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Sample records for comerciales progil om1

  1. Oms1 associates with cytochrome c oxidase assembly intermediates to stabilize newly synthesized Cox1.

    PubMed

    Bareth, Bettina; Nikolov, Miroslav; Lorenzi, Isotta; Hildenbeutel, Markus; Mick, David U; Helbig, Christin; Urlaub, Henning; Ott, Martin; Rehling, Peter; Dennerlein, Sven

    2016-05-15

    The mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase assembles in the inner membrane from subunits of dual genetic origin. The assembly process of the enzyme is initiated by membrane insertion of the mitochondria-encoded Cox1 subunit. During complex maturation, transient assembly intermediates, consisting of structural subunits and specialized chaperone-like assembly factors, are formed. In addition, cofactors such as heme and copper have to be inserted into the nascent complex. To regulate the assembly process, the availability of Cox1 is under control of a regulatory feedback cycle in which translation of COX1 mRNA is stalled when assembly intermediates of Cox1 accumulate through inactivation of the translational activator Mss51. Here we isolate a cytochrome c oxidase assembly intermediate in preparatory scale from coa1Δ mutant cells, using Mss51 as bait. We demonstrate that at this stage of assembly, the complex has not yet incorporated the heme a cofactors. Using quantitative mass spectrometry, we define the protein composition of the assembly intermediate and unexpectedly identify the putative methyltransferase Oms1 as a constituent. Our analyses show that Oms1 participates in cytochrome c oxidase assembly by stabilizing newly synthesized Cox1.

  2. Identification of TL-Om1, an Adult T-Cell Leukemia (ATL) Cell Line, as Reference Material for Quantitative PCR for Human T-Lymphotropic Virus 1

    PubMed Central

    Okuma, Kazu; Yamagishi, Makoto; Yamochi, Tadanori; Firouzi, Sanaz; Momose, Haruka; Mizukami, Takuo; Takizawa, Kazuya; Araki, Kumiko; Sugamura, Kazuo; Yamaguchi, Kazunari; Watanabe, Toshiki

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative PCR (qPCR) for human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1) is useful for measuring the amount of integrated HTLV-1 proviral DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Many laboratories in Japan have developed different HTLV-1 qPCR methods. However, when six independent laboratories analyzed the proviral load of the same samples, there was a 5-fold difference in their results. To standardize HTLV-1 qPCR, preparation of a well-defined reference material is needed. We analyzed the integrated HTLV-1 genome and the internal control (IC) genes of TL-Om1, a cell line derived from adult T-cell leukemia, to confirm its suitability as a reference material for HTLV-1 qPCR. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) showed that HTLV-1 provirus was monoclonally integrated in chromosome 1 at the site of 1p13 in the TL-Om1 genome. HTLV-1 proviral genome was not transferred from TL-Om1 to an uninfected T-cell line, suggesting that the HTLV-1 proviral copy number in TL-Om1 cells is stable. To determine the copy number of HTLV-1 provirus and IC genes in TL-Om1 cells, we used FISH, digital PCR, and qPCR. HTLV-1 copy numbers obtained by these three methods were similar, suggesting that their results were accurate. Also, the ratio of the copy number of HTLV-1 provirus to one of the IC genes, RNase P, was consistent for all three methods. These findings indicate that TL-Om1 cells are an appropriate reference material for HTLV-1 qPCR. PMID:25502533

  3. Identification of TL-Om1, an adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) cell line, as reference material for quantitative PCR for human T-lymphotropic virus 1.

    PubMed

    Kuramitsu, Madoka; Okuma, Kazu; Yamagishi, Makoto; Yamochi, Tadanori; Firouzi, Sanaz; Momose, Haruka; Mizukami, Takuo; Takizawa, Kazuya; Araki, Kumiko; Sugamura, Kazuo; Yamaguchi, Kazunari; Watanabe, Toshiki; Hamaguchi, Isao

    2015-02-01

    Quantitative PCR (qPCR) for human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1) is useful for measuring the amount of integrated HTLV-1 proviral DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Many laboratories in Japan have developed different HTLV-1 qPCR methods. However, when six independent laboratories analyzed the proviral load of the same samples, there was a 5-fold difference in their results. To standardize HTLV-1 qPCR, preparation of a well-defined reference material is needed. We analyzed the integrated HTLV-1 genome and the internal control (IC) genes of TL-Om1, a cell line derived from adult T-cell leukemia, to confirm its suitability as a reference material for HTLV-1 qPCR. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) showed that HTLV-1 provirus was monoclonally integrated in chromosome 1 at the site of 1p13 in the TL-Om1 genome. HTLV-1 proviral genome was not transferred from TL-Om1 to an uninfected T-cell line, suggesting that the HTLV-1 proviral copy number in TL-Om1 cells is stable. To determine the copy number of HTLV-1 provirus and IC genes in TL-Om1 cells, we used FISH, digital PCR, and qPCR. HTLV-1 copy numbers obtained by these three methods were similar, suggesting that their results were accurate. Also, the ratio of the copy number of HTLV-1 provirus to one of the IC genes, RNase P, was consistent for all three methods. These findings indicate that TL-Om1 cells are an appropriate reference material for HTLV-1 qPCR. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Aqueous magnesium ion battery based on carbon-coated FeVO4 as anode and Mg-OMS-1 as cathode with high energy density.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongyu; Ye, Ke; Zhu, Kai; Cang, Ruibai; Yan, Jun; Cheng, Kui; Wang, Guiling; Cao, Dianxue

    2017-09-21

    The porous FeVO4 is prepared by hydrothermal method and further modified by coating carbon to obtain the FeVO4/C with hierarchical pore structure, which are used as anodic electrodes in aqueous rechargeable magnesium ion battery. And the FeVO4/C material can not only improve the electrical conductivity by coating a carbon layer but also increase the specific surface area by hierarchical pore structure, which is more beneficial for magnesium ion insertion/deinsertion. Therefore, the aqueous rechargeable magnesium ion full battery is successfully constructed by FeVO4/C as anode, Mg-OMS-1 as cathode and in 1.0 mol L-1 MgSO4 as electrolyte. The discharge capacity of Mg-OMS-1 // FeVO4/C aqueous battery can be obtained 58.9 mAh g-1 at the current density of 100 mA g-1 by calculating the total mass of two electrodes and the capacity retention rate of this device is 97.7% after 100 cycles with the nearly 100% coulombic efficiency, which indicates that the system owns a good electrochemical reversibility. More than that, this system can achieve a high energy density of 70.4 Wh kg-1, which provides a powerful evidence to make the aqueous magnesium ion battery possible. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Significant issues and changes for ANSI/ASME OM-1 1981, part 1, ASME OMc code-1994, and ASME OM Code-1995, Appendix I, inservice testing of pressure relief devices in light water reactor power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Seniuk, P.J.

    1996-12-01

    This paper identifies significant changes to the ANSI/ASME OM-1 1981, Part 1, and ASME Omc Code-1994 and ASME OM Code-1995, Appendix I, {open_quotes}Inservice Testing of Pressure Relief Devices in Light-Water Reactor Power Plants{close_quotes}. The paper describes changes to different Code editions and presents insights into the direction of the code committee and selected topics to be considered by the ASME O&M Working Group on pressure relief devices. These topics include scope issues, thermal relief valve issues, as-found and as-left set-pressure determinations, exclusions from testing, and cold setpoint bench testing. The purpose of this paper is to describe some significant issues being addressed by the O&M Working Group on Pressure Relief Devices (OM-1). The writer is currently the chair of OM-1 and the statements expressed herein represents his personal opinion.

  6. Sequence analysis and characterization of pOM1, a small cryptic plasmid from Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, and its use in construction of a new family of cloning vectors for Butyrivibrios.

    PubMed Central

    Hefford, M A; Kobayashi, Y; Allard, S E; Forster, R J; Teather, R M

    1997-01-01

    As a preliminary step in the development of vector systems, we have isolated and begun to characterize small, cryptic plasmids from several strains of the rumen bacterium Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens. We present here the complete nucleotide sequence of Butyrivibrio plasmid pOM1, which was isolated from B. fibrisolvens Bu49. While it is very similar in size to the previously characterized Butyrivibrio plasmids pRJF1 and pRJF2, pOM1 exhibits a restriction pattern which is quite distinct. Analysis of sequence data reveals that pOM1 contains only two open reading frames of significant length (ORF1 and ORF2), both of which are required for self-replication and maintenance. The protein encoded in ORF1 shows homologies with Pre (plasmid recombination enzyme) proteins encoded in plasmids from gram-positive organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Bacillus thuringiensis. The putative translation product of ORF2, on the other hand, resembles Rep (replication) proteins of a different group of gram-positive plasmids, for which the Staphylococcus plasmid pSN2 is a prototype. Unlike the other characterized-Butyrivibrio plasmids, pOM1 appears to replicate via a rolling-circle mechanism. Experimental evidence showing the presence of a single-stranded replication intermediate consistent with this mechanism is presented. pOM1 has been used in the construction of a new Escherichia coli-B. fibrisolvens shuttle vector, pSMerm1, which has been successfully used to introduce a cloned gene into B. fibrisolvens harboring the pRJF1 plasmid. PMID:9143105

  7. Basin-scale patterns in the abundance of SAR11 subclades, marine Actinobacteria (OM1), members of the Roseobacter clade and OCS116 in the South Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Morris, Robert M; Frazar, Christian D; Carlson, Craig A

    2012-05-01

    Bacterioplankton are major biogeochemical agents responsible for mediating the flux of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and subsequent cycling of nutrients in the oceans. Most information about the composition of bacterioplankton communities has come from studies along well-defined biogeochemical gradients in the northern hemisphere. This study extends observations of spatial and temporal dynamics for SAR11, Actinobacteria and OCS116 in the North Atlantic by demonstrating distinct spatial variability in the abundance and distribution of these and other lineages across the South Atlantic gyre and in the Benguela upwelling system. We identified shifts in SAR11, Actinobacteria, OCS116, SAR86, SAR116 and members of the Roseobacter clade along basin-scale gradients in nutrients, chlorophyll and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Distinct SAR11 subclades dominated the western and eastern regions of the gyre, and Actinobacteria, OCS116 and members of the Roseobacter lineages were most abundant at the deep chlorophyll maxima. SAR86 and SAR116 accounted for a significant fraction of coastal and open ocean communities, respectively, and members of the gamma sulfur oxidizer (GSO) clade persisted in the Benguela upwelling system. These data suggest that distinct communities are partitioned along basin-scale biogeochemical gradients, that SAR11 community structure varies across the gyre and that Actinobacteria, OCS116, and members of the Roseobacter clade are closely associated with phytoplankton in the gyre. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. PROCENTAJE DE PSILIDOS PORTADORES DE Canidatus Liberibacter asiaticus Y SU RELACION CON LA INCIDENCIA DE HLB EN CINCO HUERTAS COMERCIALES DE LIMON MEXICANO {Citrus aurantifolia (Christm) Swingle} EN EL ESTADO DE COLIMA MEXICO

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Asian citrus psyllids (Diaphorina citri) were individually analyzed by qPCR to detect Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas). The psyllids were collected in Mexican lime (Citrus aurantifolia) trees in five commercial orchards in Tecomán and Manzanillo, Colima with severe symptoms of classical mott...

  9. Manual of best practices of technical requirements for forestry laboratories

    Treesearch

    José Ugarte Oliva; José Camero Jiménez; Jessica Moscoso Guerrero

    2015-01-01

    Actualmente el comercio mundial se realiza a gran escala, estableciéndose requisitos cada día más exigentes, donde los productores y consumidores requieren realizar transacciones comerciales con unamayor de confiabilidad, y donde la calidad de los productos y servicioses un aspecto crítico en las actividades comerciales.

  10. Recent Experiments with INQUERY

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-11-01

    Ending Example dor matador bull ghter d verdad truth ata corbata tie z arroz rice szmo capitalismo capitalism miento conocimiento...grupo de r#io river group barros valero subsecretary of exterior relations lazos comerciales commercial ties economico

  11. Highly potent anti-human GPVI monoclonal antibodies derived from GPVI knockout mouse immunization.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yutaka; Takizawa, Hisao; Gong, Xiaoqi; Le, Sang; Lockyer, Simon; Okuyama, Keiji; Tanaka, Michinori; Yoshitake, Masuhiro; Tandon, Narendra N; Kambayashi, Junichi

    2007-01-01

    Recent progress in the understanding of thrombus formation has suggested an important role for glycoprotein (GP) VI in this process. To clarify the exact role in detail, it is necessary to use specific, high affinity inhibitory antibodies. However, possibly due to the conserved structure of GPVI among species, it has been difficult to obtain potent antibodies. In this study, we developed highly potent anti-human GPVI monoclonal antibodies using GPVI knockout mice for immunization. Fab fragments of these antibodies, named OM1 and OM2, potently inhibit collagen-induced platelet aggregation. The IC(50) values for OM1 and OM2 are 0.6+/-0.05 and 1.7+/-0.5 microg/mL, respectively, showing potency greater than, or equal to that of abciximab (1.7+/-0.3 microg/mL), an anti-GPIIb/IIIa antibody. Fab fragments of OM1 and OM2 also potently inhibit collagen-induced ATP release, thromboxane A(2) formation, and platelet adhesion to immobilized collagen under static and flow conditions. Interestingly, platelet aggregation induced with collagen-related peptide was potently inhibited by OM2 but not OM1, indicating that OM1 recognizes an epitope that is different from collagen-related peptide-binding site on GPVI. These results suggest that OM1 and OM2 may be useful tools to understand the role of GPVI in thrombus formation. Furthermore, these antibodies have the potential to be developed as a new class of therapeutic tool.

  12. Evolution of satellite DNA sequences in two tribes of Bovidae: A cautionary tale

    PubMed Central

    Nieddu, Mariella; Mezzanotte, Roberto; Pichiri, Giuseppina; Coni, Pier Paolo; Dedola, Gian Luca; Dettori, Maria Luisa; Pazzola, Michele; Vacca, Giuseppe Massimo; Robledo, Renato

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Two clones, Bt1 from Bos taurus and Om1 from Ovis orientalis musimon, were used as probes for hybridization on genomic DNA and on metaphase chromosomes in members of Bovini and Caprini tribes. Bt1 and Om1 are sequences respectively belonging to the 1.715 and 1.714 DNA satellite I families. Southern blots and fluorescence in situ hybridization experiments showed completely coherent results: the Bovini probe Bt1 hybridized only to members of the Bovini tribe and not to members of Caprini. Likewise, the Caprini probe Om1 hybridized only to members of the Caprini tribe and not to members of Bovini. Hybridization signals were detected in the heterochromatic regions of every acrocentric autosome, except for two pairs of autosomes from Capra hircus that did not show hybridization to probe Om1. No signal was detected on X and Y chromosomes or on bi-armed autosomes. Remarkably, probe Om1 showed almost 100% homology with a bacterial sequence reported in Helicobacter pylori. PMID:26692159

  13. Osteogenic differentiation of human gingival mesenchymal stem cells by Aristolochia bracteolata supplementation through enhanced Runx2 expression.

    PubMed

    Murugan Girija, Dinesh; Y Ranga Rao, Suresh; Kalachaveedu, Mangathayaru; Subbarayan, Rajasekaran

    2017-07-01

    The phenotypic characteristics of human gingival derived mesenchymal stem cells (HGMSCs) on induction with total methanol extract of Aristolochia bracteolata have been evaluated. HGMSCs were cultured in control and two different induction medium: Control medium (basal medium), OM1 (Standard induction medium), and OM2 (100 μg/ml of A. bracteolata). Osteogenic differentiation of the cultured cells was assessed by studying the calcium deposition and osteoblastic gene expression. OM2 medium showed an enhanced osteogenic differentiation potential than OM1 as measured by increased calcium deposition and elevated expression of Runx2, osteopontin, osteonectin, osteocalcin, Collagen type I, and ALP levels in comparison with OM1 differentiated cells. We conclude that at 100 μg/ml A. bracteolata has induced HGMSC differentiation into osteogenic lineage consequent to enhanced Runx2 expression and related osteogenic genes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Measuring Aerosol Optical Properties with the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veefkind, J. P.; Torres, O.; Syniuk, A.; Decae, R.; deLeeuw, G.

    2003-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) is the Dutch-Finnish contribution to the NASA EOS-Aura mission scheduled for launch in January 2004. OM1 is an imaging spectrometer that will measure the back-scattered Solar radiance between 270 an 500 nm. With its relatively high spatial resolution (13x24 sq km at nadir) and daily global coverage. OM1 will make a major contribution to our understanding of atmospheric chemistry and to climate research. OM1 will provide data continuity with the TOMS instruments. One of the pleasant surprises of the TOMS data record was its information on aerosol properties. First, only the absorbing aerosol index, which is sensitive to elevated lay- ers of aerosols such as desert dust and smoke aerosols, was derived. Recently these methods were further improved to yield aerosol optical thickness and single scattering albedo over land and ocean for 19 years of TOMS data (1979-1992,1997-2002), making it one of the longest and most valuable time series for aerosols presently available. Such long time series are essential to quantify the effect of aerosols on the Earth& climate. The OM1 instrument is better suited to measure aerosols than the TOMS instruments because of the smaller footprint, and better spectral coverage. The better capabilities of OMI will enable us to provide an improved aerosol product, but the knowledge will also be used for further analysis of the aerosol record from TOMS. The OM1 aerosol product that is currently being developed for OM1 combines the TOMS experience and the multi-spectral techniques that are used in the visible and near infrared. The challenge for this new product is to provide aerosol optical thickness and single scattering albedo from the near ultraviolet to the visible (330-500 nm) over land and ocean. In this presentation the methods for deriving the OM1 aerosol product will be presented. Part of these methods developed for OM1 can already be applied to TOMS data and results of such analysis will be shown.

  15. Energia Renovable para Centros de Salud Rurales (Renewable Energy for Rural Health Clinics)

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, T.; Olson, K.

    1999-07-28

    Esta es la primera de una serie de guias de aplicaciones que el Programa de Energia de Villas de NREL esta comisionando para acoplar sistemas comerciales renovables con aplicaciones rurales, incluyendo agua, escuelas rurales y micro empresas. La guia esta complementada por las actividades de desarrollo del Programa de Energia de Villas de NREL, proyectos pilotos internacionales y programas de visitas profesionales.

  16. Biomass removal and its effect on productivity of an artificially regenerated forest stand in the Missouri ozarks

    Treesearch

    Flex Jr. Ponder

    2007-01-01

    Intensive harvesting, which removes a greater proportion of the forest biomass than conventional harvesting and the associated nutrients, may cause a decline in forest productivity. Planted seedling response to three biomass removal levels (1. removal of boles only=OM1, 2. all surface organic matter removed, forest floor not removed=OM2, and 3. removal of all surface...

  17. Evaluation of the Orwin 1988 Square Aspect Ratio, 20-Inch Diagonal Monochrome Monitor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-06-20

    Illuminance Meter • Microvision Superspot 100 Display Characterization System which included OM-1 optic module (Two Dimensional photodiode linear...this sheet is subject to the restrictions on the cover and title of this report. 1. Both the monitor and the Microvision equipment sit on a vibration

  18. Testing the Archivas Cluster (Arc) for Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Scientific Data Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilmes, Curt

    2005-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) launched on NASA's Aura Spacecraft, the third of the major platforms of the EOS program on July 15,2004. In addition to the long term archive and distribution of the data from OM1 through the Goddard Earth Science Distributed Active Archive Center (GESDAAC), we are evaluating other archive mechanisms that can archive the data in a more immediately available method where it can be used for futher data production and analysis. In 2004, Archivas, Inc. was selected by NASA s Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program for the development of their Archivas Cluster (ArC) product. Arc is an online disk based system utilizing self-management and automation on a Linux cluster. Its goal is to produce a low cost solution coupled with the ease of management. The OM1 project is an application partner of the SBIR program, and has deployed a small cluster (5TB) based on the beta Archwas software. We performed extensive testing of the unit using production OM1 data since launch. In 2005, Archivas, Inc. was funded in SBIR Phase II for further development, which will include testing scalability with the deployment of a larger (35TB) cluster at Goddard. We plan to include Arc in the OM1 Team Leader Computing Facility (TLCF) hosting OM1 data for direct access and analysis by the OMI Science Team. This presentation will include a brief technical description of the Archivas Cluster, a summary of the SBIR Phase I beta testing results, and an overview of the OMI ground data processing architecture including its interaction with the Phase II Archivas Cluster and hosting of OMI data for the scientists.

  19. Testing the Archivas Cluster (Arc) for Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Scientific Data Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilmes, Curt

    2005-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) launched on NASA's Aura Spacecraft, the third of the major platforms of the EOS program on July 15,2004. In addition to the long term archive and distribution of the data from OM1 through the Goddard Earth Science Distributed Active Archive Center (GESDAAC), we are evaluating other archive mechanisms that can archive the data in a more immediately available method where it can be used for futher data production and analysis. In 2004, Archivas, Inc. was selected by NASA s Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program for the development of their Archivas Cluster (ArC) product. Arc is an online disk based system utilizing self-management and automation on a Linux cluster. Its goal is to produce a low cost solution coupled with the ease of management. The OM1 project is an application partner of the SBIR program, and has deployed a small cluster (5TB) based on the beta Archwas software. We performed extensive testing of the unit using production OM1 data since launch. In 2005, Archivas, Inc. was funded in SBIR Phase II for further development, which will include testing scalability with the deployment of a larger (35TB) cluster at Goddard. We plan to include Arc in the OM1 Team Leader Computing Facility (TLCF) hosting OM1 data for direct access and analysis by the OMI Science Team. This presentation will include a brief technical description of the Archivas Cluster, a summary of the SBIR Phase I beta testing results, and an overview of the OMI ground data processing architecture including its interaction with the Phase II Archivas Cluster and hosting of OMI data for the scientists.

  20. Preparation of Mg1.1Mn6O12·4.5H2O with nanobelt structure and its application in aqueous magnesium-ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongyu; Ye, Ke; Huang, Xiaomei; Wang, Xin; Cheng, Kui; Xiao, Xue; Wang, Guiling; Cao, Dianxue

    2017-01-01

    Aqueous rechargeable magnesium-ion batteries with low cost of magnesium resources have a potential to meet growing requirements for electric energy storage resulted from the similar electrochemical properties to lithium. The Mg1.1Mn6O12·4.5H2O named as magnesium octahedral molecular sieves (Mg-OMS-1) owns nanobelt structures as a cathode material for aqueous magnesium-ion battery. The morphology and structure of Mg-OMS-1 are measured by X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The mechanism of magnesium-ion insertion/deinsertion from this host material and the theory specific capacity of Mg-OMS-1 are determined by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Mg-OMS-1 displays an excellent battery behavior for Mg2+ insertion and deinsertion in the magnesium-salt aqueous electrolyte. The initial discharge capacity of Mg-OMS-1 electrode can reach 248.8 ± 0.5 mAh g-1 at 10 mA g-1 in the 0.2 mol dm-3 Mg(NO3)2 aqueous electrolyte. Even back to 10 mA g-1 after the rate performance, the discharge capacity can achieve 214.1 ± 0.5 mAh g-1. The specific capacity retention rate is 90.4% after cycling 200 times at 100 mA g-1 in the 0.5 mol dm-3 Mg(NO3)2 electrolyte with a columbic efficiency of 99.7 ± 0.1% in the 5 times experiments.

  1. Manual of best practices of quality management in forestry laboratories

    Treesearch

    José Ugarte Oliva; José Camero Jiménez; Jessica Moscoso Guerrero

    2015-01-01

    Actualmente, debido a la globalización, las relaciones comerciales crecen rápidamente, las cuales son más exigentes día a día; dicho desafío requiere que las organizaciones mejoren sus procesos y productos permitiendo realizar transacciones con un alto grado de confiabilidad, con el debido respaldo de la calidad de los productos y/o servicios que se comercializan....

  2. Diverse families of antimicrobial peptides isolated from skin secretions of three species of East Asian frogs, Babina daunchina, Babina adenopleura, and Rana omeimontis (Ranidae).

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuhong; Xu, Shiqi; Hu, Yonghong; Guo, Chao; Meng, Hao; Li, Jing; Liu, Jingze; Wang, Hui

    2014-07-01

    Twenty-two novel cDNAs encoding 22 peptide precursors for 19 mature peptides including antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) were identified from East Asian frog species Babina daunchina, Babina adenopleura, and Rana omeimontis skin-derived cDNA libraries. Two atypical members of the brevinin-1 family AMPs, named brevinin-1AN1 (FLTGVLKLASKIPSVLCAVLKTC) and brevinin-1DN1(FLKGVINLASKIPSMLCAVLKTC), were purified from the skin secretions of B. adenopleura and B. daunchina, respectively. A member of the ranatuerin-2 family AMP named ranatuerin-2DN1 (GLFDSITQGLKDTAVKLLDKIKCKLSACPPA) was also purified from the skin secretion of B. daunchina. One AMP named japonicin-2OM1 (FIVPSIFLLKKAFCIALKKNC) was purified from the skin secretion of R. omeimontis. The antimicrobial tests showed that brevinin-1DN1, brevinin-1DN2, brevinin-1AN1, and japonicin-2OM1 possess higher antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria than Gram-negative bacteria.

  3. Springtime Arctic haze contributions of submicron organic particles from European and Asian combustion sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frossard, Amanda A.; Shaw, Patrick M.; Russell, Lynn M.; Kroll, Jesse H.; Canagaratna, Manjula R.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Quinn, Patricia K.; Bates, Timothy S.

    2011-03-01

    The composition of Arctic aerosol, especially during the springtime Arctic haze, may play an important role in the radiative balance of the Arctic. The contribution of organic components to Arctic haze has only recently been investigated. Because measurements in this region are sparse, little is known about organic particle composition, sources, and concentrations. This study compares springtime measurements in the Arctic regions north of the Atlantic (ICEALOT, 2008) and Pacific (Barrow, Alaska, 2008 and 2009) oceans. The aerosol organic functional group composition from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy combined with positive matrix factorization (PMF) and elemental tracer analysis indicate that mixed combustion sources account for more than 60% (>0.3 μg m-3) of the submicron organic mass (OM1) for springtime haze conditions in both regions. Correlations with typical combustion tracers (S, Zn, K, Br, V) provide evidence for the contribution of combustion sources to the Arctic OM1. However, the two regions are influenced by different urban and industrial centers with different fuel usage. High-sulfur coal burning in northeastern Europe impacts the northern Atlantic Arctic region, while oil burning and forest fires in northeastern Asia and Alaska impact the northern Pacific Arctic region. Quadrupole and High Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometry measurements confirm the highly oxygenated nature of the OM1, with an oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA) spectrum from PMF. High co-emissions of sulfate and organics from coal-burning in northeastern Europe produce significant concentrations of organosulfate functional groups that account for 10% of OM1 measured by FTIR spectroscopy during ICEALOT. These observations provide preliminary support for a heterogeneous mechanism of organosulfate formation on acidic sulfate particles.

  4. OMI Total and Tropospheric Column Nitrogen Dioxide: Version 2 Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleason, James

    2007-01-01

    The at-launch version of the OM1 NO2 total and tropospheric NO2 algorithm made a number of assumptions about instrument performance. Our knowledge of tropospheric NO2 has increased in the 3 years since the inital version was delivered. The results of the post-launch validation campaigns and improved atmospheric modelling has lead to changes in the NO2 retrieval algorithm. The algorithm changes and the impacts on the data products will be presented.

  5. High Temperature Oxidation and Electrochemical Studies Related to Hot Corrosion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    metal-salt interface seem to be of prime importance. S N 15 g’ ..... NI *Ip~p%~P . * * .,. NV -13- L10~ ~ 2.0 om 1 .0 c’m P * 0.5 cm S 00- 8NQ .6.3 X...Defense Metals and Ceramics Command Infor-r.ation Center Alexandria, VA 22331 Battelle Memoria !nsri~ure ATTn: Code 03 1 505 King Avenue Columbus, OH

  6. ViewSonic VP181 5 x 4 Aspect Ratio, 18.1 Viewable Color LCD ViewPanel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-12-08

    Microvision SuperSpot 100 Display Characterization System which included OM- 1 optic module (Two Dimensional photodiode linear array device...projected element size at screen set to 1.3 mils with photopic filter) and Spotseeker 4-Axis Positioner • Microvision SuperSpot 220 with LCD Goniometer...monitor and the Microvision equipment sit on a vibration- damped aluminum-slab measurement bench. The motion of the test bench was a factor of 10

  7. OMI Total and Tropospheric Column Nitrogen Dioxide: Version 2 Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleason, James

    2007-01-01

    The at-launch version of the OM1 NO2 total and tropospheric NO2 algorithm made a number of assumptions about instrument performance. Our knowledge of tropospheric NO2 has increased in the 3 years since the inital version was delivered. The results of the post-launch validation campaigns and improved atmospheric modelling has lead to changes in the NO2 retrieval algorithm. The algorithm changes and the impacts on the data products will be presented.

  8. The Interagency Breakdown: Why We Need Legislative Reform to Coordinate Execution of the National Security Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    core areas that the reform needs to address require analysis . The analysis starts with the fact that the National Security Strategy is the centerpiece... tinder 5om!1iI𔃻 .t>:l A:s1stanl seu.Ia’~ CltIP. /JirFtlrce Marine Corps Major Commands & Agencies Cl:iH or N>\\𔃻J1 Opemlions Navy Major Commands &A

  9. Characteristics of Army Deserters in the DoD Special Discharge Review Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-10-01

    36 Yes 7 38 13 aNot statistically significant. ’Significant beyond the .01 level. 12I C and 42% had been court- martialed . Fitt (1968) found that 82...mchim. Am CDM 1 USAIMA, Ft B~rVttj A r N: ATSU-CTD-OM 1 USA lntelligence Cir h Sch, Ft Huachuca, ATrTN: ATS-CTD-MS 1USAIMA, Ft Bragg TN arta i I USA

  10. Xenotransplantation elicits salient tumorigenicity of adult T-cell leukemia-derived cells via aberrant AKT activation.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Kazunori; Takanashi, Tomoka; Nasu, Kentaro; Tamai, Keiichi; Mochizuki, Mai; Satoh, Ikuro; Ine, Shoji; Sasaki, Osamu; Satoh, Kennichi; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Harigae, Hideo; Sugamura, Kazuo

    2016-05-01

    The transplantation of human cancer cells into immunodeficient NOD/SCID/IL-2Rγc(null) (NOG) mice often causes highly malignant cell populations like cancer stem cells to emerge. Here, by serial transplantation in NOG mice, we established two highly tumorigenic adult T-cell leukemia-derived cell lines, ST1-N6 and TL-Om1-N8. When transplanted s.c., these cells formed tumors significantly earlier and from fewer initial cells than their parental lines ST1 and TL-Om1. We found that protein kinase B (AKT) signaling was upregulated in ST1-N6 and TL-Om1-N8 cells, and that this upregulation was due to the decreased expression of a negative regulator, INPP5D. Furthermore, the introduction of a constitutively active AKT mutant expression vector into ST1 cells augmented the tumorigenicity of the cells, whereas treatment with the AKT inhibitor MK-2206 attenuated the progression of tumors induced by ST1-N6 cells. Collectively, our results reveal that the AKT signaling pathway plays a critical role in the malignancy of adult T-cell leukemia-derived cells.

  11. Lightning-Generated NO(x) Seen By OMI during NASA's TC-4 Experiment: First Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bucsela, Eric; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Huntemann, Tabitha; Cohen, Ronald; Perring, Anne; Gleason, James; Blakeslee, Richard; Navarro, Dylana Vargas; Segura, Ileana Mora; Hernandez, Alexia Pacheco; hide

    2009-01-01

    We present here case studies identifying upper-tropospheric NO2 produced in convective storms during NASA's Tropical Composition, Cloud and Climate Coupling Experiment (TCi)n July and August 2007. DC8 aircraft missions, flown from the mission base in Costa Rica, recorded in situ NO2 profiles near active storms and in relatively quiet areas. We combine these data with measurements from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the Aura satellite to estimate the amount of NO2 produced by lightning (LN02) above background levels in the regions influenced by storms. In our analysis, improved off-line processing techniques are employed to minimize known artifacts in the OM1 data. Information on lightning flashes (primarily CG) observed by the surface network operated by the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad are examined upwind of regions where OM1 indicates enhanced LNO2. Comparisons of the observed flash data with measurements by the TRMM/LIS satellite instrument are used to obtain the lightning detection efficiency for total flashes. Finally, using the NO/NO2 ratio estimated from DC-8 observations, we estimate the average NO(x) production per lightning flash for each case in this study. The magnitudes of the measured NO(x) enhancements are compared with those observed by the DC-8 and with similar OM1 measurements analyzed in mid-latitude experiments.

  12. A clone-free, single molecule map of the domestic cow (Bos taurus) genome.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shiguo; Goldstein, Steve; Place, Michael; Bechner, Michael; Patino, Diego; Potamousis, Konstantinos; Ravindran, Prabu; Pape, Louise; Rincon, Gonzalo; Hernandez-Ortiz, Juan; Medrano, Juan F; Schwartz, David C

    2015-08-28

    The cattle (Bos taurus) genome was originally selected for sequencing due to its economic importance and unique biology as a model organism for understanding other ruminants, or mammals. Currently, there are two cattle genome sequence assemblies (UMD3.1 and Btau4.6) from groups using dissimilar assembly algorithms, which were complemented by genetic and physical map resources. However, past comparisons between these assemblies revealed substantial differences. Consequently, such discordances have engendered ambiguities when using reference sequence data, impacting genomic studies in cattle and motivating construction of a new optical map resource--BtOM1.0--to guide comparisons and improvements to the current sequence builds. Accordingly, our comprehensive comparisons of BtOM1.0 against the UMD3.1 and Btau4.6 sequence builds tabulate large-to-immediate scale discordances requiring mediation. The optical map, BtOM1.0, spanning the B. taurus genome (Hereford breed, L1 Dominette 01449) was assembled from an optical map dataset consisting of 2,973,315 (439 X; raw dataset size before assembly) single molecule optical maps (Rmaps; 1 Rmap = 1 restriction mapped DNA molecule) generated by the Optical Mapping System. The BamHI map spans 2,575.30 Mb and comprises 78 optical contigs assembled by a combination of iterative (using the reference sequence: UMD3.1) and de novo assembly techniques. BtOM1.0 is a high-resolution physical map featuring an average restriction fragment size of 8.91 Kb. Comparisons of BtOM1.0 vs. UMD3.1, or Btau4.6, revealed that Btau4.6 presented far more discordances (7,463) vs. UMD3.1 (4,754). Overall, we found that Btau4.6 presented almost double the number of discordances than UMD3.1 across most of the 6 categories of sequence vs. map discrepancies, which are: COMPLEX (misassembly), DELs (extraneous sequences), INSs (missing sequences), ITs (Inverted/Translocated sequences), ECs (extra restriction cuts) and MCs (missing restriction cuts

  13. Pre-operative assessment of residual disease in locally advanced breast cancer patients: A sequential study by quantitative diffusion weighted MRI as a function of therapy.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Khushbu; Sharma, Uma; Sah, Rani G; Mathur, Sandeep; Hari, Smriti; Seenu, Vurthaluru; Parshad, Rajinder; Jagannathan, Naranamangalam R

    2017-10-01

    The potential of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) in assessing pathologic response and surgical margins in locally advanced breast cancer patients (n=38) undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy was investigated. DWI was performed at pre-therapy (Tp0), after I (Tp1) and III (Tp3) NACT at 1.5T. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of whole tumor (ADCWT), solid tumor (ADCST), intra-tumoral necrosis (ADCNec) was determined. Further, ADC of 6 consecutive shells (5mm thickness each) including tumor margin to outside tumor margins (OM1 to OM5) was calculated and the data analyzed to define surgical margins. Of 38 patients, 6 were pathological complete responders (pCR), 19 partial responders (pPR) and 13 were non-responders (pNR). Significant increase was observed in ADCST and ADCWT in pCR and pPR following therapy. Pre-therapy ADC was significantly lower in pCR compared to pPR and pNR indicating the heterogeneous nature of tumor which may affect drug perfusion and consequently the response. ADC of outside margins (OM1, OM2, and OM3) was significantly different among pCR, pPR and pNR at Tp3 which may serve as response predictive parameter. Further, at Tp3, ADC of outside margins (OM1, OM2, and OM3) was significantly lower compared to that seen at Tp0 in pCR, indicating the presence of residual disease in these shells. Pre-surgery information may serve as a guide to define cancer free margins and the extent of residual disease which may be useful in planning breast conservation surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of an Energy Distribution System for Helicopter Landing Gears During Hard Landing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-11-01

    PlC ATION O F THIS PA6.l.mb Data mIMrOM.1 __p PREFACE This report was prepared by Hughes Helicopters, Division of Summa Corporation, under Contract...one blip on the oscillograph record as 0. 1 inch of drop height. The frequency of blips per unit of time (i. e., 1/ 200 second from 200 cycle AC signal...retrofit quantities of 100, . 200 , and 400 shipsets and with the forward production of 100, 200 , and 500 shipsets. The assumptions used in the analysis are

  15. Integrated guidance, navigation and control verification plan primary flight system. [space shuttle avionics integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The verification process and requirements for the ascent guidance interfaces and the ascent integrated guidance, navigation and control system for the space shuttle orbiter are defined as well as portions of supporting systems which directly interface with the system. The ascent phase of verification covers the normal and ATO ascent through the final OMS-2 circularization burn (all of OPS-1), the AOA ascent through the OMS-1 burn, and the RTLS ascent through ET separation (all of MM 601). In addition, OPS translation verification is defined. Verification trees and roadmaps are given.

  16. Crossmodal Congruency Benefits of Tactile and Visual Signalling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-12

    for Tactile and , m .~~ ~ 0 G) - ;u c CD 0 = Visual Signalling Ŕ ;u )> wom == om~ 1\\..)QQ. ~ ’:1@~ CO:::JO == Joseph Mercado F=: mm I\\..> CD ~ Ill...signaling 421 U) E ar E j:: Cll "’ c 0 0. "’ Cll a: c ItS Cll :!: 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 * t(19)=-2.25,p :5 0.4 * t(l9)=-3.98,p...touch when responding to vision in the crossmodal congruency task. Acta Psychologica, 118(1), 47-70. Stein, B. E ., & Meredith, M. A. (1993). The

  17. Are All Highly Malignant Cancer Cells Identical?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    F/G /5 N 1111 2Z111117 1 125iiI 1 1. 1111_L6. -11 O=M 1 MrCROCOP RErSOLUTICN TEST CHART N, APoP SN A’ ,- ARE ALL HIGHLY MALIGNANT CANCER CELLS...Greenstein and others, we raised the question, " Is it possible that cancer cells when they reach their ultimate state of autonomy and malignancy become... cancer cells: A. T241 (DMBA induced sarcoma); B. Kreb’s ( carcinoma of the inguinal region); C. Meth. A (fibrosarcoma); D. P4132 (reticulum cell

  18. Tri-Elisa for Simultaneous Analysis of Three Analytes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-16

    or decision unless so designated by other documentation. 93-27200 RI:PORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE OM1,, N’. "o1 0,2 W. .ar’. M tstr fr,stClet1l Mof In’crA...of monoclonal capture antibodies; 2) determine stability of the capture antibodies on the pre-coated plate; 3) reduce non-specific protein adsorption ...galamtsidass conjugate. For use In Tul-enzynle ELISA. Reconstitute with 20 mls of diluted (Ipg~ li ) P. vlvax 247 Enzyme Conjugate before use. 1 NqudP.bA

  19. Coupling between entropy and unsteady heat release in a thermoacoustic system with a mean flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lei; Zhao, Dan

    2016-11-01

    In this work, the coupling between entropy and unsteady heat release in a one dimensional duct in the presence of a mean flow is considered. As acoustic disturbances impinge on a compact heat source enclosed in the duct, entropy disturbances are generated. The transfer function between the generated entropy waves and oncoming flow velocity fluctuations is deduced by conducting order analysis of the linearized governing equations. The effects of the mean flow are emphasized for different forms of unsteady heat release model. It is shown that there is a strong coupling between entropy, heat release, mean flow and acoustic impedance at the heat source. To validate our theoretical analysis, numerical investigation is conducted by using a low order model. Comparing the theoretical and the low order model's results reveals that a good agreement is observed. It is found that when the mean flow Mach number is not negligible, the term of O(M1) in the identified entropy transfer function is as important as that of O(M0). Neglecting the term of O(M1) may lead to wrong prediction of the entropy waves produced in the system.

  20. Using Cloud Top Pressures Derived from Raman Scattering in the UV for the OMI Total Column Ozone Retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joiner, J.; Vasilkov, A. P.; Bhartia, P. K.; Yang, K.

    2003-01-01

    The OMI cloud pressure product is necessary for accounting for cloud effects on the mission- critical total ozone product. One of the OM1 cloud pressure algorithms uses UV measurements to derive cloud pressures from the high frequency structure of top- of-atmosphere reflectance caused by rotational Raman scattering (RRS) in the atmosphere. RRS results in filling-in of Fraunhofer lines in the backscatter UV spectra (also known as the Ring effect). The magnitude of filling-in of the Fraunhofer lines is roughly proportional to the average number of solar photon scatterings in the atmosphere above the clouds. This property of RRS is used to deduce an effective cloud pressure. The cloud pressure algorithm retrieves the cloud pressure and cloud fraction using a concept of the Mixed Lambert Equivalent Reflectivity (MLER) also used for the TOMS-V8 OM1 total column ozone algorithm. Currently, this OMI total column ozone algorithm utilizes information about cloud top pressures from a climatology based on IR measurements. The IR-derived cloud top pressure is known to be lower than UV-derived cloud top pressure because UV radiation penetrates clouds deeper than IR radiation. That is why the UV-derived cloud pressure may be more consistent withthe total ozone algorithm. We estimate total column ozone differences caused by replacing the cloud pressure climatology with cloud pressures retrieved from GOME data same as used for retrieval of ozone.

  1. Observations over Hurricanes from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joiner, J.; Vasilkov, A.; Yang, K.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2006-01-01

    There is an apparent inconsistency between the total column ozone derived from the total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) and aircraft observations within the eye region of tropical cyclones. The higher spectral resolution, coverage, and sampling of the ozone monitoring instrument (OMI) on NASA s Aura satellite as compared with TOMS allows for improved ozone retrievals by including estimates of cloud pressure derived simultaneously using the effects of rotational Raman scattering. The retrieved cloud pressures from OM1 are more appropriate than the climatological cloud-top pressures based on infrared measurements used in the TOMS and initial OM1 algorithms. We find that total ozone within the eye of hurricane Katrina is significantly overestimated when we use climatological cloud pressures. Using OMI-retrieved cloud pressures, total ozone in the eye is similar to that in the surrounding area. The corrected total ozone is in better agreement with aircraft measurements that imply relatively small or negligible amounts of stratospheric intrusion into the eye region of tropical cyclones.

  2. Sea cucumber species identification of family Caudinidae from Surabaya based on morphological and mitochondrial DNA evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, Muhammad Hilman Fu'adil; Pidada, Ida Bagus Rai; Sugiharto, Widyatmoko, Johan Nuari; Irawan, Bambang

    2016-03-01

    Species identification and taxonomy of sea cucumber remains a challenge problem in some taxa. Caudinidae family of sea cucumber was comerciallized in Surabaya, and it was used as sea cucumber chips. Members of Caudinid sea cucumber have similiar morphology, so it is hard to identify this sea cucumber only from morphological appearance. DNA barcoding is useful method to overcome this problem. The aim of this study was to determine Caudinid specimen of sea cucumber in East Java by morphological and molecular approach. Sample was collected from east coast of Surabaya, then preserved in absolute ethanol. After DNA isolation, Cytochrome Oxydase I (COI) gene amplification was performed using Echinoderm universal primer and PCR product was sequenced. Sequencing result was analyzed and identified in NCBI database using BLAST. Results showed that Caudinid specimen in have closely related to Acaudina molpadioides sequence in GenBank with 86% identity. Morphological data, especially based on ossicle, also showed that the specimen is Acaudina molpadioides.

  3. PubMed

    Yunta, Eduardo Rodríguez

    2010-01-01

    El presente artículo reflexiona desde los 4 principios de la bioética el uso comercial de organismos genéticamente modificados. Se cuestiona fundamentalmente la falta de transferencia de tecnología entre el mundo desarrollado y en desarrollo y el que el presente sistema de patentamiento de organismos vivos modificados fomenta intereses comerciales y no da debida importancia al desarrollo sostenible de la agricultura y ganadería en los países en desarrollo, donde más se necesita. Se reflexiona sobre la importancia que tiene evaluar los riesgos antes de introducirse en el mercado organismos genéticamente modificados y la necesidad de regulación en los países.

  4. The density and species of mite breeding in stored products in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Chaopin; Zhan, Xiaodong; Sun, Entao; Zhao, Jinhong; Wang, Huiyong; He, Ji; Wang, Jiajia; He, Lianping

    2014-09-12

    Objetivo: El objetivo de nuestro estudio fue investigar las especies y la densidad de reproducción de ácaros en productos almacenados en China. Métodos: Provisionalmente, se recogieron muestras de productos almacenados en naves, locales comerciales y viviendas. Resultados: Los resultados sugirieron que los ácaros varíaban mucho en cuanto a especies respecto a sus hábitos y habitats ecológicos. Aún así, la densidad de reproducción en distintas muestras estuvo asociada a las condiciones de muestreo. Conclusiones: Estas discrepancias pueden estar asociadas con las muestras recogidas en diversos ambientes para los ácaros, y los resultados sugieren visiblemente que los ácaros tienen una distribución universal.

  5. Reflexión bioética sobre el uso de organismos genéticamente modificados

    PubMed Central

    Yunta, Eduardo Rodríguez

    2011-01-01

    El presente artículo reflexiona desde los 4 principios de la bioética el uso comercial de organismos genéticamente modificados. Se cuestiona fundamentalmente la falta de transferencia de tecnología entre el mundo desarrollado y en desarrollo y el que el presente sistema de patentamiento de organismos vivos modificados fomenta intereses comerciales y no da debida importancia al desarrollo sostenible de la agricultura y ganadería en los países en desarrollo, donde más se necesita. Se reflexiona sobre la importancia que tiene evaluar los riesgos antes de introducirse en el mercado organismos genéticamente modificados y la necesidad de regulación en los países. PMID:21927675

  6. [Are antioxidant supplements effective in reducing delayed onset muscle soreness? A systematic review].

    PubMed

    Candia-Luján, Ramón; De Paz Fernández, José Antonio; Costa Moreira, Osvaldo

    2014-10-05

    Introducción: En los últimos años los suplementos antioxidantes han cobrado popularidad para contrarrestar los efectos de los radicales libres y los síntomas del daño muscular, entre los que se encuentra el dolor muscular tardío (DMT). Objetivo: realizar una revisión sistemática en diferentes bases de datos para conocer los efectos de los suplementos antioxidantes sobre el DMT. Método: Se llevó a cabo una búsqueda en las bases de datos; Cochrane Library, Pubmed, Scopus y SportDiscus y la Web Of Science (WOS). Las palabras y acrónimos usados fueron; Delayed onset muscle soreness, exercise induced muscle damage, DOMS, EIMD, antioxidant y oxidative stress. Resultados: Se identificaron 54 artículos de los cuales se recuperaron 48, todos ellos en inglés, 17 relacionados con la vitamina C y E, catorce corresponden a suplementos polifenòlicos, once a otros suplementos antioxidantes y seis a suplementos comerciales todos ellos usados para combatir, entre otras variables, el DMT. Conclusiones: Tanto las vitaminas como los suplementos comerciales presentan baja efectividad en la disminución del DMT, mientras que los polifenoles y otros suplementos antioxidantes muestran entre moderada y buena efectividad en el combate al DMT. Sin embargo, gran parte de los estudios presentan efectividad en la disminución de otros síntomas del daño muscular además de ayudar en la recuperación postejercicio.

  7. Semiempirical Quantum-Chemical Orthogonalization-Corrected Methods: Benchmarks for Ground-State Properties

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The semiempirical orthogonalization-corrected OMx methods (OM1, OM2, and OM3) go beyond the standard MNDO model by including additional interactions in the electronic structure calculation. When augmented with empirical dispersion corrections, the resulting OMx-Dn approaches offer a fast and robust treatment of noncovalent interactions. Here we evaluate the performance of the OMx and OMx-Dn methods for a variety of ground-state properties using a large and diverse collection of benchmark sets from the literature, with a total of 13035 original and derived reference data. Extensive comparisons are made with the results from established semiempirical methods (MNDO, AM1, PM3, PM6, and PM7) that also use the NDDO (neglect of diatomic differential overlap) integral approximation. Statistical evaluations show that the OMx and OMx-Dn methods outperform the other methods for most of the benchmark sets. PMID:26771261

  8. First experimental demonstration of 6Gb/s real-time optical OFDM transceivers incorporating channel estimation and variable power loading.

    PubMed

    Giddings, R P; Jin, X Q; Tang, J M

    2009-10-26

    The fastest ever 6Gb/s real-time FPGA-based optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OOFDM) transceivers utilizing channel estimation are experimentally demonstrated, for the first time, with variable power loading being incorporated to effectively compensate for the rapid system frequency response roll-off effect. The implemented transceivers are constructed entirely from off-the-shelf components and incorporate crucial functionalities of on-line performance monitoring and live optimization of key parameters including signal clipping, subcarrier power and operating conditions of directly modulated DFB lasers (DMLs). Real-time end-to-end transmission of a 6Gb/s 16-QAM-encoded OOFDM signal over 300m OM1 multi-mode fiber with a power penalty of 0.5dB is successfully achieved in an intensity-modulation and direct-detection system employing a DML.

  9. Practical demonstration of spectrally efficient FDM millimeter-wave radio over fiber systems for 5G cellular networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikroulis, Spiros; Xu, Tongyang; Darwazeh, Izzat

    2016-02-01

    This work reports the first demonstration of spectrally efficient frequency division multiplexed (SEFDM) signal transmission based on mm-wave radio over fiber (RoF) technology. Such systems aim to satisfy the beyond 4G (5G) demands of low cost, low energy, millimeter-wave carrier frequencies and high spectral efficiency. The proposed radio over fiber topology, using passive optical network (PON) infrastructure and low-cost multimode fiber (MMF), is analyzed and a proof-of-concept SEFDM radio over 250m OM-1 MMF transmission with a 3m 60GHz wireless link is successfully demonstrated. Different systems are demonstrated, at raw data rates up to 3.7 Gb/s, showing SEFDM spectrum saving up to 40% relative to OFDM.

  10. Nanoporous manganese oxides as environmental protective materials-effect of Ca and Mg on metals sorption.

    PubMed

    Pakarinen, Jouni; Koivula, Risto; Laatikainen, Markku; Laatikainen, Katri; Paatero, Erkki; Harjula, Risto

    2010-08-15

    The selectivity of nanoporous manganese oxides for some alkali and transition metals over calcium and magnesium was studied. Two tunnel-structured oxides (OMS-1 and OMS-2) were synthesized by means of a hydrothermal route. Competitive uptake of metals and acid was studied using batch kinetic measurements at different metal ion concentrations. The experimental data were correlated with a dynamic model. The results show that the studied OMS materials selectively adsorb Cu, Ni and Cd in the presence of Ca and Mg. It was also found that the exchange rates were reasonably high due to the small particle dimensions. Both materials are stable in the studied conditions and their maximum Cu uptake capacity was 0.9-1.3 mmol/g. The results indicate that both materials have potential for environmental applications involving the uptake of harmful metal ions.

  11. Dissolution of arsenic minerals mediated by dissimilatory arsenate reducing bacteria: estimation of the physiological potential for arsenic mobilization.

    PubMed

    Lukasz, Drewniak; Liwia, Rajpert; Aleksandra, Mantur; Aleksandra, Sklodowska

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was characterization of the isolated dissimilatory arsenate reducing bacteria in the context of their potential for arsenic removal from primary arsenic minerals through reductive dissolution. Four strains, Shewanella sp. OM1, Pseudomonas sp. OM2, Aeromonas sp. OM4, and Serratia sp. OM17, capable of anaerobic growth with As (V) reduction, were isolated from microbial mats from an ancient gold mine. All of the isolated strains: (i) produced siderophores that promote dissolution of minerals, (ii) were resistant to dissolved arsenic compounds, (iii) were able to use the dissolved arsenates as the terminal electron acceptor, and (iii) were able to use copper minerals containing arsenic minerals (e.g., enargite) as a respiratory substrate. Based on the results obtained in this study, we postulate that arsenic can be released from some As-bearing polymetallic minerals (such as copper ore concentrates or middlings) under reductive conditions by dissimilatory arsenate reducers in indirect processes.

  12. Minimum Distance and Robust Estimation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-10-05

    in Andrews, et.al. (1972) (110, H15, H20, 12A, 17A, 21A, 22A, 25A, HGP , GAS, 50%, M) and are computed as in routines contained therein. The Hampels...2.7777 GAS 1.2102 1.3446 1.4939 1.8905 3.1305 OM 1.1754 1.8529 3.9725 35.7840 * HGP 1.0290 1.3180 1.6561 2.4014 3.7346 H10 1.0979 1.2571 1.4498 1.9902...1.3553 1.6574 1.7422 1.9203 1.9867 GAS 1.3405 1.4204 1.5107 1.6482 1.6096 OM 3.8071 3.2054 33.9266 * .8674 HGP 1.6424 1.4532 1.7297 1.8731 1.0139 H10

  13. Dynamical back-action at 5.5 GHz in a corrugated optomechanical beam

    SciTech Connect

    Navarro-Urrios, D.; Gomis-Bresco, J.; Alzina, F.; El-Jallal, S.; Oudich, M.; Pennec, Y.; Djafari-Rouhani, B.; Pitanti, A.; Capuj, N.; Tredicucci, A.; Griol, A.; Martínez, A.; Sotomayor Torres, C. M.

    2014-12-15

    We report on the optomechanical properties of a breathing mechanical mode oscillating at 5.5 GHz in a 1D corrugated Si nanobeam. This mode has an experimental single-particle optomechanical coupling rate of |g{sub o,OM}| = 1.8 MHz (|g{sub o,OM}|/2π = 0.3 MHz) and shows strong dynamical back-action effects at room temperature. The geometrical flexibility of the unit-cell would lend itself to further engineering of the cavity region to localize the mode within the full phononic band-gap present at 4 GHz while keeping high g{sub o,OM} values. This would lead to longer lifetimes at cryogenic temperatures, due to the suppression of acoustic leakage.

  14. Ab initio calculations and rate equation simulations for vacancy and vacancy-oxygen clustering in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kissinger, G.; Dabrowski, J.; Sinno, T.; Yang, Y.; Kot, D.; Sattler, A.

    2017-06-01

    Formation energies of vacancy clusters Vn with (1≤n≤11) in crystalline Si and of their complexes VnOm (1≤m≤14) with oxygen were computed by ab initio density functional theory (DFT) within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and used to simulate the process of vacancy agglomeration after rapid thermal annealing (RTA) and also the formation of bulk microdefects (BMDs) in Si. Rate equation modeling of vacancy agglomeration after RTA and subsequent annealing below 1000 °C was carried out and the results were compared for binding energies obtained with different cell size. In Czochralski silicon, the interaction between vacancies and interstitial oxygen has to be taken into account. The BMD formation in Czochralski silicon was modeled by a continuum model comprised of a large system of rate equations, which accounts for the free energy of BMDs as a function of BMD size and shape, temperature and point defect concentrations.

  15. Dissolution of Arsenic Minerals Mediated by Dissimilatory Arsenate Reducing Bacteria: Estimation of the Physiological Potential for Arsenic Mobilization

    PubMed Central

    Lukasz, Drewniak; Liwia, Rajpert; Aleksandra, Mantur; Aleksandra, Sklodowska

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was characterization of the isolated dissimilatory arsenate reducing bacteria in the context of their potential for arsenic removal from primary arsenic minerals through reductive dissolution. Four strains, Shewanella sp. OM1, Pseudomonas sp. OM2, Aeromonas sp. OM4, and Serratia sp. OM17, capable of anaerobic growth with As (V) reduction, were isolated from microbial mats from an ancient gold mine. All of the isolated strains: (i) produced siderophores that promote dissolution of minerals, (ii) were resistant to dissolved arsenic compounds, (iii) were able to use the dissolved arsenates as the terminal electron acceptor, and (iii) were able to use copper minerals containing arsenic minerals (e.g., enargite) as a respiratory substrate. Based on the results obtained in this study, we postulate that arsenic can be released from some As-bearing polymetallic minerals (such as copper ore concentrates or middlings) under reductive conditions by dissimilatory arsenate reducers in indirect processes. PMID:24724102

  16. Effects of the 2004 El Nino on Tropospheric Ozone and Water Vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandra, S.; Ziemke, J. R.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Froidevaux, L.; Read, W. G.; Levelt, P. F.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2007-01-01

    The global effects of the 2004 El Nino on tropospheric ozone and H2O based on Aura OM1 and MLS measurements are analyzed. Although it was a weak El Nino from a historical perspective, it produced significant changes in these parameters in tropical latitudes. Tropospheric ozone increased by 10-20% over most of the western Pacific region and decreased by about the same amount over the eastern Pacific region. H2O in the upper troposphere showed similar changes but with opposite sign. These zonal changes in tropospheric ozone and H2O are caused by the eastward shift in the Walker circulation in the tropical pacific region during El Nino. For the 2004 El Nino, biomass burning did not have a significant effect on the ozone budget in the troposphere unlike the 1997 El Nino. Zonally averaged tropospheric column ozone did not change significantly either globally or over the tropical and subtropical latitudes.

  17. Semiempirical Quantum-Chemical Orthogonalization-Corrected Methods: Theory, Implementation, and Parameters

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Semiempirical orthogonalization-corrected methods (OM1, OM2, and OM3) go beyond the standard MNDO model by explicitly including additional interactions into the Fock matrix in an approximate manner (Pauli repulsion, penetration effects, and core–valence interactions), which yields systematic improvements both for ground-state and excited-state properties. In this Article, we describe the underlying theoretical formalism of the OMx methods and their implementation in full detail, and we report all relevant OMx parameters for hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and fluorine. For a standard set of mostly organic molecules commonly used in semiempirical method development, the OMx results are found to be superior to those from standard MNDO-type methods. Parametrized Grimme-type dispersion corrections can be added to OM2 and OM3 energies to provide a realistic treatment of noncovalent interaction energies, as demonstrated for the complexes in the S22 and S66×8 test sets. PMID:26771204

  18. Realistic multisite lattice-gas modeling and KMC simulation of catalytic surface reactions: Kinetics and multiscale spatial behavior for CO-oxidation on metal (1 0 0) surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Da-Jiang; Evans, James W.

    2013-12-01

    A realistic molecular-level description of catalytic reactions on single-crystal metal surfaces can be provided by stochastic multisite lattice-gas (msLG) models. This approach has general applicability, although in this report, we will focus on the example of CO-oxidation on the unreconstructed fcc metal (1 0 0) or M(1 0 0) surfaces of common catalyst metals M = Pd, Rh, Pt and Ir (i.e., avoiding regimes where Pt and Ir reconstruct). These models can capture the thermodynamics and kinetics of adsorbed layers for the individual reactants species, such as CO/M(1 0 0) and O/M(1 0 0), as well as the interaction and reaction between different reactant species in mixed adlayers, such as (CO + O)/M(1 0 0). The msLG models allow population of any of hollow, bridge, and top sites. This enables a more flexible and realistic description of adsorption and adlayer ordering, as well as of reaction configurations and configuration-dependent barriers. Adspecies adsorption and interaction energies, as well as barriers for various processes, constitute key model input. The choice of these energies is guided by experimental observations, as well as by extensive Density Functional Theory analysis. Model behavior is assessed via Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulation. We also address the simulation challenges and theoretical ramifications associated with very rapid diffusion and local equilibration of reactant adspecies such as CO. These msLG models are applied to describe adsorption, ordering, and temperature programmed desorption (TPD) for individual CO/M(1 0 0) and O/M(1 0 0) reactant adlayers. In addition, they are also applied to predict mixed (CO + O)/M(1 0 0) adlayer structure on the nanoscale, the complete bifurcation diagram for reactive steady-states under continuous flow conditions, temperature programmed reaction (TPR) spectra, and titration reactions for the CO-oxidation reaction. Extensive and reasonably successful comparison of model predictions is made with experimental data. Furthermore, we discuss the possible transition from traditional mean-field-type bistability and reaction kinetics for lower-pressure to multistability and enhanced fluctuation effects for moderate- or higher-pressure. Behavior in the latter regime reflects a stronger influence of adspecies interactions and also lower diffusivity in the higher-coverage mixed adlayer. We also analyze mesoscale spatiotemporal behavior including the propagation of reaction-diffusion fronts between bistable reactive and inactive states, and associated nucleation-mediated transitions between these states. This behavior is controlled by complex surface mass transport processes, specifically chemical diffusion in mixed reactant adlayers for which we provide a precise theoretical formulation. The msLG models together with an appropriate treatment of chemical diffusivity enable equation-free heterogeneous coupled lattice-gas (HCLG) simulations of spatiotemporal behavior. In addition, msLG + HCLG modeling can describe coverage variations across polycrystalline catalysts surfaces, pressure variations across catalyst surfaces in microreactors, and could be incorporated into a multiphysics framework to describe mass and heat transfer limitations for high-pressure catalysis.

  19. Real-time demonstration of 128-QAM-encoded optical OFDM transmission with a 5.25bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency in simple IMDD systems utilizing directly modulated DFB lasers.

    PubMed

    Jin, X Q; Giddings, R P; Hugues-Salas, E; Tang, J M

    2009-10-26

    The feasibility of implementing 128-QAM in off-the-shelf component-based real-time optical OFDM (OOFDM) transceivers incorporating advanced channel estimation, on-line performance monitoring and live parameter optimisation, is experimentally investigated, for the first time, in intensity-modulation and direct-detection (IMDD) single-mode fibre (SMF) and multi-mode fibre (MMF) transmission systems involving directly modulated DFB lasers. The highest ever spectral efficiency of 5.25bit/s/Hz is demonstrated successfully in the aforementioned simple systems. Experimental investigations show that, it is feasible to transmit 5.25 Gb/s 128-QAM-encoded OOFDM real-time signals over 25 km MetroCor(TM) SMFs and 500 m 62.5/125 microm OM1 MMFs. The impact of key parameters on the transmission performance of the real-time OOFDM transceivers with 128-QAM encoding are explored, based on which optimum signal clipping ratios are identified.

  20. Semiempirical Quantum Chemical Calculations Accelerated on a Hybrid Multicore CPU-GPU Computing Platform.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xin; Koslowski, Axel; Thiel, Walter

    2012-07-10

    In this work, we demonstrate that semiempirical quantum chemical calculations can be accelerated significantly by leveraging the graphics processing unit (GPU) as a coprocessor on a hybrid multicore CPU-GPU computing platform. Semiempirical calculations using the MNDO, AM1, PM3, OM1, OM2, and OM3 model Hamiltonians were systematically profiled for three types of test systems (fullerenes, water clusters, and solvated crambin) to identify the most time-consuming sections of the code. The corresponding routines were ported to the GPU and optimized employing both existing library functions and a GPU kernel that carries out a sequence of noniterative Jacobi transformations during pseudodiagonalization. The overall computation times for single-point energy calculations and geometry optimizations of large molecules were reduced by one order of magnitude for all methods, as compared to runs on a single CPU core.

  1. Durability and Intelligent Nondestructive Evaluation of Adhesive Composite Joints

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-09-22

    measurement method 71 UnidImceonal spedrnmn Crwepy sp#man 0.2kN IMN 4kM 10dN 8W, BkM, OM 1dkN 41N IOkN SN, am4l, 10mm 20mm 10mm 20am OMCrOita rodc cack Figure 7...The signals with durations above 1000 pts were extracted and the parametric analysis, similar to the analyses in Figures 10 and 11, was performed. The...E.V] Ch.n 1 12-53:31ý 23 Ind-x 69 P9a . P ýi-, Pt hit 40: -40: EdIR] DSP: Fast F-1.l1 Tl-nf... ir i 70- Ti-• 1,1nd-• Oý8 - 819.88 us 70q Samples

  2. Ozone and Aerosol Retrieval from Backscattered Ultraviolet Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhartia, Pawan K.

    2004-01-01

    In this presentation we will discuss the techniques to estimate total column ozone and aerosol absorption optical depth from the measurements of backscattered ultraviolet (buv) radiation. The total ozone algorithm has been used to create a unique record of the ozone layer, spanning more than 3 decades, from a series of instruments (BUV, SBUV, TOMS, SBUV/2) flown on NASA, NOAA, Japanese and Russian satellites. We will discuss how this algorithm can be considered a generalization of the well-known Dobson/Brewer technique that has been used to process data from ground-based instruments for many decades, and how it differs from the DOAS techniques that have been used to estimate vertical column densities of a host of trace gases from data collected by GOME and SCIAMACHY instruments. The BUV aerosol algorithm is most suitable for the detection of UV absorbing aerosols (smoke, desert dust, volcanic ash) and is the only technique that can detect aerosols embedded in clouds. This algorithm has been used to create a quarter century record of aerosol absorption optical depth using the BUV data collected by a series of TOMS instruments. We will also discuss how the data from the OM1 instrument launched on July 15,2004 will be combined with data from MODIS and CALIPSO lidar data to enhance the accuracy and information content of satellite-derived aerosol measurements. The OM1 and MODIS instruments are currently flying on EOS Aura and EOS Aqua satellites respectively, part of a constellation of satellites called the "A-train". The CALIPSO satellite is expected to join this constellation in mid 2005.

  3. Polar and non-polar organic aerosols from large-scale agricultural-waste burning emissions in Northern India: Implications to organic mass-to-organic carbon ratio.

    PubMed

    Rajput, Prashant; Sarin, M M

    2014-05-01

    This study focuses on characteristics of organic aerosols (polar and non-polar) and total organic mass-to-organic carbon ratio (OM/OC) from post-harvest agricultural-waste (paddy- and wheat-residue) burning emissions in Northern India. Aerosol samples from an upwind location (Patiala: 30.2°N, 76.3°E) in the Indo-Gangetic Plain were analyzed for non-polar and polar fractions of organic carbon (OC1 and OC2) and their respective mass (OM1 and OM2). On average, polar organic aerosols (OM2) contribute nearly 85% of the total organic mass (OM) from the paddy- and wheat-residue burning emissions. The water-soluble-OC (WSOC) to OC2 ratio, within the analytical uncertainty, is close to 1 from both paddy- and wheat-residue burning emissions. However, temporal variability and relatively low WSOC/OC2 ratio (Av: 0.67±0.06) is attributed to high moisture content and poor combustion efficiency during paddy-residue burning, indicating significant contribution (∼30%) of aromatic carbon to OC2. The OM/OC ratio for non-polar (OM1/OC1∼1.2) and polar organic aerosols (OM2/OC2∼2.2), hitherto unknown for open agricultural-waste burning emissions, is documented in this study. The total OM/OC ratio is nearly identical, 1.9±0.2 and 1.8±0.2, from paddy- and wheat-residue burning emissions.

  4. [Aluminum content in individual components, used to prepare adult total parenteral nutrition mixtures in Argentine, and in comparison with international regulation].

    PubMed

    Menéndez, A M; Farías, S S; Servant, R; Morisio, Y; Misischia, Y; Simón, S; Weisstaub, A R; Martín de Portela, M L Pita

    2014-06-01

    Introducción: aluminio (Al) es un elemento tóxico que puede ser contaminante de productos farmacéuticos utilizados para preparar mezclas de nutrición parenteral (NP). Objetivos: 1) determinar la concentración de Al en componentes individuales utilizados para preparar mezclas de NP; 2) comparar las cantidades detectadas con los límites de la regulación internacional (FDA); 3) calcular la cantidad de Al administrada en fórmulas habituales de NP para neonatos, niños y adultos. Materiales y métodos: El Aluminio fue determinado por Espectroscopía de Emisión Atómica-Plasma-Inductivo de Argón (Perkin Elmer 5100 DV) en 44 productos comerciales, de diferentes laboratorios y lotes, correspondientes a 16 componentes individuales: dextrosa; aminoácidos para adultos y pediátricos; lípidos; cloruro de potasio; cloruro de sodio, sulfato de magnesio; fosfato de sodio; gluconato de calcio; glicerofosfato de sodio; sulfato de zinc; elementos multitraza; agua estéril en ampollas y de gran volumen. Resultados: Todos los componentes de gran volumen, excepto el agua, contenían entre 249 y 1.580 μg/L, superando entre 4 y 180 veces mas que los niveles establecidos por la FDA (25 μg/L). Los componentes de pequeño volumen contenían entre 85 y 4.909 μg/L, no declarados en los rótulos. Conclusiones: 1) La mayor cantidad de aluminio se encontró en el gluconato de calcio, fosfato de sodio y elementos multitraza. 2) Las mezclas de uso habitual para NP presentan niveles de Al mayores al límite de FDA. Los componentes que aportan mayor cantidad de aluminio en las mezclas de NP para adultos son: glucosa, aminoácidos y lípidos, pero en las de neonatos, el mayor aporte proviene de la dextrosa y gluconato de calcio. 3) En las mezclas de NP para neonatos, niños y adultos la cantidad de aluminio administrado por kg de peso supera la recomendación de FDA (5 μg/kg de peso /día). Los productos comerciales deberían declarar el contenido de Al para no comprometer la evoluci

  5. Therapeutic monitoring of pediatric transplant patients with conversion to generic tacrolimus.

    PubMed

    Riva, Natalia; Cáceres Guido, Paulo; Licciardone, Nieves; Imventarza, Oscar; Monteverde, Marta; Staciuk, Raquel; Charroqui, Alberto; Schaiquevich, Paula

    2017-03-01

    Objetivo: La monitorización terapéutica durante el intercambio de marcas comerciales de inmunosupresores es esencial para mantener una similar exposición al fármaco en pacientes trasplantados. Sin embargo, la información disponible en trasplante pediátrico es limitada. El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar la exposición, seguridad y eficacia en pacientes pediátricos trasplantados en etapa de mantenimiento, sujetos a intercambio entre el producto innovador y el genérico de tacrolimus. Método: El Área de Farmacia del hospital detectó aquellos pacientes sujetos a intercambio de formulaciones según la disponibilidad de medicamentos. Se obtuvieron las concentraciones de tacrolimus en el valle (C0), parámetros de laboratorio y características clínicas antes y después del intercambio. El análisis estadístico se realizó mediante el test de muestras pareadas de Wilcoxon. Resultados: Se incluyeron 10 pacientes con trasplante renal, hepático, cardíaco y de células hematopoyéticas. La mediana (rango) del C0 normalizado por la dosis pre y post intercambio fue 74,8[(ng/ml)/(mg/kg)](13,8-518,4) y 65,1[(ng/ml)/(mg/kg)] (13,5-723,5), respectivamente (p>0,05). La dosis de tacrolimus fue 0,070(mg/kg) (0,024-0,461) y 0,069(mg/kg) (0,017-0,571) para el innovador y el genérico, respectivamente (p>0,05). Los parámetros de laboratorio de funcionalidad renal y hepática no cambiaron con la conversión de marcas (p>0,05). No se observaron eventos adversos, rechazo agudo, muerte o pérdida del injerto durante el periodo analizado. Conclusiones: En la población estudiada, no se observaron diferencias significativas en los parámetros de laboratorio, exposición al tacrolimus o dosis en el intercambio de marcas comerciales. Destacamos el rol de la monitorización terapéutica a la hora de garantizar una sustitución segura, especialmente en poblaciones vulnerables.

  6. A method to screen and evaluate tissue adhesives for joint repair applications.

    PubMed

    Dehne, Tilo; Zehbe, Rolf; Krüger, Jan Philipp; Petrova, Aneliya; Valbuena, Rafael; Sittinger, Michael; Schubert, Helmut; Ringe, Jochen

    2012-09-17

    Tissue adhesives are useful means for various medical procedures. Since varying requirements cause that a single adhesive cannot meet all needs, bond strength testing remains one of the key applications used to screen for new products and study the influence of experimental variables. This study was conducted to develop an easy to use method to screen and evaluate tissue adhesives for tissue engineering applications. Tissue grips were designed to facilitate the reproducible production of substrate tissue and adhesive strength measurements in universal testing machines. Porcine femoral condyles were used to generate osteochondral test tissue cylinders (substrates) of different shapes. Viability of substrates was tested using PI/FDA staining. Self-bonding properties were determined to examine reusability of substrates (n = 3). Serial measurements (n = 5) in different operation modes (OM) were performed to analyze the bonding strength of tissue adhesives in bone (OM-1) and cartilage tissue either in isolation (OM-2) or under specific requirements in joint repair such as filling cartilage defects with clinical applied fibrin/PLGA-cell-transplants (OM-3) or tissues (OM-4). The efficiency of the method was determined on the basis of adhesive properties of fibrin glue for different assembly times (30 s, 60 s). Seven randomly generated collagen formulations were analyzed to examine the potential of method to identify new tissue adhesives. Viability analysis of test tissue cylinders revealed vital cells (>80%) in cartilage components even 48 h post preparation. Reuse (n = 10) of test substrate did not significantly change adhesive characteristics. Adhesive strength of fibrin varied in different test settings (OM-1: 7.1 kPa, OM-2: 2.6 kPa, OM-3: 32.7 kPa, OM-4: 30.1 kPa) and was increasing with assembly time on average (2.4-fold). The screening of the different collagen formulations revealed a substance with significant higher adhesive strength on cartilage (14.8 kPa) and

  7. [Effects of different fertilization measures on N2O emission in oil sunflower field in irrigation area of upper Yellow River].

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhe; Chen, Yuan-yuan; Gao, Ji; Liu, Ru-liang; Yang, Zheng-li; Zhang, Ai-ping

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural soil has become the largest anthropogenic source of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N20). To estimate the impacts of long-term combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers on N20 emission in a typical winter wheat-oil sunflower cropping system in the Ningxia irrigation area, we measured N20 fluxes using the static opaque chamber-gas chromatograph method and monitored the seasonal dynamics of related factors. Our results showed that nitrogen addition in the previous crop field significantly stimulated N2O emissions during the following oil-sunflower cultivation, and the mean fluxes of N300-OM, N240-OM1/2, N300 and N240 were (34.16 ± 9.72), (39.69 ±10.70), (27.75 ±9.57) and (26.30 ± 8.52) µg . m-2 . h-1, respectively, which were 4.09, 4.75, 3.32 and 3.15 times of the control groups. The total cumulative N2O emissions of fertilizer treatments in growing season was as high as 796.7 to 1242.5 g . hm-2, which was 2.99 to 4.67 times of the control groups. During the growing season, the rates of N2O emission in each month organic and inorganic fertlizers combined treatments were similar at high levels. N2O emission in chemical fertilizer treatments gradually decreased, and the main period of N2O emission occurred at the beginning of growing season. Taking July for example, N2O emission accounted for 41.3% to 41. 8% of total cumulative amount. The amounts of N20 emission under organic and inorganic fertilizers combined treatments were significantly higher than under chemical fertilizer treatments. The N2O emissions were not significantly different between conventional and optimized applications of nitrogen fertilizer under the same fertilizing method, either between N300-OM and N240-OM1/2, or between N300 and N240. On account of the drought, N2O emission in each treatment was mainly affected by soil moisture. N2O emission had a significant positive correlation with soil ammonium nitrogen content under combined applications of organic and inorganic

  8. A method to screen and evaluate tissue adhesives for joint repair applications

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Tissue adhesives are useful means for various medical procedures. Since varying requirements cause that a single adhesive cannot meet all needs, bond strength testing remains one of the key applications used to screen for new products and study the influence of experimental variables. This study was conducted to develop an easy to use method to screen and evaluate tissue adhesives for tissue engineering applications. Method Tissue grips were designed to facilitate the reproducible production of substrate tissue and adhesive strength measurements in universal testing machines. Porcine femoral condyles were used to generate osteochondral test tissue cylinders (substrates) of different shapes. Viability of substrates was tested using PI/FDA staining. Self-bonding properties were determined to examine reusability of substrates (n = 3). Serial measurements (n = 5) in different operation modes (OM) were performed to analyze the bonding strength of tissue adhesives in bone (OM-1) and cartilage tissue either in isolation (OM-2) or under specific requirements in joint repair such as filling cartilage defects with clinical applied fibrin/PLGA-cell-transplants (OM-3) or tissues (OM-4). The efficiency of the method was determined on the basis of adhesive properties of fibrin glue for different assembly times (30 s, 60 s). Seven randomly generated collagen formulations were analyzed to examine the potential of method to identify new tissue adhesives. Results Viability analysis of test tissue cylinders revealed vital cells (>80%) in cartilage components even 48 h post preparation. Reuse (n = 10) of test substrate did not significantly change adhesive characteristics. Adhesive strength of fibrin varied in different test settings (OM-1: 7.1 kPa, OM-2: 2.6 kPa, OM-3: 32.7 kPa, OM-4: 30.1 kPa) and was increasing with assembly time on average (2.4-fold). The screening of the different collagen formulations revealed a substance with significant higher adhesive

  9. Physiochemical properties of carbonaceous aerosol from agricultural residue burning: Density, volatility, and hygroscopicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunlin; Hu, Yunjie; Chen, Jianmin; Ma, Zhen; Ye, Xingnan; Yang, Xin; Wang, Lin; Wang, Xinming; Mellouki, Abdelwahid

    2016-09-01

    Size-resolved effective density, mixing state, and hygroscopicity of smoke particles from five kinds of agricultural residues burning were characterized using an aerosol chamber system, including a volatility/hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analyzer (V/H-TDMA) combined with an aerosol particle mass analyzer (APM). To profile relationship between the thermodynamic properties and chemical compositions, smoke PM1.0 and PM2.5 were also measured for the water soluble inorganics, mineral elements, and carbonaceous materials like organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC). Smoke particle has a density of 1.1-1.4 g cm-3, and hygroscopicity parameter (κ) derived from hygroscopic growth factor (GF) of the particles ranges from 0.20 to 0.35. Size- and fuel type-dependence of density and κ are obvious. The integrated effective densities (ρ) and hygroscopicity parameters (κ) both scale with alkali species, which could be parameterized as a function of organic and inorganic mass fraction (forg &finorg) in smoke PM1.0 and PM2.5: ρ-1 =finorg ·ρinorg-1 +forg ·ρorg-1 and κ =finorg ·κinorg +forg ·κorg . The extrapolated values of ρinorg and ρorg are 2.13 and 1.14 g cm-3 in smoke PM1.0, while the characteristic κ values of organic and inorganic components are about 0.087 and 0.734, which are similar to the bulk density and κ calculated from predefined chemical species and also consistent with those values observed in ambient air. Volatility of smoke particle was quantified as volume fraction remaining (VFR) and mass fraction remaining (MFR). The gradient temperature of V-TDMA was set to be consistent with the splitting temperature in the OC-EC measurement (OC1 and OC2 separated at 150 and 250 °C). Combing the thermogram data and chemical composition of smoke PM1.0, the densities of organic matter (OM1 and OM2 correspond to OC1 and OC2) are estimated as 0.61-0.90 and 0.86-1.13 g cm-3, and the ratios of OM1/OC1 and OM2/OC2 are 1.07 and 1.29 on average

  10. Comparison of two ammoniation procedures to reduce the toxicity of endophyte-infected tall fescue seed fed to rats.

    PubMed

    Simeone, A; Boissonneault, G A; Bush, L P; Mitchell, G E

    1998-02-01

    To determine the effect of extending the duration of ammonia (2% dry matter basis) treatment ti'om 1 to 5 wk on the toxicity of endophyte-infected tall fescue seed, 60 male Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to the following six treatments during a 28-d trial: endophyte-free (E-), endophyte-infected (E+), 1 wk ammoniated endophyte-fee (1AE-), 1 wk ammoniated endophyte-infected (1AE+), 5 wk ammoniated endophyte-free (5AE-), and 5 wk ammoniated endophyte-infected (5AE+) tall fescue seed. The concentration of total pyrrolizidine alkaloids (N-acetyl and N-formyl loline) or E+ rescue was reduced from 4203 12 g/g to 3009 and 2533 I-tg/g by the 1AE+ and 5AE+ treatments, respectively. Ergovaline was lowered from 3.77 to 1.57 12 g/g by 1AE+ and eliminated by 5AE+. Endophyte-infected treatment groups had depressed (P < 0.0001) dally feed intakes (DFI), daily weight gains (DWG), feed efficiencies (G/F), primary antibody responses, and T cell and B cell mitogenic responses than endophyte-free treatment groups. Ammoniation of endophyte-infected rescue seed improved DFI and DWG (P < 0.0001) and G/F (P < 0.05); however, there was no difference in performance criteria between the 1-wk and 5-wk ammoniation treatments. Endophyte-induced depressions in immune function were not alleviated by ammoniation.

  11. First Global Maps of Stratospheric and Tropospheric NO2 from OMI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bucsela, Eric J.; Celarier, Edward A.; Wenig, Mark O.; Gleason, James F.; Veefkind, J. Pepijn

    2004-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) was launched successfully in July 2004, as one of four instruments on the EOS Aura satellite. OMI makes hyperspectral measurements that are used to retrieve column densities of critical trace gases, including formaldehyde, BrO, SO2 and NO2 . We present the first results from the OM1 operational NO2 algorithm and demonstrate its ability to retrieve the tropospheric and stratospheric components of NO2. The DOAS method is used to determine slant column densities, and initial air mass factors (AMFs) are used. to give initial estimates of the vertical column densities (VCDs). VCDs from up to 15 consecutive orbits are collected, and a spatial filtering technique is applied to extract the synoptic-scale features characteristic of the stratospheric, field. features to be evidence of tropospheric excess NO2 , and apply an AMF appropriate to polluted conditions, to obtain an improved retrieval of the NO2 total VCD. We describe the assumptions underlying the algorithm in detail, and show global maps of NO2 VCDs, based on the first operational data from OMI.

  12. Geographic List of Prime Contract Awards. Oct 91 - Sep 92. FY92. (Nanticoke Maryland - Garden City Michigan)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    t(D l 0 laGoifl to044 m600 -*-to1-OM1- 46(0 IIOU) tG n d I U OO a 000NMN- -4 r- M -14 -a o 0-0 Mm0.40 In U) 1 0 x x N U 000 a’ 0 0 0) 0000 * N 0) aV...34 0𔃾. .1 = . < : ( 0 0 ɜ ɜ wo 0 14 0 l 04(0’ 4- O 2 I. HWC ON < 3. ɘ. CL 41 40 <O -Ŕ <C I CU.. CCL-.I.I4.i0 I.U- a4 4 0)-4 On0 W- ŕ 1 w : qI WO4...400000000 0 K -4 I on tg 4000 P_ #0 -*CNIU) In m00000N0000 #0NI.. #0-44- #d0000000000 W 2. tor7C>0DNC 0, Kx I. 4 I 4000 Ř 3 -4-4 -- 4 NN 39mm

  13. Value of increasing film processing time to reduce radiation dose during mammography

    SciTech Connect

    Skubic, S.E.; Yagan, R.; Oravec, D.; Shah, Z. )

    1990-12-01

    We systematically tested the effects on radiation dose and image quality of increasing the mammographic film processing time from the standard 90 sec to 3 min. Hurter and Driffield curves were obtained for a Kodak Min-R-OM1-SO177 screen-film combination processed with Kodak chemistry. Image contrast and radiation dose were measured for two tissue-equivalent breast phantoms. We also compared sequential pairs of mammograms, one processed at 90 sec and one at 3 min, from 44 patients on the basis of nine categories of image quality. Increased processing time reduced breast radiation dose by 30%, increased contrast by 11%, and produced slight overall gains in image quality. Simple modifications can convert a 90-sec processor to a 3-min unit. We recommend that implementation of extended processing be considered, especially by those centers that obtain a large number of screening mammograms. Three-minute film processing can reduce breast radiation dose by 30% and increase contrast by 11% without compromising image quality.

  14. Discoveries from EOS Aura

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglass, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Aura, the third and final of three large observatories that are part of NASA s Earth Observing System, was launched July 15,2004. Aura carries four instruments - the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES), the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS), all of which measure atmospheric constituents. Aura measurements provide information to address broad questions about the Earth atmosphere, particularly concerning the recovery of the stratospheric ozone layer, tropospheric air quality, and climate change. TES has made the simultaneous measurements of carbon monoxide and ozone in the lower and upper troposphere. OM1 continues to observe the total ozone column and measures columns of important pollutants like NO2 at unprecedented horizontal resolution and coverage. MLS measures profiles of stratospheric ozone and constituents that affect ozone from the mesosphere into the upper troposphere. This talk will highlight results from Aura s first years in orbit, and will emphasize the way information from Aura and other satellites has contributed to the development, evaluation, and application of global chemistry climate models.

  15. Cascading influence of inorganic nitrogen sources on DOM production, composition, lability and microbial community structure in the open ocean.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, S J; Nelson, C E; Viviani, D A; Shulse, C N; Church, M J

    2017-09-01

    Nitrogen frequently limits oceanic photosynthesis and the availability of inorganic nitrogen sources in the surface oceans is shifting with global change. We evaluated the potential for abrupt increases in inorganic N sources to induce cascading effects on dissolved organic matter (DOM) and microbial communities in the surface ocean. We collected water from 5 m depth in the central North Pacific and amended duplicate 20 liter polycarbonate carboys with nitrate or ammonium, tracking planktonic carbon fixation, DOM production, DOM composition and microbial community structure responses over 1 week relative to controls. Both nitrogen sources stimulated bulk phytoplankton, bacterial and DOM production and enriched Synechococcus and Flavobacteriaceae; ammonium enriched for oligotrophic Actinobacteria OM1 and Gammaproteobacteria KI89A clades while nitrate enriched Gammaproteobacteria SAR86, SAR92 and OM60 clades. DOM resulting from both N enrichments was more labile and stimulated growth of copiotrophic Gammaproteobacteria (Alteromonadaceae and Oceanospirillaceae) and Alphaproteobacteria (Rhodobacteraceae and Hyphomonadaceae) in weeklong dark incubations relative to controls. Our study illustrates how nitrogen pulses may have direct and cascading effects on DOM composition and microbial community dynamics in the open ocean. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. First Global Maps of Stratospheric and Tropospheric NO2 from OMI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bucsela, Eric J.; Celarier, Edward A.; Wenig, Mark O.; Gleason, James F.; Veefkind, J. Pepijn

    2004-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) was launched successfully in July 2004, as one of four instruments on the EOS Aura satellite. OMI makes hyperspectral measurements that are used to retrieve column densities of critical trace gases, including formaldehyde, BrO, SO2 and NO2 . We present the first results from the OM1 operational NO2 algorithm and demonstrate its ability to retrieve the tropospheric and stratospheric components of NO2. The DOAS method is used to determine slant column densities, and initial air mass factors (AMFs) are used. to give initial estimates of the vertical column densities (VCDs). VCDs from up to 15 consecutive orbits are collected, and a spatial filtering technique is applied to extract the synoptic-scale features characteristic of the stratospheric, field. features to be evidence of tropospheric excess NO2 , and apply an AMF appropriate to polluted conditions, to obtain an improved retrieval of the NO2 total VCD. We describe the assumptions underlying the algorithm in detail, and show global maps of NO2 VCDs, based on the first operational data from OMI.

  17. EOS-Aura's Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI): Validation Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinksma, E. J.; McPeters, R.; deHaan, J. F.; Levelt, P. F.; Hilsenrath, E.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2003-01-01

    OMI is an advanced hyperspectral instrument that measures backscattered radiation in the UV and visible. It will be flown as part of the EOS Aura mission and provide data on atmospheric chemistry that is highly synergistic with other Aura instruments HIRDLS, MLS, and TES. OMI is designed to measure total ozone, aerosols, cloud information, and UV irradiances, continuing the TOMS series of global mapped products but with higher spatial resolution. In addition its hyperspectral capability enables measurements of trace gases such as SO2, NO2, HCHO, BrO, and OClO. A plan for validation of the various OM1 products is now being formulated. Validation of the total column and UVB products will rely heavily on existing networks of instruments, like NDSC. NASA and its European partners are planning aircraft missions for the validation of Aura instruments. New instruments and techniques (DOAS systems for example) will need to be developed, both ground and aircraft based. Lidar systems are needed for validation of the vertical distributions of ozone, aerosols, NO2 and possibly SO2. The validation emphasis will be on the retrieval of these products under polluted conditions. This is challenging because they often depend on the tropospheric profiles of the product in question, and because of large spatial variations in the troposphere. Most existing ground stations are located in, and equipped for, pristine environments. This is also true for almost all NDSC stations. OMI validation will need ground based sites in polluted environments and specially developed instruments, complementing the existing instrumentation.

  18. Locating a modifier gene of Ovum mutant through crosses between DDK and C57BL/6J inbred strains in mice.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jing; Song, Gen Di; Song, Jia Sheng; Ren, Shi Hao; Li, Chun Li; Zheng, Zhen Yu; Zhao, Wei Dong

    2016-06-01

    A striking infertile phenotype has been discovered in the DDK strain of mouse. The DDK females are usually infertile when crossed with males of other inbred strains, whereas DDK males exhibit normal fertility in reciprocal crosses. This phenomenon is caused by mutation in the ovum (Om) locus on chromosome 11 and known as the DDK syndrome. Previously, some research groups reported that the embryonic mortality deviated from the semilethal rate in backcrosses between heterozygous (Om/+) females and males of other strains. This embryonic mortality exhibited an aggravated trend with increasing background genes of other strains. These results indicated that some modifier genes of Om were present in other strains. In the present study, a population of N₂2 (Om/+) females from the backcrosses between C57BL/6J (B6) and F₁ (B6♀ × DDK♂) was used to map potential modifier genes of Om. Quantitative trait locus showed that a major locus, namely Amom1 (aggravate modifier gene of Om 1), was located at the middle part of chromosome 9 in mice. The Amom1 could increase the expressivity of Om gene, thereby aggravating embryonic lethality when heterozygous (Om/+) females mated with males of B6 strain. Further, the 1.5 LOD-drop analysis indicated that the confidence interval was between 37.54 and 44.46 cM, ~6.92 cM. Amom1 is the first modifier gene of Om in the B6 background.

  19. Relationships between biomass, pressure drop, and performance in a polyurethane biofilter.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Hee Wook; Cho, Kyung-Suk; Chung, Dong Jin

    2010-03-01

    In biofilters for controlling volatile organic compounds (VOCs), clogging in the filter bed due to overgrowth of biomass causes the deterioration of biofilter performance. In this study, the relationships between biofilter performance, biomass concentration (X), and pressure drop (DeltaP) was qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated in a polyurethane (PU) biofilter. Benzene was used as a model VOC. The relationship between DeltaP and X at a moisture content of 80-90% was expressed as log DeltaP (mm H(2)Om(-1))=0.315+3.87 log X (g-dry cell weight (DCW) g-PU(-1)), 0.8

  20. Calculating distribution coefficients based on multi-scale free energy simulations: an evaluation of MM and QM/MM explicit solvent simulations of water-cyclohexane transfer in the SAMPL5 challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, Gerhard; Pickard, Frank C.; Huang, Jing; Simmonett, Andrew C.; Tofoleanu, Florentina; Lee, Juyong; Dral, Pavlo O.; Prasad, Samarjeet; Jones, Michael; Shao, Yihan; Thiel, Walter; Brooks, Bernard R.

    2016-11-01

    One of the central aspects of biomolecular recognition is the hydrophobic effect, which is experimentally evaluated by measuring the distribution coefficients of compounds between polar and apolar phases. We use our predictions of the distribution coefficients between water and cyclohexane from the SAMPL5 challenge to estimate the hydrophobicity of different explicit solvent simulation techniques. Based on molecular dynamics trajectories with the CHARMM General Force Field, we compare pure molecular mechanics (MM) with quantum-mechanical (QM) calculations based on QM/MM schemes that treat the solvent at the MM level. We perform QM/MM with both density functional theory (BLYP) and semi-empirical methods (OM1, OM2, OM3, PM3). The calculations also serve to test the sensitivity of partition coefficients to solute polarizability as well as the interplay of the quantum-mechanical region with the fixed-charge molecular mechanics environment. Our results indicate that QM/MM with both BLYP and OM2 outperforms pure MM. However, this observation is limited to a subset of cases where convergence of the free energy can be achieved.

  1. Measurement of the optical fiber numeric aperture exposed to thermal and radiation aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderka, Ales; Bednarek, Lukas; Hajek, Lukas; Latal, Jan; Poboril, Radek; Zavodny, Petr; Vasinek, Vladimir

    2016-12-01

    This paper deals with the aging of optical fibers influenced by temperature and radiation. There are analyzed changes in the structure of the optical fiber, related to the propagation of light in the fiber structure. In this case for numerical aperture. For experimental measurement was used MM fiber OM1 with core diameter 62.5 μm, cladding diameter 125 μm in 2.8 mm secondary coating. Aging of the optical fiber was achieved with dry heat and radiation. For this purpose, we were using a temperature chamber with a stable temperature of 105 °C where the cables after two months. Cables were then irradiated with gamma radiation 60Co in doses of 1.5 kGy and then 60 kGy. These conditions simulated 50 years aging process of optical cables. According to European Standard EN 60793-1-43:2015 was created the automatic device for angular scan working with LabVIEW software interface. Numerical aperture was tested at a wavelength of 850 nm, with an output power 1 mW. Scanning angle was set to 50° with step 0.25°. Numerical aperture was calculated from the position where power has fallen from maximal power at e2 power. The measurement of each sample was performed 10 hours after thermal and radiation aging. The samples were subsequently tested after six months from the last irradiation. In conclusion, the results of the experiment were analyzed and compared.

  2. VCSEL-based optical transceiver module operating at 25 Gb/s and using a single CMOS IC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afriat, Gil; Horwitz, Lior; Lazar, Dror; Issachar, Assaf; Pogrebinsky, Alexander; Ran, Adee; Shoor, Ehud; Bar, Roi; Saba, Rushdy

    2012-01-01

    We present here a low cost, small form factor, optical transceiver module composed of a CMOS IC transceiver, 850 nm emission wavelength VCSEL modulated at 25 Gb/s, and an InGaAs/InP PIN Photo Diode (PD). The transceiver IC is fabricated in a standard 28 nm CMOS process and integrates the analog circuits interfacing the VCSEL and PD, namely the VCSEL driver and Transimpedance Amplifier (TIA), as well as all other required transmitter and receiver circuits like Phase Locked Loop (PLL), Post Amplifier and Clock & Data Recovery (CDR). The transceiver module couples into a 62.5/125 um multi-mode (OM1) TX/RX fiber pair via a low cost plastic cover realizing the transmitter and receiver lens systems and demonstrates BER < 10-12 at the 25 Gb/s data rate over a distance of 3 meters. Using a 50/125 um laser optimized multi-mode fiber (OM3), the same performance was achieved over a distance of 30 meters.

  3. Discoveries from EOS Aura

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglass, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Aura, the third and final of three large observatories that are part of NASA s Earth Observing System, was launched July 15,2004. Aura carries four instruments - the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES), the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS), all of which measure atmospheric constituents. Aura measurements provide information to address broad questions about the Earth atmosphere, particularly concerning the recovery of the stratospheric ozone layer, tropospheric air quality, and climate change. TES has made the simultaneous measurements of carbon monoxide and ozone in the lower and upper troposphere. OM1 continues to observe the total ozone column and measures columns of important pollutants like NO2 at unprecedented horizontal resolution and coverage. MLS measures profiles of stratospheric ozone and constituents that affect ozone from the mesosphere into the upper troposphere. This talk will highlight results from Aura s first years in orbit, and will emphasize the way information from Aura and other satellites has contributed to the development, evaluation, and application of global chemistry climate models.

  4. EOS-Aura's Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI): Validation Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinksma, E. J.; McPeters, R.; deHaan, J. F.; Levelt, P. F.; Hilsenrath, E.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2003-01-01

    OMI is an advanced hyperspectral instrument that measures backscattered radiation in the UV and visible. It will be flown as part of the EOS Aura mission and provide data on atmospheric chemistry that is highly synergistic with other Aura instruments HIRDLS, MLS, and TES. OMI is designed to measure total ozone, aerosols, cloud information, and UV irradiances, continuing the TOMS series of global mapped products but with higher spatial resolution. In addition its hyperspectral capability enables measurements of trace gases such as SO2, NO2, HCHO, BrO, and OClO. A plan for validation of the various OM1 products is now being formulated. Validation of the total column and UVB products will rely heavily on existing networks of instruments, like NDSC. NASA and its European partners are planning aircraft missions for the validation of Aura instruments. New instruments and techniques (DOAS systems for example) will need to be developed, both ground and aircraft based. Lidar systems are needed for validation of the vertical distributions of ozone, aerosols, NO2 and possibly SO2. The validation emphasis will be on the retrieval of these products under polluted conditions. This is challenging because they often depend on the tropospheric profiles of the product in question, and because of large spatial variations in the troposphere. Most existing ground stations are located in, and equipped for, pristine environments. This is also true for almost all NDSC stations. OMI validation will need ground based sites in polluted environments and specially developed instruments, complementing the existing instrumentation.

  5. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place, FY 88. Part 9. (Giusti & Renshaw Construction-Hitachi America, Ltd.)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

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  6. Multi-Sensor Data from A-Train Instruments Brought Together for Atmospheric Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Peter M.; Kempler, Steven J.; Leptoukh, Greg; Savtchenko, Andrey; Stephens, Graeme; Winker, David M.

    2007-01-01

    The A-Train is comprised of a series of instruments, developed independently, that measure highly related atmospheric components along the same flight path. In order to intercompare data from this multitude of sensors, researchers must access, subset, visualize, analyze and correlate distributed atmosphere measurements from the various A-Train instruments. The A-Train Data Depot (ATDD) has been operational for over a year, successfully performing the aforementioned functions on behalf of researchers, thus providing co-registered data from the Cloudsat, CALIOP, AIRS, and MODIS instruments for further intercomparisons. Of late, significant data from OM1 and POLDER are now included in the 'depot'. By specifying the desired spatial and temporal range, the researcher can subset, visualize, co-register, and access multi-sensor A-Train data related to: Cloud, aerosol, atmospheric temperature, and water vapor parameters (vertical profile visualizations); Cloud Pressure, cloud top temperature, water vapor, cloud optical thickness, and aerosol products (horizontal strips subsetted +/- 100km from the profile visualizations), and; Cloud pressure parameters (2-D line plots overlayed on the vertical profiles). All data is plotted using the GIOVANNI data exploration tool. A new feature of GIOVANNI is its ability to have collocated and subsetted data sets as well as PNG image files downloaded to the researcher's computing facility. By providing a convenient way to visualize and acquire multi-sensor data, ATDD affords users more time and effort to further their research.

  7. Windrow composting as horticultural waste management strategy - A case study in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Gavilanes-Terán, Irene; Jara-Samaniego, Janneth; Idrovo-Novillo, Julio; Bustamante, Ma Angeles; Moral, Raúl; Paredes, Concepción

    2016-02-01

    In Ecuador, enormous quantities of vegetable wastes are produced annually from the horticultural industries. Composting can be a feasible treatment to stabilise horticultural wastes and, thus, to improve their properties for use as organic fertilisers. In this study, two different piles were prepared, using laying hen manure and sawdust mixed with broccoli or tomato waste, respectively, and composted by the turned windrow composting system. Throughout the composting process, the temperature of the mixtures was monitored and physico-chemical and chemical properties and the degree of maturity were determined. Also, principal component analysis was used to interpret the data set of compost characteristics. In both piles, the temperature exceeded 55°C for more than 2weeks, which ensured maximum pathogen reduction. Organic matter (OM) losses followed a first-order kinetic equation in both piles. The final composts showed a suitable degree of stability and maturity and an absence of phytotoxins, as observed in the evolution and final values of the total organic carbon/total nitrogen ratio (Corg/NT<20), water-soluble organic carbon (Cw<1.7%), germination index (GI>50%) and cation exchange capacity (CEC>67meq (100g OM)(-1)). As well, the evolution of different humification indexes during composting was a good indicator of the OM humification process. The type of vegetable waste used influenced OM and NT mineralisation and the final properties of the composts, showing the mixture with tomato waste a higher fertilising capacity and less environmental problems.

  8. Diversity and Biogeography of Bathyal and Abyssal Seafloor Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Bienhold, Christina; Zinger, Lucie; Boetius, Antje; Ramette, Alban

    2016-01-01

    The deep ocean floor covers more than 60% of the Earth’s surface, and hosts diverse bacterial communities with important functions in carbon and nutrient cycles. The identification of key bacterial members remains a challenge and their patterns of distribution in seafloor sediment yet remain poorly described. Previous studies were either regionally restricted or included few deep-sea sediments, and did not specifically test biogeographic patterns across the vast oligotrophic bathyal and abyssal seafloor. Here we define the composition of this deep seafloor microbiome by describing those bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTU) that are specifically associated with deep-sea surface sediments at water depths ranging from 1000–5300 m. We show that the microbiome of the surface seafloor is distinct from the subsurface seafloor. The cosmopolitan bacterial OTU were affiliated with the clades JTB255 (class Gammaproteobacteria, order Xanthomonadales) and OM1 (Actinobacteria, order Acidimicrobiales), comprising 21% and 7% of their respective clades, and about 1% of all sequences in the study. Overall, few sequence-abundant bacterial types were globally dispersed and displayed positive range-abundance relationships. Most bacterial populations were rare and exhibited a high degree of endemism, explaining the substantial differences in community composition observed over large spatial scales. Despite the relative physicochemical uniformity of deep-sea sediments, we identified indicators of productivity regimes, especially sediment organic matter content, as factors significantly associated with changes in bacterial community structure across the globe. PMID:26814838

  9. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the normal human uterus in vivo at 3 tesla: comparison of DTI parameters in the different uterine layers.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Koji; Kido, Aki; Okada, Tomohisa; Uchikoshi, Masato; Togashi, Kaori

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the differences in the fiber architecture and related diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameters among different uterine layers of the normal human uterus in vivo at 3 Tesla (T). DTI of the uterus was performed for nine healthy women of reproductive age on a 3T scanner. A volume of interest (VOI) was drawn for the outer myometrium (OM), junctional zone (JZ), and endometrium (EM). Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), fractional anisotropy (FA), and maximum fiber length were compared using paired Student's t-tests. Fibers were classified into four groups and were visually evaluated. ADC (×10(-3) mm(2) /s) was highest for OM (1.12), followed by EM (0.97) and JZ (0.83) (OM versus JZ, P < 0.0001; JZ versus EM, P = 0.0001; OM versus EM, P = 0.0057). FA was highest for JZ (0.297), followed by OM (0.257) and EM (0.186) (OM versus JZ, P = 0.0002; JZ versus EM, P < 0.0001; OM versus EM, P < 0.0001). Fibers were longest in OM (42.0 mm), followed by JZ (34.2 mm) and EM (20.0 mm). Circularly oriented fibers were observed in 69% in OM and in 70% in JZ. DTI of the uterus in vivo revealed layer-wise differences in the microstructure of the uterus. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. [Systemic reaction after performing a food prick-to-prick test. A case report].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Moreno, Karen Estefanía; Diez, Libia Susana

    2017-01-01

    Antecedentes: La prueba por punción epidérmica es la principal prueba para el diagnóstico de enfermedades mediadas por IgE. Para su realización se utilizan extractos comerciales; en el caso de frutas y verduras es mejor emplear alimentos frescos. Si bien ambas modalidades poseen un buen perfil de seguridad, se han registrado reacciones de hipersensibilidad. Caso clínico: Mujer de 47 años de edad con antecedentes de rinitis alérgica persistente, sensibilizada a polen de gramíneas, olivo y salsola; fue remitida a un servicio de alergología por anafilaxia desencadenada por el consumo de aguacate, melón, zanahoria y sandía. Minutos después de la punción cutánea con extracto estandarizado y punción cutánea con alimentos frescos, desarrolló disnea, prurito, eritema, mareo y sibilancias. Se le administraron 0.5 mg de adrenalina intramuscular y 4 inhalaciones de salbutamol; también fue colocada en posición de Trendelemburg. La disnea persistió y el monitoreo de los signos vitales mostró incremento de las frecuencias cardiaca y respiratoria, por lo que se aplicó nuevamente salbutamol, 2 L/min de oxígeno por cánula nasal, líquidos endovenosos y 100 mg de hidrocortisona intravenosa; a los 40 minutos se observó mejoría. La paciente fue hospitalizada durante 48 horas. Conclusiones: Aunque las pruebas cutáneas son seguras, no debe excluirse el riesgo de reacciones de hipersensibilidad y anafilaxia, especialmente en pacientes susceptibles.

  11. [Translation and adaptation to Spanish language of the quality of life questionnaire for celiac people called Canadian Celiac Health Survey].

    PubMed

    Pelegrí, Cristina; Mañes, Jordi; Soriano, Jose Miguel

    2014-10-01

    Introducción: Adaptar y valorar el cuestionario de calidad de vida denominado Canadian Celiac Health Survey (CCHS). Objetivo: Traducir y adaptar en castellano el cuestionario CCHS para poder ser utilizado por la población de habla hispana puesto que se trata de un cuestionario específico para la celiaquía. Método: La adaptación del CCHS, que consta de 76 ítems distribuidos en 11 secciones diferentes, se realizó mediante el método de traducción-retrotraducción y tras ser revisado y consensuado se procedió a realizar una prueba piloto con 25 personas celíacas, de forma individual y por un miembro del grupo de investigación, para valorar la comprensión de los ítems y sus secciones. Las aportaciones fueron introducidas, configurando el cuestionario definitivo. Resultados: La máxima dificultad en la traducción se produjo en la pregunta donde existían principios activos y nombres comerciales de medicamentos, optándose para ello a los comercializados a nivel nacional. Por otro lado, para el estudio piloto del cuestionario se observó un buen valor de la naturalidad de la comprensión con valores comprendidos entre 8,4 y 10,0. Conclusiones: La herramienta específica CHCS permitirá el uso de un cuestionario que pueda ser utilizado por la población de habla hispana en estudios, ensayos clínicos o en la práctica profesional sanitaria cotidiana, permitiendo un mejor conocimiento del estado de salud de los celíacos.

  12. Analysis of Regional Climate Changes adjusted Future Urban Growth Scenarios and possibility of the future air quality prediction in Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Kim, Y.; Jeong, J.

    2012-12-01

    Land-use changes give effects to physical properties such as albedo, moisture availability and roughness length in the atmosphere, but future urban growth has not been considered widely to predict the future regional climate change because it is hard to predict the future land-use changes. In this study, we used the urban growth model called SLEUTH (Slope, Land-use, Excluded, Urban, Transportation, Hill-shade) based on Cellular Automata (CA) technique to predict the future land-use (especially, urban growth) changes. Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), the research area in this study, is the most explosively developed region in the Korean peninsula due to the continuous industrialization since 1970s. SLEUTH was calibrated to know the pattern and process of the urban growth and expansion in SMA with historical data for 35 years (1975-2000) provided from WAter Management Information System (WAMIS) in Korea and then future urban growth was projected out to 2050 assuming three different scenarios: (1) historical trends of urban growth (SC1), (2) future urban policy and plan (SC2), (3) ecological protection and growth (SC3). We used the FNL data of NCEP/NCAR for one month, Oct. in 2005 to evaluate the performance of the WRF on the long-term climate simulation and compared results of WRF with the ASOS/AWS (Automated Surface Observing Systems and Automated Weather System) observation data of the Korea Meteorology Administration. Based on the accuracy of the model, we performed various numerical experiments by the urban growth scenarios using the 6 hourly data of ECHAM5/OM-1 A1B scenarios generated by Max-Plank Institute for Meteorology in Hamburg, Germany on Oct. for 5 years (2046-2050), respectively. The difference of urban ratio under various urban growth scenarios in SMA consequently caused the spatial distributions of temperature to change, the average temperature to increase in the urban area. PBL height with a maximum of about 200m also appeared locally in newly

  13. Long-term ERP time series as indicators for global climate variability and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, E.; Grötzsch, A.; Ulbrich, U.; Leckebusch, G. C.; Nevir, P.; Thomas, M.

    2009-04-01

    This study assesses whether variations in observed Earth orientation parameters (EOPs, IERS) such as length-of day (LOD EOP C04) and polar motion (PM EOP C04) can be applied as climate indicators. Data analyses suggest that observed EOPs are differently affected by parameters associated with the atmosphere and ocean. On interannual time scales the varying ocean-atmosphere effects on EOPs are in particular pronounced during episodes of the coupled ocean-atmosphere phenomenon El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Observed ENSO anomalies of spatial patterns of parameters affected by atmosphere and ocean (climate indices and sea surface temperatures) are related to LOD and PM variability and associated with possible physical background processes. Present time analyses (1962 - 2000) indicate that the main source of the varying ENSO signal on observed LOD can be associated with anomalies of the relative angular momentum (AAM) related to variations in location and strength of jet streams of the upper troposphere. While on interannual time scales observed LOD and AAM are highly correlated (r=0.75), results suggest that strong El Niño events affect the observed LOD - AAM relation differently strong (explained variance 71%- 98%). Accordingly, the relation between AAM and ocean sea surface temperatures (SST) in the NIÑO 3.4 region differs (explained variances 15%-73%). Corresponding analysis is conducted on modelled EOPs (ERA40 reanalysis, ECHAM5-OM1) to obtain Earth rotation parameters undisturbed by core-mantle activities, and to study rotational variations under climate variability and change. A total of 91 strong El Niño events are analysed in coupled ocean-atmosphere ECHAM5-OM1 scenarios concerning the 20th century (20C), climate warming (A1B) and pre-industrial climate variability. Analyses on a total of 61 strong El Niño events covering a time period of 505 simulation years under pre-industrial climate conditions indicate a range of El Niño events with a strong or

  14. Meta-Analysis of Attitudes toward Damage-Causing Mammalian Wildlife

    PubMed Central

    KANSKY, RUTH; KIDD, MARTIN; KNIGHT, ANDREW T

    2014-01-01

    íferos Silvestres Causantes de Daños Resumen Muchas poblaciones de mamíferos amenazados persisten fuera de áreas protegidas formales y su supervivencia depende de la buena voluntad de las comunidades que coexisten con ellos. Un entendimiento de las posturas, y específicamente de la tolerancia, de los individuos y las comunidades y los factores que los determinan es fundamental para diseñar estrategias que alivien el conflicto humano – vida silvestre. Llevamos a cabo un meta-análisis para identificar los factores que afectaron las posturas hacia cuatro grupos de mamíferos terrestres. Los elefantes (65%) provocaron las posturas más positivas. Los siguieron los primates (55%), los ungulados (53%) y los carnívoros (44%). Los residentes urbanos presentaron las posturas más positivas (80%), seguidos por los granjeros comerciales (51%) y los granjeros comunales (26%). Un índice de tolerancia a los daños mostró que la tolerancia humana a los ungulados y primates fue proporcional a la probabilidad de experimentar daños mientras que los elefantes provocaron niveles de tolerancia más altos de lo esperado y los carnívoros provocaron niveles de tolerancia más bajos de lo esperado. Contrario a la sabiduría convencional, experimentar daños no fue siempre el factor dominante para determinar las posturas. Los granjeros comunales tuvieron una baja probabilidad de ser positivos hacia los carnívoros independientemente de la probabilidad de experimentar daños, mientras que los granjeros comerciales y los residentes urbanos tuvieron mayor probabilidad de ser positivos hacia los carnívoros independientemente de los daños. Los residentes urbanos tuvieron mayor probabilidad de ser positivos hacia los ungulados, los elefantes y los primates cuando la probabilidad de daños fue baja, pero no cuando fue alta. Los granjeros comerciales y comunales tuvieron una mayor probabilidad de ser positivos hacia los ungulados, los primates y los elefantes independientemente de la probabilidad de

  15. Cross-species extrapolation of prediction model for lead transfer from soil to corn grain under stress of exogenous lead.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhaojun; Yang, Hua; Li, Yupeng; Long, Jian; Liang, Yongchao

    2014-01-01

    There has been increasing concern in recent years regarding lead (Pb) transfer in the soil-plant system. In this study the transfer of Pb (exogenous salts) was investigated from a wide range of Chinese soils to corn grain (Zhengdan 958). Prediction models were developed with combination of the Pb bioconcentration factor (BCF) of Zhengdan 958, and soil pH, organic matter (OM) content, and cation exchange capacity (CEC) through multiple stepwise regressions. Moreover, these prediction models from Zhengdan 958 were applied to other non-model corn species through cross-species extrapolation approach. The results showed that the soil pH and OM were the major factors that controlled Pb transfer from soil to corn grain. The lower pH and OM could improve the bioaccumulation of Pb in corn grain. No significant differences were found between two prediction models derived from the different exogenous Pb contents. When the prediction models were applied to other non-model corn species, the ratio ranges between the predicted BCF values and the measured BCF values were within an interval of 2-fold and close to the solid line of 1∶1 relationship. Moreover, the prediction model i.e. Log[BCF] = -0.098 pH-0.150 log[OM] -1.894 at the treatment of high Pb can effectively reduce the measured BCF intra-species variability for all non-model corn species. These suggested that this prediction model derived from the high Pb content was more adaptable to be applied to other non-model corn species to predict the Pb bioconcentration in corn grain and assess the ecological risk of Pb in different agricultural soils.

  16. Geochemical Fate and Transport of Diphenhydramine and Cetirizine in Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wireman, R.; Rutherford, C. J.; Vulava, V. M.; Cory, W. C.

    2015-12-01

    Pharmaceuticals compounds presence in natural soils and water around the world has become a growing concern. These compounds are being discharged into the environment through treated wastewater or municipal sludge applications. The main goal of this study is determine their geochemical fate in natural soils. In this study we investigated sorption and transport behavior of diphenhydramine (DPH) and cetirizine (CTZ) in natural soils. These two commonly-used antihistamines are complex aromatic hydrocarbons with polar functional groups. Two clean acidic soils (pH~4.5) were used for these studies - an A-horizon soil that had higher organic matter content (OM, 7.6%) and a B-horizon soil that had lower OM (1.6%), but higher clay content (5.1%). Sorption isotherms were measured using batch reactor experiments. Data indicated that sorption was nonlinear and that it was stronger in clay-rich soils. The pKa's of DPH and CTZ are 8.98 and 8.27 respectively, i.e., these compounds are predominantly in cationic form at soil pH. In these forms, they preferentially sorb to negatively charged mineral surfaces (e.g., clay) present in the soils. Soil clay mineral characterization indicated that kaolinite was the dominant clay mineral present along with small amount of montmorillonite. The nonlinear sorption isotherms were fitted with Freundlich model. Transport behavior of both compounds was measured using glass chromatography columns. As expected both DPH and CTZ were strongly retained in the clay-rich soil as compared with OM-rich soil. The asymmetrical shape of the breakthrough curves indicated that there were likely two separate sorption sites in the soil, each with different reaction rates with each compound. A two-region advection-dispersion transport code was used to model the transport breakthrough curves. There was no evidence of transformation or degradation of the compounds during our sorption and transport studies.

  17. Return periods of losses associated with European windstorm series in a changing climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karremann, Melanie K.; Pinto, Joaquim G.; Reyers, Mark; Klawa, Matthias

    2015-04-01

    During the last decades, several windstorm series hit Europe leading to large aggregated losses. Such storm series are examples of serial clustering of extreme cyclones, presenting a considerable risk for the insurance industry. Clustering of events and return periods of storm series affecting Europe are quantified based on potential losses using empirical models. Moreover, possible future changes of clustering and return periods of European storm series with high potential losses are quantified. Historical storm series are identified using 40 winters of NCEP reanalysis data (1973/1974 - 2012/2013). Time series of top events (1, 2 or 5 year return levels) are used to assess return periods of storm series both empirically and theoretically. Return periods of historical storm series are estimated based on the Poisson and the negative binomial distributions. Additionally, 800 winters of ECHAM5/MPI-OM1 general circulation model simulations for present (SRES scenario 20C: years 1960- 2000) and future (SRES scenario A1B: years 2060- 2100) climate conditions are investigated. Clustering is identified for most countries in Europe, and estimated return periods are similar for reanalysis and present day simulations. Future changes of return periods are estimated for fixed return levels and fixed loss index thresholds. For the former, shorter return periods are found for Western Europe, but changes are small and spatially heterogeneous. For the latter, which combines the effects of clustering and event ranking shifts, shorter return periods are found everywhere except for Mediterranean countries. These changes are generally not statistically significant between recent and future climate. However, the return periods for the fixed loss index approach are mostly beyond the range of preindustrial natural climate variability. This is not true for fixed return levels. The quantification of losses associated with storm series permits a more adequate windstorm risk assessment in a

  18. Breast cancer 1 (BrCa1) may be behind decreased lipogenesis in adipose tissue from obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Francisco J; Moreno-Navarrete, José M; Mayas, Dolores; García-Santos, Eva; Gómez-Serrano, María; Rodriguez-Hermosa, José I; Ruiz, Bartomeu; Ricart, Wifredo; Tinahones, Francisco J; Frühbeck, Gema; Peral, Belen; Fernández-Real, José M

    2012-01-01

    Expression and activity of the main lipogenic enzymes is paradoxically decreased in obesity, but the mechanisms behind these findings are poorly known. Breast Cancer 1 (BrCa1) interacts with acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) reducing the rate of fatty acid biosynthesis. In this study, we aimed to evaluate BrCa1 in human adipose tissue according to obesity and insulin resistance, and in vitro cultured adipocytes. BrCa1 gene expression, total and phosphorylated (P-) BrCa1, and ACC were analyzed in adipose tissue samples obtained from a total sample of 133 subjects. BrCa1 expression was also evaluated during in vitro differentiation of human adipocytes and 3T3-L1 cells. BrCa1 gene expression was significantly up-regulated in both omental (OM; 1.36-fold, p = 0.002) and subcutaneous (SC; 1.49-fold, p = 0.001) adipose tissue from obese subjects. In parallel with increased BrCa1 mRNA, P-ACC was also up-regulated in SC (p = 0.007) as well as in OM (p = 0.010) fat from obese subjects. Consistent with its role limiting fatty acid biosynthesis, both BrCa1 mRNA (3.5-fold, p<0.0001) and protein (1.2-fold, p = 0.001) were increased in pre-adipocytes, and decreased during in vitro adipogenesis, while P-ACC decreased during differentiation of human adipocytes (p = 0.005) allowing lipid biosynthesis. Interestingly, BrCa1 gene expression in mature adipocytes was restored by inflammatory stimuli (macrophage conditioned medium), whereas lipogenic genes significantly decreased. The specular findings of BrCa1 and lipogenic enzymes in adipose tissue and adipocytes reported here suggest that BrCa1 might help to control fatty acid biosynthesis in adipocytes and adipose tissue from obese subjects.

  19. Adsorptive and absorptive contributions to the gas-particle partitioning of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: state of knowledge and recommended parametrization for modeling.

    PubMed

    Lohmann, Rainer; Lammel, Gerhard

    2004-07-15

    Four contrasting descriptions of the gas-particle partitioning of SOCs are currently used: the Junge-Pankow adsorption model, the empirical Finizio organic matter (OM) absorption relationship, the Harner-Bidleman OM absorption model, and a dual black carbon (BC) adsorption and OM absorption model. Use of these four descriptions in a box model resulted in very different global fates, particularly for PAHs such as chrysene and benzo[a]pyrene. By reviewing published gas-particle distributions of PAHs, we found evidence for both absorptive and adsorptive contributions. Based on results from laboratory and controlled field studies we suggest that on average, octanol-air partitioning (Koa) is a good approximation for the OM absorption of PAHs. However, higher concentrations in particles than could be explained by OM absorption were found in selected gas-particle partitioning field studies, which were corrected for gaseous adsorption to the filter. We argue that adsorption onto BC is responsible for most of the additional sorption. Apparent adsorption coefficients to BC, K(BC-air), were derived from field studies and showed good agreement with those predicted by adsorption onto diesel soot. For atmospheric long-range transport models we suggestthe use of a dual OM absorption and BC adsorption model, with BC properties being approximated by diesel soot: Kp = 10(-12) (f(om) 1/rho(oct) Koa + fBC/rho(BC) K(soot-air) a(atm-BC)/a(soot)). We hypothesize that kinetic constraints related to shell-like particle structures might lead to deviations from sorption equilibrium and higher particle-borne fractions of PAHs in particular at remote sites.

  20. Co-occurrence Analysis of Microbial Taxa in the Atlantic Ocean Reveals High Connectivity in the Free-Living Bacterioplankton

    PubMed Central

    Milici, Mathias; Deng, Zhi-Luo; Tomasch, Jürgen; Decelle, Johan; Wos-Oxley, Melissa L.; Wang, Hui; Jáuregui, Ruy; Plumeier, Iris; Giebel, Helge-Ansgar; Badewien, Thomas H.; Wurst, Mascha; Pieper, Dietmar H.; Simon, Meinhard; Wagner-Döbler, Irene

    2016-01-01

    We determined the taxonomic composition of the bacterioplankton of the epipelagic zone of the Atlantic Ocean along a latitudinal transect (51°S–47°N) using Illumina sequencing of the V5-V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene and inferred co-occurrence networks. Bacterioplankon community composition was distinct for Longhurstian provinces and water depth. Free-living microbial communities (between 0.22 and 3 μm) were dominated by highly abundant and ubiquitous taxa with streamlined genomes (e.g., SAR11, SAR86, OM1, Prochlorococcus) and could clearly be separated from particle-associated communities which were dominated by Bacteroidetes, Planktomycetes, Verrucomicrobia, and Roseobacters. From a total of 369 different communities we then inferred co-occurrence networks for each size fraction and depth layer of the plankton between bacteria and between bacteria and phototrophic micro-eukaryotes. The inferred networks showed a reduction of edges in the deepest layer of the photic zone. Networks comprised of free-living bacteria had a larger amount of connections per OTU when compared to the particle associated communities throughout the water column. Negative correlations accounted for roughly one third of the total edges in the free-living communities at all depths, while they decreased with depth in the particle associated communities where they amounted for roughly 10% of the total in the last part of the epipelagic zone. Co-occurrence networks of bacteria with phototrophic micro-eukaryotes were not taxon-specific, and dominated by mutual exclusion (~60%). The data show a high degree of specialization to micro-environments in the water column and highlight the importance of interdependencies particularly between free-living bacteria in the upper layers of the epipelagic zone. PMID:27199970

  1. Co-occurrence Analysis of Microbial Taxa in the Atlantic Ocean Reveals High Connectivity in the Free-Living Bacterioplankton.

    PubMed

    Milici, Mathias; Deng, Zhi-Luo; Tomasch, Jürgen; Decelle, Johan; Wos-Oxley, Melissa L; Wang, Hui; Jáuregui, Ruy; Plumeier, Iris; Giebel, Helge-Ansgar; Badewien, Thomas H; Wurst, Mascha; Pieper, Dietmar H; Simon, Meinhard; Wagner-Döbler, Irene

    2016-01-01

    We determined the taxonomic composition of the bacterioplankton of the epipelagic zone of the Atlantic Ocean along a latitudinal transect (51°S-47°N) using Illumina sequencing of the V5-V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene and inferred co-occurrence networks. Bacterioplankon community composition was distinct for Longhurstian provinces and water depth. Free-living microbial communities (between 0.22 and 3 μm) were dominated by highly abundant and ubiquitous taxa with streamlined genomes (e.g., SAR11, SAR86, OM1, Prochlorococcus) and could clearly be separated from particle-associated communities which were dominated by Bacteroidetes, Planktomycetes, Verrucomicrobia, and Roseobacters. From a total of 369 different communities we then inferred co-occurrence networks for each size fraction and depth layer of the plankton between bacteria and between bacteria and phototrophic micro-eukaryotes. The inferred networks showed a reduction of edges in the deepest layer of the photic zone. Networks comprised of free-living bacteria had a larger amount of connections per OTU when compared to the particle associated communities throughout the water column. Negative correlations accounted for roughly one third of the total edges in the free-living communities at all depths, while they decreased with depth in the particle associated communities where they amounted for roughly 10% of the total in the last part of the epipelagic zone. Co-occurrence networks of bacteria with phototrophic micro-eukaryotes were not taxon-specific, and dominated by mutual exclusion (~60%). The data show a high degree of specialization to micro-environments in the water column and highlight the importance of interdependencies particularly between free-living bacteria in the upper layers of the epipelagic zone.

  2. Effect of extended and daily short-term starvation/shut-down events on the performance of a biofilter treating toluene vapors.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Lucero; Arriaga, Sonia; Muñoz, Raúl; Aizpuru, Aitor

    2017-12-01

    Industrial emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds are usually discontinuous. To assess the impact of interruptions in pollutant supply on the performance of biological treatment systems, two identical biofilters previously operated under continuous toluene loadings were subjected for 110 days to extended (12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 84 and 96 h) and for a week to daily (8 h on, 16 h off) toluene starvation/shutdown events. One biofilter was operated under complete shutdowns (both air and toluene supply were interrupted), while the other maintained the air supply under toluene starvation. The biofilter operated under complete shutdowns was able to withstand both the extended and daily pollutant interruptions, while starvation periods >24 h severely impacted the performance of the other biofilter, with a removal efficiency decrease from 97.7 ± 0.1% to 45.4 ± 6.7% at the end of the extended starvation periods. This deterioration was likely due to a reduction in liquid lixiviation (from a total volume of 2380 mL to 1800 mL) mediated by the countercurrent airflow during the starvation periods. The presence of air under toluene starvation also favored the accumulation of inactive biomass, thus increasing the pressure drop from 337 to 700 mm H2O.m(-1), while decreasing the wash out of acidic by-products with a significantly higher pH of leachates (Student paired t-test <0.05). This study confirmed the need to prevent the accumulation of inhibitory compounds produced during process perturbation in order to increase biofiltration robustness. Process operation with sufficient drainage in the packing material and the absence of countercurrent airflow are highly recommended during toluene deprivation periods. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Simulations of Tropospheric NO2 by the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) Model Utilizing Assimilated and Forecast Meteorological Fields: Comparison to Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez, J. M.; Yoshida, Y.; Duncan, B. N.; Bucsela, E. J.; Gleason, J. F.; Allen, D.; Pickering, K. E.

    2007-01-01

    We present simulations of the tropospheric composition for the years 2004 and 2005, carried out by the GMI Combined Stratosphere-Troposphere (Combo) model, at a resolution of 2degx2.5deg. The model includes a new parameterization of lightning sources of NO(x) which is coupled to the cloud mass fluxes in the adopted meteorological fields. These simulations use two different sets of input meteorological fields: a)late-look assimilated fields from the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO), GEOS-4 system and b) 12-hour forecast fields initialized with the assimilated data. Comparison of the forecast to the assimilated fields indicates that the forecast fields exhibit less vigorous convection, and yield tropical precipitation fields in better agreement with observations. Since these simulations include a complete representation of the stratosphere, they provide realistic stratosphere-tropospheric fluxes of O3 and NO(y). Furthermore, the stratospheric contribution to total columns of different troposheric species can be subtracted in a consistent fashion, and the lightning production of NO(y) will depend on the adopted meteorological field. We concentrate here on the simulated tropospheric columns of NO2, and compare them to observations by the OM1 instrument for the years 2004 and 2005. The comparison is used to address these questions: a) is there a significant difference in the agreement/disagreement between simulations for these two different meteorological fields, and if so, what causes these differences?; b) how do the simulations compare to OMI observations, and does this comparison indicate an improvement in simulations with the forecast fields? c) what are the implications of these simulations for our understanding of the NO2 emissions over continental polluted regions?

  4. Identification of protective linear B-cell epitopes on the subolesin/akirin orthologues of Ornithodoros spp. soft ticks.

    PubMed

    Manzano-Román, Raúl; Díaz-Martín, Verónica; Oleaga, Ana; Pérez-Sánchez, Ricardo

    2015-02-18

    Subolesin/akirin is a protective antigen that is highly conserved across hematophagous vector species and is therefore potentially useful for the development of a universal vaccine for vector control, including soft ticks. Recent results have shown that in Ornithodoros erraticus and O. moubata soft ticks, RNAi-mediated subolesin gene knockdown inhibits tick oviposition and fertility by more than 90%; however, vaccination with recombinant subolesins resulted in remarkably low protective efficacies (5-24.5% reduction in oviposition). Here we report that vaccination with subolesin recombinants induces non-protective antibodies mainly directed against immunodominant linear B-cell epitopes located on highly structured regions of the subolesin protein, probably unrelated to its biological activity, while leaving the unstructured/disordered regions unrecognized. Accordingly, for a new vaccine trial we designed four synthetic peptides (OE1, OE2, OM1 and OM2) from the unrecognized/disordered regions of the Ornithodoros subolesin sequences and coupled them to keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH). These KLH-peptide conjugates induced the synthesis of antibodies that recognized linear B-cell epitopes located on the unstructured loops of the subolesin protein and provided up to 70.1% and 83.1% vaccine efficacies in O. erraticus and O. moubata, respectively. These results show that the protective effect of subolesin-based vaccines is highly dependent on the particular epitope recognized by antibodies on the subolesin sequence and strongly suggest that the biological activity of subolesin is exerted through its unstructured regions. The results reported here contribute to our understanding of the mechanism of protection of subolesin-based vaccines and reveal novel protective peptides that could be included among the array of candidate antigens useful for developing anti-vector vaccines based on subolesin/akirin.

  5. Applications of polarizable continuum models to determine accurate solution-phase thermochemical values across a broad range of cation charge - the case of U(III-VI).

    PubMed

    Parmar, Payal; Samuels, Alex; Clark, Aurora E

    2015-01-13

    Contributing factors to the solution-phase correction to the free energy of the molecular clusters U(H2O)n(3+/4+) and UO2(H2O)m(1+/2+) (n = 8, 9, 30, 41, 77; m = 4, 5, 30, 41, 77) have been examined as a function of cavity type in the integrated-equation-formalism-protocol (IEF) and SMD polarizable continuum models (PCMs). It is observed that the free energy correction, Gcorr, does not smoothly converge to zero as the number of explicitly solvating water molecules approaches the bulk limit, and the convergence behavior varies significantly with cavity and model. The rates of convergence of the gas-phase hydration energy, ΔGhyd, wherein the bare metal ion is inserted into a molecular water cluster and ΔGcorr for the reaction exhibit wide variations as a function of ion charge, cavity, and model. This is the likely source of previously reported discrepancies in predicted free energies of solvation for metal ions when using different PCM cavities and/or models. The cancellation of errors in ΔGhyd and ΔGcorr is optimal for clusters consisting of only a second solvation shell of explicit water molecules (n = m = 30). The UFF cavity within IEF, in particular, exhibits the most consistent cancellation of errors when using a molecular cluster consisting of a second shell of solvating water for all oxidation states of uranium, leading to accurate free energies of solvation ΔGsolv for these species.

  6. Characterization of spatial distribution of the bacterial community in the South Sea of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Ji-Hui; Kang, Ilnam; Yang, Seung-Jo

    2017-01-01

    In order to investigate the importance of spatial and environmental factors on the structure and diversity of bacterial communities, high-resolution 16S rRNA gene tag pyrosequencing was applied to bacterial communities in the littoral sea. Seawater samples were prepared from seven different stations in the South Sea of Korea, the marginal sea in the western Pacific Ocean, and were divided into three groups according to distances from the coastline. The majority of 19,860 sequences were affiliated with Alphaproteobacteria (58.2%), Gammaproteobacteria (7.9%), and Bacteroidetes (13.9%). The bacterioplankton community at each station was highly diverse and varied among the samples. Major bacterial lineages showed different niche preferences among three locational groups. Alphaproteobacteria was the most abundant bacterial class, and it harbored the most frequently recorded operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in all sampling stations. However, dominant groups at the order levels showed a clear difference among the samples. The SAR11 clade was more abundant in coastal waters while the Roseobacter clade prevailed at stations far away from the coastline. Furthermore, members of Actinobacteria and Cyanobacteria also exhibited spatial variability. The OM1 clade in Actinobacteria constituted a predominant fraction in coastal samples, but it was essentially absent at the distal stations closer to open ocean. In contrast, Synechococcus was the predominant taxon in the distal samples, accounting for 7.1–19.5%, but was hardly detected in coastal waters, representing less than 0.7%. In Bacteroidetes, NS5 and NS9 groups tended to inhabit coastal waters while the genera Polaribacter and Ulvibacter were more abundant in distal stations. Clustering analysis and principle coordinates analysis based on OTU data indicated that bacterial communities in the studied area were separated into three groups that coincided with locational grouping. Statistical analysis showed that phosphate and

  7. Diagnostic quality of mammograms obtained with a new low-radiation-dose dual-screen and dual-emulsion film combination

    SciTech Connect

    Wojtasek, D.A.; Teixidor, H.S.; Govoni, A.F.; Gareen, I.F. )

    1990-02-01

    We evaluated the image quality of mammograms made by using a new dual-screen, dual-emulsion film combination (Kodak Min-R Fast screen, T-Mat Mll film) that permits reduction of radiation exposure by approximately 50% when compared with a standard single-screen, single-emulsion film system (Kodak Min-R screen, OM-1 film). This new film has been improved when compared with earlier T-Mat M film, including the introduction of an inert dye to reduce light crossover to essentially 0%. Mammogram pairs made with the dual-emulsion film combination and the standard single-emulsion film combination were obtained in 50 patients otherwise undergoing routine mammography. The image pairs were randomized and evaluated by three radiologists who used a three-point scale (better, same, or worse). Each pair was evaluated with regard to parenchymal contrast, sharpness, and latitude, as well as the number and sharpness of calcifications (n = 19) and sharpness of masses (n = 12) when present. All three observers found the dual-emulsion film combination to be better than or the same as the standard with regard to parenchymal sharpness (94-100%), the number and sharpness of calcifications (98-100%), and sharpness of masses (100%). Two observers found the dual-emulsion film combination to be significantly worse (p less than .05) than the standard with respect to parenchymal contrast (72%, 86%), and all three observers rated it significantly worse for film latitude (14 to 42%). Our results suggest that this new dual-emulsion film combination that allows mammography to be performed with less radiation exposure can be used without loss of image quality.

  8. Stabilizing the heterologously expressed uric acid-xanthine transporter UapA from the lower eukaryote Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Leung, James; Cameron, Alexander D; Diallinas, George; Byrne, Bernadette

    2013-02-01

    Despite detailed genetic and mutagenic analysis and a recent high-resolution structure of a bacterial member of the nucleobase-ascorbate transporter (NAT) family, understanding of the mechanism of action of eukaryotic NATs is limited. Preliminary studies successfully expressed and purified wild-type UapA to high homogeneity; however, the protein was extremely unstable, degrading almost completely after 48 h at 4°C. In an attempt to increase UapA stability we generated a number of single point mutants (E356D, E356Q, N409A, N409D, Q408E and G411V) previously shown to have reduced or no transport activity, but correct targeting to the membrane. The mutant UapA constructs expressed well as GFP fusions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and exhibited similar fluorescent size exclusion chromatography (FSEC) profiles to the wild-type protein, following solubilization in 1% DDM, LDAO or OM + 1 mM xanthine. In order to assess the relative stabilities of the mutants, solubilized fractions prepared in 1% DDM + 1 mM xanthine were heated at 45°C for 10 min prior to FSEC. The Q408E and G411V mutants gave markedly better profiles than either wild-type or the other mutants. Further FSEC analysis following solubilization of the mutants in 1% NG ± xanthine confirmed that G411V is more stable than the other mutants, but showed that Q408E is unstable under these conditions. G411V and an N-terminally truncated construct G411VΔ1-11 were submitted to large-scale expression and purification. Long-term stability analysis revealed that G411VΔ1-11 was the most stable construct and the most suited to downstream structural studies.

  9. The added value of dynamical downscaling in a climate change scenario simulation:A case study for European Alps and East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, Eun-Soon; Coppola, Erika; Giorgi, Filippo

    2010-05-01

    Since anthropogenic climate change is a rather important factor for the future human life all over the planet and its effects are not globally uniform, climate information at regional or local scales become more and more important for an accurate assessment of the potential impact of climate change on societies and ecosystems. High resolution information with suitably fine-scale for resolving complex geographical features could be a critical factor for successful linkage between climate models and impact assessment studies. However, scale mismatch between them still remains major problem. One method for overcoming the resolution limitations of global climate models and for adding regional details to coarse-grid global projections is to use dynamical downscaling by means of a regional climate model. In this study, the ECHAM5/MPI-OM (1.875 degree) A1B scenario simulation has been dynamically downscaled by using two different approaches within the framework of RegCM3 modeling system. First, a mosaic-type parameterization of subgrid-scale topography and land use (Sub-BATS) is applied over the European Alpine region. The Sub-BATS system is composed of 15 km coarse-grid cell and 3 km sub-grid cell. Second, we developed the RegCM3 one-way double-nested system, with the mother domain encompassing the eastern regions of Asia at 60 km grid spacing and the nested domain covering the Korean Peninsula at 20 km grid spacing. By comparing the regional climate model output and the driving global model ECHAM5/MPI-OM output, it is possible to estimate the added value of physically-based dynamical downscaling when for example impact studies at hydrological scale are performed.

  10. Benchmarking Semiempirical Methods for Thermochemistry, Kinetics, and Noncovalent Interactions: OMx Methods Are Almost As Accurate and Robust As DFT-GGA Methods for Organic Molecules.

    PubMed

    Korth, Martin; Thiel, Walter

    2011-09-13

    Semiempirical quantum mechanical (SQM) methods offer a fast approximate treatment of the electronic structure and the properties of large molecules. Careful benchmarks are required to establish their accuracy. Here, we report a validation of standard SQM methods using a subset of the comprehensive GMTKN24 database for general main group thermochemistry, kinetics, and noncovalent interactions, which has recently been introduced to evaluate density functional theory (DFT) methods ( J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2010 , 6 , 107 ). For all SQM methods considered presently, parameters are available for the elements H, C, N, and O, and consequently, we have extracted from the GMTKN24 database all species containing only these four elements (excluding multireference cases). The resulting GMTKN24-hcno database has 370 entries (derived from 593 energies) compared with 715 entries (derived from 1033 energies) in the original GMTKN24 database. The current benchmark covers established standard SQM methods (AM1, PM6), more recent approaches with orthogonalization corrections (OM1, OM2, OM3), and the self-consistent-charge density functional tight binding method (SCC-DFTB). The results are compared against each other and against DFT results using standard functionals. We find that the OMx methods outperform AM1, PM6, and SCC-DFTB by a significant margin, with a substantial gain in accuracy especially for OM2 and OM3. These latter methods are quite accurate even in comparison with DFT, with an overall mean absolute deviation of 6.6 kcal/mol for PBE and 7.9 kcal/mol for OM3. The OMx methods are also remarkably robust with regard to the unusual bonding situations encountered in the "mindless" MB08-165 test set, for which all other SQM methods fail badly.

  11. [Self-pollution in Ruditapes philippinarum bottom-cultured area of Zhuanghe coast].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiu-tang; Zhang, Sheng-li; Liu, Shu-xi; Liang, Bin; Liang, Yu-bo; Zhang, Guo-fan

    2011-03-01

    By using sediment trap and closed respirator, a year-round in situ investigation was made on the bio-deposition rate, ammonia excretion rate, and phosphate excretion rate in the Ruditapes philippinarum bottom-cultured area of Zhuanghe coast. The three test rates of R. philippinarum all showed obvious seasonal variability, with the bio-deposition rate ranged in 0.15-1.47 g x ind(-1) x d(-1) (annual average 0.61 g x ind(-1) x d(-1)), ammonia excretion rate ranged in 0.02-0.40 mg x ind(-1) x d(-1) (annual average 0.17 mg x ind(-1) x d(-1)), and phosphate excretion rate ranged in 0.01-0.39 mg x ind(-1) x d(-1)(annual average 0. 13 mg x ind(-1) x d(-1)). Based on these, it was estimated that the annual bio-deposit production by the bottom-cultured R. philippinarum in Zhuanghe coast could reach as high as 5.46 x 10(7) t dry mass, amounting to 9.07 x 10(6) t organic matter (OM), 1.00 x 10(6) t organic carbon (OC), or 1.18 x 10(5) t organic nitrogen (ON), and the annual NH4+ -N and PO4(3-)-P productions were 1.49 x 10(4) t and 1.15 x 10(4) t, respectively. Our results suggested that for the large scale and high density bivalve culture in China coasts, the potential impacts of self-pollutants by filter-feeding bivalves on the environment should not be neglected.

  12. Exploration of OMI Products for Air Quality Applications Through Comparisons with Models and Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickering, K. E.; Ziemke, J.; Bucsela, E.; Gleason, J.; Marufu, L.; Dickerson, R.; Mathur, R.; Davidson, P.; Duncan, B.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2006-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on board NASA s Aura satellite was launched in July 2004, and is now providing daily global observations of total column ozone, NO2, and SO2, as well as aerosol information. Algorithms have also been developed to produce daily tropospheric ozone and NO2 products. The tropospheric ozone product reported here is a tropospheric residual computed through use of Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) ozone profile data to quantify stratospheric ozone. We are investigating the applicability of OMI products for use in air quality modeling, forecasting, and analysis. These investigations include comparison of the OMI tropospheric O3 and NO2 products with global and regional models and with lower tropospheric aircraft observations. Large-scale transport of pollution seen in the OM1 tropospheric O3 data is compared with output from NASA's Global Modeling Initiative global chemistry and transport model. On the regional scale we compare the OMI tropospheric O3 and NO2 with fields from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and Environmental Protection Agency (NOAA/EPA) operational Eta/CMAQ air quality forecasting model over the eastern United States. This 12-km horizontal resolution model output is roughly of equivalent resolution to the OMI pixel data. Correlation analysis between lower tropospheric aircraft O3 profile data taken by the University of Maryland over the Mid-Atlantic States and OMI tropospheric column mean volume mixing ratio for O3 will be presented. These aircraft data are representative of the lowest 3 kilometers of the atmosphere, the region in which much of the locally-generated and regionally-transported ozone exists.

  13. Production and characterization of genetically modified human IL-11 variants.

    PubMed

    Sano, Emiko; Takei, Toshiaki; Ueda, Takuya; Tsumoto, Kouhei

    2017-02-01

    Interleukin-11 (IL-11) has been expected as a drug on severe thrombocytopenia caused by myelo-suppressive chemotherapy. Whereas, development of IL-11 inhibitor is also expected for a treatment against IL-11 related cancer progression. Here, we will demonstrate the creation of various kinds of genetically modified hIL-11s. Modified vectors were constructed by introducing N- or O-glycosylation site on the region of hIL-11 that does not belong to the core α-helical motif based on the predicted secondary structure. N-terminal (N: between 22 to 23 aa), the first loop (M1:70 to 71 aa), the second loop (M2:114-115 aa), the third loop (M3:160-161 aa) and C-terminal (C: 200- aa) were selected for modification. A large scale production system was established and the characteristics of modified hIL-11s were evaluated. The structure was analyzed by amino acid sequence and composition analysis and CD-spectra. Glycan was assessed by monosaccharide composition analysis. Growth promoting activity and biological stability were analyzed by proliferation of T1165 cells. N-terminal modified proteins were well glycosylated and produced. Growth activity of 3NN with NASNASNAS sequence on N-terminal was about tenfold higher than wild type (WT). Structural and biological stabilities of 3NN were also better than WT and residence time in mouse blood was longer than WT. M1 variants lacked growth activity though they are well glycosylated and secondary structure is very stable. Both of 3NN and OM1 with AAATPAPG on M1 associated with hIL-11R strongly. These results indicate N-terminal and M1 variants will be expected for practical use as potent agonists or antagonists of hIL-11.

  14. Enhancing E. coli tolerance towards oxidative stress via engineering its global regulator cAMP receptor protein (CRP).

    PubMed

    Basak, Souvik; Jiang, Rongrong

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative damage to microbial hosts often occurs under stressful conditions during bioprocessing. Classical strain engineering approaches are usually both time-consuming and labor intensive. Here, we aim to improve E. coli performance under oxidative stress via engineering its global regulator cAMP receptor protein (CRP), which can directly or indirectly regulate redox-sensing regulators SoxR and OxyR, and other ~400 genes in E. coli. Error-prone PCR technique was employed to introduce modifications to CRP, and three mutants (OM1~OM3) were identified with improved tolerance via H(2)O(2) enrichment selection. The best mutant OM3 could grow in 12 mM H(2)O(2) with the growth rate of 0.6 h(-1), whereas the growth of wild type was completely inhibited at this H(2)O(2) concentration. OM3 also elicited enhanced thermotolerance at 48°C as well as resistance against cumene hydroperoxide. The investigation about intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), which determines cell viability, indicated that the accumulation of ROS in OM3 was always lower than in WT with or without H(2)O(2) treatment. Genome-wide DNA microarray analysis has shown not only CRP-regulated genes have demonstrated great transcriptional level changes (up to 8.9-fold), but also RpoS- and OxyR-regulated genes (up to 7.7-fold). qRT-PCR data and enzyme activity assay suggested that catalase (katE) could be a major antioxidant enzyme in OM3 instead of alkyl hydroperoxide reductase or superoxide dismutase. To our knowledge, this is the first work on improving E. coli oxidative stress resistance by reframing its transcription machinery through its native global regulator. The positive outcome of this approach may suggest that engineering CRP can be successfully implemented as an efficient strain engineering alternative for E. coli.

  15. Restructuring and redistribution of actinides in Am-MOX fuel during the first 24 h of irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Kosuke; Miwa, Shuhei; Sekine, Shin-ichi; Yoshimochi, Hiroshi; Obayashi, Hiroshi; Koyama, Shin-ichi

    2013-09-01

    In order to confirm the effect of minor actinide additions on the irradiation behavior of MOX fuel pellets, 3 wt.% and 5 wt.% americium-containing MOX (Am-MOX) fuels were irradiated for 10 min at 43 kW/m and for 24 h at 45 kW/m in the experimental fast reactor Joyo. Two nominal values of the fuel pellet oxygen-to-metal ratio (O/M), 1.95 and 1.98, were used as a test parameter. Emphasis was placed on the behavior of restructuring and redistribution of actinides which directly affect the fuel performance and the fuel design for fast reactors. Microstructural evolutions in the fuels were observed by optical microscopy and the redistribution of constituent elements was determined by EPMA using false color X-ray mapping and quantitative point analyses. The ceramography results showed that structural changes occurred quickly in the initial stage of irradiation. Restructuring of the fuel from middle to upper axial positions developed and was almost completed after the 24-h irradiation. No sign of fuel melting was found in any of the specimens. The EPMA results revealed that Am as well as Pu migrated radially up the temperature gradient to the center of the fuel pellet. The increase in Am concentration on approaching the edge of the central void and its maximum value were higher than those of Pu after the 10-min irradiation and the difference was more pronounced after the 24-h irradiation. The increment of the Am and Pu concentrations due to redistribution increased with increasing central void size. In all of the specimens examined, the extent of redistribution of Am and Pu was higher in the fuel of O/M ratio of 1.98 than in that of 1.95.

  16. Exploration of OMI Products for Air Quality Applications Through Comparisons with Models and Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickering, K. E.; Ziemke, J.; Bucsela, E.; Gleason, J.; Marufu, L.; Dickerson, R.; Mathur, R.; Davidson, P.; Duncan, B.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2006-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on board NASA s Aura satellite was launched in July 2004, and is now providing daily global observations of total column ozone, NO2, and SO2, as well as aerosol information. Algorithms have also been developed to produce daily tropospheric ozone and NO2 products. The tropospheric ozone product reported here is a tropospheric residual computed through use of Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) ozone profile data to quantify stratospheric ozone. We are investigating the applicability of OMI products for use in air quality modeling, forecasting, and analysis. These investigations include comparison of the OMI tropospheric O3 and NO2 products with global and regional models and with lower tropospheric aircraft observations. Large-scale transport of pollution seen in the OM1 tropospheric O3 data is compared with output from NASA's Global Modeling Initiative global chemistry and transport model. On the regional scale we compare the OMI tropospheric O3 and NO2 with fields from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and Environmental Protection Agency (NOAA/EPA) operational Eta/CMAQ air quality forecasting model over the eastern United States. This 12-km horizontal resolution model output is roughly of equivalent resolution to the OMI pixel data. Correlation analysis between lower tropospheric aircraft O3 profile data taken by the University of Maryland over the Mid-Atlantic States and OMI tropospheric column mean volume mixing ratio for O3 will be presented. These aircraft data are representative of the lowest 3 kilometers of the atmosphere, the region in which much of the locally-generated and regionally-transported ozone exists.

  17. Double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial on intravenous L-alanyl-L-glutamine in the incidence of oral mucositis following chemoradiotherapy in patients with head-and-neck cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Cerchietti, Leandro C.A. . E-mail: lcerchietti@gmail.com; Navigante, Alfredo H.; Lutteral, Maribel A.; Castro, Monica A.; Kirchuk, Ricardo; Bonomi, Marcelo; Cabalar, Maria Esther; Roth, Berta; Negretti, Graciela; Sheinker, Beatriz; Uchima, Patricia

    2006-08-01

    Purpose: We performed this double-blinded, placebo-controlled study to determine the safety and efficacy of L-alanyl-L-glutamine in the prevention of mucositis in patients with head-and-neck cancer. Methods and Materials: Thirty-two patients with head-and-neck cancer were treated with chemoradiotherapy (CRT) (radiotherapy daily up to 70 Gy plus cisplatin/5-fluoruracil once a week) and were asked to participate. Twenty-nine patients received the CRT schedule and were double-blindly assigned to receive either intravenous L-alanyl-L-glutamine 0.4 g/kg weight/day or an equal volume of saline (placebo) during chemotherapy days. Results: Fourteen patients received L-alanyl-L-glutamine and 15 received placebo. Mucositis was assessed by the Objective Mucositis Score (OMS) and the World Health Organization (WHO) grading system. There was a significant difference in incidence of mucositis developed in patients receiving placebo compared with those who received L-alanyl-L-glutamine (p = 0.035). The number of patients with severe objective mucositis (OMS >1.49) was higher in the placebo group compared with the L-alanyl-L-glutamine group (67% vs. 14%, p 0.007). L-alanyl-L-glutamine patients experienced less pain (three highest Numeric Rating Scale scores of 1.3/10 vs. 6.3/10 respectively, p = 0.008) and need for feeding tubes (14% vs. 60% respectively, p = 0.020) compared with placebo patients. No adverse effects related to the drug or the infusions were noted in either group. Conclusion: For patients with head-and-neck cancer receiving CRT, intravenous L-alanyl-L-glutamine may be an effective preventive measure to decrease the severity of mucositis.

  18. [Probiotics: from the lab to the consumer].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, J M

    2015-02-07

    Introducción: En los últimos años, el campo de los probióticos ha experimentado un gran auge. Sin embargo, de los miles de cepas aisladas cada año por su potencial probiótico en los laboratorios de todo el mundo, muy pocas pasan a una fase de desarrollo industrial y menos aún son las que consiguen una vida comercial. Objetivo: En este artículo, se revisan los principales aspectos que se deben tener en cuenta en el, habitualmente, largo y tortuoso camino que debe seguir una cepa desde su aislamiento inicial hasta su comercialización. Resultados y conclusiones: Cualquier microorganismo probiótico debe estar correctamente identificado a nivel de especie y cepa. La secuencia del genoma es la mejor identificación posible, además de proporcionar información muy valiosa sobre su seguridad, funcionalidad y propiedades de interés tecnológico. Los casos en los que se ha podido establecer una relación entre un probiótico y un efecto adverso son muy escasos y han afectado a personas con patologías subyacentes. Globalmente, aunque las distintas pruebas in vitro, ex vivo y en modelos animales proporcionan información útil durante el proceso de selección de cepas, los únicos datos que permiten evaluar la seguridad y eficacia de un probiótico de una forma directa son los que se obtienen en el curso de ensayos clínicos correctamente diseñados y dirigidos específicamente a la población diana. Por otra parte, las empresas que comercializan probióticos tienen la necesidad de obtener una biomasa muy elevada de forma económicamente rentable y de que la concentración de bacterias viables necesaria para ejercer el efecto beneficioso se mantenga hasta el final de la vida útil del producto. Finalmente, los aspectos comerciales son determinantes en la decisión de afrontar el desarrollo industrial y la puesta en el mercado de un probiótico.

  19. Interactions of grass spontaneous cover in olive orchards with site conditions and management: a study case using biodiversity indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arroyo, Carmen; Taguas, Encarnación; Lora, Ángel; Guzmán, Gema; Vanderlinden, Karl; Gómez, Jose A.

    2014-05-01

    Spontaneous herbaceous plants are an inexpensive control measure of soil erosion in olive orchards. Grass covers on steep areas are a requirement for compliance by farmers with basic standards concerning the environment, derived from Common Agricultural Policy (cross-compliances). In addition to ground cover, other aspects such as biodiversity and OC storage capacity of these systems are often not considered, despite the fact that the occupation of many ecological niches by different species might provide substantial environmental and landscape benefits. In this study, we evaluated different biodiversity indices on grass cover in two olive orchard catchments with different managements (conventional tillage and non-tillage with natural herbaceous plants) during 3 years (2011-2013). Seasonal samples of vegetal material and pictures in a permanent grid (4 samples/ha) were taken to characterize the temporal variations of the indicators: number of species, frequency, diversity and transformed Shanon's and Pielou's indices. The specific objectives of this work were: i) to describe and to compare the biodiversity indices in two contrasting olive orchard catchments of 6 and 9 ha with different soil types, precipitation, topography and management; ii) to explore possible relationships of these indexes with soil organic carbon content and soil loss. The results will allow improving our knowledge of environmental functions of this type of ground cover as well as factors determining its development. These features can be particularly interesting to enhance the environmental values of marginal olive orchards in steep locations. REFERENCES Aguilera L. 2012.Estudio de cubiertas vegetales para el control de la erosión en olivar Evolución espacio-temporal en dos fincas comerciales, y exploración de nuevas opciones de cubiertas. Master Thesis. University of Cordoba (Spain) Gimeno E. 2011. Análisis de la variabilidad de la cobertura vegetal en tres pequeñas cuencas de olivar

  20. Factors affecting the catalytic oligomerization of methane via microwave heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conde, Luis Daniel

    Catalytic microwave heating has been used as a method for the oligomerization of methane to higher hydrocarbons. Many catalysts were tested in this reaction. Nickel powder, raney nickel, iron powder and activated carbon were the most active and efficient catalysts for the production of higher hydrocarbons. When helium was used as a diluent gas and the applied power was optimized, the selectivities were controlled to the most desired products. In general, the most abundant products for all the experiments were C2s. Iron powder was active only at high power (1130 W). At these conditions acetylene was avoided and ethylene and ethane were produced in the same proportion. Activated carbon catalysts with helium as diluent led to a selectivity towards benzene up to 33%. Some manganese oxides such as OMS-1, OMS-2 and MnO2 (dielectric constant, epsilon ≈ 104) were not active in these reactions. These data suggest that the dielectric constant is not the most important factor in the oligomerization of methane via microwave heating. Conversion and activities of these materials are not proportionally related to the surface area of the catalysts. Higher catalytic activity was observed for Raney nickel than for regular nickel powder. The maximum conversion obtained was 24% at 400 W and 10 min of irradiation time. For regular nickel powder that conversion can be achieved only after 700 W of power and more than 20 min of reaction. BET surface area, Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, and Temperature-Programmed Desorption and Reduction analysis were performed to characterize the catalyst before and after reaction. Deactivation of Raney nickel by fouling and sintering was observed after 500 W and/or 15 min of reaction. The effect of microwave radiation frequency on activity and product distribution for methane oligomerization has been studied. Nickel, iron, and activated carbon catalysts were used in these studies. Experiments were done with pure methane

  1. Distribution and speciation of ambient selenium in contrasted soils, from mineral to organic rich.

    PubMed

    Tolu, Julie; Thiry, Yves; Bueno, Maïté; Jolivet, Claudy; Potin-Gautier, Martine; Le Hécho, Isabelle

    2014-05-01

    Selenium adsorption onto oxy-hydroxides mainly controls its mobility in volcanic soils, red earths and soils poor in organic matter (OM) while the influence of OM was emphasized in podzol and peat soils. This work aims at deciphering how those solid phases influence ambient Se mobility and speciation under less contrasted conditions in 26 soils spanning extensive ranges of OM (1-32%), Fe/Al oxy-hydroxides (0.3-6.1%) contents and pH (4.0-8.3). The soil collection included agriculture, meadow and forest soils to assess the influence of OM quality as well. Trace concentrations of six ambient Se species (Se(IV), Se(VI) and 4 organo-Se compounds) were analyzed by HPLC-ICP-MS in three extractants (ultrapure water, phosphate and sodium hydroxide) targeting Se associated to different soil phases. The Kd values determined from ultrapure water extraction were higher than those reported in commonly used short-term experiments after Se-spiking. Correlations of ambient Se content and distribution with soil parameters explained this difference by an involvement of slow processes in Se retention in soils. The 26 Kd values determined here for a wide variety of soils thus represent a relevant database for long-term prediction of Se mobility. For soils containing less than 20% OM, ambient Se solubility is primarily controlled by its adsorption onto crystalline oxy-hydroxides. However, OM plays an important role in Se mobility by forming organo-mineral associations that may protect adsorbed Se from leaching and/or create anoxic zones (aggregates) where Se is immobilized after its reduction. Although for the first time, inorganic Se(IV), Se(VI) and organo-Se compounds were simultaneously investigated in a large soil collection, high Se proportions remain unidentified in each soil extract, most probably due to Se incorporation and/or binding to colloidal-sized OM. Variations of environmental factors regulating the extent of OM-mineral associations/aggregation may thus lead to changes

  2. An Update on the CDDIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noll, Carey; Michael, Patrick; Dube, Maurice P.; Pollack, N.

    2012-01-01

    The Crustal Dynamics Data Inforn1ation System (CoorS) supports data archiving and distribution activities for the space geodesy and geodynamics community. The main objectives of the system are to store space geodesy and geodynamics related data products in a central data bank, to maintain infom1ation about the archival of these data, and to disseminate these data and information in a timely mam1er to a global scientific research community. The archive consists of GNSS, laser ranging, VLBI, and OORIS data sets and products derived from these data. The coors is one of NASA's Earth Observing System Oata and Infom1ation System (EOSorS) distributed data centers; EOSOIS data centers serve a diverse user community and are tasked to provide facilities to search and access science data and products. The coors data system and its archive have become increasingly important to many national and international science communities, in pal1icular several of the operational services within the International Association of Geodesy (lAG) and its project the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS), including the International OORIS Service (IDS), the International GNSS Service (IGS), the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS), the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS), and the International Earth Rotation Service (IERS). The coors has recently expanded its archive to supp011 the IGS Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX). The archive now contains daily and hourly 3D-second and subhourly I-second data from an additional 35+ stations in RINEX V3 fOm1at. The coors will soon install an Ntrip broadcast relay to support the activities of the IGS Real-Time Pilot Project (RTPP) and the future Real-Time IGS Service. The coors has also developed a new web-based application to aid users in data discovery, both within the current community and beyond. To enable this data discovery application, the CDDIS is currently implementing modifications to the metadata extracted from

  3. Statistical Considerations of Data Processing in Giovanni Online Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suhung, Shen; Leptoukh, G.; Acker, J.; Berrick, S.

    2005-01-01

    The GES DISC Interactive Online Visualization and Analysis Infrastructure (Giovanni) is a web-based interface for the rapid visualization and analysis of gridded data from a number of remote sensing instruments. The GES DISC currently employs several Giovanni instances to analyze various products, such as Ocean-Giovanni for ocean products from SeaWiFS and MODIS-Aqua; TOMS & OM1 Giovanni for atmospheric chemical trace gases from TOMS and OMI, and MOVAS for aerosols from MODIS, etc. (http://giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov) Foremost among the Giovanni statistical functions is data averaging. Two aspects of this function are addressed here. The first deals with the accuracy of averaging gridded mapped products vs. averaging from the ungridded Level 2 data. Some mapped products contain mean values only; others contain additional statistics, such as number of pixels (NP) for each grid, standard deviation, etc. Since NP varies spatially and temporally, averaging with or without weighting by NP will be different. In this paper, we address differences of various weighting algorithms for some datasets utilized in Giovanni. The second aspect is related to different averaging methods affecting data quality and interpretation for data with non-normal distribution. The present study demonstrates results of different spatial averaging methods using gridded SeaWiFS Level 3 mapped monthly chlorophyll a data. Spatial averages were calculated using three different methods: arithmetic mean (AVG), geometric mean (GEO), and maximum likelihood estimator (MLE). Biogeochemical data, such as chlorophyll a, are usually considered to have a log-normal distribution. The study determined that differences between methods tend to increase with increasing size of a selected coastal area, with no significant differences in most open oceans. The GEO method consistently produces values lower than AVG and MLE. The AVG method produces values larger than MLE in some cases, but smaller in other cases. Further

  4. Breast Cancer 1 (BrCa1) May Be behind Decreased Lipogenesis in Adipose Tissue from Obese Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Francisco J.; Moreno-Navarrete, José M.; Mayas, Dolores; García-Santos, Eva; Gómez-Serrano, María; Rodriguez-Hermosa, José I.; Ruiz, Bartomeu; Ricart, Wifredo; Tinahones, Francisco J.; Frühbeck, Gema; Peral, Belen; Fernández-Real, José M.

    2012-01-01

    Context Expression and activity of the main lipogenic enzymes is paradoxically decreased in obesity, but the mechanisms behind these findings are poorly known. Breast Cancer 1 (BrCa1) interacts with acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) reducing the rate of fatty acid biosynthesis. In this study, we aimed to evaluate BrCa1 in human adipose tissue according to obesity and insulin resistance, and in vitro cultured adipocytes. Research Design and Methods BrCa1 gene expression, total and phosphorylated (P-) BrCa1, and ACC were analyzed in adipose tissue samples obtained from a total sample of 133 subjects. BrCa1 expression was also evaluated during in vitro differentiation of human adipocytes and 3T3-L1 cells. Results BrCa1 gene expression was significantly up-regulated in both omental (OM; 1.36-fold, p = 0.002) and subcutaneous (SC; 1.49-fold, p = 0.001) adipose tissue from obese subjects. In parallel with increased BrCa1 mRNA, P-ACC was also up-regulated in SC (p = 0.007) as well as in OM (p = 0.010) fat from obese subjects. Consistent with its role limiting fatty acid biosynthesis, both BrCa1 mRNA (3.5-fold, p<0.0001) and protein (1.2-fold, p = 0.001) were increased in pre-adipocytes, and decreased during in vitro adipogenesis, while P-ACC decreased during differentiation of human adipocytes (p = 0.005) allowing lipid biosynthesis. Interestingly, BrCa1 gene expression in mature adipocytes was restored by inflammatory stimuli (macrophage conditioned medium), whereas lipogenic genes significantly decreased. Conclusions The specular findings of BrCa1 and lipogenic enzymes in adipose tissue and adipocytes reported here suggest that BrCa1 might help to control fatty acid biosynthesis in adipocytes and adipose tissue from obese subjects. PMID:22666314

  5. Analysis of climate variability under various scenarios for future urban growth in Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Jeong, J.; Kim, Y.

    2011-12-01

    It is important to adjust urban growth data closer to reality in the regional climate model because urban changes give effects to physical properties such as albedo, moisture availability and roughness length in the atmosphere. Future urban growth, however, has not been considered widely in the prediction model for future climate change. In this study, we used the urban growth model called SLEUTH (Slope, Land-use, Excluded, Urban, Transportation, Hill-shade) based on cellular automata (CA) technique to predict the future urban growth. The target area is Seoul Metropolitan area (SMA) where the urban area explosively has expanded the most in the Korean peninsula due to the continuous industrialization since 1970s. The SLEUTH model was calibrated to know the pattern of the urban growth in SMA with historical data for 35 years (1975-2000) provided from Water Management Information System (WAMIS) in Korea and then the future urban growth was projected out to 2050 assuming three different scenarios: (1) current trends scenario (Scenario 1; SC1), (2) regional policy and urban planning scenario (Scenario 2; SC2), (3) ecologically protection scenario (Scenario 3; SC3). As a result, the urban ratios by scenarios were increased 12.87, 11.17 and 6.26 percentages of the total area for 50 years respectively. These predictions of SLEUTH model used as the boundary condition data and the 6 hourly data of ECHAM5/OM-1 A1B scenarios generated by Max-Plank Institute for Meteorology in Hamburg, Germany used as the initial condition data in Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. We designed four different numerical experiments in accordance with the four scenarios for the urban growth (SC1, SC2, SC3 and Current condition) and carried out for 5 years (2046-2050). Overall, the increment of urban ratio under various urban growth scenarios in SMA caused the spatial distributions of temperature to change, the average temperature to increase and the average wind speed to decrease in the

  6. Hijacking of the O-GlcNAcZYME complex by the HTLV-1 Tax oncoprotein facilitates viral transcription.

    PubMed

    Groussaud, Damien; Khair, Mostafa; Tollenaere, Armelle I; Waast, Laetitia; Kuo, Mei-Shiue; Mangeney, Marianne; Martella, Christophe; Fardini, Yann; Coste, Solène; Souidi, Mouloud; Benit, Laurence; Pique, Claudine; Issad, Tarik

    2017-07-01

    The viral Tax oncoprotein plays a key role in both Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-replication and HTLV-1-associated pathologies, notably adult T-cell leukemia. Tax governs the transcription from the viral 5'LTR, enhancing thereby its own expression, via the recruitment of dimers of phosphorylated CREB to cAMP-response elements located within the U3 region (vCRE). In addition to phosphorylation, CREB is also the target of O-GlcNAcylation, another reversible post-translational modification involved in a wide range of diseases, including cancers. O-GlcNAcylation consists in the addition of O-linked-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) on Serine or Threonine residues, a process controlled by two enzymes: O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT), which transfers O-GlcNAc on proteins, and O-GlcNAcase (OGA), which removes it. In this study, we investigated the status of O-GlcNAcylation enzymes in HTLV-1-transformed T cells. We found that OGA mRNA and protein expression levels are increased in HTLV-1-transformed T cells as compared to control T cell lines while OGT expression is unchanged. However, higher OGA production coincides with a reduction in OGA specific activity, showing that HTLV-1-transformed T cells produce high level of a less active form of OGA. Introducing Tax into HEK-293T cells or Tax-negative HTLV-1-transformed TL-om1 T cells is sufficient to inhibit OGA activity and increase total O-GlcNAcylation, without any change in OGT activity. Furthermore, Tax interacts with the OGT/OGA complex and inhibits the activity of OGT-bound OGA. Pharmacological inhibition of OGA increases CREB O-GlcNAcylation as well as HTLV-1-LTR transactivation by Tax and CREB recruitment to the LTR. Moreover, overexpression of wild-type CREB but not a CREB protein mutated on a previously described O-GlcNAcylation site enhances Tax-mediated LTR transactivation. Finally, both OGT and OGA are recruited to the LTR. These findings reveal the interplay between Tax and the O-GlcNAcylation pathway

  7. Sink populations in carnivore management: cougar demography and immigration in a hunted population.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Hugh S; Wielgus, Robert B; Cooley, Hilary S; Cooley, Skye W

    2008-06-01

    Carnivores are widely hunted for both sport and population control, especially where they conflict with human interests. It is widely believed that sport hunting is effective in reducing carnivore populations and related human-carnivore conflicts, while maintaining viable populations. However, the way in which carnivore populations respond to harvest can vary greatly depending on their social structure, reproductive strategies, and dispersal patterns. For example, hunted cougar (Puma concolor) populations have shown a great degree of resiliency. Although hunting cougars on a broad geographic scale (> 2000 km2) has reduced densities, hunting of smaller areas (i.e., game management units, < 1000 km2), could conceivably fail because of increased immigration from adjacent source areas. We monitored a heavily hunted population from 2001 to 2006 to test for the effects of hunting at a small scale (< 1000 km2) and to gauge whether population control was achieved (lambda < or = 1.0) or if hunting losses were negated by increased immigration allowing the population to remain stable or increase (lambda > or = 1.0). The observed growth rate of 1.00 was significantly higher than our predicted survival/fecundity growth rates (using a Leslie matrix) of 0.89 (deterministic) and 0.84 (stochastic), with the difference representing an 11-16% annual immigration rate. We observed no decline in density of the total population or the adult population, but a significant decrease in the average age of independent males. We found that the male component of the population was increasing (observed male population growth rate, lambda(OM) = 1.09), masking a decrease in the female component (lambda(OF) = 0.91). Our data support the compensatory immigration sink hypothesis; cougar removal in small game management areas (< 1000 km2) increased immigration and recruitment of younger animals from adjacent areas, resulting in little or no reduction in local cougar densities and a shift in population

  8. Nutritive value of cold-pressed camelina cake with or without supplementation of multi-enzyme in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Woyengo, T A; Patterson, R; Slominski, B A; Beltranena, E; Zijlstra, R T

    2016-10-01

    The objectives were to determine the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) and AMEn value of cold-pressed camelina cake (CPCC) and the effect of adding multi-enzyme to a corn-CPCC diet for broilers. The 600 male broiler chicks were divided into 40 groups and fed 5 diets in a completely randomized design (8 groups per diet) from d 15 to d 21 of age. A corn basal diet and the basal diet with 30% of it replaced by CPCC were used in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with or without multi-enzyme (2,800 U of cellulase, 1,800 U of pectinase, 400 U of mannanase, 50 U of galactanase, 1,000 U of xylanase, 600 U of glucanase, 2,500 U of amylase, and 200 U of protease/kilogram of diet; Superzyme OM, 1 g/kg). The fifth diet was N-free. The corn basal diet was fed to determine nutrient digestibility and retention for CPCC by substitution. The N-free diet was fed to estimate basal endogenous AA losses for determining SID of AA. Diets contained TiO2 as indigestible marker. On a DM basis, CPCC contained 39.8% CP, 38.3% neutral detergent fiber, 12.7% ether extract, 1.89% Lys, 0.70% Met, 1.56% Thr, and 0.45% Trp. The SID of Lys, Met, Thr, and Trp for CPCC were 76.5, 85.5, 72.8, and 84.1%, respectively. The AMEn value for CPCC was 1,671 kcal/kg of DM. Multi-enzyme supplementation increased (P < 0.05) the SID of Met and Thr and the AMEn value of the corn-CPCC-based diet by 1.4, 1.3, and 3.0%, respectively. The multi-enzyme increased (P = 0.026) the AMEn value of CPCC from 1,671 to 1,941 kcal/kg of DM. In conclusion, the CPCC evaluated in the present study can be included in poultry diets as a source of energy and AA. Multi-enzyme supplementation increased the AMEn value of CPCC for broilers.

  9. Organic sedimentation in modern lacustrine systems: A case study from Lake Malawi, East Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Barry J. Katz,; Christopher A. Scholz,; Peter K. Swart,

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between depositional environment and sedimentary organic geochemistry in Lake Malawi, East Africa, and evaluates the relative significance of the various processes that control sedimentary organic matter (OM) in lacustrine systems. Total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations in recent sediments from Lake Malawi range from 0.01 to 8.80 wt% and average 2.83 wt% for surface sediments and 2.35 wt% for shallow core sediments. Hydrogen index (HI) values as determined by Rock-Eval pyrolysis range from 0 to 756 mg HC g−1 TOC and average 205 mg HC g−1 TOC for surface sediments and 228 mg HC g−1 TOC for shallow core samples. On average, variations in primary productivity throughout the lake may account for ~33% of the TOC content in Lake Malawi sediments (as much as 1 wt% TOC), and have little or no impact on sedimentary HI values. Similarly, ~33% to 66% of the variation in TOC content in Lake Malawi sediments appears to be controlled by anoxic preservation of OM (~1–2 wt% TOC), although some component of the water depth–TOC relationship may be due to physical sediment transport processes. Furthermore, anoxic preservation has a minimal effect on HI values in Lake Malawi sediments. Dilution of OM by inorganic sediment may account for ~16% of variability in TOC content in Lake Malawi sediments (~0.5 wt% TOC). The effect of inputs of terrestrial sediment on the organic character of surface sediments in these lakes is highly variable, and appears to be more closely related to the local depositional environment than the regional flux of terrestrial OM. Total nitrogen and TOC content in surface sediments collected throughout the lake are found to be highly correlated (r2 = 0.95), indicating a well-homogenized source of OM to the lake bottom. The recurring suspension and deposition of terrestrial sediment may account for significant amounts of OM deposited in offshore regions of the lake. This process effectively separates denser

  10. The molecular characteristics of pyrogenic organic materials and their aqueous leachates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wozniak, A. S.; Hatcher, P.; Mitra, S.; Bostick, K. W.; Zimmerman, A. R.

    2016-12-01

    Pyrogenic organic matter (Py-OM), or black carbon, is known to impact soil chemistry, pollutant transport, regional and global carbon cycling, and climate. Py-OM is incorporated into soils via atmospheric deposition (e.g., from biomass, fossil fuel combustion) or direct applications by humans (e.g., biochars applied for agricultural production). Due to its presumed refractory and immobile nature, soil Py-OM is thought to be efficiently buried, sequestering atmospheric CO2. However, tracers of dissolved Py-OM (Py-DOM) have been detected in appreciable quantities in riverine, estuarine, and oceanic waters suggesting that Py-OM is more mobile in the environment than expected. The molecular characteristics of Py-OM are likely to be a controlling factor in the quantities and impacts of Py-DOM released to aqueous systems. Yet, little is known about the detailed molecular composition of these materials, let alone how those molecular characteristics vary with combustion conditions or are altered by environmental processes. Here, we examine oak and grass Py-OM (combusted over a range of temperatures), natural Py-OM (chars aged in the environment for variable lengths of time), and their Py-DOM leachates via nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS). Multi-CP 13C NMR analyses of Py-OM materials and 1H NMR analyses of corresponding Py-DOM leachates reveal that Py-OM combustion temperature, environmental exposure, and molecular characteristics are reflected in Py-DOM quantities and characteristics. The relative amounts of aromatic C in Py-OM 1) decreases with environmental exposure, the relative oxygen-content in both Py-OM and Py-DOM, and the amount of Py-DOC released per g of Py-OC but 2) is positively correlated with combustion temperature and the relative contributions of acetate and aliphatic hydrogens (CH2) in Py-DOM. Preliminary FTICR-MS analyses show Py-DOM produced from oak at 400 °C to

  11. Survival and reproduction of enchytraeid worms, Oligochaeta, in different soil types amended with energetic cyclic nitramines.

    PubMed

    Dodard, Sabine G; Sunahara, Geoffrey I; Kuperman, Roman G; Sarrazin, Manon; Gong, Ping; Ampleman, Guy; Thiboutot, Sonia; Hawari, Jalal

    2005-10-01

    Hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20), a new polycyclic polynitramine, has the same functional nitramine groups (N-NO2) as the widely used energetic chemicals hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (royal demolition explosive [RDX]) and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (high-melting explosive [HMX]). Potential impacts of CL-20 as an emerging contaminant must be assessed before its use. The effects of CL-20, RDX, or HMX on adult survival and juvenile production by potworms Enchytraeus albidus and Enchytraeus crypticus were studied in three soil types, including Sassafras sandy loam (1.2% organic matter [OM], 11% clay, pH 5.5), an agricultural soil (42% OM, 1% clay, pH 8.2), and a composite agricultural-forest soil (23% OM, 2% clay, pH 7.9) by using ISO method 16387 (International Standard Organization, Geneva, Switzerland). Results showed that CL-20 was toxic to E. crypticus with median lethal concentration values for adult survival ranging from 0.1 to 0.7 mg/kg dry mass (DM) when using the three tested soils. In addition, CL-20 adversely affected juvenile production by both species in all soils tested, with median effective concentration (EC50) values ranging from 0.08 to 0.62 mg/kg DM. Enchytraeus crypticus and E. albidus were similarly sensitive to CL-20 exposure in the composite agricultural-forest soil, which supported reproduction by both species and enabled comparisons. Correlation analysis showed weak or no relationship overall among the soil properties and reproduction toxicity endpoints. Neither RDX nor HMX affected (p > 0.05) adult survival of either species below 658 and 918 mg/kg DM, respectively, indicating that CL-20 is more toxic to enchytraeids than RDX or HMX. Examination of data shows that CL-20 should be considered as a potential reproductive toxicant to soil invertebrates, and that safeguards should be considered to minimize the potential for release of CL-20 into the environment.

  12. Characterizing the Nature and Distribution of Phytolith Organic Matter Using Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, K. L.; Alfonso-Garcia, A.; Sanchez, J.; Harutyunyan, A.; Santos, G.; Potma, E.

    2014-12-01

    Many plants, including grasses and some important human food sources, accumulate and precipitate silica in their cells to form opaline phytoliths. These phytoliths contain small amounts of organic matter (OM) that is trapped during the process of silicification and protected from oxidation. If this OM is derived solely from photosynthesis during the life of the plant, it should preserve an isotopic signature of the atmosphere and the type of photosynthetic pathway [1]. However, radiocarbon dating of this OM gives an older age than expected [2], and studies on modern plants indicate a soil contribution to phytolith OM [3,4]. Thus, a better understanding of the role of phytolith OM and the silica precipitation mechanism is needed. Previous work has suggested that plant silica is associated with compounds such as proteins, lipids, lignin and phenol-carbohydrate complexes [5-7]. It is not known whether these compounds are cellular components passively encapsulated as the cell silicified, polymers actively involved in the precipitation process or random compounds assimilated by the plant and discarded into a "glass wastebasket". Here, we used Raman spectroscopy to map individual phytoliths isolated from Sorghum bicolor plants. We showed that OM in phytoliths is heterogeneously distributed and not related to optical features (i.e. dark spots or holes visible in light microscopy) commonly thought to be the repository for phytolith OM (corroborated by nanoSIMS [8]). The Raman spectra showed peaks at 2970-2960, 2945, and 2906 cm-1, indicative of C-H stretching modes, and further peaks at 1600, 1440, 1410, and 1350 cm-1 consistent with lignins and other OM. These peaks exhibited variability of relative intensities both within and between phytoliths. We will discuss these findings in the context of silica biomineralization in plants, mechanistic implications, and isotopic paleo-reconstructions using phytolith OM. 1. Jones, R.L. and A. Beavers, Soil Sci., 1963. 96(6): 375. 2

  13. Biogenic and biomass burning organic aerosol in a boreal forest at Hyytiälä, Finland, during HUMPPA-COPEC 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrigan, A. L.; Russell, L. M.; Takahama, S.; Äijälä, M.; Ehn, M.; Junninen, H.; Rinne, J.; Petäjä, T.; Kulmala, M.; Vogel, A. L.; Hoffmann, T.; Ebben, C. J.; Geiger, F. M.; Chhabra, P.; Seinfeld, J. H.; Worsnop, D. R.; Song, W.; Auld, J.; Williams, J.

    2013-12-01

    summertime biogenic OM is 1.5 to 3 times larger than springtime biogenic OM (0.64 μg m-3 and 0.4 μg m-3, measured in 2005 and 2007, respectively), even though it contributed only 35% of OM. The biomass burning factor contributed 25% of OM on average and up to 62% of OM during three periods of transported biomass burning emissions: 26-28 July, 29-30 July, and 8-9 August, with OFG consisting mostly of carbonyl (41%) and alcohol (25%) groups. The high summertime terrestrial biogenic OM (1.7 μg m-3) and the high biomass burning contributions (1.2 μg m-3) were likely due to the abnormally high temperatures that resulted in both stressed boreal forest conditions with high regional BVOC emissions and numerous wildfires in upwind regions.

  14. Biogenic and biomass burning organic aerosol in a boreal forest at Hyytiälä, Finland, during HUMPPA-COPEC 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrigan, A. L.; Russell, L. M.; Takahama, S.; Äijälä, M.; Ehn, M.; Junninen, H.; Rinne, J.; Petäjä, T.; Kulmala, M.; Vogel, A. L.; Hoffmann, T.; Ebben, C. J.; Geiger, F. M.; Chhabra, P.; Seinfeld, J. H.; Worsnop, D. R.; Song, W.; Auld, J.; Williams, J.

    2013-06-01

    OM is 1.5 to 3 times larger than springtime biogenic OM (0.64 μg m-3 and 0.4 μg m-3, measured in 2005 and 2007, respectively), even though it contributed only 35% of OM. The biomass burning factor contributed 25% OM on average and up to 62% OM during three periods of transported biomass burning emissions: 26-28 July, 29-30 July, and 8-9 August, with OFG consisting mostly of carbonyl (41%) and alcohol (25%) groups. The high summertime terrestrial biogenic OM (1.7 μg m-3) and the high biomass burning contributions (1.2 μg m-3) were likely due to the abnormally high temperatures that resulted in both stressed boreal forest conditions with high regional BVOC emissions and numerous wildfires in upwind regions.

  15. Skirt followed by trouser stenting technique: True anatomical preservation of coronary Y-shaped bifurcation lesions while using "vanishing" bioresorbable scaffolds: A report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Elabbassi, Wael; Al Nooryani, Arif

    2016-11-03

    We report on two cases in which Y-shaped coronary bifurcations were treated with the use of Bioresorbable scaffolds. The first case was of a 50-year-old man with NSTEMI. Coronary angiography showed stenosis involving a Y-shaped bifurcation of proximal to mid LAD and diagonal. The lesion was wired using two 0.14 BMW guide wires, followed by serial pre-dilatation of LAD and Diagonal branch. The stent into proximal LAD was deployed first as a skirt (3.5 × 12 BVS). Stent was post-dilated. A second 2.5 × 28 BVS was deployed into diagonal branch, protruding backwards; along with a 2.0 × 15 SC balloon continuing into the mid LAD. Both balloons where pulled back proximally and re-inflated. The technique was repeated in reversed order for stenting the mid LAD using the third BVS (3.0 × 18 BVS). Finally two NC balloons where used to post-dilate both legs of the newly-formed trouser. The result was checked by OCT. The second case was that of a 62-year-old man with chest pain and NSTEMI. He had a history of previous PCI to LCx using bare metal stent. Coronary angiogram showed severe in-stent restenosis in mid LCX, extending into two large obtuse marginal branches. After wiring both OMs, serial pre-dilatation was done with two NC 2.5 × 20 balloons, followed by initial stenting of mid LCx inside old stent, as the proximal segment of bifurcation, using a 3.5 × 12 BVS, followed by implanting a 2.5 × 28 BVS into OM2 and 2.5 × 18 into OM1. At 6 months a clinical follow up via telephone contact revealed no recurrence of chest pain in both cases and no further intervention required.

  16. [Effects of long-term fertilization on soil particulate organic carbon and nitrogen in a wheat-maize cropping system].

    PubMed

    Gong, Wei; Yan, Xiao-yuan; Cai, Zu-cong; Wang, Jing-yan; Hu, Ting-xing; Gong, Yuan-bo; Ran, Hua

    2008-11-01

    0-20 cm soil samples were collected from an 18-year wheat-maize rotation field on the North China Plain to study the effects of long-term fertilization on the contents and storages of soil particulate organic carbon (POC), particulate organic nitrogen (PON), incorporated organic carbon (IOC), and incorporated organic nitrogen (ION). The long-term fertilization experiment was designed to include 7 treatments, i.e., chemical NPK (NPK), organic manure (OM), 1/2 organic manure plus 1/2 chemical NPK (1/20 MN), chemical NP (NP), chemical PK (PK), chemical NK (NK), and control (CK). After 18 years experiment, all the fertilization treatments showed higher contents of soil POC, PON, IOC and ION, higher proportions of soil POC to soil total organic carbon (TOC) and of soil PON to soil total nitrogen (TON), and higher C/N ratio of soil particulate organic matter. The storages of soil POC and PON under fertilization treatments were increased by 11.7%-196.8% and 13.0%-152.2%, respectively, compared with the control. The contribution of soil POC to the increased storage of soil TOC ranged from 31.5% to 67.3%, and that of soil PON to the increased storage of soil TON ranged from 14.3% to 100.0%. The storages of soil IOC and ION under fertilization treatments increased by 2.0%-75.0% and 0.0%-69.8%, respectively, compared with the control. Among the fertilization treatments, treatment OM had the highest storages of soil POC, PON, IOC and ION, followed by treatment 1/20 MN, and the treatments of applying chemical fertilizers alone. Balanced application of chemical fertilizers (treatment NPK) showed higher storages of soil POC, PON, IOC and ION than imbalanced application (treatments NP, PK, and NK). It was suggested that applying organic manure or its combination with chemical NPK and the balanced application of chemical NPK could be the keys for the increase of soil POC, PON, IOC and ION contents and storages.

  17. Fluctuations and spatio-temporal chaos in electroconvection of nematic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaochao

    We have studied two fundamental issues in driven nonequilibrium systems using electroconvection in nematic liquid crystal I52 and N4. We first report experimental results for electroconvection of the nematic Liquid Crystal I52 with planar alignment and a conductivity of 1.0 x 10-8 (Om)-1. The cell spacing was 19.4 mum and the driving frequency was 25.0 Hz. Spatio-temporal chaos consisting of a superposition of zig and zag oblique rolls evolved by means of a supercritical Hopf bifurcation from the uniform conduction state[14]. For small ε ≡ V2/V2cFsF - 1 (V is the applied voltage amplitude and Vc the value of V at the onset of convection), we measured the correlation lengths of the envelopes of both zig and zag patterns. These lengths could be fit to a power law in ε with an exponent smaller than that predicted from amplitude equations. The disagreement with theory is similar to that found previously for domain chaos in rotating Rayleigh-Benard convection [82]. In the following part, we developed a way to measure local current fluctuations in electroconvection. Several special cells were made and each cell had a small local detecting electrode. The detecting electrodes were squares of width 8. 16. 32, 48 and 128 mum at the center of one of the two large electrodes. The spacing of these cells was close to 20 mum. We used the NLC Merck phase IV (N4) with planar alignment. When the driving ε was from 0.8 to 6, we found that the distribution of the current fluctuations was strongly skewed towards larger values for detecting electrodes smaller than the cell spacing and slightly skewed towards smaller values for the rest of the cells. This is compared with global current-fluctuation measurements in similar cells which showed a Gaussian distribution. For the small electrodes, large fluctuations that extended below the current expected for the conduction state were found and a possible connection with the Gallavotti-Cohen Fluctuation Theorem is discussed. This

  18. Statistical Downscaling of Rainfall for Romania From six European GCMs for Present Day and Future Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huebener, H.; Cubasch, U.

    2007-12-01

    Circulation Weather Types calculated from ERA40 SLP fields are correlated to rainfall for selected Romanian stations in the lower Danube catchment. The western, central, and eastern parts of the area show differing correlations between rainfall and CWTs in the observations. For all all regions and most CWTs, precipitation amount per rain day is larger in summer while occurrence frequency of rain days per CWT is larger in winter. Rain amount and frequency show high positive (negative) correlation with cyclonic (anti-cyclonic) days. In the western region rain amounts are highest for SE CWT, associated with synoptic disturbances originating from the central Mediterranean. In the central and eastern region N to E CWTs provide the highest rain amounts, associated with low pressure over the black sea and the eastern Mediterranean. SW to NW CWTs are negatively correlated with rain in the eastern part of the area due to diffluence south of the Carpathians. In the scope of the EU-Project ENSEMBLES, CWTs are also calculated using six European GCMs (BCC, NERSC, Norway; CNRM-CM3, CNRM, France; EGMAM, FU-Berlin, Germany; ECHAM5/MPI-OM1, MPI-M, Germany; HadGEM1, Hadley-Centre, UK; IPSL-CM4, Institute Pierre Simone Laplace, France). Comparison of the occurrence frequency of CWTs for present-day simulations to the ERA40 results shows a positive bias of W CWT in Romania, associated with a too strong northern polar low in all models. Additionally an overestimation of cyclonic and an underestimation of anti-cyclonic days is found in the models. This feature is consistent with a general tendency of GCMs to underestimate blocking situations. The annual cycle of CWTs for Romania is displayed in the different models in varying quality: while ECHAM5/MPI-OM shows an annual cycle close to observations, some of the other models are not suited to represent the annual cycle correctly. All models show an increase of anti-cyclonic days combined with a decrease of cyclonic days for the SRES A1B

  19. Fine organic particulate matter dominates indoor-generated PM2.5 in RIOPA homes.

    PubMed

    Polidori, Andrea; Turpin, Barbara; Meng, Qing Yu; Lee, Jong Hoon; Weisel, Clifford; Morandi, Maria; Colome, Steven; Stock, Thomas; Winer, Arthur; Zhang, Jim; Kwon, Jaymin; Alimokhtari, Shahnaz; Shendell, Derek; Jones, Jennifer; Farrar, Corice; Maberti, Silvia

    2006-07-01

    Residential indoor and outdoor fine particle (PM(2.5)) organic (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) concentrations (48 h) were measured at 173 homes in Houston, TX, Los Angeles County, CA, and Elizabeth, NJ as part of the Relationship of Indoor, Outdoor and Personal Air (RIOPA) study. The adsorption of organic vapors on the quartz fiber sampling filter (a positive artifact) was substantial indoors and out, accounting for 36% and 37% of measured OC at the median indoor (8.2 microg C/m(3)) and outdoor (5.0 microg C/m(3)) OC concentrations, respectively. Uncorrected, adsorption artifacts would lead to substantial overestimation of particulate OC both indoors and outdoors. After artifact correction, the mean particulate organic matter (OM=1.4 OC) concentration indoors (9.8 microg/m(3)) was twice the mean outdoor concentration (4.9 microg/m(3)). The mean EC concentration was 1.1 microg/m(3) both indoors and outdoors. OM accounted for 29%, 30% and 29% of PM(2.5) mass outdoors and 48%, 55% and 61% of indoor PM(2.5) mass in Los Angeles Co., Elizabeth and Houston study homes, respectively. Indirect evidence provided by species mass balance results suggests that PM(2.5) nitrate (not measured) was largely lost during outdoor-to-indoor transport, as reported by Lunden et al. This results in dramatic changes with outdoor-to-indoor transport in the mass and composition of ambient-generated PM(2.5) at California homes. On average, 71% to 76% of indoor OM was emitted or formed indoors, calculated by (1) Random Component Superposition (RCS) model and (2) non-linear fit of OC and air exchange rate data to the mass balance model. Assuming that all particles penetrate indoors (P=1) and there is no particle loss indoors (k=0), a lower bound estimate of 41% of indoor OM was indoor-generated (mean). OM appears to be the predominant species in indoor-generated PM(2.5), based on species mass balance results. Particulate OM emitted or formed indoors is substantial enough to alter the

  20. A maximum pseudo-likelihood approach for estimating species trees under the coalescent model

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Several phylogenetic approaches have been developed to estimate species trees from collections of gene trees. However, maximum likelihood approaches for estimating species trees under the coalescent model are limited. Although the likelihood of a species tree under the multispecies coalescent model has already been derived by Rannala and Yang, it can be shown that the maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) of the species tree (topology, branch lengths, and population sizes) from gene trees under this formula does not exist. In this paper, we develop a pseudo-likelihood function of the species tree to obtain maximum pseudo-likelihood estimates (MPE) of species trees, with branch lengths of the species tree in coalescent units. Results We show that the MPE of the species tree is statistically consistent as the number M of genes goes to infinity. In addition, the probability that the MPE of the species tree matches the true species tree converges to 1 at rate O(M -1). The simulation results confirm that the maximum pseudo-likelihood approach is statistically consistent even when the species tree is in the anomaly zone. We applied our method, Maximum Pseudo-likelihood for Estimating Species Trees (MP-EST) to a mammal dataset. The four major clades found in the MP-EST tree are consistent with those in the Bayesian concatenation tree. The bootstrap supports for the species tree estimated by the MP-EST method are more reasonable than the posterior probability supports given by the Bayesian concatenation method in reflecting the level of uncertainty in gene trees and controversies over the relationship of four major groups of placental mammals. Conclusions MP-EST can consistently estimate the topology and branch lengths (in coalescent units) of the species tree. Although the pseudo-likelihood is derived from coalescent theory, and assumes no gene flow or horizontal gene transfer (HGT), the MP-EST method is robust to a small amount of HGT in the dataset. In addition, increasing the number of genes does not increase the computational time substantially. The MP-EST method is fast for analyzing datasets that involve a large number of genes but a moderate number of species. PMID:20937096

  1. Biodiversity Data Interoperability Issues: on the Opportunity of Exploiting O&M for Biotic Data Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oggioni, A.; Tagliolato, P.; Schleidt, K.; Carrara, P.; Grellet, S.; Sarretta, A.

    2016-02-01

    The state of the art in biodiversity data management unfortunately encompases a plethora of diverse data formats. Compared to other research fields, there is a lack in harmonization and standardization of these data. While data from traditional biodiversity collections (e.g. from museums) can be easily represented by existing standard as provided by TDWG, the growing number of field observations stemming from both VGI activities (e.g. iNaturalist) as well as from automated systems (e.g. animal biotelemetry) would at the very least require upgrades of current formats. Moreover, from an eco-informatics perspective, the integration and use of data from different scientific fields is the norm (abiotic data, geographic information, etc.); the possibility to represent this information and biodiversity data in a homogeneous way would be an advantage for interoperability, allowing for easy integration across environmental media. We will discuss the possibility to exploit the Open Geospatial Consortium/ISO standard, Observations and Measurements (O&M) [1], a generic conceptual model developed for observation data but with strong analogies with the biodiversity-oriented OBOE ontology [2]. The applicability of OGC O&M for the provision of biodiviersity occurence data has been suggested by the INSPIRE Cross Thematic Working Group on Observations & Measurements [3], Inspire Environmental Monitoring Facilities Thematic Working Group [4] and New Zealand Environmental Information Interoperability Framework [5]. This approach, in our opinion, could be an advantage for the biodiversity community. We will provide some examples for encoding biodiversity occurence data using the O&M standard in addition to highlighting the advatages offered by O&M in comparison to other representation formats. [1] Cox, S. (2013). Geographic information - Observations and measurements - OGC and ISO 19156. [2] Madin, J., Bowers, S., Schildhauer, M., Krivov, S., Pennington, D., & Villa, F. (2007). An ontology for describing and synthesizing ecological observation data. Ecological Informatics, 2(3), 279-296. [3] INSPIRE_D2.9_O&M_Guidelines_v2.0rc3.pdf[4] INSPIRE_DataSpecification_EF_v3.0.pdf[5] Watkins, A. (2012) Biodiversity Interoperability through Open Geospatial Standards

  2. Management of pest mole crickets in Florida and Puerto Rico with a nematode and parasitic wasp

    SciTech Connect

    Leppla, N.C.; Frank, J.H.; Adjei, M.B.; Vicente, N.E.

    2007-03-15

    fueron liberados y establecidos en los 80s. Consecuentemente, la produccion comercial del nematodo fue iniciada, casi 70 billones fueron aplicados en 34 condados de la Florida, y se realizo un monitoreo para evaluar su establecimiento, dispersion e impacto sobre los grillotopos. Los gillotopos infectados dispersaron los nematodos rapidamente, tanto que despues de 6 meses estos parasitos estaban presentes en la mayoria de los insectos atrapados en los pastos experimentales. Tres anos despues, las poblaciones de los grillotopos fueron reducidas a niveles aceptables y los campos de pasto 'bahia' se recuperaron. El nematodo fue liberado para la primera vez en Puerto Rico durante del 2001 y ha persistido; la avispa fue introducida al final de los 30s. La distribucion geografica de la avispa se esta extendiendo en la Florida y Puerto Rico por medio de la siembra de parcelas de Spermacoce verticillata, una flor silvestre indigena a Puerto Rico y distribuida ampliamente en el sur de la Florida. Los campos de pasto, las operaciones comerciales de cesped, los campos de golf, los paisajes y las fincas de hortalizas en la Florida y Puerto Rico se estan beneficiando del control biologico de los grillotopos invasores. (author)

  3. Habitus furibundo en el gueto estadounidense1

    PubMed Central

    Bourgois, Philippe; Castrillo, Fernando Montero; Hart, Laurie; Karandinos, George

    2014-01-01

    Resumen Durante cinco años, un torbellino cotidiano de tiroteos, apuñalamientos y asaltos afectó a la venta de drogas al aire libre en el vecindario puertorriqueño de Filadelfia, donde residíamos y conducíamos nuestro trabajo de campo. La industria de los narcóticos ha venido a llenar el vacío que dejó la desindustrialización, convirtiendo al antiguo distrito fabril de la ciudad en un mercado de narcóticos a cielo abierto que emplea en sus niveles más bajos a jóvenes puertorriqueños y cuyos clientes son principalmente heroinómanos blancos de bajos recursos. La capacidad para movilizar la furia asegura el éxito en la economía de las drogas, garantiza protección en las cárceles y le provee un ingreso mínimo a una población de bajos recursos estigmatizada cuyos miembros frecuentemente reciben diagnósticos médicos de discapacidad cognitiva. Muchos residentes buscan alianzas en redes sociales que los comprometen a participar en intercambios solidarios de violencia auxiliar. Una dinámica de acumulación primitiva corporizada mata, hiere, discapacita o encarcela a la mayoría de estos empleados de bajo nivel y a sus clientes. Los inflados márgenes de ganancia alrededor de esta dinámica dependen de la violencia y la coerción. Un habitus furibundo impulsa a los vendedores callejeros a defender violentamente el micro monopolio de poder de sus jefes en la economía subterránea como si fuese un asunto de diversión. Estos miembros de los niveles más bajos de la industria del narcotráfico se apresuran a fraguar transacciones comerciales en ausencia de un marco legal en un ambiente de escasez que sin embargo se ve inundado por enormes flujos de dinero, drogas adictivas y armas automáticas. Tras las drásticas reformas a los programas de seguridad social, la mano izquierda del Estado, en la forma de los servicios sociales, intenta prolongar los subsidios para individuos vulnerables diagnosticándolos como discapacitados cognitivos permanentes

  4. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Martínez González, Olaia; Vélez de Mendizábal, Itsaso Zabaleta; Galarza Iriarte, Uxue; Vicente Martín, María Soledad; De Vega Castaño, María Del Carmen; Salmerón Egea, Jesús

    2016-03-25

    Introducción: la disfagia o dificultad de deglución afecta a 1 de cada 2 mayores hospitalizados y genera problemas de desnutrición o deshidratación, y aparición de neumonía por aspiración. En situaciones de disfagia orofaríngea, cuando la alimentación oral aún es posible, se deben espesar las texturas líquidas de cara a evitar dichas complicaciones. A los alimentos, tanto fríos como calientes, habitualmente se les añaden espesantes comerciales consistentes en almidones modificados siguiendo especificaciones muy generales que hacen difícil conseguir la textura adaptada a las necesidades personales. Objetivo: el objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar el efecto de la temperatura del alimento (10 oC y 50 oC), la dosificación (néctar, miel y pudin) y el tiempo transcurrido desde la preparación (0, 3, 5, 10, 20 min) sobre los parámetros de textura de agua espesada a base de uno de los espesantes más ampliamente comercializados. Método: las muestras se analizaron por triplicado en un texturómetro TA.XT2i (Stable Micro Systems, UK) mediante ensayo de compresión-extrusión, empleando una sonda de 2,5 cm de diámetro a una velocidad de 3 mm/s y con una célula de carga de 5 kg. A partir de las curvas fuerza vs. tiempo obtenidas se cuantificaron parámetros indicadores de la firmeza, la adhesividad y el trabajo de las muestras. Resultados y conclusión: en general, los parámetros relacionados con la consistencia fueron significativamente (α < 0,05) superiores en las muestras a mayor temperatura, lo que se puede relacionar con fenómenos incipientes de gelatinización. A su vez, se observó un incremento en los valores de todos los parámetros de textura al aumentar la concentración del espesante y a medida que transcurría el tiempo desde la mezcla de este en el agua. Estos resultados apuntan a la necesidad de realizar un trabajo exhaustivo de caracterización, ampliado también a otros productos y matrices alimentarias, de cara a modelizar la

  5. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jin-Zhou; Li, Chun-Xiao; Dai, Yi-Ning; Zhao, De-Jian; Fang, Zhi-Yun; Wan, Xing-Yong; Zhu, Hua-Tuo; Wang, Yu-Ming; Yu, Chao-Hui; Li, You-Ming

    2016-03-25

    Introducción: la betatrofina es una novedosa adipoquina que provoca la proliferación de células β pancreáticas e interviene en el metabolismo de los lípidos. Objetivos: el propósito de este estudio es evaluar el papel de la betatrofina en el síndrome metabólico. Método: se llevó a cabo un estudio hospitalario de casos y controles según sexo y edad. El nivel de betatrofina en suero fue evaluado mediante ensayo por inmunoabsorción ligado a enzimas. Se midieron las concentraciones en suero de 12 adipoquinas para evaluar las asociaciones con la betatrofina usando los kits comerciales Adipokine Magnetic Bead Panel. Los análisis estadísticos incluyeron correlación bivariada, análisis de curva ROC y análisis de regresión lineal multivariable. Resultados: el nivel de betatrofina en suero fue más elevado en pacientes con síndrome metabólico (997,36 ± 475,92 pg/ml, p = 0,001) que en los controles (735,35 ± 526,51 pg/ml). Frente al tercil más bajo, el tercil más alto del nivel de betatrofina mostró una asociación con mayor riesgo de síndrome metabólico (odds ratio ajustado = 3,521, intervalo de confianza [IC] 95% [1,191-10,413], p = 0,023). Se desarrolló la curva ROC de betatrofina para pronosticar la presencia de síndrome metabólico (área bajo la curva ROC = 0,682 [95% IC, 0,597-0,767], p < 0,001). Además, la betatrofina mostró correlación con distintos parámetros, como edad (r = 0,286, p < 0,001), índice de masa corporal (r = 0,160, p = 0,046), índice cintura-cadera (r = 0,241, p = 0,002), lipoproteína de alta densidad (r = -0,167, p = 0,037), lipoproteína de baja densidad (r = -0,195, p = 0,015), glucosa plasmática en ayunas (r = 0,266, p = 0,001), hemoglobina A1C (r = 0,314, p < 0,001), índice de resistencia a la insulina mediante HOMA (r = 0,272, p = 0,001) y diversas adipoquinas, entre ellas resistina (r = 0,571, p < 0,001), interleucina-8 (r = 0,435, p < 0,001), factor de necrosis tumoral alfa (r = 0,295, p = 0,011) y

  6. Production and quality assurance in the SIT Africa Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) rearing facility in South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, B.; Rosenberg, S.; Arnolds, L.; Johnson, J.

    2007-03-15

    esteriles de moscas para el proyecto de la tecnica del insecto esteril (TIE) en huertos de frutos y vinas comerciales en la provincia del Cabo Occidental del Sudafrica. El procedimiento de criar en masa fue en su mayor parte basado en los sistemas desarrollados por el Laboratorio de Agricultura y Biotecnologia de la FAO/IAEA, Seibersdorf, Austria. Un numero de razas que separara los sexos geneticamente fueron utilizadas para producir solo machos para la liberacion. La congestionada condicion inicial para criar las moscas y su manejo de calidad fueron aliviadas en 2001 con la construccion de un nuevo cuarto de cria para adultos y un laboratorio de control de calidad. En 2002, un Sistema de Manejo de Calidad comprensivo fue implementado, y en 2003 una raza mejorada que separa los sexos geneticamente, VIENNA 8, fue proveido por el Laboratorio de la FAO/IAEA en Seibersdorf. En la mayor parte de los primeros 3 anos la facilidad no pudo suplir el numero requerido de machos esteriles de la mosca mediterranea de la fruta para el programa de TIE sin la necesidad para importar machos esteriles de otra facilidad. Desde medio del ano de 2002, despues que el sistema de manejo de calidad fue implementado, la produccion y la calidad mejoraron pero aun quedaron por debajo del nivel optimo. Despues de la introduccion de la raza VIENNA 8 que separa los sexos geneticamente, y junto con el equipo mejorado de control de clima, la estabilidad y los parametros de seguridad de calidad mejoraron substancialmente. Los factores criticos que influyeron en la produccion y la calidad fueron la infraestructura inadecuada para criar las moscas, problemas con la calidad de la dieta para las larvas y la ausencia inicial de un sistema de manejo de calidad. Los resultados muestran claramente la importancia de un manejo efectivo de la calidad, el valor de una raza productiva que separa los sexos geneticamente y la necesidad de contar con una base solida de financimiento para la infraestructura de una cria en

  7. Standardizing Interfaces for External Access to Data and Processing for the NASA Ozone Product Evaluation and Test Element (PEATE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilmes, Curt A.; Fleig, Albert J.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's traditional science data processing systems have focused on specific missions, and providing data access, processing and services to the funded science teams of those specific missions. Recently NASA has been modifying this stance, changing the focus from Missions to Measurements. Where a specific Mission has a discrete beginning and end, the Measurement considers long term data continuity across multiple missions. Total Column Ozone, a critical measurement of atmospheric composition, has been monitored for'decades on a series of Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instruments. Some important European missions also monitor ozone, including the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) and SCIAMACHY. With the U.S.IEuropean cooperative launch of the Dutch Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on NASA Aura satellite, and the GOME-2 instrumental on MetOp, the ozone monitoring record has been further extended. In conjunction with the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), NASA is now preparing to evaluate data and algorithms for the next generation Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) which will launch on the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Preparatory Project (NPP) in 2010. NASA is constructing the Science Data Segment (SDS) which is comprised of several elements to evaluate the various NPP data products and algorithms. The NPP SDS Ozone Product Evaluation and Test Element (PEATE) will build on the heritage of the TOMS and OM1 mission based processing systems. The overall measurement based system that will encompass these efforts is the Atmospheric Composition Processing System (ACPS). We have extended the system to include access to publically available data sets from other instruments where feasible, including non-NASA missions as appropriate. The heritage system was largely monolithic providing a very controlled processing flow from data.ingest of

  8. The Development of Two Science Investigator-led Processing Systems (SIPS) for NASA's Earth Observation System (EOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilmes, Curt

    2004-01-01

    software to adapt the system for OMI. We replaced the fundamental database system, Sybase, with an Open Source RDBMS called PostgreSQL, and based the entire OMIDAPS on a cluster of Linux based commodity computers rather than the large SGI servers that MODAPS uses. Rather than relying on a central I/O server host, the new system distributes its data archive among multiple server hosts in the cluster. OMI is also customizing the graphical user interfaces and reporting structure to more closely meet the needs of the OMI Science Team. Prior to 2003, simulated OMI data and the science algorithms were not ready for production testing. We initially constructed a prototype system and tested using a 25 year dataset of Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet Instrument (SBUV) data. This prototype system provided a platform to support the adaptation of the algorithms for OMI, and provided reprocessing of the historical data aiding in its analysis. In a recent reanalysis of the TOMS data, the OMIDAPS processed 108,000 full orbits of data through 4 processing steps per orbit, producing about 800,000 files (400 GiB) of level 2 and greater data files. More recently we have installed two instances of the OMIDAPS for integration and testing of OM1 science processes as they get delivered from the Science Team. A Test instance of the OMIDAPS has also supported a series of "Interface Confidence Tests" (ICTs) and End-to-End Ground System tests to ensure the launch readiness of the system. This paper will discuss the high-level hardware, software, and database organization of the OMIDAPS and how it builds on the MODAPS heritage system. It will also provide an overview of the testing and implementation of the production OMIDAPS.

  9. The Development of Two Science Investigator-led Processing Systems (SIPS) for NASA's Earth Observation System (EOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilmes, Curt

    2004-01-01

    software to adapt the system for OMI. We replaced the fundamental database system, Sybase, with an Open Source RDBMS called PostgreSQL, and based the entire OMIDAPS on a cluster of Linux based commodity computers rather than the large SGI servers that MODAPS uses. Rather than relying on a central I/O server host, the new system distributes its data archive among multiple server hosts in the cluster. OMI is also customizing the graphical user interfaces and reporting structure to more closely meet the needs of the OMI Science Team. Prior to 2003, simulated OMI data and the science algorithms were not ready for production testing. We initially constructed a prototype system and tested using a 25 year dataset of Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet Instrument (SBUV) data. This prototype system provided a platform to support the adaptation of the algorithms for OMI, and provided reprocessing of the historical data aiding in its analysis. In a recent reanalysis of the TOMS data, the OMIDAPS processed 108,000 full orbits of data through 4 processing steps per orbit, producing about 800,000 files (400 GiB) of level 2 and greater data files. More recently we have installed two instances of the OMIDAPS for integration and testing of OM1 science processes as they get delivered from the Science Team. A Test instance of the OMIDAPS has also supported a series of "Interface Confidence Tests" (ICTs) and End-to-End Ground System tests to ensure the launch readiness of the system. This paper will discuss the high-level hardware, software, and database organization of the OMIDAPS and how it builds on the MODAPS heritage system. It will also provide an overview of the testing and implementation of the production OMIDAPS.

  10. Exploring and Visualizing A-Train Instrument Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempler, S.; Leptoukh, G.; Berrick, S.; Stephens, G.; Winker, D.; Reinke, D.

    2007-01-01

    Giovanni provides users with the capability of creating co-located profile images of temperature and humidity data from the MODIS, MLS and AIRS instruments for a user specified time and spatial area. In addition, Cloud and Aerosol profiles may also be displayed for the Cloudsat and Caliop instruments. The ability to modify horizontal and vertical axis range, data range and dynamic color range is also provided. Two dimensional strip plots of MODIS, AIRS, OM1 and POLDER parameters, co-located along the Cloudsat reference track, can also be plotted along with the Cloudsat cloud profiling data. Center swath pixels for the same parameters can also be shown as line plots overlaying the Cloudsat or Calipso profile images. Images and subsetted data produced in each analysis run may be downloaded. Users truly can explore and discover data specific to their needs prior to ever transferring data to their analysis tools.

  11. Thermal conductivity of heterogeneous LWR MOX fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staicu, D.; Barker, M.

    2013-11-01

    It is generally observed that the thermal conductivity of LWR MOX fuel is lower than that of pure UO2. For MOX, the degradation is usually only interpreted as an effect of the substitution of U atoms by Pu. This hypothesis is however in contradiction with the observations of Duriez and Philiponneau showing that the thermal conductivity of MOX is independent of the Pu content in the ranges 3-15 and 15-30 wt.% PuO2 respectively. Attributing this degradation to Pu only implies that stoichiometric heterogeneous MOX can be obtained, while we show that any heterogeneity in the plutonium distribution in the sample introduces a variation in the local stoichiometry which in turn has a strong impact on the thermal conductivity. A model quantifying this effect is obtained and a new set of experimental results for homogeneous and heterogeneous MOX fuels is presented and used to validate the proposed model. In irradiated fuels, this effect is predicted to disappear early during irradiation. The 3, 6 and 10 wt.% Pu samples have a similar thermal conductivity. Comparison of the results for this homogeneous microstructure with MIMAS (heterogeneous) fuel of the same composition showed no difference for the Pu contents of 3, 5.9, 6, 7.87 and 10 wt.%. A small increase of the thermal conductivity was obtained for 15 wt.% Pu. This increase is of about 6% when compared to the average of the values obtained for 3, 6 and 10 wt.% Pu. For comparison purposes, Duriez also measured the thermal conductivity of FBR MOX with 21.4 wt.% Pu with O/M = 1.982 and a density close to 95% TD and found a value in good agreement with the estimation obtained using the formula of Philipponneau [8] for FBR MOX, and significantly lower than his results corresponding to the range 3-15 wt.% Pu. This difference in thermal conductivity is of about 20%, i.e. higher than the measurement uncertainties.Thus, a significant difference was observed between FBR and PWR MOX fuels, but was not explained. This difference was observed for hypostoichiometric fuels, that correspond to the condition used for irradiation. However, if these two formulas are evaluated for O/M = 2.000, the difference between the predictions is negligible (Fig. 1). The difference becomes significant for non-stoichiometric fuels, as shown for O/M = 1.975 in Fig. 1. The microstructure of the FBR fuel with 21.4 wt.% Pu was not described in the paper of Duriez. Taking into account the rigorous experimental methodology used by Duriez (characterisation of the stoichiometry), a possible explanation is an interaction between the plutonium distribution and the stoichiometry. Another parameter having a strong impact on the conductivity is the porosity correction used to obtain the values for 95% TD. This correction is small in the work of Duriez as the samples density is very close to 95% TD. This was also the case for the samples selected by Philipponneau in order to obtain his recommendation. An effect due to differences in the pores shape can also be excluded, as the results are identical for stoichiometric fuels (Fig. 1). Usually the apparent stoichiometry is obtained by heat treatments and checked before and after the measurements, either by XRD or thermogravimetry. However, for non-perfectly homogeneous samples, the gradients in the plutonium distribution induce a non-uniform oxygen distribution, which is difficult to characterise experimentally. It has been proposed by Baron that the deviation from stoichiometry is the main cause for the differences observed between fresh UO2 and MOX [14,15], this effect is quantified in the next section. In the first model ("Model 1"), the effect of Pu is neglected over the entire relevant Pu compositions range (up to 24 wt.% PuO2), and a correlation obtained for non-stoichiometric homogeneous (U,Pu)O2 is used. In the second model ("Model 2", the effect of Pu is supposed to be present at all compositions, with the stoichiometry effect. The thermal conductivity is described by the correlations of Fink [16] for the UO2 matrix, Duriez at low PuO2 contents (coating phase) and of Philipponneau at high PuO2 contents (agglomerates). For the first model, applying a correlation for non-stoichiometric UO2 would be relevant, but such a correlation does not exist for physical reasons in the hypostoichiometric domain. A correlation for homogeneous (U,Pu)O2+x has to be obtained in order to predict the thermal conductivity of heterogeneous MOX fuel, supposing that the effect of Pu can be neglected, i.e. supposing that the thermal conductivities of homogeneous (U,Pu)O2 and UO2 are equal both for stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric fuels. Such a correlation has to be obtained considering reliable data for stoichiometric UO2 and stoichiometry dependence. Different correlations for non-stoichiometric fuels were reviewed [2,8,12,13,15,35,36]. The correlation of Martin [36], available for hyperstoichiometric UO2, was evaluated in the hypostoichiometric domain and the predictions were found to give a stoichiometry dependence very similar to a correlation already proposed [15]. Investigations by Molecular Dynamics [37] have confirmed the almost symmetric effect of the hypo- and hyper-stoichiometry in UO2. We therefore use the correlation of Martin, with however a correction, as for stoichiometric fuels it over predicts the conductivity of stoichiometric UO2 at high temperatures, when compared to the recommendation of Fink [16] (Fig. 4). Analysis has shown that this over-prediction was due to the high temperature term in the correlation of Martin, and that, if this term is removed, the predictions of Martin and Fink were identical for stoichiometric fuels in the temperature range 500-1500 K. The correlation proposed for homogeneous MOX is therefore given by the following equation. k=(0.035 The series and parallel bounds (Eq. (2)) were calculated using the thermal conductivity values given by Eq. (5) for the heterogeneous MOX constituents and the maximum difference between these two bounds is 2% over the considered temperature range. The predictions obtained with the equations of Maxwell-Eucken (Eq. (3)) and Bergman (Eq. (4)) are equal and are in the interval between the series and parallel bounds. This result shows that the use of a sophisticated analytical or numerical model to predict the thermal conductivity is not justified [38]. The model of Maxwell-Eucken [31] was therefore chosen to predict the equivalent thermal conductivity of the heterogeneous MOX.The equivalent thermal conductivity of the stoichiometric heterogeneous MOX with an average PuO2 content of 7.2 wt.% (constituted by a stoichiometric UO2 matrix containing 15 vol.% of (U0.76Pu0.24)O1.975 agglomerates and 55 vol.% of a coating phase of (U0.94Pu0.06)O1.995) was calculated. The results show that the apparent thermal conductivity of the heterogeneous MOX, calculated using homogeneous MOX data (Eq. (5)) with O/M = 2.000, 1.995 and 1.975 (labeled Model 1 in Fig. 4) is not significantly different from the values measured by Duriez. The latter values are also very similar to the thermal conductivity of homogeneous MOX with O/M = 1.995. This simple model shows that the stoichiometry effect is sufficient to explain the lower thermal conductivity of LWR MOX fuel as compared to UO2. The advantage of this simple model is its consistency, as the calculations for the heterogeneous MOX are based on a unique formula for non-stoichiometric homogeneous (U,Pu)O2.In the second model, the effect of the plutonium is taken into account for the coating phase and for the Pu-rich agglomerates. The thermal conductivity is described by the correlations of Fink [16] for UO2.000, of Duriez et al. [2] for (U0.94Pu0.06)O1.995 (coating phase with low PuO2 content) and of Philipponneau [8] for (U0.76Pu0.24)O1.975 (Pu-rich agglomerates with high PuO2 content). The results (labeled Model 2 in Fig. 5) show that the calculated thermal conductivity of the heterogeneous 'stoichiometric' MOX is lower than UO2 and also lower than for stoichiometric MOX as given by Duriez. Therefore taking into account both the heterogeneity in the oxygen distribution and the Pu content leads to an underprediction of the thermal conductivity of heterogeneous MOX. A possible cause for the lower thermal conductivity of unirradiated heterogeneous MOX is therefore the intrinsic fluctuations of the local stoichiometry and only to a lesser extent the perturbation of the heat transfer due to the substitution of the U by Pu atoms in the crystal lattice. This interpretation was already proposed by Baron [14,15]. This assumption is acceptable if the size of the heterogeneities is much smaller that the thickness of the sample. A theoretical criterion for the impact of these parameters, initially proposed by Kerrish [40], was checked experimentally by Lee and Taylor [41] and was found to be too restrictive. The conclusions resulting from the investigations of Lee are that for diffusivity ratios between 1 and 3.5 and volume fractions up to 30%, a ratio of 5 between the sample thickness and inclusions diameter is sufficient. Our heterogeneous samples fulfill this criterion, taking into account that the thermal diffusivity ratio is close to 1 in MOX, that the volume fraction of Pu rich agglomerates is under 30%, and that the agglomerates have a diameter of less than 200 μm compared to the sample (disc) thickness of 1 mm. The most severe requirement that one could use to define a medium behaving like a homogeneous material is that the heat transfer is not affected by the heterogeneities. This is the case for instance if we have a heterogeneous material where the two constituents have equal thermal diffusivity and no thermal resistance is present at the interfaces. This requirement is very close to be perfectly verified for the heterogeneous MOX, as UO2 and (U,Pu)O2 have very close values of the thermal diffusivity. An effect of the sample heterogeneity can also be excluded from the point of view of the location where the thermograms are recorded: the temperature transients on the rear face of the samples are measured with a pyrometer and the system is provided with a lens assembly which enables a 1 mm diameter spot of the sample surface to be focused onto the signal collecting fibre. The thermograms are therefore averaged over a 1 mm diameter surface, which is much larger than the size of the heterogeneities (Pu rich agglomerates with a size of less than 200 μm).The impact of sample thickness on the measured thermal diffusivity was experimentally investigated for the MIMAS MOX with 7.0 wt.% Pu. For this purpose, discs of 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 mm thickness were cut and the thermal diffusivity was measured. The same investigation was done for standard UO2, in order to verify the accuracy of the inverse technique used for the identification of the thermal diffusivity from the thermograms. The inverse technique [39] explicitly takes into account the sample thickness in the calculation of the heat losses. The results for UO2 (Fig. 6) show that the measured thermal diffusivity does not depend on sample thickness, and is in good agreement with the recommendation of Fink [16]. The results for the heterogeneous MOX (Fig. 7) also show no dependence on sample thickness.

  12. Estudio numerico y experimental del proceso de soldeo MIG sobre la aleacion 6063--T5 utilizando el metodo de Taguchi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meseguer Valdenebro, Jose Luis

    improvement on mechanical properties in aluminum metal joint. Los procesos de soldadura por arco electrico representan unas de las tecnicas mas utilizadas en los procesos de fabricacion de componentes mecanicos en la industria moderna. Los procesos de soldeo por arco se han adaptado a las necesidades actuales, haciendose un modo de fabricacion flexible y versatil. Los resultados obtenidos numericamente en el proceso de soldadura son validados experimentalmente. Los principales metodos numericos mas empleados en la actualidad son tres, metodo por diferencias finitas, metodos por elementos finitos y metodo por volumenes finitos. El metodo numerico mas empleado para el modelado de uniones soldadas, es el metodo por elementos finitos, debido a que presenta una buena adaptacion a las condiciones geometricas y de contorno ademas de que existe una diversidad de programas comerciales que utilizan el metodo por elementos finitos como base de calculo. Este trabajo de investigacion presenta un estudio experimental de una union soldada mediante el proceso MIG de la aleacion de aluminio 6063-T5. El metodo numerico se valida experimentalmente aplicando el metodo de los elementos finitos con el programa de calculo ANSYS. Los resultados experimentales obtenidos son: las curvas de enfriamiento, el tiempo critico de enfriamiento t4/3, geometria del cordon, microdurezas obtenidas en la union soldada, zona afectada termicamente y metal base, dilucion del proceso, areas criticas intersecadas entre las curvas de enfriamiento y la curva TTP. Los resultados numericos son: las curvas del ciclo termico, que representan tanto el calentamiento hasta alcanzar la temperatura maxima y un posterior enfriamiento. Se calculan el tiempo critico de enfriamiento t4/3, el rendimiento termico y se representa la geometria del cordon obtenida experimentalmente. La zona afectada termicamente se obtiene diferenciando las zonas que se encuentran a diferentes temperaturas, las areas criticas intersecadas entre las

  13. Spatial and temporal variability of grass cover in two olive grove catchments on contrasting soil types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilera, Laura; Taguas, Encarnación V.; Gimeno, Enrique; Gómez, José A.

    2013-04-01

    mechanically killed by several tractor passes. Ground cover was evaluated by a field surveys (4 per year) in which the same areas were measured at an approximate density of 4 samples/ha. In each point, over a 0.25 m2 area ground cover was measured using photographs, then point measurements were interpolated using method of Inverse Distance Weighting methods, to generate continuous distribution maps. The spatial and temporal evolution of ground cover in both farms presented a notably different patterns in both farms. In "La Conchuela", maximum values of cover can be reached in winter (61%, Dec-2011) while in "Arroyo Blanco", the maximum values were observed during the spring (50% May-2011) and are dramatically lower in the seasons of summer and autumn. These differences are justified by the influence of the management, the precipitation regime and the soil qualities such as the depth. On the other hand, the large spatial variability of ground cover measurements in both catchments, with coefficients of variation between 41 and 167%, was mainly led by the topography. In both farms the highest values of ground cover were found in those areas with deeper soils located in also in converging areas where surface runoff is concentrated. In the highest and shallowest area, soil management operations might improve the establishment of the vegetation as well as to address the growing in the most erosive periods. Finally, the impact of grass cover on the hydrological and erosive responses in the catchment is also discussed. References Aguilera, L. 2012. Estudio de cubiertas vegetales para el control de la erosión en olivar. Evaluación espacio-temporal en dos fincas comerciales, y exploración de nuevas opciones de cubiertas. Master Thesis. University of Cordoba. Gómez, J.A., Giráldez, J.V. Erosión y degradación de suelos. In: Sostenibilidad de la producción de olivar en Andalucía. Gómez, J.A. (Editor). Junta de Andalucía. Sevilla, p. 45-86. Gómez, J.A., Sobrinho, T.A., Gir

  14. Measurement and evaluation of national family planning programs.

    PubMed

    Mauldin, W P

    1967-03-01

    programa de planeamiento familiar) fraccionados par áreas principales y cinco a seis categorías de costos importantes tales coma: adminietración, personal de campo, publicidad, suministros, etc. C. Un buen conjunto de dates globales sobre la distribución de los suministros comerciales que puedan llegar tan cerca como sea posible del último consumidor, to cual significa probablemente obtener información de los mayoristas. D. Una encuesta de conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas (KAP) para una evaluación general cada dos años. Las preguntas básicas (además de las antes mencionadas y estatus marital y étnico cuando sea pertinente) son: actitud hacia e interés por la anticoncepción, número de niños por sexo, deseo de tener más hijos, prácticas anticonceptivas, experiencia sobre abortos, tal vez historia de embarazo (especialmente si esta producirá una tasa de fecundidad válida), aprobación del programa gubernamental (para uso politico), y si está actualmente embarazada (la única y mejor pregunta cuya respuesta habla del efecto sobre la tasa de natalidad). Administrativamente, la responsabilidad por la evalucion debe estar cerca al director, se debe tomar provisiones para obtener informes regulares (meneulaes) y especiales dirigidos a preguntar sobre política. El corolario es que el jefe de evaluación debe tener la confianza del director y debe estar al día en cuanto a las decisiones sabre la politics a seguir. Su trabajo consiste en extractar los aspectos principales que funcionan bien y los no operantes. En cuanto a costos, la evaluación debe hacerse sobre no más del 10 par ciento del costa del programa en paises pequeños (de menos de 30 milliones) y sabre no más del 5 per ciento en paises más grandes.Para medir en que forma el programa satisface el criterio final-la magnitud en que cambia la fecundidad-se debe realizar un trabajo más elaborado en el centro (Universidades, Consejos de población, etc.) para desarrollar una forma (a formas