressive decline over time (P<10(-5)). A gender effect was observed in adults. The lowest infection rate was observed in Western European patients (n=11,238) with respectively 36·2% and 15·2% infected subjects in 1988 and 2007, compared to 71·7% and 40% in North African patients (n=3200) (P<10(-5)). However, no trend of decline was observed over time in North African children aged ≤9 years. These data show the effects of time, age and ethnicity on the prevalence of H. pylori infection, and its complex heterogeneity in the same cosmopolitan urban area.

  15. Can we create ethnically diverse skeletal collection from donated bodies?

    PubMed

    Weiss, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Understanding bone health is least invasively and most effectively done through studying skeletal remains that reflect the living populations who will benefit from the knowledge produced through research. Donated body collections that accurately represent modern populations are needed for osteological insights to be applied to clinical practices. However, even though the US is growing increasingly diverse, donated body collections still suffer from a lack of ethnic diversity. Most individuals who donate their whole-bodies after death are European-American. Reasons for a lack of ethnic diversity stem from past injustices and present religious norms. Increasing body donation among minorities in the US and abroad may be difficult. PMID:25775919

  16. Culturally and ethnically diverse communities: building blocks for working relationships.

    PubMed

    Woodroffe, Annette; Spencer, Mavis

    2003-01-01

    Acceptance of diversity in American society, as well as the will of diverse populations to perpetuate their cultures, have created a need to understand building working relationships with and among diverse populations. This article discusses facilitating opportunities for a grounded knowledge base, building culturally competent relationships, facilitating discussion of stereotyping, and forming collaborative alliances with culturally and ethnically diverse communities as foundational strategic building blocks. Child welfare workers need to lay a foundation of excellence in these areas before moving to higher levels in pursuit of working relationships with culturally and ethnically diverse communities. The article presents child welfare workers and agencies as initiators who build relationships with these communities. PMID:12699282

  17. Can we create ethnically diverse skeletal collection from donated bodies?

    PubMed

    Weiss, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Understanding bone health is least invasively and most effectively done through studying skeletal remains that reflect the living populations who will benefit from the knowledge produced through research. Donated body collections that accurately represent modern populations are needed for osteological insights to be applied to clinical practices. However, even though the US is growing increasingly diverse, donated body collections still suffer from a lack of ethnic diversity. Most individuals who donate their whole-bodies after death are European-American. Reasons for a lack of ethnic diversity stem from past injustices and present religious norms. Increasing body donation among minorities in the US and abroad may be difficult.

  18. Use and Preference of Advice on Small Children's Food: Differences Between Parents From Ethnic Minority, Ethnic Majority, and Mixed Households.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Annemette; Krasnik, Allan; Vassard, Ditte; Holm, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    The authors analyzed the influence of acculturation on parental attitudes to, and use of, different sources of health advice about young children's food in Denmark. Using combined ethnic position of the children's parents as a proxy for household acculturation, the authors conducted a postal survey of 2,511 households with young children (6 months to 3.5 years) occupying ethnic minority, ethnic majority, or ethnic mixed position. The analysis showed that the use of advice differed in the 3 groups. Households with ethnic minority status were more likely to use the child's grandparents, general practitioners, and hospital staff as information sources, while households with ethnic majority status were more likely to use mothers' peer groups and written material. In all types of household municipal public health nurses were relied on as a source of advice on young children's food, but households with ethnic minority status were more likely to find the advice obtained in this way incompatible with their family eating habits. Although existing dietary health communication strategies delivered by public health nurses appear to work well in all household types, parents from minority households seem to experience dilemmas. These may be related to their cultural and generational status at the time of receiving the advice. Adjustments to current communication strategies on young children's food are suggested. PMID:26374927

  19. Chemical peeling in ethnic/dark skin.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Wendy E

    2004-01-01

    Chemical peeling for skin of color arose in ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, and other ancient cultures in and around Africa. Our current fund of medical knowledge regarding chemical peeling is a result of centuries of experience and research. The list of agents for chemical peeling is extensive. In ethnic skin, our efforts are focused on superficial and medium-depth peeling agents and techniques. Indications for chemical peeling in darker skin include acne vulgaris, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, melasma, scarring, photodamage, and pseudofolliculitis barbae. Careful selection of patients for chemical peeling should involve not only identification of Fitzpatrick skin type, but also determining ethnicity. Different ethnicities may respond unpredictably to chemical peeling regardless of skin phenotype. Familiarity with the properties each peeling agent used is critical. New techniques discussed for chemical peeling include spot peeling for postinflammatory hyperpigmentation and combination peels for acne and photodamage. Single- or combination-agent chemical peels are shown to be efficacious and safe. In conclusion, chemical peeling is a treatment of choice for numerous pigmentary and scarring disorders arising in dark skin tones. Familiarity with new peeling agents and techniques will lead to successful outcomes. PMID:15113287

  20. Racial and ethnic disparities in kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Malek, Sayeed K; Keys, Brandon J; Kumar, Sanjaya; Milford, Edgar; Tullius, Stefan G

    2011-05-01

    Success of renal transplantation, as a viable alternative to dialysis, has been tempered by long-standing racial disparities. Ethnic minorities have less access to transplantation, are less likely to be listed for transplantation, and experience a higher rate of graft failure. Reasons for the existing racial disparities at various stages of the transplantation process are complex and multi-factorial. They include a combination of behavioral, social, environmental, and occupational factors, as well as potential intended or unintended discrimination within the healthcare system. Immunologic factors such as human leukocyte antigen matching, composition of the organ donor pool, and patient immune response, all of which affect post-transplantation graft rejection rates and patient survival, also contribute to health disparities between ethnic groups.

  1. White Ethnics and Their Media Images.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffres, Leo W.; Hur, K. Kyoon

    1979-01-01

    Presents a survey to determine how ethnics thought the media presented them to the public, and to relate these perceptions to media performance, use of ethnic media, ethnic identification, and demographic variables. (JMF)

  2. Ethnic variation of selected dental traits in Coorg

    PubMed Central

    Uthaman, Chancy; Sequeira, Peter Simon; Jain, Jithesh

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In a country like India, in addition to the great innate diversity, there are distinct migrant populations with unique dental traits. Aim: To assess the distribution and degree of expression of cusp of Carabelli of maxillary first permanent molars and shoveling trait of maxillary central incisors, between three ethnic groups of Coorg, namely Kodavas, Tibetans, and Malayalees. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional, indirect, anthropometric, study was carried out among 15- to 30-year-old subjects belonging to three different ethnic origins. A random sample consisting of 91 subjects were recruited for the study. The shovel trait of incisors and the Carabelli trait of molars were recorded according to the classification given by Hrdliƈka and Sousa et al., respectively. Statistical Analysis: The Kruskal-Wallis test was employed to determine the difference in three populations for shoveling and Carabelli traits. Mann-Whitney Test was used for pair-wise comparisons of three populations. Result: Of the total 91 subjects, 31 were Kodavas, 30 Malayalees and 30 Tibetans. There was a statistically significant difference in shoveling trait among the three ethnic groups. For Carabelli traits, there was no statistically significant difference among three ethnic groups. Conclusion: The present study findings showed that Tibetans have a higher degree of shoveling trait than the selected South Indian ethnic groups. PMID:26816457

  3. Race, Ethnicity and Public Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Philip S., Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This theme issue contains papers on race and ethnicity in public education: "Introduction" (Philip Hart); "Toward Democratic Education: The Importance of Culturally Responsive Leadership in 21st Century Schools" (Donna M. Davis); "Improving the Selection Process for Identifying Gifted Ethnic Minority Children" (John Dillard and Nettye R. Brazil);…

  4. Five Paradigms of Ethnic Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janzen, Rod

    1994-01-01

    Contends that a major focus of contemporary U.S. education is the nature and character of interethnic relationships. Discusses five models of ethnic relations: (1) traditional Eurocentric Racism; (2) Melting Pot Assimilationism; (3) Ethnic Nationalism; (4) Globalism; and (5) Centered Pluralism. (CFR)

  5. School Choice and Ethnic Segregation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karsten, Sjoerd; Ledoux, Guuske; Roeleveld, Jaap; Felix, Charles; Elshof, Dorothe

    2003-01-01

    Explores how school choice has influenced ethnic segregation in Dutch primary schools. Shows that native Dutch parents are significantly more interested in a match between their social and cultural background and the pupil composition of schools than ethnic minority parents. Both groups of parents generally reject predominately "non-White"…

  6. The Case Against Romantic Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myrdal, Gunnar

    1974-01-01

    Characterizes the new ethnic movement as an upper-class intellectual romanticism, which has focused on an abstract craving for historical identity. Criticizes it for avoiding the principal problems of poverty and possivity of the poor, among whom the ethnics are so prominent. (EH)

  7. Ethnicity in Black American Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Shelby

    1977-01-01

    Ethnicity in the American context involves two components: the cultural component and the "outsider" component. The first consists of those customs, folkways, rituals, and values identified with a particular ethnic group and its unique patterns of living. The second is the feeling of being outside the mainstream politically, economically,…

  8. Person and Place: The Compounding Effects of Race/Ethnicity and Rurality on Health

    PubMed Central

    Probst, Janice C.; Moore, Charity G.; Glover, Saundra H.; Samuels, Michael E.

    2004-01-01

    Rural racial/ethnic minorities constitute a forgotten population. The limited research addressing rural Black, Hispanic, and American Indian/Alaska Native populations suggests that disparities in health and in health care access found among rural racial/ethnic minority populations are generally more severe than those among urban racial/ethnic minorities. We suggest that disparities must be understood as both collective and contextual phenomena. Rural racial/ethnic minority disparities in part stem from the aggregation of disadvantaged individuals in rural areas. Disparities also emerge from a context of limited educational and economic opportunity. Linking public health planning to the education and economic development sectors will reduce racial/ethnic minority disparities while increasing overall well-being in rural communities. PMID:15451735

  9. Race/Ethnicity and Overuse of Care: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    KRESSIN, NANCY R; GROENEVELD, PETER W

    2015-01-01

    Policy Points: Racial/ethnic differences in the overuse of care (specifically, unneeded care that does not improve patients’ outcomes) have received little scholarly attention. Our systematic review of the literature (59 studies) found that the overuse of care is not invariably associated with race/ethnicity, but when it was, a substantial proportion of studies found greater overuse of care among white patients. The absence of established subject terms in PubMed for the overuse of care or inappropriate care impedes the ability of researchers or policymakers to synthesize prior scientific or policy efforts. Context The literature on disparities in health care has examined the contrast between white patients receiving needed care, compared with racial/ethnic minority patients not receiving needed care. Racial/ethnic differences in the overuse of care, that is, unneeded care that does not improve patients’ outcomes, have received less attention. We systematically reviewed the literature regarding race/ethnicity and the overuse of care. Methods We searched the Medline database for US studies that included at least 2 racial/ethnic groups and that examined the association between race/ethnicity and the overuse of procedures, diagnostic (care) or therapeutic care. In a recent review, we identified studies of overuse by race/ethnicity, and we also examined reference lists of retrieved articles. We then abstracted and evaluated this information, including the population studied, data source, sample size and assembly, type of care, guideline or appropriateness standard, controls for clinical confounding and financing of care, and findings. Findings We identified 59 unique studies, of which 11 had a low risk of methodological bias. Studies with multiple outcomes were counted more than once; collectively they assessed 74 different outcomes. Thirty-two studies, 6 with low risks of bias (LRoB), provided evidence that whites received more inappropriate or nonrecommended care

  10. Ethnic Considerations for Metabolic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Morton, John Magaña

    2016-06-01

    Obesity and diabetes represent twin health concerns in the developed world. Metabolic surgery has emerged as an established and enduring treatment for both obesity and diabetes. As the burden of obesity and diabetes varies upon the basis of ethnicity, it is also apparent that there may be differences for indications and outcomes for different ethnic groups after metabolic surgery. Whereas there appears to be evidence for variation in weight loss and complications for different ethnic groups, comorbidity remission particularly for diabetes appears to be free of ethnic disparity after metabolic surgery. The impacts of access, biology, culture, genetics, procedure, and socioeconomic status upon metabolic surgery outcomes are examined. Further refinement of the influence of ethnicity upon metabolic surgery outcomes is likely imminent. PMID:27222553

  11. Not Quite Color Blind: Ethnic and Gender Differences in Attitudes toward Older People among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laditka, Sarah B.; Laditka, James N.; Houck, Margaret M.; Olatosi, Bankole A.

    2011-01-01

    Attitudes toward older people can influence how they are treated and their cognitive and physical health. The populations of the United States and many other countries have become more ethnically diverse, and are aging. Yet little research examines how ethnic diversity affects attitudes toward older people. Our study addresses this research gap.…

  12. Creating Culturally Relevant Alzheimer's Support Groups for Racial and Ethnic Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Joseph Neil

    Although data indicate that Alzheimer's disease occurs among all racial and ethnic populations, the Alzheimer's disease support group system is used nationally primarily by white, middle-class caregivers. Developing a model ethnic-specific support group for Hispanics requires delineation of formal and informal health care networks in the ethnic…

  13. Stemming Racial and Ethnic Disparities in the Rising Tide of Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawks, Steven R.; Madanat, Hala N.

    2003-01-01

    At the national level, obesity and obesity-related illnesses are increasing dramatically. As with many other public health problems, some racial and ethnic populations are disproportionately affected. This article presents current information on the prevalence and consequences of obesity for racial and ethnic groups in the United States and…

  14. Ethnic Segmentation in the American Metropolis: Increasing Divergence in Economic Incorporation, 1980-1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, John; Alba, Richard D.; Dill, Michael; Zhou, Min

    2000-01-01

    Tracks the evolution of metropolitan ethnic economics between 1980-90, when most immigrant groups experienced explosive population growth. Uses census data to describe ethnic enclaves, entrepreneurial niches, and employment niches in metropolitan areas. Results suggest that initial successes of some groups (Whites, Cubans, Koreans, and Chinese)…

  15. Recruiting and Retaining an Ethnically Diverse Sample of Older Adults in a Longitudinal Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin-Wells, Vonnette; McDougall, Graham J.; Becker, Heather

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes strategies developed to recruit and retain an ethnically diverse sample in a longitudinal intervention of 246 participants in the SeniorWISE study. The ethnic and socioeconomic differences of these participants necessitated the use of different methods of effectively communicating with this population. Recruitment benefited…

  16. Exploring the Influence of Ethnicity, Age, and Trauma on Prisoners' World Assumptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Sandy

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the author explores world assumptions of prisoners, how these assumptions vary by ethnicity and age, and whether trauma history affects world assumptions. A random sample of young and old prisoners, matched for prison location, was drawn from the New Jersey Department of Corrections prison population. Age and ethnicity had…

  17. Utility of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, Fifth Edition, with Ethnically Diverse Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Brittany A.; Finch, Maria HernÁndez; Mcintosh, David E.; Rothlisberg, Barbara A.; Finch, W. Holmes

    2014-01-01

    Current research on the use of revisions of intelligence measures with ethnically diverse populations and younger children is limited. The present study investigated the utility of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, Fifth Edition (SB5), with an ethnically diverse preschool sample. African American and Caucasian preschoolers, matched on age,…

  18. Race and ethnicity in the workplace: spotlighting the perspectives of historically stigmatized groups.

    PubMed

    Plaut, Victoria C; Thomas, Kecia M; Hebl, Michelle R

    2014-10-01

    Racial and ethnic identity matter and are salient for people in the workplace--a place where people spend a substantial amount of their time. This special issue brings the workplace into the domain of racial and ethnic minority psychology. It also brings to the study of the workplace a relatively neglected perspective: that of people from historically stigmatized racial and ethnic groups. Though there is, of course, need for more work with different themes, outcomes, and populations, this special issue takes us an important step in the direction of understanding better and giving voice to the experiences of racial and ethnic minorities in the workplace.

  19. Breast cancer treatment and ethnicity in British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Racial and ethnic disparities in breast cancer incidence, stage at diagnosis, survival and mortality are well documented; but few studies have reported on disparities in breast cancer treatment. This paper compares the treatment received by breast cancer patients in British Columbia (BC) for three ethnic groups and three time periods. Values for breast cancer treatments received in the BC general population are provided for reference. Methods Information on patients, tumour characteristics and treatment was obtained from BC Cancer Registry (BCCR) and BC Cancer Agency (BCCA) records. Treatment among ethnic groups was analyzed by stage at diagnosis and time period at diagnosis. Differences among the three ethnic groups were tested using chi-square tests, Fisher exact tests and a multivariate logistic model. Results There was no significant difference in overall surgery use for stage I and II disease between the ethnic groups, however there were significant differences when surgery with and without radiation were considered separately. These differences did not change significantly with time. Treatment with chemotherapy and hormone therapy did not differ among the minority groups. Conclusion The description of treatment differences is the first step to guiding interventions that reduce ethnic disparities. Specific studies need to examine reasons for the observed differences and the influence of culture and beliefs. PMID:20406489

  20. Ethnicity and Occupational Pension Membership in the UK

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Reflecting a relatively low‐value Basic State Pension, occupational pensions have historically been a key aspect of pension protection within Britain. Existing research shows that minority ethnic groups are less likely to benefit from such pensions and are more likely to face poverty in later life, as a result of the interaction of their labour market participation and pension membership patterns. However, the lack of adequate data on ethnic minorities has so far prevented the direct comparison of different ethnic groups, as well as their comparison to the White British group. Using data from the UK Household Longitudinal Study, this article explores patterns of employment and the odds ratios of membership in an employer's pension scheme among working‐age individuals from minority ethnic groups and the White British population, taking into account factors not used by previous research, such as one's migration history and sector of employment (public/private). The analysis provides new empirical evidence confirming that ethnicity remains a strong determinant of one's pension protection prospects through being in paid work, being an employee and working for an employer who offers a pension scheme. However, once an individual is working for an employer offering a pension scheme, the effect of ethnicity on that person's odds of being a member of that scheme reduces, except among Pakistani and Bangladeshi individuals for whom the differentials remain. The article also provides evidence on the pension protection of Polish individuals, a relatively ‘new’ minority group in the UK. PMID:27563161

  1. Multi-ethnic fine-mapping of 14 central adiposity loci.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ching-Ti; Buchkovich, Martin L; Winkler, Thomas W; Heid, Iris M; Borecki, Ingrid B; Fox, Caroline S; Mohlke, Karen L; North, Kari E; Adrienne Cupples, L

    2014-09-01

    The Genetic Investigation of Anthropometric Traits (GIANT) consortium identified 14 loci in European Ancestry (EA) individuals associated with waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) adjusted for body mass index. These loci are wide and narrowing the signals remains necessary. Twelve of 14 loci identified in GIANT EA samples retained strong associations with WHR in our joint EA/individuals of African Ancestry (AA) analysis (log-Bayes factor >6.1). Trans-ethnic analyses at five loci (TBX15-WARS2, LYPLAL1, ADAMTS9, LY86 and ITPR2-SSPN) substantially narrowed the signals to smaller sets of variants, some of which are in regions that have evidence of regulatory activity. By leveraging varying linkage disequilibrium structures across different populations, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with strong signals and narrower credible sets from trans-ethnic meta-analysis of central obesity provide more precise localizations of potential functional variants and suggest a possible regulatory role. Meta-analysis results for WHR were obtained from 77 167 EA participants from GIANT and 23 564 AA participants from the African Ancestry Anthropometry Genetics Consortium. For fine mapping we interrogated SNPs within ± 250 kb flanking regions of 14 previously reported index SNPs from loci discovered in EA populations by performing trans-ethnic meta-analysis of results from the EA and AA meta-analyses. We applied a Bayesian approach that leverages allelic heterogeneity across populations to combine meta-analysis results and aids in fine-mapping shared variants at these locations. We annotated variants using information from the ENCODE Consortium and Roadmap Epigenomics Project to prioritize variants for possible functionality.

  2. Combination of sodium chlorite and calcium propionate reduces enzymatic browning and microbial population of fresh-cut ‘Granny Smith’ apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tissue browning and microbial growth are the main concerns associated with fresh-cut apples. In this study, effects of sodium chlorite (SC) and calcium propionate (CP), individually and combined, on quality and microbial population of apple slices were investigated. ‘Granny Smith’ apple slices, dipp...

  3. Effects of combined thiamethoxam and diatomaceous earth on mortality and progeny production of four Pakistani populations of Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae) on wheat, rice and maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioassays were conducted to evaluate the effects of combining thiamethoxam at 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75 mg/kg with the diatomaceous earth (DE) formulation, SilicoSec, at the rate of 100 mg/kg against four diverse populations of the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae) th...

  4. Ethnic minority health in Vietnam: a review exposing horizontal inequity

    PubMed Central

    Målqvist, Mats; Hoa, Dinh Thi Phuong; Liem, Nguyen Thanh; Thorson, Anna; Thomsen, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Background Equity in health is a pressing concern and reaching disadvantaged populations is necessary to close the inequity gap. To date, the discourse has predominately focussed on reaching the poor. At the same time and in addition to wealth, other structural determinants that influence health outcomes exist, one of which is ethnicity. Inequities based on group belongings are recognised as ‘horizontal’, as opposed to the more commonly used notion of ‘vertical’ inequity based on individual characteristics. Objective The aim of the present review is to highlight ethnicity as a source of horizontal inequity in health and to expose mechanisms that cause and maintain this inequity in Vietnam. Design Through a systematic search of available academic and grey literature, 49 publications were selected for review. Information was extracted on: a) quantitative measures of health inequities based on ethnicity and b) qualitative descriptions explaining potential reasons for ethnicity-based health inequities. Results Five main areas were identified: health-care-seeking and utilization, maternal and child health, nutrition, infectious diseases, and oral health and hygiene. Evidence suggests the presence of severe health inequity in health along ethnic lines in all these areas. Research evidence also offers explanations derived from both external and internal group dynamics to this inequity. It is reported that government policies and programs appear to be lacking in culturally adaptation and sensitivity, and examples of bad attitudes and discrimination from health staff toward minority persons were identified. In addition, traditions and patriarchal structures within ethnic minority groups were seen to contribute to the maintenance of harmful health behaviors within these groups. Conclusion Better understandings of the scope and pathways of horizontal inequities are required to address ethnic inequities in health. Awareness of ethnicity as a determinant of health, not

  5. Racial and Ethnic Inequality in the United States, 1940 and 1950: The Impact of Geographic Location and Human Capital.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschman, Charles; Kraly, Ellen Percy

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes male occupational stratification for 35 ethnic populations, defined by race and national origins. While racial and Spanish-origin minorities had average occupational statuses far below that of White males of native parentage, most European ethnics were equal to or only slightly below the majority population in 1940 and 1950. (AF)

  6. Describing ethnicity in health research.

    PubMed

    Bradby, Hannah

    2003-02-01

    Commentators have criticised the terminology used for the classification of ethnic and racialised groups in health research for a number of years. The shortcomings of fixed-response categories include the reproduction of racialised categorisations, overemphasis of homogeneity within groups and contrast between them, and failure to offer terms with which people identify and which can express complex identities. The historical injustices against black and minority groups are reflected in terminology and explicitly recognised when discussing 'race' as a social construction. The exaggeration of homogeneity within groups and contrast between them is a racialising effect of fixed classifications. Self-assigned ethnic group avoids some of these difficulties by allowing multiple affiliations to be described, but introduces the costs of processing free text. The context-dependent nature of individual ethnic identity makes comparison problematic. Researcher-assigned ethnicity can increase comparability and consistency but may be at odds with self-identity. The complexity of ethnicity itself and of its relationship with socio-economic group and racism makes proxy measures inevitably inadequate. If researchers continue to try to capture the complex and contextual detail of ethnicity, it may become clear that the general concept of ethnicity covers such a wide and specific range of experiences as to render it of limited use in making comparisons through time or across cultures.

  7. Integrated Strategies for Combination HIV Prevention: Principles and examples for men who have sex with men in the Americas and heterosexual African populations

    PubMed Central

    Celum, Connie; Baeten, Jared M.; Hughes, James P.; Barnabas, Ruanne; Liu, Albert; Van Rooyen, Heidi; Buchbinder, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Combination HIV prevention is a high priority for increasing the impact of partially efficacious HIV prevention interventions for specific populations and settings. Developing the package requires critical review of local epidemiology of HIV infection regarding populations most impacted and most at risk, drivers of HIV infection, and available interventions to address these risk factors. Interventions should be considered in terms of the evidence basis for efficacy, potential synergies, feasibility of delivery at scale, which is important in order to achieve high coverage and impact, coupled with high acceptability to populations, which will impact uptake, adherence, and retention. Evaluation requires process measures of uptake, adherence, retention, and outcome measures of reduction in HIV infectiousness and acquisition. Three examples of combination prevention concepts are summarized for men who have sex with men (MSM) in the Americas, young women in sub-Saharan Africa, and HIV-1 serodiscordant couples. PMID:23764638

  8. Integrated strategies for combination HIV prevention: principles and examples for men who have sex with men in the Americas and heterosexual African populations.

    PubMed

    Celum, Connie; Baeten, Jared M; Hughes, James P; Barnabas, Ruanne; Liu, Albert; Van Rooyen, Heidi; Buchbinder, Susan

    2013-07-01

    Combination HIV prevention is of high priority for increasing the impact of partially efficacious HIV prevention interventions for specific populations and settings. Developing the package requires critical review of local epidemiology of HIV infection regarding most-impacted populations and those at high risk of HIV transmission and acquisition, drivers of HIV infection, and available interventions to address these risk factors. Interventions should be considered in terms of the evidence basis for efficacy, potential synergies, and feasibility of delivery at scale, which is important to achieve high coverage and impact, coupled with high acceptability to populations, which will impact uptake, adherence, and retention. Evaluation requires process measures of uptake, adherence, retention, and outcome measures of reduction in HIV infectiousness and acquisition. Three examples of combination prevention concepts are summarized for men who have sex with men in the Americas, young women in sub-Saharan Africa, and HIV serodiscordant couples.

  9. An integrated modeling approach to estimating Gunnison sage-grouse population dynamics: combining index and demographic data

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Amy J; Hooten, Mevin B; Phillips, Michael L; Doherty, Paul F

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of population dynamics for rare and declining species is often limited to data that are sparse and/or of poor quality. Frequently, the best data available for rare bird species are based on large-scale, population count data. These data are commonly based on sampling methods that lack consistent sampling effort, do not account for detectability, and are complicated by observer bias. For some species, short-term studies of demographic rates have been conducted as well, but the data from such studies are typically analyzed separately. To utilize the strengths and minimize the weaknesses of these two data types, we developed a novel Bayesian integrated model that links population count data and population demographic data through population growth rate (λ) for Gunnison sage-grouse (Centrocercus minimus). The long-term population index data available for Gunnison sage-grouse are annual (years 1953–2012) male lek counts. An intensive demographic study was also conducted from years 2005 to 2010. We were able to reduce the variability in expected population growth rates across time, while correcting for potential small sample size bias in the demographic data. We found the population of Gunnison sage-grouse to be variable and slightly declining over the past 16 years. PMID:25540687

  10. An integrated modeling approach to estimating Gunnison Sage-Grouse population dynamics: combining index and demographic data.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Amy J.; Hooten, Mevin B.; Phillips, Michael L.; Doherty, Paul F.

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of population dynamics for rare and declining species is often limited to data that are sparse and/or of poor quality. Frequently, the best data available for rare bird species are based on large-scale, population count data. These data are commonly based on sampling methods that lack consistent sampling effort, do not account for detectability, and are complicated by observer bias. For some species, short-term studies of demographic rates have been conducted as well, but the data from such studies are typically analyzed separately. To utilize the strengths and minimize the weaknesses of these two data types, we developed a novel Bayesian integrated model that links population count data and population demographic data through population growth rate (λ) for Gunnison sage-grouse (Centrocercus minimus). The long-term population index data available for Gunnison sage-grouse are annual (years 1953–2012) male lek counts. An intensive demographic study was also conducted from years 2005 to 2010. We were able to reduce the variability in expected population growth rates across time, while correcting for potential small sample size bias in the demographic data. We found the population of Gunnison sage-grouse to be variable and slightly declining over the past 16 years.

  11. Species interactions and chemical stress: combined effects of intraspecific and interspecific interactions and pyrene on Daphnia magna population dynamics.

    PubMed

    Viaene, Karel P J; De Laender, Frederik; Rico, Andreu; Van den Brink, Paul J; Di Guardo, Antonio; Morselli, Melissa; Janssen, Colin R

    2015-08-01

    Species interactions are often suggested as an important factor when assessing the effects of chemicals on higher levels of biological organization. Nevertheless, the contribution of intraspecific and interspecific interactions to chemical effects on populations is often overlooked. In the present study, Daphnia magna populations were initiated with different levels of intraspecific competition, interspecific competition, and predation and exposed to pyrene pulses. Generalized linear models were used to test which of these factors significantly explained population size and structure at different time points. Pyrene had a negative effect on total population densities, with effects being more pronounced on smaller D. magna individuals. Among all species interactions tested, predation had the largest negative effect on population densities. Predation and high initial intraspecific competition were shown to interact antagonistically with pyrene exposure. This was attributed to differences in population structure before pyrene exposure and pyrene-induced reductions in predation pressure by Chaoborus sp. larvae. The present study provides empirical evidence that species interactions within and between populations can alter the response of aquatic populations to chemical exposure. Therefore, such interactions are important factors to be considered in ecological risk assessments.

  12. Patient satisfaction and ethnic identity among American Indian older adults.

    PubMed

    Garroutte, Eva Marie; Kunovich, Robert M; Jacobsen, Clemma; Goldberg, Jack

    2004-12-01

    Work in the field of culturally competent medical care draws on studies showing that minority Americans often report lower satisfaction with care than White Americans and recommends that providers should adapt care to patients' cultural needs. However, empirical evidence in support of cultural competence models is limited by reliance upon measurements of racial rather than ethnic identity and also by a near-total neglect of American Indians. This project explored the relationship between ethnic identity and satisfaction using survey data collected from 115 chronically ill American Indian patients >or=50 years at a Cherokee Nation clinic. Satisfaction scores were high overall and comparable to those found in the general population. Nevertheless, analysis using hierarchical linear modeling showed that patients' self-rated American Indian ethnic identity was significantly associated with satisfaction. Specifically, patients who rated themselves high on the measure of American Indian ethnic identity reported reduced scores on satisfaction with health care providers' social skill and attentiveness, as compared to those who rated themselves lower. Significant associations remained after controlling for patients' sex, age, education, marital status, self-reported health, wait time, and number of previous visits. There were no significant associations between patients' American Indian ethnic identity and satisfaction with provider's technical skill and shared decision-making. Likewise, there were no significant associations between satisfaction and a separate measure of White American ethnic identity, although a suggestive trend was observed for satisfaction with provider's social skill. Our findings demonstrate the importance of including measures of ethnic identity in studies of medical satisfaction in racial minority populations. They support the importance of adapting care to patient's cultural needs, and they highlight the particular significance of interpersonal

  13. Patient satisfaction and ethnic identity among American Indian older adults.

    PubMed

    Garroutte, Eva Marie; Kunovich, Robert M; Jacobsen, Clemma; Goldberg, Jack

    2004-12-01

    Work in the field of culturally competent medical care draws on studies showing that minority Americans often report lower satisfaction with care than White Americans and recommends that providers should adapt care to patients' cultural needs. However, empirical evidence in support of cultural competence models is limited by reliance upon measurements of racial rather than ethnic identity and also by a near-total neglect of American Indians. This project explored the relationship between ethnic identity and satisfaction using survey data collected from 115 chronically ill American Indian patients >or=50 years at a Cherokee Nation clinic. Satisfaction scores were high overall and comparable to those found in the general population. Nevertheless, analysis using hierarchical linear modeling showed that patients' self-rated American Indian ethnic identity was significantly associated with satisfaction. Specifically, patients who rated themselves high on the measure of American Indian ethnic identity reported reduced scores on satisfaction with health care providers' social skill and attentiveness, as compared to those who rated themselves lower. Significant associations remained after controlling for patients' sex, age, education, marital status, self-reported health, wait time, and number of previous visits. There were no significant associations between patients' American Indian ethnic identity and satisfaction with provider's technical skill and shared decision-making. Likewise, there were no significant associations between satisfaction and a separate measure of White American ethnic identity, although a suggestive trend was observed for satisfaction with provider's social skill. Our findings demonstrate the importance of including measures of ethnic identity in studies of medical satisfaction in racial minority populations. They support the importance of adapting care to patient's cultural needs, and they highlight the particular significance of interpersonal

  14. Genesis of two most prevalent PROP1 gene variants causing combined pituitary hormone deficiency in 21 populations.

    PubMed

    Dusatkova, Petra; Pfäffle, Roland; Brown, Milton R; Akulevich, Natallia; Arnhold, Ivo J P; Kalina, Maria A; Kot, Karolina; Krzisnik, Ciril; Lemos, Manuel C; Malikova, Jana; Navardauskaite, Ruta; Obermannova, Barbora; Pribilincova, Zuzana; Sallai, Agnes; Stipancic, Gordana; Verkauskiene, Rasa; Cinek, Ondrej; Blum, Werner F; Parks, John S; Austerlitz, Frederic; Lebl, Jan

    2016-03-01

    Two variants (c.[301_302delAG];[301_302delAG] and c.[150delA];[150delA]) in the PROP1 gene are the most common genetic causes of recessively inherited combined pituitary hormones deficiency (CPHD). Our objective was to analyze in detail the origin of the two most prevalent variants. In the multicentric study were included 237 patients with CPHD and their 15 relatives carrying c.[301_302delAG];[301_302delAG] or c.[150delA];[150delA] or c.[301_302delAG];[ 150delA]. They originated from 21 different countries worldwide. We genotyped 21 single-nucleotide variant markers flanking the 9.6-Mb region around the PROP1 gene that are not in mutual linkage disequilibrium in the general populations--a finding of a common haplotype would be indicative of ancestral origin of the variant. Haplotypes were reconstructed by Phase and Haploview software, and the variant age was estimated using an allelic association method. We demonstrated the ancestral origin of both variants--c.[301_302delAG] was carried on 0.2 Mb-long haplotype in a majority of European patients arising ~101 generations ago (confidence interval 90.1-116.4). Patients from the Iberian Peninsula displayed a different haplotype, which was estimated to have emerged 23.3 (20.1-29.1) generations ago. Subsequently, the data indicated that both the haplotypes were transmitted to Latin American patients ~13.8 (12.2-17.0) and 16.4 (14.4-20.1) generations ago, respectively. The c.[150delA] variant that was carried on a haplotype spanning about 0.3 Mb was estimated to appear 43.7 (38.4-52.7) generations ago. We present strong evidence that the most frequent variants in the PROP1 gene are not a consequence of variant hot spots as previously assumed, but are founder variants.

  15. Ethnic Differences in Decisional Balance and Stages of Mammography Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otero-Sabogal, Regina; Stewart, Susan; Shema, Sarah J.; Pasick, Rena J.

    2007-01-01

    Behavioral theories developed through research with mainstream, English-speaking populations have been applied to ethnically diverse and underserved communities in the effort to eliminate disparities in early breast cancer detection. This study tests the validity of the transtheoretical model (TTM) decisional balance measure and the application of…

  16. Ethnic Visibility and Adaptive Strategies: Samoans in the Seattle Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotchek, Lydia

    1977-01-01

    Describes the ways and means of adaptation and interaction used by a purportedly invisible ethnic minority, the Samoan population of Seattle, Washington, and discusses both how these ways and means of adaptation and interaction relate to each other and how they are facilitated or blocked by the relative invisibility of the group. (Author/JM)

  17. [Lactase polymorphism in representatives of different ethnic-territorial groups].

    PubMed

    Kozlov, A I; Sheremet'eva, V A; Kondik, V M

    1992-01-01

    Lactase polymorphism was studied in the native population of West Siberia and also in Buryatia. LAC*R frequency observed is-Khants- 0.8367, Mansi - 0.8660, Nenets - 0.8944, Buryats - 0.6883. The data obtained are considered to be the result of natural selection under traditional historical economical-cultural environment of the ethnic groups in question.

  18. Preparing Students for Culturally Competent Practice among Ethnic Minority Elders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Colette V.; Mokuau, Noreen

    2008-01-01

    The increase in the nation's present and projected multicultural aged population is both dramatic and well documented. One result of this growth is a sharpened focus on racial and ethnic disparities in health, health care access, and utilization of services that impact aging adults. This paper presents work conducted by a university-community…

  19. Ethnic Esteem Among Anglo, Black, and Chicano Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeVine, Elaine Sue

    This study examines selected patterns of ethnic esteem among Anglo, Black, and Chicano children. The experimental population includes second and fifth grade students from a midwestern (Greater Kansas City, Missouri) elementary school in which Anglos, Blacks, and Chicanos attend in approximately equal proportions. Thirty-six Anglo, 59 Blacks, and…

  20. Pharmacogenomics in admixed populations.

    PubMed

    Suarez-Kurtz, Guilherme

    2005-04-01

    Personalized drug therapy proffered by pharmacogenomics must be based on the recognition of inherent genetic individuality, rather than relying on inter-ethnic differences in the frequency of polymorphisms that affect the pharmacokinetics and targets of drugs. This is particularly significant in admixed populations, in which the substructure created by inter-ethnic crosses further increases the fluidity of racial and/or ethnic labels. Inter-ethnic admixture is either common or increasing quickly in many, if not most, populations, and so extrapolation on a global scale of pharmacogenomic data from well-defined ethnic groups is plagued with uncertainty. To impact positively on global health, pharmacogenomics must broaden its scope of investigation with respect to both target and population diversity, and avoid the risk of contributing to the creation of a genomics divide between regions and nations. In this review, I examine the challenges and advantages of studying pharmacogenomics in admixed populations, drawing examples mainly from the trihybrid populations of the Americas. PMID:15808344

  1. Communication Channels and Information Flow among Ethnics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffres, Leo W.; Hur, K. Kyoon

    The questionnaire responses of 768 people from a variety of ethnic groups were analyzed to determine what communication channels were used to link ethnics to their native countries and to provide news of the ethnic community. The relationships between channel preferences and demographics, ethnicity, and communication channel patterns were also…

  2. Media Flows, Ethnicity, Racism and Xenophobia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downing, John D. H.; Husband, Charles

    1995-01-01

    States the importance of media definitions of ethnic majorities. Discusses media discourses concerning settled ethnic minorities, race relations and the news, ethnic minority media, contract labor, migrants and refugees, indigenous land-based groups, and ethnic minority presence in mainstream media. Draws examples from the United States, Eastern…

  3. Contextual Factors Contributing to Ethnic Identity Development of Second-Generation Iranian American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daha, Maryam

    2011-01-01

    The data drawn from interviews with 55 second-generation Iranian American adolescents revealed that pride in ancient Persian culture, the adolescents' physical characteristics, perceived stereotypes, and community point of reference all combined to affect ethnic identity as well as to reinforce a sense of ethnic loyalty. The contextual factors…

  4. Attitudes to Spoken Australian English: Judgements of Ingroup and Ethnic Outgroup Speakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallois, Cynthia; Callan, Victor J.

    1989-01-01

    Two studies examined Anglo-Australians attitudes toward male and female Australian and immigrant speakers using English. Results support view that foreign or ethnic accent is sufficient cue to elicit ethnic stereotypes, that such stereotypes are salient to Anglo-Australians, and that accent can combine with other vocal cues to social group…

  5. Youths of Mexican Descent of the Southwest: Exploring Differences in Ethnic Labels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holley, Lynn C.; Salas, Lorraine Moya; Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Yabiku, Scott T.; Fitzharris, Blythe; Jackson, Kelly F.

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of the factors that influence youths' choice of racial or ethnic labels would help us understand intragroup diversity, suggest ways in which school social workers can support youths' ethnic identity development, and learn whether youths who choose different combinations of labels may be grouped together for research purposes. This study…

  6. Women's Health: Racial and Ethnic Health Inequities.

    PubMed

    Sarto, Gloria E; Brasileiro, Julia; Franklin, Doris J

    2013-09-01

    Starting in the late 1980s and throughout the 1990s, reports appeared in the literature describing the poor health status and poor health outcomes experienced by minority populations, especially blacks, in the United States. Additionally, attention was brought to the limited access to health services for minority populations. These reports prompted Congress to request the Institute of Medicine (IOM) to conduct a study to assess differences in the kinds and quality of healthcare received by US racial and ethnic minorities and nonminorities. The study culminated in the report Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care.(1) Among the recommendations included in the report published in 2003 is a need for (1) change in legal, regulatory, and policy interventions and (2) health systems interventions. The committee extended the recommendations to include (3) implementation of programs to enhance individual education and empowerment, (4) a need for research into identifying racial and ethnic disparities and the development of and assessment of intervention strategies, and (5) a need to integrate cross-cultural education into the training of all health professionals.(1) Subsequent to this report, there has been an increase in efforts to increase diversity among healthcare providers and research investigators.(2) The American Association of Medical Colleges (AAMC) continues to encourage recruitment of minorities to careers in medicine, to stress the importance of a diverse medical school faculty and administration, and to graduate culturally competent healthcare providers who will decrease health disparities and improve health equity. Additionally, as noted by Ginther et al in 2011, there continues to be a need to increase diversity at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) not only among the workforce but also among the recipients of awards.(3) To this end, the NIH has established the Working Group on Diversity in the Biomedical Research

  7. The 2010 Canadian Cardiovascular Society guidelines for the diagnosis and management of heart failure update: Heart failure in ethnic minority populations, heart failure and pregnancy, disease management, and quality improvement/assurance programs

    PubMed Central

    Howlett, Jonathan G; McKelvie, Robert S; Costigan, Jeannine; Ducharme, Anique; Estrella-Holder, Estrellita; Ezekowitz, Justin A; Giannetti, Nadia; Haddad, Haissam; Heckman, George A; Herd, Anthony M; Isaac, Debra; Kouz, Simon; Leblanc, Kori; Liu, Peter; Mann, Elizabeth; Moe, Gordon W; O’Meara, Eileen; Rajda, Miroslav; Siu, Samuel; Stolee, Paul; Swiggum, Elizabeth; Zeiroth, Shelley

    2010-01-01

    Since 2006, the Canadian Cardiovascular Society heart failure (HF) guidelines have published annual focused updates for cardiovascular care providers. The 2010 Canadian Cardiovascular Society HF guidelines update focuses on an increasing issue in the western world – HF in ethnic minorities – and in an uncommon but important setting – the pregnant patient. Additionally, due to increasing attention recently given to the assessment of how care is delivered and measured, two critically important topics – disease management programs in HF and quality assurance – have been included. Both of these topics were written from a clinical perspective. It is hoped that the present update will become a useful tool for health care providers and planners in the ongoing evolution of care for HF patients in Canada. PMID:20386768

  8. Racial and ethnic disparities in U.S. cancer screening rates

    Cancer.gov

    The percentage of U.S. citizens screened for cancer remains below national targets, with significant disparities among racial and ethnic populations, according to the first federal study to identify cancer screening disparities among Asian and Hispanic gr

  9. Anthropology: Focus Upon Ethnic Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of General Education Curriculum Development.

    This course syllabus is designed to serve as the basis for a one-semester, 12th grade anthropology course or a one-year, 12th grade ethnic studies course. As such it can be used as the culminating course in a kindergarten-grade 12 sequence. The ethnic studies component is based on data collected by an Italo-American Curriculum Studies Project and…

  10. Incorporating Primary and Secondary Prevention Approaches To Address Childhood Obesity Prevention and Treatment in a Low-Income, Ethnically Diverse Population: Study Design and Demographic Data from the Texas Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (TX CORD) Study<