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Sample records for combustion validated recovery

  1. Structurally compliant rocket engine combustion chamber: Experimental and analytical validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jankovsky, Robert S.; Arya, Vinod K.; Kazaroff, John M.; Halford, Gary R.

    1994-01-01

    A new, structurally compliant rocket engine combustion chamber design has been validated through analysis and experiment. Subscale, tubular channel chambers have been cyclically tested and analytically evaluated. Cyclic lives were determined to have a potential for 1000 percent increase over those of rectangular channel designs, the current state of the art. Greater structural compliance in the circumferential direction gave rise to lower thermal strains during hot firing, resulting in lower thermal strain ratcheting and longer predicted fatigue lives. Thermal, structural, and durability analyses of the combustion chamber design, involving cyclic temperatures, strains, and low-cycle fatigue lives, have corroborated the experimental observations.

  2. Determination of total sulfur in fertilizers by high temperature combustion: single-laboratory validation.

    PubMed

    Bernius, Jean; Kraus, Sabine; Hughes, Sandra; Margraf, Dominik; Bartos, James; Newlon, Natalie; Sieper, Hans-Peter

    2014-01-01

    Asingle-laboratory validation study was conducted for the determination of total sulfur (S) in a variety of common, inorganic fertilizers by combustion. The procedure involves conversion of S species into SO2 through combustion at 1150 degrees C, absorption then desorption from a purge and trap column, followed by measurement by a thermal conductivity detector. Eleven different validation materials were selected for study, which included four commercial fertilizer products, five fertilizers from the Magruder Check Sample Program, one reagent grade product, and one certified organic reference material. S content ranged between 1.47 and 91% as sulfate, thiosulfate, and elemental and organically bound S. Determinations of check samples were performed on 3 different days with four replicates/day. Determinations for non-Magruder samples were performed on 2 different days. Recoveries ranged from 94.3 to 125.9%. ABS SL absolute SD among runs ranged from 0.038 to 0.487%. Based on the accuracy and precision demonstrated here, it is recommended that this method be collaboratively studied for the determination of total S in fertilizers.

  3. On the potential for BECCS efficiency improvement through heat recovery from both post-combustion and oxy-combustion facilities.

    PubMed

    Dowell, N Mac; Fajardy, M

    2016-10-20

    In order to mitigate climate change to no more than 2 °C, it is well understood that it will be necessary to directly remove significant quantities of CO 2 , with bioenergy CCS (BECCS) regarded as a promising technology. However, BECCS will likely be more costly and less efficient at power generation than conventional CCS. Thus, approaches to improve BECCS performance and reduce costs are of importance to facilitate the deployment of this key technology. In this study, the impact of biomass co-firing rate and biomass moisture content on BECCS efficiency with both post- and oxy-combustion CO 2 capture technologies was evaluated. It was found that post-combustion capture BECCS (PCC-BECCS) facilities will be appreciably less efficient than oxy-combustion capture BECCS (OCC-BECCS) facilities. Consequently, PCC-BECCS have the potential to be more carbon negative than OCC-BECCS per unit electricity generated. It was further observed that the biomass moisture content plays an important role in determining the BECCS facilities' efficiency. This will in turn affect the enthalpic content of the BECCS plant exhaust and implies that exhaust gas heat recovery may be an attractive option at higher rates of co-firing. It was found that there is the potential for the recovery of approximately 2.5 GJ heat per t CO 2 at a temperature of 100 °C from both PCC-BECCS and OCC-BECCS. On- and off-site applications for this recovered heat are discussed, considering boiler feedwater pre-heating, solvent regeneration and district heating cases.

  4. Direct recovery of boiler residue by combustion synthesis.

    PubMed

    Nourbaghaee, Homan; Ghaderi Hamidi, Ahmad; Pourabdoli, Mahdi

    2018-04-01

    Boiler residue (BR) of thermal power plants is one of the important secondary sources for vanadium production. In this research, the aluminothermic self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) was used for recovering the transition metals of BR for the first time. The effects of extra aluminum as reducing agent and flux to aluminum ratio (CaO/Al) were studied and the efficiency of recovery and presence of impurities were measured. Aluminothermic reduction of vanadium and other metals was carried out successfully by SHS without any foreign heat source. Vanadium, iron, and nickel principally were reduced and gone into metallic master alloy as SHS product. High levels of efficiency (>80%) were achieved and the results showed that SHS has a great potential to be an industrial process for BR recovery. SHS produced two useful products. Metallic master alloy and fused glass slag that is applicable for ceramic industries. SHS can also neutralize the environmental threats of BR by a one step process. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Conflict between internal combustion engine and thermoelectric generator during waste heat recovery in cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korzhuev, M. A.

    2011-02-01

    It is shown that an internal combustion engine and a thermoelectric generator (TEG) arranged on the exhaust pipe of this engine come into the conflict of thermal machines that is related to using the same energy resource. The conflict grows with increasing useful electric power W e of the TEG, which leads to the limitation of both the maximum TEG output power ( W {e/max}) and the possibility of waste heat recovery in cars.

  6. Establishing the Validity of Recovery from Stuttering without Formal Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Patrick

    1996-01-01

    This study examined a validation procedure combining self-reports with independent verification to identify cases of recovery from stuttering without formal treatment. A Speech Behavior Checklist was administered to 42 individuals familiar with recovered subjects' past speech. Analysis of subjects' descriptions of their past stuttering was…

  7. Experimental Validation and Combustion Modeling of a JP-8 Surrogate in a Single Cylinder Diesel Engine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-15

    SINGLE CYLINDER DIESEL ENGINE Amit Shrestha, Umashankar Joshi, Ziliang Zheng, Tamer Badawy, Naeim A. Henein, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA...13-03-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE EXPERIMENTAL VALIDATION AND COMBUSTION MODELING OF A JP-8 SURROGATE IN A SINGLE CYLINDER DIESEL ENGINE 5a...INTERNATIONAL UNCLASSIFIED • Validate a two-component JP-8 surrogate in a single cylinder diesel engine. Validation parameters include – Ignition delay

  8. Development of an Organic Rankine Cycle system for exhaust energy recovery in internal combustion engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cipollone, Roberto; Bianchi, Giuseppe; Gualtieri, Angelo; Di Battista, Davide; Mauriello, Marco; Fatigati, Fabio

    2015-11-01

    Road transportation is currently one of the most influencing sectors for global energy consumptions and CO2 emissions. Nevertheless, more than one third of the fuel energy supplied to internal combustion engines is still rejected to the environment as thermal waste at the exhaust. Therefore, a greater fuel economy might be achieved recovering the energy from exhaust gases and converting it into useful power on board. In the current research activity, an ORC-based energy recovery system was developed and coupled with a diesel engine. The innovative feature of the recovery power unit relies upon the usage of sliding vane rotary machines as pump and expander. After a preliminary exhaust gas mapping, which allowed to assess the magnitude of the thermal power to be recovered, a thermodynamic analysis was carried out to design the ORC system and the sliding vane machines using R236fa as working fluid. An experimental campaign was eventually performed at different operating regimes according to the ESC procedure and investigated the recovery potential of the power unit at design and off-design conditions. Mechanical power recovered ranged from 0.7 kW up to 1.9 kW, with an overall cycle efficiency from 3.8% up to 4.8% respectively. These results candidate sliding vane machines as efficient and reliable devices for waste heat recovery applications.

  9. Electrical and electronic plastics waste co-combustion with municipal solid waste for energy recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Vehlow, J.; Mark, F.E.

    1997-12-01

    The recovery or disposal of end-of-life electrical and electronic (E+E) equipment is receiving considerable attention from industry organisations such as APME in order to supply factual information which can be used in the development of a clear industry strategy. It is hoped that such information will persuade EU member states to define the best management practices for this waste stream. One of the difficulties regarding the recovery or disposal of E+E waste is a lack of data regarding its behaviour when incinerated. This lack of data has led to unfounded conclusions by sonic parties that plastic wastes contain harmful halogenatedmore » species which are difficult to treat and remove, and when incinerated contribute to the emission of halogenated species and are responsible for the major portion of emissions. APME has a comprehensive testing program investigating the impact of plastics on municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration. APME`s previous work has demonstrated the positive, beneficial effects of mixed waste plastics in the MSW energy recovery process as well as studying halogen behaviour during the combustion of packaging plastics waste and construction foam from the building industry. The current study was designed to evaluate the incineration of MSW containing typical levels of electrical and electronic (E+E) plastic waste, as well as MSW containing E+E waste in amounts up to 12%.« less

  10. Reduced and Validated Kinetic Mechanisms for Hydrogen-CO-sir Combustion in Gas Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Yiguang Ju; Frederick Dryer

    2009-02-07

    Rigorous experimental, theoretical, and numerical investigation of various issues relevant to the development of reduced, validated kinetic mechanisms for synthetic gas combustion in gas turbines was carried out - including the construction of new radiation models for combusting flows, improvement of flame speed measurement techniques, measurements and chemical kinetic analysis of H{sub 2}/CO/CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2}/diluent mixtures, revision of the H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} kinetic model to improve flame speed prediction capabilities, and development of a multi-time scale algorithm to improve computational efficiency in reacting flow simulations.

  11. Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulzan, Dan

    2007-01-01

    An overview of the emissions related research being conducted as part of the Fundamental Aeronautics Subsonics Fixed Wing Project is presented. The overview includes project metrics, milestones, and descriptions of major research areas. The overview also includes information on some of the emissions research being conducted under NASA Research Announcements. Objective: Development of comprehensive detailed and reduced kinetic mechanisms of jet fuels for chemically-reacting flow modeling. Scientific Challenges: 1) Developing experimental facilities capable of handling higher hydrocarbons and providing benchmark combustion data. 2) Determining and understanding ignition and combustion characteristics, such as laminar flame speeds, extinction stretch rates, and autoignition delays, of jet fuels and hydrocarbons relevant to jet surrogates. 3) Developing comprehensive kinetic models for jet fuels.

  12. Material and energy recovery from Automotive Shredded Residues (ASR) via sequential gasification and combustion.

    PubMed

    Viganò, F; Consonni, S; Grosso, M; Rigamonti, L

    2010-01-01

    Shredding is the common end-of-life treatment in Europe for dismantled car wrecks. It produces the so-called Automotive Shredded Residue (ASR), usually disposed of in landfill. This paper summarizes the outcome of a study carried out by Politecnico di Milano and LEAP with the support of Actelios SpA on the prospects of a technology based on sequential gasification and combustion of this specific waste stream. Its application to the treatment of ASR allows the recovery of large fractions of metals as non-oxidized, easily marketable secondary raw materials, the vitrification of most of the ash content and the production of power via a steam cycle. Results show that despite the unfavourable characteristics of ASR, the proposed technology can reach appealing energy performances. Three of four environmental impact indicators and the cumulative energy demand index are favourable, the main positive contributes being electricity production and metal recovery (mainly aluminium and copper). The only unfavourable indicator is the global warming index because, since most of the carbon in ASR comes from fossil sources, the carbon dioxide emissions at the stack of the thermal treatment plant are mainly non-renewable and, at the same time, the avoided biogas production from the alternative disposal route of landfilling is minor.

  13. Incomplete lung recovery following sub-acute inhalation of combustion-derived ultrafine particles in mice.

    PubMed

    Noël, A; Xiao, R; Perveen, Z; Zaman, H M; Rouse, R L; Paulsen, D B; Penn, A L

    2016-02-24

    Particulate matter (PM) is one of the six criteria pollutant classes for which National Ambient Air Quality Standards have been set by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Exposures to PM have been correlated with increased cardio-pulmonary morbidity and mortality. Butadiene soot (BDS), generated from the incomplete combustion of 1,3-butadiene (BD), is both a model PM mixture and a real-life example of a petrochemical product of incomplete combustion. There are numerous events, including wildfires, accidents at refineries and tank car explosions that result in sub-acute exposure to high levels of airborne particles, with the people exposed facing serious health problems. These real-life events highlight the need to investigate the health effects induced by short-term exposure to elevated levels of PM, as well as to assess whether, and if so, how well these adverse effects are resolved over time. In the present study, we investigated the extent of recovery of mouse lungs 10 days after inhalation exposures to environmentally-relevant levels of BDS aerosols had ended. Female BALB/c mice exposed to either HEPA-filtered air or to BDS (5 mg/m(3) in HEPA filtered air, 4 h/day, 21 consecutive days) were sacrificed immediately, or 10 days after the final BDS exposure. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected for cytology and cytokine analysis. Lung proteins and RNA were extracted for protein and gene expression analysis. Lung histopathology evaluation also was performed. Sub-acute exposures of mice to hydrocarbon-rich ultrafine particles induced: (1) BALF neutrophil elevation; (2) lung mucosal inflammation, and (3) increased BALF IL-1β concentration; with all three outcomes returning to baseline levels 10 days post-exposure. In contrast, (4) lung connective tissue inflammation persisted 10 days post-exposure; (5) we detected time-dependent up-regulation of biotransformation and oxidative stress genes, with incomplete return to baseline levels; and (6

  14. Recovery Act: Oxy-Combustion Techology Development for Industrial-Scale Boiler Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Levasseur, Armand

    2014-04-30

    Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom), under U.S. DOE/NETL Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NT0005290, is conducting a development program to generate detailed technical information needed for application of oxy-combustion technology. The program is designed to provide the necessary information and understanding for the next step of large-scale commercial demonstration of oxy combustion in tangentially fired boilers and to accelerate the commercialization of this technology. The main project objectives include: • Design and develop an innovative oxyfuel system for existing tangentially-fired boiler units that minimizes overall capital investment and operating costs. • Evaluate performance of oxyfuel tangentially fired boiler systems in pilot scale testsmore » at Alstom’s 15 MWth tangentially fired Boiler Simulation Facility (BSF). • Address technical gaps for the design of oxyfuel commercial utility boilers by focused testing and improvement of engineering and simulation tools. • Develop the design, performance and costs for a demonstration scale oxyfuel boiler and auxiliary systems. • Develop the design and costs for both industrial and utility commercial scale reference oxyfuel boilers and auxiliary systems that are optimized for overall plant performance and cost. • Define key design considerations and develop general guidelines for application of results to utility and different industrial applications. The project was initiated in October 2008 and the scope extended in 2010 under an ARRA award. The project completion date was April 30, 2014. Central to the project is 15 MWth testing in the BSF, which provided in-depth understanding of oxy-combustion under boiler conditions, detailed data for improvement of design tools, and key information for application to commercial scale oxy-fired boiler design. Eight comprehensive 15 MWth oxy-fired test campaigns were performed with different coals, providing detailed data on combustion, emissions, and thermal behavior

  15. Cross-Validating Chinese Language Mental Health Recovery Measures in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bola, John; Chan, Tiffany Hill Ching; Chen, Eric HY; Ng, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Promoting recovery in mental health services is hampered by a shortage of reliable and valid measures, particularly in Hong Kong. We seek to cross validate two Chinese language measures of recovery and one of recovery-promoting environments. Method: A cross-sectional survey of people recovering from early episode psychosis (n = 121)…

  16. Development and validation of spray models for investigating diesel engine combustion and emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Som, Sibendu

    Diesel engines intrinsically generate NOx and particulate matter which need to be reduced significantly in order to comply with the increasingly stringent regulations worldwide. This motivates the diesel engine manufacturers to gain fundamental understanding of the spray and combustion processes so as to optimize these processes and reduce engine emissions. Strategies being investigated to reduce engine's raw emissions include advancements in fuel injection systems, efficient nozzle orifice design, injection and combustion control strategies, exhaust gas recirculation, use of alternative fuels such as biodiesel etc. This thesis explores several of these approaches (such as nozzle orifice design, injection control strategy, and biodiesel use) by performing computer modeling of diesel engine processes. Fuel atomization characteristics are known to have a significant effect on the combustion and emission processes in diesel engines. Primary fuel atomization is induced by aerodynamics in the near nozzle region as well as cavitation and turbulence from the injector nozzle. The breakup models that are currently used in diesel engine simulations generally consider aerodynamically induced breakup using the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability model, but do not account for inner nozzle flow effects. An improved primary breakup (KH-ACT) model incorporating cavitation and turbulence effects along with aerodynamically induced breakup is developed and incorporated in the computational fluid dynamics code CONVERGE. The spray simulations using KH-ACT model are "quasi-dynamically" coupled with inner nozzle flow (using FLUENT) computations. This presents a novel tool to capture the influence of inner nozzle flow effects such as cavitation and turbulence on spray, combustion, and emission processes. Extensive validation is performed against the non-evaporating spray data from Argonne National Laboratory. Performance of the KH and KH-ACT models is compared against the evaporating and

  17. A new simple local muscle recovery model and its theoretical and experimental validation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Liang; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Su; Zhang, Zhanwu

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to provide theoretical and experimental validation of a local muscle recovery model. Muscle recovery has been modeled in different empirical and theoretical approaches to determine work-rest allowance for musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) prevention. However, time-related parameters and individual attributes have not been sufficiently considered in conventional approaches. A new muscle recovery model was proposed by integrating time-related task parameters and individual attributes. Theoretically, this muscle recovery model was compared to other theoretical models mathematically. Experimentally, a total of 20 subjects participated in the experimental validation. Hand grip force recovery and shoulder joint strength recovery were measured after a fatiguing operation. The recovery profile was fitted by using the recovery model, and individual recovery rates were calculated as well after fitting. Good fitting values (r(2) > .8) were found for all the subjects. Significant differences in recovery rates were found among different muscle groups (p < .05). The theoretical muscle recovery model was primarily validated by characterization of the recovery process after fatiguing operation. The determined recovery rate may be useful to represent individual recovery attribute.

  18. Adaptive accelerated ReaxFF reactive dynamics with validation from simulating hydrogen combustion.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Tao; Jaramillo-Botero, Andrés; Goddard, William A; Sun, Huai

    2014-07-02

    We develop here the methodology for dramatically accelerating the ReaxFF reactive force field based reactive molecular dynamics (RMD) simulations through use of the bond boost concept (BB), which we validate here for describing hydrogen combustion. The bond order, undercoordination, and overcoordination concepts of ReaxFF ensure that the BB correctly adapts to the instantaneous configurations in the reactive system to automatically identify the reactions appropriate to receive the bond boost. We refer to this as adaptive Accelerated ReaxFF Reactive Dynamics or aARRDyn. To validate the aARRDyn methodology, we determined the detailed sequence of reactions for hydrogen combustion with and without the BB. We validate that the kinetics and reaction mechanisms (that is the detailed sequences of reactive intermediates and their subsequent transformation to others) for H2 oxidation obtained from aARRDyn agrees well with the brute force reactive molecular dynamics (BF-RMD) at 2498 K. Using aARRDyn, we then extend our simulations to the whole range of combustion temperatures from ignition (798 K) to flame temperature (2998K), and demonstrate that, over this full temperature range, the reaction rates predicted by aARRDyn agree well with the BF-RMD values, extrapolated to lower temperatures. For the aARRDyn simulation at 798 K we find that the time period for half the H2 to form H2O product is ∼538 s, whereas the computational cost was just 1289 ps, a speed increase of ∼0.42 trillion (10(12)) over BF-RMD. In carrying out these RMD simulations we found that the ReaxFF-COH2008 version of the ReaxFF force field was not accurate for such intermediates as H3O. Consequently we reoptimized the fit to a quantum mechanics (QM) level, leading to the ReaxFF-OH2014 force field that was used in the simulations.

  19. Progress in Validation of Wind-US for Ramjet/Scramjet Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engblom, William A.; Frate, Franco C.; Nelson, Chris C.

    2005-01-01

    Validation of the Wind-US flow solver against two sets of experimental data involving high-speed combustion is attempted. First, the well-known Burrows- Kurkov supersonic hydrogen-air combustion test case is simulated, and the sensitively of ignition location and combustion performance to key parameters is explored. Second, a numerical model is developed for simulation of an X-43B candidate, full-scale, JP-7-fueled, internal flowpath operating in ramjet mode. Numerical results using an ethylene-air chemical kinetics model are directly compared against previously existing pressure-distribution data along the entire flowpath, obtained in direct-connect testing conducted at NASA Langley Research Center. Comparison to derived quantities such as burn efficiency and thermal throat location are also made. Reasonable to excellent agreement with experimental data is demonstrated for key parameters in both simulation efforts. Additional Wind-US feature needed to improve simulation efforts are described herein, including maintaining stagnation conditions at inflow boundaries for multi-species flow. An open issue regarding the sensitivity of isolator unstart to key model parameters is briefly discussed.

  20. Predicting Backdrafting and Spillage for Natural-Draft Gas Combustion Appliances: Validating VENT-II

    SciTech Connect

    Rapp, Vi H.; Pastor-Perez, Albert; Singer, Brett C.

    2013-04-01

    VENT-II is a computer program designed to provide detailed analysis of natural draft and induced draft combustion appliance vent-systems (i.e., furnace or water heater). This program is capable of predicting house depressurization thresholds that lead to backdrafting and spillage of combustion appliances; however, validation reports of the program being applied for this purpose are not readily available. The purpose of this report is to assess VENT-II’s ability to predict combustion gas spillage events due to house depressurization by comparing VENT-II simulated results with experimental data for four appliance configurations. The results show that VENT-II correctly predicts depressurizations resulting in spillagemore » for natural draft appliances operating in cold and mild outdoor conditions, but not for hot conditions. In the latter case, the predicted depressurizations depend on whether the vent section is defined as part of the vent connector or the common vent when setting up the model. Overall, the VENTII solver requires further investigation before it can be used reliably to predict spillage caused by depressurization over a full year of weather conditions, especially where hot conditions occur.« less

  1. Experimental studies of characteristic combustion-driven flows for CFD validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santoro, R. J.; Moser, M.; Anderson, W.; Pal, S.; Ryan, H.; Merkle, C. L.

    1992-01-01

    A series of rocket-related studies intended to develop a suitable data base for validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models of characteristic combustion-driven flows was undertaken at the Propulsion Engineering Research Center at Penn State. Included are studies of coaxial and impinging jet injectors as well as chamber wall heat transfer effects. The objective of these studies is to provide fundamental understanding and benchmark quality data for phenomena important to rocket combustion under well-characterized conditions. Diagnostic techniques utilized in these studies emphasize determinations of velocity, temperature, spray and droplet characteristics, and combustion zone distribution. Since laser diagnostic approaches are favored, the development of an optically accessible rocket chamber has been a high priority in the initial phase of the project. During the design phase for this chamber, the advice and input of the CFD modeling community were actively sought through presentations and written surveys. Based on this procedure, a suitable uni-element rocket chamber was fabricated and is presently under preliminary testing. Results of these tests, as well as the survey findings leading to the chamber design, were presented.

  2. The recovery of waste and off-gas in Large Combustion Plants subject to IPPC National Permit in Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Marco, Giuseppe; Manuzzi, Raffaella

    2018-03-01

    The recovery of off-gas, waste, and biomass in Large Combustion Plants for energy production gives the opportunity to recycle waste and by-products and to recover materials produced in agricultural and industrial activities. The paper illustrates the Italian situation regarding the production of energy from off-gas, biomass, and waste in Large Combustion Plants subject to Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) National Permit. Moreover, it focuses on the 4 Italian Large Combustion Plants producing energy from biomass and waste. For these ones it illustrates the specific issues related to and provides a description of the solutions adopted in the 4 Italian plants. Given that air emission performance is the most relevant aspect of this kind of plants, the paper specifically focuses and reports results about this subject. In particular, in Italy among 113 LCPs subject to IPPC National Permit we have found that 4 plants use as fuel waste (i.e. solid or liquid biomasses and Solid Recovered Fuels), or a mixture of waste and traditional fuels (co-combustion of Solid Recovered Fuels and coal), and that 11 plants use as fuel off-gases listed in Annex X (i.e. Refinery Fuel Gas, Syngas, and gases produced in iron and steel industries). Moreover, there are 2 IPPC chemical plants that recovery energy from different off-gases not listed in Annex X. Regarding the 4 LCPs that produce energy from waste combustion or co-combustion, we find that they take into account all the specific issues related to this kind of plants (i.e. detailed waste characterization, waste acceptance procedures, waste handling and storage, waste pretreatment and emissions to air), and adopt solutions that are best available techniques to prevent pollution. Moreover for one of these plants, the only one for which we have a significant set of monitoring data because it obtained the IPPC National Permit in 2008, we find that energy efficiency and air emissions of the principal pollutants are in

  3. Improved heat recovery and high-temperature clean-up for coal-gas fired combustion turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Barthelemy, N.M.; Lynn, S.

    1991-07-01

    This study investigates the performance of an Improved Heat Recovery Method (IHRM) applied to a coal-gas fired power-generating system using a high-temperature clean-up. This heat recovery process has been described by Higdon and Lynn (1990). The IHRM is an integrated heat-recovery network that significantly increases the thermal efficiency of a gas turbine in the generation of electric power. Its main feature is to recover both low- and high-temperature heat reclaimed from various gas streams by means of evaporating heated water into combustion air in an air saturation unit. This unit is a packed column where compressed air flows countercurrently tomore » the heated water prior to being sent to the combustor, where it is mixed with coal-gas and burned. The high water content of the air stream thus obtained reduces the amount of excess air required to control the firing temperature of the combustor, which in turn lowers the total work of compression and results in a high thermal efficiency. Three designs of the IHRM were developed to accommodate three different gasifying process. The performances of those designs were evaluated and compared using computer simulations. The efficiencies obtained with the IHRM are substantially higher those yielded by other heat-recovery technologies using the same gasifying processes. The study also revealed that the IHRM compares advantageously to most advanced power-generation technologies currently available or tested commercially. 13 refs., 34 figs., 10 tabs.« less

  4. Validation of Safety-Critical Systems for Aircraft Loss-of-Control Prevention and Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcastro, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    Validation of technologies developed for loss of control (LOC) prevention and recovery poses significant challenges. Aircraft LOC can result from a wide spectrum of hazards, often occurring in combination, which cannot be fully replicated during evaluation. Technologies developed for LOC prevention and recovery must therefore be effective under a wide variety of hazardous and uncertain conditions, and the validation framework must provide some measure of assurance that the new vehicle safety technologies do no harm (i.e., that they themselves do not introduce new safety risks). This paper summarizes a proposed validation framework for safety-critical systems, provides an overview of validation methods and tools developed by NASA to date within the Vehicle Systems Safety Project, and develops a preliminary set of test scenarios for the validation of technologies for LOC prevention and recovery

  5. Analysis of Thermal and Chemical Effets on Negative Valve Overlap Period Energy Recovery for Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Ekoto, Dr Isaac; Peterson, Dr. Brian; Szybist, James P

    2015-01-01

    A central challenge for efficient auto-ignition controlled low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC) engines has been achieving the combustion phasing needed to reach stable performance over a wide operating regime. The negative valve overlap (NVO) strategy has been explored as a way to improve combustion stability through a combination of charge heating and altered reactivity via a recompression stroke with a pilot fuel injection. The study objective was to analyze the thermal and chemical effects on NVO-period energy recovery. The analysis leveraged experimental gas sampling results obtained from a single-cylinder LTGC engine along with cylinder pressure measurements and custom data reduction methodsmore » used to estimate period thermodynamic properties. The engine was fueled by either iso-octane or ethanol, and operated under sweeps of NVO-period oxygen concentration, injection timing, and fueling rate. Gas sampling at the end of the NVO period was performed via a custom dump-valve apparatus, with detailed sample speciation by in-house gas chromatography. The balance of NVO-period input and output energy flows was calculated in terms of fuel energy, work, heat loss, and change in sensible energy. Experiment results were complemented by detailed chemistry single-zone reactor simulations performed at relevant mixing and thermodynamic conditions, with results used to evaluate ignition behavior and expected energy recovery yields. For the intermediate bulk-gas temperatures present during the NVO period (900-1100 K), weak negative temperature coefficient behavior with iso-octane fueling significantly lengthened ignition delays relative to similar ethanol fueled conditions. Faster ethanol ignition chemistry led to lower recovered fuel intermediate yields relative to similar iso-octane fueled conditions due to more complete fuel oxidation. From the energy analysis it was found that increased NVO-period global equivalence ratio, either from lower NVOperiod oxygen

  6. Thermochemical Modeling and Experimental Validation of Wood Pyrolysis Occurring During Pre-ignition Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fawaz, M.; Lautenberger, C.; Bond, T. C.

    2017-12-01

    The use of wood as a solid fuel for cooking and heating is associated with high particle emission which largely contribute to the dispersion of particulate matter (PM) in the atmosphere. The majority of those particles are released during the "pre-ignition" phase, i.e., before flaming of the wood occurs. In this work, we investigate the factors that influence the emission of PM during pre-ignition and lead to high particle emission to the atmosphere. During this combustion phase, at elevated temperature, pyrolysis is responsible for wood degradation and the production of gaseous materials that travel and exit the wood. We model the thermal degradation using Gpyro, an open source finite volume method numerical model to simulate heat, mass, and momentum transfer in the wood. In our analysis, we study factors that vary during combustion and that influence emission of PM: wood sample size and boundary conditions. In a fire the boundary conditions represent the thermal energy a piece of wood receives from the surrounding in the form of heat flux. We find that heat transfer is the limiting process governing the production and transport of gas from the wood, and that the amount of emitted PM is dependent on the size of the wood. The dependence of heat transfer from the boundaries on PM emission becomes more important with increasing wood log size. The model shows that a small log of wood (6cm by 2cm) emits close values of total mass of gas at low and high heat fluxes. For a large log of wood (20cm by 5cm) the total mass of gas emitted increases by 30% between low and high heat flux. We validate the model results with a controlled-temperature reactor that accommodates centimeter scale wood samples. The size of the wood used, indicates the abundance of wood in the region where wood is used a solid fuel. Understanding those factors will allow for defining conditions that result in reducing particle emissions during combustion.

  7. Working fluid selection for the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) exhaust heat recovery of an internal combustion engine power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douvartzides, S.; Karmalis, I.

    2016-11-01

    Organic Rankine cycle technology is capable to efficiently convert low-grade heat into useful mechanical power. In the present investigation such a cycle is used for the recovery of heat from the exhaust gases of a four stroke V18 MAN 51/60DF internal combustion engine power plant operating with natural gas. Design is focused on the selection of the appropriate working fluid of the Rankine cycle in terms of thermodynamic, environmental and safety criteria. 37 candidate fluids have been considered and all Rankine cycles examined were subcritical. The thermodynamic analysis of all fluids has been comparatively undertaken and the effect of key operation conditions such as the evaporation pressure and the superheating temperature was taken into account. By appropriately selecting the working fluid and the Rankine cycle operation conditions the overall plant efficiency was improved by 5.52% and fuel consumption was reduced by 12.69%.

  8. A Highly Efficient Six-Stroke Internal Combustion Engine Cycle with Water Injection for In-Cylinder Exhaust Heat Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Conklin, Jim; Szybist, James P

    2010-01-01

    A concept is presented here that adds two additional strokes to the four-stroke Otto or Diesel cycle that has the potential to increase fuel efficiency of the basic cycle. The engine cycle can be thought of as a 4 stroke Otto or Diesel cycle followed by a 2-stroke heat recovery steam cycle. Early exhaust valve closing during the exhaust stroke coupled with water injection are employed to add an additional power stroke at the end of the conventional four-stroke Otto or Diesel cycle. An ideal thermodynamics model of the exhaust gas compression, water injection at top center, and expansion wasmore » used to investigate this modification that effectively recovers waste heat from both the engine coolant and combustion exhaust gas. Thus, this concept recovers energy from two waste heat sources of current engine designs and converts heat normally discarded to useable power and work. This concept has the potential of a substantial increase in fuel efficiency over existing conventional internal combustion engines, and under appropriate injected water conditions, increase the fuel efficiency without incurring a decrease in power density. By changing the exhaust valve closing angle during the exhaust stroke, the ideal amount of exhaust can be recompressed for the amount of water injected, thereby minimizing the work input and maximizing the mean effective pressure of the steam expansion stroke (MEPsteam). The value of this exhaust valve closing for maximum MEPsteam depends on the limiting conditions of either one bar or the dew point temperature of the expansion gas/moisture mixture when the exhaust valve opens to discard the spent gas mixture in the sixth stroke. The range of MEPsteam calculated for the geometry of a conventional gasoline spark-ignited internal combustion engine and for plausible water injection parameters is from 0.75 to 2.5 bars. Typical combustion mean effective pressures (MEPcombustion) of naturally aspirated gasoline engines are up to 10 bar, thus

  9. An Experimental Study of Characteristic Combustion-Driven Flow for CFD Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santoro, Robert J.

    1997-01-01

    A series of uni-element rocket injector studies were completed to provide benchmark quality data needed to validate computational fluid dynamic models. A shear coaxial injector geometry was selected as the primary injector for study using gaseous hydrogen/oxygen and gaseous hydrogen/liquid oxygen propellants. Emphasis was placed on the use of nonintrusive diagnostic techniques to characterize the flowfields inside an optically-accessible rocket chamber. Measurements of the velocity and species fields were obtained using laser velocimetry and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. Qualitative flame shape information was also obtained using laser-induced fluorescence excited from OH radicals and laser light scattering studies of aluminum oxide particle seeded combusting flows. The gaseous hydrogen/liquid oxygen propellant studies for the shear coaxial injector focused on breakup mechanisms associated with the liquid oxygen jet under subcritical pressure conditions. Laser sheet illumination techniques were used to visualize the core region of the jet and a Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer was utilized for drop velocity, size and size distribution characterization. The results of these studies indicated that the shear coaxial geometry configuration was a relatively poor injector in terms of mixing. The oxygen core was observed to extend well downstream of the injector and a significant fraction of the mixing occurred in the near nozzle region where measurements were not possible to obtain. Detailed velocity and species measurements were obtained to allow CFD model validation and this set of benchmark data represents the most comprehensive data set available to date. As an extension of the investigation, a series of gas/gas injector studies were conducted in support of the X-33 Reusable Launch Vehicle program. A Gas/Gas Injector Technology team was formed consisting of the Marshall Space Flight Center, the NASA Lewis Research Center, Rocketdyne and Penn State. Injector

  10. An Experimental Study of Characteristic Combustion-Driven Flow for CFD Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santoro, Robert J.

    1997-01-01

    A series of uni-element rocket injector studies were completed to provide benchmark quality data needed to validate computational fluid dynamic models. A shear coaxial injector geometry was selected as the primary injector for study using gaseous hydrogen/oxygen and gaseous hydrogen/liquid oxygen propellants. Emphasis was placed on the use of non-intrusive diagnostic techniques to characterize the flowfields inside an optically-accessible rocket chamber. Measurements of the velocity and species fields were obtained using laser velocimetry and Raman spectroscopy, respectively Qualitative flame shape information was also obtained using laser-induced fluorescence excited from OH radicals and laser light scattering studies of aluminum oxide particle seeded combusting flows. The gaseous hydrogen/liquid oxygen propellant studies for the shear coaxial injector focused on breakup mechanisms associated with the liquid oxygen jet under sub-critical pressure conditions. Laser sheet illumination techniques were used to visualize the core region of the jet and a Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer was utilized for drop velocity, size and size distribution characterization. The results of these studies indicated that the shear coaxial geometry configuration was a relatively poor injector in terms of mixing. The oxygen core was observed to extend well downstream of the injector and a significant fraction of the mixing occurred in the near nozzle region where measurements were not possible to obtain Detailed velocity and species measurements were obtained to allow CFD model validation and this set of benchmark data represents the most comprehensive data set available to date As an extension of the investigation, a series of gas/gas injector studies were conducted in support of the X-33 Reusable Launch Vehicle program. A Gas/Gas Injector Technology team was formed consisting of the Marshall Space Flight Center, the NASA Lewis Research Center, Rocketdyne and Penn State. Injector

  11. On the thermodynamics of waste heat recovery from internal combustion engine exhaust gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meisner, G. P.

    2013-03-01

    The ideal internal combustion (IC) engine (Otto Cycle) efficiency ηIC = 1-(1/r)(γ - 1) is only a function of engine compression ratio r =Vmax/Vmin and exhaust gas specific heat ratio γ = cP/cV. Typically r = 8, γ = 1.4, and ηIC = 56%. Unlike the Carnot Cycle where ηCarnot = 1-(TC/TH) for a heat engine operating between hot and cold heat reservoirs at TH and TC, respectively, ηIC is not a function of the exhaust gas temperature. Instead, the exhaust gas temperature depends only on the intake gas temperature (ambient), r, γ, cV, and the combustion energy. The ejected exhaust gas heat is thermally decoupled from the IC engine and conveyed via the exhaust system (manifold, pipe, muffler, etc.) to ambient, and the exhaust system is simply a heat engine that does no useful work. The maximum fraction of fuel energy that can be extracted from the exhaust gas stream as useful work is (1-ηIC) × ηCarnot = 32% for TH = 850 K (exhaust) and TC = 370 K (coolant). This waste heat can be recovered using a heat engine such as a thermoelectric generator (TEG) with ηTEG> 0 in the exhaust system. A combined IC engine and TEG system can generate net useful work from the exhaust gas waste heat with efficiency ηWH = (1-ηIC) × ηCarnot ×ηTEG , and this will increase the overall fuel efficiency of the total system. Recent improvements in TEGs yield ηTEG values approaching 15% giving a potential total waste heat conversion efficiency of ηWH = 4.6%, which translates into a fuel economy improvement approaching 5%. This work is supported by the US DOE under DE-EE0005432.

  12. Validation of a Pressure-Based Combustion Simulation Tool Using a Single Element Injector Test Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakur, Siddarth; Wright, Jeffrey

    2006-01-01

    The traditional design and analysis practice for advanced propulsion systems, particularly chemical rocket engines, relies heavily on expensive full-scale prototype development and testing. Over the past decade, use of high-fidelity analysis and design tools such as CFD early in the product development cycle has been identified as one way to alleviate testing costs and to develop these devices better, faster and cheaper. Increased emphasis is being placed on developing and applying CFD models to simulate the flow field environments and performance of advanced propulsion systems. This necessitates the development of next generation computational tools which can be used effectively and reliably in a design environment by non-CFD specialists. A computational tool, called Loci-STREAM is being developed for this purpose. It is a pressure-based, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solver for generalized unstructured grids, which is designed to handle all-speed flows (incompressible to hypersonic) and is particularly suitable for solving multi-species flow in fixed-frame combustion devices. Loci-STREAM integrates proven numerical methods for generalized grids and state-of-the-art physical models in a novel rule-based programming framework called Loci which allows: (a) seamless integration of multidisciplinary physics in a unified manner, and (b) automatic handling of massively parallel computing. The objective of the ongoing work is to develop a robust simulation capability for combustion problems in rocket engines. As an initial step towards validating this capability, a model problem is investigated in the present study which involves a gaseous oxygen/gaseous hydrogen (GO2/GH2) shear coaxial single element injector, for which experimental data are available. The sensitivity of the computed solutions to grid density, grid distribution, different turbulence models, and different near-wall treatments is investigated. A refined grid, which is clustered in the vicinity of

  13. Fit for purpose? Validation of a conceptual framework for personal recovery with current mental health consumers.

    PubMed

    Bird, Victoria; Leamy, Mary; Tew, Jerry; Le Boutillier, Clair; Williams, Julie; Slade, Mike

    2014-07-01

    Mental health services in the UK, Australia and other Anglophone countries have moved towards supporting personal recovery as a primary orientation. To provide an empirically grounded foundation to identify and evaluate recovery-oriented interventions, we previously published a conceptual framework of personal recovery based on a systematic review and narrative synthesis of existing models. Our objective was to test the validity and relevance of this framework for people currently using mental health services. Seven focus groups were conducted with 48 current mental health consumers in three NHS trusts across England, as part of the REFOCUS Trial. Consumers were asked about the meaning and their experience of personal recovery. Deductive and inductive thematic analysis applying a constant comparison approach was used to analyse the data. The analysis aimed to explore the validity of the categories within the conceptual framework, and to highlight any areas of difference between the conceptual framework and the themes generated from new data collected from the focus groups. Both the inductive and deductive analysis broadly validated the conceptual framework, with the super-ordinate categories Connectedness, Hope and optimism, Identity, Meaning and purpose, and Empowerment (CHIME) evident in the analysis. Three areas of difference were, however, apparent in the inductive analysis. These included practical support; a greater emphasis on issues around diagnosis and medication; and scepticism surrounding recovery. This study suggests that the conceptual framework of personal recovery provides a defensible theoretical base for clinical and research purposes which is valid for use with current consumers. However, the three areas of difference further stress the individual nature of recovery and the need for an understanding of the population and context under investigation. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2014.

  14. Development and Validation of a Christian-Based Grief Recovery Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jen Der Pan, Peter; Deng, Liang-Yu F.; Tsai, S. L.; Chen, Ho-Yuan J.; Yuan, Sheng-Shiou Jenny

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a Christian-based Grief Recovery Scale (CGRS) which was used to measure Christians recovering from grief after a significant loss. Taiwanese Christian participants were recruited from churches and a comprehensive university in northern Taiwan. They were affected by both the Christian faith and…

  15. Concept analysis and validation of the nursing diagnosis, delayed surgical recovery.

    PubMed

    Appoloni, Aline Helena; Herdman, T Heather; Napoleão, Anamaria Alves; Campos de Carvalho, Emilia; Hortense, Priscilla

    2013-10-01

    To analyze the human response of delayed surgical recovery, approved by NANDA-I, and to validate its defining characteristics (DCs) and related factors (RFs). This was a two-part study using a concept analysis based on the method of Walker and Avant, and diagnostic content validation based on Fehring's model. Three of the original DCs, and three proposed DCs identified from the concept analysis, were validated in this study; five of the original RFs and four proposed RFs were validated. A revision of the concept studied is suggested, incorporating the validation of some of the DCs and RFs presented by NANDA-I, and the insertion of new, validated DCs and RFs. This study may enable the extension of the use of this diagnosis and contribute to quality surgical care of clients. © 2013, The Authors. International Journal of Nursing Knowledge © 2013, NANDA International.

  16. The reliability and validity of the Maryland Assessment of Recovery in Serious Mental Illness Scale.

    PubMed

    Drapalski, Amy L; Medoff, Deborah; Dixon, Lisa; Bellack, Alan

    2016-05-30

    The current study aims to further evaluate the psychometric properties of the Maryland Assessment of Recovery in Serious Mental Illness (MARS), a relatively new instrument designed to assess personal recovery status in individuals with serious mental illness. Two hundred and fifty individuals with serious mental illness receiving outpatient mental health treatment completed a baseline assessment which included the MARS and measures to assess recovery-related constructs, clinical outcomes, and social and community functioning. The MARS demonstrated excellent internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Good construct validity was evidenced by strong positive relationships between the MARS and recovery-related constructs (e.g. hope, empowerment, self-efficacy, and personal agency) and a strong negative relationship with self-stigma. Divergent validity was demonstrated by weaker relationships with cognitive and social functioning. The confirmatory factor analysis did not confirm the unitary factor structure found in previous research. Given the equivocal result of the CFA, additional exploratory work is needed to determine if a more complex factor structure is present. This study provides addition support for the psychometric soundness of the MARS and subsequently, its potential use as a measure of personal recovery status in people with serious mental illness. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  17. Recovery of 238PuO2 by Molten Salt Oxidation Processing of 238PuO2 Contaminated Combustibles (Part II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remerowski, Mary Lynn; Dozhier, C.; Krenek, K.; VanPelt, C. E.; Reimus, M. A.; Spengler, D.; Matonic, J.; Garcia, L.; Rios, E.; Sandoval, F.; Herman, D.; Hart, R.; Ewing, B.; Lovato, M.; Romero, J. P.

    2005-02-01

    Pu-238 heat sources are used to fuel radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) used in space missions. The demand for this fuel is increasing, yet there are currently no domestic sources of this material. Much of the fuel is material reprocessed from other sources. One rich source of Pu-238 residual material is that from contaminated combustible materials, such as cheesecloth, ion exchange resins and plastics. From both waste minimization and production efficiency standpoints, the best solution is to recover this material. One way to accomplish separation of the organic component from these residues is a flameless oxidation process using molten salt as the matrix for the breakdown of the organic to carbon dioxide and water. The plutonium is retained in the salt, and can be recovered by dissolution of the carbonate salt in an aqueous solution, leaving the insoluble oxide behind. Further aqueous scrap recovery processing is used to purify the plutonium oxide. Recovery of the plutonium from contaminated combustibles achieves two important goals. First, it increases the inventory of Pu-238 available for heat source fabrication. Second, it is a significant waste minimization process. Because of its thermal activity (0.567 W per gram), combustibles must be packaged for disposition with much lower amounts of Pu-238 per drum than other waste types. Specifically, cheesecloth residues in the form of pyrolyzed ash (for stabilization) are being stored for eventual recovery of the plutonium.

  18. Recovery of 238PuO2 by Molten Salt Oxidation Processing of 238PuO2 Contaminated Combustibles (Part II)

    SciTech Connect

    Remerowski, Mary Lynn; Dozhier, C.; Krenek, K.

    2005-02-06

    Pu-238 heat sources are used to fuel radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) used in space missions. The demand for this fuel is increasing, yet there are currently no domestic sources of this material. Much of the fuel is material reprocessed from other sources. One rich source of Pu-238 residual material is that from contaminated combustible materials, such as cheesecloth, ion exchange resins and plastics. From both waste minimization and production efficiency standpoints, the best solution is to recover this material. One way to accomplish separation of the organic component from these residues is a flameless oxidation process using molten salt asmore » the matrix for the breakdown of the organic to carbon dioxide and water. The plutonium is retained in the salt, and can be recovered by dissolution of the carbonate salt in an aqueous solution, leaving the insoluble oxide behind. Further aqueous scrap recovery processing is used to purify the plutonium oxide. Recovery of the plutonium from contaminated combustibles achieves two important goals. First, it increases the inventory of Pu-238 available for heat source fabrication. Second, it is a significant waste minimization process. Because of its thermal activity (0.567 W per gram), combustibles must be packaged for disposition with much lower amounts of Pu-238 per drum than other waste types. Specifically, cheesecloth residues in the form of pyrolyzed ash (for stabilization) are being stored for eventual recovery of the plutonium.« less

  19. National Combustion Code Validated Against Lean Direct Injection Flow Field Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iannetti, Anthony C.

    2003-01-01

    Most combustion processes have, in some way or another, a recirculating flow field. This recirculation stabilizes the reaction zone, or flame, but an unnecessarily large recirculation zone can result in high nitrogen oxide (NOx) values for combustion systems. The size of this recirculation zone is crucial to the performance of state-of-the-art, low-emissions hardware. If this is a large-scale combustion process, the flow field will probably be turbulent and, therefore, three-dimensional. This research dealt primarily with flow fields resulting from lean direct injection (LDI) concepts, as described in Research & Technology 2001. LDI is a concept that depends heavily on the design of the swirler. The LDI concept has the potential to reduce NOx values from 50 to 70 percent of current values, with good flame stability characteristics. It is cost effective and (hopefully) beneficial to do most of the design work for an LDI swirler using computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided engineering (CAE) tools. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes are CAE tools that can calculate three-dimensional flows in complex geometries. However, CFD codes are only beginning to correctly calculate the flow fields for complex devices, and the related combustion models usually remove a large portion of the flow physics.

  20. Development and validation of Arabic version of the postoperative quality of recovery-40 questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman; Myles, Paul S; Riad, Waleed; Nassar, Sumaya Nemer; Mahmoud, Maissa; AlKahtani, Ghadah Jumaan; Sala, Fatima Jaina; Abdulrahman, Anas; Doais, Khaled S; Terkawi, Rayan Suliman; Tsang, Siny

    2017-05-01

    The postoperative quality of recovery-40 (QoR-40) is one of the most frequently used tools to assess the quality of recovery after surgery. The aim of the current study was to translate, culturally adapt, and validate the QoR-40 questionnaire in Arabic. A systematic translation process was used to translate the original English QoR-40 into Arabic. After the pilot study, the translated version was validated among patients who underwent different types of surgeries. The reliability (using internal consistency) and validity of our translated Arabic version was examined. To investigate the responsiveness of the translated QoR-40, the questionnaire was administered five times among the same group of patients (once before surgery as baseline measure, and four times after surgery, up to 1 week after surgery). A total of 182 participants (7 men, 175 women) were included in the study. The QoR-40 total scale and all subscales showed excellent internal consistencies over time, with the exception of the QoR-40 pain subscale at postoperative day 1. The QoR-40 total and subscale scores were inversely associated with patients' self-report pain scores but positively correlated with patients' self-report recovery scores. Patients' QoR-40 total, comfort, emotions, and physical subscale scores increased over time after surgery, indicating a general trend of recovery over time. Patients' scores in the QoR-40 pain and support subscales remained stable over time, suggesting no substantial changes were reported in these two domains. Quality of recovery was also found to be related to patients' ages, American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status, and the extent of surgery (major vs. minor). Most patients found the Arabic QoR-40 questions to be clear and easy to understand and thought the questionnaire items covered all their problem areas regarding their quality of recovery. Our translated version of QoR-40 was reliable and valid for use among Arabic-speaking patients. In addition

  1. Development and validation of attitudes towards Recovery Questionnaire across Chinese people in recovery, their family carers, and service providers in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Mak, Winnie W S; Chan, Randolph C H; Yau, Sania S W

    2018-05-29

    Considering the lack of existing measures on attitudes toward personal recovery and the need to acknowledge the cultural milieu in recovery attitude assessment, the present study developed and validated the Attitudes towards Recovery Questionnaire (ARQ) in a sample of people in recovery of mental illness, family carers, and mental health service providers in Hong Kong. The ARQ was developed based on existing literature and measures of recovery, and focus group discussions with various stakeholders. Findings of the multi-sample confirmatory factor analyses supported a five-factor structure: (1) resilience as a person in recovery, (2) self-appreciation and development, (3) self-direction, (4) family involvement, and (5) social ties and integration. The ARQ was positively correlated with recovery outcomes, empowerment, recovery knowledge, and recovery orientation of mental health services. As a tool for examining recovery attitudes, the ARQ informs us of the mindset across stakeholders and areas that need enhancement to facilitate the recovery process. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. The Irvine, Beatties, and Bresnahan (IBB) Forelimb Recovery Scale: An Assessment of Reliability and Validity

    PubMed Central

    Irvine, Karen-Amanda; Ferguson, Adam R.; Mitchell, Kathleen D.; Beattie, Stephanie B.; Lin, Amity; Stuck, Ellen D.; Huie, J. Russell; Nielson, Jessica L.; Talbott, Jason F.; Inoue, Tomoo; Beattie, Michael S.; Bresnahan, Jacqueline C.

    2014-01-01

    The IBB scale is a recently developed forelimb scale for the assessment of fine control of the forelimb and digits after cervical spinal cord injury [SCI; (1)]. The present paper describes the assessment of inter-rater reliability and face, concurrent and construct validity of this scale following SCI. It demonstrates that the IBB is a reliable and valid scale that is sensitive to severity of SCI and to recovery over time. In addition, the IBB correlates with other outcome measures and is highly predictive of biological measures of tissue pathology. Multivariate analysis using principal component analysis (PCA) demonstrates that the IBB is highly predictive of the syndromic outcome after SCI (2), and is among the best predictors of bio-behavioral function, based on strong construct validity. Altogether, the data suggest that the IBB, especially in concert with other measures, is a reliable and valid tool for assessing neurological deficits in fine motor control of the distal forelimb, and represents a powerful addition to multivariate outcome batteries aimed at documenting recovery of function after cervical SCI in rats. PMID:25071704

  3. An Italian multicentre validation study of the coma recovery scale-revised.

    PubMed

    Estraneo, A; Moretta, P; De Tanti, A; Gatta, G; Giacino, J T; Trojano, L

    2015-10-01

    Rate of misdiagnosis of disorders of consciousness (DoC) can be reduced by employing validated clinical diagnostic tools, such as the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R). An Italian version of the CRS-R has been recently developed, but its applicability across different clinical settings, and its concurrent validity and diagnostic sensitivity have not been estimated yet. To perform a multicentre validation study of the Italian version of the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R). Analysis of inter-rater reliability, concurrent validity and diagnostic sensitivity of the scale. One Intensive Care Unit, 8 Post-acute rehabilitation centres and 2 Long-term facilities Twenty-seven professionals (physicians, N.=11; psychologists, N.=5; physiotherapists, N.=3; speech therapists, N.=6; nurses, N.=2) from 11 Italian Centres. CRS-R and Disability Rating Scale (DRS) applied to 122 patients with clinical diagnosis of Vegetative State (VS) or Minimally Conscious State (MCS). CRS-R has good-to-excellent inter-rater reliability for all subscales, particularly for the communication subscale. The Italian version of the CRS-R showed a high sensitivity and specificity in detecting MCS with reference to clinical consensus diagnosis. The CRS-R showed good concurrent validity with the Disability Rating Scale, which had very low specificity with reference to clinical consensus diagnosis. The Italian version of the CRS-R is a valid scale for use from the sub-acute to chronic stages of DoC. It can be administered reliably by all members of the rehabilitation team with different specialties, levels of experience and settings. The present study promote use of the Italian version of the CRS-R to improve diagnosis of DoC patients, and plan tailored rehabilitation treatment.

  4. Beam dynamics validation of the Halbach Technology FFAG Cell for Cornell-BNL Energy Recovery Linac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méot, F.; Tsoupas, N.; Brooks, S.; Trbojevic, D.

    2018-07-01

    The Cornell-BNL Electron Test Accelerator (CBETA), a 150 MeV energy recovery linac (ERL) now in construction at Cornell, employs a fixed-field alternating gradient optics return loop: a single beam line comprised of FFAG cells, which accepts four recirculated energies. CBETA FFAG cell uses Halbach permanent magnet technology, its design studies have covered an extended period of time supported by extensive particle dynamics simulations using computed 3-D field map models. This approach is discussed, and illustrated here, based on the final stage in these beam dynamics studies, namely the validation of a ultimate, optimized design of the Halbach cell.

  5. CFD Modeling Needs and What Makes a Good Supersonic Combustion Validation Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaffney, Richard L., Jr.; Cutler, Andrew D.

    2005-01-01

    If a CFD code/model developer is asked what experimental data he wants to validate his code or numerical model, his answer will be: "Everything, everywhere, at all times." Since this is not possible, practical, or even reasonable, the developer must understand what can be measured within the limits imposed by the test article, the test location, the test environment and the available diagnostic equipment. At the same time, it is important for the expermentalist/diagnostician to understand what the CFD developer needs (as opposed to wants) in order to conduct a useful CFD validation experiment. If these needs are not known, it is possible to neglect easily measured quantities at locations needed by the developer, rendering the data set useless for validation purposes. It is also important for the experimentalist/diagnostician to understand what the developer is trying to validate so that the experiment can be designed to isolate (as much as possible) the effects of a particular physical phenomena that is associated with the model to be validated. The probability of a successful validation experiment can be greatly increased if the two groups work together, each understanding the needs and limitations of the other.

  6. An extended model for ultrasonic-based enhanced oil recovery with experimental validation.

    PubMed

    Mohsin, Mohammed; Meribout, Mahmoud

    2015-03-01

    This paper suggests a new ultrasonic-based enhanced oil recovery (EOR) model for application in oil field reservoirs. The model is modular and consists of an acoustic module and a heat transfer module, where the heat distribution is updated when the temperature rise exceeds 1 °C. The model also considers the main EOR parameters which includes both the geophysical (i.e., porosity, permeability, temperature rise, and fluid viscosity) and acoustical (e.g., acoustic penetration and pressure distribution in various fluids and mediums) properties of the wells. Extended experiments were performed using powerful ultrasonic waves which were applied for different kind of oils & oil saturated core samples. The corresponding results showed a good matching with those obtained from simulations, validating the suggested model to some extent. Hence, a good recovery rate of around 88.2% of original oil in place (OOIP) was obtained after 30 min of continuous generation of ultrasonic waves. This leads to consider the ultrasonic-based EOR as another tangible solution for EOR. This claim is supported further by considering several injection wells where the simulation results indicate that with four (4) injection wells; the recovery rate may increase up-to 96.7% of OOIP. This leads to claim the high potential of ultrasonic-based EOR as compared to the conventional methods. Following this study, the paper also proposes a large scale ultrasonic-based EOR hardware system for installation in oil fields. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A French validation study of the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R).

    PubMed

    Schnakers, Caroline; Majerus, Steve; Giacino, Joseph; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey; Bruno, Marie-Aurelie; Boly, Melanie; Moonen, Gustave; Damas, Pierre; Lambermont, Bernard; Lamy, Maurice; Damas, Francois; Ventura, Manfredi; Laureys, Steven

    2008-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the concurrent validity, inter-rater agreement and diagnostic sensitivity of a French adaptation of the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R) as compared to other coma scales such as the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), the Full Outline of UnResponsiveness scale (FOUR) and the Wessex Head Injury Matrix (WHIM). Multi-centric prospective study. To test concurrent validity and diagnostic sensitivity, the four behavioural scales were administered in a randomized order in 77 vegetative and minimally conscious patients. Twenty-four clinicians with different professional backgrounds, levels of expertise and CRS-R experience were recruited to assess inter-rater agreement. Good concurrent validity was obtained between the CRS-R and the three other standardized behavioural scales. Inter-rater reliability for the CRS-R total score and sub-scores was good, indicating that the scale yields reproducible findings across examiners and does not appear to be systematically biased by profession, level of expertise or CRS-R experience. Finally, the CRS-R demonstrated a significantly higher sensitivity to detect MCS patients, as compared to the GCS, the FOUR and the WHIM. The results show that the French version of the CRS-R is a valid and sensitive scale which can be used in severely brain damaged patients by all members of the medical staff.

  8. Production report: enhanced recovery. [Combustion, steam, soak steam drive, polymer and caustic, micellar/surfactant miscible hydrocarbons and CO/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Noran, D.

    Schemes for producing additional oil using enhanced-recovery (ER) methods are under way throughout the world. The extent and intensity of ER activity is highest in the U.S. with 156 projects, about two-thirds of which are thermal. Venezuela has a strong ER commitment with at least 70 active projects, with a major thrust on steam soak. Significant projects, but limited in number, are under way in Canada, North Africa, Southeast Asia, and elsewhere in Latin America. A breakdown of active U.S. ER projects for 1970, 1973, and 1975 is tabulated for combustion, steam soak, steam drive, polymer and caustic, micellar/surfactant, misciblemore » hydrocarbon, and CO/sub 2/ methods. This Oil and Gas Journal Survey includes seven articles; the first six were prepared by David Noran, Journal Production Editor. The final article on Venezuelan activity was written by Alvaro Franco, Editor and Publisher, Petroleo Internacional. The articles are entitled: U.S. Thermal Recovery Activity Growing Steadily; Operators Accelerate Testing of Micellar/Surfactant Potential; Polymer and Caustic Methods on Rebound; Gas Miscible Projects Move at Slow Pace; Canadian Enhanced-Recovery Activity Moderate, Centers on Thermal Projects; Other Global Enhanced-Recovery Work Sparse; and Thermal Work Humming in Venezuela. Detailed information on each method is tabulated for each article. (MCW)« less

  9. Single-Shot Scalar-Triplet Measurements in High-Pressure Swirl-Stabilized Flames for Combustion Code Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojima, Jun; Nguyen, Quang-Viet

    2007-01-01

    In support of NASA ARMD's code validation project, we have made significant progress by providing the first quantitative single-shot multi-scalar data from a turbulent elevated-pressure (5 atm), swirl-stabilized, lean direct injection (LDI) type research burner operating on CH4-air using a spatially-resolved pulsed-laser spontaneous Raman diagnostic technique. The Raman diagnostics apparatus and data analysis that we present here were developed over the past 6 years at Glenn Research Center. From the Raman scattering data, we produce spatially-mapped probability density functions (PDFs) of the instantaneous temperature, determined using a newly developed low-resolution effective rotational bandwidth (ERB) technique. The measured 3-scalar (triplet) correlations, between temperature, CH4, and O2 concentrations, as well as their PDF s, also provide a high-level of detail into the nature and extent of the turbulent mixing process and its impact on chemical reactions in a realistic gas turbine injector flame at elevated pressures. The multi-scalar triplet data set presented here provides a good validation case for CFD combustion codes to simulate by providing both average and statistical values for the 3 measured scalars.

  10. A Spanish validation of the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R).

    PubMed

    Tamashiro, Mercedes; Rivas, Maria Elisa; Ron, Melania; Salierno, Fernando; Dalera, Marisol; Olmos, Lisandro

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of inter-rater reliability and concurrent validity. To determine measurement properties of a Spanish version of The Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R). A sample of 35 in-patients with severe acquired brain injury. To test concurrent validity of the translated scale, the Glasgow Coma Scale (GSC) and Disability Rating Scale (DRS) were also administered. Two experts in the field were recruited to assess inter-rater agreement. Inter-rater reliability was good for total CRS-R scores (Cronbach α = 0.973, p = 0.001). Sub-scale analysis showed moderate-to-high inter-rater agreement. Total CRS-R scores correlated significantly (p < 0.05) with total GCS (r = 0.74) and DRS (r = 0.54) scores, indicating acceptable concurrent validity. The Spanish version of CRS-R can be administered reliably by trained and experienced examiners. CRS-R appears capable of differentiating patients in Emergence from Minimally Conscious State (EMCS) or in Minimally Conscious State (MCS) from those in a Vegetative State (VS).

  11. High-Area-Ratio Rocket Nozzle at High Combustion Chamber Pressure: Experimental and Analytical Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jankovsky, Robert S.; Smith, Timothy D.; Pavli, Albert J.

    1999-01-01

    Experimental data were obtained on an optimally contoured nozzle with an area ratio of 1025:1 and on a truncated version of this nozzle with an area ratio of 440:1. The nozzles were tested with gaseous hydrogen and liquid oxygen propellants at combustion chamber pressures of 1800 to 2400 psia and mixture ratios of 3.89 to 6.15. This report compares the experimental performance, heat transfer, and boundary layer total pressure measurements with theoretical predictions of the current Joint Army, Navy, NASA, Air Force (JANNAF) developed methodology. This methodology makes use of the Two-Dimensional Kinetics (TDK) nozzle performance code. Comparisons of the TDK-predicted performance to experimentally attained thrust performance indicated that both the vacuum thrust coefficient and the vacuum specific impulse values were approximately 2.0-percent higher than the turbulent prediction for the 1025:1 configurations, and approximately 0.25-percent higher than the turbulent prediction for the 440:1 configuration. Nozzle wall temperatures were measured on the outside of a thin-walled heat sink nozzle during the test fittings. Nozzle heat fluxes were calculated front the time histories of these temperatures and compared with predictions made with the TDK code. The heat flux values were overpredicted for all cases. The results range from nearly 100 percent at an area ratio of 50 to only approximately 3 percent at an area ratio of 975. Values of the integral of the heat flux as a function of nozzle surface area were also calculated. Comparisons of the experiment with analyses of the heat flux and the heat rate per axial length also show that the experimental values were lower than the predicted value. Three boundary layer rakes mounted on the nozzle exit were used for boundary layer measurements. This arrangement allowed total pressure measurements to be obtained at 14 different distances from the nozzle wall. A comparison of boundary layer total pressure profiles and analytical

  12. False-Negative Rate and Recovery Efficiency Performance of a Validated Sponge Wipe Sampling Method

    PubMed Central

    Piepel, Greg F.; Boucher, Raymond; Tezak, Matt; Amidan, Brett G.; Einfeld, Wayne

    2012-01-01

    Recovery of spores from environmental surfaces varies due to sampling and analysis methods, spore size and characteristics, surface materials, and environmental conditions. Tests were performed to evaluate a new, validated sponge wipe method using Bacillus atrophaeus spores. Testing evaluated the effects of spore concentration and surface material on recovery efficiency (RE), false-negative rate (FNR), limit of detection (LOD), and their uncertainties. Ceramic tile and stainless steel had the highest mean RE values (48.9 and 48.1%, respectively). Faux leather, vinyl tile, and painted wood had mean RE values of 30.3, 25.6, and 25.5, respectively, while plastic had the lowest mean RE (9.8%). Results show roughly linear dependences of RE and FNR on surface roughness, with smoother surfaces resulting in higher mean REs and lower FNRs. REs were not influenced by the low spore concentrations tested (3.10 × 10−3 to 1.86 CFU/cm2). Stainless steel had the lowest mean FNR (0.123), and plastic had the highest mean FNR (0.479). The LOD90 (≥1 CFU detected 90% of the time) varied with surface material, from 0.015 CFU/cm2 on stainless steel up to 0.039 on plastic. It may be possible to improve sampling results by considering surface roughness in selecting sampling locations and interpreting spore recovery data. Further, FNR values (calculated as a function of concentration and surface material) can be used presampling to calculate the numbers of samples for statistical sampling plans with desired performance and postsampling to calculate the confidence in characterization and clearance decisions. PMID:22138998

  13. Beam dynamics validation of the Halbach Technology FFAG Cell for Cornell-BNL Energy Recovery Linac

    SciTech Connect

    Meot, Francois; Tsoupas, N.; Brooks, S.

    The Cornell-BNL Electron Test Accelerator (CBETA), a 150 MeV energy recovery linac (ERL) now in construction at Cornell, employs a fixed-field alternating gradient optics return loop: a single beam line comprised of FFAG cells, which accepts four recirculated energies. CBETA FFAG cell uses Halbach permanent magnet technology, its design studies have covered an extended period of time supported by extensive particle dynamics simulations using computed 3-D field map models. As a result, this approach is discussed, and illustrated here, based on the final stage in these beam dynamics studies, namely the validation of a ultimate, optimized design of the Halbachmore » cell.« less

  14. Beam dynamics validation of the Halbach Technology FFAG Cell for Cornell-BNL Energy Recovery Linac

    DOE PAGES

    Meot, Francois; Tsoupas, N.; Brooks, S.; ...

    2018-04-16

    The Cornell-BNL Electron Test Accelerator (CBETA), a 150 MeV energy recovery linac (ERL) now in construction at Cornell, employs a fixed-field alternating gradient optics return loop: a single beam line comprised of FFAG cells, which accepts four recirculated energies. CBETA FFAG cell uses Halbach permanent magnet technology, its design studies have covered an extended period of time supported by extensive particle dynamics simulations using computed 3-D field map models. As a result, this approach is discussed, and illustrated here, based on the final stage in these beam dynamics studies, namely the validation of a ultimate, optimized design of the Halbachmore » cell.« less

  15. Validation of High Aspect Ratio Cooling in a 89 kN (20,000 lb(sub f)) Thrust Combustion Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wadel, Mary F.; Meyer, Michael L.

    1996-01-01

    In order to validate the benefits of high aspect ratio cooling channels in a large scale rocket combustion chamber, a high pressure, 89 kN (20,000 lbf) thrust, contoured combustion chamber was tested in the NASA Lewis Research Center Rocket Engine Test Facility. The combustion chamber was tested at chamber pressures from 5.5 to 11.0 MPa (800-1600 psia). The propellants were gaseous hydrogen and liquid oxygen at a nominal mixture ratio of six, and liquid hydrogen was used as the coolant. The combustion chamber was extensively instrumented with 30 backside skin thermocouples, 9 coolant channel rib thermocouples, and 10 coolant channel pressure taps. A total of 29 thermal cycles, each with one second of steady state combustion, were completed on the chamber. For 25 thermal cycles, the coolant mass flow rate was equal to the fuel mass flow rate. During the remaining four thermal cycles, the coolant mass flow rate was progressively reduced by 5, 6, 11, and 20 percent. Computer analysis agreed with coolant channel rib thermocouples within an average of 9 percent and with coolant channel pressure drops within an average of 20 percent. Hot-gas-side wall temperatures of the chamber showed up to 25 percent reduction, in the throat region, over that of a conventionally cooled combustion chamber. Reducing coolant mass flow yielded a reduction of up to 27 percent of the coolant pressure drop from that of a full flow case, while still maintaining up to a 13 percent reduction in a hot-gas-side wall temperature from that of a conventionally cooled combustion chamber.

  16. Validation study of a web-based assessment of functional recovery after radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Vickers, Andrew J; Savage, Caroline J; Shouery, Marwan; Eastham, James A; Scardino, Peter T; Basch, Ethan M

    2010-08-05

    Good clinical care of prostate cancer patients after radical prostatectomy depends on careful assessment of post-operative morbidities, yet physicians do not always judge patient symptoms accurately. Logistical problems associated with using paper questionnaire limit their use in the clinic. We have implemented a web-interface ("STAR") for patient-reported outcomes after radical prostatectomy. We analyzed data on the first 9 months of clinical implementation to evaluate the validity of the STAR questionnaire to assess functional outcomes following radical prostatectomy. We assessed response rate, internal consistency within domains, and the association between survey responses and known predictors of sexual and urinary function, including age, time from surgery, nerve sparing status and co-morbidities. Of 1581 men sent an invitation to complete the instrument online, 1235 responded for a response rate of 78%. Cronbach's alpha was 0.84, 0.86 and 0.97 for bowel, urinary and sexual function respectively. All known predictors of sexual and urinary function were significantly associated with survey responses in the hypothesized direction. We have found that web-based assessment of functional recovery after radical prostatectomy is practical and feasible. The instrument demonstrated excellent psychometric properties, suggested that validity is maintained when questions are transferred from paper to electronic format and when patients give responses that they know will be seen by their doctor and added to their clinic record. As such, our system allows ready implementation of patient-reported outcomes into routine clinical practice.

  17. Validation study of a web-based assessment of functional recovery after radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Good clinical care of prostate cancer patients after radical prostatectomy depends on careful assessment of post-operative morbidities, yet physicians do not always judge patient symptoms accurately. Logistical problems associated with using paper questionnaire limit their use in the clinic. We have implemented a web-interface ("STAR") for patient-reported outcomes after radical prostatectomy. Methods We analyzed data on the first 9 months of clinical implementation to evaluate the validity of the STAR questionnaire to assess functional outcomes following radical prostatectomy. We assessed response rate, internal consistency within domains, and the association between survey responses and known predictors of sexual and urinary function, including age, time from surgery, nerve sparing status and co-morbidities. Results Of 1581 men sent an invitation to complete the instrument online, 1235 responded for a response rate of 78%. Cronbach's alpha was 0.84, 0.86 and 0.97 for bowel, urinary and sexual function respectively. All known predictors of sexual and urinary function were significantly associated with survey responses in the hypothesized direction. Conclusions We have found that web-based assessment of functional recovery after radical prostatectomy is practical and feasible. The instrument demonstrated excellent psychometric properties, suggested that validity is maintained when questions are transferred from paper to electronic format and when patients give responses that they know will be seen by their doctor and added to their clinic record. As such, our system allows ready implementation of patient-reported outcomes into routine clinical practice. PMID:20687938

  18. Recovery

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-12-18

    S66-15802 (18 Dec. 1965) --- A camera on a recovery helicopter captured this scene as the Gemini-7 spacecraft slowly descends to the surface of the Atlantic Ocean to conclude a record-breaking 14-day mission in space. Aboard the spacecraft were astronauts Frank Borman, command pilot, and James A. Lovell Jr., pilot. Splashdown was at 9:05 a.m. (EST), Dec. 18, 1965. The two astronauts were hoisted from the water by a helicopter crew and flown to the aircraft carrier. Photo credit: NASA

  19. National validation study of a swab protocol for the recovery of Bacillus anthracis spores from surfaces.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Lisa R; Rose, Laura J; O'Connell, Heather; Arduino, Matthew J

    2010-05-01

    Twelve Laboratory Response Network (LRN) affiliated laboratories participated in a validation study of a macrofoam swab protocol for the recovery, detection, and quantification of viable B. anthracis (BA) Sterne spores from steel surfaces. CDC personnel inoculated steel coupons (26cm(2)) with 1-4 log(10) BA spores and recovered them by sampling with pre-moistened macrofoam swabs. Phase 1 (P1) of the study evaluated swabs containing BA only, while dust and background organisms were added to swabs in Phase 2 (P2) to mimic environmental conditions. Laboratories processed swabs and enumerated spores by culturing eluted swab suspensions and counting colonies with morphology consistent with BA. Processed swabs were placed in enrichment broth, incubated 24h, and cultured by streaking for isolation. Real-time PCR was performed on selected colonies from P2 samples to confirm the identity of BA. Mean percent recovery (%R) of spores from the surface ranged from 15.8 to 31.0% (P1) and from 27.9 to 55.0% (P2). The highest mean percent recovery was 31.0% (sd 10.9%) for P1 (4 log(10) inoculum) and 55.0% (sd 27.6%) for P2 (1 log(10) inoculum). The overall %R was higher for P2 (44.6%) than P1 (24.1%), but the overall reproducibility (between-lab variability) was lower in P2 than in P1 (25.0 vs 16.5%CV, respectively). The overall precision (within-lab variability) was close to identical for P1 and P2 (44.0 and 44.1, respectively), but varied greatly between inoculum levels. The protocol demonstrated linearity in %R over the three inoculum levels and is able to detect between 26 and 5x10(6)spores/26cm(2). Sensitivity as determined by culture was >98.3% for both phases and all inocula, suggesting that the culture method maintains sensitivity in the presence of contaminants. The enrichment broth method alone was less sensitive for sampled swabs (66.4%) during P2, suggesting that the presence of background organisms inhibited growth or isolation of BA from the broth. The addition of

  20. Pooled results from five validation studies of dietary self-report instruments using recovery biomarkers for potassium and sodium intake

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We have pooled data from five large validation studies of dietary self-report instruments that used recovery biomarkers as referents to assess food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and 24-hour recalls. We reported on total potassium and sodium intakes, their densities, and their ratio. Results were...

  1. Pooled results from 5 validation studies of dietary self-report instruments using recovery biomarkers for energy and protein intake

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We pooled data from 5 large validation studies of dietary self-report instruments that used recovery biomarkers as references to clarify the measurement properties of food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and 24-hour recalls. The studies were conducted in widely differing U.S. adult populations from...

  2. Recovery of Trace and Heavy Metals from Coal Combustion Residues for Reuse and Safe Disposal: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ashvani; Samadder, Sukha Ranjan; Elumalai, Suresh Pandian

    2016-09-01

    The safe disposal of coal combustion residues (CCRs) will remain a major public issue as long as coal is used as a fuel for energy production. Both dry and wet disposal methods of CCRs create serious environmental problems. The dry disposal method creates air pollution initially, and the wet disposal method creates water pollution as a result of the presence of trace and heavy metals. These leached heavy metals from fly ash may become more hazardous when they form toxic compounds such as arsenic sulfite (As2S3) and lead nitrate (N2O6Pb). The available studies on trace and heavy metals present in CCRs cannot ensure environmentally safe utilization. In this work, a novel approach has been offered for the retrieval of trace and heavy metals from CCRs. If the proposed method becomes successful, then the recovered trace and heavy metals may become a resource and environmentally safe use of CCRs may be possible.

  3. Cross-Validation of Mental Health Recovery Measures in a Hong Kong Chinese Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ye, Shengquan; Pan, Jia-Yan; Wong, Daniel Fu Keung; Bola, John Robert

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The concept of recovery has begun shifting mental health service delivery from a medical perspective toward a client-centered recovery orientation. This shift is also beginning in Hong Kong, but its development is hampered by a dearth of available measures in Chinese. Method: This article translates two measures of recovery (mental…

  4. The yo-yo intermittent recovery test: physiological response, reliability, and validity.

    PubMed

    Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni; Amstrup, Tommas; Rysgaard, Torben; Johansen, Johnny; Steensberg, Aadam; Pedersen, Preben K; Bangsbo, Jens

    2003-04-01

    To examine the physiological response and reproducibility of the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test and its application to elite soccer. Heart rate was measured, and metabolites were determined in blood and muscle biopsies obtained before, during, and after the Yo-Yo test in 17 males. Physiological measurements were also performed during a Yo-Yo retest and an exhaustive incremental treadmill test (ITT). Additionally, 37 male elite soccer players performed two to four seasonal tests, and the results were related to physical performance in matches. The test-retest CV for the Yo-Yo test was 4.9%. Peak heart rate was similar in ITT and Yo-Yo test (189 +/- 2 vs 187 +/- 2 bpm), whereas peak blood lactate was higher (P < 0.05) in the Yo-Yo test. During the Yo-Yo test, muscle lactate increased eightfold (P < 0.05) and muscle creatine phosphate (CP) and glycogen decreased (P < 0.05) by 51% and 23%, respectively. No significant differences were observed in muscle CP, lactate, pH, or glycogen between 90 and 100% of exhaustion time. During the precompetition period, elite soccer players improved (P < 0.05) Yo-Yo test performance and maximum oxygen uptake ([OV0312]O(2max)) by 25 +/- 6 and 7 +/- 1%, respectively. High-intensity running covered by the players during games was correlated to Yo-Yo test performance (r = 0.71, P < 0.05) but not to [OV0312]O(2max) and ITT performance. The test had a high reproducibility and sensitivity, allowing for detailed analysis of the physical capacity of athletes in intermittent sports. Specifically, the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test was a valid measure of fitness performance in soccer. During the test, the aerobic loading approached maximal values, and the anaerobic energy system was highly taxed. Additionally, the study suggests that fatigue during intense intermittent short-term exercise was unrelated to muscle CP, lactate, pH, and glycogen.

  5. Validation of a Nylon-Flocked-Swab Protocol for Efficient Recovery of Bacterial Spores from Smooth and Rough Surfaces▿

    PubMed Central

    Probst, Alexander; Facius, Rainer; Wirth, Reinhard; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

    2010-01-01

    In order to meet planetary-protection requirements, culturable bacterial spore loads are measured representatively for the total microbial contamination of spacecraft. However, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) cotton swab protocols for spore load determination have not changed for decades. To determine whether a more efficient alternative was available, a novel swab was evaluated for recovery of different Bacillus atrophaeus spore concentrations on stainless steel and other surfaces. Two protocols for the nylon-flocked swab (NFS) were validated and compared to the present NASA standard protocol. The results indicate that the novel swab protocols recover 3- to 4-fold more (45.4% and 49.0% recovery efficiency) B. atrophaeus spores than the NASA standard method (13.2%). Moreover, the nylon-flocked-swab protocols were superior in recovery efficiency for spores of seven different Bacillus species, including Bacillus anthracis Sterne (recovery efficiency, 20%). The recovery efficiencies for B. atrophaeus spores from different surfaces showed a variation from 5.9 to 62.0%, depending on the roughness of the surface analyzed. Direct inoculation of the swab resulted in a recovery rate of about 80%, consistent with the results of scanning electron micrographs that allowed detailed comparisons of the two swab types. The results of this investigation will significantly contribute to the cleanliness control of future life detection missions and will provide significant improvement in detection of B. anthracis contamination for law enforcement and security efforts. PMID:20543054

  6. The Japanese version of the questionnaire about the process of recovery: development and validity and reliability testing.

    PubMed

    Kanehara, Akiko; Kotake, Risa; Miyamoto, Yuki; Kumakura, Yousuke; Morita, Kentaro; Ishiura, Tomoko; Shimizu, Kimiko; Fujieda, Yumiko; Ando, Shuntaro; Kondo, Shinsuke; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2017-11-07

    Personal recovery is increasingly recognised as an important outcome measure in mental health services. This study aimed to develop a Japanese version of the Questionnaire about the Process of Recovery (QPR-J) and test its validity and reliability. The study comprised two stages that employed the cross-sectional and prospective cohort designs, respectively. We translated the questionnaire using a standard translation/back-translation method. Convergent validity was examined by calculating Pearson's correlation coefficients with scores on the Recovery Assessment Scale (RAS) and the Short-Form-8 Health Survey (SF-8). An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted to examine factorial validity. We used intraclass correlation and Cronbach's alpha to examine the test-retest and internal consistency reliability of the QPR-J's 22-item full scale, 17-item intrapersonal and 5-item interpersonal subscales. We conducted an EFA along with a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Data were obtained from 197 users of mental health services (mean age: 42.0 years; 61.9% female; 49.2% diagnosed with schizophrenia). The QPR-J showed adequate convergent validity, exhibiting significant, positive correlations with the RAS and SF-8 scores. The QPR-J's full version, subscales, showed excellent test-retest and internal consistency reliability, with the exception of acceptable but relatively low internal consistency reliability for the interpersonal subscale. Based on the results of the CFA and EFA, we adopted the factor structure extracted from the original 2-factor model based on the present CFA. The QPR-J is an adequately valid and reliable measure of the process of recovery among Japanese users with mental health services.

  7. Early Validation of Failure Detection, Isolation, and Recovery Design Using Heterogeneous Modelling and Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Plas, Peter; Guerriero, Suzanne; Cristiano, Leorato; Rugina, Ana

    2012-08-01

    Modelling and simulation can support a number of use cases across the spacecraft development life-cycle. Given the increasing complexity of space missions, the observed general trend is for a more extensive usage of simulation already in the early phases. A major perceived advantage is that modelling and simulation can enable the validation of critical aspects of the spacecraft design before the actual development is started, as such reducing the risk in later phases.Failure Detection, Isolation, and Recovery (FDIR) is one of the areas with a high potential to benefit from early modelling and simulation. With the increasing level of required spacecraft autonomy, FDIR specifications can grow in such a way that the traditional document-based review process soon becomes inadequate.This paper shows that FDIR modelling and simulation in a system context can provide a powerful tool to support the FDIR verification process. It is highlighted that FDIR modelling at this early stage requires heterogeneous modelling tools and languages, in order to provide an adequate functional description of the different components (i.e. FDIR functions, environment, equipment, etc.) to be modelled.For this reason, an FDIR simulation framework is proposed in this paper. This framework is based on a number of tools already available in the Avionics Systems Laboratory at ESTEC, which are the Avionics Test Bench Functional Engineering Simulator (ATB FES), Matlab/Simulink, TASTE, and Real Time Developer Studio (RTDS).The paper then discusses the application of the proposed simulation framework to a real case-study, i.e. the FDIR modelling of a satellite in support of actual ESA mission. Challenges and benefits of the approach are described. Finally, lessons learned and the generality of the proposed approach are discussed.

  8. Validation of the Italian version of the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R).

    PubMed

    Sacco, Simona; Altobelli, Emma; Pistarini, Caterina; Cerone, Davide; Cazzulani, Benedetta; Carolei, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    To validate the Italian version of the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R). Two observers applied the Italian version of the CRS-R to selected patients. On day 1, observer A and B independently scored each patient; the comparison of their observations was used to evaluate inter-observer agreement. On day 2, observer A completed a second evaluation and the comparison of this observation with that obtained on day 1 by the same observer was used to evaluate test-re-test agreement. For each evaluation, also diagnostic impression (vegetative state/minimally conscious state) was reported. Thirty-eight patients were evaluated (mean age ± SD, 58.9 ± 13.8 years). Inter-observer (ρ = 0.81; p < 0.001) as well as test-re-test agreement (ρ = 0.97; p < 0.001) for the total score was high. Inter-observer agreement was excellent for the communication sub-scale, good for the auditory, visual and motor sub-scales and moderate for the oromotor/verbal and arousal sub-scales. Test-re-test agreement was excellent for the visual, motor, oromotor/verbal and communication sub-scales, good for the auditory sub-scale and moderate for the arousal sub-scale. When considering the diagnostic impression, inter-observer agreement was good (κ = 0.75; p < 0.001) and test-re-test agreement was excellent (κ = 0.92; p < 0.001). The Italian version of the CRS-R can be administered reliably and can be also employed to discriminate patients in vegetative and in minimally conscious state.

  9. DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF 'SURE': A PATIENT REPORTED OUTCOME MEASURE (PROM) FOR RECOVERY FROM DRUG AND ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE.

    PubMed

    Neale, Joanne; Vitoratou, Silia; Finch, Emily; Lennon, Paul; Mitcheson, Luke; Panebianco, Daria; Rose, Diana; Strang, John; Wykes, Til; Marsden, John

    2016-08-01

    Patient Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs) assess health status and health-related quality of life from the patient/service user perspective. Our study aimed to: i. develop a PROM for recovery from drug and alcohol dependence that has good face and content validity, acceptability and usability for people in recovery; ii. evaluate the psychometric properties and factorial structure of the new PROM ('SURE'). Item development included Delphi groups, focus groups, and service user feedback on draft versions of the new measure. A 30-item beta version was completed by 575 service users (461 in person [IP] and 114 online [OL]). Analyses comprised rating scale evaluation, assessment of psychometric properties, factorial structure, and differential item functioning. The beta measure had good face and content validity. Nine items were removed due to low stability, low factor loading, low construct validity or high complexity. The remaining 21 items were re-scaled (Rasch model analyses). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed 5 factors: substance use, material resources, outlook on life, self-care, and relationships. The MIMIC model indicated 95% metric invariance across the IP and OL samples, and 100% metric invariance for gender. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were granted. The 5 factors correlated positively with the corresponding WHOQOL-BREF and ARC subscales and score differences between participant sub-groups confirmed discriminative validity. 'SURE' is a psychometrically valid, quick and easy-to-complete outcome measure, developed with unprecedented input from people in recovery. It can be used alongside, or instead of, existing outcome tools. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Numerical simulation and validation of SI-CAI hybrid combustion in a CAI/HCCI gasoline engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinyan; Xie, Hui; Xie, Liyan; Zhang, Lianfang; Li, Le; Chen, Tao; Zhao, Hua

    2013-02-01

    SI-CAI hybrid combustion, also known as spark-assisted compression ignition (SACI), is a promising concept to extend the operating range of CAI (Controlled Auto-Ignition) and achieve the smooth transition between spark ignition (SI) and CAI in the gasoline engine. In this study, a SI-CAI hybrid combustion model (HCM) has been constructed on the basis of the 3-Zones Extended Coherent Flame Model (ECFM3Z). An ignition model is included to initiate the ECFM3Z calculation and induce the flame propagation. In order to precisely depict the subsequent auto-ignition process of the unburned fuel and air mixture independently after the initiation of flame propagation, the tabulated chemistry concept is adopted to describe the auto-ignition chemistry. The methodology for extracting tabulated parameters from the chemical kinetics calculations is developed so that both cool flame reactions and main auto-ignition combustion can be well captured under a wider range of thermodynamic conditions. The SI-CAI hybrid combustion model (HCM) is then applied in the three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (3-D CFD) engine simulation. The simulation results are compared with the experimental data obtained from a single cylinder VVA engine. The detailed analysis of the simulations demonstrates that the SI-CAI hybrid combustion process is characterised with the early flame propagation and subsequent multi-site auto-ignition around the main flame front, which is consistent with the optical results reported by other researchers. Besides, the systematic study of the in-cylinder condition reveals the influence mechanism of the early flame propagation on the subsequent auto-ignition.

  11. Validity of multiple stress creep recovery test for LADOTD asphalt binder specification.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-09-01

    The objectives of this research are to characterize the elastic response of various binders used by LADOTD to determine the feasibility of the Multiple Stress Creep Recovery (MSCR) test to be included in the LADOTD asphalt binder specification and to...

  12. Combustion Integration Rack (CIR) Testing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-02-18

    Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF), Combustion Integration Rack (CIR) during testing in the Structural Dynamics Laboratory (SDL). The Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) is a set of two International Space Station (ISS) research facilities designed to support physical and biological experiments in support of technology development and validation in space. The FCF consists of two modular, reconfigurable racks called the Combustion Integration Rack (CIR) and the Fluids Integration Rack (FIR). The CIR and FIR were developed at NASAʼs Glenn Research Center.

  13. Building a better methane generation model: Validating models with methane recovery rates from 35 Canadian landfills.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Shirley; Sawyer, Jennifer; Bonam, Rathan; Valdivia, J E

    2009-07-01

    The German EPER, TNO, Belgium, LandGEM, and Scholl Canyon models for estimating methane production were compared to methane recovery rates for 35 Canadian landfills, assuming that 20% of emissions were not recovered. Two different fractions of degradable organic carbon (DOC(f)) were applied in all models. Most models performed better when the DOC(f) was 0.5 compared to 0.77. The Belgium, Scholl Canyon, and LandGEM version 2.01 models produced the best results of the existing models with respective mean absolute errors compared to methane generation rates (recovery rates + 20%) of 91%, 71%, and 89% at 0.50 DOC(f) and 171%, 115%, and 81% at 0.77 DOC(f). The Scholl Canyon model typically overestimated methane recovery rates and the LandGEM version 2.01 model, which modifies the Scholl Canyon model by dividing waste by 10, consistently underestimated methane recovery rates; this comparison suggested that modifying the divisor for waste in the Scholl Canyon model between one and ten could improve its accuracy. At 0.50 DOC(f) and 0.77 DOC(f) the modified model had the lowest absolute mean error when divided by 1.5 yielding 63 +/- 45% and 2.3 yielding 57 +/- 47%, respectively. These modified models reduced error and variability substantially and both have a strong correlation of r = 0.92.

  14. Defining Recovery from an Eating Disorder: Conceptualization, Validation, and Examination of Psychosocial Functioning and Psychiatric Comorbidity

    PubMed Central

    Bardone-Cone, Anna M.; Harney, Megan B.; Maldonado, Christine R.; Lawson, Melissa A.; Robinson, D. Paul; Smith, Roma; Tosh, Aneesh

    2009-01-01

    Conceptually, eating disorder recovery should include physical, behavioral, and psychological components, but such a comprehensive approach has not been consistently employed. Guided by theory and recent recovery research, we identified a “fully recovered” group (n=20) based on physical (body mass index), behavioral (absence of eating disorder behaviors), and psychological (Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire) indices, and compared them with groups of partially recovered (n=15), active eating disorder (n=53), and healthy controls (n=67). The fully recovered group was indistinguishable from controls on all eating disorder-related measures used, while the partially recovered group was less disordered than the active eating disorder group on some measures, but not on body image. Regarding psychosocial functioning, both the fully and partially recovered groups had psychosocial functioning similar to the controls, but there was a pattern of more of the partially recovered group reporting eating disorder aspects interfering with functioning. Regarding other psychopathology, the fully recovered group was no more likely than the controls to experience current Axis I pathology, but they did have elevated rates of current anxiety disorder. Results suggest that a stringent definition of recovery from an eating disorder is meaningful. Clinical implications and future directions regarding defining eating disorder recovery are discussed. PMID:19945094

  15. Validity and Responsiveness of the Two-Minute Walk Test for Measuring Functional Recovery After Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Unnanuntana, Aasis; Ruangsomboon, Pakpoom; Keesukpunt, Worawut

    2018-06-01

    The 2-minute walk test (2mwt) is a performance-based test that evaluates functional recovery after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). This study evaluated its validity compared with the modified Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), Oxford Knee Score (OKS), modified Knee Score, Numerical Pain Rating Scale, and Timed Up and Go test, and its responsiveness in assessing functional recovery in TKA patients. This prospective cohort study included 162 patients undergoing primary TKA between 2013 and 2015. We used patient-reported outcome measures (modified WOMAC, OKS, modified Knee Score, Numerical Pain Rating Scale) and performance-based tests (2mwt and Timed Up and Go test) at baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. The construct validity of 2mwt was determined between the 2mwt distances walked and other outcome measurements. To assess responsiveness, effect size and standardized response mean were analyzed. Minimal clinically important difference of 2mwt at 12 months after TKA was also calculated. All outcome measurements improved significantly from baseline to 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. Bivariate analysis revealed mild to moderate associations between the 2mwt and modified WOMAC function subscales, and moderate to strong associations with OKS. Mild to moderate correlations were found for pain and stiffness between 2mwt and other outcome measurements. The effect size and standardized response mean at 12 months were large, with a minimal clinically important difference of 12.7 m. 2mwt is a validated performance-based test with responsiveness properties. Being simple and easy to perform, it can be used routinely in clinical practice to evaluate functional recovery after TKA. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Validity of Core Temperature Measurements at 3 Rectal Depths During Rest, Exercise, Cold-Water Immersion, and Recovery.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kevin C; Hughes, Lexie E; Long, Blaine C; Adams, William M; Casa, Douglas J

    2017-04-01

      No evidence-based recommendation exists regarding how far clinicians should insert a rectal thermistor to obtain the most valid estimate of core temperature. Knowing the validity of temperatures at different rectal depths has implications for exertional heat-stroke (EHS) management.   To determine whether rectal temperature (T rec ) taken at 4 cm, 10 cm, or 15 cm from the anal sphincter provides the most valid estimate of core temperature (as determined by esophageal temperature [T eso ]) during similar stressors an athlete with EHS may experience.   Cross-sectional study.   Laboratory.   Seventeen individuals (14 men, 3 women: age = 23 ± 2 years, mass = 79.7 ± 12.4 kg, height = 177.8 ± 9.8 cm, body fat = 9.4% ± 4.1%, body surface area = 1.97 ± 0.19 m 2 ).   Rectal temperatures taken at 4 cm, 10 cm, and 15 cm from the anal sphincter were compared with T eso during a 10-minute rest period; exercise until the participant's T eso reached 39.5°C; cold-water immersion (∼10°C) until all temperatures were ≤38°C; and a 30-minute postimmersion recovery period. The T eso and T rec were compared every minute during rest and recovery. Because exercise and cooling times varied, we compared temperatures at 10% intervals of total exercise and cooling durations for these periods.   The T eso and T rec were used to calculate bias (ie, the difference in temperatures between sites).   Rectal depth affected bias (F 2,24 = 6.8, P = .008). Bias at 4 cm (0.85°C ± 0.78°C) was higher than at 15 cm (0.65°C ± 0.68°C, P < .05) but not higher than at 10 cm (0.75°C ± 0.76°C, P > .05). Bias varied over time (F 2,34 = 79.5, P < .001). Bias during rest (0.42°C ± 0.27°C), exercise (0.23°C ± 0.53°C), and recovery (0.65°C ± 0.35°C) was less than during cooling (1.72°C ± 0.65°C, P < .05). Bias during exercise was less than during postimmersion recovery (0.65°C ± 0.35°C, P < .05).   When EHS is suspected, clinicians should insert the flexible

  17. Validity of Core Temperature Measurements at 3 Rectal Depths During Rest, Exercise, Cold-Water Immersion, and Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Kevin C.; Hughes, Lexie E.; Long, Blaine C.; Adams, William M.; Casa, Douglas J.

    2017-01-01

    Context: No evidence-based recommendation exists regarding how far clinicians should insert a rectal thermistor to obtain the most valid estimate of core temperature. Knowing the validity of temperatures at different rectal depths has implications for exertional heat-stroke (EHS) management. Objective: To determine whether rectal temperature (Trec) taken at 4 cm, 10 cm, or 15 cm from the anal sphincter provides the most valid estimate of core temperature (as determined by esophageal temperature [Teso]) during similar stressors an athlete with EHS may experience. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Seventeen individuals (14 men, 3 women: age = 23 ± 2 years, mass = 79.7 ± 12.4 kg, height = 177.8 ± 9.8 cm, body fat = 9.4% ± 4.1%, body surface area = 1.97 ± 0.19 m2). Intervention(s): Rectal temperatures taken at 4 cm, 10 cm, and 15 cm from the anal sphincter were compared with Teso during a 10-minute rest period; exercise until the participant's Teso reached 39.5°C; cold-water immersion (∼10°C) until all temperatures were ≤38°C; and a 30-minute postimmersion recovery period. The Teso and Trec were compared every minute during rest and recovery. Because exercise and cooling times varied, we compared temperatures at 10% intervals of total exercise and cooling durations for these periods. Main Outcome Measure(s): The Teso and Trec were used to calculate bias (ie, the difference in temperatures between sites). Results: Rectal depth affected bias (F2,24 = 6.8, P = .008). Bias at 4 cm (0.85°C ± 0.78°C) was higher than at 15 cm (0.65°C ± 0.68°C, P < .05) but not higher than at 10 cm (0.75°C ± 0.76°C, P > .05). Bias varied over time (F2,34 = 79.5, P < .001). Bias during rest (0.42°C ± 0.27°C), exercise (0.23°C ± 0.53°C), and recovery (0.65°C ± 0.35°C) was less than during cooling (1.72°C ± 0.65°C, P < .05). Bias during exercise was less than during postimmersion recovery (0.65°C ± 0.35°C, P

  18. Validation of the Early Functional Abilities scale: An assessment of four dimensions in early recovery after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Ingrid; Kreiner, Svend; Engberg, Aase W

    2018-02-13

    The Early Functional Abilities scale assesses the restoration of brain function after brain injury, based on 4 dimensions. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the validity, objectivity, reliability and measurement precision of the Early Functional Abilities scale by Rasch model item analysis. A secondary objective was to examine the relationship between the Early Functional Abilities scale and the Functional Independence Measurement™, in order to establish the criterion validity of the Early Functional Abilities scale and to compare the sensitivity of measurements using the 2 instruments. The Rasch analysis was based on the assessment of 408 adult patients at admission to sub-acute rehabilitation in Copenhagen, Denmark after traumatic brain injury. The Early Functional Abilities scale provides valid and objective measurement of vegetative (autonomic), facio-oral, sensorimotor and communicative/cognitive functions. Removal of one item from the sensorimotor scale confirmed unidimensionality for each of the 4 subscales, but not for the entire scale. The Early Functional Abilities subscales are sensitive to differences between patients in ranges in which the Functional Independence Measurement™ has a floor effect. The Early Functional Abilities scale assesses the early recovery of important aspects of brain function after traumatic brain injury, but is not unidimensional. We recommend removal of the "standing" item and calculation of summary subscales for the separate dimensions.

  19. Recovery Act. Development and Validation of an Advanced Stimulation Prediction Model for Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gutierrez, Marte

    2013-12-31

    This research project aims to develop and validate an advanced computer model that can be used in the planning and design of stimulation techniques to create engineered reservoirs for Enhanced Geothermal Systems. The specific objectives of the proposal are to; Develop a true three-dimensional hydro-thermal fracturing simulator that is particularly suited for EGS reservoir creation; Perform laboratory scale model tests of hydraulic fracturing and proppant flow/transport using a polyaxial loading device, and use the laboratory results to test and validate the 3D simulator; Perform discrete element/particulate modeling of proppant transport in hydraulic fractures, and use the results to improve understandmore » of proppant flow and transport; Test and validate the 3D hydro-thermal fracturing simulator against case histories of EGS energy production; and Develop a plan to commercialize the 3D fracturing and proppant flow/transport simulator. The project is expected to yield several specific results and benefits. Major technical products from the proposal include; A true-3D hydro-thermal fracturing computer code that is particularly suited to EGS; Documented results of scale model tests on hydro-thermal fracturing and fracture propping in an analogue crystalline rock; Documented procedures and results of discrete element/particulate modeling of flow and transport of proppants for EGS applications; and Database of monitoring data, with focus of Acoustic Emissions (AE) from lab scale modeling and field case histories of EGS reservoir creation.« less

  20. Combustion noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strahle, W. C.

    1977-01-01

    A review of the subject of combustion generated noise is presented. Combustion noise is an important noise source in industrial furnaces and process heaters, turbopropulsion and gas turbine systems, flaring operations, Diesel engines, and rocket engines. The state-of-the-art in combustion noise importance, understanding, prediction and scaling is presented for these systems. The fundamentals and available theories of combustion noise are given. Controversies in the field are discussed and recommendations for future research are made.

  1. Recovery Act. Development and Validation of an Advanced Stimulation Prediction Model for Enhanced Geothermal System

    SciTech Connect

    Gutierrez, Marte

    The research project aims to develop and validate an advanced computer model that can be used in the planning and design of stimulation techniques to create engineered reservoirs for Enhanced Geothermal Systems. The specific objectives of the proposal are to: 1) Develop a true three-dimensional hydro-thermal fracturing simulator that is particularly suited for EGS reservoir creation. 2) Perform laboratory scale model tests of hydraulic fracturing and proppant flow/transport using a polyaxial loading device, and use the laboratory results to test and validate the 3D simulator. 3) Perform discrete element/particulate modeling of proppant transport in hydraulic fractures, and use the resultsmore » to improve understand of proppant flow and transport. 4) Test and validate the 3D hydro-thermal fracturing simulator against case histories of EGS energy production. 5) Develop a plan to commercialize the 3D fracturing and proppant flow/transport simulator. The project is expected to yield several specific results and benefits. Major technical products from the proposal include: 1) A true-3D hydro-thermal fracturing computer code that is particularly suited to EGS, 2) Documented results of scale model tests on hydro-thermal fracturing and fracture propping in an analogue crystalline rock, 3) Documented procedures and results of discrete element/particulate modeling of flow and transport of proppants for EGS applications, and 4) Database of monitoring data, with focus of Acoustic Emissions (AE) from lab scale modeling and field case histories of EGS reservoir creation.« less

  2. Quadruple Inversion-Recovery b-SSFP MRA of the Abdomen: Initial Clinical Validation

    PubMed Central

    Atanasova, Iliyana P.; Lim, Ruth P.; Chandarana, Hersh; Storey, Pippa; Bruno, Mary T; Kim, Daniel; Lee, Vivian S.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the image quality and diagnostic accuracy of non-contrast quadruple inversion-recovery balanced-SSFP MRA (QIR MRA) for detection of aortoiliac disease in a clinical population. QIR MRA was performed in 26 patients referred for routine clinical gadolinium-enhanced MRA (Gd-MRA) for known or suspected aortoiliac disease. Non-contrast images were independently evaluated for image qualityand degree of stenosisby two radiologists, usingconsensus Gd-MRA as the reference standard. Hemodynamically significant stenosis (≥ 50%) was found in 10% (22/226) of all evaluable segments on Gd-MRA. The sensitivity and specificity for stenosis evaluation by QIR MRA for the two readers were 86%/86% and 95%/93% respectively. Negative predictive value and positive predictive value were 98%/98% and 63%/53% respectively. For stenosis evaluation of the aortoiliac region QIR MRA showed good agreement with the reference standard with high negative predictive value and a tendency to overestimate mild disease presumably due to the flow-dependence of the technique. QIR MRA could be a reasonable alternative to Gd-MRA for ruling out stenosis when contrast is contraindicated due to impaired kidney function or in patients who undergo abdominal MRA for screening purposes. Further work is necessary to improve performance and justify routine clinical use. PMID:24998363

  3. Quadruple inversion-recovery b-SSFP MRA of the abdomen: initial clinical validation.

    PubMed

    Atanasova, Iliyana P; Lim, Ruth P; Chandarana, Hersh; Storey, Pippa; Bruno, Mary T; Kim, Daniel; Lee, Vivian S

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the image quality and diagnostic accuracy of non-contrast quadruple inversion-recovery balanced-SSFP MRA (QIR MRA) for detection of aortoiliac disease in a clinical population. QIR MRA was performed in 26 patients referred for routine clinical gadolinium-enhanced MRA (Gd-MRA) for known or suspected aortoiliac disease. Non-contrast images were independently evaluated for image quality and degree of stenosis by two radiologists, using consensus Gd-MRA as the reference standard. Hemodynamically significant stenosis (≥50%) was found in 10% (22/226) of all evaluable segments on Gd-MRA. The sensitivity and specificity for stenosis evaluation by QIR MRA for the two readers were 86%/86% and 95%/93% respectively. Negative predictive value and positive predictive value were 98%/98% and 63%/53% respectively. For stenosis evaluation of the aortoiliac region QIR MRA showed good agreement with the reference standard with high negative predictive value and a tendency to overestimate mild disease presumably due to the flow-dependence of the technique. QIR MRA could be a reasonable alternative to Gd-MRA for ruling out stenosis when contrast is contraindicated due to impaired kidney function or in patients who undergo abdominal MRA for screening purposes. Further work is necessary to improve performance and justify routine clinical use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Modeling the combustion behavior of hazardous waste in a rotary kiln incinerator.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yongxiang; Pijnenborg, Marc J A; Reuter, Markus A; Verwoerd, Joep

    2005-01-01

    Hazardous wastes have complex physical forms and chemical compositions and are normally incinerated in rotary kilns for safe disposal and energy recovery. In the rotary kiln, the multifeed stream and wide variation of thermal, physical, and chemical properties of the wastes cause the incineration system to be highly heterogeneous, with severe temperature fluctuations and unsteady combustion chemistry. Incomplete combustion is often the consequence, and the process is difficult to control. In this article, modeling of the waste combustion is described by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Through CFD simulation, gas flow and mixing, turbulent combustion, and heat transfer inside the incinerator were predicted and visualized. As the first step, the waste in various forms was modeled to a hydrocarbon-based virtual fuel mixture. The combustion of the simplified waste was then simulated with a seven-gas combustion model within a CFD framework. Comparison was made with previous global three-gas combustion model with which no chemical behavior can be derived. The distribution of temperature and chemical species has been investigated. The waste combustion model was validated with temperature measurements. Various operating conditions and the influence on the incineration performance were then simulated. Through this research, a better process understanding and potential optimization of the design were attained.

  5. Recovery and validation of historical sediment quality data from coastal and estuarine areas: An integrated approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manheim, F.T.; Buchholtz ten Brink, Marilyn R.; Mecray, E.L.

    1998-01-01

    A comprehensive database of sediment chemistry and environmental parameters has been compiled for Boston Harbor and Massachusetts Bay. This work illustrates methodologies for rescuing and validating sediment data from heterogeneous historical sources. It greatly expands spatial and temporal data coverage of estuarine and coastal sediments. The database contains about 3500 samples containing inorganic chemical, organic, texture and other environmental data dating from 1955 to 1994. Cooperation with local and federal agencies as well as universities was essential in locating and screening documents for the database. More than 80% of references utilized came from sources with limited distribution (gray literature). Task sharing was facilitated by a comprehensive and clearly defined data dictionary for sediments. It also served as a data entry template and flat file format for data processing and as a basis for interpretation and graphical illustration. Standard QA/QC protocols are usually inapplicable to historical sediment data. In this work outliers and data quality problems were identified by batch screening techniques that also provide visualizations of data relationships and geochemical affinities. No data were excluded, but qualifying comments warn users of problem data. For Boston Harbor, the proportion of irreparable or seriously questioned data was remarkably small (<5%), although concentration values for metals and organic contaminants spanned 3 orders of magnitude for many elements or compounds. Data from the historical database provide alternatives to dated cores for measuring changes in surficial sediment contamination level with time. The data indicate that spatial inhomogeneity in harbor environments can be large with respect to sediment-hosted contaminants. Boston Inner Harbor surficial sediments showed decreases in concentrations of Cu, Hg, and Zn of 40 to 60% over a 17-year period.A comprehensive database of sediment chemistry and environmental

  6. Computational Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Westbrook, C K; Mizobuchi, Y; Poinsot, T J

    2004-08-26

    Progress in the field of computational combustion over the past 50 years is reviewed. Particular attention is given to those classes of models that are common to most system modeling efforts, including fluid dynamics, chemical kinetics, liquid sprays, and turbulent flame models. The developments in combustion modeling are placed into the time-dependent context of the accompanying exponential growth in computer capabilities and Moore's Law. Superimposed on this steady growth, the occasional sudden advances in modeling capabilities are identified and their impacts are discussed. Integration of submodels into system models for spark ignition, diesel and homogeneous charge, compression ignition engines, surfacemore » and catalytic combustion, pulse combustion, and detonations are described. Finally, the current state of combustion modeling is illustrated by descriptions of a very large jet lifted 3D turbulent hydrogen flame with direct numerical simulation and 3D large eddy simulations of practical gas burner combustion devices.« less

  7. Pooled Results From 5 Validation Studies of Dietary Self-Report Instruments Using Recovery Biomarkers for Energy and Protein Intake

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, Laurence S.; Commins, John M.; Moler, James E.; Arab, Lenore; Baer, David J.; Kipnis, Victor; Midthune, Douglas; Moshfegh, Alanna J.; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Prentice, Ross L.; Schatzkin, Arthur; Spiegelman, Donna; Subar, Amy F.; Tinker, Lesley F.; Willett, Walter

    2014-01-01

    We pooled data from 5 large validation studies of dietary self-report instruments that used recovery biomarkers as references to clarify the measurement properties of food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and 24-hour recalls. The studies were conducted in widely differing US adult populations from 1999 to 2009. We report on total energy, protein, and protein density intakes. Results were similar across sexes, but there was heterogeneity across studies. Using a FFQ, the average correlation coefficients for reported versus true intakes for energy, protein, and protein density were 0.21, 0.29, and 0.41, respectively. Using a single 24-hour recall, the coefficients were 0.26, 0.40, and 0.36, respectively, for the same nutrients and rose to 0.31, 0.49, and 0.46 when three 24-hour recalls were averaged. The average rate of under-reporting of energy intake was 28% with a FFQ and 15% with a single 24-hour recall, but the percentages were lower for protein. Personal characteristics related to under-reporting were body mass index, educational level, and age. Calibration equations for true intake that included personal characteristics provided improved prediction. This project establishes that FFQs have stronger correlations with truth for protein density than for absolute protein intake, that the use of multiple 24-hour recalls substantially increases the correlations when compared with a single 24-hour recall, and that body mass index strongly predicts under-reporting of energy and protein intakes. PMID:24918187

  8. The other side of recovery: validation of the Portuguese version of the subjective experiences of psychosis scale.

    PubMed

    Martins, Filipa; Soares, Sandra C; Bem-Haja, Pedro; Roque, Carolina; Madeira, Nuno

    2015-10-14

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate a Portuguese version of The Subjective Experiences of Psychosis Scale (SEPS) for use in Portuguese-speaking populations in order to provide a self-report instrument to assess and monitor dimensions of psychotic experiences, translating patient's perspective and experience in terms of recovery from psychosis. The sample consisted of 30 participants with psychotic disorders who had recently experienced delusions or hallucinations. The SEPS was completed along with other observer-based assessments and self-report questionnaires, such as the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, the Insight and Treatment Attitudes Questionnaire and the Function Assessment Short Test. Two main factors representing the positive and negative components of each subscale were identified. We obtained good internal consistency and test-retest reliability for the positive and negative components of all subscales. The subscales of SEPS correlated with observer-based assessments and self-report questionnaires. The Portuguese version of the SEPS is a useful tool in the assessment and monitoring of psychotic symptoms.

  9. Validation of Student and Parent Reported Data on the Basic Grant Application Form, 1978-79 Comprehensive Validation Guide. Procedural Manual for: Validation of Cases Referred by Institutions; Validation of Cases Referred by the Office of Education; Recovery of Overpayments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Karen; And Others

    Procedures for validating data reported by students and parents on an application for Basic Educational Opportunity Grants were developed in 1978 for the U.S. Office of Education (OE). Validation activities include: validation of flagged Student Eligibility Reports (SERs) for students whose schools are part of the Alternate Disbursement System;…

  10. Investigating the reliability and validity of the Dutch versions of the illness management and recovery scales among clients with mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Goossens, Peter J J; Beentjes, Titus A A; Knol, Suzanne; Salyers, Michelle P; de Vries, Sjoerd J

    2017-12-01

    The Illness Management and Recovery scales (IMRS) can measure the progress of clients' illness self-management and recovery. Previous studies have examined the psychometric properties of the IMRS. This study examined the reliability and validity of the Dutch version of the IMRS. Clients (n = 111) and clinicians (n = 40) completed the client and clinician versions of the IMRS, respectively. The scales were administered again 2 weeks later to assess stability over time. Validity was assessed with the Utrecht Coping List (UCL), Dutch Empowerment Scale (DES), and Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). The client and clinician versions of the IMRS had moderate internal reliability, with α = 0.69 and 0.71, respectively. The scales showed strong test-retest reliability, r = 0.79, for the client version and r = 0.86 for the clinician version. Correlations between client and clinician versions ranged from r = 0.37 to 0.69 for the total and subscales. We also found relationships in expected directions between the client IMRS and UCL, DES and BSI, which supports validity of the Dutch version of the IMRS. The Dutch version of the IMRS demonstrated good reliability and validity. The IMRS could be useful for Dutch-speaking programs interested in evaluating client progress on illness self-management and recovery.

  11. Method for in situ combustion

    DOEpatents

    Pasini, III, Joseph; Shuck, Lowell Z.; Overbey, Jr., William K.

    1977-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved in situ combustion method for the recovery of hydrocarbons from subterranean earth formations containing carbonaceous material. The method is practiced by penetrating the subterranean earth formation with a borehole projecting into the coal bed along a horizontal plane and extending along a plane disposed perpendicular to the plane of maximum permeability. The subterranean earth formation is also penetrated with a plurality of spaced-apart vertical boreholes disposed along a plane spaced from and generally parallel to that of the horizontal borehole. Fractures are then induced at each of the vertical boreholes which project from the vertical boreholes along the plane of maximum permeability and intersect the horizontal borehole. The combustion is initiated at the horizontal borehole and the products of combustion and fluids displaced from the earth formation by the combustion are removed from the subterranean earth formation via the vertical boreholes. Each of the vertical boreholes are, in turn, provided with suitable flow controls for regulating the flow of fluid from the combustion zone and the earth formation so as to control the configuration and rate of propagation of the combustion zone. The fractures provide a positive communication with the combustion zone so as to facilitate the removal of the products resulting from the combustion of the carbonaceous material.

  12. Pooled results from 5 validation studies of dietary self-report instruments using recovery biomarkers for potassium and sodium intake.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Laurence S; Commins, John M; Moler, James E; Willett, Walter; Tinker, Lesley F; Subar, Amy F; Spiegelman, Donna; Rhodes, Donna; Potischman, Nancy; Neuhouser, Marian L; Moshfegh, Alanna J; Kipnis, Victor; Arab, Lenore; Prentice, Ross L

    2015-04-01

    We pooled data from 5 large validation studies (1999-2009) of dietary self-report instruments that used recovery biomarkers as referents, to assess food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and 24-hour recalls (24HRs). Here we report on total potassium and sodium intakes, their densities, and their ratio. Results were similar by sex but were heterogeneous across studies. For potassium, potassium density, sodium, sodium density, and sodium:potassium ratio, average correlation coefficients for the correlation of reported intake with true intake on the FFQs were 0.37, 0.47, 0.16, 0.32, and 0.49, respectively. For the same nutrients measured with a single 24HR, they were 0.47, 0.46, 0.32, 0.31, and 0.46, respectively, rising to 0.56, 0.53, 0.41, 0.38, and 0.60 for the average of three 24HRs. Average underreporting was 5%-6% with an FFQ and 0%-4% with a single 24HR for potassium but was 28%-39% and 4%-13%, respectively, for sodium. Higher body mass index was related to underreporting of sodium. Calibration equations for true intake that included personal characteristics provided improved prediction, except for sodium density. In summary, self-reports capture potassium intake quite well but sodium intake less well. Using densities improves the measurement of potassium and sodium on an FFQ. Sodium:potassium ratio is measured much better than sodium itself on both FFQs and 24HRs. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  13. Oxy Coal Combustion at the US EPA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oxygen enriched coal (oxy-coal) combustion is a developing, and potentially a strategically key technology intended to accommodate direct CO2 recovery and sequestration. Oxy-coal combustion is also intended for retrofit application to existing power plants. During oxy-coal comb...

  14. The Recovery Assessment Scale - Domains and Stages (RAS-DS): Sensitivity to change over time and convergent validity with level of unmet need.

    PubMed

    Scanlan, Justin Newton; Hancock, Nicola; Honey, Anne

    2018-03-01

    There is a need for robust outcome measures for use in psychiatric services. Particularly lacking are self-rated recovery measures with evidence of sensitivity to change. This study was established to examine the convergent validity and sensitivity to change over time (responsiveness) of the Recovery Assessment Scale - Domains and Stages (RAS-DS), in comparison to level of unmet need as measured by the Camberwell Assessment of Need - Short Appraisal Scale (CANSAS). Convergent validity was examined through cross-sectional correlations between 540 CANSAS and RAS-DS scores collected on the same day for the same individuals. Sensitivity to change was examined using correlations between change scores in CANSAS and RAS-DS where both were collected on the same day and the two time points were separated by 90 days or more (n = 498). Results demonstrated moderate, significant cross-sectional correlations between CANSAS scores and RAS-DS total and domain scores and between change scores of both instruments. Results suggest that the RAS-DS is sensitive enough to detect change over time. Only moderate correlation between the RAS-DS and CANSAS suggests that, in the context of recovery-oriented service provision, it is important to measure self-reported recovery in addition to level of unmet needs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Combustion physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. R.

    1985-11-01

    Over 90% of our energy comes from combustion. By the year 2000 the figure will still be 80%, even allowing for nuclear and alternative energy sources. There are many familiar examples of combustion use, both domestic and industrial. These range from the Bunsen burner to large flares, from small combustion chambers, such as those in car engines, to industrial furnaces for steel manufacture or the generation of megawatts of electricity. There are also fires and explosions. The bountiful energy release from combustion, however, brings its problems, prominent among which are diminishing fuel resources and pollution. Combustion science is directed towards finding ways of improving efficiency and reducing pollution. One may ask, since combustion is a chemical reaction, why physics is involved: the answer is in three parts. First, chemicals cannot react unless they come together. In most flames the fuel and air are initially separate. The chemical reaction in the gas phase is very fast compared with the rate of mixing. Thus, once the fuel and air are mixed the reaction can be considered to occur instantaneously and fluid mechanics limits the rate of burning. Secondly, thermodynamics and heat transfer determine the thermal properties of the combustion products. Heat transfer also plays a role by preheating the reactants and is essential to extracting useful work. Fluid mechanics is relevant if work is to be performed directly, as in a turbine. Finally, physical methods, including electric probes, acoustics, optics, spectroscopy and pyrometry, are used to examine flames. The article is concerned mainly with how physics is used to improve the efficiency of combustion.

  16. Combustion Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-04-01

    This photograph depicts one of over thirty tests conducted on the Vortex Combustion Chamber Engine at Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) test stand 115, a joint effort between NASA's MSFC and the U.S. Army AMCOM of Redstone Arsenal. The engine tests were conducted to evaluate an irnovative, "self-cooled", vortex combustion chamber, which relies on tangentially injected propellants from the chamber wall producing centrifugal forces that keep the relatively cold liquid propellants near the wall.

  17. Development and Experimental Validation of Large Eddy Simulation Techniques for the Prediction of Combustion-Dynamic Process in Syngas Combustion: Characterization of Autoignition, Flashback, and Flame-Liftoff at Gas-Turbine Relevant Operating Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Ihme, Matthias; Driscoll, James

    2015-08-31

    The objective of this closely coordinated experimental and computational research effort is the development of simulation techniques for the prediction of combustion processes, relevant to the oxidation of syngas and high hydrogen content (HHC) fuels at gas-turbine relevant operating conditions. Specifically, the research goals are (i) the characterization of the sensitivity of syngas ignition processes to hydrodynamic processes and perturbations in temperature and mixture composition in rapid compression machines and ow-reactors and (ii) to conduct comprehensive experimental investigations in a swirl-stabilized gas turbine (GT) combustor under realistic high-pressure operating conditions in order (iii) to obtain fundamental understanding about mechanisms controllingmore » unstable flame regimes in HHC-combustion.« less

  18. Bubble Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corrigan, Jackie

    2004-01-01

    A method of energy production that is capable of low pollutant emissions is fundamental to one of the four pillars of NASA s Aeronautics Blueprint: Revolutionary Vehicles. Bubble combustion, a new engine technology currently being developed at Glenn Research Center promises to provide low emissions combustion in support of NASA s vision under the Emissions Element because it generates power, while minimizing the production of carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxides (NOx), both known to be Greenhouse gases. and allows the use of alternative fuels such as corn oil, low-grade fuels, and even used motor oil. Bubble combustion is analogous to the inverse of spray combustion: the difference between bubble and spray combustion is that spray combustion is spraying a liquid in to a gas to form droplets, whereas bubble combustion involves injecting a gas into a liquid to form gaseous bubbles. In bubble combustion, the process for the ignition of the bubbles takes place on a time scale of less than a nanosecond and begins with acoustic waves perturbing each bubble. This perturbation causes the local pressure to drop below the vapor pressure of the liquid thus producing cavitation in which the bubble diameter grows, and upon reversal of the oscillating pressure field, the bubble then collapses rapidly with the aid of the high surface tension forces acting on the wall of the bubble. The rapid and violent collapse causes the temperatures inside the bubbles to soar as a result of adiabatic heating. As the temperatures rise, the gaseous contents of the bubble ignite with the bubble itself serving as its own combustion chamber. After ignition, this is the time in the bubble s life cycle where power is generated, and CO2, and NOx among other species, are produced. However, the pollutants CO2 and NOx are absorbed into the surrounding liquid. The importance of bubble combustion is that it generates power using a simple and compact device. We conducted a parametric study using CAVCHEM

  19. Biofuels combustion.

    PubMed

    Westbrook, Charles K

    2013-01-01

    This review describes major features of current research in renewable fuels derived from plants and from fatty acids. Recent and ongoing fundamental studies of biofuel molecular structure, oxidation reactions, and biofuel chemical properties are reviewed, in addition to combustion applications of biofuels in the major types of engines in which biofuels are used. Biofuels and their combustion are compared with combustion features of conventional petroleum-based fuels. Two main classes of biofuels are described, those consisting of small, primarily alcohol, fuels (particularly ethanol, n-butanol, and iso-pentanol) that are used primarily to replace or supplement gasoline and those derived from fatty acids and used primarily to replace or supplement conventional diesel fuels. Research efforts on so-called second- and third-generation biofuels are discussed briefly.

  20. Biofuels combustion*

    DOE PAGES

    Westbrook, Charles K.

    2013-01-04

    This review describes major features of current research in renewable fuels derived from plants and from fatty acids. Recent and ongoing fundamental studies of biofuel molecular structure, oxidation reactions, and biofuel chemical properties are reviewed, in addition to combustion applications of biofuels in the major types of engines in which biofuels are used. Biofuels and their combustion are compared with combustion features of conventional petroleum-based fuels. Two main classes of biofuels are described, those consisting of small, primarily alcohol, fuels (particularly ethanol, n-butanol, and iso-pentanol) that are used primarily to replace or supplement gasoline and those derived from fatty acidsmore » and used primarily to replace or supplement conventional diesel fuels. As a result, research efforts on so-called second- and third-generation biofuels are discussed briefly.« less

  1. Combustibles sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Pebler, A.R.

    1980-02-26

    A gaseous mixture of oxygen and fuel (Combustibles) is supplied to first and second electrodes disposed on opposite surfaces of an oxygen ion conductive solid electrolyte member wherein the electrodes are composed of different materials each exhibiting a different catalytic action on the gaseous mixture at a given temperature. The difference in oxygen potentials established at the respective electrodes as a result of the dissimilar catalytic action produces oxygen ion conductivity in the solid electrolyte cell which produces an electrical signal the magnitude of which is indicative of the combustible present in the mixture, I.E., methane, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, etc.

  2. 3-D CFD Simulation and Validation of Oxygen-Rich Hydrocarbon Combustion in a Gas-Centered Swirl Coaxial Injector using a Flamelet-Based Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, Brian; Kenny, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Injector design is a critical part of the development of a rocket Thrust Chamber Assembly (TCA). Proper detailed injector design can maximize propulsion efficiency while minimizing the potential for failures in the combustion chamber. Traditional design and analysis methods for hydrocarbon-fuel injector elements are based heavily on empirical data and models developed from heritage hardware tests. Using this limited set of data produces challenges when trying to design a new propulsion system where the operating conditions may greatly differ from heritage applications. Time-accurate, Three-Dimensional (3-D) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling of combusting flows inside of injectors has long been a goal of the fluid analysis group at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and the larger CFD modeling community. CFD simulation can provide insight into the design and function of an injector that cannot be obtained easily through testing or empirical comparisons to existing hardware. However, the traditional finite-rate chemistry modeling approach utilized to simulate combusting flows for complex fuels, such as Rocket Propellant-2 (RP-2), is prohibitively expensive and time consuming even with a large amount of computational resources. MSFC has been working, in partnership with Streamline Numerics, Inc., to develop a computationally efficient, flamelet-based approach for modeling complex combusting flow applications. In this work, a flamelet modeling approach is used to simulate time-accurate, 3-D, combusting flow inside a single Gas Centered Swirl Coaxial (GCSC) injector using the flow solver, Loci-STREAM. CFD simulations were performed for several different injector geometries. Results of the CFD analysis helped guide the design of the injector from an initial concept to a tested prototype. The results of the CFD analysis are compared to data gathered from several hot-fire, single element injector tests performed in the Air Force Research Lab EC-1 test facility

  3. Development and Validation of an Instrument to Predict Functional Recovery in Tibial Fracture Patients: The Somatic Pre-Occupation and Coping (SPOC) Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Busse, Jason W.; Bhandari, Mohit; Guyatt, Gordon H.; Heels-Ansdell, Diane; Kulkarni, Abhaya V.; Mandel, Scott; Sanders, David; Schemitsch, Emil; Swiontkowski, Marc; Tornetta, Paul; Wai, Eugene; Walter, Stephen D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the role of patients’ beliefs in their likelihood of recovery from severe physical trauma. Methods We developed and validated an instrument designed to capture the impact of patients’ beliefs on functional recovery from injury; the Somatic Pre-occupation and Coping (SPOC) questionnaire. At 6-weeks post-surgical fixation, we administered the SPOC questionnaire to 359 consecutive patients with operatively managed tibial shaft fractures. We constructed multivariable regression models to explore the association between SPOC scores and functional outcome at 1-year, as measured by return to work and short form-36 (SF-36) physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) scores. Results In our adjusted multivariable regression models that included pre-injury SF-36 scores, SPOC scores at 6-weeks post-surgery accounted for 18% of the variation in SF-36 PCS scores and 18% of SF-36 MCS scores at 1-year. In both models, 6-week SPOC scores were a far more powerful predictor of functional recovery than age, gender, fracture type, smoking status, or the presence of multi-trauma. Our adjusted analysis found that for each 14 point increment in SPOC score at 6-weeks (14 chosen on the basis of half a standard deviation of the mean SPOC score) the odds of returning to work at 1-year decreased by 40% (odds ratio = 0.60; 95% CI = 0.50 to 0.73). Conclusion The SPOC questionnaire is a valid measurement of illness beliefs in tibial fracture patients and is highly predictive of their long-term functional recovery. Future research should explore if these results extend to other trauma populations and if modification of unhelpful illness beliefs is feasible and would result in improved functional outcomes. PMID:22011635

  4. Validation of the brief version of the Recovery Self-Assessment (RSA-B) using Rasch measurement theory.

    PubMed

    Barbic, Skye P; Kidd, Sean A; Davidson, Larry; McKenzie, Kwame; O'Connell, Maria J

    2015-12-01

    In psychiatry, the recovery paradigm is increasingly identified as the overarching framework for service provision. Currently, the Recovery Self-Assessment (RSA), a 36-item rating scale, is commonly used to assess the uptake of a recovery orientation in clinical services. However, the consumer version of the RSA has been found challenging to complete because of length and the reading level required. In response to this feedback, a brief 12-item version of the RSA was developed (RSA-B). This article describes the development of the modified instrument and the application of traditional psychometric analysis and Rasch Measurement Theory to test the psychometrics properties of the RSA-B. Data from a multisite study of adults with serious mental illnesses (n = 1256) who were followed by assertive community treatment teams were examined for reliability, clinical meaning, targeting, response categories, model fit, reliability, dependency, and raw interval-level measurement. Analyses were performed using the Rasch Unidimensional Measurement Model (RUMM 2030). Adequate fit to the Rasch model was observed (χ2 = 112.46, df = 90, p = .06) and internal consistency was good (r = .86). However, Rasch analysis revealed limitations of the 12-item version, with items covering only 39% of the targeted theoretical continuum, 2 misfitting items, and strong evidence for the 5 option response categories not working as intended. This study revealed areas for improvement in the shortened version of the 12-item RSA-B. A revisit of the conceptual model and original 36-item rating scale is encouraged to select items that will help practitioners and researchers measure the full range of recovery orientation. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Regenerative combustion device

    DOEpatents

    West, Phillip B.

    2004-03-16

    A regenerative combustion device having a combustion zone, and chemicals contained within the combustion zone, such as water, having a first equilibrium state, and a second combustible state. Means for transforming the chemicals from the first equilibrium state to the second combustible state, such as electrodes, are disposed within the chemicals. An igniter, such as a spark plug or similar device, is disposed within the combustion zone for igniting combustion of the chemicals in the second combustible state. The combustion products are contained within the combustion zone, and the chemicals are selected such that the combustion products naturally chemically revert into the chemicals in the first equilibrium state following combustion. The combustion device may thus be repeatedly reused, requiring only a brief wait after each ignition to allow the regeneration of combustible gasses within the head space.

  6. Validation of the 24-item recovery assessment scale-revised (RAS-R) in the Norwegian language and context: a multi-centre study.

    PubMed

    Biringer, Eva; Tjoflåt, Marit

    2018-01-25

    The Recovery Assessment Scale-revised (RAS-R) is a self-report instrument measuring mental health recovery. The purpose of the present study was to translate and adapt the RAS-R into the Norwegian language and to investigate its psychometric properties in terms of factor structure, convergent and discriminant validity and reliability in the Norwegian context. The present study is a cross-sectional multi-centre study. After a pilot test, the Norwegian version of the RAS-R was distributed to 231 service users in mental health specialist and community services. The factor structure of the instrument was investigated by a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach's alpha. The RAS-R was found to be acceptable and feasible for service users. The original five-factor structure was confirmed. All model fit indices, including the standardised root mean square residual (SRMR), which is independent of the χ 2 -test, met the criteria for an acceptable model fit. Internal consistencies within sub-scales as measured by Cronbach's alpha ranged from 0.65 to 0.85. Cronbach's alpha for the total scale was 0.90. As expected, some redundancy between factors existed (in particular among the factors Personal confidence and hope, Goal and success orientation and Not dominated by symptoms). The Norwegian RAS-R showed acceptable psychometric properties in terms of convergent validity and reliability, and fit indices from the CFA confirmed the original factor structure. We recommend the Norwegian RAS-R as a tool in service users' and health professionals' collaborative work towards the service users' recovery goals and as an outcome measure in larger evaluations.

  7. Validation of a Waste Heat Recovery Model for a 1kW PEM Fuel Cell using Thermoelectric Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saufi Sulaiman, M.; Mohamed, W. A. N. W.; Singh, B.; Fitrie Ghazali, M.

    2017-08-01

    Fuel cell is a device that generates electricity through electrochemical reaction between hydrogen and oxygen. A major by-product of the exothermic reaction is waste heat. The recovery of this waste heat has been subject to research on order to improve the overall energy utilization. However, nearly all of the studies concentrate on high temperature fuel cells using advanced thermodynamic cycles due to the high quality of waste heat. The method, characteristics and challenges in harvesting waste heat from a low temperature fuel cell using a direct energy conversion device is explored in this publication. A heat recovery system for an open cathode 1kW Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell (PEM FC) was developed using a single unit of thermoelectric generator (TEG) attached to a heat pipe. Power output of the fuel cell was varied to obtain the performance of TEG at different stack temperatures. Natural and forced convections modes of cooling were applied to the TEG cold side. This is to simulate the conditions of a mini fuel cell vehicle at rest and in motion. The experimental results were analysed and a mathematical model based on the thermal circuit analogy was developed and compared. Forced convection mode resulted in higher temperature difference, output voltage and maximum power which are 3.3°C, 33.5 mV, and 113.96mW respectively. The heat recovery system for 1 kW Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell (PEM FC) using single TEG was successfully established and improved the electrical production of fuel cell. Moreover, the experimental results obtained was in a good agreement with theoretical results.

  8. Combustion Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-08-07

    Interior of a combustion experiment apparatus used in the 2.2-second drop tower at NASA's Glenn Research Center. This was shown to students participating in the second Dropping in a Microgravity Environment (DIME) competition held April 23-25, 2002, at NASA's Glenn Research Center. Competitors included two teams from Sycamore High School, Cincinnati, OH, and one each from Bay High School, Bay Village, OH, and COSI Academy, Columbus, OH. DIME is part of NASA's education and outreach activities. Details are on line at http://microgravity.grc.nasa.gov/DIME_2002.html.

  9. The DUNDRUM Quartet: validation of structured professional judgement instruments DUNDRUM-3 assessment of programme completion and DUNDRUM-4 assessment of recovery in forensic mental health services

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Moving a forensic mental health patient from one level of therapeutic security to a lower level or to the community is influenced by more than risk assessment and risk management. We set out to construct and validate structured professional judgement instruments for consistency and transparency in decision making Methods Two instruments were developed, the seven-item DUNDRUM-3 programme completion instrument and the six item DUNDRUM-4 recovery instrument. These were assessed for all 95 forensic patients at Ireland's only forensic mental health hospital. Results The two instruments had good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha 0.911 and 0.887). Scores distinguished those allowed no leave or accompanied leave from those with unaccompanied leave (ANOVA F = 38.1 and 50.3 respectively, p < 0.001). Scores also distinguished those in acute/high security units from those in medium or in low secure/pre-discharge units. Each individual item distinguished these levels of need significantly. The DUNDRUM-3 and DUNDRUM-4 correlated moderately with measures of dynamic risk and with the CANFOR staff rated unmet need (Spearman r = 0.5, p < 0.001). Conclusions The DUNDRUM-3 programme completion items distinguished significantly between levels of therapeutic security while the DUNDRUM-4 recovery items consistently distinguished those given unaccompanied leave outside the hospital and those in the lowest levels of therapeutic security. This data forms the basis for a prospective study of outcomes now underway. PMID:21722396

  10. An app for patient education and self-audit within an enhanced recovery program for bowel surgery: a pilot study assessing validity and usability.

    PubMed

    Pecorelli, Nicolò; Fiore, Julio F; Kaneva, Pepa; Somasundram, Abarna; Charlebois, Patrick; Liberman, A Sender; Stein, Barry L; Carli, Franco; Feldman, Liane S

    2018-05-01

    While patient engagement and clinical audit are key components of successful enhanced recovery programs (ERPs), they require substantial resource allocation. The objective of this study was to assess the validity and usability of a novel mobile device application for education and self-reporting of adherence for patients undergoing bowel surgery within an established ERP. Prospectively recruited patients undergoing bowel surgery within an ERP used a novel app specifically designed to provide daily recovery milestones and record adherence to 15 different ERP processes and six patient-reported outcomes (PROs). Validity was measured by the agreement index (Cohen's kappa coefficient for categorical, and interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for continuous variables) between patient-reported data through the app and data recorded by a clinical auditor. Acceptability and usability of the app were measured by the System Usability Scale (SUS). Forty-five patients participated in the study (mean age 61, 64% male). Overall, patients completed 159 of 179 (89%) of the available questionnaires through the app. Median time to complete a questionnaire was 2 min 49 s (i.q.r. 2'32″-4'36″). Substantial (kappa > 0.6) or almost perfect agreement (kappa > 0.8) and strong correlation (ICC > 0.7) between data collected through the app and by the clinical auditor was found for 14 ERP processes and four PROs. Patient-reported usability was high; mean SUS score was 87 (95% CI 83-91). Only 6 (13%) patients needed technical support to use the app. Forty (89%) patients found the app was helpful to achieve their daily goals, and 34 (76%) thought it increased their motivation to recover after surgery. This novel application provides a tool to record patient adherence to care processes and PROs, with high agreement with traditional clinical audit, high usability, and patient satisfaction. Future studies should investigate the use of mobile device apps as strategies to increase

  11. In-flight validation and recovery of water surface temperature with Landsat-5 thermal infrared data using an automated high-altitude lake validation site at Lake Tahoe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hook, S.J.; Chander, G.; Barsi, J.A.; Alley, R.E.; Abtahi, A.; Palluconi, Frank Don; Markham, B.L.; Richards, R.C.; Schladow, S.G.; Helder, D.L.

    2004-01-01

    The absolute radiometric accuracy of the thermal infrared band (B6) of the Thematic Mapper (TM) instrument on the Landsat-5 (L5) satellite was assessed over a period of approximately four years using data from the Lake Tahoe automated validation site (California-Nevada). The Lake Tahoe site was established in July 1999, and measurements of the skin and bulk temperature have been made approximately every 2 min from four permanently moored buoys since mid-1999. Assessment involved using a radiative transfer model to propagate surface skin temperature measurements made at the time of the L5 overpass to predict the at-sensor radiance. The predicted radiance was then convolved with the L5B6 system response function to obtain the predicted L5B6 radiance, which was then compared with the radiance measured by L5B6. Twenty-four cloud-free scenes acquired between 1999 and 2003 were used in the analysis with scene temperatures ranging between 4/spl deg/C and 22/spl deg/C. The results indicate L5B6 had a radiance bias of 2.5% (1.6/spl deg/C) in late 1999, which gradually decreased to 0.8% (0.5/spl deg/C) in mid-2002. Since that time, the bias has remained positive (predicted minus measured) and between 0.3% (0.2/spl deg/C) and 1.4% (0.9/spl deg/C). The cause for the cold bias (L5 radiances are lower than expected) is unresolved, but likely related to changes in instrument temperature associated with changes in instrument usage. The in situ data were then used to develop algorithms to recover the skin and bulk temperature of the water by regressing the L5B6 radiance and the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) total column water data to either the skin or bulk temperature. Use of the NCEP data provides an alternative approach to the split-window approach used with instruments that have two thermal infrared bands. The results indicate the surface skin and bulk temperature can be recovered with a standard error of 0.6/spl deg/C. This error is larger than errors

  12. Development and validation of a solid phase extraction sample cleanup procedure for the recovery of trace levels of nitro-organic explosives in soil.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jennifer L; Donnelly, Christopher C; Lloyd, Erin W; Mothershead, Robert F; Miller, Mark L

    2018-03-01

    An improved cleanup method has been developed for the recovery of trace levels of 12 nitro-organic explosives in soil, which is important not only for the forensic community, but also has environmental implications. A wide variety of explosives or explosive-related compounds were evaluated, including nitramines, nitrate esters, nitroaromatics, and a nitroalkane. Fortified soil samples were extracted with acetone, processed via solid phase extraction (SPE), and then analyzed by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. The following three SPE sorbents in cartridge format were compared: Empore™ SDB-XC, Oasis ® HLB, and Bond Elut NEXUS cartridges. The NEXUS cartridges provided the best overall recoveries for the 12 explosives in potting soil (average 48%) and the fastest processing times (<30min). It also rejected matrix components from spent motor oil on potting soil. The SPE method was validated by assessing limit of detection (LOD), processed sample stability, and interferences. All 12 compounds were detectable at 0.02μg explosive/gram of soil or lower in the three matrices tested (potting soil, sand, and loam) over three days. Seven explosives were stable up to seven days at 2μg/g and three were stable at 0.2μg/g, both in processed loam, which was the most challenging matrix. In the interference study, five interferences above the determined LOD for soil were detected in matrices collected across the United States and in purchased all-purpose sand, potting soil, and loam. This represented a 3.2% false positive rate for the 13 matrices processed by the screening method for interferences. The reported SPE cleanup method provides a fast and simple extraction process for separating organic explosives from matrix components, facilitating sample throughput and reducing instrument maintenance. In addition, a comparison study of the validated SPE method versus conventional syringe filtration was completed and highlighted the benefits of sample cleanup for

  13. The pressure recovery ratio: The invasive index of LV relaxation during filling. Model-based prediction with in-vivo validation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Shmuylovich, Leonid; Kovacs, Sandor J

    2009-01-01

    Using a simple harmonic oscillator model (PDF formalism), every early filling E-wave can be uniquely described by a set of parameters, (x(0), c, and k). Parameter c in the PDF formalism is a damping or relaxation parameter that measures the energy loss during the filling process. Based on Bernoulli's equation and kinematic modeling, we derived a causal correlation between the relaxation parameter c in the PDF formalism and a feature of the pressure contour during filling - the pressure recovery ratio defined by the left ventricular pressure difference between diastasis and minimum pressure, normalized to the pressure difference between a fiducial pressure and minimum pressure [PRR = (P(Diastasis)-P(Min))/(P(Fiducial)-P(Min))]. We analyzed multiple heart beats from one human subject to validate the correlation. Further validation among more patients is warranted. PRR is the invasive causal analogue of the noninvasive E-wave relaxation parameter c. PRR has the potential to be calculated using automated methodology in the catheterization lab in real time.

  14. Concurrent Validity of a Rugby-Specific Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test (Level 1) for Assessing Match-Related Running Performance.

    PubMed

    Dobbin, Nick; Highton, Jamie; Moss, Samantha L; Hunwicks, Richard; Twist, Craig

    2018-06-01

    Dobbin, N, Highton, J, Moss, SL, Hunwicks, R, and Twist, C. Concurrent validity of a rugby-specific Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (level 1) for assessing match-related running performance. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-This study investigated the concurrent validity of a rugby-specific high-intensity intermittent running test against the internal, external, and perceptual responses to simulated match play. Thirty-six rugby league players (age 18.5 ± 1.8 years; stature 181.4 ± 7.6 cm; body mass 83.5 ± 9.8 kg) completed the prone Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test (Yo-Yo IR1), of which 16 also completed the Yo-Yo IR1, and 2 × ∼20 minute bouts of a simulated match play (rugby league match simulation protocol for interchange players [RLMSP-i]). Most likely reductions in relative total, low-speed and high-speed distance, mean speed, and time above 20 W·kg (high metabolic power [HMP]) were observed between bouts of the RLMSP-i. Likewise, rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and percentage of peak heart rate (%HRpeak) were very likely and likely higher during the second bout. Pearson's correlations revealed a large relationship for the change in relative distance (r = 0.57-0.61) between bouts with both Yo-Yo IR1 tests. The prone Yo-Yo IR1 was more strongly related to the RLMSP-i for change in repeated sprint speed (r = 0.78 cf. 0.56), mean speed (r = 0.64 cf. 0.36), HMP (r = 0.48 cf. 0.25), fatigue index (r = 0.71 cf. 0.63), %HRpeak (r = -0.56 cf. -0.35), RPEbout1 (r = -0.44 cf. -0.14), and RPEbout2 (r = -0.68 cf. -0.41) than the Yo-Yo IR1, but not for blood lactate concentration (r = -0.20 to -0.28 cf. -0.35 to -0.49). The relationships between prone Yo-Yo IR1 distance and measures of load during the RLMSP-i suggest that it possesses concurrent validity and is more strongly associated with measures of training or match load than the Yo-Yo IR1 using rugby league players.

  15. In vivo quantification of demyelination and recovery using compartment-specific diffusion MRI metrics validated by electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Jelescu, Ileana O; Zurek, Magdalena; Winters, Kerryanne V; Veraart, Jelle; Rajaratnam, Anjali; Kim, Nathanael S; Babb, James S; Shepherd, Timothy M; Novikov, Dmitry S; Kim, Sungheon G; Fieremans, Els

    2016-05-15

    There is a need for accurate quantitative non-invasive biomarkers to monitor myelin pathology in vivo and distinguish myelin changes from other pathological features including inflammation and axonal loss. Conventional MRI metrics such as T2, magnetization transfer ratio and radial diffusivity have proven sensitivity but not specificity. In highly coherent white matter bundles, compartment-specific white matter tract integrity (WMTI) metrics can be directly derived from the diffusion and kurtosis tensors: axonal water fraction, intra-axonal diffusivity, and extra-axonal radial and axial diffusivities. We evaluate the potential of WMTI to quantify demyelination by monitoring the effects of both acute (6weeks) and chronic (12weeks) cuprizone intoxication and subsequent recovery in the mouse corpus callosum, and compare its performance with that of conventional metrics (T2, magnetization transfer, and DTI parameters). The changes observed in vivo correlated with those obtained from quantitative electron microscopy image analysis. A 6-week intoxication produced a significant decrease in axonal water fraction (p<0.001), with only mild changes in extra-axonal radial diffusivity, consistent with patchy demyelination, while a 12-week intoxication caused a more marked decrease in extra-axonal radial diffusivity (p=0.0135), consistent with more severe demyelination and clearance of the extra-axonal space. Results thus revealed increased specificity of the axonal water fraction and extra-axonal radial diffusivity parameters to different degrees and patterns of demyelination. The specificities of these parameters were corroborated by their respective correlations with microstructural features: the axonal water fraction correlated significantly with the electron microscopy derived total axonal water fraction (ρ=0.66; p=0.0014) but not with the g-ratio, while the extra-axonal radial diffusivity correlated with the g-ratio (ρ=0.48; p=0.0342) but not with the electron microscopy

  16. Downhole steam generator with improved preheating, combustion, and protection features

    DOEpatents

    Fox, R.L.

    1981-01-07

    For tertiary oil recovery, a downhole steam generator is designed which provides for efficient counterflow cooling of the combustion chamber walls and preheating of the fuel and water. Pressure-responsive doors are provided for closing and opening the outlet in response to flameout, thereby preventing flooding of the combustion chamber. (DLC)

  17. Turbulent Combustion in SDF Explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, A L; Bell, J B; Beckner, V E

    2009-11-12

    A heterogeneous continuum model is proposed to describe the dispersion and combustion of an aluminum particle cloud in an explosion. It combines the gas-dynamic conservation laws for the gas phase with a continuum model for the dispersed phase, as formulated by Nigmatulin. Inter-phase mass, momentum and energy exchange are prescribed by phenomenological models. It incorporates a combustion model based on the mass conservation laws for fuel, air and products; source/sink terms are treated in the fast-chemistry limit appropriate for such gasdynamic fields, along with a model for mass transfer from the particle phase to the gas. The model takes intomore » account both the afterburning of the detonation products of the C-4 booster with air, and the combustion of the Al particles with air. The model equations were integrated by high-order Godunov schemes for both the gas and particle phases. Numerical simulations of the explosion fields from 1.5-g Shock-Dispersed-Fuel (SDF) charge in a 6.6 liter calorimeter were used to validate the combustion model. Then the model was applied to 10-kg Al-SDF explosions in a an unconfined height-of-burst explosion. Computed pressure histories are compared with measured waveforms. Differences are caused by physical-chemical kinetic effects of particle combustion which induce ignition delays in the initial reactive blast wave and quenching of reactions at late times. Current simulations give initial insights into such modeling issues.« less

  18. Combustion chamber and thermal vapor stream producing apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Sperry, John S.; Krajicek, Richard W.; Cradeur, Robert R.

    1978-01-01

    A new and improved method and apparatus for burning a hydrocarbon fuel for producing a high pressure thermal vapor stream comprising steam and combustion gases for injecting into a subterranean formation for the recovery of liquefiable minerals therefrom, wherein a high pressure combustion chamber having multiple refractory lined combustion zones of varying diameters is provided for burning a hydrocarbon fuel and pressurized air in predetermined ratios injected into the chamber for producing hot combustion gases essentially free of oxidizing components and solid carbonaceous particles. The combustion zones are formed by zones of increasing diameters up a final zone of decreasing diameter to provide expansion zones which cause turbulence through controlled thorough mixing of the air and fuel to facilitate complete combustion. The high pressure air and fuel is injected into the first of the multiple zones where ignition occurs with a portion of the air injected at or near the point of ignition to further provide turbulence and more complete combustion.

  19. Combustion Fundamentals Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Increased emphasis is placed on fundamental and generic research at Lewis Research Center with less systems development efforts. This is especially true in combustion research, where the study of combustion fundamentals has grown significantly in order to better address the perceived long term technical needs of the aerospace industry. The main thrusts for this combustion fundamentals program area are as follows: analytical models of combustion processes, model verification experiments, fundamental combustion experiments, and advanced numeric techniques.

  20. Recovery of Baseline Erectile Function in Men Following Radical Prostatectomy for High-Risk Prostate Cancer: A Prospective Analysis Using Validated Measures.

    PubMed

    Sridhar, Ashwin N; Cathcart, Paul J; Yap, Tet; Hines, John; Nathan, Senthil; Briggs, Timothy P; Kelly, John D; Minhas, Suks

    2016-03-01

    Recovery of baseline erectile function (EF) after robotic radical prostatectomy in men with high-risk prostate cancer is under-reported. Published studies have selectively reported on low-risk disease using non-validated and poorly defined thresholds for EF recovery. To assess return to baseline EF in men after robotic radical prostatectomy for high-risk prostate cancer. Five hundred thirty-one men underwent robotic radical prostatectomy for high-risk prostate cancer from February 2010 through July 2014. Pre- and postoperative EF was prospectively assessed using the International Index of Erectile Dysfunction (IIEF-5) questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression analysis determined the effect of age, preoperative function, comorbidities, body mass index, prostate-specific antigen level, cancer stage or grade, nerve-sparing status, adjuvant therapy, and continence on EF return (defined as postoperative return to baseline EF with or without use of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors). Kaplan-Meier analysis and log-rank test were used to analyze return over time. Mann-Whitney U-test was used to compare IIEF-5 scores. Pre- and postoperative EF was assessed using the IIEF-5 Sexual Health Inventory for Men at 3 months, 6 months, 1 year, 2 years, 3 years, and 4 years postoperatively. Overall, return of EF was seen in 23.5% of patients at 18 months. This was significantly increased in men no older than 60 years (P = .024), with a preoperative IIEF-5 score of at least 22 (P = .042), and after undergoing neurovascular bundle preservation (34.9% of patients, P < .001). There was no significant change in IIEF-5 scores from 3 to 36 months in patients who were treated with phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors in the non-neurovascular bundle preservation group (P = .87), although there was significant improvement in those receiving second- or third-line therapies (P = .042). Other than preoperative hypertension (P = .03), none of the other comorbidities predicted return of

  1. Combustion properties of Kraft Black Liquors

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick, W.J. Jr.; Hupa, M.

    1993-04-01

    In a previous study of the phenomena involved in the combustion of black liquor droplets a numerical model was developed. The model required certain black liquor specific combustion information which was then not currently available, and additional data were needed for evaluating the model. The overall objectives of the project reported here was to provide experimental data on key aspects of black liquor combustion, to interpret the data, and to put it into a form which would be useful for computational models for recovery boilers. The specific topics to be investigated were the volatiles and char carbon yields from pyrolysismore » of single black liquor droplets; a criterion for the onset of devolatilization and the accompanying rapid swelling; and the surface temperature of black liquor droplets during pyrolysis, combustion, and gasification. Additional information on the swelling characteristics of black liquor droplets was also obtained as part of the experiments conducted.« less

  2. Fluids and Combustion Facility: Combustion Integrated Rack Modal Model Correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNelis, Mark E.; Suarez, Vicente J.; Sullivan, Timothy L.; Otten, Kim D.; Akers, James C.

    2005-01-01

    The Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) is a modular, multi-user, two-rack facility dedicated to combustion and fluids science in the US Laboratory Destiny on the International Space Station. FCF is a permanent facility that is capable of accommodating up to ten combustion and fluid science investigations per year. FCF research in combustion and fluid science supports NASA's Exploration of Space Initiative for on-orbit fire suppression, fire safety, and space system fluids management. The Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) is one of two racks in the FCF. The CIR major structural elements include the International Standard Payload Rack (ISPR), Experiment Assembly (optics bench and combustion chamber), Air Thermal Control Unit (ATCU), Rack Door, and Lower Structure Assembly (Input/Output Processor and Electrical Power Control Unit). The load path through the rack structure is outlined. The CIR modal survey was conducted to validate the load path predicted by the CIR finite element model (FEM). The modal survey is done by experimentally measuring the CIR frequencies and mode shapes. The CIR model was test correlated by updating the model to represent the test mode shapes. The correlated CIR model delivery is required by NASA JSC at Launch-10.5 months. The test correlated CIR flight FEM is analytically integrated into the Shuttle for a coupled loads analysis of the launch configuration. The analysis frequency range of interest is 0-50 Hz. A coupled loads analysis is the analytical integration of the Shuttle with its cargo element, the Mini Payload Logistics Module (MPLM), in the Shuttle cargo bay. For each Shuttle launch configuration, a verification coupled loads analysis is performed to determine the loads in the cargo bay as part of the structural certification process.

  3. Subgrid Combustion Modeling for the Next Generation National Combustion Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menon, Suresh; Sankaran, Vaidyanathan; Stone, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    In the first year of this research, a subgrid turbulent mixing and combustion methodology developed earlier at Georgia Tech has been provided to researchers at NASA/GRC for incorporation into the next generation National Combustion Code (called NCCLES hereafter). A key feature of this approach is that scalar mixing and combustion processes are simulated within the LES grid using a stochastic 1D model. The subgrid simulation approach recovers locally molecular diffusion and reaction kinetics exactly without requiring closure and thus, provides an attractive feature to simulate complex, highly turbulent reacting flows of interest. Data acquisition algorithms and statistical analysis strategies and routines to analyze NCCLES results have also been provided to NASA/GRC. The overall goal of this research is to systematically develop and implement LES capability into the current NCC. For this purpose, issues regarding initialization and running LES are also addressed in the collaborative effort. In parallel to this technology transfer effort (that is continuously on going), research has also been underway at Georgia Tech to enhance the LES capability to tackle more complex flows. In particular, subgrid scalar mixing and combustion method has been evaluated in three distinctly different flow field in order to demonstrate its generality: (a) Flame-Turbulence Interactions using premixed combustion, (b) Spatially evolving supersonic mixing layers, and (c) Temporal single and two-phase mixing layers. The configurations chosen are such that they can be implemented in NCCLES and used to evaluate the ability of the new code. Future development and validation will be in spray combustion in gas turbine engine and supersonic scalar mixing.

  4. Assessment of the National Combustion Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, nan-Suey; Iannetti, Anthony; Shih, Tsan-Hsing

    2007-01-01

    The advancements made during the last decade in the areas of combustion modeling, numerical simulation, and computing platform have greatly facilitated the use of CFD based tools in the development of combustion technology. Further development of verification, validation and uncertainty quantification will have profound impact on the reliability and utility of these CFD based tools. The objectives of the present effort are to establish baseline for the National Combustion Code (NCC) and experimental data, as well as to document current capabilities and identify gaps for further improvements.

  5. HSR combustion analytical research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, H. Lee

    1992-01-01

    Increasing the pressure and temperature of the engines of a new generation of supersonic airliners increases the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) to a level that would have an adverse impact on the Earth's protective ozone layer. In the process of evolving and implementing low emissions combustor technologies, NASA LeRC has pursued a combustion analysis code program to guide combustor design processes, to identify potential concepts of the greatest promise, and to optimize them at low cost, with short turnaround time. The computational analyses are evaluated at actual engine operating conditions. The approach is to upgrade and apply advanced computer programs for gas turbine applications. Efforts were made in further improving the code capabilities for modeling the physics and the numerical methods of solution. Then test cases and measurements from experiments are used for code validation.

  6. Spray combustion model improvement study, 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. P.; Kim, Y. M.; Shang, H. M.

    1993-01-01

    This study involves the development of numerical and physical modeling in spray combustion. These modeling efforts are mainly motivated to improve the physical submodels of turbulence, combustion, atomization, dense spray effects, and group vaporization. The present mathematical formulation can be easily implemented in any time-marching multiple pressure correction methodologies such as MAST code. A sequence of validation cases includes the nonevaporating, evaporating and_burnin dense_sprays.

  7. Process gas hear recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, W.M.; Thurner, R.P.

    1977-01-01

    In considering the use of regenerative and recuperative heat exchangers for process-gas heat recovery general information regarding heat-exchanger effectiveness versus initial capital investment and operating costs is discussed. Specific examples for preheating combustion air for process furnaces and for using primary and secondary heat exchangers in conjunction with an air-pollution-control system for drying and curing ovens cover basic heat-exchanger design and application considerations as well as investment-payback factors.

  8. Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-06-22

    NASA Glenn engineer Chris Mroczka installs a gas-jet burner in a chamber within the center’s Combustion Integrated Rack. This chamber is where scientists conduct gaseous combustion experiments in a zero gravity environment.

  9. Fundamentals of Gas Turbine combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerstein, M.

    1979-01-01

    Combustion problems and research recommendations are discussed in the areas of atomization and vaporization, combustion chemistry, combustion dynamics, and combustion modelling. The recommendations considered of highest priority in these areas are presented.

  10. NASA National Combustion Code Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iannetti, Anthony; Davoudzadeh, Farhad

    2001-01-01

    A systematic effort is in progress to further validate the National Combustion Code (NCC) that has been developed at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) for comprehensive modeling and simulation of aerospace combustion systems. The validation efforts include numerical simulation of the gas-phase combustor experiments conducted at the Center for Turbulence Research (CTR), Stanford University, followed by comparison and evaluation of the computed results with the experimental data. Presently, at GRC, a numerical model of the experimental gaseous combustor is built to simulate the experimental model. The constructed numerical geometry includes the flow development sections for air annulus and fuel pipe, 24 channel air and fuel swirlers, hub, combustor, and tail pipe. Furthermore, a three-dimensional multi-block, multi-grid grid (1.6 million grid points, 3-levels of multi-grid) is generated. Computational simulation of the gaseous combustor flow field operating on methane fuel has started. The computational domain includes the whole flow regime starting from the fuel pipe and the air annulus, through the 12 air and 12 fuel channels, in the combustion region and through the tail pipe.

  11. Extended lattice Boltzmann scheme for droplet combustion.

    PubMed

    Ashna, Mostafa; Rahimian, Mohammad Hassan; Fakhari, Abbas

    2017-05-01

    The available lattice Boltzmann (LB) models for combustion or phase change are focused on either single-phase flow combustion or two-phase flow with evaporation assuming a constant density for both liquid and gas phases. To pave the way towards simulation of spray combustion, we propose a two-phase LB method for modeling combustion of liquid fuel droplets. We develop an LB scheme to model phase change and combustion by taking into account the density variation in the gas phase and accounting for the chemical reaction based on the Cahn-Hilliard free-energy approach. Evaporation of liquid fuel is modeled by adding a source term, which is due to the divergence of the velocity field being nontrivial, in the continuity equation. The low-Mach-number approximation in the governing Navier-Stokes and energy equations is used to incorporate source terms due to heat release from chemical reactions, density variation, and nonluminous radiative heat loss. Additionally, the conservation equation for chemical species is formulated by including a source term due to chemical reaction. To validate the model, we consider the combustion of n-heptane and n-butanol droplets in stagnant air using overall single-step reactions. The diameter history and flame standoff ratio obtained from the proposed LB method are found to be in good agreement with available numerical and experimental data. The present LB scheme is believed to be a promising approach for modeling spray combustion.

  12. Combustion of Methane Hydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roshandell, Melika

    methane release, some of the water from the dissociated zone needs to be drained. The results are consistent with the experimental observations. The understanding derived from the experiments and the numerical model permitted a brief exploration into the potential effects of pressure on the combustion of methane hydrates. The prediction is that combustion should improve under high pressure conditions because the evaporation of water is suppressed allowing more energy into the dissociation. Future experiments are needed to validate these initial findings.

  13. Real time identification of the internal combustion engine combustion parameters based on the vibration velocity signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiuliang; Cheng, Yong; Wang, Limei; Ji, Shaobo

    2017-03-01

    Accurate combustion parameters are the foundations of effective closed-loop control of engine combustion process. Some combustion parameters, including the start of combustion, the location of peak pressure, the maximum pressure rise rate and its location, can be identified from the engine block vibration signals. These signals often include non-combustion related contributions, which limit the prompt acquisition of the combustion parameters computationally. The main component in these non-combustion related contributions is considered to be caused by the reciprocating inertia force excitation (RIFE) of engine crank train. A mathematical model is established to describe the response of the RIFE. The parameters of the model are recognized with a pattern recognition algorithm, and the response of the RIFE is predicted and then the related contributions are removed from the measured vibration velocity signals. The combustion parameters are extracted from the feature points of the renovated vibration velocity signals. There are angle deviations between the feature points in the vibration velocity signals and those in the cylinder pressure signals. For the start of combustion, a system bias is adopted to correct the deviation and the error bound of the predicted parameters is within 1.1°. To predict the location of the maximum pressure rise rate and the location of the peak pressure, algorithms based on the proportion of high frequency components in the vibration velocity signals are introduced. Tests results show that the two parameters are able to be predicted within 0.7° and 0.8° error bound respectively. The increase from the knee point preceding the peak value point to the peak value in the vibration velocity signals is used to predict the value of the maximum pressure rise rate. Finally, a monitoring frame work is inferred to realize the combustion parameters prediction. Satisfactory prediction for combustion parameters in successive cycles is achieved, which

  14. Boiler using combustible fluid

    DOEpatents

    Baumgartner, H.; Meier, J.G.

    1974-07-03

    A fluid fuel boiler is described comprising a combustion chamber, a cover on the combustion chamber having an opening for introducing a combustion-supporting gaseous fluid through said openings, means to impart rotation to the gaseous fluid about an axis of the combustion chamber, a burner for introducing a fluid fuel into the chamber mixed with the gaseous fluid for combustion thereof, the cover having a generally frustro-conical configuration diverging from the opening toward the interior of the chamber at an angle of between 15/sup 0/ and 55/sup 0/; means defining said combustion chamber having means defining a plurality of axial hot gas flow paths from a downstream portion of the combustion chamber to flow hot gases into an upstream portion of the combustion chamber, and means for diverting some of the hot gas flow along paths in a direction circumferentially of the combustion chamber, with the latter paths being immersed in the water flow path thereby to improve heat transfer and terminating in a gas outlet, the combustion chamber comprising at least one modular element, joined axially to the frustro-conical cover and coaxial therewith. The modular element comprises an inner ring and means of defining the circumferential, radial, and spiral flow paths of the hot gases.

  15. Validity of the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1 for direct measurement or indirect estimation of maximal oxygen uptake in female soccer players.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Lagunas, Vanessa; Hartmann, Ulrich

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the validity of the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1 (YYIR1) for the direct assessment and the indirect estimation of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) in female soccer players compared with a maximal laboratory treadmill test (LTT). Eighteen female soccer players (21.5 ± 3.4 y, 165.6 ± 7.5 cm, 63.3 ± 7.4 kg; mean ± SD) completed an LTT and a YYIR1 in random order (1 wk apart). Their VO2max was directly measured via portable spirometry during both tests and indirectly estimated from a published non-gender-specific formula (YYIR1-F1). The measured VO2max values in LTT and YYIR1 were 55.0 ± 5.3 and 49.9 ± 4.9 mL · kg-1 · min-1, respectively, while the estimated VO2max values from YYIR1-F1 corresponded to 45.2 ± 3.4 mL · kg-1 · min-1. Large positive correlations between the VO2max values from YYIR1 and LTT (r = .83, P < .001, 90% confidence interval = .64-.92) and YYIR1-F1 and LTT (r = .67, P = .002, .37-.84) were found. However, the YYIR1 significantly underestimated players' VO2max by 9.4% compared with LTT (P < .001) with Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement ranging from -20.0% to 1.4%. A significant underestimation from the YYIR1-F1 (P < .001) was also identified (17.8% with Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement ranging from -31.8% to -3.8%). The YYIR1 and YYIR1-F1 are not accurate methods for the direct assessment or indirect estimation of VO2max in female soccer players. The YYIR1-F1 lacks gender specificity, which might have been the reason for its larger error.

  16. Lump wood combustion process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubesa, Petr; Horák, Jiří; Branc, Michal; Krpec, Kamil; Hopan, František; Koloničný, Jan; Ochodek, Tadeáš; Drastichová, Vendula; Martiník, Lubomír; Malcho, Milan

    2014-08-01

    The article deals with the combustion process for lump wood in low-power fireplaces (units to dozens of kW). Such a combustion process is cyclical in its nature, and what combustion facility users are most interested in is the frequency, at which fuel needs to be stoked to the fireplace. The paper defines the basic terms such as burnout curve and burning rate curve, which are closely related to the stocking frequency. The fuel burning rate is directly dependent on the immediate thermal power of the fireplace. This is also related to the temperature achieved in the fireplace, magnitude of flue gas losses and the ability to generate conditions favouring the full burnout of the fuel's combustible component, which, at once ensures the minimum production of combustible pollutants. Another part of the paper describes experiments conducted in traditional fireplaces with a grate, at which well-dried lump wood was combusted.

  17. Checkpoint-based forward recovery using lookahead execution and rollback validation in parallel and distributed systems. Ph.D. Thesis, 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, Junsheng

    1994-01-01

    This thesis studies a forward recovery strategy using checkpointing and optimistic execution in parallel and distributed systems. The approach uses replicated tasks executing on different processors for forwared recovery and checkpoint comparison for error detection. To reduce overall redundancy, this approach employs a lower static redundancy in the common error-free situation to detect error than the standard N Module Redundancy scheme (NMR) does to mask off errors. For the rare occurrence of an error, this approach uses some extra redundancy for recovery. To reduce the run-time recovery overhead, look-ahead processes are used to advance computation speculatively and a rollback process is used to produce a diagnosis for correct look-ahead processes without rollback of the whole system. Both analytical and experimental evaluation have shown that this strategy can provide a nearly error-free execution time even under faults with a lower average redundancy than NMR.

  18. Combustion Mechanisms of Solids

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-24

    ELEMENT NO. NO NO ACCESSION NO Arlington, VA 22217-5000 11 TITLE (include Security Classification) COMBUSTION MECHANISMS OF SOLIDS 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S...FIELD GROUP I SUB-GROUP COMBUSTION , SOLID PROPELLANT 19 ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) This report...ingredients tested (AP, AN, PBAN, NMMO and BAMO-THF). Ingredient combustion behavior was studied by the edge burning sandwich method using sandwiches

  19. Coal combustion products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalyoncu, R.S.; Olson, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    Coal-burning powerplants, which supply more than half of U.S. electricity, also generate coal combustion products, which can be both a resource and a disposal problem. The U.S. Geological Survey collaborates with the American Coal Ash Association in preparing its annual report on coal combustion products. This Fact Sheet answers questions about present and potential uses of coal combustion products.

  20. Benchmarks for multidimensional recovery after burn injury in young adults: the development, validation, and testing of the American Burn Association/Shriners Hospitals for Children young adult burn outcome questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Colleen M; Schneider, Jeffrey C; Kazis, Lewis E; Lee, Austin; Li, Nien-Chen; Hinson, Michelle; Bauk, Helena; Peck, Michael; Meyer, Walter J; Palmieri, Tina; Pidcock, Frank S; Reilly, Debra; Tompkins, Ronald G

    2013-01-01

    Although data exist on burn survival, there are little data on long-term burn recovery. Patient-centered health outcomes are useful in monitoring and predicting recovery and evaluating treatments. An outcome questionnaire for young adult burn survivors was developed and tested. This 5-year (2003-2008) prospective, controlled, multicenter study included burned and nonburned adults ages 19 to 30 years. The Young Adult Burn Outcome Questionnaires were completed at initial contact, 10 days, and 6 and 12 months. Factor analysis established construct validity. Reliability assessments used Cronbach α and test-retest. Recovery patterns were investigated using generalized linear models, with generalized estimating equations using mixed models and random effects. Burned (n = 153) and nonburned subjects (n = 112) completed 620 questionnaires (47 items). Time from injury to first questionnaire administration was 157 ± 36 days (mean ± SEM). Factor analysis included 15 factors: Physical Function, Fine Motor Function, Pain, Itch, Social Function Limited by Physical Function, Perceived Appearance, Social Function Limited by Appearance, Sexual Function, Emotion, Family Function, Family Concern, Satisfaction With Symptom Relief, Satisfaction With Role, Work Reintegration, and Religion. Cronbach α ranged from 0.72 to 0.92, with 11 scales >0.8. Test-retest reliability ranged from 0.29 to 0.94, suggesting changes in underlying health status after burns. Recovery curves in five domains, Itch, Perceived Appearance, Social Function Limited by Appearance, Family Concern, and Satisfaction with Symptom Relief, remained below the reference group at 24 months. The Young Adult Burn Outcome Questionnaire is a reliable and valid instrument for multidimensional functional outcomes assessment. Recovery in some domains was incomplete.

  1. Tripropellant combustion process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kmiec, T. D.; Carroll, R. G.

    1988-01-01

    The addition of small amounts of hydrogen to the combustion of LOX/hydrocarbon propellants in large rocket booster engines has the potential to enhance the system stability. Programs being conducted to evaluate the effects of hydrogen on the combustion of LOX/hydrocarbon propellants at supercritical pressures are described. Combustion instability has been a problem during the development of large hydrocarbon fueled rocket engines. At the higher combustion chamber pressures expected for the next generation of booster engines, the effect of unstable combustion could be even more destructive. The tripropellant engine cycle takes advantage of the superior cooling characteristics of hydrogen to cool the combustion chamber and a small amount of the hydrogen coolant can be used in the combustion process to enhance the system stability. Three aspects of work that will be accomplished to evaluate tripropellant combustion are described. The first is laboratory demonstration of the benefits through the evaluation of drop size, ignition delay and burning rate. The second is analytical modeling of the combustion process using the empirical relationship determined in the laboratory. The third is a subscale demonstration in which the system stability will be evaluated. The approach for each aspect is described and the analytical models that will be used are presented.

  2. Lectures on combustion theory

    SciTech Connect

    Burstein, S.Z.; Lax, P.D.; Sod, G.A.

    1978-09-01

    Eleven lectures are presented on mathematical aspects of combustion: fluid dynamics, deflagrations and detonations, chemical kinetics, gas flows, combustion instability, flame spread above solids, spark ignition engines, burning rate of coal particles and hydrocarbon oxidation. Separate abstracts were prepared for three of the lectures. (DLC)

  3. Computational fluid dynamics combustion analysis evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Y. M.; Shang, H. M.; Chen, C. P.; Ziebarth, J. P.

    1992-01-01

    This study involves the development of numerical modelling in spray combustion. These modelling efforts are mainly motivated to improve the computational efficiency in the stochastic particle tracking method as well as to incorporate the physical submodels of turbulence, combustion, vaporization, and dense spray effects. The present mathematical formulation and numerical methodologies can be casted in any time-marching pressure correction methodologies (PCM) such as FDNS code and MAST code. A sequence of validation cases involving steady burning sprays and transient evaporating sprays will be included.

  4. Supersonic Combustion Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, J. P.; Danehy, Paul M.; Gaffney, Richard L., Jr.; Tedder, Sarah A.; Cutler, Andrew D.; Bivolaru, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the progress of work to model high-speed supersonic reacting flow. The purpose of the work is to improve the state of the art of CFD capabilities for predicting the flow in high-speed propulsion systems, particularly combustor flowpaths. The program has several components including the development of advanced algorithms and models for simulating engine flowpaths as well as a fundamental experimental and diagnostic development effort to support the formulation and validation of the mathematical models. The paper will provide details of current work on experiments that will provide data for the modeling efforts along with the associated nonintrusive diagnostics used to collect the data from the experimental flowfield. Simulation of a recent experiment to partially validate the accuracy of a combustion code is also described.

  5. Modeling Combustion in Supersonic Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, J. Philip; Danehy, Paul M.; Bivolaru, Daniel; Gaffney, Richard L.; Tedder, Sarah A.; Cutler, Andrew D.

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the progress of work to model high-speed supersonic reacting flow. The purpose of the work is to improve the state of the art of CFD capabilities for predicting the flow in high-speed propulsion systems, particularly combustor flow-paths. The program has several components including the development of advanced algorithms and models for simulating engine flowpaths as well as a fundamental experimental and diagnostic development effort to support the formulation and validation of the mathematical models. The paper will provide details of current work on experiments that will provide data for the modeling efforts along with with the associated nonintrusive diagnostics used to collect the data from the experimental flowfield. Simulation of a recent experiment to partially validate the accuracy of a combustion code is also described.

  6. Experimental Replication of an Aeroengine Combustion Instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, J. M.; Hibshman, J. R.; Proscia, W.; Rosfjord, T. J.; Wake, B. E.; McVey, J. B.; Lovett, J.; Ondas, M.; DeLaat, J.; Breisacher, K.

    2000-01-01

    Combustion instabilities in gas turbine engines are most frequently encountered during the late phases of engine development, at which point they are difficult and expensive to fix. The ability to replicate an engine-traceable combustion instability in a laboratory-scale experiment offers the opportunity to economically diagnose the problem (to determine the root cause), and to investigate solutions to the problem, such as active control. The development and validation of active combustion instability control requires that the causal dynamic processes be reproduced in experimental test facilities which can be used as a test bed for control system evaluation. This paper discusses the process through which a laboratory-scale experiment was designed to replicate an instability observed in a developmental engine. The scaling process used physically-based analyses to preserve the relevant geometric, acoustic and thermo-fluid features. The process increases the probability that results achieved in the single-nozzle experiment will be scalable to the engine.

  7. Dry low combustion system with means for eliminating combustion noise

    DOEpatents

    Verdouw, Albert J.; Smith, Duane; McCormick, Keith; Razdan, Mohan K.

    2004-02-17

    A combustion system including a plurality of axially staged tubular premixers to control emissions and minimize combustion noise. The combustion system includes a radial inflow premixer that delivers the combustion mixture across a contoured dome into the combustion chamber. The axially staged premixers having a twist mixing apparatus to rotate the fluid flow and cause improved mixing without causing flow recirculation that could lead to pre-ignition or flashback.

  8. Reading Recovery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Joanna R., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This issue of the Arizona Reading Journal focuses on the theme "reading recovery" and includes the following articles: "Why Is an Inservice Programme for Reading Recovery Teachers Necessary?" (Marie M. Clay); "What Is Reading Recovery?" (Gay Su Pinnell); "Teaching a Hard To Teach Child" (Constance A.…

  9. Recovery of Technetium Adsorbed on Charcoal

    SciTech Connect

    Engelmann, Mark D.; Metz, Lori A.; Ballou, Nathan E.

    2006-05-01

    Two methods capable of near complete recovery of technetium adsorbed on charcoal are presented. The first involves liquid extraction of the technetium from the charcoal by hot 4M nitric acid. An average recovery of 98% (n=3) is obtained after three rounds of extraction. The second method involves dry ashing with air in a quartz combustion tube at 400-450 C. This method yields an average recovery of 96% (n=5). Other thermal methods were attempted, but resulted in reduced recovery and incomplete material balance

  10. Fluidized coal combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moynihan, P. I.; Young, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    Fluidized-bed coal combustion process, in which pulverized coal and limestone are burned in presence of forced air, may lead to efficient, reliable boilers with low sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide emissions.

  11. Recycling of coal combustion wastes.

    PubMed

    Oz, Derya; Koca, Sabina; Koca, Huseyin

    2009-05-01

    The separation of unburned carbon from coal-fired power plant bottom ashes was conducted in order to increase the possibility of the recycling of coal combustion wastes. A two-stage flotation technique was used for this study. In the rougher flotation experiments the amounts of collector, dispersant and frother, pulp density, pH, particle size distribution, flotation time and flotation temperature were tested as variables. After rougher flotation experiments, at optimum conditions, the carbon content of the concentrate increased from 13.85 to 51.54% at a carbon recovery of 54.54%. Under the same conditions, the carbon content was reduced to 4.54% at a weight yield of over 80% in the tailings fraction. This fraction meets the industrial specifications and can be utilized as a cement additive. After the cleaner flotation experiment the carbon content of the product was enhanced to 64.81% with a 52.16% carbon recovery. This fraction can be blended back into the coal feed to the power plant boilers.

  12. Beryllium particle combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prentice, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    A two-year study of the combustion efficiency of single beryllium droplets burning in a variety of oxidizers (primarily mixtures of oxygen/argon and oxygen/nitrogen) is summarized. An advanced laser heating technique was used to acquire systematic quantitative data on the burning of single beryllium droplets at atmospheric pressure. The research confirmed the sensitivity of beryllium droplet combustion to the chemistry of environmental species and provides experimental documentation for the nitrogen-induced droplet fragmentation of burning beryllium droplets.

  13. Coal combustion system

    DOEpatents

    Wilkes, Colin; Mongia, Hukam C.; Tramm, Peter C.

    1988-01-01

    In a coal combustion system suitable for a gas turbine engine, pulverized coal is transported to a rich zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio exceeding 1 at a temperature above the slagging temperature of the coal so that combustible hot gas and molten slag issue from the rich zone combustor. A coolant screen of water stretches across a throat of a quench stage and cools the combustible gas and molten slag to below the slagging temperature of the coal so that the slag freezes and shatters into small pellets. The pelletized slag is separated from the combustible gas in a first inertia separator. Residual ash is separated from the combustible gas in a second inertia separator. The combustible gas is mixed with secondary air in a lean zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio of less than 1 to produce hot gas motive at temperature above the coal slagging temperature. The motive fluid is cooled in a dilution stage to an acceptable turbine inlet temperature before being transported to the turbine.

  14. Experimental studies of thermal preparation of internal combustion engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karnaukhov, N. N.; Merdanov, Sh M.; V, Konev V.; Borodin, D. M.

    2018-05-01

    In conditions of autonomous functioning of road construction machines, it becomes necessary to use its internal sources. This can be done by using a heat recovery system of an internal combustion engine (ICE). For this purpose, it is proposed to use heat accumulators that accumulate heat of the internal combustion engine during the operation of the machine. Experimental studies have been carried out to evaluate the efficiency of using the proposed pre-start thermal preparation system, which combines a regular system based on liquid diesel fuel heaters and an ICE heat recovery system. As a result, the stages of operation of the preheating thermal preparation system, mathematical models and the dependence of the temperature change of the antifreeze at the exit from the internal combustion engine on the warm-up time are determined.

  15. Fiber-Supported Droplet Combustion Experiment-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colantonio, Renato O.

    1998-01-01

    A major portion of the energy produced in the world today comes from the burning of liquid hydrocarbon fuels in the form of droplets. Understanding the fundamental physical processes involved in droplet combustion is not only important in energy production but also in propulsion, in the mitigation of combustion-generated pollution, and in the control of the fire hazards associated with handling liquid combustibles. Microgravity makes spherically symmetric combustion possible, allowing investigators to easily validate their droplet models without the complicating effects of gravity. The Fiber-Supported Droplet Combustion (FSDC-2) investigation was conducted in the Microgravity Glovebox facility of the shuttles' Spacelab during the reflight of the Microgravity Science Laboratory (MSL- 1R) on STS-94 in July 1997. FSDC-2 studied fundamental phenomena related to liquid fuel droplet combustion in air. Pure fuels and mixtures of fuels were burned as isolated single and duo droplets with and without forced air convection. FSDC-2 is sponsored by the NASA Lewis Research Center, whose researchers are working in cooperation with several investigators from industry and academia. The rate at which a droplet burns is important in many commercial applications. The classical theory of droplet burning assumes that, for an isolated, spherically symmetric, single-fuel droplet, the gas-phase combustion processes are much faster than the droplet surface regression rate and that the liquid phase is at a uniform temperature equal to the boiling point. Recent, more advanced models predict that both the liquid and gas phases are unsteady during a substantial portion of the droplet's burning history, thus affecting the instantaneous and average burning rates, and that flame radiation is a dominant mechanism that can extinguish flames in a microgravity environment. FSDC-2 has provided well-defined, symmetric droplet burning data including radiative emissions to validate these theoretical

  16. Microgravity Combustion Diagnostics Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santoro, Gilbert J. (Editor); Greenberg, Paul S. (Editor); Piltch, Nancy D. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    Through the Microgravity Science and Applications Division (MSAD) of the Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) at NASA Headquarters, a program entitled, Advanced Technology Development (ATD) was promulgated with the objective of providing advanced technologies that will enable the development of future microgravity science and applications experimental flight hardware. Among the ATD projects one, Microgravity Combustion Diagnostics (MCD), has the objective of developing advanced diagnostic techniques and technologies to provide nonperturbing measurements of combustion characteristics and parameters that will enhance the scientific integrity and quality of microgravity combustion experiments. As part of the approach to this project, a workshop was held on July 28 and 29, 1987, at the NASA Lewis Research Center. A small group of laser combustion diagnosticians met with a group of microgravity combustion experimenters to discuss the science requirements, the state-of-the-art of laser diagnostic technology, and plan the direction for near-, intermediate-, and long-term programs. This publication describes the proceedings of that workshop.

  17. Transient flow combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tacina, R. R.

    1984-01-01

    Non-steady combustion problems can result from engine sources such as accelerations, decelerations, nozzle adjustments, augmentor ignition, and air perturbations into and out of the compressor. Also non-steady combustion can be generated internally from combustion instability or self-induced oscillations. A premixed-prevaporized combustor would be particularly sensitive to flow transients because of its susceptability to flashback-autoignition and blowout. An experimental program, the Transient Flow Combustion Study is in progress to study the effects of air and fuel flow transients on a premixed-prevaporized combustor. Preliminary tests performed at an inlet air temperature of 600 K, a reference velocity of 30 m/s, and a pressure of 700 kPa. The airflow was reduced to 1/3 of its original value in a 40 ms ramp before flashback occurred. Ramping the airflow up has shown that blowout is more sensitive than flashback to flow transients. Blowout occurred with a 25 percent increase in airflow (at a constant fuel-air ratio) in a 20 ms ramp. Combustion resonance was found at some conditions and may be important in determining the effects of flow transients.

  18. Advanced Subsonic Combustion Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Chi-Ming

    1998-01-01

    Researchers from the NASA Lewis Research Center have obtained the first combustion/emissions data under extreme future engine operating conditions. In Lewis' new world-class 60-atm combustor research facility--the Advanced Subsonic Combustion Rig (ASCR)--a flametube was used to conduct combustion experiments in environments as extreme as 900 psia and 3400 F. The greatest challenge for combustion researchers is the uncertainty of the effects of pressure on the formation of nitrogen oxides (NOx). Consequently, U.S. engine manufacturers are using these data to guide their future combustor designs. The flametube's metal housing has an inside diameter of 12 in. and a length of 10.5 in. The flametube can be used with a variety of different flow paths. Each flow path is lined with a high-temperature, castable refractory material (alumina) to minimize heat loss. Upstream of the flametube is the injector section, which has an inside diameter of 13 in. and a length of 0.5-in. It was designed to provide for quick changeovers. This flametube is being used to provide all U.S. engine manufacturers early assessments of advanced combustion concepts at full power conditions prior to engine production. To date, seven concepts from engine manufacturers have been evaluated and improved. This collaborated development can potentially give U.S. engine manufacturers the competitive advantage of being first in the market with advanced low-emission technologies.

  19. External combustion engine having a combustion expansion chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duva, Anthony W.

    1993-03-01

    This patent application discloses an external combustion engine having a combustion expansion chamber. The engine includes a combustion chamber for generating a high-pressure, energized gas from a monopropellant fuel, and a cylinder for receiving the energized gas through a rotary valve to perform work on a cylinder disposed therein. A baffle plate is positioned between the combustion area and expansion area for reducing the pressure of the gas. The combustion area and expansion area are separated by a baffle plate having a flow area which is sufficiently large to eliminate the transmission of pressure pulsations from the combustion area to the expansion area while being small enough to provide for substantially complete combustion in the combustion area. The engine is particularly well suited for use in a torpedo.

  20. Combustible structural composites and methods of forming combustible structural composites

    DOEpatents

    Daniels, Michael A [Idaho Falls, ID; Heaps, Ronald J [Idaho Falls, ID; Steffler, Eric D [Idaho Falls, ID; Swank, William D [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-08-30

    Combustible structural composites and methods of forming same are disclosed. In an embodiment, a combustible structural composite includes combustible material comprising a fuel metal and a metal oxide. The fuel metal is present in the combustible material at a weight ratio from 1:9 to 1:1 of the fuel metal to the metal oxide. The fuel metal and the metal oxide are capable of exothermically reacting upon application of energy at or above a threshold value to support self-sustaining combustion of the combustible material within the combustible structural composite. Structural-reinforcing fibers are present in the composite at a weight ratio from 1:20 to 10:1 of the structural-reinforcing fibers to the combustible material. Other embodiments and aspects are disclosed.

  1. Combustible structural composites and methods of forming combustible structural composites

    DOEpatents

    Daniels, Michael A.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Steffler, Eric D.; Swank, W. David

    2013-04-02

    Combustible structural composites and methods of forming same are disclosed. In an embodiment, a combustible structural composite includes combustible material comprising a fuel metal and a metal oxide. The fuel metal is present in the combustible material at a weight ratio from 1:9 to 1:1 of the fuel metal to the metal oxide. The fuel metal and the metal oxide are capable of exothermically reacting upon application of energy at or above a threshold value to support self-sustaining combustion of the combustible material within the combustible structural composite. Structural-reinforcing fibers are present in the composite at a weight ratio from 1:20 to 10:1 of the structural-reinforcing fibers to the combustible material. Other embodiments and aspects are disclosed.

  2. Combustion inorganic transformations

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, S.A.; Sweeny, P.G.; Abrahamson, H.B.

    1988-04-01

    The overall goal of the project is to develop a unified picture of the physical and chemical changes that occur in coal inorganic matter during combustion. The research is centered on two main tasks. Task 3.2A deals with the use of laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (LIFS) to study the release of sodium from various model compounds and coal during combustion in a flame. The vaporized or released sodium is considered to be an important factor in the formation of ash fouling deposits in full-scale utility boilers. Task 3.2B will study changes in the morphology and chemical associations of inorganic components inmore » coals during combustion in a drop-tube furnace designed to simulate the time-temperature profile of a pulverized coal-fired utility boiler. Results are described. 18 refs., 51 figs., 28 tabs.« less

  3. Droplet Combustion Experiment movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Droplet Combustion Experiment (DCE) was designed to investigate the fundamental combustion aspects of single, isolated droplets under different pressures and ambient oxygen concentrations for a range of droplet sizes varying between 2 and 5 mm. The DCE principal investigator was Forman Williams, University of California, San Diego. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1 mission (STS-83, April 4-8 1997; the shortened mission was reflown as MSL-1R on STS-94). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations plarned for the International Space Station. (1.1 MB, 12-second MPEG, screen 320 x 240 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available)A still JPG composite of this movie is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300164.html.

  4. Internal combustion engine

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Quentin A.; Mecredy, Henry E.; O'Neal, Glenn B.

    1991-01-01

    An improved engine is provided that more efficiently consumes difficult fuels such as coal slurries or powdered coal. The engine includes a precombustion chamber having a portion thereof formed by an ignition plug. The precombustion chamber is arranged so that when the piston is proximate the head, the precombustion chamber is sealed from the main cylinder or the main combustion chamber and when the piston is remote from the head, the precombustion chamber and main combustion chamber are in communication. The time for burning of fuel in the precombustion chamber can be regulated by the distance required to move the piston from the top dead center position to the position wherein the precombustion chamber and main combustion chamber are in communication.

  5. Ames Hybrid Combustion Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zilliac, Greg; Karabeyoglu, Mustafa A.; Cantwell, Brian; Hunt, Rusty; DeZilwa, Shane; Shoffstall, Mike; Soderman, Paul T.; Bencze, Daniel P. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The report summarizes the design, fabrication, safety features, environmental impact, and operation of the Ames Hybrid-Fuel Combustion Facility (HCF). The facility is used in conducting research into the scalability and combustion processes of advanced paraffin-based hybrid fuels for the purpose of assessing their applicability to practical rocket systems. The facility was designed to deliver gaseous oxygen at rates between 0.5 and 16.0 kg/sec to a combustion chamber operating at pressures ranging from 300 to 900. The required run times were of the order of 10 to 20 sec. The facility proved to be robust and reliable and has been used to generate a database of regression-rate measurements of paraffin at oxygen mass flux levels comparable to those of moderate-sized hybrid rocket motors.

  6. Thermodynamics and combustion modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeleznik, Frank J.

    1986-01-01

    Modeling fluid phase phenomena blends the conservation equations of continuum mechanics with the property equations of thermodynamics. The thermodynamic contribution becomes especially important when the phenomena involve chemical reactions as they do in combustion systems. The successful study of combustion processes requires (1) the availability of accurate thermodynamic properties for both the reactants and the products of reaction and (2) the computational capabilities to use the properties. A discussion is given of some aspects of the problem of estimating accurate thermodynamic properties both for reactants and products of reaction. Also, some examples of the use of thermodynamic properties for modeling chemically reacting systems are presented. These examples include one-dimensional flow systems and the internal combustion engine.

  7. A treatment schedule of conventional physical therapy provided to enhance upper limb sensorimotor recovery after stroke: expert criterion validity and intra-rater reliability.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, Catherine; Tallis, Raymond C; Pomeroy, Valerie M

    2009-06-01

    Inadequate description of treatment hampers progress in stroke rehabilitation. To develop a valid, reliable, standardised treatment schedule of conventional physical therapy provided for the paretic upper limb after stroke. Eleven neurophysiotherapists participated in the established methodology: semi-structured interviews, focus groups and piloting a draft treatment schedule in clinical practice. Different physiotherapists (n=13) used the treatment schedule to record treatment given to stroke patients with mild, moderate and severe upper limb paresis. Rating of adequacy of the treatment schedule was made using a visual analogue scale (0 to 100mm). Mean (95% confidence interval) visual analogue scores were calculated (expert criterion validity). For intra-rater reliability, each physiotherapist observed a video tape of their treatment and immediately completed a treatment schedule recording form on two separate occasions, 4 to 6 weeks apart. The Kappa statistic was calculated for intra-rater reliability. The treatment schedule consists of a one-page A4 recording form and a user booklet, detailing 50 treatment activities. Expert criterion validity was 79 (95% confidence interval 74 to 84). Intra-rater Kappa was 0.81 (P<0.001). This treatment schedule can be used to document conventional physical therapy in subsequent clinical trials in the geographical area of its development. Further work is needed to investigate generalisability beyond this geographical area.

  8. Distributed Low Temperature Combustion: Fundamental Understanding of Combustion Regime Transitions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-07

    AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2016-0021 Distributed Low Temperature Combustion 133024 Peter Lindstedt IMPERIAL COLLEGE OF SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY & MEDICINE Final...TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 01 Feb 2013 to 31 Jul 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Distributed Low Temperature Combustion: Fundamental...identification of five separate fluid states. 15. SUBJECT TERMS EOARD, Low Temperature Combustion, Combustion Regime Transitions 16. SECURITY

  9. Combustion Characteristics of Sprays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    Lin. T. H.. and Sohrab. S. H. (1987). On the transition oi’diffusion to premixed I’lames in consers.ed ssstem Cornhusio. Flume 68. 73. Mlizutani. Y ...and Nakauima. A. (1973a). Combustion of fuel vapor-drop-air systems: Part 1-Open burner flames. Combust. F/ante 21.14. Mizutani. Y .. and Nakajima. A...AFOSR LES Final Report. AFRPL. Sohrab. S. H.. Ye. Z. Y .. and Law~k C. K. (1984). An experimenial investication on ilame interaction ano the

  10. Synchronized smoldering combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikalsen, R. F.; Hagen, B. C.; Frette, V.

    2018-03-01

    Synchronized, pulsating temperatures are observed experimentally in smoldering fires. The entire sample volume (1.8 l) participates in the pulsations (pulse period 2–4 h). The synchrony lasts up to 25 h and is followed by a spontaneous transition to either disordered combustion or self-extinguishment. The synchronization is obtained when the fuel bed is cooled to the brink of extinguishment. Calculations for adiabatic conditions, including heat generation from combustion (nonlinear in temperature) and heat storage in sample (linear in temperature), predict diverging sample temperature. Experimentally, heat losses to surroundings (linear in temperature) prevent temperatures to increase without bounds and lead to pulsations.

  11. Thermal ignition combustion system

    DOEpatents

    Kamo, R.; Kakwani, R.M.; Valdmanis, E.; Woods, M.E.

    1988-04-19

    The thermal ignition combustion system comprises means for providing walls defining an ignition chamber, the walls being made of a material having a thermal conductivity greater than 20 W/m C and a specific heat greater than 480 J/kg C with the ignition chamber being in constant communication with the main combustion chamber, means for maintaining the temperature of the walls above a threshold temperature capable of causing ignition of a fuel, and means for conducting fuel to the ignition chamber. 8 figs.

  12. Thermal ignition combustion system

    DOEpatents

    Kamo, Roy; Kakwani, Ramesh M.; Valdmanis, Edgars; Woods, Melvins E.

    1988-01-01

    The thermal ignition combustion system comprises means for providing walls defining an ignition chamber, the walls being made of a material having a thermal conductivity greater than 20 W/m.degree. C. and a specific heat greater than 480 J/kg.degree. C. with the ignition chamber being in constant communication with the main combustion chamber, means for maintaining the temperature of the walls above a threshold temperature capable of causing ignition of a fuel, and means for conducting fuel to the ignition chamber.

  13. Transition nozzle combustion system

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Won-Wook; McMahan, Kevin Weston; Maldonado, Jaime Javier

    The present application provides a combustion system for use with a cooling flow. The combustion system may include a head end, an aft end, a transition nozzle extending from the head end to the aft end, and an impingement sleeve surrounding the transition nozzle. The impingement sleeve may define a first cavity in communication with the head end for a first portion of the cooling flow and a second cavity in communication with the aft end for a second portion of the cooling flow. The transition nozzle may include a number of cooling holes thereon in communication with the secondmore » portion of the cooling flow.« less

  14. High Gravity (g) Combustion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    UNICORN (Unsteady Ignition and Combustion with Reactions) code10. Flame propagation in a tube that is 50-mm wide and 1000-mm long (similar to that...turbine engine manufacturers, estimating the primary zone space heating rate. Both combustion systems, from Company A and Company B, required a much...MBTU/atm-hr-ft3) Te m pe ra tu re R is e (K ) dP/P = 2% dP/P = 2.5% dP/P = 3% dP/P = 3.5% dP/P = 4% Company A Company B Figure 13: Heat Release Rate

  15. Recovery Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, John R.

    2007-01-01

    Since the founding of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) in 1935, programs offering opportunity for recovery from alcoholism and other addictions have undergone vast changes. The Internet has created nearly limitless opportunities for recovering people and those seeking recovery to find both meetings and places where they can gather virtually and discuss…

  16. Citizenship and recovery: two intertwined concepts for civic-recovery.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Jean-François; Corbière, Marc; Lecomte, Tania; Briand, Catherine; Corrigan, Patrick; Davidson, Larry; Rowe, Michael

    2015-03-04

    Validation of the psychometric properties of a new measure of citizenship was required for a research project in the province of Quebec, Canada. This study was meant to study the interplay between recovery- and citizenship-oriented supportive employment. As recovery and citizenship were expected to be two related concepts, convergent validity between the Citizenship Measure (CM) and the Recovery Assessment Scale (RAS) was tested. Study objectives were to: 1) conduct exploratory factor analyses on the CM and confirmatory factor analysis on the RAS tools (construct validity), 2) calculate Cronbach's alphas for each dimension emerging from objective 1 (reliability), and 3) calculate correlations between all dimensions from both tools (convergent validity). Data were collected from 174 individuals with serious mental illness, working in social firms. Serious mental illnesses include major depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, panic disorder, post traumatic stress disorder and borderline personality disorder. Five factors emerged from the exploratory factor analysis of the CM, with good reliability. Confirmatory factor analyses showed that the short and the long versions of the RAS present satisfactory results. Finally, the correlation matrix indicated that all dimensions from both tools are significantly correlated, thus confirming their convergent validity. This study confirms the validity and reliability of two tools, CM and RAS. These tools can be used in combination to assess citizenship and recovery, both of which may be combined in the new concept of civic-recovery.

  17. Heat regenerative external combustion engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duva, Anthony W.

    1993-03-01

    It is an object of the invention to provide an external combustion expander-type engine having improved efficiency. It is another object of the invention to provide an external combustion engine in which afterburning in the exhaust channel is substantially prevented. Yet another object of the invention is to provide an external combustion engine which is less noisy than an external combustion engine of conventional design. These and other objects of the invention will become more apparent from the following description. The above objects of the invention are realized by providing a heat regenerative external combustion engine. The heat regenerative external combustion engine of the invention comprises a combustion chamber for combusting a monopropellant fuel in order to form an energized gas. The energized gas is then passed through a rotary valve to a cylinder having a reciprocating piston disposed therein. The gas is spent in moving the piston, thereby driving a drive shaft.

  18. Toxicology of Biodiesel Combustion products

    EPA Science Inventory

    1. Introduction The toxicology of combusted biodiesel is an emerging field. Much of the current knowledge about biological responses and health effects stems from studies of exposures to other fuel sources (typically petroleum diesel, gasoline, and wood) incompletely combusted. ...

  19. Combuster. [low nitrogen oxide formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, R. A. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A combuster is provided for utilizing a combustible mixture containing fuel and air, to heat a load fluid such as water or air, in a manner that minimizes the formation of nitrogen oxide. The combustible mixture passes through a small diameter tube where the mixture is heated to its combustion temperature, while the load fluid flows past the outside of the tube to receive heat. The tube is of a diameter small enough that the combustible mixture cannot form a flame, and yet is not subject to wall quench, so that combustion occurs, but at a temperature less than under free flame conditions. Most of the heat required for heating the combustible mixture to its combustion temperature, is obtained from heat flow through the walls of the pipe to the mixture.

  20. A Combustion Laboratory for Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, James E.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a combustion laboratory facility and experiments for a senior-level (undergraduate) course in mechanical engineering. The experiment reinforces basic thermodynamic concepts and provides many students with their first opportunity to work with a combustion system. (DH)

  1. Pulse enhanced fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, B.

    1996-12-31

    Information is outlined on pulse enhanced fluidized bed combustion. The following topics are discussed: what is pulse enhanced fluidized bed combustion?; pulse combustors; pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustor (PAFBC); advantages of PAFBC; performance advantages; PAFBC facts; and PAFBC contact points.

  2. Validity of inner canthus temperature recorded by infrared thermography as a non-invasive surrogate measure for core temperature at rest, during exercise and recovery.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Alex Andrade; Moreira, Danilo Gomes; Brito, Ciro José; da Silva, Cristiano Diniz; Sillero-Quintana, Manuel; Pimenta, Eduardo Mendonça; Bach, Aaron J E; Garcia, Emerson Silami; Bouzas Marins, João Carlos

    2016-12-01

    Research into obtaining a fast, valid, reliable and non-invasive measure of core temperature is of interest in many disciplinary fields. Occupational and sports medicine research has attempted to determine a non-invasive proxy for core temperature particularly when access to participants is limited and thermal safety is of a concern due to protective encapsulating clothing, hot ambient environments and/or high endogenous heat production during athletic competition. This investigation aimed to determine the validity of inner canthus of the eye temperature (T EC ) as an alternate non-invasive measure of intestinal core temperature (T C ) during rest, exercise and post-exercise conditions. Twelve physically active males rested for 30min prior to exercise, performed 60min of aerobic exercise at 60% V̇O 2max and passively recovered a further 60min post-exercise. T EC and T C were measured at 5min intervals during each condition. Mean differences between T EC and T C were 0.61°C during pre-exercise, -1.78°C during exercise and -1.00°C during post-exercise. The reliability between the methods was low in the pre-exercise (ICC=0.49 [-0.09 to 0.82]), exercise (ICC=-0.14 [-0.65 to 0.44]) and post-exercise (ICC=-0.25 [-0.70 to 0.35]) conditions. In conclusion, poor agreement was observed between the T EC values measured through IRT and T C measured through a gastrointestinal telemetry pill. Therefore, T EC is not a valid substitute measurement to gastrointestinal telemetry pill in sports and exercise science settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Radiation/Catalytic Augmented Combustion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-01

    interest to compare the experimental results for the solid bluff body with a thuoretical result. Using simple argtinieiiLs from fluid mechanics " one...responsibility through completion. Dr. A. E. Cerkanowlcz assisted in writing this final report. Experimental studies on catalytic augmented combustion...as well as with other combustion species, lead to ignition and sustained combustion via chain reactions. Simple combustion enhancement without

  4. Gasoline Combustion Fundamentals DOE FY17 Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ekoto, Isaac W.

    Advanced automotive gasoline engines that leverage a combination of reduced heat transfer, throttling, and mechanical losses; shorter combustion durations; and higher compression and mixture specific heat ratios are needed to meet aggressive DOE VTP fuel economy and pollutant emission targets. Central challenges include poor combustion stability at low-power conditions when large amounts of charge dilution are introduced and high sensitivity of conventional inductive coil ignition systems to elevated charge motion and density for boosted high-load operation. For conventional spark ignited operation, novel low-temperature plasma (LTP) or pre-chamber based ignition systems can improve dilution tolerances while maintaining good performance characteristics atmore » elevated charge densities. Moreover, these igniters can improve the control of advanced compression ignition (ACI) strategies for gasoline at low to moderate loads. The overarching research objective of the Gasoline Combustion Fundamentals project is to investigate phenomenological aspects related to enhanced ignition. The objective is accomplished through targeted experiments performed in a single-cylinder optically accessible research engine or an in-house developed optically accessible spark calorimeter (OASC). In situ optical diagnostics and ex situ gas sampling measurements are performed to elucidate important details of ignition and combustion processes. Measurements are further used to develop and validate complementary high-fidelity ignition simulations. The primary project audience is automotive manufacturers, Tier 1 suppliers, and technology startups—close cooperation has resulted in the development and execution of project objectives that address crucial mid- to long-range research challenges.« less

  5. Metals combustion in normal gravity and microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, Theodore A.; Wilson, D. Bruce; Benz, Frank J.

    1993-01-01

    The study of the combustion characteristics of metallic materials has been an ongoing area of research at the NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF). This research has been in support of both government and industrial operations and deals not only with the combustion of specific metallic materials but also with the relative flammabilities of these materials under similar conditions. Since many of the metallic materials that are characterized at WSTF for aerospace applications are to be used in microgravity environments, it was apparent that the testing of these materials needed to proceed in a microgravity environment. It was believed that burning metallic materials in a microgravity environment would allow the evaluation of the validity of applying normal gravity combustion tests to characterize metallic materials to be used in microgravity environments. It was also anticipated that microgravity testing would provide insight into the general combustion process of metallic materials. The availability of the NASA Lewis Research Center's (LeRC) 2.2-second drop tower provided the necessary facility to accomplish the microgravity portion of the testing while the normal gravity testing was conducted at NASA WSTF. The tests, both at LeRC and WSTF, were conducted in the same instrumented system and utilized the standard metal flammability test of upward propagation burning of cylindrical rod samples.

  6. Droplet Combustion Experiment Operates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Fuel ignites and burns in the Droplet Combustion Experiment (DCE) on STS-94 on July 12, 1997, MET:11/07:00 (approximate). DCE used various fuels -- in drops ranging from 1 mm (0.04 inches) to 5 mm (0.2 inches) -- and mixtures of oxidizers and inert gases to learn more about the physics of combustion in the simplest burning configuration, a sphere. The DCE was designed to investigate the fundamental combustion aspects of single, isolated droplets under different pressures and ambient oxygen concentrations for a range of droplet sizes varying between 2 and 5 mm. The experiment elapsed time is shown at the bottom of the composite image. The DCE principal investigator was Forman Williams, University of California, San Diego. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations plarned for the International Space Station. (119KB JPEG, 658 x 982 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) The MPG from which this composite was made is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300171.html.

  7. WASTE COMBUSTION SYSTEM ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of biomass combustion alternatives. The objective was to evaluate the thermal performance and costs of available and developing biomass systems. The characteristics of available biomass fuels were reviewed, and the performance parameters of alt...

  8. Monopropellant combustion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, Gerald R. (Inventor); Mueller, Donn C. (Inventor); Parish, Mark W. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An apparatus and method are provided for decomposition of a propellant. The propellant includes an ionic salt and an additional fuel. Means are provided for decomposing a major portion of the ionic salt. Means are provided for combusting the additional fuel and decomposition products of the ionic salt.

  9. Combustible dust tests

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The sugar dust explosion in Georgia on February 7, 2008 killed 14 workers and injured many others (OSHA, 2009). As a consequence of this explosion, OSHA revised its Combustible Dust National Emphasis (NEP) program. The NEP targets 64 industries with more than 1,000 inspections and has found more tha...

  10. Nonlinear Combustion Instability Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flandro, Gary

    2010-01-01

    The liquid rocket engine stability prediction software (LCI) predicts combustion stability of systems using LOX-LH2 propellants. Both longitudinal and transverse mode stability characteristics are calculated. This software has the unique feature of being able to predict system limit amplitude.

  11. Supersonic Combustion Ramjet Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    was in collaboration with Prof. R. Bowersox (Texas A&M University) and Dr. K. Kobayashi ( Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency, JAXA). 4.2 Ignition... cinema stereoscopic PIV system for the measurement of micro- and meso-scale turbulent premixed flame dynamics,” Paper B13, 5th US Combustion

  12. Combustion Fundamentals Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The various physical processes that occur in the gas turbine combustor and the development of analytical models that accurately describe these processes are discussed. Aspects covered include fuel sprays; fluid mixing; combustion dynamics; radiation and chemistry and numeric techniques which can be applied to highly turbulent, recirculating, reacting flow fields.

  13. Enhanced oil recovery system

    DOEpatents

    Goldsberry, Fred L.

    1989-01-01

    All energy resources available from a geopressured geothermal reservoir are used for the production of pipeline quality gas using a high pressure separator/heat exchanger and a membrane separator, and recovering waste gas from both the membrane separator and a low pressure separator in tandem with the high pressure separator for use in enhanced oil recovery, or in powering a gas engine and turbine set. Liquid hydrocarbons are skimmed off the top of geothermal brine in the low pressure separator. High pressure brine from the geothermal well is used to drive a turbine/generator set before recovering waste gas in the first separator. Another turbine/generator set is provided in a supercritical binary power plant that uses propane as a working fluid in a closed cycle, and uses exhaust heat from the combustion engine and geothermal energy of the brine in the separator/heat exchanger to heat the propane.

  14. Reversed flow fluidized-bed combustion apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Shang, Jer-Yu; Mei, Joseph S.; Wilson, John S.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a fluidized-bed combustion apparatus provided with a U-shaped combustion zone. A cyclone is disposed in the combustion zone for recycling solid particulate material. The combustion zone configuration and the recycling feature provide relatively long residence times and low freeboard heights to maximize combustion of combustible material, reduce nitrogen oxides, and enhance sulfur oxide reduction.

  15. Assessment of thermal efficiency of heat recovery coke making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, H. P.; Saxena, V. K.; Haldar, S. K.; Sriramoju, S. K.

    2017-08-01

    The heat recovery stamp charge coke making process is quite complicated due to the evolved volatile matter during coking, is partially combusted in oven crown and sole flue in a controlled manner to provide heat for producing metallurgical coke. Therefore, the control and efficient utilization of heat in the oven crown, and sole flue is difficult, which directly affects the operational efficiency. Considering the complexity and importance of thermal efficiency, evolution of different gases, combustion of gasses in oven crown and sole flue, and heating process of coke oven has been studied. A nonlinear regression methodology was used to predict temperature profile of different depth of coal cake during the coking. It was observed that the predicted temperature profile is in good agreement with the actual temperature profile (R2 = 0.98) and is validated with the actual temperature profile of other ovens. A complete study is being done to calculate the material balance, heat balance, and heat losses. This gives an overall understanding of heat flow which affects the heat penetration into the coal cake. The study confirms that 60% heat was utilized during coking.

  16. Recovery definitions: Do they change?

    PubMed Central

    Kaskutas, Lee Ann; Witbrodt, Jane; Grella, Christine E.

    2015-01-01

    Background The term “recovery” is widely used in the substance abuse literature and clinical settings, but data have not been available to empirically validate how recovery is defined by individuals who are themselves in recovery. The “What Is Recovery?” project developed a 39-item definition of recovery based on a large nationwide online survey of individuals in recovery. The objective of this paper is to report on the stability of those definitions one to two years later. Methods To obtain a sample for studying recovery definitions that reflected the different pathways to recovery, the parent study involved intensive outreach. Follow-up interviews (n = 1237) were conducted online and by telephone among respondents who consented to participate in follow-up studies. Descriptive analyses considered endorsement of individual recovery items at both surveys, and t-tests of summary scores studied significant change in the sample overall and among key subgroups. To assess item reliability, Cronbach’s alpha was estimated. Results Rates of endorsement of individual items at both interviews was above 90% for a majority of the recovery elements, and there was about as much transition into endorsement as out of endorsement. Statistically significant t-test scores were of modest magnitude, and reliability statistics were high (ranging from .782 to .899). Conclusions Longitudinal analyses found little evidence of meaningful change in recovery definitions at follow-up. Results thus suggest that the recovery definitions developed in the parent “What Is Recovery?” survey represent stable definitions of recovery that can be used to guide service provision in Recovery-Oriented Systems of Care. PMID:26166666

  17. Recovery Efficiency, False Negative Rate, and Limit of Detection Performance of a Validated Macrofoam-Swab Sampling Method with Low Surface Concentrations of Two Bacillus anthracis Surrogates

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Hutchison, Janine R.; Kaiser, Brooke L. D.

    The performance of a macrofoam-swab sampling method was evaluated using Bacillus anthracis Sterne (BAS) and Bacillus atrophaeus Nakamura (BG) spores applied at nine low target amounts (2-500 spores) to positive-control plates and test coupons (2 in × 2 in) of four surface materials (glass, stainless steel, vinyl tile, and plastic). Test results from cultured samples were used to evaluate the effects of surrogate, surface concentration, and surface material on recovery efficiency (RE), false negative rate (FNR), and limit of detection. For RE, surrogate and surface material had statistically significant effects, but concentration did not. Mean REs were the lowest formore » vinyl tile (50.8% with BAS, 40.2% with BG) and the highest for glass (92.8% with BAS, 71.4% with BG). FNR values ranged from 0 to 0.833 for BAS and 0 to 0.806 for BG, with values increasing as concentration decreased in the range tested (0.078 to 19.375 CFU/cm2, where CFU denotes ‘colony forming units’). Surface material also had a statistically significant effect. A FNR-concentration curve was fit for each combination of surrogate and surface material. For both surrogates, the FNR curves tended to be the lowest for glass and highest for vinyl title. The FNR curves for BG tended to be higher than for BAS at lower concentrations, especially for glass. Results using a modified Rapid Viability-Polymerase Chain Reaction (mRV-PCR) analysis method were also obtained. The mRV-PCR results and comparisons to the culture results are discussed in a separate report.« less

  18. Recovery Efficiency, False Negative Rate, and Limit of Detection Performance of a Validated Macrofoam-Swab Sampling Method with Low Surface Concentrations of Two Bacillus anthracis Surrogates

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Hutchison, Janine R.; Deatherage Kaiser, Brooke L

    The performance of a macrofoam-swab sampling method was evaluated using Bacillus anthracis Sterne (BAS) and Bacillus atrophaeus Nakamura (BG) spores applied at nine low target amounts (2-500 spores) to positive-control plates and test coupons (2 in. × 2 in.) of four surface materials (glass, stainless steel, vinyl tile, and plastic). Test results from cultured samples were used to evaluate the effects of surrogate, surface concentration, and surface material on recovery efficiency (RE), false negative rate (FNR), and limit of detection. For RE, surrogate and surface material had statistically significant effects, but concentration did not. Mean REs were the lowest formore » vinyl tile (50.8% with BAS, 40.2% with BG) and the highest for glass (92.8% with BAS, 71.4% with BG). FNR values ranged from 0 to 0.833 for BAS and 0 to 0.806 for BG, with values increasing as concentration decreased in the range tested (0.078 to 19.375 CFU/cm 2, where CFU denotes ‘colony forming units’). Surface material also had a statistically significant effect. A FNR-concentration curve was fit for each combination of surrogate and surface material. For both surrogates, the FNR curves tended to be the lowest for glass and highest for vinyl title. The FNR curves for BG tended to be higher than for BAS at lower concentrations, especially for glass. Results using a modified Rapid Viability-Polymerase Chain Reaction (mRV-PCR) analysis method were also obtained. The mRV-PCR results and comparisons to the culture results will be discussed in a subsequent report.« less

  19. Low emission internal combustion engine

    DOEpatents

    Karaba, Albert M.

    1979-01-01

    A low emission, internal combustion compression ignition engine having a cylinder, a piston movable in the cylinder and a pre-combustion chamber communicating with the cylinder near the top thereof and in which low emissions of NO.sub.x are achieved by constructing the pre-combustion chamber to have a volume of between 70% and 85% of the combined pre-chamber and main combustion chamber volume when the piston is at top dead center and by variably controlling the initiation of fuel injection into the pre-combustion chamber.

  20. Combustion method for assay of biological materials labeled with carbon-14 or tritium, or double-labeled

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huebner, L. G.; Kisieleski, W. E.

    1969-01-01

    Dry catalytic combustion at high temperatures is used for assaying biological materials labeled carbon-14 and tritium, or double-labeled. A modified oxygen-flask technique is combined with standard vacuum-line techniques and includes convenience of direct in-vial collection of final combustion products, giving quantitative recovery of tritium and carbon-14.

  1. Fuel-Air Mixing and Combustion in Scramjets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, J. P.; Diskin, Glenn S.; Cutler, A. D.

    2002-01-01

    Activities in the area of scramjet fuel-air mixing and combustion associated with the Research and Technology Organization Working Group on Technologies for Propelled Hypersonic Flight are described. Work discussed in this paper has centered on the design of two basic experiments for studying the mixing and combustion of fuel and air in a scramjet. Simulations were conducted to aid in the design of these experiments. The experimental models were then constructed, and data were collected in the laboratory. Comparison of the data from a coaxial jet mixing experiment and a supersonic combustor experiment with a combustor code were then made and described. This work was conducted by NATO to validate combustion codes currently employed in scramjet design and to aid in the development of improved turbulence and combustion models employed by the codes.

  2. Combustion of Gaseous Mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duchene, R

    1932-01-01

    This report not only presents matters of practical importance in the classification of engine fuels, for which other means have proved inadequate, but also makes a few suggestions. It confirms the results of Withrow and Boyd which localize the explosive wave in the last portions of the mixture burned. This being the case, it may be assumed that the greater the normal combustion, the less the energy developed in the explosive form. In order to combat the detonation, it is therefore necessary to try to render the normal combustion swift and complete, as produced in carbureted mixtures containing benzene (benzol), in which the flame propagation, beginning at the spark, yields a progressive and pronounced darkening on the photographic film.

  3. Combustion engine system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houseman, John (Inventor); Voecks, Gerald E. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A flow through catalytic reactor which selectively catalytically decomposes methanol into a soot free hydrogen rich product gas utilizing engine exhaust at temperatures of 200 to 650 C to provide the heat for vaporizing and decomposing the methanol is described. The reactor is combined with either a spark ignited or compression ignited internal combustion engine or a gas turbine to provide a combustion engine system. The system may be fueled entirely by the hydrogen rich gas produced in the methanol decomposition reactor or the system may be operated on mixed fuels for transient power gain and for cold start of the engine system. The reactor includes a decomposition zone formed by a plurality of elongated cylinders which contain a body of vapor permeable, methanol decomposition catalyst preferably a shift catalyst such as copper-zinc.

  4. Measurement and analysis of combustion response to transverse combustion instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomeroy, Brian R.

    This research aimed to gain a better understanding of the response of a gas-centered swirl coaxial injector to transverse combustion instability. The goals of the research were to develop a combustion chamber that would be able to spontaneously produce transverse combustion instability at elevated pressures and temperatures. Methods were also developed to analyze high-speed video images to understand the response of the injector. A combustion chamber was designed that produced high levels of instabilities. The chamber was capable of pressures as high as 1034 kPa (150 psi) and operated using decomposed 90% hydrogen peroxide and JP-8. The chamber used an array of seven gas-centered swirl coaxial injectors that exhibited linear instability to drive the transverse oscillations. The injector elements would operate in a monopropellant configuration flowing only decomposed hydrogen peroxide or in a bipropellant configuration. The location of the bipropellant injectors could be varied to change the level of the instability in the chamber from 10% of the chamber pressure up to 70% of the chamber pressure. A study element was placed in the center of the chamber where it was observed simultaneously by two high-speed video cameras which recorded a backlit video to show the location of the fuel spray and the location of the emitted CH* chemiluminescence. The videos were synchronized with high frequency pressure measurements to gain a full understanding of the physics in the combustion chamber. Results showed that the study element was coupled with the first mode velocity wave. This was expected due to the first mode velocity anti-node being located in the center of the chamber. The velocity is an absolute maximum twice during each cycle so the coupling with the second mode pressure was also investigated showing a possible coupling with both the velocity and pressure. The results of the first mode velocity showed that, as the velocity wave traveled through the chamber, the fuel

  5. Spontaneous combustion of hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nusselt, Wilhelm; Pothmann, PH

    1923-01-01

    It is shown by the author's experiments that hydrogen which escapes to the atmosphere through openings in the system may burn spontaneously if it contains dust. Purely thermal reasoning can not account for the combustion. It seems to be rather an electrical ignition. In order to determine whether the cause of the spontaneous ignition was thermo-chemical, thermo-mechanical, or thermo-electrical, the experiments in this paper were performed.

  6. Lithium Combustion: A Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    42) that is brighter than any of the other alkali metal fires (Reference 36). Combustion of lithium is accompanied by emission of dense, white, opaque...extinguishing alkali metal fires (Reference 64). Application of an inert gas such as argon to a well-established lithium fire was found to be...extinguishers be used against alkali metal fires (References 1, 64); water reacts with explosive violence with alkali metals (References 35, 36). In an

  7. Combustion powered linear actuator

    DOEpatents

    Fischer, Gary J.

    2007-09-04

    The present invention provides robotic vehicles having wheeled and hopping mobilities that are capable of traversing (e.g. by hopping over) obstacles that are large in size relative to the robot and, are capable of operation in unpredictable terrain over long range. The present invention further provides combustion powered linear actuators, which can include latching mechanisms to facilitate pressurized fueling of the actuators, as can be used to provide wheeled vehicles with a hopping mobility.

  8. Combustible Cartridge Case Characterization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    Latex 241 * Nitrocellulose and Kraft /fibers National Starch Resin 78-3730 The beater additive process for manufacturing combustible cartridge cases *is... Kraft Fibers The Kraft fibers were received as sheets weighing approximately 1.3 lb each. The moisture content of the sheets varied from 6 to 7-1/2... Kraft fibers was incorporated into each batch. Resins The resins were supplied as a water emulsion with nominally 50 percent solids. Samples of each

  9. Spray combustion modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellan, J.

    1997-01-01

    Concern over the future availability of high quality liquid fuels or use in furnaces and boilers prompted the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) to consider alternate fuels as replacements for the high grade liquid fuels used in the 1970's and 1980's. Alternate fuels were defined to be combinations of a large percentage of viscous, low volatility fuels resulting from the low end of distillation mixed with a small percentage of relatively low viscosity, high volatility fuels yielded by the high end of distillation. The addition of high volatility fuels was meant to promote desirable characteristics to a fuel that would otherwise be difficult to atomize and burn and whose combustion would yield a high amount of pollutants. Several questions thus needed to be answered before alternate fuels became commercially viable. These questions were related to fuel atomization, evaporation, ignition, combustion and pollutant formation. This final report describes the results of the most significant studies on ignition and combustion of alternative fuels.

  10. Internal combustion engine using premixed combustion of stratified charges

    DOEpatents

    Marriott, Craig D [Rochester Hills, MI; Reitz, Rolf D [Madison, WI

    2003-12-30

    During a combustion cycle, a first stoichiometrically lean fuel charge is injected well prior to top dead center, preferably during the intake stroke. This first fuel charge is substantially mixed with the combustion chamber air during subsequent motion of the piston towards top dead center. A subsequent fuel charge is then injected prior to top dead center to create a stratified, locally richer mixture (but still leaner than stoichiometric) within the combustion chamber. The locally rich region within the combustion chamber has sufficient fuel density to autoignite, and its self-ignition serves to activate ignition for the lean mixture existing within the remainder of the combustion chamber. Because the mixture within the combustion chamber is overall premixed and relatively lean, NO.sub.x and soot production are significantly diminished.

  11. Flashback Detection Sensor for Hydrogen Augmented Natural Gas Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, J.D.; Chorpening, B.T.; Sidwell, T.

    2007-05-01

    The use of hydrogen augmented fuel is being investigated by various researchers as a method to extend the lean operating limit, and potentially reduce thermal NOx formation in natural gas fired lean premixed (LPM) combustion systems. The resulting increase in flame speed during hydrogen augmentation, however, increases the propensity for flashback in LPM systems. Real-time in-situ monitoring of flashback is important for the development of control strategies for use of hydrogen augmented fuel in state-of-the-art combustion systems, and for the development of advanced hydrogen combustion systems. The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and Woodward Industrial Controls are developing a combustionmore » control and diagnostics sensor (CCADS), which has already been demonstrated as a useful sensor for in-situ monitoring of natural gas combustion, including detection of important combustion events such as flashback and lean blowoff. Since CCADS is a flame ionization sensor technique, the low ion concentration produced in pure hydrogen combustion raises concerns of whether CCADS can be used to monitor flashback in hydrogen augmented combustion. This paper discusses CCADS tests conducted at 0.2-0.6 MPa (2-6 atm), demonstrating flashback detection with fuel compositions up to 80% hydrogen (by volume) mixed with natural gas. NETL’s Simulation Validation (SimVal) combustor offers full optical access to pressurized combustion during these tests. The CCADS data and high-speed video show the reaction zone moves upstream into the nozzle as the hydrogen fuel concentration increases, as is expected with the increased flame speed of the mixture. The CCADS data and video also demonstrate the opportunity for using CCADS to provide the necessary in-situ monitor to control flashback and lean blowoff in hydrogen augmented combustion applications.« less

  12. Comparison of gas chromatography-combustion-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-flame ionization detector for the determination of fatty acid methyl esters in biodiesel without specific standards.

    PubMed

    Sobrado, Laura Alonso; Freije-Carrelo, Laura; Moldovan, Mariella; Encinar, Jorge Ruiz; Alonso, J Ignacio García

    2016-07-29

    GC-FID has been effectively used as a universal quantification technique for volatile organic compounds for a long time. In most cases, the use of the ECN allows for quantification by GC-FID without external calibration using only the response of a single internal standard. In this paper we compare the performance characteristics of GC-FID with those of post-column (13)C Isotope Dilution GC-Combustion-MS for the absolute quantification of organic compounds without the need for individual standards. For this comparison we have selected the quantification of FAMEs in biodiesel. The selection of the right internal standard was critical for GC-FID even when ECN were considered. On the other hand, the nature of the internal standard was not relevant when GC-Combustion-MS was employed. The proposed method was validated with the analysis of the certified reference material SRM 2772 and comparative data was obtained on real biodiesel samples. The analysis of the SRM 2772 biodiesel provided recoveries in the range 100.6-103.5% and 96.4-103.6% for GC-combustion-MS and GC-FID, respectively. The detection limit for GC-combustion-MS was found to be 4.2ng compound/g of injected sample. In conclusion, the quantitative performance of GC-Combustion-MS compared satisfactorily with that of GC-FID constituting a viable alternative for the quantification of organic compounds without the need for individual standards. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Rotating Detonation Combustion: A Computational Study for Stationary Power Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobar, Sergio

    The increased availability of gaseous fossil fuels in The US has led to the substantial growth of stationary Gas Turbine (GT) usage for electrical power generation. In fact, from 2013 to 2104, out of the 11 Tera Watts-hour per day produced from fossil fuels, approximately 27% was generated through the combustion of natural gas in stationary GT. The thermodynamic efficiency for simple-cycle GT has increased from 20% to 40% during the last six decades, mainly due to research and development in the fields of combustion science, material science and machine design. However, additional improvements have become more costly and more difficult to obtain as technology is further refined. An alternative to improve GT thermal efficiency is the implementation of a combustion regime leading to pressure-gain; rather than pressure loss across the combustor. One concept being considered for such purpose is Rotating Detonation Combustion (RDC). RDC refers to a combustion regime in which a detonation wave propagates continuously in the azimuthal direction of a cylindrical annular chamber. In RDC, the fuel and oxidizer, injected from separated streams, are mixed near the injection plane and are then consumed by the detonation front traveling inside the annular gap of the combustion chamber. The detonation products then expand in the azimuthal and axial direction away from the detonation front and exit through the combustion chamber outlet. In the present study Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is used to predict the performance of Rotating Detonation Combustion (RDC) at operating conditions relevant to GT applications. As part of this study, a modeling strategy for RDC simulations was developed. The validation of the model was performed using benchmark cases with different levels of complexity. First, 2D simulations of non-reactive shock tube and detonation tubes were performed. The numerical predictions that were obtained using different modeling parameters were compared with

  14. Energy Conversion and Combustion Sciences

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-08

    Rotational /Continuous Detonation • Only Single Initiation needed (Circumvent Initiation/DDT difficulty/loss in PDE ) • 10-100x cycle rate increase • Near...new fuels: 1. Rotational or Continuous Detonation (intense/concentrated combustion); 2. Flameless combustion (distributed combustion process...Steady Exit Flow *CFD Courtesy of NRL Rotational Detonation : (PI: Schauer, AFRL/RZ, working with NRL) Rotational Approach Allows Continuous

  15. Group Combustion Module (GCM) Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-27

    ISS049e011638 (09/27/2016) --- Expedition 49 crewmember Takuya Onishi of JAXA works on the setup of the Group Combustion Module (GCM) inside the Japanese Experiment Module. The GCM will be used to house the Group Combustion experiment from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) to test a theory that fuel sprays change from partial to group combustion as flames spread across a cloud of droplets.

  16. Microgravity Smoldering Combustion Takes Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Microgravity Smoldering Combustion (MSC) experiment lifted off aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour in September 1995 on the STS-69 mission. This experiment is part of series of studies focused on the smolder characteristics of porous, combustible materials in a microgravity environment. Smoldering is a nonflaming form of combustion that takes place in the interior of combustible materials. Common examples of smoldering are nonflaming embers, charcoal briquettes, and cigarettes. The objective of the study is to provide a better understanding of the controlling mechanisms of smoldering, both in microgravity and Earth gravity. As with other forms of combustion, gravity affects the availability of air and the transport of heat, and therefore, the rate of combustion. Results of the microgravity experiments will be compared with identical experiments carried out in Earth's gravity. They also will be used to verify present theories of smoldering combustion and will provide new insights into the process of smoldering combustion, enhancing our fundamental understanding of this frequently encountered combustion process and guiding improvement in fire safety practices.

  17. SOLID PROPELLANT COMBUSTION MECHANISM STUDIES.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    SOLID ROCKET PROPELLANTS, BURNING RATE), LOW PRESSURE, COMBUSTION PRODUCTS, QUENCHING, THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY, KINETIC THEORY, SURFACE PROPERTIES, PHASE STUDIES, SOLIDS, GASES, PYROLYSIS, MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS.

  18. Flammability of Heterogeneously Combusting Metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Peter D.

    1998-01-01

    Most engineering materials, including some metals, most notably aluminum, burn in homogeneous combustion. 'Homogeneous' refers to both the fuel and the oxidizer being in the same phase, which is usually gaseous. The fuel and oxidizer are well mixed in the combustion reaction zone, and heat is released according to some relation like q(sub c) = delta H(sub c)c[((rho/rho(sub 0))]exp a)(exp -E(sub c)/RT), Eq. (1) where the pressure exponent a is usually close to unity. As long as there is enough heat released, combustion is sustained. It is useful to conceive of a threshold pressure beyond which there is sufficient heat to keep the temperature high enough to sustain combustion, and beneath which the heat is so low that temperature drains away and the combustion is extinguished. Some materials burn in heterogeneous combustion, in which the fuel and oxidizer are in different phases. These include iron and nickel based alloys, which burn in the liquid phase with gaseous oxygen. Heterogeneous combustion takes place on the surface of the material (fuel). Products of combustion may appear as a solid slag (oxide) which progressively covers the fuel. Propagation of the combustion melts and exposes fresh fuel. Heterogeneous combustion heat release also follows the general form of Eq.(1), except that the pressure exponent a tends to be much less than 1. Therefore, the increase in heat release with increasing pressure is not as dramatic as it is in homogeneous combustion. Although the concept of a threshold pressure still holds in heterogeneous combustion, the threshold is more difficult to identify experimentally, and pressure itself becomes less important relative to the heat transfer paths extant in any specific application. However, the constants C, a, and E(sub c) may still be identified by suitable data reduction from heterogeneous combustion experiments, and may be applied in a heat transfer model to judge the flammability of a material in any particular actual

  19. Fuel Combustion and Engine Performance | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    . Through modeling, simulation, and experimental validation, researchers examine what happens to fuel inside combustion and engine research activities include: Developing experimental and simulation research platforms develop and refine accurate, efficient kinetic mechanisms for fuel ignition Investigating low-speed pre

  20. Combustion Branch Website Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Eric

    2004-01-01

    The NASA combustion branch is a leader in developing and applying combustion science to focused aerospace propulsion systems concepts. It is widely recognized for unique facilities, analytical tools, and personnel. In order to better communicate the outstanding research being done in this Branch to the public and other research organization, a more substantial website was desired. The objective of this project was to build an up-to-date site that reflects current research in a usable and attractive manner. In order to accomplish this, information was requested from all researchers in the Combustion branch, on their professional skills and on the current projects. This information was used to fill in the Personnel and Research sections of the website. A digital camera was used to photograph all personnel and these photographs were included in the personnel section as well. The design of the site was implemented using the latest web standards: xhtml and external css stylesheets. This implementation conforms to the guidelines recommended by the w3c. It also helps to ensure that the web site is accessible by disabled users, and complies with Section 508 Federal legislation (which mandates that all Federal websites be accessible). Graphics for the new site were generated using the gimp (www.gimp.org) an open-source graphics program similar to Adobe Photoshop. Also, all graphics on the site were of a reasonable size (less than 20k, most less than 2k) so that the page would load quickly. Technologies such as Macromedia Flash and Javascript were avoided, as these only function on some clients which have the proper software installed or enabled. The website was tested on different platforms with many different browsers to ensure there were no compatibility issues. The website was tested on windows with MS IE 6, MSIE 5 , Netscape 7, Mozilla and Opera. On a Mac, the site was tested with MS IE 5 , Netscape 7 and Safari.

  1. Fuel properties to enable lifted-flame combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, Eric

    understanding of flame lift-off, generate model validation data, and demonstrate LLFC concurrent with FMC efforts. Additionally, LLNL was added to the project during the second year to develop a detailed kinetic mechanism for a key oxygenate to support CFD modeling. Successful completion of this project allowed the team to enhance fundamental understanding of LLFC, improve the state of current combustion models and increase understanding of desired fuel properties. This knowledge also improves our knowledge of how cost effective and environmentally friendly renewable fuels can assist in helping meet future emission and greenhouse gas regulations.« less

  2. Hybrid fluidized bed combuster

    DOEpatents

    Kantesaria, Prabhudas P.; Matthews, Francis T.

    1982-01-01

    A first atmospheric bubbling fluidized bed furnace is combined with a second turbulent, circulating fluidized bed furnace to produce heat efficiently from crushed solid fuel. The bed of the second furnace receives the smaller sizes of crushed solid fuel, unreacted limestone from the first bed, and elutriated solids extracted from the flu gases of the first bed. The two-stage combustion of crushed solid fuel provides a system with an efficiency greater than available with use of a single furnace of a fluidized bed.

  3. Solid Surface Combustion Experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-09-12

    STS064-10-011 (12 Sept. 1994) --- The Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE), designed to supply information on flame spread over solid fuel surfaces in the reduced-gravity environment of space, is pictured during flight day four operations. The middeck experiment measured the rate of spreading, the solid-phase temperature, and the gas-phase temperature of flames spreading over rectangular fuel beds. STS-64 marked the seventh trip into space for the Lewis Research Center experiment. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  4. Radiative Augmented Combustion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    PbLFICE SY 7a NAME OF MONITORING ORGANIZATION M.L. ENERGIA , Inc. AFOSR/NA 6r. ADDRESS (City. State. anW ZIP Code) 7b. ADDRESS (City State, and ZIPCode...27 -00 N ’fPECTED 0 6I FOREWORD This is the Final Report on research on Radiative Augmented Combustion conducted at M. L. ENERGIA , Inc. It was a...the first two annual reports prior to this one. The entire research program was performed at ENERGIA , Inc., Princeton, New Jersey, with Dr. Moshe Lavid

  5. Optical backscatter probe for sensing particulate in a combustion gas stream

    DOEpatents

    Parks, James E; Partridge, William P

    2013-05-28

    A system for sensing particulate in a combustion gas stream is disclosed. The system transmits light into a combustion gas stream, and thereafter detects a portion of the transmitted light as scattered light in an amount corresponding to the amount of particulates in the emissions. Purge gas may be supplied adjacent the light supply and the detector to reduce particles in the emissions from coating or otherwise compromising the transmission of light into the emissions and recovery of scattered light from the emissions.

  6. Ignition and combustion characteristics of metallized propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, D. C.; Turns, Stephen R.

    1991-01-01

    Over the past six months, experimental investigations were continued and theoretical work on the secondary atomization process was begun. Final shakedown of the sizing/velocity measuring system was completed and the aluminum combustion detection system was modified and tested. Atomizer operation was improved to allow steady state operation over long periods of time for several slurries. To validate the theoretical modeling, work involving carbon slurry atomization and combustion was begun and qualitative observations were made. Simultaneous measurements of aluminum slurry droplet size distributions and detection of burning aluminum particles were performed at several axial locations above the burner. The principle theoretical effort was the application of a rigid shell formation model to aluminum slurries and an investigation of the effects of various parameters on the shell formation process. This shell formation model was extended to include the process leading up to droplet disruption, and previously developed analytical models were applied to yield theoretical aluminum agglomerate ignition and combustion times. The several theoretical times were compared with the experimental results.

  7. Multi-Point Combustion System: Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goeke, Jerry; Pack, Spencer; Zink, Gregory; Ryon, Jason

    2014-01-01

    A low-NOx emission combustor concept has been developed for NASA's Environmentally Responsible Aircraft (ERA) program to meet N+2 emissions goals for a 70,000 lb thrust engine application. These goals include 75 percent reduction of LTO NOx from CAEP6 standards without increasing CO, UHC, or smoke from that of current state of the art. An additional key factor in this work is to improve lean combustion stability over that of previous work performed on similar technology in the early 2000s. The purpose of this paper is to present the final report for the NASA contract. This work included the design, analysis, and test of a multi-point combustion system. All design work was based on the results of Computational Fluid Dynamics modeling with the end results tested on a medium pressure combustion rig at the UC and a medium pressure combustion rig at GRC. The theories behind the designs, results of analysis, and experimental test data will be discussed in this report. The combustion system consists of five radially staged rows of injectors, where ten small scale injectors are used in place of a single traditional nozzle. Major accomplishments of the current work include the design of a Multipoint Lean Direct Injection (MLDI) array and associated air blast and pilot fuel injectors, which is expected to meet or exceed the goal of a 75 percent reduction in LTO NOx from CAEP6 standards. This design incorporates a reduced number of injectors over previous multipoint designs, simplified and lightweight components, and a very compact combustor section. Additional outcomes of the program are validation that the design of these combustion systems can be aided by the use of Computational Fluid Dynamics to predict and reduce emissions. Furthermore, the staging of fuel through the individually controlled radially staged injector rows successfully demonstrated improved low power operability as well as improvements in emissions over previous multipoint designs. Additional comparison

  8. Uses and abuses of recovery: implementing recovery-oriented practices in mental health systems

    PubMed Central

    Slade, Mike; Amering, Michaela; Farkas, Marianne; Hamilton, Bridget; O'Hagan, Mary; Panther, Graham; Perkins, Rachel; Shepherd, Geoff; Tse, Samson; Whitley, Rob

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of recovery as a personal and subjective experience has emerged within mental health systems. This meaning of recovery now underpins mental health policy in many countries. Developing a focus on this type of recovery will involve transformation within mental health systems. Human systems do not easily transform. In this paper, we identify seven mis-uses (“abuses”) of the concept of recovery: recovery is the latest model; recovery does not apply to “my” patients; services can make people recover through effective treatment; compulsory detention and treatment aid recovery; a recovery orientation means closing services; recovery is about making people independent and normal; and contributing to society happens only after the person is recovered. We then identify ten empirically-validated interventions which support recovery, by targeting key recovery processes of connectedness, hope, identity, meaning and empowerment (the CHIME framework). The ten interventions are peer support workers, advance directives, wellness recovery action planning, illness management and recovery, REFOCUS, strengths model, recovery colleges or recovery education programs, individual placement and support, supported housing, and mental health trialogues. Finally, three scientific challenges are identified: broadening cultural understandings of recovery, implementing organizational transformation, and promoting citizenship. PMID:24497237

  9. Some Factors Affecting Combustion in an Internal-Combustion Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M; Cohn, Mildred

    1936-01-01

    An investigation of the combustion of gasoline, safety, and diesel fuels was made in the NACA combustion apparatus under conditions of temperature that permitted ignition by spark with direct fuel injection, in spite of the compression ratio of 12.7 employed. The influence of such variables as injection advance angle, jacket temperature, engine speed, and spark position was studied. The most pronounced effect was that an increase in the injection advance angle (beyond a certain minimum value) caused a decrease in the extent and rate of combustion. In almost all cases combustion improved with increased temperature. The results show that at low air temperatures the rates of combustion vary with the volatility of the fuel, but that at high temperatures this relationship does not exist and the rates depend to a greater extent on the chemical nature of the fuel.

  10. Preliminary assessment of combustion modes for internal combustion wave rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nalim, M. Razi

    1995-01-01

    Combustion within the channels of a wave rotor is examined as a means of obtaining pressure gain during heat addition in a gas turbine engine. Several modes of combustion are considered and the factors that determine the applicability of three modes are evaluated in detail; premixed autoignition/detonation, premixed deflagration, and non-premixed compression ignition. The last two will require strong turbulence for completion of combustion in a reasonable time in the wave rotor. The compression/autoignition modes will require inlet temperatures in excess of 1500 R for reliable ignition with most hydrocarbon fuels; otherwise, a supplementary ignition method must be provided. Examples of combustion mode selection are presented for two core engine applications that had been previously designed with equivalent 4-port wave rotor topping cycles using external combustion.

  11. Large eddy simulation modelling of combustion for propulsion applications.

    PubMed

    Fureby, C

    2009-07-28

    Predictive modelling of turbulent combustion is important for the development of air-breathing engines, internal combustion engines, furnaces and for power generation. Significant advances in modelling non-reactive turbulent flows are now possible with the development of large eddy simulation (LES), in which the large energetic scales of the flow are resolved on the grid while modelling the effects of the small scales. Here, we discuss the use of combustion LES in predictive modelling of propulsion applications such as gas turbine, ramjet and scramjet engines. The LES models used are described in some detail and are validated against laboratory data-of which results from two cases are presented. These validated LES models are then applied to an annular multi-burner gas turbine combustor and a simplified scramjet combustor, for which some additional experimental data are available. For these cases, good agreement with the available reference data is obtained, and the LES predictions are used to elucidate the flow physics in such devices to further enhance our knowledge of these propulsion systems. Particular attention is focused on the influence of the combustion chemistry, turbulence-chemistry interaction, self-ignition, flame holding burner-to-burner interactions and combustion oscillations.

  12. AIR EMISSIONS FROM SCRAP TIRE COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses air emissions from two types of scrap tire combustion: uncontrolled and controlled. Uncontrolled sources are open tire fires, which produce many unhealthful products of incomplete combustion and release them directly into the atmosphere. Controlled combustion...

  13. Path planning during combustion mode switch

    DOEpatents

    Jiang, Li; Ravi, Nikhil

    2015-12-29

    Systems and methods are provided for transitioning between a first combustion mode and a second combustion mode in an internal combustion engine. A current operating point of the engine is identified and a target operating point for the internal combustion engine in the second combustion mode is also determined. A predefined optimized transition operating point is selected from memory. While operating in the first combustion mode, one or more engine actuator settings are adjusted to cause the operating point of the internal combustion engine to approach the selected optimized transition operating point. When the engine is operating at the selected optimized transition operating point, the combustion mode is switched from the first combustion mode to the second combustion mode. While operating in the second combustion mode, one or more engine actuator settings are adjusted to cause the operating point of the internal combustion to approach the target operating point.

  14. Gas Sensor Evaluations in Polymer Combustion Product Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delgado, Rafael H.; Davis, Dennis D.; Beeson, Harold D.

    1999-01-01

    Toxic gases produced by the combustion or thermo-oxidative degradation of materials such as wire insulation, foam, plastics, or electronic circuit boards in space shuttle or space station crew cabins may pose a significant hazard to the flight crew. Toxic gas sensors are routinely evaluated in pure gas standard mixtures, but the possible interferences from polymer combustion products are not routinely evaluated. The NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) has developed a test system that provides atmospheres containing predetermined quantities of target gases combined with the coincidental combustion products of common spacecraft materials. The target gases are quantitated in real time by infrared (IR) spectroscopy and verified by grab samples. The sensor responses are recorded in real time and are compared to the IR and validation analyses. Target gases such as carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide, hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen fluoride can be generated by the combustion of poly(vinyl chloride), polyimide-fluoropolymer wire insulation, polyurethane foam, or electronic circuit board materials. The kinetics and product identifications for the combustion of the various materials were determined by thermogravimetric-IR spectroscopic studies. These data were then scaled to provide the required levels of target gases in the sensor evaluation system. Multisensor toxic gas monitors from two manufacturers were evaluated using this system. In general, the sensor responses satisfactorily tracked the real-time concentrations of toxic gases in a dynamic mixture. Interferences from a number of organic combustion products including acetaldehyde and bisphenol-A were minimal. Hydrogen bromide in the products of circuit board combustion registered as hydrogen chloride. The use of actual polymer combustion atmospheres for the evaluation of sensors can provide additional confidence in the reliability of the sensor response.

  15. Example Problems in LES Combustion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-26

    AFRL-RW-EG-TP-2016-002 Example Problems in LES Combustion Douglas V. Nance Air Force Research Laboratory Munitions...AIR FORCE RESEARCH LABORATORY MUNITIONS DIRECTORATE  Air Force...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Example Problem in LES Combustion 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

  16. Radiation/Catalytic Augmented Combustion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    enhanced combustion processes, utilizing pulsed and continuous VUV light- serces . Similarly, the catalytic technique has provided efficient combustion...tures we had a pl /cx LiF lens with a focal length of 200 nm, and a MgF2 window 2 nmn in thickness. Although these materials are considered to be among

  17. Liquid propellant rocket combustion instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrje, D. T.

    1972-01-01

    The solution of problems of combustion instability for more effective communication between the various workers in this field is considered. The extent of combustion instability problems in liquid propellant rocket engines and recommendations for their solution are discussed. The most significant developments, both theoretical and experimental, are presented, with emphasis on fundamental principles and relationships between alternative approaches.

  18. Mission Success for Combustion Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiland, Karen J.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation describes how mission success for combustion experiments has been obtained in previous spaceflight experiments and how it will be obtained for future International Space Station (ISS) experiments. The fluids and combustion facility is a payload planned for the ISS. It is composed of two racks: the fluids Integrated rack and the Combustion INtegrated Rack (CIR). Requirements for the CIR were obtained from a set of combustion basis experiments that served as surrogates for later experiments. The process for experiments that fly on the ISS includes proposal selection, requirements and success criteria definition, science and engineering reviews, mission operations, and postflight operations. By following this process, the microgravity combustion science program has attained success in 41 out of 42 experiments.

  19. NASA Microgravity Combustion Science Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Merrill K.

    1997-01-01

    Combustion is a key element of many critical technologies used by contemporary society. For example, electric power production, home heating, surface and air transportation, space propulsion, and materials synthesis all utilize combustion as a source of energy. Yet, although combustion technology is vital to our standard of living, it poses great challenges to maintaining a habitable environment. For example, pollutants, atmospheric change and global warming, unwanted fires and explosions, and the incineration of hazardous wastes are major problem areas which would benefit from improved understanding of combustion. Effects of gravitational forces impede combustion studies more than most other areas of science since combustion involves production of high-temperature gases whose low density results in buoyant motion, vastly complicating the execution and interpretation of experiments. Effects of buoyancy are so ubiquitous that their enormous negative impact on the rational development of combustion science is generally not recognized. Buoyant motion also triggers the onset of turbulence, yielding complicating unsteady effects. Finally, gravity forces cause particles and drops to settle, inhibiting deconvoluted studies of heterogeneous flames important to furnace, incineration and power generation technologies. Thus, effects of buoyancy have seriously limited our capabilities to carry out 'clean' experiments needed for fundamental understanding of flame phenomena. Combustion scientists can use microgravity to simplify the study of many combustion processes, allowing fresh insights into important problems via a deeper understanding of elemental phenomena also found in Earth-based combustion processes and to additionally provide valuable information concerning how fires behave in microgravity and how fire safety on spacecraft can be enhanced.

  20. Coal combustion products: trash or treasure?

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, T.

    2006-07-15

    Coal combustion by-products can be a valuable resource to various industries. The American Coal Ash Association (ACAA) collects data on production and uses of coal combustion products (CCPs). 122.5 million tons of CCPs were produced in 2004. The article discusses the results of the ACCA's 2004 survey. Fly ash is predominantly used as a substitute for Portland cement; bottom ash for structural fill, embankments and paved road cases. Synthetic gypsum from the FGD process is commonly used in wallboard. Plant owners are only likely to have a buyer for a portion of their CCPs. Although sale of hot water (frommore » Antelope Valley Station) from condensers for use in a fish farm to raise tilapia proved unviable, the Great Plains Synfuels Plant which manufactures natural gas from lignite produces a wide range of products including anhydrous ammonia, phenol, krypton, carbon dioxide (for enhanced oil recovery), tar oils and liquid nitrogen. ACCA's goal is to educate people about CCPs and how to make them into useful products, and market them, in order to reduce waste disposal and enhance revenue. The article lists members of the ACCA. 2 photos., 1 tab.« less

  1. Multiuser Droplet Combustion Apparatus Developed to Conduct Combustion Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myhre, Craig A.

    2001-01-01

    A major portion of the energy produced in the world today comes from the combustion or burning of liquid hydrocarbon fuels in the form of droplets. However, despite vigorous scientific examinations for over a century, researchers still lack a full understanding of many fundamental combustion processes of liquid fuels. Understanding how these fuel droplets ignite, spread, and extinguish themselves will help us develop more efficient ways of energy production and propulsion, as well as help us deal better with the problems of combustion-generated pollution and fire hazards associated with liquid combustibles. The ability to conduct more controlled experiments in space, without the complication of gravity, provides scientists with an opportunity to examine these complicated processes closely. The Multiuser Droplet Combustion Apparatus (MDCA) supports this continued research under microgravity conditions. The objectives are to improve understanding of fundamental droplet phenomena affected by gravity, to use research results to advance droplet combustion science and technology on Earth, and to address issues of fire hazards associated with liquid combustibles on Earth and in space. MDCA is a multiuser facility designed to accommodate different combustion science experiments. The modular approach permits the on-orbit replacement of droplet combustion principal investigator experiments such as different fuels, droplet-dispensing needles, and droplet-tethering mechanisms. Large components such as the avionics, diagnostics, and base-plate remain on the International Space Station to reduce the launch mass of new experiments. MDCA is also designed to operate in concert with ground systems on Earth to minimize the involvement of the crew during orbit.

  2. The 17th JANNAF Combustion Meeting, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eggleston, D. S. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    The combustion of solid rocket propellants and combustion in ramjets is addressed. Subjects discussed include metal burning, steady-state combustion of composite propellants, velocity coupling and nonlinear instability, vortex shedding and flow effects on combustion instability, combustion instability in solid rocket motors, combustion diagnostics, subsonic and supersonic ramjet combustion, characterization of ramburner flowfields, and injection and combustion of ramjet fuels.

  3. Dual-Mode Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goyne, Christopher P.; McDaniel, James C.

    2002-01-01

    The Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at the University of Virginia has conducted an investigation of the mixing and combustion processes in a hydrogen fueled dual-mode scramjet combustor. The experiment essentially consisted of the "direct connect" continuous operation of a Mach 2 rectangular combustor with a single unswept ramp fuel injector. The stagnation enthalpy of the test flow simulated a flight Mach number of 5. Measurements were obtained using conventional wall instrumentation and laser based diagnostics. These diagnostics included, pressure and wall temperature measurements, Fuel Plume Imaging (FPI) and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). A schematic of the combustor configuration and a summary of the measurements obtained are presented. The experimental work at UVa was parallel by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) work at NASA Langley. The numerical and experiment results are compared in this document.

  4. Space Station Freedom combustion research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faeth, G. M.

    1992-01-01

    Extended operations in microgravity, on board spacecraft like Space Station Freedom, provide both unusual opportunities and unusual challenges for combustion science. On the one hand, eliminating the intrusion of buoyancy provides a valuable new perspective for fundamental studies of combustion phenomena. On the other hand, however, the absence of buoyancy creates new hazards of fires and explosions that must be understood to assure safe manned space activities. These considerations - and the relevance of combustion science to problems of pollutants, energy utilization, waste incineration, power and propulsion systems, and fire and explosion hazards, among others - provide strong motivation for microgravity combustion research. The intrusion of buoyancy is a greater impediment to fundamental combustion studies than to most other areas of science. Combustion intrinsically heats gases with the resulting buoyant motion at normal gravity either preventing or vastly complicating measurements. Perversely, this limitation is most evident for fundamental laboratory experiments; few practical combustion phenomena are significantly affected by buoyancy. Thus, we have never observed the most fundamental combustion phenomena - laminar premixed and diffusion flames, heterogeneous flames of particles and surfaces, low-speed turbulent flames, etc. - without substantial buoyant disturbances. This precludes rational merging of theory, where buoyancy is of little interest, and experiments, that always are contaminated by buoyancy, which is the traditional path for developing most areas of science. The current microgravity combustion program seeks to rectify this deficiency using both ground-based and space-based facilities, with experiments involving space-based facilities including: laminar premixed flames, soot processes in laminar jet diffusion flames, structure of laminar and turbulent jet diffusion flames, solid surface combustion, one-dimensional smoldering, ignition and flame

  5. Fluids and Combustion Facility-Combustion Integrated Rack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francisco, David R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes in detail the concept of performing Combustion microgravity experiments in the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) of the Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) on the International Space Station (ISS). The extended duration microgravity environment of the ISS will enable microgravity research to enter into a new era of increased scientific and technological data return. The FCF is designed to increase the amount and quality of scientific and technological data and decrease the development cost of an individual experiment relative to the era of Space Shuttle experiments. This paper also describes how the FCF will cost effectively accommodate these experiments.

  6. High Efficiency, Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Donald Stanton

    2010-03-31

    Energy use in trucks has been increasing at a faster rate than that of automobiles within the U.S. transportation sector. According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) Annual Energy Outlook (AEO), a 23% increase in fuel consumption for the U.S. heavy duty truck segment is expected between 2009 to 2020. The heavy duty vehicle oil consumption is projected to grow between 2009 and 2050 while light duty vehicle (LDV) fuel consumption will eventually experience a decrease. By 2050, the oil consumption rate by LDVs is anticipated to decrease below 2009 levels due to CAFE standards and biofuel use. In contrast,more » the heavy duty oil consumption rate is anticipated to double. The increasing trend in oil consumption for heavy trucks is linked to the vitality, security, and growth of the U.S. economy. An essential part of a stable and vibrant U.S. economy is a productive U.S. trucking industry. Studies have shown that the U.S. gross domestic product (GDP) is strongly correlated to freight transport. Over 90% of all U.S. freight tonnage is transported by diesel power and over 75% is transported by trucks. Given the vital role that the trucking industry plays in the economy, improving the efficiency of the transportation of goods was a central focus of the Cummins High Efficient Clean Combustion (HECC) program. In a commercial vehicle, the diesel engine remains the largest source of fuel efficiency loss, but remains the greatest opportunity for fuel efficiency improvements. In addition to reducing oil consumption and the dependency on foreign oil, this project will mitigate the impact on the environment by meeting US EPA 2010 emissions regulations. Innovation is a key element in sustaining a U.S. trucking industry that is competitive in global markets. Unlike passenger vehicles, the trucking industry cannot simply downsize the vehicle and still transport the freight with improved efficiency. The truck manufacturing and supporting industries are faced with

  7. Combustion of textile residues in a packed bed

    SciTech Connect

    Ryu, Changkook; Phan, Anh N.; Sharifi, Vida N.

    2007-08-15

    Textile is one of the main components in the municipal waste which is to be diverted from landfill for material and energy recovery. As an initial investigation for energy recovery from textile residues, the combustion of cotton fabrics with a minor fraction of polyester was investigated in a packed bed combustor for air flow rates ranging from 117 to 1638 kg/m{sup 2} h (0.027-0.371 m/s). Tests were also carried out in order to evaluate the co-combustion of textile residues with two segregated waste materials: waste wood and cardboard. Textile residues showed different combustion characteristics when compared to typical waste materialsmore » at low air flow rates below 819 kg/m{sup 2} h (0.186 m/s). The ignition front propagated fast along the air channels randomly formed between packed textile particles while leaving a large amount of unignited material above. This resulted in irregular behaviour of the temperature profile, ignition rate and the percentage of weight loss in the ignition propagation stage. A slow smouldering burn-out stage followed the ignition propagation stage. At air flow rates of 1200-1600 kg/m{sup 2} h (0.272-0.363 m/s), the bed had a maximum burning rate of about 240 kg/m{sup 2} h consuming most of the combustibles in the ignition propagation stage. More uniform combustion with an increased burning rate was achieved when textile residues were co-burned with cardboard that had a similar bulk density. (author)« less

  8. An experimental investigation of the combustion performance of human faeces.

    PubMed

    Onabanjo, Tosin; Kolios, Athanasios J; Patchigolla, Kumar; Wagland, Stuart T; Fidalgo, Beatriz; Jurado, Nelia; Hanak, Dawid P; Manovic, Vasilije; Parker, Alison; McAdam, Ewan; Williams, Leon; Tyrrel, Sean; Cartmell, Elise

    2016-11-15

    Poor sanitation is one of the major hindrances to the global sustainable development goals. The Reinvent the Toilet Challenge of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation is set to develop affordable, next-generation sanitary systems that can ensure safe treatment and wide accessibility without compromise on sustainable use of natural resources and the environment. Energy recovery from human excreta is likely to be a cornerstone of future sustainable sanitary systems. Faeces combustion was investigated using a bench-scale downdraft combustor test rig, alongside with wood biomass and simulant faeces. Parameters such as air flow rate, fuel pellet size, bed height, and fuel ignition mode were varied to establish the combustion operating range of the test rig and the optimum conditions for converting the faecal biomass to energy. The experimental results show that the dry human faeces had a higher energy content (∼25 MJ/kg) than wood biomass. At equivalence ratio between 0.86 and 1.12, the combustion temperature and fuel burn rate ranged from 431 to 558 °C and 1.53 to 2.30 g/min respectively. Preliminary results for the simulant faeces show that a minimum combustion bed temperature of 600 ± 10 °C can handle faeces up to 60 wt.% moisture at optimum air-to-fuel ratio. Further investigation is required to establish the appropriate trade-off limits for drying and energy recovery, considering different stool types, moisture content and drying characteristics. This is important for the design and further development of a self-sustained energy conversion and recovery systems for the NMT and similar sanitary solutions.

  9. Microgravity combustion of dust suspensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, John H. S.; Peraldi, Olivier; Knystautas, Rom

    1993-01-01

    Unlike the combustion of homogeneous gas mixtures, there are practically no reliable fundamental data (i.e., laminar burning velocity, flammability limits, quenching distance, minimum ignition energy) for the combustion of heterogeneous dust suspensions. Even the equilibrium thermodynamic data such as the constant pressure volume combustion pressure and the constant pressure adiabatic flame temperature are not accurately known for dust mixtures. This is mainly due to the problem of gravity sedimentation. In normal gravity, turbulence, convective flow, electric and acoustic fields are required to maintain a dust in suspension. These external influences have a dominating effect on the combustion processes. Microgravity offers a unique environment where a quiescent dust cloud can in principle be maintained for a sufficiently long duration for almost all combustion experiments (dust suspensions are inherently unstable due to Brownian motion and particle aggregation). Thus, the microgravity duration provided by drop towers, parabolic flights, and the space shuttle, can all be exploited for different kinds of dust combustion experiments. The present paper describes some recent studies on microgravity combustion of dust suspension carried out on the KC-135 and the Caravelle aircraft. The results reported are obtained from three parabolic flight campaigns.

  10. Gaseous emissions during concurrent combustion of biomass and non-recyclable municipal solid waste

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Biomass and municipal solid waste offer sustainable sources of energy; for example to meet heat and electricity demand in the form of combined cooling, heat and power. Combustion of biomass has a lesser impact than solid fossil fuels (e.g. coal) upon gas pollutant emissions, whilst energy recovery from municipal solid waste is a beneficial component of an integrated, sustainable waste management programme. Concurrent combustion of these fuels using a fluidised bed combustor may be a successful method of overcoming some of the disadvantages of biomass (high fuel supply and distribution costs, combustion characteristics) and characteristics of municipal solid waste (heterogeneous content, conflict with materials recycling). It should be considered that combustion of municipal solid waste may be a financially attractive disposal route if a 'gate fee' value exists for accepting waste for combustion, which will reduce the net cost of utilising relatively more expensive biomass fuels. Results Emissions of nitrogen monoxide and sulphur dioxide for combustion of biomass are suppressed after substitution of biomass for municipal solid waste materials as the input fuel mixture. Interactions between these and other pollutants such as hydrogen chloride, nitrous oxide and carbon monoxide indicate complex, competing reactions occur between intermediates of these compounds to determine final resultant emissions. Conclusions Fluidised bed concurrent combustion is an appropriate technique to exploit biomass and municipal solid waste resources, without the use of fossil fuels. The addition of municipal solid waste to biomass combustion has the effect of reducing emissions of some gaseous pollutants. PMID:21284885

  11. International Space Station -- Combustion Rack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The combustion chamber for the Combustion Integrated Rack section of the Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) is shown extracted for servicing. The FCF will be installed, in phases, in the Destiny, the U.S. Laboratory Module of the International Space Station (ISS), and will accommodate multiple users for a range of investigations. This is an engineering mockup; the flight hardware is subject to change as designs are refined. The FCF is being developed by the Microgravity Science Division (MSD) at the NASA Glenn Research Center. (Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center)

  12. International Space Station - Combustion Rack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The combustion chamber for the Combustion Integrated Rack section of the Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) is shown opened for installation of burn specimens. The FCF will be installed, in phases, in the Destiny, the U.S. Laboratory Module of the International Space Station (ISS), and will accommodate multiple users for a range of investigations. This is an engineering mockup; the flight hardware is subject to change as designs are refined. The FCF is being developed by the Microgravity Science Division (MSD) at the NASA Glenn Research Center. (Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center)

  13. International Space Station -- Combustion Rack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The combustion chamber for the Combustion Integrated Rack section of the Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) is shown in its operational configuration. The FCF will be installed, in phases, in the Destiny, the U.S. Laboratory Module of the International Space Station (ISS), and will accommodate multiple users for a range of investigations. This is an engineering mockup; the flight hardware is subject to change as designs are refined. The FCF is being developed by the Microgravity Science Division (MSD) at the NASA Glenn Research Center. (Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center)

  14. International Space Station -- Combustion Rack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The combustion chamber for the Combustion Integrated Rack section of the Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) is shown extracted for servicing and with the optical bench rotated 90 degrees for access to the rear elements. The FCF will be installed, in phases, in the Destiny, the U.S. Laboratory Module of the International Space Station (ISS), and will accommodate multiple users for a range of investigations. This is an engineering mockup; the flight hardware is subject to change as designs are refined. The FCF is being developed by the Microgravity Science Division (MSD) at the NASA Glenn Research Center. (Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center)

  15. Combustion-gas recirculation system

    DOEpatents

    Baldwin, Darryl Dean

    2007-10-09

    A combustion-gas recirculation system has a mixing chamber with a mixing-chamber inlet and a mixing-chamber outlet. The combustion-gas recirculation system may further include a duct connected to the mixing-chamber inlet. Additionally, the combustion-gas recirculation system may include an open inlet channel with a solid outer wall. The open inlet channel may extend into the mixing chamber such that an end of the open inlet channel is disposed between the mixing-chamber inlet and the mixing-chamber outlet. Furthermore, air within the open inlet channel may be at a pressure near or below atmospheric pressure.

  16. Supercomputer modeling of hydrogen combustion in rocket engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betelin, V. B.; Nikitin, V. F.; Altukhov, D. I.; Dushin, V. R.; Koo, Jaye

    2013-08-01

    Hydrogen being an ecological fuel is very attractive now for rocket engines designers. However, peculiarities of hydrogen combustion kinetics, the presence of zones of inverse dependence of reaction rate on pressure, etc. prevents from using hydrogen engines in all stages not being supported by other types of engines, which often brings the ecological gains back to zero from using hydrogen. Computer aided design of new effective and clean hydrogen engines needs mathematical tools for supercomputer modeling of hydrogen-oxygen components mixing and combustion in rocket engines. The paper presents the results of developing verification and validation of mathematical model making it possible to simulate unsteady processes of ignition and combustion in rocket engines.

  17. Dual-Pump CARS Development and Application to Supersonic Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magnotti, Gaetano; Cutler, Andrew D.

    2012-01-01

    A dual-pump Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS) instrument has been developed to obtain simultaneous measurements of temperature and absolute mole fractions of N2, O2 and H2 in supersonic combustion and generate databases for validation and development of CFD codes. Issues that compromised previous attempts, such as beam steering and high irradiance perturbation effects, have been alleviated or avoided. Improvements in instrument precision and accuracy have been achieved. An axis-symmetric supersonic combusting coaxial jet facility has been developed to provide a simple, yet suitable flow to CFD modelers. Approximately one million dual-pump CARS single shots have been collected in the supersonic jet for varying values of flight and exit Mach numbers at several locations. Data have been acquired with a H2 co-flow (combustion case) or a N2 co-flow (mixing case). Results are presented and the effects of the compressibility and of the heat release are discussed.

  18. Introductory lecture. Advanced laser spectroscopy in combustion chemistry: from elementary steps to practical devices.

    PubMed

    Wolfrum, J

    2001-01-01

    In recent years a large number of linear and nonlinear laser-based diagnostic techniques for nonintrusive measurements of species concentrations, temperatures, and gas velocities in a wide pressure and temperature range with high temporal and spatial resolution have been developed and have become extremely valuable tools to study many aspects of combustion. Beside the nonintrusive diagnostics of technical combustion devices the kinetics and microscopic dynamics of elementary chemical combustion reactions can be investigated in great detail by laser spectroscopy. These investigations show, that a small number of relatively simple elementary steps like H + O2-->OH + O, H2O2-->2OH, O + N2-->NO + N, NH2 + NO-->H2O + N2, OH + N2H control a large variety of combustion phenomena and pollutant formation processes. Laminar flames are ideal objects to develop the application of laser spectroscopic methods for practical combustion systems and to test and improve the gas-phase reaction mechanism in combustion models. Nonintrusive laser point and field measurements are of basic importance in the validation and further development of turbulent combustion models. Nonlinear laser spectroscopic techniques using infrared-visible sum-frequency generation can now bridge the pressure and materials gap to provide kinetic data for catalytic combustion. Finally, the potential of laser techniques for active combustion control in municipal waste incinerators is illustrated.

  19. The Diesel Combustion Collaboratory: Combustion Researchers Collaborating over the Internet

    SciTech Connect

    C. M. Pancerella; L. A. Rahn; C. Yang

    2000-02-01

    The Diesel Combustion Collaborator (DCC) is a pilot project to develop and deploy collaborative technologies to combustion researchers distributed throughout the DOE national laboratories, academia, and industry. The result is a problem-solving environment for combustion research. Researchers collaborate over the Internet using DCC tools, which include: a distributed execution management system for running combustion models on widely distributed computers, including supercomputers; web-accessible data archiving capabilities for sharing graphical experimental or modeling data; electronic notebooks and shared workspaces for facilitating collaboration; visualization of combustion data; and video-conferencing and data-conferencing among researchers at remote sites. Security is a key aspect of themore » collaborative tools. In many cases, the authors have integrated these tools to allow data, including large combustion data sets, to flow seamlessly, for example, from modeling tools to data archives. In this paper the authors describe the work of a larger collaborative effort to design, implement and deploy the DCC.« less

  20. Combustion Processes in Hybrid Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkateswaran,S.; Merkle, C. L.

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a resurgence of interest in the development of hybrid rocket engines for advanced launch vehicle applications. Hybrid propulsion systems use a solid fuel such as hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) along with a gaseous/liquid oxidizer. The performance of hybrid combustors depends on the convective and radiative heat fluxes to the fuel surface, the rate of pyrolysis in the solid phase, and the turbulent combustion processes in the gaseous phases. These processes in combination specify the regression rates of the fuel surface and thereby the utilization efficiency of the fuel. In this paper, we employ computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques in order to gain a quantitative understanding of the physical trends in hybrid rocket combustors. The computational modeling is tailored to ongoing experiments at Penn State that employ a two dimensional slab burner configuration. The coordinated computational/experimental effort enables model validation while providing an understanding of the experimental observations. Computations to date have included the full length geometry with and with the aft nozzle section as well as shorter length domains for extensive parametric characterization. HTPB is sed as the fuel with 1,3 butadiene being taken as the gaseous product of the pyrolysis. Pure gaseous oxygen is taken as the oxidizer. The fuel regression rate is specified using an Arrhenius rate reaction, which the fuel surface temperature is given by an energy balance involving gas-phase convection and radiation as well as thermal conduction in the solid-phase. For the gas-phase combustion, a two step global reaction is used. The standard kappa - epsilon model is used for turbulence closure. Radiation is presently treated using a simple diffusion approximation which is valid for large optical path lengths, representative of radiation from soot particles. Computational results are obtained to determine the trends in the fuel burning or

  1. Overview of Current Activities in Combustion Instability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-02

    and avoid liquid rocket engine combustion stability problems Approach:  1) Develop a  SOA  combustion stability software package  called Stable...phase II will invest in Multifidelity Tools and Methodologies – CSTD will develop a SOA combustion stability software package called Stable Combustion

  2. Combustion Science for Cleaner Fuels

    ScienceCinema

    Ahmed, Musahid

    2018-01-16

    Musahid Ahmed discusses how he and his team use the Advanced Light Source (ALS) to study combustion chemistry at our '8 Big Ideas' Science at the Theater event on October 8th, 2014, in Oakland, California.

  3. Facilities for microgravity combustion research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacksteder, Kurt R.

    1988-01-01

    Combustion science and applications have benefited in unforeseen ways from experimental research performed in the low-gravity environment. The capability to control for the first time the influence of gravitational buoyancy has provided some insight into soot formation in droplet combustion, the nature of flammability limits in premixed gases, and the relationship between normal-gravity and low-gravity material flammability that may influence how materials are best selected for routine use in habitable spacecraft. The opportunity to learn about these complex phenomena is derived from the control of the ambient body-force field and, perhaps as importantly, the simplified boundary conditions that can be established in well designed low-gravity combustion experiments. A description of the test facilities and typical experimental apparatus are provided; and conceptual plans for a Space Station Freedom capability, the Modular Combustion Facility, are described.

  4. Combustion Science for Cleaner Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, Musahid

    2014-10-17

    Musahid Ahmed discusses how he and his team use the Advanced Light Source (ALS) to study combustion chemistry at our '8 Big Ideas' Science at the Theater event on October 8th, 2014, in Oakland, California.

  5. Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) work

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-09

    ISS040-E-008521 (9 June 2014) --- NASA astronaut Reid Wiseman, Expedition 40 flight engineer, removes and replaces a new manifold bottle in the Combustion Integration Rack (CIR) in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.

  6. Loop-bed combustion apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Shang, Jer-Yu; Mei, Joseph S.; Slagle, Frank D.; Notestein, John E.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a combustion apparatus in the configuration of a oblong annulus defining a closed loop. Particulate coal together with a sulfur sorbent such as sulfur or dolomite is introduced into the closed loop, ignited, and propelled at a high rate of speed around the loop. Flue gas is withdrawn from a location in the closed loop in close proximity to an area in the loop where centrifugal force imposed upon the larger particulate material maintains these particulates at a location spaced from the flue gas outlet. Only flue gas and smaller particulates resulting from the combustion and innerparticle grinding are discharged from the combustor. This structural arrangement provides increased combustion efficiency due to the essentially complete combustion of the coal particulates as well as increased sulfur absorption due to the innerparticle grinding of the sorbent which provides greater particle surface area.

  7. 75 FR 3881 - Combustible Dust

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ..., rubber, drugs, dried blood, dyes, certain textiles, and metals (such as aluminum and magnesium..., furniture manufacturing, metal processing, fabricated metal products and machinery manufacturing, pesticide... standard that will comprehensively address the fire and explosion hazards of combustible dust. The Agency...

  8. Fifth International Microgravity Combustion Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacksteder, Kurt (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    This conference proceedings document is a compilation of 120 papers presented orally or as poster displays to the Fifth International Microgravity Combustion Workshop held in Cleveland, Ohio on May 18-20, 1999. The purpose of the workshop is to present and exchange research results from theoretical and experimental work in combustion science using the reduced-gravity environment as a research tool. The results are contributed by researchers funded by NASA throughout the United States at universities, industry and government research agencies, and by researchers from at least eight international partner countries that are also participating in the microgravity combustion science research discipline. These research results are intended for use by public and private sector organizations for academic purposes, for the development of technologies needed for the Human Exploration and Development of Space, and to improve Earth-bound combustion and fire-safety related technologies.

  9. Sixth International Microgravity Combustion Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacksteder, Kurt (Compiler)

    2001-01-01

    This conference proceedings document is a compilation of papers presented orally or as poster displays to the Sixth International Microgravity Combustion Workshop held in Cleveland, Ohio on May 22-24, 2001. The purpose of the workshop is to present and exchange research results from theoretical and experimental work in combustion science using the reduced-gravity environment as a research tool. The results are contributed by researchers funded by NASA throughout the United States at universities, industry and government research agencies, and by researchers from international partner countries that are also participating in the microgravity combustion science research discipline. These research results are intended for use by public and private sector organizations for academic purposes, for the development of technologies needed for Human Exploration and Development of Space, and to improve Earth-bound combustion and fire-safety related technologies.

  10. Thermophysics Characterization of Kerosene Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ten-See

    2001-01-01

    A one-formula surrogate fuel formulation and its quasi-global combustion kinetics model are developed to support the design of injectors and thrust chambers of kerosene-fueled rocket engines. This surrogate fuel model depicts a fuel blend that properly represents the general physical and chemical properties of kerosene. The accompanying gaseous-phase thermodynamics of the surrogate fuel is anchored with the heat of formation of kerosene and verified by comparing a series of one-dimensional rocket thrust chamber calculations. The quasi-global combustion kinetics model consists of several global steps for parent fuel decomposition, soot formation, and soot oxidation and a detailed wet-CO mechanism to complete the combustion process. The final thermophysics formulations are incorporated with a computational fluid dynamics model for prediction of the combustion efficiency of an unielement, tripropellant combustor and the radiation of a kerosene-fueled thruster plume. The model predictions agreed reasonably well with those of the tests.

  11. Simulation of Combustion Systems with Realistic g-Jitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mell, W. E.; McGrattan, K. B.; Nakamura, Y.; Baum, H. R.

    2001-01-01

    A number of facilities are available for microgravity combustion experiments: aircraft, drop towers, sounding rockets, the space shuttle, and, in the future, the International Space Station (ISS). Acceleration disturbances or g-jitter about the background level of reduced gravity exist in all these microgravity facilities. While g-jitter is routinely measured, a quantitative comparison of the quality of g-jitter among the different microgravity facilities, in terms of its affects on combustion experiments, has not been compiled. Low frequency g-jitter (< 1 Hz) has been repeatedly observed to disturb a number of combustion systems. Guidelines regarding tolerable levels of acceleration disturbances for combustion experiments have been developed for use in the design of ISS experiments. The validity of these guidelines, however, remains unknown. In this project a transient, 3-D numerical model is under development to simulate the effects of realistic g-jitter on a number of combustion systems. The measured acceleration vector or some representation of it can be used as input to the simulation.

  12. Modeling of microgravity combustion experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckmaster, John

    1995-01-01

    This program started in February 1991, and is designed to improve our understanding of basic combustion phenomena by the modeling of various configurations undergoing experimental study by others. Results through 1992 were reported in the second workshop. Work since that time has examined the following topics: Flame-balls; Intrinsic and acoustic instabilities in multiphase mixtures; Radiation effects in premixed combustion; Smouldering, both forward and reverse, as well as two dimensional smoulder.

  13. National Combustion Code: Parallel Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babrauckas, Theresa

    2001-01-01

    This report discusses the National Combustion Code (NCC). The NCC is an integrated system of codes for the design and analysis of combustion systems. The advanced features of the NCC meet designers' requirements for model accuracy and turn-around time. The fundamental features at the inception of the NCC were parallel processing and unstructured mesh. The design and performance of the NCC are discussed.

  14. The Fluids and Combustion Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundu, Sampa

    2004-01-01

    Microgravity is an environment with very weak gravitational effects. The Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) on the International Space Station (ISS) will support the study of fluid physics and combustion science in a long-duration microgravity environment. The Fluid Combustion Facility's design will permit both independent and remote control operations from the Telescience Support Center. The crew of the International Space Station will continue to insert and remove the experiment module, store and reload removable data storage and media data tapes, and reconfigure diagnostics on either side of the optics benches. Upon completion of the Fluids Combustion Facility, about ten experiments will be conducted within a ten-year period. Several different areas of fluid physics will be studied in the Fluids Combustion Facility. These areas include complex fluids, interfacial phenomena, dynamics and instabilities, and multiphase flows and phase change. Recently, emphasis has been placed in areas that relate directly to NASA missions including life support, power, propulsion, and thermal control systems. By 2006 or 2007, a Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR) and a Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) will be installed inside the International Space Station. The Fluids Integrated Rack will contain all the hardware and software necessary to perform experiments in fluid physics. A wide range of experiments that meet the requirements of the international space station, including research from other specialties, will be considered. Experiments will be contained in subsystems such as the international standard payload rack, the active rack isolation system, the optics bench, environmental subsystem, electrical power control unit, the gas interface subsystem, and the command and data management subsystem. In conclusion, the Fluids and Combustion Facility will allow researchers to study fluid physics and combustion science in a long-duration microgravity environment. Additional information is

  15. Lean premixed/prevaporized combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lefebvre, A. H. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    Recommendations were formulated on the status and application of lean premixed/prevaporized combustion to the aircraft gas turbine for the reduction of pollutant emissions. The approach taken by the NASA Stratospheric Cruise Emission Reduction Program (SCERP) in pursuing the lean premixed/prevaporized combustion technique was also discussed. The proceedings contains an overview of the SCERP program, the discussions and recommendations of the participants, and an overall summary.

  16. Smoldering Combustion Experiments in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walther, David C.; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; Urban, David L.

    1997-01-01

    The Microgravity Smoldering Combustion (MSC) experiment is part of a study of the smolder characteristics of porous combustible materials in a microgravity environment. Smoldering is a non-flaming form of combustion that takes place in the interior of porous materials and takes place in a number of processes ranging from smoldering of porous insulation materials to high temperature synthesis of metals. The objective of the study is to provide a better understanding of the controlling mechanisms of smolder, both in microgravity and normal-gravity. As with many forms of combustion, gravity affects the availability of oxidizer and transport of heat, and therefore the rate of combustion. Microgravity smolder experiments, in both a quiescent oxidizing environment, and in a forced oxidizing flow have been conducted aboard the NASA Space Shuttle (STS-69 and STS-77 missions) to determine the effect of the ambient oxygen concentration and oxidizer forced flow velocity on smolder combustion in microgravity. The experimental apparatus is contained within the NASA Get Away Special Canister (GAS-CAN) Payload. These two sets of experiments investigate the propagation of smolder along the polyurethane foam sample under both diffusion driven and forced flow driven smoldering. The results of the microgravity experiments are compared with identical ones carried out in normal gravity, and are used to verify present theories of smolder combustion. The results of this study will provide new insights into the smoldering combustion process. Thermocouple histories show that the microgravity smolder reaction temperatures (Ts) and propagation velocities (Us) lie between those of identical normal-gravity upward and downward tests. These observations indicate the effect of buoyancy on the transport of oxidizer to the reaction front.

  17. MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION ASSESSMENT ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The report defines and characterizes types of medical waste, discusses the impacts of burning medical waste on combustor emissions, and outlines important handling and operating considerations. Facility-specific design, handling, and operating practiced are also discussed for municipal waste combustors (MWCs) that reportedly accept medical waste in the U.S., Europe, and Canada. nly very limited data are available on the emission impacts associated with the combustion of medical waste in MWGs. Especially lacking is information needed to fully evaluate the impacts on acid gas, dioxin, and metals emissions, as well as the design and operating requirements for complete destruction of solvents, cytotoxic chemicals, and pathogens. The EPA's Office of Air Quatity Planning and Standards is developing emission standards and guidelines for new and existing MWCs under Sections 111(b) and 111(d) of the Clean Air Act. In support of these regulatory development efforts, the Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory in EPA's Office of Research and Development has conducted an assessment to examine the incineration of medical waste in MWGs from an emission standpoint. Potential worker safety and health problems associated with handling of medical wastes and residues were also identified. information

  18. Industrial Facility Combustion Energy Use

    DOE Data Explorer

    McMillan, Colin

    2016-08-01

    Facility-level industrial combustion energy use is calculated from greenhouse gas emissions data reported by large emitters (>25,000 metric tons CO2e per year) under the U.S. EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program (GHGRP, https://www.epa.gov/ghgreporting). The calculation applies EPA default emissions factors to reported fuel use by fuel type. Additional facility information is included with calculated combustion energy values, such as industry type (six-digit NAICS code), location (lat, long, zip code, county, and state), combustion unit type, and combustion unit name. Further identification of combustion energy use is provided by calculating energy end use (e.g., conventional boiler use, co-generation/CHP use, process heating, other facility support) by manufacturing NAICS code. Manufacturing facilities are matched by their NAICS code and reported fuel type with the proportion of combustion fuel energy for each end use category identified in the 2010 Energy Information Administration Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS, http://www.eia.gov/consumption/manufacturing/data/2010/). MECS data are adjusted to account for data that were withheld or whose end use was unspecified following the procedure described in Fox, Don B., Daniel Sutter, and Jefferson W. Tester. 2011. The Thermal Spectrum of Low-Temperature Energy Use in the United States, NY: Cornell Energy Institute.

  19. Reducing mode circulating fluid bed combustion

    DOEpatents

    Lin, Yung-Yi; Sadhukhan, Pasupati; Fraley, Lowell D.; Hsiao, Keh-Hsien

    1986-01-01

    A method for combustion of sulfur-containing fuel in a circulating fluid bed combustion system wherein the fuel is burned in a primary combustion zone under reducing conditions and sulfur captured as alkaline sulfide. The reducing gas formed is oxidized to combustion gas which is then separated from solids containing alkaline sulfide. The separated solids are then oxidized and recycled to the primary combustion zone.

  20. Experimental investigation of wood combustion in a fixed bed with hot air

    SciTech Connect

    Markovic, Miladin, E-mail: m.markovic@utwente.nl; Bramer, Eddy A.; Brem, Gerrit

    Highlights: • Upward combustion is a new combustion concept with ignition by hot primary air. • Upward combustion has three stages: short drying, rapid devolatilization and char combustion. • Variation of fuel moisture and inert content have little influence on the combustion. • Experimental comparison between conventional and upward combustion is presented. - Abstract: Waste combustion on a grate with energy recovery is an important pillar of municipal solid waste (MSW) management in the Netherlands. In MSW incinerators fresh waste stacked on a grate enters the combustion chamber, heats up by radiation from the flame above the layer and ignitionmore » occurs. Typically, the reaction zone starts at the top of the waste layer and propagates downwards, producing heat for drying and devolatilization of the fresh waste below it until the ignition front reaches the grate. The control of this process is mainly based on empiricism. MSW is a highly inhomogeneous fuel with continuous fluctuating moisture content, heating value and chemical composition. The resulting process fluctuations may cause process control difficulties, fouling and corrosion issues, extra maintenance, and unplanned stops. In the new concept the fuel layer is ignited by means of preheated air (T > 220 °C) from below without any external ignition source. As a result a combustion front will be formed close to the grate and will propagate upwards. That is why this approach is denoted by upward combustion. Experimental research has been carried out in a batch reactor with height of 4.55 m, an inner diameter of 200 mm and a fuel layer height up to 1 m. Due to a high quality two-layer insulation adiabatic conditions can be assumed. The primary air can be preheated up to 350 °C, and the secondary air is distributed via nozzles above the waste layer. During the experiments, temperatures along the height of the reactor, gas composition and total weight decrease are continuously monitored. The

  1. NASA Microgravity Combustion Science Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Merrill K.

    1999-01-01

    Combustion has been a subject of increasingly vigorous scientific research for over a century, not surprising considering that combustion accounts for approximately 85% of the world's energy production and is a key element of many critical technologies used by contemporary society. Although combustion technology is vital to our standard of living, it also poses great challenges to maintaining a habitable environment. A major goal of combustion research is production of fundamental (foundational) knowledge that can be used in developing accurate simulations of complex combustion processes, replacing current "cut-and-try" approaches and allowing developers to improve the efficiency of combustion devices, to reduce the production of harmful emissions, and to reduce the incidence of accidental uncontrolled combustion. With full understanding of the physics and chemistry involved in a given combustion process, including details of the unit processes and their interactions, physically accurate models which can then be used for parametric exploration of new combustion domains via computer simulation can be developed, with possible resultant definition of radically different approaches to accomplishment of various combustion goals. Effects of gravitational forces on earth impede combustion studies more than they impede most other areas of science. The effects of buoyancy are so ubiquitous that we often do not appreciate the enormous negative impact that they have had on the rational development of combustion science. Microgravity offers potential for major gains in combustion science understanding in that it offers unique capability to establish the flow environment rather than having it dominated by uncontrollable (under normal gravity) buoyancy effects and, through this control, to extend the range of test conditions that can be studied. It cannot be emphasized too strongly that our program is dedicated to taking advantage of microgravity to untangle complications caused

  2. Measuring individual disaster recovery: a socioecological framework.

    PubMed

    Abramson, David M; Stehling-Ariza, Tasha; Park, Yoon Soo; Walsh, Lauren; Culp, Derrin

    2010-09-01

    Disaster recovery is a complex phenomenon. Too often, recovery is measured in singular fashion, such as quantifying rebuilt infrastructure or lifelines, without taking in to account the affected population's individual and community recovery. A comprehensive framework is needed that encompasses a much broader and far-reaching construct with multiple underlying dimensions and numerous causal pathways; without the consideration of a comprehensive framework that investigates relationships between these factors, an accurate measurement of recovery may not be valid. This study proposes a model that encapsulates these ideas into a single framework, the Socio-Ecological Model of Recovery. Using confirmatory factor analysis, an operational measure of recovery was developed and validated using the five measures of housing stability, economic stability, physical health, mental health, and social role adaptation. The data were drawn from a sample of displaced households following Hurricane Katrina. Measures of psychological strength, risk, disaster exposure, neighborhood contextual effects, and formal and informal help were modeled to examine their direct and indirect effects on recovery using a structural equation model. All five elements of the recovery measure were positively correlated with a latent measure of recovery, although mental health and social role adaptation displayed the strongest associations. An individual's psychological strength had the greatest association with positive recovery, followed by having a household income greater than $20,000 and having informal social support. Those factors most strongly associated with an absence of recovery included the time displaced since the hurricane, being disabled, and living in a community with substantial social disorder. The socio-ecological framework provides a robust means for measuring recovery, and for testing those factors associated with the presence or absence of recovery.

  3. Spherical combustion clouds in explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhl, A. L.; Bell, J. B.; Beckner, V. E.; Balakrishnan, K.; Aspden, A. J.

    2013-05-01

    This study explores the properties of spherical combustion clouds in explosions. Two cases are investigated: (1) detonation of a TNT charge and combustion of its detonation products with air, and (2) shock dispersion of aluminum powder and its combustion with air. The evolution of the blast wave and ensuing combustion cloud dynamics are studied via numerical simulations with our adaptive mesh refinement combustion code. The code solves the multi-phase conservation laws for a dilute heterogeneous continuum as formulated by Nigmatulin. Single-phase combustion (e.g., TNT with air) is modeled in the fast-chemistry limit. Two-phase combustion (e.g., Al powder with air) uses an induction time model based on Arrhenius fits to Boiko's shock tube data, along with an ignition temperature criterion based on fits to Gurevich's data, and an ignition probability model that accounts for multi-particle effects on cloud ignition. Equations of state are based on polynomial fits to thermodynamic calculations with the Cheetah code, assuming frozen reactants and equilibrium products. Adaptive mesh refinement is used to resolve thin reaction zones and capture the energy-bearing scales of turbulence on the computational mesh (ILES approach). Taking advantage of the symmetry of the problem, azimuthal averaging was used to extract the mean and rms fluctuations from the numerical solution, including: thermodynamic profiles, kinematic profiles, and reaction-zone profiles across the combustion cloud. Fuel consumption was limited to ˜ 60-70 %, due to the limited amount of air a spherical combustion cloud can entrain before the turbulent velocity field decays away. Turbulent kinetic energy spectra of the solution were found to have both rotational and dilatational components, due to compressibility effects. The dilatational component was typically about 1 % of the rotational component; both seemed to preserve their spectra as they decayed. Kinetic energy of the blast wave decayed due to the

  4. Disaster Debris Recovery Database - Recovery

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The US EPA Region 5 Disaster Debris Recovery Database includes public datasets of over 6,000 composting facilities, demolition contractors, transfer stations, landfills and recycling facilities for construction and demolition materials, electronics, household hazardous waste, metals, tires, and vehicles in the states of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, North Dakota, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, West Virginia and Wisconsin.In this update, facilities in the 7 states that border the EPA Region 5 states were added to assist interstate disaster debris management. Also, the datasets for composters, construction and demolition recyclers, demolition contractors, and metals recyclers were verified and source information added for each record using these sources: AGC, Biocycle, BMRA, CDRA, ISRI, NDA, USCC, FEMA Debris Removal Contractor Registry, EPA Facility Registry System, and State and local listings.

  5. Computing and combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Coming into the Combustion Branch of the Turbomachinery and Propulsion Systems Division, there was not any set project planned out for me to work on. This was understandable, considering I am only at my sophmore year in college. Also, my mentor was a division chief and it was expected that I would be passed down the line. It took about a week for me to be placed with somebody who could use me. My first project was to write a macro for TecPlot. Commonly, a person would have a 3D contour volume modeling something such as a combustion engine. This 3D volume needed to have slices extracted from it and made into 2D scientific plots with all of the appropriate axis and titles. This was very tedious to do by hand. My macro needed to automate the process. There was some education I needed before I could start, however. First, TecPlot ran on Unix and Linux, like a growing majority of scientific applications. I knew a little about Linux, but I would need to know more to use the software at hand. I took two classes at the Learning Center on Unix and am now comfortable with Linux and Unix. I already had taken Computer Science I and II, and had undergone the transformation from Computer Programmer to Procedural Epistemologist. I knew how to design efficient algorithms, I just needed to learn the macro language. After a little less than a week, I had learned the basics of the language. Like most languages, the best way to learn more of it was by using it. It was decided that it was best that I do the macro in layers, starting simple and adding features as I went. The macro started out slicing with respect to only one axis, and did not make 2D plots out of the slices. Instead, it lined them up inside the solid. Next, I allowed for more than one axis and placed each slice in a separate frame. After this, I added code that transformed each individual slice-frame into a scientific plot. I also made frames for composite volumes, which showed all of the slices in the same XYZ space. I

  6. Jet plume injection and combustion system for internal combustion engines

    DOEpatents

    Oppenheim, A.K.; Maxson, J.A.; Hensinger, D.M.

    1993-12-21

    An improved combustion system for an internal combustion engine is disclosed wherein a rich air/fuel mixture is furnished at high pressure to one or more jet plume generator cavities adjacent to a cylinder and then injected through one or more orifices from the cavities into the head space of the cylinder to form one or more turbulent jet plumes in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition of the rich air/fuel mixture in the cavity of the jet plume generator. The portion of the rich air/fuel mixture remaining in the cavity of the generator is then ignited to provide a secondary jet, comprising incomplete combustion products which are injected into the cylinder to initiate combustion in the already formed turbulent jet plume. Formation of the turbulent jet plume in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition has been found to yield a higher maximum combustion pressure in the cylinder, as well as shortening the time period to attain such a maximum pressure. 24 figures.

  7. Jet plume injection and combustion system for internal combustion engines

    DOEpatents

    Oppenheim, Antoni K.; Maxson, James A.; Hensinger, David M.

    1993-01-01

    An improved combustion system for an internal combustion engine is disclosed wherein a rich air/fuel mixture is furnished at high pressure to one or more jet plume generator cavities adjacent to a cylinder and then injected through one or more orifices from the cavities into the head space of the cylinder to form one or more turbulent jet plumes in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition of the rich air/fuel mixture in the cavity of the jet plume generator. The portion of the rich air/fuel mixture remaining in the cavity of the generator is then ignited to provide a secondary jet, comprising incomplete combustion products which are injected into the cylinder to initiate combustion in the already formed turbulent jet plume. Formation of the turbulent jet plume in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition has been found to yield a higher maximum combustion pressure in the cylinder, as well as shortening the time period to attain such a maximum pressure.

  8. Spray combustion experiments and numerical predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mularz, Edward J.; Bulzan, Daniel L.; Chen, Kuo-Huey

    1993-01-01

    The next generation of commercial aircraft will include turbofan engines with performance significantly better than those in the current fleet. Control of particulate and gaseous emissions will also be an integral part of the engine design criteria. These performance and emission requirements present a technical challenge for the combustor: control of the fuel and air mixing and control of the local stoichiometry will have to be maintained much more rigorously than with combustors in current production. A better understanding of the flow physics of liquid fuel spray combustion is necessary. This paper describes recent experiments on spray combustion where detailed measurements of the spray characteristics were made, including local drop-size distributions and velocities. Also, an advanced combustor CFD code has been under development and predictions from this code are compared with experimental results. Studies such as these will provide information to the advanced combustor designer on fuel spray quality and mixing effectiveness. Validation of new fast, robust, and efficient CFD codes will also enable the combustor designer to use them as additional design tools for optimization of combustor concepts for the next generation of aircraft engines.

  9. Aviation combustion toxicology: an overview.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Arvind K

    2010-01-01

    Aviation combustion toxicology is a subspecialty of the field of aerospace toxicology, which is composed of aerospace and toxicology. The term aerospace, that is, the environment extending above and beyond the surface of the Earth, is also used to represent the combined fields of aeronautics and astronautics. Aviation is another term interchangeably used with aerospace and aeronautics and is explained as the science and art of operating powered aircraft. Toxicology deals with the adverse effects of substances on living organisms. Although toxicology borrows knowledge from biology, chemistry, immunology, pathology, physiology, and public health, the most closely related field to toxicology is pharmacology. Economic toxicology, environmental toxicology, and forensic toxicology, including combustion toxicology, are the three main branches of toxicology. In this overview, a literature search for the period of 1960-2007 was performed and information related to aviation combustion toxicology collected. The overview included introduction; combustion, fire, and smoke; smoke gas toxicity; aircraft material testing; fire gases and their interactive effects; result interpretation; carboxyhemoglobin and blood cyanide ion levels; pyrolytic products of aircraft engine oils, fluids, and lubricants; and references. This review is anticipated to be an informative resource for aviation combustion toxicology and fire-related casualties.

  10. Redesign and Test of an SSME Turbopump for the Large Throat Main Combustion Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lunde, K. J.; Lee, G. A.; Eastland, A. H.; Rojas, L.

    1994-01-01

    The preburner oxidizer turbopump for the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) was successfully redesigned for use with the Large Throat Main Combustion Chamber (LTMCC) and tested in air utilizing rapid prototyping. The redesign increases the SSME's operating range with the current Main Combustion Chamber (MCC) while achieving full operational range with the LTMCC. The use of rapid prototyping and air testing to validate the redesign demonstrated the ability to design, fabricate and test designs rapidly and at a very low cost.

  11. Hypergolic Combustion Demonstration in a Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-01

    deposit problem encountered with Pearl Kerosene. Specifications and properties data for JP-7 fuel are in Table 5-2. 5.5.3. Methanol. Methanol ( CH OH...methylphenol, 0./1,000 bbls. 8.4 max. 8.4 PWA536, PPM 200-250 225 27 ’, •X TABLE 5-3. Typical Properties for Methanol(8) Formula CH 0,i Molecular weight 32.&2...46_ LIST OF REFERENCES (1) Hopple, L. 0. "Pyrophoric Combustion in Internal Combustion Engines," Eaton Technical Report No. 7845 , 1978. (2) Hoppie

  12. Transport Properties for Combustion Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, N.J.; Bastein, L.; Price, P.N.

    This review examines current approximations and approaches that underlie the evaluation of transport properties for combustion modeling applications. Discussed in the review are: the intermolecular potential and its descriptive molecular parameters; various approaches to evaluating collision integrals; supporting data required for the evaluation of transport properties; commonly used computer programs for predicting transport properties; the quality of experimental measurements and their importance for validating or rejecting approximations to property estimation; the interpretation of corresponding states; combination rules that yield pair molecular potential parameters for unlike species from like species parameters; and mixture approximations. The insensitivity of transport properties to intermolecularmore » forces is noted, especially the non-uniqueness of the supporting potential parameters. Viscosity experiments of pure substances and binary mixtures measured post 1970 are used to evaluate a number of approximations; the intermediate temperature range 1 < T* < 10, where T* is kT/{var_epsilon}, is emphasized since this is where rich data sets are available. When suitable potential parameters are used, errors in transport property predictions for pure substances and binary mixtures are less than 5 %, when they are calculated using the approaches of Kee et al.; Mason, Kestin, and Uribe; Paul and Warnatz; or Ern and Giovangigli. Recommendations stemming from the review include (1) revisiting the supporting data required by the various computational approaches, and updating the data sets with accurate potential parameters, dipole moments, and polarizabilities; (2) characterizing the range of parameter space over which the fit to experimental data is good, rather than the current practice of reporting only the parameter set that best fits the data; (3) looking for improved combining rules, since existing rules were found to under-predict the viscosity in most

  13. Method and apparatus for detecting combustion instability in continuous combustion systems

    DOEpatents

    Benson, Kelly J.; Thornton, Jimmy D.; Richards, George A.; Straub, Douglas L.

    2006-08-29

    An apparatus and method to sense the onset of combustion stability is presented. An electrode is positioned in a turbine combustion chamber such that the electrode is exposed to gases in the combustion chamber. A control module applies a voltage potential to the electrode and detects a combustion ionization signal and determines if there is an oscillation in the combustion ionization signal indicative of the occurrence of combustion stability or the onset of combustion instability. A second electrode held in a coplanar but spaced apart manner by an insulating member from the electrode provides a combustion ionization signal to the control module when the first electrode fails. The control module broadcasts a notice if the parameters indicate the combustion process is at the onset of combustion instability or broadcasts an alarm signal if the parameters indicate the combustion process is unstable.

  14. Summary of Pressure Gain Combustion Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, H. Douglas; Paxson, Daniel E.

    2018-01-01

    NASA has undertaken a systematic exploration of many different facets of pressure gain combustion over the last 25 years in an effort to exploit the inherent thermodynamic advantage of pressure gain combustion over the constant pressure combustion process used in most aerospace propulsion systems. Applications as varied as small-scale UAV's, rotorcraft, subsonic transports, hypersonics and launch vehicles have been considered. In addition to studying pressure gain combustor concepts such as wave rotors, pulse detonation engines, pulsejets, and rotating detonation engines, NASA has studied inlets, nozzles, ejectors and turbines which must also process unsteady flow in an integrated propulsion system. Other design considerations such as acoustic signature, combustor material life and heat transfer that are unique to pressure gain combustors have also been addressed in NASA research projects. In addition to a wide range of experimental studies, a number of computer codes, from 0-D up through 3-D, have been developed or modified to specifically address the analysis of unsteady flow fields. Loss models have also been developed and incorporated into these codes that improve the accuracy of performance predictions and decrease computational time. These codes have been validated numerous times across a broad range of operating conditions, and it has been found that once validated for one particular pressure gain combustion configuration, these codes are readily adaptable to the others. All in all, the documentation of this work has encompassed approximately 170 NASA technical reports, conference papers and journal articles to date. These publications are very briefly summarized herein, providing a single point of reference for all of NASA's pressure gain combustion research efforts. This documentation does not include the significant contributions made by NASA research staff to the programs of other agencies, universities, industrial partners and professional society

  15. Combustion of droplets and sprays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eigenbrod, Christian; Sattelmayer, Thomas; Bäßler, Stefan; Mauss, Fabian; Meisl, Jürgen; Oomens, Bas; Rackwitz, Leif; Tait, Nigel; Angelberger, Christian; Eilts, Peter; Magnusson, Ingemar; Lauvergne, Romain; Tatschl, Reinhard

    2005-10-01

    The combustion of liquid hydrocarbon fuels in internal combustion engines and gas turbines for energy production and aircraft propulsion is intrinsically tied to the formation of pollutants. Apart from aiming for the highest combustion efficiencies in order to lower the operational costs and the emission of CO2, the reduction of poisonous and environmentally harmful exhaust constituents is a challenging task for scientists and engineers. The most prominent pollutants are soot, identified to trigger respiratory diseases and cancer, and nitric oxides such as NO and NO2, which promote the formation of ozone affecting the cardiovascular system when released in the lower atmosphere. Soot and nitric oxides are greenhouse pollutants in the upper atmosphere. Even though only 2-3% of the anthropogenic emission of nitric oxides are contributed by aircraft, it is the only emission at high altitudes. Unfortunately, it has the greatest impact on climate there and it does not matter whether the fuels are fossil or, in the future, biomass.

  16. Laboratory studies of lean combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, R. F.; Schefer, R. W.; Ganji, A. R.; Daily, J. W.; Pitz, R. W.; Oppenheim, A. K.; Angeli, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    The fundamental processes controlling lean combustion were observed for better understanding, with particular emphasis on the formation and measurement of gas-phase pollutants, the stability of the combustion process (blowout limits), methods of improving stability, and the application of probe and optical diagnostics for flow field characterization, temperature mapping, and composition measurements. The following areas of investigation are described in detail: (1) axisymmetric, opposed-reacting-jet-stabilized combustor studies; (2) stabilization through heat recirculation; (3) two dimensional combustor studies; and (4) spectroscopic methods. A departure from conventional combustor design to a premixed/prevaporized, lean combustion configuration is attractive for the control of oxides of nitrogen and smoke emissions, the promotion of uniform turbine inlet temperatures, and, possibly, the reduction of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons at idle.

  17. Novel Active Combustion Control Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caspermeyer, Matt

    2014-01-01

    This project presents an innovative solution for active combustion control. Relative to the state of the art, this concept provides frequency modulation (greater than 1,000 Hz) in combination with high-amplitude modulation (in excess of 30 percent flow) and can be adapted to a large range of fuel injector sizes. Existing valves often have low flow modulation strength. To achieve higher flow modulation requires excessively large valves or too much electrical power to be practical. This active combustion control valve (ACCV) has high-frequency and -amplitude modulation, consumes low electrical power, is closely coupled with the fuel injector for modulation strength, and is practical in size and weight. By mitigating combustion instabilities at higher frequencies than have been previously achieved (approximately 1,000 Hz), this new technology enables gas turbines to run at operating points that produce lower emissions and higher performance.

  18. Recovery correction technique for NMR spectroscopy of perchloric acid extracts using DL-valine-2,3-d2: validation and application to 5-fluorouracil-induced brain damage.

    PubMed

    Nakagami, Ryutaro; Yamaguchi, Masayuki; Ezawa, Kenji; Kimura, Sadaaki; Hamamichi, Shusei; Sekine, Norio; Furukawa, Akira; Niitsu, Mamoru; Fujii, Hirofumi

    2014-01-01

    We explored a recovery correction technique that can correct metabolite loss during perchloric acid (PCA) extraction and minimize inter-assay variance in quantitative (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of the brain and evaluated its efficacy in 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)- and saline-administered rats. We measured the recovery of creatine and dl-valine-2,3-d2 from PCA extract containing both compounds (0.5 to 8 mM). We intravenously administered either 5-FU for 4 days (total, 100 mg/kg body weight) or saline into 2 groups of 11 rats each. We subsequently performed PCA extraction of the whole brain on Day 9, externally adding 7 µmol of dl-valine-2,3-d2. We estimated metabolite concentrations using an NMR spectrometer with recovery correction, correcting metabolite concentrations based on the recovery factor of dl-valine-2,3-d2. For each metabolite concentration, we calculated the coefficient of variation (CEV) and compared differences between the 2 groups using unpaired t-test. Equivalent recoveries of dl-valine-2,3-d2 (89.4 ± 3.9%) and creatine (89.7 ± 3.9%) in the PCA extract of the mixed solution indicated the suitability of dl-valine-2,3-d2 as an internal reference. In the rat study, recovery of dl-valine-2,3-d2 was 90.6 ± 9.2%. Nine major metabolite concentrations adjusted by recovery of dl-valine-2,3-d2 in saline-administered rats were comparable to data in the literature. CEVs of these metabolites were reduced from 10 to 17% before to 7 to 16% after correction. The significance of differences in alanine and taurine between the 5-FU- and saline-administered groups was determined only after recovery correction (0.75 ± 0.12 versus 0.86 ± 0.07 for alanine; 5.17 ± 0.59 versus 5.66 ± 0.42 for taurine [µmol/g brain tissue]; P < 0.05). A new recovery correction technique corrected metabolite loss during PCA extraction, minimized inter-assay variance in quantitative (1)H NMR spectroscopy of brain tissue, and effectively detected inter

  19. Effects of fuel cetane number on the structure of diesel spray combustion: An accelerated Eulerian stochastic fields method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jangi, Mehdi; Lucchini, Tommaso; Gong, Cheng; Bai, Xue-Song

    2015-09-01

    An Eulerian stochastic fields (ESF) method accelerated with the chemistry coordinate mapping (CCM) approach for modelling spray combustion is formulated, and applied to model diesel combustion in a constant volume vessel. In ESF-CCM, the thermodynamic states of the discretised stochastic fields are mapped into a low-dimensional phase space. Integration of the chemical stiff ODEs is performed in the phase space and the results are mapped back to the physical domain. After validating the ESF-CCM, the method is used to investigate the effects of fuel cetane number on the structure of diesel spray combustion. It is shown that, depending of the fuel cetane number, liftoff length is varied, which can lead to a change in combustion mode from classical diesel spray combustion to fuel-lean premixed burned combustion. Spray combustion with a shorter liftoff length exhibits the characteristics of the classical conceptual diesel combustion model proposed by Dec in 1997 (http://dx.doi.org/10.4271/970873), whereas in a case with a lower cetane number the liftoff length is much larger and the spray combustion probably occurs in a fuel-lean-premixed mode of combustion. Nevertheless, the transport budget at the liftoff location shows that stabilisation at all cetane numbers is governed primarily by the auto-ignition process.

  20. Thermal Model of the Promoted Combustion Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Peter D.

    1996-01-01

    Flammability of metals in high pressure, pure oxygen environments, such as rocket engine turbopumps, is commonly evaluated using the Promoted Combustion Test (PCT). The PCT emphasizes the ability of an ignited material to sustain combustion, as opposed to evaluating the sample's propensity to ignite in the first place. A common arrangement is a rod of the sample material hanging in a chamber in which a high pressure, pure oxygen environment is maintained. An igniter of some energetically combusting material is fixed to the bottom of the rod and fired. This initiates combustion, and the sample burns and melts at its bottom tip. A ball of molten material forms, and this ball detaches when it grows too large to be supported by surface tension with the rod. In materials which do not sustain combustion, the combustion then extinguishes. In materials which do sustain combustion, combustion re-initiates from molten residue left on the bottom of the rod, and the melt ball burns and grows until it detaches again. The purpose of this work is development of a PCT thermal simulation model, detailing phase change, melt detachment, and the several heat transfer modes. Combustion is modeled by a summary rate equation, whose parameters are identified by comparison to PCT results. The sensitivity of PCT results to various physical and geometrical parameters is evaluated. The identified combustion parameters may be used in design of new PCT arrangements, as might be used for flammability assessment in flow-dominated environments. The Haynes 214 nickel-based superalloy, whose PCT results are applied here, burns heterogeneously (fuel and oxidizer are of different phases; combustion takes place on the fuel surface). Heterogeneous combustion is not well understood. (In homogeneous combustion, the metal vaporizes, and combustion takes place in an analytically treatable cloud above the surface). Thermal modeling in heterogeneous combustion settings provides a means for linking test

  1. Survey of Hydrogen Combustion Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drell, Isadore L; Belles, Frank E

    1958-01-01

    This literature digest of hydrogen-air combustion fundamentals presents data on flame temperature, burning velocity, quenching distance, flammability limits, ignition energy, flame stability, detonation, spontaneous ignition, and explosion limits. The data are assessed, recommended values are given, and relations among various combustion properties are discussed. New material presented includes: theoretical treatment of variation in spontaneous ignition lag with temperature, pressure, and composition, based on reaction kinetics of hydrogen-air composition range for 0.01 to 100 atmospheres and initial temperatures of 0 degrees to 1400 degrees k.

  2. Basic Aerodynamics of Combustion Chambers,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-20

    engineering circles, the trend in the design of new tyres of combustion chambers is to combine the use of aerodynamics , ;he science of heat transfer and...7. FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DIV WRIGHT-PATTERSON AF8 ON F/6 21/2 BASIC AERODYNAMICS OF COMBUSTION CHAMBERS,(U) MAY 81 N HUANG UNCLASSIFIED FTD-ID(RS)T...160󈨔 NL so EEEEEE 0hEEEEEEmollllmmlllll mEImmmmmEEE mEEEEEmmEEmmmE IilillilillEEE FTD-1D(RS)T-1684-80 FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DIVISION BASIC AERODYNAMICS CF

  3. Combustion heater for oil shale

    DOEpatents

    Mallon, R.; Walton, O.; Lewis, A.E.; Braun, R.

    1983-09-21

    A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650 to 700/sup 0/C for use as a process heat source.

  4. Combustion heater for oil shale

    DOEpatents

    Mallon, Richard G.; Walton, Otis R.; Lewis, Arthur E.; Braun, Robert L.

    1985-01-01

    A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650.degree.-700.degree. C. for use as a process heat source.

  5. Combustion synthesis method and products

    DOEpatents

    Holt, J. Birch; Kelly, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of producing dense refractory products, comprising: (a) obtaining a quantity of exoergic material in powder form capable of sustaining a combustion synthesis reaction; (b) removing absorbed water vapor therefrom; (c) cold-pressing said material into a formed body; (d) plasma spraying said formed body with a molten exoergic material to form a coat thereon; and (e) igniting said exoergic coated formed body under an inert gas atmosphere and pressure to produce self-sustained combustion synthesis. Also disclosed are products produced by the method.

  6. Combustion synthesis method and products

    DOEpatents

    Holt, J.B.; Kelly, M.

    1993-03-30

    Disclosed is a method of producing dense refractory products, comprising: (a) obtaining a quantity of exoergic material in powder form capable of sustaining a combustion synthesis reaction; (b) removing absorbed water vapor therefrom; (c) cold-pressing said material into a formed body; (d) plasma spraying said formed body with a molten exoergic material to form a coat thereon; and (e) igniting said exoergic coated formed body under an inert gas atmosphere and pressure to produce self-sustained combustion synthesis. Also disclosed are products produced by the method.

  7. Development of a Premixed Combustion Capability for Scramjet Combustion Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rockwell, Robert D.; Goyne, Christopher P.; Rice, Brian E.; Chelliah, Harsha; McDaniel, James C.; Edwards, Jack R.; Cantu, Luca M. L.; Gallo, Emanuela C. A.; Cutler, Andrew D.; Danehy, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Hypersonic air-breathing engines rely on scramjet combustion processes, which involve high speed, compressible, and highly turbulent flows. The combustion environment and the turbulent flames at the heart of these engines are difficult to simulate and study in the laboratory under well controlled conditions. Typically, wind-tunnel testing is performed that more closely approximates engine testing rather than a careful investigation of the underlying physics that drives the combustion process. The experiments described in this paper, along with companion data sets being developed separately, aim to isolate the chemical kinetic effects from the fuel-air mixing process in a dual-mode scramjet combustion environment. A unique fuel injection approach is taken that produces a nearly uniform fuel-air mixture at the entrance to the combustor. This approach relies on the precombustion shock train upstream of the dual-mode scramjet combustor. A stable ethylene flame anchored on a cavity flameholder with a uniformly mixed combustor inflow has been achieved in these experiments allowing numerous companion studies involving coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), particle image velocimetry (PIV), and planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) to be performed.

  8. Method for storing radioactive combustible waste

    DOEpatents

    Godbee, H.W.; Lovelace, R.C.

    1973-10-01

    A method is described for preventing pressure buildup in sealed containers which contain radioactively contaminated combustible waste material by adding an oxide getter material to the container so as to chemically bind sorbed water and combustion product gases. (Official Gazette)

  9. Publication sites productive uses of combustion ash

    Science.gov Websites

    Publication Sites Productive Uses of Combustion Ash For more information contact: e:mail: Public waste combustion ash in landfills. The new technology brief describes recent studies where ash was used

  10. Promoted Combustion Test Propagation Rate Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borstorff, J.; Jones, P.; Lowery, F.

    2002-01-01

    Combustion propagation rate data were examined for potential use in benchmarking a thermal model of the Promoted Combustion Test (PCT), and also for potential use in measuring the repeatability of PCT results.

  11. Combustion chamber analysis code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Przekwas, A. J.; Lai, Y. G.; Krishnan, A.; Avva, R. K.; Giridharan, M. G.

    1993-01-01

    A three-dimensional, time dependent, Favre averaged, finite volume Navier-Stokes code has been developed to model compressible and incompressible flows (with and without chemical reactions) in liquid rocket engines. The code has a non-staggered formulation with generalized body-fitted-coordinates (BFC) capability. Higher order differencing methodologies such as MUSCL and Osher-Chakravarthy schemes are available. Turbulent flows can be modeled using any of the five turbulent models present in the code. A two-phase, two-liquid, Lagrangian spray model has been incorporated into the code. Chemical equilibrium and finite rate reaction models are available to model chemically reacting flows. The discrete ordinate method is used to model effects of thermal radiation. The code has been validated extensively against benchmark experimental data and has been applied to model flows in several propulsion system components of the SSME and the STME.

  12. Separating Direct and Indirect Turbofan Engine Combustion Noise While Estimating Post-Combustion (Post-Flame) Residence Time Using the Correlation Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, Jeffrey Hilton

    2011-01-01

    A previous investigation on the presence of direct and indirect combustion noise for a full-scale turbofan engine using a far-field microphone at 130 is extended by also examining signals obtained at two additional downstream directions using far-field microphones at 110 deg and 160 deg. A generalized cross-correlation function technique is used to study the change in propagation time to the far field of the combined direct and indirect combustion noise signal as a sequence of low-pass filters are applied. The filtering procedure used produces no phase distortion. As the low-pass filter frequency is decreased, the travel time increases because the relative amount of direct combustion noise is reduced. The indirect combustion noise signal travels more slowly because in the combustor entropy fluctuations move with the flow velocity, which is slow compared to the local speed of sound. The indirect combustion noise signal travels at acoustic velocities after reaching the turbine and being converted into an acoustic signal. The direct combustion noise is always propagating at acoustic velocities. The results show that the estimated indirect combustion noise time delay values (post-combustion residence times) measured at each angle are fairly consistent with one another for a relevant range of operating conditions and demonstrate source separation of a mixture of direct and indirect combustion noise. The results may lead to a better idea about the acoustics in the combustor and may help develop and validate improved reduced-order physics-based methods for predicting turbofan engine core noise.

  13. Enhanced Combustion Low NOx Pulverized Coal Burner

    SciTech Connect

    David Towle; Richard Donais; Todd Hellewell

    2007-06-30

    For more than two decades, Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom) has developed a range of low cost, infurnace technologies for NOx emissions control for the domestic U.S. pulverized coal fired boiler market. This includes Alstom's internally developed TFS 2000{trademark} firing system, and various enhancements to it developed in concert with the U.S. Department of Energy. As of the date of this report, more than 270 units representing approximately 80,000 MWe of domestic coal fired capacity have been retrofit with Alstom low NOx technology. Best of class emissions range from 0.18 lb/MMBtu for bituminous coal to 0.10 lb/MMBtu for subbituminous coal, withmore » typical levels at 0.24 lb/MMBtu and 0.13 lb/MMBtu, respectively. Despite these gains, NOx emissions limits in the U.S. continue to ratchet down for new and existing boiler equipment. On March 10, 2005, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR). CAIR requires 25 Eastern states to reduce NOx emissions from the power generation sector by 1.7 million tons in 2009 and 2.0 million tons by 2015. Low cost solutions to meet such regulations, and in particular those that can avoid the need for a costly selective catalytic reduction system (SCR), provide a strong incentive to continue to improve low NOx firing system technology to meet current and anticipated NOx control regulations. The overall objective of the work is to develop an enhanced combustion, low NOx pulverized coal burner, which, when integrated with Alstom's state-of-the-art, globally air staged low NOx firing systems will provide a means to achieve: Less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a high volatile Eastern or Western bituminous coal, Less than 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a subbituminous coal, NOx reduction costs at least 25% lower than the costs of an SCR, Validation of the NOx control technology developed through large (15 MWt) pilot scale demonstration, and Documentation required for

  14. Cavity Coupled Aeroramp Injector Combustion Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    Lin 5 Taitech Inc., Beavercreek, OH, 45430 The difficulties with fueling of supersonic combustion ramjet engines with hydrocarbon based fuels...combustor to not force the pre- combustion shock train out of the isolator and, in a full engine with inlet, cause an inlet unstart and likely...metric used to quantify engine performance is the combustion efficiency. Figure 9 shows the comparison of the combustion efficiency as a function of

  15. Combustion products generating and metering device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiberg, R. E.; Klisch, J. A. (Inventor)

    1971-01-01

    An apparatus for generating combustion products at a predetermined fixed rate, mixing the combustion products with air to achieve a given concentration, and distributing the resultant mixture to an area or device to be tested is described. The apparatus is comprised of blowers, a holder for the combustion product generating materials (which burn at a predictable and controlled rate), a mixing plenum chamber, and a means for distributing the air combustion product mixture.

  16. Simulation study on combustion of biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, M. L.; Liu, X.; Cheng, J. W.; Liu, Y.; Jin, Y. A.

    2017-01-01

    Biomass combustion is the most common energy conversion technology, offering the advantages of low cost, low risk and high efficiency. In this paper, the transformation and transfer of biomass in the process of combustion are discussed in detail. The process of furnace combustion and gas phase formation was analyzed by numerical simulation. The experimental results not only help to optimize boiler operation and realize the efficient combustion of biomass, but also provide theoretical basis for the improvement of burner technology.

  17. The nature of combustion noise: Stochastic or chaotic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Vikrant; Lee, Min Chul; Li, Larry K. B.

    2016-11-01

    Combustion noise, which refers to irregular low-amplitude pressure oscillations, is conventionally thought to be stochastic. It has therefore been modeled using a stochastic term in the analysis of thermoacoustic systems. Recently, however, there has been a renewed interest in the validity of that stochastic assumption, with tests based on nonlinear dynamical theory giving seemingly contradictory results: some show combustion noise to be stochastic while others show it to be chaotic. In this study, we show that this contradiction arises because those tests cannot distinguish between noise amplification and chaos. We further show that although there are many similarities between noise amplification and chaos, there are also some subtle differences. It is these subtle differences, not the results of those tests, that should be the focus of analyses aimed at determining the true nature of combustion noise. Recognizing this is an important step towards improved understanding and modeling of combustion noise for the study of thermoacoustic instabilities. This work was supported by the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong (Project No. 16235716 and 26202815).

  18. Catalyzing the Combustion of Coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrey, M. F.; Dokko, W.

    1982-01-01

    Reaction rate of coal in air can be increased by contacting or coating coal with compound such as calcium acetate. The enhanced reaction rate generates more heat, reducing furnace size. Increase in combustion rate is about 26 percent, and internal pollutants in powerplant are reduced.

  19. METAL PARTITIONING IN COMBUSTION PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article summarizes ongoing research efforts at the National Risk Management Research Laboratory of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency examining [high temperature] metal behavior within combustion environments. The partitioning of non-volatile (Cr and Ni), semi-volatil...

  20. 75 FR 32142 - Combustible Dust

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-07

    .... Contact Mat Chibbaro, P.E., Fire Protection Engineer, Office of Safety Systems, OSHA Directorate of..., and metals (such as aluminum and magnesium). Industries that may have combustible dust hazards include..., chemical manufacturing, textile manufacturing, furniture manufacturing, metal processing, fabricated metal...

  1. COMBUSTION OF HEAVY LIQUID FUELS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    characteristics of individual fuel droplets, as functions of the external conditions and fuel properties, the droplet combustion process in a flame ... length and the quality of atomization are examined. In addition, atomization quality is covered, and nozzle systems and the construction of nozzles are

  2. Advanced Chemical Modeling for Turbulent Combustion Simulations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-03

    premixed combustion. The chemistry work proposes a method for defining jet fuel surrogates, describes how different sub- mechanisms can be incorporated...Chemical Modeling For Turbulent Combustion Simulations Final Report submitted by: Heinz Pitsch (PI) Stanford University Mechanical Engineering Flow Physics...predict the combustion characteristics of fuel oxidation and pollutant emissions from engines . The relevant fuel chemistry must be accurately modeled

  3. Reduced No.sub.x combustion method

    DOEpatents

    Delano, Mark A.

    1991-01-01

    A combustion method enabling reduced NO.sub.x formation wherein fuel and oxidant are separately injected into a combustion zone in a defined velocity relation, combustion gases are aspirated into the oxidant stream prior to intermixture with the fuel, and the fuel is maintained free from contact with oxygen until the intermixture.

  4. APTI Course 427, Combustion Evaluation. Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beard, J. Taylor; And Others

    Presented are exercises intended to supplement course work in air pollution control, specifically as they relate to combustion. Chapters offered in this workbook include: (1) Combustion Calculations, (2) Combustion System Design Problems, (3) Emission Calculations I, (4) Emission Calculations II, (5) Afterburner Design Problems, and (6) Cumbustion…

  5. Method and device for diagnosing and controlling combustion instabilities in internal combustion engines operating in or transitioning to homogeneous charge combustion ignition mode

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, Robert M [Knoxville, TN; Daw, Charles S [Knoxville, TN; Green, Johney B [Knoxville, TN; Edwards, Kevin D [Knoxville, TN

    2008-10-07

    This invention is a method of achieving stable, optimal mixtures of HCCI and SI in practical gasoline internal combustion engines comprising the steps of: characterizing the combustion process based on combustion process measurements, determining the ratio of conventional and HCCI combustion, determining the trajectory (sequence) of states for consecutive combustion processes, and determining subsequent combustion process modifications using said information to steer the engine combustion toward desired behavior.

  6. Combustor nozzle for a fuel-flexible combustion system

    DOEpatents

    Haynes, Joel Meier [Niskayuna, NY; Mosbacher, David Matthew [Cohoes, NY; Janssen, Jonathan Sebastian [Troy, NY; Iyer, Venkatraman Ananthakrishnan [Mason, OH

    2011-03-22

    A combustor nozzle is provided. The combustor nozzle includes a first fuel system configured to introduce a syngas fuel into a combustion chamber to enable lean premixed combustion within the combustion chamber and a second fuel system configured to introduce the syngas fuel, or a hydrocarbon fuel, or diluents, or combinations thereof into the combustion chamber to enable diffusion combustion within the combustion chamber.

  7. 36th International Symposium on Combustion (ISOC2016)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    GREENHOUSE GASES / IC ENGINE COMBUSTION I GAS TURBINE COMBUSTION I NOVEL COMBUSTION CONCEPTS, TECHNOLOGIES AND SYSTEMS 15. SUBJECT TERMS Reaction...pollutants and greenhouse gases; IC engine combustion; Gas turbine combustion; Novel combustion concepts, technologies and systems 16. SECURITY...PLENARY LECTURE TRANSFER (15 min) am Turbulent Flames IC Engines Laminar Flames Reaction Kinetics Gas Turbines Soot Solid Fuels/Pollutants

  8. Gaseous emissions from waste combustion.

    PubMed

    Werther, Joachim

    2007-06-18

    An overview is given on methods and technologies for limiting the gaseous emissions from waste combustion. With the guideline 2000/76/EC recent European legislation has set stringent limits not only for the mono-combustion of waste in specialized incineration plants but also for co-combustion in coal-fired power plants. With increased awareness of environmental issues and stepwise decrease of emission limits and inclusion of more and more substances into the network of regulations a multitude of emission abatement methods and technologies have been developed over the last decades. The result is the state-of-the-art waste incinerator with a number of specialized process steps for the individual components in the flue gas. The present work highlights some new developments which can be summarized under the common goal of reducing the costs of flue gas treatment by applying systems which combine the treatment of several noxious substances in one reactor or by taking new, simpler routes instead of the previously used complicated ones or - in the case of flue gas desulphurisation - by reducing the amount of limestone consumption. Cost reduction is also the driving force for new processes of conditioning of nonhomogenous waste before combustion. Pyrolysis or gasification is used for chemical conditioning whereas physical conditioning means comminution, classification and sorting processes. Conditioning yields a fuel which can be used in power plants either as a co-fuel or a mono-fuel and which will burn there under much better controlled conditions and therefore with less emissions than the nonhomogeneous waste in a conventional waste incinerator. Also for cost reasons, co-combustion of wastes in coal-fired power stations is strongly pressing into the market. Recent investigations reveal that the co-firing of waste can also have beneficial effects on the operating behavior of the boiler and on the gaseous emissions.

  9. Modeling of Plasma Assisted Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akashi, Haruaki

    2012-10-01

    Recently, many experimental study of plasma-assisted combustion has been done. However, numerous complex reactions in combustion of hydrocarbons are preventing from theoritical study for clarifying inside the plasma-assisted combustion, and the effect of plasma-assist is still not understood. Shinohara and Sasaki [1,2] have reported that the shortening of flame length by irradiating microwave without increase of gas temperature. And they also reported that the same phenomena would occur when applying dielectric barrier discharges to the flame using simple hydrocarbon, methane. It is suggested that these phenomena may result by the electron heating. To clarify this phenomena, electron behavior under microwave and DBD was examined. For the first step of DBD plasma-assisted combustion simulation, electron Monte Carlo simulation in methane, oxygen and argon mixture gas(0.05:0.14:0.81) [2] has been done. Electron swarm parameters are sampled and electron energy distribution function (EEDF)s are also determined. In the combustion, gas temperature is higher(>1700K), so reduced electric field E/N becomes relatively high(>10V/cm/Torr). The electrons are accelerated to around 14 eV. This result agree with the optical emission from argon obtained by the experiment of reference [2]. Dissociation frequency of methane and oxygens are obtained in high. This might be one of the effect of plasma-assist. And it is suggested that the electrons should be high enough to dissociate methane, but plasma is not needed.[4pt] [1] K. Shinohara et al, J. Phys. D:Appl. Phys., 42, 182008 (1-7) (2009).[0pt] [2] K. Sasaki, 64th Annual Gaseous Electronic Conference, 56, 15 CT3.00001(2011).

  10. Method of combustion for dual fuel engine

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, B.D.; Confer, G.L.; Zujing Shen; Hapeman, M.J.; Flynn, P.L.

    1993-12-21

    Apparatus and a method of introducing a primary fuel, which may be a coal water slurry, and a high combustion auxiliary fuel, which may be a conventional diesel oil, into an internal combustion diesel engine comprises detecting the load conditions of the engine, determining the amount of time prior to the top dead center position of the piston to inject the main fuel into the combustion chamber, and determining the relationship of the timing of the injection of the auxiliary fuel into the combustion chamber to achieve a predetermined specific fuel consumption, a predetermined combustion efficiency, and a predetermined peak cylinder firing pressure. 19 figures.

  11. Method of combustion for dual fuel engine

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, Bertrand D.; Confer, Gregory L.; Shen, Zujing; Hapeman, Martin J.; Flynn, Paul L.

    1993-12-21

    Apparatus and a method of introducing a primary fuel, which may be a coal water slutty, and a high combustion auxiliary fuel, which may be a conventional diesel oil, into an internal combustion diesel engine comprises detecting the load conditions of the engine, determining the amount of time prior to the top dead center position of the piston to inject the main fuel into the combustion chamber, and determining the relationship of the timing of the injection of the auxiliary fuel into the combustion chamber to achieve a predetermined specific fuel consumption, a predetermined combustion efficiency, and a predetermined peak cylinder firing pressure.

  12. Combustion and Heat Transfer Studies Utilizing Advanced Diagnostics: Combustion Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-01

    Research Zone With Combustion," Turbulent Shear Flows. VoL 5. pp. 337- and Development Center, Aero Propulsion and Power 346, Springer Verlg, New ...200 words) A long-term goal of the Air Force is to develop near-stoichiometric gas turbine combustors that will burn broad-specification fuels, and...laboratory combustors. Two novel methods for CARS slit function were developed ; these made possible precise and unambiguous measurements of flame

  13. Distributed Low Temperature Combustion: Fundamental Understanding of Combustion Regime Transitions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-07

    behaviour as compared to ethanol. The latter fuel has also been considered along with methane. Work has also been performed on the further assessment of... behaviour as compared to ethanol. The latter fuel has also been considered along with methane. Work has also been performed on the further assess- ment of...identification of various combustion gas states. A range of Damköhler numbers (Da) from the conventional propagating flamelet regime well into the distributed

  14. Combustion diagnostic for active engine feedback control

    DOEpatents

    Green, Jr., Johney Boyd; Daw, Charles Stuart; Wagner, Robert Milton

    2007-10-02

    This invention detects the crank angle location where combustion switches from premixed to diffusion, referred to as the transition index, and uses that location to define integration limits that measure the portions of heat released during the combustion process that occur during the premixed and diffusion phases. Those integrated premixed and diffusion values are used to develop a metric referred to as the combustion index. The combustion index is defined as the integrated diffusion contribution divided by the integrated premixed contribution. As the EGR rate is increased enough to enter the low temperature combustion regime, PM emissions decrease because more of the combustion process is occurring over the premixed portion of the heat release rate profile and the diffusion portion has been significantly reduced. This information is used to detect when the engine is or is not operating in a low temperature combustion mode and provides that feedback to an engine control algorithm.

  15. The manufacture of recovery.

    PubMed

    Braslow, Joel Tupper

    2013-01-01

    Recovery (also known as the "recovery orientation," "recovery vision," or "recovery philosophy") has been the dominant paradigm shaping current mental health policy for the past decade. It is claimed to be a revolutionary departure from the past and a guide to policy that will transform outcomes of severe mental illness. This review looks critically at the history of recovery and examines the ways in which this history has shaped the values, beliefs, and practices of current recovery-based policies. Recovery is a treatment philosophy that emerged from the ruins of deinstitutionalization and the psychopharmaceutical revolution. Yet paradoxically, recovery reflects many of the same ideas that made deinstitutionalization and the era of psychopharmacology possible. Further, history reveals how the recovery movement is deeply indebted to and embedded within the sociocultural values of neoliberalism that have shaped public policy since the presidential election of Ronald Reagan in 1980.

  16. Dual-Pump CARS Development and Application to Supersonic Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnotti, Gaetano

    Successful design of hypersonic air-breathing engines requires new computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models for turbulence and turbulence-chemistry interaction in supersonic combustion. Unfortunately, not enough data are available to the modelers to develop and validate their codes, due to difficulties in taking measurements in such a harsh environment. Dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) is a non-intrusive, non-linear, laser-based technique that provides temporally and spatially resolved measurements of temperature and absolute mole fractions of N2, O2 and H2 in H2-air flames. A dual-pump CARS instrument has been developed to obtain measurements in supersonic combustion and generate databases for the CFD community. Issues that compromised previous attempts, such as beam steering and high irradiance perturbation effects, have been alleviated or avoided. Improvements in instrument precision and accuracy have been achieved. An axis-symmetric supersonic combusting coaxial jet facility has been developed to provide a simple, yet suitable flow to CFD modelers. The facility provides a central jet of hot "vitiated air" simulating the hot air entering the engine of a hypersonic vehicle flying at Mach numbers between 5 and 7. Three different silicon carbide nozzles, with exit Mach number 1, 1.6 and 2, are used to provide flows with the effects of varying compressibility. H2 co-flow is available in order to generate a supersonic combusting free jet. Dual-pump CARS measurements have been obtained for varying values of flight and exit Mach numbers at several locations. Approximately one million Dual-pump CARS single shots have been collected in the supersonic jet for varying values of flight and exit Mach numbers at several locations. Data have been acquired with a H2 co-flow (combustion case) or a N 2 co-flow (mixing case). Results are presented and the effects of the compressibility and of the heat release are discussed.

  17. Development of Supersonic Combustion Experiments for CFD Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baurle, Robert; Bivolaru, Daniel; Tedder, Sarah; Danehy, Paul M.; Cutler, Andrew D.; Magnotti, Gaetano

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an experiment to acquire data for developing and validating computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models for turbulence in supersonic combusting flows. The intent is that the flow field would be simple yet relevant to flows within hypersonic air-breathing engine combustors undergoing testing in vitiated-air ground-testing facilities. Specifically, it describes development of laboratory-scale hardware to produce a supersonic combusting coaxial jet, discusses design calculations, operability and types of flames observed. These flames are studied using the dual-pump coherent anti- Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) - interferometric Rayleigh scattering (IRS) technique. This technique simultaneously and instantaneously measures temperature, composition, and velocity in the flow, from which many of the important turbulence statistics can be found. Some preliminary CARS data are presented.

  18. Heterogenous Combustion of Porous Graphite Particles in Normal and Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chelliah, Harsha K.; Miller, Fletcher J.; Delisle, Andrew J.

    2001-01-01

    Combustion of solid fuel particles has many important applications, including power generation and space propulsion systems. The current models available for describing the combustion process of these particles, especially porous solid particles, include various simplifying approximations. One of the most limiting approximations is the lumping of the physical properties of the porous fuel with the heterogeneous chemical reaction rate constants. The primary objective of the present work is to develop a rigorous model that could decouple such physical and chemical effects from the global heterogeneous reaction rates. For the purpose of validating this model, experiments with porous graphite particles of varying sizes and porosity are being performed. The details of this experimental and theoretical model development effort are described.

  19. Combustion Of Porous Graphite Particles In Oxygen Enriched Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delisle, Andrew J.; Miller, Fletcher J.; Chelliah, Harsha K.

    2003-01-01

    Combustion of solid fuel particles has many important applications, including power generation and space propulsion systems. The current models available for describing the combustion process of these particles, especially porous solid particles, include various simplifying approximations. One of the most limiting approximations is the lumping of the physical properties of the porous fuel with the heterogeneous chemical reaction rate constants [1]. The primary objective of the present work is to develop a rigorous modeling approach that could decouple such physical and chemical effects from the global heterogeneous reaction rates. For the purpose of validating this model, experiments with porous graphite particles of varying sizes and porosity are being performed under normal and micro gravity.

  20. Modelling the combustion of charcoal in a model blast furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yansong; Shiozawa, Tomo; Yu, Aibing; Austin, Peter

    2013-07-01

    The pulverized charcoal (PCH) combustion in ironmaking blast furnaces is abstracting remarkable attention due to various benefits such as lowering CO2 emission. In this study, a three-dimensional CFD model is used to simulate the flow and thermo-chemical behaviours in this process. The model is validated against the experimental results from a pilot-scale combustion test rig for a range of conditions. The typical flow and thermo-chemical phenomena is simulated. The effect of charcoal type, i.e. VM content is examined, showing that the burnout increases with VM content in a linear relationship. This model provides an effective way for designing and optimizing PCH operation in blast furnace practice.

  1. Direct numerical simulation of a combusting droplet with convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Pak-Yan

    1992-01-01

    The evaporation and combustion of a single droplet under forced and natural convection was studied numerically from first principles using a numerical scheme that solves the time-dependent multiphase and multispecies Navier-Stokes equations and tracks the sharp gas-liquid interface cutting across an arbitrary Eulerian grid. The flow fields both inside and outside of the droplet are resolved in a unified fashion. Additional governing equations model the interphase mass, energy, and momentum exchange. Test cases involving iso-octane, n-hexane, and n-propanol droplets show reasonable comparison rate, and flame stand-off distance. The partially validated code is, thus, readied to be applied to more demanding droplet combustion situations where substantial drop deformation render classical models inadequate.

  2. Tabulated Combustion Model Development For Non-Premixed Flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, Prithwish

    Turbulent non-premixed flames play a very important role in the field of engineering ranging from power generation to propulsion. The coupling of fluid mechanics and complicated combustion chemistry of fuels pose a challenge for the numerical modeling of these type of problems. Combustion modeling in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is one of the most important tools used for predictive modeling of complex systems and to understand the basic fundamentals of combustion. Traditional combustion models solve a transport equation of each species with a source term. In order to resolve the complex chemistry accurately it is important to include a large number of species. However, the computational cost is generally proportional to the cube of number of species. The presence of a large number of species in a flame makes the use of CFD computationally expensive and beyond reach for some applications or inaccurate when solved with simplified chemistry. For highly turbulent flows, it also becomes important to incorporate the effects of turbulence chemistry interaction (TCI). The aim of this work is to develop high fidelity combustion models based on the flamelet concept and to significantly advance the existing capabilities. A thorough investigation of existing models (Finite-rate chemistry and Representative Interactive Flamelet (RIF)) and comparative study of combustion models was done initially on a constant volume combustion chamber with diesel fuel injection. The CFD modeling was validated with experimental results and was also successfully applied to a single cylinder diesel engine. The effect of number of flamelets on the RIF model and flamelet initialization strategies were studied. The RIF model with multiple flamelets is computationally expensive and a model was proposed on the frame work of RIF. The new model was based on tabulated chemistry and incorporated TCI effects. A multidimensional tabulated chemistry database generation code was developed based on the 1

  3. A methodology for combustion detection in diesel engines through in-cylinder pressure derivative signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luján, José M.; Bermúdez, Vicente; Guardiola, Carlos; Abbad, Ali

    2010-10-01

    In-cylinder pressure measurement has historically been used for off-line combustion diagnosis, but online application for real-time combustion control has become of great interest. This work considers low computing-cost methods for analysing the instant variation of the chamber pressure, directly obtained from the electric signal provided by a traditional piezoelectric sensor. Presented methods are based on the detection of sudden changes in the chamber pressure, which are amplified by the pressure derivative, and which are due to thermodynamic phenomena within the cylinder. Signal analysis tools both in time and in time-frequency domains are used for detecting the start of combustion, the end of combustion and the heat release peak. Results are compared with classical thermodynamic analysis and validated in several turbocharged diesel engines.

  4. 40 CFR 63.6092 - Are duct burners and waste heat recovery units covered by subpart YYYY?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Are duct burners and waste heat... Stationary Combustion Turbines What This Subpart Covers § 63.6092 Are duct burners and waste heat recovery units covered by subpart YYYY? No, duct burners and waste heat recovery units are considered steam...

  5. 40 CFR 63.6092 - Are duct burners and waste heat recovery units covered by subpart YYYY?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Are duct burners and waste heat... Stationary Combustion Turbines What This Subpart Covers § 63.6092 Are duct burners and waste heat recovery units covered by subpart YYYY? No, duct burners and waste heat recovery units are considered steam...

  6. 40 CFR 63.6092 - Are duct burners and waste heat recovery units covered by subpart YYYY?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Are duct burners and waste heat... Stationary Combustion Turbines What This Subpart Covers § 63.6092 Are duct burners and waste heat recovery units covered by subpart YYYY? No, duct burners and waste heat recovery units are considered steam...

  7. 40 CFR 63.6092 - Are duct burners and waste heat recovery units covered by subpart YYYY?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Are duct burners and waste heat... Combustion Turbines What This Subpart Covers § 63.6092 Are duct burners and waste heat recovery units covered by subpart YYYY? No, duct burners and waste heat recovery units are considered steam generating units...

  8. 40 CFR 63.6092 - Are duct burners and waste heat recovery units covered by subpart YYYY?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Are duct burners and waste heat... Combustion Turbines What This Subpart Covers § 63.6092 Are duct burners and waste heat recovery units covered by subpart YYYY? No, duct burners and waste heat recovery units are considered steam generating units...

  9. Thermophysics Characterization of Kerosene Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ten-See

    2000-01-01

    A one-formula surrogate fuel formulation and its quasi-global combustion kinetics model are developed to support the design of injectors and thrust chambers of kerosene-fueled rocket engines. This surrogate fuel model depicts a fuel blend that properly represents the general physical and chemical properties of kerosene. The accompanying gaseous-phase thermodynamics of the surrogate fuel is anchored with the heat of formation of kerosene and verified by comparing a series of one-dimensional rocket thrust chamber calculations. The quasi-global combustion kinetics model consists of several global steps for parent fuel decomposition, soot formation, and soot oxidation, and a detailed wet-CO mechanism. The final thermophysics formulations are incorporated with a computational fluid dynamics model for prediction of the combustor efficiency of an uni-element, tri-propellant combustor and the radiation of a kerosene-fueled thruster plume. The model predictions agreed reasonably well with those of the tests.

  10. Fluidized bed coal combustion reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moynihan, P. I.; Young, D. L. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A fluidized bed coal reactor includes a combination nozzle-injector ash-removal unit formed by a grid of closely spaced open channels, each containing a worm screw conveyor, which function as continuous ash removal troughs. A pressurized air-coal mixture is introduced below the unit and is injected through the elongated nozzles formed by the spaces between the channels. The ash build-up in the troughs protects the worm screw conveyors as does the cooling action of the injected mixture. The ash layer and the pressure from the injectors support a fluidized flame combustion zone above the grid which heats water in boiler tubes disposed within and/or above the combustion zone and/or within the walls of the reactor.

  11. Combustion synthesis continuous flow reactor

    DOEpatents

    Maupin, G.D.; Chick, L.A.; Kurosky, R.P.

    1998-01-06

    The present invention is a reactor for combustion synthesis of inorganic powders. The reactor includes a reaction vessel having a length and a first end and a second end. The reaction vessel further has a solution inlet and a carrier gas inlet. The reactor further has a heater for heating both the solution and the carrier gas. In a preferred embodiment, the reaction vessel is heated and the solution is in contact with the heated reaction vessel. It is further preferred that the reaction vessel be cylindrical and that the carrier gas is introduced tangentially into the reaction vessel so that the solution flows helically along the interior wall of the reaction vessel. As the solution evaporates and combustion produces inorganic material powder, the carrier gas entrains the powder and carries it out of the reactor. 10 figs.

  12. Combustion synthesis continuous flow reactor

    DOEpatents

    Maupin, Gary D.; Chick, Lawrence A.; Kurosky, Randal P.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a reactor for combustion synthesis of inorganic powders. The reactor includes a reaction vessel having a length and a first end and a second end. The reaction vessel further has a solution inlet and a carrier gas inlet. The reactor further has a heater for heating both the solution and the carrier gas. In a preferred embodiment, the reaction vessel is heated and the solution is in contact with the heated reaction vessel. It is further preferred that the reaction vessel be cylindrical and that the carrier gas is introduced tangentially into the reaction vessel so that the solution flows helically along the interior wall of the reaction vessel. As the solution evaporates and combustion produces inorganic material powder, the carrier gas entrains the powder and carries it out of the reactor.

  13. Major research topics in combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Hussaini, M.Y.; Kumar, A.; Voigt, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    The Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering (ICASE) and NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) hosted a workshop on October 2--4, 1989 to discuss some combustion problems of technological interest to LaRC and to foster interaction with the academic community in these research areas. The topics chosen for this purpose were flame structure, flame holding/extinction, chemical kinetics, turbulence-kinetics interaction, transition to detonation, and reacting free shear layers. This document contains the papers and edited versions of general discussions on these topics. The lead paper set the stage for the meeting by discussing the status and issues of supersonic combustionmore » relevant to the scramjet engine. Experts were then called upon to review the current knowledge in the aforementioned areas, to focus on how this knowledge can be extended and applied to high-speed combustion, and to suggest future directions of research in these areas.« less

  14. Numerical Modeling of Turbulent Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghoneim, A. F.; Chorin, A. J.; Oppenheim, A. K.

    1983-01-01

    The work in numerical modeling is focused on the use of the random vortex method to treat turbulent flow fields associated with combustion while flame fronts are considered as interfaces between reactants and products, propagating with the flow and at the same time advancing in the direction normal to themselves at a prescribed burning speed. The latter is associated with the generation of specific volume (the flame front acting, in effect, as the locus of volumetric sources) to account for the expansion of the flow field due to the exothermicity of the combustion process. The model was applied to the flow in a channel equipped with a rearward facing step. The results obtained revealed the mechanism of the formation of large scale turbulent structure in the wake of the step, while it showed the flame to stabilize on the outer edges of these eddies.

  15. Combustion process science and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, Robert R.

    1989-01-01

    An important and substantial area of technical work in which noncontact temperature measurement (NCTM) is desired is that involving combustion process research. In the planning for this workshop, it was hoped that W. Serignano would provide a briefing regarding the experimental requirements for thermal measurements to support such research. The particular features of thermal measurement requirements included those describing the timeline for combustion experiments, the requirements for thermal control and diagnostics of temperature and other related thermal measurements and the criticality to the involved science to parametric features of measurement capability including precision, repeatability, stability, and resolution. In addition, it was hoped that definitions could be provided which characterize the needs for concurrent imaging as it relates to science observations during the conduct of experimentation.

  16. Recovery from schizophrenia and the recovery model.

    PubMed

    Warner, Richard

    2009-07-01

    The recovery model refers to subjective experiences of optimism, empowerment and interpersonal support, and to a focus on collaborative treatment approaches, finding productive roles for user/consumers, peer support and reducing stigma. The model is influencing service development around the world. This review will assess whether optimism about outcome from serious mental illness and other tenets of the recovery model are borne out by recent research. Remission of symptoms has been precisely defined, but the definition of 'recovery' is a more diffuse concept that includes such factors as being productive and functioning independently. Recent research and a large, earlier body of data suggest that optimism about outcome from schizophrenia is justified. A substantial proportion of people with the illness will recover completely and many more will regain good social functioning. Outcome is better for people in the developing world. Mortality for people with schizophrenia is increasing but is lower in the developing world. Working appears to help people recover from schizophrenia, and recent advances in vocational rehabilitation have been shown to be effective in countries with differing economies and labor markets. A growing body of research supports the concept that empowerment is an important component of the recovery process. Key tenets of the recovery model - optimism about recovery from schizophrenia, the importance of access to employment and the value of empowerment of user/consumers in the recovery process - are supported by the scientific research. Attempts to reduce the internalized stigma of mental illness should enhance the recovery process.

  17. A comprehensive combustion model for biodiesel-fueled engine simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brakora, Jessica L.

    Engine models for alternative fuels are available, but few are comprehensive, well-validated models that include accurate physical property data as well as a detailed description of the fuel chemistry. In this work, a comprehensive biodiesel combustion model was created for use in multi-dimensional engine simulations, specifically the KIVA3v R2 code. The model incorporates realistic physical properties in a vaporization model developed for multi-component fuel sprays and applies an improved mechanism for biodiesel combustion chemistry. A reduced mechanism was generated from the methyl decanoate (MD) and methyl-9-decenoate (MD9D) mechanism developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. It was combined with a multi-component mechanism to include n-heptane in the fuel chemistry. The biodiesel chemistry was represented using a combination of MD, MD9D and n-heptane, which varied for a given fuel source. The reduced mechanism, which contained 63 species, accurately predicted ignition delay times of the detailed mechanism over a range of engine-specific operating conditions. Physical property data for the five methyl ester components of biodiesel were added to the KIVA library. Spray simulations were performed to ensure that the models adequately reproduce liquid penetration observed in biodiesel spray experiments. Fuel composition impacted liquid length as expected, with saturated species vaporizing more and penetrating less. Distillation curves were created to ensure the fuel vaporization process was comparable to available data. Engine validation was performed against a low-speed, high-load, conventional combustion experiments and the model was able to predict the performance and NOx formation seen in the experiment. High-speed, low-load, low-temperature combustion conditions were also modeled, and the emissions (HC, CO, NOx) and fuel consumption were well-predicted for a sweep of injection timings. Finally, comparisons were made between the results of biodiesel

  18. Energy Conversion and Combustion Sciences

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-08

    Property issues Flameholding (flammability limit) Flame propagation (turbulent-flame speed) combustion-Mixing interaction shock Cavity Based Scramjet ...focusing: • “Very-high” speed (space access) region • Overlapping interests and close coordination with AF programs ( scramjet , rockets etc.). • NSF...and Relevant Conditions Hypersonics Gas Turbines Rockets M > 0.1 Re ? Da ? wrinkled flame ball laminar flame Auto Engines PGC (1

  19. CARS applications to combustion diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckbreth, Alan C.

    1986-01-01

    Attention is given to broadband or multiplex CARS of combustion processes, using pulsed lasers whose intensity is sufficiently great for instantaneous measurement of medium properties. This permits probability density functions to be assembled from a series of single-pulse measurements, on the basis of which the true parameter average and the magnitude of the turbulent fluctuations can be ascertained. CARS measurements have been conducted along these lines in diesel engines, gas turbine combustors, scramjets, and solid rocket propellants.

  20. Steady Nuclear Combustion in Rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saenger, E.

    1957-01-01

    The astrophysical theory of stationary nuclear reactions in stars is applied to the conditions that would be met in the practical engineering cases that would differ from the former, particularly with respect to the much lower combustion pressures, dimensions of the reacting volume, and burnup times. This application yields maximum rates of hear production per unit volume of reacting gas occurring at about 10(exp 8) K in the cases of reactions between the hydrogen isotopes, but yields higher rates for heavier atoms. For the former, with chamber pressures of the order of 100 atmospheres, the energy production for nuclear combustion reaches values of about 10(exp 4) kilocalories per cubic meter per second, which approaches the magnitude for the familiar chemical fuels. The values are substantially lower for heavier atoms, and increase with the square of the combustion pressure. The half-life of the burnup in the fastest reactions may drop to values as low as those for chemical fuels so that, despite the high temperature, the radiated energy can remain smaller than the energy produced, particularly if an inefficiently radiating (i.e., easily completely ionized reacting material like hydrogen), is used. On the other hand, the fraction of completely ionized particles in the gases undergoing nuclear combustion must not exceed a certain upper limit because the densities (approximately 10(exp -10) grams per cubic centimeter)) lie in the range of high vacua and only for the previously mentioned fraction of nonionized particles can mean free paths be retained small enough so that the chamber diameters of several dozen meters will suffice. Under these conditions it appears that continuously maintained stable nuclear reactions at practical pressures and dimensions are fundamentally possible and their application can be visualized as energy sources for power plants and propulsion units.

  1. Vortex Simulation of Turbulent Combustion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-01

    14. Nissan Motor Company Research Center, Yokoska, Japan, April 1990. 15. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Yokohama, Japan, April 1990. 16. Mazda Motor ...University of Rome Workshop on Fluid Mechanics of Combustion, June 1989. 2. Brown University, October 1989. 3. Ford Motor Company, Meeting on Flow...Computational Fluid Dynamics, Tokyo, Japan, April 1990. 12. Honda Motor Company, Wako, Japan, April 1990. 13. Toyota Motor Company, Nagoya, Japan, April 1990

  2. Noise induced phenomena in combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongliang

    Quantitative models of combustion usually consist of systems of deterministic differential equations. However, there are reasons to suspect that noise may have a significant influence. In this thesis, our primary objective is to study the effect of noise on measurable quantities in the combustion process. Our first study involves combustion in a homogeneous gas. With a one step reaction model, we analytically estimate the requirements under which noise is important to create significant differences. Our simulation shows that a bi-modality phenomenon appears when appropriate parameters are applied, which agrees with our analytical result. Our second study involves steady planar flames. We use a relatively complete chemical model of the H2/air reaction system, which contains all eight reactive species (H2, O2, H, O, OH, H2O, HO2, H2O2) and N2. Our mathematical model for this system is a reacting flow model. We derive noise terms related to transport processes by a method advocated by Landau & Lifshitz, and we also derive noise terms related to chemical reactions. We develop a code to simulate this system. The numerical implementation relies on a good Riemann solver, suitable initial and boundary conditions, and so on. We also implement a code on a continuation method, which not only can be used to study approximate properties of laminar flames under deterministic governing equations, but also eliminates the difficulty of providing a suitable initial condition for governing equations with noise. With numerical experiments, we find the difference of flame speed exist when the noise is turned on or off although it is small when compared with the influence of other parameters, for example, the equivalence ratio. It will be a starting point for further studies to include noise in combustion.

  3. High Temperature Catalytically Assisted Combustion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-31

    AUTHOR(S) F.V. Bracco, B.S.H. Royce, C. Bruno, D.A. Santavicca, Y. Stein 16I. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTATION FIELD GROUP - SUB. GR. ’Catalytic Combustion... controlling radial gradients. These functions can be very accurate for fully developed steady flows but require significant adjustments for transient...however, to limit computation costs, the reported solutions were obtained using the quasi -steady gas assumption already employed by T’ien in his one

  4. PDF Modeling of Turbulent Combustion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-30

    provided on the TNF web site and used in the above investigation includes incorrect specifications of reaction parameters. As a consequence, the above...difference among the different schemes is small. PUBLICATIONS The following papers stemming from the current AFOSR program were written or published...2006. 31st International Symposium on Combustion, Heidelberg, Germany, August 6-11, two contributed papers . 59th Annual Meeting of

  5. Construction of combustion models for rapeseed methyl ester bio-diesel fuel for internal combustion engine applications.

    PubMed

    Golovitchev, Valeri I; Yang, Junfeng

    2009-01-01

    Bio-diesel fuels are non-petroleum-based diesel fuels consisting of long chain alkyl esters produced by the transesterification of vegetable oils, that are intended for use (neat or blended with conventional fuels) in unmodified diesel engines. There have been few reports of studies proposing theoretical models for bio-diesel combustion simulations. In this study, we developed combustion models based on ones developed previously. We compiled the liquid fuel properties, and the existing detailed mechanism of methyl butanoate ester (MB, C(5)H(10)O(2)) oxidation was supplemented by sub-mechanisms for two proposed fuel constituent components, C(7)H(16) and C(7)H(8)O (and then, by mp2d, C(4)H(6)O(2) and propyne, C(3)H(4)) to represent the combustion model for rapeseed methyl ester described by the chemical formula, C(19)H(34)O(2) (or C(19)H(36)O(2)). The main fuel vapor thermal properties were taken as those of methyl palmitate C(19)H(36)O(2) in the NASA polynomial form of the Burcat database. The special global reaction was introduced to "crack" the main fuel into its constituent components. This general reaction included 309 species and 1472 reactions, including soot and NO(x) formation processes. The detailed combustion mechanism was validated using shock-tube ignition-delay data under diesel engine conditions. For constant volume and diesel engine (Volvo D12C) combustion modeling, this mechanism could be reduced to 88 species participating in 363 reactions.

  6. Demonstration of Active Combustion Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovett, Jeffrey A.; Teerlinck, Karen A.; Cohen, Jeffrey M.

    2008-01-01

    The primary objective of this effort was to demonstrate active control of combustion instabilities in a direct-injection gas turbine combustor that accurately simulates engine operating conditions and reproduces an engine-type instability. This report documents the second phase of a two-phase effort. The first phase involved the analysis of an instability observed in a developmental aeroengine and the design of a single-nozzle test rig to replicate that phenomenon. This was successfully completed in 2001 and is documented in the Phase I report. This second phase was directed toward demonstration of active control strategies to mitigate this instability and thereby demonstrate the viability of active control for aircraft engine combustors. This involved development of high-speed actuator technology, testing and analysis of how the actuation system was integrated with the combustion system, control algorithm development, and demonstration testing in the single-nozzle test rig. A 30 percent reduction in the amplitude of the high-frequency (570 Hz) instability was achieved using actuation systems and control algorithms developed within this effort. Even larger reductions were shown with a low-frequency (270 Hz) instability. This represents a unique achievement in the development and practical demonstration of active combustion control systems for gas turbine applications.

  7. Modeling the internal combustion engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeleznik, F. J.; Mcbride, B. J.

    1985-01-01

    A flexible and computationally economical model of the internal combustion engine was developed for use on large digital computer systems. It is based on a system of ordinary differential equations for cylinder-averaged properties. The computer program is capable of multicycle calculations, with some parameters varying from cycle to cycle, and has restart capabilities. It can accommodate a broad spectrum of reactants, permits changes in physical properties, and offers a wide selection of alternative modeling functions without any reprogramming. It readily adapts to the amount of information available in a particular case because the model is in fact a hierarchy of five models. The models range from a simple model requiring only thermodynamic properties to a complex model demanding full combustion kinetics, transport properties, and poppet valve flow characteristics. Among its many features the model includes heat transfer, valve timing, supercharging, motoring, finite burning rates, cycle-to-cycle variations in air-fuel ratio, humid air, residual and recirculated exhaust gas, and full combustion kinetics.

  8. The combustion program at CTR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poinsot, Thierry J.

    1993-01-01

    Understanding and modeling of turbulent combustion are key problems in the computation of numerous practical systems. Because of the lack of analytical theories in this field and of the difficulty of performing precise experiments, direct numerical simulation (DNS) appears to be one of the most attractive tools to use in addressing this problem. The general objective of DNS of reacting flows is to improve our knowledge of turbulent combustion but also to use this information for turbulent combustion models. For the foreseeable future, numerical simulation of the full three-dimensional governing partial differential equations with variable density and transport properties as well as complex chemistry will remain intractable; thus, various levels of simplification will remain necessary. On one hand, the requirement to simplify is not necessarily a handicap: numerical simulations allow the researcher a degree of control in isolating specific physical phenomena that is inaccessible in experiments. CTR has pursued an intensive research program in the field of DNS for turbulent reacting flows since 1987. DNS of reacting flows is quite different from DNS of non-reacting flows: without reaction, the equations to solve are clearly the five conservation equations of the Navier Stokes system for compressible situations (four for incompressible cases), and the limitation of the approach is the Reynolds number (or in other words the number of points in the computation). For reacting flows, the choice of the equations, the species (each species will require one additional conservation equation), the chemical scheme, and the configuration itself is more complex.

  9. Waste burning and heat recovery characteristics of a mass burn incineration system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Hsin

    2003-02-01

    An experimental investigation on waste combustion characteristics of a mass burn incinerator is conducted in this study. Three different charging modes, including operator manipulation, periodic feeding, and temperature control, are taken into consideration. The results indicate that the burning characteristics in the combustion chambers are closely related to the operating modes. For the operator manipulation where the wastes are sent into the incinerator in two short periods, the entire temperature distribution of the primary combustion chamber can be partitioned into two parts, thereby yielding waste group combustion. Temperature oscillations in both the primary and secondary combustion chambers are characterized for the periodic feeding. However, because of the shorter charging period and smaller amount of waste, the burning interaction between the two chambers is initially weak and becomes notable in the final stage. When temperature control is performed, the burning oscillation of the primary combustion chamber is further amplified so the combustion interaction is drastic. These exhibitions are mainly caused by the competition between endothermic and exothermic reactions. The instantaneous heat exchange efficiency of the cyclone heat recovery system (CHRS) installed in the incineration system is also evaluated to obtain details of energy recovery behaviors. As a result, the efficiency tends to decrease linearly with increasing temperature of hot flue gas. This arises from the fact that heat loss from the gas to the environment is increased when the temperature of the former is higher, even though the temperature gradient across the cyclone is enlarged.

  10. The FCF Combustion Integrated Rack: Microgravity Combustion Science Onboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OMalley, Terence F.; Weiland, Karen J.

    2002-01-01

    The Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) is one of three facility payload racks being developed for the International Space Station (ISS) Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF). Most microgravity combustion experiments will be performed onboard the Space Station in the Combustion Integrated Rack. Experiment-specific equipment will be installed on orbit in the CIR to customize it to perform many different scientific experiments during the ten or more years that it will operate on orbit. This paper provides an overview of the CIR, including a description of its preliminary design and planned accommodations for microgravity combustion science experiments, and descriptions of the combustion science experiments currently planned for the CIR.

  11. Medicinal Cannabis: In Vitro Validation of Vaporizers for the Smoke-Free Inhalation of Cannabis.

    PubMed

    Lanz, Christian; Mattsson, Johan; Soydaner, Umut; Brenneisen, Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    Inhalation by vaporization is a promising application mode for cannabis in medicine. An in vitro validation of 5 commercial vaporizers was performed with THC-type and CBD-type cannabis. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to determine recoveries of total THC (THCtot) and total CBD (CBDtot) in the vapor. High-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection was used for the quantitation of acidic cannabinoids in the residue and to calculate decarboxylation efficiencies. Recoveries of THCtot and CBDtot in the vapor of 4 electrically-driven vaporizers were 58.4 and 51.4%, 66.8 and 56.1%, 82.7 and 70.0% and 54.6 and 56.7% for Volcano Medic®, Plenty Vaporizer®, Arizer Solo® and DaVinci Vaporizer®, respectively. Decarboxylation efficiency was excellent for THC (≥ 97.3%) and CBD (≥ 94.6%). The gas-powered Vape-or-Smoke™ showed recoveries of THCtot and CBDtot in the vapor of 55.9 and 45.9%, respectively, and a decarboxylation efficiency of ≥ 87.7 for both cannabinoids. However, combustion of cannabis was observed with this device. Temperature-controlled, electrically-driven vaporizers efficiently decarboxylate inactive acidic cannabinoids and reliably release their corresponding neutral, active cannabinoids. Thus, they offer a promising application mode for the safe and efficient administration of medicinal cannabis.

  12. Medicinal Cannabis: In Vitro Validation of Vaporizers for the Smoke-Free Inhalation of Cannabis

    PubMed Central

    Lanz, Christian; Mattsson, Johan; Soydaner, Umut; Brenneisen, Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    Inhalation by vaporization is a promising application mode for cannabis in medicine. An in vitro validation of 5 commercial vaporizers was performed with THC-type and CBD-type cannabis. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to determine recoveries of total THC (THCtot) and total CBD (CBDtot) in the vapor. High-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection was used for the quantitation of acidic cannabinoids in the residue and to calculate decarboxylation efficiencies. Recoveries of THCtot and CBDtot in the vapor of 4 electrically-driven vaporizers were 58.4 and 51.4%, 66.8 and 56.1%, 82.7 and 70.0% and 54.6 and 56.7% for Volcano Medic®, Plenty Vaporizer®, Arizer Solo® and DaVinci Vaporizer®, respectively. Decarboxylation efficiency was excellent for THC (≥ 97.3%) and CBD (≥ 94.6%). The gas-powered Vape-or-Smoke™ showed recoveries of THCtot and CBDtot in the vapor of 55.9 and 45.9%, respectively, and a decarboxylation efficiency of ≥ 87.7 for both cannabinoids. However, combustion of cannabis was observed with this device. Temperature-controlled, electrically-driven vaporizers efficiently decarboxylate inactive acidic cannabinoids and reliably release their corresponding neutral, active cannabinoids. Thus, they offer a promising application mode for the safe and efficient administration of medicinal cannabis. PMID:26784441

  13. Heart Attack Recovery FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... recommendations to make a full recovery. View an animation of a heart attack . Heart Attack Recovery Questions ... Support Network Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 Heart Attack Symptoms ...

  14. Recovery Act Milestones

    ScienceCinema

    Rogers, Matt

    2018-05-11

    Every 100 days, the Department of Energy is held accountable for a progress report on the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. Update at 200 days, hosted by Matt Rogers, Senior Advisor to Secretary Steven Chu for Recovery Act Implementation.

  15. Recovery Act Milestones

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, Matt

    2009-01-01

    Every 100 days, the Department of Energy is held accountable for a progress report on the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. Update at 200 days, hosted by Matt Rogers, Senior Advisor to Secretary Steven Chu for Recovery Act Implementation.

  16. Method and apparatus for active control of combustion rate through modulation of heat transfer from the combustion chamber wall

    DOEpatents

    Roberts, Jr., Charles E.; Chadwell, Christopher J.

    2004-09-21

    The flame propagation rate resulting from a combustion event in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine is controlled by modulation of the heat transfer from the combustion flame to the combustion chamber walls. In one embodiment, heat transfer from the combustion flame to the combustion chamber walls is mechanically modulated by a movable member that is inserted into, or withdrawn from, the combustion chamber thereby changing the shape of the combustion chamber and the combustion chamber wall surface area. In another embodiment, heat transfer from the combustion flame to the combustion chamber walls is modulated by cooling the surface of a portion of the combustion chamber wall that is in close proximity to the area of the combustion chamber where flame speed control is desired.

  17. What Is "No Recovery?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauffman, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Thanatologists, as Balk recently commented (Balk, 2004), have been saying that there is no recovery from bereavement, or that we should not speak of bereavement as leading to a recovery. The term recovery has a high level of plasticity and can be shaped to fit diverse meanings, including contradictory meanings. We will sort our way through some of…

  18. Youth in Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Miranda, John; Williams, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Young people are entering long-term recovery probably in greater numbers than ever before. A key word here is "probably" because we know precious little about the phenomenon of young people who recover from alcohol and drug addition. This article is a preliminary exploration of youth in recovery. It reviews several types of recovery support…

  19. The Fluids And Combustion Facility Combustion Integrated Rack And The Multi-User Droplet Combustion Apparatus: Microgravity Combustion Science Using Modular Multi-User Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OMalley, Terence F.; Myhre, Craig A.

    2000-01-01

    The Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) is a multi-rack payload planned for the International Space Station (ISS) that will enable the study of fluid physics and combustion science in a microgravity environment. The Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) is one of two International Standard Payload Racks of the FCF and is being designed primarily to support combustion science experiments. The Multi-user Droplet Combustion Apparatus (MDCA) is a multi-user apparatus designed to accommodate four different droplet combustion science experiments and is the first payload for CIR. The CIR will function independently until the later launch of the Fluids Integrated Rack component of the FCF. This paper provides an overview of the capabilities and the development status of the CIR and MDCA.

  20. Validation of Student and Parent Reported Data on the Basic Grant Application Form: Institution/OE Referral Study, Pre-Established and ACT Criteria Study, Overpayment Recovery. Final Report, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Pamela Barnhouse; And Others

    The validity of information provided in applications to the Basic Educational Opportunity Grant (BEOG) program was studied, along with procedures used in recovering overpayments. The objective was to investigate misreporting and misuse of the BEOG program. A 1977-1978 study reviewed cases referred to the U.S. Office of Education by educational…

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, NOX CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES, CATALYTICA COMBUSTION SYSTEMS, INC., XONON FLAMELESS COMBUSTION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the Xonon Cool Combustion System manufactured by Catalytica Energy Systems, Inc., formerly Catalytica Combustion Systems, Inc., to control NOx emissions from gas turbines that operate wit...

  2. Liquid rocket engine combustion stabilization devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Combustion instability, which results from a coupling of the combustion process and the fluid dynamics of the engine system, was investigated. The design of devices which reduce coupling (combustion chamber baffles) and devices which increase damping (acoustic absorbers) are described. Included in the discussion are design criteria and recommended practices, structural and mechanical design, thermal control, baffle geometry, baffle/engine interactions, acoustic damping analysis, and absorber configurations.

  3. Shock Tube Measurements for Liquid Fuels Combustion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP023631 TITLE: Shock Tube Measurements for Liquid Fuels Combustion ... COMBUSTION ARO Contract Number DAAD 19-01-1-0597 Principal Investigator: Ronald K. Hanson Mechanical Engineering Department Stanford University, Stanford CA...94305-3032 SUMMARY/OVERVIEW: We report results of basic research aimed at improving knowledge of the combustion behavior of diesel and jet-related

  4. The 3rd International Microgravity Combustion Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Howard D. (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    This Conference Publication contains 71 papers presented at the Third International Microgravity Combustion Workshop held in Cleveland, Ohio, from April 11 to 13, 1995. The purpose of the workshop was twofold: to exchange information about the progress and promise of combustion science in microgravity and to provide a forum to discuss which areas in microgravity combustion science need to be expanded profitably and which should be included in upcoming NASA Research Announcements (NRA).

  5. The Second International Microgravity Combustion Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This CP contains 40 papers presented at the Second International Microgravity Combustion Workshop held in Cleveland, OH, from September 15 to 17, 1992. The purpose of the workshop was twofold: to exchange information about the progress and promise of combustion science in microgravity and to provide a forum to discuss which areas in microgravity combustion science need to be expanded profitably and which should be included in upcoming NASA Research Announcements (NRA).

  6. 14 CFR 29.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Combustion heater fire protection. 29.859... § 29.859 Combustion heater fire protection. (a) Combustion heater fire zones. The following combustion... any ventilating air passage that— (i) Surrounds the combustion chamber; and (ii) Would not contain...

  7. 14 CFR 25.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Combustion heater fire protection. 25.859....859 Combustion heater fire protection. (a) Combustion heater fire zones. The following combustion... surrounds the combustion chamber. However, no fire extinguishment is required in cabin ventilating air...

  8. 14 CFR 29.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Combustion heater fire protection. 29.859... § 29.859 Combustion heater fire protection. (a) Combustion heater fire zones. The following combustion... any ventilating air passage that— (i) Surrounds the combustion chamber; and (ii) Would not contain...

  9. 14 CFR 29.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Combustion heater fire protection. 29.859... § 29.859 Combustion heater fire protection. (a) Combustion heater fire zones. The following combustion... any ventilating air passage that— (i) Surrounds the combustion chamber; and (ii) Would not contain...

  10. 14 CFR 25.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Combustion heater fire protection. 25.859....859 Combustion heater fire protection. (a) Combustion heater fire zones. The following combustion... surrounds the combustion chamber. However, no fire extinguishment is required in cabin ventilating air...

  11. 14 CFR 29.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Combustion heater fire protection. 29.859... § 29.859 Combustion heater fire protection. (a) Combustion heater fire zones. The following combustion... any ventilating air passage that— (i) Surrounds the combustion chamber; and (ii) Would not contain...

  12. 14 CFR 25.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Combustion heater fire protection. 25.859....859 Combustion heater fire protection. (a) Combustion heater fire zones. The following combustion... surrounds the combustion chamber. However, no fire extinguishment is required in cabin ventilating air...

  13. 14 CFR 29.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Combustion heater fire protection. 29.859... § 29.859 Combustion heater fire protection. (a) Combustion heater fire zones. The following combustion... any ventilating air passage that— (i) Surrounds the combustion chamber; and (ii) Would not contain...

  14. 14 CFR 25.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Combustion heater fire protection. 25.859....859 Combustion heater fire protection. (a) Combustion heater fire zones. The following combustion... surrounds the combustion chamber. However, no fire extinguishment is required in cabin ventilating air...

  15. 14 CFR 25.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Combustion heater fire protection. 25.859....859 Combustion heater fire protection. (a) Combustion heater fire zones. The following combustion... surrounds the combustion chamber. However, no fire extinguishment is required in cabin ventilating air...

  16. Hydrogen combustion in tomorrow's energy technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peschka, W.

    The fundamental characteristics of hydrogen combustion and the current status of hydrogen energy applications technology are reviewed, with an emphasis on research being pursued at DFVLR. Topics addressed include reaction mechanisms and pollution, steady-combustion devices (catalytic heaters, H2/air combustors, H2/O2 rocket engines, H2-fueled jet engines, and gas and steam turbine processes), unsteady combustion (in internal-combustion engines with internal or external mixture formation), and feasibility studies of hydrogen-powered automobiles. Diagrams, drawings, graphs, and photographs are provided.

  17. Pyrolysis reactor and fluidized bed combustion chamber

    DOEpatents

    Green, Norman W.

    1981-01-06

    A solid carbonaceous material is pyrolyzed in a descending flow pyrolysis reactor in the presence of a particulate source of heat to yield a particulate carbon containing solid residue. The particulate source of heat is obtained by educting with a gaseous source of oxygen the particulate carbon containing solid residue from a fluidized bed into a first combustion zone coupled to a second combustion zone. A source of oxygen is introduced into the second combustion zone to oxidize carbon monoxide formed in the first combustion zone to heat the solid residue to the temperature of the particulate source of heat.

  18. Engine Valve Actuation For Combustion Enhancement

    DOEpatents

    Reitz, Rolf Deneys; Rutland, Christopher J.; Jhavar, Rahul

    2004-05-18

    A combustion chamber valve, such as an intake valve or an exhaust valve, is briefly opened during the compression and/or power strokes of a 4-stroke combustion cycle in an internal combustion engine (in particular, a diesel or CI engine). The brief opening may (1) enhance mixing withing the combustion chamber, allowing more complete oxidation of particulates to decrease engine emissions; and/or may (2) delay ignition until a more desirable time, potentially allowing a means of timing ignition in otherwise difficult-to-control conditions, e.g., in HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) conditions.

  19. Engine valve actuation for combustion enhancement

    DOEpatents

    Reitz, Rolf Deneys [Madison, WI; Rutland, Christopher J [Madison, WI; Jhavar, Rahul [Madison, WI

    2008-03-04

    A combustion chamber valve, such as an intake valve or an exhaust valve, is briefly opened during the compression and/or power strokes of a 4-strokes combustion cycle in an internal combustion engine (in particular, a diesel or CI engine). The brief opening may (1) enhance mixing withing the combustion chamber, allowing more complete oxidation of particulates to decrease engine emissions; and/or may (2) delay ignition until a more desirable time, potentially allowing a means of timing ignition in otherwise difficult-to-control conditions, e.g., in HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) conditions.

  20. Advanced Booster Liquid Engine Combustion Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Kevin; Gentz, Steve; Nettles, Mindy

    2015-01-01

    Combustion instability is a phenomenon in liquid rocket engines caused by complex coupling between the time-varying combustion processes and the fluid dynamics in the combustor. Consequences of the large pressure oscillations associated with combustion instability often cause significant hardware damage and can be catastrophic. The current combustion stability assessment tools are limited by the level of empiricism in many inputs and embedded models. This limited predictive capability creates significant uncertainty in stability assessments. This large uncertainty then increases hardware development costs due to heavy reliance on expensive and time-consuming testing.

  1. Combustion: Structural interaction in a viscoelastic material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, T. Y.; Chang, J. P.; Kumar, M.; Kuo, K. K.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of interaction between combustion processes and structural deformation of solid propellant was considered. The combustion analysis was performed on the basis of deformed crack geometry, which was determined from the structural analysis. On the other hand, input data for the structural analysis, such as pressure distribution along the crack boundary and ablation velocity of the crack, were determined from the combustion analysis. The interaction analysis was conducted by combining two computer codes, a combustion analysis code and a general purpose finite element structural analysis code.

  2. Selection of technology for the low calorific synthetic gas combustion in the gas turbine combustion chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippov, Prokopy; Levin, Evgeny; Ryzhkov, Alexander

    2017-10-01

    The leading gas turbines manufacturers are developing the technologies of the environmental friendly combustion of industrial and synthetic gases of low calorific values. In this case they are faced with critical problems concerning combustion stability assurance and the necessity of the gas turbines significant modernization due to the differences between the low calorific and natural gases. The numerical simulation results of the low calorific value synthetic gas combustion in the combustion chamber by means of different technologies are considered in the paper.

  3. Explicating Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    How we choose to use a term depends on what we want to do with it. If "validity" is to be used to support a score interpretation, validation would require an analysis of the plausibility of that interpretation. If validity is to be used to support score uses, validation would require an analysis of the appropriateness of the proposed…

  4. New Turbo Compound Systems in Automotive Industry for Internal Combustion Engine to Recover Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiriac, R.; Chiru, A.; Condrea, O.

    2017-10-01

    The large amount of heat is scattered in the internal combustion engine through exhaust gas, coolant, convective and radiant heat transfer. Of all these residual heat sources, exhaust gases have the potential to recover using various modern heat recovery techniques. Waste heat recovery from an engine could directly reduce fuel consumption, increase available electrical power and improve overall system efficiency and if it would be used a turbochargers that can also produce energy. This solution is called turbo aggregation and has other ways to develop it in other areas of research like the electrical field. [1-3

  5. High pressure optical combustion probe

    SciTech Connect

    Woodruff, S.D.; Richards, G.A.

    1995-06-01

    The Department of Energy`s Morgantown Energy Technology Center has developed a combustion probe for monitoring flame presence and heat release. The technology involved is a compact optical detector of the OH radical`s UV fluorescence. The OH Monitor/Probe is designed to determine the flame presence and provide a qualitative signal proportional to the flame intensity. The probe can be adjusted to monitor a specific volume in the combustion zone to track spatial fluctuations in the flame. The probe is capable of nanosecond time response and is usually slowed electronically to fit the flame characteristics. The probe is a sapphire rod inmore » a stainless steel tube which may be inserted into the combustion chamber and pointed at the flame zone. The end of the sapphire rod is retracted into the SS tube to define a narrow optical collection cone. The collection cone may be adjusted to fit the experiment. The fluorescence signal is collected by the sapphire rod and transmitted through a UV transmitting, fused silica, fiber optic to the detector assembly. The detector is a side window photomultiplier (PMT) with a 310 run line filter. A Hamamatsu photomultiplier base combined with a integral high voltage power supply permits this to be a low voltage device. Electronic connections include: a power lead from a modular DC power supply for 15 VDC; a control lead for 0-1 volts to control the high voltage level (and therefore gain); and a lead out for the actual signal. All low voltage connections make this a safe and easy to use device while still delivering the sensitivity required.« less

  6. Jet-A reaction mechanism study for combustion application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Chi-Ming; Kundu, Krishna; Acosta, Waldo

    1991-01-01

    Simplified chemical kinetic reaction mechanisms for the combustion of Jet A fuel was studied. Initially, 40 reacting species and 118 elementary chemical reactions were chosen based on a literature review. Through a sensitivity analysis with the use of LSENS General Kinetics and Sensitivity Analysis Code, 16 species and 21 elementary chemical reactions were determined from this study. This mechanism is first justified by comparison of calculated ignition delay time with the available shock tube data, then it is validated by comparison of calculated emissions from the plug flow reactor code with in-house flame tube data.

  7. Buoyancy effects on smoldering combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dosanjh, S.; Peterson, J.; Fernandez-Pello, A. C.; Pagni, P. J.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of buoyancy on the rate of spread of a concurrent smolder reaction through a porous combustible material is investigated theoretically and experimentally. In the experiments, buoyant forces are controlled by varying the density difference, and the smolder rate spread through porous alpha cellulose (0.83 void fraction) is measured as a function of the ambient air pressure. The smolder velocity is found to increase with the ambient pressure; extinction occurs when the buoyancy forces cannot overcome the drag forces, indicating that diffusion by itself cannot support the spread of a smolder reaction. Theoretical predictions are found to be in good qualitative agreement with the experimental results.

  8. Transient combustion in hybrid rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karabeyoglu, Mustafa Arif

    1998-09-01

    Hybrid rockets regained interest recently as an alternative chemical propulsion system due to their advantages over the solid and liquid systems that are currently in use. Development efforts on hybrids revealed two important problem areas: (1) low frequency instabilities and (2) slow transient response. Both of these are closely related to the transient behavior which is a poorly understood aspect of hybrid operation. This thesis is mainly involved with a theoretical study of transient combustion in hybrid rockets. We follow the methodology of identifying and modeling the subsystems of the motor such as the thermal lags in the solid, boundary layer combustion and chamber gasdynamics from a dynamic point of view. We begin with the thermal lag in the solid which yield the regression rate for any given wall heat flux variation. Interesting phenomena such as overshooting during throttling and the amplification and phase lead regions in the frequency domain are discovered. Later we develop a quasi-steady transient hybrid combustion model supported with time delays for the boundary layer processes. This is integrated with the thermal lag system to obtain the thermal combustion (TC) coupled response. The TC coupled system with positive delays generated low frequency instabilities. The scaling of the instabilities are in good agreement with actual motor test data. Finally, we formulate a gasdynamic model for the hybrid chamber which successfully resolves the filling/emptying and longitudinal acoustic behavior of the motor. The TC coupled system is later integrated to the gasdynamic model to obtain the overall response (TCG coupled system) of gaseous oxidizer motors with stiff feed systems. Low frequency instabilities were also encountered for the TCG coupled system. Apart from the transient investigations, the regression rate behavior of liquefying hybrid propellants such as solid cryogenic materials are also studied. The theory is based on the possibility of enhancement

  9. Distributed Combustion in Solid Propellants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    SENTRY. During that year three full scale development motors were test fired. All three motors experienced an unacceptabiy high level of combustion...CO. Thermochemical Implications," Journal of Physical Chemistry , 1986, Vol. 90, pp. 1688-1691. Rundinger, G., "Effect of Velocity Slip on the...resulting equation is found to be M (r, l = Lelnf 1 F (T-f- T’) I F(Tf- Ts) -J (B.20) where (p is given by P = (MvQ1 + McQ + H) Mil and F is the ratio of

  10. Modelling NOx emissions of single droplet combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moesl, Klaus G.; Schwing, Joachim E.; Sattelmayer, Thomas

    2012-02-01

    An approach for modelling and simulation of the generation of nitrogen oxide (NOx) in the gas phase surrounding single burning droplets is presented. Assuming spherical symmetry (no gravity, no forced convection), the governing equations are derived first. Then simplifications are introduced and it is proven that they are appropriate. The influences of the initial droplet diameter, the ambient conditions, and the droplet pre-vapourisation on NOx are investigated. The fuel of choice is n-decane (C10H22) as it resembles kerosene and diesel fuel best, and the complexity of the reaction mechanism is manageable. Combinations of C10H22 mechanisms and well-established NOx kinetics are evaluated in detail and validated for their applicability in the context of this work. The conducted simulations of droplet combustion in an atmosphere of hot exhaust gas show that NOx formation (by mass of fuel) increases linearly with the droplet diameter. There is a trade-off between available oxygen and ambient temperature. Increasing the equivalence ratio of the exhaust gas leads to higher NOx emissions in the very lean regime, but to lower emissions if the equivalence ratio exceeds 0.85. Pre-vapourisation of fuel at ambient conditions becomes beneficial with respect to NOx emissions only if the degree of vapourisation is above a minimum limit. If less fuel is vapourised before ignition, the NOx emissions remain almost unaffected.

  11. On the combustion mechanisms of ZrH2 in double-base propellant.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanjing; Zhao, Fengqi; Yuan, Zhifeng; Wang, Ying; An, Ting; Chen, Xueli; Xuan, Chunlei; Zhang, Jiankan

    2017-12-13

    Metal hydrides are regarded as a series of promising hydrogen-supplying fuel for solid rocket propellants. Their effects on the energetic and combustion performances of propellants are closely related to their reaction mechanisms. Here we report a first attempt to determine the reaction mechanism of ZrH 2 , a high-density metal hydride, in the combustion of a double-base propellant to evaluate its potential as a fuel. ZrH 2 is determined to possess good resistance to oxidation by nitrocellulose and nitroglycerine. Thus its combustion starts with dehydrogenation to generate H 2 and metallic Zr. Subsequently, the newly formed Zr and H 2 participate in the combustion and, especially, Zr melts and then combusts on the burning surface which favors the heat feedback to the propellant. This phenomenon is completely different from the combustion behavior of the traditional fuel Al, where the Al particles are ejected off the burning surface of the propellant to get into the luminous flame zone to burn. The findings in this work validate the potential of ZrH 2 as a hydrogen-supplying fuel for double-base propellants.

  12. Implementing forward recovery using checkpointing in distributed systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, Junsheng; Fuchs, W. K.; Abraham, Jacob A.

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes the implementation of a forward recovery scheme using checkpoints and replicated tasks. The implementation is based on the concept of lookahead execution and rollback validation. In the experiment, two tasks are selected for the normal execution and one for rollback validation. It is shown that the recovery strategy has nearly error-free execution time and an average redundancy lower than TMR.

  13. Development of Novel Fe-Based Coating Systems for Internal Combustion Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobzin, K.; Öte, M.; Königstein, T.; Dröder, K.; Hoffmeister, H.-W.; Mahlfeld, G.; Schläfer, T.

    2018-04-01

    Nowadays, combustion engines are the most common way to power vehicles. Thereby, losses occur due to cooling, exhaust gas and friction. With regard to frictional losses, highest potentials for optimization can be found in the tribological system of the inner surface of combustion chamber and piston ring. Besides friction, corrosive stress increases, e.g., due to utilization of exhaust gas recovery. In order to save energy, reduce emissions and enhance the life span of combustion engines, the demand for innovative coating material systems, especially for the inner surface of combustion chamber, increases. This study focuses on the development of innovative iron-based coating materials for the combustion chamber. As a first step, the plasma transferred wire arc and rotating single wire arc (RSW) technologies were compared using 0.8% C-steel as a reference. Subsequently, RSW was used for coating deposition using an innovative iron-based feedstock material. In order to improve wear and corrosion resistance, boron and chromium were added to the feedstock material. After deposition, different honing topographies were manufactured and compared under tribological load. Furthermore, electrochemical corrosion tests were conducted using an electrolyte simulating the exhaust gas concentrate. Especially with regard to corrosion, the novel coating system FeCrBMn showed promising results.

  14. DFT studies of hydrocarbon combustion on metal surfaces.

    PubMed

    Arya, Mina; Mirzaei, Ali Akbar; Davarpanah, Abdol Mahmood; Barakati, Seyed Masoud; Atashi, Hossein; Mohsenzadeh, Abas; Bolton, Kim

    2018-02-02

    Catalytic combustion of hydrocarbons is an important technology to produce energy. Compared to conventional flame combustion, the catalyst enables this process to operate at lower temperatures; hence, reducing the energy required for efficient combustion. The reaction and activation energies of direct combustion of hydrocarbons (CH → C + H) on a series of metal surfaces were investigated using density functional theory (DFT). The data obtained for the Ag, Au, Al, Cu, Rh, Pt, and Pd surfaces were used to investigate the validity of the Brønsted-Evans-Polanyi (BEP) and transition state scaling (TSS) relations for this reaction on these surfaces. These relations were found to be valid (R 2  = 0.94 for the BEP correlation and R 2  = 1.0 for the TSS correlation) and were therefore used to estimate the energetics of the combustion reaction on Ni, Co, and Fe surfaces. It was found that the estimated transition state and activation energies (E TS  = -69.70 eV and E a  = 1.20 eV for Ni, E TS  = -87.93 eV and E a  = 1.08 eV for Co and E TS  = -92.45 eV and E a  = 0.83 eV for Fe) are in agreement with those obtained by DFT calculations (E TS  = -69.98 eV and E a  = 1.23 eV for Ni, E TS  = -87.88 eV and E a  = 1.08 eV for Co and E TS  = -92.57 eV and E a  = 0.79 eV for Fe). Therefore, these relations can be used to predict energetics of this reaction on these surfaces without doing the time consuming transition state calculations. Also, the calculations show that the activation barrier for CH dissociation decreases in the order Ag ˃ Au ˃ Al ˃ Cu ˃ Pt ˃ Pd ˃ Ni > Co > Rh > Fe.

  15. Combustion of Unconfined Droplet Clusters in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruff, G. A.; Liu, S.

    2001-01-01

    Combustion experiments using arrays of droplets seek to provide a link between single droplet combustion phenomena and the behavior of complex spray combustion systems. Both single droplet and droplet array studies have been conducted in microgravity to better isolate the droplet interaction phenomena and eliminate or reduce the confounding effects of buoyancy-induced convection. In most experiments involving droplet arrays, the droplets are supported on fibers to keep them stationary and close together before the combustion event. The presence of the fiber, however, disturbs the combustion process by introducing a source of heat transfer and asymmetry into the configuration. As the number of drops in a droplet array increases, supporting the drops on fibers becomes less practical because of the cumulative effect of the fibers on the combustion process. To eliminate the effect of the fiber, several researchers have conducted microgravity experiments using unsupported droplets. Jackson and Avedisian investigated single, unsupported drops while Nomura et al. studied droplet clouds formed by a condensation technique. The overall objective of this research is to extend the study of unsupported drops by investigating the combustion of well-characterized drop clusters in a microgravity environment. Direct experimental observations and measurements of the combustion of droplet clusters would fill a large gap in our current understanding of droplet and spray combustion and provide unique experimental data for the verification and improvement of spray combustion models. In this work, the formation of drop clusters is precisely controlled using an acoustic levitation system so that dilute, as well as dense clusters can be created and stabilized before combustion in microgravity is begun. This paper describes the design and performance of the 1-g experimental apparatus, some preliminary 1-g results, and plans for testing in microgravity.

  16. Effect of metallic additives on in situ combustion of Huntington Beach crude experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Baena, C.J.; Castanier, L.M.; Brigham, W.E.

    1990-08-01

    The economics and applicability of an in-situ combustion process for the recovery of crude oil are dictated to a large extent by the nature and the amount of fuel formed during the process. The aim of this work is to use combustion tube studies to determine on a quantitative basis, how the nature and the amount of fuel formed could be changed by the presence of metallic additives. These experiments follow from the qualitative observations on the effect of metallic additives on the in-situ combustion of Huntington Beach crude oil made by De los Rios (1987) at SUPRI. He performedmore » kinetic studies on the oxidation of Huntington Beach crude in porous media and showed that the nature of the fuel formed changed when metallic additives were present. Combustion tube runs were performed using the metallic additives: ferrous chloride (FeCl{sub 2{center dot}}4H{sub 2}O), zinc chloride (ZnCl{sub 2}) and stannic chloride (SnCl{sub 4{center dot}}5H{sub 2}O). Unconsolidated cores were prepared by mixing predetermined amounts of an aqueous solution of the metal salt, Huntington Beach crude oil, Ottawa sand and clay in order to achieve the desired fluid saturations. The mixture was then tamped into the combustion tube. Dry air combustion tube runs were performed keeping the conditions of saturation, air flux and injection pressure approximately the same during each run. The nature of the fuel formed and its impact on the combustion parameters were determined and compared with a control run -- an experiment performed with no metallic additive. 30 refs., 33 figs., 6 tabs.« less

  17. Concept of Heat Recovery from Exhaust Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukowska, Maria; Nowak, Krzysztof; Proszak-Miąsik, Danuta; Rabczak, Sławomir

    2017-10-01

    The theme of the article is to determine the possibility of waste heat recovery and use it to prepare hot water. The scope includes a description of the existing sample of coal-fired boiler plant, the analysis of working condition and heat recovery proposals. For this purpose, a series of calculations necessary to identify the energy effect of exhaust temperature decreasing and transferring recovery heat to hot water processing. Heat recover solutions from the exhaust gases channel between boiler and chimney section were proposed. Estimation for the cost-effectiveness of such a solution was made. All calculations and analysis were performed for typical Polish conditions, for coal-fired boiler plant. Typicality of this solution is manifested by the volatility of the load during the year, due to distribution of heat for heating and hot water, determining the load variation during the day. Analysed system of three boilers in case of load variation allows to operational flexibility and adaptation of the boilers load to the current heat demand. This adaptation requires changes in the operating conditions of boilers and in particular assurance of properly conditions for the combustion of fuel. These conditions have an impact on the existing thermal loss and the overall efficiency of the boiler plant. On the boiler plant efficiency affects particularly exhaust gas temperature and the excess air factor. Increasing the efficiency of boilers plant is possible to reach by following actions: limiting the excess air factor in coal combustion process in boilers and using an additional heat exchanger in the exhaust gas channel outside of boilers (economizer) intended to preheat the hot water.

  18. EPA Recovery Mapper

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA Recovery Mapper is an Internet interactive mapping application that allows users to discover information about every American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) award that EPA has funded for six programs. By integrating data reported by the recipients of Recovery Act funding and data created by EPA, this application delivers a level of transparency and public accessibility to users interested in EPA's use of Recovery Act monies. The application is relatively easy to use and builds on the same mapping model as Google, Bing, MapQuest and other commonly used mapping interfaces. EPA Recovery Mapper tracks each award made by each program and gives basic Quick Facts information for each award including award name, location, award date, dollar amounts and more. Data Summaries for each EPA program or for each state are provided displaying dollars for Total Awarded, Total Received (Paid), and Total Jobs This Quarter by Recovery for the latest quarter of data released by Recovery.gov. The data are reported to the government and EPA four times a year by the award recipients. The latest quarterly report will always be displayed in the EPA Recovery Mapper. In addition, the application provides many details about each award. Users will learn more about how to access and interpret these data later in this document. Data shown in the EPA Recovery Mapper are derived from information reported back to FederalReporting.gov from the recipients of Recovery Act funding. EPA

  19. Combustion Sensors: Gas Turbine Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Human, Mel

    2002-01-01

    This report documents efforts to survey the current research directions in sensor technology for gas turbine systems. The work is driven by the current and future requirements on system performance and optimization. Accurate real time measurements of velocities, pressure, temperatures, and species concentrations will be required for objectives such as combustion instability attenuation, pollutant reduction, engine health management, exhaust profile control via active control, etc. Changing combustor conditions - engine aging, flow path slagging, or rapid maneuvering - will require adaptive responses; the effectiveness of such will be only as good as the dynamic information available for processing. All of these issues point toward the importance of continued sensor development. For adequate control of the combustion process, sensor data must include information about the above mentioned quantities along with equivalence ratios and radical concentrations, and also include both temporal and spatial velocity resolution. Ultimately these devices must transfer from the laboratory to field installations, and thus must become low weight and cost, reliable and maintainable. A primary conclusion from this study is that the optics-based sensor science will be the primary diagnostic in future gas turbine technologies.

  20. Robust control of combustion instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Boe-Shong

    Several interactive dynamical subsystems, each of which has its own time-scale and physical significance, are decomposed to build a feedback-controlled combustion- fluid robust dynamics. On the fast-time scale, the phenomenon of combustion instability is corresponding to the internal feedback of two subsystems: acoustic dynamics and flame dynamics, which are parametrically dependent on the slow-time-scale mean-flow dynamics controlled for global performance by a mean-flow controller. This dissertation constructs such a control system, through modeling, analysis and synthesis, to deal with model uncertainties, environmental noises and time- varying mean-flow operation. Conservation law is decomposed as fast-time acoustic dynamics and slow-time mean-flow dynamics, served for synthesizing LPV (linear parameter varying)- L2-gain robust control law, in which a robust observer is embedded for estimating and controlling the internal status, while achieving trade- offs among robustness, performances and operation. The robust controller is formulated as two LPV-type Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMIs), whose numerical solver is developed by finite-element method. Some important issues related to physical understanding and engineering application are discussed in simulated results of the control system.

  1. NACA Subcommittee on Combustion Meeting

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1951-12-21

    The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) Subcommittee on Combustion holds a meeting at Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory in Cleveland, Ohio. The NACA was managed by committees that included members of their own staff along with representatives from industry, the military, other government agencies, and universities. The 17-person Executive Committee was the NACA’s primary administrative body. They met several times a year at the NACA headquarters office in Washington DC to discuss broad issues confronting the US aeronautical community. Jerome Hunsaker, head of the Department of Aeronautical Engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, served as the NACA chairman from 1941 to 1956. George Lewis was not a member of the Executive Committee but served a key role as the NACA’s Director of Aeronautical Research. The NACA’s organizational chart also included 11 technical committees, several of which had specialized subcommittees. There were over 100 different subcommittees between World War I and 1958. The number of active subcommittees varied over the years. Most existed only for a few years, but some continued for over a decade. The subcommittees met three or four times per year, often at the laboratory most closely associated with the area of research. A team of laboratory researchers presented briefings on their recent activities and plans for the future. The Subcommittee on Combustion existed from 1945 to the NACA’s demise in 1958.

  2. Deposition of biomass combustion aerosol particles in the human respiratory tract.

    PubMed

    Löndahl, Jakob; Pagels, Joakim; Boman, Christoffer; Swietlicki, Erik; Massling, Andreas; Rissler, Jenny; Blomberg, Anders; Bohgard, Mats; Sandström, Thomas

    2008-08-01

    Smoke from biomass combustion has been identified as a major environmental risk factor associated with adverse health effects globally. Deposition of the smoke particles in the lungs is a crucial factor for toxicological effects, but has not previously been studied experimentally. We investigated the size-dependent respiratory-tract deposition of aerosol particles from wood combustion in humans. Two combustion conditions were studied in a wood pellet burner: efficient ("complete") combustion and low-temperature (incomplete) combustion simulating "wood smoke." The size-dependent deposition fraction of 15-to 680-nm particles was measured for 10 healthy subjects with a novel setup. Both aerosols were extensively characterized with regard to chemical and physical particle properties. The deposition was additionally estimated with the ICRP model, modified for the determined aerosol properties, in order to validate the experiments and allow a generalization of the results. The measured total deposited fraction of particles from both efficient combustion and low-temperature combustion was 0.21-0.24 by number, surface, and mass. The deposition behavior can be explained by the size distributions of the particles and by their ability to grow by water uptake in the lungs, where the relative humidity is close to saturation. The experiments were in basic agreement with the model calculations. Our findings illustrate: (1) that particles from biomass combustion obtain a size in the respiratory tract at which the deposition probability is close to its minimum, (2) that particle water absorption has substantial impact on deposition, and (3) that deposition is markedly influenced by individual factors.

  3. On the influence of the char gasification reactions on NO formation in flameless coal combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Stadler, Hannes; Toporov, Dobrin; Foerster, Malte

    2009-09-15

    Flameless combustion is a well known measure to reduce NO{sub x} emissions in gas combustion but has not yet been fully adapted to pulverised coal combustion. Numerical predictions can provide detailed information on the combustion process thus playing a significant role in understanding the basic mechanisms for pollutant formation. In simulations of conventional pulverised coal combustion the gasification by CO{sub 2} or H{sub 2} O is usually omitted since its overall contribution to char oxidation is negligible compared to the oxidation with O{sub 2}. In flameless combustion, however, due to the strong recirculation of hot combustion products, primarily CO{sub 2}more » and H{sub 2} O, and the thereby reduced concentration of O{sub 2} in the reaction zone the local partial pressures of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} O become significantly higher than that for O{sub 2}. Therefore, the char reaction with CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} O is being reconsidered. This paper presents a numerical study on the importance of these reactions on pollutant formation in flameless combustion. The numerical models used have been validated against experimental data. By varying the wall temperature and the burner excess air ratio, different cases have been investigated and the impact of considering gasification on the prediction of NO formation has been assessed. It was found that within the investigated ranges of these parameters the fraction of char being gasified increases up to 35%. This leads to changes in the local gas composition, primarily CO distribution, which in turn influences NO formation predictions. Considering gasification the prediction of NO emission is up to 40% lower than the predicted emissions without gasification reactions being taken into account. (author)« less

  4. Effect of Chamber Pressurization Rate on Combustion and Propagation of Solid Propellant Cracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Wei-Lan; Wei, Shen; Yuan, Shu-Shen

    2002-01-01

    area of the propellant grain satisfies the designed value. But cracks in propellant grain can be generated during manufacture, storage, handing and so on. The cracks can provide additional surface area for combustion. The additional combustion may significantly deviate the performance of the rocket motor from the designed conditions, even lead to explosive catastrophe. Therefore a thorough study on the combustion, propagation and fracture of solid propellant cracks must be conducted. This paper takes an isolated propellant crack as the object and studies the effect of chamber pressurization rate on the combustion, propagation and fracture of the crack by experiment and theoretical calculation. deformable, the burning inside a solid propellant crack is a coupling of solid mechanics and combustion dynamics. In this paper, a theoretical model describing the combustion, propagation and fracture of the crack was formulated and solved numerically. The interaction of structural deformation and combustion process was included in the theoretical model. The conservation equations for compressible fluid flow, the equation of state for perfect gas, the heat conducting equation for the solid-phase, constitutive equation for propellant, J-integral fracture criterion and so on are used in the model. The convective burning inside the crack and the propagation and fracture of the crack were numerically studied by solving the set of nonlinear, inhomogeneous gas-phase governing equations and solid-phase equations. On the other hand, the combustion experiments for propellant specimens with a precut crack were conducted by RTR system. Predicted results are in good agreement with experimental data, which validates the reasonableness of the theoretical model. Both theoretical and experimental results indicate that the chamber pressurization rate has strong effects on the convective burning in the crack, crack fracture initiation and fracture pattern.

  5. Comparison of fuel value and combustion characteristics of two different RDF samples.

    PubMed

    Sever Akdağ, A; Atımtay, A; Sanin, F D

    2016-01-01

    Generation of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) tends to increase with the growing population and economic development of the society; therefore, establishing environmentally sustainable waste management strategies is crucial. In this sense, waste to energy strategies have come into prominence since they increase the resource efficiency and replace the fossil fuels with renewable energy sources by enabling material and energy recovery instead of landfill disposal of the wastes. Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF), which is an alternative fuel produced from energy-rich Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) materials diverted from landfills, is one of the waste to energy strategies gaining more and more attention. This study aims to investigate the thermal characteristics and co-combustion efficiency of two RDF samples in Turkey. Proximate, ultimate and thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) were conducted on these samples. Furthermore, elemental compositions of ash from RDF samples were determined by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis. The RDF samples were combusted alone and co-combusted in mixtures with coal and petroleum coke in a lab scale reactor at certain percentages on energy basis (3%, 5%, 10%, 20% and 30%) where co-combustion processes and efficiencies were investigated. It was found that the calorific values of RDF samples on dry basis were close to that of coal and a little lower compared to petroleum coke used in this study. Furthermore, the analysis indicated that when RDF in the mixture was higher than 10%, the CO concentration in the flue gas increased and so the combustion efficiency decreased; furthermore, the combustion characteristics changed from char combustion to volatile combustion. However, RDF addition to the fuel mixtures decreased the SO2 emission and did not change the NOx profiles. Also, XRF analysis showed that the slagging and fouling potential of RDF combustion was a function of RDF portion in fuel blend. When the RDF was combusted alone, the slagging and fouling

  6. An investigation of plasma enhanced combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Woo Kyung

    This study examines the use of plasma discharges in flame stabilization. Three different types of plasma discharges are applied to a lifted jet diffusion flame in coflow, and evaluated for their abilities to enhance flame stabilization. A single electrode corona discharge (SECD) is found to maintain the flame at a 20 % higher coflow speed than that without the discharge. A dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) results in flame stabilization at up to 50 % higher coflow speed. Finally, an ultra short-pulsed repetitive discharge (USRD) is found to increase the stability limit by nearly ten-fold. The stabilization process is sensitive to the positioning of the discharge in the flow field, and the optimal position of the discharge is mapped into mixture fraction space. The result shows that the local mixture fraction at the optimal position is much leaner than that of a conventional lifted jet flame. Parametric studies are conducted in a plasma-assisted methane/air premixed flame system using USRD. Criteria for optimal electrode selection are suggested. Platinum provides the best result at low frequency operation (< 20 kHz) but tungsten shows better performance at high frequency operation (> 20 kHz). The increase in the flame stability limit is also investigated. The flame stability limit extends from an equivalence ratio of 0.7 to 0.47. Nitric oxide (NO) concentration in the premixed flame is measured. The discharge is a potential source of NO. Under certain conditions, we observed the presence of a cold pre-flame, located between the discharge and the main flame. It is found that the pre-flame partially consumes some NO. The flame kernel structure and ignition mechanism of plasma-assisted premixed combustion are discussed. It is observed that the pre-flame has an abundance of OH radicals. The key physics of the flame ignition is the diffusion of an OH stream (from the pre-flame) into the surrounding combustible mixture to form the main flame. Lastly, the proposed flame

  7. Multiphase Combustion of Metalized Nanocomposite Energetic Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-19

    Materials, Energy & Fuels (01 2011) Eric Nixon, Michelle Pantoya, Ganapathy Sivakumar, Ashwin Vijayasai, Tim Dallas. Superhydrophobic Coatings for... Superhydrophobic Coatings for Nanoenergetic Material Combustion, Surface Coatings and Technology205, 5103-5108, 2011. 4. Dikici, B., Shaw, B...A., Dallas, T., Superhydrophobic Coatings for Nanoenergetic Material Combustion, Surface Coatings and Technology 205, 5103-5108, 2011. (3

  8. Method and system for controlled combustion engines

    DOEpatents

    Oppenheim, A. K.

    1990-01-01

    A system for controlling combustion in internal combustion engines of both the Diesel or Otto type, which relies on establishing fluid dynamic conditions and structures wherein fuel and air are entrained, mixed and caused to be ignited in the interior of a multiplicity of eddies, and where these structures are caused to sequentially fill the headspace of the cylinders.

  9. Iridium-Coated Rhenium Combustion Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J.; Tuffias, Robert H.; Rosenberg, Sanders D.

    1994-01-01

    Iridium-coated rhenium combustion chamber withstands operating temperatures up to 2,200 degrees C. Chamber designed to replace older silicide-coated combustion chamber in small rocket engine. Modified versions of newer chamber could be designed for use on Earth in gas turbines, ramjets, and scramjets.

  10. Study of combustion experiments in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berlad, A. L.; Huggett, C.; Kaufman, F.; Markstein, G. H.; Palmer, H. B.; Yang, C. H.

    1974-01-01

    The physical bases and scientific merits were examined of combustion experimentation in a space environment. For a very broad range of fundamental combustion problems, extensive and systematic experimentation at reduced gravitational levels (0 g 1) are viewed as essential to the development of needed observations and related theoretical understanding.

  11. APTI Course 427, Combustion Evaluation. Student Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beard, J. Taylor; And Others

    This student manual supplements a course designed to present fundamental and applied aspects of combustion technology which influence air pollutant emissions. Emphasis is placed on process control of combustion rather than on gas cleaning. The course is intended to provide engineers, regulatory and technical personnel, and others with familiarity…

  12. Update for combustion properties of wood components

    Treesearch

    Mark Dietenberger

    2002-01-01

    The combustion properties of various biomass and wood materials from various references and from our laboratory were reanalysed. The net heat of combustion for cellulosic materials was found to be 13.23 kJ/g times the ratio of stoichiometric oxygen mass to fuel mass, r[subscript]o, regardless of the material composition. Bomb calorimeter data for original, charred and...

  13. Gravity Effects on Combustion Synthesis of Glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yi, H. C.; Guigne, J. Y.; Moore, J. J.; Robinson, L. A.; Manerbino, A. R.; Schowengerdt, F. D.; Gokoglu, S. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Combustion Synthesis technique has been used to produce glasses based on B2O3-Al2O3-MgO and CaO-Al2O3. The combustion characteristics of these combustion synthesis reactions using both small cylindrical pellets (SCP) and large spherical pellets (LSP) are presented. Low density pellets (approx. 35% of their theoretical density) were used, which made synthesis of low exothermic combustion reactions possible. Microstructural analysis of reacted samples was carried out to identify the glass-forming compositions. The effects of gravity on the glass formation were studied aboard the KC-135 using SCP samples. Gravity seemed to have such obvious effects on the combustion characteristics that the wave velocity was lower and the Width of the combustion wave was larger under reduced gravity conditions. Samples produced under low gravity also had more enhanced vitrification than those on ground, while some systems also exhibited lower combustion temperatures. It was also found that the container significantly affects both the combustion characteristics and microstructure. Substantially more divitrification occurred at the area which was in contact with the support (container).

  14. NETL- High-Pressure Combustion Research Facility

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2018-02-14

    NETL's High-Pressure Combustion Facility is a unique resource within the National Laboratories system. It provides the test capabilities needed to evaluate new combustion concepts for high-pressure, high-temperature hydrogen and natural gas turbines. These concepts will be critical for the next generation of ultra clean, ultra efficient power systems.

  15. Combustion Limits and Efficiency of Turbojet Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, H. C.; Jonash, E. R.

    1956-01-01

    Combustion must be maintained in the turbojet-engine combustor over a wide range of operating conditions resulting from variations in required engine thrust, flight altitude, and flight speed. Furthermore, combustion must be efficient in order to provide the maximum aircraft range. Thus, two major performance criteria of the turbojet-engine combustor are (1) operatable range, or combustion limits, and (2) combustion efficiency. Several fundamental requirements for efficient, high-speed combustion are evident from the discussions presented in chapters III to V. The fuel-air ratio and pressure in the burning zone must lie within specific limits of flammability (fig. 111-16(b)) in order to have the mixture ignite and burn satisfactorily. Increases in mixture temperature will favor the flammability characteristics (ch. III). A second requirement in maintaining a stable flame -is that low local flow velocities exist in the combustion zone (ch. VI). Finally, even with these requirements satisfied, a flame needs a certain minimum space in which to release a desired amount of heat, the necessary space increasing with a decrease in pressure (ref. 1). It is apparent, then, that combustor design and operation must provide for (1) proper control of vapor fuel-air ratios in the combustion zone at or near stoichiometric, (2) mixture pressures above the minimum flammability pressures, (3) low flow velocities in the combustion zone, and (4) adequate space for the flame.

  16. Atomic-Scale Principles of Combustion Nanocatalysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-19

    of Combustion Nanocatalysts: Structures, Electronic Characteristics and Catalytic Pathways MURI FINAL REPORT Reporting Period: June 1, 2008 to...properties of nanoscale materials to be employed for catalytic combustion of fuels and propellants. Furthermore the research program seeks to establish... catalytic cycle. Both the carbon– hydrogen bond activation and the subsequent desorption of the ethylene product molecule require cooperative action

  17. Spontaneously Combustible Solids -- A Literature Search

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-05-01

    Wasahizeon, D.* C. It. K(EY WORDS (Continue on reviers side It necesary and Identify by block number) Pyrophoric Materials Hazardous Materials...and Identify by block number) Existing information on spontaneously combustible solids including pyrophoric - air hazardous materials and water... pyrophoric -air hazardous and water reactive materials. All available hazard classification systems and test methods releting to spontaneous combustion have

  18. Injector tip for an internal combustion engine

    DOEpatents

    Shyu, Tsu Pin; Ye, Wen

    2003-05-20

    This invention relates to a the tip structure of a fuel injector as used in a internal combustion engine. Internal combustion engines using Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) technology require a tip structure that directs fuel spray in a downward direction. This requirement necessitates a tip design that is capable of withstanding mechanical stresses associated with the design.

  19. Recovery and money management.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Michael; Serowik, Kristin L; Ablondi, Karen; Wilber, Charles; Rosen, Marc I

    2013-06-01

    Social recovery and external money management are important approaches in contemporary mental health care, but little research has been done on the relationship between the two or on application of recovery principles to money management for people at risk of being assigned a representative payee or conservator. Out of 49 total qualitative interviews, 25 transcripts with persons receiving Social Security insurance or Social Security disability insurance who were at risk of being assigned a money manager were analyzed to assess the presence of recognized recovery themes. The recovery principles of self-direction and responsibility were strong themes in participant comments related to money management. Money management interventions should incorporate peoples' recovery-related motivations to acquire financial management skills as a means to direct and assume responsibility for one's finances. Staff involved in money management should receive training to support client's recovery-related goals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Recovery and Money Management

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Michael; Serowik, Kristin L.; Ablondi, Karen; Wilbur, Charles; Rosen, Marc I.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Social recovery and external money management are important approaches in contemporary mental health care, but little research has been done on the relationship between the two or on application of recovery principles to money management for people at risk of being assigned a representative payee or conservator. Methods Twenty-five transcripts out of forty-nine total qualitative interviews with persons receiving SSI or SSDI who were at risk of being assigned a money manager were analyzed to assess the presence of recognized recovery themes. Results The recovery principles of self-direction and responsibility were strong themes in participant comments related to money management. Conclusions and Implications for Practice Money management interventions should incorporate peoples’ recovery-related motivations to acquire financial management skills as a means to direct and assume responsibility for one’s finances. Staff involved in money management should receive training to support client’s recovery-related goals. PMID:23750764

  1. Internal and surface phenomena in metal combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreizin, Edward L.; Molodetsky, Irina E.; Law, Chung K.

    1995-01-01

    Combustion of metals has been widely studied in the past, primarily because of their high oxidation enthalpies. A general understanding of metal combustion has been developed based on the recognition of the existence of both vapor-phase and surface reactions and involvement of the reaction products in the ensuing heterogeneous combustion. However, distinct features often observed in metal particle combustion, such as brightness oscillations and jumps (spearpoints), disruptive burning, and non-symmetric flames are not currently understood. Recent metal combustion experiments using uniform high-temperature metal droplets produced by a novel micro-arc technique have indicated that oxygen dissolves in the interior of burning particles of certain metals and that the subsequent transformations of the metal-oxygen solutions into stoichiometric oxides are accompanied with sufficient heat release to cause observed brightness and temperature jumps. Similar oxygen dissolution has been observed in recent experiments on bulk iron combustion but has not been associated with such dramatic effects. This research addresses heterogeneous metal droplet combustion, specifically focusing on oxygen penetration into the burning metal droplets, and its influence on the metal combustion rate, temperature history, and disruptive burning. A unique feature of the experimental approach is the combination of the microgravity environment with a novel micro-arc Generator of Monodispersed Metal Droplets (GEMMED), ensuring repeatable formation and ignition of uniform metal droplets with controllable initial temperature and velocity. The droplet initial temperatures can be adjusted within a wide range from just above the metal melting point, which provides means to ignite droplets instantly upon entering an oxygen containing environment. Initial droplet velocity will be set equal to zero allowing one to organize metal combustion microgravity experiments in a fashion similar to usual microgravity

  2. The Effects of Gravity on Combustion and Structure Formation During Combustion Synthesis in Gasless Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varma, Arvind; Mukasyan, Alexander; Pelekh, Aleksey

    1997-01-01

    There have been relatively few publications examining the role of gravity during combustion synthesis (CS), mostly involving thermite systems. The main goal of this research was to study the influence of gravity on the combustion characteristics of heterogeneous gasless systems. In addition, some aspects of microstructure formation processes which occur during gasless CS were also studied. Four directions for experimental investigation have been explored: (1) the influence of gravity force on the characteristic features of heterogeneous combustion wave propagation (average velocity, instantaneous velocities, shape of combustion front); (2) the combustion of highly porous mixtures (with porosity greater than that for loose powders), which cannot be obtained in normal gravity; (3) the effect of gravity on sample expansion during combustion, in order to produce highly porous materials under microgravity conditions; and (4) the effect of gravity on the structure formation mechanism during the combustion synthesis of poreless composite materials.

  3. Final report: Prototyping a combustion corridor

    SciTech Connect

    Rutland, Christopher J.; Leach, Joshua

    2001-12-15

    The Combustion Corridor is a concept in which researchers in combustion and thermal sciences have unimpeded access to large volumes of remote computational results. This will enable remote, collaborative analysis and visualization of state-of-the-art combustion science results. The Engine Research Center (ERC) at the University of Wisconsin - Madison partnered with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory, and several other universities to build and test the first stages of a combustion corridor. The ERC served two important functions in this partnership. First, we work extensively with combustion simulations so we were able to provide real worldmore » research data sets for testing the Corridor concepts. Second, the ERC was part of an extension of the high bandwidth based DOE National Laboratory connections to universities.« less

  4. Intermediate water recovery system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckman, G.; Anderson, A. R. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    A water recovery system for collecting, storing, and processing urine, wash water, and humidity condensates from a crew of three aboard a spacecraft is described. The results of a 30-day test performed on a breadboard system are presented. The intermediate water recovery system produced clear, sterile, water with a 96.4 percent recovery rate from the processed urine. Recommendations for improving the system are included.

  5. Combustion synthesis of complex oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, Qimin

    Advanced ceramic materials have numerous applications in electronic engineering, chemical engineering, and semiconductor industry. The synthesis of these materials at an economical cost is the bottleneck in the application of these materials. Self-propagating High-temperature Synthesis (SHS) is a new technique for producing these materials for exothermic systems by a combustion wave that propagates and produces high purity products. The full potential of SHS to produce advanced materials has not yet been utilized. In this study, we used SHS to prepare two types of complex oxides: La 1-xSrxCrO3, La0.89Sr0.1 MnO3, powders, used to make interconnect and cathode of solid oxide fuel cells; and chromium- and gallium-doped La1-xSr xFeO3-delta, mixed ionic and electronic conductive powders used to manufacture ceramic membranes for oxygen separation. A thermodynamic feasibility analysis shows that the oxidation of Cr is the main source of heat generation of La1-xSrxCrO 3, which maintains a stable reaction front. Replacing part of the metallic Cr in the reaction mixture by its oxides decreases the combustion temperature and front propagating velocity and modifies the product morphology. The oxygen needed for the Cr oxidation is provided by the decomposition of CrO3 , SrO2, or NaClO4. The predicted and observed combustion temperatures are in reasonable agreement. TG/DTA analyses of La1-xSrxCrO3 indicated that SHS stability was strongly affected by the transport of oxygen between the two regions, in which oxygen was generated by the decomposition of either NaClO4 or CrO3 and that in which it was consumed by the oxidation of Cr. Partial melting at the high combustion temperature during SHS of La 1-xSrxMnO3 increased product homogeneity. The electrical conductivity at 1000°C in air of SHS-produced cathode material (of 180 O-1·cm-1) matches that of the commercial product made by other processes. However, the SHS process provides much higher productivity and decreases processing

  6. TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION SUMMARY: THE AMERICAN COMBUSTION PYRETRON THERMAL DESTRUCTION SYSTEM AT THE U.S. EPA'S COMBUSTION FACILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The American Combustion Pyretron Thermal Destruction System at the U.S. EPA's Combustion Research Facility. Under the auspices of the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation, or SITE, program, a critical assessment was made of the American Combustion Pyretron™ oxygen enha...

  7. Stress and Recovery during Simulated Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolas, Michel

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a 60-day head-down tilt long-term bed rest (HDT) on stress and recovery in sixteen healthy female volunteers during the WISE-2005 study (Women International Space Simulation for Exploration). Participants were randomly assigned to either an exercise group (Exe) that followed a training program combining resistive and aerobic exercises, or to a no-exercise control group (Ctl). Psychological states were assessed using the Rest-Q, a validated questionnaire based on stress-recovery responses. A longitudinal analysis revealed significant changes in the general and specific stress scales for all participants throughout the experiment with a critical stage from supine to standing posture leading to a significant decrease in physical recovery. During HDT, Exe reported higher scores in stress subscales, as well as lower recovery scores compared to the Ctl. During the post HDT ambulatory recovery period, the exercisers still reported higher scores than the non-exercisers on the Lack of energy stress related scale, along with lower scores in general well-being and personal accomplishment. The present findings show that simulated weightlessness such as HDT may induce psychological stress and lead to subsequent alterations in perceived recovery. Exercise did not reduce HDT impaired effects on stress and recovery states. In the perspective of spaceflights of long-duration such as the future missions to Mars, there is a need for additional experiments to further investigate spaceflight-induced changes of stress and recovery parameters and the effects of exercise on these parameters. Further studies might determine and analyze the psychological factors involved, but also how to intervene concerning these factors with efficient psychological preparation which, although not yet fully investigated, may reduce stress, promote recovery and support adaptive responses to such extreme environments.

  8. Apollo Recovery Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interbartolo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Objectives include: a) Describe the organization of recovery force command and control and landing areas; b) Describe the function and timeline use of the Earth Landing System (ELS); c) Describe Stable 1 vs Stable 2 landing configurations and the function of the Command Module Uprighting System; d) Explain the activities of the helicopter and swimmer teams in egress and recovery of the crew; e)Explain the activities of the swimmer teams and primary recovery ship in recovery of the Command Module; and f) Describe several landing incidents that occurred during Apollo.

  9. Distributed combustion in a cyclonic burner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorrentino, Giancarlo; Sabia, Pino; de Joannon, Mara; Cavaliere, Antonio; Ragucci, Raffaele

    2017-11-01

    Distributed combustion regime occurs in several combustion technologies were efficient and environmentally cleaner energy conversion are primary tasks. For such technologies (MILD, LTC, etc…), working temperatures are enough low to boost the formation of several classes of pollutants, such as NOx and soot. To access this temperature range, a significant dilution as well as preheating of reactants is required. Such conditions are usually achieved by a strong recirculation of exhaust gases that simultaneously dilute and pre-heat the fresh reactants. However, the intersection of low combustion temperatures and highly diluted mixtures with intense pre-heating alters the evolution of the combustion process with respect to traditional flames, leading to significant features such as uniformity and distributed ignition. The present study numerically characterized the turbulence-chemistry and combustion regimes of propane/oxygen mixtures, highly diluted in nitrogen, at atmospheric pressure, in a cyclonic combustor under MILD Combustion operating conditions. The velocity and mixing fields were obtained using CFD with focus on mean and fluctuating quantities. The flow-field information helped differentiate between the impact of turbulence levels and dilution ones. The integral length scale along with the fluctuating velocity is critical to determine Damköhler and Karlovitz numbers. Together these numbers identify the combustion regime at which the combustor is operating. This information clearly distinguishes between conventional flames and distributed combustion. The results revealed that major controllers of the reaction regime are dilution and mixing levels; both are significantly impacted by lowering oxygen concentration through entrainment of hot reactive species from within the combustor, which is important in distributed combustion. Understanding the controlling factors of distributed regime is critical for the development and deployment of these novel combustion

  10. Active control of combustion instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Masoud, Nidal A.

    A theoretical analysis of active control of combustion thermo-acoustic instabilities is developed in this dissertation. The theoretical combustion model is based on the dynamics of a two-phase flow in a liquid-fueled propulsion system. The formulation is based on a generalized wave equation with pressure as the dependent variable, and accommodates all influences of combustion, mean flow, unsteady motions and control inputs. The governing partial differential equations are converted to an equivalent set of ordinary differential equations using Galerkin's method by expressing the unsteady pressure and velocity fields as functions of normal mode shapes of the chamber. This procedure yields a representation of the unsteady flow field as a system of coupled nonlinear oscillators that is used as a basis for controllers design. Major research attention is focused on the control of longitudinal oscillations with both linear and nonlinear processes being considered. Starting with a linear model using point actuators, the optimal locations of actuators and sensors are developed. The approach relies on the quantitative measures of the degree of controllability and component cost. These criterion are arrived at by considering the energies of the system's inputs and outputs. The optimality criteria for sensor and actuator locations provide a balance between the importance of the lower order (controlled) and the higher (residual) order modes. To address the issue of uncertainties in system's parameter, the minimax principles based controller is used. The minimax corresponds to finding the best controller for the worst parameter deviation. In other words, choosing controller parameters to minimize, and parameter deviation to maximize some quadratic performance metric. Using the minimax-based controller, a remarkable improvement in the control system's ability to handle parameter uncertainties is achieved when compared to the robustness of the regular control schemes such as LQR

  11. Optimization of Pressurized Oxy-Combustion with Flameless Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Malavasi, Massimo; Landegger, Gregory

    2014-06-30

    Pressurized OxyECombustion is one of the most promising technologies for utility-scale power generation plants. Benefits include the ability to burn low rank coal and capture CO 2. By increasing the flue gas pressure during this process, greater efficiencies are derived from increased quantity and quality of thermal energy recovery. UPA with modeling support from MIT and testing and data verification by Georgia Tech’s Research Center designed and built a 100 kW system capable of demonstrating pressurized oxyEcombustion using a flameless combustor. Wyoming PRB coal was run at 15 and 32 bar. Additional tests were not completed but sampled data demonstratedmore » the viability of the technology over a broader range of operating pressures, Modeling results illustrated a flat efficiency curve over 20 bar, with optimum efficiency achieved at 29 bar. This resulted in a 33% (HHV) efficiency, a 5 points increase in efficiency versus atmospheric oxy-combustion, and a competitive cost of electricity plus greater CO 2 avoidance costs then prior study’s presented. UPA’s operation of the bench-scale system provided evidence that key performance targets were achieved: flue gas sampled at the combustor outlet had non-detectable residual fly ashes, and low levels of SO3 and heavy-metal. These results correspond to prior pressurized oxy-combustion testing completed by IteaEEnel.« less

  12. LIEKKI -- Combustion and gasification research in Finland 1988--1998

    SciTech Connect

    Hupa, M.; Matinlinna, J.

    1996-12-31

    The objective of the Combustion and Gasification Research Program LIEKKI is to develop environmentally sound energy production techniques that are based on combustion and/or gasification. The research supports equipment manufacturers in Finland as they develop and improve their top export products, such as the fluidized bed boilers, black liquor recovery boilers, and heavy diesel power plants. The research is also heavily focused on new techniques not yet on the market, ones with higher efficiency of electricity production and, simultaneously, significantly simpler emission control systems. The most important concepts here include combustors or gasifiers based on fluidized bed technology at elevatedmore » pressures. At present the LIEKKI program includes 49 research projects and it connects some 150 scientists and research engineers in the universities and research centers of Finland. The overall annual budget of the program has been around 10 Mill. USD, co-funded by the industry and the government agency TEKES (Technology Development Centre) in Finland. The program is coordinated by Aabo Akademi University in Turku, Finland.« less

  13. Dry low NOx combustion system with pre-mixed direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Zuo, Baifang; Johnson, Thomas; Ziminsky, Willy; Khan, Abdul

    2013-12-17

    A combustion system includes a first combustion chamber and a second combustion chamber. The second combustion chamber is positioned downstream of the first combustion chamber. The combustion system also includes a pre-mixed, direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle. The pre-mixed, direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle extends through the first combustion chamber into the second combustion chamber.

  14. A stochastic multi-scale method for turbulent premixed combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, Chong M.

    2002-11-01

    The stochastic chemistry algorithm of Bunker et al. and Gillespie is used to perform the chemical reactions in a transported probability density function (PDF) modeling approach of turbulent combustion. Recently, Kraft & Wagner have demonstrated a 100-fold gain in computational speed (for a 100 species mechanism) using the stochastic approach over the conventional, direct integration method of solving for the chemistry. Here, the stochastic chemistry algorithm is applied to develop a new transported PDF model of turbulent premixed combustion. The methodology relies on representing the relevant spatially dependent physical processes as queuing events. The canonical problem of a one-dimensional premixed flame is used for validation. For the laminar case, molecular diffusion is described by a random walk. For the turbulent case, one of two different material transport submodels can provide the necessary closure: Taylor dispersion or Kerstein's one-dimensional turbulence approach. The former exploits ``eddy diffusivity'' and hence would be much more computationally tractable for practical applications. Various validation studies are performed. Results from the Monte Carlo simulations compare well to asymptotic solutions of laminar premixed flames, both with and without high activation temperatures. The correct scaling of the turbulent burning velocity is predicted in both Damköhler's small- and large-scale turbulence limits. The effect of applying the eddy diffusivity concept in the various regimes is discussed.

  15. Catalytic combustion of residual fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulzan, D. L.; Tacina, R. R.

    1981-01-01

    A noble metal catalytic reactor was tested using two grades of petroleum derived residual fuels at specified inlet air temperatures, pressures, and reference velocities. Combustion efficiencies greater than 99.5 percent were obtained. Steady state operation of the catalytic reactor required inlet air temperatures of at least 800 K. At lower inlet air temperatures, upstream burning in the premixing zone occurred which was probably caused by fuel deposition and accumulation on the premixing zone walls. Increasing the inlet air temperature prevented this occurrence. Both residual fuels contained about 0.5 percent nitrogen by weight. NO sub x emissions ranged from 50 to 110 ppm by volume at 15 percent excess O2. Conversion of fuel-bound nitrogen to NO sub x ranged from 25 to 50 percent.

  16. Unsteady combustion of solid propellants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, T. J.; Kim, P. K.

    The oscillatory motions of all field variables (pressure, temperature, velocity, density, and fuel fractions) in the flame zone of solid propellant rocket motors are calculated using the finite element method. The Arrhenius law with a single step forward chemical reaction is used. Effects of radiative heat transfer, impressed arbitrary acoustic wave incidence, and idealized mean flow velocities are also investigated. Boundary conditions are derived at the solid-gas interfaces and at the flame edges which are implemented via Lagrange multipliers. Perturbation expansions of all governing conservation equations up to and including the second order are carried out so that nonlinear oscillations may be accommodated. All excited frequencies are calculated by means of eigenvalue analyses, and the combustion response functions corresponding to these frequencies are determined. It is shown that the use of isoparametric finite elements, Gaussian quadrature integration, and the Lagrange multiplier boundary matrix scheme offers a convenient approach to two-dimensional calculations.

  17. Droplet combustion at reduced gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dryer, F. L.; Williams, F. A.

    1988-01-01

    The current work involves theoretical analyses of the effects identified, experiments in the NASA Lewis drop towers performed in the middeck areas of the Space Shuttle. In addition, there is laboratory work associated with the design of the flight apparatus. Calculations have shown that some of the test-matrix data can be obtained in drop towers, and some are achievable only in the space experiments. The apparatus consists of a droplet dispensing device (syringes), a droplet positioning device (opposing, retractable, hollow needles), a droplet ignition device (two matched pairs of retractable spark electrodes), gas and liquid handling systems, a data acquisition system (mainly giving motion-picture records of the combustion in two orthogonal views, one with backlighting for droplet resolution), and associated electronics.

  18. Assembly for directing combustion gas

    SciTech Connect

    Charron, Richard C.; Little, David A.; Snyder, Gary D.

    2016-04-12

    An arrangement is provided for delivering gases from a plurality of combustors of a can-annular gas turbine combustion engine to a first row of turbine blades including a first row of turbine blades. The arrangement includes a gas path cylinder, a cone and an integrated exit piece (IEP) for each combustor. Each IEP comprises an inlet chamber for receiving a gas flow from a respective combustor, and includes a connection segment. The IEPs are connected together to define an annular chamber extending circumferentially and concentric to an engine longitudinal axis, for delivering the gas flow to the first row ofmore » blades. A radiused joint extends radially inward from a radially outer side of the inlet chamber to an outer boundary of the annular chamber, and a flared fillet extends radially inward from a radially inner side of the inlet chamber to an inner boundary of the annular chamber.« less

  19. Real-time combustion controller

    DOEpatents

    Lindner, Jeffrey S.; Shepard, W. Steve; Etheridge, John A.; Jang, Ping-Rey; Gresham, Lawrence L.

    1997-01-01

    A method and system of regulating the air to fuel ratio supplied to a burner to maximize the combustion efficiency. Optical means are provided in close proximity to the burner for directing a beam of radiation from hot gases produced by the burner to a plurality of detectors. Detectors are provided for sensing the concentration of, inter alia, CO, CO.sub.2, and H.sub.2 O. The differences between the ratios of CO to CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 O to CO are compared with a known control curve based on those ratios for air to fuel ratios ranging from 0.85 to 1.30. The fuel flow is adjusted until the difference between the ratios of CO to CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 O to CO fall on a desired set point on the control curve.

  20. Combustion chemistry of solid propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baer, A. D.; Ryan, N. W.

    1974-01-01

    Several studies are described of the chemistry of solid propellant combustion which employed a fast-scanning optical spectrometer. Expanded abstracts are presented for four of the studies which were previously reported. One study of the ignition of composite propellants yielded data which suggested early ammonium perchlorate decomposition and reaction. The results of a study of the spatial distribution of molecular species in flames from uncatalyzed and copper or lead catalyzed double-based propellants support previously published conclusions concerning the site of action of these metal catalysts. A study of the ammonium-perchlorate-polymeric-fuel-binder reaction in thin films, made by use of infrared absorption spectrometry, yielded a characterization of a rapid condensed-phase reaction which is likely important during the ignition transient and the burning process.

  1. Real-time combustion controller

    DOEpatents

    Lindner, J.S.; Shepard, W.S.; Etheridge, J.A.; Jang, P.R.; Gresham, L.L.

    1997-02-04

    A method and system are disclosed for regulating the air to fuel ratio supplied to a burner to maximize the combustion efficiency. Optical means are provided in close proximity to the burner for directing a beam of radiation from hot gases produced by the burner to a plurality of detectors. Detectors are provided for sensing the concentration of, inter alia, CO, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O. The differences between the ratios of CO to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O to CO are compared with a known control curve based on those ratios for air to fuel ratios ranging from 0.85 to 1.30. The fuel flow is adjusted until the difference between the ratios of CO to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O to CO fall on a desired set point on the control curve. 20 figs.

  2. Indirect combustion noise of auxiliary power units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tam, Christopher K. W.; Parrish, Sarah A.; Xu, Jun; Schuster, Bill

    2013-08-01

    Recent advances in noise suppression technology have significantly reduced jet and fan noise from commercial jet engines. This leads many investigators in the aeroacoustics community to suggest that core noise could well be the next aircraft noise barrier. Core noise consists of turbine noise and combustion noise. There is direct combustion noise generated by the combustion processes, and there is indirect combustion noise generated by the passage of combustion hot spots, or entropy waves, through constrictions in an engine. The present work focuses on indirect combustion noise. Indirect combustion noise has now been found in laboratory experiments. The primary objective of this work is to investigate whether indirect combustion noise is also generated in jet and other engines. In a jet engine, there are numerous noise sources. This makes the identification of indirect combustion noise a formidable task. Here, our effort concentrates exclusively on auxiliary power units (APUs). This choice is motivated by the fact that APUs are relatively simple engines with only a few noise sources. It is, therefore, expected that the chance of success is higher. Accordingly, a theoretical model study of the generation of indirect combustion noise in an Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) is carried out. The cross-sectional areas of an APU from the combustor to the turbine exit are scaled off to form an equivalent nozzle. A principal function of a turbine in an APU is to extract mechanical energy from the flow stream through the exertion of a resistive force. Therefore, the turbine is modeled by adding a negative body force to the momentum equation. This model is used to predict the ranges of frequencies over which there is a high probability for indirect combustion noise generation. Experimental spectra of internal pressure fluctuations and far-field noise of an RE220 APU are examined to identify anomalous peaks. These peaks are possible indirection combustion noise. In the case of the

  3. Optimal design and experimental validation of a simulated moving bed chromatography for continuous recovery of formic acid in a model mixture of three organic acids from Actinobacillus bacteria fermentation.

    PubMed

    Park, Chanhun; Nam, Hee-Geun; Lee, Ki Bong; Mun, Sungyong

    2014-10-24

    The economically-efficient separation of formic acid from acetic acid and succinic acid has been a key issue in the production of formic acid with the Actinobacillus bacteria fermentation. To address this issue, an optimal three-zone simulated moving bed (SMB) chromatography for continuous separation of formic acid from acetic acid and succinic acid was developed in this study. As a first step for this task, the adsorption isotherm and mass-transfer parameters of each organic acid on the qualified adsorbent (Amberchrom-CG300C) were determined through a series of multiple frontal experiments. The determined parameters were then used in optimizing the SMB process for the considered separation. During such optimization, the additional investigation for selecting a proper SMB port configuration, which could be more advantageous for attaining better process performances, was carried out between two possible configurations. It was found that if the properly selected port configuration was adopted in the SMB of interest, the throughout and the formic-acid product concentration could be increased by 82% and 181% respectively. Finally, the optimized SMB process based on the properly selected port configuration was tested experimentally using a self-assembled SMB unit with three zones. The SMB experimental results and the relevant computer simulation verified that the developed process in this study was successful in continuous recovery of formic acid from a ternary organic-acid mixture of interest with high throughput, high purity, high yield, and high product concentration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. False-negative rate, limit of detection and recovery efficiency performance of a validated macrofoam-swab sampling method for low surface concentrations of Bacillus anthracis Sterne and Bacillus atrophaeus spores

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, G. F.; Deatherage Kaiser, B. L.; Amidan, B. G.

    The performance of a macrofoam-swab sampling method was evaluated using Bacillus anthracis Sterne (BAS) and Bacillus atrophaeus Nakamura (BG) spores applied at nine low target amounts (2-500 spores) to positive-control plates and test coupons (2 in × 2 in) of four surface materials (glass, stainless steel, vinyl tile, and plastic). Test results from cultured samples were used to evaluate the effects of surrogate, surface concentration, and surface material on recovery efficiency (RE), false negative rate (FNR), and limit of detection. For RE, surrogate and surface material had statistically significant effects, but concentration did not. Mean REs were the lowest formore » vinyl tile (50.8% with BAS and 40.2% with BG) and the highest for glass (92.8% with BAS and 71.4% with BG). FNR values ranged from 0 to 0.833 for BAS and 0 to 0.806 for BG; values increased as concentration decreased in the range tested (0.078 to 19.375 CFU/cm2). Surface material also had a statistically significant effect. A FNR-concentration curve was fit for each combination of surrogate and surface material. For both surrogates, the FNR curves tended to be the lowest for glass and highest for vinyl title. The FNR curves for BG tended to be higher than for BAS at lower concentrations, especially for glass. Results using a modified Rapid Viability-Polymerase Chain Reaction (mRV-PCR) analysis method were also obtained. The mRV-PCR results and comparisons to the culture results will be discussed in a subsequent article.« less

  5. Recovery- Apollo 9

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-03-13

    S69-27467 (13 March 1969) --- The Apollo 9 spacecraft, with astronauts James A. McDivitt, David R. Scott, and Russell L. Schweickart aboard, approaches touchdown in the Atlantic recovery area. Splashdown occurred at 12:00:53 p.m. (EST), March 13, 1969, only 4.5 nautical miles from the prime recovery ship, USS Guadalcanal. Photo credit: NASA

  6. The Recovery Knowledge Inventory for Measurement of Nursing Student Views on Recovery-oriented Mental Health Services.

    PubMed

    Happell, Brenda; Byrne, Louise; Platania-Phung, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Recovery-oriented services are a goal for policy and practice in the Australian mental health service system. Evidence-based reform requires an instrument to measure knowledge of recovery concepts. The Recovery Knowledge Inventory (RKI) was designed for this purpose, however, its suitability and validity for student health professionals has not been evaluated. The purpose of the current article is to report the psychometric features of the RKI for measuring nursing students' views on recovery. The RKI, a self-report measure, consists of four scales: (I) Roles and Responsibilities, (II) Non-Linearity of the Recovery Process, (III) Roles of Self-Definition and Peers, and (IV) Expectations Regarding Recovery. Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses of the baseline data (n = 167) were applied to assess validity and reliability. Exploratory factor analyses generally replicated the item structure suggested by the three main scales, however more stringent analyses (confirmatory factor analysis) did not provide strong support for convergent validity. A refined RKI with 16 items had internal reliabilities of α = .75 for Roles and Responsibilities, α = .49 for Roles of Self-Definition and Peers, and α = .72, for Recovery as Non-Linear Process. If the RKI is to be applied to nursing student populations, the conceptual underpinning of the instrument needs to be reworked, and new items should be generated to evaluate and improve scale validity and reliability.

  7. PROACT user's guide: how to use the pallet recovery opportunity analysis computer tool

    Treesearch

    E. Bradley Hager; A.L. Hammett; Philip A. Araman

    2003-01-01

    Pallet recovery projects are environmentally responsible and offer promising business opportunities. The Pallet Recovery Opportunity Analysis Computer Tool (PROACT) assesses the operational and financial feasibility of potential pallet recovery projects. The use of project specific information supplied by the user increases the accuracy and the validity of the...

  8. An alternative method of OBT measurement for the limited quantity of environmental samples using a combustion bomb.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Bog; Stuart, Marilyne

    2013-12-01

    The measurement of organically bound tritium (OBT) in environmental samples is much more difficult than the measurement of tritiated water (HTO). This study describes an alternative method for OBT determination in plant materials in which tritium-free polyethylene beads are added to the plant sample prior to combustion in a combustion bomb. It is not always possible to collect large enough amounts of some plants (e.g. algae, plankton, grass) within a specific area or specific period. Excellent water recovery is achieved when dry plant materials are combusted with polyethylene beads. When Ultima Gold AB is used as the scintillation cocktail, it is possible to measure the combustion water directly without distillation. Correction factors were derived for the plants used in the study to account for the dilution of the combustion water due to addition of the polyethylene beads. The alternative method has a number of advantages, including an increased yield of combustion water for liquid scintillation counting, less color quenching, reduced sample size and decreased analysis time. Finally, accuracy tests comparing results of the conventional method with those of the alternative method were carried out using environmental samples. Crown Copyright © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. New Metamaterials with Combined Subnano - and Mesoscale Topology for High-efficiency Catalytic Combustion Chambers of Innovative Gas Turbine Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knysh, Yu A.; Xanthopoulou, G. G.

    2018-01-01

    The object of the study is a catalytic combustion chamber that provides a highly efficient combustion process through the use of effects: heat recovery from combustion, microvortex heat transfer, catalytic reaction and acoustic resonance. High efficiency is provided by a complex of related technologies: technologies for combustion products heat transfer (recuperation) to initial mixture, catalytic processes technology, technology for calculating effective combustion processes based on microvortex matrices, technology for designing metamaterials structures and technology for obtaining the required topology product by laser fusion of metal powder compositions. The mesoscale level structure provides combustion process with the use of a microvortex effect with a high intensity of heat and mass transfer. High surface area (extremely high area-to-volume ratio) created due to nanoscale periodic structure and ensures catalytic reactions efficiency. Produced metamaterial is the first multiscale product of new concept which due to combination of different scale level periodic topologies provides qualitatively new set of product properties. This research is aimed at solving simultaneously two global problems of the present: ensure environmental safety of transport systems and power industry, as well as the economy and rational use of energy resources, providing humanity with energy now and in the foreseeable future.

  10. Experimental investigation of wood combustion in a fixed bed with hot air.

    PubMed

    Markovic, Miladin; Bramer, Eddy A; Brem, Gerrit

    2014-01-01

    Waste combustion on a grate with energy recovery is an important pillar of municipal solid waste (MSW) management in the Netherlands. In MSW incinerators fresh waste stacked on a grate enters the combustion chamber, heats up by radiation from the flame above the layer and ignition occurs. Typically, the reaction zone starts at the top of the waste layer and propagates downwards, producing heat for drying and devolatilization of the fresh waste below it until the ignition front reaches the grate. The control of this process is mainly based on empiricism. MSW is a highly inhomogeneous fuel with continuous fluctuating moisture content, heating value and chemical composition. The resulting process fluctuations may cause process control difficulties, fouling and corrosion issues, extra maintenance, and unplanned stops. In the new concept the fuel layer is ignited by means of preheated air (T>220 °C) from below without any external ignition source. As a result a combustion front will be formed close to the grate and will propagate upwards. That is why this approach is denoted by upward combustion. Experimental research has been carried out in a batch reactor with height of 4.55 m, an inner diameter of 200 mm and a fuel layer height up to 1m. Due to a high quality two-layer insulation adiabatic conditions can be assumed. The primary air can be preheated up to 350 °C, and the secondary air is distributed via nozzles above the waste layer. During the experiments, temperatures along the height of the reactor, gas composition and total weight decrease are continuously monitored. The influence of the primary air speed, fuel moisture and inert content on the combustion characteristics (ignition rate, combustion rate, ignition front speed and temperature of the reaction zone) is evaluated. The upward combustion concept decouples the drying, devolatilization and burnout phase. In this way the moisture and inert content of the waste have almost no influence on the combustion

  11. Handbook of infrared radiation from combustion gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, C. B.; Malkmus, W.; Reardon, J. E.; Thomson, J. A. L.; Goulard, R. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    The treatment of radiant emission and absorption by combustion gases are discussed. Typical applications include: (1) rocket combustion chambers and exhausts, (2) turbojet engines and exhausts, and (3) industrial furnaces. Some mention is made of radiant heat transfer problems in planetary atmospheres, in stellar atmospheres, and in reentry plasmas. Particular consideration is given to the temperature range from 500K to 3000K and the pressure range from 0.001 atmosphere to 30 atmospheres. Strong emphasis is given to the combustion products of hydrocarbon fuels with oxygen, specifically to carbon dioxide, water vapor, and carbon monoxide. In addition, species such as HF, HC1, CN, OH, and NO are treated.

  12. Misfire tolerant combustion-powered actuation

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.; Fischer, Gary J.; Marron, Lisa C.; Kuehl, Michael A.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a combustion-powered actuator that is suitable for intermittent actuation, that is suitable for use with atmospheric pressure carburetion, and that requires little electrical energy input. The present invention uses energy from expansion of pressurized fuel to effectively purge a combustion chamber, and to achieve atmospheric pressure carburetion. Each purge-fill-power cycle can be independent, allowing the actuator to readily tolerate misfires. The present invention is suitable for use with linear and rotary operation combustion chambers, and is suitable for use in a wide variety of applications.

  13. Numerical exploration of mixing and combustion in ethylene fueled scramjet combustor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dharavath, Malsur; Manna, P.; Chakraborty, Debasis

    2015-12-01

    Numerical simulations are performed for full scale scramjet combustor of a hypersonic airbreathing vehicle with ethylene fuel at ground test conditions corresponding to flight Mach number, altitude and stagnation enthalpy of 6.0, 30 km and 1.61 MJ/kg respectively. Three dimensional RANS equations are solved along with species transport equations and SST-kω turbulence model using Commercial CFD software CFX-11. Both nonreacting (with fuel injection) and reacting flow simulations [using a single step global reaction of ethylene-air with combined combustion model (CCM)] are carried out. The computational methodology is first validated against experimental results available in the literature and the performance parameters of full scale combustor in terms of thrust, combustion efficiency and total pressure loss are estimated from the simulation results. Parametric studies are conducted to study the effect of fuel equivalence ratio on the mixing and combustion behavior of the combustor.

  14. Computation of H2/air reacting flowfields in drag-reduction external combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lai, H. T.

    1992-01-01

    Numerical simulation and analysis of the solution are presented for a laminar reacting flowfield of air and hydrogen in the case of external combustion employed to reduce base drag in hypersonic vehicles operating at transonic speeds. The flowfield consists of a transonic air stream at a Mach number of 1.26 and a sonic transverse hydrogen injection along a row of 26 orifices. Self-sustained combustion is computed over an expansion ramp downstream of the injection and a flameholder, using the recently developed RPLUS code. Measured data is available only for surface pressure distributions and is used for validation of the code in practical 3D reacting flowfields. Pressure comparison shows generally good agreements, and the main effects of combustion are also qualitatively consistent with experiment.

  15. Numerical Simulation on Hydrodynamics and Combustion in a Circulating Fluidized Bed under O2/CO2 and Air Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, W.; Zhao, C. S.; Duan, L. B.; Qu, C. R.; Lu, J. Y.; Chen, X. P.

    Oxy-fuel circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustion technology is in the stage of initial development for carbon capture and storage (CCS). Numerical simulation is helpful to better understanding the combustion process and will be significant for CFB scale-up. In this paper, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was employed to simulate the hydrodynamics of gas-solid flow in a CFB riser based on the Eulerian-Granular multiphase model. The cold model predicted the main features of the complex gas-solid flow, including the cluster formation of the solid phase along the walls, the flow structure of up-flow in the core and downward flow in the annular region. Furthermore, coal devolatilization, char combustion and heat transfer were considered by coupling semi-empirical sub-models with CFD model to establish a comprehensive model. The gas compositions and temperature profiles were predicted and the outflow gas fractions are validated with the experimental data in air combustion. With the experimentally validated model being applied, the concentration and temperature distributions in O2/CO2 combustion were predicted. The model is useful for the further development of a comprehensive model including more sub-models, such as pollutant emissions, and better understanding the combustion process in furnace.

  16. The efficiency of combustion turbines with constant-pressure combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piening, Werner

    1941-01-01

    Of the two fundamental cycles employed in combustion turbines, namely, the explosion (or constant-volume) cycle and the constant-pressure cycle, the latter is considered more in detail and its efficiency is derived with the aid of the cycle diagrams for the several cases with adiabatic and isothermal compression and expansion strokes and with and without utilization of the exhaust heat. Account is also taken of the separate efficiencies of the turbine and compressor and of the pressure losses and heat transfer in the piping. The results show that without the utilization of the exhaust heat the efficiencies for the two cases of adiabatic and isothermal compression is offset by the increase in the heat supplied. It may be seen from the curves that it is necessary to attain separate efficiencies of at least 80 percent in order for useful results to be obtained. There is further shown the considerable effect on the efficiency of pressure losses in piping or heat exchangers.

  17. Development and Validation of a 3-Dimensional CFB Furnace Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vepsäläinen, Arl; Myöhänen, Karl; Hyppäneni, Timo; Leino, Timo; Tourunen, Antti

    At Foster Wheeler, a three-dimensional CFB furnace model is essential part of knowledge development of CFB furnace process regarding solid mixing, combustion, emission formation and heat transfer. Results of laboratory and pilot scale phenomenon research are utilized in development of sub-models. Analyses of field-test results in industrial-scale CFB boilers including furnace profile measurements are simultaneously carried out with development of 3-dimensional process modeling, which provides a chain of knowledge that is utilized as feedback for phenomenon research. Knowledge gathered by model validation studies and up-to-date parameter databases are utilized in performance prediction and design development of CFB boiler furnaces. This paper reports recent development steps related to modeling of combustion and formation of char and volatiles of various fuel types in CFB conditions. Also a new model for predicting the formation of nitrogen oxides is presented. Validation of mixing and combustion parameters for solids and gases are based on test balances at several large-scale CFB boilers combusting coal, peat and bio-fuels. Field-tests including lateral and vertical furnace profile measurements and characterization of solid materials provides a window for characterization of fuel specific mixing and combustion behavior in CFB furnace at different loads and operation conditions. Measured horizontal gas profiles are projection of balance between fuel mixing and reactions at lower part of furnace and are used together with both lateral temperature profiles at bed and upper parts of furnace for determination of solid mixing and combustion model parameters. Modeling of char and volatile based formation of NO profiles is followed by analysis of oxidizing and reducing regions formed due lower furnace design and mixing characteristics of fuel and combustion airs effecting to formation ofNO furnace profile by reduction and volatile-nitrogen reactions. This paper presents

  18. Combustion kinetics and emission characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from polylactic acid combustion.

    PubMed

    Chien, Yi-Chi; Liang, Chenju; Liu, Shou-Heng; Yang, Shu-Hua

    2010-07-01

    This study investigates the combustion kinetics and emission factors of 16 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in polylactic acid (PLA) combustion. Experimentally, two reactions are involved in the PLA combustion process that potentially result in the release of lactide, acetaldehyde, and n-hexaldehyde. The products may continuously be oxidized to form carbon dioxide (CO2) and some PAHs produced because of incomplete combustion. The analytical results indicate that the emission factors for PAHs are in the range of not detectable to 98.04 microg/g. The emission factors are much lower than those of poly(ethylene terephalate) (PET) and other combustion of plastics. Results from this work suggest that combustion is a good choice for waste PLA disposal.

  19. Rankine cycle waste heat recovery system

    DOEpatents

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.

    2015-09-22

    A waste heat recovery (WHR) system connects a working fluid to fluid passages formed in an engine block and/or a cylinder head of an internal combustion engine, forming an engine heat exchanger. The fluid passages are formed near high temperature areas of the engine, subjecting the working fluid to sufficient heat energy to vaporize the working fluid while the working fluid advantageously cools the engine block and/or cylinder head, improving fuel efficiency. The location of the engine heat exchanger downstream from an EGR boiler and upstream from an exhaust heat exchanger provides an optimal position of the engine heat exchanger with respect to the thermodynamic cycle of the WHR system, giving priority to cooling of EGR gas. The configuration of valves in the WHR system provides the ability to select a plurality of parallel flow paths for optimal operation.

  20. 14 CFR 23.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Combustion heater fire protection. 23.859... Construction Fire Protection § 23.859 Combustion heater fire protection. (a) Combustion heater fire regions. The following combustion heater fire regions must be protected from fire in accordance with the...

  1. 14 CFR 23.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Combustion heater fire protection. 23.859... Construction Fire Protection § 23.859 Combustion heater fire protection. (a) Combustion heater fire regions. The following combustion heater fire regions must be protected from fire in accordance with the...

  2. 14 CFR 23.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Combustion heater fire protection. 23.859... Construction Fire Protection § 23.859 Combustion heater fire protection. (a) Combustion heater fire regions. The following combustion heater fire regions must be protected from fire in accordance with the...

  3. 14 CFR 23.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Combustion heater fire protection. 23.859... Construction Fire Protection § 23.859 Combustion heater fire protection. (a) Combustion heater fire regions. The following combustion heater fire regions must be protected from fire in accordance with the...

  4. 14 CFR 23.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Combustion heater fire protection. 23.859... Construction Fire Protection § 23.859 Combustion heater fire protection. (a) Combustion heater fire regions. The following combustion heater fire regions must be protected from fire in accordance with the...

  5. The Assessment of Recovery Capital: properties and psychometrics of a measure of addiction recovery strengths.

    PubMed

    Groshkova, Teodora; Best, David; White, William

    2013-03-01

    Sociological work on social capital and its impact on health behaviours have been translated into the addiction field in the form of 'recovery capital' as the construct for assessing individual progress on a recovery journey. Yet there has been little attempt to quantify recovery capital. The aim of the project was to create a scale that assessed addiction recovery capital. Initial focus group work identified and tested candidate items and domains followed by data collection from multiple sources to enable psychometric assessment of a scale measuring recovery capital. The scale shows moderate test-retest reliability at 1 week and acceptable concurrent validity. Principal component analysis determined single factor structure. The Assessment of Recovery Capital (ARC) is a brief and easy to administer measurement of recovery capital that has acceptable psychometric properties and may be a useful complement to deficit-based assessment and outcome monitoring instruments for substance dependent individuals in and out of treatment. © 2012 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  6. A study of the current group evaporation/combustion theories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Hayley H.

    1990-01-01

    Liquid fuel combustion can be greatly enhanced by disintegrating the liquid fuel into droplets, an effect achieved by various configurations. A number of experiments carried out in the seventies showed that combustion of droplet arrays and sprays do not form individual flames. Moreover, the rate of burning in spray combustion greatly deviates from that of the single combustion rate. Such observations naturally challenge its applicability to spray combustion. A number of mathematical models were developed to evaluate 'group combustion' and the related 'group evaporation' phenomena. This study investigates the similarity and difference of these models and their applicability to spray combustion. Future work that should be carried out in this area is indicated.

  7. Fuels and Combustion | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    determining if and at what levels biomass-derived oxygenates may be commercially feasible in drop-in fuels experiments examine combustion across a wide range of temperatures, pressures, and levels of dilution, and

  8. System and method for engine combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Sczomak, David P.; Gallon, Robert J.; Solomon, Arun S.

    A combustion system for use with one or more cylinder bores of an internal combustion engine includes at least one cylinder head defining first and second intake ports in fluid communication with the one or more cylinder bores. A flap is adjustably connected to the at least one cylinder head. The flap includes a first flap portion cooperating with the first intake port extending from an arm and a second flap portion cooperating with the second intake port extending from the arm and disposed adjacent the first flap portion. A controller in electrical communication with an actuator monitors the conditionmore » of the engine and actuates the flap to position the first and second flap portions between first and second positions to create a first combustion condition and a second combustion condition.« less

  9. COSTS FOR ADVANCED COAL COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of the development status of advanced coal combustion technologies and discusses the preparation of performance and economic models for their application to electric utility plants. he technologies addressed were atmospheric fluidized bed...

  10. Combustion of Coal/Oil/Water Slurries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kushida, R. O.

    1982-01-01

    Proposed test setup would measure combustion performance of new fuels by rapidly heating a droplet of coal/oil/water mixture and recording resulting explosion. Such mixtures are being considered as petroleum substitutes in oil-fired furnaces.

  11. Flex-flame burner and combustion method

    DOEpatents

    Soupos, Vasilios; Zelepouga, Serguei; Rue, David M.; Abbasi, Hamid A.

    2010-08-24

    A combustion method and apparatus which produce a hybrid flame for heating metals and metal alloys, which hybrid flame has the characteristic of having an oxidant-lean portion proximate the metal or metal alloy and having an oxidant-rich portion disposed above the oxidant lean portion. This hybrid flame is produced by introducing fuel and primary combustion oxidant into the furnace chamber containing the metal or metal alloy in a substoichiometric ratio to produce a fuel-rich flame and by introducing a secondary combustion oxidant into the furnace chamber above the fuel-rich flame in a manner whereby mixing of the secondary combustion oxidant with the fuel-rich flame is delayed for a portion of the length of the flame.

  12. Two phase exhaust for internal combustion engine

    DOEpatents

    Vuk, Carl T [Denver, IA

    2011-11-29

    An internal combustion engine having a reciprocating multi cylinder internal combustion engine with multiple valves. At least a pair of exhaust valves are provided and each supply a separate power extraction device. The first exhaust valves connect to a power turbine used to provide additional power to the engine either mechanically or electrically. The flow path from these exhaust valves is smaller in area and volume than a second flow path which is used to deliver products of combustion to a turbocharger turbine. The timing of the exhaust valve events is controlled to produce a higher grade of energy to the power turbine and enhance the ability to extract power from the combustion process.

  13. CIR Combustion Chamber Fuel Reservoir Ops

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-09-26

    ISS020-E-042198 (26 Sept. 2009) --- NASA astronaut Nicole Stott, Expedition 20 flight engineer, works with the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.

  14. Engine combustion control via fuel reactivity stratification

    DOEpatents

    Reitz, Rolf Deneys; Hanson, Reed M.; Splitter, Derek A.; Kokjohn, Sage L.

    2015-07-14

    A compression ignition engine uses two or more fuel charges having two or more reactivities to control the timing and duration of combustion. In a preferred implementation, a lower-reactivity fuel charge is injected or otherwise introduced into the combustion chamber, preferably sufficiently early that it becomes at least substantially homogeneously dispersed within the chamber before a subsequent injection is made. One or more subsequent injections of higher-reactivity fuel charges are then made, and these preferably distribute the higher-reactivity matter within the lower-reactivity chamber space such that combustion begins in the higher-reactivity regions, and with the lower-reactivity regions following thereafter. By appropriately choosing the reactivities of the charges, their relative amounts, and their timing, combustion can be tailored to achieve optimal power output (and thus fuel efficiency), at controlled temperatures (and thus controlled NOx), and with controlled equivalence ratios (and thus controlled soot).

  15. Oil shale retorting and combustion system

    DOEpatents

    Pitrolo, Augustine A.; Mei, Joseph S.; Shang, Jerry Y.

    1983-01-01

    The present invention is directed to the extraction of energy values from l shale containing considerable concentrations of calcium carbonate in an efficient manner. The volatiles are separated from the oil shale in a retorting zone of a fluidized bed where the temperature and the concentration of oxygen are maintained at sufficiently low levels so that the volatiles are extracted from the oil shale with minimal combustion of the volatiles and with minimal calcination of the calcium carbonate. These gaseous volatiles and the calcium carbonate flow from the retorting zone into a freeboard combustion zone where the volatiles are burned in the presence of excess air. In this zone the calcination of the calcium carbonate occurs but at the expense of less BTU's than would be required by the calcination reaction in the event both the retorting and combustion steps took place simultaneously. The heat values in the products of combustion are satisfactorily recovered in a suitable heat exchange system.

  16. Engine combustion control via fuel reactivity stratification

    DOEpatents

    Reitz, Rolf Deneys; Hanson, Reed M.; Splitter, Derek A.; Kokjohn, Sage L.

    2016-06-28

    A compression ignition engine uses two or more fuel charges having two or more reactivities to control the timing and duration of combustion. In a preferred implementation, a lower-reactivity fuel charge is injected or otherwise introduced into the combustion chamber, preferably sufficiently early that it becomes at least substantially homogeneously dispersed within the chamber before a subsequent injection is made. One or more subsequent injections of higher-reactivity fuel charges are then made, and these preferably distribute the higher-reactivity matter within the lower-reactivity chamber space such that combustion begins in the higher-reactivity regions, and with the lower-reactivity regions following thereafter. By appropriately choosing the reactivities of the charges, their relative amounts, and their timing, combustion can be tailored to achieve optimal power output (and thus fuel efficiency), at controlled temperatures (and thus controlled NOx), and with controlled equivalence ratios (and thus controlled soot).

  17. CIR Combustion Chamber Fuel Reservoir Ops

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-09-26

    ISS020-E-042207 (26 Sept. 2009) --- NASA astronaut Nicole Stott, Expedition 20 flight engineer, works with the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.

  18. Engine combustion control via fuel reactivity stratification

    DOEpatents

    Reitz, Rolf Deneys; Hanson, Reed M; Splitter, Derek A; Kokjohn, Sage L

    2013-12-31

    A compression ignition engine uses two or more fuel charges having two or more reactivities to control the timing and duration of combustion. In a preferred implementation, a lower-reactivity fuel charge is injected or otherwise introduced into the combustion chamber, preferably sufficiently early that it becomes at least substantially homogeneously dispersed within the chamber before a subsequent injection is made. One or more subsequent injections of higher-reactivity fuel charges are then made, and these preferably distribute the higher-reactivity matter within the lower-reactivity chamber space such that combustion begins in the higher-reactivity regions, and with the lower-reactivity regions following thereafter. By appropriately choose the reactivities of the charges, their relative amounts, and their timing, combustion can be tailored to achieve optimal power output (and thus fuel efficiency), at controlled temperatures (and thus controlled NOx), and with controlled equivalence ratios (and thus controlled soot).

  19. CIR Combustion Chamber Fuel Reservoir Ops

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-09-26

    ISS020-E-042203 (26 Sept. 2009) --- NASA astronaut Nicole Stott, Expedition 20 flight engineer, works with the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.

  20. GHGRP Miscellaneous Combustion Sector Industrial Profile

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program periodically produces detailed profiles of the various industries that report under the program. The profiles available for download below contain detailed analyses for the Miscellaneous Combustion industry.