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Sample records for combustible microbiana tipo

  1. Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulzan, Dan

    2007-01-01

    An overview of the emissions related research being conducted as part of the Fundamental Aeronautics Subsonics Fixed Wing Project is presented. The overview includes project metrics, milestones, and descriptions of major research areas. The overview also includes information on some of the emissions research being conducted under NASA Research Announcements. Objective: Development of comprehensive detailed and reduced kinetic mechanisms of jet fuels for chemically-reacting flow modeling. Scientific Challenges: 1) Developing experimental facilities capable of handling higher hydrocarbons and providing benchmark combustion data. 2) Determining and understanding ignition and combustion characteristics, such as laminar flame speeds, extinction stretch rates, and autoignition delays, of jet fuels and hydrocarbons relevant to jet surrogates. 3) Developing comprehensive kinetic models for jet fuels.

  2. Combustion noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strahle, W. C.

    1977-01-01

    A review of the subject of combustion generated noise is presented. Combustion noise is an important noise source in industrial furnaces and process heaters, turbopropulsion and gas turbine systems, flaring operations, Diesel engines, and rocket engines. The state-of-the-art in combustion noise importance, understanding, prediction and scaling is presented for these systems. The fundamentals and available theories of combustion noise are given. Controversies in the field are discussed and recommendations for future research are made.

  3. Computational Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Westbrook, C K; Mizobuchi, Y; Poinsot, T J; Smith, P J; Warnatz, J

    2004-08-26

    Progress in the field of computational combustion over the past 50 years is reviewed. Particular attention is given to those classes of models that are common to most system modeling efforts, including fluid dynamics, chemical kinetics, liquid sprays, and turbulent flame models. The developments in combustion modeling are placed into the time-dependent context of the accompanying exponential growth in computer capabilities and Moore's Law. Superimposed on this steady growth, the occasional sudden advances in modeling capabilities are identified and their impacts are discussed. Integration of submodels into system models for spark ignition, diesel and homogeneous charge, compression ignition engines, surface and catalytic combustion, pulse combustion, and detonations are described. Finally, the current state of combustion modeling is illustrated by descriptions of a very large jet lifted 3D turbulent hydrogen flame with direct numerical simulation and 3D large eddy simulations of practical gas burner combustion devices.

  4. Simulating Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merker, G.; Schwarz, C.; Stiesch, G.; Otto, F.

    The content spans from simple thermodynamics of the combustion engine to complex models for the description of the air/fuel mixture, ignition, combustion and pollutant formation considering the engine periphery of petrol and diesel engines. Thus the emphasis of the book is on the simulation models and how they are applicable for the development of modern combustion engines. Computers can be used as the engineers testbench following the rules and recommendations described here.

  5. Biofuels Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westbrook, Charles K.

    2013-04-01

    This review describes major features of current research in renewable fuels derived from plants and from fatty acids. Recent and ongoing fundamental studies of biofuel molecular structure, oxidation reactions, and biofuel chemical properties are reviewed, in addition to combustion applications of biofuels in the major types of engines in which biofuels are used. Biofuels and their combustion are compared with combustion features of conventional petroleum-based fuels. Two main classes of biofuels are described, those consisting of small, primarily alcohol, fuels (particularly ethanol, n-butanol, and iso-pentanol) that are used primarily to replace or supplement gasoline and those derived from fatty acids and used primarily to replace or supplement conventional diesel fuels. Research efforts on so-called second- and third-generation biofuels are discussed briefly.

  6. Biofuels combustion.

    PubMed

    Westbrook, Charles K

    2013-01-01

    This review describes major features of current research in renewable fuels derived from plants and from fatty acids. Recent and ongoing fundamental studies of biofuel molecular structure, oxidation reactions, and biofuel chemical properties are reviewed, in addition to combustion applications of biofuels in the major types of engines in which biofuels are used. Biofuels and their combustion are compared with combustion features of conventional petroleum-based fuels. Two main classes of biofuels are described, those consisting of small, primarily alcohol, fuels (particularly ethanol, n-butanol, and iso-pentanol) that are used primarily to replace or supplement gasoline and those derived from fatty acids and used primarily to replace or supplement conventional diesel fuels. Research efforts on so-called second- and third-generation biofuels are discussed briefly.

  7. Biofuels combustion*

    SciTech Connect

    Westbrook, Charles K.

    2013-01-04

    This review describes major features of current research in renewable fuels derived from plants and from fatty acids. Recent and ongoing fundamental studies of biofuel molecular structure, oxidation reactions, and biofuel chemical properties are reviewed, in addition to combustion applications of biofuels in the major types of engines in which biofuels are used. Biofuels and their combustion are compared with combustion features of conventional petroleum-based fuels. Two main classes of biofuels are described, those consisting of small, primarily alcohol, fuels (particularly ethanol, n-butanol, and iso-pentanol) that are used primarily to replace or supplement gasoline and those derived from fatty acids and used primarily to replace or supplement conventional diesel fuels. As a result, research efforts on so-called second- and third-generation biofuels are discussed briefly.

  8. Bubble Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corrigan, Jackie

    2004-01-01

    A method of energy production that is capable of low pollutant emissions is fundamental to one of the four pillars of NASA s Aeronautics Blueprint: Revolutionary Vehicles. Bubble combustion, a new engine technology currently being developed at Glenn Research Center promises to provide low emissions combustion in support of NASA s vision under the Emissions Element because it generates power, while minimizing the production of carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxides (NOx), both known to be Greenhouse gases. and allows the use of alternative fuels such as corn oil, low-grade fuels, and even used motor oil. Bubble combustion is analogous to the inverse of spray combustion: the difference between bubble and spray combustion is that spray combustion is spraying a liquid in to a gas to form droplets, whereas bubble combustion involves injecting a gas into a liquid to form gaseous bubbles. In bubble combustion, the process for the ignition of the bubbles takes place on a time scale of less than a nanosecond and begins with acoustic waves perturbing each bubble. This perturbation causes the local pressure to drop below the vapor pressure of the liquid thus producing cavitation in which the bubble diameter grows, and upon reversal of the oscillating pressure field, the bubble then collapses rapidly with the aid of the high surface tension forces acting on the wall of the bubble. The rapid and violent collapse causes the temperatures inside the bubbles to soar as a result of adiabatic heating. As the temperatures rise, the gaseous contents of the bubble ignite with the bubble itself serving as its own combustion chamber. After ignition, this is the time in the bubble s life cycle where power is generated, and CO2, and NOx among other species, are produced. However, the pollutants CO2 and NOx are absorbed into the surrounding liquid. The importance of bubble combustion is that it generates power using a simple and compact device. We conducted a parametric study using CAVCHEM

  9. Biofuels combustion*

    DOE PAGES

    Westbrook, Charles K.

    2013-01-04

    This review describes major features of current research in renewable fuels derived from plants and from fatty acids. Recent and ongoing fundamental studies of biofuel molecular structure, oxidation reactions, and biofuel chemical properties are reviewed, in addition to combustion applications of biofuels in the major types of engines in which biofuels are used. Biofuels and their combustion are compared with combustion features of conventional petroleum-based fuels. Two main classes of biofuels are described, those consisting of small, primarily alcohol, fuels (particularly ethanol, n-butanol, and iso-pentanol) that are used primarily to replace or supplement gasoline and those derived from fatty acidsmore » and used primarily to replace or supplement conventional diesel fuels. As a result, research efforts on so-called second- and third-generation biofuels are discussed briefly.« less

  10. Turbulent combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Talbot, L.; Cheng, R.K.

    1993-12-01

    Turbulent combustion is the dominant process in heat and power generating systems. Its most significant aspect is to enhance the burning rate and volumetric power density. Turbulent mixing, however, also influences the chemical rates and has a direct effect on the formation of pollutants, flame ignition and extinction. Therefore, research and development of modern combustion systems for power generation, waste incineration and material synthesis must rely on a fundamental understanding of the physical effect of turbulence on combustion to develop theoretical models that can be used as design tools. The overall objective of this program is to investigate, primarily experimentally, the interaction and coupling between turbulence and combustion. These processes are complex and are characterized by scalar and velocity fluctuations with time and length scales spanning several orders of magnitude. They are also influenced by the so-called {open_quotes}field{close_quotes} effects associated with the characteristics of the flow and burner geometries. The authors` approach is to gain a fundamental understanding by investigating idealized laboratory flames. Laboratory flames are amenable to detailed interrogation by laser diagnostics and their flow geometries are chosen to simplify numerical modeling and simulations and to facilitate comparison between experiments and theory.

  11. Regenerative combustion device

    DOEpatents

    West, Phillip B.

    2004-03-16

    A regenerative combustion device having a combustion zone, and chemicals contained within the combustion zone, such as water, having a first equilibrium state, and a second combustible state. Means for transforming the chemicals from the first equilibrium state to the second combustible state, such as electrodes, are disposed within the chemicals. An igniter, such as a spark plug or similar device, is disposed within the combustion zone for igniting combustion of the chemicals in the second combustible state. The combustion products are contained within the combustion zone, and the chemicals are selected such that the combustion products naturally chemically revert into the chemicals in the first equilibrium state following combustion. The combustion device may thus be repeatedly reused, requiring only a brief wait after each ignition to allow the regeneration of combustible gasses within the head space.

  12. Advanced Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, Gordon R.

    2013-03-11

    The activity reported in this presentation is to provide the mechanical and physical property information needed to allow rational design, development and/or choice of alloys, manufacturing approaches, and environmental exposure and component life models to enable oxy-fuel combustion boilers to operate at Ultra-Supercritical (up to 650{degrees}C & between 22-30 MPa) and/or Advanced Ultra-Supercritical conditions (760{degrees}C & 35 MPa).

  13. Combustion chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, N.J.

    1993-12-01

    This research is concerned with the development and use of sensitivity analysis tools to probe the response of dependent variables to model input variables. Sensitivity analysis is important at all levels of combustion modeling. This group`s research continues to be focused on elucidating the interrelationship between features in the underlying potential energy surface (obtained from ab initio quantum chemistry calculations) and their responses in the quantum dynamics, e.g., reactive transition probabilities, cross sections, and thermal rate coefficients. The goals of this research are: (i) to provide feedback information to quantum chemists in their potential surface refinement efforts, and (ii) to gain a better understanding of how various regions in the potential influence the dynamics. These investigations are carried out with the methodology of quantum functional sensitivity analysis (QFSA).

  14. Combustion Fundamentals Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Increased emphasis is placed on fundamental and generic research at Lewis Research Center with less systems development efforts. This is especially true in combustion research, where the study of combustion fundamentals has grown significantly in order to better address the perceived long term technical needs of the aerospace industry. The main thrusts for this combustion fundamentals program area are as follows: analytical models of combustion processes, model verification experiments, fundamental combustion experiments, and advanced numeric techniques.

  15. Coal combustion science

    SciTech Connect

    Hardesty, D.R.; Baxter, L.L.; Fletcher, T.H.; Mitchell, R.E.

    1990-11-01

    The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency (IEA) Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks include: coal devolatilization, coal char combustion, and fate of mineral matter during coal combustion. 91 refs., 40 figs., 9 tabs.

  16. Combustible particluate fuel heater

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, B.H.; Jurgens, H.J.W.

    1986-01-21

    This patent describes a combustible particulate fired heater. It consists of: a combustion chamber defined by upright side walls extending between open top and bottom ends; an enclosure surrounding the combustion chamber; a retort within the combustion chamber adjacent the bottom end and having a lower particulate receiving end and an upper open end; feed conveyor means leading through the enclosure to the retort for delivering metered quantities of combustible particulates to the lower particulate receiving end of the retort; primary combustion air supply means having a primary combustion air supply manifold extending at least partially about the upper open end of the retort; primary air control means on the primary air supply means for selectively allowing entry of combustion air from outside the enclosure in to the retort; secondary combustion air supply means including a secondary air supply manifold within the combustion chamber above the primary combustion air supply manifold; secondary air control means independent of the primary air control means for selectively allowing entry of secondary air from outside the enclosure to an area within the combustion chamber above the retort; an exhaust duct opening into the enclosure; and vacuum means connected to the exhaust duct for producing a pressure differential between the area confined by the enclosure and the ambient atmosphere such that ambient air is drawn through at least one of the combustion air supply means to induce a high level of gasification and to support combustion at the retort and for drawing combustion exhaust gases out through the exhaust duct.

  17. Combustion technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Barsin, J.A.

    1994-12-31

    The presentation will cover the highlights of sludge, providing information as to where it comes from, projection of how much more is expected, what is sludge, what can be done with them, and finally focus in one combustion technology that can be utilized and applied to recycle sludge. The author is with Gotaverken Energy Systems Inc. where for the past 100 years they have been involved in the recovery of chemicals in chemical pulp mills. One week ago, our name was changed to Kvaerner Pulping Inc. to better reflect our present make-up which is a combination of Kamyr AB (suppliers of proprietary highly engineered totally chlorine free chemical pulp manufacturing systems, including digesters, O{sub 2} delignification systems, and bleach plant systems) and Goetaverken. Sludges that we are concerned with derive from several sources within chemical pulp mills such as: such as primary clarifier sludges, secondary clarifier sludges, and most recently those sludges derived from post consumer paper and board recycle efforts including de-inking and those from the thermal mechanical pulping processes. These sludges have been classified as non-hazardous therefore, residue can be landfilled, but the volumes involved are growing at an alarming rate.

  18. Combustion 2000

    SciTech Connect

    2000-06-30

    This report presents work carried out under contract DE-AC22-95PC95144 ''Combustion 2000 - Phase II.'' The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: {lg_bullet} thermal efficiency (HHV) {ge} 47% {lg_bullet} NOx, SOx, and particulates {le} 10% NSPS (New Source Performance Standard) {lg_bullet} coal providing {ge} 65% of heat input {lg_bullet} all solid wastes benign {lg_bullet} cost of electricity {le} 90% of present plants Phase I, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase I also included preliminary R&D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. Phase II, had as its initial objective the development of a complete design base for the construction and operation of a HIPPS prototype plant to be constructed in Phase III. As part of a descoping initiative, the Phase III program has been eliminated and work related to the commercial plant design has been ended. The rescoped program retained a program of engineering research and development focusing on high temperature heat exchangers, e.g. HITAF development (Task 2); a rescoped Task 6 that is pertinent to Vision 21 objectives and focuses on advanced cycle analysis and optimization, integration of gas turbines into complex cycles, and repowering designs; and preparation of the Phase II Technical Report (Task 8). This rescoped program deleted all subsystem testing (Tasks 3, 4, and 5) and the development of a site specific engineering design and test plan for the HIPPS prototype plant (Task 7). Work reported herein is from: {lg_bullet} Task 2.2.4 Pilot Scale Testing {lg_bullet} Task 2.2.5.2 Laboratory and Bench Scale Activities

  19. Combustion 2000

    SciTech Connect

    A. Levasseur; S. Goodstine; J. Ruby; M. Nawaz; C. Senior; F. Robson; S. Lehman; W. Blecher; W. Fugard; A. Rao; A. Sarofim; P. Smith; D. Pershing; E. Eddings; M. Cremer; J. Hurley; G. Weber; M. Jones; M. Collings; D. Hajicek; A. Henderson; P. Klevan; D. Seery; B. Knight; R. Lessard; J. Sangiovanni; A. Dennis; C. Bird; W. Sutton; N. Bornstein; F. Cogswell; C. Randino; S. Gale; Mike Heap

    2001-06-30

    . To achieve these objectives requires a change from complete reliance of coal-fired systems on steam turbines (Rankine cycles) and moving forward to a combined cycle utilizing gas turbines (Brayton cycles) which offer the possibility of significantly greater efficiency. This is because gas turbine cycles operate at temperatures well beyond current steam cycles, allowing the working fluid (air) temperature to more closely approach that of the major energy source, the combustion of coal. In fact, a good figure of merit for a HIPPS design is just how much of the enthalpy from coal combustion is used by the gas turbine. The efficiency of a power cycle varies directly with the temperature of the working fluid and for contemporary gas turbines the optimal turbine inlet temperature is in the range of 2300-2500 F (1260-1371 C). These temperatures are beyond the working range of currently available alloys and are also in the range of the ash fusion temperature of most coals. These two sets of physical properties combine to produce the major engineering challenges for a HIPPS design. The UTRC team developed a design hierarchy to impose more rigor in our approach. Once the size of the plant had been determined by the choice of gas turbine and the matching steam turbine, the design process of the High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF) moved ineluctably to a down-fired, slagging configuration. This design was based on two air heaters: one a high temperature slagging Radiative Air Heater (RAH) and a lower temperature, dry ash Convective Air Heater (CAH). The specific details of the air heaters are arrived at by an iterative sequence in the following order:-Starting from the overall Cycle requirements which set the limits for the combustion and heat transfer analysis-The available enthalpy determined the range of materials, ceramics or alloys, which could tolerate the temperatures-Structural Analysis of the designs proved to be the major limitation-Finally the commercialization

  20. Combustion 2000

    SciTech Connect

    1999-12-31

    This report presents work carried out under contract DE-AC22-95PC95144 ''Combustion 2000 - Phase II.'' The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: {lg_bullet} thermal efficiency (HHV) {ge} 47% {lg_bullet} NOx, SOx, and particulates {le} 10% NSPS (New Source Performance Standard) {lg_bullet} coal providing {ge} 65% of heat input {lg_bullet} all solid wastes benign {lg_bullet} cost of electricity {le} 90% of present plants Phase I, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase I also included preliminary R&D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. Phase II, had as its initial objective the development of a complete design base for the construction and operation of a HIPPS prototype plant to be constructed in Phase III. As part of a descoping initiative, the Phase III program has been eliminated and work related to the commercial plant design has been ended. The rescoped program retained a program of engineering research and development focusing on high temperature heat exchangers, e.g. HITAF development (Task 2); a rescoped Task 6 that is pertinent to Vision 21 objectives and focuses on advanced cycle analysis and optimization, integration of gas turbines into complex cycles, and repowering designs; and preparation of the Phase II Technical Report (Task 8). This rescoped program deleted all subsystem testing (Tasks 3, 4, and 5) and the development of a site-specific engineering design and test plan for the HIPPS prototype plant (Task 7). Work reported herein is from: {lg_bullet} Task 2.2.4 Pilot Scale Testing {lg_bullet} Task 2.2.5.2 Laboratory and Bench Scale Activities

  1. Fundamentals of Gas Turbine combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerstein, M.

    1979-01-01

    Combustion problems and research recommendations are discussed in the areas of atomization and vaporization, combustion chemistry, combustion dynamics, and combustion modelling. The recommendations considered of highest priority in these areas are presented.

  2. Flameless Combustion Workshop

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-20

    future roadmap. "Flameless Combustion " is characterized by high stability levels with virtually no thermoacoustic instabilities, very low lean... future roadmap. "Flameless Combustion " is characterized by high stability levels with virtually no thermoacoustic instabilities, very low lean stability...C. Bruno, Italy 1430-1500 Technology to Ramjet Combustion Application of FLameless H. Mongia , GE Transportation, 1500-1530 Combustion (FLC) for

  3. Mechanisms of droplet combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Law, C. K.

    1982-01-01

    The fundamental physico-chemical mechanisms governing droplet vaporization and combustion are discussed. Specific topics include governing equations and simplifications, the classical d(2)-Law solution and its subsequent modification, finite-rate kinetics and the flame structure, droplet dynamics, near- and super-critical combustion, combustion of multicomponent fuel blends/emulsions/suspensions, and droplet interaction. Potential research topics are suggested.

  4. Opportunities in pulse combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Brenchley, D.L.; Bomelburg, H.J.

    1985-10-01

    In most pulse combustors, the combustion occurs near the closed end of a tube where inlet valves operate in phase with the pressure amplitude variations. Thus, within the combustion zone, both the temperature and the pressure oscillate around a mean value. However, the development of practical applications of pulse combustion has been hampered because effective design requires the right combination of the combustor's dimensions, valve characteristics, fuel/oxidizer combination, and flow pattern. Pulse combustion has several additional advantages for energy conversion efficiency, including high combustion and thermal efficiency, high combustion intensity, and high convective heat transfer rates. Also, pulse combustion can be self-aspirating, generating a pressure boost without using a blower. This allows the use of a compact heat exchanger that may include a condensing section and may obviate the need for a chimney. In the last decade, these features have revived interest in pulse combustion research and development, which has resulted in the development of a pulse combustion air heater by Lennox, and a pulse combustion hydronic unit by Hydrotherm, Inc. To appraise this potential for energy savings, a systematic study was conducted of the many past and present attempts to use pulse combustion for practical purposes. The authors recommended areas where pulse combustion technology could possibly be applied in the future and identified areas in which additional R and D would be necessary. Many of the results of the study project derived from a special workshop on pulse combustion. This document highlights the main points of the study report, with particular emphasis on pulse combustion application in chemical engineering.

  5. Combustion modeling in internal combustion engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeleznik, F. J.

    1976-01-01

    The fundamental assumptions of the Blizard and Keck combustion model for internal combustion engines are examined and a generalization of that model is derived. The most significant feature of the model is that it permits the occurrence of unburned hydrocarbons in the thermodynamic-kinetic modeling of exhaust gases. The general formulas are evaluated in two specific cases that are likely to be significant in the applications of the model.

  6. Boiler using combustible fluid

    DOEpatents

    Baumgartner, H.; Meier, J.G.

    1974-07-03

    A fluid fuel boiler is described comprising a combustion chamber, a cover on the combustion chamber having an opening for introducing a combustion-supporting gaseous fluid through said openings, means to impart rotation to the gaseous fluid about an axis of the combustion chamber, a burner for introducing a fluid fuel into the chamber mixed with the gaseous fluid for combustion thereof, the cover having a generally frustro-conical configuration diverging from the opening toward the interior of the chamber at an angle of between 15/sup 0/ and 55/sup 0/; means defining said combustion chamber having means defining a plurality of axial hot gas flow paths from a downstream portion of the combustion chamber to flow hot gases into an upstream portion of the combustion chamber, and means for diverting some of the hot gas flow along paths in a direction circumferentially of the combustion chamber, with the latter paths being immersed in the water flow path thereby to improve heat transfer and terminating in a gas outlet, the combustion chamber comprising at least one modular element, joined axially to the frustro-conical cover and coaxial therewith. The modular element comprises an inner ring and means of defining the circumferential, radial, and spiral flow paths of the hot gases.

  7. Lump wood combustion process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubesa, Petr; Horák, Jiří; Branc, Michal; Krpec, Kamil; Hopan, František; Koloničný, Jan; Ochodek, Tadeáš; Drastichová, Vendula; Martiník, Lubomír; Malcho, Milan

    2014-08-01

    The article deals with the combustion process for lump wood in low-power fireplaces (units to dozens of kW). Such a combustion process is cyclical in its nature, and what combustion facility users are most interested in is the frequency, at which fuel needs to be stoked to the fireplace. The paper defines the basic terms such as burnout curve and burning rate curve, which are closely related to the stocking frequency. The fuel burning rate is directly dependent on the immediate thermal power of the fireplace. This is also related to the temperature achieved in the fireplace, magnitude of flue gas losses and the ability to generate conditions favouring the full burnout of the fuel's combustible component, which, at once ensures the minimum production of combustible pollutants. Another part of the paper describes experiments conducted in traditional fireplaces with a grate, at which well-dried lump wood was combusted.

  8. Fuels Combustion Research.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-18

    uncertainties in the future sources and characteristics of fuels has emphasized the need to better understand fuel effects on combustion , e.g. energy release...experimentally to be made. Unsuccessful comparisons can lead to impro- vements in modelling concepts . Two simplified models for the combustion of slurry...AD-A149 186 FUELS COMBUSTION RESEACCH(U) PRINCETON UNIV NJ DEPT OF i/i MECHANICAL AND AEROSPACE ENGINEERING F L DRYER ET AL. 18 JUL 84 NAE-i668 AFOSR

  9. Coal combustion products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalyoncu, R.S.; Olson, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    Coal-burning powerplants, which supply more than half of U.S. electricity, also generate coal combustion products, which can be both a resource and a disposal problem. The U.S. Geological Survey collaborates with the American Coal Ash Association in preparing its annual report on coal combustion products. This Fact Sheet answers questions about present and potential uses of coal combustion products.

  10. Supersonic combustion engine and method of combustion initiation and distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Stickler, D.B.; Ballantyne, A.; Kyuman Jeong.

    1993-06-29

    A supersonic combustion ramjet engine having a combustor with a combustion zone intended to channel gas flow at relatively high speed therethrough, the engine comprising: means for substantially continuously supplying fuel into the combustion zone; and means for substantially instantaneously igniting a volume of fuel in the combustion zone for providing a spatially controlled combustion distribution, the igniting means having means for providing a diffuse discharge of energy into the volume, the volume extending across a substantially complete cross-sectional area of the combustion zone, the means for discharging energy being capable of generating free radicals within the volume of reactive fuel in the combustion zone such that fuel in the volume can initiate a controlled relatively rapid combustion of fuel in the combustion zone whereby combustion distribution in relatively high speed gas flows through the combustion zone can be initiated and controlled without dependence upon a flame holder or relatively high local static temperature in the combustion zone.

  11. Tripropellant combustion process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kmiec, T. D.; Carroll, R. G.

    1988-01-01

    The addition of small amounts of hydrogen to the combustion of LOX/hydrocarbon propellants in large rocket booster engines has the potential to enhance the system stability. Programs being conducted to evaluate the effects of hydrogen on the combustion of LOX/hydrocarbon propellants at supercritical pressures are described. Combustion instability has been a problem during the development of large hydrocarbon fueled rocket engines. At the higher combustion chamber pressures expected for the next generation of booster engines, the effect of unstable combustion could be even more destructive. The tripropellant engine cycle takes advantage of the superior cooling characteristics of hydrogen to cool the combustion chamber and a small amount of the hydrogen coolant can be used in the combustion process to enhance the system stability. Three aspects of work that will be accomplished to evaluate tripropellant combustion are described. The first is laboratory demonstration of the benefits through the evaluation of drop size, ignition delay and burning rate. The second is analytical modeling of the combustion process using the empirical relationship determined in the laboratory. The third is a subscale demonstration in which the system stability will be evaluated. The approach for each aspect is described and the analytical models that will be used are presented.

  12. Droplet Combustion Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nayagam, Vedha

    1998-01-01

    Liquid fuel combustion provides a major portion of the world's energy supply. In most practical combustion devices, liquid burns after being separated into a droplet spray. Essential to the design of efficient combustion systems is a knowledge of droplet combustion behavior. The microgravity environment aboard spacecraft provides an opportunity to investigate the complex interactions between the physical and chemical combustion processes involved in droplet combustion without the complications of natural buoyancy. Launched on STS-83 and STS-94 (April 4 and July 1, 1997), the Droplet Combustion Experiment (DCE) investigated the fundamentals of droplet combustion under a range of pressures (0.25 to 1 atm), oxygen mole fractions (<0.5), and droplet sizes (1.5 to 5 mm). Principal DCE flight hardware features were a chamber to supply selected test environments, the use of crew-inserted bottles, and a vent system to remove unwanted gaseous combustion products. The internal apparatus contained the droplet deployment and ignition mechanisms to burn single, freely deployed droplets in microgravity. Diagnostics systems included a 35-mm high-speed motion picture camera (see the following sequence of photos) with a backlight to photograph burning droplets and a camcorder to monitor experiment operations. Additional diagnostics included an ultraviolet-light-sensitive CCD (charge couple discharge) camera to obtain flame radiation from hydroxyl radicals (see the final figure) and a 35-mm SLR (single-lens-reflex) camera to obtain color still photographs of the flames.

  13. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    Ashlines: To promote and support the commercially viable and environmentally sound recycling of coal combustion byproducts for productive uses through scientific research, development, and field testing.

  14. Fifteenth combustion research conference

    SciTech Connect

    1993-06-01

    The BES research efforts cover chemical reaction theory, experimental dynamics and spectroscopy, thermodynamics of combustion intermediates, chemical kinetics, reaction mechanisms, combustion diagnostics, and fluid dynamics and chemically reacting flows. 98 papers and abstracts are included. Separate abstracts were prepared for the papers.

  15. Coal Combustion Science

    SciTech Connect

    Hardesty, D.R.; Fletcher, T.H.; Hurt, R.H.; Baxter, L.L. )

    1991-08-01

    The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks for this activity include: (1) coal devolatilization - the objective of this risk is to characterize the physical and chemical processes that constitute the early devolatilization phase of coal combustion as a function of coal type, heating rate, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxidizer concentration; (2) coal char combustion -the objective of this task is to characterize the physical and chemical processes involved during coal char combustion as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxygen concentration; (3) fate of mineral matter during coal combustion - the objective of this task is to establish a quantitative understanding of the mechanisms and rates of transformation, fragmentation, and deposition of mineral matter in coal combustion environments as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, the initial forms and distribution of mineral species in the unreacted coal, and the local gas temperature and composition.

  16. Plasma Assisted Combustion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-28

    2005) AIAA–2005–0405. [99] E.M. Van Veldhuizen (ed) Electrical Discharges for Environmental Purposes: Fun- damentals and Applications (New York: Nova...in russian), 18, 4, 1982, 48-51. [238] Combustion Chemestry , ed. W. Gardiner-Jr, Moscow, Mir, 1988. [239] G.P.Tewari, J.R.Wilson, Combust. Flame, 24

  17. Japan's microgravity combustion science program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sato, Junichi

    1993-01-01

    Most of energy used by us is generated by combustion of fuels. On the other hand, combustion is responsible for contamination of our living earth. Combustion, also, gives us damage to our life as fire or explosive accidents. Therefore, clean and safe combustion is now eagerly required. Knowledge of the combustion process in combustors is needed to achieve proper designs that have stable operation, high efficiency, and low emission levels. However, current understanding on combustion is far from complete. Especially, there is few useful information on practical liquid and solid particle cloud combustion. Studies on combustion process under microgravity condition will provide many informations for basic questions related to combustors.

  18. Alternate Fuels Combustion Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    AFWAL-TR-84-2042 ESL-TR-84-29 ALTERNATE FUELS COMBUSTION RESEARCH 0) PRATT & WHITNEY CANADA MISSISSAUGA, ONTARIO CANADA In JULY 1984 Final Report for...in small engincs. -291 REFERENCES 1. Gratton, M., Sampath, P., " Alternate Fuels Combustion Research Phase If", Pratt & Whitney Canada , AFWAL-TR-83-2057...for Period May 80 Sep e ALTERNATE FUELS COMBUSTION RESEARCHMa80-Sp3 4. PERFORMING ORIJ. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTNOR(s) 4. 60ONTRA-CT-WI GANUMNER(s) *M

  19. Dry low combustion system with means for eliminating combustion noise

    DOEpatents

    Verdouw, Albert J.; Smith, Duane; McCormick, Keith; Razdan, Mohan K.

    2004-02-17

    A combustion system including a plurality of axially staged tubular premixers to control emissions and minimize combustion noise. The combustion system includes a radial inflow premixer that delivers the combustion mixture across a contoured dome into the combustion chamber. The axially staged premixers having a twist mixing apparatus to rotate the fluid flow and cause improved mixing without causing flow recirculation that could lead to pre-ignition or flashback.

  20. Sandia Combustion Research: Technical review

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    This report contains reports from research programs conducted at the Sandia Combustion Research Facility. Research is presented under the following topics: laser based diagnostics; combustion chemistry; reacting flow; combustion in engines and commercial burners; coal combustion; and industrial processing. Individual projects were processed separately for entry onto the DOE databases.

  1. Combustion Technology Outreach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Lewis' High Speed Research (HSR) Propulsion Project Office initiated a targeted outreach effort to market combustion-related technologies developed at Lewis for the next generation of supersonic civil transport vehicles. These combustion-related innovations range from emissions measurement and reduction technologies, to diagnostics, spray technologies, NOx and SOx reduction of burners, noise reduction, sensors, and fuel-injection technologies. The Ohio Aerospace Institute and the Great Lakes Industrial Technology Center joined forces to assist Lewis' HSR Office in this outreach activity. From a database of thousands of nonaerospace firms considered likely to be interested in Lewis' combustion and emission-related technologies, the outreach team selected 41 companies to contact. The selected companies represent oil-gas refineries, vehicle/parts suppliers, and manufacturers of residential furnaces, power turbines, nonautomobile engines, and diesel internal combustion engines.

  2. Fluidized coal combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moynihan, P. I.; Young, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    Fluidized-bed coal combustion process, in which pulverized coal and limestone are burned in presence of forced air, may lead to efficient, reliable boilers with low sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide emissions.

  3. Studies in premixed combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Sivashinsky, G.I.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics on premixed combustion: theory of turbulent flame propagation; pattern formation in premixed flames and related problems; and pattern formation in extended systems. (LSP)

  4. TENORM: Coal Combustion Residuals

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Burning coal in boilers to create steam for power generation and industrial applications produces a number of combustion residuals. Naturally radioactive materials that were in the coal mostly end up in fly ash, bottom ash and boiler slag.

  5. Dynamic effects of combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oppenheim, A. K.

    1982-01-01

    The dynamic effects of combustion are due to the evolution of exothermic energy and its deposition in the compressible medium where the process takes place. The paper examines the dynamics of combustion phenomena, including ignition, turbulent flame propagation (inflammation), explosion, and detonation, with emphasis on their exothermic characteristics. Ignition and explosion are treated as problems of nonlinear mechanics, and their dynamic behavior is described in terms of phase space models and cinematographic laser shear interferograms. The results of a numerical random vortex model of turbulent flame propagation are confirmed in a combustion tunnel experiment, where it was observed that a fresh mixture of burnt and unburnt gases can sustain combustion with a relatively small expenditure of overall mass flow, due to the increasing specific volume of burnt gases inside the flame front. An isentropic pressure wave is found to precede the accelerating flame in the process of detonation, and components of this presssure wave are shown to propagate at local sonic velocities.

  6. Generalities on combustion instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuentzmann, Paul

    The main manifestations of combustion instabilities are reviewed, and the specific characteristics of instabilities in solid-propellant rocket engines are analyzed, with the Minuteman III third-stage engine and the SRB engine of Titan 34 D considered as examples. The main approaches for predicting combustion instabilities are discussed, including the linear approach based on the acoustic balance, the nonlinear mode-coupling approach, and the nonlinear approach using numerical calculation. Projected directions for future research are also examined.

  7. Scramjet Combustion Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    plan for these flights is as follows: Scramjet Combustion Processes RTO-EN-AVT-185 11 - 21 HyShot 5 – A Free-Flying Hypersonic Glider HyShot...5 will be a hypersonic glider designed to fly at Mach 8. It will separate from its rocket booster in space and perform controlled manoeuvres as it...RTO-EN-AVT-185 11 - 1 Scramjet Combustion Processes Michael Smart and Ray Stalker Centre for Hypersonics The University of Queensland

  8. Sandia Combustion Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, S.C.; Palmer, R.E.; Montana, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    During the late 1970s, in response to a national energy crisis, Sandia proposed to the US Department of Energy (DOE) a new, ambitious program in combustion research. Shortly thereafter, the Combustion Research Facility (CRF) was established at Sandia's Livermore location. Designated a ''user facility,'' the charter of the CRF was to develop and maintain special-purpose resources to support a nationwide initiative-involving US inventories, industry, and national laboratories--to improve our understanding and control of combustion. This report includes descriptions several research projects which have been simulated by working groups and involve the on-site participation of industry scientists. DOE's Industry Technology Fellowship program, supported through the Office of Energy Research, has been instrumental in the success of some of these joint efforts. The remainder of this report presents results of calendar year 1988, separated thematically into eleven categories. Referred journal articles appearing in print during 1988 and selected other publications are included at the end of Section 11. Our traditional'' research activities--combustion chemistry, reacting flows, diagnostics, engine and coal combustion--have been supplemented by a new effort aimed at understanding combustion-related issues in the management of toxic and hazardous materials.

  9. Coal combustion system

    DOEpatents

    Wilkes, Colin; Mongia, Hukam C.; Tramm, Peter C.

    1988-01-01

    In a coal combustion system suitable for a gas turbine engine, pulverized coal is transported to a rich zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio exceeding 1 at a temperature above the slagging temperature of the coal so that combustible hot gas and molten slag issue from the rich zone combustor. A coolant screen of water stretches across a throat of a quench stage and cools the combustible gas and molten slag to below the slagging temperature of the coal so that the slag freezes and shatters into small pellets. The pelletized slag is separated from the combustible gas in a first inertia separator. Residual ash is separated from the combustible gas in a second inertia separator. The combustible gas is mixed with secondary air in a lean zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio of less than 1 to produce hot gas motive at temperature above the coal slagging temperature. The motive fluid is cooled in a dilution stage to an acceptable turbine inlet temperature before being transported to the turbine.

  10. Advanced Subsonic Combustion Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Chi-Ming

    1998-01-01

    Researchers from the NASA Lewis Research Center have obtained the first combustion/emissions data under extreme future engine operating conditions. In Lewis' new world-class 60-atm combustor research facility--the Advanced Subsonic Combustion Rig (ASCR)--a flametube was used to conduct combustion experiments in environments as extreme as 900 psia and 3400 F. The greatest challenge for combustion researchers is the uncertainty of the effects of pressure on the formation of nitrogen oxides (NOx). Consequently, U.S. engine manufacturers are using these data to guide their future combustor designs. The flametube's metal housing has an inside diameter of 12 in. and a length of 10.5 in. The flametube can be used with a variety of different flow paths. Each flow path is lined with a high-temperature, castable refractory material (alumina) to minimize heat loss. Upstream of the flametube is the injector section, which has an inside diameter of 13 in. and a length of 0.5-in. It was designed to provide for quick changeovers. This flametube is being used to provide all U.S. engine manufacturers early assessments of advanced combustion concepts at full power conditions prior to engine production. To date, seven concepts from engine manufacturers have been evaluated and improved. This collaborated development can potentially give U.S. engine manufacturers the competitive advantage of being first in the market with advanced low-emission technologies.

  11. Environmentally conscious coal combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Hickmott, D.D.; Brown, L.F.; Currier, R.P.

    1997-08-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project was to evaluate the environmental impacts of home-scale coal combustion on the Navajo Reservation and develop strategies to reduce adverse health effects associated with home-scale coal combustion. Principal accomplishments of this project were: (1) determination of the metal and gaseous emissions of a representative stove on the Navajo Reservation; (2) recognition of cyclic gaseous emissions in combustion in home-scale combustors; (3) `back of the envelope` calculation that home-scale coal combustion may impact Navajo health; and (4) identification that improved coal stoves require the ability to burn diverse feedstocks (coal, wood, biomass). Ultimately the results of Navajo home-scale coal combustion studies will be extended to the Developing World, particularly China, where a significant number (> 150 million) of households continue to heat their homes with low-grade coal.

  12. Microgravity Combustion Diagnostics Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santoro, Gilbert J. (Editor); Greenberg, Paul S. (Editor); Piltch, Nancy D. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    Through the Microgravity Science and Applications Division (MSAD) of the Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) at NASA Headquarters, a program entitled, Advanced Technology Development (ATD) was promulgated with the objective of providing advanced technologies that will enable the development of future microgravity science and applications experimental flight hardware. Among the ATD projects one, Microgravity Combustion Diagnostics (MCD), has the objective of developing advanced diagnostic techniques and technologies to provide nonperturbing measurements of combustion characteristics and parameters that will enhance the scientific integrity and quality of microgravity combustion experiments. As part of the approach to this project, a workshop was held on July 28 and 29, 1987, at the NASA Lewis Research Center. A small group of laser combustion diagnosticians met with a group of microgravity combustion experimenters to discuss the science requirements, the state-of-the-art of laser diagnostic technology, and plan the direction for near-, intermediate-, and long-term programs. This publication describes the proceedings of that workshop.

  13. Combustion chamber noise suppressor

    SciTech Connect

    Livingston, A.M.

    1986-08-19

    A combustion chamber is described for a hot fog generating machine comprising a hollow cylindrical combustion chamber shell having a closure plate at one end and outlet means at the opposite end for directing hot combustion gasses to a fogging nozzle, air inlet means disposed adjacent the outlet means, fuel inlet means and ignition means mounted in the closure plate and liner means disposed concentrically within the cylindrical combustion chamber for controlling the flow of air and combustion gasses within the shell. The liner means includes a liner base having a frustroconical configuration with the smaller diameter end thereof disposed in communication with the outlet means and with the larger diameter end thereof disposed in spaced relation to the shell, circumferentially spaced, longitudinally extending fins extending outwardly from the liner base intermediate the liner base and the shell, a cylindrical liner midsection having circumferentially spaced fins extending outwardly therefrom between the midsection and the shell with the fins supporting the midsection on the larger diameter end of the liner base.

  14. Combustion in fluidized beds

    SciTech Connect

    Dry, F.J.; La Nauze, R.D. )

    1990-07-01

    Circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) combustion systems have become popular since the late 1970s, and, given the current level of activity in the area,it is clear that this technology has a stable future in the boiler market. For standard coal combustion applications, competition is fierce with mature pulverized-fuel-based (PF) technology set to maintain a strong profile. CFB systems, however, can be more cost effective than PF systems when emission control is considered, and, as CFB technology matures, it is expected that an ever-increasing proportion of boiler installations will utilize the CFB concept. CFB systems have advantages in the combustion of low-grade fuels such as coal waste and biomass. In competition with conventional bubbling beds, the CFB boiler often demonstrates superior carbon burn-out efficiency. The key to this combustion technique is the hydrodynamic behavior of the fluidized bed. This article begins with a description of the fundamental fluid dynamic behavior of the CFB system. This is followed by an examination of the combustion process in such an environment and a discussion of the current status of the major CFB technologies.

  15. Combustible structural composites and methods of forming combustible structural composites

    DOEpatents

    Daniels, Michael A.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Steffler, Eric D.; Swank, W. David

    2013-04-02

    Combustible structural composites and methods of forming same are disclosed. In an embodiment, a combustible structural composite includes combustible material comprising a fuel metal and a metal oxide. The fuel metal is present in the combustible material at a weight ratio from 1:9 to 1:1 of the fuel metal to the metal oxide. The fuel metal and the metal oxide are capable of exothermically reacting upon application of energy at or above a threshold value to support self-sustaining combustion of the combustible material within the combustible structural composite. Structural-reinforcing fibers are present in the composite at a weight ratio from 1:20 to 10:1 of the structural-reinforcing fibers to the combustible material. Other embodiments and aspects are disclosed.

  16. LES of Mild Combustion using Pareto-efficient Combustion Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hao; Evans, Michael; Ihme, Matthias

    2015-11-01

    Moderate or Intense Low-Oxygen Dilution (MILD) combustion is a combustion regime that provides opportunities for improved thermal efficiency and reduced pollutant emissions. In this study, large-eddy simulation is used to investigate the ignition, mixing, and stabilization of a jet flame in this kinetics-controlled combustion regime. The combustion process is modeled by a Pareto-efficient combustion (PEC) formulation that optimally combines reaction-transport and chemistry combustion models. In this approach, a three-stream flamelet/progress variable model is used as a computationally efficient description of equilibrated flame regions, and a finite-rate chemistry representation is employed to accurately represent the ignition behavior and flame stabilization. Through comparisons with experiments and simulations with single-regime combustion models, it will be shown that this Pareto-efficient combustion submodel assignment accurately captures important dynamics in complex turbulent flame configurations.

  17. Combustible structural composites and methods of forming combustible structural composites

    DOEpatents

    Daniels, Michael A.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Steffler, Eric D; Swank, William D.

    2011-08-30

    Combustible structural composites and methods of forming same are disclosed. In an embodiment, a combustible structural composite includes combustible material comprising a fuel metal and a metal oxide. The fuel metal is present in the combustible material at a weight ratio from 1:9 to 1:1 of the fuel metal to the metal oxide. The fuel metal and the metal oxide are capable of exothermically reacting upon application of energy at or above a threshold value to support self-sustaining combustion of the combustible material within the combustible structural composite. Structural-reinforcing fibers are present in the composite at a weight ratio from 1:20 to 10:1 of the structural-reinforcing fibers to the combustible material. Other embodiments and aspects are disclosed.

  18. Ames Hybrid Combustion Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zilliac, Greg; Karabeyoglu, Mustafa A.; Cantwell, Brian; Hunt, Rusty; DeZilwa, Shane; Shoffstall, Mike; Soderman, Paul T.; Bencze, Daniel P. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The report summarizes the design, fabrication, safety features, environmental impact, and operation of the Ames Hybrid-Fuel Combustion Facility (HCF). The facility is used in conducting research into the scalability and combustion processes of advanced paraffin-based hybrid fuels for the purpose of assessing their applicability to practical rocket systems. The facility was designed to deliver gaseous oxygen at rates between 0.5 and 16.0 kg/sec to a combustion chamber operating at pressures ranging from 300 to 900. The required run times were of the order of 10 to 20 sec. The facility proved to be robust and reliable and has been used to generate a database of regression-rate measurements of paraffin at oxygen mass flux levels comparable to those of moderate-sized hybrid rocket motors.

  19. Thermodynamics and combustion modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeleznik, Frank J.

    1986-01-01

    Modeling fluid phase phenomena blends the conservation equations of continuum mechanics with the property equations of thermodynamics. The thermodynamic contribution becomes especially important when the phenomena involve chemical reactions as they do in combustion systems. The successful study of combustion processes requires (1) the availability of accurate thermodynamic properties for both the reactants and the products of reaction and (2) the computational capabilities to use the properties. A discussion is given of some aspects of the problem of estimating accurate thermodynamic properties both for reactants and products of reaction. Also, some examples of the use of thermodynamic properties for modeling chemically reacting systems are presented. These examples include one-dimensional flow systems and the internal combustion engine.

  20. Droplet Combustion Experiment movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Droplet Combustion Experiment (DCE) was designed to investigate the fundamental combustion aspects of single, isolated droplets under different pressures and ambient oxygen concentrations for a range of droplet sizes varying between 2 and 5 mm. The DCE principal investigator was Forman Williams, University of California, San Diego. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1 mission (STS-83, April 4-8 1997; the shortened mission was reflown as MSL-1R on STS-94). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations plarned for the International Space Station. (1.1 MB, 12-second MPEG, screen 320 x 240 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available)A still JPG composite of this movie is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300164.html.

  1. Internal combustion engine

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Quentin A.; Mecredy, Henry E.; O'Neal, Glenn B.

    1991-01-01

    An improved engine is provided that more efficiently consumes difficult fuels such as coal slurries or powdered coal. The engine includes a precombustion chamber having a portion thereof formed by an ignition plug. The precombustion chamber is arranged so that when the piston is proximate the head, the precombustion chamber is sealed from the main cylinder or the main combustion chamber and when the piston is remote from the head, the precombustion chamber and main combustion chamber are in communication. The time for burning of fuel in the precombustion chamber can be regulated by the distance required to move the piston from the top dead center position to the position wherein the precombustion chamber and main combustion chamber are in communication.

  2. Fluidized-bed combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Botros, P E

    1990-04-01

    This report describes the activities of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center's research and development program in fluidized-bed combustion from October 1, 1987, to September 30, 1989. The Department of Energy program involves atmospheric and pressurized systems. Demonstrations of industrial-scale atmospheric systems are being completed, and smaller boilers are being explored. These systems include vortex, multi-solid, spouted, dual-sided, air-cooled, pulsed, and waste-fired fluidized-beds. Combustion of low-rank coal, components, and erosion are being studied. In pressurized combustion, first-generation, combined-cycle power plants are being tested, and second-generation, advanced-cycle systems are being designed and cost evaluated. Research in coal devolatilization, metal wastage, tube corrosion, and fluidization also supports this area. 52 refs., 24 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Antipollution combustion chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Caruel, J.E.; Gastebois, P.M.

    1981-01-27

    The invention concerns a combustion chamber for turbojet engines. The combustion chamber is of the annular type and consists of two coaxial flame tubes opening into a common dilution and mixing zone. The inner tube is designed for low operating ratings of the engine, the outer tube for high ratings. Air is injected as far upstream as possible into the dilution zone, to enhance the homogenization of the gaseous flow issuing from the two tubes prior to their passage into the turbine and to assure the optimum radial distribution of temperatures. The combustion chamber according to the invention finds application in a particularly advantageous manner in turbojet engines used in aircraft propulsion because of the reduced emission of pollutants it affords.

  4. Forced cocurrent smoldering combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Dosanjh, S.S.; Pagni, P.J.; Fernandez-Pello, A.C.

    1987-05-01

    An analytic model of the propagation of smoldering combustion through a very porous solid fuel is presented. Here smoldering is initiated at the top of a long, radially insulated, uniform fuel cylinder, so that the smolder wave propagates downward, opposing an upward forced flow of oxidizer. Because the solid fuel and the gaseous oxidizer enter the reaction zone from the same direction, this configuration is referred to as cocurrent (or premixed-flame-like). It is assumed that the propagation of the smolder wave is one-dimensional and steady in a frame of reference moving with the wave. Buoyancy is included and shown to be negligible in the proposed application of a smoldering combustion experiment for use on the Space Shuttle. Radiation heat transfer is incorporated using the diffusion approximation and smoldering combustion is modeled by a finite rate, one-step reaction mechanism.

  5. Studies in combustion dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Koszykowski, M.L.

    1993-12-01

    The goal of this program is to develop a fundamental understanding and a quantitative predictive capability in combustion modeling. A large part of the understanding of the chemistry of combustion processes comes from {open_quotes}chemical kinetic modeling.{close_quotes} However, successful modeling is not an isolated activity. It necessarily involves the integration of methods and results from several diverse disciplines and activities including theoretical chemistry, elementary reaction kinetics, fluid mechanics and computational science. Recently the authors have developed and utilized new tools for parallel processing to implement the first numerical model of a turbulent diffusion flame including a {open_quotes}full{close_quotes} chemical mechanism.

  6. Alternate Fuels Combustion Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-01

    AFWAL-TR-83-2057 AD A13 8 5 7 5 ALTERNATE FUELS COMBUSTION RESEARCH PHASE RI ’~*~~4 & IWITEY CMAAA * ’s~t:Uwz, ONTARIO October 1983 I•oerls Report...83-2057 P_______________ C TITLE (mod ,,--tt-) 5. TYPE OF REPORT A PERIOD COVERED Alternate Fuels ioahusticn Research Interim Report for Period Phase...I$. KEY WORDS (Continue on reverse sirte it necessear and identify by block number) FUELS ALTERNATE FUELS GAS TURBINE COMBUSTION EXHAUST EMISSIONS 0

  7. Thermal ignition combustion system

    DOEpatents

    Kamo, Roy; Kakwani, Ramesh M.; Valdmanis, Edgars; Woods, Melvins E.

    1988-01-01

    The thermal ignition combustion system comprises means for providing walls defining an ignition chamber, the walls being made of a material having a thermal conductivity greater than 20 W/m.degree. C. and a specific heat greater than 480 J/kg.degree. C. with the ignition chamber being in constant communication with the main combustion chamber, means for maintaining the temperature of the walls above a threshold temperature capable of causing ignition of a fuel, and means for conducting fuel to the ignition chamber.

  8. Thermal ignition combustion system

    DOEpatents

    Kamo, R.; Kakwani, R.M.; Valdmanis, E.; Woods, M.E.

    1988-04-19

    The thermal ignition combustion system comprises means for providing walls defining an ignition chamber, the walls being made of a material having a thermal conductivity greater than 20 W/m C and a specific heat greater than 480 J/kg C with the ignition chamber being in constant communication with the main combustion chamber, means for maintaining the temperature of the walls above a threshold temperature capable of causing ignition of a fuel, and means for conducting fuel to the ignition chamber. 8 figs.

  9. Transition nozzle combustion system

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Won-Wook; McMahan, Kevin Weston; Maldonado, Jaime Javier

    2016-11-29

    The present application provides a combustion system for use with a cooling flow. The combustion system may include a head end, an aft end, a transition nozzle extending from the head end to the aft end, and an impingement sleeve surrounding the transition nozzle. The impingement sleeve may define a first cavity in communication with the head end for a first portion of the cooling flow and a second cavity in communication with the aft end for a second portion of the cooling flow. The transition nozzle may include a number of cooling holes thereon in communication with the second portion of the cooling flow.

  10. Toxicology of Biodiesel Combustion products

    EPA Science Inventory

    1. Introduction The toxicology of combusted biodiesel is an emerging field. Much of the current knowledge about biological responses and health effects stems from studies of exposures to other fuel sources (typically petroleum diesel, gasoline, and wood) incompletely combusted. ...

  11. Combuster. [low nitrogen oxide formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, R. A. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A combuster is provided for utilizing a combustible mixture containing fuel and air, to heat a load fluid such as water or air, in a manner that minimizes the formation of nitrogen oxide. The combustible mixture passes through a small diameter tube where the mixture is heated to its combustion temperature, while the load fluid flows past the outside of the tube to receive heat. The tube is of a diameter small enough that the combustible mixture cannot form a flame, and yet is not subject to wall quench, so that combustion occurs, but at a temperature less than under free flame conditions. Most of the heat required for heating the combustible mixture to its combustion temperature, is obtained from heat flow through the walls of the pipe to the mixture.

  12. Reversed flow fluidized-bed combustion apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Shang, Jer-Yu; Mei, Joseph S.; Wilson, John S.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a fluidized-bed combustion apparatus provided with a U-shaped combustion zone. A cyclone is disposed in the combustion zone for recycling solid particulate material. The combustion zone configuration and the recycling feature provide relatively long residence times and low freeboard heights to maximize combustion of combustible material, reduce nitrogen oxides, and enhance sulfur oxide reduction.

  13. Combustible dust tests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sugar dust explosion in Georgia on February 7, 2008 killed 14 workers and injured many others (OSHA, 2009). As a consequence of this explosion, OSHA revised its Combustible Dust National Emphasis (NEP) program. The NEP targets 64 industries with more than 1,000 inspections and has found more tha...

  14. Combustion Fundamentals Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The various physical processes that occur in the gas turbine combustor and the development of analytical models that accurately describe these processes are discussed. Aspects covered include fuel sprays; fluid mixing; combustion dynamics; radiation and chemistry and numeric techniques which can be applied to highly turbulent, recirculating, reacting flow fields.

  15. WASTE COMBUSTION SYSTEM ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of biomass combustion alternatives. The objective was to evaluate the thermal performance and costs of available and developing biomass systems. The characteristics of available biomass fuels were reviewed, and the performance parameters of alt...

  16. Spray combustion stability project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeng, San-Mou; Litchford, Ron J.

    1992-01-01

    This report summarizes research activity on the Spray Combustion Stability Project, characterizes accomplishments and current status, and discusses projected future work. The purpose is to provide a concise conceptual overview of the research effort to date so the reader can quickly assimilate the gist of the research results and place them within the context of their potential impact on liquid rocket engine design technology.

  17. Monopropellant combustion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, Gerald R. (Inventor); Mueller, Donn C. (Inventor); Parish, Mark W. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An apparatus and method are provided for decomposition of a propellant. The propellant includes an ionic salt and an additional fuel. Means are provided for decomposing a major portion of the ionic salt. Means are provided for combusting the additional fuel and decomposition products of the ionic salt.

  18. Coal combustion research

    SciTech Connect

    Daw, C.S.

    1996-06-01

    This section describes research and development related to coal combustion being performed for the Fossil Energy Program under the direction of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center. The key activity involves the application of chaos theory for the diagnosis and control of fossil energy processes.

  19. Low emission internal combustion engine

    DOEpatents

    Karaba, Albert M.

    1979-01-01

    A low emission, internal combustion compression ignition engine having a cylinder, a piston movable in the cylinder and a pre-combustion chamber communicating with the cylinder near the top thereof and in which low emissions of NO.sub.x are achieved by constructing the pre-combustion chamber to have a volume of between 70% and 85% of the combined pre-chamber and main combustion chamber volume when the piston is at top dead center and by variably controlling the initiation of fuel injection into the pre-combustion chamber.

  20. Modelling of CWS combustion process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybenko, I. A.; Ermakova, L. A.

    2016-10-01

    The paper considers the combustion process of coal water slurry (CWS) drops. The physico-chemical process scheme consisting of several independent parallel-sequential stages is offered. This scheme of drops combustion process is proved by the particle size distribution test and research stereomicroscopic analysis of combustion products. The results of mathematical modelling and optimization of stationary regimes of CWS combustion are provided. During modeling the problem of defining possible equilibrium composition of products, which can be obtained as a result of CWS combustion processes at different temperatures, is solved.

  1. Time Resolved FTIR Analysis of Combustion of Ethanol and Gasoline Combustion in AN Internal Combustion Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Allen R.; Sakai, Stephen; Devasher, Rebecca B.

    2011-06-01

    In order to pursue In Situ measurements in an internal combustion engine, a MegaTech Mark III transparent spark ignition engine was modified with a sapphire combustion chamber. This modification will allow the transmission of infrared radiation for time-resolved spectroscopic measurements by an infrared spectrometer. By using a Step-scan equipped Fourier transform spectrometer, temporally resolved infrared spectral data were acquired and compared for combustion in the modified Mark III engine. Measurements performed with the FTIR system provide insight into the energy transfer vectors that precede combustion and also provides an in situ measurement of the progress of combustion. Measurements were performed using ethanol and gasoline.

  2. Combustion engine system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houseman, John (Inventor); Voecks, Gerald E. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A flow through catalytic reactor which selectively catalytically decomposes methanol into a soot free hydrogen rich product gas utilizing engine exhaust at temperatures of 200 to 650 C to provide the heat for vaporizing and decomposing the methanol is described. The reactor is combined with either a spark ignited or compression ignited internal combustion engine or a gas turbine to provide a combustion engine system. The system may be fueled entirely by the hydrogen rich gas produced in the methanol decomposition reactor or the system may be operated on mixed fuels for transient power gain and for cold start of the engine system. The reactor includes a decomposition zone formed by a plurality of elongated cylinders which contain a body of vapor permeable, methanol decomposition catalyst preferably a shift catalyst such as copper-zinc.

  3. Stratified combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Solheim, R.G.

    1987-03-17

    The method is described of operating an internal combustion engine having a cylinder with an inner wall. The method comprises admitting, adjacent to the inner wall of the cylinder, a quantity of substantially pure air in a spirally rapidly rotating layer and directing all of the quantity uniformly coaxially relative to the cylinder and toward and against only the adjacent inner wall of the cylinder, and held thereat by Coanda effect and centrifugal force. This is done while also admitting a quantity of fuel mixture in a non-rotating and non-turbulent manner between the layer of rotating pure air and the longitudinal axis of the cylinder, compressing the rotating pure air and the non-rotating fuel mixture simultaneously and firing the non-rotating fuel mixture and exhausting the products of combustion and pure air uniformly coaxially relative to the cylinder and only from a region adjacent to the inner wall and uniformly and completely from the inner wall.

  4. Dynamic features of combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oppenheim, A. K.

    1985-01-01

    The dynamic features of combustion are discussed for four important cases: ignition, inflammation, explosion, and detonation. Ignition, the initiation of a self-sustained exothermic process, is considered in the simplest case of a closed thermodynamic system and its stochastic distribution. Inflammation, the initiation and propagation of self-sustained flames, is presented for turbulent flow. Explosion, the dynamic effects caused by the deposition of exothermic energy in a compressible medium, is illustrated by self-similar blast waves with energy deposition at the front and the adiabatic non-self-similar wave. Detonation, the most comprehensive illustration of all the dynamic effects of combustion, is discussed with a phenomenological account of the development and structure of the wave.

  5. Supersonic Combustion Ramjet Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    4.2 Ignition, Flameholding, and Flame Propagation in Supersonic Flows ......................... 18 4.2.1 Plasma -Assisted Ignition and Flameholding...high- speed flows), plasma -assisted combustion, flameholding (particularly in a high-speed flow), and development and application of diagnostic...Flameholding, and Flame Propagation in Supersonic Flows 4.2.1 Plasma -Assisted Ignition and Flameholding Key questions that have guided this

  6. Combustion powered linear actuator

    DOEpatents

    Fischer, Gary J.

    2007-09-04

    The present invention provides robotic vehicles having wheeled and hopping mobilities that are capable of traversing (e.g. by hopping over) obstacles that are large in size relative to the robot and, are capable of operation in unpredictable terrain over long range. The present invention further provides combustion powered linear actuators, which can include latching mechanisms to facilitate pressurized fueling of the actuators, as can be used to provide wheeled vehicles with a hopping mobility.

  7. Spray combustion stability project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeng, San-Mou; Litchford, Ron J.

    1990-01-01

    This report summarizes research activity on the Spray Combustion Stability Project, characterizes accomplishments and current status, and discusses projected future work. The purpose is to provide a concise conceptual overview of the research effort so the reader can quickly assimilate the gist of the research results and place them within the context of their potential impact on liquid rocket engine design technology. Therefore, this report does not elaborate on many of the detailed technical aspects of the research program.

  8. Industrial Combustion Coordinated Rulemaking.

    PubMed

    Melton, Lula H

    1996-08-01

    The following article is excerpted from the document Industrial Combustion Coordinated Rulemaking - Proposed Organizational Structure and Process, which is available from the Technology Transfer Network (TTN), a computer bulletin board. To access the TTN, call (919) 541-5742; to obtain help with the TTN, call (919) 541-5384. The Industrial Combustion Coordinated Rulemaking (ICCR) document is evolving, reflecting an ongoing dialogue with various stakeholders; therefore, there may be changes between this article and the ICCR as it is implemented. EPA would like to thank all stakeholders (e.g., representatives from various companies and trade associations, state and local air pollution control agencies, and environmental organizations) who have offered suggestions and comments on development of the ICCR. As mentioned in the implications statement, the overall goal of the ICCR is to develop a unified set of federal air emissions regulations. The proposed ICCR will achieve this goal by: • Obtaining active participation from stakeholders, including environmental groups, regulated industries, and state and local regulatory agencies in all phases of regulatory development. • Coordinating the schedule and approach for development of regulations under Sections 111, 112, and 129 of the Clean Air Act that affect ICI combustion. • Determining the most effective ways to address the environmental issues associated with toxic and criteria pollutants from the range of combustion sources. • More effectively considering interactions among the regulations by analyzing the combined benefits and economic impacts of the group of Section 111, 112, and 129 regulations. • Considering strategies to simplify the regulations and allow flexibility in the methods of compliance while maintaining full environmental benefits.

  9. Combustion Characteristics of Sprays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    regarded by implication or otherwise, or in any way licensing the holder or any other person or corporation, or conveying any rights or permission to...00 _’N 1. TI TLE inctuat Security CZaaafication5 Combustion Characteristics of Sprays 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Sohrab, Siavash H. 13& TYPE OF REPORT...to ?!HF of rich butane/air 3unsen flames. .lso, the rotacion speed and :he oerodic temDeracure fluc:uations of rotacfng ?HF are examined. :’!naily

  10. Combustible Cartridge Case Characterization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    University (NYU) has resulted in the selection of two cross-linked melamine / formaldehyde acrylic styrene resin systems that can be used in the beater additive... melamine resin Akaradit II stabilizer 20. ABSTRACT (con) Test coupons of combustible cartridge case material were fabricated using these recommended...and agitated for 30 min before the pH was slowly lowered to 3 with p-toluene sulfonic acid. In order to maintain this pH in the felting tank, it was

  11. Spontaneous combustion of hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nusselt, Wilhelm; Pothmann, PH

    1923-01-01

    It is shown by the author's experiments that hydrogen which escapes to the atmosphere through openings in the system may burn spontaneously if it contains dust. Purely thermal reasoning can not account for the combustion. It seems to be rather an electrical ignition. In order to determine whether the cause of the spontaneous ignition was thermo-chemical, thermo-mechanical, or thermo-electrical, the experiments in this paper were performed.

  12. The Diesel Combustion Collaboratory: Combustion Researchers Collaborating over the Internet

    SciTech Connect

    C. M. Pancerella; L. A. Rahn; C. Yang

    2000-02-01

    The Diesel Combustion Collaborator (DCC) is a pilot project to develop and deploy collaborative technologies to combustion researchers distributed throughout the DOE national laboratories, academia, and industry. The result is a problem-solving environment for combustion research. Researchers collaborate over the Internet using DCC tools, which include: a distributed execution management system for running combustion models on widely distributed computers, including supercomputers; web-accessible data archiving capabilities for sharing graphical experimental or modeling data; electronic notebooks and shared workspaces for facilitating collaboration; visualization of combustion data; and video-conferencing and data-conferencing among researchers at remote sites. Security is a key aspect of the collaborative tools. In many cases, the authors have integrated these tools to allow data, including large combustion data sets, to flow seamlessly, for example, from modeling tools to data archives. In this paper the authors describe the work of a larger collaborative effort to design, implement and deploy the DCC.

  13. Internal combustion engine using premixed combustion of stratified charges

    DOEpatents

    Marriott, Craig D.; Reitz, Rolf D. (Madison, WI

    2003-12-30

    During a combustion cycle, a first stoichiometrically lean fuel charge is injected well prior to top dead center, preferably during the intake stroke. This first fuel charge is substantially mixed with the combustion chamber air during subsequent motion of the piston towards top dead center. A subsequent fuel charge is then injected prior to top dead center to create a stratified, locally richer mixture (but still leaner than stoichiometric) within the combustion chamber. The locally rich region within the combustion chamber has sufficient fuel density to autoignite, and its self-ignition serves to activate ignition for the lean mixture existing within the remainder of the combustion chamber. Because the mixture within the combustion chamber is overall premixed and relatively lean, NO.sub.x and soot production are significantly diminished.

  14. Device for improved combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Polomchak, R.W.; Yacko, M.

    1988-03-08

    A device for improved combustion is described comprising: a tubular housing member having a first end and a second end, the first and second ends each having a circular opening therethrough; a combustion chamber disposed about the second end of the-tubular-housing member; a first conduit member extending from the first end of the tubular housing member and in fluid communication with the circular opening in the first end of the tubular housing member so as to allow the passage of air therethrough; a second conduit member axially disposed within the first conduit member and extending through the first conduit member and through the tubular housing member to the circular opening the second end of the tubular housing member so as to allow the passage of fuel therethrough; means for effecting turbulence in the air passing through the tubular housing member; means for effecting turbulence in the fuel passing through the second conduit member; means for intermixing and emitting the turbulent air and the fuel in a mushroom shaped configuration with the turbulent air surrounding the mushroom shaped configuration so as to substantially eliminate noxious waste gases as by-product of combustion of the air and fuel mixture.

  15. Strobes: an oscillatory combustion.

    PubMed

    Corbel, Justine M L; Lingen, Joost N J; Zevenbergen, John F; Gijzeman, Onno L J; Meijerink, Andries

    2012-04-26

    Strobe compositions belong to the class of solid combustions. They are mixtures of powdered ingredients. When ignited, the combustion front evolves in an oscillatory fashion, and flashes of light are produced by intermittence. They have fascinated many scientists since their discovery at the beginning of the 20th century. However, the chemical and physical processes involved in this curious oscillatory combustion remain unknown. Several theories have been proposed: One claims that two different reactions occur: one during the slow dark phase and another during the fast flash phase. The alternation between the phases is ascribed to heat variations. Other theories suggest that the formation of intermediate species during the dark phase and the change of phase are caused by variations in their concentration. A ternary strobe composition with ammonium perchlorate, magnalium, and barium sulfate is analyzed. The role of barium sulfate is studied by replacing it by other metal sulfates that have different physical properties (melting points), and the burning of the compositions is recorded with a high-speed camera and a spectrometer coupled with a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. Experimental results show noticeable differences in the physical and chemical processes involved in the strobe reactions.

  16. Droplet Combustion Experiment (DCE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggard, John B., Jr.; Nayagan, Vedha; Dryer, Frederick L.; Williams, Forman A.

    1998-01-01

    The first space-based experiments were performed on the combustion of free, individual liquid fuel droplets in oxidizing atmospheres. The fuel was heptane, with initial droplet diameters ranging about from 1 mm to 4 mm. The atmospheres were mixtures of helium and oxygen, at pressures of 1.00, 0.50 and 0.25 bar, with oxygen mole fractions between 20% and 40%, as well as normal Spacelab cabin air. The temperatures of the atmospheres and of the initial liquid fuel were nominally 300 K. A total of 44 droplets were burned successfully on the two flights, 8 on the shortened STS-83 mission and 36 on STS-94. The results spanned the full range of heptane droplet combustion behavior, from radiative flame extinction at larger droplet diameters in the more dilute atmospheres to diffusive extinction in the less dilute atmospheres, with the droplet disappearing prior to flame extinction at the highest oxygen concentrations. Quasisteady histories of droplet diameters were observed along with unsteady histories of flame diameters. New and detailed information was obtained on burning rates, flame characteristics and soot behavior. The results have motivated new computational and theoretical investigations of droplet combustion, improving knowledge of the chemical kinetics, fluid mechanics and heat and mass transfer processes involved in burning liquid fuels.

  17. Feedback control of combustion oscillations in combustion chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Wei; Wang, Jing; Li, Dong-hai; Zhu, Min; Xue, Ya-li

    2010-11-01

    Model-based algorithms are generally employed in active control of combustion oscillations. Since practical combustion processes consist of complex thermal and acoustic couplings, their accurate models and parameters may not be obtained in advance economically, a model free controller is necessary for the control of thermoacoustic instabilities. Active compensation based control algorithm is applied in the suppression of combustion instabilities. Tuning the controller parameters on line, the amplitudes of the acoustic waves can be modulated to desired values. Simulations performed on a control oriented, typical longitudinal oscillations combustor model illustrate the controllers' capability to attenuate combustion oscillations.

  18. Energy Conversion and Combustion Sciences

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-08

    Rotational /Continuous Detonation • Only Single Initiation needed (Circumvent Initiation/DDT difficulty/loss in PDE ) • 10-100x cycle rate increase • Near...new fuels: 1. Rotational or Continuous Detonation (intense/concentrated combustion); 2. Flameless combustion (distributed combustion process...Steady Exit Flow *CFD Courtesy of NRL Rotational Detonation : (PI: Schauer, AFRL/RZ, working with NRL) Rotational Approach Allows Continuous

  19. Combustion characteristics of husk charcoal

    SciTech Connect

    Shimizu, H.; Kimura, T.; Nishiyama, Y.; Terui, T.

    1984-07-01

    This paper analyzes the factors involved in the extraordinary temperature generation in husk combustion furnaces, and investigates methods of protecting furnaces from heat damage. The combustion characteristics of fixed carbon in rice husks are examined in relation to the air flow rate using different husk charcoals. The theoretical flame temperature in a practical bed was determined from the combustion propagation velocity. It is determined that deviation from the regression line relating the combustion propagation velocity with the specific air flow rate showed a slight correlation with the bulk density of the charcoal samples used.

  20. Microgravity Smoldering Combustion Takes Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Microgravity Smoldering Combustion (MSC) experiment lifted off aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour in September 1995 on the STS-69 mission. This experiment is part of series of studies focused on the smolder characteristics of porous, combustible materials in a microgravity environment. Smoldering is a nonflaming form of combustion that takes place in the interior of combustible materials. Common examples of smoldering are nonflaming embers, charcoal briquettes, and cigarettes. The objective of the study is to provide a better understanding of the controlling mechanisms of smoldering, both in microgravity and Earth gravity. As with other forms of combustion, gravity affects the availability of air and the transport of heat, and therefore, the rate of combustion. Results of the microgravity experiments will be compared with identical experiments carried out in Earth's gravity. They also will be used to verify present theories of smoldering combustion and will provide new insights into the process of smoldering combustion, enhancing our fundamental understanding of this frequently encountered combustion process and guiding improvement in fire safety practices.

  1. Light Duty Efficient, Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Stanton, Donald W.

    2011-06-03

    Cummins has successfully completed the Light Duty Efficient Clean Combustion (LDECC) cooperative program with DoE. This program was established in 2007 in support of the Department of Energy’s Vehicles Technologies Advanced Combustion and Emissions Control initiative to remove critical barriers to the commercialization of advanced, high efficiency, emissions compliant internal combustion (IC) engines for light duty vehicles. Work in this area expanded the fundamental knowledge of engine combustion to new regimes and advanced the knowledge of fuel requirements for these diesel engines to realize their full potential. All of our objectives were met with fuel efficiency improvement targets exceeded.

  2. Flammability of Heterogeneously Combusting Metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Peter D.

    1998-01-01

    Most engineering materials, including some metals, most notably aluminum, burn in homogeneous combustion. 'Homogeneous' refers to both the fuel and the oxidizer being in the same phase, which is usually gaseous. The fuel and oxidizer are well mixed in the combustion reaction zone, and heat is released according to some relation like q(sub c) = delta H(sub c)c[((rho/rho(sub 0))]exp a)(exp -E(sub c)/RT), Eq. (1) where the pressure exponent a is usually close to unity. As long as there is enough heat released, combustion is sustained. It is useful to conceive of a threshold pressure beyond which there is sufficient heat to keep the temperature high enough to sustain combustion, and beneath which the heat is so low that temperature drains away and the combustion is extinguished. Some materials burn in heterogeneous combustion, in which the fuel and oxidizer are in different phases. These include iron and nickel based alloys, which burn in the liquid phase with gaseous oxygen. Heterogeneous combustion takes place on the surface of the material (fuel). Products of combustion may appear as a solid slag (oxide) which progressively covers the fuel. Propagation of the combustion melts and exposes fresh fuel. Heterogeneous combustion heat release also follows the general form of Eq.(1), except that the pressure exponent a tends to be much less than 1. Therefore, the increase in heat release with increasing pressure is not as dramatic as it is in homogeneous combustion. Although the concept of a threshold pressure still holds in heterogeneous combustion, the threshold is more difficult to identify experimentally, and pressure itself becomes less important relative to the heat transfer paths extant in any specific application. However, the constants C, a, and E(sub c) may still be identified by suitable data reduction from heterogeneous combustion experiments, and may be applied in a heat transfer model to judge the flammability of a material in any particular actual

  3. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Ziemkiewicz, Paul; Vandivort, Tamara; Pflughoeft-Hassett, Debra; Chugh, Y Paul; Hower, James

    2008-08-31

    Each year, over 100 million tons of solid byproducts are produced by coal-burning electric utilities in the United States. Annual production of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts continues to increase as the result of more stringent sulfur emission restrictions. In addition, stricter limits on NOx emissions mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act have resulted in utility burner/boiler modifications that frequently yield higher carbon concentrations in fly ash, which restricts the use of the ash as a cement replacement. Controlling ammonia in ash is also of concern. If newer, “clean coal” combustion and gasification technologies are adopted, their byproducts may also present a management challenge. The objective of the Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) is to develop and demonstrate technologies to address issues related to the recycling of byproducts associated with coal combustion processes. A goal of CBRC is that these technologies, by the year 2010, will lead to an overall ash utilization rate from the current 34% to 50% by such measures as increasing the current rate of FGD byproduct use and increasing in the number of uses considered “allowable” under state regulations. Another issue of interest to the CBRC would be to examine the environmental impact of both byproduct utilization and disposal. No byproduct utilization technology is likely to be adopted by industry unless it is more cost-effective than landfilling. Therefore, it is extremely important that the utility industry provide guidance to the R&D program. Government agencies and privatesector organizations that may be able to utilize these materials in the conduct of their missions should also provide input. The CBRC will serve as an effective vehicle for acquiring and maintaining guidance from these diverse organizations so that the proper balance in the R&D program is achieved.

  4. Combustion Branch Website Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Eric

    2004-01-01

    The NASA combustion branch is a leader in developing and applying combustion science to focused aerospace propulsion systems concepts. It is widely recognized for unique facilities, analytical tools, and personnel. In order to better communicate the outstanding research being done in this Branch to the public and other research organization, a more substantial website was desired. The objective of this project was to build an up-to-date site that reflects current research in a usable and attractive manner. In order to accomplish this, information was requested from all researchers in the Combustion branch, on their professional skills and on the current projects. This information was used to fill in the Personnel and Research sections of the website. A digital camera was used to photograph all personnel and these photographs were included in the personnel section as well. The design of the site was implemented using the latest web standards: xhtml and external css stylesheets. This implementation conforms to the guidelines recommended by the w3c. It also helps to ensure that the web site is accessible by disabled users, and complies with Section 508 Federal legislation (which mandates that all Federal websites be accessible). Graphics for the new site were generated using the gimp (www.gimp.org) an open-source graphics program similar to Adobe Photoshop. Also, all graphics on the site were of a reasonable size (less than 20k, most less than 2k) so that the page would load quickly. Technologies such as Macromedia Flash and Javascript were avoided, as these only function on some clients which have the proper software installed or enabled. The website was tested on different platforms with many different browsers to ensure there were no compatibility issues. The website was tested on windows with MS IE 6, MSIE 5 , Netscape 7, Mozilla and Opera. On a Mac, the site was tested with MS IE 5 , Netscape 7 and Safari.

  5. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    Each year, over 100 million tons of solid byproducts are produced by coal-burning electric utilities in the United States. Annual production of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts continues to increase as the result of more stringent sulfur emission restrictions. In addition, stricter limits on NOx emissions mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act have resulted in utility burner/boiler modifications that frequently yield higher carbon concentrations in fly ash, which restricts the use of the ash as a cement replacement. Controlling ammonia in ash is also of concern. If newer, 'clean coal' combustion and gasification technologies are adopted, their byproducts may also present a management challenge. The objective of the Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) is to develop and demonstrate technologies to address issues related to the recycling of byproducts associated with coal combustion processes. A goal of CBRC is that these technologies, by the year 2010, will lead to an overall ash utilization rate from the current 34% to 50% by such measures as increasing the current rate of FGD byproduct use and increasing in the number of uses considered 'allowable' under state regulations. Another issue of interest to the CBRC would be to examine the environmental impact of both byproduct utilization and disposal. No byproduct utilization technology is likely to be adopted by industry unless it is more cost-effective than landfilling. Therefore, it is extremely important that the utility industry provide guidance to the R&D program. Government agencies and private-sector organizations that may be able to utilize these materials in the conduct of their missions should also provide input. The CBRC will serve as an effective vehicle for acquiring and maintaining guidance from these diverse organizations so that the proper balance in the R&D program is achieved.

  6. Combustion of White Phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keiter, Richard L.; Gamage, Chaminda P.

    2001-07-01

    The reaction of white phosphorus with pure oxygen is conveniently and safely demonstrated by carrying out the reaction in a retort that has its open end submerged in water. After filling the retort with oxygen gas, a small amount of white phosphorus is introduced and heated with a hot-plate until it ignites. The spectacular reaction leads to consumption and expulsion of oxygen gas, creation of a partial vacuum in the retort, and back suction of water that extinguishes the combustion. Featured on the Cover

  7. Lithium Combustion: A Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    lithium vapors generated with air formed an intense white flame that produced branched- chain condensation aerosol particles, of concentrations 򓆄 mg/im3...generated chain -aggregate lithium combustion aerosols in dry, COg-free air prior to reaction with 0, 0.10, 0.50, 1.0, 1.75, or 5.0% CO in air at a...In order to burn in gaseous chlorine or in bromine or iodine vapor, lithium needs to be heated. With iodine vapor, the reaction is accompanied by

  8. Hybrid fluidized bed combuster

    DOEpatents

    Kantesaria, Prabhudas P.; Matthews, Francis T.

    1982-01-01

    A first atmospheric bubbling fluidized bed furnace is combined with a second turbulent, circulating fluidized bed furnace to produce heat efficiently from crushed solid fuel. The bed of the second furnace receives the smaller sizes of crushed solid fuel, unreacted limestone from the first bed, and elutriated solids extracted from the flu gases of the first bed. The two-stage combustion of crushed solid fuel provides a system with an efficiency greater than available with use of a single furnace of a fluidized bed.

  9. AIR EMISSIONS FROM SCRAP TIRE COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses air emissions from two types of scrap tire combustion: uncontrolled and controlled. Uncontrolled sources are open tire fires, which produce many unhealthful products of incomplete combustion and release them directly into the atmosphere. Controlled combustion...

  10. Path planning during combustion mode switch

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Li; Ravi, Nikhil

    2015-12-29

    Systems and methods are provided for transitioning between a first combustion mode and a second combustion mode in an internal combustion engine. A current operating point of the engine is identified and a target operating point for the internal combustion engine in the second combustion mode is also determined. A predefined optimized transition operating point is selected from memory. While operating in the first combustion mode, one or more engine actuator settings are adjusted to cause the operating point of the internal combustion engine to approach the selected optimized transition operating point. When the engine is operating at the selected optimized transition operating point, the combustion mode is switched from the first combustion mode to the second combustion mode. While operating in the second combustion mode, one or more engine actuator settings are adjusted to cause the operating point of the internal combustion to approach the target operating point.

  11. Plasma igniter for internal-combustion engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breshears, R. R.; Fitzgerald, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    Hot ionized gas (plasma) ignites air/fuel mixture in internal combustion engines more effectively than spark. Electromagnetic forces propel plasma into combustion zone. Combustion rate is not limited by flame-front speed.

  12. Some Factors Affecting Combustion in an Internal-Combustion Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M; Cohn, Mildred

    1936-01-01

    An investigation of the combustion of gasoline, safety, and diesel fuels was made in the NACA combustion apparatus under conditions of temperature that permitted ignition by spark with direct fuel injection, in spite of the compression ratio of 12.7 employed. The influence of such variables as injection advance angle, jacket temperature, engine speed, and spark position was studied. The most pronounced effect was that an increase in the injection advance angle (beyond a certain minimum value) caused a decrease in the extent and rate of combustion. In almost all cases combustion improved with increased temperature. The results show that at low air temperatures the rates of combustion vary with the volatility of the fuel, but that at high temperatures this relationship does not exist and the rates depend to a greater extent on the chemical nature of the fuel.

  13. Preliminary assessment of combustion modes for internal combustion wave rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nalim, M. Razi

    1995-01-01

    Combustion within the channels of a wave rotor is examined as a means of obtaining pressure gain during heat addition in a gas turbine engine. Several modes of combustion are considered and the factors that determine the applicability of three modes are evaluated in detail; premixed autoignition/detonation, premixed deflagration, and non-premixed compression ignition. The last two will require strong turbulence for completion of combustion in a reasonable time in the wave rotor. The compression/autoignition modes will require inlet temperatures in excess of 1500 R for reliable ignition with most hydrocarbon fuels; otherwise, a supplementary ignition method must be provided. Examples of combustion mode selection are presented for two core engine applications that had been previously designed with equivalent 4-port wave rotor topping cycles using external combustion.

  14. Fuel Effects on Gas Turbine Combustion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    W. S., Combustion Considerations for Future Jet Fuels, Sixteenth Symposium (International) on Combustion , The Combustion Institute, pp. 1631-1638...AFWAL-TR-83-2004 -. i FUEL EFFECTS ON SGAS TURBINE COMBUSTION A. H. Lefebvre <.A t • Combustion Laboratory Thermal Science and Propulsion Center...PERIOD COVEREDFinal Report for Period FUEL EFFECTS ON GAS TURBINE COMBUSTION 21 Sep 81 - 23 Dec 82 6. PERFORMING OIG. REPORT NUMBER ś. AUT"HOR(.) S

  15. Combustion of Methane Hydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roshandell, Melika

    A significant methane storehouse is in the form of methane hydrates on the sea floor and in the arctic permafrost. Methane hydrates are ice-like structures composed of water cages housing a guest methane molecule. This caged methane represents a resource of energy and a potential source of strong greenhouse gas. Most research related to methane hydrates has been focused on their formation and dissociation because they can form solid plugs that complicate transport of oil and gas in pipelines. This dissertation explores the direct burning of these methane hydrates where heat from the combustion process dissociates the hydrate into water and methane, and the released methane fuels the methane/air diffusion flame heat source. In contrast to the pipeline applications, very little research has been done on the combustion and burning characteristics of methane hydrates. This is the first dissertation on this subject. In this study, energy release and combustion characteristics of methane hydrates were investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The experimental study involved collaboration with another research group, particularly in the creation of methane hydrate samples. The experiments were difficult because hydrates form at high pressure within a narrow temperature range. The process can be slow and the resulting hydrate can have somewhat variable properties (e.g., extent of clathration, shape, compactness). The experimental study examined broad characteristics of hydrate combustion, including flame appearance, burning time, conditions leading to flame extinguishment, the amount of hydrate water melted versus evaporated, and flame temperature. These properties were observed for samples of different physical size. Hydrate formation is a very slow process with pure water and methane. The addition of small amounts of surfactant increased substantially the hydrate formation rate. The effects of surfactant on burning characteristics were also studied. One finding

  16. Liquid propellant rocket combustion instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrje, D. T.

    1972-01-01

    The solution of problems of combustion instability for more effective communication between the various workers in this field is considered. The extent of combustion instability problems in liquid propellant rocket engines and recommendations for their solution are discussed. The most significant developments, both theoretical and experimental, are presented, with emphasis on fundamental principles and relationships between alternative approaches.

  17. Manifold methods for methane combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, B.; Pope, S.B.

    1995-10-01

    Great progresses have been made in combustion research, especially, the computation of laminar flames and the probability density function (PDF) method in turbulent combustion. For one-dimensional laminar flames, by considering the transport mechanism, the detailed chemical kinetic mechanism and the interactions between these two basic processes, today it is a routine matter to calculate flame velocities, extinction, ignition, temperature, and species distributions from the governing equations. Results are in good agreement with those obtained for experiments. However, for turbulent combustion, because of the complexities of turbulent flow, chemical reactions, and the interaction between them, in the foreseeable future, it is impossible to calculate the combustion flow field by directly integrating the basic governing equations. So averaging and modeling are necessary in turbulent combustion studies. Averaging, on one hand, simplifies turbulent combustion calculations, on the other hand, it introduces the infamous closure problems, especially the closure problem with chemical reaction terms. Since in PDF calculations of turbulent combustion, the averages of the chemical reaction terms can be calculated, PDF methods overcome the closure problem with the reaction terms. It has been shown that the PDF method is a most promising method to calculate turbulent combustion. PDF methods have been successfully employed to calculate laboratory turbulent flames: they can predict phenomena such as super equilibrium radical levels, and local extinction. Because of these advantages, PDF methods are becoming used increasingly in industry combustor codes.

  18. PDF Modeling of Turbulent Combustion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-30

    extend methodologies for the modeling and simulation of turbulent combustion. Probability density function (PDF) calculations were performed of piloted...were developed to implement the combined methodology of large-eddy simulation (LES) and filtered density function (FDF). Second-order schemes were...was to advance and extend methodologies for the modeling and simulation of turbulent combustion. Probability density function (PDF) calculations were

  19. Method for in situ combustion

    DOEpatents

    Pasini, III, Joseph; Shuck, Lowell Z.; Overbey, Jr., William K.

    1977-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved in situ combustion method for the recovery of hydrocarbons from subterranean earth formations containing carbonaceous material. The method is practiced by penetrating the subterranean earth formation with a borehole projecting into the coal bed along a horizontal plane and extending along a plane disposed perpendicular to the plane of maximum permeability. The subterranean earth formation is also penetrated with a plurality of spaced-apart vertical boreholes disposed along a plane spaced from and generally parallel to that of the horizontal borehole. Fractures are then induced at each of the vertical boreholes which project from the vertical boreholes along the plane of maximum permeability and intersect the horizontal borehole. The combustion is initiated at the horizontal borehole and the products of combustion and fluids displaced from the earth formation by the combustion are removed from the subterranean earth formation via the vertical boreholes. Each of the vertical boreholes are, in turn, provided with suitable flow controls for regulating the flow of fluid from the combustion zone and the earth formation so as to control the configuration and rate of propagation of the combustion zone. The fractures provide a positive communication with the combustion zone so as to facilitate the removal of the products resulting from the combustion of the carbonaceous material.

  20. NASA Microgravity Combustion Science Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Merrill K.

    1997-01-01

    Combustion is a key element of many critical technologies used by contemporary society. For example, electric power production, home heating, surface and air transportation, space propulsion, and materials synthesis all utilize combustion as a source of energy. Yet, although combustion technology is vital to our standard of living, it poses great challenges to maintaining a habitable environment. For example, pollutants, atmospheric change and global warming, unwanted fires and explosions, and the incineration of hazardous wastes are major problem areas which would benefit from improved understanding of combustion. Effects of gravitational forces impede combustion studies more than most other areas of science since combustion involves production of high-temperature gases whose low density results in buoyant motion, vastly complicating the execution and interpretation of experiments. Effects of buoyancy are so ubiquitous that their enormous negative impact on the rational development of combustion science is generally not recognized. Buoyant motion also triggers the onset of turbulence, yielding complicating unsteady effects. Finally, gravity forces cause particles and drops to settle, inhibiting deconvoluted studies of heterogeneous flames important to furnace, incineration and power generation technologies. Thus, effects of buoyancy have seriously limited our capabilities to carry out 'clean' experiments needed for fundamental understanding of flame phenomena. Combustion scientists can use microgravity to simplify the study of many combustion processes, allowing fresh insights into important problems via a deeper understanding of elemental phenomena also found in Earth-based combustion processes and to additionally provide valuable information concerning how fires behave in microgravity and how fire safety on spacecraft can be enhanced.

  1. Combustion instability control in the model of combustion chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhmadullin, A. N.; Ahmethanov, E. N.; Iovleva, O. V.; Mitrofanov, G. A.

    2013-12-01

    An experimental study of the influence of external periodic perturbations on the instability of the combustion chamber in a pulsating combustion. As an external periodic disturbances were used sound waves emitted by the electrodynamics. The purpose of the study was to determine the possibility of using the method of external periodic perturbation to control the combustion instability. The study was conducted on a specially created model of the combustion chamber with a swirl burner in the frequency range from 100 to 1400 Hz. The study found that the method of external periodic perturbations may be used to control combustion instability. Depending on the frequency of the external periodic perturbation is observed as an increase and decrease in the amplitude of the oscillations in the combustion chamber. These effects are due to the mechanisms of synchronous and asynchronous action. External periodic disturbance generated in the path feeding the gaseous fuel, showing the high efficiency of the method of management in terms of energy costs. Power required to initiate periodic disturbances (50 W) is significantly smaller than the thermal capacity of the combustion chamber (100 kW).

  2. Multiuser Droplet Combustion Apparatus Developed to Conduct Combustion Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myhre, Craig A.

    2001-01-01

    A major portion of the energy produced in the world today comes from the combustion or burning of liquid hydrocarbon fuels in the form of droplets. However, despite vigorous scientific examinations for over a century, researchers still lack a full understanding of many fundamental combustion processes of liquid fuels. Understanding how these fuel droplets ignite, spread, and extinguish themselves will help us develop more efficient ways of energy production and propulsion, as well as help us deal better with the problems of combustion-generated pollution and fire hazards associated with liquid combustibles. The ability to conduct more controlled experiments in space, without the complication of gravity, provides scientists with an opportunity to examine these complicated processes closely. The Multiuser Droplet Combustion Apparatus (MDCA) supports this continued research under microgravity conditions. The objectives are to improve understanding of fundamental droplet phenomena affected by gravity, to use research results to advance droplet combustion science and technology on Earth, and to address issues of fire hazards associated with liquid combustibles on Earth and in space. MDCA is a multiuser facility designed to accommodate different combustion science experiments. The modular approach permits the on-orbit replacement of droplet combustion principal investigator experiments such as different fuels, droplet-dispensing needles, and droplet-tethering mechanisms. Large components such as the avionics, diagnostics, and base-plate remain on the International Space Station to reduce the launch mass of new experiments. MDCA is also designed to operate in concert with ground systems on Earth to minimize the involvement of the crew during orbit.

  3. Space Station Freedom combustion research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faeth, G. M.

    1992-01-01

    Extended operations in microgravity, on board spacecraft like Space Station Freedom, provide both unusual opportunities and unusual challenges for combustion science. On the one hand, eliminating the intrusion of buoyancy provides a valuable new perspective for fundamental studies of combustion phenomena. On the other hand, however, the absence of buoyancy creates new hazards of fires and explosions that must be understood to assure safe manned space activities. These considerations - and the relevance of combustion science to problems of pollutants, energy utilization, waste incineration, power and propulsion systems, and fire and explosion hazards, among others - provide strong motivation for microgravity combustion research. The intrusion of buoyancy is a greater impediment to fundamental combustion studies than to most other areas of science. Combustion intrinsically heats gases with the resulting buoyant motion at normal gravity either preventing or vastly complicating measurements. Perversely, this limitation is most evident for fundamental laboratory experiments; few practical combustion phenomena are significantly affected by buoyancy. Thus, we have never observed the most fundamental combustion phenomena - laminar premixed and diffusion flames, heterogeneous flames of particles and surfaces, low-speed turbulent flames, etc. - without substantial buoyant disturbances. This precludes rational merging of theory, where buoyancy is of little interest, and experiments, that always are contaminated by buoyancy, which is the traditional path for developing most areas of science. The current microgravity combustion program seeks to rectify this deficiency using both ground-based and space-based facilities, with experiments involving space-based facilities including: laminar premixed flames, soot processes in laminar jet diffusion flames, structure of laminar and turbulent jet diffusion flames, solid surface combustion, one-dimensional smoldering, ignition and flame

  4. Fluids and Combustion Facility-Combustion Integrated Rack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francisco, David R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes in detail the concept of performing Combustion microgravity experiments in the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) of the Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) on the International Space Station (ISS). The extended duration microgravity environment of the ISS will enable microgravity research to enter into a new era of increased scientific and technological data return. The FCF is designed to increase the amount and quality of scientific and technological data and decrease the development cost of an individual experiment relative to the era of Space Shuttle experiments. This paper also describes how the FCF will cost effectively accommodate these experiments.

  5. Dual-Mode Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goyne, Christopher P.; McDaniel, James C.

    2002-01-01

    The Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at the University of Virginia has conducted an investigation of the mixing and combustion processes in a hydrogen fueled dual-mode scramjet combustor. The experiment essentially consisted of the "direct connect" continuous operation of a Mach 2 rectangular combustor with a single unswept ramp fuel injector. The stagnation enthalpy of the test flow simulated a flight Mach number of 5. Measurements were obtained using conventional wall instrumentation and laser based diagnostics. These diagnostics included, pressure and wall temperature measurements, Fuel Plume Imaging (FPI) and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). A schematic of the combustor configuration and a summary of the measurements obtained are presented. The experimental work at UVa was parallel by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) work at NASA Langley. The numerical and experiment results are compared in this document.

  6. High Efficiency, Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Donald Stanton

    2010-03-31

    Energy use in trucks has been increasing at a faster rate than that of automobiles within the U.S. transportation sector. According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) Annual Energy Outlook (AEO), a 23% increase in fuel consumption for the U.S. heavy duty truck segment is expected between 2009 to 2020. The heavy duty vehicle oil consumption is projected to grow between 2009 and 2050 while light duty vehicle (LDV) fuel consumption will eventually experience a decrease. By 2050, the oil consumption rate by LDVs is anticipated to decrease below 2009 levels due to CAFE standards and biofuel use. In contrast, the heavy duty oil consumption rate is anticipated to double. The increasing trend in oil consumption for heavy trucks is linked to the vitality, security, and growth of the U.S. economy. An essential part of a stable and vibrant U.S. economy is a productive U.S. trucking industry. Studies have shown that the U.S. gross domestic product (GDP) is strongly correlated to freight transport. Over 90% of all U.S. freight tonnage is transported by diesel power and over 75% is transported by trucks. Given the vital role that the trucking industry plays in the economy, improving the efficiency of the transportation of goods was a central focus of the Cummins High Efficient Clean Combustion (HECC) program. In a commercial vehicle, the diesel engine remains the largest source of fuel efficiency loss, but remains the greatest opportunity for fuel efficiency improvements. In addition to reducing oil consumption and the dependency on foreign oil, this project will mitigate the impact on the environment by meeting US EPA 2010 emissions regulations. Innovation is a key element in sustaining a U.S. trucking industry that is competitive in global markets. Unlike passenger vehicles, the trucking industry cannot simply downsize the vehicle and still transport the freight with improved efficiency. The truck manufacturing and supporting industries are faced with numerous

  7. Microgravity combustion of dust suspensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, John H. S.; Peraldi, Olivier; Knystautas, Rom

    1993-01-01

    Unlike the combustion of homogeneous gas mixtures, there are practically no reliable fundamental data (i.e., laminar burning velocity, flammability limits, quenching distance, minimum ignition energy) for the combustion of heterogeneous dust suspensions. Even the equilibrium thermodynamic data such as the constant pressure volume combustion pressure and the constant pressure adiabatic flame temperature are not accurately known for dust mixtures. This is mainly due to the problem of gravity sedimentation. In normal gravity, turbulence, convective flow, electric and acoustic fields are required to maintain a dust in suspension. These external influences have a dominating effect on the combustion processes. Microgravity offers a unique environment where a quiescent dust cloud can in principle be maintained for a sufficiently long duration for almost all combustion experiments (dust suspensions are inherently unstable due to Brownian motion and particle aggregation). Thus, the microgravity duration provided by drop towers, parabolic flights, and the space shuttle, can all be exploited for different kinds of dust combustion experiments. The present paper describes some recent studies on microgravity combustion of dust suspension carried out on the KC-135 and the Caravelle aircraft. The results reported are obtained from three parabolic flight campaigns.

  8. Filtration combustion: Smoldering and SHS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matkowsky, Bernard J.

    1995-01-01

    Smolder waves and SHS (self-propagating high-temperature synthesis) waves are both examples of combustion waves propagating in porous media. When delivery of reactants through the pores to the reaction site is an important aspect of the process, it is referred to as filtration combustion. The two types of filtration combustion have a similar mathematical formulation, describing the ignition, propagation and extinction of combustion waves in porous media. The goal in each case, however, is different. In smoldering the desired goal is to prevent propagation, whereas in SHS the goal is to insure propagation of the combustion wave, leading to the synthesis of desired products. In addition, the scales in the two areas of application may well differ. For example, smoldering generally occurs at a relatively low temperature and with a smaller propagation velocity than SHS filtration combustion waves. Nevertheless, the two areas of application have much in common, so that mechanisms learned about in one application can be used to advantage in the other. In this paper we discuss recent results in the areas of filtration combustion.

  9. SOHC type internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, N.; Iwata, T.; Oikawa, T.

    1989-01-10

    An SOHC type internal combustion engine is described comprising a cylinder head which has a combustion chamber defined therein, a camshaft carried thereon, an ignition plug mounting hole opening to a center portion of a top surface of the combustion chamber and a protecting cylinder formed therein with an ignition plug insertion hole. The journal for the camshaft has a diameter larger than a path of rotation of a lobe of a cam on the camshaft and is supported by a bearing hole formed in a camshaft receiving wall which is provided on the cylinder head. The protecting cylinder and the camshaft receiving wall are formed in a single piece.

  10. 49 CFR 172.544 - COMBUSTIBLE placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false COMBUSTIBLE placard. 172.544 Section 172.544... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.544 COMBUSTIBLE placard. (a) Except for size and color, the COMBUSTIBLE... on the COMBUSTIBLE placard must be red. The symbol, text, class number and inner border must be...

  11. Flameless Combustion for Gas Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutmark, Ephraim; Li, Guoqiang; Overman, Nick; Cornwell, Michael; Stankovic, Dragan; Fuchs, Laszlo; Milosavljevic, Vladimir

    2006-11-01

    An experimental study of a novel flameless combustor for gas turbine engines is presented. Flameless combustion is characterized by distributed flame and even temperature distribution for high preheat air temperature and large amount of recirculating low oxygen exhaust gases. Extremely low emissions of NOx, CO, and UHC are reported. Measurements of the flame chemiluminescence, CO and NOx emissions, acoustic pressure, temperature and velocity fields as a function of the preheat temperature, inlet air mass flow rate, exhaust nozzle contraction ratio, and combustor chamber diameter are described. The data indicate that larger pressure drop promotes flameless combustion and low NOx emissions at the same flame temperature. High preheated temperature and flow rates also help in forming stable combustion and therefore are favorable for flameless combustion.

  12. Putting combustion optimization to work

    SciTech Connect

    Spring, N.

    2009-05-15

    New plants and plants that are retrofitting can benefit from combustion optimization. Boiler tuning and optimization can complement each other. The continuous emissions monitoring system CEMS, and tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy TDLAS can be used for optimisation. NeuCO's CombustionOpt neural network software can determine optimal fuel and air set points. Babcock and Wilcox Power Generation Group Inc's Flame Doctor can be used in conjunction with other systems to diagnose and correct coal-fired burner performance. The four units of the Colstrip power plant in Colstrips, Montana were recently fitted with combustion optimization systems based on advanced model predictive multi variable controls (MPCs), ABB's Predict & Control tool. Unit 4 of Tampa Electric's Big Bend plant in Florida is fitted with Emerson's SmartProcess fuzzy neural model based combustion optimisation system. 1 photo.

  13. Thermophysics Characterization of Kerosene Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ten-See

    2001-01-01

    A one-formula surrogate fuel formulation and its quasi-global combustion kinetics model are developed to support the design of injectors and thrust chambers of kerosene-fueled rocket engines. This surrogate fuel model depicts a fuel blend that properly represents the general physical and chemical properties of kerosene. The accompanying gaseous-phase thermodynamics of the surrogate fuel is anchored with the heat of formation of kerosene and verified by comparing a series of one-dimensional rocket thrust chamber calculations. The quasi-global combustion kinetics model consists of several global steps for parent fuel decomposition, soot formation, and soot oxidation and a detailed wet-CO mechanism to complete the combustion process. The final thermophysics formulations are incorporated with a computational fluid dynamics model for prediction of the combustion efficiency of an unielement, tripropellant combustor and the radiation of a kerosene-fueled thruster plume. The model predictions agreed reasonably well with those of the tests.

  14. Loop-bed combustion apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Shang, Jer-Yu; Mei, Joseph S.; Slagle, Frank D.; Notestein, John E.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a combustion apparatus in the configuration of a oblong annulus defining a closed loop. Particulate coal together with a sulfur sorbent such as sulfur or dolomite is introduced into the closed loop, ignited, and propelled at a high rate of speed around the loop. Flue gas is withdrawn from a location in the closed loop in close proximity to an area in the loop where centrifugal force imposed upon the larger particulate material maintains these particulates at a location spaced from the flue gas outlet. Only flue gas and smaller particulates resulting from the combustion and innerparticle grinding are discharged from the combustor. This structural arrangement provides increased combustion efficiency due to the essentially complete combustion of the coal particulates as well as increased sulfur absorption due to the innerparticle grinding of the sorbent which provides greater particle surface area.

  15. Fifth International Microgravity Combustion Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacksteder, Kurt (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    This conference proceedings document is a compilation of 120 papers presented orally or as poster displays to the Fifth International Microgravity Combustion Workshop held in Cleveland, Ohio on May 18-20, 1999. The purpose of the workshop is to present and exchange research results from theoretical and experimental work in combustion science using the reduced-gravity environment as a research tool. The results are contributed by researchers funded by NASA throughout the United States at universities, industry and government research agencies, and by researchers from at least eight international partner countries that are also participating in the microgravity combustion science research discipline. These research results are intended for use by public and private sector organizations for academic purposes, for the development of technologies needed for the Human Exploration and Development of Space, and to improve Earth-bound combustion and fire-safety related technologies.

  16. Combustion Science for Cleaner Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, Musahid

    2014-10-17

    Musahid Ahmed discusses how he and his team use the Advanced Light Source (ALS) to study combustion chemistry at our '8 Big Ideas' Science at the Theater event on October 8th, 2014, in Oakland, California.

  17. Combustion Science for Cleaner Fuels

    ScienceCinema

    Ahmed, Musahid

    2016-07-12

    Musahid Ahmed discusses how he and his team use the Advanced Light Source (ALS) to study combustion chemistry at our '8 Big Ideas' Science at the Theater event on October 8th, 2014, in Oakland, California.

  18. Sixth International Microgravity Combustion Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacksteder, Kurt (Compiler)

    2001-01-01

    This conference proceedings document is a compilation of papers presented orally or as poster displays to the Sixth International Microgravity Combustion Workshop held in Cleveland, Ohio on May 22-24, 2001. The purpose of the workshop is to present and exchange research results from theoretical and experimental work in combustion science using the reduced-gravity environment as a research tool. The results are contributed by researchers funded by NASA throughout the United States at universities, industry and government research agencies, and by researchers from international partner countries that are also participating in the microgravity combustion science research discipline. These research results are intended for use by public and private sector organizations for academic purposes, for the development of technologies needed for Human Exploration and Development of Space, and to improve Earth-bound combustion and fire-safety related technologies.

  19. Initial supersonic combustion facility measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krauss, Roland H.; Whitehurst, R. Bradford, III; Abitt, John D., III; Segal, Corin; Mcdaniel, James C.

    1989-01-01

    A combustion test tunnel designed for continuous operation to 2000 K was assembled. Flow quality of a Mach 2 nozzle for use with this tunnel was examined using an array of impact probes. The performance of gas shields used to protect optical windows was examined using both shadowgraphs and planar laser induced iodine fluorescence. High speed videography was used to aid in design of pressure relief panels related to hydrogen combustion testing safety.

  20. Smoldering Combustion Experiments in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walther, David C.; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; Urban, David L.

    1997-01-01

    The Microgravity Smoldering Combustion (MSC) experiment is part of a study of the smolder characteristics of porous combustible materials in a microgravity environment. Smoldering is a non-flaming form of combustion that takes place in the interior of porous materials and takes place in a number of processes ranging from smoldering of porous insulation materials to high temperature synthesis of metals. The objective of the study is to provide a better understanding of the controlling mechanisms of smolder, both in microgravity and normal-gravity. As with many forms of combustion, gravity affects the availability of oxidizer and transport of heat, and therefore the rate of combustion. Microgravity smolder experiments, in both a quiescent oxidizing environment, and in a forced oxidizing flow have been conducted aboard the NASA Space Shuttle (STS-69 and STS-77 missions) to determine the effect of the ambient oxygen concentration and oxidizer forced flow velocity on smolder combustion in microgravity. The experimental apparatus is contained within the NASA Get Away Special Canister (GAS-CAN) Payload. These two sets of experiments investigate the propagation of smolder along the polyurethane foam sample under both diffusion driven and forced flow driven smoldering. The results of the microgravity experiments are compared with identical ones carried out in normal gravity, and are used to verify present theories of smolder combustion. The results of this study will provide new insights into the smoldering combustion process. Thermocouple histories show that the microgravity smolder reaction temperatures (Ts) and propagation velocities (Us) lie between those of identical normal-gravity upward and downward tests. These observations indicate the effect of buoyancy on the transport of oxidizer to the reaction front.

  1. Lean premixed/prevaporized combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lefebvre, A. H. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    Recommendations were formulated on the status and application of lean premixed/prevaporized combustion to the aircraft gas turbine for the reduction of pollutant emissions. The approach taken by the NASA Stratospheric Cruise Emission Reduction Program (SCERP) in pursuing the lean premixed/prevaporized combustion technique was also discussed. The proceedings contains an overview of the SCERP program, the discussions and recommendations of the participants, and an overall summary.

  2. National Combustion Code: Parallel Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babrauckas, Theresa

    2001-01-01

    This report discusses the National Combustion Code (NCC). The NCC is an integrated system of codes for the design and analysis of combustion systems. The advanced features of the NCC meet designers' requirements for model accuracy and turn-around time. The fundamental features at the inception of the NCC were parallel processing and unstructured mesh. The design and performance of the NCC are discussed.

  3. Modeling of microgravity combustion experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckmaster, John

    1995-01-01

    This program started in February 1991, and is designed to improve our understanding of basic combustion phenomena by the modeling of various configurations undergoing experimental study by others. Results through 1992 were reported in the second workshop. Work since that time has examined the following topics: Flame-balls; Intrinsic and acoustic instabilities in multiphase mixtures; Radiation effects in premixed combustion; Smouldering, both forward and reverse, as well as two dimensional smoulder.

  4. The Fluids and Combustion Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundu, Sampa

    2004-01-01

    Microgravity is an environment with very weak gravitational effects. The Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) on the International Space Station (ISS) will support the study of fluid physics and combustion science in a long-duration microgravity environment. The Fluid Combustion Facility's design will permit both independent and remote control operations from the Telescience Support Center. The crew of the International Space Station will continue to insert and remove the experiment module, store and reload removable data storage and media data tapes, and reconfigure diagnostics on either side of the optics benches. Upon completion of the Fluids Combustion Facility, about ten experiments will be conducted within a ten-year period. Several different areas of fluid physics will be studied in the Fluids Combustion Facility. These areas include complex fluids, interfacial phenomena, dynamics and instabilities, and multiphase flows and phase change. Recently, emphasis has been placed in areas that relate directly to NASA missions including life support, power, propulsion, and thermal control systems. By 2006 or 2007, a Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR) and a Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) will be installed inside the International Space Station. The Fluids Integrated Rack will contain all the hardware and software necessary to perform experiments in fluid physics. A wide range of experiments that meet the requirements of the international space station, including research from other specialties, will be considered. Experiments will be contained in subsystems such as the international standard payload rack, the active rack isolation system, the optics bench, environmental subsystem, electrical power control unit, the gas interface subsystem, and the command and data management subsystem. In conclusion, the Fluids and Combustion Facility will allow researchers to study fluid physics and combustion science in a long-duration microgravity environment. Additional information is

  5. Catalytic combustion with steam injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. N.; Tacina, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of steam injection on (1) catalytic combustion performance, and (2) the tendency of residual fuel to burn in the premixing duct upstream of the catalytic reactor were determined. A petroleum residual, no. 2 diesel, and a blend of middle and heavy distillate coal derived fuels were tested. Fuel and steam were injected together into the preheated airflow entering a 12 cm diameter catalytic combustion test section. The inlet air velocity and pressure were constant at 10 m/s and 600 kPa, respectively. Steam flow rates were varied from 24 percent to 52 percent of the air flow rate. The resulting steam air mixture temperatures varied from 630 to 740 K. Combustion temperatures were in the range of 1200 to 1400 K. The steam had little effect on combustion efficiency or emissions. It was concluded that the steam acts as a diluent which has no adverse effect on catalytic combustion performance for no. 2 diesel and coal derived liquid fuels. Tests with the residual fuel showed that upstream burning could be eliminated with steam injection rates greater than 30 percent of the air flow rate, but inlet mixture temperatures were too low to permit stable catalytic combustion of this fuel.

  6. Aerovalve pulse combustion: Technical note

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, G.A.; Gemmen, R.S.; Narayanaswami, L.

    1994-07-01

    The authors present a mathematical model and an experimental investigation of aerodynamically valved pulse combustion. The model uses a control-volume approach to solve conservation laws in several regions of a pulse combustor. Mixing between the fresh charge and combustion products is modeled as a two-step process, with the mixing occurring slowly for a specified eddy time during each cycle, and then changing to a higher rate. Results of model simulations demonstrate that eddy time plays a significant role in determining the frequency and amplitude of combustion oscillation. The authors show that short eddy times produce steady, rather than pulsating, combustion. And they show that changes to the mixing process alter the temperature-species history of combustion gases in a manner that could prevent or promote the formation of nitrogen oxides, depending on specific mixing rates. The relatively simple control-volume approach used in this model allows rapid investigation of a wide range of geometric and operating parameters, and also defines characteristic length and time scales relevant to aerovalve pulse combustion. Experimental measurements compare favorably to model predictions. The authors place particular emphasis on time-averaged pressure differences through the combustor, which act as an indicator of pressure gain performance. They investigate both operating conditions and combustor geometry, and they show that a complex interaction between the inlet and exit flows of a combustor makes it difficult to produce general correlations among the various parameters. They use a scaling rule to produce a combustor geometry capable of producing pressure gain.

  7. Industrial Facility Combustion Energy Use

    DOE Data Explorer

    McMillan, Colin

    2016-08-01

    Facility-level industrial combustion energy use is calculated from greenhouse gas emissions data reported by large emitters (>25,000 metric tons CO2e per year) under the U.S. EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program (GHGRP, https://www.epa.gov/ghgreporting). The calculation applies EPA default emissions factors to reported fuel use by fuel type. Additional facility information is included with calculated combustion energy values, such as industry type (six-digit NAICS code), location (lat, long, zip code, county, and state), combustion unit type, and combustion unit name. Further identification of combustion energy use is provided by calculating energy end use (e.g., conventional boiler use, co-generation/CHP use, process heating, other facility support) by manufacturing NAICS code. Manufacturing facilities are matched by their NAICS code and reported fuel type with the proportion of combustion fuel energy for each end use category identified in the 2010 Energy Information Administration Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS, http://www.eia.gov/consumption/manufacturing/data/2010/). MECS data are adjusted to account for data that were withheld or whose end use was unspecified following the procedure described in Fox, Don B., Daniel Sutter, and Jefferson W. Tester. 2011. The Thermal Spectrum of Low-Temperature Energy Use in the United States, NY: Cornell Energy Institute.

  8. Direct simulation of turbulent combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poinsot, T. J.

    1990-01-01

    Understanding and modeling of turbulent combustion are key-problems in the computation of numerous practical systems. Because of the lack of analytical theories in this field and of the difficulty of performing precise experiments, direct simulation appears to be one of the most attractive tools to use in addressing this problem. The present work can be split into two parts: (1) Development and validation of a direct simulation method for turbulent combustion; (2) Applications of the method to premixed turbulent combustion problems. The goal of part 1 is to define and to test a numerical method for direct simulation of reacting flows. A high level of confidence should be attached to direct simulation results, and this can only be achieved through extensive validation tests. In part 2, direct simulation is used to address some of the many critical problems related to turbulent combustion. At the present time, I have limited this work to premixed combustion and considered only four basic issues: (1) The effect of pressure waves on flame propagation; (2) The interaction between flame fronts and vortices; (3) The influence of curvature on premixed flame fronts; and (4) The validation of flamelet models for premixed turbulent combustion.

  9. Combustion instability analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, T. J.

    1990-01-01

    A theory and computer program for combustion instability analysis are presented. The basic theoretical foundation resides in the concept of entropy-controlled energy growth or decay. Third order perturbation expansion is performed on the entropy-controlled acoustic energy equation to obtain the first order integrodifferential equation for the energy growth factor in terms of the linear, second, and third order energy growth parameters. These parameters are calculated from Navier-Stokes solutions with time averages performed on as many Navier-Stokes time steps as required to cover at least one peak wave period. Applications are made for a 1-D Navier-Stokes solution for the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) thrust chamber with cross section area variations taken into account. It is shown that instability occurs when the mean pressure is set at 2000 psi with 30 percent disturbances. Instability also arises when the mean pressure is set at 2935 psi with 20 percent disturbances. The system with mean pressures and disturbances more adverse that these cases were shown to be unstable.

  10. Internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuura, M.; Nakamori, M.; Honda, S.; Ishida, Y.; Nakanishi, T.

    1988-05-03

    An internal combustion engine is described comprising: (a) an engine body having a chamber; (b) a crankshaft rotatably mounted on the engine body; (c) a camshaft rotatably mounted on the engine body; (d) an oil lubricated endless transmission member extended around and operatively engaged with the crankshaft and the camshaft, the endless transmission member being movable along a closed path of travel in the chamber; (e) a tensioner hanger comprising an upper hanger member detachably secured to the engine body and a lower hanger member secured at an upper portion thereof to the upper hanger member, the upper hanger member having oil passage means adapted to receive lubrication oil from the endless transmission member at an inlet and guide the oil downwardly therethrough to an outlet; (f) a hollow mounting member affixed at an upper portion thereof to a lower portion of the lower hanger member of the tensioner hanger; (g) a hydraulic lock mechanism comprising a hollow cylinder and a plunger slidably received in the cylinder to define a hydraulic chamber in the cylinder; (h) a replenishable oil reservoir defined by a funnel-shaped space between the mounting member and the cylinder for receiving oil from the oil passage means and for holding the oil received therein; and (i) a tensioner member movably attached to the engine body and operatively engaged with the plunger.

  11. Asymmetrical internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Barret, P.

    1983-03-08

    An internal combustion engine adapted to be powered by a burnable gaseous fuel includes one cylinder, first and second pistons reciprocally movable in the cylinder substantially in opposite directions, inlet and outlet valves for controlling the flow of the gaseous fuel into the cylinder, and the exhaust of the burnt fuel therefrom, respectively, and a linkage device connected to the pistons for converting the reciprocating movement thereof into a rotary movement. The linkage device includes change-of-rate-of-displacement devices for increasing the rate of velocity in the maximum acceleration range, and for reducing the rate of displacement in the maximum velocity range of one piston with respect to the other piston, first and second piston rods pivotably connected to the first and second pistons, respectively, first and second crankshafts pivotably connected to the first and second piston rods, rotatable about first and second axes disposed substantially parallel to, and displaced by a predetermined angle from one another, respectively, and a gear train coupling the first and second crankshafts to one another. The gear train includes first and second fixedly mounted gearwheels, first and second concentrically mounted gear wheels, and a position-shiftable coupling mechanism for coupling the first gear wheels and the second gear wheels to one another, respectively, and an engaging device for meshing the eccentrically mounted gear wheels with one another.

  12. Chemical Looping Combustion Kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Edward Eyring; Gabor Konya

    2009-03-31

    One of the most promising methods of capturing CO{sub 2} emitted by coal-fired power plants for subsequent sequestration is chemical looping combustion (CLC). A powdered metal oxide such as NiO transfers oxygen directly to a fuel in a fuel reactor at high temperatures with no air present. Heat, water, and CO{sub 2} are released, and after H{sub 2}O condensation the CO{sub 2} (undiluted by N{sub 2}) is ready for sequestration, whereas the nickel metal is ready for reoxidation in the air reactor. In principle, these processes can be repeated endlessly with the original nickel metal/nickel oxide participating in a loop that admits fuel and rejects ash, heat, and water. Our project accumulated kinetic rate data at high temperatures and elevated pressures for the metal oxide reduction step and for the metal reoxidation step. These data will be used in computational modeling of CLC on the laboratory scale and presumably later on the plant scale. The oxygen carrier on which the research at Utah is focused is CuO/Cu{sub 2}O rather than nickel oxide because the copper system lends itself to use with solid fuels in an alternative to CLC called 'chemical looping with oxygen uncoupling' (CLOU).

  13. MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION ASSESSMENT ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The report defines and characterizes types of medical waste, discusses the impacts of burning medical waste on combustor emissions, and outlines important handling and operating considerations. Facility-specific design, handling, and operating practiced are also discussed for municipal waste combustors (MWCs) that reportedly accept medical waste in the U.S., Europe, and Canada. nly very limited data are available on the emission impacts associated with the combustion of medical waste in MWGs. Especially lacking is information needed to fully evaluate the impacts on acid gas, dioxin, and metals emissions, as well as the design and operating requirements for complete destruction of solvents, cytotoxic chemicals, and pathogens. The EPA's Office of Air Quatity Planning and Standards is developing emission standards and guidelines for new and existing MWCs under Sections 111(b) and 111(d) of the Clean Air Act. In support of these regulatory development efforts, the Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory in EPA's Office of Research and Development has conducted an assessment to examine the incineration of medical waste in MWGs from an emission standpoint. Potential worker safety and health problems associated with handling of medical wastes and residues were also identified. information

  14. NASA Microgravity Combustion Science Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Merrill K.

    1999-01-01

    Combustion has been a subject of increasingly vigorous scientific research for over a century, not surprising considering that combustion accounts for approximately 85% of the world's energy production and is a key element of many critical technologies used by contemporary society. Although combustion technology is vital to our standard of living, it also poses great challenges to maintaining a habitable environment. A major goal of combustion research is production of fundamental (foundational) knowledge that can be used in developing accurate simulations of complex combustion processes, replacing current "cut-and-try" approaches and allowing developers to improve the efficiency of combustion devices, to reduce the production of harmful emissions, and to reduce the incidence of accidental uncontrolled combustion. With full understanding of the physics and chemistry involved in a given combustion process, including details of the unit processes and their interactions, physically accurate models which can then be used for parametric exploration of new combustion domains via computer simulation can be developed, with possible resultant definition of radically different approaches to accomplishment of various combustion goals. Effects of gravitational forces on earth impede combustion studies more than they impede most other areas of science. The effects of buoyancy are so ubiquitous that we often do not appreciate the enormous negative impact that they have had on the rational development of combustion science. Microgravity offers potential for major gains in combustion science understanding in that it offers unique capability to establish the flow environment rather than having it dominated by uncontrollable (under normal gravity) buoyancy effects and, through this control, to extend the range of test conditions that can be studied. It cannot be emphasized too strongly that our program is dedicated to taking advantage of microgravity to untangle complications caused

  15. Industrial Combustion Technology Roadmap: A Technology Roadmap by and for the Industrial Combustion Community (1999)

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1999-04-01

    Combustion system users and manufacturers joined forces in 1999 to develop the Industrial Combustion Technology Roadmap. The roadmap outlines R&D priorities for developing advanced, highly efficient combustion systems that U.S. industry will require in the future.

  16. Spherical combustion clouds in explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhl, A. L.; Bell, J. B.; Beckner, V. E.; Balakrishnan, K.; Aspden, A. J.

    2013-05-01

    This study explores the properties of spherical combustion clouds in explosions. Two cases are investigated: (1) detonation of a TNT charge and combustion of its detonation products with air, and (2) shock dispersion of aluminum powder and its combustion with air. The evolution of the blast wave and ensuing combustion cloud dynamics are studied via numerical simulations with our adaptive mesh refinement combustion code. The code solves the multi-phase conservation laws for a dilute heterogeneous continuum as formulated by Nigmatulin. Single-phase combustion (e.g., TNT with air) is modeled in the fast-chemistry limit. Two-phase combustion (e.g., Al powder with air) uses an induction time model based on Arrhenius fits to Boiko's shock tube data, along with an ignition temperature criterion based on fits to Gurevich's data, and an ignition probability model that accounts for multi-particle effects on cloud ignition. Equations of state are based on polynomial fits to thermodynamic calculations with the Cheetah code, assuming frozen reactants and equilibrium products. Adaptive mesh refinement is used to resolve thin reaction zones and capture the energy-bearing scales of turbulence on the computational mesh (ILES approach). Taking advantage of the symmetry of the problem, azimuthal averaging was used to extract the mean and rms fluctuations from the numerical solution, including: thermodynamic profiles, kinematic profiles, and reaction-zone profiles across the combustion cloud. Fuel consumption was limited to ˜ 60-70 %, due to the limited amount of air a spherical combustion cloud can entrain before the turbulent velocity field decays away. Turbulent kinetic energy spectra of the solution were found to have both rotational and dilatational components, due to compressibility effects. The dilatational component was typically about 1 % of the rotational component; both seemed to preserve their spectra as they decayed. Kinetic energy of the blast wave decayed due to the

  17. Jet plume injection and combustion system for internal combustion engines

    DOEpatents

    Oppenheim, A.K.; Maxson, J.A.; Hensinger, D.M.

    1993-12-21

    An improved combustion system for an internal combustion engine is disclosed wherein a rich air/fuel mixture is furnished at high pressure to one or more jet plume generator cavities adjacent to a cylinder and then injected through one or more orifices from the cavities into the head space of the cylinder to form one or more turbulent jet plumes in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition of the rich air/fuel mixture in the cavity of the jet plume generator. The portion of the rich air/fuel mixture remaining in the cavity of the generator is then ignited to provide a secondary jet, comprising incomplete combustion products which are injected into the cylinder to initiate combustion in the already formed turbulent jet plume. Formation of the turbulent jet plume in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition has been found to yield a higher maximum combustion pressure in the cylinder, as well as shortening the time period to attain such a maximum pressure. 24 figures.

  18. Jet plume injection and combustion system for internal combustion engines

    DOEpatents

    Oppenheim, Antoni K.; Maxson, James A.; Hensinger, David M.

    1993-01-01

    An improved combustion system for an internal combustion engine is disclosed wherein a rich air/fuel mixture is furnished at high pressure to one or more jet plume generator cavities adjacent to a cylinder and then injected through one or more orifices from the cavities into the head space of the cylinder to form one or more turbulent jet plumes in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition of the rich air/fuel mixture in the cavity of the jet plume generator. The portion of the rich air/fuel mixture remaining in the cavity of the generator is then ignited to provide a secondary jet, comprising incomplete combustion products which are injected into the cylinder to initiate combustion in the already formed turbulent jet plume. Formation of the turbulent jet plume in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition has been found to yield a higher maximum combustion pressure in the cylinder, as well as shortening the time period to attain such a maximum pressure.

  19. Engine combustion control responsive to location and magnitude of peak combustion pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Tombley, D.E.

    1987-11-17

    A combustion control is described for an internal combustion engine of the type having combustion chambers, means for supplying a combustible charge to and igniting the combustible charge within each combustion chamber, power output apparatus including a rotating crankshaft, and means for sensing the crankshaft angle (LPP) and magnitude (MPP) of peak combustion pressure for each combustion chamber. The combustion control consists of: means for deriving the average magnitude of peak combustion pressure (AMPP); means for determining base values; memory means for storing tables of LPP ignition trim values, MPP ignition trim values and A/F trim values for each combustion chamber; means for comparing the sensed LPP value for each combustion chamber with a desired LPP value (DLPP) for that combustion chamber and adjusting the LPP ignition trim value for the predetermined engine operating parameters; means for comparing the MPP value for each combustion chamber with the average magnitude of peak combustion pressure; means to adjust the A/F trim value in the rich direction and reset the MPP ignition trim value; means to adjust the MPP ignition trim value in the advance direction; means to adjust the A/F trim value in the lean direction and reset the MPP ignition trim value; means for determining the combustible charge mixture for each combustion chamber from the base value thereof and the A/F trim value for the sensed predetermined engine operating parameters; means for determining the ignition timing for each combustion.

  20. Trends in the spin combustion of thermites

    SciTech Connect

    Dvoryankin, A.V.; Merzhanov, A.G.; Strunina, A.G.

    1982-09-01

    This article presents results on the main laws of spin combustion for thermite compositions. Examines the combustion in various thermite systems with various degrees of component dilution with reaction products in order to choose the objects. Discusses effects of external factors, effects of system parameters, and temperature distribution in spin combustion. Finds that oscillatory combustion (synchronous pulsation in the combustion rate at all points on the front) and spin modes (spiral displacement of a luminous focus) are separated by a combustion mode in the form of a set of luminous points moving in a random fashion over the combustion front; the low-calorie spin mode is sensitive to shift in the general heat balance in either sense during the combustion; and in the spin mode, the combustion is substantially influenced by the topology of the surface.

  1. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    The Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) program was developed as a focused program to remove and/or minimize the barriers for effective management of over 123 million tons of coal combustion byproducts (CCBs) annually generated in the USA. At the time of launching the CBRC in 1998, about 25% of CCBs were beneficially utilized while the remaining was disposed in on-site or off-site landfills. During the ten (10) year tenure of CBRC (1998-2008), after a critical review, 52 projects were funded nationwide. By region, the East, Midwest, and West had 21, 18, and 13 projects funded, respectively. Almost all projects were cooperative projects involving industry, government, and academia. The CBRC projects, to a large extent, successfully addressed the problems of large-scale utilization of CCBs. A few projects, such as the two Eastern Region projects that addressed the use of fly ash in foundry applications, might be thought of as a somewhat smaller application in comparison to construction and agricultural uses, but as a novel niche use, they set the stage to draw interest that fly ash substitution for Portland cement might not attract. With consideration of the large increase in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum in response to EPA regulations, agricultural uses of FGD gypsum hold promise for large-scale uses of a product currently directed to the (currently stagnant) home construction market. Outstanding achievements of the program are: (1) The CBRC successfully enhanced professional expertise in the area of CCBs throughout the nation. The enhanced capacity continues to provide technology and information transfer expertise to industry and regulatory agencies. (2) Several technologies were developed that can be used immediately. These include: (a) Use of CCBs for road base and sub-base applications; (b) full-depth, in situ stabilization of gravel roads or highway/pavement construction recycled materials; and (c) fired bricks containing up to 30%-40% F

  2. Computing and combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Coming into the Combustion Branch of the Turbomachinery and Propulsion Systems Division, there was not any set project planned out for me to work on. This was understandable, considering I am only at my sophmore year in college. Also, my mentor was a division chief and it was expected that I would be passed down the line. It took about a week for me to be placed with somebody who could use me. My first project was to write a macro for TecPlot. Commonly, a person would have a 3D contour volume modeling something such as a combustion engine. This 3D volume needed to have slices extracted from it and made into 2D scientific plots with all of the appropriate axis and titles. This was very tedious to do by hand. My macro needed to automate the process. There was some education I needed before I could start, however. First, TecPlot ran on Unix and Linux, like a growing majority of scientific applications. I knew a little about Linux, but I would need to know more to use the software at hand. I took two classes at the Learning Center on Unix and am now comfortable with Linux and Unix. I already had taken Computer Science I and II, and had undergone the transformation from Computer Programmer to Procedural Epistemologist. I knew how to design efficient algorithms, I just needed to learn the macro language. After a little less than a week, I had learned the basics of the language. Like most languages, the best way to learn more of it was by using it. It was decided that it was best that I do the macro in layers, starting simple and adding features as I went. The macro started out slicing with respect to only one axis, and did not make 2D plots out of the slices. Instead, it lined them up inside the solid. Next, I allowed for more than one axis and placed each slice in a separate frame. After this, I added code that transformed each individual slice-frame into a scientific plot. I also made frames for composite volumes, which showed all of the slices in the same XYZ space. I

  3. Combustion Instabilities Modeled

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paxson, Daniel E.

    1999-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center's Advanced Controls and Dynamics Technology Branch is investigating active control strategies to mitigate or eliminate the combustion instabilities prevalent in lean-burning, low-emission combustors. These instabilities result from coupling between the heat-release mechanisms of the burning process and the acoustic flow field of the combustor. Control design and implementation require a simulation capability that is both fast and accurate. It must capture the essential physics of the system, yet be as simple as possible. A quasi-one-dimensional, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based simulation has been developed which may meet these requirements. The Euler equations of mass, momentum, and energy have been used, along with a single reactive species transport equation to simulate coupled thermoacoustic oscillations. A very simple numerical integration scheme was chosen to reduce computing time. Robust boundary condition procedures were incorporated to simulate various flow conditions (e.g., valves, open ends, and choked inflow) as well as to accommodate flow reversals that may arise during large flow-field oscillations. The accompanying figure shows a sample simulation result. A combustor with an open inlet, a choked outlet, and a large constriction approximately two thirds of the way down the length is shown. The middle plot shows normalized, time-averaged distributions of the relevant flow quantities, and the bottom plot illustrates the acoustic mode shape of the resulting thermoacoustic oscillation. For this simulation, the limit cycle peak-to-peak pressure fluctuations were 13 percent of the mean. The simulation used 100 numerical cells. The total normalized simulation time was 50 units (approximately 15 oscillations), which took 26 sec on a Sun Ultra2.

  4. Advanced Subsonic Combustion Rig Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Advanced Subsonic Combustion Rig (ASCR), a unique, state-of-the-art facility for conducting combustion research, is located at the NASA Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The ASCR, which was nearing completion at the close of 1995, will be capable of simulating the very high pressure and high temperature conditions that are expected to exist in future, advanced subsonic gas turbine (jet) engines. Future environmental regulations will require much cleaner burning (more environmentally friendly) aircraft engines. The ASCR is critical to the development of these cleaner engines. It will allow NASA and U.S. aircraft engine industry researchers to identify and test promising clean-burning gas turbine engine combustion concepts under the pressure and temperature conditions that are expected for those future engines. Combustion processes will be investigated for a variety of next-generation aircraft engine sizes, including engines for large, long-range aircraft (with typical trip lengths of about 3000 mi) and for regional aircraft (with typical trip lengths of about 400 mi). The ASCR design was conceived and initiated in 1993, and fabrication and construction of the rig, including the buildup of an advanced control room, took place throughout 1994 and 1995. In early 1996, the ASCR will be operational for obtaining research data. The ASCR is an intricate part of the NASA Advanced Subsonic Technology Propulsion Program, which is aimed at developing technologies critical to the next generation of gas turbine engines. This effort is in collaboration with the U.S. aircraft gas turbine engine industry. A goal of the Advanced Subsonic Technology Propulsion Program is to develop combustion concepts and technologies that will result in gas turbine engines that produce 50 percent less nitrous oxide (NO_x) pollutants than current engines do. This facility is unique in its capability to simulate advanced subsonic engine pressure, temperature, and air flow rate conditions

  5. Fluids and Combustion Facility: Combustion Integrated Rack Modal Model Correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNelis, Mark E.; Suarez, Vicente J.; Sullivan, Timothy L.; Otten, Kim D.; Akers, James C.

    2005-01-01

    The Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) is a modular, multi-user, two-rack facility dedicated to combustion and fluids science in the US Laboratory Destiny on the International Space Station. FCF is a permanent facility that is capable of accommodating up to ten combustion and fluid science investigations per year. FCF research in combustion and fluid science supports NASA's Exploration of Space Initiative for on-orbit fire suppression, fire safety, and space system fluids management. The Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) is one of two racks in the FCF. The CIR major structural elements include the International Standard Payload Rack (ISPR), Experiment Assembly (optics bench and combustion chamber), Air Thermal Control Unit (ATCU), Rack Door, and Lower Structure Assembly (Input/Output Processor and Electrical Power Control Unit). The load path through the rack structure is outlined. The CIR modal survey was conducted to validate the load path predicted by the CIR finite element model (FEM). The modal survey is done by experimentally measuring the CIR frequencies and mode shapes. The CIR model was test correlated by updating the model to represent the test mode shapes. The correlated CIR model delivery is required by NASA JSC at Launch-10.5 months. The test correlated CIR flight FEM is analytically integrated into the Shuttle for a coupled loads analysis of the launch configuration. The analysis frequency range of interest is 0-50 Hz. A coupled loads analysis is the analytical integration of the Shuttle with its cargo element, the Mini Payload Logistics Module (MPLM), in the Shuttle cargo bay. For each Shuttle launch configuration, a verification coupled loads analysis is performed to determine the loads in the cargo bay as part of the structural certification process.

  6. Subgrid Combustion Modeling for the Next Generation National Combustion Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menon, Suresh; Sankaran, Vaidyanathan; Stone, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    In the first year of this research, a subgrid turbulent mixing and combustion methodology developed earlier at Georgia Tech has been provided to researchers at NASA/GRC for incorporation into the next generation National Combustion Code (called NCCLES hereafter). A key feature of this approach is that scalar mixing and combustion processes are simulated within the LES grid using a stochastic 1D model. The subgrid simulation approach recovers locally molecular diffusion and reaction kinetics exactly without requiring closure and thus, provides an attractive feature to simulate complex, highly turbulent reacting flows of interest. Data acquisition algorithms and statistical analysis strategies and routines to analyze NCCLES results have also been provided to NASA/GRC. The overall goal of this research is to systematically develop and implement LES capability into the current NCC. For this purpose, issues regarding initialization and running LES are also addressed in the collaborative effort. In parallel to this technology transfer effort (that is continuously on going), research has also been underway at Georgia Tech to enhance the LES capability to tackle more complex flows. In particular, subgrid scalar mixing and combustion method has been evaluated in three distinctly different flow field in order to demonstrate its generality: (a) Flame-Turbulence Interactions using premixed combustion, (b) Spatially evolving supersonic mixing layers, and (c) Temporal single and two-phase mixing layers. The configurations chosen are such that they can be implemented in NCCLES and used to evaluate the ability of the new code. Future development and validation will be in spray combustion in gas turbine engine and supersonic scalar mixing.

  7. Turbulent Combustion in SDF Explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, A L; Bell, J B; Beckner, V E

    2009-11-12

    A heterogeneous continuum model is proposed to describe the dispersion and combustion of an aluminum particle cloud in an explosion. It combines the gas-dynamic conservation laws for the gas phase with a continuum model for the dispersed phase, as formulated by Nigmatulin. Inter-phase mass, momentum and energy exchange are prescribed by phenomenological models. It incorporates a combustion model based on the mass conservation laws for fuel, air and products; source/sink terms are treated in the fast-chemistry limit appropriate for such gasdynamic fields, along with a model for mass transfer from the particle phase to the gas. The model takes into account both the afterburning of the detonation products of the C-4 booster with air, and the combustion of the Al particles with air. The model equations were integrated by high-order Godunov schemes for both the gas and particle phases. Numerical simulations of the explosion fields from 1.5-g Shock-Dispersed-Fuel (SDF) charge in a 6.6 liter calorimeter were used to validate the combustion model. Then the model was applied to 10-kg Al-SDF explosions in a an unconfined height-of-burst explosion. Computed pressure histories are compared with measured waveforms. Differences are caused by physical-chemical kinetic effects of particle combustion which induce ignition delays in the initial reactive blast wave and quenching of reactions at late times. Current simulations give initial insights into such modeling issues.

  8. Aviation combustion toxicology: an overview.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Arvind K

    2010-01-01

    Aviation combustion toxicology is a subspecialty of the field of aerospace toxicology, which is composed of aerospace and toxicology. The term aerospace, that is, the environment extending above and beyond the surface of the Earth, is also used to represent the combined fields of aeronautics and astronautics. Aviation is another term interchangeably used with aerospace and aeronautics and is explained as the science and art of operating powered aircraft. Toxicology deals with the adverse effects of substances on living organisms. Although toxicology borrows knowledge from biology, chemistry, immunology, pathology, physiology, and public health, the most closely related field to toxicology is pharmacology. Economic toxicology, environmental toxicology, and forensic toxicology, including combustion toxicology, are the three main branches of toxicology. In this overview, a literature search for the period of 1960-2007 was performed and information related to aviation combustion toxicology collected. The overview included introduction; combustion, fire, and smoke; smoke gas toxicity; aircraft material testing; fire gases and their interactive effects; result interpretation; carboxyhemoglobin and blood cyanide ion levels; pyrolytic products of aircraft engine oils, fluids, and lubricants; and references. This review is anticipated to be an informative resource for aviation combustion toxicology and fire-related casualties.

  9. Thermal Model of the Promoted Combustion Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Peter D.

    1996-01-01

    Flammability of metals in high pressure, pure oxygen environments, such as rocket engine turbopumps, is commonly evaluated using the Promoted Combustion Test (PCT). The PCT emphasizes the ability of an ignited material to sustain combustion, as opposed to evaluating the sample's propensity to ignite in the first place. A common arrangement is a rod of the sample material hanging in a chamber in which a high pressure, pure oxygen environment is maintained. An igniter of some energetically combusting material is fixed to the bottom of the rod and fired. This initiates combustion, and the sample burns and melts at its bottom tip. A ball of molten material forms, and this ball detaches when it grows too large to be supported by surface tension with the rod. In materials which do not sustain combustion, the combustion then extinguishes. In materials which do sustain combustion, combustion re-initiates from molten residue left on the bottom of the rod, and the melt ball burns and grows until it detaches again. The purpose of this work is development of a PCT thermal simulation model, detailing phase change, melt detachment, and the several heat transfer modes. Combustion is modeled by a summary rate equation, whose parameters are identified by comparison to PCT results. The sensitivity of PCT results to various physical and geometrical parameters is evaluated. The identified combustion parameters may be used in design of new PCT arrangements, as might be used for flammability assessment in flow-dominated environments. The Haynes 214 nickel-based superalloy, whose PCT results are applied here, burns heterogeneously (fuel and oxidizer are of different phases; combustion takes place on the fuel surface). Heterogeneous combustion is not well understood. (In homogeneous combustion, the metal vaporizes, and combustion takes place in an analytically treatable cloud above the surface). Thermal modeling in heterogeneous combustion settings provides a means for linking test

  10. Lyapunov spectrum in turbulent combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanaly, Malik; Raman, Venkat

    2016-11-01

    Transient flame evolution is an important flow problem for many practical applications (for example high-altitude relight, ignition in internal combustion engines, unstart in scramjets). Current approaches to combustion modeling utilize assumptions that are valid mainly for statistically stationary processes. In order to understand the transient problem, a dynamic systems approach is followed here. The propagation of a flame in a turbulent channel flow is used as a canonical turbulent combustion system and is analyzed with the Lyapunov theory. In particular, the Lyapunov spectrum for this flow is computed using multiple coordinated simulations. For a range of flow conditions, dimensionality of the state-space is determined. It is shown that the internal structure of the flame plays a critical role in determining the response of the system to perturbations in the flow.

  11. Novel Active Combustion Control Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caspermeyer, Matt

    2014-01-01

    This project presents an innovative solution for active combustion control. Relative to the state of the art, this concept provides frequency modulation (greater than 1,000 Hz) in combination with high-amplitude modulation (in excess of 30 percent flow) and can be adapted to a large range of fuel injector sizes. Existing valves often have low flow modulation strength. To achieve higher flow modulation requires excessively large valves or too much electrical power to be practical. This active combustion control valve (ACCV) has high-frequency and -amplitude modulation, consumes low electrical power, is closely coupled with the fuel injector for modulation strength, and is practical in size and weight. By mitigating combustion instabilities at higher frequencies than have been previously achieved (approximately 1,000 Hz), this new technology enables gas turbines to run at operating points that produce lower emissions and higher performance.

  12. Major research topics in combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Hussaini, M.Y.; Kumar, A.; Voigt, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    The Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering (ICASE) and NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) hosted a workshop on October 2--4, 1989 to discuss some combustion problems of technological interest to LaRC and to foster interaction with the academic community in these research areas. The topics chosen for this purpose were flame structure, flame holding/extinction, chemical kinetics, turbulence-kinetics interaction, transition to detonation, and reacting free shear layers. This document contains the papers and edited versions of general discussions on these topics. The lead paper set the stage for the meeting by discussing the status and issues of supersonic combustion relevant to the scramjet engine. Experts were then called upon to review the current knowledge in the aforementioned areas, to focus on how this knowledge can be extended and applied to high-speed combustion, and to suggest future directions of research in these areas.

  13. Combustion instability modeling and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Santoro, R.J.; Yang, V.; Santavicca, D.A.; Sheppard, E.J.

    1995-12-31

    It is well known that the two key elements for achieving low emissions and high performance in a gas turbine combustor are to simultaneously establish (1) a lean combustion zone for maintaining low NO{sub x} emissions and (2) rapid mixing for good ignition and flame stability. However, these requirements, when coupled with the short combustor lengths used to limit the residence time for NO formation typical of advanced gas turbine combustors, can lead to problems regarding unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions, as well as the occurrence of combustion instabilities. The concurrent development of suitable analytical and numerical models that are validated with experimental studies is important for achieving this objective. A major benefit of the present research will be to provide for the first time an experimentally verified model of emissions and performance of gas turbine combustors. The present study represents a coordinated effort between industry, government and academia to investigate gas turbine combustion dynamics. Specific study areas include development of advanced diagnostics, definition of controlling phenomena, advancement of analytical and numerical modeling capabilities, and assessment of the current status of our ability to apply these tools to practical gas turbine combustors. The present work involves four tasks which address, respectively, (1) the development of a fiber-optic probe for fuel-air ratio measurements, (2) the study of combustion instability using laser-based diagnostics in a high pressure, high temperature flow reactor, (3) the development of analytical and numerical modeling capabilities for describing combustion instability which will be validated against experimental data, and (4) the preparation of a literature survey and establishment of a data base on practical experience with combustion instability.

  14. Chemical kinetics and combustion modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.A.

    1993-12-01

    The goal of this program is to gain qualitative insight into how pollutants are formed in combustion systems and to develop quantitative mathematical models to predict their formation rates. The approach is an integrated one, combining low-pressure flame experiments, chemical kinetics modeling, theory, and kinetics experiments to gain as clear a picture as possible of the process in question. These efforts are focused on problems involved with the nitrogen chemistry of combustion systems and on the formation of soot and PAH in flames.

  15. Combustion-augmented laser ramjets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horisawa, Hideyuki; Tamada, Kazunobu; Kimura, Itsuro

    2006-05-01

    A preliminary study of combustion-augmented laser-ramjets was conducted, in which chemical propellant such as a gaseous hydrogen/air mixture was utilized and detonated with a focused laser beam in order to obtain a higher impulse compared to the case only using lasers. CFD analysis of internal conical-nozzle flows and experimental measurements including impulse measurement were conducted to evaluate effects of chemical reaction on thrust performance improvement. From the results, a significant improvement in the thrust performances was confirmed with addition of a small amount of hydrogen to propellant air, or in combustion-augmented operation.

  16. Engine Combustion Network Experimental Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Maintained by the Engine Combustion Department of Sandia National Laboratories, data currently available on the website includes reacting and non-reacting sprays in a constant-volume chamber at conditions typical of diesel combustion. The data are useful for model development and validation because of the well-defined boundary conditions and the wide range of conditions employed. A search utility displays data based on experimental conditions such as ambient temperature, ambient density, injection pressure, nozzle size, fuel, etc. Experiment-related visualizations are also available. (Specialized Interface)

  17. Combustion energy of fullerene soot

    SciTech Connect

    Man, Naoki; Nagano, Yatsuhisa; Kiyobayashi, Tetsu; Sakiyama, Minoru )

    1995-02-23

    The standard energy of combustion of fullerene soot generated in arc discharge was determined to be [minus]36.0 [+-] 0.5 kJ g[sup [minus]1] by oxygen-bomb combustion calorimetry. The value was much closer to those of C[sub 60] and C[sub 70] than that of graphite. This result provides an energetic reason for the remarkable yield of fullerenes in arc discharge and supports the mechanism of fullerene formation, where fullerenes are the lowest energy products. Fullerene onion formation is interpreted in terms of energy relaxation of the fullerene soot. 20 refs., 1 tab.

  18. Numerical approaches to combustion modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Oran, E.S.; Boris, J.P. )

    1991-01-01

    This book presents a series of topics ranging from microscopic combustion physics to several aspects of macroscopic reactive-flow modeling. As the reader progresses into the book, the successive chapters generally include a wider range of physical and chemical processes in the mathematical model. Including more processes, however, usually means that they will be represented phenomenologically at a cruder level. In practice the detailed microscopic models and simulations are often used to develop and calibrate the phenomenologies used in the macroscopic models. The book first describes computations of the most microscopic chemical processes, then considers laminar flames and detonation modeling, and ends with computations of complex, multiphase combustion systems.

  19. Combustion heater for oil shale

    DOEpatents

    Mallon, Richard G.; Walton, Otis R.; Lewis, Arthur E.; Braun, Robert L.

    1985-01-01

    A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650.degree.-700.degree. C. for use as a process heat source.

  20. Combustion heater for oil shale

    DOEpatents

    Mallon, R.; Walton, O.; Lewis, A.E.; Braun, R.

    1983-09-21

    A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650 to 700/sup 0/C for use as a process heat source.

  1. Survey of Hydrogen Combustion Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drell, Isadore L; Belles, Frank E

    1958-01-01

    This literature digest of hydrogen-air combustion fundamentals presents data on flame temperature, burning velocity, quenching distance, flammability limits, ignition energy, flame stability, detonation, spontaneous ignition, and explosion limits. The data are assessed, recommended values are given, and relations among various combustion properties are discussed. New material presented includes: theoretical treatment of variation in spontaneous ignition lag with temperature, pressure, and composition, based on reaction kinetics of hydrogen-air composition range for 0.01 to 100 atmospheres and initial temperatures of 0 degrees to 1400 degrees k.

  2. Promoted Combustion Test Propagation Rate Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borstorff, J.; Jones, P.; Lowery, F.

    2002-01-01

    Combustion propagation rate data were examined for potential use in benchmarking a thermal model of the Promoted Combustion Test (PCT), and also for potential use in measuring the repeatability of PCT results.

  3. Method for storing radioactive combustible waste

    DOEpatents

    Godbee, H.W.; Lovelace, R.C.

    1973-10-01

    A method is described for preventing pressure buildup in sealed containers which contain radioactively contaminated combustible waste material by adding an oxide getter material to the container so as to chemically bind sorbed water and combustion product gases. (Official Gazette)

  4. Development of a Premixed Combustion Capability for Scramjet Combustion Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rockwell, Robert D.; Goyne, Christopher P.; Rice, Brian E.; Chelliah, Harsha; McDaniel, James C.; Edwards, Jack R.; Cantu, Luca M. L.; Gallo, Emanuela C. A.; Cutler, Andrew D.; Danehy, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Hypersonic air-breathing engines rely on scramjet combustion processes, which involve high speed, compressible, and highly turbulent flows. The combustion environment and the turbulent flames at the heart of these engines are difficult to simulate and study in the laboratory under well controlled conditions. Typically, wind-tunnel testing is performed that more closely approximates engine testing rather than a careful investigation of the underlying physics that drives the combustion process. The experiments described in this paper, along with companion data sets being developed separately, aim to isolate the chemical kinetic effects from the fuel-air mixing process in a dual-mode scramjet combustion environment. A unique fuel injection approach is taken that produces a nearly uniform fuel-air mixture at the entrance to the combustor. This approach relies on the precombustion shock train upstream of the dual-mode scramjet combustor. A stable ethylene flame anchored on a cavity flameholder with a uniformly mixed combustor inflow has been achieved in these experiments allowing numerous companion studies involving coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), particle image velocimetry (PIV), and planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) to be performed.

  5. Combustion Behavior of Free Boron Slurry Droplets,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    Shockwaves 11, 189. Faeth, G.M. (1984). Status of boron combustion research. AFOSR Specialists Meeting on Boron Combustion, June, 1984. Friedman, R...containing water. Combust. Explosion and Shockwaves 17,9. Glassman, I., Williams, F.A., and Antaki, P. (1982). A physica] and chemical interpretation...temperature environment. Combust. Explosion and Shockwaves 15, 691. Johns, J.W.C. (1961) The absorption spectrum of BOz. Can. J. Phy§. 39, 1738. Kaskan, W.E

  6. Experimental and Computational Characterization of Combustion Phenomena

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    Fundamental Combustion Advanced Combustor Concepts Combustor Demonstration and Transition Figure 1. A design philosophy for transitioning basic...PFP UNCLASSIFIED [4] W.-W. Kim, S. Menon, and H. Mongia , “Large-Eddy Simulation of a Gas Turbine Combustor Flow,” Combust . Sci. Technol. 143, 25-62...AFRL-PR-WP-TM-2006-2131 EXPERIMENTAL AND COMPUTATIONAL CHARACTERIZATION OF COMBUSTION PHENOMENA Dr. James R. Gord Combustion Branch (AFRL

  7. Simulation study on combustion of biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, M. L.; Liu, X.; Cheng, J. W.; Liu, Y.; Jin, Y. A.

    2017-01-01

    Biomass combustion is the most common energy conversion technology, offering the advantages of low cost, low risk and high efficiency. In this paper, the transformation and transfer of biomass in the process of combustion are discussed in detail. The process of furnace combustion and gas phase formation was analyzed by numerical simulation. The experimental results not only help to optimize boiler operation and realize the efficient combustion of biomass, but also provide theoretical basis for the improvement of burner technology.

  8. Combustion products generating and metering device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiberg, R. E.; Klisch, J. A. (Inventor)

    1971-01-01

    An apparatus for generating combustion products at a predetermined fixed rate, mixing the combustion products with air to achieve a given concentration, and distributing the resultant mixture to an area or device to be tested is described. The apparatus is comprised of blowers, a holder for the combustion product generating materials (which burn at a predictable and controlled rate), a mixing plenum chamber, and a means for distributing the air combustion product mixture.

  9. Method and device for diagnosing and controlling combustion instabilities in internal combustion engines operating in or transitioning to homogeneous charge combustion ignition mode

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, Robert M [Knoxville, TN; Daw, Charles S [Knoxville, TN; Green, Johney B [Knoxville, TN; Edwards, Kevin D [Knoxville, TN

    2008-10-07

    This invention is a method of achieving stable, optimal mixtures of HCCI and SI in practical gasoline internal combustion engines comprising the steps of: characterizing the combustion process based on combustion process measurements, determining the ratio of conventional and HCCI combustion, determining the trajectory (sequence) of states for consecutive combustion processes, and determining subsequent combustion process modifications using said information to steer the engine combustion toward desired behavior.

  10. Combustor nozzle for a fuel-flexible combustion system

    DOEpatents

    Haynes, Joel Meier; Mosbacher, David Matthew; Janssen, Jonathan Sebastian; Iyer, Venkatraman Ananthakrishnan

    2011-03-22

    A combustor nozzle is provided. The combustor nozzle includes a first fuel system configured to introduce a syngas fuel into a combustion chamber to enable lean premixed combustion within the combustion chamber and a second fuel system configured to introduce the syngas fuel, or a hydrocarbon fuel, or diluents, or combinations thereof into the combustion chamber to enable diffusion combustion within the combustion chamber.

  11. Future Fundamental Combustion Research for Aeropropulsion Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    AD-MISS 771 FUTURE FUNDAMENTAL COMBUSTION RESEARCH FOR I AEROPROPULSION SYSTEMS(U) NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND I SPACE ADMINISTRATION CLEVELAND OH LEWIS... Future Fundamental Combustion Research for Aeropropulsion Systems u. Edward J. Mularz V Propulsion Laboratory A VSCOM Research and Technology Laboratories... FUTURE FUNDAMENTAL COMBUSTION RESEARCH FOR AEROPROPULSION SYSTEMS Edward J. Mularz

  12. 30 CFR 56.4104 - Combustible waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Combustible waste. 56.4104 Section 56.4104... Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 56.4104 Combustible waste. (a) Waste materials, including... properly, waste or rags containing flammable or combustible liquids that could create a fire hazard...

  13. 30 CFR 56.4104 - Combustible waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Combustible waste. 56.4104 Section 56.4104... Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 56.4104 Combustible waste. (a) Waste materials, including... properly, waste or rags containing flammable or combustible liquids that could create a fire hazard...

  14. 30 CFR 56.4104 - Combustible waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Combustible waste. 56.4104 Section 56.4104... Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 56.4104 Combustible waste. (a) Waste materials, including... properly, waste or rags containing flammable or combustible liquids that could create a fire hazard...

  15. 30 CFR 56.4104 - Combustible waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Combustible waste. 56.4104 Section 56.4104... Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 56.4104 Combustible waste. (a) Waste materials, including... properly, waste or rags containing flammable or combustible liquids that could create a fire hazard...

  16. 30 CFR 56.4104 - Combustible waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Combustible waste. 56.4104 Section 56.4104... Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 56.4104 Combustible waste. (a) Waste materials, including... properly, waste or rags containing flammable or combustible liquids that could create a fire hazard...

  17. Gas turbine combustion chamber with air scoops

    SciTech Connect

    Mumford, S.E.; Smed, J.P.

    1989-12-19

    This patent describes a gas turbine combustion chamber. It comprises: means for admission of fuel to the upstream end thereof and discharge of hot gases from the downstream end thereof, and a combustion chamber wall, having an outer surface, with apertures therethrough, and air scoops provided through the apertures to direct air into the combustion chamber.

  18. 75 FR 3881 - Combustible Dust

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... meetings will be conducted as a group discussion on views, concerns, and issues surrounding the hazards of combustible dust. To facilitate as much group interaction as possible, formal presentations will not be... meetings are being managed by Eastern Research Group (ERG), which will provide a facilitator and...

  19. 75 FR 10739 - Combustible Dust

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... and technical information. Contact Mat Chibbaro, P.E., Fire Protection Engineer, Office of Safety... finely divided form. Materials that may form combustible dust include, but are not limited to, wood, coal... handling, food manufacturing, wood product manufacturing, chemical manufacturing, textile...

  20. METAL PARTITIONING IN COMBUSTION PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article summarizes ongoing research efforts at the National Risk Management Research Laboratory of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency examining [high temperature] metal behavior within combustion environments. The partitioning of non-volatile (Cr and Ni), semi-volatil...

  1. Catalyzing the Combustion of Coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrey, M. F.; Dokko, W.

    1982-01-01

    Reaction rate of coal in air can be increased by contacting or coating coal with compound such as calcium acetate. The enhanced reaction rate generates more heat, reducing furnace size. Increase in combustion rate is about 26 percent, and internal pollutants in powerplant are reduced.

  2. Combustive management of oil spills

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Extensive experiments with in situ incineration were performed on a desert site at the University of Arizona with very striking results. The largest incinerator, 6 feet in diameter with a 30 foot chimney, developed combustion temperatures of 3000, F, and attendant soot production approximately 1000 times less than that produced by conventional in situ burning. This soot production, in fact, is approximately 30 times less than current allowable EPA standards for incinerators and internal combustion engines. Furthermore, as a consequence of the high temperature combustion, the bum rate was established at a very high 3400 gallons per hour for this particular 6 foot diameter structure. The rudimentary design studies we have carried out relative to a seagoing 8 foot diameter incinerator have predicted that a continuous burn rate of 7000 gallons per hour is realistic. This structure was taken as a basis for operational design because it is compatible with C130 flyability, and will be inexpensive enough ($120,000 per copy) to be stored at those seaside depots throughout the US coast line in which the requisite ancillary equipments (booms, service tugs, etc.) are already deployed. The LOX experiments verified our expectations with respect to combustion of debris and various highly weathered or emulsified oils. We have concluded, however, that the use of liquid oxygen in actual beach clean up is not promising because the very high temperatures associated with this combustion are almost certain to produce environmentally deleterious effects on the beach surface and its immediately sublying structures. However, the use of liquid oxygen augmentation for shore based and flyable incinerators may still play an important role in handing the problem of accumulated debris.

  3. Method of combustion for dual fuel engine

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, Bertrand D.; Confer, Gregory L.; Shen, Zujing; Hapeman, Martin J.; Flynn, Paul L.

    1993-12-21

    Apparatus and a method of introducing a primary fuel, which may be a coal water slutty, and a high combustion auxiliary fuel, which may be a conventional diesel oil, into an internal combustion diesel engine comprises detecting the load conditions of the engine, determining the amount of time prior to the top dead center position of the piston to inject the main fuel into the combustion chamber, and determining the relationship of the timing of the injection of the auxiliary fuel into the combustion chamber to achieve a predetermined specific fuel consumption, a predetermined combustion efficiency, and a predetermined peak cylinder firing pressure.

  4. Combustion engineering issues for solid fuel systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce Miller; David Tillman

    2008-05-15

    The book combines modeling, policy/regulation and fuel properties with cutting edge breakthroughs in solid fuel combustion for electricity generation and industrial applications. This book provides real-life experiences and tips for addressing the various technical, operational and regulatory issues that are associated with the use of fuels. Contents are: Introduction; Coal Characteristics; Characteristics of Alternative Fuels; Characteristics and Behavior of Inorganic Constituents; Fuel Blending for Combustion Management; Fuel Preparation; Conventional Firing Systems; Fluidized-Bed Firing Systems; Post-Combustion Emissions Control; Some Computer Applications for Combustion Engineering with Solid Fuels; Gasification; Policy Considerations for Combustion Engineering.

  5. Modeling of Laser-Induced Metal Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Boley, C D; Rubenchik, A M

    2008-02-20

    Experiments involving the interaction of a high-power laser beam with metal targets demonstrate that combustion plays an important role. This process depends on reactions within an oxide layer, together with oxygenation and removal of this layer by the wind. We present an analytical model of laser-induced combustion. The model predicts the threshold for initiation of combustion, the growth of the combustion layer with time, and the threshold for self-supported combustion. Solutions are compared with detailed numerical modeling as benchmarked by laboratory experiments.

  6. Method of combustion for dual fuel engine

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, B.D.; Confer, G.L.; Zujing Shen; Hapeman, M.J.; Flynn, P.L.

    1993-12-21

    Apparatus and a method of introducing a primary fuel, which may be a coal water slurry, and a high combustion auxiliary fuel, which may be a conventional diesel oil, into an internal combustion diesel engine comprises detecting the load conditions of the engine, determining the amount of time prior to the top dead center position of the piston to inject the main fuel into the combustion chamber, and determining the relationship of the timing of the injection of the auxiliary fuel into the combustion chamber to achieve a predetermined specific fuel consumption, a predetermined combustion efficiency, and a predetermined peak cylinder firing pressure. 19 figures.

  7. Combustion diagnostic for active engine feedback control

    DOEpatents

    Green, Jr., Johney Boyd; Daw, Charles Stuart; Wagner, Robert Milton

    2007-10-02

    This invention detects the crank angle location where combustion switches from premixed to diffusion, referred to as the transition index, and uses that location to define integration limits that measure the portions of heat released during the combustion process that occur during the premixed and diffusion phases. Those integrated premixed and diffusion values are used to develop a metric referred to as the combustion index. The combustion index is defined as the integrated diffusion contribution divided by the integrated premixed contribution. As the EGR rate is increased enough to enter the low temperature combustion regime, PM emissions decrease because more of the combustion process is occurring over the premixed portion of the heat release rate profile and the diffusion portion has been significantly reduced. This information is used to detect when the engine is or is not operating in a low temperature combustion mode and provides that feedback to an engine control algorithm.

  8. Particulate emissions from combustion of biomass in conventional combustion (air) and oxy-combustion conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruscio, Amanda Deanne

    Oxy-fuel combustion is a viable technology for new and existing coal-fired power plants, as it facilitates carbon capture and thereby, can reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The use of biomass as an energy source is another popular strategy to reduce carbon dioxide emissions as they are considered nearly carbon dioxide neutral. If the use of biomass is combined with oxy-fuel combustion, negative net emissions of carbon dioxide are possible. This work examined the particulate emissions from combustion of pulverized biomass residues burning in either conventional or oxy-fuel environments. Combustion of three biomasses (olive residue, corn residue, and torrefied pine sawdust) occurred in a laboratory-scale laminar-flow drop tube furnace (DTF) heated to 1400 K. The O2 mole fraction was increased from 20% to 60% in N2 environments while a range of 30% to 60% O2 mole fractions were used in CO2 environments to represent plausible dry oxy-fuel combustion conditions. Submicron particulate matter (PM1) emission yields of all three fuels were typically lower in O2/CO2 environments than in O2/N2 environments. When the oxygen mole fraction was increased, the PM1 yields typically increased. The mass fractions of submicron particulate matter (PM1/PM18) collected from biomass combustion were higher than those of coal combustion. PM 1 constituted approximately 50 wt% of the collected ash particles in PM18 in each environment, whereas the corresponding submicron emissions from coal constituted approximately 20 wt%. Changing the background gas had little effect on the chemical composition of the PM1 particles. Unlike the submicron particles collected from coal which contained high amounts of silicon and aluminum, high amounts of alkalis (potassium, calcium, and sodium) and chlorine were the major elements observed in PM1 from the biomasses. In addition, phosphorous and sulfur also existed in high amounts in PM1 of corn residue. Super-micron particles (PM1-18) yields exhibited no clear

  9. Light Duty Efficient, Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Donald Stanton

    2010-12-31

    Cummins has successfully completed the Light Duty Efficient Clean Combustion (LDECC) cooperative program with DoE. This program was established in 2007 in support of the Department of Energy's Vehicles Technologies Advanced Combustion and Emissions Control initiative to remove critical barriers to the commercialization of advanced, high efficiency, emissions compliant internal combustion (IC) engines for light duty vehicles. Work in this area expanded the fundamental knowledge of engine combustion to new regimes and advanced the knowledge of fuel requirements for these diesel engines to realize their full potential. All of the following objectives were met with fuel efficiency improvement targets exceeded: (1) Improve light duty vehicle (5000 lb. test weight) fuel efficiency by 10.5% over today's state-of-the-art diesel engine on the FTP city drive cycle; (2) Develop and design an advanced combustion system plus aftertreatment system that synergistically meets Tier 2 Bin 5 NOx and PM emissions standards while demonstrating the efficiency improvements; (3) Maintain power density comparable to that of current conventional engines for the applicable vehicle class; and (4) Evaluate different fuel components and ensure combustion system compatibility with commercially available biofuels. Key accomplishments include: (1) A 25% improvement in fuel efficiency was achieved with the advanced LDECC engine equipped with a novel SCR aftertreatment system compared to the 10.5% target; (2) An 11% improvement in fuel efficiency was achieved with the advanced LDECC engine and no NOx aftertreamtent system; (3) Tier 2 Bin 5 and SFTP II emissions regulations were met with the advanced LDECC engine equipped with a novel SCR aftertreatment system; (4) Tier 2 Bin 5 emissions regulations were met with the advanced LDECC engine and no NOx aftertreatment, but SFTP II emissions regulations were not met for the US06 test cycle - Additional technical barriers exist for the no NOx

  10. Distributed Low Temperature Combustion: Fundamental Understanding of Combustion Regime Transitions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-07

    study is to bring fundamental understanding of the impact of the chemical (Tau_c) and flow (Tau_f) timescales on combustion regime transitions in...reaction zone regime. The choice of DME is partly due to the potential practical relevance, but also due to the fundamentally different chemical ... chemical mechanisms for the considered fuels (e.g. DME) to establish their ability to reproduce laminar flame and auto-ignition properties. The

  11. Combustion properties of micronized coal for high intensity combustion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Freihaut, J.D.; Proscia, W.; Knight, B.; Vranos, A.; Hollick, H.; Wicks, K.

    1989-04-19

    Results are presented of an investigation of combustion related properties of micronized coal feeds (all particles less than 40 microns), mixing characteristics of centrifugally driven burner devices, and aerodynamic characteristics of micronized coal particles related to centrifugal mixing for high intensity combustion applications. Combustion related properties investigated are the evolution of fuel bound nitrogen and coal associated mineral matter during the initial stages of combustion. Parent and beneficiated micronized coal samples, as well as narrow size cut samples from a wide range of coal ranks, were investigated using a multireactor approach. The multireactor approach allowed the experimental separation of different aspects of the fuel nitrogen evolution process, enabling a comprehensive understanding of FBN to be formulated and empirical rate constants to be developed. A specially designed on-line gas analysis system allowed nitrogen balance to be achieved. A combined nitrogen and ash tracer technique allowed the quantitative determination of tar yields during rapid devolatilization. Empirical kinetic rates are developed for the evolution of FBN with tar at low temperatures and the appearance of HCN from tar and char species at high temperatures. A specially designed phase separation system, coupled to separate aerosol and char segregation trains, allowed the possible formation of ash aerosol by rapid devolatilization to be monitored. Compensated thermocouple, hot wire anemometry, and digital imaging techniques are employed to characterize the mixing properties of a centrifugally driven combustor. Analytical and experimental investigations of the fidelity of micronized coal particles to gas stream trajectories in the strong centrifugal fields are performed. Both spherical and nonspherical particle morphologies are considered analytically. 14 refs., 141 figs., 34 tabs.

  12. Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Ojeda, William de

    2010-07-31

    The project which extended from November 2005 to May of 2010 demonstrated the application of Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) with engine out NOx levels of 0.2 g/bhp-hr throughout the program target load of 12.6bar BMEP. The project showed that the range of loads could be extended to 16.5bar BMEP, therefore matching the reference lug line of the base 2007 MY Navistar 6.4L V8 engine. Results showed that the application of LTC provided a dramatic improvement over engine out emissions when compared to the base engine. Furthermore LTC improved thermal efficiency by over 5% from the base production engine when using the steady state 13 mode composite test as a benchmark. The key enablers included improvements in the air, fuel injection, and cooling systems made in Phases I and II. The outcome was the product of a careful integration of each component under an intelligent control system. The engine hardware provided the conditions to support LTC and the controller provided the necessary robustness for a stable combustion. Phase III provided a detailed account on the injection strategy used to meet the high load requirements. During this phase, the control strategy was implemented in a production automotive grade ECU to perform cycle-by-cycle combustion feedback on each of the engine cylinders. The control interacted on a cycle base with the injection system and with the Turbo-EGR systems according to their respective time constants. The result was a unique system that could, first, help optimize the combustion system and maintain high efficiency, and secondly, extend the steady state results to the transient mode of operation. The engine was upgraded in Phase IV with a Variable Valve Actuation system and a hybrid EGR loop. The impact of the more versatile EGR loop did not provide significant advantages, however the application of VVA proved to be an enabler to further extend the operation of LTC and gain considerable benefits in fuel economy and soot reduction. Finally

  13. Thermophysics Characterization of Kerosene Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ten-See

    2000-01-01

    A one-formula surrogate fuel formulation and its quasi-global combustion kinetics model are developed to support the design of injectors and thrust chambers of kerosene-fueled rocket engines. This surrogate fuel model depicts a fuel blend that properly represents the general physical and chemical properties of kerosene. The accompanying gaseous-phase thermodynamics of the surrogate fuel is anchored with the heat of formation of kerosene and verified by comparing a series of one-dimensional rocket thrust chamber calculations. The quasi-global combustion kinetics model consists of several global steps for parent fuel decomposition, soot formation, and soot oxidation, and a detailed wet-CO mechanism. The final thermophysics formulations are incorporated with a computational fluid dynamics model for prediction of the combustor efficiency of an uni-element, tri-propellant combustor and the radiation of a kerosene-fueled thruster plume. The model predictions agreed reasonably well with those of the tests.

  14. Fluidized bed coal combustion reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moynihan, P. I.; Young, D. L. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A fluidized bed coal reactor includes a combination nozzle-injector ash-removal unit formed by a grid of closely spaced open channels, each containing a worm screw conveyor, which function as continuous ash removal troughs. A pressurized air-coal mixture is introduced below the unit and is injected through the elongated nozzles formed by the spaces between the channels. The ash build-up in the troughs protects the worm screw conveyors as does the cooling action of the injected mixture. The ash layer and the pressure from the injectors support a fluidized flame combustion zone above the grid which heats water in boiler tubes disposed within and/or above the combustion zone and/or within the walls of the reactor.

  15. Combustion metamorphism in southern california.

    PubMed

    Bentor, Y K; Kastner, M

    1976-08-06

    In several places in Southern California bituminous sediments of the Monterey Formation-siliceous shales, phosphatic rocks, dolomites, and arkoses-were affected during the Pleistocene and as late as the l9th century by spontaneous subsurface combustion of organic matter, during which temperatures up to 1600 degrees C were reached. This oxidative heating (combustion metamorphism) affected rock complexes over areas of tens of square kilometers that tend to occur in clusters. As a result of these processes, the rocks recrystallized and partially melted to form pseudomagmas which intruded the country rocks. The chemical compositions of these melts differ from those of igneous magmas. Acid and intermediate siliceous melts as well as phosphatic melts have formed. These two types are generally immiscible. The following high-temperature minerals were determined: alpha- and beta-cristobalite, quartz, calcic plagioclase, diopsidic pyroxene, wollastonite, cordierite, graphite, fluorapatite, and fluorite; at lower temperature pyrite, gypsum, aragonite, calcite, jarosite, and hexahydrite crystallized.

  16. Oxy-coal Combustion Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, J.; Eddings, E.; Lighty, J.; Ring, T.; Smith, P.; Thornock, J.; Y Jia, W. Morris; Pedel, J.; Rezeai, D.; Wang, L.; Zhang, J.; Kelly, K.

    2012-01-06

    The objective of this project is to move toward the development of a predictive capability with quantified uncertainty bounds for pilot-scale, single-burner, oxy-coal operation. This validation research brings together multi-scale experimental measurements and computer simulations. The combination of simulation development and validation experiments is designed to lead to predictive tools for the performance of existing air fired pulverized coal boilers that have been retrofitted to various oxy-firing configurations. In addition, this report also describes novel research results related to oxy-combustion in circulating fluidized beds. For pulverized coal combustion configurations, particular attention is focused on the effect of oxy-firing on ignition and coal-flame stability, and on the subsequent partitioning mechanisms of the ash aerosol.

  17. Combustion synthesis continuous flow reactor

    DOEpatents

    Maupin, Gary D.; Chick, Lawrence A.; Kurosky, Randal P.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a reactor for combustion synthesis of inorganic powders. The reactor includes a reaction vessel having a length and a first end and a second end. The reaction vessel further has a solution inlet and a carrier gas inlet. The reactor further has a heater for heating both the solution and the carrier gas. In a preferred embodiment, the reaction vessel is heated and the solution is in contact with the heated reaction vessel. It is further preferred that the reaction vessel be cylindrical and that the carrier gas is introduced tangentially into the reaction vessel so that the solution flows helically along the interior wall of the reaction vessel. As the solution evaporates and combustion produces inorganic material powder, the carrier gas entrains the powder and carries it out of the reactor.

  18. Fundamental studies of spray combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Li, S.C.; Libby, P.A.; Williams, F.A.

    1997-12-31

    Our research on spray combustion involves both experiment and theory and addresses the characteristics of individual droplets and of sprays in a variety of flows: laminar and turbulent, opposed and impinging. Currently our focus concerns water and fuel sprays in two stage laminar flames, i.e., flames arising, for example from a stream of fuel and oxidizer flowing opposite to an air stream carrying a water spray. Our interest in these flames is motivated by the goals of reducing pollutant emissions and extending the range of stable spray combustion. There remains considerable research to be carried out in order to achieve these goals. Thus far our research on the characteristics of sprays in turbulent flows has been limited to nonreacting jets impinging on a plate but this work will be extended to opposed flows with and without a flame. In the following we discuss details of these studies and our plans for future work.

  19. Combustion synthesis continuous flow reactor

    DOEpatents

    Maupin, G.D.; Chick, L.A.; Kurosky, R.P.

    1998-01-06

    The present invention is a reactor for combustion synthesis of inorganic powders. The reactor includes a reaction vessel having a length and a first end and a second end. The reaction vessel further has a solution inlet and a carrier gas inlet. The reactor further has a heater for heating both the solution and the carrier gas. In a preferred embodiment, the reaction vessel is heated and the solution is in contact with the heated reaction vessel. It is further preferred that the reaction vessel be cylindrical and that the carrier gas is introduced tangentially into the reaction vessel so that the solution flows helically along the interior wall of the reaction vessel. As the solution evaporates and combustion produces inorganic material powder, the carrier gas entrains the powder and carries it out of the reactor. 10 figs.

  20. Steady state HNG combustion modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Louwers, J.; Gadiot, G.M.H.J.L.; Brewster, M.Q.; Son, S.F.; Parr, T.; Hanson-Parr, D.

    1998-04-01

    Two simplified modeling approaches are used to model the combustion of Hydrazinium Nitroformate (HNF, N{sub 2}H{sub 5}-C(NO{sub 2}){sub 3}). The condensed phase is treated by high activation energy asymptotics. The gas phase is treated by two limit cases: the classical high activation energy, and the recently introduced low activation energy approach. This results in simplification of the gas phase energy equation, making an (approximate) analytical solution possible. The results of both models are compared with experimental results of HNF combustion. It is shown that the low activation energy approach yields better agreement with experimental observations (e.g. regression rate and temperature sensitivity), than the high activation energy approach.

  1. The FCF Combustion Integrated Rack: Microgravity Combustion Science Onboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OMalley, Terence F.; Weiland, Karen J.

    2002-01-01

    The Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) is one of three facility payload racks being developed for the International Space Station (ISS) Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF). Most microgravity combustion experiments will be performed onboard the Space Station in the Combustion Integrated Rack. Experiment-specific equipment will be installed on orbit in the CIR to customize it to perform many different scientific experiments during the ten or more years that it will operate on orbit. This paper provides an overview of the CIR, including a description of its preliminary design and planned accommodations for microgravity combustion science experiments, and descriptions of the combustion science experiments currently planned for the CIR.

  2. Method and apparatus for active control of combustion rate through modulation of heat transfer from the combustion chamber wall

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Jr., Charles E.; Chadwell, Christopher J.

    2004-09-21

    The flame propagation rate resulting from a combustion event in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine is controlled by modulation of the heat transfer from the combustion flame to the combustion chamber walls. In one embodiment, heat transfer from the combustion flame to the combustion chamber walls is mechanically modulated by a movable member that is inserted into, or withdrawn from, the combustion chamber thereby changing the shape of the combustion chamber and the combustion chamber wall surface area. In another embodiment, heat transfer from the combustion flame to the combustion chamber walls is modulated by cooling the surface of a portion of the combustion chamber wall that is in close proximity to the area of the combustion chamber where flame speed control is desired.

  3. Basic Aerodynamics of Combustion Chambers,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-20

    for Measuring Flow Fields ....... .57 Chapter 4. Basic Equations of Flow Fields....................73 Chapter 5. Momentum and Potential Energy Equations...jets" for short. With air flow, fuel injection and ignition, one gets combustion which throws out heat energy and increases air flow. High pressure... energy can be produced by each square meter of volume, for each hour, for each atmosphere of pressure is called "heat emission stngth" or I. The I value

  4. Steady Nuclear Combustion in Rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saenger, E.

    1957-01-01

    The astrophysical theory of stationary nuclear reactions in stars is applied to the conditions that would be met in the practical engineering cases that would differ from the former, particularly with respect to the much lower combustion pressures, dimensions of the reacting volume, and burnup times. This application yields maximum rates of hear production per unit volume of reacting gas occurring at about 10(exp 8) K in the cases of reactions between the hydrogen isotopes, but yields higher rates for heavier atoms. For the former, with chamber pressures of the order of 100 atmospheres, the energy production for nuclear combustion reaches values of about 10(exp 4) kilocalories per cubic meter per second, which approaches the magnitude for the familiar chemical fuels. The values are substantially lower for heavier atoms, and increase with the square of the combustion pressure. The half-life of the burnup in the fastest reactions may drop to values as low as those for chemical fuels so that, despite the high temperature, the radiated energy can remain smaller than the energy produced, particularly if an inefficiently radiating (i.e., easily completely ionized reacting material like hydrogen), is used. On the other hand, the fraction of completely ionized particles in the gases undergoing nuclear combustion must not exceed a certain upper limit because the densities (approximately 10(exp -10) grams per cubic centimeter)) lie in the range of high vacua and only for the previously mentioned fraction of nonionized particles can mean free paths be retained small enough so that the chamber diameters of several dozen meters will suffice. Under these conditions it appears that continuously maintained stable nuclear reactions at practical pressures and dimensions are fundamentally possible and their application can be visualized as energy sources for power plants and propulsion units.

  5. Coal combustion by wet oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Bettinger, J.A.; Lamparter, R.A.; McDowell, D.C.

    1980-11-15

    The combustion of coal by wet oxidation was studied by the Center for Waste Management Programs, of Michigan Technological University. In wet oxidation a combustible material, such as coal, is reacted with oxygen in the presence of liquid water. The reaction is typically carried out in the range of 204/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) to 353/sup 0/C (650/sup 0/F) with sufficient pressure to maintain the water present in the liquid state, and provide the partial pressure of oxygen in the gas phase necessary to carry out the reaction. Experimental studies to explore the key reaction parameters of temperature, time, oxidant, catalyst, coal type, and mesh size were conducted by running batch tests in a one-gallon stirred autoclave. The factors exhibiting the greatest effect on the extent of reaction were temperature and residence time. The effect of temperature was studied from 204/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) to 260/sup 0/C (500/sup 0/F) with a residence time from 600 to 3600 seconds. From this data, the reaction activation energy of 2.7 x 10/sup 4/ calories per mole was determined for a high-volatile-A-Bituminous type coal. The reaction rate constant may be determined at any temperature from the activation energy using the Arrhenius equation. Additional data were generated on the effect of mesh size and different coal types. A sample of peat was also tested. Two catalysts were evaluated, and their effects on reaction rate presented in the report. In addition to the high temperature combustion, low temperature desulfurization is discussed. Desulfurization can improve low grade coal to be used in conventional combustion methods. It was found that 90% of the sulfur can be removed from the coal by wet oxidation with the carbon untouched. Further desulfurization studies are indicated.

  6. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    During this first quarter, a lab-scale water-cooled pulse combustor was designed, fabricated, and integrated with old pilot-scale PAFBC test systems. Characterization tests on this pulse combustor firing different kinds of fuel -- natural gas, pulverized coal and fine coal -- were conducted (without fluidized bed operation) for the purpose of finalizing PAFBC full-scale design. Steady-state tests were performed. Heat transfer performance and combustion efficiency of a coal-fired pulse combustor were evaluated.

  7. Radiation/Catalytic Augmented Combustion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-01

    focused continuous short arcs, and (3) pulsed lasers . Table I lists the optical features of these light sources. A continuous ultraviolet ( UV ) short... DIOXIDE FOR PROPANE AND AIR COMBUSTION 20 14 CARBON DIOXIDE CONCENTRATIONS FOR HONEYCOMB FLAMEHOLDERS 21 15 CARBON MONOXIDE CONCENTRATIONS FOR HONEYCOMB...almo.sL (1tLalftiLativt.Ly convert the fuel LO carbon dioxide and water. Using the data from Ref. 21, the equilibrium concen- Iil l 0 2 1L -1 r t o a i

  8. Nitrogen release during coal combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, L.L.; Mitchell, R.E.; Fletcher, T.H.; Hurt, R.H.

    1995-02-01

    Experiments in entrained flow reactors at combustion temperatures are performed to resolve the rank dependence of nitrogen release on an elemental basis for a suite of 15 U.S. coals ranging from lignite to low-volatile bituminous. Data were obtained as a function of particle conversion, with overall mass loss up to 99% on a dry, ash-free basis. Nitrogen release rates are presented relative to both carbon loss and overall mass loss. During devolatilization, fractional nitrogen release from low-rank coals is much slower than fractional mass release and noticeably slower than fractional carbon release. As coal rank increases, fractional nitrogen release rate relative to that of carbon and mass increases, with fractional nitrogen release rates exceeding fractional mass and fractional carbon release rates during devolatilization for high-rank (low-volatile bituminous) coals. At the onset of combustion, nitrogen release rates increase significantly. For all coals investigated, cumulative fractional nitrogen loss rates relative to those of mass and carbon passes through a maximum during the earliest stages of oxidation. The mechanism for generating this maximum is postulated to involve nascent thermal rupture of nitrogen-containing compounds and possible preferential oxidation of nitrogen sites. During later stages of oxidation, the cumulative fractional loss of nitrogen approaches that of carbon for all coals. Changes in the relative release rates of nitrogen compared to those of both overall mass and carbon during all stages of combustion are attributed to a combination of the chemical structure of coals, temperature histories during combustion, and char chemistry.

  9. Homogeneous catalysts in hypersonic combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Harradine, D.M.; Lyman, J.L.; Oldenborg, R.C.; Pack, R.T.; Schott, G.L.

    1989-01-01

    Density and residence time both become unfavorably small for efficient combustion of hydrogen fuel in ramjet propulsion in air at high altitude and hypersonic speed. Raising the density and increasing the transit time of the air through the engine necessitates stronger contraction of the air flow area. This enhances the kinetic and thermodynamic tendency of H/sub 2/O to form completely, accompanied only by N/sub 2/ and any excess H/sub 2/(or O/sub 2/). The by-products to be avoided are the energetically expensive fragment species H and/or O atoms and OH radicals, and residual (2H/sub 2/ plus O/sub 2/). However, excessive area contraction raises air temperature and consequent combustion-product temperature by adiabatic compression. This counteracts and ultimately overwhelms the thermodynamic benefit by which higher density favors the triatomic product, H/sub 2/O, over its monatomic and diatomic alternatives. For static pressures in the neighborhood of 1 atm, static temperature must be kept or brought below ca. 2400 K for acceptable stability of H/sub 2/O. Another measure, whose requisite chemistry we address here, is to extract propulsive work from the combustion products early in the expansion. The objective is to lower the static temperature of the combustion stream enough for H/sub 2/O to become adequately stable before the exhaust flow is massively expanded and its composition ''frozen.'' We proceed to address this mechanism and its kinetics, and then examine prospects for enhancing its rate by homogeneous catalysts. 9 refs.

  10. PDF Modelling of Turbulent Combustion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    calculations are compared to the experimental data of Cabra et al. (2002). These studies: reveal the stabilization mechanism of these flames; show the...have been performed of the lifted hydrogen flames studied experimentally by Cabra et al. (2002). These two studies are based on the composition PDF...and ’P =1). Black: exact solution; Red: CPIM; Blue: RCCE. 7 REFERENCES Barlow, R.S. and J.H. Frank (1998). Proc. Combust. Inst. 27, 1087-1095. Cabra , R

  11. Combustion diagnostics by laser spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitagawa, Kuniyuki; Morita, Shigeaki; Kodama, Kenji; Matsumoto, Kozo

    2009-03-01

    We have developed three different types of visualization methods for energy conversion systems by means of laser spectrometry. (1) Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy and (2) laser ionization mass spectrometry (LIMS) have been applied to visualization of chemical species in combustion fields of flames. (3) Near-infrared laser absorption spectroscopy has been used for visualization of water in a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC). Complex physicochemical processes in the energy conversion systems have been revealed by laser spectrometry.

  12. Distributed Combustion in Solid Propellants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    ABSTRACT (Maurrnum200 wora5 This report summarizes work on a research program to quantify the effect of distributed combustion of metal particles in a ...Rijke burner. Under a previous contract experimental data were obtained with the Rijke burner, and a mathematical model of the burner was developed. To...calculated internally. Results indicate that the modified model compares more favorably to experimental data than a simple liquid droplet model. The

  13. ABB Combustion Engineering nuclear technology

    SciTech Connect

    Matzie, R.A.

    1994-12-31

    The activities of ABB Combustion Engineering in the design and construction of nuclear systems and components are briefly reviewed. ABB Construction Engineering continues to improve the design and design process for nuclear generating stations. Potential improvements are evaluated to meet new requirements both of the public and the regulator, so that the designs meet the highest standards worldwide. Advancements necessary to meet market needs and to ensure the highest level of performance in the future will be made.

  14. Modeling the internal combustion engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeleznik, F. J.; Mcbride, B. J.

    1985-01-01

    A flexible and computationally economical model of the internal combustion engine was developed for use on large digital computer systems. It is based on a system of ordinary differential equations for cylinder-averaged properties. The computer program is capable of multicycle calculations, with some parameters varying from cycle to cycle, and has restart capabilities. It can accommodate a broad spectrum of reactants, permits changes in physical properties, and offers a wide selection of alternative modeling functions without any reprogramming. It readily adapts to the amount of information available in a particular case because the model is in fact a hierarchy of five models. The models range from a simple model requiring only thermodynamic properties to a complex model demanding full combustion kinetics, transport properties, and poppet valve flow characteristics. Among its many features the model includes heat transfer, valve timing, supercharging, motoring, finite burning rates, cycle-to-cycle variations in air-fuel ratio, humid air, residual and recirculated exhaust gas, and full combustion kinetics.

  15. Combustion instability modeling and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Santoro, R.J.; Yang, V.; Santavicca, D.A.

    1995-10-01

    It is well known that the two key elements for achieving low emissions and high performance in a gas turbine combustor are to simultaneously establish (1) a lean combustion zone for maintaining low NO{sub x} emissions and (2) rapid mixing for good ignition and flame stability. However, these requirements, when coupled with the short combustor lengths used to limit the residence time for NO formation typical of advanced gas turbine combustors, can lead to problems regarding unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions, as well as the occurrence of combustion instabilities. Clearly, the key to successful gas turbine development is based on understanding the effects of geometry and operating conditions on combustion instability, emissions (including UHC, CO and NO{sub x}) and performance. The concurrent development of suitable analytical and numerical models that are validated with experimental studies is important for achieving this objective. A major benefit of the present research will be to provide for the first time an experimentally verified model of emissions and performance of gas turbine combustors.

  16. Demonstration of Active Combustion Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovett, Jeffrey A.; Teerlinck, Karen A.; Cohen, Jeffrey M.

    2008-01-01

    The primary objective of this effort was to demonstrate active control of combustion instabilities in a direct-injection gas turbine combustor that accurately simulates engine operating conditions and reproduces an engine-type instability. This report documents the second phase of a two-phase effort. The first phase involved the analysis of an instability observed in a developmental aeroengine and the design of a single-nozzle test rig to replicate that phenomenon. This was successfully completed in 2001 and is documented in the Phase I report. This second phase was directed toward demonstration of active control strategies to mitigate this instability and thereby demonstrate the viability of active control for aircraft engine combustors. This involved development of high-speed actuator technology, testing and analysis of how the actuation system was integrated with the combustion system, control algorithm development, and demonstration testing in the single-nozzle test rig. A 30 percent reduction in the amplitude of the high-frequency (570 Hz) instability was achieved using actuation systems and control algorithms developed within this effort. Even larger reductions were shown with a low-frequency (270 Hz) instability. This represents a unique achievement in the development and practical demonstration of active combustion control systems for gas turbine applications.

  17. NASA National Combustion Code Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iannetti, Anthony; Davoudzadeh, Farhad

    2001-01-01

    A systematic effort is in progress to further validate the National Combustion Code (NCC) that has been developed at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) for comprehensive modeling and simulation of aerospace combustion systems. The validation efforts include numerical simulation of the gas-phase combustor experiments conducted at the Center for Turbulence Research (CTR), Stanford University, followed by comparison and evaluation of the computed results with the experimental data. Presently, at GRC, a numerical model of the experimental gaseous combustor is built to simulate the experimental model. The constructed numerical geometry includes the flow development sections for air annulus and fuel pipe, 24 channel air and fuel swirlers, hub, combustor, and tail pipe. Furthermore, a three-dimensional multi-block, multi-grid grid (1.6 million grid points, 3-levels of multi-grid) is generated. Computational simulation of the gaseous combustor flow field operating on methane fuel has started. The computational domain includes the whole flow regime starting from the fuel pipe and the air annulus, through the 12 air and 12 fuel channels, in the combustion region and through the tail pipe.

  18. The combustion program at CTR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poinsot, Thierry J.

    1993-01-01

    Understanding and modeling of turbulent combustion are key problems in the computation of numerous practical systems. Because of the lack of analytical theories in this field and of the difficulty of performing precise experiments, direct numerical simulation (DNS) appears to be one of the most attractive tools to use in addressing this problem. The general objective of DNS of reacting flows is to improve our knowledge of turbulent combustion but also to use this information for turbulent combustion models. For the foreseeable future, numerical simulation of the full three-dimensional governing partial differential equations with variable density and transport properties as well as complex chemistry will remain intractable; thus, various levels of simplification will remain necessary. On one hand, the requirement to simplify is not necessarily a handicap: numerical simulations allow the researcher a degree of control in isolating specific physical phenomena that is inaccessible in experiments. CTR has pursued an intensive research program in the field of DNS for turbulent reacting flows since 1987. DNS of reacting flows is quite different from DNS of non-reacting flows: without reaction, the equations to solve are clearly the five conservation equations of the Navier Stokes system for compressible situations (four for incompressible cases), and the limitation of the approach is the Reynolds number (or in other words the number of points in the computation). For reacting flows, the choice of the equations, the species (each species will require one additional conservation equation), the chemical scheme, and the configuration itself is more complex.

  19. The Fluids And Combustion Facility Combustion Integrated Rack And The Multi-User Droplet Combustion Apparatus: Microgravity Combustion Science Using Modular Multi-User Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OMalley, Terence F.; Myhre, Craig A.

    2000-01-01

    The Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) is a multi-rack payload planned for the International Space Station (ISS) that will enable the study of fluid physics and combustion science in a microgravity environment. The Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) is one of two International Standard Payload Racks of the FCF and is being designed primarily to support combustion science experiments. The Multi-user Droplet Combustion Apparatus (MDCA) is a multi-user apparatus designed to accommodate four different droplet combustion science experiments and is the first payload for CIR. The CIR will function independently until the later launch of the Fluids Integrated Rack component of the FCF. This paper provides an overview of the capabilities and the development status of the CIR and MDCA.

  20. Combustion apparatus and method of generating gas

    SciTech Connect

    Van Berkum, R.A.

    1988-05-31

    A combustion apparatus for converting carbon-based fuels in combustible gas is described comprising: a housing which defines an internal reaction chamber; fuel supply means for supplying fuel to the reaction chamber such that a fuel pile of generally constant configuration is maintained in the reaction chamber; a means for supporting the fuel pile, the fuel pile supporting means being disposed adjacent a bottom of the reaction chamber and permitting the flow of gas therethrough; a gas inlet disposed below the fuel pile supporting means for supplying an oxygen-carrying gas through the supporting means to react chemically with the fuel in the fuel pile to generate the combustible gas; ash removal for removing reaction by-products from adjacent the supporting means; a gas outlet for transporting the generated combustible gas from the housing; and, means for partially combusting the generated combustible gas to inhibit condensation of the vapors from the gas.

  1. Quality of combustion processes -- An assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Noskievic, P.; Ochodek, T.

    1996-12-31

    Currently about 85% of all power in the world is generated by fossil fuel combustion. The most widely used alternatives of renewable sources of energy are again based on combustion processes. Apart from the development of modern systems, the inevitable necessity of efficiency increase of combustion systems and the pollution abatement process, they both ask for an in-depth knowledge of combustion processes in actual furnace condition. The experimentally obtained results are remarkably valuable and, together with the results of modelled experiments, they are taken up developing new combustion systems. Actual operating conditions always differ from the laboratory ones, and therefore the understanding of the actual course of combustion process in a real furnace is always an asset which may spell out occasionally quite obscure phenomena, and which, in addition, may provide valuable data for verification of physical as well as mathematical modelling.

  2. Sandia Combustion Research Program: Annual report, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This report presents research results of the past year, divided thematically into some ten categories. Publications and presentations arising from this work are included in the appendix. Our highlighted accomplishment of the year is the announcement of the discovery and demonstration of the RAPRENOx process. This new mechanism for the elimination of nitrogen oxides from essentially all kinds of combustion exhausts shows promise for commercialization, and may eventually make a significant contribution to our nation's ability to control smog and acid rain. The sections of this volume describe the facility's laser and computer system, laser diagnostics of flames, combustion chemistry, reacting flows, liquid and solid propellant combustion, mathematical models of combustion, high-temperature material interfaces, studies of engine/furnace combustion, coal combustion, and the means of encouraging technology transfer. 182 refs., 170 figs., 12 tabs.

  3. 46 CFR 105.10-10 - Combustible liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Combustible liquid. 105.10-10 Section 105.10-10 Shipping... Combustible liquid. (a) The term combustible liquid means any liquid having a flashpoint above 80 °F. (as..., combustible liquids are referred to by grades, as follows: (1) Grade D. Any combustible liquid having...

  4. 46 CFR 105.10-10 - Combustible liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Combustible liquid. 105.10-10 Section 105.10-10 Shipping... Combustible liquid. (a) The term combustible liquid means any liquid having a flashpoint above 80 °F. (as..., combustible liquids are referred to by grades, as follows: (1) Grade D. Any combustible liquid having...

  5. 46 CFR 105.10-10 - Combustible liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Combustible liquid. 105.10-10 Section 105.10-10 Shipping... Combustible liquid. (a) The term combustible liquid means any liquid having a flashpoint above 80 °F. (as..., combustible liquids are referred to by grades, as follows: (1) Grade D. Any combustible liquid having...

  6. 46 CFR 105.10-10 - Combustible liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Combustible liquid. 105.10-10 Section 105.10-10 Shipping... Combustible liquid. (a) The term combustible liquid means any liquid having a flashpoint above 80 °F. (as..., combustible liquids are referred to by grades, as follows: (1) Grade D. Any combustible liquid having...

  7. 46 CFR 105.10-10 - Combustible liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Combustible liquid. 105.10-10 Section 105.10-10 Shipping... Combustible liquid. (a) The term combustible liquid means any liquid having a flashpoint above 80 °F. (as..., combustible liquids are referred to by grades, as follows: (1) Grade D. Any combustible liquid having...

  8. 14 CFR 25.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Combustion heater fire protection. 25.859....859 Combustion heater fire protection. (a) Combustion heater fire zones. The following combustion... surrounds the combustion chamber. However, no fire extinguishment is required in cabin ventilating...

  9. 14 CFR 29.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Combustion heater fire protection. 29.859... § 29.859 Combustion heater fire protection. (a) Combustion heater fire zones. The following combustion... any ventilating air passage that— (i) Surrounds the combustion chamber; and (ii) Would not...

  10. 14 CFR 29.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Combustion heater fire protection. 29.859... § 29.859 Combustion heater fire protection. (a) Combustion heater fire zones. The following combustion... any ventilating air passage that— (i) Surrounds the combustion chamber; and (ii) Would not...

  11. 14 CFR 25.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Combustion heater fire protection. 25.859....859 Combustion heater fire protection. (a) Combustion heater fire zones. The following combustion... surrounds the combustion chamber. However, no fire extinguishment is required in cabin ventilating...

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, NOX CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES, CATALYTICA COMBUSTION SYSTEMS, INC., XONON FLAMELESS COMBUSTION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the Xonon Cool Combustion System manufactured by Catalytica Energy Systems, Inc., formerly Catalytica Combustion Systems, Inc., to control NOx emissions from gas turbines that operate wit...

  13. Industrial Combustion Vision: A Vision by and for the Industrial Combustion Community

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1998-05-01

    The Industrial Combustion Vision is the result of a collaborative effort by manufacturers and users of burners, boilers, furnaces, and other process heating equipment. The vision sets bold targets for tomorrow's combustion systems.

  14. The 3rd International Microgravity Combustion Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Howard D. (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    This Conference Publication contains 71 papers presented at the Third International Microgravity Combustion Workshop held in Cleveland, Ohio, from April 11 to 13, 1995. The purpose of the workshop was twofold: to exchange information about the progress and promise of combustion science in microgravity and to provide a forum to discuss which areas in microgravity combustion science need to be expanded profitably and which should be included in upcoming NASA Research Announcements (NRA).

  15. Liquid rocket engine combustion stabilization devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Combustion instability, which results from a coupling of the combustion process and the fluid dynamics of the engine system, was investigated. The design of devices which reduce coupling (combustion chamber baffles) and devices which increase damping (acoustic absorbers) are described. Included in the discussion are design criteria and recommended practices, structural and mechanical design, thermal control, baffle geometry, baffle/engine interactions, acoustic damping analysis, and absorber configurations.

  16. Advanced Integrated Fuel/Combustion Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    This decrease will allow for increased combustion operating efficiencies and fuel economy with reduced emissions on both current and future aircraft...capability is planned to be implemented on the CFM-56 for future combustion studies. We made facility improvements to allow fuel composition studies...an Aero Gas Turbine Combustion Chamber," ASME 97-GT-148. 8. Tolpadi, A. K., Danis, A. M., Mongia , H. C., and Lindstedt R. P., "Soot Modeling in

  17. The Second International Microgravity Combustion Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This CP contains 40 papers presented at the Second International Microgravity Combustion Workshop held in Cleveland, OH, from September 15 to 17, 1992. The purpose of the workshop was twofold: to exchange information about the progress and promise of combustion science in microgravity and to provide a forum to discuss which areas in microgravity combustion science need to be expanded profitably and which should be included in upcoming NASA Research Announcements (NRA).

  18. Can Chemical Looping Combustion Use CFB Technology?

    SciTech Connect

    Gamwo, I.K.

    2006-11-01

    Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) technology has demonstrated an unparalleled ability to achieve low SO2 and NOx emissions for coal-fired power plants without CO2 capture. Chemical Looping combustion (CLC) is a novel fuel combustion technology which appears as a leading candidate in terms of competitiveness for CO2 removal from flue gas. This presentaion deals with the adaptation of circulating fluidized bed technology to Chemical looping combustion

  19. New Combustion Regimes and Kinetic Studies of Plasma Assisted Combustion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    species: O, H, O2(a∆g) … Most combustors Disappear of the “S-curve” the classical S-curve . Can plasma assisted combustion enhances sublimit...species: O, H, O2(a∆g) … Most combustors Disappear of the “S-curve” the classical S-curve Ignition Extinction Hypothesis 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20...Ether (DME) Oxidation 23 Molecular beam P la sm a R e ac to r ex it R e ac ti o n p ro d u ct s 0.1-5 atm Quartz nozzle

  20. Combustion of Solid Propellants (La Combustion des Propergols Solides)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-01

    on peut s’interroger sur l’adquation des moyens engages ausceptiblea do se manifester naturellement au cours du A Ia complexit6 du probl~me... capteur d’Helmoltz; de pression lorsque Ia fr~quence vanet. Calcul num~rique et mithode expdrimentale donnent des irdsultats en bon accord, c’cst-i... naturellement , avec des niveaux stabilis~s moddr~s. mod~le de combustion (r~f. 30) et des limites de L’opinion est r~pandue que la segmentation peut l’approche

  1. Pyrolysis reactor and fluidized bed combustion chamber

    DOEpatents

    Green, Norman W.

    1981-01-06

    A solid carbonaceous material is pyrolyzed in a descending flow pyrolysis reactor in the presence of a particulate source of heat to yield a particulate carbon containing solid residue. The particulate source of heat is obtained by educting with a gaseous source of oxygen the particulate carbon containing solid residue from a fluidized bed into a first combustion zone coupled to a second combustion zone. A source of oxygen is introduced into the second combustion zone to oxidize carbon monoxide formed in the first combustion zone to heat the solid residue to the temperature of the particulate source of heat.

  2. Integrated method for combustion stability prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Y. C.; O'Hara, L.; Smith, R. J.; Anderson, W. E.; Merkle, C. L.

    2011-10-01

    Major obstacles in overcoming combustion instability include the absence of a mechanistic and a priori prediction capability, and the difficulty in studying instability in the laboratory due to the perceived need for testing at the full-scale pressure and geometry to ensure that important processes are maintained. A hierarchal approach toward combustion instability is described that comprises experiment, analysis, and highfidelity computation to develop combustion response submodels that can be used in engineering-level design analysis. The paper provides an illustrative example of how these elements are used to develop a prediction for growth rates in model rocket combustors that generate spontaneous longitudinal combustion instabilities.

  3. Space Station Live: Fluids and Combustion Facility

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean speaks with Robert Corban, Fluids and Combustion Facility Manager, about the research being performed aboard the International Space Station using this state...

  4. Engine valve actuation for combustion enhancement

    DOEpatents

    Reitz, Rolf Deneys; Rutland, Christopher J.; Jhavar, Rahul

    2008-03-04

    A combustion chamber valve, such as an intake valve or an exhaust valve, is briefly opened during the compression and/or power strokes of a 4-strokes combustion cycle in an internal combustion engine (in particular, a diesel or CI engine). The brief opening may (1) enhance mixing withing the combustion chamber, allowing more complete oxidation of particulates to decrease engine emissions; and/or may (2) delay ignition until a more desirable time, potentially allowing a means of timing ignition in otherwise difficult-to-control conditions, e.g., in HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) conditions.

  5. Engine Valve Actuation For Combustion Enhancement

    DOEpatents

    Reitz, Rolf Deneys; Rutland, Christopher J.; Jhavar, Rahul

    2004-05-18

    A combustion chamber valve, such as an intake valve or an exhaust valve, is briefly opened during the compression and/or power strokes of a 4-stroke combustion cycle in an internal combustion engine (in particular, a diesel or CI engine). The brief opening may (1) enhance mixing withing the combustion chamber, allowing more complete oxidation of particulates to decrease engine emissions; and/or may (2) delay ignition until a more desirable time, potentially allowing a means of timing ignition in otherwise difficult-to-control conditions, e.g., in HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) conditions.

  6. Determining Heats of Combustion of Gaseous Hydrocarbons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Jag J.; Sprinkle, Danny R.; Puster, Richard L.

    1987-01-01

    Enrichment-oxygen flow rate-ratio related to heat of combustion. Technique developed for determining heats of combustion of natural-gas samples. Based on measuring ratio m/n, where m is (volmetric) flow rate of oxygen required to enrich carrier air in which test gas flowing at rate n is burned, such that mole fraction of oxygen in combustion-product gases equals that in carrier air. The m/n ratio directly related to heats of combustion of saturated hydrocarbons present in natural gas.

  7. Combustion: Structural interaction in a viscoelastic material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, T. Y.; Chang, J. P.; Kumar, M.; Kuo, K. K.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of interaction between combustion processes and structural deformation of solid propellant was considered. The combustion analysis was performed on the basis of deformed crack geometry, which was determined from the structural analysis. On the other hand, input data for the structural analysis, such as pressure distribution along the crack boundary and ablation velocity of the crack, were determined from the combustion analysis. The interaction analysis was conducted by combining two computer codes, a combustion analysis code and a general purpose finite element structural analysis code.

  8. Fuel gas combustion research at METC

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, T.S.

    1995-06-01

    The in-house combustion research program at METC is an integral part of many METC activities, providing support to METC product teams, project managers, and external industrial and university partners. While the majority of in-house combustion research in recent years has been focussed on the lean premixed combustion of natural gas fuel for Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) applications, increasing emphasis is being placed on issues of syngas combustion, as the time approaches when the ATS and coal-fired power systems programs will reach convergence. When the METC syngas generator is built in 1996, METC will have the unique combination of mid-scale pressurized experimental facilities, a continuous syngas supply with variable ammonia loading, and a team of people with expertise in low-emissions combustion, chemical kinetics, combustion modeling, combustion diagnostics, and the control of combustion instabilities. These will enable us to investigate such issues as the effects of pressure, temperature, and fuel gas composition on the rate of conversion of fuel nitrogen to NOx, and on combustion instabilities in a variety of combustor designs.

  9. Overview of Current Activities in Combustion Instability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-02

    CaTS – Combustion and Thrust Scaling – CSTD – Combustion Stability Tools Development • The objective of this brief is to give a broad overview of...combustion • If SPACE is successful, VISP will eventually migrate to SPACE Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 10 CaTS – Combustion...stability attainment scaling process developed under the  CaTS  & early CSTD efforts.   Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 12 High-Fidelity

  10. High pressure optical combustion probe

    SciTech Connect

    Woodruff, S.D.; Richards, G.A.

    1995-06-01

    The Department of Energy`s Morgantown Energy Technology Center has developed a combustion probe for monitoring flame presence and heat release. The technology involved is a compact optical detector of the OH radical`s UV fluorescence. The OH Monitor/Probe is designed to determine the flame presence and provide a qualitative signal proportional to the flame intensity. The probe can be adjusted to monitor a specific volume in the combustion zone to track spatial fluctuations in the flame. The probe is capable of nanosecond time response and is usually slowed electronically to fit the flame characteristics. The probe is a sapphire rod in a stainless steel tube which may be inserted into the combustion chamber and pointed at the flame zone. The end of the sapphire rod is retracted into the SS tube to define a narrow optical collection cone. The collection cone may be adjusted to fit the experiment. The fluorescence signal is collected by the sapphire rod and transmitted through a UV transmitting, fused silica, fiber optic to the detector assembly. The detector is a side window photomultiplier (PMT) with a 310 run line filter. A Hamamatsu photomultiplier base combined with a integral high voltage power supply permits this to be a low voltage device. Electronic connections include: a power lead from a modular DC power supply for 15 VDC; a control lead for 0-1 volts to control the high voltage level (and therefore gain); and a lead out for the actual signal. All low voltage connections make this a safe and easy to use device while still delivering the sensitivity required.

  11. Heavy metals and coal combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Danihelka, P.; Ochodek, T.; Noskievic, P.; Seidlerova, J.

    1998-07-01

    Combustion of coal may be an important source of heavy metals pollution. The distribution of heavy metals during combustion process has been studied in six power plants, where fuel, bottom ash, fly ash and emissions have been analyzed and the relative concentrations of heavy metals have been estimated. For the most volatile metals (arsenic, antimony, lead, and zinc), the redistribution process involving condensation on surface is probable. Some metals like manganese or chromium are concentrated rather in coarse particles. In such cases, no clear conclusion can be made and probably several mechanisms are involved, including mineral form of metal. Typical results of low chlorine coal (0.01--0.03% Cl) exhibit increasing concentration of volatile metals in the magnitude of around one order when going from bottom ash to emissions. Different results have been found in similar operation conditions in the case of high content of chlorine in coal (0.3% of Cl in coal). In this case, the concentration of metals in emissions is significantly higher and also nickel, copper and manganese concentrations increase. It seems to be probable that chlorine in the coal increases the redistribution of metals by volatile chlorides formation. At three operation condition (nominal output, 70% and 40% respectively) emission factors of heavy metals have been estimated for 35 MW stoker-fired boiler. Ba, Pb, Sb and Zn increased their emission factors and Cr and Mn decreased when output was decreased. Heavy metals pollution caused by emissions from combustion of coal may be decreased by fine particles removal, other possibilities (metals extraction from the coal, changes of condition in the flame) are rather limited.

  12. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-11-01

    In order to verify the technical feasibility of the MTCI Pulsed Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustor technology, a laboratory-scale system was designed, built and tested. Important aspects of the operational and performance parameters of the system were established experimentally. A considerable amount of the effort was invested in the initial task of constructing an AFBC that would represent a reasonable baseline against which the performance of the PAFBC could be compared. A summary comparison of the performance and emissions data from the MTCI 2 ft {times} 2 ft facility (AFBC and PAFBC modes) with those from conventional BFBC (taller freeboard and recycle operation) and circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) units is given in Table ES-1. The comparison is for typical high-volatile bituminous coals and sorbents of average reactivity. The values indicated for BFBC and CFBC were based on published information. The AFBC unit that was designed to act as a baseline for the comparison was indeed representative of the larger units even at the smaller scale for which it was designed. The PAFBC mode exhibited superior performance in relation to the AFBC mode. The higher combustion efficiency translates into reduced coal consumption and lower system operating cost; the improvement in sulfur capture implies less sorbent requirement and waste generation and in turn lower operating cost; lower NO{sub x} and CO emissions mean ease of site permitting; and greater steam-generation rate translates into less heat exchange surface area and reduced capital cost. Also, the PAFBC performance generally surpasses those of conventional BFBC, is comparable to CFBC in combustion and NO{sub x} emissions, and is better than CFBC in sulfur capture and CO emissions even at the scaled-down size used for the experimental feasibility tests.

  13. Theoretical studies of combustion dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, J.M.

    1993-12-01

    The basic objectives of this research program are to develop and apply theoretical techniques to fundamental dynamical processes of importance in gas-phase combustion. There are two major areas currently supported by this grant. One is reactive scattering of diatom-diatom systems, and the other is the dynamics of complex formation and decay based on L{sup 2} methods. In all of these studies, the authors focus on systems that are of interest experimentally, and for which potential energy surfaces based, at least in part, on ab initio calculations are available.

  14. Methane Combustion: An Exergy Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Valter; Rouboa, Abel

    2011-09-01

    A VBA (Visual Basic for Applications) code was developed to determine the exergy associated to the methane combustion. It was considered as the main sub-processes for each stage of reaction: the combined reactant mixing, the fuel oxidation, the internal thermal energy exchange (heat transfer), and the product mixing process. The exergetic efficiency and the temperature of the products were computed as a function of the percentage of the excess air. It was verified that the internal thermal energy exchange is the sub-process where the larger exergy destruction occurs.

  15. Studies in combustion and explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Sivashinsky, Gregory I.

    1999-10-31

    The objective of the proposed research is to investigate the influence of various aerodynamical, diffusive-thermal, radiative and reaction-rate factors on certain fundamental phenomena concerning combustion and explosion of gaseous premixtures. Different modeling techniques will be employed to reduce the study of pertinent physical systems to simple approximate problems tractable either analytically or numerically. Specifically the authors plan to study: (1) fluid dynamical aspects of flame anchoring by solid bodies; (2) fluid dynamical aspects of thermal explosion and fire flashover; (3) fluid dynamical aspects of fuel leakage in near-limit-flames; (4) reduced models for gaseous detonation.

  16. Combustion of Unconfined Droplet Clusters in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruff, G. A.; Liu, S.

    2001-01-01

    Combustion experiments using arrays of droplets seek to provide a link between single droplet combustion phenomena and the behavior of complex spray combustion systems. Both single droplet and droplet array studies have been conducted in microgravity to better isolate the droplet interaction phenomena and eliminate or reduce the confounding effects of buoyancy-induced convection. In most experiments involving droplet arrays, the droplets are supported on fibers to keep them stationary and close together before the combustion event. The presence of the fiber, however, disturbs the combustion process by introducing a source of heat transfer and asymmetry into the configuration. As the number of drops in a droplet array increases, supporting the drops on fibers becomes less practical because of the cumulative effect of the fibers on the combustion process. To eliminate the effect of the fiber, several researchers have conducted microgravity experiments using unsupported droplets. Jackson and Avedisian investigated single, unsupported drops while Nomura et al. studied droplet clouds formed by a condensation technique. The overall objective of this research is to extend the study of unsupported drops by investigating the combustion of well-characterized drop clusters in a microgravity environment. Direct experimental observations and measurements of the combustion of droplet clusters would fill a large gap in our current understanding of droplet and spray combustion and provide unique experimental data for the verification and improvement of spray combustion models. In this work, the formation of drop clusters is precisely controlled using an acoustic levitation system so that dilute, as well as dense clusters can be created and stabilized before combustion in microgravity is begun. This paper describes the design and performance of the 1-g experimental apparatus, some preliminary 1-g results, and plans for testing in microgravity.

  17. The Fluids and Combustion Facility Combustion Integrated Rack and The Multi-User Droplet Combustion Apparatus: Microgravity Combustion Science Using A Modular Multi-User Hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Malley, T. F.; Myhre, C. A.

    2002-01-01

    The Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) is a multi-rack payload planned for the International Space Station that will enable the study of fluid physics and combustion science in a microgravity environment. The Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) is one of two International Standard Payload Racks of the FCF and is being designed primarily to support combustion science experiments. It is currently in the Flight Unit Build phase. The Multi-user Droplet Combustion Apparatus (MDCA) is a multi-user facility designed to accommodate four different droplet combustion science experiments and is the first payload for CIR. MDCA is currently in the Engineering Model build phase. Launch of the CIR and MDCA is planned for 2004. The CIR will function independently until the later launch of the Fluids Integrated Rack component of the FCF. This paper provides an overview of the capabilities and the development status of the CIR and MDCA. The CIR will contain the hardware and software required to support combustion experiments in space. It will contain an optics bench, combustion chamber, fuel oxidizer and management assembly, exhaust vent system, diagnostic cameras, power, environment control system, command and data management system, and a passive rack isolation system. Additional hardware will be installed in the chamber and on the optics bench that is customized for each science investigation. The chamber insert may provide the sample holder, small ignition source, and small diagnostics such as thermocouples and radiometers. The combustion experiments that may be conducted in the FCF include, but are not limited to, the study of laminar flames, reaction kinetics, droplet and spray combustion, flame spread, fire and fire suppressants, condensed phase organic fuel combustion, turbulent combustion, soot and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and materials synthesis. It is expected that the facility will provide most of the hardware, with a small amount of unique hardware developed for

  18. Measurement and analysis of combustion response to transverse combustion instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomeroy, Brian R.

    This research aimed to gain a better understanding of the response of a gas-centered swirl coaxial injector to transverse combustion instability. The goals of the research were to develop a combustion chamber that would be able to spontaneously produce transverse combustion instability at elevated pressures and temperatures. Methods were also developed to analyze high-speed video images to understand the response of the injector. A combustion chamber was designed that produced high levels of instabilities. The chamber was capable of pressures as high as 1034 kPa (150 psi) and operated using decomposed 90% hydrogen peroxide and JP-8. The chamber used an array of seven gas-centered swirl coaxial injectors that exhibited linear instability to drive the transverse oscillations. The injector elements would operate in a monopropellant configuration flowing only decomposed hydrogen peroxide or in a bipropellant configuration. The location of the bipropellant injectors could be varied to change the level of the instability in the chamber from 10% of the chamber pressure up to 70% of the chamber pressure. A study element was placed in the center of the chamber where it was observed simultaneously by two high-speed video cameras which recorded a backlit video to show the location of the fuel spray and the location of the emitted CH* chemiluminescence. The videos were synchronized with high frequency pressure measurements to gain a full understanding of the physics in the combustion chamber. Results showed that the study element was coupled with the first mode velocity wave. This was expected due to the first mode velocity anti-node being located in the center of the chamber. The velocity is an absolute maximum twice during each cycle so the coupling with the second mode pressure was also investigated showing a possible coupling with both the velocity and pressure. The results of the first mode velocity showed that, as the velocity wave traveled through the chamber, the fuel

  19. Heavy metals and coal combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Danihelka, P.; Ochodek, T.; Noskievic, P.; Seidlerova, J.

    1998-04-01

    Combustion of coal may be an important source of heavy metals pollution. The distribution of heavy metals during combustion process has been studied in six power plants, where fuel, bottom ash, fly ash and emissions have been analysed and the relative concentrations of heavy metals have been estimated. For the most volatile metals (arsenic, antimony, lead, and zinc), the redistribution process involving condensation on surface is probable. Some metals like manganese or chromium are concentrated rather in coarse particles. In such cases, no clear conclusion can be made and probably several mechanisms are involved, including mineral form of metal. Typical results of low chlorine coal (0.01-0.03% Cl) exhibit increasing concentration of volatile metals in the magnitude of around one order when going from bottom ash to emissions. Different results have been found in similar operation conditions in the case of high content of chlorine in coal (0.3 % of Cl in coal). In this case, the concentration of metals in emissions is significantly higher and also nickel, copper and manganese concentrations increase. It seems to be probable that chlorine in the coal increases the redistribution of metals by volatile chlorides formation.

  20. Combustion Sensors: Gas Turbine Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Human, Mel

    2002-01-01

    This report documents efforts to survey the current research directions in sensor technology for gas turbine systems. The work is driven by the current and future requirements on system performance and optimization. Accurate real time measurements of velocities, pressure, temperatures, and species concentrations will be required for objectives such as combustion instability attenuation, pollutant reduction, engine health management, exhaust profile control via active control, etc. Changing combustor conditions - engine aging, flow path slagging, or rapid maneuvering - will require adaptive responses; the effectiveness of such will be only as good as the dynamic information available for processing. All of these issues point toward the importance of continued sensor development. For adequate control of the combustion process, sensor data must include information about the above mentioned quantities along with equivalence ratios and radical concentrations, and also include both temporal and spatial velocity resolution. Ultimately these devices must transfer from the laboratory to field installations, and thus must become low weight and cost, reliable and maintainable. A primary conclusion from this study is that the optics-based sensor science will be the primary diagnostic in future gas turbine technologies.

  1. TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION SUMMARY: THE AMERICAN COMBUSTION PYRETRON THERMAL DESTRUCTION SYSTEM AT THE U.S. EPA'S COMBUSTION FACILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The American Combustion Pyretron Thermal Destruction System at the U.S. EPA's Combustion Research Facility. Under the auspices of the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation, or SITE, program, a critical assessment was made of the American Combustion Pyretron™ oxygen enha...

  2. Combustion Limits and Efficiency of Turbojet Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, H. C.; Jonash, E. R.

    1956-01-01

    Combustion must be maintained in the turbojet-engine combustor over a wide range of operating conditions resulting from variations in required engine thrust, flight altitude, and flight speed. Furthermore, combustion must be efficient in order to provide the maximum aircraft range. Thus, two major performance criteria of the turbojet-engine combustor are (1) operatable range, or combustion limits, and (2) combustion efficiency. Several fundamental requirements for efficient, high-speed combustion are evident from the discussions presented in chapters III to V. The fuel-air ratio and pressure in the burning zone must lie within specific limits of flammability (fig. 111-16(b)) in order to have the mixture ignite and burn satisfactorily. Increases in mixture temperature will favor the flammability characteristics (ch. III). A second requirement in maintaining a stable flame -is that low local flow velocities exist in the combustion zone (ch. VI). Finally, even with these requirements satisfied, a flame needs a certain minimum space in which to release a desired amount of heat, the necessary space increasing with a decrease in pressure (ref. 1). It is apparent, then, that combustor design and operation must provide for (1) proper control of vapor fuel-air ratios in the combustion zone at or near stoichiometric, (2) mixture pressures above the minimum flammability pressures, (3) low flow velocities in the combustion zone, and (4) adequate space for the flame.

  3. Sandia combustion research program: Annual report, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.E.; Sanders, B.R.; Ivanetich, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    More than a decade ago, in response to a national energy crisis, Sandia proposed to the US Department of Energy a new, ambitious program in combustion research. Our strategy was to apply the rapidly increasing capabilities in lasers and computers to combustion science and technology. Shortly thereafter, the Combustion Research Facility (CRF) was established at Sandia's Livermore location. Designated a ''User Facility,'' the charter of the CRF was to develop and maintain special-purpose resources to support a nationwide initiative--involving US universities, industry, and national laboratories--to improve our understanding and control of combustion. This report includes descriptions of several research projects which have been stimulated by Working Groups and involve the on-site participation of industry scientists. DOE's Industry Technology Fellowship Program has been instrumental in the success of some of the joint efforts. The remainder of this report presents research results of calendar year 1987, separated thematically into nine categories. Refereed journal articles appearing in print during 1987, along with selected other publications, are included at the end of Section 10. In addition to our ''traditional'' research--chemistry, reacting flow, diagnostics, engine combustion, and coal combustion--you will note continued progress in somewhat recent themes: pulse combustion, high temperature materials, and energetic materials, for example. Moreover, we have just started a small, new effort to understand combustion-related issues in the management of toxic and hazardous materials.

  4. Characterizing fuels for atmospheric fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Marban, G.; Pis, J.J.; Fuertes, A.B.

    1995-10-01

    A complete methodology for characterizing coal combustion in atmospheric fluidized bed reactors is presented. The methodology comprises studies of fragmentation and particle size variations during combustion, necessary to allow an accurate determination of kinetic parameters and attrition rates. Samples of three different carbonaceous materials (a medium-ash lignite, a medium-ash anthracite and a graphite) were pyrolyzed in N{sub 2} and partially burned in air in a bench-scale fluidized bed reactor at different operating conditions. The particle size distribution, apparent density and number of particles were evaluated by Image Analysis. Additionally, the sphericity factors were calculated. Combustion studies were carried out in batch experiments in the laboratory-scale, fluidized bed reactor at the same operating conditions. The reactor outlet concentrations of O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, and CO were monitored continuously. The results indicate that only anthracite particles experienced both primary (due to devolatilization) and secondary (during char combustion) fragmentation. Graphite particles underwent secondary fragmentation, whereas lignite particles did not significantly vary in number during combustion. Size and density variations during combustion suggest that graphite particles burn under regime II, interparticle diffusion being the rate controlling step. On the other hand, anthracite and lignite particles developed an ash layer, which may control combustion. The attrition constants of the medium-ash materials (lignite and anthracite) were found to be very low whereas that of graphite was much higher due mainly to peripheral percolation during combustion.

  5. Iridium-Coated Rhenium Combustion Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J.; Tuffias, Robert H.; Rosenberg, Sanders D.

    1994-01-01

    Iridium-coated rhenium combustion chamber withstands operating temperatures up to 2,200 degrees C. Chamber designed to replace older silicide-coated combustion chamber in small rocket engine. Modified versions of newer chamber could be designed for use on Earth in gas turbines, ramjets, and scramjets.

  6. NETL- High-Pressure Combustion Research Facility

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    NETL's High-Pressure Combustion Facility is a unique resource within the National Laboratories system. It provides the test capabilities needed to evaluate new combustion concepts for high-pressure, high-temperature hydrogen and natural gas turbines. These concepts will be critical for the next generation of ultra clean, ultra efficient power systems.

  7. Gravity Effects on Combustion Synthesis of Glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yi, H. C.; Guigne, J. Y.; Moore, J. J.; Robinson, L. A.; Manerbino, A. R.; Schowengerdt, F. D.; Gokoglu, S. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Combustion Synthesis technique has been used to produce glasses based on B2O3-Al2O3-MgO and CaO-Al2O3. The combustion characteristics of these combustion synthesis reactions using both small cylindrical pellets (SCP) and large spherical pellets (LSP) are presented. Low density pellets (approx. 35% of their theoretical density) were used, which made synthesis of low exothermic combustion reactions possible. Microstructural analysis of reacted samples was carried out to identify the glass-forming compositions. The effects of gravity on the glass formation were studied aboard the KC-135 using SCP samples. Gravity seemed to have such obvious effects on the combustion characteristics that the wave velocity was lower and the Width of the combustion wave was larger under reduced gravity conditions. Samples produced under low gravity also had more enhanced vitrification than those on ground, while some systems also exhibited lower combustion temperatures. It was also found that the container significantly affects both the combustion characteristics and microstructure. Substantially more divitrification occurred at the area which was in contact with the support (container).

  8. Coal slurry combustion and technology. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Volume II contains papers presented at the following sessions of the Coal Slurry Combustion and Technology Symposium: (1) bench-scale testing; (2) pilot testing; (3) combustion; and (4) rheology and characterization. Thirty-three papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (ATT)

  9. Injector tip for an internal combustion engine

    DOEpatents

    Shyu, Tsu Pin; Ye, Wen

    2003-05-20

    This invention relates to a the tip structure of a fuel injector as used in a internal combustion engine. Internal combustion engines using Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) technology require a tip structure that directs fuel spray in a downward direction. This requirement necessitates a tip design that is capable of withstanding mechanical stresses associated with the design.

  10. Method and system for controlled combustion engines

    DOEpatents

    Oppenheim, A. K.

    1990-01-01

    A system for controlling combustion in internal combustion engines of both the Diesel or Otto type, which relies on establishing fluid dynamic conditions and structures wherein fuel and air are entrained, mixed and caused to be ignited in the interior of a multiplicity of eddies, and where these structures are caused to sequentially fill the headspace of the cylinders.

  11. A model for premixed combustion oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Janus, M.C.; Richards, G.A.

    1996-09-01

    This paper describes a simulation based on a time dependent, nonlinear control volume analysis. The combustion is modeled as a well-stirred reactor having finite kinetics. Flow properties and species in the nozzle, combustion, and tailpipe regions are determined using a control volume formulation of the conservation equation.

  12. Oxy Coal Combustion at the US EPA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oxygen enriched coal (oxy-coal) combustion is a developing, and potentially a strategically key technology intended to accommodate direct CO2 recovery and sequestration. Oxy-coal combustion is also intended for retrofit application to existing power plants. During oxy-coal comb...

  13. 30 CFR 57.4104 - Combustible waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Combustible waste. 57.4104 Section 57.4104... Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 57.4104 Combustible waste. (a) Waste materials, including liquids, shall not accumulate in quantities that could create a fire hazard. (b) Waste or rags...

  14. 30 CFR 57.4104 - Combustible waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Combustible waste. 57.4104 Section 57.4104... Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 57.4104 Combustible waste. (a) Waste materials, including liquids, shall not accumulate in quantities that could create a fire hazard. (b) Waste or rags...

  15. 30 CFR 57.4104 - Combustible waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Combustible waste. 57.4104 Section 57.4104... Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 57.4104 Combustible waste. (a) Waste materials, including liquids, shall not accumulate in quantities that could create a fire hazard. (b) Waste or rags...

  16. 30 CFR 57.4104 - Combustible waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Combustible waste. 57.4104 Section 57.4104... Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 57.4104 Combustible waste. (a) Waste materials, including liquids, shall not accumulate in quantities that could create a fire hazard. (b) Waste or rags...

  17. 30 CFR 57.4104 - Combustible waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Combustible waste. 57.4104 Section 57.4104... Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 57.4104 Combustible waste. (a) Waste materials, including liquids, shall not accumulate in quantities that could create a fire hazard. (b) Waste or rags...

  18. NETL- High-Pressure Combustion Research Facility

    SciTech Connect

    2013-07-08

    NETL's High-Pressure Combustion Facility is a unique resource within the National Laboratories system. It provides the test capabilities needed to evaluate new combustion concepts for high-pressure, high-temperature hydrogen and natural gas turbines. These concepts will be critical for the next generation of ultra clean, ultra efficient power systems.

  19. Study of combustion experiments in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berlad, A. L.; Huggett, C.; Kaufman, F.; Markstein, G. H.; Palmer, H. B.; Yang, C. H.

    1974-01-01

    The physical bases and scientific merits were examined of combustion experimentation in a space environment. For a very broad range of fundamental combustion problems, extensive and systematic experimentation at reduced gravitational levels (0 g 1) are viewed as essential to the development of needed observations and related theoretical understanding.

  20. Gas phase kinetics during normal combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, C. F.; Boggs, T. L.; Eisel, J. L.; Atwood, A. I.; Zurn, D. E.

    1980-01-01

    The role of gas phase kinetics during combustion was explored in the steady state modeling efforts and in the analysis of ignition phenomena. In both cases it was shown that the combustion characteristics of some high energy ingredients and propellants are strongly affected, if not dictated, by the gas phase reactions which take place.

  1. Coal combustion byproducts and environmental issues

    SciTech Connect

    Sajwan, K.S.; Twardowska, I.; Punshon, T.; Alva, A.K.

    2006-07-01

    The book addresses the major implications and critical issues surrounding coal combustion products and their impact upon the environment. It provides essential information for scientists conducting research on coal and coal combustion products, but also serves as a valuable reference for a wide variety of researchers and other professionals in the energy industry and in the fields of public health, engineering, and environmental sciences.

  2. A method of determining combustion gas flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bon Tempi, P. J.

    1968-01-01

    Zirconium oxide coating enables the determination of hot gas flow patterns on liquid rocket injector face and baffle surfaces to indicate modifications that will increase performance and improve combustion stability. The coating withstands combustion temperatures and due to the coarse surface and coloring of the coating, shows the hot gas patterns.

  3. A hybrid 2-zone/WAVE engine combustion model for simulating combustion instabilities during dilute operation

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Kevin Dean; Wagner, Robert M; Chakravarthy, Veerathu K; Daw, C Stuart; Green Jr, Johney Boyd

    2006-01-01

    Internal combustion engines are operated under conditions of high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to reduce NO x emissions and promote enhanced combustion modes such as HCCI. However, high EGR under certain conditions also promotes nonlinear feedback between cycles, leading to the development of combustion instabilities and cyclic variability. We employ a two-zone phenomenological combustion model to simulate the onset of combustion instabilities under highly dilute conditions and to illustrate the impact of these instabilities on emissions and fuel efficiency. The two-zone in-cylinder combustion model is coupled to a WAVE engine-simulation code through a Simulink interface, allowing rapid simulation of several hundred successive engine cycles with many external engine parametric effects included. We demonstrate how this hybrid model can be used to study strategies for adaptive feedback control to reduce cyclic combustion instabilities and, thus, preserve fuel efficiency and reduce emissions.

  4. Dry low NOx combustion system with pre-mixed direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle

    SciTech Connect

    Zuo, Baifang; Johnson, Thomas; Ziminsky, Willy; Khan, Abdul

    2013-12-17

    A combustion system includes a first combustion chamber and a second combustion chamber. The second combustion chamber is positioned downstream of the first combustion chamber. The combustion system also includes a pre-mixed, direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle. The pre-mixed, direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle extends through the first combustion chamber into the second combustion chamber.

  5. Internal and surface phenomena in metal combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreizin, Edward L.; Molodetsky, Irina E.; Law, Chung K.

    1995-01-01

    Combustion of metals has been widely studied in the past, primarily because of their high oxidation enthalpies. A general understanding of metal combustion has been developed based on the recognition of the existence of both vapor-phase and surface reactions and involvement of the reaction products in the ensuing heterogeneous combustion. However, distinct features often observed in metal particle combustion, such as brightness oscillations and jumps (spearpoints), disruptive burning, and non-symmetric flames are not currently understood. Recent metal combustion experiments using uniform high-temperature metal droplets produced by a novel micro-arc technique have indicated that oxygen dissolves in the interior of burning particles of certain metals and that the subsequent transformations of the metal-oxygen solutions into stoichiometric oxides are accompanied with sufficient heat release to cause observed brightness and temperature jumps. Similar oxygen dissolution has been observed in recent experiments on bulk iron combustion but has not been associated with such dramatic effects. This research addresses heterogeneous metal droplet combustion, specifically focusing on oxygen penetration into the burning metal droplets, and its influence on the metal combustion rate, temperature history, and disruptive burning. A unique feature of the experimental approach is the combination of the microgravity environment with a novel micro-arc Generator of Monodispersed Metal Droplets (GEMMED), ensuring repeatable formation and ignition of uniform metal droplets with controllable initial temperature and velocity. The droplet initial temperatures can be adjusted within a wide range from just above the metal melting point, which provides means to ignite droplets instantly upon entering an oxygen containing environment. Initial droplet velocity will be set equal to zero allowing one to organize metal combustion microgravity experiments in a fashion similar to usual microgravity

  6. Combustion synthesis of advanced composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, John J.

    1993-01-01

    Self-propagating high temperature (combustion) synthesis (SHS), has been investigated as a means of producing both dense and expanded (foamed) ceramic and ceramic-metal composites, ceramic powders and whiskers. Several model exothermic combustion synthesis reactions were used to establish the importance of certain reaction parameters, e.g., stoichiometry, green density, combustion mode, particle size, etc. on the control of the synthesis reaction, product morphology and properties. The use of an in situ liquid infiltration technique and the effect of varying the reactants and their stoichiometry to provide a range of reactant and product species i.e., solids, liquids and gases, with varying physical properties e.g., volatility and thermal conductivity, on the microstructure and morphology of synthesized composite materials is discussed. Conducting the combustion synthesis reaction in a reactive gas environment to take advantage of the synergistic effects of combustion synthesis and vapor phase transport is also examined.

  7. 2003 Laser Diagnostic in Combustion Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Mark G. Allen

    2004-09-10

    The GRC Laser Diagnostics in Combustion aims at bringing together scientists and engineers working in the front edge of research and development to discuss and find new ways to solve problems connected to combustion diagnostics. Laser-based techniques have proven to be very efficient tools for studying combustion processes thanks to features as non-intrusiveness in combination with high spatial and temporal resolution. Major tasks for the community are to develop and apply techniques for quantitative measurements with high precision e.g of species concentrations, temperatures, velocities and particles characteristics (size and concentration). These issues are of global interest, considering that the major part of the World's energy conversion comes from combustion sources and the influence combustion processes have on the environment and society.

  8. From combustion and detonation to nitrogen oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, M. F.; Kiverin, A. D.; Klumov, B. A.; Fortov, V. E.

    2014-03-01

    This paper looks at Ya B Zeldovich's ideas on the combustion and detonation physics of gaseous mixtures and how they evolved as work in this field progressed. The paper demonstrates the fundamental role of Zeldovich's concept of spontaneous combustion waves in studying transient initiation processes for various combustion regimes and in determining the energy and concentration inflammation limits for combustible gaseous mixtures. It shows how his notion that flame front stretching crucially influences flame acceleration in channels explains in a new way the deflagration-to-detonation transition in highly reactive gaseous mixtures. Most of the presented results were obtained by simulations, allowing Zeldovich's ideas to be extended to the combustion of real gaseous mixtures, where chemical reactions and gasdynamical flows add hugely to the complexity of the problem. The paper concludes by using Zeldovich's mechanism to assess the amount of nitrogen oxide produced by a lightning discharge.

  9. Combustion characteristics of bamboo-biochars.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhijia; Fei, Benhua; Jiang, Zehui; Liu, Xing'e

    2014-09-01

    Combustion characteristics of biomass are very important to directly utilize as an energy resource. Bamboo was carbonized using a XD-1200N muffle furnace in the nitrogen environment and its combustion characteristics were investigated. Results showed that bamboo-biochars had better combustion characteristics compared to bamboo materials, such as a lower content of moisture and volatiles, a higher energy density, HHV and EHC, a lower H/C and O/C ratios and a shorter TTI. Characteristic peak of bamboo-biochars shifted to higher temperature in thermal decomposition process, indicating a more steady-state burning and a higher combustion efficiency. Bamboo-biochars had a low content of S and N, which was helpful to decrease pollutant emissions. A higher content of K and Na was observed in the ash of bamboo-biochars, resulting in slagging, fouling, corrosion and agglomeration. The data from this research will be very helpful to efficiently design and operate its combustion systems.

  10. Two cycle internal combustion hydrocycle engine

    SciTech Connect

    Christenson, H.W.

    1992-05-05

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine. It comprises a hollow cylinder; a compression piston reciprocatably disposed within the cylinder; means, including a rotatable flywheel connected to the compression piston, for storing energy from reciprocation of the compression piston; a power piston reciprocatably disposed within the cylinder and opposing the compression piston; a pump having means for injecting a combustible mixture between the compression piston and the power piston; means for igniting the combustible mixture; whereby ignition of the combustible mixture causes the power piston to move away from the compression piston within the cylinder and the pumping member to move with the power piston to displace fluid from the fluid chamber through the fluid outlet; and means for controlling the injection and ignition of the combustible mixture for self-sustaining reciprocation of the compression piston.

  11. Final report: Prototyping a combustion corridor

    SciTech Connect

    Rutland, Christopher J.; Leach, Joshua

    2001-12-15

    The Combustion Corridor is a concept in which researchers in combustion and thermal sciences have unimpeded access to large volumes of remote computational results. This will enable remote, collaborative analysis and visualization of state-of-the-art combustion science results. The Engine Research Center (ERC) at the University of Wisconsin - Madison partnered with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory, and several other universities to build and test the first stages of a combustion corridor. The ERC served two important functions in this partnership. First, we work extensively with combustion simulations so we were able to provide real world research data sets for testing the Corridor concepts. Second, the ERC was part of an extension of the high bandwidth based DOE National Laboratory connections to universities.

  12. Solid waste combustion for alpha waste incineration

    SciTech Connect

    Orloff, D.I.

    1981-02-01

    Radioactive waste incinerator development at the Savannah River Laboratory has been augmented by fundamental combustion studies at the University of South Carolina. The objective was to measure and model pyrolysis and combustion rates of typical Savannah River Plant waste materials as a function of incinerator operating conditions. The analytical models developed in this work have been incorporated into a waste burning transient code. The code predicts maximum air requirement and heat energy release as a function of waste type, package size, combustion chamber size, and temperature. Historically, relationships have been determined by direct experiments that did not allow an engineering basis for predicting combustion rates in untested incinerators. The computed combustion rates and burning times agree with measured values in the Savannah River Laboratory pilot (1 lb/hr) and full-scale (12 lb/hr) alpha incinerators for a wide variety of typical waste materials.

  13. 77 FR 37361 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-21

    ... Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion... Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion Engines.'' The EPA... Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary......

  14. Active control of combustion instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Masoud, Nidal A.

    A theoretical analysis of active control of combustion thermo-acoustic instabilities is developed in this dissertation. The theoretical combustion model is based on the dynamics of a two-phase flow in a liquid-fueled propulsion system. The formulation is based on a generalized wave equation with pressure as the dependent variable, and accommodates all influences of combustion, mean flow, unsteady motions and control inputs. The governing partial differential equations are converted to an equivalent set of ordinary differential equations using Galerkin's method by expressing the unsteady pressure and velocity fields as functions of normal mode shapes of the chamber. This procedure yields a representation of the unsteady flow field as a system of coupled nonlinear oscillators that is used as a basis for controllers design. Major research attention is focused on the control of longitudinal oscillations with both linear and nonlinear processes being considered. Starting with a linear model using point actuators, the optimal locations of actuators and sensors are developed. The approach relies on the quantitative measures of the degree of controllability and component cost. These criterion are arrived at by considering the energies of the system's inputs and outputs. The optimality criteria for sensor and actuator locations provide a balance between the importance of the lower order (controlled) and the higher (residual) order modes. To address the issue of uncertainties in system's parameter, the minimax principles based controller is used. The minimax corresponds to finding the best controller for the worst parameter deviation. In other words, choosing controller parameters to minimize, and parameter deviation to maximize some quadratic performance metric. Using the minimax-based controller, a remarkable improvement in the control system's ability to handle parameter uncertainties is achieved when compared to the robustness of the regular control schemes such as LQR

  15. Filtration Combustion in Smoldering and SHS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matkowsky, Bernard J.

    2001-01-01

    Smolder waves and SHS (self-propagating high-temperature synthesis) waves are both examples of filtration combustion waves propagating in porous media. Smoldering combustion is important for the study of fire safety. Smoldering itself can cause damage, its products are toxic and it can also lead to the more dangerous gas phase combustion which corresponds to faster propagation at higher temperatures. In SHS , a porous solid sample, consisting of a finely ground powder mixture of reactants, is ignited at one end. A high temperature thermal wave, having a frontal structure, then propagates through the sample converting reactants to products. The SHS technology appears to enjoy a number of advantages over the conventional technology, in which the sample is placed in a furnace and "baked" until it is "well done". The advantages include shorter synthesis times, greater economy, in that the internal energy of the reactions is employed rather than the costly external energy of the furnace, purer products, simpler equipment and no intrinsic limitation on the size of the sample to be synthesized as exists in the conventional technology. When delivery of reactants through the pores to the reaction site is an important aspect of the combustion process, it is referred to as filtration combustion. The two types of filtration combustion have a similar mathematical formulation, describing the ignition, propagation and extinction of combustion waves in porous media. The goal in each case, however, is different. In smoldering the desired goal is to prevent propagation, whereas in SHS the goal is to ensure propagation of the combustion wave, leading to the synthesis of desired products. In addition, the scales in the two areas of application differ. Smoldering generally occurs at lower temperatures and propagation velocities than in SHS nevertheless, the two applications have much in common so that what is learned fit make application can be used to advantage in the other. In porous

  16. Indirect combustion noise of auxiliary power units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tam, Christopher K. W.; Parrish, Sarah A.; Xu, Jun; Schuster, Bill

    2013-08-01

    Recent advances in noise suppression technology have significantly reduced jet and fan noise from commercial jet engines. This leads many investigators in the aeroacoustics community to suggest that core noise could well be the next aircraft noise barrier. Core noise consists of turbine noise and combustion noise. There is direct combustion noise generated by the combustion processes, and there is indirect combustion noise generated by the passage of combustion hot spots, or entropy waves, through constrictions in an engine. The present work focuses on indirect combustion noise. Indirect combustion noise has now been found in laboratory experiments. The primary objective of this work is to investigate whether indirect combustion noise is also generated in jet and other engines. In a jet engine, there are numerous noise sources. This makes the identification of indirect combustion noise a formidable task. Here, our effort concentrates exclusively on auxiliary power units (APUs). This choice is motivated by the fact that APUs are relatively simple engines with only a few noise sources. It is, therefore, expected that the chance of success is higher. Accordingly, a theoretical model study of the generation of indirect combustion noise in an Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) is carried out. The cross-sectional areas of an APU from the combustor to the turbine exit are scaled off to form an equivalent nozzle. A principal function of a turbine in an APU is to extract mechanical energy from the flow stream through the exertion of a resistive force. Therefore, the turbine is modeled by adding a negative body force to the momentum equation. This model is used to predict the ranges of frequencies over which there is a high probability for indirect combustion noise generation. Experimental spectra of internal pressure fluctuations and far-field noise of an RE220 APU are examined to identify anomalous peaks. These peaks are possible indirection combustion noise. In the case of the

  17. Real-time combustion controller

    DOEpatents

    Lindner, J.S.; Shepard, W.S.; Etheridge, J.A.; Jang, P.R.; Gresham, L.L.

    1997-02-04

    A method and system are disclosed for regulating the air to fuel ratio supplied to a burner to maximize the combustion efficiency. Optical means are provided in close proximity to the burner for directing a beam of radiation from hot gases produced by the burner to a plurality of detectors. Detectors are provided for sensing the concentration of, inter alia, CO, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O. The differences between the ratios of CO to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O to CO are compared with a known control curve based on those ratios for air to fuel ratios ranging from 0.85 to 1.30. The fuel flow is adjusted until the difference between the ratios of CO to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O to CO fall on a desired set point on the control curve. 20 figs.

  18. Real-time combustion controller

    DOEpatents

    Lindner, Jeffrey S.; Shepard, W. Steve; Etheridge, John A.; Jang, Ping-Rey; Gresham, Lawrence L.

    1997-01-01

    A method and system of regulating the air to fuel ratio supplied to a burner to maximize the combustion efficiency. Optical means are provided in close proximity to the burner for directing a beam of radiation from hot gases produced by the burner to a plurality of detectors. Detectors are provided for sensing the concentration of, inter alia, CO, CO.sub.2, and H.sub.2 O. The differences between the ratios of CO to CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 O to CO are compared with a known control curve based on those ratios for air to fuel ratios ranging from 0.85 to 1.30. The fuel flow is adjusted until the difference between the ratios of CO to CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 O to CO fall on a desired set point on the control curve.

  19. Axial cylinder internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, C.

    1992-03-10

    This patent describes improvement in a barrel type internal combustion engine including an engine block having axial-positioned cylinders with reciprocating pistons arranged in a circular pattern: a drive shaft concentrically positioned within the cylinder block having an offset portion extending outside the cylinder block; a wobble spider rotatably journaled to the offset portion; connecting rods for each cylinder connecting each piston to the wobble spider. The improvement comprising: a first sleeve bearing means supporting the drive shaft in the engine block in a cantilevered manner for radial loads; a second sleeve bearing means rotatably supporting the wobble spider on the offset portion of the drive shaft for radial loads; a first roller bearing means positioned between the offset portion of the drive shaft and the wobble spider carrying thrust loadings only; a second roller bearing means carrying thrust loads only reacting to the first roller bearing located on the opposite end of the driveshaft between the shaft and the engine block.

  20. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    The design of the Pulsed Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustor (PAFBC) as described in the Quarterly Report for the period April--June, 1992 was reviewed and minor modifications were included. The most important change made was in the coal/limestone preparation and feed system. Instead of procuring pre-sized coal for testing of the PAFBC, it was decided that the installation of a milling system would permit greater flexibility in the testing with respect to size distributions and combustion characteristics in the pulse combustor and the fluid bed. Particle size separation for pulse combustor and fluid bed will be performed by an air classifier. The modified process flow diagram for the coal/limestone handling system is presented in Figure 1. The modified process flow diagrams of the fluidized bed/steam cycle and ash handling systems are presented in Figures 2 and 3, respectively.

  1. Assembly for directing combustion gas

    SciTech Connect

    Charron, Richard C.; Little, David A.; Snyder, Gary D.

    2016-04-12

    An arrangement is provided for delivering gases from a plurality of combustors of a can-annular gas turbine combustion engine to a first row of turbine blades including a first row of turbine blades. The arrangement includes a gas path cylinder, a cone and an integrated exit piece (IEP) for each combustor. Each IEP comprises an inlet chamber for receiving a gas flow from a respective combustor, and includes a connection segment. The IEPs are connected together to define an annular chamber extending circumferentially and concentric to an engine longitudinal axis, for delivering the gas flow to the first row of blades. A radiused joint extends radially inward from a radially outer side of the inlet chamber to an outer boundary of the annular chamber, and a flared fillet extends radially inward from a radially inner side of the inlet chamber to an inner boundary of the annular chamber.

  2. Modeling Combustion in Supersonic Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, J. Philip; Danehy, Paul M.; Bivolaru, Daniel; Gaffney, Richard L.; Tedder, Sarah A.; Cutler, Andrew D.

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the progress of work to model high-speed supersonic reacting flow. The purpose of the work is to improve the state of the art of CFD capabilities for predicting the flow in high-speed propulsion systems, particularly combustor flow-paths. The program has several components including the development of advanced algorithms and models for simulating engine flowpaths as well as a fundamental experimental and diagnostic development effort to support the formulation and validation of the mathematical models. The paper will provide details of current work on experiments that will provide data for the modeling efforts along with with the associated nonintrusive diagnostics used to collect the data from the experimental flowfield. Simulation of a recent experiment to partially validate the accuracy of a combustion code is also described.

  3. Supersonic Combustion Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, J. P.; Danehy, Paul M.; Gaffney, Richard L., Jr.; Tedder, Sarah A.; Cutler, Andrew D.; Bivolaru, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the progress of work to model high-speed supersonic reacting flow. The purpose of the work is to improve the state of the art of CFD capabilities for predicting the flow in high-speed propulsion systems, particularly combustor flowpaths. The program has several components including the development of advanced algorithms and models for simulating engine flowpaths as well as a fundamental experimental and diagnostic development effort to support the formulation and validation of the mathematical models. The paper will provide details of current work on experiments that will provide data for the modeling efforts along with the associated nonintrusive diagnostics used to collect the data from the experimental flowfield. Simulation of a recent experiment to partially validate the accuracy of a combustion code is also described.

  4. Droplet combustion at reduced gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dryer, F. L.; Williams, F. A.

    1988-01-01

    The current work involves theoretical analyses of the effects identified, experiments in the NASA Lewis drop towers performed in the middeck areas of the Space Shuttle. In addition, there is laboratory work associated with the design of the flight apparatus. Calculations have shown that some of the test-matrix data can be obtained in drop towers, and some are achievable only in the space experiments. The apparatus consists of a droplet dispensing device (syringes), a droplet positioning device (opposing, retractable, hollow needles), a droplet ignition device (two matched pairs of retractable spark electrodes), gas and liquid handling systems, a data acquisition system (mainly giving motion-picture records of the combustion in two orthogonal views, one with backlighting for droplet resolution), and associated electronics.

  5. Data assimilation applied to combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rochoux, Mélanie C.; Cuenot, Bénédicte; Ricci, Sophie; Trouvé, Arnaud; Delmotte, Blaise; Massart, Sébastien; Paoli, Roberto; Paugam, Ronan

    2013-01-01

    Data assimilation is a sophisticated technique, yet not available in combustion, that combines measurements to model simulation and account for uncertainties in order to improve the numerical prediction of a system. In the context of gas turbines, data assimilation may be used for example to improve the prediction of flame ignition and propagation by a smart analysis of images and measurements. A first illustration of data assimilation is given in a simple case, where synthetic time-evolving positions of the flame front are assimilated to calibrate parameters of a premixed flame model. Its successful application in the context of natural fire propagation assesses the predictive capacity of the technique and the resulting higher fidelity in the data-driven simulations.

  6. Combustion chemistry of solid propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baer, A. D.; Ryan, N. W.

    1974-01-01

    Several studies are described of the chemistry of solid propellant combustion which employed a fast-scanning optical spectrometer. Expanded abstracts are presented for four of the studies which were previously reported. One study of the ignition of composite propellants yielded data which suggested early ammonium perchlorate decomposition and reaction. The results of a study of the spatial distribution of molecular species in flames from uncatalyzed and copper or lead catalyzed double-based propellants support previously published conclusions concerning the site of action of these metal catalysts. A study of the ammonium-perchlorate-polymeric-fuel-binder reaction in thin films, made by use of infrared absorption spectrometry, yielded a characterization of a rapid condensed-phase reaction which is likely important during the ignition transient and the burning process.

  7. Combustion in cracks of PBX 9501

    SciTech Connect

    Berghout, H. L.; Son, S. F.; Bolme, C. A.; Hill, L. G.; Asay, B. W.; Dickson, P. M.; Henson, B. F.; Smilowitz, L. B.

    2002-01-01

    Recent experiments involving the combustion of PBX 9501 explosive under confined conditions reveal the importance of crack and flaws in reaction violence. Experiments on room temperature confined disks of pristine and thermally damaged PBX 9501 reveal that crack ignition depends on hot gases entering existing or pressure induced cracks rather than on energy release at the crack tip. PBX 9501 slot combustion experiments show that the reaction propagation rate in the slot does not depend on the external pressure. We have observed 1500 d s in long slots of highly-confined PBX 9501. We present experiments that examine the combustion of mechanically and thermally damaged samples of PBX 9501.

  8. Handbook of infrared radiation from combustion gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, C. B.; Malkmus, W.; Reardon, J. E.; Thomson, J. A. L.; Goulard, R. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    The treatment of radiant emission and absorption by combustion gases are discussed. Typical applications include: (1) rocket combustion chambers and exhausts, (2) turbojet engines and exhausts, and (3) industrial furnaces. Some mention is made of radiant heat transfer problems in planetary atmospheres, in stellar atmospheres, and in reentry plasmas. Particular consideration is given to the temperature range from 500K to 3000K and the pressure range from 0.001 atmosphere to 30 atmospheres. Strong emphasis is given to the combustion products of hydrocarbon fuels with oxygen, specifically to carbon dioxide, water vapor, and carbon monoxide. In addition, species such as HF, HC1, CN, OH, and NO are treated.

  9. Plasma Assisted Combustion Mechanism for Small Hydrocarbons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    Andrey Starikovskiy Nickolay Aleksandrov PRINCETON University Plasma Assisted Combustion  Mechanism for Small  Hydrocarbons Report Documentation Page...COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Plasma Assisted Combustion Mechanism for Small Hydrocarbons 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...Kinetics of ignition of saturated  hydrocarbons  by nonequilibrium plasma: C2H6‐ to C5H12‐containing mixtures. Combustion and Flame 156  (2009) 221–233

  10. Valve operating mechanism for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Nagahiro, K.; Ajiki, Y.; Katoh, M.; Inoue, K.

    1988-03-01

    A valve operating mechanism for operating a pair of valves of an internal combustion engine is described, comprising: a camshaft rotatable in synchronism with rotation of the internal combustion engine an having cams of different cam profiles; rocker arms held in sliding contact with the cams, respectively, for operating the valves according to the cam profiles of the cams; and means for independently selectively interconnecting and disconnecting selected of the rocker arms to operate the valves at different valve timings in low, medium and high speed ranges of the internal combustion engine.

  11. Valve operating mechanism for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, K.; Nagahiro, K.; Ajiki, Y.; Katoh, M.

    1988-12-27

    A valve operating mechanism for operating a single valve of a particular cylinder of an internal combustion engine is described comprising: a camshaft rotatable in synchronism with rotation of the internal combustion engine; a plurality of cams on the camshaft with each of the cams bearing a different cam profile; a plurality of cam followers, each of which slidably engages one of the cams for selectively operating the valve according to the profile of the selected cam and one of which engages the valve; and means for selectively interconnecting and disconnecting the respective cam followers to operate the valve differently in different speed ranges of the internal combustion engine.

  12. Valve operating mechanism for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, K.; Nagahiro, K.; Ajiki, Y.; Katoh, M.

    1988-12-13

    This patent describes a valve operating mechanism for operating valves of a particular cylinder of an internal combustion engine, comprising: a camshaft rotatable in synchronism with rotation of the internal combustion engine and having at least one cam; cam followers, one of which slidably engages with the cam for selectively operating the valves according to a cam profile of the cam; and means for selectively interconnecting and disconnecting the cam followers to operate the valves differently in different speed ranges of the internal combustion engine, the speed ranges including a range in which all of the valves remain inoperative.

  13. Assessment of the National Combustion Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, nan-Suey; Iannetti, Anthony; Shih, Tsan-Hsing

    2007-01-01

    The advancements made during the last decade in the areas of combustion modeling, numerical simulation, and computing platform have greatly facilitated the use of CFD based tools in the development of combustion technology. Further development of verification, validation and uncertainty quantification will have profound impact on the reliability and utility of these CFD based tools. The objectives of the present effort are to establish baseline for the National Combustion Code (NCC) and experimental data, as well as to document current capabilities and identify gaps for further improvements.

  14. Misfire tolerant combustion-powered actuation

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.; Fischer, Gary J.; Marron, Lisa C.; Kuehl, Michael A.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a combustion-powered actuator that is suitable for intermittent actuation, that is suitable for use with atmospheric pressure carburetion, and that requires little electrical energy input. The present invention uses energy from expansion of pressurized fuel to effectively purge a combustion chamber, and to achieve atmospheric pressure carburetion. Each purge-fill-power cycle can be independent, allowing the actuator to readily tolerate misfires. The present invention is suitable for use with linear and rotary operation combustion chambers, and is suitable for use in a wide variety of applications.

  15. Annual Report: Advanced Combustion (30 September 2012)

    SciTech Connect

    Hawk, Jeffrey; Richards, George

    2012-09-30

    The Advanced Combustion Project addresses fundamental issues of fire-side and steam-side corrosion and materials performance in oxy-fuel combustion environments and provides an integrated approach into understanding the environmental and mechanical behavior such that environmental degradation can be ameliorated and long-term microstructural stability, and thus, mechanical performance can lead to longer lasting components and extended power plant life. The technical tasks of this effort are Oxy-combustion Environment Characterization, Alloy Modeling and Life Prediction, and Alloy Manufacturing and Process Development.

  16. Pulse combustion: an assessment of opportunities for increased efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Brenchley, D.L.; Bomelburg, H.J.

    1984-12-01

    The results of a literature review on pulse combustion are discussed. Current, near-future, and potential opportunities for pulse combustion applications are summarized, and the barriers to developing and using pulse combustion technology are discussed, along with research and development needs. Also provided are the proceedings of a pulse combustion workshop held in May, 1984 in Seattle, Washington. (LEW)

  17. 49 CFR 176.340 - Combustible liquids in portable tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Combustible liquids in portable tanks. 176.340... VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 3 (Flammable) and Combustible Liquid Materials § 176.340 Combustible liquids in portable tanks. Combustible liquids, having a flash point of 38 °C (100 °F) or...

  18. 49 CFR 176.340 - Combustible liquids in portable tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Combustible liquids in portable tanks. 176.340... VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 3 (Flammable) and Combustible Liquid Materials § 176.340 Combustible liquids in portable tanks. Combustible liquids, having a flash point of 38 °C (100 °F) or...

  19. 49 CFR 176.340 - Combustible liquids in portable tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Combustible liquids in portable tanks. 176.340... VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 3 (Flammable) and Combustible Liquid Materials § 176.340 Combustible liquids in portable tanks. Combustible liquids, having a flash point of 38 °C (100 °F) or...

  20. 49 CFR 176.340 - Combustible liquids in portable tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Combustible liquids in portable tanks. 176.340... VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 3 (Flammable) and Combustible Liquid Materials § 176.340 Combustible liquids in portable tanks. Combustible liquids, having a flash point of 38 °C (100 °F) or...

  1. 49 CFR 176.340 - Combustible liquids in portable tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Combustible liquids in portable tanks. 176.340... VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 3 (Flammable) and Combustible Liquid Materials § 176.340 Combustible liquids in portable tanks. Combustible liquids, having a flash point of 38 °C (100 °F) or...

  2. 14 CFR 23.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Combustion heater fire protection. 23.859... Construction Fire Protection § 23.859 Combustion heater fire protection. (a) Combustion heater fire regions. The following combustion heater fire regions must be protected from fire in accordance with...

  3. 14 CFR 23.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Combustion heater fire protection. 23.859... Construction Fire Protection § 23.859 Combustion heater fire protection. (a) Combustion heater fire regions. The following combustion heater fire regions must be protected from fire in accordance with...

  4. A study of the current group evaporation/combustion theories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Hayley H.

    1990-01-01

    Liquid fuel combustion can be greatly enhanced by disintegrating the liquid fuel into droplets, an effect achieved by various configurations. A number of experiments carried out in the seventies showed that combustion of droplet arrays and sprays do not form individual flames. Moreover, the rate of burning in spray combustion greatly deviates from that of the single combustion rate. Such observations naturally challenge its applicability to spray combustion. A number of mathematical models were developed to evaluate 'group combustion' and the related 'group evaporation' phenomena. This study investigates the similarity and difference of these models and their applicability to spray combustion. Future work that should be carried out in this area is indicated.

  5. The efficiency of combustion turbines with constant-pressure combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piening, Werner

    1941-01-01

    Of the two fundamental cycles employed in combustion turbines, namely, the explosion (or constant-volume) cycle and the constant-pressure cycle, the latter is considered more in detail and its efficiency is derived with the aid of the cycle diagrams for the several cases with adiabatic and isothermal compression and expansion strokes and with and without utilization of the exhaust heat. Account is also taken of the separate efficiencies of the turbine and compressor and of the pressure losses and heat transfer in the piping. The results show that without the utilization of the exhaust heat the efficiencies for the two cases of adiabatic and isothermal compression is offset by the increase in the heat supplied. It may be seen from the curves that it is necessary to attain separate efficiencies of at least 80 percent in order for useful results to be obtained. There is further shown the considerable effect on the efficiency of pressure losses in piping or heat exchangers.

  6. Progress on the Combustion Integrated Rack Component of the Fluids and Combustion Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiland, Karen J.; Urban, Dave (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) is a facility-class payload planned for the International Space Station. It is designed to accommodate a wide variety of investigations encompassing most of the range of microgravity fluid physics and combustion science. The Combustion Integrated Rack component of the FCF is currently scheduled to be launched in 2003 and will operate independently until additional racks of the FCF are launched. The FCF is intended to complete between five and fifteen combustion experiments per year over its planned ten-year lifetime. Combustion arm that may be studied include laminar flames, reaction kinetics, droplet and spray combustion, flame spread, fire and fire suppressants, condensed phase organic fuel combustion, turbulent combustion, soot and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and flame-synthesized materials. Three different chamber inserts, one each for investigations of droplet, solid fuel, and gaseous fuel combustion, that can accommodate multiple experiments will be used initially so as to maximize the reuse of hardware. The current flight and flight-definition investigations are briefly described.

  7. Self-oscillations of an unstable fuel combustion in the combustion chamber of a liquid-propellant rocket engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gotsulenko, V. V.; Gotsulenko, V. N.

    2013-01-01

    The form of the self-oscillations of a vibrating combustion of a fuel in the combustion chamber of a liquidpropellant rocket engine, caused by the fuel-combustion lag and the heat release, was determined. The character of change in these self-oscillations with increase in the time of the fuel-combustion lag was investigated.

  8. Two phase exhaust for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Vuk, Carl T

    2011-11-29

    An internal combustion engine having a reciprocating multi cylinder internal combustion engine with multiple valves. At least a pair of exhaust valves are provided and each supply a separate power extraction device. The first exhaust valves connect to a power turbine used to provide additional power to the engine either mechanically or electrically. The flow path from these exhaust valves is smaller in area and volume than a second flow path which is used to deliver products of combustion to a turbocharger turbine. The timing of the exhaust valve events is controlled to produce a higher grade of energy to the power turbine and enhance the ability to extract power from the combustion process.

  9. Hydraulic drive supercharger for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Grunig, R.C.

    1986-09-09

    A supercharger is described for an internal combustion engine comprising a housing, a shaft journaled in the housing and supporting on either end an air compressor; a turbine wheel centrally journaled to the shaft and means for directing pressure oil to the turbine wheel and thence from the housing. The compressors comprise vaned compressors with the curvature of the vanes being in opposite directions at opposite ends of the shaft. The supercharger is combined with an internal combustion engine having an inlet header and an exhaust system wherein one of the compressors is connected by a conduit to the internal combustion engine inlet header and the other of the compressors is connected by a conduit to the exhaust system of the internal combustion engine.

  10. Engine combustion control via fuel reactivity stratification

    DOEpatents

    Reitz, Rolf Deneys; Hanson, Reed M.; Splitter, Derek A.; Kokjohn, Sage L.

    2016-06-28

    A compression ignition engine uses two or more fuel charges having two or more reactivities to control the timing and duration of combustion. In a preferred implementation, a lower-reactivity fuel charge is injected or otherwise introduced into the combustion chamber, preferably sufficiently early that it becomes at least substantially homogeneously dispersed within the chamber before a subsequent injection is made. One or more subsequent injections of higher-reactivity fuel charges are then made, and these preferably distribute the higher-reactivity matter within the lower-reactivity chamber space such that combustion begins in the higher-reactivity regions, and with the lower-reactivity regions following thereafter. By appropriately choosing the reactivities of the charges, their relative amounts, and their timing, combustion can be tailored to achieve optimal power output (and thus fuel efficiency), at controlled temperatures (and thus controlled NOx), and with controlled equivalence ratios (and thus controlled soot).

  11. Engine combustion control via fuel reactivity stratification

    DOEpatents

    Reitz, Rolf Deneys; Hanson, Reed M; Splitter, Derek A; Kokjohn, Sage L

    2013-12-31

    A compression ignition engine uses two or more fuel charges having two or more reactivities to control the timing and duration of combustion. In a preferred implementation, a lower-reactivity fuel charge is injected or otherwise introduced into the combustion chamber, preferably sufficiently early that it becomes at least substantially homogeneously dispersed within the chamber before a subsequent injection is made. One or more subsequent injections of higher-reactivity fuel charges are then made, and these preferably distribute the higher-reactivity matter within the lower-reactivity chamber space such that combustion begins in the higher-reactivity regions, and with the lower-reactivity regions following thereafter. By appropriately choose the reactivities of the charges, their relative amounts, and their timing, combustion can be tailored to achieve optimal power output (and thus fuel efficiency), at controlled temperatures (and thus controlled NOx), and with controlled equivalence ratios (and thus controlled soot).

  12. Engine combustion control via fuel reactivity stratification

    DOEpatents

    Reitz, Rolf Deneys; Hanson, Reed M.; Splitter, Derek A.; Kokjohn, Sage L.

    2015-07-14

    A compression ignition engine uses two or more fuel charges having two or more reactivities to control the timing and duration of combustion. In a preferred implementation, a lower-reactivity fuel charge is injected or otherwise introduced into the combustion chamber, preferably sufficiently early that it becomes at least substantially homogeneously dispersed within the chamber before a subsequent injection is made. One or more subsequent injections of higher-reactivity fuel charges are then made, and these preferably distribute the higher-reactivity matter within the lower-reactivity chamber space such that combustion begins in the higher-reactivity regions, and with the lower-reactivity regions following thereafter. By appropriately choosing the reactivities of the charges, their relative amounts, and their timing, combustion can be tailored to achieve optimal power output (and thus fuel efficiency), at controlled temperatures (and thus controlled NOx), and with controlled equivalence ratios (and thus controlled soot).

  13. Flex-flame burner and combustion method

    DOEpatents

    Soupos, Vasilios; Zelepouga, Serguei; Rue, David M.; Abbasi, Hamid A.

    2010-08-24

    A combustion method and apparatus which produce a hybrid flame for heating metals and metal alloys, which hybrid flame has the characteristic of having an oxidant-lean portion proximate the metal or metal alloy and having an oxidant-rich portion disposed above the oxidant lean portion. This hybrid flame is produced by introducing fuel and primary combustion oxidant into the furnace chamber containing the metal or metal alloy in a substoichiometric ratio to produce a fuel-rich flame and by introducing a secondary combustion oxidant into the furnace chamber above the fuel-rich flame in a manner whereby mixing of the secondary combustion oxidant with the fuel-rich flame is delayed for a portion of the length of the flame.

  14. COSTS FOR ADVANCED COAL COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of the development status of advanced coal combustion technologies and discusses the preparation of performance and economic models for their application to electric utility plants. he technologies addressed were atmospheric fluidized bed...

  15. Oil shale retorting and combustion system

    DOEpatents

    Pitrolo, Augustine A.; Mei, Joseph S.; Shang, Jerry Y.

    1983-01-01

    The present invention is directed to the extraction of energy values from l shale containing considerable concentrations of calcium carbonate in an efficient manner. The volatiles are separated from the oil shale in a retorting zone of a fluidized bed where the temperature and the concentration of oxygen are maintained at sufficiently low levels so that the volatiles are extracted from the oil shale with minimal combustion of the volatiles and with minimal calcination of the calcium carbonate. These gaseous volatiles and the calcium carbonate flow from the retorting zone into a freeboard combustion zone where the volatiles are burned in the presence of excess air. In this zone the calcination of the calcium carbonate occurs but at the expense of less BTU's than would be required by the calcination reaction in the event both the retorting and combustion steps took place simultaneously. The heat values in the products of combustion are satisfactorily recovered in a suitable heat exchange system.

  16. Combustion properties of Kraft Black Liquors

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick, W.J. Jr.; Hupa, M. )

    1993-04-01

    In a previous study of the phenomena involved in the combustion of black liquor droplets a numerical model was developed. The model required certain black liquor specific combustion information which was then not currently available, and additional data were needed for evaluating the model. The overall objectives of the project reported here was to provide experimental data on key aspects of black liquor combustion, to interpret the data, and to put it into a form which would be useful for computational models for recovery boilers. The specific topics to be investigated were the volatiles and char carbon yields from pyrolysis of single black liquor droplets; a criterion for the onset of devolatilization and the accompanying rapid swelling; and the surface temperature of black liquor droplets during pyrolysis, combustion, and gasification. Additional information on the swelling characteristics of black liquor droplets was also obtained as part of the experiments conducted.

  17. Combustion of Coal/Oil/Water Slurries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kushida, R. O.

    1982-01-01

    Proposed test setup would measure combustion performance of new fuels by rapidly heating a droplet of coal/oil/water mixture and recording resulting explosion. Such mixtures are being considered as petroleum substitutes in oil-fired furnaces.

  18. GHGRP Miscellaneous Combustion Sector Industrial Profile

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program periodically produces detailed profiles of the various industries that report under the program. The profiles available for download below contain detailed analyses for the Miscellaneous Combustion industry.

  19. Filtration Combustion in Smoldering and SHS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matkowsky, Bernard

    1999-01-01

    Smolder waves and SHS (self-propagating high-temperature synthesis) waves are both examples of filtration combustion waves propagating in porous media. Smoldering combustion is important for the study of fire safety. Smoldering itself can cause damage, its products are toxic and it can also lead to the more dangerous gas phase combustion which corresponds to faster propagation at higher temperatures. In SHS, a porous solid sample, consisting of a finely ground powder mixture of reactants, is ignited at one end. A high temperature thermal wave, having a frontal structure, then propagates through the sample converting reactants to products. The SHS technology appears to enjoy a number of advantages over the conventional technology, in which the sample is placed in a furnace and "baked" until it is "well done". The advantages include shorter synthesis times, greater economy, in that the internal energy of the reactions is employed rather than the costly external energy of the furnace, purer products, simpler equipment and no intrinsic limitation on the size of the sample to be synthesized, as exists in the conventional technology. When delivery of reactants through the pores to the reaction site is an important aspect of the combustion process, it is referred to as filtration combustion. The two types of filtration combustion have a similar mathematical formulation, describing the ignition, propagation and extinction of combustion waves in porous media. The goal in each case, however, is different. In smoldering the desired goal is to prevent propagation, whereas in SHS the goal is to insure propagation of the combustion wave, leading to the synthesis of desired products. In addition, the scales in the two areas of application differ. Smoldering generally occurs at lower temperatures and propagation velocities than in SHS. Nevertheless, the two applications have much in common, so that what is learned in one application can be used to advantage in the other. We have

  20. Coal Combustion Products Extension Program

    SciTech Connect

    Tarunjit S. Butalia; William E. Wolfe

    2006-01-11

    This final project report presents the activities and accomplishments of the ''Coal Combustion Products Extension Program'' conducted at The Ohio State University from August 1, 2000 to June 30, 2005 to advance the beneficial uses of coal combustion products (CCPs) in highway and construction, mine reclamation, agricultural, and manufacturing sectors. The objective of this technology transfer/research program at The Ohio State University was to promote the increased use of Ohio CCPs (fly ash, FGD material, bottom ash, and boiler slag) in applications that are technically sound, environmentally benign, and commercially competitive. The project objective was accomplished by housing the CCP Extension Program within The Ohio State University College of Engineering with support from the university Extension Service and The Ohio State University Research Foundation. Dr. Tarunjit S. Butalia, an internationally reputed CCP expert and registered professional engineer, was the program coordinator. The program coordinator acted as liaison among CCP stakeholders in the state, produced information sheets, provided expertise in the field to those who desired it, sponsored and co-sponsored seminars, meetings, and speaking at these events, and generally worked to promote knowledge about the productive and proper application of CCPs as useful raw materials. The major accomplishments of the program were: (1) Increase in FGD material utilization rate from 8% in 1997 to more than 20% in 2005, and an increase in overall CCP utilization rate of 21% in 1997 to just under 30% in 2005 for the State of Ohio. (2) Recognition as a ''voice of trust'' among Ohio and national CCP stakeholders (particularly regulatory agencies). (3) Establishment of a national and international reputation, especially for the use of FGD materials and fly ash in construction applications. It is recommended that to increase Ohio's CCP utilization rate from 30% in 2005 to 40% by 2010, the CCP Extension Program be

  1. Workshop on Explosive and Propellant Combustion Mechanisms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-01

    REFERENCES; 1. J. H. Stufflebeam and A. C Eckbreth, "CARS Diagnostics of Solid Propellant Combustion at Elevated Pressure", Combustion Science and...Paper Number ATAA-89-0060, 1989; J. H. Stufflebeam , "Temperature and Multiple Species CARS Measurements of Solid Propellant Flames", 26th JANNAF...those of Stufflebeam (UTRC), Edwards (AFAL), Vanderhoff (BRL), Lengelle (ONERA, France), and other groups in the US, Netherlands, and Soviet Union

  2. Reduced methanol kinetic mechanisms for combustion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Yalamanchili, S.; Sirignano, W.A.; Seiser, R.; Seshadri, K.

    2005-08-01

    Reduced chemical kinetic mechanisms for methanol combustion were investigated by evaluating ignition delay magnitudes and combustion in a continuously stirred reactor. Unsteady computations were made to study the characteristics of the kinetic mechanisms proposed in the literature and to compare the dependence of various parameters on methanol combustion. All computations were done under isobaric conditions, and, to capture the influence of all the reactions involved in the mechanism, a very small time step was used. Finite-difference methods were used to solve the coupled differential equations. The five-step mechanism developed by C.M. Mueller and N. Peters [in: N. Peters, B. Rogg (Eds.), Reduced Kinetic Mechanisms for Applications in Combustion Systems, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1993, pp. 143-155] for premixed flames and both the five-step mechanism and the four-step mechanisms developed by C.M. Mueller, K. Seshadri, J.Y. Chen [ibid, pp. 284-307] for non-premixed flames were considered. It was found that the Mueller et al. five-step mechanism, with some modifications, best supported the spontaneous ignition and continuous stirred reactor combustion. The results were validated by comparing calculated ignition delays with available experimental data of C.T. Bowman [Combust. Flame 25 (1975) 343-354], and calculated final steady-state concentrations with chemical equilibrium calculations [J.-Y. Chen, Combust. Sci. Technol. 78 (1991) 127]. Initial temperature and concentration and the operating pressure of the system have a major effect on the delay of methanol ignition. The residence time of the continuous stirred reactor affects ignition delay and also changes the transient characteristic of chemical composition of the fuel-vapor mixture. The computations are intended to guide and explain many combustion studies that require a methanol kinetic mechanism.

  3. Internal combustion engine and method for control

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, Daniel G

    2013-05-21

    In one exemplary embodiment of the invention an internal combustion engine includes a piston disposed in a cylinder, a valve configured to control flow of air into the cylinder and an actuator coupled to the valve to control a position of the valve. The internal combustion engine also includes a controller coupled to the actuator, wherein the controller is configured to close the valve when an uncontrolled condition for the internal engine is determined.

  4. Building America Expert Meeting: Combustion Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Brand, L.

    2013-03-01

    This is a meeting overview of 'The Best Approach to Combustion Safety in a Direct Vent World', held June 28, 2012, in San Antonio, Texas. The objective of this Expert Meeting was to identify gaps and barriers that need to be addressed by future research, and to develop data-driven technical recommendations for code updates so that a common approach for combustion safety can be adopted by all members of the building energy efficiency and code communities.

  5. Building America Expert Meeting. Combustion Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Brand, Larry

    2013-03-01

    This is an overview of "The Best Approach to Combustion Safety in a Direct Vent World," held June 28, 2012, in San Antonio, TX. The objective of this Expert Meeting was to identify gaps and barriers that need to be addressed by future research, and to develop data-driven technical recommendations for code updates so that a common approach for combustion safety can be adopted by all members of the building energy efficiency and code communities.

  6. Composite Propellant combustion and Transition to Detonation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    I combustion BYU Brigham Young University I CMDB Composite-modified double-base propellant CPIA Chemical Propulsion Information Agency (at Johns...incorporate a model of active binder combustion and apply the model to composite-modified double-base ( CMDB ) propellants. The porous burner apparatus...Hercules composite-modified double-base ( CMDB ) pro- pellants, containing AP or HMX, but not containing aluminum. Qualita- tive effects of composition and

  7. Large Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Combustion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-15

    Application to an HCCI Engine . Proceedings of the 4th Joint Meeting of the U.S. Sections of the Combustion Institute, 2005. [34] K. Fieweger...LARGE EDDY SIMULATION OF TURBULENT COMBUSTION Principle Investigator: Heinz Pitsch Flow Physics and Computation Department of Mechanical Engineering ...burners and engines found in modern, industrially relevant equipment. In the course of this transition of LES from a scientifically interesting method

  8. Spray combustion model improvement study, 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. P.; Kim, Y. M.; Shang, H. M.

    1993-01-01

    This study involves the development of numerical and physical modeling in spray combustion. These modeling efforts are mainly motivated to improve the physical submodels of turbulence, combustion, atomization, dense spray effects, and group vaporization. The present mathematical formulation can be easily implemented in any time-marching multiple pressure correction methodologies such as MAST code. A sequence of validation cases includes the nonevaporating, evaporating and_burnin dense_sprays.

  9. Heated Promoted Combustion-Initial Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engel, Carl D.; Herald, Stephen; Davis, S. Eddie

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the STD 6001 test 17 is to determine the flammability of materials in GOX at ambient temperature and at use pressure. The purpose of the new Heated Promoted combustion test is to determine the flammability of material in GOX at use temperature and pressure. The objective is to present the new heated promoted combustion method and show initial data and trends for three representative metals.

  10. Overview of IEA biomass combustion activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hustad, J. E.

    1994-07-01

    The objectives of the International Energy Agency (IEA) bioenergy program are: (1) to encourage cooperative research, development and use of energy and the increased utilization of alternatives to oil; and (2) to establish increased program and project cooperation between participants in the whole field of bioenergy. There are four Task Annexes to the Implementing Agreement during the period 1992-1994: Efficient and Environmentally Sound Biomass Production Systems; Harvesting and Supply of Woody Biomass for Energy; Biomass Utilization; and Conversion of Municipal Solid Waste Feedstock to Energy. The report describes the following biomass combustion activities during the period 1992-1994: Round robin test of a wood stove; Emissions from biomass combustion; A pilot project cofiring biomass with oil to reduce SO2 emissions; Small scale biomass chip handling; Energy from contaminated wood waste combustion; Modeling of biomass combustion; Wood chip cogeneration; Combustion of wet biomass feedstocks, ash reinjection and carbon burnout; Oxidation of wet biomass; Catalytic combustion in small wood burning appliances; Characterization of biomass fuels and ashes; Measurement techniques (FTIR).

  11. Bi-Component Droplet Combustion Experiment Designed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrich, Daniel L.

    2002-01-01

    The combustion of liquid fuels is a major source of energy in the world today, and the majority of these fuels are burned in the form of a spray. The research at the NASA Glenn Research Center in droplet combustion has the overall goal of providing a better understanding of spray combustion by studying the smallest element in a spray, the single droplet. The Bi-Component Droplet Combustion Experiment (BCDCE) extends the work at Glenn from pure, or single-component, fuels to an idealized liquid fuel composed of two completely miscible components. The project is a collaborative effort between Glenn and Prof. B.D. Shaw of the University of California, Davis. The BCDCE project is planned to fly onboard the International Space Station in the Multi-User Droplet Combustion Apparatus. The unique feature of this experiment is that it will be the first droplet combustion experiment to perform a detailed characterization of the flow inside a liquid fuel droplet. The experiment will use a relatively new technique called Digital Particle Imaging Velocimetry (DPIV) to characterize the liquid flow. In this technique, very small (approx. 5-mm diameter) particles are dispersed throughout a liquid droplet. These particles are illuminated by a thin laser sheet. Images of the particle motion are recorded on a computer, which then tracks the motion of the particles to determine the flow characteristics.

  12. Fuel and Combustion Characteristics of Organic Wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namba, Kunihiko; Ida, Tamio

    From a viewpoint of environmental preservation and resource protection, the recycling of wastes has been promoting. Expectations to new energy resource are growing by decrease of fossil fuel. Biomass is one of new energies for prevent global warning. This study is an attempt to burn biomass lamps made from residues in order to thermally recycle waste products of drink industries. The pyrolytic properties of shochu dregs and used tea leaves were observed by thermo-gravimertic analysis (TG) to obtained fundamental data of drink waste pyrolysis. It observed that shochu dregs pyrolyze under lower temperature than used tea leaves. These wastes were compressed by hot press apparatus in the temperature range from 140 to 180 °C for use as Bio-fuel (BF). The combustion behavior of BF was observed in fall-type electric furnace, where video-recording was carried out at sequential steps, such as ignition, visible envelope flame combustion and char combustion to obtain combustion characteristics such as ignition delay, visible flame combustion time and char combustion time.

  13. Combustion kinetics and reaction pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Klemm, R.B.; Sutherland, J.W.

    1993-12-01

    This project is focused on the fundamental chemistry of combustion. The overall objectives are to determine rate constants for elementary reactions and to elucidate the pathways of multichannel reactions. A multitechnique approach that features three independent experiments provides unique capabilities in performing reliable kinetic measurements over an exceptionally wide range in temperature, 300 to 2500 K. Recent kinetic work has focused on experimental studies and theoretical calculations of the methane dissociation system (CH{sub 4} + Ar {yields} CH{sub 3} + H + Ar and H + CH{sub 4} {yields} CH{sub 3} + H{sub 2}). Additionally, a discharge flow-photoionization mass spectrometer (DF-PIMS) experiment is used to determine branching fractions for multichannel reactions and to measure ionization thresholds of free radicals. Thus, these photoionization experiments generate data that are relevant to both reaction pathways studies (reaction dynamics) and fundamental thermochemical research. Two distinct advantages of performing PIMS with high intensity, tunable vacuum ultraviolet light at the National Synchrotron Light Source are high detection sensitivity and exceptional selectivity in monitoring radical species.

  14. Active control of combustion instability

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, W.; Poinsot, T.; Candel, S.

    1987-12-01

    The principle of 'antisound' is used to construct a method for the suppression of combustion instabilities. This active instability control (AIC) method uses external acoustic excitation by a loudspeaker to suppress the oscillations of a flame. The excitation signal is provided by a microphone located upstream of the flame. This signal is filtered, processed, amplified, and sent to the loudspeaker. The AIC method is validated on a laboratory combustor. It allows the suppression of all unstable modes of the burner for any operating ratio. The influence of the microphone and loudspeaker locations on the performance of the AIC system is described. For a given configuration, domains of stability, i.e., domains where the AIC system parameters provide suppression of the oscillation, are investigated. Measurements of the electric input of the loudspeaker show that the energy consumption of the AIC system is almost negligible and suggest that this method could be used for industrial combustor stabilization. Finally, a simple model describing the effects of the AIC system is developed and its results compared to the experiment.

  15. Pressurized fluidized-bed combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    The US DOE pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) research and development program is designed to develop the technology and data base required for the successful commercialization of the PFBC concept. A cooperative program with the US, West Germany, and the UK has resulted in the construction of the 25 MWe IEA-Grimethorpe combined-cycle pilot plant in England which will be tested in 1981. A 13 MWe coal-fired gas turbine (air cycle) at Curtis-Wright has been designed and construction scheduled. Start-up is planned to begin in early 1983. A 75 MWe pilot plant is planned for completion in 1986. Each of these PFBC combined-cycle programs is discussed. The current status of PFB technology may be summarized as follows: turbine erosion tolerance/hot gas cleanup issues have emerged as the barrier technology issues; promising turbine corrosion-resistant materials have been identified, but long-term exposure data is lacking; first-generation PFB combustor technology development is maturing at the PDU level; however, scale-up to larger size has not been demonstrated; and in-bed heat exchanger materials have been identified, but long-term exposure data is lacking. The DOE-PFB development plan is directed at the resolution of these key technical issues. (LCL)

  16. Carburetor for internal combustion engines

    DOEpatents

    Csonka, John J.; Csonka, Albert B.

    1978-01-01

    A carburetor for internal combustion engines having a housing including a generally discoidal wall and a hub extending axially from the central portion thereof, an air valve having a relatively flat radially extending surface directed toward and concentric with said discoidal wall and with a central conoidal portion having its apex directed toward the interior of said hub portion. The housing wall and the radially extending surface of the valve define an air passage converging radially inwardly to form an annular valving construction and thence diverge into the interior of said hub. The hub includes an annular fuel passage terminating at its upper end in a circumferential series of micro-passages for directing liquid fuel uniformly distributed into said air passage substantially at said valving constriction at right angles to the direction of air flow. The air valve is adjustable axially toward and away from the discoidal wall of the carburetor housing to regulate the volume of air drawn into the engine with which said carburetor is associated. Fuel is delivered under pressure to the fuel metering valve and from there through said micro-passages and controlled cams simultaneously regulate the axial adjustment of said air valve and the rate of delivery of fuel through said micro-passages according to a predetermined ratio pattern. A third jointly controlled cam simultaneously regulates the ignition timing in accordance with various air and fuel supply settings. The air valve, fuel supply and ignition timing settings are all independent of the existing degree of engine vacuum.

  17. Combustion Research aboard the ISS Utilizing the Combustion Integrated Rack and Microgravity Science Glovebox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutliff, T. J.; Otero, A. M.; Urban, D. L.

    2002-01-01

    The Physical Sciences Research Program of NASA has chartered a broad suite of peer-reviewed research investigating both fundamental combustion phenomena and applied combustion research topics. Fundamental research provides insights to develop accurate simulations of complex combustion processes and allows developers to improve the efficiency of combustion devices, to reduce the production of harmful emissions, and to reduce the incidence of accidental uncontrolled combustion (fires, explosions). The applied research benefit humans living and working in space through its fire safety program. The Combustion Science Discipline is implementing a structured flight research program utilizing the International Space Station (ISS) and two of its premier facilities, the Combustion Integrated Rack of the Fluids and Combustion Facility and the Microgravity Science Glovebox to conduct this space-based research. This paper reviews the current vision of Combustion Science research planned for International Space Station implementation from 2003 through 2012. A variety of research efforts in droplets and sprays, solid-fuels combustion, and gaseous combustion have been independently selected and critiqued through a series of peer-review processes. During this period, while both the ISS carrier and its research facilities are under development, the Combustion Science Discipline has synergistically combined research efforts into sub-topical areas. To conduct this research aboard ISS in the most cost effective and resource efficient manner, the sub-topic research areas are implemented via a multi-user hardware approach. This paper also summarizes the multi-user hardware approach and recaps the progress made in developing these research hardware systems. A balanced program content has been developed to maximize the production of fundamental and applied combustion research results within the current budgetary and ISS operational resource constraints. Decisions on utilizing the

  18. Real time identification of the internal combustion engine combustion parameters based on the vibration velocity signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiuliang; Cheng, Yong; Wang, Limei; Ji, Shaobo

    2017-03-01

    Accurate combustion parameters are the foundations of effective closed-loop control of engine combustion process. Some combustion parameters, including the start of combustion, the location of peak pressure, the maximum pressure rise rate and its location, can be identified from the engine block vibration signals. These signals often include non-combustion related contributions, which limit the prompt acquisition of the combustion parameters computationally. The main component in these non-combustion related contributions is considered to be caused by the reciprocating inertia force excitation (RIFE) of engine crank train. A mathematical model is established to describe the response of the RIFE. The parameters of the model are recognized with a pattern recognition algorithm, and the response of the RIFE is predicted and then the related contributions are removed from the measured vibration velocity signals. The combustion parameters are extracted from the feature points of the renovated vibration velocity signals. There are angle deviations between the feature points in the vibration velocity signals and those in the cylinder pressure signals. For the start of combustion, a system bias is adopted to correct the deviation and the error bound of the predicted parameters is within 1.1°. To predict the location of the maximum pressure rise rate and the location of the peak pressure, algorithms based on the proportion of high frequency components in the vibration velocity signals are introduced. Tests results show that the two parameters are able to be predicted within 0.7° and 0.8° error bound respectively. The increase from the knee point preceding the peak value point to the peak value in the vibration velocity signals is used to predict the value of the maximum pressure rise rate. Finally, a monitoring frame work is inferred to realize the combustion parameters prediction. Satisfactory prediction for combustion parameters in successive cycles is achieved, which

  19. Electrochemical principles of the mechanism of the spontaneous combustion of solid combustible minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksandrov, I.V.

    1984-01-01

    The main stages of mechanism of the oxidative-reductive transformations of the organic matter and mineral fraction of solid combustible minerals in the process of spontaneous combustion are considered. An explanation is proposed of the oxidation reactions of fuels under deaerated conditions as a redox process with hydrogen depolarization.

  20. EMISSIONS OF TRACE PRODUCTS OF INCOMPLETE COMBUSTION FROM A PILOT-SCALE INCINERATOR SECONDARY COMBUSTION CHAMBER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experiments were performed on a 73 kW rotary kiln incinerator simulator equipped with a 73 kW secondary combustion chamber (SCC) to examine emissions of products of incomplete combustion (PICs) resulting from incineration of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and dichlorometh...

  1. Pulsating combustion of gas fuel in the combustion chamber with closed resonant circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yallina, E. V.; Larionov, V. M.; Iovleva, O. V.

    2013-12-01

    In the combustion chambers of the pulsation of gas flow oscillation greatly accelerate heat dissipation to the walls of the combustion chamber and improve combustion efficiency as compared with a uniform combustion mode. This allows you to effectively solve a number of problems of industrial power, including an environmentally friendly combustion products. Significant drawback of such systems - the emitted noise exceeding the permissible requirements. One solution to this problem - the separation of the resonance tube into 2 parts connected at the output to the interference of sound waves. The results of theoretical studies pulsating combustion technical mixture of propane in the system, consisting of a combustion chamber and two resonance tubes forming a closed resonant circuit. Resonators have a variable length. Calculations have shown that under certain oscillation of the resonator length to the first resonant frequency of the system is achieved by reducing SPL more than 15 dB. For oscillations at a second resonant frequency is the complete elimination of noise while maintaining intense oscillations in the combustion chamber.

  2. The combustion behavior of diesel/CNG mixtures in a constant volume combustion chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firmansyah; Aziz, A. R. A.; Heikal, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    The stringent emissions and needs to increase fuel efficiency makes controlled auto-ignition (CAI) based combustion an attractive alternative for the new combustion system. However, the combustion control is the main obstacles in its development. Reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) that employs two fuels with significantly different in reactivity proven to be able to control the combustion. The RCCI concept applied in a constant volume chamber fuelled with direct injected diesel and compressed natural gas (CNG) was tested. The mixture composition is varied from 0 - 100% diesel/CNG at lambda 1 with main data collection are pressure profile and combustion images. The results show that diesel-CNG mixture significantly shows better combustion compared to diesel only. It is found that CNG is delaying the diesel combustion and at the same time assisting in diesel distribution inside the chamber. This combination creates a multipoint ignition of diesel throughout the chamber that generate very fast heat release rate and higher maximum pressure. Furthermore, lighter yellow color of the flame indicates lower soot production in compared with diesel combustion.

  3. Comparison between a propane-air combustion front and a helium-air simulated combustion front

    SciTech Connect

    Barraclough, S.

    1983-12-01

    Turbulent combustion experiments were performed in a right cylindrical combustion bomb using a premixed propane-air gaseous fuel. The initial conditions inside the combustion chamber were three psig and room temperature. Prior to spark firing, the turbulence intensity inside the combustion chamber was measured and could be varied over a ten fold range. The effect of initial turbulence intensity on turbulent flame propagation was investigated. Two regimes of turbulent combustion were identified, which is in agreement with a previous investigator's results. One of them, a ''transition regime'' occurs when the turbulence intensity is approximately twice the laminar flame speed. Within the transition regime, the turbulent burning speed is linearly proportional to initial turbulence intensity and independent of laminar flame speed and turbulence length scale. A high pressure helium front was injected into the combustion chamber to simulate the combustion front. Since the helium front is isothermal, hot-wire anemometry can be used to quantify the change in turbulence intensity ahead of the propagating front. The helium front was found to have different characteristics than the combustion front.

  4. Combustion Model for a CFB Boiler with Consideration of Post-Combustion in the Cyclone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, S. H.; Yang, H. R.; Zhang, H.; Wu, Y. X.; Lu, J. F.; Yue, G. X.

    Severe post combustion in the cyclone of CFB boilers could destroy heat absorbing balance among the heating surfaces and cause overheating problem for reheaters and superheaters. However, post combustion in the cyclone is rarely considered in the design phase of a CFB boiler. Based on our previous experiment results, group combustion model is used in this study to estimate the combustion of particles in the cyclone. It is found that the combustion of particles in the cyclone did not contribute as much as we anticipated to the temperature augment in the cyclone because of great oxygen diffusion resistance in near-wall particle layer. Post combustion model in the cyclone is then added into a one-dimensional combustion model of CFB boiler, in which the gas-solid flow, reaction, and heat absorption at different vertical locations in a CFB boiler can be well predicted with the knowledge of operation parameters. The new model was used to estimate the influence of some operation parameters on the post combustion in the cyclone and heat releasing fraction in the cyclone. The prediction results are very good.

  5. Assessment of Literature Related to Combustion Appliance Venting Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rapp, V. H.; Less, B. D.; Singer, B. C.; Stratton, J. C.; Wray, C. P.

    2015-02-01

    In many residential building retrofit programs, air tightening to increase energy efficiency is often constrained by safety concerns with naturally vented combustion appliances. Tighter residential buildings more readily depressurize when exhaust equipment is operated, making combustion appliances more prone to backdraft or spill combustion exhaust into the living space. Several measures, such as installation guidelines, vent sizing codes, and combustion safety diagnostics, are in place with the intent to prevent backdrafting and combustion spillage, but the diagnostics conflict and the risk mitigation objective is inconsistent. This literature review summarizes the metrics and diagnostics used to assess combustion safety, documents their technical basis, and investigates their risk mitigations. It compiles information from the following: codes for combustion appliance venting and installation; standards and guidelines for combustion safety diagnostics; research evaluating combustion safety diagnostics; research investigating wind effects on building depressurization and venting; and software for simulating vent system performance.

  6. Commercial investments in Combustion research aboard ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schowengerdt, F. D.

    2000-01-01

    The Center for Commercial Applications of Combustion in Space (CCACS) at the Colorado School of Mines is working with a number of companies planning commercial combustion research to be done aboard the International Space Station (ISS). This research will be conducted in two major ISS facilities, SpaceDRUMS™ and the Fluids and Combustion Facility. SpaceDRUMS™, under development by Guigne Technologies, Ltd., of St. John's Newfoundland, is a containerless processing facility employing active acoustic sample positioning. It is capable of processing the large samples needed in commercial research and development with virtually complete vibration isolation from the space station. The Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF), being developed by NASA-Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, is a general-purpose combustion furnace designed to accommodate a wide range of scientific experiments. SpaceDRUMS™ will be the first commercial hardware to be launched to ISS. Launch is currently scheduled for UF-1 in 2001. The CCACS research to be done in SpaceDRUMS™ includes combustion synthesis of glass-ceramics and porous materials. The FCF is currently scheduled to be launched to ISS aboard UF-3 in 2002. The CCACS research to be done in the FCF includes water mist fire suppression, catalytic combustion and flame synthesis of ceramic powders. The companies currently planning to be involved in the research include Guigne International, Ltd., Technology International, Inc., Coors Ceramics Company, TDA Research, Advanced Refractory Technologies, Inc., ADA Technologies, Inc., ITN Energy Systems, Inc., Innovative Scientific Solutions, Inc., Princeton Instruments, Inc., Environmental Engineering Concepts, Inc., and Solar Turbines, Inc. Together, these companies are currently investing almost $2 million in cash and in-kind annually toward the seven commercial projects within CCACS. Total private investment in CCACS research to date is over $7 million. .

  7. Combustion Research Aboard the ISS Utilizing the Combustion Integrated Rack and Microgravity Science Glovebox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutliff, Thomas J.; Otero, Angel M.; Urban, David L.

    2002-01-01

    The Physical Sciences Research Program of NASA sponsors a broad suite of peer-reviewed research investigating fundamental combustion phenomena and applied combustion research topics. This research is performed through both ground-based and on-orbit research capabilities. The International Space Station (ISS) and two facilities, the Combustion Integrated Rack and the Microgravity Science Glovebox, are key elements in the execution of microgravity combustion flight research planned for the foreseeable future. This paper reviews the Microgravity Combustion Science research planned for the International Space Station implemented from 2003 through 2012. Examples of selected research topics, expected outcomes, and potential benefits will be provided. This paper also summarizes a multi-user hardware development approach, recapping the progress made in preparing these research hardware systems. Within the description of this approach, an operational strategy is presented that illustrates how utilization of constrained ISS resources may be maximized dynamically to increase science through design decisions made during hardware development.

  8. Combustion Synthesis of Magnesium Aluminate

    SciTech Connect

    Kale, M. A.; Joshi, C. P.; Moharil, S. V.

    2011-10-20

    In the system MgO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, three compounds MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, MgAl{sub 6}O{sub 10}(also expressed as-Mg{sub 0.4}Al{sub 2.4}O{sub 4}) and MgAl{sub 26}O{sub 40} are well known. Importance of the first two is well established. Magnesium aluminate (MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}) spinel is a technologically important material due to its interesting thermal properties. The MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} ceramics also find application as humidity sensors. Apart from the luminescence studies, the interest in MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} is due to various applications such as humidity-sensing and PEM fuel cells, TL/OSL dosimetry of the ionizing radiations, white light source. Interest in the MgAl{sub 6}O{sub 10} has aroused due to possible use as a substrate for GaN growth. Attempt was made to synthesize these compounds by the combustion synthesis using metal nitrates as oxidizer and urea as a fuel. Compounds MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and MgAl{sub 6}O{sub 10} were formed in a single step, while MgAl{sub 26}O{sub 40} was not formed by this procedure. Activation of MgAl{sub 6}O{sub 10} by rare earth ions like Ce{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} and ns{sup 2} ion Pb{sup 2+} could be achieved. Excitation bands for MgAl{sub 6}O{sub 10} are at slightly shorter wavelengths compared to those reported for MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}.

  9. Gasdynamic enhancement of nonpremixed combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Marble, F.E.

    1994-12-31

    To promote efficient performance of very high speed air-breathing propulsion systems, the combustor Mach number must be of the order of six for a flight Mach number of 18. Because of this high gas speed through the combustor, mixing rates of hydrogen fuel with air must be very rapid in order to allow a combustor of reasonable length. It is proposed to enhance the rate of mixing and combustion of hydrogen and air, and thereby reduce combustor length, through the introduction of streamwise vorticity generated by the interaction of a weak oblique shock wave with the density gradient between air and a cylindrical jet of hydrogen. Because of the high Mach number flow in the combustor, the oblique shock traverses the jet at a small angle with respect to the free stream direction, and the principle of slender body theory allows one conceptually to replace the three-dimensional steady flow with a two-dimensional unsteady flow. As a consequence, two-dimensional time-dependent computational studies and an extensive experimental shock tube investigation were employed to assess mixing rates for the steady flow in the combustor. The results indicated that under realistic conditions, adequate mixing could be accomplished within 1 ms, a rate that was technologically interesting. Encouraged by these experiments, a ``practical`` injector, utilizing shock-enhanced mixing, was designed for a combustor having a free stream Mach number of 6.0. A detailed aerodynamic and mixing investigation was carried out in the Mach 6 High Reynolds Number Tunnel at the NASA-Langley Research Center. The results confirmed both the details and the overall effectiveness of the shock-enhanced mixing concept.

  10. Impacts of Combustion Conditions and Photochemical Processing on the Light Absorption of Biomass Combustion Aerosol.

    PubMed

    Martinsson, J; Eriksson, A C; Nielsen, I Elbæk; Malmborg, V Berg; Ahlberg, E; Andersen, C; Lindgren, R; Nyström, R; Nordin, E Z; Brune, W H; Svenningsson, B; Swietlicki, E; Boman, C; Pagels, J H

    2015-12-15

    The aim was to identify relationships between combustion conditions, particle characteristics, and optical properties of fresh and photochemically processed emissions from biomass combustion. The combustion conditions included nominal and high burn rate operation and individual combustion phases from a conventional wood stove. Low temperature pyrolysis upon fuel addition resulted in "tar-ball" type particles dominated by organic aerosol with an absorption Ångström exponent (AAE) of 2.5-2.7 and estimated Brown Carbon contributions of 50-70% to absorption at the climate relevant aethalometer-wavelength (520 nm). High temperature combustion during the intermediate (flaming) phase was dominated by soot agglomerates with AAE 1.0-1.2 and 85-100% of absorption at 520 nm attributed to Black Carbon. Intense photochemical processing of high burn rate flaming combustion emissions in an oxidation flow reactor led to strong formation of Secondary Organic Aerosol, with no or weak absorption. PM1 mass emission factors (mg/kg) of fresh emissions were about an order of magnitude higher for low temperature pyrolysis compared to high temperature combustion. However, emission factors describing the absorption cross section emitted per kg of fuel consumed (m(2)/kg) were of similar magnitude at 520 nm for the diverse combustion conditions investigated in this study. These results provide a link between biomass combustion conditions, emitted particle types, and their optical properties in fresh and processed plumes which can be of value for source apportionment and balanced mitigation of biomass combustion emissions from a climate and health perspective.

  11. Combustion Enhancement with a Silent Discharge Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosocha, Louis

    2003-10-01

    It is well known that the application of an external electric field to a flame can affect its propagation speed, stability, and combustion chemistry (Lawton & Weinberg 1969). External electrodes, arc discharges, and plasma jets have been employed to allow combustible gas mixtures to operate outside their flammability limits by gas heating, injection of free radicals, and field-promoted flame stabilization (Yagodnikov & Voronetskii 1994). Other investigators have carried out experiments with silent electrical discharges applied to propagating flames (Inomata et al 1983, Kim et al 2003). These have demonstrated that the flame propagation velocity is actually decreased (combustion retarded) when a silent discharge is applied directly to the flame region, but that the flame propagation velocity is increased (combustion promoted) when a silent discharge is applied to the unburned gas mixture upstream of a flame. Two other recent works have considered the possibility of combustion enhancement in aircraft gas turbine engine combustor mixers by using a plasma-generating fuel nozzle, that employs an electric-arc or microwave plasma generator, to produce dissociated fuel or ionized fuel (Johnson et al 2001); and pulsed corona-enhanced detonation of fuel-air mixtures in jet engines (Wang et al 2003). In contrast to these prior works, we have employed a silent discharge plasma (SDP) reactor to break up large fuel molecules into smaller molecules and create free radicals or other active species in a gas stream before the fuel is mixed with an oxidizer and combusted. In experiments reported here, a cylindrical SDP reactor was used to 'activate' propane before mixing it with air and igniting the combustible gas mixture. With the plasma, the physical appearance of the flame changes and substantial changes in mass spectrometer fragmentation peaks are observed (e.g., propane fragments decrease and water and carbon dioxide increase). This indicates that the combustion process is

  12. Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Biofuel Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarathy, Subram Maniam

    Bioalcohols, such as bioethanol and biobutanol, are suitable replacements for gasoline, while biodiesel can replace petroleum diesel. Improving biofuel engine performance requires understanding its fundamental combustion properties and the pathways of combustion. This study's contribution is experimentally validated chemical kinetic combustion mechanisms for biobutanol and biodiesel. Fundamental combustion data and chemical kinetic mechanisms are presented and discussed to improve our understanding of biofuel combustion. The net environmental impact of biobutanol (i.e., n-butanol) has not been studied extensively, so this study first assesses the sustainability of n-butanol derived from corn. The results indicate that technical advances in fuel production are required before commercializing biobutanol. The primary contribution of this research is new experimental data and a novel chemical kinetic mechanism for n-butanol combustion. The results indicate that under the given experimental conditions, n-butanol is consumed primarily via abstraction of hydrogen atoms to produce fuel radical molecules, which subsequently decompose to smaller hydrocarbon and oxygenated species. The hydroxyl moiety in n-butanol results in the direct production of the oxygenated species such as butanal, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde. The formation of these compounds sequesters carbon from forming soot precursors, but they may introduce other adverse environmental and health effects. Biodiesel is a mixture of long chain fatty acid methyl esters derived from fats and oils. This research study presents high quality experimental data for one large fatty acid methyl ester, methyl decanoate, and models its combustion using an improved skeletal mechanism. The results indicate that methyl decanoate is consumed via abstraction of hydrogen atoms to produce fuel radicals, which ultimately lead to the production of alkenes. The ester moiety in methyl decanoate leads to the formation of low molecular

  13. Reaction and diffusion in turbulent combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, S.B.

    1993-12-01

    The motivation for this project is the need to obtain a better quantitative understanding of the technologically-important phenomenon of turbulent combustion. In nearly all applications in which fuel is burned-for example, fossil-fuel power plants, furnaces, gas-turbines and internal-combustion engines-the combustion takes place in a turbulent flow. Designers continually demand more quantitative information about this phenomenon-in the form of turbulent combustion models-so that they can design equipment with increased efficiency and decreased environmental impact. For some time the PI has been developing a class of turbulent combustion models known as PDF methods. These methods have the important virtue that both convection and reaction can be treated without turbulence-modelling assumptions. However, a mixing model is required to account for the effects of molecular diffusion. Currently, the available mixing models are known to have some significant defects. The major motivation of the project is to seek a better understanding of molecular diffusion in turbulent reactive flows, and hence to develop a better mixing model.

  14. Combustion Safety Simplified Test Protocol Field Study

    SciTech Connect

    Brand, L; Cautley, D.; Bohac, D.; Francisco, P.; Shen, L.; Gloss, S.

    2015-11-05

    "9Combustions safety is an important step in the process of upgrading homes for energy efficiency. There are several approaches used by field practitioners, but researchers have indicated that the test procedures in use are complex to implement and provide too many false positives. Field failures often mean that the house is not upgraded until after remediation or not at all, if not include in the program. In this report the PARR and NorthernSTAR DOE Building America Teams provide a simplified test procedure that is easier to implement and should produce fewer false positives. A survey of state weatherization agencies on combustion safety issues, details of a field data collection instrumentation package, summary of data collected over seven months, data analysis and results are included. The project provides several key results. State weatherization agencies do not generally track combustion safety failures, the data from those that do suggest that there is little actual evidence that combustion safety failures due to spillage from non-dryer exhaust are common and that only a very small number of homes are subject to the failures. The project team collected field data on 11 houses in 2015. Of these homes, two houses that demonstrated prolonged and excessive spillage were also the only two with venting systems out of compliance with the National Fuel Gas Code. The remaining homes experienced spillage that only occasionally extended beyond the first minute of operation. Combustion zone depressurization, outdoor temperature, and operation of individual fans all provide statistically significant predictors of spillage.

  15. Design factors for stable lean premix combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, G.A.; Yip, M.J.; Gemmen, R.S.

    1995-10-01

    The Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program includes the development of low-emission combustors. Low emissions have already been achieved by premixing fuel and air to avoid the hot gas pockets produced by nozzles without premixing. While the advantages of premixed combustion have been widely recognized, turbine developers using premixed nozzles have experienced repeated problems with combustion oscillations. Left uncontrolled, these oscillations can lead to pressure fluctuations capable of damaging engine hardware. Elimination of such oscillations is often difficult and time consuming - particularly when oscillations are discovered in the last stages of engine development. To address this issue, METC is studying oscillating combustion from lean premixing fuel nozzles. These tests are providing generic information on the mechanisms that contribute to oscillating behavior in gas turbines. METC is also investigating the use of so-called {open_quotes}active{close_quotes} control of combustion oscillations. This technique periodically injects fuel pulses into the combustor to disrupt the oscillating behavior. Recent results on active combustion control are presented in Gemmen et al. (1995) and Richards et al. (1995). This paper describes the status of METC efforts to avoid oscillations through simple design changes.

  16. Combustion reactivity of low rank coal chars

    SciTech Connect

    Young, B.C.

    1983-08-01

    For many years the CSIRO has been involved in studies on the combustion kinetics of coal chars and related materials. Early work included studies on a char produced from a Victorian brown coal. More recently, the combustion kinetics of chars produced during the flash pyrolysis of sub-bituminous coals have been determined. Data are given for the combustion reactivities of four flash pyrolysis chars. Their reactivities are compared with the results for chars produced from low and high rank coals, and petroleum coke. Reactivity is expressed as the rate of combustion of carbon per unit external surface area of the particle, with due correction being made for the effect of the mass transfer of oxygen to the particle. It has been shown that the reactivities to oxygen of chars produced from Millmerran sub-bituminous coal decrease with increasing pyrolysis temperature but are similar in magnitude to the reactivities of chars derived from a brown and a bituminous coal and to the reactivities of anthracites and semi-anthracites. However, Wandoan char, also of sub-bituminous origin, exhibits about twice the reactivity of Millmerran char and about ten times the reactivity of petroleum coke. On the basis of observed activation energy values, particle size and particle density behaviour it is concluded that the combustion rates of Millmerran and Wandoan chars are controlled by the combined effects of pore diffusion and chemical reaction.

  17. Simulation of lean premixed turbulent combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, J.; Day, M.; Almgren, A.; Lijewski, M.; Rendleman, C.; Cheng, R.; Shepherd, I.

    2006-09-01

    There is considerable technological interest in developing new fuel-flexible combustion systems that can burn fuels such as hydrogen or syngas. Lean premixed systems have the potential to burn these types of fuels with high efficiency and low NOx emissions due to reduced burnt gas temperatures. Although traditional Scientific approaches based on theory and laboratory experiment have played essential roles in developing our current understanding of premixed combustion, they are unable to meet the challenges of designing fuel-flexible lean premixed combustion devices. Computation, with its ability to deal with complexity and its unlimited access to data, has the potential for addressing these challenges. Realizing this potential requires the ability to perform high fidelity simulations of turbulent lean premixed flames under realistic conditions. In this paper, we examine the specialized mathematical structure of these combustion problems and discuss simulation approaches that exploit this structure. Using these ideas we can dramatically reduce computational cost, making it possible to perform high-fidelity simulations of realistic flames. We illustrate this methodology by considering ultra-lean hydrogen flames and discuss how this type of simulation is changing the way researchers study combustion.

  18. Neutrophil Leukocyte: Combustive Microbicidal Action and Chemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Allen, Robert C

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophil leukocytes protect against a varied and complex array of microbes by providing microbicidal action that is simple, potent, and focused. Neutrophils provide such action via redox reactions that change the frontier orbitals of oxygen (O2) facilitating combustion. The spin conservation rules define the symmetry barrier that prevents direct reaction of diradical O2 with nonradical molecules, explaining why combustion is not spontaneous. In burning, the spin barrier is overcome when energy causes homolytic bond cleavage producing radicals capable of reacting with diradical O2 to yield oxygenated radical products that further participate in reactive propagation. Neutrophil mediated combustion is by a different pathway. Changing the spin quantum state of O2 removes the symmetry restriction to reaction. Electronically excited singlet molecular oxygen ((1)O2(*)) is a potent electrophilic reactant with a finite lifetime that restricts its radius of reactivity and focuses combustive action on the target microbe. The resulting exergonic dioxygenation reactions produce electronically excited carbonyls that relax by light emission, that is, chemiluminescence. This overview of neutrophil combustive microbicidal action takes the perspectives of spin conservation and bosonic-fermionic frontier orbital considerations. The necessary principles of particle physics and quantum mechanics are developed and integrated into a fundamental explanation of neutrophil microbicidal metabolism.

  19. Neutrophil Leukocyte: Combustive Microbicidal Action and Chemiluminescence

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophil leukocytes protect against a varied and complex array of microbes by providing microbicidal action that is simple, potent, and focused. Neutrophils provide such action via redox reactions that change the frontier orbitals of oxygen (O2) facilitating combustion. The spin conservation rules define the symmetry barrier that prevents direct reaction of diradical O2 with nonradical molecules, explaining why combustion is not spontaneous. In burning, the spin barrier is overcome when energy causes homolytic bond cleavage producing radicals capable of reacting with diradical O2 to yield oxygenated radical products that further participate in reactive propagation. Neutrophil mediated combustion is by a different pathway. Changing the spin quantum state of O2 removes the symmetry restriction to reaction. Electronically excited singlet molecular oxygen (1O2*) is a potent electrophilic reactant with a finite lifetime that restricts its radius of reactivity and focuses combustive action on the target microbe. The resulting exergonic dioxygenation reactions produce electronically excited carbonyls that relax by light emission, that is, chemiluminescence. This overview of neutrophil combustive microbicidal action takes the perspectives of spin conservation and bosonic-fermionic frontier orbital considerations. The necessary principles of particle physics and quantum mechanics are developed and integrated into a fundamental explanation of neutrophil microbicidal metabolism. PMID:26783542

  20. LOX/Hydrocarbon Combustion Instability Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, R. J.; Dodson, H. C.; Claflin, S. E.

    1989-01-01

    The LOX/Hydrocarbon Combustion Instability Investigation Program was structured to determine if the use of light hydrocarbon combustion fuels with liquid oxygen (LOX) produces combustion performance and stability behavior similar to the LOX/hydrogen propellant combination. In particular methane was investigated to determine if that fuel can be rated for combustion instability using the same techniques as previously used for LOX/hydrogen. These techniques included fuel temperature ramping and stability bomb tests. The hot fire program probed the combustion behavior of methane from ambient to subambient temperatures. Very interesting results were obtained from this program that have potential importance to future LOX/methane development programs. A very thorough and carefully reasoned documentation of the experimental data obtained is contained. The hot fire test logic and the associated tests are discussed. Subscale performance and stability rating testing was accomplished using 40,000 lb. thrust class hardware. Stability rating tests used both bombs and fuel temperature ramping techniques. The test program was successful in generating data for the evaluation of the methane stability characteristics relative to hydrogen and to anchor stability models. Data correlations, performance analysis, stability analyses, and key stability margin enhancement parameters are discussed.

  1. Hydrocarbon Fouling of SCR during PCCI combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Pihl, Josh A; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Parks, II, James E

    2012-01-01

    The combination of advanced combustion with advanced selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst formulations was studied in the work presented here to determine the impact of the unique hydrocarbon (HC) emissions from premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion on SCR performance. Catalyst core samples cut from full size commercial Fe- and Cu-zeolite SCR catalysts were exposed to a slipstream of raw engine exhaust from a 1.9-liter 4-cylinder diesel engine operating in conventional and PCCI combustion modes. The zeolites which form the basis of these catalysts are different with the Cu-based catalyst made on a chabazite zeolite which las smaller pore structures relative to the Fe-based catalyst. Subsequent to exposure, bench flow reactor characterization of performance and hydrocarbon release and oxidation enabled evaluation of overall impacts from the engine exhaust. The Fe-zeolite NOX conversion efficiency was significantly degraded, especially at low temperatures (<250 C), after the catalyst was exposed to the raw engine exhaust. The degradation of the Fe-zeolite performance was similar for both combustion modes. The Cu-zeolite showed better tolerance to HC fouling at low temperatures compared to the Fe-zeolite but PCCI exhaust had a more significant impact than the exhaust from conventional combustion on the NOX conversion efficiency. Furthermore, chemical analysis of the hydrocarbons trapped on the SCR cores was conducted to better determine chemistry specific effects.

  2. Transport Properties for Combustion Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, N.J.; Bastein, L.; Price, P.N.

    2010-02-19

    This review examines current approximations and approaches that underlie the evaluation of transport properties for combustion modeling applications. Discussed in the review are: the intermolecular potential and its descriptive molecular parameters; various approaches to evaluating collision integrals; supporting data required for the evaluation of transport properties; commonly used computer programs for predicting transport properties; the quality of experimental measurements and their importance for validating or rejecting approximations to property estimation; the interpretation of corresponding states; combination rules that yield pair molecular potential parameters for unlike species from like species parameters; and mixture approximations. The insensitivity of transport properties to intermolecular forces is noted, especially the non-uniqueness of the supporting potential parameters. Viscosity experiments of pure substances and binary mixtures measured post 1970 are used to evaluate a number of approximations; the intermediate temperature range 1 < T* < 10, where T* is kT/{var_epsilon}, is emphasized since this is where rich data sets are available. When suitable potential parameters are used, errors in transport property predictions for pure substances and binary mixtures are less than 5 %, when they are calculated using the approaches of Kee et al.; Mason, Kestin, and Uribe; Paul and Warnatz; or Ern and Giovangigli. Recommendations stemming from the review include (1) revisiting the supporting data required by the various computational approaches, and updating the data sets with accurate potential parameters, dipole moments, and polarizabilities; (2) characterizing the range of parameter space over which the fit to experimental data is good, rather than the current practice of reporting only the parameter set that best fits the data; (3) looking for improved combining rules, since existing rules were found to under-predict the viscosity in most cases; (4

  3. Combustion Engineering IGCC Repowering Project

    SciTech Connect

    Andrus, H.E.; Thibeault, P.R.; Gibson, C.R.

    1992-11-01

    C-E gasification process uses an entrained-flow, two-stage, slagging bottom gasifier. Figure 1 shows a schematic of the gasifier concept. Some of the coal and all of the char is fed to the combustor section, while the remaining coal is fed to the reducter section of the gasifier. The coal and char in the combustor is mixed with air and the fuel-rich mixture is burned creating the high temperature necessary to gasify the coal and melt the mineral matter in the coal. The slag flows through a slag tap at the bottom of the combustor into a water-filled slag tank where it is quenched and transformed into an inert, glassy, granular material. This vitrified slag is non-leaching, making it easy to dispose of in an environmentally acceptable manner. The hot gas leaving the combustor enters the second stage called the reductor. In the reducter, the char gasification occurs along the length of the reductor zone until the temperature falls to a point where the gasification kinetics become too slow. Once the gas temperature reaches this level, essentially no further gasification takes place and the gases subsequently are cooled with convective surface to a temperature low enough to enter the cleanup system. Nearly all of the liberated energy from the coal that does not produce fuel gas is collected and recovered with steam generating surface either in the walls of the vessel or by conventional boiler convective surfaces in the backpass of the gasifier. A mixture of unburned carbon and ash (called char) is carried out of the gasifier with the product gas strewn. The char is collected and recycled back to the gasifier where it is consumed. Thus, there is no net production of char which results in negligible carbon loss. The product gas enters a desulfurization system where it is cleaned of sulfur compounds present in the fuel gas. The clean fuel gas is now available for use in the gas turbine combuster for an integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) application.

  4. Environment effects of oil spill combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, D.; Mulholland, G.; Gross, D.; Baum, H.; Saito, K.

    1988-09-01

    Experimentation and analysis were performed to quantify the combustion of crude oil on water. The burning behavior of three crude oils -- ALBERTA SWEET, LA ROSE, and MURBAN, were studied using 1.2-m-diameter pool burns; in 0.6-m-diameter pool fires using ALBERTA SWEET, combustion products were collected for extensive chemical analysis. The analysis showed that about 10% of the crude oil was converted to smoke in the combustion process. The CO concentration was a factor of 25 lower than the primary gaseous product CO/sub 2/, and the emission of NO and NOx were less than one thousandth the concentration of CO/sub 2/. The PAH content of the smoke was enriched in the larger molecular weight species in comparison with the original fuel. A methodology was developed with which the down-wind dispersal of smoke generated by one or more oil-spill fires in close proximity may be predicted.

  5. Combustion air can become a problem

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Improper air combustion in a well-sealed house can result in an inadequate supply of oxygen and dangerous or fatal carbon monoxide levels. An opening for outside combustion air can prevent ''air starvation'' and if properly located and sized, can save energy by improving the furnace efficiency. This opening will also keep cold outside air from entering when the furnace is not in use, and prevent a blockage when in use, if properly designed. Possible indicators of inadequate combustion air in oil-fueled homes are: chimney smoke is black-colored, fuel smell in house, soot accumulation, popping, banging, or late ignition in the furnace. In natural gas-fueled homes: excessive moisture collecting on windows and walls, frequent headaches, burning feeling in nose and eyes. (JMT)

  6. Factors influencing spontaneous combustion of solid waste.

    PubMed

    Moqbel, Shadi; Reinhart, Debra; Chen, Ruey-Hung

    2010-01-01

    Landfill fires create a critical problem for landfill operators and require investigation of its occurrence and the conditions that favor its initiation. Subsurface fires are considered the most significant due to the difficulty in determining their location and extent. These fires are mainly caused by spontaneous combustion, combustion due to high temperature in absence of flame. This study investigates the effect of moisture content, oxygen concentration and leachate components on spontaneous ignition, combustion initiation, and self-heating of solid waste. A new procedure for testing spontaneous ignition is described; however, variations in solid waste components and landfill conditions can create some limitations to its use. The presence of water and dissolved solids in leachate was found to accelerate chemical self-heating of the solid waste. Oxygen concentration at 10% by volume can sustain chemical oxidation but did not promote accelerated burning.

  7. Internal Combustion Engines as Fluidized Bed Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavich, Zoe; Taie, Zachary; Menon, Shyam; Beckwith, Walter; Daly, Shane; Halliday, Devin; Hagen, Christopher

    2016-11-01

    Using an internal combustion engine as a chemical reactor could provide high throughput, high chemical conversion efficiency, and reactant/product handling benefits. For processes requiring a solid catalyst, the ability to develop a fluidized bed within the engine cylinder would allow efficient processing of large volumes of fluid. This work examines the fluidization behavior of particles in a cylinder of an internal combustion engine at various engine speeds. For 40 micron silica gel particles in a modified Megatech Mark III transparent combustion engine, calculations indicate that a maximum engine speed of about 60.8 RPM would result in fluidization. At higher speeds, the fluidization behavior is expected to deteriorate. Experiments gave qualitative confirmation of the analytical predictions, as a speed of 48 RPM resulted in fluidized behavior, while a speed of 171 RPM did not. The investigation shows that under certain conditions a fluidized bed can be obtained within an engine cylinder. Corresponding Author.

  8. Understanding Combustion Processes Through Microgravity Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ronney, Paul D.

    1998-01-01

    A review of research on the effects of gravity on combustion processes is presented, with an emphasis on a discussion of the ways in which reduced-gravity experiments and modeling has led to new understanding. Comparison of time scales shows that the removal of buoyancy-induced convection leads to manifestations of other transport mechanisms, notably radiative heat transfer and diffusional processes such as Lewis number effects. Examples from premixed-gas combustion, non-premixed gas-jet flames, droplet combustion, flame spread over solid and liquid fuels, and other fields are presented. Promising directions for new research are outlined, the most important of which is suggested to be radiative reabsorption effects in weakly burning flames.

  9. An investigation of combustion and entropy noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strahle, W. C.

    1977-01-01

    The relative importance of entropy and direct combustion noise in turbopropulsion systems and the parameters upon which these noise sources depend were studied. Theory and experiment were employed to determine that at least with the apparatus used here, entropy noise can dominate combustion noise if there is a sufficient pressure gradient terminating the combustor. Measurements included combustor interior fluctuating pressure, near and far field fluctuating pressure, and combustor exit plane fluctuating temperatures, as well as mean pressures and temperatures. Analysis techniques included spectral, cross-correlation, cross power spectra, and ordinary and partial coherence analysis. Also conducted were combustor liner modification experiments to investigate the origin of the frequency content of combustion noise. Techniques were developed to extract nonpropagational pseudo-sound and the heat release fluctuation spectra from the data.

  10. Technical Report: Rayleigh Scattering Combustion Diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Wyatt; Hecht, Ethan

    2015-07-29

    A laser Rayleigh scattering (LRS) temperature diagnostic was developed over 8 weeks with the goal of studying oxy-combustion of pulverized coal char in high temperature reaction environments with high concentrations of carbon dioxide. Algorithms were developed to analyze data collected from the optical diagnostic system and convert the information to temperature measurements. When completed, the diagnostic will allow for the kinetic gasification rates of the oxy-combustion reaction to be obtained, which was previously not possible since the high concentrations of high temperature CO2 consumed thermocouples that were used to measure flame temperatures inside the flow reactor where the combustion and gasification reactions occur. These kinetic rates are important for studying oxycombustion processes suitable for application as sustainable energy solutions.

  11. Experimental Replication of an Aeroengine Combustion Instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, J. M.; Hibshman, J. R.; Proscia, W.; Rosfjord, T. J.; Wake, B. E.; McVey, J. B.; Lovett, J.; Ondas, M.; DeLaat, J.; Breisacher, K.

    2000-01-01

    Combustion instabilities in gas turbine engines are most frequently encountered during the late phases of engine development, at which point they are difficult and expensive to fix. The ability to replicate an engine-traceable combustion instability in a laboratory-scale experiment offers the opportunity to economically diagnose the problem (to determine the root cause), and to investigate solutions to the problem, such as active control. The development and validation of active combustion instability control requires that the causal dynamic processes be reproduced in experimental test facilities which can be used as a test bed for control system evaluation. This paper discusses the process through which a laboratory-scale experiment was designed to replicate an instability observed in a developmental engine. The scaling process used physically-based analyses to preserve the relevant geometric, acoustic and thermo-fluid features. The process increases the probability that results achieved in the single-nozzle experiment will be scalable to the engine.

  12. Starting procedure for internal combustion vessels

    DOEpatents

    Harris, Harry A.

    1978-09-26

    A vertical vessel, having a low bed of broken material, having included combustible material, is initially ignited by a plurality of ignitors spaced over the surface of the bed, by adding fresh, broken material onto the bed to buildup the bed to its operating depth and then passing a combustible mixture of gas upwardly through the material, at a rate to prevent back-firing of the gas, while air and recycled gas is passed through the bed to thereby heat the material and commence the desired laterally uniform combustion in the bed. The procedure permits precise control of the air and gaseous fuel mixtures and material rates, and permits the use of the process equipment designed for continuous operation of the vessel.

  13. Combustion of thermochemically torrefied sugar cane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Valix, M; Katyal, S; Cheung, W H

    2017-01-01

    This study compared the upgrading of sugar bagasse by thermochemical and dry torrefaction methods and their corresponding combustion behavior relative to raw bagasse. The combustion reactivities were examined by non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis. Thermochemical torrefaction was carried out by chemical pre-treatment of bagasse with acid followed by heating at 160-300°C in nitrogen environment, while dry torrefaction followed the same heating treatment without the chemical pretreatment. The results showed thermochemical torrefaction generated chars with combustion properties that are closer to various ranks of coal, thus making it more suitable for co-firing applications. Thermochemical torrefaction also induced greater densification of bagasse with a 335% rise in bulk density to 340kg/m(3), increased HHVmass and HHVvolume, greater charring and aromatization and storage stability. These features demonstrate the potential of thermochemical torrefaction in addressing the practical challenges in using biomass such as bagasse as fuel.

  14. National Combustion Code: Parallel Implementation and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quealy, A.; Ryder, R.; Norris, A.; Liu, N.-S.

    2000-01-01

    The National Combustion Code (NCC) is being developed by an industry-government team for the design and analysis of combustion systems. CORSAIR-CCD is the current baseline reacting flow solver for NCC. This is a parallel, unstructured grid code which uses a distributed memory, message passing model for its parallel implementation. The focus of the present effort has been to improve the performance of the NCC flow solver to meet combustor designer requirements for model accuracy and analysis turnaround time. Improving the performance of this code contributes significantly to the overall reduction in time and cost of the combustor design cycle. This paper describes the parallel implementation of the NCC flow solver and summarizes its current parallel performance on an SGI Origin 2000. Earlier parallel performance results on an IBM SP-2 are also included. The performance improvements which have enabled a turnaround of less than 15 hours for a 1.3 million element fully reacting combustion simulation are described.

  15. Valve operating mechanism for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, K.; Nagahiro, K.; Ajiki, Y.; Katoh, M.

    1988-12-06

    This patent describes a valve operating mechanism of operating valves of an internal combustion engine, comprising: a camshaft rotatable in synchronism with rotation of the internal combustion engine and having an array of three cams each having a different cam profile and including a high-speed cam position at one end of the array; three cam followers held in sliding contact with the cams, respectively, for operating the valves according to the cam profiles of the cams; and means for selectively interconnecting and disconnecting the cam followers to operate the valves at different valve timings in different speed ranges of the internal combustion engine, the speed ranges including a high-speed range in which all of the valves are controlled by the cam profile of the high-speed cam.

  16. Promoted Combustion Test Data Re-Examined

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Michelle; Jeffers, Nathan; Stoltzfus, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Promoted combustion testing of metallic materials has been performed by NASA since the mid-1980s to determine the burn resistance of materials in oxygen-enriched environments. As the technolo gy has advanced, the method of interpreting, presenting, and applying the promoted combustion data has advanced as well. Recently NASA changed the bum criterion from 15 cm (6 in.) to 3 cm (1.2 in.). This new burn criterion was adopted for ASTM G 124, Standard Test Method for Determining the Combustion Behavior- of Metallic Materials in Oxygen-Enriched Atmospheres. Its effect on the test data and the latest method to display the test data will be discussed. Two specific examples that illustrate how this new criterion affects the burn/no-bum thresholds of metal alloys will also be presented.

  17. Special measurements in combustion equipment furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Ochodek, T.; Janalik, R.; Vytisk, T.

    1995-12-31

    This paper summarizes the authors` knowledge from the measurement of temperature and concentration fields taken from combustion equipment furnaces. The obtained results serve in the research on combustion processes and in the research on the formation of pollutants, for example NO{sub x}. The special measurement technique makes it possible to find the concentration and temperature distribution for a temperature as high as 1,500 C. The measurement results were obtained through tests for grate boilers with an output of 20--50 MW, burning solid fuel (a mixture of powders and small pieces of coal which were burnt separately as black (hard) coal or brown coal). On the basis of the obtained results a proposal was formulated for the reconstruction of existing boilers or the construction of new boilers with an aim to ensure the maximum combustion efficiency with a minimal formation of pollutants.

  18. Spectroscopy, Kinetics, and Dynamics of Combustion Radicals

    SciTech Connect

    Nesbitt, David J.

    2013-08-06

    Spectroscopy, kinetics and dynamics of jet cooled hydrocarbon transients relevant to the DOE combustion mission have been explored, exploiting i) high resolution IR lasers, ii) slit discharge sources for formation of jet cooled radicals, and iii) high sensitivity detection with direct laser absorption methods and near the quantum shot noise limit. What makes this combination powerful is that such transients can be made under high concentrations and pressures characteristic of actual combustion conditions, and yet with the resulting species rapidly cooled (T ≈10-15K) in the slit supersonic expansion. Combined with the power of IR laser absorption methods, this provides novel access to spectral detection and study of many critical combustion species.

  19. Atomization data for spray combustion modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrenberg, A. J.; Varma, M. S.

    1985-01-01

    Computer models that simulate the energy release processes in spray combustion are highly dependent upon the quality of atomization data utilized. This paper presents results of analyses performed with a state-of-the-art rocket combustion code, demonstrating the important effects of initial droplet sizes and size distributions on combustion losses. Also, the questionable aspects and inapplicability of the generally available atomization data are discussed. One important and misunderstood aspect of the atomization process is the difference between spatial (concentration) and flux (temporal) droplet size distributions. These are addressed, and a computer model developed to assess this difference is described and results presented. Finally, experimental results are shown that demonstrate the often neglected effects of the local gas velocity field on the atomization process.

  20. National Combustion Code Parallel Performance Enhancements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quealy, Angela; Benyo, Theresa (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The National Combustion Code (NCC) is being developed by an industry-government team for the design and analysis of combustion systems. The unstructured grid, reacting flow code uses a distributed memory, message passing model for its parallel implementation. The focus of the present effort has been to improve the performance of the NCC code to meet combustor designer requirements for model accuracy and analysis turnaround time. Improving the performance of this code contributes significantly to the overall reduction in time and cost of the combustor design cycle. This report describes recent parallel processing modifications to NCC that have improved the parallel scalability of the code, enabling a two hour turnaround for a 1.3 million element fully reacting combustion simulation on an SGI Origin 2000.

  1. Soot agglomeration in isolated, free droplet combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, M. Y.; Dryer, F. L.; Green, G. J.; Sangiovanni, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    Under the conditions of an isolated, free droplet experiment, hollow, carbonaceous structures, called soot spheres, were observed to form during the atmospheric pressure, low Reynolds number combustion of 1-methylnaphthalene. These structures which are agglomerates composed of smaller spheroidal units result from both thermophoretic effects induced by the envelope flame surrounding each drop and aerodynamic effects caused by changes in the relative gas/drop velocities. A chemically reacting flow model was used to analyze the process of sootshell formation during microgravity droplet combustion. The time-dependent temperature and gas property field surrounding the droplet was determined, and the soot cloud location for microgravity combustion of n-heptane droplets was predicted. Experiments showed that the sooting propensity of n-alkane fuel droplets can be varied through diluent substitution, oxygen-index variations, and ambient pressure reductions.

  2. Numerical simulation of turbulent combustion: Scientific challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, ZhuYin; Lu, Zhen; Hou, LingYun; Lu, LiuYan

    2014-08-01

    Predictive simulation of engine combustion is key to understanding the underlying complicated physicochemical processes, improving engine performance, and reducing pollutant emissions. Critical issues as turbulence modeling, turbulence-chemistry interaction, and accommodation of detailed chemical kinetics in complex flows remain challenging and essential for high-fidelity combustion simulation. This paper reviews the current status of the state-of-the-art large eddy simulation (LES)/prob-ability density function (PDF)/detailed chemistry approach that can address the three challenging modelling issues. PDF as a subgrid model for LES is formulated and the hybrid mesh-particle method for LES/PDF simulations is described. Then the development need in micro-mixing models for the PDF simulations of turbulent premixed combustion is identified. Finally the different acceleration methods for detailed chemistry are reviewed and a combined strategy is proposed for further development.

  3. REDUCTION OF NOx VIA COAL COMBUSTION CATALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    George Ford; Stan Harding; Jeff Hare

    2003-04-28

    The primary objective of this investigation is to determine the effect of different iron catalysts on the production of NO{sub x} during fuel-rich and fuel-lean combustion of coal. Iron in various forms and quantities will be introduced with the pulverized coal and tested in a laboratory-scale combustion furnace. The testing protocol is based on simulation of the near burner region in a full-scale boiler. This semi-annual report describes the selection of the iron catalysts used in the program as well as catalyst preparation. A detailed description of the combustion reactor and ancillary equipment is provided combined with a discussion of the test procedures. The first preliminary data have been collected and are presented followed by the plans to complete the project over the next six months.

  4. Single droplet combustion of sunflower oil

    SciTech Connect

    Araya, K.; Tsunematsu, S.

    1987-01-01

    When sunflower oil (or plant oil, in general) was used as diesel engine fuel, the ignitability at low temperatures was much poorer than for No. 2 diesel oil. In addition, unburned carbon accumulated in the combustion chamber when the engine was idling. The research reported in this paper was conducted to investigate the causes of these problems. A single fuel droplet set at the tip of a combustion thread was inserted into an electric furnace and ignited. The behavior of the combustion was observed and analyzed by a high speed rotary video camera. The fuels studied were sunflower oil, No. 2 diesel oil, sunflower oil methyl ester and fish oil methyl ester. As a result, even if the droplet size of sunflower oil was the same as that of No. 2 diesel oil, its ignition delay was much longer than No. 2 diesel oil. This may be the main cause of poor ignitability of sunflower oil at low temperatures.

  5. Internal combustion engine fuel supply system

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, J.A.; Custer, D. Jr.

    1992-09-15

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine. It comprises: means defining a combustion chamber, means defining a fuel/air chamber adapted to communicate with a source of air under pressure, means including a moveable wall defining a fuel chamber, selectively operable means for supplying fuel to the fuel chamber at a pressure sufficient to move the wall in the direction increasing the volume of the fuel chamber, means defining a fuel orifice which is spaced from the wall and which communicates between the fuel chamber and the fuel/air chamber, and means for opening the fuel/air chamber to the combustion chamber in response to movement of the wall in the direction increasing the volume of the fuel chamber.

  6. 78 FR 54606 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion... emission standards for hazardous air pollutants for stationary reciprocating internal combustion engines and the standards of performance for stationary internal combustion engines. Subsequently, the......

  7. 77 FR 60341 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Stationary Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines to..., ``National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion......

  8. Modeling internal ballistics of gas combustion guns.

    PubMed

    Schorge, Volker; Grossjohann, Rico; Schönekess, Holger C; Herbst, Jörg; Bockholdt, Britta; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Frank, Matthias

    2016-05-01

    Potato guns are popular homemade guns which work on the principle of gas combustion. They are usually constructed for recreational rather than criminal purposes. Yet some serious injuries and fatalities due to these guns are reported. As information on the internal ballistics of homemade gas combustion-powered guns is scarce, it is the aim of this work to provide an experimental model of the internal ballistics of these devices and to investigate their basic physical parameters. A gas combustion gun was constructed with a steel tube as the main component. Gas/air mixtures of acetylene, hydrogen, and ethylene were used as propellants for discharging a 46-mm caliber test projectile. Gas pressure in the combustion chamber was captured with a piezoelectric pressure sensor. Projectile velocity was measured with a ballistic speed measurement system. The maximum gas pressure, the maximum rate of pressure rise, the time parameters of the pressure curve, and the velocity and path of the projectile through the barrel as a function of time were determined according to the pressure-time curve. The maximum gas pressure was measured to be between 1.4 bar (ethylene) and 4.5 bar (acetylene). The highest maximum rate of pressure rise was determined for hydrogen at (dp/dt)max = 607 bar/s. The muzzle energy was calculated to be between 67 J (ethylene) and 204 J (acetylene). To conclude, this work provides basic information on the internal ballistics of homemade gas combustion guns. The risk of injury to the operator or bystanders is high, because accidental explosions of the gun due to the high-pressure rise during combustion of the gas/air mixture may occur.

  9. Dust Combustion Safety Issues for Fusion Applications

    SciTech Connect

    L. C. Cadwallader

    2003-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a safety research task to identify the safety issues and phenomenology of metallic dust fires and explosions that are postulated for fusion experiments. There are a variety of metal dusts that are created by plasma erosion and disruptions within the plasma chamber, as well as normal industrial dusts generated in the more conventional equipment in the balance of plant. For fusion, in-vessel dusts are generally mixtures of several elements; that is, the constituent elements in alloys and the variety of elements used for in-vessel materials. For example, in-vessel dust could be composed of beryllium from a first wall coating, tungsten from a divertor plate, copper from a plasma heating antenna or diagnostic, and perhaps some iron and chromium from the steel vessel wall or titanium and vanadium from the vessel wall. Each of these elements has its own unique combustion characteristics, and mixtures of elements must be evaluated for the mixture’s combustion properties. Issues of particle size, dust temperature, and presence of other combustible materials (i.e., deuterium and tritium) also affect combustion in air. Combustion in other gases has also been investigated to determine if there are safety concerns with “inert” atmospheres, such as nitrogen. Several coolants have also been reviewed to determine if coolant breach into the plasma chamber would enhance the combustion threat; for example, in-vessel steam from a water coolant breach will react with metal dust. The results of this review are presented here.

  10. Combustion Characteristics of a Hypermixer Scramjet Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunami, Tetsuji; Itoh, Katsuhiro; Komuro, Tomoyuki; Sato, Kazuo

    A scramjet engine with a wall-mounted hypermixer injector, which generates streamwise vortices for enhancing supersonic mixing and combustion, is examined at a Mach 8 simulated flight condition in the High Enthalpy Shock Tunnel (HIEST). The engine and the fuel injector are full scale models of the HyShot-IV flight experiment planned for 2005 by JAXA and University of Queensland (UQ). Main purpose of the present study is to clarify the combustion and operation characteristics of the hypermixer scramjet owing to the ability of the streamwise vortices for mixing enhancement and boundary layer control. For comparison, two injectors with normal and parallel injection without streamwise vortex generation are also examined. The results show the superior performance of the hypermixer injector in scramjet mode obtaining higher pressure rise in a shorter distance compared to the other two injectors. In the case of the hypermixer injector, a 1D analysis of an inviscid nozzle flow shows the increment in the specific impulse due to combustion to be 2,649 and 2,224 sec for the equivalence ratio, Φ=0.3 and 0.6, respectively. At Φ=1.0 and 1.5, sudden rapid combustion of the premixed fuel at the end of the combustor generates a strong pressure wave, which propagates upstream up to the injector location and decades there. As a result, a new quasi-steady combusting flow is established throughout the combustor downstream of the injector. The pressure wave is identified as a kind of detonation wave, which is suggested to propagate upstream mainly through the streamwise vortices. As a driving force of the upstream propagation of the detonation wave, mixing and combustion enhanced through the interaction between the detonation wave and the streamwise vortices are considered.

  11. Resonance ionization detection of combustion radicals

    SciTech Connect

    Cool, T.A.

    1993-12-01

    Fundamental research on the combustion of halogenated organic compounds with emphasis on reaction pathways leading to the formation of chlorinated aromatic compounds and the development of continuous emission monitoring methods will assist in DOE efforts in the management and disposal of hazardous chemical wastes. Selective laser ionization techniques are used in this laboratory for the measurement of concentration profiles of radical intermediates in the combustion of chlorinated hydrocarbon flames. A new ultrasensitive detection technique, made possible with the advent of tunable VUV laser sources, enables the selective near-threshold photoionization of all radical intermediates in premixed hydrocarbon and chlorinated hydrocarbon flames.

  12. Analysis of rocket engine injection combustion processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salmon, J. W.

    1976-01-01

    A critique is given of the JANNAF sub-critical propellant injection/combustion process analysis computer models and application of the models to correlation of well documented hot fire engine data bases. These programs are the distributed energy release (DER) model for conventional liquid propellants injectors and the coaxial injection combustion model (CICM) for gaseous annulus/liquid core coaxial injectors. The critique identifies model inconsistencies while the computer analyses provide quantitative data on predictive accuracy. The program is comprised of three tasks: (1) computer program review and operations; (2) analysis and data correlations; and (3) documentation.

  13. Kinetic data base for combustion modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, W.; Herron, J.T.

    1993-12-01

    The aim of this work is to develop a set of evaluated rate constants for use in the simulation of hydrocarbon combustion. The approach has been to begin with the small molecules and then introduce larger species with the various structural elements that can be found in all hydrocarbon fuels and decomposition products. Currently, the data base contains most of the species present in combustion systems with up to four carbon atoms. Thus, practically all the structural grouping found in aliphatic compounds have now been captured. The direction of future work is the addition of aromatic compounds to the data base.

  14. Fiber-Supported Droplet Combustion Experiment-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colantonio, Renato O.

    1998-01-01

    A major portion of the energy produced in the world today comes from the burning of liquid hydrocarbon fuels in the form of droplets. Understanding the fundamental physical processes involved in droplet combustion is not only important in energy production but also in propulsion, in the mitigation of combustion-generated pollution, and in the control of the fire hazards associated with handling liquid combustibles. Microgravity makes spherically symmetric combustion possible, allowing investigators to easily validate their droplet models without the complicating effects of gravity. The Fiber-Supported Droplet Combustion (FSDC-2) investigation was conducted in the Microgravity Glovebox facility of the shuttles' Spacelab during the reflight of the Microgravity Science Laboratory (MSL- 1R) on STS-94 in July 1997. FSDC-2 studied fundamental phenomena related to liquid fuel droplet combustion in air. Pure fuels and mixtures of fuels were burned as isolated single and duo droplets with and without forced air convection. FSDC-2 is sponsored by the NASA Lewis Research Center, whose researchers are working in cooperation with several investigators from industry and academia. The rate at which a droplet burns is important in many commercial applications. The classical theory of droplet burning assumes that, for an isolated, spherically symmetric, single-fuel droplet, the gas-phase combustion processes are much faster than the droplet surface regression rate and that the liquid phase is at a uniform temperature equal to the boiling point. Recent, more advanced models predict that both the liquid and gas phases are unsteady during a substantial portion of the droplet's burning history, thus affecting the instantaneous and average burning rates, and that flame radiation is a dominant mechanism that can extinguish flames in a microgravity environment. FSDC-2 has provided well-defined, symmetric droplet burning data including radiative emissions to validate these theoretical

  15. Ignition and combustion of metallized propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turns, Stephen R.

    1991-01-01

    The overall objective is the development of a fundamental understanding of the ignition and combustion of aluminum-based slurry (or gel) propellant droplets using a combination of experiment and analysis. Specific objectives are the following: (1) The development and application of a burner/spray rig and single particle optical diagnosis to study the detailed ignition and combustion behavior of small droplets; (2) Understanding the role of surfactants and gellants (or other additives) in promoting or inhibiting secondary atomization of propellant droplets; and (3) The extension of previously developed analytical models and the development of new models to address the phenomena associated with microexplosions (secondary atomization).

  16. Plasma igniter for internal combustion engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzgerald, D. J.; Breshears, R. R. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An igniter for the air/fuel mixture used in the cylinders of an internal combustion engine is described. A conventional spark is used to initiate the discharge of a large amount of energy stored in a capacitor. A high current discharge of the energy in the capacitor switched on by a spark discharge produces a plasma and a magnetic field. The resultant combined electromagnetic current and magnetic field force accelerates the plasma deep into the combustion chamber thereby providing an improved ignition of the air/fuel mixture in the chamber.

  17. CARS measurements in an internal combustion engine.

    PubMed

    Stenhouse, I A; Williams, D R; Cole, J B; Swords, M D

    1979-11-15

    The first reported coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) experiments within the cylinder of a firing internal combustion engine are described. The feasibility of making noninvasive temperature and species measurements, with good spatial and temporal resolution, both before and after ignition has been demonstrated. Temperatures have been derived from the shape of the Q-branch vibrational spectrum of nitrogen since it is present as a major species and does not take part in combustion. Methods of overcoming such problems as were encountered are discussed.

  18. SPONTANEOUS COAL COMBUSTION; MECHANISMS AND PREDICTION.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herring, James R.; Rich, Fredrick J.

    1983-01-01

    Spontaneous ignition and combustion of coal is a major problem to the coal mining, shipping, and use industries; unintentional combustion causes loss of the resource as well as jeopardy to life and property. The hazard to life is especially acute in the case of underground coal mine fires that start by spontaneous ignition. It is the intention of this research to examine previously suggested causes of spontaneous ignition, to consider new evidence, and to suggest an experimental approach to determine which of these suggested causes is relevant to western U. S. coal. This discussion focuses only on causes and mechanism of spontaneous ignition.

  19. Computational fluid dynamics combustion analysis evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Y. M.; Shang, H. M.; Chen, C. P.; Ziebarth, J. P.

    1992-01-01

    This study involves the development of numerical modelling in spray combustion. These modelling efforts are mainly motivated to improve the computational efficiency in the stochastic particle tracking method as well as to incorporate the physical submodels of turbulence, combustion, vaporization, and dense spray effects. The present mathematical formulation and numerical methodologies can be casted in any time-marching pressure correction methodologies (PCM) such as FDNS code and MAST code. A sequence of validation cases involving steady burning sprays and transient evaporating sprays will be included.

  20. Microgravity combustion experiment using high altitude balloon.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kan, Yuji

    In JAXA, microgravity experiment system using a high altitude balloon was developed , for good microgravity environment and short turn-around time. In this publication, I give an account of themicrogravity experiment system and a combustion experiment to utilize the system. The balloon operated vehicle (BOV) as a microgravity experiment system was developed from 2004 to 2009. Features of the BOV are (1) BOV has double capsule structure. Outside-capsule and inside-capsule are kept the non-contact state by 3-axis drag-free control. (2) The payload is spherical shape and itsdiameter is about 300 mm. (3) Keep 10-4 G level microgravity environment for about 30 seconds However, BOV’s payload was small, and could not mount large experiment module. In this study, inherits the results of past, we established a new experimental system called “iBOV” in order toaccommodate larger payload. Features of the iBOV are (1) Drag-free control use for only vertical direction. (2) The payload is a cylindrical shape and its size is about 300 mm in diameter and 700 mm in height. (3) Keep 10-3-10-4 G level microgravity environment for about 30 seconds We have "Observation experiment of flame propagation behavior of the droplets column" as experiment using iBOV. This experiment is a theme that was selected first for technical demonstration of iBOV. We are conducting the flame propagation mechanism elucidation study of fuel droplets array was placed at regular intervals. We conducted a microgravity experiments using TEXUS rocket ESA and drop tower. For this microgravity combustion experiment using high altitude balloon, we use the Engineering Model (EM) for TEXUS rocket experiment. The EM (This payload) consists of combustion vessel, droplets supporter, droplets generator, fuel syringe, igniter, digital camera, high-speed camera. And, This payload was improved from the EM as follows. (1) Add a control unit. (2) Add inside batteries for control unit and heater of combustion

  1. Combustion Analysis of Different Olive Residues

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Teresa; Esteban, Alberto; Rojas, Sebastián; Montero, Irene; Ruiz, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    The Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) techniques and concretely the study of the burning profile provide information that can be used to estimate the behaviour of the combustion of carbonous materials. Commonly, these techniques have been used for the study of carbons, but are also interesting for the analysis of biomass wastes, due to the different species present on the wastes affect directly to its thermal properties. In this work, techniques of thermal analysis have been applied to compare the behaviour of different wastes coming from olive oil mills. From these results, it is remarkable that the Concentrated Olive Mill Waste Water (COMWW) presents more unfavourable conditions for its combustion. PMID:19325766

  2. Combustion engine for solid and liquid fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pabst, W.

    1986-01-01

    A combustion engine having no piston, a single cylinder, and a dual-action, that is applicable for solid and liquid fuels and propellants, and that functions according to the principle of annealing point ignition is presented. The invention uses environmentally benign amounts of fuel and propellants to produce gas and steam pressure, and to use a simple assembly with the lowest possible consumption and constant readiness for mixing and burning. The advantage over conventional combustion engines lies in lower consumption of high quality igniting fluid in the most cost effective manner.

  3. Experiments Developed to Study Microgravity Smoldering Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vergilii, Franklin

    2001-01-01

    The overall objective of the Microgravity Smoldering Combustion (MSC) research program is to understand and predict smoldering combustion under normal and microgravity (near-zero-gravity) conditions to help prevent and control smolder-originated fires, in both environments. Smoldering is defined as a nonflaming, self-sustaining, propagating, exothermic surface reaction. If a material is sufficiently permeable, smoldering is not confined to its outer surface, but can propagate as a reaction wave through the interior of the material. The MSC program will accomplish its goals by conducting smolder experiments on the ground and in a space-based laboratory, and developing theoretical models of the process. Space-based experiments are necessary because smoldering is a very slow process and, consequently, its study in a microgravity environment requires extended periods of time that can only be achieved in space. Smoldering can occur in a variety of processes ranging from the smolder of porous insulating materials to underground coal combustion. Many materials can sustain smoldering, including wood, cloth, foams, tobacco, other dry organic materials, and charcoal. The ignition, propagation, transition to flaming, and extinction of the smolder reaction are controlled by complex, thermochemical mechanisms that are not well understood. As with many forms of combustion, gravity affects the availability of the oxidizer and the transport of heat, and therefore, the rate of combustion. The smoldering combustion of porous materials has been studied both experimentally and theoretically, usually in the context of fire safety. Smoldering encompasses a number of fundamental processes, including heat and mass transfer in a porous media; endothermic pyrolysis of combustible material; ignition, propagation, and extinction of heterogeneous exothermic reactions at the solid-gas pore interface; and the onset of gas phase reactions (flaming) from existing surface reactions. Smoldering

  4. Combustion of Gas-Permeable Gun Propellants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuxiang; Yang, Weitao; Ying, Sanjiu; Peng, Jinhua

    2015-07-01

    Foamed propellants prepared by supercritical fluid foaming show considerably high burning rates due to their porous structures. To further investigate combustion of foamed propellants, quenched combustion experiments and closed-vessel experiments were carried out, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was also used to observe their porous morphology. The SEM images show that foamed propellant grains exhibit a porous core and compact skin. The research results show that the porous core is first burned out and the compact skin is burned out at the later burning stage. The results also demonstrate that pore size exerts an important effect on the burning behaviors of foamed propellants.

  5. Fiber Supported Droplet Combustion-2 (FSDC-2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colantonio, Renato; Dietrich, Daniel; Haggard, John B., Jr.; Nayagan, Vedha; Dryer, Frederick L.; Shaw, Benjamin D.; Williams, Forman A.

    1998-01-01

    Experimental results for the burning characteristics of fiber supported, liquid droplets in ambient Shuttle cabin air (21% oxygen, 1 bar pressure) were obtained from the Glove Box Facility aboard the STS-94/MSL-1 mission using the Fiber Supported Droplet Combustion - 2 (FSDC-2) apparatus. The combustion of individual droplets of methanol/water mixtures, ethanol, ethanol/water azeotrope, n-heptane, n-decane, and n-heptane/n-hexadecane mixtures were studied in quiescent air. The effects of low velocity, laminar gas phase forced convection on the combustion of individual droplets of n-heptane and n-decane were investigated and interactions of two droplet-arrays of n-heptane and n-decane droplets were also studied with and without gas phase convective flow. Initial diameters ranging from about 2mm to over 6mm were burned on 80-100 micron silicon fibers. In addition to phenomenological observations, quantitative data were obtained in the form of backlit images of the burning droplets, overall flame images, and radiometric combustion emission measurements as a function of the burning time in each experiment. In all, 124 of the 129 attempted experiments (or about twice the number of experiments originally planned for the STS-94/MSL-1 mission) were conducted successfully. The experimental results contribute new observations on the combustion properties of pure alkanes, binary alkane mixtures, and simple alcohols for droplet sizes not studied previously, including measurements on individual droplets and two-droplet arrays, inclusive of the effects of forced gas phase convection. New phenomena characterized experimentally for the first time include radiative extinction of droplet burning for alkanes and the "twin effect" which occurs as a result of interactions during the combustion of two-droplet arrays. Numerical modeling of isolated droplet combustion phenomenon has been conducted for methanol/water mixtures, n-heptane, and n-heptane/n-hexadecane mixtures, and results

  6. Combustion dynamics in liquid rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclain, W. H.

    1971-01-01

    A chemical analysis of the emission and absorption spectra in the combustion chamber of a nitrogen tetroxide/aerozine-50 rocket engine was conducted. Measurements were made under conditions of preignition, ignition, and post combustion operating periods. The cause of severe ignition overpressures sporadically observed during the vacuum startup of the Apollo reaction control system engine was investigated. The extent to which residual propellants or condensed intermediate reaction products remain after the engine has been operated in a pulse mode duty cycle was determined.

  7. 30 CFR 75.400 - Accumulation of combustible materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Combustible Materials and Rock... rock-dusted surfaces, loose coal, and other combustible materials, shall be cleaned up and not...

  8. Enhancing SNCR-aided combustion with oxygen addition

    DOEpatents

    Kobayashi, Hisashi; Wu, Kuang Tsai; Bool, III, Lawrence E.

    2004-03-09

    NOx emissions from combustion are reduced, NOx reduction efficiency by SNCR is improved, and other efficiencies are realized, by injecting oxygen into a fuel-rich combustion zone under controlled conditions.

  9. JANNAF 37th Combustion Subcommittee Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fry, Ronald S. (Editor); Gannaway, Mary T. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    This volume, the first of two volumes is a compilation of 59 unclassified/unlimited-distribution technical papers presented at the Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) 37th Combustion Subcommittee (CS) meeting held jointly with the 25th Airbreathing Propulsion Subcommittee (APS), 19th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee (PSHS), and 1st Modeling and Simulation Subcommittee (MSS) meetings. The meeting was held 13-17 November 2000 at the Naval Postgraduate School and Hyatt Regency Hotel, Monterey, California. Topics covered at the CS meeting include: a keynote address on the Future Combat Systems, and review of a new JANNAF Modeling and Simulation Subcommittee, and technical papers on gun propellant burning rate, gun tube erosion, advanced gun propulsion concepts, ETC guns, novel gun propellants; liquid, hybrid and novel propellant combustion; solid propellant combustion kinetics, GAP, ADN and RDX combustion, sandwich combustion, metal combustion, combustion instability, and motor combustion instability.

  10. Coal combustion: Science and technology of industrial and utility applications

    SciTech Connect

    Junkai, F.

    1988-01-01

    This reference source offers material on theoretical research (including mathematical modeling, low NO/sub x/ combustion, and studies of sulfur), applications of the newest technologies, and actual experience of low-grade coal combustion.

  11. 30 CFR 75.400 - Accumulation of combustible materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Combustible Materials and Rock... rock-dusted surfaces, loose coal, and other combustible materials, shall be cleaned up and not...

  12. 30 CFR 75.400 - Accumulation of combustible materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Combustible Materials and Rock... rock-dusted surfaces, loose coal, and other combustible materials, shall be cleaned up and not...

  13. 30 CFR 75.400 - Accumulation of combustible materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Combustible Materials and Rock... rock-dusted surfaces, loose coal, and other combustible materials, shall be cleaned up and not...

  14. 30 CFR 75.400 - Accumulation of combustible materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Combustible Materials and Rock... rock-dusted surfaces, loose coal, and other combustible materials, shall be cleaned up and not...

  15. 30 CFR 56.7807 - Flushing the combustion chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Rotary Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7807 Flushing the combustion chamber. The combustion chamber of a jet drill stem which has been sitting unoperated in a drill hole shall be flushed with...

  16. 30 CFR 57.7807 - Flushing the combustion chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and Rotary Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7807 Flushing the combustion chamber. The combustion chamber of a jet drill stem which has been sitting unoperated in a drill hole shall...

  17. 30 CFR 56.7807 - Flushing the combustion chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Rotary Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7807 Flushing the combustion chamber. The combustion chamber of a jet drill stem which has been sitting unoperated in a drill hole shall be flushed with...

  18. 30 CFR 56.7807 - Flushing the combustion chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Rotary Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7807 Flushing the combustion chamber. The combustion chamber of a jet drill stem which has been sitting unoperated in a drill hole shall be flushed with...

  19. 30 CFR 57.7807 - Flushing the combustion chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and Rotary Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7807 Flushing the combustion chamber. The combustion chamber of a jet drill stem which has been sitting unoperated in a drill hole shall...

  20. 30 CFR 57.7807 - Flushing the combustion chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and Rotary Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7807 Flushing the combustion chamber. The combustion chamber of a jet drill stem which has been sitting unoperated in a drill hole shall...

  1. Thermogravimetric investigation of hydrochar-lignite co-combustion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhengang; Quek, Augustine; Kent Hoekman, S; Srinivasan, M P; Balasubramanian, R

    2012-11-01

    Co-combustion of hydrochar with lignite was investigated by means of thermogravimetric analysis. Hydrochars were produced from coconut fibers and eucalyptus leaves under hydrothermal conditions at 250°C. The hydrochar was added in varying amounts to lignite for combustion. The results indicated that hydrothermal treatment decreased the volatile matter content and increased the fixed carbon content of the biomaterials. The elevated energy density and decreased ash content of the hydrochar improved its combustion behavior when co-fired with lignite for energy production. The hydrochars derived from coconut fiber and eucalyptus leaves had similar chemical compositions and showed similar influences on lignite combustion. Hydrochar addition increased the burnout and shortened the combustion range of the hydrochar-lignite blends. High combustion efficiency was observed due to the synergistic interactions between hydrochar and lignite during the co-combustion process. A kinetic study showed that the combustion process of hydrochar-lignite blends followed first-order reaction rates.

  2. Signal Processing Methods for Liquid Rocket Engine Combustion Spontaneous Stability and Rough Combustion Assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, R. Jeremy; Casiano, Matthew; Fischbach, Sean; Hulka, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Liquid rocket engine combustion stability assessments are traditionally broken into three categories: dynamic stability, spontaneous stability, and rough combustion. This work focuses on comparing the spontaneous stability and rough combustion assessments for several liquid engine programs. The techniques used are those developed at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) for the J-2X Workhorse Gas Generator program. Stability assessment data from the Integrated Powerhead Demonstrator (IPD), FASTRAC, and Common Extensible Cryogenic Engine (CECE) programs are compared against previously processed J-2X Gas Generator data. Prior metrics for spontaneous stability assessments are updated based on the compilation of all data sets.

  3. Soot Particle Inception and Growth Processes in Combustion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-01

    34 Future Jet Fuel Combustion Problems and Requirements", Prog. Energy Combust . Sci., 4, pp. 177-199 (1978). 19. Santoro, R. J., Semerjian, H. G... Combustion PE - 61102F PR - 2308 L ~,AqTOaR SA - BS Robet J SanoroAFOSR - 87 - 0145 7. PENIOG OSGANIZA1IOk NAME(S) AND ADOASS(ES) &. PERFORMG... Combustion (AFOSR Grant AFOSR-87-0145) Prepared by: Robert J. Santoro Department of Mechanical Engineering The Pennsylvania State University University

  4. Combustion of novel chemical mixtures for hydrogen generation

    SciTech Connect

    Shafirovich, Evgeny; Diakov, Victor; Varma, Arvind

    2006-01-01

    Novel chemical compositions for combustion-based generation of hydrogen, which can be used to feed fuel cells for emergency power supplies and portable electronics, are reported. Combustion heat release from the proposed gas-generating compositions can be converted to electricity. The proposed sodium borohydride/aluminum/water mixtures are combustible and exhibit high hydrogen yield. Mixtures with 50-70 wt% of Al are promising to obtain simultaneously high H{sub 2} yield and stable self-sustained combustion.

  5. Staged combustion with piston engine and turbine engine supercharger

    DOEpatents

    Fischer, Larry E.; Anderson, Brian L.; O'Brien, Kevin C.

    2011-11-01

    A combustion engine method and system provides increased fuel efficiency and reduces polluting exhaust emissions by burning fuel in a two-stage combustion system. Fuel is combusted in a piston engine in a first stage producing piston engine exhaust gases. Fuel contained in the piston engine exhaust gases is combusted in a second stage turbine engine. Turbine engine exhaust gases are used to supercharge the piston engine.

  6. Staged combustion with piston engine and turbine engine supercharger

    DOEpatents

    Fischer, Larry E.; Anderson, Brian L.; O'Brien, Kevin C.

    2006-05-09

    A combustion engine method and system provides increased fuel efficiency and reduces polluting exhaust emissions by burning fuel in a two-stage combustion system. Fuel is combusted in a piston engine in a first stage producing piston engine exhaust gases. Fuel contained in the piston engine exhaust gases is combusted in a second stage turbine engine. Turbine engine exhaust gases are used to supercharge the piston engine.

  7. Progress and Challenges in Liquid Rocket Combustion Stability Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    P.R. Spalart , W.H. Jou, M. Strelets, and S.R. Allmaras . Comments on the feasibility of LES for wings on a hybrid RANS-LES approach. In 1st U.S. Air...anchor the predictions. A further issue is the importance of turbulence and combustion phenomena. Combustion instability involves inherently unsteady uid...combustion typically occurs at sub-grid scales, appropriate turbulent combustion closure models may be needed for capturing the relationship between the

  8. Oxygen enhanced switching to combustion of lower rank fuels

    DOEpatents

    Kobayashi, Hisashi; Bool, III, Lawrence E.; Wu, Kuang Tsai

    2004-03-02

    A furnace that combusts fuel, such as coal, of a given minimum energy content to obtain a stated minimum amount of energy per unit of time is enabled to combust fuel having a lower energy content, while still obtaining at least the stated minimum energy generation rate, by replacing a small amount of the combustion air fed to the furnace by oxygen. The replacement of oxygen for combustion air also provides reduction in the generation of NOx.

  9. Traveling-Wave Thermoacoustic Engines With Internal Combustion

    DOEpatents

    Weiland, Nathan Thomas; Zinn, Ben T.; Swift, Gregory William

    2004-05-11

    Thermoacoustic devices are disclosed wherein, for some embodiments, a combustion zone provides heat to a regenerator using a mean flow of compressible fluid. In other embodiments, burning of a combustible mixture within the combustion zone is pulsed in phase with the acoustic pressure oscillations to increase acoustic power output. In an example embodiment, the combustion zone and the regenerator are thermally insulated from other components within the thermoacoustic device.

  10. 40 CFR 74.16 - Application requirements for combustion sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... thermal energy, a thermal energy plan as provided in § 74.47 for combustion sources; and (11) A statement... combustion sources. 74.16 Section 74.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... for combustion sources. (a) Opt-in permit application. Each complete opt-in permit application for...

  11. 40 CFR 74.16 - Application requirements for combustion sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... thermal energy, a thermal energy plan as provided in § 74.47 for combustion sources; and (11) A statement... combustion sources. 74.16 Section 74.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... for combustion sources. (a) Opt-in permit application. Each complete opt-in permit application for...

  12. Multi-Fidelity Framework for Modeling Combustion Instability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-27

    widely used in premixed combustion for gas turbine engine application [2-5]. You et al. [6] developed an analytical model based on a level-set...Model of Acoustic Response of Turbulent Premixed Flame and Its Application to Gas- Turbine Combustion Instability Analysis," Combustion Science and

  13. 30 CFR 56.4103 - Fueling internal combustion engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fueling internal combustion engines. 56.4103... Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 56.4103 Fueling internal combustion engines. Internal combustion engines shall be switched off before refueling if the fuel tanks are integral parts...

  14. 30 CFR 77.1105 - Internal combustion engines; fueling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Internal combustion engines; fueling. 77.1105 Section 77.1105 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1105 Internal combustion engines; fueling. Internal combustion...

  15. 30 CFR 77.1105 - Internal combustion engines; fueling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Internal combustion engines; fueling. 77.1105 Section 77.1105 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1105 Internal combustion engines; fueling. Internal combustion...

  16. 30 CFR 77.1105 - Internal combustion engines; fueling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Internal combustion engines; fueling. 77.1105 Section 77.1105 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1105 Internal combustion engines; fueling. Internal combustion...

  17. 30 CFR 77.1105 - Internal combustion engines; fueling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Internal combustion engines; fueling. 77.1105 Section 77.1105 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1105 Internal combustion engines; fueling. Internal combustion...

  18. 30 CFR 56.4103 - Fueling internal combustion engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fueling internal combustion engines. 56.4103... Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 56.4103 Fueling internal combustion engines. Internal combustion engines shall be switched off before refueling if the fuel tanks are integral parts...

  19. 30 CFR 56.4103 - Fueling internal combustion engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fueling internal combustion engines. 56.4103... Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 56.4103 Fueling internal combustion engines. Internal combustion engines shall be switched off before refueling if the fuel tanks are integral parts...

  20. 30 CFR 56.4103 - Fueling internal combustion engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fueling internal combustion engines. 56.4103... Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 56.4103 Fueling internal combustion engines. Internal combustion engines shall be switched off before refueling if the fuel tanks are integral parts...

  1. 30 CFR 57.4103 - Fueling internal combustion engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fueling internal combustion engines. 57.4103... Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 57.4103 Fueling internal combustion engines. Internal combustion engines shall be switched off before refueling if the fuel tanks are integral parts...

  2. 30 CFR 56.4103 - Fueling internal combustion engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fueling internal combustion engines. 56.4103... Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 56.4103 Fueling internal combustion engines. Internal combustion engines shall be switched off before refueling if the fuel tanks are integral parts...

  3. 30 CFR 77.1105 - Internal combustion engines; fueling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Internal combustion engines; fueling. 77.1105 Section 77.1105 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1105 Internal combustion engines; fueling. Internal combustion...

  4. 30 CFR 57.4103 - Fueling internal combustion engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fueling internal combustion engines. 57.4103... Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 57.4103 Fueling internal combustion engines. Internal combustion engines shall be switched off before refueling if the fuel tanks are integral parts...

  5. 30 CFR 57.4103 - Fueling internal combustion engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fueling internal combustion engines. 57.4103... Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 57.4103 Fueling internal combustion engines. Internal combustion engines shall be switched off before refueling if the fuel tanks are integral parts...

  6. 30 CFR 57.4103 - Fueling internal combustion engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fueling internal combustion engines. 57.4103... Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 57.4103 Fueling internal combustion engines. Internal combustion engines shall be switched off before refueling if the fuel tanks are integral parts...

  7. 30 CFR 57.4103 - Fueling internal combustion engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fueling internal combustion engines. 57.4103... Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 57.4103 Fueling internal combustion engines. Internal combustion engines shall be switched off before refueling if the fuel tanks are integral parts...

  8. 49 CFR 172.422 - SPONTANEOUSLY COMBUSTIBLE label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false SPONTANEOUSLY COMBUSTIBLE label. 172.422 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.422 SPONTANEOUSLY COMBUSTIBLE label. (a) Except for size and color, the SPONTANEOUSLY COMBUSTIBLE label must be as follows: EC02MR91.025 (b) In addition to...

  9. 49 CFR 172.547 - SPONTANEOUSLY COMBUSTIBLE placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false SPONTANEOUSLY COMBUSTIBLE placard. 172.547 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.547 SPONTANEOUSLY COMBUSTIBLE placard. (a) Except for size and color, the SPONTANEOUSLY COMBUSTIBLE placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.052 (b) In addition...

  10. 30 CFR 77.1104 - Accumulations of combustible materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accumulations of combustible materials. 77.1104 Section 77.1104 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1104 Accumulations of combustible materials. Combustible...

  11. 46 CFR 109.557 - Flammable and combustible liquids: Carriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Flammable and combustible liquids: Carriage. 109.557... DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.557 Flammable and combustible liquids: Carriage. The master or person in charge shall ensure that— (a) Flammable and combustible liquids in bulk are not...

  12. 30 CFR 57.4462 - Storage of combustible liquids underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Storage of combustible liquids underground. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4462 Storage of combustible liquids underground. The requirements of this standard apply to underground areas only....

  13. 46 CFR 111.105-29 - Combustible liquid cargo carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Combustible liquid cargo carriers. 111.105-29 Section... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-29 Combustible liquid cargo carriers. (a) Each vessel that carries combustible liquid cargo with a closed-cup flashpoint of 60 degrees...

  14. 46 CFR 109.557 - Flammable and combustible liquids: Carriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flammable and combustible liquids: Carriage. 109.557... DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.557 Flammable and combustible liquids: Carriage. The master or person in charge shall ensure that— (a) Flammable and combustible liquids in bulk are not...

  15. 46 CFR 109.557 - Flammable and combustible liquids: Carriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flammable and combustible liquids: Carriage. 109.557... DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.557 Flammable and combustible liquids: Carriage. The master or person in charge shall ensure that— (a) Flammable and combustible liquids in bulk are not...

  16. 30 CFR 57.4462 - Storage of combustible liquids underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Storage of combustible liquids underground. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4462 Storage of combustible liquids underground. The requirements of this standard apply to underground areas only....

  17. 46 CFR 147.45 - Flammable and combustible liquids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flammable and combustible liquids. 147.45 Section 147.45... Stowage and Other Special Requirements for Particular Materials § 147.45 Flammable and combustible liquids. (a) This section applies to the stowage and transfer of flammable and combustible liquids...

  18. 30 CFR 57.4462 - Storage of combustible liquids underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Storage of combustible liquids underground. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4462 Storage of combustible liquids underground. The requirements of this standard apply to underground areas only....

  19. 30 CFR 57.4462 - Storage of combustible liquids underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Storage of combustible liquids underground. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4462 Storage of combustible liquids underground. The requirements of this standard apply to underground areas only....

  20. 46 CFR 111.105-29 - Combustible liquid cargo carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Combustible liquid cargo carriers. 111.105-29 Section... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-29 Combustible liquid cargo carriers. (a) Each vessel that carries combustible liquid cargo with a closed-cup flashpoint of 60 degrees...