Science.gov

Sample records for commercial business lines

  1. The Commercial Open Source Business Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riehle, Dirk

    Commercial open source software projects are open source software projects that are owned by a single firm that derives a direct and significant revenue stream from the software. Commercial open source at first glance represents an economic paradox: How can a firm earn money if it is making its product available for free as open source? This paper presents the core properties of com mercial open source business models and discusses how they work. Using a commercial open source approach, firms can get to market faster with a superior product at lower cost than possible for traditional competitors. The paper shows how these benefits accrue from an engaged and self-supporting user community. Lacking any prior comprehensive reference, this paper is based on an analysis of public statements by practitioners of commercial open source. It forges the various anecdotes into a coherent description of revenue generation strategies and relevant business functions.

  2. Cooperative commercial recycling programs for small business

    SciTech Connect

    Tennes, A.E.

    1996-08-01

    This paper summarizes a pilot commercial recycling program implemented in Illinois from June 1994 through June 1995. The Solid Waste Agency of Northern Cook County (SWANCC) was responsible for program development, implementation and education, solicitation of proposals and funding, and procurement of equipment. Despite poor program continuation response by merchants, the pilot was considered successful in diverting a significant amount of material from landfill and demonstrating that routing density, materials standardization, and container sharing can provide cost-effective commercial recycling. A similar program implemented by SWANCC is also described, which incorporates a committment from volunteer Environmental Control Commission members to actively encourage businesses to continue recycling.

  3. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-2 - Line of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...), or at different levels in the chain of commercial distribution (e.g., wholesale versus retail), or in... manufacture and sale of consumer food and beverage products and the provision of data processing services to... customers among three lines of business, one providing all its consumer food products, a second...

  4. Business in orbit - The commercial use of space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillam, I. T., IV

    1985-01-01

    Current and proposed business opportunities in space are discussed. The advantages offered by the zero gravity environment of space are examined. The roles of the Space Shuttle and the Space Station in space commercialization are described. International development and use of the Space Station is proposed. It is observed that the communications satellite industry is a successful space venture, and opportunities for materials processing and pharmaceuticals production in space are considered. The relationship between NASA's Office of Commercial Programs, which assists businesses in space commercialization, and industry is studied. The impact of space commercialization on the national economy and international trade is analyzed.

  5. Commercial use of space - The space business era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, G. D.

    1985-01-01

    Progress and avenues being explored by NASA to hasten the commercialization of space are described. A task force has recommended that the effort begin at once, that bureaucratic barriers to commercial space activities be removed, and that a partnership between government and industry be seriously explored. The government role is to establish links with private industry, invest in high-leverage technologies and space facilities which will be attractive to commercial ventures, and contribute to commercial enterprises where risks are high and significant economic benefits can be foreseen. The government/industry relationship can be legally evinced by MOUs, joint endeavor agreements, technical exchange agreements and industrial guest investigator arrangements. The Space Station is the first step in that it allows Americans to live and work in space. It is expected that international participation in Space Station development and utilization will accelerate the space business era.

  6. A Machine Learning Approach for Business Intelligence Analysis using Commercial Shipping Transaction Data

    SciTech Connect

    Bramer, Lisa M.; Chatterjee, Samrat; Holmes, Aimee E.; Robinson, Sean M.; Bradley, Steven F.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.

    2015-09-30

    Business intelligence problems are particularly challenging due to the use of large volume and high velocity data in attempts to model and explain complex underlying phenomena. Incremental machine learning based approaches for summarizing trends and identifying anomalous behavior are often desirable in such conditions to assist domain experts in characterizing their data. The overall goal of this research is to develop a machine learning algorithm that enables predictive analysis on streaming data, detects changes and anomalies in the data, and can evolve based on the dynamic behavior of the data. Commercial shipping transaction data for the U.S. is used to develop and test a Naïve Bayes model that classifies several companies into lines of businesses and demonstrates an ability to predict when the behavior of these companies changes by venturing into other lines of businesses.

  7. A Technology Plan for Enabling Commercial Space Business

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyles, Garry M.

    1997-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Advanced Space Transportation Program is a customer driven, focused technology program that supports the NASA Strategic Plan and considers future commercial space business projections. The initial cycle of the Advanced Space Transportation Program implementation planning was conducted from December 1995 through February 1996 and represented increased NASA emphasis on broad base technology development with the goal of dramatic reductions in the cost of space transportation. The second planning cycle, conducted in January and February 1997, updated the program implementation plan based on changes in the external environment, increased maturity of advanced concept studies, and current technology assessments. The program has taken a business-like approach to technology development with a balanced portfolio of near, medium, and long-term strategic targets. Strategic targets are influenced by Earth science, space science, and exploration objectives as well as commercial space markets. Commercial space markets include those that would be enhanced by lower cost transportation as well as potential markets resulting in major increases in space business induced by reductions in transportation cost. The program plan addresses earth-to-orbit space launch, earth orbit operations and deep space systems. It also addresses all critical transportation system elements; including structures, thermal protection systems, propulsion, avionics, and operations. As these technologies are matured, integrated technology flight experiments such as the X-33 and X-34 flight demonstrator programs support near-term (one to five years) development or operational decisions. The Advanced Space Transportation Program and the flight demonstrator programs combine business planning, ground-based technology demonstrations and flight demonstrations that will permit industry and NASA to commit to revolutionary new space transportation systems

  8. In the business of dying: questioning the commercialization of hospice.

    PubMed

    Perry, Joshua E; Stone, Robert C

    2011-01-01

    This article critically questions the commercialization of hospice care and the ethical concerns associated with the industry's movement toward "market-driven medicine" at the end of life. For example, the article examines issues raised by an influx of for-profit hospice providers whose business model appears at its core to have an ethical conflict of interest between shareholders doing well and terminal patients dying well. Yet, empirical data analyzing the experience of patients across the hospice industry are limited, and general claims that end-of-life patient care is inferior among for-profit providers or even that their business practices are somehow unseemly when compared to nonprofit providers cannot be substantiated. In fact, non-profit providers are not immune to potentially conflicting concerns regarding financial viability (i.e., "no margin, no mission"). Given the limitations of existing empirical data and contrasting ideological commitments of for-profit versus non-profit providers, the questions raised by this article highlight important areas for reflection and further study. Policymakers and regulators are cautioned to keep ethical concerns in the fore as an increasingly commercialized hospice industry continues to emerge as a dominant component of the U.S. health care system. Both practitioners and researchers are encouraged to expand their efforts to better understand how business practices and commercial interests may compromise the death process of the patient and patient's family--a process premised upon a philosophy and ethical tradition that earlier generations of hospice providers and proponents established as a trusted, end-of-life alternative.

  9. Developing New Lines of Business: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clegg, Judith; Smart, Dawn Hanson

    2006-01-01

    Developing a new line of business in an independent consulting firm provides an excellent way to expand, increase income for the company, and create cross-marketing opportunities. If it is not done correctly, however, this potential opportunity can imperil the existence of the business. This chapter's case highlights the benefits new lines of…

  10. A Comparison: Procurement Practices of Government-Oriented and Commercial-Oriented Businesses.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    3. Small Businesses Actively Seek Contracts - 42 4. Financing Research and Development ------- 44 C. SIMILARITIES --------------------------------- 46...contracts with economic escalator is preferable by suppliers to single year cost plus contracts. Government Commercial Oriented Oriented Businesses Busi ...Strongly Agree) majority, Government-oriented businesses responded that they do not finance research and development costs which may be incurred prior to

  11. Business analysis: The commercial mission of the International Asteroid Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The mission of the International Asteroid Mission (IAM) is providing asteroidal resources to support activities in space. The short term goal is to initiate IAM by mining a near-Earth, hydrous carbonaceous chondrite asteroid to service the nearer-term market of providing cryogenic rocket fuel in low lunar orbit (LLO). The IAM will develop and contract for the building of the transportation vehicles and equipment necessary for this undertaking. The long-term goal is to expand operations by exploiting asteroids in other manners, as these options become commercially viable. The primary business issues are what revenue can be generated from the baseline mission, how much will the mission cost, and how funding for this mission can be raised. These issues are addressed.

  12. 26 CFR 1.132-4 - Line of business limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...; hotels and other lodging places; auto repair, services, and garages; and food stores. (3) Aggregation of... industry of the employer for any of the separate lines of business of the employer to be operated...

  13. Using a business practice model to control product line costs.

    PubMed

    Farr, Ronald J; Senn, Girard F; Whitten, Catherine M

    2006-08-01

    Faced with a downward turn in its total joint replacement product line, Avera McKennan Hospital was able to avert further decline and save dollar 500,000 annually by: Reviewing and analyzing the product line's past performance. Developing a business model to govern its new implant supply process. Obtaining physician buy-in. Ensuring vendor compliance with its new contracts. Developing a role as business partner with its orthopedic surgeons.

  14. Germ line mechanics – and unfinished business

    PubMed Central

    Wessel, Gary M.

    2016-01-01

    Primordial germ cells are usually made early in the development of an organism. These are the mother of all stem cells that are necessary for propagation of the species, yet use highly diverse mechanisms between organisms. How they are specified, and when and where they form, are central to developmental biology. Using diverse organisms to study this development is illuminating for understanding the mechanics these cells use in this essential function, and for identifying the breadth of evolutionary changes that have occurred between species. This essay emphasizes how echinoderms may contribute to the patch-work quilt of our understanding of germ line formation during embryogenesis. PMID:26970000

  15. Germ Line Mechanics--And Unfinished Business.

    PubMed

    Wessel, Gary M

    2016-01-01

    Primordial germ cells are usually made early in the development of an organism. These are the mother of all stem cells that are necessary for propagation of the species, yet use highly diverse mechanisms between organisms. How they are specified, and when and where they form, are central to developmental biology. Using diverse organisms to study this development is illuminating for understanding the mechanics these cells use in this essential function and for identifying the breadth of evolutionary changes that have occurred between species. This essay emphasizes how echinoderms may contribute to the patchwork quilt of our understanding of germ line formation during embryogenesis.

  16. A simple line wave generator using commercial explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, John S; Jackson, Scott I; Hill, Larry G

    2009-01-01

    We present a simple and inexpensive explosive line wave generator has been designed using commercial sheet explosive and plane wave lens concepts. The line wave generator is constructed using PETN and RDX based sheet explosive for the slow and fast components respectively. The design permits the creation of any desired line width. A series of experiments were performed on a 100 mm design, measuring the detonation arrival time at the output of the generator using a streak camera. An iterative technique was used to adjust the line wave generator's slow and fast components, so as to minimize the arrival time deviation. Designs, test results, and concepts for improvements will be discussed.

  17. 26 CFR 1.132-4 - Line of business limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ESIC Manual. (ii) Examples. Examples of two-digit classifications are general retail merchandise stores..., the operations are treated as one line of business. (b) Grandfather rule for certain retail stores—(1... of the retail department stores). Therefore, employees of the first member of the affiliated...

  18. 26 CFR 1.132-4 - Line of business limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) through (g) of this section. (ii) Property and services sold to employees rather than customers. Because the property or services must be offered for sale to customers in the ordinary course of the same line... business are from laundry services sold to customers other than the hospital employer. Only the...

  19. Selection and procurement of commercial parts for microsat product line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lay, P.; Cavalin, O.; Chaminade, C.; Mouton, A.

    2002-12-01

    For the microsatellite product line named Myriade using, on a large scale, commercial parts, this paper presents the parts management strategy. The paper describes the adapted methodology with respect to the program risk/cost ratio and identifies the lessons learned from the selection and procurement process.

  20. Common display performance requirements for military and commercial aircraft product lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoener, Steven J.; Behrens, Arthur J.; Flint, John R.; Jacobsen, Alan R.

    2001-09-01

    Obtaining high quality Active Matrix Liquid Crystal (AMLCD) glass to meet the needs of the commercial and military aerospace business is a major challenge, at best. With the demise of all domestic sources of AMLCD substrate glass, the industry is now focused on overseas sources, which are primarily producing glass for consumer electronics. Previous experience with ruggedizing commercial glass leads to the expectation that the aerospace industry can leverage off the commercial market. The problem remains, while the commercial industry is continually changing and improving its products, the commercial and military aerospace industries require stable and affordable supplies of AMLCD glass for upwards of 20 years to support production and maintenance operations. The Boeing Engineering and Supplier Management Process Councils have chartered a group of displays experts from multiple aircraft product divisions within the Boeing Company, the Displays Process Action Team (DPAT), to address this situation from an overall corporate perspective. The DPAT has formulated a set of Common Displays Performance Requirements for use across the corporate line of commercial and military aircraft products. Though focused on the AMLCD problem, the proposed common requirements are largely independent of display technology. This paper describes the strategy being pursued within the Boeing Company to address the AMLCD supply problem and details the proposed implementation process, centered on common requirements for both commercial and military aircraft displays. Highlighted in this paper are proposed common, or standard, display sizes and the other major requirements established by the DPAT, along with the rationale for these requirements.

  1. A business man views commercial ventures in space.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarff, D. D.; Bloom, H. L.

    1973-01-01

    Paper reviews technical, resource planning and marketing steps an industrial organization must perform in arriving at a decision to undertake space development and production of commercial products or services for Users on the ground. Technical elements are supported by particular examples. Analysis of required resources emphasizes facility and financial inter-relationships between commercial organizations and NASA. Marketing planning covers elements of profitability. Paper addresses questions related to protection of corporate stockholders and public interest, investment decision timing, budget variations. Paper concludes with observations on timeliness of planning shuttle-based commercial ventures and on key industry/NASA problems and decisions.

  2. Business Training and Commercial Education. Bulletin, 1921, No. 43

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swiggett, Glen Levin

    1921-01-01

    The period of participation of the United States in the recent war witnessed a revival of interest in training for business with a consequent experimentation in all types and grades of schools, as well as through nonschool agencies, governmental and otherwise. A survey of this field for the two years ending June 30, 1920, reveals an interest even…

  3. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-3 - Separate line of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... third line of business, a fast-food chain. Because Employee X provides at least 50 percent of his... management requirements under paragraphs (b) (4) and (5) to the fast-food chain line of business. Example 4... § 1.414(r)-2. One of its lines of business is the operation of a chain of athletic equipment...

  4. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-3 - Separate line of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... third line of business, a fast-food chain. Because Employee X provides at least 50 percent of his... management requirements under paragraphs (b) (4) and (5) to the fast-food chain line of business. Example 4... § 1.414(r)-2. One of its lines of business is the operation of a chain of athletic equipment...

  5. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-3 - Separate line of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... third line of business, a fast-food chain. Because Employee X provides at least 50 percent of his... management requirements under paragraphs (b) (4) and (5) to the fast-food chain line of business. Example 4... § 1.414(r)-2. One of its lines of business is the operation of a chain of athletic equipment...

  6. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-3 - Separate line of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... third line of business, a fast-food chain. Because Employee X provides at least 50 percent of his... management requirements under paragraphs (b) (4) and (5) to the fast-food chain line of business. Example 4... § 1.414(r)-2. One of its lines of business is the operation of a chain of athletic equipment...

  7. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-3 - Separate line of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... third line of business, a fast-food chain. Because Employee X provides at least 50 percent of his... management requirements under paragraphs (b) (4) and (5) to the fast-food chain line of business. Example 4... houses a centralized procurement, marketing, and billing operation for all of its lines of business....

  8. Efficient airflow design for cleanrooms improves business bottom lines

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Tengfang

    2003-01-05

    Based on a review of airflow design factors and in-situ energy measurements in ISO Cleanliness Class-5 cleanrooms, this paper addresses the importance of energy efficiency in airflow design and opportunities of cost savings in cleanroom practices. The paper discusses design factors that can long lastingly affect cleanroom system performance, and demonstrates benefits of energy efficient cleanroom design from viewpoints of environmental control and business operations. The paper suggests that a high performance cleanroom should not only be effective in contamination control, but also be efficient in energy and environmental performance. The paper also suggests that energy efficient design practice stands to bring in immediate capital cost savings and operation cost savings, and should be regarded by management as a strategy to improve business bottom lines.

  9. Commercialization of Los Alamos National Laboratory technologies via small businesses. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brice, R.; Cartron, D.; Rhyne, T.; Schulze, M.; Welty, L.

    1997-06-01

    Over the past decade, numerous companies have been formed to commercialize research results from leading U.S. academic and research institutions. Emerging small businesses in areas such as Silicon Valley, Boston`s Route 128 corridor, and North Carolina`s Research Triangle have been especially effective in moving promising technologies from the laboratory bench to the commercial marketplace--creating new jobs and economic expansion in the process. Unfortunately, many of the U.S. national laboratories have not been major participants in this technology/commercialization activity, a result of a wide variety of factors which, until recently, acted against successful commercialization. This {open_quotes}commercialization gap{close_quotes} exists partly due to a lack, within Los Alamos in particular and the DOE in general, of in-depth expertise and experience in such business areas as new business development, securities regulation, market research and the determination of commercial potential, the identification of entrepreneurial management, marketing and distribution, and venture capital sources. The immediate consequence of these factors is the disappointingly small number of start-up companies based on technologies from Los Alamos National Laboratory that have been attempted, the modest financial return Los Alamos has received from these start-ups, and the lack of significant national recognition that Los Alamos has received for creating and commercializing these technologies.

  10. A Strategic Model for the Business Communication Field Training Decision in the Commercial Enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioannis, Seimenis; Damianos, Sakas P.; Nikolaos, Konstantopoulos

    2009-08-01

    This article examines the factors that affect the decision making of the training managers responsible in case of business communication field as they have emerged from the study of the decision that have taken place in the commercial sector in this specific Greek market. Previous researches have indicated the participation of a number of variables in this kind of decision. The aim of this article is to locate the main factors which determine, in the commercial sector the decision for the training of the employees in the field of business communication. On the basis of quality research, dynamic simulation model have been created for some of this main factors.

  11. Commercial and Corporate Activities of New University Business Schools: A Critical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince, Christopher; Beaver, Graham

    2004-01-01

    Commercial and corporate activities and the income they generate are of increasing importance to all UK higher education institutions. For new or modern university business schools in particular, the falling unit of resource attaching to undergraduate student teaching income and the virtual disappearance of research revenues as a result of the…

  12. Company's Unusual Plan to Package Commercial Software with Business Textbooks Produces a Measure of Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Beverly T.

    1992-01-01

    Course Technology Inc. has developed 10 products combining textbooks with commercial software for college accounting, business, computer science, and statistics courses. Five of the products use Lotus 1-2-3 spreadsheet software. The products have been positively received by teachers and students. (DB)

  13. The commercial development of water repellent coatings for high voltage transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, S. R.; Daniel, A.

    2013-10-31

    The purpose of the Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between UT-Battelle, LLC and Southwire Company was to jointly develop a low cost, commercially viable, water-repellant anti-icing coating system for high voltage transmission lines. Icing of power lines and other structures caused by freezing rain events occurs annually in the United States, and leads to severe and prolonged power outages. These outages cause untold economic and personal distress for many American families and businesses. Researchers at the Department of Energy?s Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee have previously developed a set of superhydrophobic coatings with remarkable anti-icing properties that could potentially be sprayed or painted onto high-tension power lines and pylons. These coatings drastically reduce ice accumulation on these structures during freezing rain events. The project involved obtaining technical input, supplies and test high voltage cables from Southwire, along with the joint development of anti-icing coating techniques, which would result in a commercial license agreement between Southwire and ORNL, and potentially other companies requiring water repellent anti-icing coatings.

  14. The commercial development of water repellent coatings for high voltage transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, Scott Robert

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of the Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between UT-Battelle, LLC and Southwire Company was to jointly develop a low cost, commercially viable, water-repellant anti-icing coating system for high voltage transmission lines. Icing of power lines and other structures caused by freezing rain events occurs annually in the United States, and leads to severe and prolonged power outages. These outages cause untold economic and personal distress for many American families and businesses. Researchers at the Department of Energy s Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee have previously developed a set of superhydrophobic coatings with remarkable anti-icing properties that could potentially be sprayed or painted onto high-tension power lines and pylons. These coatings drastically reduce ice accumulation on these structures during freezing rain events. The project involved obtaining technical input, supplies and test high voltage cables from Southwire, along with the joint development of anti-icing coating techniques, which would result in a commercial license agreement between Southwire and ORNL, and potentially other companies requiring water repellent anti-icing coatings.

  15. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 1008 - Engaging in the Business of a Loan Originator: Commercial Context and Habitualness

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Engaging in the Business of a Loan Originator: Commercial Context and Habitualness B Appendix B to Part 1008 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL.... 1008, App. B Appendix B to Part 1008—Engaging in the Business of a Loan Originator: Commercial...

  16. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 1008 - Engaging in the Business of a Loan Originator: Commercial Context and Habitualness

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Engaging in the Business of a Loan Originator: Commercial Context and Habitualness B Appendix B to Part 1008 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL.... 1008, App. B Appendix B to Part 1008—Engaging in the Business of a Loan Originator: Commercial...

  17. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 1008 - Engaging in the Business of a Loan Originator: Commercial Context and Habitualness

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Engaging in the Business of a Loan Originator: Commercial Context and Habitualness B Appendix B to Part 1008 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL.... 1008, App. B Appendix B to Part 1008—Engaging in the Business of a Loan Originator: Commercial...

  18. The Department of Defense Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Programs: Implementation of the Commercialization Pilot Program and Related Reforms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    Following that Symposium, “the Senate Committee on Small Business & Entrepreneurship proposed legislation that called for a commercialization...Services and the Committee on Small Business and Entrepreneurship of the Senate and the Committee on Armed Services and the Committee on Small...jointly by the Chair and Ranking Minority Member of the Senate Committee on Small Business and 19 Entrepreneurship and the Chair of the House

  19. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-1 - Requirements applicable to qualified separate lines of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... lines of business. 1.414(r)-1 Section 1.414(r)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT..., Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.414(r)-1 Requirements applicable to qualified separate lines of business. (a) In general. Section 414(r) prescribes the conditions under which an employer is treated as...

  20. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-1 - Requirements applicable to qualified separate lines of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... lines of business. 1.414(r)-1 Section 1.414(r)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Plans, Etc. § 1.414(r)-1 Requirements applicable to qualified separate lines of business. (a) In general. Section 414(r) prescribes the conditions under which an employer is treated as operating...

  1. Business Case for a Micro-Combined Heat and Power Fuel Cell System in Commercial Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Makhmalbaf, Atefe; Anderson, David M.; Amaya, Jodi P.; Pilli, Siva Prasad; Srivastava, Viraj; Upton, Jaki F.

    2013-10-30

    Combined heat and power fuel cell systems (CHP-FCSs) provide consistent electrical power and hot water with greater efficiency and lower emissions than alternative sources. These systems can be used either as baseload, grid-connected, or as off-the-grid power sources. This report presents a business case for CHP-FCSs in the range of 5 to 50 kWe. Systems in this power range are considered micro-CHP-FCS. For this particular business case, commercial applications rather than residential or industrial are targeted. To understand the benefits of implementing a micro-CHP-FCS, the characteristics that determine their competitive advantage must first be identified. Locations with high electricity prices and low natural gas prices are ideal locations for micro-CHP-FCSs. Fortunately, these high spark spread locations are generally in the northeastern area of the United States and California where government incentives are already in place to offset the current high cost of the micro-CHP-FCSs. As a result of the inherently high efficiency of a fuel cell and their ability to use the waste heat that is generated as a CHP, they have higher efficiency. This results in lower fuel costs than comparable alternative small-scale power systems (e.g., microturbines and reciprocating engines). A variety of markets should consider micro-CHP-FCSs including those that require both heat and baseload electricity throughout the year. In addition, the reliable power of micro-CHP-FCSs could be beneficial to markets where electrical outages are especially frequent or costly. Greenhouse gas emission levels from micro-CHP-FCSs are 69 percent lower, and the human health costs are 99.9 percent lower, than those attributed to conventional coal-fired power plants. As a result, FCSs can allow a company to advertise as environmentally conscious and provide a bottom-line sales advantage. As a new technology in the early stages of adoption, micro-CHP-FCSs are currently more expensive than alternative

  2. From invention to innovation: Commercialization of new technology by independent and small business inventors

    SciTech Connect

    1989-05-15

    This handbook emerged from the commitment of Energy-Related Inventions Program personnel to supporting the commercialization efforts of independent and small business inventors with new technologies. As you read this document, you will face questions that may seem far removed from technological concerns--questions about the market, your competition, your business structure, and about legal and regulatory requirements. These may seem peripheral to your present and future work. But, make no mistake, you must carefully and honestly consider and answer these if you expect to penetrate the market in sustained way and profit from your work. Over four hundred of your peers--some by success, others by failure--have shown us the lessons incorporated in this volume. By using it, and by commenting on it, you benefit from their collective experience, and make invaluable additions to it. 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Commercialization of Los Alamos National Laboratory technologies via small businesses. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brice, R.; Carton, D.; Rhyne, T.

    1997-06-01

    Appendices are presented from a study performed on a concept model system for the commercialization of Los Alamos National Laboratory technologies via small businesses. Topics include a summary of information from the joint MCC/Los Alamos technology conference; a comparison of New Mexico infrastructure to other areas; a typical licensing agreement; technology screening guides; summaries of specific DOE/UC/Los Alamos documents; a bibliography; the Oak Ridge National Laboratory TCRD; The Ames Center for Advanced Technology Development; Los Alamos licensing procedures; presentation of slides from monthly MCC/Los Alamos review meetings; generalized entrepreneurship model; and a discussion on receiving equity for technology.

  4. Business-IT Alignment Maturity: The Correlation of Performance Indicators and Alignment Maturity within the Commercial Airline Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Timothy K.

    2010-01-01

    During the period from 1978 to 2009, more than 200 commercial airlines were forced to merge, cease operations, or file for bankruptcy protection. The purpose of this quantitative study is to evaluate the global commercial airline industry from an IT-business alignment perspective and correlate the alignment maturity level of each airline with…

  5. 26 CFR 1.132-4T - Line of business limitation-1985 through 1988 (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...; hotels and other lodging places; auto repair, services, and garages; and food stores. (3) Aggregation of... industry of the employer for any of the separate lines of business of the employer to be operated...

  6. Software Product Lines: Reuse That Makes Business Sense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    Product Line Practice • Software Architecture Technology • Predictable Assembly from Certifiable Components Dynamic Systems • Integration of Software... Technology • Predictable Assembly from Certifiable Components Dynamic Systems • Integration of Software-Intensive Systems • Performance-Critical...Line Systems Program The Product Line Systems (PLS) Program • creates, matures, applies, and transitions technology and practices • to effect widespread

  7. Big Business on Campus: Examining the Bottom Line.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wertz, Richard D.

    1997-01-01

    Privatizing college services, however attractive, may come at a price. Institutional concerns about losing control of services, too much outside presence on campus, and loss of collegiality are real issues. Each institution must assess its own situation and monitor its movement toward contracting out services to private business, balancing…

  8. Workplace Literacy: Bottom-Line Business Strategies. Showcase 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida Chamber of Commerce, Tallahassee.

    This report presents a concise and useful overview of the issue of business/education partnerships to develop and implement workplace literacy programs. The first chapter focuses on the challenges of developing a literate work force for Florida. It considers the changing workplace and work force, Florida trends in illiteracy, the impact of…

  9. 26 CFR 1.132-4T - Line of business limitation-1985 through 1988 (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... for property or services that are offered for sale to customers in the ordinary course of the same... that line of business. (ii) Property and services sold to employees rather than customers. Since the property or services must be offered for sale to customers in the ordinary course of the same line...

  10. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-2 - Line of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... testing year, or the employer actually incur significant costs during the testing year associated with the...), or at different levels in the chain of commercial distribution (e.g., wholesale versus retail), or in... activities, Employer C manufacturers industrial diesel generators. At no additional cost to its...

  11. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-2 - Line of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... testing year, or the employer actually incur significant costs during the testing year associated with the...), or at different levels in the chain of commercial distribution (e.g., wholesale versus retail), or in... activities, Employer C manufacturers industrial diesel generators. At no additional cost to its...

  12. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-2 - Line of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... testing year, or the employer actually incur significant costs during the testing year associated with the...), or at different levels in the chain of commercial distribution (e.g., wholesale versus retail), or in... activities, Employer C manufacturers industrial diesel generators. At no additional cost to its...

  13. Commercialization in College Sports May Have "Crossed the Line," Report Says

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolverton, Brad

    2009-01-01

    Big-time college sports programs derive 60 percent to 80 percent of their revenue from commercial sources, suggesting that intercollegiate athletics--at least at the elite levels--may have "crossed the line" from an educational to a commercial endeavor. That finding comes from a report, "Tax Preferences for Collegiate Sports," released last week…

  14. Measure of mechanical impacts in commercial blueberry packing lines and potential damage to blueberry fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modern blueberry packing lines create impact damage to blueberries which will result in fruit bruising. In this study, impacts created by commercial blueberry packing lines were measured quantitatively using a miniature instrumented sphere. Impacts were recorded at transfer points. Average peakG ...

  15. Biennial Survey of Education in the United States, 1932-1934. Bulletin, 1935, No. 2. Chapter VII: Statistics of Private Commercial and Business Schools, 1932-33

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herlihy, Lester B.

    1934-01-01

    This bulletin is the eighth compilation of statistics on private commercial and business schools made by the Office of Education since 1900. The seventh, or preceding report, on this field of education was published for the year 1929. The effect of the economic situation on private commercial and business schools has been to reduce their…

  16. Concept of Operations for Commercial and Business Aircraft Synthetic Vision Systems. 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams Daniel M.; Waller, Marvin C.; Koelling, John H.; Burdette, Daniel W.; Capron, William R.; Barry, John S.; Gifford, Richard B.; Doyle, Thomas M.

    2001-01-01

    A concept of operations (CONOPS) for the Commercial and Business (CaB) aircraft synthetic vision systems (SVS) is described. The CaB SVS is expected to provide increased safety and operational benefits in normal and low visibility conditions. Providing operational benefits will promote SVS implementation in the Net, improve aviation safety, and assist in meeting the national aviation safety goal. SVS will enhance safety and enable consistent gate-to-gate aircraft operations in normal and low visibility conditions. The goal for developing SVS is to support operational minima as low as Category 3b in a variety of environments. For departure and ground operations, the SVS goal is to enable operations with a runway visual range of 300 feet. The system is an integrated display concept that provides a virtual visual environment. The SVS virtual visual environment is composed of three components: an enhanced intuitive view of the flight environment, hazard and obstacle defection and display, and precision navigation guidance. The virtual visual environment will support enhanced operations procedures during all phases of flight - ground operations, departure, en route, and arrival. The applications selected for emphasis in this document include low visibility departures and arrivals including parallel runway operations, and low visibility airport surface operations. These particular applications were selected because of significant potential benefits afforded by SVS.

  17. 26 CFR 1.132-4T - Line of business limitation-1985 through 1988 (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the same facts as in example (2), except that the minor line of business also operates a chain of dry...; hotels and other lodging places; auto repair, services, and garages; and food stores. (3) Aggregation of... delicatessen with an attached service counter at which food is sold for consumption on the premises....

  18. 26 CFR 1.132-4T - Line of business limitation-1985 through 1988 (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the same facts as in example (2), except that the minor line of business also operates a chain of dry...; hotels and other lodging places; auto repair, services, and garages; and food stores. (3) Aggregation of... delicatessen with an attached service counter at which food is sold for consumption on the premises....

  19. 26 CFR 1.936-11 - New lines of business prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Device B in Puerto Rico in 1997. Device A and Device B are both used to conduct electrical current to the... amount that is the gross income of the possessions corporation for the current taxable year, while the numerator is the amount that is the gross income of the new line of business for the current taxable...

  20. 26 CFR 1.936-11 - New lines of business prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Device B in Puerto Rico in 1997. Device A and Device B are both used to conduct electrical current to the... amount that is the gross income of the possessions corporation for the current taxable year, while the numerator is the amount that is the gross income of the new line of business for the current taxable...

  1. 26 CFR 1.132-4T - Line of business limitation-1985 through 1988 (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ESIC Manual. (ii) Examples. Examples of two-digit classifications are general retail merchandise stores... rule for certain retail stores—(1) In general. The line of business limitation may be relaxed under a... entitled to employee discounts at retail department stores operated by another member of the...

  2. Evaluation of verticillium wilt resistance in commercial cultivars and advanced breeding lines of cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Verticillium wilt (VW), caused by Verticillium dahliae Kleb, is one of the most destructive diseases in cotton (Gossypium spp.). The most efficient and cost-effective method of controlling the disease is the use of resistant cotton cultivars. Most commercial cultivars and elite breeding lines are de...

  3. Draft Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement, Proposed Marathon Industrial/Commercial Business Center Tract 5167, Hayward, California.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-01

    losses. (Other applicant purposes specific to the type of industrial business park are described in detail in Section III). The public benefit ...which, if approved, is considered to be in the public interest (i.e. provides a public benefit ). This is the case with the proposed Marathon industrial...site wetland losses. The public benefits associated with the proposed development are: 1) additional industrial/commercial development which would

  4. 45 CFR 2507.11 - What are the procedures for the release of commercial business information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Corporation shall afford a business submitter 10 working days to object to disclosure, and to provide the... individuals who have access to such information; and (iii) The type and degree of risk of financial injury to... business information shall be mailed by the Corporation not less than six working days prior to the...

  5. 45 CFR 2507.11 - What are the procedures for the release of commercial business information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Corporation shall afford a business submitter 10 working days to object to disclosure, and to provide the... individuals who have access to such information; and (iii) The type and degree of risk of financial injury to... business information shall be mailed by the Corporation not less than six working days prior to the...

  6. Life cycle assessment of hybrid vehicles recycling: Comparison of three business lines of dismantling.

    PubMed

    Belboom, Sandra; Lewis, Grégory; Bareel, Pierre-François; Léonard, Angélique

    2016-04-01

    This paper undertakes an environmental evaluation of hybrid vehicles recycling, using industrial data from Comet Traitement SA in Belgium. Three business lines have been modelled and analysed. The first one is relative to the business as usual with a dismantling to recover batteries and engines followed by shredding and post shredding treatments. The second one considers, in addition, the removal of electronic control units (ECU) before shredding followed by same steps than in the first line and the last one is relative to the additional removal of big plastic parts before shredding and business as usual post shredding treatments. Results show non-significant environmental benefits when ECU or large parts of plastics are recovered before shredding. Improvements in terms of environmental benefits are lower than the uncertainty of the results. Indeed, the performing usual process for end-of-life vehicles (ELV) treatment reaches 97% of the ELV which is valorised in terms of metal and energy recoveries. Post shredding treatment units include metals, plastics and energy recovery of residues. Comet business as usual route for ELV valorisation is in accordance with the requirements of the European directive and recommendations for further improvement with dismantling of other parts (ECU or plastics) before shredding are non-relevant in this case.

  7. Comparison of charged nanoparticle concentrations near busy roads and overhead high-voltage power lines.

    PubMed

    Jayaratne, E R; Ling, X; Morawska, L

    2015-09-01

    Overhead high-voltage power lines are known sources of corona ions. These ions rapidly attach to aerosols to form charged particles in the environment. Although the effect of ions and charged particles on human health is largely unknown, much attention has focused on the increasing exposure as a result of the expanding power network in urban residential areas. However, it is not widely known that a large number of charged particles in urban environments originate from motor vehicle emissions. In this study, for the first time, we compare the concentrations of charged nanoparticles near busy roads and overhead power lines. We show that large concentrations of both positive and negative charged nanoparticles are present near busy roadways and that these concentrations commonly exceed those under high-voltage power lines. We estimate that the concentration of charged nanoparticles found near two freeways carrying around 120 vehicles per minute exceeded the corresponding maximum concentrations under two corona-emitting overhead power lines by as much as a factor of 5. The difference was most pronounced when a significant fraction of traffic consisted of heavy-duty diesel vehicles which typically have high particle and charge emission rates.

  8. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-7 - Determination of the employees of an employer's qualified separate lines of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... testing year, consisting of a software developer, a health food products supplier, a real estate developer... business as follows: Software developer Health food Real estate Ski equipment Substantial-Service Employees...)-5(b), and that the real estate development line of business would satisfy the minimum or...

  9. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-7 - Determination of the employees of an employer's qualified separate lines of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... testing year, consisting of a software developer, a health food products supplier, a real estate developer... business as follows: Software developer Health food Real estate Ski equipment Substantial-Service Employees...)-5(b), and that the real estate development line of business would satisfy the minimum or...

  10. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-7 - Determination of the employees of an employer's qualified separate lines of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... testing year, consisting of a software developer, a health food products supplier, a real estate developer... business as follows: Software developer Health food Real estate Ski equipment Substantial-Service Employees...)-5(b), and that the real estate development line of business would satisfy the minimum or...

  11. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-7 - Determination of the employees of an employer's qualified separate lines of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... testing year, consisting of a software developer, a health food products supplier, a real estate developer... business as follows: Software developer Health food Real estate Ski equipment Substantial-Service Employees...)-5(b), and that the real estate development line of business would satisfy the minimum or...

  12. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-5 - Qualified separate line of business-administrative scrutiny requirement-safe harbors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and electronics; and entertainment, sports, and hotels. Example 1. Among its other business activities... machinery and electronics industry category to customers of Employer D, neither separate line of business... Employer D any property or services in the machinery and electronics industry category. Under these...

  13. Quantifying the foodscape: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the validity of commercially available business data.

    PubMed

    Lebel, Alexandre; Daepp, Madeleine I G; Block, Jason P; Walker, Renée; Lalonde, Benoît; Kestens, Yan; Subramanian, S V

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews studies of the validity of commercially available business (CAB) data on food establishments ("the foodscape"), offering a meta-analysis of characteristics associated with CAB quality and a case study evaluating the performance of commonly-used validity indicators describing the foodscape. Existing validation studies report a broad range in CAB data quality, although most studies conclude that CAB quality is "moderate" to "substantial". We conclude that current studies may underestimate the quality of CAB data. We recommend that future validation studies use density-adjusted and exposure measures to offer a more meaningful characterization of the relationship of data error with spatial exposure.

  14. Introduction of Business-Commercial-Technical French into the Secondary Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buzash, Michael D.

    This set of materials is designed to help incorporate business and technical French into the secondary school second language curriculum. It consists of a list of goals for introduction of such content, vocabulary lists and related exercises, and a variety of instructional materials and visual aids. Topics addressed include: postal services;…

  15. Selected Resource Materials for Developing Energy Conservation Programs in the Small Business/Commercial Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lengyel, Dorothy L.; And Others

    This annotated bibliography is a selected listing of references for use by small business managers in the development of energy conservation programs. The references are listed under the agency through which they are available. The agency listings are alphabetized and include complete mailing addresses. There are 35 agency listings, many of which…

  16. Development of a commercial line of high-performance fast-steering mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berta, Albert; Hedding, Larry R.; Hoffman, Charlie; Messaros, Michael

    1999-07-01

    Fast-steering mirrors, called FSMs, for short, and sometimes referred to as fine-steering or tip-tilt mirrors, are primarily two-axis devices originally developed for a variety of demanding air and space applications for line-of- sight pointing and beam stabilization. Ball Aerospace has been engaged in the design and development of fast-steering mirrors since 1983. In 1994, Ball began employing lessons learned from these one-of-a-kind custom units to develop a commercial line of low cost (< $DLR50 K), high- performance mirrors to serve the general optics community. This paper first provides a brief overview of our overall FSM development history and some successful applications. Next, our commercial FSMs are described along with performance specifications and test results. Parameters of interest discussed include bandwidth, acceleration, accuracy, reliability, and types of mirror substrates. Test results on two models of commercial 3-in mirrors demonstrating accuracies of < 1 (mu) rad, life and reliability > 108 cycles, and the ability to endure high-level random vibration are presented.

  17. Fuels and Space Propellants for Reusable Launch Vehicles: A Small Business Innovation Research Topic and Its Commercial Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.

    1997-01-01

    Under its Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program (and with NASA Headquarters support), the NASA Lewis Research Center has initiated a topic entitled "Fuels and Space Propellants for Reusable Launch Vehicles." The aim of this project would be to assist in demonstrating and then commercializing new rocket propellants that are safer and more environmentally sound and that make space operations easier. Soon it will be possible to commercialize many new propellants and their related component technologies because of the large investments being made throughout the Government in rocket propellants and the technologies for using them. This article discusses the commercial vision for these fuels and propellants, the potential for these propellants to reduce space access costs, the options for commercial development, and the benefits to nonaerospace industries. This SBIR topic is designed to foster the development of propellants that provide improved safety, less environmental impact, higher density, higher I(sub sp), and simpler vehicle operations. In the development of aeronautics and space technology, there have been limits to vehicle performance imposed by traditionally used propellants and fuels. Increases in performance are possible with either increased propellant specific impulse, increased density, or both. Flight system safety will also be increased by the use of denser, more viscous propellants and fuels.

  18. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-4 - Qualified separate line of business-fifty-employee and notice requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-employee and notice requirements. 1.414(r)-4 Section 1.414(r)-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE...-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.414(r)-4 Qualified separate line of business—fifty-employee and... line of business (as determined under § 1.414(r)-3) satisfies the 50-employee and notice...

  19. Development of Novel Glyphosate-Tolerant Japonica Rice Lines: A Step Toward Commercial Release

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Ying; Huang, Shuqing; Liu, Ziduo; Yi, Shuyuan; Zhou, Fei; Chen, Hao; Lin, Yongjun

    2016-01-01

    Glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide for its low cost and high efficiency. However, it is rarely applied directly in rice field due to its toxicity to rice. Therefore, glyphosate-tolerant rice can greatly decrease the cost of rice production and provide a more effective weed management strategy. Although, several approaches to develop transgenic rice with glyphosate tolerance have been reported, the agronomic performances of these plants have not been well evaluated, and the feasibility of commercial production has not been confirmed yet. Here, a novel glyphosate-tolerant gene cloned from the bacterium Isoptericola variabilis was identified, codon optimized (designated as I. variabilis-EPSPS*), and transferred into Zhonghua11, a widely used japonica rice cultivar. After systematic analysis of the transgene integration via PCR, Southern blot and flanking sequence isolation, three transgenic lines with only one intact I. variabilis-EPSPS* expression cassette integrated into intergenic regions were identified. Seed test results showed that the glyphosate tolerance of the transgenic rice was about 240 times that of wild type on plant medium. The glyphosate tolerance of transgenic rice lines was further evaluated based on comprehensive agronomic performances in the field with T3 and T5generations in a 2-year assay, which showed that they were rarely affected by glyphosate even when the dosage was 8400 g ha−1. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the development of glyphosate-tolerant rice lines based on a comprehensive analysis of agronomic performances in the field. Taken together, the results suggest that the selected glyphosate-tolerant rice lines are highly tolerant to glyphosate and have the possibility of commercial release. I. variabilis-EPSPS* also can be a promising candidate gene in other species for developing glyphosate-tolerant crops. PMID:27625652

  20. Development of Novel Glyphosate-Tolerant Japonica Rice Lines: A Step Toward Commercial Release.

    PubMed

    Cui, Ying; Huang, Shuqing; Liu, Ziduo; Yi, Shuyuan; Zhou, Fei; Chen, Hao; Lin, Yongjun

    2016-01-01

    Glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide for its low cost and high efficiency. However, it is rarely applied directly in rice field due to its toxicity to rice. Therefore, glyphosate-tolerant rice can greatly decrease the cost of rice production and provide a more effective weed management strategy. Although, several approaches to develop transgenic rice with glyphosate tolerance have been reported, the agronomic performances of these plants have not been well evaluated, and the feasibility of commercial production has not been confirmed yet. Here, a novel glyphosate-tolerant gene cloned from the bacterium Isoptericola variabilis was identified, codon optimized (designated as I. variabilis-EPSPS (*)), and transferred into Zhonghua11, a widely used japonica rice cultivar. After systematic analysis of the transgene integration via PCR, Southern blot and flanking sequence isolation, three transgenic lines with only one intact I. variabilis-EPSPS (*) expression cassette integrated into intergenic regions were identified. Seed test results showed that the glyphosate tolerance of the transgenic rice was about 240 times that of wild type on plant medium. The glyphosate tolerance of transgenic rice lines was further evaluated based on comprehensive agronomic performances in the field with T3 and T5generations in a 2-year assay, which showed that they were rarely affected by glyphosate even when the dosage was 8400 g ha(-1). To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the development of glyphosate-tolerant rice lines based on a comprehensive analysis of agronomic performances in the field. Taken together, the results suggest that the selected glyphosate-tolerant rice lines are highly tolerant to glyphosate and have the possibility of commercial release. I. variabilis-EPSPS (*) also can be a promising candidate gene in other species for developing glyphosate-tolerant crops.

  1. Growth rate of ascites-resistant versus ascites-susceptible broilers in commercial and experimental lines.

    PubMed

    Druyan, S; Hadad, Y; Cahaner, A

    2008-05-01

    The high growth rate (GR) of contemporary broilers is driven by high rate of feed intake and metabolism. Because of the consequent high oxygen demand, especially when coupled with exposure to high altitude or low temperatures, some broilers fail to regulate oxygen supply and develop the ascites syndrome (AS), which leads to mortality and economic losses. Because of the association between high GR, oxygen demand, and AS, it has been suggested that AS is induced by high GR. If true, further GR enhancement should be avoided because it will increase the proportion of AS-susceptible individuals in contemporary stocks. An alternative hypothesis claims that AS is associated with high actual GR only because the latter increases oxygen demand and that there are genetically AS-resistant broilers that do not develop AS, even when exhibiting high GR. These hypotheses were tested in trials in the years 2002 and 2006, with broilers differing in potential GR: contemporary fast-growing commercial lines and an experimental line derived from commercial broilers in 1986, and (in 2002 only) divergently selected AS-susceptible and AS-resistant lines. A protocol of high-challenge ascites-inducing conditions (AIC) from d 19 was used to distinguish between AS-susceptible and AS-resistant individuals and to determine their GR up to this age. The difference in AS incidence between the divergent lines (93.9 vs. 9.5%) was not explained by the 5% difference in their GR, thus indicating a lack of genetic correlation. In the broiler lines, AS incidence was 31 and 47% in 2002 and 2006, respectively, and 32% in the 1986 slow-growing line. Most broilers that remained healthy under the high-challenge AIC exhibited the same early GR and BW as those that later developed AS. These results, and the relatively high incidence of AS in the slow-growing line, indicate that there is very little, if any, direct genetic association between AS and genetic differences in potential GR, and suggest that AS

  2. Performances of a date dissemination code on telephone lines using commercial modems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cordara, F.; Pettiti, V.; Quasso, R.; Rubiola, E.

    1993-01-01

    A coded time/date information dissemination system (CTD), based on telephone lines and commercial modems, is now in its experimental phase in Italy at IEN. This service, born from a cooperation with other metrological laboratories (TUG, Austria, SNT, Sweden, VSL, The Netherlands), represents an attempt towards an European standardization. Some results of an experimental analysis in which a few modems were tested, both in laboratory conditions and connected to the telephone network, in order to evaluate the timing capability of the system are given. When the system is used in a one-way mode, in many practical cases the modems delay turns out to be the main factor which limits the accuracy, even more than the telephone line delays. If the two-way mode is used, the modems asymmetry, i.e., the delay difference between transmission and reception, is almost always the most important source of uncertainty, provided the link is not including a space segment. Comparing the widely used V.22 modems to the old V.21 ones, the latters turn out to be better both in delay time (30-100 ms V.22, and 7-15 ms V.21) and asymmetry (10-50 micro-s V.22, and 10 ms V.22). Time transfer accuracies of 10 micron-s (same turn) to 100 micro-s (long distance calls) were obtained in two-way mode with commercial V.21 modems.

  3. Copper phytoextraction in tandem with oilseed production using commercial cultivars and mutant lines of sunflower.

    PubMed

    Kolbas, A; Mench, M; Herzig, R; Nehnevajova, E; Bes, C M

    2011-01-01

    Use of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) for Cu phytoextraction and oilseed production on Cu-contaminated topsoils was investigated in afield trial at a former wood preservation site. Six commercial cultivars and two mutant lines were cultivated in plots with and without the addition of compost (5% w/w) and dolomitic limestone (0.2% w/w). Total soil Cu ranged from 163 to 1170 mg kg(-1). In soil solutions, Cu concentration varied between 0.16-0.93 mg L(-1). The amendment increased soil pH, reduced Cu exposure and promoted sunflower growth. Stem length, shoot and capitulum biomasses, seed yield, and shoot and leaf Cu concentrations were measured. At low total soil Cu, shoot Cu mineralomass was higher in commercial cultivars, Le., Salut, Energic, and Countri, whereas competition and shading affected morphological traits of mutants. Based on shoot yield (7 Mg DW ha(-1)) and Cu concentration, the highest removal was 59 g Cu ha(-1). At high total soil Cu, shoot Cu mineralomass peaked for mutants (e.g., 52 g Cu ha(-1) for Mutant 1 line) and cultivars Energic and Countri. Energic seed yield (3.9 Mg air-DW ha(-1)) would be sufficient to produce oil Phenotype traits and shoot Cu removal depended on sunflower types and Cu exposure.

  4. Quantifying the foodscape: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the validity of commercially available business data

    PubMed Central

    Lebel, Alexandre; Daepp, Madeleine I. G.; Block, Jason P.; Walker, Renée; Lalonde, Benoît; Kestens, Yan; Subramanian, S. V.

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews studies of the validity of commercially available business (CAB) data on food establishments (“the foodscape”), offering a meta-analysis of characteristics associated with CAB quality and a case study evaluating the performance of commonly-used validity indicators describing the foodscape. Existing validation studies report a broad range in CAB data quality, although most studies conclude that CAB quality is “moderate” to “substantial”. We conclude that current studies may underestimate the quality of CAB data. We recommend that future validation studies use density-adjusted and exposure measures to offer a more meaningful characterization of the relationship of data error with spatial exposure. PMID:28358819

  5. 26 CFR 54.4977-1T - Questions and answers relating to the election concerning lines of business in existence on...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... concerning lines of business in existence on January 1, 1984 (temporary). 54.4977-1T Section 54.4977-1T... concerning lines of business in existence on January 1, 1984 (temporary). The following questions and answers... section 531(e)(1) of the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (98 Stat. 886), to treat all employees of any line...

  6. Clinical and pathological responses of pigs from two genetically diverse commercial lines to porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The response to infection from porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) for two genetically diverse commercial pig lines was investigated. Seventy two pigs from each line, aged 6 weeks, were challenged with PRRSV VR-2385, and 66 littermates served as control. The clinical response...

  7. The genetics of feed conversion efficiency traits in a commercial broiler line

    PubMed Central

    Reyer, Henry; Hawken, Rachel; Murani, Eduard; Ponsuksili, Siriluck; Wimmers, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Individual feed conversion efficiency (FCE) is a major trait that influences the usage of energy resources and the ecological footprint of livestock production. The underlying biological processes of FCE are complex and are influenced by factors as diverse as climate, feed properties, gut microbiota, and individual genetic predisposition. To gain an insight to the genetic relationships with FCE traits and to contribute to the improvement of FCE in commercial chicken lines, a genome-wide association study was conducted using a commercial broiler population (n = 859) tested for FCE and weight traits during the finisher period from 39 to 46 days of age. Both single-marker (generalized linear model) and multi-marker (Bayesian approach) analyses were applied to the dataset to detect genes associated with the variability in FCE. The separate analyses revealed 22 quantitative trait loci (QTL) regions on 13 different chromosomes; the integration of both approaches resulted in 7 overlapping QTL regions. The analyses pointed to acylglycerol kinase (AGK) and general transcription factor 2-I (GTF2I) as positional and functional candidate genes. Non-synonymous polymorphisms of both candidate genes revealed evidence for a functional importance of these genes by influencing different biological aspects of FCE. PMID:26552583

  8. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-4 - Qualified separate line of business-fifty-employee and notice requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-employee and notice requirements. 1.414(r)-4 Section 1.414(r)-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.414(r)-4 Qualified separate line of business—fifty-employee and notice... business (as determined under § 1.414(r)-3) satisfies the 50-employee and notice requirements of §...

  9. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-7 - Determination of the employees of an employer's qualified separate lines of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... qualified separate lines of business. 1.414(r)-7 Section 1.414(r)-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE...-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.414(r)-7 Determination of the employees of an employer's qualified... residual shared employee as defined in § 1.414(r)-11(b)(2) and (4)) is assigned to a single...

  10. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-6 - Qualified separate line of business-administrative scrutiny requirement-individual determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-administrative scrutiny requirement-individual determinations. 1.414(r)-6 Section 1.414(r)-6 Internal Revenue... Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.414(r)-6 Qualified separate line of business... determined under § 1.414(r)-3) that does not satisfy any of the safe harbors in § 1.414(r)-5 for a...

  11. Small Businesses Save Big: A Borrower's Guide To Increase the Bottom Line Using Energy Efficiency (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-01-01

    Dollars saved through energy efficiency can directly impact your bottom line. Whether you are planning for a major renovation or upgrading individual pieces of building equipment, these improvements can help reduce operating costs, save on utility bills, and boost profits. This fact sheet provides a guide for small businesses to find the resources to increase the energy efficiency of their buildings.

  12. Effects of Enron on Future Russian Business Leaders: A Time Line Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludlum, Marty; Moskalionov, Sergei

    2008-01-01

    Russia has emerged as a new capitalistic country with a prior history of corruption under the state controlled regime. Will word of corruption in America stop efforts for an ethical business climate in the new Russia? Has the Enron scandal affected Russian views of business? In pursuit of the answer, the authors surveyed Russian business students…

  13. Bottom Line Benefits: Increasing Profits through Targeted Tax and Job Training Incentives. A Handbook for Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Alliance of Business, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This handbook for businesses explains the benefits and incentives provided by the Targeted Jobs Tax Credit (TJTC) and the Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) and shows how businesses can take advantage of them. An introduction summarizes the two pieces of legislation. Section 1 furnishes the specifics on the TJTC and explains how businesses can…

  14. Commercial potential of natural gas storage in lined rock caverns (LRC)

    SciTech Connect

    1999-11-01

    The geologic conditions in many regions of the United States will not permit the development of economical high-deliverability gas storage in salt caverns. These regions include the entire Eastern Seaboard; several northern states, notably Minnesota and Wisconsin; many of the Rocky Mountain States; and most of the Pacific Northwest. In late 1997, the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) Federal Energy Technology Center engaged Sofregaz US to investigate the commercialization potential of natural gas storage in Lined Rock Caverns (LRC). Sofregaz US teamed with Gaz de France and Sydkraft, who had formed a consortium, called LRC, to perform the study for the USDOE. Underground storage of natural gas is generally achieved in depleted oil and gas fields, aquifers, and solution-mined salt caverns. These storage technologies require specific geologic conditions. Unlined rock caverns have been used for decades to store hydrocarbons - mostly liquids such as crude oil, butane, and propane. The maximum operating pressure in unlined rock caverns is limited, since the host rock is never entirely impervious. The LRC technology allows a significant increase in the maximum operating pressure over the unlined storage cavern concept, since the gas in storage is completely contained with an impervious liner. The LRC technology has been under development in Sweden by Sydkraft since 1987. The development process has included extensive technical studies, laboratory testing, field tests, and most recently includes a storage facility being constructed in southern Sweden (Skallen). The LRC development effort has shown that the concept is technically and economically viable. The Skallen storage facility will have a rock cover of 115 meters (375 feet), a storage volume of 40,000 cubic meters (250,000 petroleum barrels), and a maximum operating pressure of 20 MPa (2,900 psi). There is a potential for commercialization of the LRC technology in the United States. Two regions were studied

  15. The Business Information Services: Old-Line Online Moves to the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Leary, Mick

    1997-01-01

    Although the availability of free information on the World Wide Web has placed traditional, fee-based proprietary online services on the defensive, most major online business services are now on the Web. Highlights several business information providers: Profound, NewsNet and ProQuest Direct, Dow Jones and Wall Street Journal Interactive Edition,…

  16. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-6 - Qualified separate line of business-administrative scrutiny requirement-individual determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-administrative scrutiny requirement-individual determinations. 1.414(r)-6 Section 1.414(r)-6 Internal Revenue... (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.414(r)-6 Qualified separate line of business... determined under § 1.414(r)-3) that does not satisfy any of the safe harbors in § 1.414(r)-5 for a...

  17. Climate wise and BSR: Partnering with business to improve the environment and the bottom line

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, R.C.

    1996-05-01

    American companies consume nearly 50 percent of the nation`s energy. These companies, along with the utilities who provide them energy, produce nearly two-thirds of the nation`s greenhouse gas emissions. Developing and nurturing partnerships among companies, utilities and government agencies, and nonprofit organizations can lead to dramatic increases in the efficiency and productivity of American companies while simultaneously decreasing pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. The Business for Social Responsibility (BSR) Education Fund is a not-for-profit business organization that energy efficiency and pollution prevention practices within the business community and serves as a catalyst for change toward more environmentally sustainable development. The BSR Education Fund has joined forces with Climate Wise. A voluntary program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy, to help companies to improve their environmental and economic efficiency by forming partnerships with their local utilities and other business resource providers.

  18. An Attempt at Quantifying Factors that Affect Efficiency in the Management of Solid Waste Produced by Commercial Businesses in the City of Tshwane, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Worku, Yohannes; Muchie, Mammo

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The objective was to investigate factors that affect the efficient management of solid waste produced by commercial businesses operating in the city of Pretoria, South Africa. Methods. Data was gathered from 1,034 businesses. Efficiency in solid waste management was assessed by using a structural time-based model designed for evaluating efficiency as a function of the length of time required to manage waste. Data analysis was performed using statistical procedures such as frequency tables, Pearson's chi-square tests of association, and binary logistic regression analysis. Odds ratios estimated from logistic regression analysis were used for identifying key factors that affect efficiency in the proper disposal of waste. Results. The study showed that 857 of the 1,034 businesses selected for the study (83%) were found to be efficient enough with regards to the proper collection and disposal of solid waste. Based on odds ratios estimated from binary logistic regression analysis, efficiency in the proper management of solid waste was significantly influenced by 4 predictor variables. These 4 influential predictor variables are lack of adherence to waste management regulations, wrong perception, failure to provide customers with enough trash cans, and operation of businesses by employed managers, in a decreasing order of importance. PMID:23209483

  19. 26 CFR 1.936-11 - New lines of business prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... products and services to the same class of customers; (C) The new activity is of a type that is normally... section; or (C) If the pre-existing business is making a component product or end-product form, as defined... will not be bound by any section 936(h) election made by the predecessor existing credit claimant...

  20. Business, Babies & the Bottom Line: Corporate Innovations and Best Practices in Maternal and Child Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Miriam; Kolarek, Mary Hebert; Newton, Bonnie

    This publication presents the efforts and results of leading large employers to improve the health of mothers and children. Section 1 profiles the pioneering efforts and innovative practices of seven large employers and one business group: Haggar Clothing Co.; Honeywell Inc.; Los Angeles Department of Water and Power; Monfort, Inc.; First Chicago…

  1. A Vice-President from the Business World Brings a New Bottom Line to Penn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Werf, Martin

    1999-01-01

    The executive vice-president of the University of Pennsylvania is credited with making significant changes in both the administration and the campus, using cost-cutting and change strategies from his business experience. Outsourcing, training for employees who might be terminated, substantial savings and new revenue, and gentrification of…

  2. Evaluation of Commercial Probes for On-Line Electrical Conductivity Measurements during Goat Gland Milking Process

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Gema; Díaz, Jose Ramon; Sabater, Jose Maria; Perez, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of the milk electrical conductivity (EC) during mechanical milking has been widely studied for mastitis detection on cows because its improving of welfare and animal health, although research about small ruminants is scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of three commercial conductimeters to be used during mechanical milking of small ruminant halves, especially Murciano-Granadina goats. The objective of this research was to integrate the probes on the milking unit and to check the suitability of the probe selected. The results presented in this research have guided authors to discard the commercial probes and to establish the requirements of a new probe design that is briefly outlined in the conclusions of this contribution. PMID:22666042

  3. Tobacco, commercial speech, and libertarian values: the end of the line for restrictions on advertising?

    PubMed

    Bayer, Ronald

    2002-03-01

    In June of 2001, the Supreme Court overturned a set of antitobacco measures adopted by the state of Massachusetts designed to protect young people from advertising. Once again, the court expressed its hostility toward measures designed to restrict commercial speech in the name of the social good. In so doing, the court underscored the enduring tension between the libertarian and social welfare dimensions of contemporary democracy and placed into relief the divisions within the American liberal tradition.

  4. Commercial Funding in Academe: Examining the Correlates of Faculty's Use of Industrial and Business Funding for Academic Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szelenyi, Katalin; Goldberg, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the demographic, academic, attitudinal, and institutional correlates of receiving industry or business funding for academic work in a national sample of faculty in the United States. The findings depict a complicated picture of externally funded academic work, with implications for the practical and theoretical understanding of…

  5. The Anatomy of Program Design for an On-Line Business Management Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barger, Bonita

    2008-01-01

    How does one design an on-line course to bridge theory and practice? How can the feedback of on-going stakeholder (student and administration) be incorporated into the design process to enhance quality? This paper presents the theoretical underpinning of designing an on-line management course recognized as best practice for a "well organized…

  6. A commercial tunable diode laser (TDL) system for on-line remote measurements of automobile emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Konradin; Ropertz, Alexander; Schwabe, Thomas; Fischer, Christian; van Haren, Gunther

    2004-11-01

    An innovative tunable diode laser (TDL) measurement system has been used for the on-line estimation of emissions of cars, driving through the measurement beam of the system. This paper describes the measurement principle and gives first measurement results, taken for different types of cars.

  7. In vitro penetration of Salmonella Enteritidis through yolk membranes of eggs from 6 genetically distinct commercial lines of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Gast, R K; Jones, D R; Anderson, K E; Guraya, R; Guard, J; Holt, P S

    2010-08-01

    Although deposition of Salmonella Enteritidis inside yolks is less common than deposition in albumen or on the vitelline (yolk) membrane in naturally contaminated eggs laid by infected hens, bacterial migration into the yolk to reach its nutrient-rich contents could lead to extensive multiplication. The present study used an in vitro egg contamination model to assess the ability of small initial numbers of Salmonella Enteritidis to penetrate the vitelline membrane and multiply inside yolks of eggs laid by 6 genetically distinct commercial lines of hens during 24 h of storage at 30 degrees C. Eggs from each line were tested at 4 different hen ages by inoculation of approximately 100 cfu of Salmonella Enteritidis onto the outside of the vitelline membranes of intact yolks in plastic centrifuge tubes and then adding back the albumen into each tube before incubation. Overall, the frequency of penetration of Salmonella Enteritidis into the yolk contents of eggs from individual lines of hens ranged from 30 to 58% and the mean concentration of Salmonella Enteritidis in yolk contents after incubation ranged from 0.8 to 2.0 log(10) cfu/mL. For both of these parameters, values for one hen line were significantly higher than for 2 other lines, but no other differences were observed. Hen age did not have a significant effect on egg yolk penetration by Salmonella Enteritidis. These results indicate that opportunities for the migration and growth of small initial numbers of Salmonella Enteritidis to attain more dangerous levels inside contaminated eggs during storage at warm temperatures can sometimes vary between different lines of laying hens.

  8. Performances of a Date Dissemination Code on Telephone Lines Using Commercial Modems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    equipment, and that the modemsused both at the code generation side and at the users end are by far the most influential factor in the synchronization error...timing reference and ASCII characters generated by a personal computer. The following sections describe in details the format of the CTD and its...line of the code as generated at IEN with full details is shown in Fig. 1. The characters from 1 to 37, identified in Fig. 1 by letters from A to M

  9. Fiber-channel audio video standard for military and commercial aircraft product lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Jack E.

    2002-08-01

    Fibre channel is an emerging high-speed digital network technology that combines to make inroads into the avionics arena. The suitability of fibre channel for such applications is largely due to its flexibility in these key areas: Network topologies can be configured in point-to-point, arbitrated loop or switched fabric connections. The physical layer supports either copper or fiber optic implementations with a Bit Error Rate of less than 10-12. Multiple Classes of Service are available. Multiple Upper Level Protocols are supported. Multiple high speed data rates offer open ended growth paths providing speed negotiation within a single network. Current speeds supported by commercially available hardware are 1 and 2 Gbps providing effective data rates of 100 and 200 MBps respectively. Such networks lend themselves well to the transport of digital video and audio data. This paper summarizes an ANSI standard currently in the final approval cycle of the InterNational Committee for Information Technology Standardization (INCITS). This standard defines a flexible mechanism whereby digital video, audio and ancillary data are systematically packaged for transport over a fibre channel network. The basic mechanism, called a container, houses audio and video content functionally grouped as elements of the container called objects. Featured in this paper is a specific container mapping called Simple Parametric Digital Video (SPDV) developed particularly to address digital video in avionics systems. SPDV provides pixel-based video with associated ancillary data typically sourced by various sensors to be processed and/or distributed in the cockpit for presentation via high-resolution displays. Also highlighted in this paper is a streamlined Upper Level Protocol (ULP) called Frame Header Control Procedure (FHCP) targeted for avionics systems where the functionality of a more complex ULP is not required.

  10. Strategy & Action Plan For Accelerating Technology Transfer (T2) and Commercialization of Federal Research in Support of High Growth Businesses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-04

    industry consortia , economic development entities, and State and local governments.” Specifically, increased efforts to facilitate commercialization...both the DoD and industry . Accurate and relevant data are essential in supporting analysis based on actual versus planned outcomes relative to...and industrial innovation are critical to the U.S economic, environmental, and social well-being. Establishes national authorities for T2 across the

  11. Host genetic resistance to Marek's disease sustains protective efficacy of herpesvirus of turkey in both experimental and commercial lines of chickens.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shuang; Xie, Qingmei; Dunn, John R; Ernst, Catherine W; Song, Jiuzhou; Zhang, Huanmin

    2014-04-01

    Marek's disease (MD) remains a continual threat to the poultry industry worldwide as the MD virus continues evolving in virulence. MD has been controlled primarily by intensive use of vaccines since 1969. Based on the antigenic and pathogenic differences of the viruses that the vaccines were derived from, commercially available MD vaccines are classified into three categories, MDV-1, -2, and -3 vaccines. This study was designed to compare the protective efficacy of MDV-1 (CVI988/Rispens) and MDV-3 (HVT) vaccines against challenge of a very virulent plus strain of Marek's disease virus (vv+MDV) in experimental and commercial egg-layer lines of chickens under controlled experimental conditions. The two experimental lines (63 and 72) of chickens carry a uniform MHC B*2 haplotype and are known to differ in resistance to MD. One of the two commercial egg-layer lines (WL and BL) segregates for three MHC haplotypes (B*2, B*15, and B*21); the other is unclear. MD incidences of the unvaccinated groups of both experimental lines and both commercial lines were 100% or close to 100% induced by the vv+MDV, 648A. Survived day patterns of the unvaccinated groups significantly differed between the two experimental lines, but did not between the two commercial lines, which suggested the two experimental lines do differ in resistance to MD but not between the two commercial lines. At manufacturers' recommended vaccine dosage, two HVTs conveyed comparable protection for the MD resistant line 63 chickens as did both CVI988/Rispens used in this study. The two HVTs also conveyed comparable protection for both commercial lines of chickens as did one of two CVI988/Rispens (CVI988/Rispens-A). At a 2000PFU uniform dose, HVT and CVI988/Rispens again conveyed comparable protection for the MD resistant experimental line of chickens. The findings suggest vaccine protective efficacy is modulated by factors including the types and the sources of vaccines and the genetic backgrounds of chickens

  12. Investigation of commercial sorbents for the analysis of opioid peptides in human plasma by on-line SPE-CE.

    PubMed

    Benavente, Fernando; Medina-Casanellas, Silvia; Barbosa, José; Sanz-Nebot, Victoria

    2010-05-01

    In this study, we investigated the performance of several commercial sorbents (Sep-pack) C18, (t)C18, C8 and (t)C2, Oasis HLB, Isolute ENV+, Strata-X and Oasis MCX) for the determination of opioid peptides by solid-phase extraction coupled on-line to capillary electrophoresis (SPE-CE). First, standard solutions were analyzed in order to achieve the lowest LOD and the best electrophoretic separations using UV detection. The best results were obtained using C18, C8 and (t)C2 sorbents, which were examined for the analysis of spiked human plasma samples. A double-step sample clean-up pretreatment, which consisted of precipitation with acetonitrile and filtration, was needed to prevent saturation of the on-line SPE microcartridge. The filtration step was critical to obtain optimum analyte recovery and to clean up the sample matrix. A range of centrifugal filters and filtration conditions were tested and the recoveries of the sample pretreatment were evaluated by CE-ESI-MS. The LODs attained through SPE-CE-UV were approximately ten-fold better with C18 than with C8 and (t)C2. The 0.1 microg/mL LODs achieved by C18-SPE-CE-UV were further improved until we could detect 1 ng/mL concentrations of opioid peptides in plasma samples by C18-SPE-CE-ESI-MS, due to the outstanding selectivity of the MS detection.

  13. Industry's Commercial Initiatives on ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, C. E.; Kessler, C.; Lavitola, M. S.

    2002-01-01

    For more than ten years, private industry has worked to develop a commercial human space market and to create a sustainable ISS commercial utilization customer base. Before ISS assembly was underway - and long before NASA and the international space agencies began to craft ISS commercial business terms and conditions - industry planted and nurtured the seeds of interest in exploiting human space utilization for commerce. These early initiatives have yielded the impetus and framework for industry approaches to ISS commercial utilization today and for NASA's and the International Partners' planned accommodation of private sector interests and desires on the ISS. This paper chronicles major industry initiatives for commercial ISS utilization, emphasizing successful marketing and business approaches and why these approaches have a higher likelihood of success than others. It provides an overview of individual companies' initiatives, as well as collaborative efforts that cross company lines and country borders; and it assesses the relative success of each. Rather than emphasize negative issues and barriers, this paper characterizes and prioritizes actionable success factors for industry and government to make ISS commercial utilization a sustainable reality.

  14. Marketing Plan for the Naval Postgraduate School Master of Business Administration to the Navy Unrestricted Line Community

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    because business schools are usually ranked by considering placement of graduates in corporate world. This makes it unrecognized brand in civilian...programs at any other civilian business schools in the country and does not hold the highest of reputations for quality education. 2. Executive...For example, if publications dedicated to evaluating educational institutions fail to mention BPP as one of the best business schools in the country

  15. Exploring Differences in Preference for On-Line versus Traditional Classroom Delivery of a Freshmen Introduction to Global Business Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Mark; Guy, Paul; Straus, Peter; Levine, H. T.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigates whether pre-business students, after having completed a traditional in class freshmen introduction to global business course, express a difference in preference for such a course to be delivered online versus classroom or no preference at all. The study further explores whether four variables: 1) number of units of…

  16. Salmonella infection in a commercial line of ducks; experimental studies on virulence, intestinal colonization and immune protection.

    PubMed Central

    Barrow, P. A.; Lovell, M. A.; Murphy, C. K.; Page, K.

    1999-01-01

    Experimental infections of different salmonella serotypes were established in a commercial line of ducks to provide baseline information on which control measures might be based. The ducks were very resistant to systemic infection with Salmonella typhimurium, S. enteritidis and S. gallinarum within 36 h of hatching. This was associated with an inherent inability of the strains to multiply in the reticulo-endothelial system. The resistance was not associated with poor invasiveness or serum sensitivity. Individual strains of S. typhimurium, S. enteritidis, S. heidelberg and S. orion colonized the gut well and were excreted in the faeces for at least 6 weeks by ducks when they were infected orally within 2 days of hatching. The main sites of colonization were the caeca and, to a lesser extent, the crop. Viable counts of each inoculated strain in the caeca remained in excess of 10(6) c.f.u. 3 weeks after infection although the organisms had been cleared from the spleen by this time. Much less excretion occurred when the birds were infected at 3 weeks of age. When infected ducks, which had cleared themselves of infection, were challenged orally with the homologous strain expressing a different genetic marker, very low levels of excretion of the challenge strain were detected when compared with a control group. After infection low titres of circulating lipopolysaccharide-specific IgG antibodies were detected by an ELISA. Intestinal colonization of newly hatched ducks with an aroA strain of S. enteritidis resulted in extensive colonization which exerted an exclusion effect on the parent strain inoculated 24 h later. PMID:10487648

  17. A molecular analysis of the patterns of genetic diversity in local chickens from western Algeria in comparison with commercial lines and wild jungle fowls.

    PubMed

    Mahammi, F Z; Gaouar, S B S; Laloë, D; Faugeras, R; Tabet-Aoul, N; Rognon, X; Tixier-Boichard, M; Saidi-Mehtar, N

    2016-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize the genetic variability of village chickens from three agro-ecological regions of western Algeria: coastal (CT), inland plains (IP) and highlands (HL), to reveal any underlying population structure, and to evaluate potential genetic introgression from commercial lines into local populations. A set of 233 chickens was genotyped with a panel of 23 microsatellite markers. Geographical coordinates were individually recorded. Eight reference populations were included in the study to investigate potential gene flow: four highly selected commercial pure lines and four lines of French slow-growing chickens. Two populations of wild red jungle fowls were also genotyped to compare the range of diversity between domestic and wild fowls. A genetic diversity analysis was conducted both within and between populations. Multivariate redundancy analyses were performed to assess the relative influence of geographical location among Algerian ecotypes. The results showed a high genetic variability within the Algerian population, with 184 alleles and a mean number of 8.09 alleles per locus. The values of heterozygosity (He and Ho) ranged from 0.55 to 0.62 in Algerian ecotypes and were smaller than values found in Jungle fowl populations and higher than values found in commercial populations. Although the structuring analysis of genotypes did not reveal clear subpopulations within Algerian ecotypes, the supervised approach using geographical data showed a significant (p < 0.01) differentiation between the three ecotypes which was mainly due to altitude. Thus, the genetic diversity of Algerian ecotypes may be under the influence of two factors with contradictory effects: the geographical location and climatic conditions may induce some differentiation, whereas the high level of exchanges and gene flow may suppress it. Evidence of gene flow between commercial and Algerian local populations was observed, which may be due to unrecorded

  18. Objectives in Commercial Engineering: Report of the Second Conference on Business Training for Engineers and Engineering Training for Students of Business, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, May 1 and 2, 1922. Bulletin, 1924, No. 16

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swiggett, Glen Levin

    1924-01-01

    The primary purpose of this conference held in Washington, May 1 and 2, 1922, was to promote through training better coordination of the major operations in industry and commerce. There was an attendance of 215 comprising largely business executives, engineers, and professors of business and engineering. The topics of discussion related to the…

  19. Commercial Fishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document is a curriculum framework for a program in commercial fishing to be taught in Florida secondary and postsecondary institutions. This outline covers the major concepts/content of the program, which is designed to prepare students for employment in occupations with titles such as net fishers, pot fishers, line fishers, shrimp boat…

  20. The Introgression of RNAi Silencing of γ-Gliadins into Commercial Lines of Bread Wheat Changes the Mixing and Technological Properties of the Dough

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Humanes, Javier; Pistón, Fernando; Giménez, María J.; Martín, Antonio; Barro, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    In the present work the effects on dough quality by the down-regulation of γ-gliadins in different genetic backgrounds of bread wheat were investigated. RNAi-mediated silencing of γ-gliadins was introgressed by conventional crossing into three commercial bread wheat lines (namely ‘Gazul’, ‘Podenco’ and ‘Arpain’), and along with the transgenic line A1152 (cv. Bobwhite) compared with their respective wild types. The protein fractions were quantified by RP-HPLC, whereas the technological and mixing properties were assessed by SDSS test and by the Mixograph instrument. Principal component analysis (PCA) was carried out for both the wild types and the transgenic lines, showing differences in the factors affecting the technological and mixing properties of the dough as a consequence of the reduction of the γ-gliadins. In transgenic lines, the α- and ω-gliadins, and total gliadins negatively affected the dough strength and tolerance to over-mixing, whereas the L/H ratio showed the opposite effect, positively influencing the dough quality. The increase of the SDSS volume in the transgenic lines of ‘Gazul’, ‘Podenco’ and ‘Arpain’ indicates increased gluten strength and quality respect to the wild types. SDSS volume was found to be positively influenced by the amount of glutenins, which were also increased in the transgenic lines. In addition, a positive effect was observed in the MT, PR1 and RBD in some of the transgenic lines of ‘Podenco’ and ‘Arpain’. In conclusion, the down-regulation of γ-gliadins resulted in stronger doughs and a better tolerance to over-mixing in some transgenic lines. Although the reduction of γ-gliadins seems not to have a direct effect on the mixing and bread-making properties, the compensatory effect on the synthesis of the other prolamins may result in stronger doughs with improved over-mixing resistance. PMID:23029328

  1. The introgression of RNAi silencing of γ-gliadins into commercial lines of bread wheat changes the mixing and technological properties of the dough.

    PubMed

    Gil-Humanes, Javier; Pistón, Fernando; Giménez, María J; Martín, Antonio; Barro, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    In the present work the effects on dough quality by the down-regulation of γ-gliadins in different genetic backgrounds of bread wheat were investigated. RNAi-mediated silencing of γ-gliadins was introgressed by conventional crossing into three commercial bread wheat lines (namely 'Gazul', 'Podenco' and 'Arpain'), and along with the transgenic line A1152 (cv. Bobwhite) compared with their respective wild types. The protein fractions were quantified by RP-HPLC, whereas the technological and mixing properties were assessed by SDSS test and by the Mixograph instrument. Principal component analysis (PCA) was carried out for both the wild types and the transgenic lines, showing differences in the factors affecting the technological and mixing properties of the dough as a consequence of the reduction of the γ-gliadins. In transgenic lines, the α- and ω-gliadins, and total gliadins negatively affected the dough strength and tolerance to over-mixing, whereas the L/H ratio showed the opposite effect, positively influencing the dough quality. The increase of the SDSS volume in the transgenic lines of 'Gazul', 'Podenco' and 'Arpain' indicates increased gluten strength and quality respect to the wild types. SDSS volume was found to be positively influenced by the amount of glutenins, which were also increased in the transgenic lines. In addition, a positive effect was observed in the MT, PR1 and RBD in some of the transgenic lines of 'Podenco' and 'Arpain'. In conclusion, the down-regulation of γ-gliadins resulted in stronger doughs and a better tolerance to over-mixing in some transgenic lines. Although the reduction of γ-gliadins seems not to have a direct effect on the mixing and bread-making properties, the compensatory effect on the synthesis of the other prolamins may result in stronger doughs with improved over-mixing resistance.

  2. A rootstock provides water conservation for a grafted commercial tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) line in response to mild-drought conditions: a focus on vegetative growth and photosynthetic parameters.

    PubMed

    Nilsen, Erik T; Freeman, Joshua; Grene, Ruth; Tokuhisa, James

    2014-01-01

    The development of water stress resistant lines of commercial tomato by breeding or genetic engineering is possible, but will take considerable time before commercial varieties are available for production. However, grafting commercial tomato lines on drought resistant rootstock may produce drought tolerant commercial tomato lines much more rapidly. Due to changing climates and the need for commercial production of vegetables in low quality fields there is an urgent need for stress tolerant commercial lines of vegetables such as tomato. In previous observations we identified a scion root stock combination ('BHN 602' scion grafted onto 'Jjak Kkung' rootstock hereafter identified as 602/Jjak) that had a qualitative drought-tolerance phenotype when compared to the non-grafted line. Based on this initial observation, we studied photosynthesis and vegetative above-ground growth during mild-drought for the 602/Jjak compared with another scion-rootstock combination ('BHN 602' scion grafted onto 'Cheong Gang' rootstock hereafter identified as 602/Cheong) and a non-grafted control. Overall above ground vegetative growth was significantly lower for 602/Jjak in comparison to the other plant lines. Moreover, water potential reduction in response to mild drought was significantly less for 602/Jjak, yet stomatal conductance of all plant-lines were equally inhibited by mild-drought. Light saturated photosynthesis of 602/Jjak was less affected by low water potential than the other two lines as was the % reduction in mesophyll conductance. Therefore, the Jjak Kkung rootstock caused aboveground growth reduction, water conservation and increased photosynthetic tolerance of mild drought. These data show that different rootstocks can change the photosynthetic responses to drought of a high yielding, commercial tomato line. Also, this rapid discovery of one scion-rootstock combination that provided mild-drought tolerance suggests that screening more scion-rootstock combination for

  3. Reaction to frustration in high and low feather pecking lines of laying hens from commercial or semi-natural rearing conditions.

    PubMed

    Rodenburg, T B; Koene, P; Spruijt, B M

    2004-02-27

    The effect of rearing conditions on feather pecking and reaction to frustration was studied in two lines of laying hens. From commercial rearing conditions (large group, no mother hen), seven birds from a high feather pecking line (HC birds) and eight birds from a low feather pecking line (LC birds) were used. From semi-natural rearing conditions (small group, mother hen present) seven birds from the high feather pecking line (HN birds) were used. Feather pecking behaviour of HC, LC, and HN groups was recorded for 30 min. After that, each bird was food deprived and trained to peck a key for a food reward in a Skinnerbox. After training, each bird was subjected to a frustration session in a Skinnerbox, where the feeder was covered with Perspex. Three HC birds showed severe feather pecking, compared with one HN bird and zero LC birds. Differences in reaction to frustration were found between birds from different lines, but not in birds from different rearing conditions. LC birds tended to put their head in the feeder more frequently than HC birds over all sessions. Although limited, this study indicates that rearing conditions influence feather pecking, but not reaction to frustration.

  4. How ISO/IEC 17799 can be used for base lining information assurance among entities using data mining for defense, homeland security, commercial, and other civilian/commercial domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, William G.

    2006-04-01

    One goal of database mining is to draw unique and valid perspectives from multiple data sources. Insights that are fashioned from closely-held data stores are likely to possess a high degree of reliability. The degree of information assurance comes into question, however, when external databases are accessed, combined and analyzed to form new perspectives. ISO/IEC 17799, Information technology-Security techniques-Code of practice for information security management, can be used to establish a higher level of information assurance among disparate entities using data mining in the defense, homeland security, commercial and other civilian/commercial domains. Organizations that meet ISO/IEC information security standards have identified and assessed risks, threats and vulnerabilities and have taken significant proactive steps to meet their unique security requirements. The ISO standards address twelve domains: risk assessment and treatment, security policy, organization of information security, asset management, human resources security, physical and environmental security, communications and operations management, access control, information systems acquisition, development and maintenance, information security incident management and business continuity management and compliance. Analysts can be relatively confident that if organizations are ISO 17799 compliant, a high degree of information assurance is likely to be a characteristic of the data sets being used. The reverse may be true. Extracting, fusing and drawing conclusions based upon databases with a low degree of information assurance may be wrought with all of the hazards that come from knowingly using bad data to make decisions. Using ISO/IEC 17799 as a baseline for information assurance can help mitigate these risks.

  5. Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mires, Peter B.

    2006-01-01

    National Geography Standards for the middle school years generally stress the teaching of latitude and longitude. There are many creative ways to explain the great grid that encircles our planet, but the author has found that students in his college-level geography courses especially enjoy human-interest stories associated with lines of latitude…

  6. Lunar Commercialization Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation outlines a competition that has as its goal to explores the viability of using public-private partnerships to open space frontier for commercial uses. The teams have the objective of designing a business plan to open the space frontier to commercial interests.

  7. Lunar Commercialization Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation describes the goals and rules of the workshop on Lunar Commercialization. The goal of the workshop is to explore the viability of using public-private partnerships to open the new space frontier. The bulk of the workshop was a team competition to create a innovative business plan for the commercialization of the moon. The public private partnership concept is reviewed, and the open architecture as an infrastructure for potential external cooperation. Some possible lunar commercialization elements are reviewed.

  8. From Commercial Schools to Corporate Universities: Explaining the Shift in Proprietary Business Education in the U.S., 1970-1990

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bañuelos, Nidia I.

    2016-01-01

    This study used archival sources to examine the factors that encouraged for-profit business education to shift during the 1970s from small, certificate programs for bookkeepers and secretaries to large, multisite universities for mid-level managers. Using data from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, as well as trend data from the Bureau of Labor…

  9. Field testing of an automated wood-combustion system and development of business plan for commercialization of production. Final report for period ending August 1, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    1983-05-24

    A tunnel burner for burning wood chips has been installed and tested at a school building in Durham, NC. The test revealed many problems which did not exist while testing a prototype in laboratories. Controls were found to work reliably. A business plan was developed and is appended. (LEW)

  10. Environmental impact statement/environmental impact report for the proposed marathon industrial/commercial business center tract 5167, Hayward California. Supplement. Draft report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    Joint State Federal environmental impact document concerning a regulatory permit application by Marathon U.S. Realties, Inc. under Section 10 of the River and Harbor Act of 1899 and Section 404 of the Clean Water Act. The proposed project involves a nonwater-oriented industrial, business development with public utilities, and habitat mitigation.

  11. My Car Is a Lemon! Use of the Better Business Bureau's Auto Line[R] Program as a Pedagogical Model of ADR

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steslow, Donna M.

    2010-01-01

    Alternative dispute resolution (ADR) is normally included as part of an introductory business law/legal environment course. While some business schools offer stand-alone ADR courses, the majority do not. As a result, a business student's only exposure to ADR processes may be through a Legal Studies in Business course. Several scholars have created…

  12. Commercialization of opportunities for materials processing in low gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. S.; Nixon, S. R.

    1983-01-01

    Business infrastructure required to achieve commercial MPS, incentives and disincentives for MPS, NASA/industry working agreements, small business innovation, NASA/industry agreements, joint venture agreements, and commercial spinoffs are addressed.

  13. Relative disease susceptibility and clostridial toxin antibody responses in three commercial broiler lines coinfected with Clostridium perfringens and Eimeria maxima using an experimental model of necrotic enteritis.

    PubMed

    Jang, Seung I; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Lee, Sung-Hyen; Lee, Kyung Woo; Lillehoj, Erik P; Hong, Yeong Ho; An, Dong-Jun; Jeoung, D Hye-Young; Chun, Ji-Eun

    2013-09-01

    Necrotic enteritis is an enteric disease of poultry resulting from infection by Clostridium perfringens with coinfection by Eimeria spp. constituting a major risk factor for disease pathogenesis. This study compared three commercial broiler chicken lines using an experimental model of necrotic enteritis. Day-old male Cobb, Ross, and Hubbard broilers were orally infected with viable C. perfringens and E. maxima and fed a high-protein diet to promote the development of experimental disease. Body weight loss, intestinal lesions, and serum antibody levels against alpha-toxin and necrotic enteritis B-like (NetB) toxin were measured as parameters of disease susceptibility and host immune response. Cobb chickens exhibited increased body weight loss compared with Ross and Hubbard breeds and greater gut lesion severity compared with Ross chickens. NetB antibody levels were greater in Cobb chickens compared with the Ross or Hubbard groups. These results suggest that Cobb chickens may be more susceptible to necrotic enteritis in the field compared with the Ross and Hubbard lines.

  14. Efficacy of commercial produce sanitizers against nontoxigenic Escherichia coli O157:H7 during processing of iceberg lettuce in a pilot-scale leafy green processing line.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Gordon R; Buchholz, Annemarie L; Ryser, Elliot T

    2013-11-01

    Chemical sanitizers are routinely used during commercial flume washing of fresh-cut leafy greens to minimize cross-contamination from the water. This study assessed the efficacy of five commercial sanitizer treatments against Escherichia coli O157:H7 on iceberg lettuce, in wash water, and on equipment during simulated commercial production in a pilot-scale processing line. Iceberg lettuce (5.4 kg) was inoculated to contain 10(6) CFU/g of a four-strain cocktail of nontoxigenic, green fluorescent protein-labeled, ampicillin-resistant E. coli O157:H7 and processed after 1 h of draining at ~22 °C. Lettuce was shredded using a commercial slicer, step-conveyed to a flume tank, washed for 90 s using six different treatments (water alone, 50 ppm of peroxyacetic acid, 50 ppm of mixed peracid, or 50 ppm of available chlorine either alone or acidified to pH 6.5 with citric acid [CA] or T-128), and then dried using a shaker table and centrifugal dryer. Various product (25-g) and water (50-ml) samples collected during processing along with equipment surface samples (100 cm(2)) from the flume tank, shaker table, and centrifugal dryer were homogenized in neutralizing buffer and plated on tryptic soy agar. During and after iceberg lettuce processing, none of the sanitizers were significantly more effective (P ≤ 0.05) than water alone at reducing E. coli O157:H7 populations on lettuce, with reductions ranging from 0.75 to 1.4 log CFU/g. Regardless of the sanitizer treatment used, the centrifugal dryer surfaces yielded E. coli O157:H7 populations of 3.49 to 4.98 log CFU/100 cm(2). Chlorine, chlorine plus CA, and chlorine plus T-128 were generally more effective (P ≤ 0.05) than the other treatments, with reductions of 3.79, 5.47, and 5.37 log CFU/ml after 90 s of processing, respectively. This indicates that chlorine-based sanitizers will likely prevent wash water containing low organic loads from becoming a vehicle for cross-contamination.

  15. Social enterprise. Risky business.

    PubMed

    2007-02-15

    The skills needed to run a social enterprise are similar to those needed for conventional business. Accounts for social enterprises will have a 'double bottom line', showing social benefit as well as profit. Finding a good mentor is vital, as is setting out a clear vision and values in your business plan.

  16. 34 CFR 5.11 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Business information. 5.11 Section 5.11 Education... Available to the Public § 5.11 Business information. (a) General. The Department discloses business... purposes of this section: (1) Business information means commercial or financial information obtained...

  17. 15 CFR 4.9 - Business Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Business Information. 4.9 Section 4.9... of Information Act § 4.9 Business Information. (a) In general. Business information obtained by the... the purposes of this section: (1) Business information means commercial or financial...

  18. 18 CFR 1301.8 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Business information... Freedom of Information Act § 1301.8 Business information. (a) In general. Business information obtained by... purposes of this section: (1) Business information means commercial or financial information obtained...

  19. 15 CFR 4.9 - Business Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Business Information. 4.9 Section 4.9... of Information Act § 4.9 Business Information. (a) In general. Business information obtained by the... the purposes of this section: (1) Business information means commercial or financial...

  20. 5 CFR 1820.8 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Business information. 1820.8 Section 1820... OF RECORDS OR TESTIMONY § 1820.8 Business information. (a) In general. Business information obtained.... For purposes of this section: (1) “Business information” means commercial or financial...

  1. 18 CFR 1301.8 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Business information... Freedom of Information Act § 1301.8 Business information. (a) In general. Business information obtained by... purposes of this section: (1) Business information means commercial or financial information obtained...

  2. 5 CFR 2411.9 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Business information. 2411.9 Section 2411... INFORMATION § 2411.9 Business information. (a) In general. Business information obtained by the Authority from... of this section: (1) Business information means commercial or financial information obtained by...

  3. 5 CFR 1820.8 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Business information. 1820.8 Section 1820... OF RECORDS OR TESTIMONY § 1820.8 Business information. (a) In general. Business information obtained.... For purposes of this section: (1) “Business information” means commercial or financial...

  4. 45 CFR 612.8 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Business information. 612.8 Section 612.8 Public... RECORDS AND INFORMATION § 612.8 Business information. (a) In general. Business information obtained by the... procedures. (b) Definitions. For purposes of this section: (1) “Business Information” means commercial...

  5. 49 CFR 701.9 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Business information. 701.9 Section 701.9... (AMTRAK) AMTRAK FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 701.9 Business information. (a) General. Business... purposes of this section, the following definitions apply: (1) Business information means commercial...

  6. 45 CFR 612.8 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Business information. 612.8 Section 612.8 Public... RECORDS AND INFORMATION § 612.8 Business information. (a) In general. Business information obtained by the... procedures. (b) Definitions. For purposes of this section: (1) “Business Information” means commercial...

  7. 45 CFR 612.8 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Business information. 612.8 Section 612.8 Public... RECORDS AND INFORMATION § 612.8 Business information. (a) In general. Business information obtained by the... procedures. (b) Definitions. For purposes of this section: (1) Business Information means commercial...

  8. 18 CFR 1301.8 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Business information... Freedom of Information Act § 1301.8 Business information. (a) In general. Business information obtained by... purposes of this section: (1) Business information means commercial or financial information obtained...

  9. 34 CFR 5.11 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Business information. 5.11 Section 5.11 Education... Available to the Public § 5.11 Business information. (a) General. The Department discloses business... purposes of this section: (1) Business information means commercial or financial information obtained...

  10. 45 CFR 612.8 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Business information. 612.8 Section 612.8 Public... RECORDS AND INFORMATION § 612.8 Business information. (a) In general. Business information obtained by the... procedures. (b) Definitions. For purposes of this section: (1) “Business Information” means commercial...

  11. 5 CFR 2411.9 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Business information. 2411.9 Section 2411... INFORMATION § 2411.9 Business information. (a) In general. Business information obtained by the Authority from... of this section: (1) Business information means commercial or financial information obtained by...

  12. 5 CFR 2411.9 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Business information. 2411.9 Section 2411... INFORMATION § 2411.9 Business information. (a) In general. Business information obtained by the Authority from... of this section: (1) Business information means commercial or financial information obtained by...

  13. 49 CFR 701.9 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Business information. 701.9 Section 701.9... (AMTRAK) AMTRAK FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 701.9 Business information. (a) General. Business... purposes of this section, the following definitions apply: (1) Business information means commercial...

  14. 34 CFR 5.11 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Business information. 5.11 Section 5.11 Education... Available to the Public § 5.11 Business information. (a) General. The Department discloses business... purposes of this section: (1) Business information means commercial or financial information obtained...

  15. 45 CFR 612.8 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Business information. 612.8 Section 612.8 Public... RECORDS AND INFORMATION § 612.8 Business information. (a) In general. Business information obtained by the... procedures. (b) Definitions. For purposes of this section: (1) Business Information means commercial...

  16. 15 CFR 4.9 - Business Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Business Information. 4.9 Section 4.9... of Information Act § 4.9 Business Information. (a) In general. Business information obtained by the... the purposes of this section: (1) Business information means commercial or financial...

  17. 49 CFR 701.9 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Business information. 701.9 Section 701.9... (AMTRAK) AMTRAK FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 701.9 Business information. (a) General. Business... purposes of this section, the following definitions apply: (1) Business information means commercial...

  18. 5 CFR 2411.9 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Business information. 2411.9 Section 2411... INFORMATION § 2411.9 Business information. (a) In general. Business information obtained by the Authority from... of this section: (1) Business information means commercial or financial information obtained by...

  19. 18 CFR 1301.8 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Business information... Freedom of Information Act § 1301.8 Business information. (a) In general. Business information obtained by... purposes of this section: (1) Business information means commercial or financial information obtained...

  20. 5 CFR 1820.8 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Business information. 1820.8 Section 1820... OF RECORDS OR TESTIMONY § 1820.8 Business information. (a) In general. Business information obtained.... For purposes of this section: (1) “Business information” means commercial or financial...

  1. 49 CFR 701.9 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Business information. 701.9 Section 701.9... (AMTRAK) AMTRAK FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 701.9 Business information. (a) General. Business... purposes of this section, the following definitions apply: (1) Business information means commercial...

  2. 5 CFR 1820.8 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Business information. 1820.8 Section 1820... OF RECORDS OR TESTIMONY § 1820.8 Business information. (a) In general. Business information obtained.... For purposes of this section: (1) “Business information” means commercial or financial...

  3. 18 CFR 1301.8 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Business information... Freedom of Information Act § 1301.8 Business information. (a) In general. Business information obtained by... purposes of this section: (1) Business information means commercial or financial information obtained...

  4. 49 CFR 701.9 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Business information. 701.9 Section 701.9... (AMTRAK) AMTRAK FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 701.9 Business information. (a) General. Business... purposes of this section, the following definitions apply: (1) Business information means commercial...

  5. 5 CFR 2411.9 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Business information. 2411.9 Section 2411... INFORMATION § 2411.9 Business information. (a) In general. Business information obtained by the Authority from... of this section: (1) Business information means commercial or financial information obtained by...

  6. 34 CFR 5.11 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Business information. 5.11 Section 5.11 Education... Available to the Public § 5.11 Business information. (a) General. The Department discloses business... purposes of this section: (1) Business information means commercial or financial information obtained...

  7. 15 CFR 4.9 - Business Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Business Information. 4.9 Section 4.9... of Information Act § 4.9 Business Information. (a) In general. Business information obtained by the... the purposes of this section: (1) Business information means commercial or financial...

  8. 5 CFR 1820.8 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Business information. 1820.8 Section 1820... OF RECORDS OR TESTIMONY § 1820.8 Business information. (a) In general. Business information obtained.... For purposes of this section: (1) “Business information” means commercial or financial...

  9. 15 CFR 4.9 - Business Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Business Information. 4.9 Section 4.9... of Information Act § 4.9 Business Information. (a) In general. Business information obtained by the... the purposes of this section: (1) Business information means commercial or financial...

  10. 75 FR 43939 - The Americas Business Trade Mission to Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ..., and/or business partners, as well as counseling from Commercial Service trade specialists. In both... to introduce participants to distributors and prospective partners. The Americas Business Trade... International Trade Administration The Americas Business Trade Mission to Mexico AGENCY: International...

  11. Uterine fluid proteins and egg quality characteristics for 2 commercial and 2 heritage laying hen lines in response to manipulation of dietary calcium and vitamin D3.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Ravinder; Rathgeber, Bruce M; Thompson, Kristen L; Macisaac, Janice

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of eggs from 2 selected commercial strains of laying hens and 2 unselected lines of chickens fed diets with different combinations of Ca and vitamin D and relate it to the profile of uterine proteins and ultrastructure of the shell. A group of 4 chickens was housed in each of 24 cages. The group consisted of one representative from each of the following breeds: Lohmann LSL- Lite, Lohmann Classic-Brown, Fayoumi, and Light Sussex. Six dietary combinations of Ca and vitamin D(3) (3.35%, 2,500 IU; 4.10%, 2,500 IU (control); 4.85%, 2,500 IU; 3.35%, 200 IU; 4.10%, 200 IU; and 4.85%, 200 IU) were randomly assigned to 4 replicate cages for 2 treatment periods (26-29 and 56-59 wk of age). Data were analyzed as a split-plot design with cage as the main plot and hen as the subplot. Egg quality traits were different (P < 0.0001) between commercial and heritage breeds. Lohmann Brown had stronger shells with higher specific gravity compared with other breeds. Both commercial and heritage birds responded to a drop in vitamin D3 level by marked reduction in shell thickness. The SDS-PAGE profiles of uterine fluid samples revealed a decrease (P < 0.05) in 200-, 150-, 116-, and ≤6.5-kDa proteins, whereas proteins with molecular weight (MW) of 80, 55, 52, 45, 42, and 28 kDa increased with bird age. A 36- and 52-kDa protein band was most intense for Fayoumi compared with other breeds. Ultrastructural characteristics showed flattened and deeply etched mammillary caps for Lohmann Brown and the presence of type A and type B bodies between mammillary cones in eggshells from Fayoumi and Lohmann Lite. The negative correlation between ultrastructural characteristics, which decrease with bird age, and the 116-kDa uterine protein band could provide insight into reduced eggshell quality as hens age.

  12. Business Continuity Planning Resources for Small- and Medium-Sized Businesses

    SciTech Connect

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Lesperance, Ann M.

    2010-05-14

    This document/memo summarizes existing resources and guidance on business continuity planning for small- to medium-sized businesses. DTRA will share this information with large commercial businesses who identified the need to help their suppliers and other key collaborators prepare business continuity plans in order to speed recovery from a wide-area bioterrorism incident.

  13. Relative disease susceptibility and clostridial toxin antibody responses in three commercial broiler lines co-infected with Clostridium perfringens and Eimeria maxima using an experimental model of necrotic enteritis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Necrotic enteritis is an enteric disease of poultry resulting from infection by Clostridium perfringens with co-infection by Eimeria spp. constituting a major risk factor for disease pathogenesis. This study compared three commercial broiler chicken lines using an experimental model of necrotic ente...

  14. 10 CFR 603.1230 - Commercial firm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Commercial firm. 603.1230 Section 603.1230 Energy... Used in this Part § 603.1230 Commercial firm. A for-profit firm or segment of a for-profit firm (e.g., a division or other business unit) that does a substantial portion of its business in the...

  15. 10 CFR 603.1230 - Commercial firm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commercial firm. 603.1230 Section 603.1230 Energy... Used in this Part § 603.1230 Commercial firm. A for-profit firm or segment of a for-profit firm (e.g., a division or other business unit) that does a substantial portion of its business in the...

  16. 32 CFR 37.1250 - Commercial firm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1250 Commercial firm. A for-profit firm or segment of a for-profit firm (e.g., a division or other business unit) that does a substantial portion of its business in the commercial marketplace....

  17. The Commercial Course: Defense et Illustration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scavillo, Anthony

    The development of commercial foreign language courses by colleges and universities would help to satisfy the need for language enrollments and the expressed need of the international business community for foreign language skills in American business employees. Three major problems inhibit commercial language course development: limited…

  18. CIMFUELS: Commercial practice--tools vs. solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Latour, P.R.

    1997-03-01

    Continuing the them of CIMFUELS` recent editorials on good management practice, the nature of commercial offerings and practices between CIM providers and their fuel and petrochemical operating company customers and clients also warrants discussion. The commercial practices of the CIMFUELS business in this unstructured, fast changing, high technology global business has suffered unduly from inadequate distinction between tools and solutions.

  19. A Quantitative Risk Assessment Model Involving Frequency and Threat Degree under Line-of-Business Services for Infrastructure of Emerging Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Jing, Xu; Hu, Hanwen; Yang, Huijun; Au, Man Ho; Li, Shuqin; Xiong, Naixue; Imran, Muhammad; Vasilakos, Athanasios V

    2017-03-21

    The prospect of Line-of-Business Services (LoBSs) for infrastructure of Emerging Sensor Networks (ESNs) is exciting. Access control remains a top challenge in this scenario as the service provider's server contains a lot of valuable resources. LoBSs' users are very diverse as they may come from a wide range of locations with vastly different characteristics. Cost of joining could be low and in many cases, intruders are eligible users conducting malicious actions. As a result, user access should be adjusted dynamically. Assessing LoBSs' risk dynamically based on both frequency and threat degree of malicious operations is therefore necessary. In this paper, we proposed a Quantitative Risk Assessment Model (QRAM) involving frequency and threat degree based on value at risk. To quantify the threat degree as an elementary intrusion effort, we amend the influence coefficient of risk indexes in the network security situation assessment model. To quantify threat frequency as intrusion trace effort, we make use of multiple behavior information fusion. Under the influence of intrusion trace, we adapt the historical simulation method of value at risk to dynamically access LoBSs' risk. Simulation based on existing data is used to select appropriate parameters for QRAM. Our simulation results show that the duration influence on elementary intrusion effort is reasonable when the normalized parameter is 1000. Likewise, the time window of intrusion trace and the weight between objective risk and subjective risk can be set to 10 s and 0.5, respectively. While our focus is to develop QRAM for assessing the risk of LoBSs for infrastructure of ESNs dynamically involving frequency and threat degree, we believe it is also appropriate for other scenarios in cloud computing.

  20. A Quantitative Risk Assessment Model Involving Frequency and Threat Degree under Line-of-Business Services for Infrastructure of Emerging Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Xu; Hu, Hanwen; Yang, Huijun; Au, Man Ho; Li, Shuqin; Xiong, Naixue; Imran, Muhammad; Vasilakos, Athanasios V.

    2017-01-01

    The prospect of Line-of-Business Services (LoBSs) for infrastructure of Emerging Sensor Networks (ESNs) is exciting. Access control remains a top challenge in this scenario as the service provider’s server contains a lot of valuable resources. LoBSs’ users are very diverse as they may come from a wide range of locations with vastly different characteristics. Cost of joining could be low and in many cases, intruders are eligible users conducting malicious actions. As a result, user access should be adjusted dynamically. Assessing LoBSs’ risk dynamically based on both frequency and threat degree of malicious operations is therefore necessary. In this paper, we proposed a Quantitative Risk Assessment Model (QRAM) involving frequency and threat degree based on value at risk. To quantify the threat degree as an elementary intrusion effort, we amend the influence coefficient of risk indexes in the network security situation assessment model. To quantify threat frequency as intrusion trace effort, we make use of multiple behavior information fusion. Under the influence of intrusion trace, we adapt the historical simulation method of value at risk to dynamically access LoBSs’ risk. Simulation based on existing data is used to select appropriate parameters for QRAM. Our simulation results show that the duration influence on elementary intrusion effort is reasonable when the normalized parameter is 1000. Likewise, the time window of intrusion trace and the weight between objective risk and subjective risk can be set to 10 s and 0.5, respectively. While our focus is to develop QRAM for assessing the risk of LoBSs for infrastructure of ESNs dynamically involving frequency and threat degree, we believe it is also appropriate for other scenarios in cloud computing. PMID:28335569

  1. 12 CFR 13.3 - Business conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Business conduct. 13.3 Section 13.3 Banks and....3 Business conduct. A bank that is a government securities broker or dealer shall observe high standards of commercial honor and just and equitable principles of trade in the conduct of its business as...

  2. 36 CFR 1005.3 - Business operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Business operations. 1005.3 Section 1005.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.3 Business operations. Engaging in or soliciting any business in the area administered by...

  3. 12 CFR 13.3 - Business conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Business conduct. 13.3 Section 13.3 Banks and....3 Business conduct. A bank that is a government securities broker or dealer shall observe high standards of commercial honor and just and equitable principles of trade in the conduct of its business as...

  4. 36 CFR 5.3 - Business operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Business operations. 5.3 Section 5.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.3 Business operations. Engaging in or soliciting any business in...

  5. 36 CFR 1005.3 - Business operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Business operations. 1005.3 Section 1005.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.3 Business operations. Engaging in or soliciting any business in the area administered by...

  6. 36 CFR 5.3 - Business operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Business operations. 5.3 Section 5.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.3 Business operations. Engaging in or soliciting any business in...

  7. 36 CFR 5.3 - Business operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Business operations. 5.3 Section 5.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.3 Business operations. Engaging in or soliciting any business in...

  8. 12 CFR 13.3 - Business conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Business conduct. 13.3 Section 13.3 Banks and....3 Business conduct. A bank that is a government securities broker or dealer shall observe high standards of commercial honor and just and equitable principles of trade in the conduct of its business as...

  9. 36 CFR 5.3 - Business operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Business operations. 5.3 Section 5.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.3 Business operations. Engaging in or soliciting any business in...

  10. 36 CFR 1005.3 - Business operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Business operations. 1005.3 Section 1005.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.3 Business operations. Engaging in or soliciting any business in the area administered by...

  11. 12 CFR 13.3 - Business conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Business conduct. 13.3 Section 13.3 Banks and....3 Business conduct. A bank that is a government securities broker or dealer shall observe high standards of commercial honor and just and equitable principles of trade in the conduct of its business as...

  12. 12 CFR 13.3 - Business conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Business conduct. 13.3 Section 13.3 Banks and....3 Business conduct. A bank that is a government securities broker or dealer shall observe high standards of commercial honor and just and equitable principles of trade in the conduct of its business as...

  13. 36 CFR 1005.3 - Business operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Business operations. 1005.3 Section 1005.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.3 Business operations. Engaging in or soliciting any business in the area administered by...

  14. 36 CFR 1005.3 - Business operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Business operations. 1005.3 Section 1005.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.3 Business operations. Engaging in or soliciting any business in the area administered by...

  15. 36 CFR 5.3 - Business operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Business operations. 5.3 Section 5.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.3 Business operations. Engaging in or soliciting any business in...

  16. Designing the IDS business portfolio.

    PubMed

    Etchen, L L; Bouton, J L

    2000-01-01

    The business-value model is a strategic and business decision-making tool that can help integrated delivery systems (IDSs) evaluate the relative value that their individual businesses contribute to their overall systems. To use the model, IDSs first need to identify their individual business lines using criteria such as scope, size, marketability, operations, and competition. Businesses then are categorized as core, continuum, cash, or complementary based on four criteria: system purpose, size as reflected by annual revenue, competitive position, and level of profitability. Standards for these criteria should be set by the IDS in accordance with its market circumstances.

  17. Commercial Hy-Line W-36 pullet and laying hen venous blood gas and chemistry profiles utilizing the portable i-STAT®1 analyzer.

    PubMed

    Schaal, T P; Arango, J; Wolc, A; Brady, J V; Fulton, J E; Rubinoff, I; Ehr, I J; Persia, M E; O'Sullivan, N P

    2016-02-01

    Venous blood gas and chemistry reference ranges were determined for commercial Hy-Line W-36 pullets and laying hens utilizing the portable i-STAT®1 analyzer and CG8+ cartridges. A total of 632 samples were analyzed from birds between 4 and 110 wk of age. Reference ranges were established for pullets (4 to 15 wk), first cycle laying hens (20 to 68 wk), and second cycle (post molt) laying hens (70 to 110 wk) for the following traits: sodium (Na mmol/L), potassium (K mmol/L), ionized calcium (iCa mmol/L), glucose (Glu mg/dl), hematocrit (Hct% Packed Cell Volume [PCV]), pH, partial pressure carbon dioxide (PCO2 mm Hg), partial pressure oxygen (PO2 mm Hg), total concentration carbon dioxide (TCO2 mmol/L), bicarbonate (HCO3 mmol/L), base excess (BE mmol/L), oxygen saturation (sO2%), and hemoglobin (Hb g/dl). Data were analyzed using ANOVA to investigate the effect of production status as categorized by bird age. Trait relationships were evaluated by linear correlation and their spectral decomposition. All traits differed significantly among pullets and mature laying hens in both first and second lay cycles. Levels for K, iCa, Hct, pH, TCO2, HCO3, BE, sO2, and Hb differed significantly between first cycle and second cycle laying hens. Many venous blood gas and chemistry parameters were significantly correlated. The first 3 eigenvalues explained ∼2/3 of total variation. The first 2 principal components (PC) explained 51% of the total variation and indicated acid-balance and relationship between blood O2 and CO2. The third PC explained 16% of variation and seems to be related to blood iCa. Establishing reference ranges for pullet and laying hen blood gas and chemistry with the i-STAT®1 handheld unit provides a mechanism to further investigate pullet and layer physiology, evaluate metabolic disturbances, and may potentially serve as a means to select breeder candidates with optimal blood gas or chemistry levels on-farm.

  18. NASA commercial programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Highlights of NASA-sponsored and assisted commercial space activities of 1989 are presented. Industrial R and D in space, centers for the commercial development of space, and new cooperative agreements are addressed in the U.S. private sector in space section. In the building U.S. competitiveness through technology section, the following topics are presented: (1) technology utilization as a national priority; (2) an exploration of benefits; and (3) honoring Apollo-Era spinoffs. International and domestic R and D trends, and the space sector are discussed in the section on selected economic indicators. Other subjects included in this report are: (1) small business innovation; (2) budget highlights and trends; (3) commercial programs management; and (4) the commercial programs advisory committee.

  19. Identification and fine mapping of quantitative trait loci for growth traits on bovine chromosomes 2, 6, 14, 19, 21, and 23 within one commercial line of Bos taurus.

    PubMed

    Kneeland, J; Li, C; Basarab, J; Snelling, W M; Benkel, B; Murdoch, B; Hansen, C; Moore, S S

    2004-12-01

    We report the identification and fine mapping of QTL for birth weight (BWT), preweaning ADG (PWADG), and postweaning ADG on feed (ADGF) in a commercial line of Bos taurus using an identical-by-descent haplotype sharing method. One hundred seventy-six calves of 12 bulls (9 to 30 male calves from each sire) of the Beefbooster, Inc., M1 line were typed using 71 genetic markers from bovine chromosomes (BTA) 2, 6, 14, 19, 21, and 23 (8 to 16 markers from each chromosome). Sixteen haplotypes were found to have significant (P <0.05) associations with BWT at the comparison-wise threshold. The 16 haplotypes span 13 chromosomal regions, two on BTA 2 (9.1 to 22.5 cM and 95.0 to 100.3 cM), three on BTA 6 (8.2 to 11.8 cM, 35.5 to 49.7 cM, and 83.0 to 86.2 cM), three on BTA 14 (26.0 to 26.7 cM, 36.2 to 46.2 cM, and 52.0 to 67.7 cM), one on BTA 19 (52.0 to 52.7 cM), two on BTA 21 (9.9 to 20.4 cM and 28.2 to 46.1 cM), and two on BTA 23 (23.9 to 36.0 cM and 45.1 to 50.9 cM). Thirteen haplotypes spanning seven chromosomal regions significantly affected (P <0.05) PWADG at the comparison-wise threshold. The seven chromosomal regions include two regions on BTA 6 (11.8 to 44.2 cM and 83.0 to 86.2 cM), one on BTA 14 (26.7 to 50.8 cM), one on BTA 19 (4.8 to 15.9 cM), one on BTA 21 (9.9 to 20.4 cM), and two on BTA 23 (17.3 to 36.0 cM and 45.1 to 50.9 cM). For ADGF, 11 haplotypes were identified to have significant associations (P <0.05) at the comparison-wise threshold. The 11 haplotypes represented eight chromosomal regions, one on BTA 2 (9.1 to 22.5 cM), two on BTA 6 (49.7 to 50.1 cM and 59.6 to 63.6 cM), two on BTA 14 (17.0 to 24.0 cM and 36.2 to 46.2 cM), two on BTA 19 (52.0 to 52.7 cM and 65.1 to 65.7 cM), and one on BTA 21 (46.1 to 53.1 cM). The QTL regions identified and fine mapped in this study will provide a reference for future positional candidate gene research and marker-assisted selection of various growth traits.

  20. Fishy Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamee, Mike

    1988-01-01

    The IRS argues that income from alumni associations group life and medical insurance policies is business profit, not tax-exempt contributions to its member associations. The unrelated business income tax (UBIT) is described. (MLW)

  1. Business Center

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn how to do business with EPA's Clean Air Markets, including registering to use the Emissions Collection and Monitoring Plan System (ECMPS), the CAMD Business System (CBS), and learn how to submit monitored emissions data.

  2. 32 CFR 37.1250 - Commercial firm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Commercial firm. 37.1250 Section 37.1250... REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1250 Commercial firm... does a substantial portion of its business in the commercial marketplace....

  3. 76 FR 60474 - Commercial Item Handbook

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... Defense Acquisition Regulations System Commercial Item Handbook AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations... Commercial Item Handbook. The purpose of the Handbook is to help acquisition personnel develop sound business strategies for procuring commercial items. DoD is seeking industry input on the contents before...

  4. E-Business: The Business Officer's Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Mark A.

    2001-01-01

    Contends e-business is particularly the domain of college and university business officers, with today's officers facing an unprecedented opportunity to exercise a critical leadership role in the deployment of advanced information technology solutions on campus. Describes relevant issues and advances, and presents ten initiatives that business…

  5. Business process optimization for RHIOs.

    PubMed

    Soti, Praveen; Pandey, Seema

    2007-01-01

    Implementation of an electronic health record (EHR) network entails significant changes in the business processes of participating organizations. Business process management, increased automation, process optimization, user training and end-user adoption together form the keys to success with an EHR. Redesigned processes should be mapped to benefit lines and performance indicators, and monitored continuously to identify improvement opportunities. It is important the new business work flows should match, if not exceed, the existing benchmarks for performance. Business process redesign is all the more challenging in the context of regional health information organizations (RHIOs), as the business processes of the EHR network have to be aligned with existing process flows of several organizations, each with its own preferences and specific requirements. Even so, most of the discrete individual processes have to be converged, streamlined, assimilated and optimized in the redesigned business processes. This paper proposes a methodology for business process redesign and optimization for RHIOs.

  6. 47 CFR 90.35 - Industrial/Business Pool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Industrial/Business Pool. 90.35 Section 90.35... MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Industrial/Business Radio Pool § 90.35 Industrial/Business Pool. (a) Eligibility... Industrial/Business Pool to provide commercial mobile radio service as defined in part 20 of this chapter...

  7. 47 CFR 90.35 - Industrial/Business Pool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Industrial/Business Pool. 90.35 Section 90.35... MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Industrial/Business Radio Pool § 90.35 Industrial/Business Pool. (a) Eligibility... Industrial/Business Pool to provide commercial mobile radio service as defined in part 20 of this chapter...

  8. 32 CFR 1800.31 - Procedures for business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Procedures for business information. 1800.31... Administrative Matters § 1800.31 Procedures for business information. (a) In general. Business information...: Business information means commercial or financial information in which a legal entity has a...

  9. 32 CFR 1900.31 - Procedures for business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Procedures for business information. 1900.31... Matters § 1900.31 Procedures for business information. (a) In general. Business information obtained by... definitions apply: (1) Business information means commercial or financial information in which a legal...

  10. NASA commercial technology. Agenda for change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The essence of NASA's new way of doing business to support the agency's commercial technology mission objectives is described. A summary description of the various changes needed to successfully perform this mission is provided.

  11. 77 FR 28520 - Small Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-15

    ... businesses to understand and a bright-line test by which small businesses can easily determine whether they..., bright-line test for SBIR and STTR applicants to apply when determining eligibility with respect to size... owns 33% or more of the company) in order to create a bright-line test for applicants; (2)...

  12. Medicine as a business.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Merrill

    2004-09-01

    There is a growing debate over whether medicine should function like a business, guided, as businesses are, by concerns such as profits and customer satisfaction. Of course, for-profit businesses already permeate medicine, and those businesses are not confused about their priorities: providing high quality goods and services people want, at affordable prices. These companies know that they must do well in order to continue doing good. Critics of the business model argue that the profit motive makes health care too expensive and that only by nationalizing the health care system can doctors provide high quality care at an affordable cost to society. However, a survey of journals and newspaper articles about the Canadian health care system, often cited as an anti-business model for U.S. reform, reveals that quality has suffered significantly under that system. Patients wait in long lines for health care, and sometimes cannot get help at all. This paper argues that incentives in the U.S. health care system are complicated, and that health care needs to work more like a business--not less. Doctors don't know whom they are serving--patients, insurers, employers or the government--because it is usually someone other than the patient who it paying the bill. The way to get the incentives structured properly is to allow patients to control more of their health care dollars--perhaps through a system of Medical Savings Accounts. Following the business model is the only way to ensure that medicine provides high quality services at affordable prices--just like every other sector of the economy.

  13. Characterization of α/β- and γ-gliadins in commercial varieties and breeding lines of durum wheat using MALDI-TOF and A-PAGE gels.

    PubMed

    Marín, Santiago; Gil-Humanes, Javier; Hernando, Alberto; Barro, Francisco

    2011-12-01

    In this work, gliadin composition has been analyzed in 33 accessions of durum wheat using MALDI-TOF MS and compared with A-PAGE results. The MALDI-TOF MS spectra were 29,900-42,500 Da, which corresponds to the α/β- and γ-gliadin regions in A-PAGE. The average of gliadin peaks per line was 23 for MALDI-TOF MS and only 14.8 bands for A-PAGE. MALDI-TOF MS identified 33 gliadin peaks in the durum wheat collection, 20 of which were unique peaks present in 7 lines. A-PAGE analysis identified 30 bands, of which only 4 were unique. Thus, the MALDI-TOF MS method was more sensitive than A-PAGE for identifying α/β- and γ-gliadins in the 33 durum wheat lines studied. Phylogenetic analyses performed using MALDI-TOF MS data assigned the durum wheat lines to two groups. The utility of MALDI-TOF MS to determine relationships among genotypes and for identification of durum wheat accessions is discussed.

  14. Business Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Lorna; Lewandowski, Carol

    This workbook, designed for workplace literacy courses, contains materials for a business writing course. The course presents the fundamentals of effective business letter writing, focusing on logical organization, word choice, style, tone, and clarity. The course uses students' own examples as well as practice exercises for reinforcement.…

  15. Business & Operations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agron, Joe

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an interview with John D. Musso, executive director of the Association of School Business Officials (ASBO) International. Musso talks about trends and issues that will most affect school business and operations in 2007 and beyond. Despite the challenges facing school operations, he believes that the key to being successful at…

  16. Commercial Communication in the Spanish Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinhardt-Childers, Ilva

    A college course in commercial Spanish is described. The course objectives are to: build a solid foundation of business and professional vocabulary, grammar, spelling, and punctuation; prepare for oral and written communication with commonly-used Spanish business phrases and terminology; expose students to the different types of written…

  17. Detection of the level of fluoride in the commercially available toothpaste using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy with the marker atomic transition line of neutral fluorine at 731.1 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gondal, M. A.; Maganda, Y. W.; Dastageer, M. A.; Al Adel, F. F.; Naqvi, A. A.; Qahtan, T. F.

    2014-04-01

    Fourth harmonic of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser (wavelength 266 nm) in combination with high resolution spectrograph equipped with Gated ICCD camera has been employed to design a high sensitive analytical system. This detection system is based on Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and has been tested first time for analysis of semi-fluid samples to detect fluoride content present in the commercially available toothpaste samples. The experimental parameters were optimized to achieve an optically thin and in local thermo dynamic equilibrium plasma. This improved the limits of detection of fluoride present in tooth paste samples. The strong atomic transition line of fluorine at 731.102 nm was used as the marker line to quantify the fluoride concentration levels. Our LIBS system was able to detect fluoride concentration levels in the range of 1300-1750 ppm with a detection limit of 156 ppm.

  18. Commercial Security on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddy, Carrie

    1996-01-01

    Discusses commercial security on the Internet and explains public key technology as successfully melding the conflicting requirements of openness for practical business applications and isolation and confidentiality for protection of data. Examples of public key value-added products are described, including encryption, digital signature and…

  19. Commercialism in Schools. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Kirstin

    Businesses are increasingly making inroads into the classroom, particularly in underfunded schools. The dramatic rise in commercial activities in schools has sparked intense public debate, triggering a U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO) report and various regulatory attempts at district, state, and federal levels. This digest offers an overview…

  20. Commercial Product Activation Using RFID

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedrey, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Radio-frequency identification (RFID) would be used for commercial product activation, according to a proposal. What is new here is the concept of combining RFID with activation - more specifically, using RFID for activating commercial products (principally, electronic ones) and for performing such ancillary functions as tracking individual product units on production lines, tracking shipments, and updating inventories. According to the proposal, an RFID chip would be embedded in each product. The information encoded in the chip would include a unique number for identifying the product. An RFID reader at the point of sale would record the number of the product and would write digital information to the RFID chip for either immediate activation of the product or for later interrogation and processing. To be practical, an RFID product-activation system should satisfy a number of key requirements: the system should be designed to be integrable into the inventory-tracking and the data-processing and -communication infrastructures of businesses along the entire supply chain from manufacture to retail; the system should be resistant to sophisticated hacking; activation codes should be made sufficiently complexity to minimize the probability of activating stolen products; RFID activation equipment at points of sale must be capable to two-way RF communication for the purposes of reading information from, and writing information to, embedded RFID chips; the equipment at points of sale should be easily operable by sales clerks with little or no training; the point-of-sale equipment should verify activation and provide visible and/or audible signals indicating verification or lack thereof; and, the system should be able to handle millions of products per year with minimal human intervention, among other requirements.

  1. Small Business Innovations (Integrated Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Because of the diversity of NASA's information systems, it was necessary to develop DAVID as a central database management system. Under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant, Ken Wanderman and Associates, Inc. designed software tools enabling scientists to interface with DAVID and commercial database management systems, as well as artificial intelligence programs. The software has been installed at a number of data centers and is commercially available.

  2. Small Business Innovations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract resulted in a series of commercially available lasers, which have application in fiber optic communications, difference frequency generation, fiber optic sensing and general laboratory use. Developed under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract, the Phase Doppler Particles Analyzer is a non-disruptive, highly accurate laser-based method of determining particle size, number density, trajectory, turbulence and other information about particles passing through a measurement probe volume. The system consists of an optical transmitter and receiver, signal processor and computer with data acquisition and analysis software. A variety of systems are offered for applications including spray characterization for paint, and agricultural and other sprays. The Microsizer, a related product, is used in medical equipment manufacturing and analysis of contained flows. High frequency components and subsystems produced by Millitech Corporation are marketed for both research and commercial use. These systems, which operate in the upper portion of the millimeter wave, resulted from a number of Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) projects. By developing very high performance mixers and multipliers, the company has advanced the state of the art in sensitive receiver technology. Components are used in receivers and transceivers for monitoring chlorine monoxides, ozone, in plasma characterization and in material properties characterization.

  3. Commercial Crew

    NASA Video Gallery

    Phil McAlister delivers a presentation by the Commercial Crew (CC) study team on May 25, 2010, at the NASA Exploration Enterprise Workshop held in Galveston, TX. The purpose of this workshop was to...

  4. Building Businesses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgeon, Julie

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how Washington University (St. Louis, MO) converted odd space into a program allowing students to be shopkeepers for necessary services and the school assuming the role of landlord. Tips for overseeing student businesses are highlighted. (GR)

  5. Public Private Business Models for Defence Acquisition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-30

    ICT ); emergence of novel Commercial Best Practises (CBPs) in the areas of business and business logistics; and changes in the legislation regarding...Hence, new types of missions have to be provided for. As a consequence, new military concepts have to be considered; new ICT is being implemented; and...public procurement;  LL from the first Gulf War;  Revolutionary development in the area of ICT ;  Emergence of new CBPs in business logistics

  6. Identification of Polymorphisms in the Rabbit Growth Hormone Receptor (GHR) Gene and Association with Finishing Weight in a Commercial Meat Rabbit Line.

    PubMed

    Fontanesi, Luca; Sparacino, Giuseppe; Utzeri, Valerio Joe; Scotti, Emilio; Fornasini, Daniela; Dall'Olio, Stefania; Frabetti, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    A shortcut to identify DNA markers associated with economic traits is to use a candidate gene approach that is still useful in livestock species in which molecular tools and resources are not advanced or not well developed. Mutations in the growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene associated with production traits have been already described in several livestock species. For this reason GHR could be an interesting candidate gene in the rabbit. In this study we re-sequenced all exons and non-coding regions of the rabbit GHR gene in a panel of 10 different rabbits and identified 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). One of them (g.63453192C>G or c.106C>G), located in exon 3 was a missense mutation (p.L36V) substituting an amino acid in a highly conserved position across all mammals. This mutation was genotyped in 297 performance tested rabbits of a meat male line and association analysis showed that the investigated SNP was associated with weight at 70 days (P < 0.05). The most frequent genotype (GG) was in animals with higher weight at this age, suggesting that the high directional selection pressure toward this trait since the constitution of the genotyped line might have contributed to shape allele frequencies at this polymorphic site.

  7. Space Commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    A robust and competitive commercial space sector is vital to continued progress in space. The United States is committed to encouraging and facilitating the growth of a U.S. commercial space sector that supports U.S. needs, is globally competitive, and advances U.S. leadership in the generation of new markets and innovation-driven entrepreneurship. Energize competitive domestic industries to participate in global markets and advance the development of: satellite manufacturing; satellite-based services; space launch; terrestrial applications; and increased entrepreneurship. Purchase and use commercial space capabilities and services to the maximum practical extent Actively explore the use of inventive, nontraditional arrangements for acquiring commercial space goods and services to meet United States Government requirements, including measures such as public-private partnerships, . Refrain from conducting United States Government space activities that preclude, discourage, or compete with U.S. commercial space activities. Pursue potential opportunities for transferring routine, operational space functions to the commercial space sector where beneficial and cost-effective.

  8. Yes, small firms can commercialize photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Carl W.

    1997-01-01

    Small young companies can commercialize photonics. Many are already doing so and may more are getting started with a small government subsidy from Small Business Innovation Research. Capital is gushing, even begging for good investment opportunities, for companies ready to commit themselves to commercial success.

  9. 36 CFR 327.18 - Commercial activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Commercial activities. 327.18 Section 327.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY RULES AND... § 327.18 Commercial activities. (a) The engaging in or solicitation of business on project land...

  10. 36 CFR 327.18 - Commercial activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial activities. 327.18 Section 327.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY RULES AND... § 327.18 Commercial activities. (a) The engaging in or solicitation of business on project land...

  11. Commercial Spanish at Eastern Michigan University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voght, Geoffrey M.

    The commercial Spanish courses at Eastern Michigan University, examinations in commercial Spanish, and cooperative education exchange programs are described, and the university's new programs that combine the study of foreign language and business are briefly addressed. A six-course sequence offered on the junior, senior, and graduate levels cover…

  12. 19 CFR 103.35 - Confidential commercial information; exempt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... required by law (other than 5 U.S.C. 552). (c) Procedure when notice given—(1) Opportunity for business... person. Commercial information provided to CBP by a business submitter will be treated as privileged or... made known in any manner except as provided in this section. (b) Notice to business submitters of...

  13. Small Business Innovations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Under an Army Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant, Symbiotics, Inc. developed a software system that permits users to upgrade products from standalone applications so they can communicate in a distributed computing environment. Under a subsequent NASA SBIR grant, Symbiotics added additional tools to the SOCIAL product to enable NASA to coordinate conventional systems for planning Shuttle launch support operations. Using SOCIAL, data may be shared among applications in a computer network even when the applications are written in different programming languages. The product was introduced to the commercial market in 1993 and is used to monitor and control equipment for operation support and to integrate financial networks. The SBIR program was established to increase small business participation in federal R&D activities and to transfer government research to industry. InQuisiX is a reuse library providing high performance classification, cataloging, searching, browsing, retrieval and synthesis capabilities. These form the foundation for software reuse, producing higher quality software at lower cost and in less time. Software Productivity Solutions, Inc. developed the technology under Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) projects funded by NASA and the Army and is marketing InQuisiX in conjunction with Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC). The SBIR program was established to increase small business participation in federal R&D activities and to transfer government research to industry.

  14. 41 CFR 102-117.100 - What business rules must I consider before acquiring transportation or related services?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... Preference on international shipments must be given to United States registered commercial vessels and...) Encourage minority-owned businesses and women-owned businesses, to compete for all business they can...

  15. 41 CFR 102-117.100 - What business rules must I consider before acquiring transportation or related services?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... Preference on international shipments must be given to United States registered commercial vessels and...) Encourage minority-owned businesses and women-owned businesses, to compete for all business they can...

  16. Coupling the Actuator Line and Finite Element Methods to Model Fluid Structure Interaction of a Commercial Wind Turbine in the Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motta, Javier; Jha, Pankaj; Campbell, Robert; Schmitz, Sven; Brasseur, James

    2013-11-01

    Wind turbine blades deform in response to unsteady loadings from atmospheric turbulence, causing changes in local angle-of-attack and blade loadings. This interaction is modeled by a fluid-structure interaction (FSI) solver that combines a finite element (FE) solver with an actuator line method (ALM) model for aerodynamic blade loads and vorticity shedding developed by Jha et al. (2013). The FSI solver is embedded within an OpenFOAM large-eddy simulation (LES) solver for daytime atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). The flow and structure solvers are tightly coupled to ensure convergence of blade deformation and its impact on the flow field. The structural deformations are computed using a modal summation approach, where the required modal matrix and resonant frequencies are extracted using Abaqus. The ALM and FE algorithms are being optimized to provide a reasonable balance between accuracy of prediction and computation time, particularly due to the sub-iterations required for blade deformation convergence. We also aim to present an analysis of the coupling between blade loading and deformation on the NREL 5MW turbine operating in the ABL. Supported by the DOE. Graduate Research Assistant, Mechanical Engineering.

  17. The business of space exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tam, Daniel C.

    2001-02-01

    Despite healthy economic conditions worldwide, aerospace companies have been struggling since the end of the Cold War. The industry faces a very uncertain future as people and money are leaving in droves. But that has not diminished interest in significantly opening up the space frontier for commercial uses. Is there a major disconnect between expectation and reality? What can the Government and private sectors do to positively shape the future? This paper examines the market forces in play and uses the development of the commercial air transportation business to assess the prospect for commercial space transportation and exploration. It also addresses the elements and criteria for business opportunity, and suggests ways in which the public and private sector can work together to build the future of space. .

  18. Small Business Innovations (Helicopters)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The amount of engine power required for a helicopter to hover is an important, but difficult, consideration in helicopter design. The EHPIC program model produces converged, freely distorted wake geometries that generate accurate analysis of wake-induced downwash, allowing good predictions of rotor thrust and power requirements. Continuum Dynamics, Inc., the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) company that developed EHPIC, also produces RotorCRAFT, a program for analysis of aerodynamic loading of helicopter blades in forward flight. Both helicopter codes have been licensed to commercial manufacturers.

  19. 22 CFR 130.15 - Confidential business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., confidential business information means commercial or financial information which by law is entitled to... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Confidential business information. 130.15... CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.15 Confidential business information. (a) Any person who is...

  20. 16 CFR 254.2 - Deceptive trade or business names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Deceptive trade or business names. 254.2... PRIVATE VOCATIONAL AND DISTANCE EDUCATION SCHOOLS § 254.2 Deceptive trade or business names. (a) It is deceptive for an industry member to use any trade or business name, label, insignia, or designation...

  1. 16 CFR 254.2 - Deceptive trade or business names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Deceptive trade or business names. 254.2... PRIVATE VOCATIONAL AND DISTANCE EDUCATION SCHOOLS § 254.2 Deceptive trade or business names. (a) It is deceptive for an industry member to use any trade or business name, label, insignia, or designation...

  2. 16 CFR 254.2 - Deceptive trade or business names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Deceptive trade or business names. 254.2... PRIVATE VOCATIONAL AND DISTANCE EDUCATION SCHOOLS § 254.2 Deceptive trade or business names. (a) It is deceptive for an industry member to use any trade or business name, label, insignia, or designation...

  3. 16 CFR 4.14 - Conduct of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conduct of business. 4.14 Section 4.14... RULES § 4.14 Conduct of business. (a) Matters before the Commission for consideration may be resolved.... 208 or otherwise) constitutes a quorum for the transaction of business in that matter. (c)...

  4. 14 CFR 119.9 - Use of business names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of business names. 119.9 Section 119.9... COMMERCIAL OPERATORS General § 119.9 Use of business names. (a) A certificate holder under this part may not operate an aircraft under part 121 or part 135 of this chapter using a business name other than a...

  5. 16 CFR 4.14 - Conduct of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conduct of business. 4.14 Section 4.14... RULES § 4.14 Conduct of business. (a) Matters before the Commission for consideration may be resolved.... 208 or otherwise) constitutes a quorum for the transaction of business in that matter. (c)...

  6. 14 CFR 119.9 - Use of business names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of business names. 119.9 Section 119.9... COMMERCIAL OPERATORS General § 119.9 Use of business names. (a) A certificate holder under this part may not operate an aircraft under part 121 or part 135 of this chapter using a business name other than a...

  7. Small Business Innovations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract to Kennedy Space Center, EIC Laboratories invented a Raman Spectrograph with fiber optic sampling for space applications such as sensing hazardous fuel vapors and making on-board rapid analyses of chemicals and minerals. Raman spectroscopy is a laser-based measurement technique that provides through a unique vibrational spectrum a molecular 'fingerprint,' and can function in aqueous environments. EIC combined optical fiber technology with Raman methods to develop sensors that can be operated at a distance from the spectrographic analysis instruments and the laser excitation source. EIC refined and commercialized the technology to create the Fiber Optic Raman Spectrograph and the RamanProbe. Commercial applications range from process control to monitoring hazardous materials.

  8. European commercial aeronautics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Zandt, J Parker

    1925-01-01

    During the months of June to September, 1924, I personally visited the principal airports of Europe and traveled as a passenger some 6500 air miles on English, French, Romanian, Polish, German and Dutch air lines in order to investigate the development of commercial aviation abroad. The results of the investigation are embodied in a series of reports, of which a summary of the general findings is given below.

  9. Business Planning Core Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Itzkowitz, G.N.

    2014-01-01

    Thoughtful business planning is pivotal to the success of any business/operational venture. When planned in a thoughtful and detailed manner there are very few operational or financial surprises for an institution or facility (service center) to contend with. At Stony Brook Medicine we include SWOT analysis and a detailed Market Analysis as part of the process. This is bolstered by an initiative to ensure institutional policies are met so that facilities remain in compliance throughout their lifecycle. As we operate 14 facilities we have had the opportunity to become creative in our approach to coordinate activities, virtualize services, integrate new software business-to-business partners, and finally coordinate plans for phased consolidation instead of outright termination of services when required. As the Associate Dean for Scientific Operations and Research Facilities, the shared research facilities (cores) of the Medical School are in my direct line of sight. We understand their value to the meeting our overall research mission. We have found that an active process of monitoring to predict trouble as much as possible is the best approach for facilities. Some case analysis of this type of interaction will be presented as well.

  10. Business Graphics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Genigraphics Corporation's Masterpiece 8770 FilmRecorder is an advanced high resolution system designed to improve and expand a company's in-house graphics production. GRAFTIME/software package was designed to allow office personnel with minimal training to produce professional level graphics for business communications and presentations. Products are no longer being manufactured.

  11. Unfinished Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuckett, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Adult learning is not a tidy business: adults fit learning into the spaces left by the other demands on complex lives, and into the spaces left in administrative structures overwhelmingly designed for other people. No simple metric can capture adults' diverse purposes and achievements, and no single programme can capture the full range of things…

  12. Business Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canipe, Stephen L.

    A brief definition of some fundamentals of microcomputers and of the ways they may be used in small businesses can help potential buyers make informed purchases. Hardware (the mechanical devices from which computers are made) described here are the video display, keyboard, central processing unit, "random access" and "read only" memories, cassette…

  13. Strictly Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Reginald

    2011-01-01

    When Jackson State University opened for classes this year, it marked its fifth anniversary in the online education business by adding a full four-year, undergraduate degree program in early childhood education to its offerings. Jackson State is among a growing number of historically Black colleges tying part of their future survival and growth…

  14. Development, validation and transfer of a near infrared method to determine in-line the end point of a fluidised drying process for commercial production batches of an approved oral solid dose pharmaceutical product.

    PubMed

    Peinado, Antonio; Hammond, Jonathan; Scott, Andrew

    2011-01-05

    Pharmaceutical companies are progressively adopting and introducing the principles of Quality by Design with the main purpose of assurance and built-in quality throughout the whole manufacturing process. Within this framework, a Partial Least Square (PLS) model, based on Near Infrared (NIR) spectra and humidity determinations, was built in order to determine in-line the drying end point of a fluidized bed process. The in-process method was successfully validated following the principles described within The International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use - ICH Q2 (r1) - Validation of Analytical Procedures: Text and Methodology. However, in some aspects, the cited guidelines were not appropriate to in-process methods developed and validated exclusively with in-line samples and implemented in dynamic systems, such as drying processes. In this work, a customized interpretation of guidelines has been adopted which provided the framework of evidence to support a validated application. The application has been submitted to the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and The European Medicines Agency (EMA) during applications for grant of licences. Representatives from these Regulatory Authorities have specifically reviewed this novel application during on-site inspections, and have subsequently approved both the product and this application. Currently, the NIR method is implemented as a primary in-line method to control the drying end point in real-time (to below a control limit of not greater than 1.2% w/w) for commercial production batches of an approved, solid, oral-dose medicine. The implementation of this in-process method allows real-time control with benefits including a reduction in operation time and labour; sample handling and waste generation; and a reduced risk to product quality in further unit operations due to improved consistency of intermediate output at this stage. To date

  15. The commercialization of plastic surgery.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Eric

    2013-09-01

    The last decade has brought a major challenge to the traditional practice of plastic surgery from corporations that treat plastic surgery as a commercial product and market directly to the public. This corporate medicine model may include promotion of a trademarked procedure or device, national advertising that promises stunning results, sales consultants, and claims of innovation, superiority, and improved safety. This article explores the ethics of this business practice and whether corporate medicine is a desirable model for patients and plastic surgeons.

  16. Commercialization of solar space power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pant, Alok; Sera, Gary

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this research is to help U.S. companies commercialize renewable energy in India, with a special focus on solar energy. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Mid-Continent Technology Transfer Center (MCTTC) is working with ENTECH, Inc., a solar photovoltaic (SPV) systems manufacturer to form partnerships with Indian companies. MCTTC has conducted both secondary and primary market research and obtained travel funding to meet potential Indian partners face to face. MCTTC and ENTECH traveled to India during June 2-20, 1994, and visited New Delhi, Bombay, Pune and Calcutta. Meetings were held with several key government officials and premier Indian business houses and entrepreneurs in the area of solar energy. A firsthand knowledge of India's renewable energy industry was gained, and companies were qualified in terms of capabilities and commitment to the SPV business. The World Bank has awarded India with 280 million to commercialize renewable energies, including 55 million for SPV. There is a market in India for both small-scale (kW) and large SPV (MW) applications. Each U.S. company needs to form a joint venture with an Indian firm and let the latter identify the states and projects with the greatest business potential. Several big Indian companies and entrepreneurs are planning to enter the SPV business, and they currently are seeking foreign technology partners. Since the lager companies have adopted a more conservative approach, however, partnerships with entrepreneurs might offer the quickest route to market entry in India.

  17. Business Ownership and Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaser, Ken, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    Includes five articles: "Women in Management" (Zimmerer); "Business Boot Camp (interviews with young entrepreneurs)" (Kaser); "Plan Your Own Business Project" (Kohns); "Business Education and the Middle Level Student" (Patterson, Leblanc); and "Small Business Ownership Planning" (Fiber). (SK)

  18. Florida commercial space initiatives and technology transfer mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Roger L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses commercial space policy for the State of Florida in the context of state initiatives for general technology and economic development. The paper also compares Florida's commercial space initiatives to national space policies and describes mechanisms for transferring space related technologies and research to Florida businesses for subsequent development and commercialization.

  19. Business Jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Citation Jet, developed by Cessna Aircraft Company, Wichita, KS, is the first business jet to employ Langley Research Center's natural laminar flow (NLF) technology. NLF reduces drag and therefore saves fuel by using only the shape of the wing to keep the airflow smooth, or laminar. This reduces friction between the air and wing, and therefore, reduces drag. NASA's Central Industrial Applications Center, Rural Enterprises, Inc., Durant, OK, its Kansas affiliate, and Wichita State University assisted in the technology transfer.

  20. Software Product Lines Essentials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    improvement Technology innovation Reuse 7 Software Product Lines Linda Northrop © 2008 Carnegie Mellon University Few Systems Are Unique Most...Focus was small-grained, opportunistic, and technology -driven. Results did not meet business goals. Reuse History 9 Software Product Lines Linda...servers, storage servers, network camera and scanner servers Bold Stroke Avionics Customized solutions for transportation industries E-COM Technology

  1. Business, Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupree, Andrea

    1998-05-01

    The annual business meeting, which all members are encouraged to attend, will take place on Tuesday afternoon. Come enjoy the President's Ice Cream Party. Come meet new officers. Come nominate candidates for the Nominating Committee. The Nominating Committee is a very important body which provides the slate of candidates for the annual AAS election. Society business will be discussed briefly. Highlighting this meeting will be a panel discussion on: "How to Get Your Paper Published Promptly" Should I mention that Notable Authority Professor Hjalmar Sciatti hates me and my papers? When is it OK to start complaining that no report has arrived? Do I have to do everything the referee says? These and related questions will be addressed at the business meeting in a panel presentation by the editors of the three main AAS publications, Paul Hodge (AJ), Helmut Abt (ApJ), Alex Dalgarno (ApJ Letters), concerning the refereeing and editing process and how authors can interface with it most effectively. There will be time for questions and discussions toward the end, or you can send your questions in advance to askeds@aas.org, so that the most frequent ones can be covered in the presentations.

  2. DIUx Commercial Solutions Opening: How to Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-11-30

    This is version 1.0 of the DIUx CSO Guide. As a living document, it will be periodically updated to reflect DIUx’s ongoing experience maturing...nontraditional vendors from doing business with the DoD. In order to access cutting-edge technology from nontraditional vendors, DoD must change the way it ...does business and adapt to commercial best practices, lower its barriers to entry, and transform into a more attractive customer and investor. To

  3. Business Plan Competitions: An Overview. CELCEE Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seymour, Nicole

    This document describes business plan competitions sponsored by universities. The idea began in the early 1980s at the University of Texas when Masters in Business Administration (MBA) students created a friendly competitive activity along the lines of the law schools Moot Court competition. Later the competition became national, and then…

  4. Australian Small Business Participation in Training Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Beverley; Walker, Elizabeth; Brown, Alan

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This purpose of this paper is to investigate the use of on-line training by small businesses in Australia. It explores the relationship between the owners acceptance and use of the Internet, and their current participation in training opportunities. Design/Methodology/Approach: A sample of small businesses which had participated in an…

  5. COMMERCIALIZATION DEMONSTRATION OF MID-SIZED SUPERCONDUCTING MAGNETIC ENERGY STORAGE TECHNOLOGY FOR ELECTRIC UTILITYAPPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    CHARLES M. WEBER

    2008-06-24

    As an outgrowth of the Technology Reinvestment Program of the 1990’s, an Agreement was formed between BWXT and the DOE to promote the commercialization of Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) technology. Business and marketing studies showed that the performance of electric transmission lines could be improved with this SMES technology by stabilizing the line thereby allowing the reserved stability margin to be used. One main benefit sought was to double the capacity and the amount of energy flow on an existing transmission line by enabling the use of the reserved stability margin, thereby doubling revenue. Also, electrical disturbances, power swings, oscillations, cascading disturbances and brown/black-outs could be mitigated and rendered innocuous; thereby improving power quality and reliability. Additionally, construction of new transmission lines needed for increased capacity could be delayed or perhaps avoided (with significant savings) by enabling the use of the reserved stability margin of the existing lines. Two crucial technical aspects were required; first, a large, powerful, dynamic, economic and reliable superconducting magnet, capable of oscillating power flow was needed; and second, an electrical power interface and control to a transmission line for testing, demonstrating and verifying the benefits and features of the SMES system was needed. A project was formed with the goals of commercializing the technology by demonstrating SMES technology for utility applications and to establish a domestic capability for manufacturing large superconducting magnets for both commercial and defense applications. The magnet had very low AC losses to support the dynamic and oscillating nature of the stabilizing power flow. Moreover, to economically interface to the transmission line, the magnet had the largest operating voltage ever made. The manufacturing of that design was achieved by establishing a factory with newly designed and acquired equipment

  6. 16 CFR 1020.5 - What is the Small Business Enforcement Policy?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... (5) The small business failed to make a good faith effort to comply with the law. (6) The small... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What is the Small Business Enforcement... BUSINESS § 1020.5 What is the Small Business Enforcement Policy? (a) When appropriate, the Commission...

  7. Commercial Capaciflector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vranish, John M.

    1991-12-01

    A capacitive proximity/tactile sensor with unique performance capabilities ('capaciflector' or capacitive reflector) is being developed by NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) for use on robots and payloads in space in the interests of safety, efficiency, and ease of operation. Specifically, this sensor will permit robots and their attached payloads to avoid collisions in space with humans and other objects and to dock these payloads in a cluttered environment. The sensor is simple, robust, and inexpensive to manufacture with obvious and recognized commercial possibilities. Accordingly, NASA/GSFC, in conjunction with industry, is embarking on an effort to 'spin' this technology off into the private sector. This effort includes prototypes aimed at commercial applications. The principles of operation of these prototypes are described along with hardware, software, modelling, and test results. The hardware description includes both the physical sensor in terms of a flexible printed circuit board and the electronic circuitry. The software description will include filtering and detection techniques. The modelling will involve finite element electric field analysis and will underline techniques used for design optimization.

  8. Commercial Capaciflector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M.

    1991-01-01

    A capacitive proximity/tactile sensor with unique performance capabilities ('capaciflector' or capacitive reflector) is being developed by NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) for use on robots and payloads in space in the interests of safety, efficiency, and ease of operation. Specifically, this sensor will permit robots and their attached payloads to avoid collisions in space with humans and other objects and to dock these payloads in a cluttered environment. The sensor is simple, robust, and inexpensive to manufacture with obvious and recognized commercial possibilities. Accordingly, NASA/GSFC, in conjunction with industry, is embarking on an effort to 'spin' this technology off into the private sector. This effort includes prototypes aimed at commercial applications. The principles of operation of these prototypes are described along with hardware, software, modelling, and test results. The hardware description includes both the physical sensor in terms of a flexible printed circuit board and the electronic circuitry. The software description will include filtering and detection techniques. The modelling will involve finite element electric field analysis and will underline techniques used for design optimization.

  9. Small Business Innovations (Crystal Components)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Scientific Materials Corporation, Bozeman, MT developed the SciMax line of improved Nd:Yag crystals under an Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract with Langley Research Center. They reduced the amount of water trapped in the crystals during growth to improve the optical quality and efficiency. Applications of the crystals include fiber optics, telecommunications, welding, drilling, eye surgery and medical instrumentation.

  10. MPRS (URBOT) commercialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciccimaro, Donny; Baker, William; Hamilton, Ian; Heikkila, Leif; Renick, Joel

    2003-09-01

    The Man Portable Robotic System (MPRS) project objective was to build and deliver hardened robotic systems to the U.S. Army"s 10 Mountain Division in Fort Drum, New York. The system, specifically designed for tunnel and sewer reconnaissance, was equipped with visual and audio sensors that allowed the Army engineers to detect trip wires and booby traps before personnel entered a potentially hostile environment. The MPRS system has shown to be useful in government and military supported field exercises, but the system has yet to reach the hands of civilian users. Potential users in Law Enforcement and Border Patrol have shown a strong interest in the system, but robotic costs were thought to be prohibitive for law enforcement budgets. Through the Center for Commercialization of Advanced Technology (CCAT) program, an attempt will be made to commercialize the MPRS. This included a detailed market analysis performed to verify the market viability of the technologies. Hence, the first step in this phase is to fully define the marketability of proposed technologies in terms of actual market size, pricing and cost factors, competitive risks and/or advantages, and other key factors used to develop marketing and business plans.

  11. Aerocapacitor commercialization plan

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-12

    The purpose of the Power-One Aerocapacitor Commercialization Plan is to communicate to members of management and to all employees the overall objectives of the corporation. Power-One, Inc., has participated in a US Federal Government Technology Reinvestment Project (TRP), entitled {open_quotes}Advanced Power Conversion based on the Aerocapacitor{close_quotes}: the project is a group effort, with Lawrence Livermore National Labs, GenCorp/Aerojet, PolyStor Corp. (a start-up company), and Power-One forming the consortium. The expected resulting technology is the {open_quotes}Aerocapacitor{close_quotes}, which possesses much higher performance levels than the usual capacitors on the market today. Power-One hopes to incorporate the Aerocapacitor into some of its products, hence enhancing their performance, as well as market privately-labeled aerocapacitors through its distribution channels. This document describes the details of Power-One`s plan to bring to market and commercialize the Aerocapacitor and Aerocapacitor-based products. This plan was formulated while Power-One was part of the Oerocap project. It has since pulled out of this project. What is presented in this plan is the work which was developed prior to the business decision to terminate this work.

  12. Characterization of commercially available vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers tuned on Cs D1 line at 894.6  nm for miniature atomic clocks.

    PubMed

    Kroemer, Eric; Rutkowski, Jaroslaw; Maurice, Vincent; Vicarini, Rémy; Hafiz, Moustafa Abdel; Gorecki, Christophe; Boudot, Rodolphe

    2016-11-01

    We report on the metrological characterization of novel commercially available 894.6 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs), dedicated to Cs D1 line spectroscopy experiments. The thermal behavior of the VCSELs is reported, highlighting the existence of a minimum threshold current and maximum output power in the 55°C-60°C range. The laser relative intensity noise, measured to be -108  dB/Hz at 10 Hz Fourier frequency f for a laser power of 25 μW, is reduced with increased power. The VCSELs frequency noise is 108  Hz2/Hz at f=100  Hz. The spectral linewidth of the VCSELs is about 30 MHz. VCSELs injection current can be directly modulated at 4.596 GHz with microwave power in the range of -10 to +0  dBm to generate optical sidebands. A VCSEL was used in a microcell-based Cs atomic clock based on coherent population trapping. A preliminary clock short-term fractional frequency stability of 8×10-11τ-1/2 up to about 100 s is reported, demonstrating the suitability of these VCSELs for miniature atomic clock applications.

  13. Lunar Commercial Mining Logistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kistler, Walter P.; Citron, Bob; Taylor, Thomas C.

    2008-01-01

    Innovative commercial logistics is required for supporting lunar resource recovery operations and assisting larger consortiums in lunar mining, base operations, camp consumables and the future commercial sales of propellant over the next 50 years. To assist in lowering overall development costs, ``reuse'' innovation is suggested in reusing modified LTS in-space hardware for use on the moon's surface, developing product lines for recovered gases, regolith construction materials, surface logistics services, and other services as they evolve, (Kistler, Citron and Taylor, 2005) Surface logistics architecture is designed to have sustainable growth over 50 years, financed by private sector partners and capable of cargo transportation in both directions in support of lunar development and resource recovery development. The author's perspective on the importance of logistics is based on five years experience at remote sites on Earth, where remote base supply chain logistics didn't always work, (Taylor, 1975a). The planning and control of the flow of goods and materials to and from the moon's surface may be the most complicated logistics challenges yet to be attempted. Affordability is tied to the innovation and ingenuity used to keep the transportation and surface operations costs as low as practical. Eleven innovations are proposed and discussed by an entrepreneurial commercial space startup team that has had success in introducing commercial space innovation and reducing the cost of space operations in the past. This logistics architecture offers NASA and other exploring nations a commercial alternative for non-essential cargo. Five transportation technologies and eleven surface innovations create the logistics transportation system discussed.

  14. Commercial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The near term (one to five year) needs of domestic and foreign commercial suppliers of radiochemicals and radiopharmaceuticals for electromagnetically separated stable isotopes are assessed. Only isotopes purchased to make products for sale and profit are considered. Radiopharmaceuticals produced from enriched stable isotopes supplied by the Calutron facility at ORNL are used in about 600,000 medical procedures each year in the United States. A temporary or permanent disruption of the supply of stable isotopes to the domestic radiopharmaceutical industry could curtail, if not eliminate, the use of such diagnostic procedures as the thallium heart scan, the gallium cancer scan, the gallium abscess scan, and the low radiation dose thyroid scan. An alternative source of enriched stable isotopes exist in the USSR. Alternative starting materials could, in theory, eventually be developed for both the thallium and gallium scans. The development of a new technology for these purposes, however, would take at least five years and would be expensive. Hence, any disruption of the supply of enriched isotopes from ORNL and the resulting unavailability of critical nuclear medicine procedures would have a dramatic negative effect on the level of health care in the United States.

  15. Tribal Business Assistance Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansdowne, Michele

    The Salish Kootenai College Tribal Business Assistance Center was established in 1994 to provide technical assistance to individuals who are pursuing a small business. The center assists the entrepreneur by way of individual consultation with business advisors, small business workshops, and business administration courses that have been created…

  16. Automatic information retrieval of Chinese business card

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, GuangShun; Pan, Wumo; Jin, Jianming

    2003-01-01

    Document image understanding techniques have been widely used in many application domains. Various kinds of documents have been researched and different methods are developed for information retrieval purpose. In this paper we present a practical method to extract information items from Chinese business card. Before retrieval information in business card, the image of business card had been segmented into little text regions and each text region had been recognized. Because the typeset of business card is variable, and both English and Chinese characters are used, so there are errors in segmentation and recognition result. We focus on building a robust model that can tolerate errors and extract syntax pattern of each text lines in business card, which using both layout information and logical information. By this model, many errors will be identified and adjusted. Finally, correct property will be assigned to each text region in business card, and recognition errors will be corrected.

  17. Business Approach To Lunar Base Activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Harrison H.

    2003-01-01

    It remains unlikely that any government or group of governments will make the long-term funding commitments necessary to return to the Moon in support of scientific goals or resource production. If a lunar base is to be established within the foreseeable future, it will support of commercial production and use of unique energy resources Business plan development for commercial production and use of lunar Helium-3 requires a number of major steps, including identification of the required investor base and development of fusion power technology through a series of business bridges that provide required rates of return.

  18. Financial issues for commercial space ventures: Paying for the dreams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egan, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    Various financial issues involved in commercial space enterprise are discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on the materials processing area: the current state of business plan and financial developments, what is needed for enhanced probability of success of future materials development efforts in attracting financial backing, and finally, the risks involved in this entire business area.

  19. AGATE animation - business theme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Business jet 5 of 6. Advanced General Aviation Technology Experiment (AGATE). 'Smart airport' technologies are expected to be available in 5-10 years for both recreational and business transportation. Image from AGATE 'business jet' video animation.

  20. Business Schools under Fire: Humanistic Management Education as the Way Forward. Humanism in Business Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amann, Wolfgang, Ed.; Pirson, Michael, Ed.; Dierksmeier, Claus, Ed.; Von Kimakowitz, Ernst, Ed.; Spitzeck, Heiko, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    In a time of instability trust in managers is low. Management education is being scrutinized for its impact on society and business schools have been considered as "silent partners in corporate crime." This book outlines how business schools can get out of the line of fire by presenting the cornerstones of a humanistic business…

  1. Identification of types of businesses with potential interest in operating and/or exporting ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) plants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-09-01

    This study describes the characteristics of three selected Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)-based lines of business, examines other lines of business and identifies those with similar characteristics, and indicates the types of businesses/corporations that could be expected to have potential interest in operating and/or exporting OTEC plants. An OTEC line of business model is developed to assist companies in making an internal corporate assessment as to whether OTEC should be in their business plan.

  2. Aerospace management techniques: Commercial and governmental applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milliken, J. G.; Morrison, E. J.

    1971-01-01

    A guidebook for managers and administrators is presented as a source of useful information on new management methods in business, industry, and government. The major topics discussed include: actual and potential applications of aerospace management techniques to commercial and governmental organizations; aerospace management techniques and their use within the aerospace sector; and the aerospace sector's application of innovative management techniques.

  3. Commercial Photography. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP) for commercial photography is an employer-verified competency list that evolved from a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) job analysis process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives throughout Ohio. The competency list consists of 12 units: (1) business…

  4. English in the Ecuadorian Commercial Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alm, Cecilia Ovesdotter

    2003-01-01

    Presents a study completed in Quito, Ecuador that investigates the attitudinal perceptions toward English in advertising in the Ecuadorian commercial context. Findings are the result of four data collection procedures; a questionnaire administered to advertising experts, an analysis of business names in ten shopping centers, an analysis of…

  5. Risky Business

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yarbrough, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    During my internship I worked on two major projects, recommending improvements for the Center's Risk Management Workshop and helping with the strategic planning efforts for Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA). The risk management improvements is the key project I worked on this semester through my internship, while the strategic planning is the secondary assignment. S&MA Business Office covers both aspects in its delegation, getting both spans some of the work done in the office. A risk is a future event with a negative consequence that has some probability of occurring. Safety and Mission Assurance identifies, analyzes, plans, and tracks risk. The directorate offers the Center a Risk Management Workshop, and part of the ongoing efforts of S&MA is to make continuous improvements to the RM Workshop. By using the Project Management Institute's (PMI) Standard for Risk Management, I performed a gap analysis to make improvements for our materials. I benchmarked the PMI's Risk Management Standard, compared our Risk Management Workshop materials to PMI's standard, and identified any gaps in our material. My major findings were presented to the Business Office of S&MA for a decision on whether or not to incorporate the improvements. These suggestions were made by attending JSC working group meetings, Health, Safety and Environment (HSE) panel reviews and various risk review meetings. The improvements provide better understanding of risk management processes and enhanced risk tracking knowledge and skills. Risk management is an integral part of any engineering discipline, getting exposed to this section of engineering will greatly help shape my career in the future. Johnson Space Center is a world leader in risk management processes; learning risk management here gives me a huge advantage over my peers, as well as understanding decision making in the context of risk management will help me to be a well-rounded engineer. Strategic planning is an area I had not previously

  6. Business Inspiration: Small Business Leadership in Recovery?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rae, David; Price, Liz; Bosworth, Gary; Parkinson, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Business Inspiration was a short, action-centred leadership and innovation development programme designed for owners and managers of smaller firms to address business survival and repositioning needs arising from the UK's economic downturn. The article examines the design and delivery of Business Inspiration and the impact of the programme on…

  7. School-Business Partnerships: Understanding Business Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badgett, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    School-business partnerships have been shown to enhance educational experiences for students. There has, however, been limited research demonstrating the priorities and perspectives of for-profit business leaders on those partnerships. In order to address that gap, the researcher interviewed business leaders in two different areas of Texas. After…

  8. Commercializing medical technology.

    PubMed

    Scanlon, Kevin J; Lieberman, Mark A

    2007-04-01

    As medicine moves into the 21st century, life saving therapies will move from inception into medical products faster if there is a better synergy between science and business. Medicine appears to have 50-year innovative cycles of education and scientific discoveries. In the 1880's, the chemical industry in Germany was faced with the dilemma of modernization to exploit the new scientific discoveries. The solution was the spawning of novel technical colleges for training in these new chemical industries. The impact of those new employees and their groundbreaking compounds had a profound influence on medicine and medical education in Germany between 1880 and 1930. Germany dominated international science during this period and was a training center for scientists worldwide. This model of synergy between education and business was envied and admired in Europe, Asia and America. British science soon after evolved to dominate the field of science during the prewar and post World War (1930's-1970's) because the German scientists fled Hitler's government. These expatriated scientists had a profound influence on the teaching and training of British scientists, which lead to advances in medicine such as antibiotics. After the Second World War, the US government wisely funded the development of the medical infrastructure that we see today. British and German scientists in medicine moved to America because of this bountiful funding for their research. These expatriated scientists helped drive these medical advances into commercialized products by the 1980's. America has been the center of medical education and advances of biotechnology but will it continue? International scientists trained in America have started to return to Europe and Asia. These American-trained scientists and their governments are very aware of the commercial potential of biotechnology. Those governments are now more prepared to play an active role this new science. Germany, Ireland, Britain, Singapore

  9. Commercializing medical technology

    PubMed Central

    Lieberman, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    As medicine moves into the 21st century, life saving therapies will move from inception into medical products faster if there is a better synergy between science and business. Medicine appears to have 50-year innovative cycles of education and scientific discoveries. In the 1880’s, the chemical industry in Germany was faced with the dilemma of modernization to exploit the new scientific discoveries. The solution was the spawning of novel technical colleges for training in these new chemical industries. The impact of those new employees and their groundbreaking compounds had a profound influence on medicine and medical education in Germany between 1880 and 1930. Germany dominated international science during this period and was a training center for scientists worldwide. This model of synergy between education and business was envied and admired in Europe, Asia and America. British science soon after evolved to dominate the field of science during the prewar and post World War (1930’s–1970’s) because the German scientists fled Hitler’s government. These expatriated scientists had a profound influence on the teaching and training of British scientists, which lead to advances in medicine such as antibiotics. After the Second World War, the US government wisely funded the development of the medical infrastructure that we see today. British and German scientists in medicine moved to America because of this bountiful funding for their research. These expatriated scientists helped drive these medical advances into commercialized products by the 1980’s. America has been the center of medical education and advances of biotechnology but will it continue? International scientists trained in America have started to return to Europe and Asia. These American-trained scientists and their governments are very aware of the commercial potential of biotechnology. Those governments are now more prepared to play an active role this new science. Germany, Ireland, Britain

  10. Coal gasifiers: commercial and technical risk

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, P.A.

    1982-05-01

    At present, only two gasifier designs (Koppers-Totzek and Lurgi) are offered on the basis of the offerer having recent commercial experience with the design. Development and demonstration programs will soon add five new concepts to the list of offerings that lie within the realm of reasonable commercial risk. These include the Allis-Chalmers, British slagging Lurgi, Saarberg-Otto, Texaco, and Westinghouse gasifiers. The actual date these units will become commercial depends on when the developers actually get their demonstration unit on line and operating. Other developers may assume a greater portion of the commercial risk in order to accelerate the introduction of their process into a commercial setting.

  11. A Quantitative Transmission Line Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, D. C.; Silbernagel, B. G.

    1969-01-01

    Describes modifications of a commercially available strip-type transmission line, which makes possible reproducible measurements of standing waves on the line. Experimental data yield values for the characteristic impedance, phase velocity and line wavelength of radiation in the transmission line, and the dielectric constant of material in the…

  12. Commercial, environmental and legislative factors that influence the implementation of fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serfass, Jeffrey A.; Bergman, Michael K.; Rodenhiser, Wendy

    1994-04-01

    Fuel cells and other advanced electric-generation technologies have not experienced a record of successful commercialization efforts. To lower costs for these technologies, it requires substantial production volumes with a significant investment in manufacturing facilities, all dependent on developer confidence in the ultimate market. Yet, market acceptance by buyers requires an adequate demonstration of technical performance and an assurance that these lower costs can be reached. In addition to this fundamental commercialization challenge, there are significant external factors that are greatly influencing the market's (utility's) future implementation of new alternative energy-generating technologies. The factor that has possibly the greatest impact today is the public demand for environmentally benign and renewable resource technologies. There is a growing trend of involvement by consumers, regulators and intervenors in the business and utility industry that is shifting the economic playing field by which industries make resource decisions. Concerns over air pollution, global warming, acid precipitation, depletion of the ozone layer and the hazards of electromagnetic fields (EMF) from power lines, have all led to more stringent regulations and environmental mandates. The utility business environment itself is rapidly changing. Higher public expectations from energy providers and increasing competition are leading to major changes in the American utility sector. Competitive requirements to reduce the cost of utility service is leading to business decisions that provide both opportunities and problems for increased use of alternative energy-generating technologies, like fuel cells, and/or renewables, such as wind and solar photovoltaics. Bringing new energy technologies to market is very expensive and this financial burden cannot be shouldered by the market, manufacturers or federal government alone. Further, for the market to assume a key position in early

  13. GEO vs. LEO Space Telecommunication Systems Commercial Set Up, Finance &Economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreisel, Joerg

    2002-01-01

    Space-based commercial telecommunication systems - especially in GEO - still represent the big volume segment in commercial space and probably will do so for a while. Although such end-to-end systems both in GEO and LEO are using satellites, ground stations, and service centers, etc., their commercial genesis differs significantly. Based on existing and planned space telecommunication businesses, this paper deals with prime characteristics of commercial GEO and LEO systems and their differences. In a tutorial way the stages of development of both LEO- and GEO-type business ventures are presented. The entire commercial development path is covered (concept, business plan, financing, partnership, growth, etc.). Focus is to understand what drives space telecommunication business and what it takes to start such new commercial space ventures. The perspective given is also based on the author's longstanding background in space commercialization and experiences made as a venture capitalist.

  14. 7 CFR 1980.490 - Business and industry buydown loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... through integrated operations, of agricultural products (crops, animals, birds, and marine life, either..., feeding (including commercial custom feedlots), breeding, hatching, control and/or management of farm or domestic animals. (3) Other eligible businesses. Eligible types of businesses also include: (i)...

  15. 7 CFR 1980.490 - Business and industry buydown loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... through integrated operations, of agricultural products (crops, animals, birds, and marine life, either..., feeding (including commercial custom feedlots), breeding, hatching, control and/or management of farm or domestic animals. (3) Other eligible businesses. Eligible types of businesses also include: (i)...

  16. 7 CFR 1980.490 - Business and industry buydown loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... through integrated operations, of agricultural products (crops, animals, birds, and marine life, either..., feeding (including commercial custom feedlots), breeding, hatching, control and/or management of farm or domestic animals. (3) Other eligible businesses. Eligible types of businesses also include: (i)...

  17. 7 CFR 1980.490 - Business and industry buydown loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... through integrated operations, of agricultural products (crops, animals, birds, and marine life, either..., feeding (including commercial custom feedlots), breeding, hatching, control and/or management of farm or domestic animals. (3) Other eligible businesses. Eligible types of businesses also include: (i)...

  18. Whole Person Learning: Embedding Ethical Enterprise Leadership in Business Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, E. Vincent; Donohue, Mary

    2012-01-01

    This study introduces a collaborative business education curricular design known as "whole person learning." The post-financial crisis market environment requires business education to encompass curricular, commercial and community skills. Drawing on the Toronto based National Mentoring Program (NMP), "whole person learning"…

  19. Business Plan for the Southwest Regional Spaceport: Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A proposal for a commercial, full-service launch, tracking, and recovery complex for Reusable Launch Vehicles in New Mexico is presented. Vision, mission, business definition, competitive advantages, and business approach are formulated. Management plan and team structure are detailed, and anticipated market is described. Finance and marketing plans are presented. Financial analysis is performed.

  20. 16 CFR 254.2 - Deceptive trade or business names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Deceptive trade or business names. 254.2... PRIVATE VOCATIONAL AND DISTANCE EDUCATION SCHOOLS § 254.2 Deceptive trade or business names. (a) It is deceptive for an Industry Member to misrepresent, directly or indirectly, expressly or by implication,...

  1. 75 FR 58353 - Business Development Mission to Egypt and Morocco

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... International Trade Administration Business Development Mission to Egypt and Morocco Mission Description The U.S... Business Development Mission to explore ports and infrastructure development opportunities in Egypt (Cairo... Eastern and Southern European markets. Commercial Setting Egypt Egypt is strategically located at...

  2. 7 CFR 1980.498 - Business and Industry Disaster Loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Rural Development Administration or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 (RDA or its successor... domestic animals. (4) Other eligible businesses. Eligible types of businesses also include: (i) Commercial... section 310B of the Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act of 1972, as amended. In this...

  3. 7 CFR 1980.498 - Business and Industry Disaster Loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Rural Development Administration or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 (RDA or its successor... domestic animals. (4) Other eligible businesses. Eligible types of businesses also include: (i) Commercial... section 310B of the Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act of 1972, as amended. In this...

  4. 7 CFR 1980.498 - Business and Industry Disaster Loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Rural Development Administration or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 (RDA or its successor... domestic animals. (4) Other eligible businesses. Eligible types of businesses also include: (i) Commercial... section 310B of the Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act of 1972, as amended. In this...

  5. 7 CFR 1980.498 - Business and Industry Disaster Loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Rural Development Administration or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 (RDA or its successor... domestic animals. (4) Other eligible businesses. Eligible types of businesses also include: (i) Commercial... section 310B of the Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act of 1972, as amended. In this...

  6. The ecological research needs of business.

    PubMed

    Armsworth, Paul R; Armsworth, Anastasia N; Compton, Natalie; Cottle, Phil; Davies, Ian; Emmett, Bridget A; Fandrich, Vanessa; Foote, Matthew; Gaston, Kevin J; Gardiner, Phil; Hess, Tim; Hopkins, John; Horsley, Nick; Leaver, Natasha; Maynard, Trevor; Shannon, Delia

    2010-04-01

    Businesses have an unrivalled ability to mobilize human, physical and financial capital, often manage large land holdings, and draw on resources and supply products that impact a wide array of ecosystems. Businesses therefore have the potential to make a substantial contribution to arresting declines in biodiversity and ecosystem services. To realize this potential, businesses require support from researchers in applied ecology to inform how they measure and manage their impacts on, and opportunities presented to them by, biodiversity and ecosystem services.We reviewed papers in leading applied ecology journals to assess the research contribution from existing collaborations involving businesses. We reviewed applications to, and grants funded by, the UK's Natural Environment Research Council for evidence of public investment in such collaborations. To scope opportunities for expanding collaborations with businesses, we conducted workshops with three sectors (mining and quarrying, insurance and manufacturing) in which participants identified exemplar ecological research questions of interest to their sector.Ten to fifteen per cent of primary research papers in Journal of Applied Ecology and Ecological Applications evidenced business involvement, mostly focusing on traditional rural industries (farming, fisheries and forestry). The review of UK research council funding found that 35% of applications mentioned business engagement, while only 1% of awarded grants met stricter criteria of direct business involvement.Some questions identified in the workshops aim to reduce costs from businesses' impacts on the environment and others to allow businesses to exploit new opportunities. Some questions are designed to inform long-term planning undertaken by businesses, but others would have more immediate commercial applications. Finally, some research questions are designed to streamline and make more effective those environmental policies that affect businesses.Business

  7. Business Management Course Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This course guide is designed for teaching about the U.S. business system. Students are introduced to management functions and the background knowledge/skills necessary to be a successful manager. The guide contains 10 competency goals: (1) nature of U.S. business; (2) environment of business; (3) types of business ownership; (4) management…

  8. Is Business Ethics Dying?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pamental, George L.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the need for business ethics courses in undergraduate and graduate business degree programs. Describes reasons for and objections to such programs. Explains that business ethics instruction requires varied case studies, adequate teaching materials, cooperation between philosophers and business faculty, and instructors who are forthcoming…

  9. Does Business Writing Require Information Literacy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Irvin R.; Haras, Catherine; Blaszczynski, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Although the business community increasingly recognizes information literacy as central to its work, there remains the critical problem of measurement: How should employers assess the information literacy of their current or potential workers? In this article, we use a commercially available assessment to investigate the relationship between…

  10. Suggestions for the Organization of a Course in Commercial French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Jacqueline

    1978-01-01

    Comments and suggestions are offered for organizing a class in commercial French. Two subjects must be taught: basic business transactions and procedures applicable to both the U.S. and France and French commercial terminology, stressing the differences between French and American practices. (SW)

  11. 78 FR 76886 - Small Business Size Standards: Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ...The U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) is granting a class waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule for Ovens, commercial-type, Ranges, commercial-type, and Gas ranges, commercial-type, Product or Service Code (PSC) 7310 (Food Cooking, Baking, and Serving Equipment), under NAICS code 333318 (Other Commercial and Service Industry Machinery Manufacturing). The basis for the waiver is that there......

  12. Pharmaceutical technology management--profitable business avenue.

    PubMed

    Puthli, Shivanand P

    2010-01-01

    Growing research expenditure, regulatory framework and generic erosion have forced pharmaceutical companies globally to resort to pharmaceutical technology management (PTM). Indeed, the pharmaceutical industry has witnessed the impact of innovative drug delivery and device technologies and their influence on business. PTM has given a new business insight with greater profits and enhancement of product franchise. Promising breakthrough technologies have not been able to reach a commercial platform largely owing to lack of capital at the preliminary stages of the product development program. Intellectual property plays a considerable role in protecting innovative technologies. Joint ventures and strategic alliances also become important for commercializing a new technology. The synergy of PTM with options of in-licensing is expected to infuse newer opportunities to the pharmaceutical business.

  13. The ecological research needs of business

    PubMed Central

    Armsworth, Paul R; Armsworth, Anastasia N; Compton, Natalie; Cottle, Phil; Davies, Ian; Emmett, Bridget A; Fandrich, Vanessa; Foote, Matthew; Gaston, Kevin J; Gardiner, Phil; Hess, Tim; Hopkins, John; Horsley, Nick; Leaver, Natasha; Maynard, Trevor; Shannon, Delia

    2010-01-01

    Businesses have an unrivalled ability to mobilize human, physical and financial capital, often manage large land holdings, and draw on resources and supply products that impact a wide array of ecosystems. Businesses therefore have the potential to make a substantial contribution to arresting declines in biodiversity and ecosystem services. To realize this potential, businesses require support from researchers in applied ecology to inform how they measure and manage their impacts on, and opportunities presented to them by, biodiversity and ecosystem services. We reviewed papers in leading applied ecology journals to assess the research contribution from existing collaborations involving businesses. We reviewed applications to, and grants funded by, the UK’s Natural Environment Research Council for evidence of public investment in such collaborations. To scope opportunities for expanding collaborations with businesses, we conducted workshops with three sectors (mining and quarrying, insurance and manufacturing) in which participants identified exemplar ecological research questions of interest to their sector. Ten to fifteen per cent of primary research papers in Journal of Applied Ecology and Ecological Applications evidenced business involvement, mostly focusing on traditional rural industries (farming, fisheries and forestry). The review of UK research council funding found that 35% of applications mentioned business engagement, while only 1% of awarded grants met stricter criteria of direct business involvement. Some questions identified in the workshops aim to reduce costs from businesses’ impacts on the environment and others to allow businesses to exploit new opportunities. Some questions are designed to inform long-term planning undertaken by businesses, but others would have more immediate commercial applications. Finally, some research questions are designed to streamline and make more effective those environmental policies that affect businesses

  14. Business planning for scientists and engineers

    SciTech Connect

    Servo, J.C.; Hauler, P.D.

    1992-03-01

    Business Planning for Scientists and Engineers is a combination text/workbook intended for use by individuals and firms having received Phase II SBIR funding (Small Business Innovation Research). It is used to best advantage in combination with other aspects of the Commercialization Assistance Project developed by Dawnbreaker for the US Department of Energy. Although there are many books on the market which indicate the desired contents of a business plan, there are none which clearly indicate how to find the needed information. This book focuses on the how of business planning: how to find the needed information; how to keep yourself honest about the market potential; how to develop the plan; how to sell and use the plan.

  15. 48 CFR 252.219-7003 - Small business subcontracting plan (DoD contracts).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.219-7003 Small business subcontracting plan...-9, Small Business Subcontracting Plan, clause of this contract. (a) Definitions. Historically black... division-wide commercial items subcontracting plans, the term small disadvantaged business, when used...

  16. 48 CFR 252.219-7003 - Small business subcontracting plan (DoD contracts).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.219-7003 Small business subcontracting plan...-9, Small Business Subcontracting Plan, clause of this contract. (a) Definitions. As used in this... commercial items subcontracting plans, the term “small disadvantaged business,” when used in the FAR...

  17. 47 CFR 76.1904 - Encoding rules for defined business models.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Encoding rules for defined business models. 76... defined business models. (a) Commercial audiovisual content delivered as unencrypted broadcast television... the Commission pursuant to a petition with respect to a defined business model other than...

  18. 16 CFR 500.5 - Name and place of business of manufacturer, packer or distributor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Name and place of business of manufacturer... business of manufacturer, packer or distributor. (a) The label of a consumer commodity shall specify conspicuously the name and place of business of the manufacturer, packer, or distributor. Where the...

  19. 76 FR 71313 - U.S. Automotive Parts and Components Business Development Mission to Russia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ... Government officials and decision-makers, one-on-one meetings with potential business partners and site... business partners that match their market interests. Timetable Sunday, April 22 (Moscow, Russia)--Arrive... business partners. The Commercial Service will assist in booking hotels at favorable rates, but...

  20. 76 FR 77974 - U.S. Automotive Parts and Components Business Development Mission to Russia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-15

    ... Government officials and decisionmakers, one-on-one meetings with potential business partners and site visits... business partners that match their market interests. Timetable Sunday, April 22, Moscow, Russia Arrive... business partners. The Commercial Service will assist in booking hotels at favorable rates, but...

  1. Education, Inc.: Turning Learning into a Business. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohn, Alfie, Ed.; Shannon, Patrick, Ed.

    This collection of essays builds a case against those who see children as customers or workers and those who want to turn learning into a business. Following an introduction, The 500-Pound Gorilla by Alfie Kohn, section 1, Commercialism in Schools, contains: (1) Buy Me! Buy Me! (Alex Molnar and Joseph A. Reaves); (2) Commercialism in U.S. Schools…

  2. A moment in time: AIDS and business.

    PubMed

    Bloom, D E; Rosenfield, A

    2000-09-01

    Business has transformed the planet. But this gives it new responsibilities. People now expect business leaders to lead--and not just respond when things go wrong. HIV/AIDS is a global problem, with over 16.3 million people now thought to have died of the disease (Global Summary of HIV/AIDS Epidemic, UNAIDS, December 1999). Without action now, the pandemic will worsen, health services will come under relentless pressure and the number of people dying will increase exponentially. So why should business sit up and take notice? First: money. AIDS is slowly strangling many businesses and economies--and in a global market, everyone eventually suffers. Without profit, there is no business--so the business community needs to act to protect its bottom line. Second: people. Over 80% of those dying are in their 20s, 30s, and 40s. Businesses are losing workers and customers, and human networks that have taken decades to build. Third: imagination. Business is inventive, creative and fast-moving. It has the opportunity to use these strengths for the benefit of the wider community. It's time to pit business ideas (and some money, too) against the threat of AIDS. The course of the AIDS epidemic is not inevitable. The world's businesses have the skills and intensity to make a measurable difference, especially if they find public sector and NGO partners with whom they share a vision. A focused, coordinated, results-driven effort will hit AIDS hard. The HIV virus moves fast (and is mutating all the time). Business has the opportunity to make a difference. It must grasp this opportunity. And grasp if fast.

  3. NASA Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (OSDBU) within NASA promotes the utilization of small, disadvantaged, and women-owned small businesses in compliance with Federal laws, regulations, and policies. We assist such firms in obtaining contracts and subcontracts with NASA and its prime contractors. The OSDBU also facilitates the participation of small businesses in NASA's technology transfer and commercialization activities. Our driving philosophy is to consider small businesses as our products. Our customers are the NASA Enterprises, Field Centers, Functional Staff Offices, major prime contractors, and other large institutions. We hone the skills of our products to make them marketable to our customers in the performance of NASA missions.

  4. Business-to-business: Buying Recycled.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millberg, Laura

    1994-01-01

    A survey of Minnesota businesses about their efforts to buy recycled content products. Results discuss reactive versus proactive policies, the corporate advantage of environmental protection, how efforts are hampered by confusion, suppliers as key informants, and businesses' need for information. (MDH)

  5. Teaching Business Ethics or Teaching Business Ethically?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stablein, Ralph

    2003-01-01

    Notes that one of the most important contexts for ethical decision-making is the nature and operation of "contemporary capitalisms." Suggests that rather than issuing a call for teaching business ethics, the author emphasizes the need for more ethical business teaching. (SG)

  6. AGATE animation - business theme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Business jet 1 of 6. This composite image symbolizes how Advanced General Aviation Transports Experiment (AGATE) technology will contribute to a Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) early in the 21st century. Image from AGATE 'business' video animation.

  7. Knowledge-Centric Management of Business Rules in a Pharmacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puustjärvi, Juha; Puustjärvi, Leena

    A business rule defines or constraints some aspect of the business. In healthcare sector many of the business rules are dictated by law or medical regulations, which are constantly changing. This is a challenge for the healthcare organizations. Although there is available several commercial business rule management systems the problem from pharmacies point of view is that these systems are overly geared towards the automation and manipulation of business rules, while the main need in pharmacies lies in easy retrieving of business rules within daily routines. Another problem is that business rule management systems are isolated in the sense that they have their own data stores that cannot be accessed by other information systems used in pharmacies. As a result, a pharmacist is burdened by accessing many systems inside a user task. In order to avoid this problem we have modeled business rules as well as their relationships to other relevant information by OWL (Web Ontology Language) such that the ontology is shared among the pharmacy's applications. In this way we can avoid the problems of isolated applications and replicated data. The ontology also encourages pharmacies business agility, i.e., the ability to react more rapidly to the changes required by the new business rules. The deployment of the ontology requires that stored business rules are annotated by appropriate metadata descriptions, which are presented by RDF/XML serialization format. However, neither the designer nor the pharmacists are burdened by RDF/XML format as there are sophisticated graphical editors that can be used.

  8. Business Reengineering - Government Viability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-04-01

    3 EXPLANATION OF THE DOD FRAMEWORK FOR MANAGING PROCESS IMPROVEMENT..... 5 STRATEGIC AND BUSINESS PLANNING PHASE (1...STRATEGIC AND BUSINESS PLANNING PHASE (1): Planning activities analyze the current process baseline benchmarking the current external environment and...these questions to access the status of your organization and its need for reorganization change. Strategic Business Planning " What, if any, change

  9. Small Business Pedagogic Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billett, Stephen; Hernon-Tinning, Barnie; Ehrich, Lisa

    2003-01-01

    Understanding how learning for small businesses should best proceed constitutes a worthwhile, yet challenging, pedagogic project. In order to maintain their viability, small businesses need to be able to respond to new practices and tasks. Yet small businesses seem neither attracted to nor to value the kinds of taught courses that are the standard…

  10. Small Business Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Wendell, Ed.

    Intended as a resource for both experienced businesspeople and those new to business, this annotated bibliography provides a list of books, pamphlets, periodicals, and videotapes of value in solving specific business problems. The bibliography begins with a list of resources recommended for the library of every small business and a survey of…

  11. Open for Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutler, Edward

    1984-01-01

    Describes the development and outcomes of Lane Community College's (LCC) Business Assistance Center, which offers a wide range of management assistance services to local small businesses. Explains how state-funded programs, based on the LCC model, resulted in a network of Small Business Development Centers. (CBC)

  12. Food Business Entrepreneurship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Peter

    Though not a very traditional career path for food scientists, one option is to go into business for yourself by starting a food business. Food business entrepreneurship is a difficult career that entails long work hours, extensive decision making, and tasks that require knowledge beyond food science. However, there is high potential for rewards, including financial rewards, career progression, and personal flexibility.

  13. Partnering with Business Coalitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawlowski, Brett

    2007-01-01

    Many career and technical education (CTE) programs rely heavily on support from the business community to serve their students. However, there is very little information available on building solid business-education partnerships. Most people in the business world will say that they care about education, but how can educators find the people…

  14. Business English: Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montag, Elizabeth J.; Shaw, Warren

    Intended as an English elective subject for senior high school students, this business English course guide provides students with the communication tools that can lead to success in the business world. Units cover the following topics: introduction to Business English (punctuation, grammar, spelling, vocabulary, and use of reference tools);…

  15. The Business Education Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rader, Martha; Meggison, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The business education curriculum encompasses the educational experiences of business students at all levels. Business education curricula include a variety of programs, courses, units, course objectives, student competencies, assessments, and extracurricular activities that have evolved over the years. Curricula are driven by numerous internal…

  16. Understanding Business Analytics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-05

    Business Analytics, Decision Analytics, Business Intelligence, Advanced Analytics, Data Science. . . to a certain degree, to label is to limit - if only... Business Analytics. 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 Figure 1: Google trending of daily searches for various analytic disciplines “The limits of my

  17. English for Business Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatia, Vijay K.; Bremner, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The concept of Business English has undergone some major shifts in the last few years because of a number of developments, such as advances in genre theory and the coming together of English for Business Purposes and Business Communication, inspired by the realization that there is a gap to be bridged between the academy and the globalized…

  18. First Business Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small Business Administration, Washington, DC. Office of Business Development.

    This guide offers first-time business persons information as well as administrative and operational techniques for one-person business enterprises that have low initial start-up costs and low operational and overhead costs. These one-person businesses can be home based or have site locations outside the home. Included in this guide is a list of…

  19. Doing business with NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Because many U.S. businesses and companies want to do business with NASA, the Agency sends out procurement specialists to trade shows and conferences and organizes seminars to educate the business public on how to get on procurement lists to become product and service providers to the federal government.

  20. You're the Business--A Custom-Made Business Challenge for Modern Languages Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penet, Jean-Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Modern Languages (ML) students often express concerns about their perceived lack of commercial awareness, worrying that this will put them at a disadvantage, compared with business graduates for instance, when applying for jobs. To try and change this perception, Newcastle University's School of Modern Languages (SML) teamed up with the Careers…

  1. Leveraging Venture Capital and Commercial Business: Enhancing Stability Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-24

    need (figure 2), as suggested in 1934 by A.H. Maslow , the motivation to participate in armed insurgency as a wage-earning means begins to become...bottom of the pyramid) elements representing basic physiological needs; the top of the pyramid represents advanced needs Maslow identified as self...Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Army, December 15, 2006), 3-57. 37 Ibid. 38 Ibid., 3-70. 39 A. H. Maslow A Theory of Human Motivation, 1943

  2. Commercial Scholarship: Spinning Physics Research into a Business Enterprise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Orville

    2013-03-01

    The American Institute of Physics' Center for History of Physics has conducted a three year NSF funded study of physicist entrepreneurs during which we interviewed 140 physicists who have founded ninety-one startups. Forty of those companies have spun research out of twenty-some universities. Startups spun out of university research tend to be technology push companies, creating new potentially disruptive technologies for which markets do not yet clearly exist, in contrast to market pull companies founded to address innovations responding to market demands. This paper addresses the unique issues found in university spinout companies and their responses to them. While technology push companies are generally considered to be higher risk compared to market pull companies, the university spinouts in our study had a higher rate of both SBIR and venture capital funding than did the market pull companies in our study.

  3. Risky Business: The Market for Unprotected Commercial Sex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gertler, Paul; Shah, Manisha; Bertozzi, Stefano M.

    2005-01-01

    While condoms are an effective defense against the transmission of HIV, large numbers of sex workers are not using them. We argue that some sex workers are willing to take the risk because clients are willing to pay more to avoid using condoms. Using data from Mexico, we estimate that sex workers received a 23 percent premium for unprotected sex.…

  4. Commercial Mobile Alert Service (CMAS) Scenarios

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    government officials to send targeted text alerts to the public via commercial mo- bile service providers (CMSPs). The SEI is developing integration...capabilities are operational within 30 minutes. Response measure Full operational capabilities within 30 minutes of incident Business goals...months and had its last exercise a month ago. Artifact The text of the alert Response The message is entered into the originating software

  5. Commercial dissemination approaches for solar home systems

    SciTech Connect

    Terrado, E.

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses the issue of providing solar home systems to primarily rural areas from the perspective of how to commercialize the process. He considers two different approaches, one an open market approach and the other an exclusive market approach. He describes examples of the exclusive market approach which are in process in Argentina and Brazil. Coming from a banking background, the business aspects are discussed in detail. He points out the strengths and weaknesses of both approaches toward developing such systems.

  6. Foundational Forces & Hidden Variables in Technology Commercialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, Brandon

    2011-03-01

    The science of physics seems vastly different from the process of technology commercialization. Physics strives to understand our world through the experimental deduction of immutable laws and dependent variables and the resulting macro-scale phenomenon. In comparison, the~goal of business is to make a profit by addressing the needs, preferences, and whims of individuals in a market. It may seem that this environment is too dynamic to identify all the hidden variables and deduct the foundational forces that impact a business's ability to commercialize innovative technologies. One example of a business ``force'' is found in the semiconductor industry. In 1965, Intel co-founder Gordon Moore predicted that the number of transistors incorporated in a chip will approximately double every 24 months. Known as Moore's Law, this prediction has become the guiding principle for the semiconductor industry for the last 40 years. Of course, Moore's Law is not really a law of nature; rather it is the result of efforts by Intel and the entire semiconductor industry. A closer examination suggests that there are foundational principles of business that underlie the macro-scale phenomenon of Moore's Law. Principles of profitability, incentive, and strategic alignment have resulted in a coordinated influx of resources that has driven technologies to market, increasing the profitability of the semiconductor industry and optimizing the fitness of its participants. New innovations in technology are subject to these same principles. So, in addition to traditional market forces, these often unrecognized forces and variables create challenges for new technology commercialization. In this talk, I will draw from ethnographic research, complex adaptive theory, and industry data to suggest a framework with which to think about new technology commercialization. Intel's bio-silicon initiative provides a case study.

  7. Commercial Buildings Characteristics, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-29

    Commercial Buildings Characteristics 1992 presents statistics about the number, type, and size of commercial buildings in the United States as well as their energy-related characteristics. These data are collected in the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), a national survey of buildings in the commercial sector. The 1992 CBECS is the fifth in a series conducted since 1979 by the Energy Information Administration. Approximately 6,600 commercial buildings were surveyed, representing the characteristics and energy consumption of 4.8 million commercial buildings and 67.9 billion square feet of commercial floorspace nationwide. Overall, the amount of commercial floorspace in the United States increased an average of 2.4 percent annually between 1989 and 1992, while the number of commercial buildings increased an average of 2.0 percent annually.

  8. Commercialization in North Carolina High Schools: A Survey of Principals' Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Bona, Joseph; Chaudhuri, Rittik; Jean-Baptiste, Joshua; Menachem, Peter; Wurzburg, Meggan

    2003-01-01

    Surveyed North Carolina high school principals to explore their views on schoolhouse commercialism (both the propriety and the utility of having a commercial presence at school). Principals viewed commercialism as a way to improve their schools, and thus, their students' education. Although businesses, principals, and students appeared to be…

  9. Good Conversations: An Enhanced Model to Teach Business Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Grace S.

    2011-01-01

    Business practices are a constant matter of discussion by ethical theorists concerned with the conflicts between profitability and justice (Cherry, Lee, & Chien, 2003). Business decisions are complex and hence likely to be compromised by low-quality or questionable strategies (Carpenter & Sanders, 2008). The line between misbehavior and…

  10. Blueprint for Business. Reaching a New Work Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Lyn A.; Erden, James Van; Mower, Eleanor; Patel, Apurva; Mitchell, Steve

    This guide is designed to help U.S. businesses successfully hire and retain individuals moving from welfare to work. Section 1 discusses the different circumstances created by the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 and how those changes affect business. Section 2 reviews bottom-line benefits realized by…

  11. Commercial Web Site Links.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thelwall, Mike

    2001-01-01

    Discusses business use of the Web and related search engine design issues as well as research on general and academic links before reporting on a survey of the links published by a collection of business Web sites. Results indicate around 66% of Web sites do carry external links, most of which are targeted at a specific purpose, but about 17%…

  12. Canadian Business Schools: Going out of Business?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobni, Dawn; Dobni, Brooke

    1996-01-01

    Using Porter's five-forces model (potential entrants, suppliers, buyers, rivalry, substitutes) to analyze competition in Canadian university business schools, the authors conclude that schools are becoming increasingly vulnerable to competitive pressures and that strategic reorientation is necessary. (SK)

  13. 76 FR 8221 - Small Business Size Regulations; 8(a) Business Development/Small Disadvantaged Business Status...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... February 11, 2011 Part VII Small Business Administration 13 CFR Parts 121 and 124 Small Business Size Regulations; 8(a) Business Development/Small Disadvantaged Business Status Determinations; Final Rule #0;#0... BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Parts 121 and 124 RIN 3245-AF53 Small Business Size Regulations;...

  14. The Commercial Energy Consumer: About Whom Are We Speaking?

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, Christopher

    2006-05-12

    Who are commercial sector customers, and how do they make decisions about energy consumption and energy efficiency investment? The energy policy field has not done a thorough job of describing energy consumption in the commercial sector. First, the discussion of the commercial sector itself is dominated by discussion of large businesses/buildings. Second, discussion of this portion of the commercial sectors consumption behavior is driven primarily by theory, with very little field data collected on the way commercial sector decision-makers describe their own options, choices, and reasons for taking action. These limitations artificially constrain energy policy options. This paper reviews the extant literature on commercial sector energy consumption behavior and identifies gaps in our knowledge. In particular, it argues that the primary energy policy model of commercial sector energy consumption is a top-down model that uses macro-level investment data to make conclusions about commercial behavior. Missing from the discussion is a model of consumption behavior that builds up to a theoretical framework informed by the micro-level data provided by commercial decision-makers themselves. Such a bottom-up model could enhance the effectiveness of commercial sector energy policy. In particular, translation of some behavioral models from the residential sector to the commercial sector may offer new opportunities for policies to change commercial energy consumption behavior. Utility bill consumption feedback is considered as one example of a policy option that may be applicable to both the residential and small commercial sector.

  15. NASA commercial programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    An expanded role for the U.S. private sector in America's space future has emerged as a key national objective, and NASA's Office of Commercial Programs is providing a focus for action. The Office supports new high technology commercial space ventures, the commercial application of existing aeronautics and space technology, and expanded commercial access to available NASA capabilities and services. The progress NASA has made in carrying out its new assignment is highlighted.

  16. Commercial Banking Industry Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bright Horizons Children's Centers, Cambridge, MA.

    Work and family programs are becoming increasingly important in the commercial banking industry. The objective of this survey was to collect information and prepare a commercial banking industry profile on work and family programs. Fifty-nine top American commercial banks from the Fortune 500 list were invited to participate. Twenty-two…

  17. Commercialization of Nanotechnology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    NATO LECTURES M. Meyyappan Commercialization of Nanotechnology Abstract Nanotechnology is an enabling technology and as such, will have an...years), medium term (10 years) and long term (> 15 years) prospects. In addition, the challenges currently being faced to commercialize nanotechnology...will be discussed in detail. A summary outlining efforts across the world in terms of commercialization , startup activities, participation of major

  18. Commercial Radio as Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothenbuhler, Eric W.

    1996-01-01

    Compares the day-to-day work routines of commercial radio with the principles of a theoretical communication model. Illuminates peculiarities of the conduct of communication by commercial radio. Discusses the application of theoretical models to the evaluation of practicing institutions. Offers assessments of commercial radio deriving from…

  19. COMMERCIAL FOODS, MATHEMATICS - I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DORNFIELD, BLANCHE E.

    THE UNDERSTANDING AND MASTERY OF FUNDAMENTAL MATHEMATICS IS A NECESSARY PART OF COMMERCIAL FOODS WORK. THIS STUDENT HANDBOOK WAS DESIGNED TO ACCOMPANY A COMMERCIAL FOODS COURSE AT THE HIGH SCHOOL LEVEL FOR STUDENTS WITH APPROPRIATE APTITUDES AND COMMERCIAL FOOD SERVICE GOALS. THE MATERIAL, TESTED IN VARIOUS INTERESTED CLASSROOMS, WAS PREPARED BY…

  20. Vehicle scheduling schemes for commercial and emergency logistics integration.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaohui; Tan, Qingmei

    2013-01-01

    In modern logistics operations, large-scale logistics companies, besides active participation in profit-seeking commercial business, also play an essential role during an emergency relief process by dispatching urgently-required materials to disaster-affected areas. Therefore, an issue has been widely addressed by logistics practitioners and caught researchers' more attention as to how the logistics companies achieve maximum commercial profit on condition that emergency tasks are effectively and performed satisfactorily. In this paper, two vehicle scheduling models are proposed to solve the problem. One is a prediction-related scheme, which predicts the amounts of disaster-relief materials and commercial business and then accepts the business that will generate maximum profits; the other is a priority-directed scheme, which, firstly groups commercial and emergency business according to priority grades and then schedules both types of business jointly and simultaneously by arriving at the maximum priority in total. Moreover, computer-based simulations are carried out to evaluate the performance of these two models by comparing them with two traditional disaster-relief tactics in China. The results testify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed models.

  1. Small business development for molecular diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Anagostou, Anthanasia; Liotta, Lance A

    2012-01-01

    Molecular profiling, which is the application of molecular diagnostics technology to tissue and blood -specimens, is an integral element in the new era of molecular medicine and individualized therapy. Molecular diagnostics is a fertile ground for small business development because it can generate products that meet immediate demands in the health-care sector: (a) Detection of disease risk, or early-stage disease, with a higher specificity and sensitivity compared to previous testing methods, and (b) "Companion diagnostics" for stratifying patients to receive a treatment choice optimized to their individual disease. This chapter reviews the promise and challenges of business development in this field. Guidelines are provided for the creation of a business model and the generation of a marketing plan around a candidate molecular diagnostic product. Steps to commercialization are outlined using existing molecular diagnostics companies as learning examples.

  2. Volume tracking of commercial recyclables: An economic and environmental analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, S.L.

    1996-08-01

    The objective of the tracking study was to gather data on the amount of cardboard and office paper that businesses in the sample were recycling on a weekly basis. The data was then translated into information about potential monetary and environmental savings that could be realized by the businesses if they continued to recycle. The study was intended to help persuade the commercial sector that recycling can save them money. After eight weeks of tracking, almost 80% of the businesses involved in the study decided to continue recycling based on the study results. Detailed tracking data from the study is provided.

  3. 2006 Update of Business Downtime Costs

    SciTech Connect

    Hinrichs, Mr. Doug; Goggin, Mr. Michael

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the downtime cost of power outages to businesses in the commercial and industrial sectors, updating and improving upon studies that have already been published on this subject. The goal is to produce a study that, relative to existing studies, (1) applies to a wider set of business types (2) reflects more current downtime costs, (3) accounts for the time duration factor of power outages, and (4) includes data on the costs imposed by real outages in a well-defined market. This study examines power outage costs in 11 commercial subsectors and 5 industrial subsectors, using data on downtime costs that was collected in the 1990's. This study also assesses power outage costs for power outages of 20 minutes, 1 hour, and 4 hours duration. Finally, this study incorporates data on the costs of real power outages for two business subsectors. However, the current limited state of data availability on the topic of downtime costs means there is room to improve upon this study. Useful next steps would be to generate more recent data on downtime costs, data that covers outages shorter than 20 minutes duration and longer than 4 hours duration, and more data that is based on the costs caused by real-world outages. Nevertheless, with the limited data that is currently available, this study is able to generate a clear and detailed picture of the downtime costs that are faced by different types of businesses.

  4. Why business models matter.

    PubMed

    Magretta, Joan

    2002-05-01

    "Business model" was one of the great buzz-words of the Internet boom. A company didn't need a strategy, a special competence, or even any customers--all it needed was a Web-based business model that promised wild profits in some distant, ill-defined future. Many people--investors, entrepreneurs, and executives alike--fell for the fantasy and got burned. And as the inevitable counterreaction played out, the concept of the business model fell out of fashion nearly as quickly as the .com appendage itself. That's a shame. As Joan Magretta explains, a good business model remains essential to every successful organization, whether it's a new venture or an established player. To help managers apply the concept successfully, she defines what a business model is and how it complements a smart competitive strategy. Business models are, at heart, stories that explain how enterprises work. Like a good story, a robust business model contains precisely delineated characters, plausible motivations, and a plot that turns on an insight about value. It answers certain questions: Who is the customer? How do we make money? What underlying economic logic explains how we can deliver value to customers at an appropriate cost? Every viable organization is built on a sound business model, but a business model isn't a strategy, even though many people use the terms interchangeably. Business models describe, as a system, how the pieces of a business fit together. But they don't factor in one critical dimension of performance: competition. That's the job of strategy. Illustrated with examples from companies like American Express, EuroDisney, WalMart, and Dell Computer, this article clarifies the concepts of business models and strategy, which are fundamental to every company's performance.

  5. Small Business Procurement Event

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-13

    Small Business Procurement Event 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK...distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES NDIA 27th Navy Gold Coast Small Business Procurement Event , 12-13 Aug 2014, San Diego, CA. 14. ABSTRACT...18 Target the Small Business Accessible Market within the Department of the Navy $77.8B Department of the Navy Total SB Eligible Spend

  6. 76 FR 28855 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Business Systems-Definition and Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    .... Contractor business systems and internal controls are the first line of defense against waste, fraud, and... business systems are material terms, performance of which is required to ensure contracts will be performed..., 234, 242 et al. Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Business Systems-- Definition...

  7. Business Partnerships with Schools: Policy Guidelines for Schools Seeking To Establish and Maintain Productive and Ethical Relationships with Corporations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Kirstin

    2001-01-01

    This report focuses on business partnerships with schools. Supporters of school-business partnerships point out many potential benefits to schools, students, businesses, employees, and the community at large, while critics warn against the harmful effects of what they term "schoolhouse commercialism." Topics addressed include corporate…

  8. Build loyalty in business markets.

    PubMed

    Narayandas, Das

    2005-09-01

    Companies often apply consumer marketing solutions in business markets without realizing that such strategies only hamper the acquisition and retention of profitable customers. Unlike consumers, business customers inevitably need customized products, quantities, or prices. A company in a business market must therefore manage customers individually, showing how its products or services can help solve each buyer's problems. And it must learn to reap the enormous benefits of loyalty by developing individual relationships with customers. To achieve these ends, the firm's marketers must become aware of the different types of benefits the company offers and convey their value to the appropriate executives in the customer company. It's especially important to inform customers about what the author calls nontangible nonfinancial benefits-above-and-beyond efforts, such as delivering supplies on holidays to keep customers' production lines going. The author has developed a simple set of devices-the benefit stack and the decision-maker stack-to help marketers communicate their firm's myriad benefits. The vendor lists the benefits it offers, then lists the customer's decision makers, specifying their concerns, motivations, and power bases. By linking the two stacks, the vendor can systematically communicate how it will meet each decision-maker's needs. The author has also developed a tool called a loyalty ladder, which helps a company determine how much time and money to spend on relationships with various customers. As customers become increasingly loyal, they display behaviors in a predictable sequence, from growing the relationship and providing word-of-mouth endorsements to investing in the vendor company. The author has found that customers follow the same sequence of loyalty behaviors in all business markets.

  9. Translating climate data for business decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberg, N.

    2015-12-01

    Businesses are bound to play an integral role in global and local climate change adaptation efforts, and integrating climate science into business decision-making can help protect companies' bottom-line and the communities which they depend upon. Yet many companies do not have good means to measure and manage climate risks. There are inherent limiting factors to incorporating climate data into existing operations and sourcing strategies. Spatial and temporal incongruities between climate and business models can make integration cumbersome. Even when such incongruities are resolved, raw climate data must undergo multiple transformations until the data is deemed actionable or otherwise translatable in dollar terms. However, the predictability of future impacts is advancing along with the use of second-order variables such as Cooling Degree Days and Water-Limited Crop productivity, helping business managers make better decisions about future energy and water demand requirements under the prospect of rising temperatures and more variable rainfall. This presentation will discuss the methods and opportunities for transforming raw climate data into business metrics. Results for the 2015 Corporate Adaptation Survey, led by Four Twenty Seven and in partnership with Notre Dame Global Adaptation Index, will also be presented to illustrate existing gaps between climate science and its application in the business context.

  10. Local Gov`t assistance in commercial waste reduction & recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Hannah, C.W.

    1996-08-01

    This paper outlines programs and strategies for reducing the waste stream by targeting the commercial, industrial and institutional sectors. The programs described are implemented by the Wake County Solid Waste Management Division, North Carolina. Findings and recommendations of a task force focusing on the role of the private sector in meeting state waste reduction mandates are summarized. Commercial initiatives, educational initiatives, and a grant program are described. Several case studies are provided which overview the variety of businesses and waste materials addressed.

  11. Gendered Discourse about Family Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danes, Sharon M.; Haberman, Heather R.; McTavish, Donald

    2005-01-01

    Language patterns of family business owners were explored by identifying discourse styles and emphasized ideas in four presenting contexts: business, family, intersection of family and business, and business success. The content analysis supports the existence of a general discourse style within family businesses and of similarities and…

  12. Proceedings of the EMU Conference on Foreign Languages for Business and the Professions (Dearborn, Michigan, April 5-7, 1984). Part III: Taking the Humanities to Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voght, Geoffrey M., Ed.

    Part III of the proceedings contains 12 presentations. They are: "The Role of Business Language in the Traditional Curriculum" (Michel Rocchi); "Foreign Languages for Business and the Professions Belong in the Liberal Arts" (Robert A. Kreiter); "How Much and How Far? Commercial French and the Student, Instructor, Administrator, and the Business…

  13. Business Economics Courses for Business Students: A Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Evan J.

    1979-01-01

    Suggests that business students should be offered business-related economics courses on subjects such as managerial economics and business conditions analysis. Philosophy and content of these courses are suggested. (DB)

  14. Learning About Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    In the teacher's guide, learning experiences focus on helping students in primary grades develop their understanding of the interrelationships among businesses, workers, and families through examinations of local stores and businesses and of the workers who work in them. Students are given the opportunity to acquire economical awareness and…

  15. Teaching Business Italian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trivelli, Remo J.

    The University of Rhode Island's business Italian course is an advanced language course whose focus is the Italian business world and its reflection of values, customs, and traditions. The course begins with presentations on salient features of contemporary Italian, such as syntactical simplification and nominalization, and how the social,…

  16. Business Schools at Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BizEd, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Explores pervasive forces, such as faculty shortages, pressures to enhance curricular relevance, and intense, worldwide competition, that are threatening traditional business schools. Describes recommendations reached by the Management Education Task Force formed by the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business, which addressed these…

  17. IBM Small Business Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Business Machines Corp., Armonk, NY.

    A telephone survey conducted March 15-22, 1991, examined how small businesses are currently performing. Interviewees were 400 small business owners randomly selected from a Dun and Bradstreet list of companies with 50 or fewer employees. Major findings were as follows: (1) owners were survivors, highly confident in their own abilities, and…

  18. Teaching Business Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKillop, Robyn

    2010-01-01

    Business is integral to the functioning of the national economy, politics, education and everyday living. It is without question that business education is a vital part of the high school experience, and should be seen as required courses rather than electives. Preparing high school students for real life beyond high school happens in the business…

  19. Business Communication in BELF

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kankaanranta, Anne; Louhiala-Salminen, Leena

    2007-01-01

    The authors' business communication perspective is not in fact that of ESL but rather English as a foreign language (EFL) or, even more so, English as a lingua franca (ELF). To be more specific, they would like to add one more acronym to the list: They teach BELF, by which they refer to ELF for business communication purposes. The authors work as…

  20. The Business of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunski, Jonathan F.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a learning game called The Business of Life that demonstrates the cellular processes of photosynthesis and respiration as business transactions. Incorporates the ideas that energy flows through ecosystems as well as through cells of individual organisms. Demonstrates the interdependence of living things and that processes at the cellular…

  1. School Business Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, K. Forbis; And Others

    This textbook reviews the principal concerns within each of 13 major responsibility areas in school business administration. The first chapter assesses the political, social, and economic context in which schools function and school administrators work. The role and function of the school business administrator within this context is addressed in…

  2. Selective Lessons from Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlechty, Phillip C.

    2008-01-01

    Over the years, the author has participated in many gatherings where business leaders have been invited to provide educational leaders with advice regarding the way they should lead their schools. Some of these events proved satisfying, but others proved disastrous. In this article, the author argues that it is a mistake to invite business leaders…

  3. Agriculture Business and Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seperich, George; And Others

    This curriculum guide is intended for vocational agriculture teachers who deliver agricultural business and management programs at the secondary or postsecondary level. It is based on the Arizona validated occupational competencies and tasks for management and supervisory positions in agricultural business. The competency/skill and task list…

  4. International Business Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendon, Donald W.

    The new International Business major within the School of Business, begun in fall 1989, is an ongoing, enriched program for highly motivated students of above-average scholastic achievement. Its primary purposes are to (1) prepare students to understand America's trading partners and (2) teach the technical knowledge needed in an international…

  5. Business Games Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Robert G.; Gray, Clifford F.

    The aim of this handbook is to provide training directors and all others interested in business games with an organized listing and description of business games and their sources; and to provide a source of sufficient data to help them select games for a particular purpose. The games are categorized as general purpose games, used in management…

  6. General Business 101.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This teaching guide contains guidelines for conducting a secondary-level general business course. Intended to serve as an introduction to business and consumer fundamentals, the course provides socioeconomic background useful to students seeking vocational preparation for office and clerical occupations. The goals and objectives of the course are…

  7. Building Tomorrow's Business Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Jim

    2010-01-01

    Modern automobile maintenance, like most skilled-trades jobs, is more than simple nuts and bolts. Today, skilled-trades jobs might mean hydraulics, computerized monitoring equipment, electronic blueprints, even lasers. As chief executive officer of Grainger, a business-to-business maintenance, repair, and operating supplies company that…

  8. Defining Business English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickett, G. D.

    Business language is directed both outward, toward the general public and inward, toward the particular type of business. In the first instance, it approximates lay language and has contributed some expressions to common usage. In the second instance, it departs from lay language and becomes specialized within each industry, sometimes to the point…

  9. Personal Achievement Reading: Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinton, Janet R.

    Exercises are provided in this set of four workbooks designed to aid students in business programs in building vocabulary and reading skills. Each workbook borrows from business terminology to provide explanations and exercises for a sequential series of instructional objectives. One workbook concentrates on developing the ability to determine…

  10. Microcomputers in Business Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muscat, Eugene

    1980-01-01

    This article acquaints business educators with the equipment, terminology, and the wide range of applications microcomputers have in business education programs. Areas examined include hardware, software, computer-assisted instruction (drill and practice, simulation, and tutorial), computer-managed instruction, and word processing. (CT)

  11. Regulating Commercial Telephone Solicitations,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-03-01

    also proposed that telephone subscribers be given the right to indicate if they do not want to receive commercial advertising calls , whether from...federal government should prohibit all commercial advertising calls. Advertisers have rights to free speech , and some consumers, I am told , don ’t...of the same arguments against giving subscribers the right to refuse commercial advertising calls that they made in 1965. They have stated that placing

  12. 75 FR 1296 - Small Business Size Regulations; 8(a) Business Development/Small Disadvantaged Business Status...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Parts 121 and 124 Small Business Size Regulations; 8(a) Business Development/Small Disadvantaged Business Status Determinations AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice...

  13. 77 FR 28237 - Small Business Size Regulations; 8(a) Business Development/Small Disadvantaged Business Status...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... / Monday, May 14, 2012 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 124 RIN 3245-AF53 Small Business Size Regulations; 8(a) Business Development/Small Disadvantaged Business Status Determinations; Correction AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION:...

  14. Business Communications Students Demonstrate Realistic Business Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehman, Carol M.

    1987-01-01

    Suggests that business communication students can improve their management and communications skills by forming teams and playing the roles of corporate employees, including holding stockholders' meetings, drawing up reports, discussing new products, and in general honing their professional appearance and conduct. (JC)

  15. English through Business and Business through English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesley, Tay

    This paper describes a highly specialized ESL program for a group of foreign students at the University of Southern California. The students were foreign graduates in business administration and economics who were entering the MBA program at USC. Previous experience with such students indicated that many entered the program with an insufficient…

  16. Learning Activities for International Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    The National Standards for Business Education include nine areas relating to international business: awareness, communication, environmental factors, ethics, finance, management, marketing, import/export, and organizational structure of international business. (SK)

  17. Verification of Commercial Decontamination Technologies in Bench-Scale Studies Using Bacillus anthracis Spores

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-11-17

    12980) • Spore Strips – Bacillus atrophaeus (ATCC 9372) Biological Indicator Spore Strip BUSINESS SENSITIVE Organisms Biological Indicators: SEM Images...BUSINESS SENSITIVE Verification of Commercial Decontamination Technologies in Bench-Scale Studies Using Bacillus anthracis Spores M.L. Taylor, J.V...Commercial Decontamination Technologies in Bench-Scale Studies Using Bacillus anthracis Spores 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  18. Technology Management within Product Lines in High Technology Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarangee, Kumar R.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the nuances of product line management has been of great interest to business scholars and practitioners. This assumes greater significance for firms conducting business in technologically dynamic industries, where they face certain challenges regarding the management of multiple, overlapping technologies within their product lines.…

  19. America Saves! Energizing Main Street's Small Businesses

    SciTech Connect

    Lindberg, James

    2016-09-30

    The America Saves! Energizing Main Street Small Businesses project engaged the 1,200-member National Main Street Center (NMSC) network of downtown organizations and other local, regional, and national partners to test a methodology for sharing customized energy efficiency information with owners of commercial buildings smaller than 50,000 square feet. Led by the National Trust for Historic Preservation’s Preservation Green Lab, the project marshalled local staff and volunteers to gather voluntarily-disclosed energy use information from participating businesses. This information was analyzed using a remote auditing tool (validated by the National Renewable Energy Lab) to assess energy savings opportunities and design retrofit strategies targeting seven building types (food service and sales, attached mixed-use, strip mall, retail, office, lodging, and schools). The original project design contemplated extensive leveraging of the Green Button protocol for sharing annualized utility data at a district scale. Due the lack of adoption of Green Button, the project partners developed customized approaches to data collection in each of twelve pilot communities. The project team encountered considerable challenges in gathering standardized annual utility data from local partners. After overcoming these issues, the data was uploaded to a data storehouse. Over 450 properties were benchmarked and the remote auditing tool was tested using full building profiles and utility records for more than 100 commercial properties in three of the pilot communities. The audit tool demonstrated potential for quickly capturing, analyzing, and communicating energy efficiency opportunities in small commercial buildings. However, the project team found that the unique physical characteristics and use patterns (partial vacancy, periodic intensive uses) of small commercial buildings required more trouble-shooting and data correction than was anticipated. In addition, the project revealed that

  20. Much Ado about Very Little: The Benefits and Costs of School-Based Commercial Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brent, Brian O.; Lunden, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    School-based commercialism exists whenever a district enters into a relationship with a business that provides access to students or staff in exchange for fiscal or in-kind resources (i.e., goods or services). The practice includes business sponsorship of school activities (e.g., sporting events), exclusive agreements (e.g., pouring rights…

  1. Enterprise: an International Commercial Space Station Option

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lounge, John M.

    2002-01-01

    In December 1999, the U.S. aerospace company SPACEHAB, Inc., (SPACEHAB) and the Russian aerospace company Rocket and Space Corporation Energia (RSC-Energia), initiated a joint project to establish a commercial venture on the International Space Station (ISS). The approach of this venture is to use private capital to build and attach a commercial habitable module (the "Enterprise Module") to the Russian Segment of the ISS. The module will become an element of the Russian Segment; in return, exclusive rights to use this module for commercial business will be granted to its developers. The Enterprise Module has been designed as a multipurpose module that can provide research accommodation, stowage and crew support services. Recent NASA budget decisions have resulted in the cancellation of NASA's ISS habitation module, a significant delay in its new ISS crew return vehicle, and a mandate to stabilize the ISS program. These constraints limit the ISS crew size to three people and result in very little time available for ISS research support. Since research activity is the primary reason this Space Station is being built, the ISS program must find a way to support a robust international research program as soon as possible. The time is right for a commercial initiative incorporating the Enterprise Module, outfitted with life support systems, and commercially procured Soyuz vehicles to provide the capability to increase ISS crew size to six by the end of 2005.

  2. 78 FR 18416 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Open Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... Advisory Committee (COMSTAC). The meeting will take place on Tuesday, May 14, 2013, from 8:00 a.m. to 5:00... the COMSTAC working group meetings on May 14 is below: --Operations (8:00 a.m.-10:00 a.m.) --Business... relevant to the commercial space transportation industry; and reports and recommendations from the...

  3. Teaching CAD at the University: Specifically Written or Commercial Software?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Ramon Rubio; Quiros, Javier Suarez; Santos, Ramon Gallego; Penin, Pedro I. Alvarez

    2007-01-01

    At most universities throughout the world Computer Aided Design is taught using commercial programs more suitable for business and industry than for teaching. This led us to write our own design program (GIcad) starting from the best-known standards on the market, but always avoiding unnecessary commands in the first steps of the learning process.…

  4. Methods utilized in evaluating the profitability of commercial space processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloom, H. L.; Schmitt, P. T.

    1976-01-01

    Profitability analysis is applied to commercial space processing on the basis of business concept definition and assessment and the relationship between ground and space functions. Throughput analysis is demonstrated by analysis of the space manufacturing of surface acoustic wave devices. The paper describes a financial analysis model for space processing and provides key profitability measures for space processed isoenzymes.

  5. Commercial Document Delivery Services "Challenged" as EBSCO Drops Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machovec, George S.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the EBSCO decision to stop its traditional commercial document delivery business. High prices for copyright clearance, government subsidized services, electronic formats available on the Internet, Web-based services, and consortium-based licensing activities are discussed as influencing the market for document delivery. (LRW)

  6. Commercial Truck/Equipment Technician. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP) for commercial truck and equipment technician is an employer-verified competency list that evolved from a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) job analysis process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives throughout Ohio. The task list of the National…

  7. Commercial French: An Opportunity for Innovative Classroom Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cholakian, Patricia Francis

    1981-01-01

    Presents overview of content and structure of a commercial French course at the undergraduate level including practice buying and selling, making reservations, simple banking procedures, credit, job hunting, and advertising. Purpose of course is to acquaint students with everyday business world of France. (BK)

  8. Business Use of Satellite Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edelson, Burton I.; Cooper, Robert S.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews business communications development and discusses business applications of satellite communications, system technology, and prospects for future developments in digital transmission systems. (JN)

  9. Commercial Crew Launch America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thon, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation is intended to discuss NASA's long term human exploration goals of our solar system. The emphasis will be on how our CCP (Commercial Crew Program) supports our space bound human exploration goals by encouraging commercial entities to perform missions to LEO (Low Earth Orbit), thus allowing NASA to focus on beyond LEO human exploration missions.

  10. Technology Transfer and Commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Katherine; Chapman, Diane; Giffith, Melanie; Molnar, Darwin

    2001-01-01

    During concurrent sessions for Materials and Structures for High Performance and Emissions Reduction, the UEET Intellectual Property Officer and the Technology Commercialization Specialist will discuss the UEET Technology Transfer and Commercialization goals and efforts. This will include a review of the Technology Commercialization Plan for UEET and what UEET personnel are asked to do to further the goals of the Plan. The major goal of the Plan is to define methods for how UEET assets can best be infused into industry. The National Technology Transfer Center will conduct a summary of its efforts in assessing UEET technologies in the areas of materials and emissions reduction for commercial potential. NTTC is assisting us in completing an inventory and prioritization by commercialization potential. This will result in increased exposure of UEET capabilities to the private sector. The session will include audience solicitation of additional commercializable technologies.

  11. Three Small Businesses in Conn. and Mass. Awarded EPA Research Grants

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Three New England small businesses received $100,000 each from the US Environmental Protection Agency to develop and commercialize sustainable technologies that may help address pressing environmental issues.

  12. Street drugs: everyone's business.

    PubMed

    Su'a, F

    1989-11-01

    In the profession of law enforcement, we see drug abuse as our most serious crime problem. We also realize that simply making arrests, by itself, won't solve the problem. The drug business might be the filthiest business on earth, but it's not a business that forces customers to buy dope. Dope dealers may be ruthless and may even kill, but no one forces anyone to buy drugs at gunpoint. The truth is that drug dealers would go nowhere, were it not for the customers.

  13. Rethinking How Business Purpose Is Taught in Catholic Business Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Lyman; Naughton, Michael; Bojan, William

    2013-01-01

    Business education at a Catholic university should engage students and faculty across the university in critically examining the purpose of business in society. Following the best practices of leading business schools, the Catholic business curriculum has mostly focused on the shareholder and stakeholder approaches--with the shareholder approach…

  14. Economic benefits of commercial space activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Barbara A.

    Space is not only an endless frontier for exploration, but also a potentially rich arena for profitable commerce to benefit all mankind. Access to the unique environment of space provides opportunities for unprecedented kinds of research to develop new products and services. This research can lead to commercially viable enterprises, which will become permanent businesses, which will provide good jobs for workers, pay taxes to their governments, and return dividends to their investors. Seeking superior products and processes is vital if the economy is to grow and prosper. This paper discusses the current and potential impact on the economy of selected private sector space activities.

  15. Air Charter - The Business Airline of the Future...But, Does the Business Traveler Know?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaps, Robert W.; Gardner, Robin C.; Hartung, Jeffrey W.

    2001-01-01

    Historically, FAR Part 121 commercial carriers have provided efficient, economical and safe air transportation for corporate and business users. Recently, however, corporate and business travelers find their travel plans disrupted by delays, bankruptcies, poor service, lost baggage, fare increases, labor strikes and other systemic difficulties that degrade their travel experience to unsatisfactory levels. This article examines these Part 121 service delivery problems and, utilizing a tripartite investigative methodology, examines an alternative air transport mode: FAR Part 135 on-demand charter travel products. This long extant segment of our national air transportation system is set prime to support increased demand for charter services. Corporate and business travelers are set prime to utilize viable, cost effective alternatives to commercial travel products. Two research questions emerge. First is whether corporate and business travelers are aware of Part 135 travel alternatives. Second is whether Part 135 charter service providers are aware of this latent demand and are effectively targeting this demand segment in their marketing efforts. The three-part surveys employed to investigate these questions examined demand side

  16. Maintenance Business Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Matt

    2002-01-01

    Discusses maintenance business plans, statements which provide accountability for facilities maintenance organizations' considerable budgets. Discusses the plan's components: statement of plan objectives, macro and detailed description of the facility assets, maintenance function descriptions, description of key performance indicators, milestone…

  17. Business Process Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendling, Jan

    The recent progress of Business Process Management (BPM) is reflected by the figures of the related industry. Wintergreen Research estimates that the international market for BPM-related software and services accounted for more than USD 1 billion in 2005 with a tendency towards rapid growth in the subsequent couple of years [457]. The relevance of business process modeling to general management initiatives has been previously studied in the 1990s [28]. Today, Gartner finds that organizations that had the best results in implementing business process management spent more than 40 percent of the total project time on discovery and construction of their initial process model [265]. As a consequence, Gartner considers Business Process Modeling to be among the Top 10 Strategic Technologies for 2008.

  18. Business Continuity Management Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT BUSINESS CONTINUITY MANAGEMENT PLAN December 2014...Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget...

  19. An Analysis of the Termination of Credit Business in Faulkner's "The Hamlet"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Xiuguo

    2015-01-01

    Flem's economic reformation especially his replacement of credit business by cash business in Varner's Store in "The Hamlet" marked the social transition from a more traditional, closer and bonded community to a rather detached, rational and mechanical commercial society. The description in "The Hamlet" to a certain extent…

  20. Pedagogical Benefits of the Computer in the Foreign Language Business Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Howard

    1987-01-01

    It is beneficial to integrate the teaching of computer use into the foreign language business course through such activities as simulating business and commercial situations. Students will not only learn computer terminology in the foreign language but also expand their practical working vocabulary. (CB)

  1. Commercial Biomedical Experiments Payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Experiments to seek solutions for a range of biomedical issues are at the heart of several investigations that will be hosted by the Commercial Instrumentation Technology Associates (ITA), Inc. The biomedical experiments CIBX-2 payload is unique, encompassing more than 20 separate experiments including cancer research, commercial experiments, and student hands-on experiments from 10 schools as part of ITA's ongoing University Among the stars program. Here, Astronaut Story Musgrave activates the CMIX-5 (Commercial MDA ITA experiment) payload in the Space Shuttle mid deck during the STS-80 mission in 1996 which is similar to CIBX-2. The experiments are sponsored by NASA's Space Product Development Program (SPD).

  2. Commercial considerations for immunoproteomics.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Scott M

    2013-01-01

    The underlying drivers of scientific processes have been rapidly evolving, but the ever-present need for research funding is typically foremost amongst these. Successful laboratories are embracing this reality by making certain that their projects have commercial value right from the beginning of the project conception. Which factors to be considered for commercial success need to be well thought out and incorporated into a project plan with similar levels of detail as would be the technical elements. Specific examples of commercial outcomes in the field of Immunoproteomics are exemplified in this discussion.

  3. AGATE animation - business theme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Business jet 6 of 6. Advanced General Aviation Technology Experiment (AGATE). The General Aviation Propulsion Program (GAP). AGATE and GAP are providing industry partners with technologies leading to a Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) in the early 21st century. These investments support the national general aviation 'roadmap' goal to 'enable doorstep-to-destination travel at four times highway speeds to virtually all of the nation's suburban, rural and remote communities.' Image from AGATE 'business jet' video animation.

  4. 13 CFR 115.33 - Surety bonding line.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Surety bonding line. 115.33... Guarantees Subject to Prior Approval § 115.33 Surety bonding line. A surety bonding line is a written... applying for a bonding line, the Surety must provide SBA with information on the applicant as requested....

  5. Bringing science to business

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemetti, Paul

    2005-06-01

    Bringing science to business seems rather straight forward. Technology is constantly moving forward and new inventions are being brought into the market place. Science parks and technology parks have sprung out all around the globe competing against each other and trying to keep their own doors open by bringing in new business, thereby creating much needed income to keep their operations moving forward. However, only a small handful ofthese centers around the world can truly be considered successful. It is the relationship between the scientists, start-up business, local universities, local government, and invited bigger business that allows the parks to succeed. The individual scientist wishing to enter into business or just hoping to get his invention into the pool of potential ideas; which might end up in the hands of an entrepreneur or an established company, is not always that simple. Universal success principles must be embraced to ensure success. One must believe in oneself and to strive for excellence. One must be able to see the other persons viewpoint and adapt and change his behavior in order to succeed. One must learn to create trust as well as learn to trust. Furthermore, one must learn to focus on the why of the process and not on the how. A market must be identified and benefits of local area must be sold to potential investor or business partners. A local success has in part to do with local cooperation.

  6. 76 FR 32231 - International Business Machines (IBM), Sales and Distribution Business Unit, Global Sales...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-03

    ... Employment and Training Administration International Business Machines (IBM), Sales and Distribution Business... Business Machines (IBM), Sales and Distribution Business Unit, Global Sales Solution Department, off-site... and location is International Business Machines (IBM), Sales and Distribution Business Unit,...

  7. Information Systems and Business Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beswick, Raymond W., Ed.; Williams, Alfred B., Ed.

    Intended to provide orientation about the integration of business communication, business systems, and the researching and teaching of business communication, this books offers articles on a variety of topics concerning business communication. Titles of the articles and their authors are as follows: (1) "Office Technology: Voice Store-and-Forward"…

  8. Standardized Curriculum for Business Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Bureau of Vocational, Technical, and Adult Education.

    Standardized curricula are provided for five courses for the secondary business technology programs in Mississippi: intensive business training; information processing; business computer applications; and computer programing technology (CPT) I and II. The 20 units of intensive business training include the following: keyboarding; operation of…

  9. Small Business Management. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This instructor's guide, which is designed to assist teachers in providing instruction and technical support to small business owners and managers, contains 17 competency-based units of instruction on the following areas that both small business instructors and small business owners have deemed critical to the success of any business:…

  10. DNA fingerprinting; a biotechnology in business.

    PubMed

    Debenham, P G

    1991-01-01

    Since its discovery by Professor Alec Jeffreys, first published in 1985, DNA fingerprinting has never been far from the headlines. Cellmark, as the leading commercial DNA fingerprinting enterprise, has had the challenge of establishing its business in this high profile environment. The challenge for such a business has had three elements. Firstly and primarily to establish a laboratory system that consistently provides results to the highest standards possible. Secondly to communicate the science to its broad customer base which ranges from the general public to the experts of legal, scientific and governmental systems. Then finally there is the challenge of setting up the business in the context of the volatile, venture-capital based biotechnology market where the requirements for assured quality spar with those for cut prices. Given this backdrop it is not surprising that DNA fingerprinting has had its detractors, yet the consensus of opinion is that this technology has become a near routine business with the challenges effectively met and the success that was hoped for.

  11. 47 CFR 90.35 - Industrial/Business Pool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...: (1) The operation of a commercial activity; (2) The operation of educational, philanthropic, or.... Industrial/Business Pool spectrum many not be utilized for the purposes set forth in § 90.20(a). (b... normally assigned, the specific assignment limitations which are explained in paragraph (b) of this...

  12. 47 CFR 90.35 - Industrial/Business Pool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...: (1) The operation of a commercial activity; (2) The operation of educational, philanthropic, or.... Industrial/Business Pool spectrum many not be utilized for the purposes set forth in § 90.20(a). (b... normally assigned, the specific assignment limitations which are explained in paragraph (b) of this...

  13. 47 CFR 90.35 - Industrial/Business Pool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...: (1) The operation of a commercial activity; (2) The operation of educational, philanthropic, or.... Industrial/Business Pool spectrum many not be utilized for the purposes set forth in § 90.20(a). (b... normally assigned, the specific assignment limitations which are explained in paragraph (b) of this...

  14. Business Information Centres: New Resources Are Not Used.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummond, Janet

    1984-01-01

    Presents findings from survey of Canadian information centers specializing in business, economics, or finance (corporate library, government department library, fee-based service, commercial database, association information center). Questions focused on three broad categories: human resources organization, relative use of different types of…

  15. Applications of Computer-Aided Instruction in Business French Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrate, Jayne

    Computer software was developed by a faculty member for college-level introductory commercial French to facilitate mastery of basic vocabulary and vocabulary manipulation techniques. The materials targeted three common areas of student difficulty: large amounts of new vocabulary, unfamiliar business concepts, and the formal style of business…

  16. Comparing Commercial WWW Browsers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notess, Greg R.

    1995-01-01

    Four commercial World Wide Web browsers are evaluated for features such as handling of WWW protocols and different URLs: FTP, Telnet, Gopher and WAIS, and e-mail and news; bookmark capabilities; navigation features; file management; and security support. (JKP)

  17. Technology Commercialization Program 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    This reference compilation describes the Technology Commercialization Program of the Department of Energy, Defense Programs. The compilation consists of two sections. Section 1, Plans and Procedures, describes the plans and procedures of the Defense Programs Technology Commercialization Program. The second section, Legislation and Policy, identifies legislation and policy related to the Program. The procedures for implementing statutory and regulatory requirements are evolving with time. This document will be periodically updated to reflect changes and new material.

  18. The consequences of metric production for small manufacturers. Volume 2: Case studies of large business-small business interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hitchcock, H. H.; Coates, J. F.; Canavan, M. M.; Prillaman, G. H.; Nettles, M. S.

    1982-02-01

    Over the last decade, controversy, concern, and conjecture have surrounded the effects of metric conversion on small business. Enthusiasts for metric argue that conversion would benefit small businesses in two ways. It would expand their markets, especially export markets. It would also improve business by making production processes more rational. Dissenters argue that conversion is unnecessary and possibly harmful to the majority of the nation's small businesses. Against this backdrop, the U.S. Metric Board is fulfilling its statutory mission to find out what happens to small businesses that convert to metric. The first phase of the project was a search for small businesses that had made substantial investments in converting to metric. That search showed that small businesses were most likely to invest in metric production in response to large corporations' needs for metric parts and products. The second phase of the research consisted of three case studies of the effects of large companies' conversion on small business suppliers. The team studied how the conversion of a General Electric Company department, two Ford Motor Company product lines, and three divisions of Ingersoll-Rand affected their small business suppliers.

  19. ERC commercialization activities

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The ERC family of companies is anticipating market entry of their first commercial product, a 2.8-MW power plant, in the second quarter of 1999. The present Cooperative Agreement provides for: (1) Commercialization planning and organizational development, (2) Completion of the pre-commercial DFC technology development, (3) Systems and plant design, (4) Manufacturing processes` scale-up to full-sized stack components and assemblies, (5) Upgrades to ERC`s test facility for full-sized stack testing, (6) Sub-scale testing of a DFC Stack and BOP fueled with landfill gas. This paper discusses the first item, that of preparing for commercialization. ERC`s formal commercialization program began in 1990 with the selection of the 2-MW Direct Fuel Cell power plant by the American Public Power Association (APPA) for promotion to the over 2000 municipal utilities comprising APPA`s segment of the utility sector. Since that beginning, the APPA core group expanded to become the Fuel Cell Commercialization Group (FCCG) which includes representation from all markets - utilities and other power generation equipment buyers.

  20. ERC commercialization activities

    SciTech Connect

    Maru, H.C.

    1995-12-01

    The ERC family of companies is anticipating market entry of their first commercial product, a 2.8-MR power plant, in the second quarter of 1999. The present Cooperative Agreement provides for: (1) Commercialization planning and organizational development, (2) Completion of the pre-commercial DFC technology development, (3) Systems and plant design, (4) Manufacturing processes` scale-up to full- sized stack components and assemblies, (5) Upgrades to ERC`s test facility for full-sized stack testing, and (6) Sub-scale testing of a DFC Stack and BOP fueled with landfill gas. This paper discusses the first item, that of preparing for commercialization. ERC`s formal commercialization program began in 1990 with the selection of the 2-MR Direct Fuel Cell power plant by the American Public Power Association (APPA) for promotion to the over 2000 municipal utilities comprising APPA`s segment of the utility sector. Since that beginning, the APPA core group expanded to become the Fuel Cell Commercialization Group (FCCG) which includes representation from all markets - utilities and other power generation equipment buyers.

  1. service line analytics in the new era.

    PubMed

    Spence, Jay; Seargeant, Dan

    2015-08-01

    To succeed under the value-based business model, hospitals and health systems require effective service line analytics that combine inpatient and outpatient data and that incorporate quality metrics for evaluating clinical operations. When developing a framework for collection, analysis, and dissemination of service line data, healthcare organizations should focus on five key aspects of effective service line analytics: Updated service line definitions. Ability to analyze and trend service line net patient revenues by payment source. Access to accurate service line cost information across multiple dimensions with drill-through capabilities. Ability to redesign key reports based on changing requirements. Clear assignment of accountability.

  2. In-School Commercialism: A Slick Compulsory Change Movement. Issues in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Stephanie A.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the impact of commercialism on American public schools, arguing that commercialism imperils the democratic nature of public schools and compromises the goals of quality education for all children. Maintains that education's larger purposes diverge tremendously from those of the business community and that in-school advertising results in…

  3. Small business innovation research program solicitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration invites eligible small business concerns to submit Phase 1 proposals for its 1994 Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program, which is described in this twelfth annual NASA SBIR Program Solicitation. The 1994 solicitation period for Phase 1 proposals begins April 4, 1994 and ends June 15, 1994. Eligible firms with research or research and development capabilities (R/R&D) in any of the listed topic and subtopic areas are encouraged to participate. Through SBIR, NASA seeks innovative concepts addressing the program needs described in the SBIR solicitation subtopics and offering commercial application potential. This document contains program background information, outlines eligibility requirements for SBIR participants, describes the three SBIR program phases, and provides the information qualified offerors need to prepare and submit responsive proposals.

  4. Languages for Business Means Business for Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cothran, Bettina F.

    Georgia State University has developed undergraduate applied language programs in commercial French, German, and Spanish combining practical with theoretical studies. The curricula stress the communicative aspect of language, and are based on the content of certification examinations given in France, Germany, and Spain. Two upper-level courses in…

  5. Creating a representative sample of small manufacturing businesses for an integrated workplace safety and smoking cessation intervention study

    PubMed Central

    Egelhoff, Claudia; Katz, Marc; Brosseau, Lisa M; Hennrikus, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to recruit a representative sample of small manufacturing businesses (20-150 employees) for a group-randomized trial of an integrated workplace safety and smoking cessation program. Methods An initial sample was drawn from commercial databases, screened for duplicates or ineligibility and contacted. Participating and non-participating businesses were compared on size, location and type. Employee demographics of participating businesses were compared to a U.S. Census Bureau database of similar businesses. Results From an initial sample of 2716 businesses, 328 were eligible and 47 (9%) agreed to participate. Participating companies tended to be larger. Employees were similar to employees in the Census Bureau dataset. Conclusions Considerable resources were required to identify eligible businesses; commercial databases are the best resource but may not be comprehensive or current. The sample appeared to be representative of small manufacturing businesses in the study region. PMID:26147544

  6. Fgd residues: a commercial opportunity

    SciTech Connect

    Juzwiak, J.H.; Smith, C.L. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper focuses on actual operating experience in the handling and processing of ash and FGD by-products by Conversion Systems at the Orlando Utility Commission Stanton Energy Center at Orlando, Florida. The discussion discloses how the Poz-O-Tec stabilization technology, the most widely used disposal technology for wet FGD sludge, has been modified and improved to maximize the by-product recycling and produce the most cost effective disposal option. Recently, CSI has directed 100% of the Stanton Facility FGD stabilization production into the generation of the commercial aggregate called Poz-O-Lite Aggregate. This aggregate product is used in the manufacture of concrete block, replacing ordinary crushed stone. CSI has been able to develop this reuse application using the low permeability and superior strength of the stabilized material. The utility also benefits from the stabilized material which is not recycled as it offers opportunity for co-disposal of other combustion residues from some of the utility's oil fired plants in cells that are lined and then capped with the stabilized material. In summary, virtually all production of the by-products, from combustion or flue gas desulfurization at the Stanton Energy Center are now being used for commercial application, except that specifically required as liners for the disposal of other materials on site.

  7. Television Commercials' Effects on Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quisenberry, James D.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses research focused on characteristics of children's TV commercials, the relationship between commercials and children's learning and reasoning, and effects of commercials on children's language, attitudes, and beliefs. (Author/RH)

  8. Structuring an MBA Consulting Course: Aligning Pedagogical Strategies to Meet the Needs of a Business School's Critical Stakeholders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roche, Olivier P.; Downie, Yvonne; Diriker, Memo

    2013-01-01

    At a time when business schools of second-tieruniversities face budget constraints, the MBA consulting program has become avehicle to build a school's reputation and to engage the business community inorder to raise financial resources. Business schools also face competition fromon-line programs, and consulting assignments help to define a…

  9. Business models for health care decision support.

    PubMed

    Gaughan, Phil

    2003-01-01

    CareScience, Inc. is a public company (NASDAQ: CARE) that originated ten years ago to commercialize risk adjustment and complication predictions developed by the Wharton School of Business and the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine. Over the past decade, the company has grown to approximately 200 clients and 150 employees. Among the "firsts" recorded by the company, CareScience was the first to offer a clinical decision support system as an Application Service Provider (ASP), the first to offer peer-to-peer clinical data sharing among health care provider organizations and practitioners (Santa Barbara Care Data Exchange), and the first to provide a care management outsourcing arrangement.

  10. University of Utah, Energy Commercialization Center

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, James

    2014-01-17

    given direct business development support by the ECC, many of whom then generated direct economic development impacts. In addition, the ECC served an important role as community convener, educator and relationship builder through hosting numerous public and private events including: Energize 2013; Millennial Train whistle stop; business plan competition supporter; Clean Tech Open Accelerator organizer; Sustainable Startups Series developer, and much more. While the ECC did not fully apply, develop, and transmit the University of Utah’s TCO commercialization model to cleantech, it nevertheless assisted numerous inventors, entrepreneurs and institutions in furthering the growth of clean energy and energy efficiency technologies. The TCO’s commercialization model was not applied to regional clean tech initiatives for several main reasons. First, flaws with the commercialization model were realized after the ECC’s formation. Second, leadership changes within the TCO and ECC hampered early organizational development and implementation initiatives. Third, misaligned incentives between the ECC, regional universities, institutions, and the State of Utah resulted in a lack of collaboration and knowledge transfer regarding commercialization. In principle, everyone was aligned and willing to collaborate, but reality was much different and challenging.

  11. AGATE animation - business theme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Business jet 2 of 6. Advanced General Aviation Technology Experiment (AGATE). Few objects convey wealth and power like a private airplane, but one day you won't have to be rich or famous to fly one. NASA is working with industry and other government agencies to develop the technology and vision for business and personal travel of the future. It's a future in which travelers fly to their destinations in small, safe, affordable and easy-to-use jets out of 'smart airports.' Future small aircraft may cost about as much as a luxury automobile. They will use 25% less fuel than today's airplanes with fuel efficiencies rivaling automobiles, but at four times highway speeds. The goal is to put 'wings on America' and enable doorstep-to-destination travel at four times the speed of highways, making it possible to go where you want, when you want - faster than ever. Image from AGATE 'business jet' video animation.

  12. Commercial space services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    An overview of space service opportunities as identified by a Wyle Laboratories' research team is given. Through the use of a baseline space scenario, a variety of space hardware, services, and commercial activities are identified and related on a time-phased basis. A model is presented to relate the potential functions of government and the private sector in a commercialized space environment during the period 1984 to 2004. Barriers, incentives and key issues are likewise identified and addressed to aid in the implementation of private sector activities for spacerelated programs. Broader awareness, legislative actions, incentive development and benefit analyses are considered in the presentation. The time-phased plan provides a useful planning and management tool, allows broader communication, and supports overall space commercialization program assessment.

  13. 16 CFR 301.42 - Deception as to nature of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deception as to nature of business. 301.42 Section 301.42 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.42 Deception as to nature...

  14. 16 CFR 802.1 - Acquisitions of goods and realty in the ordinary course of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Acquisitions of goods and realty in the ordinary course of business. 802.1 Section 802.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF...

  15. 16 CFR 802.1 - Acquisitions of goods and realty in the ordinary course of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Acquisitions of goods and realty in the ordinary course of business. 802.1 Section 802.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF...

  16. 16 CFR 802.1 - Acquisitions of goods and realty in the ordinary course of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acquisitions of goods and realty in the ordinary course of business. 802.1 Section 802.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF...

  17. 16 CFR 301.42 - Deception as to nature of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Deception as to nature of business. 301.42 Section 301.42 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.42 Deception as to nature...

  18. 16 CFR 301.42 - Deception as to nature of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Deception as to nature of business. 301.42 Section 301.42 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.42 Deception as to nature...

  19. 16 CFR 301.42 - Deception as to nature of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Deception as to nature of business. 301.42 Section 301.42 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.42 Deception as to nature...

  20. 16 CFR 301.42 - Deception as to nature of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Deception as to nature of business. 301.42 Section 301.42 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.42 Deception as to nature...

  1. AGATE animation - business theme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Business jet 4 of 6. Advanced General Aviation Technology Experiment (AGATE). The AGATE program is complimented by a NASA Lewis-led program to develop safe, smooth, quiet and affordable propulsion systems for future four-to-six-seat general aviation airplanes. The General Aviation Propulsion (GAP) program is developing diesel prop and jet engines to be flight demonstrated at the year 2000 EAA AirVenture Air Show & Convention in Oshkosh, Wisc. Commericially produced engines based on these demonstrator engines and their manufacturing technologies will soon follow. Image from AGATE 'business jet' video animation.

  2. A flexible business focus

    SciTech Connect

    Hennagir, T.

    1994-11-01

    The challenge of sourcing equipment to meet customer needs around the world remains a prerequisite for boiler and CFB manufacturers as they strive to maintain a strong business presence in key markets. Boiler vendors are learning to meet their targets based upon what the market is, not what they hope it will become. An elastic equipment supply strategy is bolstering new business activity for internationally active boiler and circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFB) vendors. Techniques such as flexible sourcing and expanded scope capability are helping suppliers gain market advantage in new global growth areas.

  3. Commercial Biomedical Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Experiments to seek solutions for a range of biomedical issues are at the heart of several investigations that will be hosted by the Commercial Instrumentation Technology Associates (ITA), Inc. Biomedical Experiments (CIBX-2) payload. CIBX-2 is unique, encompassing more than 20 separate experiments including cancer research, commercial experiments, and student hands-on experiments from 10 schools as part of ITA's ongoing University Among the Stars program. Valerie Cassanto of ITA checks the Canadian Protein Crystallization Experiment (CAPE) carried by STS-86 to Mir in 1997. The experiments are sponsored by NASA's Space Product Development Program (SPD).

  4. A look at commercial buildings in 1995: Characteristics, energy consumption, and energy expenditures

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    The commercial sector consists of business establishments and other organizations that provide services. The sector includes service businesses, such as retail and wholesale stores, hotels and motels, restaurants, and hospitals, as well as a wide range of facilities that would not be considered commercial in a traditional economic sense, such as public schools, correctional institutions, and religious and fraternal organizations. Nearly all energy use in the commercial sector takes place in, or is associated with, the buildings that house these commercial activities. Analysis of the structures, activities, and equipment associated with different types of buildings is the clearest way to evaluate commercial sector energy use. The Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) is a national-level sample survey of commercial buildings and their energy suppliers conducted quadrennially (previously triennially) by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The target population for the 1995 CBECS consisted of all commercial buildings in the US with more than 1,000 square feet of floorspace. Decision makers, businesses, and other organizations that are concerned with the use of energy--building owners and managers, regulators, legislative bodies and executive agencies at all levels of government, utilities and other energy suppliers--are confronted with a buildings sector that is complex. Data on major characteristics (e.g., type of building, size, year constructed, location) collected from the buildings, along with the amount and types of energy the buildings consume, help answer fundamental questions about the use of energy in commercial buildings.

  5. Minority Business Enterprises and Woman Business Enterprises Grant Utilization

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The policy goal of the MBE/WBE Programs is to assure that minority business enterprises and woman business enterprises are given the opportunity to participate in contract and procurement for supplies, construction, equipment & services under any EPA grant

  6. Molecular characteristics of some commercial high-molecular-weight hyaluronans.

    PubMed

    Soltés, L; Mendichi, R; Lath, D; Mach, M; Bakos, D

    2002-10-01

    Commercially available hyaluronan (HA) samples were investigated by the method of size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The fractions eluted from the SEC column were on-line molecularly characterized by using a multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) photometer. Along with the SEC-MALLS technique, the high-molecular-weight HA biopolymers were (off-line) analyzed by capillary viscometry.

  7. Nasca Lines, Peru

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Nasca Lines are located in the Pampa region of Peru, the desolate plain of the Peruvian coast 400 km south of Lima. The Lines were first spotted when commercial airlines began flying across the Peruvian desert in the 1920's. Passengers reported seeing 'primitive landing strips' on the ground below. The Lines were made by removing the iron-oxide coated pebbles which cover the surface of the desert. When the gravel is removed, they contrast with the light color underneath. In this way the lines were drawn as furrows of a lighter color. On the pampa, south of the Nasca Lines, archaeologists have now uncovered the lost city of the line-builders, Cahuachi. It was built nearly two thousand years ago and was mysteriously abandoned 500 years later. This ASTER sub-image covers an area of 14 x 18 km, was acquired on December 22, 2000, and is located at 14.7 degrees south latitude and 75.1 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  8. Successes of Small Business Innovation Research at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Walter S.; Bitler, Dean W.; Prok, George M.; Metzger, Marie E.; Dreibelbis, Cindy L.; Ganss, Meghan

    2002-01-01

    This booklet of success stories highlights the NASA Glenn Research Center's accomplishments and successes by the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) Programs. These success stories are the results of selecting projects that support NASA missions and also have high commercialization potential. Each success story describes the innovation accomplished, commercialization of the technology, and further applications and usages. This booklet emphasizes the integration and incorporation of technologies into NASA missions and other government projects. The company name and the NASA contact person are identified to encourage further usage and application of the SBIR developed technologies and also to promote further commercialization of these products.

  9. Commercializing Biological Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeLeu, K. L.; Young, M. A.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the only commercial establishment involved in biological control in Australia. The wasp Aphitis melinus, which parasitizes the insect Red Scale, is bred in large numbers and released in the citrus groves where Red Scale is causing damage to the fruit. (JR)

  10. Kids vs. commercials.

    PubMed

    Lewis, M A; Lewis, C E

    1975-11-01

    A game show with fifth and sixth graders effectively demonstrated their ability to critically evaluate television commercials about health-related products. While the family physician is in a unique position to affect future drug utilization patterns of children by counseling parents, a more active role, such as this exercise in the evaluation of TV messages, may be even more effective.

  11. Commercial Baking. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Nancy

    A project filmed three commercial baking videotapes for use by secondary and adult students in food service programs. The three topics were basic dinner rolls, bread making, and hard breads and rolls. Quick-rise dough recipes were developed, written down, and explained for use with the videotapes. A pretest, posttest, and student guide were…

  12. The Commercial Speech Doctrine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luebke, Barbara F.

    In its 1942 ruling in the "Valentine vs. Christensen" case, the Supreme Court established the doctrine that commercial speech is not protected by the First Amendment. In 1975, in the "Bigelow vs. Virginia" case, the Supreme Court took a decisive step toward abrogating that doctrine, by ruling that advertising is not stripped of…

  13. Estolides - Ready for commercialization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Estolides have shown great promise as a bio-based lubricant and are ready for commercialization. Estolides are nontoxic and biodegradable. Testing has shown estolides have increased oxidative stability over vegetable oil based lubricants and have a relatively low pour point, allowing them to be use...

  14. Commercial applications of telemedicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Natiello, Thomas A.

    1991-01-01

    Telemedicine Systems Corporation was established in 1976 and is a private commercial supplier of telemedicine systems. These systems are various combinations of communications and diagnostic technology, designed to allow the delivery of health care services to remote facilities. The technology and the health care services are paid for by the remote facilities, such as prisons.

  15. Commercial Crew Medical Ops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinbaugh, Randall; Cole, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Provide commercial partners with: center insight into NASA spaceflight medical experience center; information relative to both nominal and emergency care of the astronaut crew at landing site center; a basis for developing and sharing expertise in space medical factors associated with returning crew.

  16. Commercial Earth Observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Through the Earth Observation Commercial Applications Program (EOCAP) at Stennis Space Center, Applied Analysis, Inc. developed a new tool for analyzing remotely sensed data. The Applied Analysis Spectral Analytical Process (AASAP) detects or classifies objects smaller than a pixel and removes the background. This significantly enhances the discrimination among surface features in imagery. ERDAS, Inc. offers the system as a modular addition to its ERDAS IMAGINE software package for remote sensing applications. EOCAP is a government/industry cooperative program designed to encourage commercial applications of remote sensing. Projects can run three years or more and funding is shared by NASA and the private sector participant. Through the Earth Observation Commercial Applications Program (EOCAP), Ocean and Coastal Environmental Sensing (OCENS) developed SeaStation for marine users. SeaStation is a low-cost, portable, shipboard satellite groundstation integrated with vessel catch and product monitoring software. Linked to the Global Positioning System, SeaStation provides real time relationships between vessel position and data such as sea surface temperature, weather conditions and ice edge location. This allows the user to increase fishing productivity and improve vessel safety. EOCAP is a government/industry cooperative program designed to encourage commercial applications of remote sensing. Projects can run three years or more and funding is shared by NASA and the private sector participant.

  17. Commercial and Industrial Wiring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaltwasser, Stan; Flowers, Gary

    This module is the third in a series of three wiring publications, includes additional technical knowledge and applications required for job entry in the commercial and industrial wiring trade. The module contains 15 instructional units that cover the following topics: blueprint reading and load calculations; tools and equipment; service;…

  18. Commercial Carpentry: Instructional Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diehl, Donald W.; Penner, Wayman R.

    This manual contains instructional materials which measure student performance on commercial carpentry behavioral objectives; criterion-referenced evaluation instruments are also included. Each of the manual's eleven sections consists of one or more units of instruction. Each instructional unit includes behavioral objectives, suggested activities…

  19. Commercial Space Research: Entering a New Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nall, Mark E.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Space Act which established NASA included direction that NASA is to foster to the maximum extent possible the commercial use of space. In order to achieve this, NASA began establishing in 1985, Commercial Space Centers (CSCs). These centers are a consortium of industry, academia, and government. Primarily university based, the CSCs are chartered to partner with industry to help companies learn how using space can improve their bottom line. Responsibility for the Commercial Space Centers rests with the Space Product Development Office at Marshall Space Flight Center. Since the program was established in 1985, SPD has sponsored nearly 180 commercial microgravity research payloads on 30 Shuttle missions. The vast majority of these missions were on the order of 6 days. Most companies have only had on average three flight opportunities to advance their product development efforts. From the product development standpoint of an individual company only three weeks of microgravity time have been obtained to date. Of key importance to a company is the fact that this time has not been continuous. Anywhere from one to three years elapses between flights. Despite these flight constraints, the companies in the SPD program have made considerable progress. For example, over the course of the program through 1999, industry has invested over half a billion dollars in cash and in-kind. Over a dozen new product lines are in development by the industrial partners of the Commercial Space Centers. Now the companies partnered with the SPD program have a new opportunity in the International Space Station. The long duration capability provided by the Station will provide double the amount of per company average microgravity time in just the first increment. Current planning through planning increment 5 shows that commercial investment in space research should now be positioned for greater returns.

  20. Doing Business with China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Commerce, Washington, DC. Industry and Trade Administration.

    This publication provides background and practical information for those interested in doing business with China. The United States officially recognized the People's Republic of China (PRC) on January 1, 1979. Chinese leaders view international trade as an important factor in transforming China into a modern industrial state as well as an…

  1. Business Development Corporation, Inc.

    SciTech Connect

    Jasek, S.

    1995-12-31

    Business Development Corporation, Inc., is a company specializing in opportunity seeking and business development activities in the {open_quotes}new{close_quotes} post communist Central and Eastern Europe, with particular emphasis on the Republics of Poland and Slovakia. The company currently focuses its expertise on strategic investing and business development between Central Europe and the United States of America. In Poland and Slovakia, the company specializes in developing large scale energy and environmental {open_quotes}infrastructure{close_quotes} development projects on the federal, state, and local level. In addition, the company assists large state owned industries in the transformation and privatization process. Business Development Corporation has assisted and continues to assist in projects of national importance. The staff of experts advise numerous large Polish and Slovak companies, most owned or in the process of privatization, on matters of restructuring, finance, capital structure, strategic parternships or investors, mergers, acquisitions and joint ventures with U.S. based firms. The company also assists and advises on a variety of environmental and energy matters in the public and private sector.

  2. Women and Business Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Linda Keller

    1979-01-01

    Analyzes the current research on women as managers in business, commerce, and industry. Examines the areas of career choice and availability of women for managerial positions, stereotypes of managerial characteristics, the behavioral consequences of stereotypes, intrapsychic and structural barriers to advancement, and characteristics of the…

  3. Business Applications of WAP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Steenderen, Margaret

    2002-01-01

    Explains the development of WAP (wireless application protocol), how it works, and what the major advantages and disadvantages are, especially when applied to the use of information. Topics include standardization; mobile communications; the effect of WAP on business tools, electronic commerce, and information services; consumers; corporate users;…

  4. Developing Rural Business Incubators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Mark L.; Burnier, DeLysa

    1991-01-01

    Offers background on rural entrepreneurship and incubation in the United States, with particular focus on rural incubators at community colleges and regional incubation systems. Explains how incubators, which provide shared services and business/management assistance for tenant companies, differ from other entrepreneurial development strategies.…

  5. Dancing Partners: Schools & Businesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Howard

    2009-01-01

    Business and education partnerships can be cornerstones of major school improvement efforts and meaningful corporate philanthropy. They also can be frustrating and wasteful if not planned and managed carefully. Partnerships, with their objectives, agreements, memorandums of understanding and budgets, may look like well-planned and carefully…

  6. Business Mathematics Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EASTCONN Regional Educational Services Center, North Windham, CT.

    This curriculum guide for teaching business mathematics in the Connecticut Vocational-Technical School System is based on the latest thinking of instructors in the field, suggestions from mathematics authorities, and current instructional approaches in education. The curriculum guide consists of six sections: (1) career relationships and…

  7. Today's Business Simulation Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, Gary J.

    2004-01-01

    New technologies are transforming the business simulation industry. The technologies come from research in computational fields of science, and they endow simulations with new capabilities and qualities. These capabilities and qualities include computerized behavioral simulations, online feedback and coaching, advanced interfaces, learning on…

  8. Business, Economics, Management Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellogg, Edward Zip

    This annotated bibliography includes reference sources pertaining to business, economics, and management that are located in the libraries of the Portland and Gorham campuses of the University of Southern Maine. Specific reference sources are listed under the categories of: (1) indexes and abstracts; (2) dictionaries and encyclopedias, including…

  9. Hispanic Business Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coca-Cola USA, Atlanta, GA.

    This is a corporate policy statement of the Hispanic business agenda of Coca Cola USA, and the results of a community survey conducted to inform that agenda. The statement outlines several areas of company policy as they relate to Hispanic Americans. These areas include regional marketing, promotion, and community relations strategies, a…

  10. Open for Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voyles, Bennett

    2007-01-01

    People know about the Sakai Project (open source course management system); they may even know about Kuali (open source financials). So, what is the next wave in open source software? This article discusses business intelligence (BI) systems. Though open source BI may still be only a rumor in most campus IT departments, some brave early adopters…

  11. Mental health: everyone's business.

    PubMed

    Dragon, Natalie

    2010-06-01

    Mental health is everyone's business the Australian College of Mental Health Nurses and the Wesley Mission affirmed last month. In the midst of a burgeoning demand for mental health services, the lack of funds allocated to mental health as part of a $7.3 billion health package in the federal budget does not add up.

  12. Business in the Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Toole, Dennis M.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Beginning with a theme article supplying teacher background material on the role of business in the community, this issue focuses on the profit motive, competition, and the use of resources. Four instructional units on this topic are included for young children. The pre-kindergarten unit, "Pancake Producers," has children observe workers cooking…

  13. Monitoring Business Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellandi, Valerio; Ceravolo, Paolo; Damiani, Ernesto; Frati, Fulvio

    In this chapter, we introduce the TEKNE Metrics Framework that performs services to monitor business processes. This framework was designed to support the prescription and explanation of these processes. TEKNE's most innovative contribution is managing data expressed in declarative form. To face this challenge, the TEKNE project implemented an infrastructure that relies on declarative Semantic Web technologies designed to be used in distributed systems.

  14. Business Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Div. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This guide gives information on the skills and knowledge that students should acquire in a secondary-level business education program. Section 1 introduces the competency-based curriculum and discusses curriculum delivery systems, the role of the teacher in curriculum development, and options for program development. Goals, competencies, and…

  15. A Business Plan Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirchner, Charles, Ed.

    This document identifies the information that should be included in a business plan, and in what order, to make it an effective management tool and an effective tool to communicate a proposed or existing company's strengths and potential to potential financiers. Following an introduction, the document explains the following sections of a business…

  16. Getting down to Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boser, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    This article describes The Villages High School (VHS), a charter school where students are taught with real-world skills. At Villages High, a unique creation of local development company The Villages Of Lake-Sumter Inc., the curriculum is serious business. Under its charter agreement with the Sumter County school district, the school must provide…

  17. The Business of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This article is a response to John Silber's article, "Marketing Higher Education: The Survival Value of Integrity." Silber speaks to the very heart of the academy about its integrity and ethics, and does so in timeless fashion through the decades to the current era. In his introduction, he characterizes the "business of education" as inevitable…

  18. The Business of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bers, Trudy; Gelfman, Arnold; Knapp, Jolene

    2008-01-01

    This article describes several community colleges that are taking a more business-like approach, trimming costs, improving efficiencies, and pursuing next-generation innovation--all while keeping the focus squarely where it should be: on learning. At Florida Keys Community College (FKCC), John Keho says his college is taking some strong--though…

  19. Doing business with NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A brochure that was designed to encourage contractors to do business with NASA is presented. The brochure is divided into six sections: (1) This is NASA; (2) The procurement process; (3) Marketing your capabilities; (4) Special assistance programs; (5) NASA field installations; and (6) Sources of additional help.

  20. Introducing a New Business Course: "Global Business and Sustainability"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, R. Scott; Harry, Sean P.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose--To outline the themes, topics and material used in a new course, Global business and sustainability, for business educators interested in integrating this emerging paradigm into their courses. Design/methodology/approach--The structure, design and reference materials for the Global business and sustainability course are reviewed. Specific…