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Sample records for comerciales progil om1

  1. Oms1 associates with cytochrome c oxidase assembly intermediates to stabilize newly synthesized Cox1

    PubMed Central

    Bareth, Bettina; Nikolov, Miroslav; Lorenzi, Isotta; Hildenbeutel, Markus; Mick, David U.; Helbig, Christin; Urlaub, Henning; Ott, Martin; Rehling, Peter; Dennerlein, Sven

    2016-01-01

    The mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase assembles in the inner membrane from subunits of dual genetic origin. The assembly process of the enzyme is initiated by membrane insertion of the mitochondria-encoded Cox1 subunit. During complex maturation, transient assembly intermediates, consisting of structural subunits and specialized chaperone-like assembly factors, are formed. In addition, cofactors such as heme and copper have to be inserted into the nascent complex. To regulate the assembly process, the availability of Cox1 is under control of a regulatory feedback cycle in which translation of COX1 mRNA is stalled when assembly intermediates of Cox1 accumulate through inactivation of the translational activator Mss51. Here we isolate a cytochrome c oxidase assembly intermediate in preparatory scale from coa1Δ mutant cells, using Mss51 as bait. We demonstrate that at this stage of assembly, the complex has not yet incorporated the heme a cofactors. Using quantitative mass spectrometry, we define the protein composition of the assembly intermediate and unexpectedly identify the putative methyltransferase Oms1 as a constituent. Our analyses show that Oms1 participates in cytochrome c oxidase assembly by stabilizing newly synthesized Cox1. PMID:27030670

  2. Significant issues and changes for ANSI/ASME OM-1 1981, part 1, ASME OMc code-1994, and ASME OM Code-1995, Appendix I, inservice testing of pressure relief devices in light water reactor power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Seniuk, P.J.

    1996-12-01

    This paper identifies significant changes to the ANSI/ASME OM-1 1981, Part 1, and ASME Omc Code-1994 and ASME OM Code-1995, Appendix I, {open_quotes}Inservice Testing of Pressure Relief Devices in Light-Water Reactor Power Plants{close_quotes}. The paper describes changes to different Code editions and presents insights into the direction of the code committee and selected topics to be considered by the ASME O&M Working Group on pressure relief devices. These topics include scope issues, thermal relief valve issues, as-found and as-left set-pressure determinations, exclusions from testing, and cold setpoint bench testing. The purpose of this paper is to describe some significant issues being addressed by the O&M Working Group on Pressure Relief Devices (OM-1). The writer is currently the chair of OM-1 and the statements expressed herein represents his personal opinion.

  3. PROCENTAJE DE PSILIDOS PORTADORES DE Canidatus Liberibacter asiaticus Y SU RELACION CON LA INCIDENCIA DE HLB EN CINCO HUERTAS COMERCIALES DE LIMON MEXICANO {Citrus aurantifolia (Christm) Swingle} EN EL ESTADO DE COLIMA MEXICO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asian citrus psyllids (Diaphorina citri) were individually analyzed by qPCR to detect Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas). The psyllids were collected in Mexican lime (Citrus aurantifolia) trees in five commercial orchards in Tecomán and Manzanillo, Colima with severe symptoms of classical mott...

  4. Evolution of satellite DNA sequences in two tribes of Bovidae: A cautionary tale.

    PubMed

    Nieddu, Mariella; Mezzanotte, Roberto; Pichiri, Giuseppina; Coni, Pier Paolo; Dedola, Gian Luca; Dettori, Maria Luisa; Pazzola, Michele; Vacca, Giuseppe Massimo; Robledo, Renato

    2015-12-01

    Two clones, Bt1 from Bos taurus and Om1 from Ovis orientalis musimon, were used as probes for hybridization on genomic DNA and on metaphase chromosomes in members of Bovini and Caprini tribes. Bt1 and Om1 are sequences respectively belonging to the 1.715 and 1.714 DNA satellite I families. Southern blots and fluorescence in situ hybridization experiments showed completely coherent results: the Bovini probe Bt1 hybridized only to members of the Bovini tribe and not to members of Caprini. Likewise, the Caprini probe Om1 hybridized only to members of the Caprini tribe and not to members of Bovini. Hybridization signals were detected in the heterochromatic regions of every acrocentric autosome, except for two pairs of autosomes from Capra hircus that did not show hybridization to probe Om1. No signal was detected on X and Y chromosomes or on bi-armed autosomes. Remarkably, probe Om1 showed almost 100% homology with a bacterial sequence reported in Helicobacter pylori. PMID:26692159

  5. Evolution of satellite DNA sequences in two tribes of Bovidae: A cautionary tale

    PubMed Central

    Nieddu, Mariella; Mezzanotte, Roberto; Pichiri, Giuseppina; Coni, Pier Paolo; Dedola, Gian Luca; Dettori, Maria Luisa; Pazzola, Michele; Vacca, Giuseppe Massimo; Robledo, Renato

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Two clones, Bt1 from Bos taurus and Om1 from Ovis orientalis musimon, were used as probes for hybridization on genomic DNA and on metaphase chromosomes in members of Bovini and Caprini tribes. Bt1 and Om1 are sequences respectively belonging to the 1.715 and 1.714 DNA satellite I families. Southern blots and fluorescence in situ hybridization experiments showed completely coherent results: the Bovini probe Bt1 hybridized only to members of the Bovini tribe and not to members of Caprini. Likewise, the Caprini probe Om1 hybridized only to members of the Caprini tribe and not to members of Bovini. Hybridization signals were detected in the heterochromatic regions of every acrocentric autosome, except for two pairs of autosomes from Capra hircus that did not show hybridization to probe Om1. No signal was detected on X and Y chromosomes or on bi-armed autosomes. Remarkably, probe Om1 showed almost 100% homology with a bacterial sequence reported in Helicobacter pylori. PMID:26692159

  6. Measuring Aerosol Optical Properties with the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veefkind, J. P.; Torres, O.; Syniuk, A.; Decae, R.; deLeeuw, G.

    2003-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) is the Dutch-Finnish contribution to the NASA EOS-Aura mission scheduled for launch in January 2004. OM1 is an imaging spectrometer that will measure the back-scattered Solar radiance between 270 an 500 nm. With its relatively high spatial resolution (13x24 sq km at nadir) and daily global coverage. OM1 will make a major contribution to our understanding of atmospheric chemistry and to climate research. OM1 will provide data continuity with the TOMS instruments. One of the pleasant surprises of the TOMS data record was its information on aerosol properties. First, only the absorbing aerosol index, which is sensitive to elevated lay- ers of aerosols such as desert dust and smoke aerosols, was derived. Recently these methods were further improved to yield aerosol optical thickness and single scattering albedo over land and ocean for 19 years of TOMS data (1979-1992,1997-2002), making it one of the longest and most valuable time series for aerosols presently available. Such long time series are essential to quantify the effect of aerosols on the Earth& climate. The OM1 instrument is better suited to measure aerosols than the TOMS instruments because of the smaller footprint, and better spectral coverage. The better capabilities of OMI will enable us to provide an improved aerosol product, but the knowledge will also be used for further analysis of the aerosol record from TOMS. The OM1 aerosol product that is currently being developed for OM1 combines the TOMS experience and the multi-spectral techniques that are used in the visible and near infrared. The challenge for this new product is to provide aerosol optical thickness and single scattering albedo from the near ultraviolet to the visible (330-500 nm) over land and ocean. In this presentation the methods for deriving the OM1 aerosol product will be presented. Part of these methods developed for OM1 can already be applied to TOMS data and results of such analysis will be shown.

  7. Energia Renovable para Centros de Salud Rurales (Renewable Energy for Rural Health Clinics)

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, T.; Olson, K.

    1999-07-28

    Esta es la primera de una serie de guias de aplicaciones que el Programa de Energia de Villas de NREL esta comisionando para acoplar sistemas comerciales renovables con aplicaciones rurales, incluyendo agua, escuelas rurales y micro empresas. La guia esta complementada por las actividades de desarrollo del Programa de Energia de Villas de NREL, proyectos pilotos internacionales y programas de visitas profesionales.

  8. Diverse families of antimicrobial peptides isolated from skin secretions of three species of East Asian frogs, Babina daunchina, Babina adenopleura, and Rana omeimontis (Ranidae).

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuhong; Xu, Shiqi; Hu, Yonghong; Guo, Chao; Meng, Hao; Li, Jing; Liu, Jingze; Wang, Hui

    2014-07-01

    Twenty-two novel cDNAs encoding 22 peptide precursors for 19 mature peptides including antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) were identified from East Asian frog species Babina daunchina, Babina adenopleura, and Rana omeimontis skin-derived cDNA libraries. Two atypical members of the brevinin-1 family AMPs, named brevinin-1AN1 (FLTGVLKLASKIPSVLCAVLKTC) and brevinin-1DN1(FLKGVINLASKIPSMLCAVLKTC), were purified from the skin secretions of B. adenopleura and B. daunchina, respectively. A member of the ranatuerin-2 family AMP named ranatuerin-2DN1 (GLFDSITQGLKDTAVKLLDKIKCKLSACPPA) was also purified from the skin secretion of B. daunchina. One AMP named japonicin-2OM1 (FIVPSIFLLKKAFCIALKKNC) was purified from the skin secretion of R. omeimontis. The antimicrobial tests showed that brevinin-1DN1, brevinin-1DN2, brevinin-1AN1, and japonicin-2OM1 possess higher antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria than Gram-negative bacteria.

  9. OMI Total and Tropospheric Column Nitrogen Dioxide: Version 2 Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleason, James

    2007-01-01

    The at-launch version of the OM1 NO2 total and tropospheric NO2 algorithm made a number of assumptions about instrument performance. Our knowledge of tropospheric NO2 has increased in the 3 years since the inital version was delivered. The results of the post-launch validation campaigns and improved atmospheric modelling has lead to changes in the NO2 retrieval algorithm. The algorithm changes and the impacts on the data products will be presented.

  10. Lightning-Generated NO(x) Seen By OMI during NASA's TC-4 Experiment: First Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bucsela, Eric; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Huntemann, Tabitha; Cohen, Ronald; Perring, Anne; Gleason, James; Blakeslee, Richard; Navarro, Dylana Vargas; Segura, Ileana Mora; Hernandez, Alexia Pacheco; Laporte-Molina, Sadi

    2009-01-01

    We present here case studies identifying upper-tropospheric NO2 produced in convective storms during NASA's Tropical Composition, Cloud and Climate Coupling Experiment (TCi)n July and August 2007. DC8 aircraft missions, flown from the mission base in Costa Rica, recorded in situ NO2 profiles near active storms and in relatively quiet areas. We combine these data with measurements from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the Aura satellite to estimate the amount of NO2 produced by lightning (LN02) above background levels in the regions influenced by storms. In our analysis, improved off-line processing techniques are employed to minimize known artifacts in the OM1 data. Information on lightning flashes (primarily CG) observed by the surface network operated by the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad are examined upwind of regions where OM1 indicates enhanced LNO2. Comparisons of the observed flash data with measurements by the TRMM/LIS satellite instrument are used to obtain the lightning detection efficiency for total flashes. Finally, using the NO/NO2 ratio estimated from DC-8 observations, we estimate the average NO(x) production per lightning flash for each case in this study. The magnitudes of the measured NO(x) enhancements are compared with those observed by the DC-8 and with similar OM1 measurements analyzed in mid-latitude experiments.

  11. Multi-embolic ST-elevation myocardial infarction secondary to aortic valve endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Rischin, Adam P; Carrillo, Philip; Layland, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    We present the case of a 42 year-old woman admitted to hospital with ST-elevation myocardial infarction involving two separate coronary territories. Angiography revealed multi-embolic occlusions of her left anterior descending (LAD) and first obtuse marginal (OM1) coronary arteries. Transoesophageal echocardiogram (TOE) showed a lesion attached to the left cusp of the aortic valve and she was treated for infective endocarditis. We discuss the management issues raised from this unique patient, including reperfusion strategies in endocarditis-associated myocardial infarction.

  12. Coupling between entropy and unsteady heat release in a thermoacoustic system with a mean flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lei; Zhao, Dan

    2016-11-01

    In this work, the coupling between entropy and unsteady heat release in a one dimensional duct in the presence of a mean flow is considered. As acoustic disturbances impinge on a compact heat source enclosed in the duct, entropy disturbances are generated. The transfer function between the generated entropy waves and oncoming flow velocity fluctuations is deduced by conducting order analysis of the linearized governing equations. The effects of the mean flow are emphasized for different forms of unsteady heat release model. It is shown that there is a strong coupling between entropy, heat release, mean flow and acoustic impedance at the heat source. To validate our theoretical analysis, numerical investigation is conducted by using a low order model. Comparing the theoretical and the low order model's results reveals that a good agreement is observed. It is found that when the mean flow Mach number is not negligible, the term of O(M1) in the identified entropy transfer function is as important as that of O(M0). Neglecting the term of O(M1) may lead to wrong prediction of the entropy waves produced in the system.

  13. Using Cloud Top Pressures Derived from Raman Scattering in the UV for the OMI Total Column Ozone Retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joiner, J.; Vasilkov, A. P.; Bhartia, P. K.; Yang, K.

    2003-01-01

    The OMI cloud pressure product is necessary for accounting for cloud effects on the mission- critical total ozone product. One of the OM1 cloud pressure algorithms uses UV measurements to derive cloud pressures from the high frequency structure of top- of-atmosphere reflectance caused by rotational Raman scattering (RRS) in the atmosphere. RRS results in filling-in of Fraunhofer lines in the backscatter UV spectra (also known as the Ring effect). The magnitude of filling-in of the Fraunhofer lines is roughly proportional to the average number of solar photon scatterings in the atmosphere above the clouds. This property of RRS is used to deduce an effective cloud pressure. The cloud pressure algorithm retrieves the cloud pressure and cloud fraction using a concept of the Mixed Lambert Equivalent Reflectivity (MLER) also used for the TOMS-V8 OM1 total column ozone algorithm. Currently, this OMI total column ozone algorithm utilizes information about cloud top pressures from a climatology based on IR measurements. The IR-derived cloud top pressure is known to be lower than UV-derived cloud top pressure because UV radiation penetrates clouds deeper than IR radiation. That is why the UV-derived cloud pressure may be more consistent withthe total ozone algorithm. We estimate total column ozone differences caused by replacing the cloud pressure climatology with cloud pressures retrieved from GOME data same as used for retrieval of ozone.

  14. Observations over Hurricanes from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joiner, J.; Vasilkov, A.; Yang, K.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2006-01-01

    There is an apparent inconsistency between the total column ozone derived from the total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) and aircraft observations within the eye region of tropical cyclones. The higher spectral resolution, coverage, and sampling of the ozone monitoring instrument (OMI) on NASA s Aura satellite as compared with TOMS allows for improved ozone retrievals by including estimates of cloud pressure derived simultaneously using the effects of rotational Raman scattering. The retrieved cloud pressures from OM1 are more appropriate than the climatological cloud-top pressures based on infrared measurements used in the TOMS and initial OM1 algorithms. We find that total ozone within the eye of hurricane Katrina is significantly overestimated when we use climatological cloud pressures. Using OMI-retrieved cloud pressures, total ozone in the eye is similar to that in the surrounding area. The corrected total ozone is in better agreement with aircraft measurements that imply relatively small or negligible amounts of stratospheric intrusion into the eye region of tropical cyclones.

  15. The density and species of mite breeding in stored products in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Chaopin; Zhan, Xiaodong; Sun, Entao; Zhao, Jinhong; Wang, Huiyong; He, Ji; Wang, Jiajia; He, Lianping

    2014-09-12

    Objetivo: El objetivo de nuestro estudio fue investigar las especies y la densidad de reproducción de ácaros en productos almacenados en China. Métodos: Provisionalmente, se recogieron muestras de productos almacenados en naves, locales comerciales y viviendas. Resultados: Los resultados sugirieron que los ácaros varíaban mucho en cuanto a especies respecto a sus hábitos y habitats ecológicos. Aún así, la densidad de reproducción en distintas muestras estuvo asociada a las condiciones de muestreo. Conclusiones: Estas discrepancias pueden estar asociadas con las muestras recogidas en diversos ambientes para los ácaros, y los resultados sugieren visiblemente que los ácaros tienen una distribución universal.

  16. PubMed

    Yunta, Eduardo Rodríguez

    2010-01-01

    El presente artículo reflexiona desde los 4 principios de la bioética el uso comercial de organismos genéticamente modificados. Se cuestiona fundamentalmente la falta de transferencia de tecnología entre el mundo desarrollado y en desarrollo y el que el presente sistema de patentamiento de organismos vivos modificados fomenta intereses comerciales y no da debida importancia al desarrollo sostenible de la agricultura y ganadería en los países en desarrollo, donde más se necesita. Se reflexiona sobre la importancia que tiene evaluar los riesgos antes de introducirse en el mercado organismos genéticamente modificados y la necesidad de regulación en los países.

  17. Sea cucumber species identification of family Caudinidae from Surabaya based on morphological and mitochondrial DNA evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, Muhammad Hilman Fu'adil; Pidada, Ida Bagus Rai; Sugiharto, Widyatmoko, Johan Nuari; Irawan, Bambang

    2016-03-01

    Species identification and taxonomy of sea cucumber remains a challenge problem in some taxa. Caudinidae family of sea cucumber was comerciallized in Surabaya, and it was used as sea cucumber chips. Members of Caudinid sea cucumber have similiar morphology, so it is hard to identify this sea cucumber only from morphological appearance. DNA barcoding is useful method to overcome this problem. The aim of this study was to determine Caudinid specimen of sea cucumber in East Java by morphological and molecular approach. Sample was collected from east coast of Surabaya, then preserved in absolute ethanol. After DNA isolation, Cytochrome Oxydase I (COI) gene amplification was performed using Echinoderm universal primer and PCR product was sequenced. Sequencing result was analyzed and identified in NCBI database using BLAST. Results showed that Caudinid specimen in have closely related to Acaudina molpadioides sequence in GenBank with 86% identity. Morphological data, especially based on ossicle, also showed that the specimen is Acaudina molpadioides.

  18. Reflexión bioética sobre el uso de organismos genéticamente modificados

    PubMed Central

    Yunta, Eduardo Rodríguez

    2011-01-01

    El presente artículo reflexiona desde los 4 principios de la bioética el uso comercial de organismos genéticamente modificados. Se cuestiona fundamentalmente la falta de transferencia de tecnología entre el mundo desarrollado y en desarrollo y el que el presente sistema de patentamiento de organismos vivos modificados fomenta intereses comerciales y no da debida importancia al desarrollo sostenible de la agricultura y ganadería en los países en desarrollo, donde más se necesita. Se reflexiona sobre la importancia que tiene evaluar los riesgos antes de introducirse en el mercado organismos genéticamente modificados y la necesidad de regulación en los países. PMID:21927675

  19. PubMed

    Yunta, Eduardo Rodríguez

    2010-01-01

    El presente artículo reflexiona desde los 4 principios de la bioética el uso comercial de organismos genéticamente modificados. Se cuestiona fundamentalmente la falta de transferencia de tecnología entre el mundo desarrollado y en desarrollo y el que el presente sistema de patentamiento de organismos vivos modificados fomenta intereses comerciales y no da debida importancia al desarrollo sostenible de la agricultura y ganadería en los países en desarrollo, donde más se necesita. Se reflexiona sobre la importancia que tiene evaluar los riesgos antes de introducirse en el mercado organismos genéticamente modificados y la necesidad de regulación en los países. PMID:21927675

  20. Rural continental aerosol properties and processes observed during the Hohenpeissenberg Aerosol Characterization Experiment (HAZE2002)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hock, N.; Schneider, J.; Borrmann, S.; Römpp, A.; Moortgat, G.; Franze, T.; Schauer, C.; Pöschl, U.; Plass-Dülmer, C.; Berresheim, H.

    2008-02-01

    Detailed investigations of the chemical and microphysical properties of rural continental aerosols were performed during the HAZE2002 experiment, which was conducted in May 2002 at the Meteorological Observatory Hohenpeissenberg (DWD) in Southern Germany. Online measurements included: Size-resolved chemical composition of submicron particles; total particle number concentrations and size distributions over the diameter range of 3 nm to 9 μm; gas-phase concentration of monoterpenes, CO, O3, OH, and H2SO4. Filter sampling and offline analytical techniques were used to determine: Fine particle mass (PM2.5), organic, elemental and total carbon in PM2.5 (OC2.5, EC2.5, TC2.5), and selected organic compounds (dicarboxylic acids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, proteins). Overall, the non-refractory components of submicron particles detected by aerosol mass spectrometry (PM1, 6.6±5.4 μg m-3, arithmetic mean and standard deviation) accounted for ~62% of PM2.5 determined by filter gravimetry (10.6±4.7 μg m-3). The relative proportions of non-refractory submicron particle components were: (23±39)% ammonium nitrate, (27±23)% ammonium sulfate, and (50±40)% organics (OM1). OM1 was closely correlated with PM1 (r2=0.9) indicating a near-constant ratio of non-refractory organics and inorganics. The average ratio of OM1 to OC2.5 was 2.1±1.4, indicating a high proportion of heteroelements in the organic fraction of the sampled rural aerosol. This is consistent with the high ratio of oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA) over hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) inferred from the AMS results (4:1), and also with the high abundance of proteins (~3%) indicating a high proportion of primary biological material (~30%) in PM2.5. This finding was confirmed by low abundance of PAHs (<1 ng m-3) and EC (<1 μg m-3) in PM2.5 and detection of several secondary organic aerosol compounds (dicarboxylic acids) and their precursors (monoterpenes). New particle formation was observed almost

  1. [Are antioxidant supplements effective in reducing delayed onset muscle soreness? A systematic review].

    PubMed

    Candia-Luján, Ramón; De Paz Fernández, José Antonio; Costa Moreira, Osvaldo

    2014-10-05

    Introducción: En los últimos años los suplementos antioxidantes han cobrado popularidad para contrarrestar los efectos de los radicales libres y los síntomas del daño muscular, entre los que se encuentra el dolor muscular tardío (DMT). Objetivo: realizar una revisión sistemática en diferentes bases de datos para conocer los efectos de los suplementos antioxidantes sobre el DMT. Método: Se llevó a cabo una búsqueda en las bases de datos; Cochrane Library, Pubmed, Scopus y SportDiscus y la Web Of Science (WOS). Las palabras y acrónimos usados fueron; Delayed onset muscle soreness, exercise induced muscle damage, DOMS, EIMD, antioxidant y oxidative stress. Resultados: Se identificaron 54 artículos de los cuales se recuperaron 48, todos ellos en inglés, 17 relacionados con la vitamina C y E, catorce corresponden a suplementos polifenòlicos, once a otros suplementos antioxidantes y seis a suplementos comerciales todos ellos usados para combatir, entre otras variables, el DMT. Conclusiones: Tanto las vitaminas como los suplementos comerciales presentan baja efectividad en la disminución del DMT, mientras que los polifenoles y otros suplementos antioxidantes muestran entre moderada y buena efectividad en el combate al DMT. Sin embargo, gran parte de los estudios presentan efectividad en la disminución de otros síntomas del daño muscular además de ayudar en la recuperación postejercicio.

  2. Semiempirical Quantum-Chemical Orthogonalization-Corrected Methods: Benchmarks for Ground-State Properties

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The semiempirical orthogonalization-corrected OMx methods (OM1, OM2, and OM3) go beyond the standard MNDO model by including additional interactions in the electronic structure calculation. When augmented with empirical dispersion corrections, the resulting OMx-Dn approaches offer a fast and robust treatment of noncovalent interactions. Here we evaluate the performance of the OMx and OMx-Dn methods for a variety of ground-state properties using a large and diverse collection of benchmark sets from the literature, with a total of 13035 original and derived reference data. Extensive comparisons are made with the results from established semiempirical methods (MNDO, AM1, PM3, PM6, and PM7) that also use the NDDO (neglect of diatomic differential overlap) integral approximation. Statistical evaluations show that the OMx and OMx-Dn methods outperform the other methods for most of the benchmark sets. PMID:26771261

  3. Dissolution of Arsenic Minerals Mediated by Dissimilatory Arsenate Reducing Bacteria: Estimation of the Physiological Potential for Arsenic Mobilization

    PubMed Central

    Lukasz, Drewniak; Liwia, Rajpert; Aleksandra, Mantur; Aleksandra, Sklodowska

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was characterization of the isolated dissimilatory arsenate reducing bacteria in the context of their potential for arsenic removal from primary arsenic minerals through reductive dissolution. Four strains, Shewanella sp. OM1, Pseudomonas sp. OM2, Aeromonas sp. OM4, and Serratia sp. OM17, capable of anaerobic growth with As (V) reduction, were isolated from microbial mats from an ancient gold mine. All of the isolated strains: (i) produced siderophores that promote dissolution of minerals, (ii) were resistant to dissolved arsenic compounds, (iii) were able to use the dissolved arsenates as the terminal electron acceptor, and (iii) were able to use copper minerals containing arsenic minerals (e.g., enargite) as a respiratory substrate. Based on the results obtained in this study, we postulate that arsenic can be released from some As-bearing polymetallic minerals (such as copper ore concentrates or middlings) under reductive conditions by dissimilatory arsenate reducers in indirect processes. PMID:24724102

  4. Semiempirical Quantum-Chemical Orthogonalization-Corrected Methods: Theory, Implementation, and Parameters

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Semiempirical orthogonalization-corrected methods (OM1, OM2, and OM3) go beyond the standard MNDO model by explicitly including additional interactions into the Fock matrix in an approximate manner (Pauli repulsion, penetration effects, and core–valence interactions), which yields systematic improvements both for ground-state and excited-state properties. In this Article, we describe the underlying theoretical formalism of the OMx methods and their implementation in full detail, and we report all relevant OMx parameters for hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and fluorine. For a standard set of mostly organic molecules commonly used in semiempirical method development, the OMx results are found to be superior to those from standard MNDO-type methods. Parametrized Grimme-type dispersion corrections can be added to OM2 and OM3 energies to provide a realistic treatment of noncovalent interaction energies, as demonstrated for the complexes in the S22 and S66×8 test sets. PMID:26771204

  5. Semiempirical Quantum-Chemical Orthogonalization-Corrected Methods: Theory, Implementation, and Parameters.

    PubMed

    Dral, Pavlo O; Wu, Xin; Spörkel, Lasse; Koslowski, Axel; Weber, Wolfgang; Steiger, Rainer; Scholten, Mirjam; Thiel, Walter

    2016-03-01

    Semiempirical orthogonalization-corrected methods (OM1, OM2, and OM3) go beyond the standard MNDO model by explicitly including additional interactions into the Fock matrix in an approximate manner (Pauli repulsion, penetration effects, and core-valence interactions), which yields systematic improvements both for ground-state and excited-state properties. In this Article, we describe the underlying theoretical formalism of the OMx methods and their implementation in full detail, and we report all relevant OMx parameters for hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and fluorine. For a standard set of mostly organic molecules commonly used in semiempirical method development, the OMx results are found to be superior to those from standard MNDO-type methods. Parametrized Grimme-type dispersion corrections can be added to OM2 and OM3 energies to provide a realistic treatment of noncovalent interaction energies, as demonstrated for the complexes in the S22 and S66×8 test sets.

  6. First experimental demonstration of 6Gb/s real-time optical OFDM transceivers incorporating channel estimation and variable power loading.

    PubMed

    Giddings, R P; Jin, X Q; Tang, J M

    2009-10-26

    The fastest ever 6Gb/s real-time FPGA-based optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OOFDM) transceivers utilizing channel estimation are experimentally demonstrated, for the first time, with variable power loading being incorporated to effectively compensate for the rapid system frequency response roll-off effect. The implemented transceivers are constructed entirely from off-the-shelf components and incorporate crucial functionalities of on-line performance monitoring and live optimization of key parameters including signal clipping, subcarrier power and operating conditions of directly modulated DFB lasers (DMLs). Real-time end-to-end transmission of a 6Gb/s 16-QAM-encoded OOFDM signal over 300m OM1 multi-mode fiber with a power penalty of 0.5dB is successfully achieved in an intensity-modulation and direct-detection system employing a DML. PMID:19997193

  7. Semiempirical Quantum Chemical Calculations Accelerated on a Hybrid Multicore CPU-GPU Computing Platform.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xin; Koslowski, Axel; Thiel, Walter

    2012-07-10

    In this work, we demonstrate that semiempirical quantum chemical calculations can be accelerated significantly by leveraging the graphics processing unit (GPU) as a coprocessor on a hybrid multicore CPU-GPU computing platform. Semiempirical calculations using the MNDO, AM1, PM3, OM1, OM2, and OM3 model Hamiltonians were systematically profiled for three types of test systems (fullerenes, water clusters, and solvated crambin) to identify the most time-consuming sections of the code. The corresponding routines were ported to the GPU and optimized employing both existing library functions and a GPU kernel that carries out a sequence of noniterative Jacobi transformations during pseudodiagonalization. The overall computation times for single-point energy calculations and geometry optimizations of large molecules were reduced by one order of magnitude for all methods, as compared to runs on a single CPU core.

  8. First experimental demonstration of 6Gb/s real-time optical OFDM transceivers incorporating channel estimation and variable power loading.

    PubMed

    Giddings, R P; Jin, X Q; Tang, J M

    2009-10-26

    The fastest ever 6Gb/s real-time FPGA-based optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OOFDM) transceivers utilizing channel estimation are experimentally demonstrated, for the first time, with variable power loading being incorporated to effectively compensate for the rapid system frequency response roll-off effect. The implemented transceivers are constructed entirely from off-the-shelf components and incorporate crucial functionalities of on-line performance monitoring and live optimization of key parameters including signal clipping, subcarrier power and operating conditions of directly modulated DFB lasers (DMLs). Real-time end-to-end transmission of a 6Gb/s 16-QAM-encoded OOFDM signal over 300m OM1 multi-mode fiber with a power penalty of 0.5dB is successfully achieved in an intensity-modulation and direct-detection system employing a DML.

  9. Dissolution of arsenic minerals mediated by dissimilatory arsenate reducing bacteria: estimation of the physiological potential for arsenic mobilization.

    PubMed

    Lukasz, Drewniak; Liwia, Rajpert; Aleksandra, Mantur; Aleksandra, Sklodowska

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was characterization of the isolated dissimilatory arsenate reducing bacteria in the context of their potential for arsenic removal from primary arsenic minerals through reductive dissolution. Four strains, Shewanella sp. OM1, Pseudomonas sp. OM2, Aeromonas sp. OM4, and Serratia sp. OM17, capable of anaerobic growth with As (V) reduction, were isolated from microbial mats from an ancient gold mine. All of the isolated strains: (i) produced siderophores that promote dissolution of minerals, (ii) were resistant to dissolved arsenic compounds, (iii) were able to use the dissolved arsenates as the terminal electron acceptor, and (iii) were able to use copper minerals containing arsenic minerals (e.g., enargite) as a respiratory substrate. Based on the results obtained in this study, we postulate that arsenic can be released from some As-bearing polymetallic minerals (such as copper ore concentrates or middlings) under reductive conditions by dissimilatory arsenate reducers in indirect processes.

  10. Effects of the 2004 El Nino on Tropospheric Ozone and Water Vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandra, S.; Ziemke, J. R.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Froidevaux, L.; Read, W. G.; Levelt, P. F.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2007-01-01

    The global effects of the 2004 El Nino on tropospheric ozone and H2O based on Aura OM1 and MLS measurements are analyzed. Although it was a weak El Nino from a historical perspective, it produced significant changes in these parameters in tropical latitudes. Tropospheric ozone increased by 10-20% over most of the western Pacific region and decreased by about the same amount over the eastern Pacific region. H2O in the upper troposphere showed similar changes but with opposite sign. These zonal changes in tropospheric ozone and H2O are caused by the eastward shift in the Walker circulation in the tropical pacific region during El Nino. For the 2004 El Nino, biomass burning did not have a significant effect on the ozone budget in the troposphere unlike the 1997 El Nino. Zonally averaged tropospheric column ozone did not change significantly either globally or over the tropical and subtropical latitudes.

  11. Semiempirical Quantum-Chemical Orthogonalization-Corrected Methods: Benchmarks for Ground-State Properties.

    PubMed

    Dral, Pavlo O; Wu, Xin; Spörkel, Lasse; Koslowski, Axel; Thiel, Walter

    2016-03-01

    The semiempirical orthogonalization-corrected OMx methods (OM1, OM2, and OM3) go beyond the standard MNDO model by including additional interactions in the electronic structure calculation. When augmented with empirical dispersion corrections, the resulting OMx-Dn approaches offer a fast and robust treatment of noncovalent interactions. Here we evaluate the performance of the OMx and OMx-Dn methods for a variety of ground-state properties using a large and diverse collection of benchmark sets from the literature, with a total of 13035 original and derived reference data. Extensive comparisons are made with the results from established semiempirical methods (MNDO, AM1, PM3, PM6, and PM7) that also use the NDDO (neglect of diatomic differential overlap) integral approximation. Statistical evaluations show that the OMx and OMx-Dn methods outperform the other methods for most of the benchmark sets. PMID:26771261

  12. Dynamical back-action at 5.5 GHz in a corrugated optomechanical beam

    SciTech Connect

    Navarro-Urrios, D.; Gomis-Bresco, J.; Alzina, F.; El-Jallal, S.; Oudich, M.; Pennec, Y.; Djafari-Rouhani, B.; Pitanti, A.; Capuj, N.; Tredicucci, A.; Griol, A.; Martínez, A.; Sotomayor Torres, C. M.

    2014-12-15

    We report on the optomechanical properties of a breathing mechanical mode oscillating at 5.5 GHz in a 1D corrugated Si nanobeam. This mode has an experimental single-particle optomechanical coupling rate of |g{sub o,OM}| = 1.8 MHz (|g{sub o,OM}|/2π = 0.3 MHz) and shows strong dynamical back-action effects at room temperature. The geometrical flexibility of the unit-cell would lend itself to further engineering of the cavity region to localize the mode within the full phononic band-gap present at 4 GHz while keeping high g{sub o,OM} values. This would lead to longer lifetimes at cryogenic temperatures, due to the suppression of acoustic leakage.

  13. Semiempirical Quantum-Chemical Orthogonalization-Corrected Methods: Theory, Implementation, and Parameters.

    PubMed

    Dral, Pavlo O; Wu, Xin; Spörkel, Lasse; Koslowski, Axel; Weber, Wolfgang; Steiger, Rainer; Scholten, Mirjam; Thiel, Walter

    2016-03-01

    Semiempirical orthogonalization-corrected methods (OM1, OM2, and OM3) go beyond the standard MNDO model by explicitly including additional interactions into the Fock matrix in an approximate manner (Pauli repulsion, penetration effects, and core-valence interactions), which yields systematic improvements both for ground-state and excited-state properties. In this Article, we describe the underlying theoretical formalism of the OMx methods and their implementation in full detail, and we report all relevant OMx parameters for hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and fluorine. For a standard set of mostly organic molecules commonly used in semiempirical method development, the OMx results are found to be superior to those from standard MNDO-type methods. Parametrized Grimme-type dispersion corrections can be added to OM2 and OM3 energies to provide a realistic treatment of noncovalent interaction energies, as demonstrated for the complexes in the S22 and S66×8 test sets. PMID:26771204

  14. Optical-fiber pyrometer positioning accuracy analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapetado, A.; García, E.; Díaz-Álvarez, J.; Miguélez, M. H.; Vazquez, C.

    2016-05-01

    The influence of the distance between the fiber end and the machined surface on temperature measurements in a two-color fiber-optic pyrometer is analyzed. The propose fiber-optic pyrometer is capable of measuring highly localized temperatures, while avoiding the use of lenses or fiber bundles, by using a standard graded index glass fiber OM1 with 62.5/125 core and cladding diameters. The fiber is placed very close to the target and below the tool insert. The output optical power at both wavelength bands is theoretically and experimentally analyzed for a temperature of 650°C at different fiber positions in a range of 2mm. The results show that there is no influence of the fiber position on the measured optical power and therefore, on the measured temperature.

  15. Nitrous oxide emissions from a maize field during two consecutive growing seasons in the north China plain.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Liu, Junfeng; Mu, Yujing; Xu, Zhu; Pei, Shuwei; Lun, Xiaoxiu; Zhang, Ying

    2012-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from a maize field in the North China Plain (Wangdu County, Hebei Province, China) were investigated using static chambers during two consecutive maize growing seasons in the 2008 and 2009. The N2O pulse emissions occurred with duration of about 10 days after basal and additional fertilizer applications in the both years. The average N20 fluxes from the CK (control plot, without crop, fertilization and irrigation), NP (chemical N fertilizer), SN (wheat straw returning plus chemical N fertilizer), OM-1/2N (chicken manure plus half chemical N fertilizer) and OMN (chicken manure plus chemical N fertilizer) plots in 2008 were 8.51, 72.1, 76.6, 101, 107 ng N/(m2 x sec), respectively, and in 2009 were 33.7, 30.0 and 35.0 ng N/(m2 x sec) from CK, NP and SN plots, respectively. The emission factors of the applied fertilizer as N20-N (EFs) were 3.8% (2008) and 1.1% (2009) for the NP plot, 3.2% (2008) and 1.2% (2009) for the SN plot, and 2.8% and 2.2% in 2008 for the OM-1/2N and OMN plots, respectively. Hydromorphic properties of the investigated soil (with gley) are in favor of denitrification. The large differences of the soil temperature and water-filled pore space (WFPS) between the two maize seasons were suspected to be responsible for the significant yearly variations. Compared with the treatments of NP and SN, chicken manure coupled with compound fertilizer application significantly reduced fertilizer loss rate as N2O-N. PMID:22783628

  16. Inherent optical properties and optical mass classification of the waters of the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loos, Eduardo A.; Costa, Maycira

    2010-10-01

    Bio-physical and in situ hyperspectral optical data were measured during April and July, 2006, in the euphotic waters of central and southern Strait of Georgia, British Columbia, Canada. Particulate absorption and scattering were derived from the optical measurements of beam attenuation and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) absorption. The concentration of CDOM was measured with a fluorometer, and water samples were collected for total suspended material (TSM) and chlorophyll a (chl a). The results showed that waters closer to the Fraser River discharge presented the highest concentrations of TSM (18.2 mg L -1) and CDOM (32.1 ppb Quinine Sulphate Dihydrate Equivalent (QSDE)), whereas in deeper waters and waters farther from the plume, both TSM (0.2 mg L -1) and CDOM (6.0 ppb QSDE) were relatively lower, and chl a relatively higher (11.3 μg L -1), reaching the lowest values at the bottom of the euphotic layer (0.3 μg L -1). The waters of the Strait of Georgia’s euphotic zone showed well-defined attenuation coefficients and absorption-to-scattering ratios, which allowed for the optical classification of riverine plume (OM1), estuarine (OM2), and northern and deeper (OM3) waters. Generally, particulate scattering dominated the attenuation of light in these waters. The particulate scattering was mostly influenced by inorganic particles, especially in OM1. High loads of inorganic particulate scatterers possibly increased the diffuse light into OM2. Conversely, the relatively higher absorption by CDOM in deeper waters indicates the possibility of competition with phytoplankton for short wavelength radiation. The data and analyses in this study provide important baseline optical information for the waters of the Strait of Georgia.

  17. Polar and non-polar organic aerosols from large-scale agricultural-waste burning emissions in Northern India: Implications to organic mass-to-organic carbon ratio.

    PubMed

    Rajput, Prashant; Sarin, M M

    2014-05-01

    This study focuses on characteristics of organic aerosols (polar and non-polar) and total organic mass-to-organic carbon ratio (OM/OC) from post-harvest agricultural-waste (paddy- and wheat-residue) burning emissions in Northern India. Aerosol samples from an upwind location (Patiala: 30.2°N, 76.3°E) in the Indo-Gangetic Plain were analyzed for non-polar and polar fractions of organic carbon (OC1 and OC2) and their respective mass (OM1 and OM2). On average, polar organic aerosols (OM2) contribute nearly 85% of the total organic mass (OM) from the paddy- and wheat-residue burning emissions. The water-soluble-OC (WSOC) to OC2 ratio, within the analytical uncertainty, is close to 1 from both paddy- and wheat-residue burning emissions. However, temporal variability and relatively low WSOC/OC2 ratio (Av: 0.67±0.06) is attributed to high moisture content and poor combustion efficiency during paddy-residue burning, indicating significant contribution (∼30%) of aromatic carbon to OC2. The OM/OC ratio for non-polar (OM1/OC1∼1.2) and polar organic aerosols (OM2/OC2∼2.2), hitherto unknown for open agricultural-waste burning emissions, is documented in this study. The total OM/OC ratio is nearly identical, 1.9±0.2 and 1.8±0.2, from paddy- and wheat-residue burning emissions.

  18. Ozone and Aerosol Retrieval from Backscattered Ultraviolet Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhartia, Pawan K.

    2004-01-01

    In this presentation we will discuss the techniques to estimate total column ozone and aerosol absorption optical depth from the measurements of backscattered ultraviolet (buv) radiation. The total ozone algorithm has been used to create a unique record of the ozone layer, spanning more than 3 decades, from a series of instruments (BUV, SBUV, TOMS, SBUV/2) flown on NASA, NOAA, Japanese and Russian satellites. We will discuss how this algorithm can be considered a generalization of the well-known Dobson/Brewer technique that has been used to process data from ground-based instruments for many decades, and how it differs from the DOAS techniques that have been used to estimate vertical column densities of a host of trace gases from data collected by GOME and SCIAMACHY instruments. The BUV aerosol algorithm is most suitable for the detection of UV absorbing aerosols (smoke, desert dust, volcanic ash) and is the only technique that can detect aerosols embedded in clouds. This algorithm has been used to create a quarter century record of aerosol absorption optical depth using the BUV data collected by a series of TOMS instruments. We will also discuss how the data from the OM1 instrument launched on July 15,2004 will be combined with data from MODIS and CALIPSO lidar data to enhance the accuracy and information content of satellite-derived aerosol measurements. The OM1 and MODIS instruments are currently flying on EOS Aura and EOS Aqua satellites respectively, part of a constellation of satellites called the "A-train". The CALIPSO satellite is expected to join this constellation in mid 2005.

  19. Meta-Analysis of Attitudes toward Damage-Causing Mammalian Wildlife

    PubMed Central

    KANSKY, RUTH; KIDD, MARTIN; KNIGHT, ANDREW T

    2014-01-01

    íferos Silvestres Causantes de Daños Resumen Muchas poblaciones de mamíferos amenazados persisten fuera de áreas protegidas formales y su supervivencia depende de la buena voluntad de las comunidades que coexisten con ellos. Un entendimiento de las posturas, y específicamente de la tolerancia, de los individuos y las comunidades y los factores que los determinan es fundamental para diseñar estrategias que alivien el conflicto humano – vida silvestre. Llevamos a cabo un meta-análisis para identificar los factores que afectaron las posturas hacia cuatro grupos de mamíferos terrestres. Los elefantes (65%) provocaron las posturas más positivas. Los siguieron los primates (55%), los ungulados (53%) y los carnívoros (44%). Los residentes urbanos presentaron las posturas más positivas (80%), seguidos por los granjeros comerciales (51%) y los granjeros comunales (26%). Un índice de tolerancia a los daños mostró que la tolerancia humana a los ungulados y primates fue proporcional a la probabilidad de experimentar daños mientras que los elefantes provocaron niveles de tolerancia más altos de lo esperado y los carnívoros provocaron niveles de tolerancia más bajos de lo esperado. Contrario a la sabiduría convencional, experimentar daños no fue siempre el factor dominante para determinar las posturas. Los granjeros comunales tuvieron una baja probabilidad de ser positivos hacia los carnívoros independientemente de la probabilidad de experimentar daños, mientras que los granjeros comerciales y los residentes urbanos tuvieron mayor probabilidad de ser positivos hacia los carnívoros independientemente de los daños. Los residentes urbanos tuvieron mayor probabilidad de ser positivos hacia los ungulados, los elefantes y los primates cuando la probabilidad de daños fue baja, pero no cuando fue alta. Los granjeros comerciales y comunales tuvieron una mayor probabilidad de ser positivos hacia los ungulados, los primates y los elefantes independientemen

  20. [Aluminum content in individual components, used to prepare adult total parenteral nutrition mixtures in Argentine, and in comparison with international regulation].

    PubMed

    Menéndez, A M; Farías, S S; Servant, R; Morisio, Y; Misischia, Y; Simón, S; Weisstaub, A R; Martín de Portela, M L Pita

    2014-06-01

    Introducción: aluminio (Al) es un elemento tóxico que puede ser contaminante de productos farmacéuticos utilizados para preparar mezclas de nutrición parenteral (NP). Objetivos: 1) determinar la concentración de Al en componentes individuales utilizados para preparar mezclas de NP; 2) comparar las cantidades detectadas con los límites de la regulación internacional (FDA); 3) calcular la cantidad de Al administrada en fórmulas habituales de NP para neonatos, niños y adultos. Materiales y métodos: El Aluminio fue determinado por Espectroscopía de Emisión Atómica-Plasma-Inductivo de Argón (Perkin Elmer 5100 DV) en 44 productos comerciales, de diferentes laboratorios y lotes, correspondientes a 16 componentes individuales: dextrosa; aminoácidos para adultos y pediátricos; lípidos; cloruro de potasio; cloruro de sodio, sulfato de magnesio; fosfato de sodio; gluconato de calcio; glicerofosfato de sodio; sulfato de zinc; elementos multitraza; agua estéril en ampollas y de gran volumen. Resultados: Todos los componentes de gran volumen, excepto el agua, contenían entre 249 y 1.580 μg/L, superando entre 4 y 180 veces mas que los niveles establecidos por la FDA (25 μg/L). Los componentes de pequeño volumen contenían entre 85 y 4.909 μg/L, no declarados en los rótulos. Conclusiones: 1) La mayor cantidad de aluminio se encontró en el gluconato de calcio, fosfato de sodio y elementos multitraza. 2) Las mezclas de uso habitual para NP presentan niveles de Al mayores al límite de FDA. Los componentes que aportan mayor cantidad de aluminio en las mezclas de NP para adultos son: glucosa, aminoácidos y lípidos, pero en las de neonatos, el mayor aporte proviene de la dextrosa y gluconato de calcio. 3) En las mezclas de NP para neonatos, niños y adultos la cantidad de aluminio administrado por kg de peso supera la recomendación de FDA (5 μg/kg de peso /día). Los productos comerciales deberían declarar el contenido de Al para no comprometer la evoluci

  1. NMR spectroscopic study of the carbon and nitrogen dynamics of grass-derived pyrogenic organic material during 2.3 years of incubation in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilscher, André; Knicker, Heike

    2010-05-01

    -like structures with contributions of 62% and 72% for PyOM 1M and PyOM 4M, respectively. The other part of the 15N NMR signal intensity was assignable to amide-like structures. No major alteration of the amide and heterocyclic N contribution was detected for the PyOM 1M incubates. For the more charred PyOM 4M, the relative heterocyclic N contribution decreased. After the 28 months of incubation no significant difference in the chemical N composition of PyOM 4M related to the PyOM 1M treatments could be observed (P=0.472). Further, we detect a continuous degrease of the total amounts for the amide and heterocyclic N compounds. After 20 months, only 49% to 59% of the heterocyclic N compounds were recovered. The respective amide N recoveries were larger with 59% to 87%. It can be concluded, that PyOM may not be as highly refractory as it is commonly assumed. During the efficient degradation not only a considerable PyOM amount is mineralised, but also the chemical structure of the remaining PyOM is strongly modified. This includes the formation of O-containing functional groups and the loss of aromatic C and N containing heterocyclic domains by mineralisation and conversion to other C and N groups.

  2. Rural continental aerosol properties and processes observed during the Hohenpeissenberg Aerosol Characterization Experiment (HAZE2002)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hock, N.; Schneider, J.; Borrmann, S.; Römpp, A.; Moortgat, G.; Franze, T.; Schauer, C.; Pöschl, U.; Plass-Dülmer, C.; Berresheim, H.

    2007-06-01

    Detailed investigations of the chemical and microphysical properties of rural continental aerosols were performed during the HAZE2002 experiment, which was conducted in May 2002 at the Meteorological Observatory Hohenpeissenberg (DWD) in Southern Germany. The online measurement data and techniques included: size-resolved chemical composition of submicron particles by aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS); total particle number concentrations and size distributions over the diameter range of 3 nm to 9 μm (CPC, SMPS, OPC); monoterpenes determined by gas chromatography- ion trap mass spectrometry; OH and H2SO4 determined by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS). Filter sampling and offline analytical techniques were used to determine: fine particle mass (PM2.5), organic, elemental and total carbon in PM2.5 (OC2.5, EC2.5, TC2.5), and selected organic compounds (dicarboxylic acids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, proteins). Overall, the non-refractory components of submicron particles detected by aerosol mass spectrometry (PM1, 6.6±5.4 μg m-3, arithmetic mean and standard deviation) accounted for ~62% of PM2.5 determined by filter gravimetry (10.6±4.7 μg m-3). The relative proportions of non-refractory submicron particle components were: 11% ammonium, 19% nitrate, 20% sulfate, and 50% organics (OM1). In spite of strongly changing meteorological conditions and absolute concentration levels of particulate matter (3-13 μg m-3 PM1), OM1 was closely correlated with PM1 (r2=0.9) indicating a near-constant ratio of non-refractory organics and inorganics. In contrast, the ratio of nitrate to sulfate was highly dependent on temperature (14-32°C) and relative humidity (20-100%), which could be explained by thermodynamic model calculations of NH3/HNO3/NH4NO3 gas-particle partitioning. From the combination of optical and other sizing techniques (OPC, AMS, SMPS), an average refractive index of 1.40-1.45 was inferred for the measured rural aerosol

  3. Physiochemical properties of carbonaceous aerosol from agricultural residue burning: Density, volatility, and hygroscopicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunlin; Hu, Yunjie; Chen, Jianmin; Ma, Zhen; Ye, Xingnan; Yang, Xin; Wang, Lin; Wang, Xinming; Mellouki, Abdelwahid

    2016-09-01

    Size-resolved effective density, mixing state, and hygroscopicity of smoke particles from five kinds of agricultural residues burning were characterized using an aerosol chamber system, including a volatility/hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analyzer (V/H-TDMA) combined with an aerosol particle mass analyzer (APM). To profile relationship between the thermodynamic properties and chemical compositions, smoke PM1.0 and PM2.5 were also measured for the water soluble inorganics, mineral elements, and carbonaceous materials like organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC). Smoke particle has a density of 1.1-1.4 g cm-3, and hygroscopicity parameter (κ) derived from hygroscopic growth factor (GF) of the particles ranges from 0.20 to 0.35. Size- and fuel type-dependence of density and κ are obvious. The integrated effective densities (ρ) and hygroscopicity parameters (κ) both scale with alkali species, which could be parameterized as a function of organic and inorganic mass fraction (forg &finorg) in smoke PM1.0 and PM2.5: ρ-1 =finorg ·ρinorg-1 +forg · ρorg-1 and κ =finorg ·κinorg +forg ·κorg . The extrapolated values of ρinorg and ρorg are 2.13 and 1.14 g cm-3 in smoke PM1.0, while the characteristic κ values of organic and inorganic components are about 0.087 and 0.734, which are similar to the bulk density and κ calculated from predefined chemical species and also consistent with those values observed in ambient air. Volatility of smoke particle was quantified as volume fraction remaining (VFR) and mass fraction remaining (MFR). The gradient temperature of V-TDMA was set to be consistent with the splitting temperature in the OC-EC measurement (OC1 and OC2 separated at 150 and 250 °C). Combing the thermogram data and chemical composition of smoke PM1.0, the densities of organic matter (OM1 and OM2 correspond to OC1 and OC2) are estimated as 0.61-0.90 and 0.86-1.13 g cm-3, and the ratios of OM1/OC1 and OM2/OC2 are 1.07 and 1.29 on average

  4. [Effects of different fertilization measures on N2O emission in oil sunflower field in irrigation area of upper Yellow River].

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhe; Chen, Yuan-yuan; Gao, Ji; Liu, Ru-liang; Yang, Zheng-li; Zhang, Ai-ping

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural soil has become the largest anthropogenic source of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N20). To estimate the impacts of long-term combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers on N20 emission in a typical winter wheat-oil sunflower cropping system in the Ningxia irrigation area, we measured N20 fluxes using the static opaque chamber-gas chromatograph method and monitored the seasonal dynamics of related factors. Our results showed that nitrogen addition in the previous crop field significantly stimulated N2O emissions during the following oil-sunflower cultivation, and the mean fluxes of N300-OM, N240-OM1/2, N300 and N240 were (34.16 ± 9.72), (39.69 ±10.70), (27.75 ±9.57) and (26.30 ± 8.52) µg . m-2 . h-1, respectively, which were 4.09, 4.75, 3.32 and 3.15 times of the control groups. The total cumulative N2O emissions of fertilizer treatments in growing season was as high as 796.7 to 1242.5 g . hm-2, which was 2.99 to 4.67 times of the control groups. During the growing season, the rates of N2O emission in each month organic and inorganic fertlizers combined treatments were similar at high levels. N2O emission in chemical fertilizer treatments gradually decreased, and the main period of N2O emission occurred at the beginning of growing season. Taking July for example, N2O emission accounted for 41.3% to 41. 8% of total cumulative amount. The amounts of N20 emission under organic and inorganic fertilizers combined treatments were significantly higher than under chemical fertilizer treatments. The N2O emissions were not significantly different between conventional and optimized applications of nitrogen fertilizer under the same fertilizing method, either between N300-OM and N240-OM1/2, or between N300 and N240. On account of the drought, N2O emission in each treatment was mainly affected by soil moisture. N2O emission had a significant positive correlation with soil ammonium nitrogen content under combined applications of organic and inorganic

  5. Nanoscale octahedral molecular sieves: Syntheses, characterization, and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jia

    The major part of this research consists of studies on novel synthesis methods, characterization, and catalytic applications of nanoscale manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieves. The second part involves studies of new applications of bulk porous molecular sieve and layered materials (MSLM), zeolites, and inorganic powder materials for diminishing wound bleeding. Manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieves (OMS) are very important microporous materials. They have been used widely as bulk materials in catalysis, separations, chemical sensors, and batteries, due to their unique tunnel structures and useful properties. Novel methods have been developed to synthesize novel nanoscale octahedral molecular sieve manganese oxides (OMS) and metal-substituted OMS materials in order to modify their physical and chemical properties and to improve their catalytic applications. Different synthetic routes were investigated to find better, faster, and cheaper pathways to produce nanoscale or metal-substituted OMS materials. In the synthetic study of nanosize OMS materials, a combination of sol-gel synthesis and hydrothermal reaction was used to prepare pure crystalline nanofibrous todorokite-type (OMS-1) and cryptomelane-typed (OMS-2) manganese oxides using four alkali cations (Li+, K+, Na +, Rb+) and NH4+ cations. In the synthesis study of nanoscale and metal-substituted OMS materials, a combination of sol-gel synthesis and solid-state reaction was used to prepare transition metal-substituted OMS-2 nanorods, nanoneedles, and nanowires. Preparative parameters of syntheses, such as cation templates, heating temperature and time, were investigated in these syntheses of OMS-1 and OMS-2 materials. The catalytic activities of the novel synthetic nanoscale OMS materials has been evaluated on green oxidation of alcohols and toluene and were found to be much higher than their correspondent bulk materials. New applications of bulk manganese oxide molecular sieve and layered materials

  6. A method to screen and evaluate tissue adhesives for joint repair applications

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Tissue adhesives are useful means for various medical procedures. Since varying requirements cause that a single adhesive cannot meet all needs, bond strength testing remains one of the key applications used to screen for new products and study the influence of experimental variables. This study was conducted to develop an easy to use method to screen and evaluate tissue adhesives for tissue engineering applications. Method Tissue grips were designed to facilitate the reproducible production of substrate tissue and adhesive strength measurements in universal testing machines. Porcine femoral condyles were used to generate osteochondral test tissue cylinders (substrates) of different shapes. Viability of substrates was tested using PI/FDA staining. Self-bonding properties were determined to examine reusability of substrates (n = 3). Serial measurements (n = 5) in different operation modes (OM) were performed to analyze the bonding strength of tissue adhesives in bone (OM-1) and cartilage tissue either in isolation (OM-2) or under specific requirements in joint repair such as filling cartilage defects with clinical applied fibrin/PLGA-cell-transplants (OM-3) or tissues (OM-4). The efficiency of the method was determined on the basis of adhesive properties of fibrin glue for different assembly times (30 s, 60 s). Seven randomly generated collagen formulations were analyzed to examine the potential of method to identify new tissue adhesives. Results Viability analysis of test tissue cylinders revealed vital cells (>80%) in cartilage components even 48 h post preparation. Reuse (n = 10) of test substrate did not significantly change adhesive characteristics. Adhesive strength of fibrin varied in different test settings (OM-1: 7.1 kPa, OM-2: 2.6 kPa, OM-3: 32.7 kPa, OM-4: 30.1 kPa) and was increasing with assembly time on average (2.4-fold). The screening of the different collagen formulations revealed a substance with significant higher adhesive

  7. [Effects of different fertilization measures on N2O emission in oil sunflower field in irrigation area of upper Yellow River].

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhe; Chen, Yuan-yuan; Gao, Ji; Liu, Ru-liang; Yang, Zheng-li; Zhang, Ai-ping

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural soil has become the largest anthropogenic source of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N20). To estimate the impacts of long-term combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers on N20 emission in a typical winter wheat-oil sunflower cropping system in the Ningxia irrigation area, we measured N20 fluxes using the static opaque chamber-gas chromatograph method and monitored the seasonal dynamics of related factors. Our results showed that nitrogen addition in the previous crop field significantly stimulated N2O emissions during the following oil-sunflower cultivation, and the mean fluxes of N300-OM, N240-OM1/2, N300 and N240 were (34.16 ± 9.72), (39.69 ±10.70), (27.75 ±9.57) and (26.30 ± 8.52) µg . m-2 . h-1, respectively, which were 4.09, 4.75, 3.32 and 3.15 times of the control groups. The total cumulative N2O emissions of fertilizer treatments in growing season was as high as 796.7 to 1242.5 g . hm-2, which was 2.99 to 4.67 times of the control groups. During the growing season, the rates of N2O emission in each month organic and inorganic fertlizers combined treatments were similar at high levels. N2O emission in chemical fertilizer treatments gradually decreased, and the main period of N2O emission occurred at the beginning of growing season. Taking July for example, N2O emission accounted for 41.3% to 41. 8% of total cumulative amount. The amounts of N20 emission under organic and inorganic fertilizers combined treatments were significantly higher than under chemical fertilizer treatments. The N2O emissions were not significantly different between conventional and optimized applications of nitrogen fertilizer under the same fertilizing method, either between N300-OM and N240-OM1/2, or between N300 and N240. On account of the drought, N2O emission in each treatment was mainly affected by soil moisture. N2O emission had a significant positive correlation with soil ammonium nitrogen content under combined applications of organic and inorganic

  8. Physiochemical properties of carbonaceous aerosol from agricultural residue burning: Density, volatility, and hygroscopicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunlin; Hu, Yunjie; Chen, Jianmin; Ma, Zhen; Ye, Xingnan; Yang, Xin; Wang, Lin; Wang, Xinming; Mellouki, Abdelwahid

    2016-09-01

    Size-resolved effective density, mixing state, and hygroscopicity of smoke particles from five kinds of agricultural residues burning were characterized using an aerosol chamber system, including a volatility/hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analyzer (V/H-TDMA) combined with an aerosol particle mass analyzer (APM). To profile relationship between the thermodynamic properties and chemical compositions, smoke PM1.0 and PM2.5 were also measured for the water soluble inorganics, mineral elements, and carbonaceous materials like organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC). Smoke particle has a density of 1.1-1.4 g cm-3, and hygroscopicity parameter (κ) derived from hygroscopic growth factor (GF) of the particles ranges from 0.20 to 0.35. Size- and fuel type-dependence of density and κ are obvious. The integrated effective densities (ρ) and hygroscopicity parameters (κ) both scale with alkali species, which could be parameterized as a function of organic and inorganic mass fraction (forg &finorg) in smoke PM1.0 and PM2.5: ρ-1 =finorg · ρinorg-1 +forg · ρorg-1 and κ =finorg ·κinorg +forg ·κorg . The extrapolated values of ρinorg and ρorg are 2.13 and 1.14 g cm-3 in smoke PM1.0, while the characteristic κ values of organic and inorganic components are about 0.087 and 0.734, which are similar to the bulk density and κ calculated from predefined chemical species and also consistent with those values observed in ambient air. Volatility of smoke particle was quantified as volume fraction remaining (VFR) and mass fraction remaining (MFR). The gradient temperature of V-TDMA was set to be consistent with the splitting temperature in the OC-EC measurement (OC1 and OC2 separated at 150 and 250 °C). Combing the thermogram data and chemical composition of smoke PM1.0, the densities of organic matter (OM1 and OM2 correspond to OC1 and OC2) are estimated as 0.61-0.90 and 0.86-1.13 g cm-3, and the ratios of OM1/OC1 and OM2/OC2 are 1.07 and 1.29 on average

  9. [CAFFEINE AND QUININE IN SOFT DRINKS; CONTRIBUTION TO THE DIETARY INTAKE].

    PubMed

    González Reyes, Ana Belén; Hardisson de la Torre, Arturo; Gutiérrez Fernández, Angel José; Rubio Armendáriz, Carmen; Frías Tejera, Inmaculada; Revert Gironés, Consuelo

    2015-12-01

    Introducción: las bebidas refrescantes son cada vez más consumidas por la sociedad. Están compuestas por una gran variedad de sustancias, de las cuales algunas, si se consumen en dosis altas y con elevada frecuencia, pueden provocar efectos negativos. Objetivos: determinar la concentración de cafeína y quinina para comprobar si sus niveles se encuentran por debajo de los máximos permitidos por la reglamentación técnico-sanitaria vigente y calcular la contribución a la ingesta dietética obteniendo la Ingesta Diaria Estimada. Método: se analizaron las concentraciones de cafeína y quinina en las principales marcas comerciales de refrescos, usando para ello la técnica de cromatografía líquida de alta resolución. Resultados: se obtuvieron concentraciones para todas las marcas analizadas, que permitieron estimar la media en cada una. Conclusiones: se ha observado que en ningún caso se superan las concentraciones máximas y que la contribución a la ingesta no genera aparición alguna de reacción adversa.

  10. Diversity and Biogeography of Bathyal and Abyssal Seafloor Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Bienhold, Christina; Zinger, Lucie; Boetius, Antje; Ramette, Alban

    2016-01-01

    The deep ocean floor covers more than 60% of the Earth's surface, and hosts diverse bacterial communities with important functions in carbon and nutrient cycles. The identification of key bacterial members remains a challenge and their patterns of distribution in seafloor sediment yet remain poorly described. Previous studies were either regionally restricted or included few deep-sea sediments, and did not specifically test biogeographic patterns across the vast oligotrophic bathyal and abyssal seafloor. Here we define the composition of this deep seafloor microbiome by describing those bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTU) that are specifically associated with deep-sea surface sediments at water depths ranging from 1000-5300 m. We show that the microbiome of the surface seafloor is distinct from the subsurface seafloor. The cosmopolitan bacterial OTU were affiliated with the clades JTB255 (class Gammaproteobacteria, order Xanthomonadales) and OM1 (Actinobacteria, order Acidimicrobiales), comprising 21% and 7% of their respective clades, and about 1% of all sequences in the study. Overall, few sequence-abundant bacterial types were globally dispersed and displayed positive range-abundance relationships. Most bacterial populations were rare and exhibited a high degree of endemism, explaining the substantial differences in community composition observed over large spatial scales. Despite the relative physicochemical uniformity of deep-sea sediments, we identified indicators of productivity regimes, especially sediment organic matter content, as factors significantly associated with changes in bacterial community structure across the globe. PMID:26814838

  11. Effect of sawdust addition on composting of separated raw and anaerobically digested pig manure.

    PubMed

    Troy, Shane M; Nolan, Tereza; Kwapinski, Witold; Leahy, James J; Healy, Mark G; Lawlor, Peadar G

    2012-11-30

    Manures need the addition of carbon-rich bulking agents to conserve N during composting, which increases the cost of the composting process. The recommended proportion of manure/sawdust, based on a carbon (C):nitrogen (N) ratio, is approximately 3:2. Two composting experiments were conducted to determine the impact of varying the proportion of sawdust to either separated raw, or separated anaerobically digested pig manures. To determine stability and maturity of the final compost, oxygen uptake rate (OUR) and germination index (GI) tests were conducted. For both experiments, three treatments were employed: manure-only (Treatment A), manure/sawdust mixed 4:1, fresh weight (Treatment B), and manure/sawdust mixed 3:2, fresh weight (Treatment C). The mixtures were composted in tumblers for 56 days with regular turning. The composting material was tested over the study duration for temperature, pH, water content, organic matter, C:N ratio and bulk density. For both Treatments B and C, the GI indicated low levels of phytotoxicity, and OUR values were lower than the recommended Irish threshold of 13 mmol O(2) kg OM(-1) h(-1), indicating that a high quality compost was produced. The proportion of sawdust to separated manure used can be reduced to make a cost saving, while still producing a stable end-product: 60% less sawdust is required to compost at a manure-to-sawdust ratio of 4:1 compared to the previously recommended ratio of 3:2. PMID:22824375

  12. Locating a modifier gene of Ovum mutant through crosses between DDK and C57BL/6J inbred strains in mice.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jing; Song, Gen Di; Song, Jia Sheng; Ren, Shi Hao; Li, Chun Li; Zheng, Zhen Yu; Zhao, Wei Dong

    2016-06-01

    A striking infertile phenotype has been discovered in the DDK strain of mouse. The DDK females are usually infertile when crossed with males of other inbred strains, whereas DDK males exhibit normal fertility in reciprocal crosses. This phenomenon is caused by mutation in the ovum (Om) locus on chromosome 11 and known as the DDK syndrome. Previously, some research groups reported that the embryonic mortality deviated from the semilethal rate in backcrosses between heterozygous (Om/+) females and males of other strains. This embryonic mortality exhibited an aggravated trend with increasing background genes of other strains. These results indicated that some modifier genes of Om were present in other strains. In the present study, a population of N₂2 (Om/+) females from the backcrosses between C57BL/6J (B6) and F₁ (B6♀ × DDK♂) was used to map potential modifier genes of Om. Quantitative trait locus showed that a major locus, namely Amom1 (aggravate modifier gene of Om 1), was located at the middle part of chromosome 9 in mice. The Amom1 could increase the expressivity of Om gene, thereby aggravating embryonic lethality when heterozygous (Om/+) females mated with males of B6 strain. Further, the 1.5 LOD-drop analysis indicated that the confidence interval was between 37.54 and 44.46 cM, ~6.92 cM. Amom1 is the first modifier gene of Om in the B6 background.

  13. Discoveries from EOS Aura

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglass, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Aura, the third and final of three large observatories that are part of NASA s Earth Observing System, was launched July 15,2004. Aura carries four instruments - the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES), the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS), all of which measure atmospheric constituents. Aura measurements provide information to address broad questions about the Earth atmosphere, particularly concerning the recovery of the stratospheric ozone layer, tropospheric air quality, and climate change. TES has made the simultaneous measurements of carbon monoxide and ozone in the lower and upper troposphere. OM1 continues to observe the total ozone column and measures columns of important pollutants like NO2 at unprecedented horizontal resolution and coverage. MLS measures profiles of stratospheric ozone and constituents that affect ozone from the mesosphere into the upper troposphere. This talk will highlight results from Aura s first years in orbit, and will emphasize the way information from Aura and other satellites has contributed to the development, evaluation, and application of global chemistry climate models.

  14. The statistical uncertainty of changes in winter storms over the North Atlantic and Europe in an ensemble of transient climate simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Della-Marta, Paul M.; Pinto, Joaquim G.

    2010-05-01

    Winter storms are among the most important natural hazards affecting Europe. We quantify changes in storm frequency and intensity over the North Atlantic and Europe under future climate scenarios in terms of return periods (RP) considering uncertainties due to both sampling and methodology. With this aim, ensemble simulations with the coupled ECHAM5/MPI-OM1 GCM for recent climate conditions (20C, 1960-2000) and future climate scenarios (SRES A1B and A2, 2001-2100) are analyzed. RPs of North Atlantic storms' minimum central pressure (CP) and maximum vorticity (VOR) remain unchanged by 2100 for both the A1B and A2 SRES scenarios compared to the recent climate (1960-2000). Whereas shortened RPs for VOR of all intensities are detected for the area between British Isles/North-Sea/western Europe as early as 2040. CP RP of future storms in this area are significant shorter only for lower intensity events. These results indicate that storms could become more intense during the 21st century. However, the changes in storm VOR RP may be unrealistically large: a present day 50 (20) year event becomes approximately a 9 (5.5) year event in both A1B and A2 scenarios by 2100. The detected shortened RPs of storms implies a higher risk of occurrence of damaging wind events over Europe.

  15. Factors influencing on the bioaccessibility of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in size-specific dust from air conditioner filters.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yingxin; Yang, Dan; Wang, Xinxin; Huang, Ningbao; Zhang, Xinyu; Zhang, Dongping; Fu, Jiamo

    2013-11-01

    Size-specific concentrations and bioaccessibility of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in dust from air conditioner filters were measured, and the factors influencing the PBDE bioaccessibility were determined. Generally, the PBDE concentrations increased with decreasing dust particle size, and BDE209 (deca-BDE) was generally the predominant congener. The bioaccessibility ranged from 20.3% to 50.8% for tri- to hepta-BDEs, and from 5.1% to 13.9% for BDE209 in dust fractions of varied particle size. The bioaccessibility of most PBDE congeners decreased with increasing dust particle size. The way of being of PBDE (adsorbed to dust surface or incorporated into polymers) in dust significantly influenced the bioaccessibility. There was a significant negative correlation between the tri- to hepta-BDE bioaccessibility and organic matter (OM) contents in dust. Furthermore, tri- to hepta-BDE bioaccessibility increased with increasing polarity of OMs, while with decreasing aromaticity of OMs. The tri- to hepta-BDE bioaccessibility significantly positively correlated with the surface areas and pore volumes of dust. Using multiple linear regression analysis, it was found that the OM contents and pore volumes of dust were the most important factors to influence the tri- to hepta-BDE bioaccessibility and they could be used to estimate the bioaccessibility of tri- to hepta-BDEs according to the following equation: bioaccessibility (%)=45.05-0.49 × OM%+1.79 × pore volume. However, BDE209 bioaccessibility did not correlate to any of these factors. PMID:24144462

  16. Locating a modifier gene of Ovum mutant through crosses between DDK and C57BL/6J inbred strains in mice.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jing; Song, Gen Di; Song, Jia Sheng; Ren, Shi Hao; Li, Chun Li; Zheng, Zhen Yu; Zhao, Wei Dong

    2016-06-01

    A striking infertile phenotype has been discovered in the DDK strain of mouse. The DDK females are usually infertile when crossed with males of other inbred strains, whereas DDK males exhibit normal fertility in reciprocal crosses. This phenomenon is caused by mutation in the ovum (Om) locus on chromosome 11 and known as the DDK syndrome. Previously, some research groups reported that the embryonic mortality deviated from the semilethal rate in backcrosses between heterozygous (Om/+) females and males of other strains. This embryonic mortality exhibited an aggravated trend with increasing background genes of other strains. These results indicated that some modifier genes of Om were present in other strains. In the present study, a population of N₂2 (Om/+) females from the backcrosses between C57BL/6J (B6) and F₁ (B6♀ × DDK♂) was used to map potential modifier genes of Om. Quantitative trait locus showed that a major locus, namely Amom1 (aggravate modifier gene of Om 1), was located at the middle part of chromosome 9 in mice. The Amom1 could increase the expressivity of Om gene, thereby aggravating embryonic lethality when heterozygous (Om/+) females mated with males of B6 strain. Further, the 1.5 LOD-drop analysis indicated that the confidence interval was between 37.54 and 44.46 cM, ~6.92 cM. Amom1 is the first modifier gene of Om in the B6 background. PMID:27350672

  17. Real-time demonstration of 128-QAM-encoded optical OFDM transmission with a 5.25bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency in simple IMDD systems utilizing directly modulated DFB lasers.

    PubMed

    Jin, X Q; Giddings, R P; Hugues-Salas, E; Tang, J M

    2009-10-26

    The feasibility of implementing 128-QAM in off-the-shelf component-based real-time optical OFDM (OOFDM) transceivers incorporating advanced channel estimation, on-line performance monitoring and live parameter optimisation, is experimentally investigated, for the first time, in intensity-modulation and direct-detection (IMDD) single-mode fibre (SMF) and multi-mode fibre (MMF) transmission systems involving directly modulated DFB lasers. The highest ever spectral efficiency of 5.25bit/s/Hz is demonstrated successfully in the aforementioned simple systems. Experimental investigations show that, it is feasible to transmit 5.25 Gb/s 128-QAM-encoded OOFDM real-time signals over 25 km MetroCor(TM) SMFs and 500 m 62.5/125 microm OM1 MMFs. The impact of key parameters on the transmission performance of the real-time OOFDM transceivers with 128-QAM encoding are explored, based on which optimum signal clipping ratios are identified. PMID:19997277

  18. Response of soil microbial respiration to varying temperature and moisture in three soils from the Siberian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, S.; Bunn, A. G.; Schade, J. D.; Polaris Project

    2011-12-01

    The climate of the Arctic is warming at a disproportionately higher rate as compared to the lower latitudes. Temperature and, by association, soil moisture are two of the most important variables that affect the respiration of soil microbial communities. The long-term storage of carbon in terrestrial systems relies upon low rates of soil microbial respiration at high latitudes, and an increase in temperature is thought to increase these rates. However, different ecosystems should respond uniquely to changes in temperature and moisture because of their historic microbial communities. Using mason jars in the laboratory, I experimentally manipulated the temperature and moisture of soils from three distinct arctic ecosystem types (tundra, taiga, and grazed floodplain). The goal of this experimental manipulation was to see if there are differences between these systems in their response to changes in their environment. I found that temperature significantly impacts microbial respiration (μg CO2 gOM-1 min-1) at all sites (p<0.001). In addition, there is a significant interaction between temperature and moisture at each site (p<0.001). However, the tundra site showed a stronger response in respiration with changes to temperature than the other two sites, as well as the strongest interaction between temperature and moisture (βtemperature= 1.5E10 -3; βinteraction= 1.9E10 -3). These findings are consistent with other observations that the soil microbial communities of the tundra grassland might be especially sensitive to warming.

  19. Diversity and Biogeography of Bathyal and Abyssal Seafloor Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Bienhold, Christina; Zinger, Lucie; Boetius, Antje; Ramette, Alban

    2016-01-01

    The deep ocean floor covers more than 60% of the Earth’s surface, and hosts diverse bacterial communities with important functions in carbon and nutrient cycles. The identification of key bacterial members remains a challenge and their patterns of distribution in seafloor sediment yet remain poorly described. Previous studies were either regionally restricted or included few deep-sea sediments, and did not specifically test biogeographic patterns across the vast oligotrophic bathyal and abyssal seafloor. Here we define the composition of this deep seafloor microbiome by describing those bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTU) that are specifically associated with deep-sea surface sediments at water depths ranging from 1000–5300 m. We show that the microbiome of the surface seafloor is distinct from the subsurface seafloor. The cosmopolitan bacterial OTU were affiliated with the clades JTB255 (class Gammaproteobacteria, order Xanthomonadales) and OM1 (Actinobacteria, order Acidimicrobiales), comprising 21% and 7% of their respective clades, and about 1% of all sequences in the study. Overall, few sequence-abundant bacterial types were globally dispersed and displayed positive range-abundance relationships. Most bacterial populations were rare and exhibited a high degree of endemism, explaining the substantial differences in community composition observed over large spatial scales. Despite the relative physicochemical uniformity of deep-sea sediments, we identified indicators of productivity regimes, especially sediment organic matter content, as factors significantly associated with changes in bacterial community structure across the globe. PMID:26814838

  20. Trypanosoma cruzi infection in Triatoma sordida before and after community-wide residual insecticide spraying in the Argentinean Chaco.

    PubMed

    Macchiaverna, Natalia P; Gaspe, María S; Enriquez, Gustavo F; Tomassone, Laura; Gürtler, Ricardo E; Cardinal, Marta V

    2015-03-01

    Triatoma sordida is a secondary vector of Trypanosoma cruzi in the Gran Chaco and Cerrado eco-regions where it frequently infests peridomestic and domestic habitats. In a well-defined area of the humid Argentine Chaco, very few T. sordida were found infected when examined by optical microscopic examination (OM). In order to further assess the role of T. sordida and the relative magnitude of subpatent bug infections, we examined the insects for T. cruzi infection, parasite Discrete Typing Units (DTUs) and bloodmeal sources using various molecular techniques. Among 205 bugs with a negative or no OM-based diagnosis, the prevalence of infection determined by kDNA-PCR was nearly the same in bugs captured before (6.3%) and 4 months after insecticide spraying (6.4%). On average, these estimates were sixfold higher than the prevalence of infection based on OM (1.1%). Only TcI was identified, a DTU typically associated with opossums and rodents. Chickens and turkeys were the only bloodmeal sources identified in the infected specimens and the main local hosts at the bugs' capture sites. As birds are refractory to T. cruzi infection, further studies are needed to identify the infectious bloodmeal hosts. The persistent finding of infected T. sordida after community-wide insecticide spraying highlights the need of sustained vector surveillance to effectively prevent T. cruzi transmission in the domestic and peridomestic habitats.

  1. First Global Maps of Stratospheric and Tropospheric NO2 from OMI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bucsela, Eric J.; Celarier, Edward A.; Wenig, Mark O.; Gleason, James F.; Veefkind, J. Pepijn

    2004-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) was launched successfully in July 2004, as one of four instruments on the EOS Aura satellite. OMI makes hyperspectral measurements that are used to retrieve column densities of critical trace gases, including formaldehyde, BrO, SO2 and NO2 . We present the first results from the OM1 operational NO2 algorithm and demonstrate its ability to retrieve the tropospheric and stratospheric components of NO2. The DOAS method is used to determine slant column densities, and initial air mass factors (AMFs) are used. to give initial estimates of the vertical column densities (VCDs). VCDs from up to 15 consecutive orbits are collected, and a spatial filtering technique is applied to extract the synoptic-scale features characteristic of the stratospheric, field. features to be evidence of tropospheric excess NO2 , and apply an AMF appropriate to polluted conditions, to obtain an improved retrieval of the NO2 total VCD. We describe the assumptions underlying the algorithm in detail, and show global maps of NO2 VCDs, based on the first operational data from OMI.

  2. EOS-Aura's Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI): Validation Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinksma, E. J.; McPeters, R.; deHaan, J. F.; Levelt, P. F.; Hilsenrath, E.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2003-01-01

    OMI is an advanced hyperspectral instrument that measures backscattered radiation in the UV and visible. It will be flown as part of the EOS Aura mission and provide data on atmospheric chemistry that is highly synergistic with other Aura instruments HIRDLS, MLS, and TES. OMI is designed to measure total ozone, aerosols, cloud information, and UV irradiances, continuing the TOMS series of global mapped products but with higher spatial resolution. In addition its hyperspectral capability enables measurements of trace gases such as SO2, NO2, HCHO, BrO, and OClO. A plan for validation of the various OM1 products is now being formulated. Validation of the total column and UVB products will rely heavily on existing networks of instruments, like NDSC. NASA and its European partners are planning aircraft missions for the validation of Aura instruments. New instruments and techniques (DOAS systems for example) will need to be developed, both ground and aircraft based. Lidar systems are needed for validation of the vertical distributions of ozone, aerosols, NO2 and possibly SO2. The validation emphasis will be on the retrieval of these products under polluted conditions. This is challenging because they often depend on the tropospheric profiles of the product in question, and because of large spatial variations in the troposphere. Most existing ground stations are located in, and equipped for, pristine environments. This is also true for almost all NDSC stations. OMI validation will need ground based sites in polluted environments and specially developed instruments, complementing the existing instrumentation.

  3. Windrow composting as horticultural waste management strategy - A case study in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Gavilanes-Terán, Irene; Jara-Samaniego, Janneth; Idrovo-Novillo, Julio; Bustamante, Ma Angeles; Moral, Raúl; Paredes, Concepción

    2016-02-01

    In Ecuador, enormous quantities of vegetable wastes are produced annually from the horticultural industries. Composting can be a feasible treatment to stabilise horticultural wastes and, thus, to improve their properties for use as organic fertilisers. In this study, two different piles were prepared, using laying hen manure and sawdust mixed with broccoli or tomato waste, respectively, and composted by the turned windrow composting system. Throughout the composting process, the temperature of the mixtures was monitored and physico-chemical and chemical properties and the degree of maturity were determined. Also, principal component analysis was used to interpret the data set of compost characteristics. In both piles, the temperature exceeded 55°C for more than 2weeks, which ensured maximum pathogen reduction. Organic matter (OM) losses followed a first-order kinetic equation in both piles. The final composts showed a suitable degree of stability and maturity and an absence of phytotoxins, as observed in the evolution and final values of the total organic carbon/total nitrogen ratio (Corg/NT<20), water-soluble organic carbon (Cw<1.7%), germination index (GI>50%) and cation exchange capacity (CEC>67meq (100g OM)(-1)). As well, the evolution of different humification indexes during composting was a good indicator of the OM humification process. The type of vegetable waste used influenced OM and NT mineralisation and the final properties of the composts, showing the mixture with tomato waste a higher fertilising capacity and less environmental problems.

  4. [Translation and adaptation to Spanish language of the quality of life questionnaire for celiac people called Canadian Celiac Health Survey].

    PubMed

    Pelegrí, Cristina; Mañes, Jordi; Soriano, Jose Miguel

    2014-10-01

    Introducción: Adaptar y valorar el cuestionario de calidad de vida denominado Canadian Celiac Health Survey (CCHS). Objetivo: Traducir y adaptar en castellano el cuestionario CCHS para poder ser utilizado por la población de habla hispana puesto que se trata de un cuestionario específico para la celiaquía. Método: La adaptación del CCHS, que consta de 76 ítems distribuidos en 11 secciones diferentes, se realizó mediante el método de traducción-retrotraducción y tras ser revisado y consensuado se procedió a realizar una prueba piloto con 25 personas celíacas, de forma individual y por un miembro del grupo de investigación, para valorar la comprensión de los ítems y sus secciones. Las aportaciones fueron introducidas, configurando el cuestionario definitivo. Resultados: La máxima dificultad en la traducción se produjo en la pregunta donde existían principios activos y nombres comerciales de medicamentos, optándose para ello a los comercializados a nivel nacional. Por otro lado, para el estudio piloto del cuestionario se observó un buen valor de la naturalidad de la comprensión con valores comprendidos entre 8,4 y 10,0. Conclusiones: La herramienta específica CHCS permitirá el uso de un cuestionario que pueda ser utilizado por la población de habla hispana en estudios, ensayos clínicos o en la práctica profesional sanitaria cotidiana, permitiendo un mejor conocimiento del estado de salud de los celíacos.

  5. Meta-Analysis of Attitudes toward Damage-Causing Mammalian Wildlife

    PubMed Central

    KANSKY, RUTH; KIDD, MARTIN; KNIGHT, ANDREW T

    2014-01-01

    íferos Silvestres Causantes de Daños Resumen Muchas poblaciones de mamíferos amenazados persisten fuera de áreas protegidas formales y su supervivencia depende de la buena voluntad de las comunidades que coexisten con ellos. Un entendimiento de las posturas, y específicamente de la tolerancia, de los individuos y las comunidades y los factores que los determinan es fundamental para diseñar estrategias que alivien el conflicto humano – vida silvestre. Llevamos a cabo un meta-análisis para identificar los factores que afectaron las posturas hacia cuatro grupos de mamíferos terrestres. Los elefantes (65%) provocaron las posturas más positivas. Los siguieron los primates (55%), los ungulados (53%) y los carnívoros (44%). Los residentes urbanos presentaron las posturas más positivas (80%), seguidos por los granjeros comerciales (51%) y los granjeros comunales (26%). Un índice de tolerancia a los daños mostró que la tolerancia humana a los ungulados y primates fue proporcional a la probabilidad de experimentar daños mientras que los elefantes provocaron niveles de tolerancia más altos de lo esperado y los carnívoros provocaron niveles de tolerancia más bajos de lo esperado. Contrario a la sabiduría convencional, experimentar daños no fue siempre el factor dominante para determinar las posturas. Los granjeros comunales tuvieron una baja probabilidad de ser positivos hacia los carnívoros independientemente de la probabilidad de experimentar daños, mientras que los granjeros comerciales y los residentes urbanos tuvieron mayor probabilidad de ser positivos hacia los carnívoros independientemente de los daños. Los residentes urbanos tuvieron mayor probabilidad de ser positivos hacia los ungulados, los elefantes y los primates cuando la probabilidad de daños fue baja, pero no cuando fue alta. Los granjeros comerciales y comunales tuvieron una mayor probabilidad de ser positivos hacia los ungulados, los primates y los elefantes independientemente de la probabilidad de

  6. Analysis of Regional Climate Changes adjusted Future Urban Growth Scenarios and possibility of the future air quality prediction in Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Kim, Y.; Jeong, J.

    2012-12-01

    Land-use changes give effects to physical properties such as albedo, moisture availability and roughness length in the atmosphere, but future urban growth has not been considered widely to predict the future regional climate change because it is hard to predict the future land-use changes. In this study, we used the urban growth model called SLEUTH (Slope, Land-use, Excluded, Urban, Transportation, Hill-shade) based on Cellular Automata (CA) technique to predict the future land-use (especially, urban growth) changes. Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), the research area in this study, is the most explosively developed region in the Korean peninsula due to the continuous industrialization since 1970s. SLEUTH was calibrated to know the pattern and process of the urban growth and expansion in SMA with historical data for 35 years (1975-2000) provided from WAter Management Information System (WAMIS) in Korea and then future urban growth was projected out to 2050 assuming three different scenarios: (1) historical trends of urban growth (SC1), (2) future urban policy and plan (SC2), (3) ecological protection and growth (SC3). We used the FNL data of NCEP/NCAR for one month, Oct. in 2005 to evaluate the performance of the WRF on the long-term climate simulation and compared results of WRF with the ASOS/AWS (Automated Surface Observing Systems and Automated Weather System) observation data of the Korea Meteorology Administration. Based on the accuracy of the model, we performed various numerical experiments by the urban growth scenarios using the 6 hourly data of ECHAM5/OM-1 A1B scenarios generated by Max-Plank Institute for Meteorology in Hamburg, Germany on Oct. for 5 years (2046-2050), respectively. The difference of urban ratio under various urban growth scenarios in SMA consequently caused the spatial distributions of temperature to change, the average temperature to increase in the urban area. PBL height with a maximum of about 200m also appeared locally in newly

  7. Long-term ERP time series as indicators for global climate variability and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, E.; Grötzsch, A.; Ulbrich, U.; Leckebusch, G. C.; Nevir, P.; Thomas, M.

    2009-04-01

    This study assesses whether variations in observed Earth orientation parameters (EOPs, IERS) such as length-of day (LOD EOP C04) and polar motion (PM EOP C04) can be applied as climate indicators. Data analyses suggest that observed EOPs are differently affected by parameters associated with the atmosphere and ocean. On interannual time scales the varying ocean-atmosphere effects on EOPs are in particular pronounced during episodes of the coupled ocean-atmosphere phenomenon El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Observed ENSO anomalies of spatial patterns of parameters affected by atmosphere and ocean (climate indices and sea surface temperatures) are related to LOD and PM variability and associated with possible physical background processes. Present time analyses (1962 - 2000) indicate that the main source of the varying ENSO signal on observed LOD can be associated with anomalies of the relative angular momentum (AAM) related to variations in location and strength of jet streams of the upper troposphere. While on interannual time scales observed LOD and AAM are highly correlated (r=0.75), results suggest that strong El Niño events affect the observed LOD - AAM relation differently strong (explained variance 71%- 98%). Accordingly, the relation between AAM and ocean sea surface temperatures (SST) in the NIÑO 3.4 region differs (explained variances 15%-73%). Corresponding analysis is conducted on modelled EOPs (ERA40 reanalysis, ECHAM5-OM1) to obtain Earth rotation parameters undisturbed by core-mantle activities, and to study rotational variations under climate variability and change. A total of 91 strong El Niño events are analysed in coupled ocean-atmosphere ECHAM5-OM1 scenarios concerning the 20th century (20C), climate warming (A1B) and pre-industrial climate variability. Analyses on a total of 61 strong El Niño events covering a time period of 505 simulation years under pre-industrial climate conditions indicate a range of El Niño events with a strong or

  8. Co-occurrence Analysis of Microbial Taxa in the Atlantic Ocean Reveals High Connectivity in the Free-Living Bacterioplankton

    PubMed Central

    Milici, Mathias; Deng, Zhi-Luo; Tomasch, Jürgen; Decelle, Johan; Wos-Oxley, Melissa L.; Wang, Hui; Jáuregui, Ruy; Plumeier, Iris; Giebel, Helge-Ansgar; Badewien, Thomas H.; Wurst, Mascha; Pieper, Dietmar H.; Simon, Meinhard; Wagner-Döbler, Irene

    2016-01-01

    We determined the taxonomic composition of the bacterioplankton of the epipelagic zone of the Atlantic Ocean along a latitudinal transect (51°S–47°N) using Illumina sequencing of the V5-V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene and inferred co-occurrence networks. Bacterioplankon community composition was distinct for Longhurstian provinces and water depth. Free-living microbial communities (between 0.22 and 3 μm) were dominated by highly abundant and ubiquitous taxa with streamlined genomes (e.g., SAR11, SAR86, OM1, Prochlorococcus) and could clearly be separated from particle-associated communities which were dominated by Bacteroidetes, Planktomycetes, Verrucomicrobia, and Roseobacters. From a total of 369 different communities we then inferred co-occurrence networks for each size fraction and depth layer of the plankton between bacteria and between bacteria and phototrophic micro-eukaryotes. The inferred networks showed a reduction of edges in the deepest layer of the photic zone. Networks comprised of free-living bacteria had a larger amount of connections per OTU when compared to the particle associated communities throughout the water column. Negative correlations accounted for roughly one third of the total edges in the free-living communities at all depths, while they decreased with depth in the particle associated communities where they amounted for roughly 10% of the total in the last part of the epipelagic zone. Co-occurrence networks of bacteria with phototrophic micro-eukaryotes were not taxon-specific, and dominated by mutual exclusion (~60%). The data show a high degree of specialization to micro-environments in the water column and highlight the importance of interdependencies particularly between free-living bacteria in the upper layers of the epipelagic zone. PMID:27199970

  9. Simulations of Tropospheric NO2 by the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) Model Utilizing Assimilated and Forecast Meteorological Fields: Comparison to Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez, J. M.; Yoshida, Y.; Duncan, B. N.; Bucsela, E. J.; Gleason, J. F.; Allen, D.; Pickering, K. E.

    2007-01-01

    We present simulations of the tropospheric composition for the years 2004 and 2005, carried out by the GMI Combined Stratosphere-Troposphere (Combo) model, at a resolution of 2degx2.5deg. The model includes a new parameterization of lightning sources of NO(x) which is coupled to the cloud mass fluxes in the adopted meteorological fields. These simulations use two different sets of input meteorological fields: a)late-look assimilated fields from the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO), GEOS-4 system and b) 12-hour forecast fields initialized with the assimilated data. Comparison of the forecast to the assimilated fields indicates that the forecast fields exhibit less vigorous convection, and yield tropical precipitation fields in better agreement with observations. Since these simulations include a complete representation of the stratosphere, they provide realistic stratosphere-tropospheric fluxes of O3 and NO(y). Furthermore, the stratospheric contribution to total columns of different troposheric species can be subtracted in a consistent fashion, and the lightning production of NO(y) will depend on the adopted meteorological field. We concentrate here on the simulated tropospheric columns of NO2, and compare them to observations by the OM1 instrument for the years 2004 and 2005. The comparison is used to address these questions: a) is there a significant difference in the agreement/disagreement between simulations for these two different meteorological fields, and if so, what causes these differences?; b) how do the simulations compare to OMI observations, and does this comparison indicate an improvement in simulations with the forecast fields? c) what are the implications of these simulations for our understanding of the NO2 emissions over continental polluted regions?

  10. Co-occurrence Analysis of Microbial Taxa in the Atlantic Ocean Reveals High Connectivity in the Free-Living Bacterioplankton.

    PubMed

    Milici, Mathias; Deng, Zhi-Luo; Tomasch, Jürgen; Decelle, Johan; Wos-Oxley, Melissa L; Wang, Hui; Jáuregui, Ruy; Plumeier, Iris; Giebel, Helge-Ansgar; Badewien, Thomas H; Wurst, Mascha; Pieper, Dietmar H; Simon, Meinhard; Wagner-Döbler, Irene

    2016-01-01

    We determined the taxonomic composition of the bacterioplankton of the epipelagic zone of the Atlantic Ocean along a latitudinal transect (51°S-47°N) using Illumina sequencing of the V5-V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene and inferred co-occurrence networks. Bacterioplankon community composition was distinct for Longhurstian provinces and water depth. Free-living microbial communities (between 0.22 and 3 μm) were dominated by highly abundant and ubiquitous taxa with streamlined genomes (e.g., SAR11, SAR86, OM1, Prochlorococcus) and could clearly be separated from particle-associated communities which were dominated by Bacteroidetes, Planktomycetes, Verrucomicrobia, and Roseobacters. From a total of 369 different communities we then inferred co-occurrence networks for each size fraction and depth layer of the plankton between bacteria and between bacteria and phototrophic micro-eukaryotes. The inferred networks showed a reduction of edges in the deepest layer of the photic zone. Networks comprised of free-living bacteria had a larger amount of connections per OTU when compared to the particle associated communities throughout the water column. Negative correlations accounted for roughly one third of the total edges in the free-living communities at all depths, while they decreased with depth in the particle associated communities where they amounted for roughly 10% of the total in the last part of the epipelagic zone. Co-occurrence networks of bacteria with phototrophic micro-eukaryotes were not taxon-specific, and dominated by mutual exclusion (~60%). The data show a high degree of specialization to micro-environments in the water column and highlight the importance of interdependencies particularly between free-living bacteria in the upper layers of the epipelagic zone.

  11. Restructuring and redistribution of actinides in Am-MOX fuel during the first 24 h of irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Kosuke; Miwa, Shuhei; Sekine, Shin-ichi; Yoshimochi, Hiroshi; Obayashi, Hiroshi; Koyama, Shin-ichi

    2013-09-01

    In order to confirm the effect of minor actinide additions on the irradiation behavior of MOX fuel pellets, 3 wt.% and 5 wt.% americium-containing MOX (Am-MOX) fuels were irradiated for 10 min at 43 kW/m and for 24 h at 45 kW/m in the experimental fast reactor Joyo. Two nominal values of the fuel pellet oxygen-to-metal ratio (O/M), 1.95 and 1.98, were used as a test parameter. Emphasis was placed on the behavior of restructuring and redistribution of actinides which directly affect the fuel performance and the fuel design for fast reactors. Microstructural evolutions in the fuels were observed by optical microscopy and the redistribution of constituent elements was determined by EPMA using false color X-ray mapping and quantitative point analyses. The ceramography results showed that structural changes occurred quickly in the initial stage of irradiation. Restructuring of the fuel from middle to upper axial positions developed and was almost completed after the 24-h irradiation. No sign of fuel melting was found in any of the specimens. The EPMA results revealed that Am as well as Pu migrated radially up the temperature gradient to the center of the fuel pellet. The increase in Am concentration on approaching the edge of the central void and its maximum value were higher than those of Pu after the 10-min irradiation and the difference was more pronounced after the 24-h irradiation. The increment of the Am and Pu concentrations due to redistribution increased with increasing central void size. In all of the specimens examined, the extent of redistribution of Am and Pu was higher in the fuel of O/M ratio of 1.98 than in that of 1.95.

  12. Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection and Hemodynamic Instability: Can Emergent PCI Be Life Saving? Report of Two Cases and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Al Emam, Abdel Rahman A; Almomani, Ahmed; Gilani, Syed A

    2014-12-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a rare cause of acute coronary syndrome. It occurs predominantly among younger females and typically in the absence of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease. It is associated with peripartum period, connective tissue disorders, vasculitides, and extreme exertion. Presentations vary greatly, and this condition can be fatal. Given its rarity, there are no guidelines for management of SCAD. We present the cases of two female patients, with no coronary artery disease risk factors or recent pregnancy, who were presented with non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) and ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), respectively, secondary to SCAD. Both had excellent outcome after emergent percutaneous intervention. Our first patient was presented with NSTEMI with ongoing chest pain and dynamic electrocardiogram (ECG). Emergent left heart catheterization was significant for first obtuse marginal (OM1) dissection, confirmed by optical coherence tomography. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with two bare metal stents was performed with resolution of symptoms and ECG changes. The second patient is known to have syndrome, presented with STEMI and emergent coronary angiography showed left anterior descending dissection with intramural hematoma confirmed by intravascular ultrasound and treated with a drug-eluting stent with resolution of symptoms and ST changes. Her hospital course was complicated by post-myocardial infarction pericarditis that was improved with colchicine. Both the patients were observed in the coronary care unit for 24 hours. Both remained asymptomatic at 6-month follow-up. SCAD is a rare cause of acute coronary syndrome. In patients with early presentation, limited disease, and ongoing symptoms, emergent cardiac catheterization with percutaneous intervention has excellent outcome. More studies are needed to establish evidence-based management guidelines.

  13. Exploration of OMI Products for Air Quality Applications Through Comparisons with Models and Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickering, K. E.; Ziemke, J.; Bucsela, E.; Gleason, J.; Marufu, L.; Dickerson, R.; Mathur, R.; Davidson, P.; Duncan, B.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2006-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on board NASA s Aura satellite was launched in July 2004, and is now providing daily global observations of total column ozone, NO2, and SO2, as well as aerosol information. Algorithms have also been developed to produce daily tropospheric ozone and NO2 products. The tropospheric ozone product reported here is a tropospheric residual computed through use of Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) ozone profile data to quantify stratospheric ozone. We are investigating the applicability of OMI products for use in air quality modeling, forecasting, and analysis. These investigations include comparison of the OMI tropospheric O3 and NO2 products with global and regional models and with lower tropospheric aircraft observations. Large-scale transport of pollution seen in the OM1 tropospheric O3 data is compared with output from NASA's Global Modeling Initiative global chemistry and transport model. On the regional scale we compare the OMI tropospheric O3 and NO2 with fields from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and Environmental Protection Agency (NOAA/EPA) operational Eta/CMAQ air quality forecasting model over the eastern United States. This 12-km horizontal resolution model output is roughly of equivalent resolution to the OMI pixel data. Correlation analysis between lower tropospheric aircraft O3 profile data taken by the University of Maryland over the Mid-Atlantic States and OMI tropospheric column mean volume mixing ratio for O3 will be presented. These aircraft data are representative of the lowest 3 kilometers of the atmosphere, the region in which much of the locally-generated and regionally-transported ozone exists.

  14. Geochemical Fate and Transport of Diphenhydramine and Cetirizine in Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wireman, R.; Rutherford, C. J.; Vulava, V. M.; Cory, W. C.

    2015-12-01

    Pharmaceuticals compounds presence in natural soils and water around the world has become a growing concern. These compounds are being discharged into the environment through treated wastewater or municipal sludge applications. The main goal of this study is determine their geochemical fate in natural soils. In this study we investigated sorption and transport behavior of diphenhydramine (DPH) and cetirizine (CTZ) in natural soils. These two commonly-used antihistamines are complex aromatic hydrocarbons with polar functional groups. Two clean acidic soils (pH~4.5) were used for these studies - an A-horizon soil that had higher organic matter content (OM, 7.6%) and a B-horizon soil that had lower OM (1.6%), but higher clay content (5.1%). Sorption isotherms were measured using batch reactor experiments. Data indicated that sorption was nonlinear and that it was stronger in clay-rich soils. The pKa's of DPH and CTZ are 8.98 and 8.27 respectively, i.e., these compounds are predominantly in cationic form at soil pH. In these forms, they preferentially sorb to negatively charged mineral surfaces (e.g., clay) present in the soils. Soil clay mineral characterization indicated that kaolinite was the dominant clay mineral present along with small amount of montmorillonite. The nonlinear sorption isotherms were fitted with Freundlich model. Transport behavior of both compounds was measured using glass chromatography columns. As expected both DPH and CTZ were strongly retained in the clay-rich soil as compared with OM-rich soil. The asymmetrical shape of the breakthrough curves indicated that there were likely two separate sorption sites in the soil, each with different reaction rates with each compound. A two-region advection-dispersion transport code was used to model the transport breakthrough curves. There was no evidence of transformation or degradation of the compounds during our sorption and transport studies.

  15. Enhancing E. coli tolerance towards oxidative stress via engineering its global regulator cAMP receptor protein (CRP).

    PubMed

    Basak, Souvik; Jiang, Rongrong

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative damage to microbial hosts often occurs under stressful conditions during bioprocessing. Classical strain engineering approaches are usually both time-consuming and labor intensive. Here, we aim to improve E. coli performance under oxidative stress via engineering its global regulator cAMP receptor protein (CRP), which can directly or indirectly regulate redox-sensing regulators SoxR and OxyR, and other ~400 genes in E. coli. Error-prone PCR technique was employed to introduce modifications to CRP, and three mutants (OM1~OM3) were identified with improved tolerance via H(2)O(2) enrichment selection. The best mutant OM3 could grow in 12 mM H(2)O(2) with the growth rate of 0.6 h(-1), whereas the growth of wild type was completely inhibited at this H(2)O(2) concentration. OM3 also elicited enhanced thermotolerance at 48°C as well as resistance against cumene hydroperoxide. The investigation about intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), which determines cell viability, indicated that the accumulation of ROS in OM3 was always lower than in WT with or without H(2)O(2) treatment. Genome-wide DNA microarray analysis has shown not only CRP-regulated genes have demonstrated great transcriptional level changes (up to 8.9-fold), but also RpoS- and OxyR-regulated genes (up to 7.7-fold). qRT-PCR data and enzyme activity assay suggested that catalase (katE) could be a major antioxidant enzyme in OM3 instead of alkyl hydroperoxide reductase or superoxide dismutase. To our knowledge, this is the first work on improving E. coli oxidative stress resistance by reframing its transcription machinery through its native global regulator. The positive outcome of this approach may suggest that engineering CRP can be successfully implemented as an efficient strain engineering alternative for E. coli. PMID:23251448

  16. Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection and Hemodynamic Instability: Can Emergent PCI Be Life Saving? Report of Two Cases and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Al Emam, Abdel Rahman A.; Almomani, Ahmed; Gilani, Syed A.

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a rare cause of acute coronary syndrome. It occurs predominantly among younger females and typically in the absence of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease. It is associated with peripartum period, connective tissue disorders, vasculitides, and extreme exertion. Presentations vary greatly, and this condition can be fatal. Given its rarity, there are no guidelines for management of SCAD. We present the cases of two female patients, with no coronary artery disease risk factors or recent pregnancy, who were presented with non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) and ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), respectively, secondary to SCAD. Both had excellent outcome after emergent percutaneous intervention. Our first patient was presented with NSTEMI with ongoing chest pain and dynamic electrocardiogram (ECG). Emergent left heart catheterization was significant for first obtuse marginal (OM1) dissection, confirmed by optical coherence tomography. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with two bare metal stents was performed with resolution of symptoms and ECG changes. The second patient is known to have syndrome, presented with STEMI and emergent coronary angiography showed left anterior descending dissection with intramural hematoma confirmed by intravascular ultrasound and treated with a drug-eluting stent with resolution of symptoms and ST changes. Her hospital course was complicated by post–myocardial infarction pericarditis that was improved with colchicine. Both the patients were observed in the coronary care unit for 24 hours. Both remained asymptomatic at 6-month follow-up. SCAD is a rare cause of acute coronary syndrome. In patients with early presentation, limited disease, and ongoing symptoms, emergent cardiac catheterization with percutaneous intervention has excellent outcome. More studies are needed to establish evidence-based management guidelines. PMID:25484560

  17. [Self-pollution in Ruditapes philippinarum bottom-cultured area of Zhuanghe coast].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiu-tang; Zhang, Sheng-li; Liu, Shu-xi; Liang, Bin; Liang, Yu-bo; Zhang, Guo-fan

    2011-03-01

    By using sediment trap and closed respirator, a year-round in situ investigation was made on the bio-deposition rate, ammonia excretion rate, and phosphate excretion rate in the Ruditapes philippinarum bottom-cultured area of Zhuanghe coast. The three test rates of R. philippinarum all showed obvious seasonal variability, with the bio-deposition rate ranged in 0.15-1.47 g x ind(-1) x d(-1) (annual average 0.61 g x ind(-1) x d(-1)), ammonia excretion rate ranged in 0.02-0.40 mg x ind(-1) x d(-1) (annual average 0.17 mg x ind(-1) x d(-1)), and phosphate excretion rate ranged in 0.01-0.39 mg x ind(-1) x d(-1)(annual average 0. 13 mg x ind(-1) x d(-1)). Based on these, it was estimated that the annual bio-deposit production by the bottom-cultured R. philippinarum in Zhuanghe coast could reach as high as 5.46 x 10(7) t dry mass, amounting to 9.07 x 10(6) t organic matter (OM), 1.00 x 10(6) t organic carbon (OC), or 1.18 x 10(5) t organic nitrogen (ON), and the annual NH4+ -N and PO4(3-)-P productions were 1.49 x 10(4) t and 1.15 x 10(4) t, respectively. Our results suggested that for the large scale and high density bivalve culture in China coasts, the potential impacts of self-pollutants by filter-feeding bivalves on the environment should not be neglected. PMID:21657039

  18. Double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial on intravenous L-alanyl-L-glutamine in the incidence of oral mucositis following chemoradiotherapy in patients with head-and-neck cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Cerchietti, Leandro C.A. . E-mail: lcerchietti@gmail.com; Navigante, Alfredo H.; Lutteral, Maribel A.; Castro, Monica A.; Kirchuk, Ricardo; Bonomi, Marcelo; Cabalar, Maria Esther; Roth, Berta; Negretti, Graciela; Sheinker, Beatriz; Uchima, Patricia

    2006-08-01

    Purpose: We performed this double-blinded, placebo-controlled study to determine the safety and efficacy of L-alanyl-L-glutamine in the prevention of mucositis in patients with head-and-neck cancer. Methods and Materials: Thirty-two patients with head-and-neck cancer were treated with chemoradiotherapy (CRT) (radiotherapy daily up to 70 Gy plus cisplatin/5-fluoruracil once a week) and were asked to participate. Twenty-nine patients received the CRT schedule and were double-blindly assigned to receive either intravenous L-alanyl-L-glutamine 0.4 g/kg weight/day or an equal volume of saline (placebo) during chemotherapy days. Results: Fourteen patients received L-alanyl-L-glutamine and 15 received placebo. Mucositis was assessed by the Objective Mucositis Score (OMS) and the World Health Organization (WHO) grading system. There was a significant difference in incidence of mucositis developed in patients receiving placebo compared with those who received L-alanyl-L-glutamine (p = 0.035). The number of patients with severe objective mucositis (OMS >1.49) was higher in the placebo group compared with the L-alanyl-L-glutamine group (67% vs. 14%, p 0.007). L-alanyl-L-glutamine patients experienced less pain (three highest Numeric Rating Scale scores of 1.3/10 vs. 6.3/10 respectively, p = 0.008) and need for feeding tubes (14% vs. 60% respectively, p = 0.020) compared with placebo patients. No adverse effects related to the drug or the infusions were noted in either group. Conclusion: For patients with head-and-neck cancer receiving CRT, intravenous L-alanyl-L-glutamine may be an effective preventive measure to decrease the severity of mucositis.

  19. Identification of protective linear B-cell epitopes on the subolesin/akirin orthologues of Ornithodoros spp. soft ticks.

    PubMed

    Manzano-Román, Raúl; Díaz-Martín, Verónica; Oleaga, Ana; Pérez-Sánchez, Ricardo

    2015-02-18

    Subolesin/akirin is a protective antigen that is highly conserved across hematophagous vector species and is therefore potentially useful for the development of a universal vaccine for vector control, including soft ticks. Recent results have shown that in Ornithodoros erraticus and O. moubata soft ticks, RNAi-mediated subolesin gene knockdown inhibits tick oviposition and fertility by more than 90%; however, vaccination with recombinant subolesins resulted in remarkably low protective efficacies (5-24.5% reduction in oviposition). Here we report that vaccination with subolesin recombinants induces non-protective antibodies mainly directed against immunodominant linear B-cell epitopes located on highly structured regions of the subolesin protein, probably unrelated to its biological activity, while leaving the unstructured/disordered regions unrecognized. Accordingly, for a new vaccine trial we designed four synthetic peptides (OE1, OE2, OM1 and OM2) from the unrecognized/disordered regions of the Ornithodoros subolesin sequences and coupled them to keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH). These KLH-peptide conjugates induced the synthesis of antibodies that recognized linear B-cell epitopes located on the unstructured loops of the subolesin protein and provided up to 70.1% and 83.1% vaccine efficacies in O. erraticus and O. moubata, respectively. These results show that the protective effect of subolesin-based vaccines is highly dependent on the particular epitope recognized by antibodies on the subolesin sequence and strongly suggest that the biological activity of subolesin is exerted through its unstructured regions. The results reported here contribute to our understanding of the mechanism of protection of subolesin-based vaccines and reveal novel protective peptides that could be included among the array of candidate antigens useful for developing anti-vector vaccines based on subolesin/akirin. PMID:25597941

  20. Interactions of grass spontaneous cover in olive orchards with site conditions and management: a study case using biodiversity indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arroyo, Carmen; Taguas, Encarnación; Lora, Ángel; Guzmán, Gema; Vanderlinden, Karl; Gómez, Jose A.

    2014-05-01

    Spontaneous herbaceous plants are an inexpensive control measure of soil erosion in olive orchards. Grass covers on steep areas are a requirement for compliance by farmers with basic standards concerning the environment, derived from Common Agricultural Policy (cross-compliances). In addition to ground cover, other aspects such as biodiversity and OC storage capacity of these systems are often not considered, despite the fact that the occupation of many ecological niches by different species might provide substantial environmental and landscape benefits. In this study, we evaluated different biodiversity indices on grass cover in two olive orchard catchments with different managements (conventional tillage and non-tillage with natural herbaceous plants) during 3 years (2011-2013). Seasonal samples of vegetal material and pictures in a permanent grid (4 samples/ha) were taken to characterize the temporal variations of the indicators: number of species, frequency, diversity and transformed Shanon's and Pielou's indices. The specific objectives of this work were: i) to describe and to compare the biodiversity indices in two contrasting olive orchard catchments of 6 and 9 ha with different soil types, precipitation, topography and management; ii) to explore possible relationships of these indexes with soil organic carbon content and soil loss. The results will allow improving our knowledge of environmental functions of this type of ground cover as well as factors determining its development. These features can be particularly interesting to enhance the environmental values of marginal olive orchards in steep locations. REFERENCES Aguilera L. 2012.Estudio de cubiertas vegetales para el control de la erosión en olivar Evolución espacio-temporal en dos fincas comerciales, y exploración de nuevas opciones de cubiertas. Master Thesis. University of Cordoba (Spain) Gimeno E. 2011. Análisis de la variabilidad de la cobertura vegetal en tres pequeñas cuencas de olivar

  1. [Probiotics: from the lab to the consumer].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, J M

    2015-02-07

    Introducción: En los últimos años, el campo de los probióticos ha experimentado un gran auge. Sin embargo, de los miles de cepas aisladas cada año por su potencial probiótico en los laboratorios de todo el mundo, muy pocas pasan a una fase de desarrollo industrial y menos aún son las que consiguen una vida comercial. Objetivo: En este artículo, se revisan los principales aspectos que se deben tener en cuenta en el, habitualmente, largo y tortuoso camino que debe seguir una cepa desde su aislamiento inicial hasta su comercialización. Resultados y conclusiones: Cualquier microorganismo probiótico debe estar correctamente identificado a nivel de especie y cepa. La secuencia del genoma es la mejor identificación posible, además de proporcionar información muy valiosa sobre su seguridad, funcionalidad y propiedades de interés tecnológico. Los casos en los que se ha podido establecer una relación entre un probiótico y un efecto adverso son muy escasos y han afectado a personas con patologías subyacentes. Globalmente, aunque las distintas pruebas in vitro, ex vivo y en modelos animales proporcionan información útil durante el proceso de selección de cepas, los únicos datos que permiten evaluar la seguridad y eficacia de un probiótico de una forma directa son los que se obtienen en el curso de ensayos clínicos correctamente diseñados y dirigidos específicamente a la población diana. Por otra parte, las empresas que comercializan probióticos tienen la necesidad de obtener una biomasa muy elevada de forma económicamente rentable y de que la concentración de bacterias viables necesaria para ejercer el efecto beneficioso se mantenga hasta el final de la vida útil del producto. Finalmente, los aspectos comerciales son determinantes en la decisión de afrontar el desarrollo industrial y la puesta en el mercado de un probiótico.

  2. Accuracy of body mass index for age to diagnose obesity in Mexican schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Mendoza Pablo, Pedro A; Valdés, Jesús; Ortiz-Hernández, Luis

    2015-06-01

    Objetivo: comparar la exactitud de tres referencias del IMC para la edad (de la Organización Mundial de la Salud, OMS; de la International Obesity Task Force, IOTF; y de los Centros para el Control y Prevención de Enfermedades (CDC) de las tablas de crecimiento) para diagnosticar obesidad en niños mexicanos. Métodos: se evaluó una muestra por conveniencia de escolares de la ciudad de México (n = 218). El estándar de oro fue el porcentaje de grasa corporal estimado por la técnica de dilución de deuterio. Se estimaron la sensibilidad y la especificidad del punto de corte clásico del IMC para la edad para identificar obesidad (i.e. > 2.0 desviaciones estándar, DE). La exactitud (i.e., área bajo la curva, ABC) de las tres referencias del IMC para el diagnóstico de la obesidad se estimó con el método de curvas ROC. Se identificó el punto de corte óptimo (PCO). Resultados: los puntos de corte para identificar obesidad tuvieron baja (OMS: 57.6% y CDC: 53.5%) o muy baja (IOTF referencia: 40,4%) sensibilidad, pero especificidades adecuadas (91.6%, 95.0% y 97.5%, respectivamente). El ABC de las tres referencias fueron adecuadas (0.89). Entre los niños mayores la referencia de la IOTF tuvo el menor ABC. El PCO para la referencia de los CDC (1.24 DE) fue menor que el PCO para la de la OMS (1.53 DE) y la de la IOTF (1.47 DE). Conclusiones: el punto de corte clásico para la obesidad tiene baja sensibilidad, especialmente para la referencia de la IOTF. La exactitud de las tres referencias fue similar. Sin embargo, para obtener el diagnóstico comparable de obesidad en diferentes puntos de corte se debe utilizar en función de la referencia seleccionada.

  3. Survival and reproduction of enchytraeid worms, Oligochaeta, in different soil types amended with energetic cyclic nitramines.

    PubMed

    Dodard, Sabine G; Sunahara, Geoffrey I; Kuperman, Roman G; Sarrazin, Manon; Gong, Ping; Ampleman, Guy; Thiboutot, Sonia; Hawari, Jalal

    2005-10-01

    Hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20), a new polycyclic polynitramine, has the same functional nitramine groups (N-NO2) as the widely used energetic chemicals hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (royal demolition explosive [RDX]) and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (high-melting explosive [HMX]). Potential impacts of CL-20 as an emerging contaminant must be assessed before its use. The effects of CL-20, RDX, or HMX on adult survival and juvenile production by potworms Enchytraeus albidus and Enchytraeus crypticus were studied in three soil types, including Sassafras sandy loam (1.2% organic matter [OM], 11% clay, pH 5.5), an agricultural soil (42% OM, 1% clay, pH 8.2), and a composite agricultural-forest soil (23% OM, 2% clay, pH 7.9) by using ISO method 16387 (International Standard Organization, Geneva, Switzerland). Results showed that CL-20 was toxic to E. crypticus with median lethal concentration values for adult survival ranging from 0.1 to 0.7 mg/kg dry mass (DM) when using the three tested soils. In addition, CL-20 adversely affected juvenile production by both species in all soils tested, with median effective concentration (EC50) values ranging from 0.08 to 0.62 mg/kg DM. Enchytraeus crypticus and E. albidus were similarly sensitive to CL-20 exposure in the composite agricultural-forest soil, which supported reproduction by both species and enabled comparisons. Correlation analysis showed weak or no relationship overall among the soil properties and reproduction toxicity endpoints. Neither RDX nor HMX affected (p > 0.05) adult survival of either species below 658 and 918 mg/kg DM, respectively, indicating that CL-20 is more toxic to enchytraeids than RDX or HMX. Examination of data shows that CL-20 should be considered as a potential reproductive toxicant to soil invertebrates, and that safeguards should be considered to minimize the potential for release of CL-20 into the environment.

  4. Biogenic and biomass burning organic aerosol in a boreal forest at Hyytiälä, Finland, during HUMPPA-COPEC 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrigan, A. L.; Russell, L. M.; Takahama, S.; Äijälä, M.; Ehn, M.; Junninen, H.; Rinne, J.; Petäjä, T.; Kulmala, M.; Vogel, A. L.; Hoffmann, T.; Ebben, C. J.; Geiger, F. M.; Chhabra, P.; Seinfeld, J. H.; Worsnop, D. R.; Song, W.; Auld, J.; Williams, J.

    2013-12-01

    summertime biogenic OM is 1.5 to 3 times larger than springtime biogenic OM (0.64 μg m-3 and 0.4 μg m-3, measured in 2005 and 2007, respectively), even though it contributed only 35% of OM. The biomass burning factor contributed 25% of OM on average and up to 62% of OM during three periods of transported biomass burning emissions: 26-28 July, 29-30 July, and 8-9 August, with OFG consisting mostly of carbonyl (41%) and alcohol (25%) groups. The high summertime terrestrial biogenic OM (1.7 μg m-3) and the high biomass burning contributions (1.2 μg m-3) were likely due to the abnormally high temperatures that resulted in both stressed boreal forest conditions with high regional BVOC emissions and numerous wildfires in upwind regions.

  5. Biogenic and biomass burning organic aerosol in a boreal forest at Hyytiälä, Finland, during HUMPPA-COPEC 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrigan, A. L.; Russell, L. M.; Takahama, S.; Äijälä, M.; Ehn, M.; Junninen, H.; Rinne, J.; Petäjä, T.; Kulmala, M.; Vogel, A. L.; Hoffmann, T.; Ebben, C. J.; Geiger, F. M.; Chhabra, P.; Seinfeld, J. H.; Worsnop, D. R.; Song, W.; Auld, J.; Williams, J.

    2013-06-01

    OM is 1.5 to 3 times larger than springtime biogenic OM (0.64 μg m-3 and 0.4 μg m-3, measured in 2005 and 2007, respectively), even though it contributed only 35% of OM. The biomass burning factor contributed 25% OM on average and up to 62% OM during three periods of transported biomass burning emissions: 26-28 July, 29-30 July, and 8-9 August, with OFG consisting mostly of carbonyl (41%) and alcohol (25%) groups. The high summertime terrestrial biogenic OM (1.7 μg m-3) and the high biomass burning contributions (1.2 μg m-3) were likely due to the abnormally high temperatures that resulted in both stressed boreal forest conditions with high regional BVOC emissions and numerous wildfires in upwind regions.

  6. Nutritive value of cold-pressed camelina cake with or without supplementation of multi-enzyme in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Woyengo, T A; Patterson, R; Slominski, B A; Beltranena, E; Zijlstra, R T

    2016-10-01

    The objectives were to determine the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) and AMEn value of cold-pressed camelina cake (CPCC) and the effect of adding multi-enzyme to a corn-CPCC diet for broilers. The 600 male broiler chicks were divided into 40 groups and fed 5 diets in a completely randomized design (8 groups per diet) from d 15 to d 21 of age. A corn basal diet and the basal diet with 30% of it replaced by CPCC were used in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with or without multi-enzyme (2,800 U of cellulase, 1,800 U of pectinase, 400 U of mannanase, 50 U of galactanase, 1,000 U of xylanase, 600 U of glucanase, 2,500 U of amylase, and 200 U of protease/kilogram of diet; Superzyme OM, 1 g/kg). The fifth diet was N-free. The corn basal diet was fed to determine nutrient digestibility and retention for CPCC by substitution. The N-free diet was fed to estimate basal endogenous AA losses for determining SID of AA. Diets contained TiO2 as indigestible marker. On a DM basis, CPCC contained 39.8% CP, 38.3% neutral detergent fiber, 12.7% ether extract, 1.89% Lys, 0.70% Met, 1.56% Thr, and 0.45% Trp. The SID of Lys, Met, Thr, and Trp for CPCC were 76.5, 85.5, 72.8, and 84.1%, respectively. The AMEn value for CPCC was 1,671 kcal/kg of DM. Multi-enzyme supplementation increased (P < 0.05) the SID of Met and Thr and the AMEn value of the corn-CPCC-based diet by 1.4, 1.3, and 3.0%, respectively. The multi-enzyme increased (P = 0.026) the AMEn value of CPCC from 1,671 to 1,941 kcal/kg of DM. In conclusion, the CPCC evaluated in the present study can be included in poultry diets as a source of energy and AA. Multi-enzyme supplementation increased the AMEn value of CPCC for broilers.

  7. Direct spectrometry: a new alternative for measuring the fluorescence of composite resins and dental tissues.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Tm; de Oliveira, Hpm; Severino, D; Balducci, I; Huhtala, Mfrl; Gonçalves, Sep

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the fluorescence intensity of different composite resins and compare those values with the fluorescence intensity of dental tissues. Different composite resins were used to make 10 discs (2 mm in depth and 4 mm in diameter) of each brand, divided into groups: 1) Z (Filtek Z350, 3M ESPE), 2) ES (Esthet-X, Dentsply), 3) A (Amelogen Plus, Ultradent), 4) DVS (Durafill-VS, Heraeus Kulzer) with 2 mm composite resin for enamel (A2), 5) OES ([Esthet-X] opaque-OA [1 mm] + enamel-A2 [1 mm]); 6) ODVSI ([Charisma-Opal/Durafill-VSI], opaque-OM (1 mm) + translucent [1mm]), and 7) DVSI ([Durafill- VSI] translucent [2 mm]). Dental tissue specimens were obtained from human anterior teeth cut in a mesiodistal direction to obtain enamel, dentin, and enamel/dentin samples (2 mm). The fluorescence intensity of specimens was directly measured using an optic fiber associated with a spectrometer (Ocean Optics USB 4000) and recorded in graphic form (Origin 8.0 program). Data were submitted to statistical analysis using Dunnet, Tukey, and Kruskall-Wallis tests. Light absorption of the composite resins was obtained in a spectral range from 250 to 450 nm, and that of dental tissues was between 250 and 300 nm. All composite resins were excited at 398 nm and exhibited maximum emissions of around 485 nm. Fluorescence intensity values for all of the resins showed statistically significant differences (measured in arbitrary units [AUs]), with the exception of groups Z and DVS. Group DVSI had the highest fluorescence intensity values (13539 AU), followed by ODVS (10440 AU), DVS (10146 AU), ES (3946 AU), OES (3841 AU), A (3540 AU), and Z (1146 AU). The fluorescence intensity values for the composite resins differed statistically from those of dental tissues (E=1380 AU; D=6262 AU; E/D=3251 AU). The opacity interfered with fluorescence intensity, and group Z demonstrated fluorescence intensity values closest to that of tooth enamel. It is concluded that the

  8. Characterizing the Nature and Distribution of Phytolith Organic Matter Using Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, K. L.; Alfonso-Garcia, A.; Sanchez, J.; Harutyunyan, A.; Santos, G.; Potma, E.

    2014-12-01

    Many plants, including grasses and some important human food sources, accumulate and precipitate silica in their cells to form opaline phytoliths. These phytoliths contain small amounts of organic matter (OM) that is trapped during the process of silicification and protected from oxidation. If this OM is derived solely from photosynthesis during the life of the plant, it should preserve an isotopic signature of the atmosphere and the type of photosynthetic pathway [1]. However, radiocarbon dating of this OM gives an older age than expected [2], and studies on modern plants indicate a soil contribution to phytolith OM [3,4]. Thus, a better understanding of the role of phytolith OM and the silica precipitation mechanism is needed. Previous work has suggested that plant silica is associated with compounds such as proteins, lipids, lignin and phenol-carbohydrate complexes [5-7]. It is not known whether these compounds are cellular components passively encapsulated as the cell silicified, polymers actively involved in the precipitation process or random compounds assimilated by the plant and discarded into a "glass wastebasket". Here, we used Raman spectroscopy to map individual phytoliths isolated from Sorghum bicolor plants. We showed that OM in phytoliths is heterogeneously distributed and not related to optical features (i.e. dark spots or holes visible in light microscopy) commonly thought to be the repository for phytolith OM (corroborated by nanoSIMS [8]). The Raman spectra showed peaks at 2970-2960, 2945, and 2906 cm-1, indicative of C-H stretching modes, and further peaks at 1600, 1440, 1410, and 1350 cm-1 consistent with lignins and other OM. These peaks exhibited variability of relative intensities both within and between phytoliths. We will discuss these findings in the context of silica biomineralization in plants, mechanistic implications, and isotopic paleo-reconstructions using phytolith OM. 1. Jones, R.L. and A. Beavers, Soil Sci., 1963. 96(6): 375. 2

  9. Statistical Considerations of Data Processing in Giovanni Online Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suhung, Shen; Leptoukh, G.; Acker, J.; Berrick, S.

    2005-01-01

    The GES DISC Interactive Online Visualization and Analysis Infrastructure (Giovanni) is a web-based interface for the rapid visualization and analysis of gridded data from a number of remote sensing instruments. The GES DISC currently employs several Giovanni instances to analyze various products, such as Ocean-Giovanni for ocean products from SeaWiFS and MODIS-Aqua; TOMS & OM1 Giovanni for atmospheric chemical trace gases from TOMS and OMI, and MOVAS for aerosols from MODIS, etc. (http://giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov) Foremost among the Giovanni statistical functions is data averaging. Two aspects of this function are addressed here. The first deals with the accuracy of averaging gridded mapped products vs. averaging from the ungridded Level 2 data. Some mapped products contain mean values only; others contain additional statistics, such as number of pixels (NP) for each grid, standard deviation, etc. Since NP varies spatially and temporally, averaging with or without weighting by NP will be different. In this paper, we address differences of various weighting algorithms for some datasets utilized in Giovanni. The second aspect is related to different averaging methods affecting data quality and interpretation for data with non-normal distribution. The present study demonstrates results of different spatial averaging methods using gridded SeaWiFS Level 3 mapped monthly chlorophyll a data. Spatial averages were calculated using three different methods: arithmetic mean (AVG), geometric mean (GEO), and maximum likelihood estimator (MLE). Biogeochemical data, such as chlorophyll a, are usually considered to have a log-normal distribution. The study determined that differences between methods tend to increase with increasing size of a selected coastal area, with no significant differences in most open oceans. The GEO method consistently produces values lower than AVG and MLE. The AVG method produces values larger than MLE in some cases, but smaller in other cases. Further

  10. Nutritive value of cold-pressed camelina cake with or without supplementation of multi-enzyme in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Woyengo, T A; Patterson, R; Slominski, B A; Beltranena, E; Zijlstra, R T

    2016-10-01

    The objectives were to determine the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) and AMEn value of cold-pressed camelina cake (CPCC) and the effect of adding multi-enzyme to a corn-CPCC diet for broilers. The 600 male broiler chicks were divided into 40 groups and fed 5 diets in a completely randomized design (8 groups per diet) from d 15 to d 21 of age. A corn basal diet and the basal diet with 30% of it replaced by CPCC were used in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with or without multi-enzyme (2,800 U of cellulase, 1,800 U of pectinase, 400 U of mannanase, 50 U of galactanase, 1,000 U of xylanase, 600 U of glucanase, 2,500 U of amylase, and 200 U of protease/kilogram of diet; Superzyme OM, 1 g/kg). The fifth diet was N-free. The corn basal diet was fed to determine nutrient digestibility and retention for CPCC by substitution. The N-free diet was fed to estimate basal endogenous AA losses for determining SID of AA. Diets contained TiO2 as indigestible marker. On a DM basis, CPCC contained 39.8% CP, 38.3% neutral detergent fiber, 12.7% ether extract, 1.89% Lys, 0.70% Met, 1.56% Thr, and 0.45% Trp. The SID of Lys, Met, Thr, and Trp for CPCC were 76.5, 85.5, 72.8, and 84.1%, respectively. The AMEn value for CPCC was 1,671 kcal/kg of DM. Multi-enzyme supplementation increased (P < 0.05) the SID of Met and Thr and the AMEn value of the corn-CPCC-based diet by 1.4, 1.3, and 3.0%, respectively. The multi-enzyme increased (P = 0.026) the AMEn value of CPCC from 1,671 to 1,941 kcal/kg of DM. In conclusion, the CPCC evaluated in the present study can be included in poultry diets as a source of energy and AA. Multi-enzyme supplementation increased the AMEn value of CPCC for broilers. PMID:26994204

  11. Surpoids et obésité dans la population générale de 5 à 19 ans en milieu urbain bamakois (Mali)

    PubMed Central

    Oumar Bâ, Hamidou; Menta, Ichaka; Camara, Youssouf; Doumbia, Plutôt Seydou; Diarra, Mamadou Bocary

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Déterminer la prévalence du surpoids et de l'obésité dans la population âgée de 5 à 19 ans et fournir des données de référence pour de futures études. Méthodes Notre échantillon est issu de la première étude sur les pathologies cardiovasculaires basée sur l'approche STEP de l'Organisation Mondiale de la Santé (OMS) en sélectionnant tous les sujets âgés de 5 à 19 ans. Nous avons utilisé les méthodes de l'OMS et de l'International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) pour déterminer la prévalence du surpoids et de l'obésité dans la population générale. Résultats La moyenne d’âge était de 11,75 ans ± 4,387 et le sex-ratio M:F était de 0,79. les moyennes pour le poids et la taille étaient de 36,85 kg et 143,48 cm. Selon les critères OMS 1,61% des garçons et 3,28% des filles étaient en surpoids et 0,92% des garçons contre 1,46% des filles obèses. Selon les critères de l'IOTF 4,10% des garçons et 5,94% des filles étaient en surpoids tandis que 0,72% des garçons et 2,68% des filles étaient obèses. Conclusion Malgré sa faible prévalence le surpoids et l'obésité doivent être régulièrement étudiés pour reconnaître des tendances et prendre des mesures adéquates de prévention. Les 2 méthodes utilisées ont permis d'avoir des données de référence pour de futures études au Mali et ailleurs. PMID:25932064

  12. Breast Cancer 1 (BrCa1) May Be behind Decreased Lipogenesis in Adipose Tissue from Obese Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Francisco J.; Moreno-Navarrete, José M.; Mayas, Dolores; García-Santos, Eva; Gómez-Serrano, María; Rodriguez-Hermosa, José I.; Ruiz, Bartomeu; Ricart, Wifredo; Tinahones, Francisco J.; Frühbeck, Gema; Peral, Belen; Fernández-Real, José M.

    2012-01-01

    Context Expression and activity of the main lipogenic enzymes is paradoxically decreased in obesity, but the mechanisms behind these findings are poorly known. Breast Cancer 1 (BrCa1) interacts with acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) reducing the rate of fatty acid biosynthesis. In this study, we aimed to evaluate BrCa1 in human adipose tissue according to obesity and insulin resistance, and in vitro cultured adipocytes. Research Design and Methods BrCa1 gene expression, total and phosphorylated (P-) BrCa1, and ACC were analyzed in adipose tissue samples obtained from a total sample of 133 subjects. BrCa1 expression was also evaluated during in vitro differentiation of human adipocytes and 3T3-L1 cells. Results BrCa1 gene expression was significantly up-regulated in both omental (OM; 1.36-fold, p = 0.002) and subcutaneous (SC; 1.49-fold, p = 0.001) adipose tissue from obese subjects. In parallel with increased BrCa1 mRNA, P-ACC was also up-regulated in SC (p = 0.007) as well as in OM (p = 0.010) fat from obese subjects. Consistent with its role limiting fatty acid biosynthesis, both BrCa1 mRNA (3.5-fold, p<0.0001) and protein (1.2-fold, p = 0.001) were increased in pre-adipocytes, and decreased during in vitro adipogenesis, while P-ACC decreased during differentiation of human adipocytes (p = 0.005) allowing lipid biosynthesis. Interestingly, BrCa1 gene expression in mature adipocytes was restored by inflammatory stimuli (macrophage conditioned medium), whereas lipogenic genes significantly decreased. Conclusions The specular findings of BrCa1 and lipogenic enzymes in adipose tissue and adipocytes reported here suggest that BrCa1 might help to control fatty acid biosynthesis in adipocytes and adipose tissue from obese subjects. PMID:22666314

  13. Sink populations in carnivore management: cougar demography and immigration in a hunted population.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Hugh S; Wielgus, Robert B; Cooley, Hilary S; Cooley, Skye W

    2008-06-01

    Carnivores are widely hunted for both sport and population control, especially where they conflict with human interests. It is widely believed that sport hunting is effective in reducing carnivore populations and related human-carnivore conflicts, while maintaining viable populations. However, the way in which carnivore populations respond to harvest can vary greatly depending on their social structure, reproductive strategies, and dispersal patterns. For example, hunted cougar (Puma concolor) populations have shown a great degree of resiliency. Although hunting cougars on a broad geographic scale (> 2000 km2) has reduced densities, hunting of smaller areas (i.e., game management units, < 1000 km2), could conceivably fail because of increased immigration from adjacent source areas. We monitored a heavily hunted population from 2001 to 2006 to test for the effects of hunting at a small scale (< 1000 km2) and to gauge whether population control was achieved (lambda < or = 1.0) or if hunting losses were negated by increased immigration allowing the population to remain stable or increase (lambda > or = 1.0). The observed growth rate of 1.00 was significantly higher than our predicted survival/fecundity growth rates (using a Leslie matrix) of 0.89 (deterministic) and 0.84 (stochastic), with the difference representing an 11-16% annual immigration rate. We observed no decline in density of the total population or the adult population, but a significant decrease in the average age of independent males. We found that the male component of the population was increasing (observed male population growth rate, lambda(OM) = 1.09), masking a decrease in the female component (lambda(OF) = 0.91). Our data support the compensatory immigration sink hypothesis; cougar removal in small game management areas (< 1000 km2) increased immigration and recruitment of younger animals from adjacent areas, resulting in little or no reduction in local cougar densities and a shift in population

  14. Management of pest mole crickets in Florida and Puerto Rico with a nematode and parasitic wasp

    SciTech Connect

    Leppla, N.C.; Frank, J.H.; Adjei, M.B.; Vicente, N.E.

    2007-03-15

    fueron liberados y establecidos en los 80s. Consecuentemente, la produccion comercial del nematodo fue iniciada, casi 70 billones fueron aplicados en 34 condados de la Florida, y se realizo un monitoreo para evaluar su establecimiento, dispersion e impacto sobre los grillotopos. Los gillotopos infectados dispersaron los nematodos rapidamente, tanto que despues de 6 meses estos parasitos estaban presentes en la mayoria de los insectos atrapados en los pastos experimentales. Tres anos despues, las poblaciones de los grillotopos fueron reducidas a niveles aceptables y los campos de pasto 'bahia' se recuperaron. El nematodo fue liberado para la primera vez en Puerto Rico durante del 2001 y ha persistido; la avispa fue introducida al final de los 30s. La distribucion geografica de la avispa se esta extendiendo en la Florida y Puerto Rico por medio de la siembra de parcelas de Spermacoce verticillata, una flor silvestre indigena a Puerto Rico y distribuida ampliamente en el sur de la Florida. Los campos de pasto, las operaciones comerciales de cesped, los campos de golf, los paisajes y las fincas de hortalizas en la Florida y Puerto Rico se estan beneficiando del control biologico de los grillotopos invasores. (author)

  15. Production and quality assurance in the SIT Africa Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) rearing facility in South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, B.; Rosenberg, S.; Arnolds, L.; Johnson, J.

    2007-03-15

    esteriles de moscas para el proyecto de la tecnica del insecto esteril (TIE) en huertos de frutos y vinas comerciales en la provincia del Cabo Occidental del Sudafrica. El procedimiento de criar en masa fue en su mayor parte basado en los sistemas desarrollados por el Laboratorio de Agricultura y Biotecnologia de la FAO/IAEA, Seibersdorf, Austria. Un numero de razas que separara los sexos geneticamente fueron utilizadas para producir solo machos para la liberacion. La congestionada condicion inicial para criar las moscas y su manejo de calidad fueron aliviadas en 2001 con la construccion de un nuevo cuarto de cria para adultos y un laboratorio de control de calidad. En 2002, un Sistema de Manejo de Calidad comprensivo fue implementado, y en 2003 una raza mejorada que separa los sexos geneticamente, VIENNA 8, fue proveido por el Laboratorio de la FAO/IAEA en Seibersdorf. En la mayor parte de los primeros 3 anos la facilidad no pudo suplir el numero requerido de machos esteriles de la mosca mediterranea de la fruta para el programa de TIE sin la necesidad para importar machos esteriles de otra facilidad. Desde medio del ano de 2002, despues que el sistema de manejo de calidad fue implementado, la produccion y la calidad mejoraron pero aun quedaron por debajo del nivel optimo. Despues de la introduccion de la raza VIENNA 8 que separa los sexos geneticamente, y junto con el equipo mejorado de control de clima, la estabilidad y los parametros de seguridad de calidad mejoraron substancialmente. Los factores criticos que influyeron en la produccion y la calidad fueron la infraestructura inadecuada para criar las moscas, problemas con la calidad de la dieta para las larvas y la ausencia inicial de un sistema de manejo de calidad. Los resultados muestran claramente la importancia de un manejo efectivo de la calidad, el valor de una raza productiva que separa los sexos geneticamente y la necesidad de contar con una base solida de financimiento para la infraestructura de una cria en

  16. Habitus furibundo en el gueto estadounidense1

    PubMed Central

    Bourgois, Philippe; Castrillo, Fernando Montero; Hart, Laurie; Karandinos, George

    2014-01-01

    Resumen Durante cinco años, un torbellino cotidiano de tiroteos, apuñalamientos y asaltos afectó a la venta de drogas al aire libre en el vecindario puertorriqueño de Filadelfia, donde residíamos y conducíamos nuestro trabajo de campo. La industria de los narcóticos ha venido a llenar el vacío que dejó la desindustrialización, convirtiendo al antiguo distrito fabril de la ciudad en un mercado de narcóticos a cielo abierto que emplea en sus niveles más bajos a jóvenes puertorriqueños y cuyos clientes son principalmente heroinómanos blancos de bajos recursos. La capacidad para movilizar la furia asegura el éxito en la economía de las drogas, garantiza protección en las cárceles y le provee un ingreso mínimo a una población de bajos recursos estigmatizada cuyos miembros frecuentemente reciben diagnósticos médicos de discapacidad cognitiva. Muchos residentes buscan alianzas en redes sociales que los comprometen a participar en intercambios solidarios de violencia auxiliar. Una dinámica de acumulación primitiva corporizada mata, hiere, discapacita o encarcela a la mayoría de estos empleados de bajo nivel y a sus clientes. Los inflados márgenes de ganancia alrededor de esta dinámica dependen de la violencia y la coerción. Un habitus furibundo impulsa a los vendedores callejeros a defender violentamente el micro monopolio de poder de sus jefes en la economía subterránea como si fuese un asunto de diversión. Estos miembros de los niveles más bajos de la industria del narcotráfico se apresuran a fraguar transacciones comerciales en ausencia de un marco legal en un ambiente de escasez que sin embargo se ve inundado por enormes flujos de dinero, drogas adictivas y armas automáticas. Tras las drásticas reformas a los programas de seguridad social, la mano izquierda del Estado, en la forma de los servicios sociales, intenta prolongar los subsidios para individuos vulnerables diagnosticándolos como discapacitados cognitivos permanentes

  17. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jin-Zhou; Li, Chun-Xiao; Dai, Yi-Ning; Zhao, De-Jian; Fang, Zhi-Yun; Wan, Xing-Yong; Zhu, Hua-Tuo; Wang, Yu-Ming; Yu, Chao-Hui; Li, You-Ming

    2016-03-25

    Introducción: la betatrofina es una novedosa adipoquina que provoca la proliferación de células β pancreáticas e interviene en el metabolismo de los lípidos. Objetivos: el propósito de este estudio es evaluar el papel de la betatrofina en el síndrome metabólico. Método: se llevó a cabo un estudio hospitalario de casos y controles según sexo y edad. El nivel de betatrofina en suero fue evaluado mediante ensayo por inmunoabsorción ligado a enzimas. Se midieron las concentraciones en suero de 12 adipoquinas para evaluar las asociaciones con la betatrofina usando los kits comerciales Adipokine Magnetic Bead Panel. Los análisis estadísticos incluyeron correlación bivariada, análisis de curva ROC y análisis de regresión lineal multivariable. Resultados: el nivel de betatrofina en suero fue más elevado en pacientes con síndrome metabólico (997,36 ± 475,92 pg/ml, p = 0,001) que en los controles (735,35 ± 526,51 pg/ml). Frente al tercil más bajo, el tercil más alto del nivel de betatrofina mostró una asociación con mayor riesgo de síndrome metabólico (odds ratio ajustado = 3,521, intervalo de confianza [IC] 95% [1,191-10,413], p = 0,023). Se desarrolló la curva ROC de betatrofina para pronosticar la presencia de síndrome metabólico (área bajo la curva ROC = 0,682 [95% IC, 0,597-0,767], p < 0,001). Además, la betatrofina mostró correlación con distintos parámetros, como edad (r = 0,286, p < 0,001), índice de masa corporal (r = 0,160, p = 0,046), índice cintura-cadera (r = 0,241, p = 0,002), lipoproteína de alta densidad (r = -0,167, p = 0,037), lipoproteína de baja densidad (r = -0,195, p = 0,015), glucosa plasmática en ayunas (r = 0,266, p = 0,001), hemoglobina A1C (r = 0,314, p < 0,001), índice de resistencia a la insulina mediante HOMA (r = 0,272, p = 0,001) y diversas adipoquinas, entre ellas resistina (r = 0,571, p < 0,001), interleucina-8 (r = 0,435, p < 0,001), factor de necrosis tumoral alfa (r = 0,295, p = 0,011) y

  18. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Martínez González, Olaia; Vélez de Mendizábal, Itsaso Zabaleta; Galarza Iriarte, Uxue; Vicente Martín, María Soledad; De Vega Castaño, María Del Carmen; Salmerón Egea, Jesús

    2016-03-25

    Introducción: la disfagia o dificultad de deglución afecta a 1 de cada 2 mayores hospitalizados y genera problemas de desnutrición o deshidratación, y aparición de neumonía por aspiración. En situaciones de disfagia orofaríngea, cuando la alimentación oral aún es posible, se deben espesar las texturas líquidas de cara a evitar dichas complicaciones. A los alimentos, tanto fríos como calientes, habitualmente se les añaden espesantes comerciales consistentes en almidones modificados siguiendo especificaciones muy generales que hacen difícil conseguir la textura adaptada a las necesidades personales. Objetivo: el objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar el efecto de la temperatura del alimento (10 oC y 50 oC), la dosificación (néctar, miel y pudin) y el tiempo transcurrido desde la preparación (0, 3, 5, 10, 20 min) sobre los parámetros de textura de agua espesada a base de uno de los espesantes más ampliamente comercializados. Método: las muestras se analizaron por triplicado en un texturómetro TA.XT2i (Stable Micro Systems, UK) mediante ensayo de compresión-extrusión, empleando una sonda de 2,5 cm de diámetro a una velocidad de 3 mm/s y con una célula de carga de 5 kg. A partir de las curvas fuerza vs. tiempo obtenidas se cuantificaron parámetros indicadores de la firmeza, la adhesividad y el trabajo de las muestras. Resultados y conclusión: en general, los parámetros relacionados con la consistencia fueron significativamente (α < 0,05) superiores en las muestras a mayor temperatura, lo que se puede relacionar con fenómenos incipientes de gelatinización. A su vez, se observó un incremento en los valores de todos los parámetros de textura al aumentar la concentración del espesante y a medida que transcurría el tiempo desde la mezcla de este en el agua. Estos resultados apuntan a la necesidad de realizar un trabajo exhaustivo de caracterización, ampliado también a otros productos y matrices alimentarias, de cara a modelizar la

  19. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jin-Zhou; Li, Chun-Xiao; Dai, Yi-Ning; Zhao, De-Jian; Fang, Zhi-Yun; Wan, Xing-Yong; Zhu, Hua-Tuo; Wang, Yu-Ming; Yu, Chao-Hui; Li, You-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la betatrofina es una novedosa adipoquina que provoca la proliferación de células β pancreáticas e interviene en el metabolismo de los lípidos. Objetivos: el propósito de este estudio es evaluar el papel de la betatrofina en el síndrome metabólico. Método: se llevó a cabo un estudio hospitalario de casos y controles según sexo y edad. El nivel de betatrofina en suero fue evaluado mediante ensayo por inmunoabsorción ligado a enzimas. Se midieron las concentraciones en suero de 12 adipoquinas para evaluar las asociaciones con la betatrofina usando los kits comerciales Adipokine Magnetic Bead Panel. Los análisis estadísticos incluyeron correlación bivariada, análisis de curva ROC y análisis de regresión lineal multivariable. Resultados: el nivel de betatrofina en suero fue más elevado en pacientes con síndrome metabólico (997,36 ± 475,92 pg/ml, p = 0,001) que en los controles (735,35 ± 526,51 pg/ml). Frente al tercil más bajo, el tercil más alto del nivel de betatrofina mostró una asociación con mayor riesgo de síndrome metabólico (odds ratio ajustado = 3,521, intervalo de confianza [IC] 95% [1,191-10,413], p = 0,023). Se desarrolló la curva ROC de betatrofina para pronosticar la presencia de síndrome metabólico (área bajo la curva ROC = 0,682 [95% IC, 0,597-0,767], p < 0,001). Además, la betatrofina mostró correlación con distintos parámetros, como edad (r = 0,286, p < 0,001), índice de masa corporal (r = 0,160, p = 0,046), índice cintura-cadera (r = 0,241, p = 0,002), lipoproteína de alta densidad (r = -0,167, p = 0,037), lipoproteína de baja densidad (r = -0,195, p = 0,015), glucosa plasmática en ayunas (r = 0,266, p = 0,001), hemoglobina A1C (r = 0,314, p < 0,001), índice de resistencia a la insulina mediante HOMA (r = 0,272, p = 0,001) y diversas adipoquinas, entre ellas resistina (r = 0,571, p < 0,001), interleucina-8 (r = 0,435, p < 0,001), factor de necrosis tumoral alfa (r = 0,295, p = 0,011) y

  20. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Martínez González, Olaia; Vélez de Mendizábal, Itsaso Zabaleta; Galarza Iriarte, Uxue; Vicente Martín, María Soledad; De Vega Castaño, María Del Carmen; Salmerón Egea, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la disfagia o dificultad de deglución afecta a 1 de cada 2 mayores hospitalizados y genera problemas de desnutrición o deshidratación, y aparición de neumonía por aspiración. En situaciones de disfagia orofaríngea, cuando la alimentación oral aún es posible, se deben espesar las texturas líquidas de cara a evitar dichas complicaciones. A los alimentos, tanto fríos como calientes, habitualmente se les añaden espesantes comerciales consistentes en almidones modificados siguiendo especificaciones muy generales que hacen difícil conseguir la textura adaptada a las necesidades personales. Objetivo: el objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar el efecto de la temperatura del alimento (10 oC y 50 oC), la dosificación (néctar, miel y pudin) y el tiempo transcurrido desde la preparación (0, 3, 5, 10, 20 min) sobre los parámetros de textura de agua espesada a base de uno de los espesantes más ampliamente comercializados. Método: las muestras se analizaron por triplicado en un texturómetro TA.XT2i (Stable Micro Systems, UK) mediante ensayo de compresión-extrusión, empleando una sonda de 2,5 cm de diámetro a una velocidad de 3 mm/s y con una célula de carga de 5 kg. A partir de las curvas fuerza vs. tiempo obtenidas se cuantificaron parámetros indicadores de la firmeza, la adhesividad y el trabajo de las muestras. Resultados y conclusión: en general, los parámetros relacionados con la consistencia fueron significativamente (α < 0,05) superiores en las muestras a mayor temperatura, lo que se puede relacionar con fenómenos incipientes de gelatinización. A su vez, se observó un incremento en los valores de todos los parámetros de textura al aumentar la concentración del espesante y a medida que transcurría el tiempo desde la mezcla de este en el agua. Estos resultados apuntan a la necesidad de realizar un trabajo exhaustivo de caracterización, ampliado también a otros productos y matrices alimentarias, de cara a modelizar la

  1. Exploring and Visualizing A-Train Instrument Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempler, S.; Leptoukh, G.; Berrick, S.; Stephens, G.; Winker, D.; Reinke, D.

    2007-01-01

    Giovanni provides users with the capability of creating co-located profile images of temperature and humidity data from the MODIS, MLS and AIRS instruments for a user specified time and spatial area. In addition, Cloud and Aerosol profiles may also be displayed for the Cloudsat and Caliop instruments. The ability to modify horizontal and vertical axis range, data range and dynamic color range is also provided. Two dimensional strip plots of MODIS, AIRS, OM1 and POLDER parameters, co-located along the Cloudsat reference track, can also be plotted along with the Cloudsat cloud profiling data. Center swath pixels for the same parameters can also be shown as line plots overlaying the Cloudsat or Calipso profile images. Images and subsetted data produced in each analysis run may be downloaded. Users truly can explore and discover data specific to their needs prior to ever transferring data to their analysis tools.

  2. The Development of Two Science Investigator-led Processing Systems (SIPS) for NASA's Earth Observation System (EOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilmes, Curt

    2004-01-01

    software to adapt the system for OMI. We replaced the fundamental database system, Sybase, with an Open Source RDBMS called PostgreSQL, and based the entire OMIDAPS on a cluster of Linux based commodity computers rather than the large SGI servers that MODAPS uses. Rather than relying on a central I/O server host, the new system distributes its data archive among multiple server hosts in the cluster. OMI is also customizing the graphical user interfaces and reporting structure to more closely meet the needs of the OMI Science Team. Prior to 2003, simulated OMI data and the science algorithms were not ready for production testing. We initially constructed a prototype system and tested using a 25 year dataset of Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet Instrument (SBUV) data. This prototype system provided a platform to support the adaptation of the algorithms for OMI, and provided reprocessing of the historical data aiding in its analysis. In a recent reanalysis of the TOMS data, the OMIDAPS processed 108,000 full orbits of data through 4 processing steps per orbit, producing about 800,000 files (400 GiB) of level 2 and greater data files. More recently we have installed two instances of the OMIDAPS for integration and testing of OM1 science processes as they get delivered from the Science Team. A Test instance of the OMIDAPS has also supported a series of "Interface Confidence Tests" (ICTs) and End-to-End Ground System tests to ensure the launch readiness of the system. This paper will discuss the high-level hardware, software, and database organization of the OMIDAPS and how it builds on the MODAPS heritage system. It will also provide an overview of the testing and implementation of the production OMIDAPS.

  3. Standardizing Interfaces for External Access to Data and Processing for the NASA Ozone Product Evaluation and Test Element (PEATE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilmes, Curt A.; Fleig, Albert J.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's traditional science data processing systems have focused on specific missions, and providing data access, processing and services to the funded science teams of those specific missions. Recently NASA has been modifying this stance, changing the focus from Missions to Measurements. Where a specific Mission has a discrete beginning and end, the Measurement considers long term data continuity across multiple missions. Total Column Ozone, a critical measurement of atmospheric composition, has been monitored for'decades on a series of Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instruments. Some important European missions also monitor ozone, including the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) and SCIAMACHY. With the U.S.IEuropean cooperative launch of the Dutch Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on NASA Aura satellite, and the GOME-2 instrumental on MetOp, the ozone monitoring record has been further extended. In conjunction with the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), NASA is now preparing to evaluate data and algorithms for the next generation Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) which will launch on the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Preparatory Project (NPP) in 2010. NASA is constructing the Science Data Segment (SDS) which is comprised of several elements to evaluate the various NPP data products and algorithms. The NPP SDS Ozone Product Evaluation and Test Element (PEATE) will build on the heritage of the TOMS and OM1 mission based processing systems. The overall measurement based system that will encompass these efforts is the Atmospheric Composition Processing System (ACPS). We have extended the system to include access to publically available data sets from other instruments where feasible, including non-NASA missions as appropriate. The heritage system was largely monolithic providing a very controlled processing flow from data.ingest of

  4. Spatial and temporal variability of grass cover in two olive grove catchments on contrasting soil types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilera, Laura; Taguas, Encarnación V.; Gimeno, Enrique; Gómez, José A.

    2013-04-01

    mechanically killed by several tractor passes. Ground cover was evaluated by a field surveys (4 per year) in which the same areas were measured at an approximate density of 4 samples/ha. In each point, over a 0.25 m2 area ground cover was measured using photographs, then point measurements were interpolated using method of Inverse Distance Weighting methods, to generate continuous distribution maps. The spatial and temporal evolution of ground cover in both farms presented a notably different patterns in both farms. In "La Conchuela", maximum values of cover can be reached in winter (61%, Dec-2011) while in "Arroyo Blanco", the maximum values were observed during the spring (50% May-2011) and are dramatically lower in the seasons of summer and autumn. These differences are justified by the influence of the management, the precipitation regime and the soil qualities such as the depth. On the other hand, the large spatial variability of ground cover measurements in both catchments, with coefficients of variation between 41 and 167%, was mainly led by the topography. In both farms the highest values of ground cover were found in those areas with deeper soils located in also in converging areas where surface runoff is concentrated. In the highest and shallowest area, soil management operations might improve the establishment of the vegetation as well as to address the growing in the most erosive periods. Finally, the impact of grass cover on the hydrological and erosive responses in the catchment is also discussed. References Aguilera, L. 2012. Estudio de cubiertas vegetales para el control de la erosión en olivar. Evaluación espacio-temporal en dos fincas comerciales, y exploración de nuevas opciones de cubiertas. Master Thesis. University of Cordoba. Gómez, J.A., Giráldez, J.V. Erosión y degradación de suelos. In: Sostenibilidad de la producción de olivar en Andalucía. Gómez, J.A. (Editor). Junta de Andalucía. Sevilla, p. 45-86. Gómez, J.A., Sobrinho, T.A., Gir

  5. Spatial and temporal variability of grass cover in two olive grove catchments on contrasting soil types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilera, Laura; Taguas, Encarnación V.; Gimeno, Enrique; Gómez, José A.

    2013-04-01

    mechanically killed by several tractor passes. Ground cover was evaluated by a field surveys (4 per year) in which the same areas were measured at an approximate density of 4 samples/ha. In each point, over a 0.25 m2 area ground cover was measured using photographs, then point measurements were interpolated using method of Inverse Distance Weighting methods, to generate continuous distribution maps. The spatial and temporal evolution of ground cover in both farms presented a notably different patterns in both farms. In "La Conchuela", maximum values of cover can be reached in winter (61%, Dec-2011) while in "Arroyo Blanco", the maximum values were observed during the spring (50% May-2011) and are dramatically lower in the seasons of summer and autumn. These differences are justified by the influence of the management, the precipitation regime and the soil qualities such as the depth. On the other hand, the large spatial variability of ground cover measurements in both catchments, with coefficients of variation between 41 and 167%, was mainly led by the topography. In both farms the highest values of ground cover were found in those areas with deeper soils located in also in converging areas where surface runoff is concentrated. In the highest and shallowest area, soil management operations might improve the establishment of the vegetation as well as to address the growing in the most erosive periods. Finally, the impact of grass cover on the hydrological and erosive responses in the catchment is also discussed. References Aguilera, L. 2012. Estudio de cubiertas vegetales para el control de la erosión en olivar. Evaluación espacio-temporal en dos fincas comerciales, y exploración de nuevas opciones de cubiertas. Master Thesis. University of Cordoba. Gómez, J.A., Giráldez, J.V. Erosión y degradación de suelos. In: Sostenibilidad de la producción de olivar en Andalucía. Gómez, J.A. (Editor). Junta de Andalucía. Sevilla, p. 45-86. Gómez, J.A., Sobrinho, T.A., Gir

  6. Estudio numerico y experimental del proceso de soldeo MIG sobre la aleacion 6063--T5 utilizando el metodo de Taguchi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meseguer Valdenebro, Jose Luis

    improvement on mechanical properties in aluminum metal joint. Los procesos de soldadura por arco electrico representan unas de las tecnicas mas utilizadas en los procesos de fabricacion de componentes mecanicos en la industria moderna. Los procesos de soldeo por arco se han adaptado a las necesidades actuales, haciendose un modo de fabricacion flexible y versatil. Los resultados obtenidos numericamente en el proceso de soldadura son validados experimentalmente. Los principales metodos numericos mas empleados en la actualidad son tres, metodo por diferencias finitas, metodos por elementos finitos y metodo por volumenes finitos. El metodo numerico mas empleado para el modelado de uniones soldadas, es el metodo por elementos finitos, debido a que presenta una buena adaptacion a las condiciones geometricas y de contorno ademas de que existe una diversidad de programas comerciales que utilizan el metodo por elementos finitos como base de calculo. Este trabajo de investigacion presenta un estudio experimental de una union soldada mediante el proceso MIG de la aleacion de aluminio 6063-T5. El metodo numerico se valida experimentalmente aplicando el metodo de los elementos finitos con el programa de calculo ANSYS. Los resultados experimentales obtenidos son: las curvas de enfriamiento, el tiempo critico de enfriamiento t4/3, geometria del cordon, microdurezas obtenidas en la union soldada, zona afectada termicamente y metal base, dilucion del proceso, areas criticas intersecadas entre las curvas de enfriamiento y la curva TTP. Los resultados numericos son: las curvas del ciclo termico, que representan tanto el calentamiento hasta alcanzar la temperatura maxima y un posterior enfriamiento. Se calculan el tiempo critico de enfriamiento t4/3, el rendimiento termico y se representa la geometria del cordon obtenida experimentalmente. La zona afectada termicamente se obtiene diferenciando las zonas que se encuentran a diferentes temperaturas, las areas criticas intersecadas entre las

  7. Measurement and evaluation of national family planning programs.

    PubMed

    Mauldin, W P

    1967-03-01

    programa de planeamiento familiar) fraccionados par áreas principales y cinco a seis categorías de costos importantes tales coma: adminietración, personal de campo, publicidad, suministros, etc. C. Un buen conjunto de dates globales sobre la distribución de los suministros comerciales que puedan llegar tan cerca como sea posible del último consumidor, to cual significa probablemente obtener información de los mayoristas. D. Una encuesta de conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas (KAP) para una evaluación general cada dos años. Las preguntas básicas (además de las antes mencionadas y estatus marital y étnico cuando sea pertinente) son: actitud hacia e interés por la anticoncepción, número de niños por sexo, deseo de tener más hijos, prácticas anticonceptivas, experiencia sobre abortos, tal vez historia de embarazo (especialmente si esta producirá una tasa de fecundidad válida), aprobación del programa gubernamental (para uso politico), y si está actualmente embarazada (la única y mejor pregunta cuya respuesta habla del efecto sobre la tasa de natalidad). Administrativamente, la responsabilidad por la evalucion debe estar cerca al director, se debe tomar provisiones para obtener informes regulares (meneulaes) y especiales dirigidos a preguntar sobre política. El corolario es que el jefe de evaluación debe tener la confianza del director y debe estar al día en cuanto a las decisiones sabre la politics a seguir. Su trabajo consiste en extractar los aspectos principales que funcionan bien y los no operantes. En cuanto a costos, la evaluación debe hacerse sobre no más del 10 par ciento del costa del programa en paises pequeños (de menos de 30 milliones) y sabre no más del 5 per ciento en paises más grandes.Para medir en que forma el programa satisface el criterio final-la magnitud en que cambia la fecundidad-se debe realizar un trabajo más elaborado en el centro (Universidades, Consejos de población, etc.) para desarrollar una forma (a formas

  8. Measurement and evaluation of national family planning programs.

    PubMed

    Mauldin, W P

    1967-03-01

    programa de planeamiento familiar) fraccionados par áreas principales y cinco a seis categorías de costos importantes tales coma: adminietración, personal de campo, publicidad, suministros, etc. C. Un buen conjunto de dates globales sobre la distribución de los suministros comerciales que puedan llegar tan cerca como sea posible del último consumidor, to cual significa probablemente obtener información de los mayoristas. D. Una encuesta de conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas (KAP) para una evaluación general cada dos años. Las preguntas básicas (además de las antes mencionadas y estatus marital y étnico cuando sea pertinente) son: actitud hacia e interés por la anticoncepción, número de niños por sexo, deseo de tener más hijos, prácticas anticonceptivas, experiencia sobre abortos, tal vez historia de embarazo (especialmente si esta producirá una tasa de fecundidad válida), aprobación del programa gubernamental (para uso politico), y si está actualmente embarazada (la única y mejor pregunta cuya respuesta habla del efecto sobre la tasa de natalidad). Administrativamente, la responsabilidad por la evalucion debe estar cerca al director, se debe tomar provisiones para obtener informes regulares (meneulaes) y especiales dirigidos a preguntar sobre política. El corolario es que el jefe de evaluación debe tener la confianza del director y debe estar al día en cuanto a las decisiones sabre la politics a seguir. Su trabajo consiste en extractar los aspectos principales que funcionan bien y los no operantes. En cuanto a costos, la evaluación debe hacerse sobre no más del 10 par ciento del costa del programa en paises pequeños (de menos de 30 milliones) y sabre no más del 5 per ciento en paises más grandes.Para medir en que forma el programa satisface el criterio final-la magnitud en que cambia la fecundidad-se debe realizar un trabajo más elaborado en el centro (Universidades, Consejos de población, etc.) para desarrollar una forma (a formas