Science.gov

Sample records for commercial business lines

  1. Commercial Spanish: Developing Proficiencies and Business Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes-Tudela, Jose E.

    A commercial Spanish course offered at Marywood College (Scranton, Pennsylvania) serves both Spanish majors and majors in international business. In addition to language proficiency activities common to most commercial language courses, students have identified two projects as most functional and challenging: (1) a "carpeta" or file into which…

  2. The Commercial Open Source Business Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riehle, Dirk

    Commercial open source software projects are open source software projects that are owned by a single firm that derives a direct and significant revenue stream from the software. Commercial open source at first glance represents an economic paradox: How can a firm earn money if it is making its product available for free as open source? This paper presents the core properties of com mercial open source business models and discusses how they work. Using a commercial open source approach, firms can get to market faster with a superior product at lower cost than possible for traditional competitors. The paper shows how these benefits accrue from an engaged and self-supporting user community. Lacking any prior comprehensive reference, this paper is based on an analysis of public statements by practitioners of commercial open source. It forges the various anecdotes into a coherent description of revenue generation strategies and relevant business functions.

  3. Business in orbit - The commercial use of space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillam, I. T., IV

    1985-01-01

    Current and proposed business opportunities in space are discussed. The advantages offered by the zero gravity environment of space are examined. The roles of the Space Shuttle and the Space Station in space commercialization are described. International development and use of the Space Station is proposed. It is observed that the communications satellite industry is a successful space venture, and opportunities for materials processing and pharmaceuticals production in space are considered. The relationship between NASA's Office of Commercial Programs, which assists businesses in space commercialization, and industry is studied. The impact of space commercialization on the national economy and international trade is analyzed.

  4. Commercial use of space - The space business era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, G. D.

    1985-01-01

    Progress and avenues being explored by NASA to hasten the commercialization of space are described. A task force has recommended that the effort begin at once, that bureaucratic barriers to commercial space activities be removed, and that a partnership between government and industry be seriously explored. The government role is to establish links with private industry, invest in high-leverage technologies and space facilities which will be attractive to commercial ventures, and contribute to commercial enterprises where risks are high and significant economic benefits can be foreseen. The government/industry relationship can be legally evinced by MOUs, joint endeavor agreements, technical exchange agreements and industrial guest investigator arrangements. The Space Station is the first step in that it allows Americans to live and work in space. It is expected that international participation in Space Station development and utilization will accelerate the space business era.

  5. Developing New Lines of Business: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clegg, Judith; Smart, Dawn Hanson

    2006-01-01

    Developing a new line of business in an independent consulting firm provides an excellent way to expand, increase income for the company, and create cross-marketing opportunities. If it is not done correctly, however, this potential opportunity can imperil the existence of the business. This chapter's case highlights the benefits new lines of…

  6. A Technology Plan for Enabling Commercial Space Business

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyles, Garry M.

    1997-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Advanced Space Transportation Program is a customer driven, focused technology program that supports the NASA Strategic Plan and considers future commercial space business projections. The initial cycle of the Advanced Space Transportation Program implementation planning was conducted from December 1995 through February 1996 and represented increased NASA emphasis on broad base technology development with the goal of dramatic reductions in the cost of space transportation. The second planning cycle, conducted in January and February 1997, updated the program implementation plan based on changes in the external environment, increased maturity of advanced concept studies, and current technology assessments. The program has taken a business-like approach to technology development with a balanced portfolio of near, medium, and long-term strategic targets. Strategic targets are influenced by Earth science, space science, and exploration objectives as well as commercial space markets. Commercial space markets include those that would be enhanced by lower cost transportation as well as potential markets resulting in major increases in space business induced by reductions in transportation cost. The program plan addresses earth-to-orbit space launch, earth orbit operations and deep space systems. It also addresses all critical transportation system elements; including structures, thermal protection systems, propulsion, avionics, and operations. As these technologies are matured, integrated technology flight experiments such as the X-33 and X-34 flight demonstrator programs support near-term (one to five years) development or operational decisions. The Advanced Space Transportation Program and the flight demonstrator programs combine business planning, ground-based technology demonstrations and flight demonstrations that will permit industry and NASA to commit to revolutionary new space transportation systems

  7. 45 CFR 2507.11 - What are the procedures for the release of commercial business information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... commercial business information? 2507.11 Section 2507.11 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public... business information? (a) Notification of business submitter. The Corporation shall promptly notify a business submitter of any request for Corporation records containing business information. The notice...

  8. In the business of dying: questioning the commercialization of hospice.

    PubMed

    Perry, Joshua E; Stone, Robert C

    2011-01-01

    This article critically questions the commercialization of hospice care and the ethical concerns associated with the industry's movement toward "market-driven medicine" at the end of life. For example, the article examines issues raised by an influx of for-profit hospice providers whose business model appears at its core to have an ethical conflict of interest between shareholders doing well and terminal patients dying well. Yet, empirical data analyzing the experience of patients across the hospice industry are limited, and general claims that end-of-life patient care is inferior among for-profit providers or even that their business practices are somehow unseemly when compared to nonprofit providers cannot be substantiated. In fact, non-profit providers are not immune to potentially conflicting concerns regarding financial viability (i.e., "no margin, no mission"). Given the limitations of existing empirical data and contrasting ideological commitments of for-profit versus non-profit providers, the questions raised by this article highlight important areas for reflection and further study. Policymakers and regulators are cautioned to keep ethical concerns in the fore as an increasingly commercialized hospice industry continues to emerge as a dominant component of the U.S. health care system. Both practitioners and researchers are encouraged to expand their efforts to better understand how business practices and commercial interests may compromise the death process of the patient and patient's family--a process premised upon a philosophy and ethical tradition that earlier generations of hospice providers and proponents established as a trusted, end-of-life alternative.

  9. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-2 - Line of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... property or services in different geographic areas (e.g., in different regions of the country or the world... determines its lines of business for a testing year first by identifying all the property and services...

  10. Using a business practice model to control product line costs.

    PubMed

    Farr, Ronald J; Senn, Girard F; Whitten, Catherine M

    2006-08-01

    Faced with a downward turn in its total joint replacement product line, Avera McKennan Hospital was able to avert further decline and save dollar 500,000 annually by: Reviewing and analyzing the product line's past performance. Developing a business model to govern its new implant supply process. Obtaining physician buy-in. Ensuring vendor compliance with its new contracts. Developing a role as business partner with its orthopedic surgeons. PMID:16927502

  11. Business analysis: The commercial mission of the International Asteroid Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The mission of the International Asteroid Mission (IAM) is providing asteroidal resources to support activities in space. The short term goal is to initiate IAM by mining a near-Earth, hydrous carbonaceous chondrite asteroid to service the nearer-term market of providing cryogenic rocket fuel in low lunar orbit (LLO). The IAM will develop and contract for the building of the transportation vehicles and equipment necessary for this undertaking. The long-term goal is to expand operations by exploiting asteroids in other manners, as these options become commercially viable. The primary business issues are what revenue can be generated from the baseline mission, how much will the mission cost, and how funding for this mission can be raised. These issues are addressed.

  12. Germ Line Mechanics--And Unfinished Business.

    PubMed

    Wessel, Gary M

    2016-01-01

    Primordial germ cells are usually made early in the development of an organism. These are the mother of all stem cells that are necessary for propagation of the species, yet use highly diverse mechanisms between organisms. How they are specified, and when and where they form, are central to developmental biology. Using diverse organisms to study this development is illuminating for understanding the mechanics these cells use in this essential function and for identifying the breadth of evolutionary changes that have occurred between species. This essay emphasizes how echinoderms may contribute to the patchwork quilt of our understanding of germ line formation during embryogenesis. PMID:26970000

  13. Germ line mechanics – and unfinished business

    PubMed Central

    Wessel, Gary M.

    2016-01-01

    Primordial germ cells are usually made early in the development of an organism. These are the mother of all stem cells that are necessary for propagation of the species, yet use highly diverse mechanisms between organisms. How they are specified, and when and where they form, are central to developmental biology. Using diverse organisms to study this development is illuminating for understanding the mechanics these cells use in this essential function, and for identifying the breadth of evolutionary changes that have occurred between species. This essay emphasizes how echinoderms may contribute to the patch-work quilt of our understanding of germ line formation during embryogenesis. PMID:26970000

  14. A simple line wave generator using commercial explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, John S; Jackson, Scott I; Hill, Larry G

    2009-01-01

    We present a simple and inexpensive explosive line wave generator has been designed using commercial sheet explosive and plane wave lens concepts. The line wave generator is constructed using PETN and RDX based sheet explosive for the slow and fast components respectively. The design permits the creation of any desired line width. A series of experiments were performed on a 100 mm design, measuring the detonation arrival time at the output of the generator using a streak camera. An iterative technique was used to adjust the line wave generator's slow and fast components, so as to minimize the arrival time deviation. Designs, test results, and concepts for improvements will be discussed.

  15. 26 CFR 1.132-4 - Line of business limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Line of business limitation. 1.132-4 Section 1.132-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX... Manual (ESIC Manual) prepared by the Statistical Policy Division of the U.S. Office of Management...

  16. Common display performance requirements for military and commercial aircraft product lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoener, Steven J.; Behrens, Arthur J.; Flint, John R.; Jacobsen, Alan R.

    2001-09-01

    Obtaining high quality Active Matrix Liquid Crystal (AMLCD) glass to meet the needs of the commercial and military aerospace business is a major challenge, at best. With the demise of all domestic sources of AMLCD substrate glass, the industry is now focused on overseas sources, which are primarily producing glass for consumer electronics. Previous experience with ruggedizing commercial glass leads to the expectation that the aerospace industry can leverage off the commercial market. The problem remains, while the commercial industry is continually changing and improving its products, the commercial and military aerospace industries require stable and affordable supplies of AMLCD glass for upwards of 20 years to support production and maintenance operations. The Boeing Engineering and Supplier Management Process Councils have chartered a group of displays experts from multiple aircraft product divisions within the Boeing Company, the Displays Process Action Team (DPAT), to address this situation from an overall corporate perspective. The DPAT has formulated a set of Common Displays Performance Requirements for use across the corporate line of commercial and military aircraft products. Though focused on the AMLCD problem, the proposed common requirements are largely independent of display technology. This paper describes the strategy being pursued within the Boeing Company to address the AMLCD supply problem and details the proposed implementation process, centered on common requirements for both commercial and military aircraft displays. Highlighted in this paper are proposed common, or standard, display sizes and the other major requirements established by the DPAT, along with the rationale for these requirements.

  17. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-3 - Separate line of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... third line of business, a fast-food chain. Because Employee X provides at least 50 percent of his... management requirements under paragraphs (b) (4) and (5) to the fast-food chain line of business. Example 4... § 1.414(r)-2. One of its lines of business is the operation of a chain of athletic equipment...

  18. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-3 - Separate line of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... third line of business, a fast-food chain. Because Employee X provides at least 50 percent of his... management requirements under paragraphs (b) (4) and (5) to the fast-food chain line of business. Example 4... § 1.414(r)-2. One of its lines of business is the operation of a chain of athletic equipment...

  19. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-3 - Separate line of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... third line of business, a fast-food chain. Because Employee X provides at least 50 percent of his... management requirements under paragraphs (b) (4) and (5) to the fast-food chain line of business. Example 4... § 1.414(r)-2. One of its lines of business is the operation of a chain of athletic equipment...

  20. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-3 - Separate line of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... third line of business, a fast-food chain. Because Employee X provides at least 50 percent of his... management requirements under paragraphs (b) (4) and (5) to the fast-food chain line of business. Example 4... § 1.414(r)-2. One of its lines of business is the operation of a chain of athletic equipment...

  1. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-3 - Separate line of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... third line of business, a fast-food chain. Because Employee X provides at least 50 percent of his... management requirements under paragraphs (b) (4) and (5) to the fast-food chain line of business. Example 4... § 1.414(r)-2. One of its lines of business is the operation of a chain of athletic equipment...

  2. Teaching Commercial Law in the Third Year: A Short Report on a Business Organizations and Commercial Law Clinic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolan, John F.; McNair, Russell A., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The development and implementation of a clinic to offer advanced study in business organizations and commercial law transactions for third-year law students at Wayne State University (Michigan) are described. The course builds vertically on prior study and puts students in contact with practicing lawyers in an academic setting. Considerations…

  3. A business man views commercial ventures in space.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarff, D. D.; Bloom, H. L.

    1973-01-01

    Paper reviews technical, resource planning and marketing steps an industrial organization must perform in arriving at a decision to undertake space development and production of commercial products or services for Users on the ground. Technical elements are supported by particular examples. Analysis of required resources emphasizes facility and financial inter-relationships between commercial organizations and NASA. Marketing planning covers elements of profitability. Paper addresses questions related to protection of corporate stockholders and public interest, investment decision timing, budget variations. Paper concludes with observations on timeliness of planning shuttle-based commercial ventures and on key industry/NASA problems and decisions.

  4. Statistics of Private Commercial and Business Schools, 1919-20. Bulletin, 1922, No. 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonner, H. R.

    1922-01-01

    This report presents the statistics of 902 private, commercial and business schools reporting in 1920. Only 12 more schools reported in 1920 than in 1918. In addition to these, there were 380 other schools of this character which did not submit a report. Of the 902 schools reporting, 841 were nondenominational commercial schools and 61 were…

  5. Business Training and Commercial Education. Bulletin, 1921, No. 43

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swiggett, Glen Levin

    1921-01-01

    The period of participation of the United States in the recent war witnessed a revival of interest in training for business with a consequent experimentation in all types and grades of schools, as well as through nonschool agencies, governmental and otherwise. A survey of this field for the two years ending June 30, 1920, reveals an interest even…

  6. Commercial sector solid oxide fuel cell business assessment. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Schafer, P.

    1996-08-01

    Estimates for the commercial potential of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) from the year 2001 to 2015 is 4 billion MWh. Their quiet operation, low cost, efficiency, and small size could make SOFCs ideal power sources for commercial customers. To better understand the market, this study had three main objectives: (1) identify the extent of the commercial market potential; (2) describe the most likely commercial segments and locations for SOFCs to be competitive; and, (3) determine the most appropriate product sizes. To profile commercial sectors by energy use, investigators conducted a market segmentation analysis. They classified markets within sectors as cogeneration and electric-only applications. Investigators then performed a market analysis to estimate the cost competitiveness of SOFC energy production by state, segment, and operating mode (cogeneration or electric-only). To determine which locations and sectors would be competitive with current utility retail rates, they used the cost per kWh of electrical energy produced by SOFC technology. Study results indicated that three sizes of SOFCs would meet most market capacity requirements: 20, 100, and 250 kW. The largest number of potential SOFC building applications fell into these sectors: education, health care, food service, and skilled nursing. In terms of competitive building applications, California, New York, Illinois, Texas, and Michigan were the top states. The potential market for SOFCs, however, could be much smaller if the pressures of deregulation decrease commercial retail rates or if the rates themselves increase more slowly than expected.

  7. Commercialization of Los Alamos National Laboratory technologies via small businesses. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brice, R.; Cartron, D.; Rhyne, T.; Schulze, M.; Welty, L.

    1997-06-01

    Over the past decade, numerous companies have been formed to commercialize research results from leading U.S. academic and research institutions. Emerging small businesses in areas such as Silicon Valley, Boston`s Route 128 corridor, and North Carolina`s Research Triangle have been especially effective in moving promising technologies from the laboratory bench to the commercial marketplace--creating new jobs and economic expansion in the process. Unfortunately, many of the U.S. national laboratories have not been major participants in this technology/commercialization activity, a result of a wide variety of factors which, until recently, acted against successful commercialization. This {open_quotes}commercialization gap{close_quotes} exists partly due to a lack, within Los Alamos in particular and the DOE in general, of in-depth expertise and experience in such business areas as new business development, securities regulation, market research and the determination of commercial potential, the identification of entrepreneurial management, marketing and distribution, and venture capital sources. The immediate consequence of these factors is the disappointingly small number of start-up companies based on technologies from Los Alamos National Laboratory that have been attempted, the modest financial return Los Alamos has received from these start-ups, and the lack of significant national recognition that Los Alamos has received for creating and commercializing these technologies.

  8. The commercial development of water repellent coatings for high voltage transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, Scott Robert

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of the Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between UT-Battelle, LLC and Southwire Company was to jointly develop a low cost, commercially viable, water-repellant anti-icing coating system for high voltage transmission lines. Icing of power lines and other structures caused by freezing rain events occurs annually in the United States, and leads to severe and prolonged power outages. These outages cause untold economic and personal distress for many American families and businesses. Researchers at the Department of Energy s Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee have previously developed a set of superhydrophobic coatings with remarkable anti-icing properties that could potentially be sprayed or painted onto high-tension power lines and pylons. These coatings drastically reduce ice accumulation on these structures during freezing rain events. The project involved obtaining technical input, supplies and test high voltage cables from Southwire, along with the joint development of anti-icing coating techniques, which would result in a commercial license agreement between Southwire and ORNL, and potentially other companies requiring water repellent anti-icing coatings.

  9. The commercial development of water repellent coatings for high voltage transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, S. R.; Daniel, A.

    2013-10-31

    The purpose of the Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between UT-Battelle, LLC and Southwire Company was to jointly develop a low cost, commercially viable, water-repellant anti-icing coating system for high voltage transmission lines. Icing of power lines and other structures caused by freezing rain events occurs annually in the United States, and leads to severe and prolonged power outages. These outages cause untold economic and personal distress for many American families and businesses. Researchers at the Department of Energy?s Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee have previously developed a set of superhydrophobic coatings with remarkable anti-icing properties that could potentially be sprayed or painted onto high-tension power lines and pylons. These coatings drastically reduce ice accumulation on these structures during freezing rain events. The project involved obtaining technical input, supplies and test high voltage cables from Southwire, along with the joint development of anti-icing coating techniques, which would result in a commercial license agreement between Southwire and ORNL, and potentially other companies requiring water repellent anti-icing coatings.

  10. Pseudoislet of hybrid cellular spheroids from commercial cell lines.

    PubMed

    Jo, Y H; Nam, B M; Kim, B Y; Nemeno, J G; Lee, S; Yeo, J E; Yang, W; Park, S H; Kim, Y S; Lee, J I

    2013-10-01

    Investigators conducting diabetes-related research have focused on islet transplantation as a radical therapy for type 1 diabetes mellitus. Pancreatic islet isolation, an essential process, is a very demanding work because of the proteolytic enzymes, species, treatment time, and individual difference. Replacement of primary isolated pancreatic islets must be carried out continuously for various in vitro tests, making primary isolated islets a useful tool for cell transplantation research. Hence, we sought to develop pseudoislets from commercial pancreas-derived cell lines. In this study, we used RIN-5F and RIN-m cells, which secrete insulin, somatostatin, or glucagon. To manufacture hybrid cellular spheroids, the cells were cultured under hanging drop plate and nonadhesive plate methods. We observed that hybrid cellular pseudoislets exhibited an oval shape, with sizes ranging from 590 to 1200 μm. Their morphology was similar to naïve islets. Cell line pseudoislets secreted and expressed insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin, as confirmed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and immunohistochemistry analyses. Thus, the current artificially manufactured biomimetic pseudoislets resembled pancreatic islets of the endocrine system, appearing as cellular aggregates that secreted insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin. Enhanced immunoisolation techniques may lead to the development of new islet sources for pancreatic transplantation through this pseudoislet strategy.

  11. Commercial and Corporate Activities of New University Business Schools: A Critical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince, Christopher; Beaver, Graham

    2004-01-01

    Commercial and corporate activities and the income they generate are of increasing importance to all UK higher education institutions. For new or modern university business schools in particular, the falling unit of resource attaching to undergraduate student teaching income and the virtual disappearance of research revenues as a result of the…

  12. Company's Unusual Plan to Package Commercial Software with Business Textbooks Produces a Measure of Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Beverly T.

    1992-01-01

    Course Technology Inc. has developed 10 products combining textbooks with commercial software for college accounting, business, computer science, and statistics courses. Five of the products use Lotus 1-2-3 spreadsheet software. The products have been positively received by teachers and students. (DB)

  13. Vocational Education and Training. Briefing Notes for Further Education. Administrative, Business & Commercial (ABC) Briefing Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Unit, London (England).

    The introduction and the three booklets contained in this packet are intended to provide guidance to further education staff who are implementing, or planning to implement, National Vocational Qualifications (NVQs) based on the standards devised by the Administrative, Business, and Commercial (ABC) Training Group in Great Britain. The boklet on…

  14. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-1 - Requirements applicable to qualified separate lines of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... lines of business. 1.414(r)-1 Section 1.414(r)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT..., Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.414(r)-1 Requirements applicable to qualified separate lines of business. (a) In general. Section 414(r) prescribes the conditions under which an employer is treated as...

  15. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-1 - Requirements applicable to qualified separate lines of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... lines of business. 1.414(r)-1 Section 1.414(r)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT..., Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.414(r)-1 Requirements applicable to qualified separate lines of business. (a) In general. Section 414(r) prescribes the conditions under which an employer is treated as...

  16. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-1 - Requirements applicable to qualified separate lines of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... lines of business. 1.414(r)-1 Section 1.414(r)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Plans, Etc. § 1.414(r)-1 Requirements applicable to qualified separate lines of business. (a) In general. Section 414(r) prescribes the conditions under which an employer is treated as operating...

  17. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-1 - Requirements applicable to qualified separate lines of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... lines of business. 1.414(r)-1 Section 1.414(r)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT..., Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.414(r)-1 Requirements applicable to qualified separate lines of business. (a) In general. Section 414(r) prescribes the conditions under which an employer is treated as...

  18. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-1 - Requirements applicable to qualified separate lines of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... lines of business. 1.414(r)-1 Section 1.414(r)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT..., Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.414(r)-1 Requirements applicable to qualified separate lines of business. (a) In general. Section 414(r) prescribes the conditions under which an employer is treated as...

  19. Business Case for a Micro-Combined Heat and Power Fuel Cell System in Commercial Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Makhmalbaf, Atefe; Anderson, David M.; Amaya, Jodi P.; Pilli, Siva Prasad; Srivastava, Viraj; Upton, Jaki F.

    2013-10-30

    Combined heat and power fuel cell systems (CHP-FCSs) provide consistent electrical power and hot water with greater efficiency and lower emissions than alternative sources. These systems can be used either as baseload, grid-connected, or as off-the-grid power sources. This report presents a business case for CHP-FCSs in the range of 5 to 50 kWe. Systems in this power range are considered micro-CHP-FCS. For this particular business case, commercial applications rather than residential or industrial are targeted. To understand the benefits of implementing a micro-CHP-FCS, the characteristics that determine their competitive advantage must first be identified. Locations with high electricity prices and low natural gas prices are ideal locations for micro-CHP-FCSs. Fortunately, these high spark spread locations are generally in the northeastern area of the United States and California where government incentives are already in place to offset the current high cost of the micro-CHP-FCSs. As a result of the inherently high efficiency of a fuel cell and their ability to use the waste heat that is generated as a CHP, they have higher efficiency. This results in lower fuel costs than comparable alternative small-scale power systems (e.g., microturbines and reciprocating engines). A variety of markets should consider micro-CHP-FCSs including those that require both heat and baseload electricity throughout the year. In addition, the reliable power of micro-CHP-FCSs could be beneficial to markets where electrical outages are especially frequent or costly. Greenhouse gas emission levels from micro-CHP-FCSs are 69 percent lower, and the human health costs are 99.9 percent lower, than those attributed to conventional coal-fired power plants. As a result, FCSs can allow a company to advertise as environmentally conscious and provide a bottom-line sales advantage. As a new technology in the early stages of adoption, micro-CHP-FCSs are currently more expensive than alternative

  20. From invention to innovation: Commercialization of new technology by independent and small business inventors

    SciTech Connect

    1989-05-15

    This handbook emerged from the commitment of Energy-Related Inventions Program personnel to supporting the commercialization efforts of independent and small business inventors with new technologies. As you read this document, you will face questions that may seem far removed from technological concerns--questions about the market, your competition, your business structure, and about legal and regulatory requirements. These may seem peripheral to your present and future work. But, make no mistake, you must carefully and honestly consider and answer these if you expect to penetrate the market in sustained way and profit from your work. Over four hundred of your peers--some by success, others by failure--have shown us the lessons incorporated in this volume. By using it, and by commenting on it, you benefit from their collective experience, and make invaluable additions to it. 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Commercialization of Los Alamos National Laboratory technologies via small businesses. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brice, R.; Carton, D.; Rhyne, T.

    1997-06-01

    Appendices are presented from a study performed on a concept model system for the commercialization of Los Alamos National Laboratory technologies via small businesses. Topics include a summary of information from the joint MCC/Los Alamos technology conference; a comparison of New Mexico infrastructure to other areas; a typical licensing agreement; technology screening guides; summaries of specific DOE/UC/Los Alamos documents; a bibliography; the Oak Ridge National Laboratory TCRD; The Ames Center for Advanced Technology Development; Los Alamos licensing procedures; presentation of slides from monthly MCC/Los Alamos review meetings; generalized entrepreneurship model; and a discussion on receiving equity for technology.

  2. Workplace Literacy: Bottom-Line Business Strategies. Showcase 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida Chamber of Commerce, Tallahassee.

    This report presents a concise and useful overview of the issue of business/education partnerships to develop and implement workplace literacy programs. The first chapter focuses on the challenges of developing a literate work force for Florida. It considers the changing workplace and work force, Florida trends in illiteracy, the impact of…

  3. Teaching Business Communication on the Production Line: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Richard W.

    1993-01-01

    Analyzes the communication training received by over 4,000 workers as part of an effort to implement a team concept production system at a General Motors plant. Presents an overview of the team concept training. Discusses five barriers to effective training, four successful instructional methods, and implications for business communication. (RS)

  4. Business-IT Alignment Maturity: The Correlation of Performance Indicators and Alignment Maturity within the Commercial Airline Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Timothy K.

    2010-01-01

    During the period from 1978 to 2009, more than 200 commercial airlines were forced to merge, cease operations, or file for bankruptcy protection. The purpose of this quantitative study is to evaluate the global commercial airline industry from an IT-business alignment perspective and correlate the alignment maturity level of each airline with…

  5. College Students' Choice Modeling of Taking On-Line International Business Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Robert S.

    2006-01-01

    To understand students' choice behavior of taking on-line international business courses, a survey study is conducted to collect information regarding students' actual choices of taking on-line courses and potential factors that may have impacts on students' choices of online learning. Potential factors such as enrollment status, demographic…

  6. Commercialization in College Sports May Have "Crossed the Line," Report Says

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolverton, Brad

    2009-01-01

    Big-time college sports programs derive 60 percent to 80 percent of their revenue from commercial sources, suggesting that intercollegiate athletics--at least at the elite levels--may have "crossed the line" from an educational to a commercial endeavor. That finding comes from a report, "Tax Preferences for Collegiate Sports," released last week…

  7. Vers une culture des affaires? Mentalites, comportements, representations dans la classe de francais commercial (Toward a Business Culture? Attitudes, Behaviors, and Representations in the Commercial French Classroom).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bousquet, Gilles

    1993-01-01

    An exploration of the nature and range of international expertise necessary for students and users of commercial French attempts to note the points where knowledge of law, politics, culture, and business practice takes over from mere accumulation of facts or linguistic competence to facilitate genuine, productive, and culturally appropriate…

  8. Measure of mechanical impacts in commercial blueberry packing lines and potential damage to blueberry fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modern blueberry packing lines create impact damage to blueberries which will result in fruit bruising. In this study, impacts created by commercial blueberry packing lines were measured quantitatively using a miniature instrumented sphere. Impacts were recorded at transfer points. Average peakG ...

  9. 12 CFR 303.204 - Applications for acquisitions, branching, and new lines of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applications for acquisitions, branching, and new lines of business. 303.204 Section 303.204 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE FILING PROCEDURES Prompt Corrective Action § 303.204 Applications...

  10. 26 CFR 1.132-4T - Line of business limitation-1985 through 1988 (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the same facts as in example (2), except that the minor line of business also operates a chain of dry...; hotels and other lodging places; auto repair, services, and garages; and food stores. (3) Aggregation of... delicatessen with an attached service counter at which food is sold for consumption on the premises....

  11. 26 CFR 1.936-11 - New lines of business prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Device B in Puerto Rico in 1997. Device A and Device B are both used to conduct electrical current to the... amount that is the gross income of the possessions corporation for the current taxable year, while the numerator is the amount that is the gross income of the new line of business for the current taxable...

  12. 26 CFR 1.936-11 - New lines of business prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Device B in Puerto Rico in 1997. Device A and Device B are both used to conduct electrical current to the... amount that is the gross income of the possessions corporation for the current taxable year, while the numerator is the amount that is the gross income of the new line of business for the current taxable...

  13. 26 CFR 1.936-11 - New lines of business prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Device B in Puerto Rico in 1997. Device A and Device B are both used to conduct electrical current to the... amount that is the gross income of the possessions corporation for the current taxable year, while the numerator is the amount that is the gross income of the new line of business for the current taxable...

  14. 26 CFR 1.936-11 - New lines of business prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Device B in Puerto Rico in 1997. Device A and Device B are both used to conduct electrical current to the... amount that is the gross income of the possessions corporation for the current taxable year, while the numerator is the amount that is the gross income of the new line of business for the current taxable...

  15. 26 CFR 1.936-11 - New lines of business prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Device B in Puerto Rico in 1997. Device A and Device B are both used to conduct electrical current to the... amount that is the gross income of the possessions corporation for the current taxable year, while the numerator is the amount that is the gross income of the new line of business for the current taxable...

  16. 26 CFR 1.132-4T - Line of business limitation-1985 through 1988 (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Line of business limitation-1985 through 1988 (temporary). 1.132-4T Section 1.132-4T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Manual (ESIC Manual) prepared by the Statistical Policy Division of the U.S. Office of Management...

  17. 26 CFR 1.132-4T - Line of business limitation-1985 through 1988 (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the same facts as in example (2), except that the minor line of business also operates a chain of dry...; hotels and other lodging places; auto repair, services, and garages; and food stores. (3) Aggregation of... delicatessen with an attached service counter at which food is sold for consumption on the premises....

  18. 26 CFR 1.132-4T - Line of business limitation-1985 through 1988 (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the same facts as in example (2), except that the minor line of business also operates a chain of dry...; hotels and other lodging places; auto repair, services, and garages; and food stores. (3) Aggregation of... delicatessen with an attached service counter at which food is sold for consumption on the premises....

  19. Evaluation of verticillium wilt resistance in commercial cultivars and advanced breeding lines of cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Verticillium wilt (VW), caused by Verticillium dahliae Kleb, is one of the most destructive diseases in cotton (Gossypium spp.). The most efficient and cost-effective method of controlling the disease is the use of resistant cotton cultivars. Most commercial cultivars and elite breeding lines are de...

  20. Concept of Operations for Commercial and Business Aircraft Synthetic Vision Systems. 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams Daniel M.; Waller, Marvin C.; Koelling, John H.; Burdette, Daniel W.; Capron, William R.; Barry, John S.; Gifford, Richard B.; Doyle, Thomas M.

    2001-01-01

    A concept of operations (CONOPS) for the Commercial and Business (CaB) aircraft synthetic vision systems (SVS) is described. The CaB SVS is expected to provide increased safety and operational benefits in normal and low visibility conditions. Providing operational benefits will promote SVS implementation in the Net, improve aviation safety, and assist in meeting the national aviation safety goal. SVS will enhance safety and enable consistent gate-to-gate aircraft operations in normal and low visibility conditions. The goal for developing SVS is to support operational minima as low as Category 3b in a variety of environments. For departure and ground operations, the SVS goal is to enable operations with a runway visual range of 300 feet. The system is an integrated display concept that provides a virtual visual environment. The SVS virtual visual environment is composed of three components: an enhanced intuitive view of the flight environment, hazard and obstacle defection and display, and precision navigation guidance. The virtual visual environment will support enhanced operations procedures during all phases of flight - ground operations, departure, en route, and arrival. The applications selected for emphasis in this document include low visibility departures and arrivals including parallel runway operations, and low visibility airport surface operations. These particular applications were selected because of significant potential benefits afforded by SVS.

  1. Life cycle assessment of hybrid vehicles recycling: Comparison of three business lines of dismantling.

    PubMed

    Belboom, Sandra; Lewis, Grégory; Bareel, Pierre-François; Léonard, Angélique

    2016-04-01

    This paper undertakes an environmental evaluation of hybrid vehicles recycling, using industrial data from Comet Traitement SA in Belgium. Three business lines have been modelled and analysed. The first one is relative to the business as usual with a dismantling to recover batteries and engines followed by shredding and post shredding treatments. The second one considers, in addition, the removal of electronic control units (ECU) before shredding followed by same steps than in the first line and the last one is relative to the additional removal of big plastic parts before shredding and business as usual post shredding treatments. Results show non-significant environmental benefits when ECU or large parts of plastics are recovered before shredding. Improvements in terms of environmental benefits are lower than the uncertainty of the results. Indeed, the performing usual process for end-of-life vehicles (ELV) treatment reaches 97% of the ELV which is valorised in terms of metal and energy recoveries. Post shredding treatment units include metals, plastics and energy recovery of residues. Comet business as usual route for ELV valorisation is in accordance with the requirements of the European directive and recommendations for further improvement with dismantling of other parts (ECU or plastics) before shredding are non-relevant in this case.

  2. Life cycle assessment of hybrid vehicles recycling: Comparison of three business lines of dismantling.

    PubMed

    Belboom, Sandra; Lewis, Grégory; Bareel, Pierre-François; Léonard, Angélique

    2016-04-01

    This paper undertakes an environmental evaluation of hybrid vehicles recycling, using industrial data from Comet Traitement SA in Belgium. Three business lines have been modelled and analysed. The first one is relative to the business as usual with a dismantling to recover batteries and engines followed by shredding and post shredding treatments. The second one considers, in addition, the removal of electronic control units (ECU) before shredding followed by same steps than in the first line and the last one is relative to the additional removal of big plastic parts before shredding and business as usual post shredding treatments. Results show non-significant environmental benefits when ECU or large parts of plastics are recovered before shredding. Improvements in terms of environmental benefits are lower than the uncertainty of the results. Indeed, the performing usual process for end-of-life vehicles (ELV) treatment reaches 97% of the ELV which is valorised in terms of metal and energy recoveries. Post shredding treatment units include metals, plastics and energy recovery of residues. Comet business as usual route for ELV valorisation is in accordance with the requirements of the European directive and recommendations for further improvement with dismantling of other parts (ECU or plastics) before shredding are non-relevant in this case. PMID:26898478

  3. Comparison of charged nanoparticle concentrations near busy roads and overhead high-voltage power lines.

    PubMed

    Jayaratne, E R; Ling, X; Morawska, L

    2015-09-01

    Overhead high-voltage power lines are known sources of corona ions. These ions rapidly attach to aerosols to form charged particles in the environment. Although the effect of ions and charged particles on human health is largely unknown, much attention has focused on the increasing exposure as a result of the expanding power network in urban residential areas. However, it is not widely known that a large number of charged particles in urban environments originate from motor vehicle emissions. In this study, for the first time, we compare the concentrations of charged nanoparticles near busy roads and overhead power lines. We show that large concentrations of both positive and negative charged nanoparticles are present near busy roadways and that these concentrations commonly exceed those under high-voltage power lines. We estimate that the concentration of charged nanoparticles found near two freeways carrying around 120 vehicles per minute exceeded the corresponding maximum concentrations under two corona-emitting overhead power lines by as much as a factor of 5. The difference was most pronounced when a significant fraction of traffic consisted of heavy-duty diesel vehicles which typically have high particle and charge emission rates.

  4. Comparison of charged nanoparticle concentrations near busy roads and overhead high-voltage power lines.

    PubMed

    Jayaratne, E R; Ling, X; Morawska, L

    2015-09-01

    Overhead high-voltage power lines are known sources of corona ions. These ions rapidly attach to aerosols to form charged particles in the environment. Although the effect of ions and charged particles on human health is largely unknown, much attention has focused on the increasing exposure as a result of the expanding power network in urban residential areas. However, it is not widely known that a large number of charged particles in urban environments originate from motor vehicle emissions. In this study, for the first time, we compare the concentrations of charged nanoparticles near busy roads and overhead power lines. We show that large concentrations of both positive and negative charged nanoparticles are present near busy roadways and that these concentrations commonly exceed those under high-voltage power lines. We estimate that the concentration of charged nanoparticles found near two freeways carrying around 120 vehicles per minute exceeded the corresponding maximum concentrations under two corona-emitting overhead power lines by as much as a factor of 5. The difference was most pronounced when a significant fraction of traffic consisted of heavy-duty diesel vehicles which typically have high particle and charge emission rates. PMID:25917858

  5. 45 CFR 2507.11 - What are the procedures for the release of commercial business information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Corporation shall afford a business submitter 10 working days to object to disclosure, and to provide the... individuals who have access to such information; and (iii) The type and degree of risk of financial injury to... business information shall be mailed by the Corporation not less than six working days prior to the...

  6. 45 CFR 2507.11 - What are the procedures for the release of commercial business information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Corporation shall afford a business submitter 10 working days to object to disclosure, and to provide the... individuals who have access to such information; and (iii) The type and degree of risk of financial injury to... business information shall be mailed by the Corporation not less than six working days prior to the...

  7. Distinction of Indian commercial lac insect lines of Kerria spp. (Homoptera: Coccoidea) based on their morphometrics.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Ayashaa; Ramani, Ranganathan; Sharma, Kewal K; Vidyarthi, Ambrish S; Ramamurthy, Vilayanoor V

    2014-01-01

    The lac insects belong to the genus Kerria (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Kerriidae) and are commercially exploited worldwide for the production of lac, which comes from their waxy test and has diverse industrial applications. The insects are maintained by the Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums as distinctive lines that are cultivated and commercialized in the lac producing areas of India. The lines are all considered to belong to the genus Kerria but without validation of their taxonomic characters, and their identity to species has not been ascertained. This study used single-factor analysis of variance and several multivariate analyses, such as principal component analysis, discriminant function analysis, and canonical discriminant analysis to explore the morphometrics of some of the adult female lac insect lines. The results have enabled the identification of some taxonomically significant characters in adult females, which has grouped the 32 lac insect lines studied into 15 species along with validation of the most significant characters. Distinctive grouping patterns for the species of Kerria have been brought out using morphometrics.

  8. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-7 - Determination of the employees of an employer's qualified separate lines of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., and a ski equipment manufacturer. In applying this section for the first testing day with respect to... business as follows: Software developer Health food Real estate Ski equipment Substantial-Service Employees... allocating all residual shared employees to the ski equipment line of business, the software, ski...

  9. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-7 - Determination of the employees of an employer's qualified separate lines of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., and a ski equipment manufacturer. In applying this section for the first testing day with respect to... business as follows: Software developer Health food Real estate Ski equipment Substantial-Service Employees... allocating all residual shared employees to the ski equipment line of business, the software, ski...

  10. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-7 - Determination of the employees of an employer's qualified separate lines of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., and a ski equipment manufacturer. In applying this section for the first testing day with respect to... business as follows: Software developer Health food Real estate Ski equipment Substantial-Service Employees... allocating all residual shared employees to the ski equipment line of business, the software, ski...

  11. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-7 - Determination of the employees of an employer's qualified separate lines of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... real estate development and ski equipment manufacturing line of business, because more than 50 percent..., and a ski equipment manufacturer. In applying this section for the first testing day with respect to... business as follows: Software developer Health food Real estate Ski equipment Substantial-Service...

  12. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-7 - Determination of the employees of an employer's qualified separate lines of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... real estate development and ski equipment manufacturing line of business, because more than 50 percent..., and a ski equipment manufacturer. In applying this section for the first testing day with respect to... business as follows: Software developer Health food Real estate Ski equipment Substantial-Service...

  13. Development of Novel Glyphosate-Tolerant Japonica Rice Lines: A Step Toward Commercial Release

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Ying; Huang, Shuqing; Liu, Ziduo; Yi, Shuyuan; Zhou, Fei; Chen, Hao; Lin, Yongjun

    2016-01-01

    Glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide for its low cost and high efficiency. However, it is rarely applied directly in rice field due to its toxicity to rice. Therefore, glyphosate-tolerant rice can greatly decrease the cost of rice production and provide a more effective weed management strategy. Although, several approaches to develop transgenic rice with glyphosate tolerance have been reported, the agronomic performances of these plants have not been well evaluated, and the feasibility of commercial production has not been confirmed yet. Here, a novel glyphosate-tolerant gene cloned from the bacterium Isoptericola variabilis was identified, codon optimized (designated as I. variabilis-EPSPS*), and transferred into Zhonghua11, a widely used japonica rice cultivar. After systematic analysis of the transgene integration via PCR, Southern blot and flanking sequence isolation, three transgenic lines with only one intact I. variabilis-EPSPS* expression cassette integrated into intergenic regions were identified. Seed test results showed that the glyphosate tolerance of the transgenic rice was about 240 times that of wild type on plant medium. The glyphosate tolerance of transgenic rice lines was further evaluated based on comprehensive agronomic performances in the field with T3 and T5generations in a 2-year assay, which showed that they were rarely affected by glyphosate even when the dosage was 8400 g ha−1. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the development of glyphosate-tolerant rice lines based on a comprehensive analysis of agronomic performances in the field. Taken together, the results suggest that the selected glyphosate-tolerant rice lines are highly tolerant to glyphosate and have the possibility of commercial release. I. variabilis-EPSPS* also can be a promising candidate gene in other species for developing glyphosate-tolerant crops. PMID:27625652

  14. Development of Novel Glyphosate-Tolerant Japonica Rice Lines: A Step Toward Commercial Release.

    PubMed

    Cui, Ying; Huang, Shuqing; Liu, Ziduo; Yi, Shuyuan; Zhou, Fei; Chen, Hao; Lin, Yongjun

    2016-01-01

    Glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide for its low cost and high efficiency. However, it is rarely applied directly in rice field due to its toxicity to rice. Therefore, glyphosate-tolerant rice can greatly decrease the cost of rice production and provide a more effective weed management strategy. Although, several approaches to develop transgenic rice with glyphosate tolerance have been reported, the agronomic performances of these plants have not been well evaluated, and the feasibility of commercial production has not been confirmed yet. Here, a novel glyphosate-tolerant gene cloned from the bacterium Isoptericola variabilis was identified, codon optimized (designated as I. variabilis-EPSPS (*)), and transferred into Zhonghua11, a widely used japonica rice cultivar. After systematic analysis of the transgene integration via PCR, Southern blot and flanking sequence isolation, three transgenic lines with only one intact I. variabilis-EPSPS (*) expression cassette integrated into intergenic regions were identified. Seed test results showed that the glyphosate tolerance of the transgenic rice was about 240 times that of wild type on plant medium. The glyphosate tolerance of transgenic rice lines was further evaluated based on comprehensive agronomic performances in the field with T3 and T5generations in a 2-year assay, which showed that they were rarely affected by glyphosate even when the dosage was 8400 g ha(-1). To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the development of glyphosate-tolerant rice lines based on a comprehensive analysis of agronomic performances in the field. Taken together, the results suggest that the selected glyphosate-tolerant rice lines are highly tolerant to glyphosate and have the possibility of commercial release. I. variabilis-EPSPS (*) also can be a promising candidate gene in other species for developing glyphosate-tolerant crops. PMID:27625652

  15. Development of Novel Glyphosate-Tolerant Japonica Rice Lines: A Step Toward Commercial Release

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Ying; Huang, Shuqing; Liu, Ziduo; Yi, Shuyuan; Zhou, Fei; Chen, Hao; Lin, Yongjun

    2016-01-01

    Glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide for its low cost and high efficiency. However, it is rarely applied directly in rice field due to its toxicity to rice. Therefore, glyphosate-tolerant rice can greatly decrease the cost of rice production and provide a more effective weed management strategy. Although, several approaches to develop transgenic rice with glyphosate tolerance have been reported, the agronomic performances of these plants have not been well evaluated, and the feasibility of commercial production has not been confirmed yet. Here, a novel glyphosate-tolerant gene cloned from the bacterium Isoptericola variabilis was identified, codon optimized (designated as I. variabilis-EPSPS*), and transferred into Zhonghua11, a widely used japonica rice cultivar. After systematic analysis of the transgene integration via PCR, Southern blot and flanking sequence isolation, three transgenic lines with only one intact I. variabilis-EPSPS* expression cassette integrated into intergenic regions were identified. Seed test results showed that the glyphosate tolerance of the transgenic rice was about 240 times that of wild type on plant medium. The glyphosate tolerance of transgenic rice lines was further evaluated based on comprehensive agronomic performances in the field with T3 and T5generations in a 2-year assay, which showed that they were rarely affected by glyphosate even when the dosage was 8400 g ha−1. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the development of glyphosate-tolerant rice lines based on a comprehensive analysis of agronomic performances in the field. Taken together, the results suggest that the selected glyphosate-tolerant rice lines are highly tolerant to glyphosate and have the possibility of commercial release. I. variabilis-EPSPS* also can be a promising candidate gene in other species for developing glyphosate-tolerant crops.

  16. Development of Novel Glyphosate-Tolerant Japonica Rice Lines: A Step Toward Commercial Release.

    PubMed

    Cui, Ying; Huang, Shuqing; Liu, Ziduo; Yi, Shuyuan; Zhou, Fei; Chen, Hao; Lin, Yongjun

    2016-01-01

    Glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide for its low cost and high efficiency. However, it is rarely applied directly in rice field due to its toxicity to rice. Therefore, glyphosate-tolerant rice can greatly decrease the cost of rice production and provide a more effective weed management strategy. Although, several approaches to develop transgenic rice with glyphosate tolerance have been reported, the agronomic performances of these plants have not been well evaluated, and the feasibility of commercial production has not been confirmed yet. Here, a novel glyphosate-tolerant gene cloned from the bacterium Isoptericola variabilis was identified, codon optimized (designated as I. variabilis-EPSPS (*)), and transferred into Zhonghua11, a widely used japonica rice cultivar. After systematic analysis of the transgene integration via PCR, Southern blot and flanking sequence isolation, three transgenic lines with only one intact I. variabilis-EPSPS (*) expression cassette integrated into intergenic regions were identified. Seed test results showed that the glyphosate tolerance of the transgenic rice was about 240 times that of wild type on plant medium. The glyphosate tolerance of transgenic rice lines was further evaluated based on comprehensive agronomic performances in the field with T3 and T5generations in a 2-year assay, which showed that they were rarely affected by glyphosate even when the dosage was 8400 g ha(-1). To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the development of glyphosate-tolerant rice lines based on a comprehensive analysis of agronomic performances in the field. Taken together, the results suggest that the selected glyphosate-tolerant rice lines are highly tolerant to glyphosate and have the possibility of commercial release. I. variabilis-EPSPS (*) also can be a promising candidate gene in other species for developing glyphosate-tolerant crops.

  17. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-4 - Qualified separate line of business-fifty-employee and notice requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-employee and notice requirements. 1.414(r)-4 Section 1.414(r)-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE...-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.414(r)-4 Qualified separate line of business—fifty-employee and... line of business (as determined under § 1.414(r)-3) satisfies the 50-employee and notice...

  18. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-4 - Qualified separate line of business-fifty-employee and notice requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-employee and notice requirements. 1.414(r)-4 Section 1.414(r)-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE...-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.414(r)-4 Qualified separate line of business—fifty-employee and... line of business (as determined under § 1.414(r)-3) satisfies the 50-employee and notice...

  19. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-4 - Qualified separate line of business-fifty-employee and notice requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-employee and notice requirements. 1.414(r)-4 Section 1.414(r)-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE...-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.414(r)-4 Qualified separate line of business—fifty-employee and... line of business (as determined under § 1.414(r)-3) satisfies the 50-employee and notice...

  20. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-4 - Qualified separate line of business-fifty-employee and notice requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-employee and notice requirements. 1.414(r)-4 Section 1.414(r)-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE...-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.414(r)-4 Qualified separate line of business—fifty-employee and... line of business (as determined under § 1.414(r)-3) satisfies the 50-employee and notice...

  1. Performances of a date dissemination code on telephone lines using commercial modems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cordara, F.; Pettiti, V.; Quasso, R.; Rubiola, E.

    1993-01-01

    A coded time/date information dissemination system (CTD), based on telephone lines and commercial modems, is now in its experimental phase in Italy at IEN. This service, born from a cooperation with other metrological laboratories (TUG, Austria, SNT, Sweden, VSL, The Netherlands), represents an attempt towards an European standardization. Some results of an experimental analysis in which a few modems were tested, both in laboratory conditions and connected to the telephone network, in order to evaluate the timing capability of the system are given. When the system is used in a one-way mode, in many practical cases the modems delay turns out to be the main factor which limits the accuracy, even more than the telephone line delays. If the two-way mode is used, the modems asymmetry, i.e., the delay difference between transmission and reception, is almost always the most important source of uncertainty, provided the link is not including a space segment. Comparing the widely used V.22 modems to the old V.21 ones, the latters turn out to be better both in delay time (30-100 ms V.22, and 7-15 ms V.21) and asymmetry (10-50 micro-s V.22, and 10 ms V.22). Time transfer accuracies of 10 micron-s (same turn) to 100 micro-s (long distance calls) were obtained in two-way mode with commercial V.21 modems.

  2. Copper phytoextraction in tandem with oilseed production using commercial cultivars and mutant lines of sunflower.

    PubMed

    Kolbas, A; Mench, M; Herzig, R; Nehnevajova, E; Bes, C M

    2011-01-01

    Use of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) for Cu phytoextraction and oilseed production on Cu-contaminated topsoils was investigated in afield trial at a former wood preservation site. Six commercial cultivars and two mutant lines were cultivated in plots with and without the addition of compost (5% w/w) and dolomitic limestone (0.2% w/w). Total soil Cu ranged from 163 to 1170 mg kg(-1). In soil solutions, Cu concentration varied between 0.16-0.93 mg L(-1). The amendment increased soil pH, reduced Cu exposure and promoted sunflower growth. Stem length, shoot and capitulum biomasses, seed yield, and shoot and leaf Cu concentrations were measured. At low total soil Cu, shoot Cu mineralomass was higher in commercial cultivars, Le., Salut, Energic, and Countri, whereas competition and shading affected morphological traits of mutants. Based on shoot yield (7 Mg DW ha(-1)) and Cu concentration, the highest removal was 59 g Cu ha(-1). At high total soil Cu, shoot Cu mineralomass peaked for mutants (e.g., 52 g Cu ha(-1) for Mutant 1 line) and cultivars Energic and Countri. Energic seed yield (3.9 Mg air-DW ha(-1)) would be sufficient to produce oil Phenotype traits and shoot Cu removal depended on sunflower types and Cu exposure.

  3. Introduction of Business-Commercial-Technical French into the Secondary Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buzash, Michael D.

    This set of materials is designed to help incorporate business and technical French into the secondary school second language curriculum. It consists of a list of goals for introduction of such content, vocabulary lists and related exercises, and a variety of instructional materials and visual aids. Topics addressed include: postal services;…

  4. Selected Resource Materials for Developing Energy Conservation Programs in the Small Business/Commercial Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lengyel, Dorothy L.; And Others

    This annotated bibliography is a selected listing of references for use by small business managers in the development of energy conservation programs. The references are listed under the agency through which they are available. The agency listings are alphabetized and include complete mailing addresses. There are 35 agency listings, many of which…

  5. Fuels and Space Propellants for Reusable Launch Vehicles: A Small Business Innovation Research Topic and Its Commercial Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.

    1997-01-01

    Under its Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program (and with NASA Headquarters support), the NASA Lewis Research Center has initiated a topic entitled "Fuels and Space Propellants for Reusable Launch Vehicles." The aim of this project would be to assist in demonstrating and then commercializing new rocket propellants that are safer and more environmentally sound and that make space operations easier. Soon it will be possible to commercialize many new propellants and their related component technologies because of the large investments being made throughout the Government in rocket propellants and the technologies for using them. This article discusses the commercial vision for these fuels and propellants, the potential for these propellants to reduce space access costs, the options for commercial development, and the benefits to nonaerospace industries. This SBIR topic is designed to foster the development of propellants that provide improved safety, less environmental impact, higher density, higher I(sub sp), and simpler vehicle operations. In the development of aeronautics and space technology, there have been limits to vehicle performance imposed by traditionally used propellants and fuels. Increases in performance are possible with either increased propellant specific impulse, increased density, or both. Flight system safety will also be increased by the use of denser, more viscous propellants and fuels.

  6. 26 CFR 54.4977-1T - Questions and answers relating to the election concerning lines of business in existence on...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... concerning lines of business in existence on January 1, 1984 (temporary). 54.4977-1T Section 54.4977-1T... concerning lines of business in existence on January 1, 1984 (temporary). The following questions and answers... section 531(e)(1) of the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (98 Stat. 886), to treat all employees of any line...

  7. The genetics of feed conversion efficiency traits in a commercial broiler line

    PubMed Central

    Reyer, Henry; Hawken, Rachel; Murani, Eduard; Ponsuksili, Siriluck; Wimmers, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Individual feed conversion efficiency (FCE) is a major trait that influences the usage of energy resources and the ecological footprint of livestock production. The underlying biological processes of FCE are complex and are influenced by factors as diverse as climate, feed properties, gut microbiota, and individual genetic predisposition. To gain an insight to the genetic relationships with FCE traits and to contribute to the improvement of FCE in commercial chicken lines, a genome-wide association study was conducted using a commercial broiler population (n = 859) tested for FCE and weight traits during the finisher period from 39 to 46 days of age. Both single-marker (generalized linear model) and multi-marker (Bayesian approach) analyses were applied to the dataset to detect genes associated with the variability in FCE. The separate analyses revealed 22 quantitative trait loci (QTL) regions on 13 different chromosomes; the integration of both approaches resulted in 7 overlapping QTL regions. The analyses pointed to acylglycerol kinase (AGK) and general transcription factor 2-I (GTF2I) as positional and functional candidate genes. Non-synonymous polymorphisms of both candidate genes revealed evidence for a functional importance of these genes by influencing different biological aspects of FCE. PMID:26552583

  8. Small Businesses Save Big: A Borrower's Guide To Increase the Bottom Line Using Energy Efficiency (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-01-01

    Dollars saved through energy efficiency can directly impact your bottom line. Whether you are planning for a major renovation or upgrading individual pieces of building equipment, these improvements can help reduce operating costs, save on utility bills, and boost profits. This fact sheet provides a guide for small businesses to find the resources to increase the energy efficiency of their buildings.

  9. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-4 - Qualified separate line of business-fifty-employee and notice requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-employee and notice requirements. 1.414(r)-4 Section 1.414(r)-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.414(r)-4 Qualified separate line of business—fifty-employee and notice... business (as determined under § 1.414(r)-3) satisfies the 50-employee and notice requirements of §...

  10. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-6 - Qualified separate line of business-administrative scrutiny requirement-individual determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-administrative scrutiny requirement-individual determinations. 1.414(r)-6 Section 1.414(r)-6 Internal Revenue... Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.414(r)-6 Qualified separate line of business... determined under § 1.414(r)-3) that does not satisfy any of the safe harbors in § 1.414(r)-5 for a...

  11. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-5 - Qualified separate line of business-administrative scrutiny requirement-safe harbors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... respectively consist of a dairy products manufacturer, a candy manufacturer, and a chain of housewares stores... separate lines of business is as follows: Employer-wide Dairy products Candy Housewares stores Number of... (candy manufacturing and housewares stores) each has a highly compensated employee percentage ratio...

  12. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-5 - Qualified separate line of business-administrative scrutiny requirement-safe harbors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... respectively consist of a dairy products manufacturer, a candy manufacturer, and a chain of housewares stores... separate lines of business is as follows: Employer-wide Dairy products Candy Housewares stores Number of... (candy manufacturing and housewares stores) each has a highly compensated employee percentage ratio...

  13. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-5 - Qualified separate line of business-administrative scrutiny requirement-safe harbors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... respectively consist of a dairy products manufacturer, a candy manufacturer, and a chain of housewares stores... separate lines of business is as follows: Employer-wide Dairy products Candy Housewares stores Number of... (candy manufacturing and housewares stores) each has a highly compensated employee percentage ratio...

  14. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-5 - Qualified separate line of business-administrative scrutiny requirement-safe harbors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... respectively consist of a dairy products manufacturer, a candy manufacturer, and a chain of housewares stores... separate lines of business is as follows: Employer-wide Dairy products Candy Housewares stores Number of... (candy manufacturing and housewares stores) each has a highly compensated employee percentage ratio...

  15. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-5 - Qualified separate line of business-administrative scrutiny requirement-safe harbors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... respectively consist of a dairy products manufacturer, a candy manufacturer, and a chain of housewares stores... separate lines of business is as follows: Employer-wide Dairy products Candy Housewares stores Number of... (candy manufacturing and housewares stores) each has a highly compensated employee percentage ratio...

  16. Effects of Enron on Future Russian Business Leaders: A Time Line Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludlum, Marty; Moskalionov, Sergei

    2008-01-01

    Russia has emerged as a new capitalistic country with a prior history of corruption under the state controlled regime. Will word of corruption in America stop efforts for an ethical business climate in the new Russia? Has the Enron scandal affected Russian views of business? In pursuit of the answer, the authors surveyed Russian business students…

  17. The GridEcon Platform: A Business Scenario Testbed for Commercial Cloud Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risch, Marcel; Altmann, Jörn; Guo, Li; Fleming, Alan; Courcoubetis, Costas

    Within this paper, we present the GridEcon Platform, a testbed for designing and evaluating economics-aware services in a commercial Cloud computing setting. The Platform is based on the idea that the exact working of such services is difficult to predict in the context of a market and, therefore, an environment for evaluating its behavior in an emulated market is needed. To identify the components of the GridEcon Platform, a number of economics-aware services and their interactions have been envisioned. The two most important components of the platform are the Marketplace and the Workflow Engine. The Workflow Engine allows the simple composition of a market environment by describing the service interactions between economics-aware services. The Marketplace allows trading goods using different market mechanisms. The capabilities of these components of the GridEcon Platform in conjunction with the economics-aware services are described in this paper in detail. The validation of an implemented market mechanism and a capacity planning service using the GridEcon Platform also demonstrated the usefulness of the GridEcon Platform.

  18. Commercial potential of natural gas storage in lined rock caverns (LRC)

    SciTech Connect

    1999-11-01

    The geologic conditions in many regions of the United States will not permit the development of economical high-deliverability gas storage in salt caverns. These regions include the entire Eastern Seaboard; several northern states, notably Minnesota and Wisconsin; many of the Rocky Mountain States; and most of the Pacific Northwest. In late 1997, the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) Federal Energy Technology Center engaged Sofregaz US to investigate the commercialization potential of natural gas storage in Lined Rock Caverns (LRC). Sofregaz US teamed with Gaz de France and Sydkraft, who had formed a consortium, called LRC, to perform the study for the USDOE. Underground storage of natural gas is generally achieved in depleted oil and gas fields, aquifers, and solution-mined salt caverns. These storage technologies require specific geologic conditions. Unlined rock caverns have been used for decades to store hydrocarbons - mostly liquids such as crude oil, butane, and propane. The maximum operating pressure in unlined rock caverns is limited, since the host rock is never entirely impervious. The LRC technology allows a significant increase in the maximum operating pressure over the unlined storage cavern concept, since the gas in storage is completely contained with an impervious liner. The LRC technology has been under development in Sweden by Sydkraft since 1987. The development process has included extensive technical studies, laboratory testing, field tests, and most recently includes a storage facility being constructed in southern Sweden (Skallen). The LRC development effort has shown that the concept is technically and economically viable. The Skallen storage facility will have a rock cover of 115 meters (375 feet), a storage volume of 40,000 cubic meters (250,000 petroleum barrels), and a maximum operating pressure of 20 MPa (2,900 psi). There is a potential for commercialization of the LRC technology in the United States. Two regions were studied

  19. An investigation of susceptibility to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus between two genetically diverse commercial lines of pigs.

    PubMed

    Vincent, A L; Thacker, B J; Halbur, P G; Rothschild, M F; Thacker, E L

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether host genetics play a role in susceptibility to the respiratory disease in growing pigs caused by the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Based on a previous study, 2 genetically diverse commercial lines of pigs that also were divergent in the susceptibility of monocyte-derived macrophages to PRRSV infection in vitro were selected for an in vivo challenge study. Based on the average percentage of infected macrophages for each line, a line derived from the Large White breed was characterized as fluorescence-activated cell sorting(hi) (FACS(hi)), and a line derived from Duroc and Pietrain breeds was characterized as FACS(lo). Pigs from each line were challenged at 6 wk of age with PRRSV VR-2385 and necropsied at 10 or 21 d after infection. Data collected included clinical evaluation of disease, virus titration in serum and lung lavage fluid, macroscopic lung lesion scores, and microscopic lung lesion scores. The FACS(lo) line had consistently more severe clinical disease compared with the FACS(hi) line in the early stages of infection. Differences between line means were significant (P < 0.05) at 10 d after infection for all variables just described, and the FACS(lo) line showed more severe signs of disease. By 21 d after infection, clinical signs and lesions were resolving, and the differences between lines were significant (P < 0.04) only for microscopic lung lesion scores but approached significance (P < 0.08) for virus titer in serum. At 21 d after infection, the relationship between the lines reversed; the FACS(hi) line had higher serum virus titers than the FACS(lo) line. This report provides evidence that strongly suggests the existence of a host genetic component in disease susceptibility to PRRSV and indicates that further study is warranted to define the cellular mechanisms that affect disease susceptibility.

  20. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-6 - Qualified separate line of business-administrative scrutiny requirement-individual determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-administrative scrutiny requirement-individual determinations. 1.414(r)-6 Section 1.414(r)-6 Internal Revenue... (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.414(r)-6 Qualified separate line of business... determined under § 1.414(r)-3) that does not satisfy any of the safe harbors in § 1.414(r)-5 for a...

  1. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-6 - Qualified separate line of business-administrative scrutiny requirement-individual determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-administrative scrutiny requirement-individual determinations. 1.414(r)-6 Section 1.414(r)-6 Internal Revenue... (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.414(r)-6 Qualified separate line of business... determined under § 1.414(r)-3) that does not satisfy any of the safe harbors in § 1.414(r)-5 for a...

  2. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-6 - Qualified separate line of business-administrative scrutiny requirement-individual determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-administrative scrutiny requirement-individual determinations. 1.414(r)-6 Section 1.414(r)-6 Internal Revenue... (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.414(r)-6 Qualified separate line of business... determined under § 1.414(r)-3) that does not satisfy any of the safe harbors in § 1.414(r)-5 for a...

  3. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-6 - Qualified separate line of business-administrative scrutiny requirement-individual determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-administrative scrutiny requirement-individual determinations. 1.414(r)-6 Section 1.414(r)-6 Internal Revenue... (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.414(r)-6 Qualified separate line of business... determined under § 1.414(r)-3) that does not satisfy any of the safe harbors in § 1.414(r)-5 for a...

  4. Business, Babies & the Bottom Line: Corporate Innovations and Best Practices in Maternal and Child Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Miriam; Kolarek, Mary Hebert; Newton, Bonnie

    This publication presents the efforts and results of leading large employers to improve the health of mothers and children. Section 1 profiles the pioneering efforts and innovative practices of seven large employers and one business group: Haggar Clothing Co.; Honeywell Inc.; Los Angeles Department of Water and Power; Monfort, Inc.; First Chicago…

  5. A Vice-President from the Business World Brings a New Bottom Line to Penn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Werf, Martin

    1999-01-01

    The executive vice-president of the University of Pennsylvania is credited with making significant changes in both the administration and the campus, using cost-cutting and change strategies from his business experience. Outsourcing, training for employees who might be terminated, substantial savings and new revenue, and gentrification of…

  6. Evaluation of Commercial Probes for On-Line Electrical Conductivity Measurements during Goat Gland Milking Process

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Gema; Díaz, Jose Ramon; Sabater, Jose Maria; Perez, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of the milk electrical conductivity (EC) during mechanical milking has been widely studied for mastitis detection on cows because its improving of welfare and animal health, although research about small ruminants is scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of three commercial conductimeters to be used during mechanical milking of small ruminant halves, especially Murciano-Granadina goats. The objective of this research was to integrate the probes on the milking unit and to check the suitability of the probe selected. The results presented in this research have guided authors to discard the commercial probes and to establish the requirements of a new probe design that is briefly outlined in the conclusions of this contribution. PMID:22666042

  7. Evaluation of commercial probes for on-line electrical conductivity measurements during goat gland milking process.

    PubMed

    Romero, Gema; Díaz, Jose Ramon; Sabater, Jose Maria; Perez, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of the milk electrical conductivity (EC) during mechanical milking has been widely studied for mastitis detection on cows because its improving of welfare and animal health, although research about small ruminants is scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of three commercial conductimeters to be used during mechanical milking of small ruminant halves, especially Murciano-Granadina goats. The objective of this research was to integrate the probes on the milking unit and to check the suitability of the probe selected. The results presented in this research have guided authors to discard the commercial probes and to establish the requirements of a new probe design that is briefly outlined in the conclusions of this contribution.

  8. Trauma and its aftermath for commercially sexually exploited women as told by front-line service providers.

    PubMed

    Hom, Kristin A; Woods, Stephanie J

    2013-02-01

    Commercial sexual exploitation of women and girls through forced prostitution and sex-trafficking is a human rights and public health issue, with survivors facing complex mental health problems from trauma and violence. An international and domestic problem, the average age of recruitment into sex-trafficking is between 11 and 14 years old. Given its secrecy and brutality, such exploitation remains difficult to study, which results in a lack of knowledge related to trauma and how best to develop specific services that effectively engage and meet the unique needs of survivors. This qualitative research, using thematic analysis, explored the stories of trauma and its aftermath for commercially sexually exploited women as told by front-line service providers. Three themes emerged regarding the experience of sex-trafficking and its outcomes-Pimp Enculturation, Aftermath, and Healing the Wound-along with seven subthemes. These have important implications for all service and healthcare providers.

  9. The Anatomy of Program Design for an On-Line Business Management Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barger, Bonita

    2008-01-01

    How does one design an on-line course to bridge theory and practice? How can the feedback of on-going stakeholder (student and administration) be incorporated into the design process to enhance quality? This paper presents the theoretical underpinning of designing an on-line management course recognized as best practice for a "well organized…

  10. [Commercial capture with long line in the exclusive economic zone in La Guajira, Colombian Caribbean Sea].

    PubMed

    Alvarez-León, Ricardo

    2002-03-01

    Pelagic fish were collected with long line in the 20-22 degrees C isotherms from 1986 to 1988 off Guajira, Colombia. Thirteen species of pelagic fish were found including four new records: Lampris guttatus, Lepidocybium flavobrunneum, Tetrapturus pfluegeri, Eumegistius brevorti. The occurrence of the orca (Orcinus orca Linnaeus) is confirmed in the Colombian Caribbean waters. PMID:12298249

  11. On-line analysis of stack gas composition by commercial FTIR gas analyzer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaakkola, Petri; Vahlman, Tuula; Saarinen, Pekka; Kauppinen, Jyrki K.

    1994-01-01

    Stack gases of wood and oil burning boilers operating at Technical Research Centre of Finland were analyzed by a commercial FTIR-Gas Analyzer System. Concentrations of CO2, CO, NO, NO2, N2O, HCN, NH3, SO2, HCl, CH4, and H2O were monitored in real time by multicomponent analysis software of the Gas Analyzer System. Detection limits for different components varied from sub-ppms to few ppms using 8 cm-1 spectral resolution and 20 second measurement time. Analysis of calibration gases showed a high degree of accuracy and repeatability of the measurement method.

  12. An Attempt at Quantifying Factors that Affect Efficiency in the Management of Solid Waste Produced by Commercial Businesses in the City of Tshwane, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Worku, Yohannes; Muchie, Mammo

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The objective was to investigate factors that affect the efficient management of solid waste produced by commercial businesses operating in the city of Pretoria, South Africa. Methods. Data was gathered from 1,034 businesses. Efficiency in solid waste management was assessed by using a structural time-based model designed for evaluating efficiency as a function of the length of time required to manage waste. Data analysis was performed using statistical procedures such as frequency tables, Pearson's chi-square tests of association, and binary logistic regression analysis. Odds ratios estimated from logistic regression analysis were used for identifying key factors that affect efficiency in the proper disposal of waste. Results. The study showed that 857 of the 1,034 businesses selected for the study (83%) were found to be efficient enough with regards to the proper collection and disposal of solid waste. Based on odds ratios estimated from binary logistic regression analysis, efficiency in the proper management of solid waste was significantly influenced by 4 predictor variables. These 4 influential predictor variables are lack of adherence to waste management regulations, wrong perception, failure to provide customers with enough trash cans, and operation of businesses by employed managers, in a decreasing order of importance. PMID:23209483

  13. Evaluation of 3 Commercially Available, On-Line TOC Analyzers for Monitoring Recycled Water in Semiconductor Processing

    SciTech Connect

    DeGenova, J.; Donovan, R.P.; Morrison, D.

    1998-11-09

    Rapid detection of excursions in the concentration of organic contaminants in water that is being recycled is crucial to the more widespread acceptance of rinse water recycling as a method of reducing water usage in semiconductor manufacturing. In 1995 SEMATECH'SS116 PTAB (Project Technical Advisory Board) arbitrarily targeted a response time of 30s as the goal for the on-line detection of TOC (Total Oxidizable Carbon) in water - a goal thought to simpliilj the design of water recycling systems (less volume required for water storage in the recycle loop) and lead to more widespread adoption of recycling of spent rinse waters by the US semiconductor industry. A subsequent evaluation of the TOC analyzers commercially available in early 1996 demonstrated that the fastest response times were on the order of three minutes ljllef. 1]. This paper updates the 1996 evaluation of commercially available TOC analyzers by assessing modified versions of two of the previously evaluated analyzers and also anew analyzer that became commercially available in 1997.

  14. Genetic parameters of meat technological quality traits in a grand-parental commercial line of turkey.

    PubMed

    Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth; Berri, Cécile; Baéza, Elisabeth; Santé, Véronique; Astruc, Thierry; Rémignon, Hervé; Le Pottier, Gilles; Bentley, James; Beaumont, Catherine; Fernandez, Xavier

    2003-01-01

    Genetic parameters for meat quality traits and their relationships with body weight and breast development were estimated for a total of 420 male turkeys using REML. The birds were slaughtered in a commercial plant and the traits measured included pH at 20 min (pH20) and 24 h post-mortem (pHu) and colour of the breast and thigh meat. The heritabilities of the rate and the extent of the pH fall in the breast muscle were estimated at h2=0.21 +/- 0.04 and h2=0.16 +/- 0.04, respectively. Heritabilities ranging from 0.10 to 0.32 were obtained for the colour indicators in the breast muscle. A marked negative genetic correlation (rg=-0.80 +/- 0.10) was found between pH20 and lightness (L*) of breast meat, both traits corresponding to PSE indicators. The pH20 in the thigh muscle had a moderate heritability (h2=0.20 +/- 0.07) and was partially genetically related to pH20 in the breast muscle (rg=0.45 +/- 0.17). Body weight and breast yield were positively correlated with both initial and ultimate pH and negatively with the lightness of breast meat.

  15. Information Gathering: The Information Behaviors of Line-Managers within a Business Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackenzie, Maureen L.

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of managers' information needs focuses on a study that examined information gathering behaviors of line-managers and compared their information behaviors to non-managers within the same environment. Suggests that managers tend to seek and accumulate information for which they have no explicit or known need. (Author/LRW)

  16. Commercial Funding in Academe: Examining the Correlates of Faculty's Use of Industrial and Business Funding for Academic Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szelenyi, Katalin; Goldberg, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the demographic, academic, attitudinal, and institutional correlates of receiving industry or business funding for academic work in a national sample of faculty in the United States. The findings depict a complicated picture of externally funded academic work, with implications for the practical and theoretical understanding of…

  17. Performance of commercial reverse line blot assays for human papillomavirus genotyping.

    PubMed

    Steinau, Martin; Onyekwuluje, Juanita M; Scarbrough, Mariela Z; Unger, Elizabeth R; Dillner, Joakim; Zhou, Tiequn

    2012-05-01

    The performance of three line blot assays (LBAs), the Linear Array HPV genotyping assay (LA) (Roche Diagnostics), INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Extra (LiPA) (Innogenetics), and the reverse hybridization assay (RH) (Qiagen), was evaluated using quantitated whole genomic human papillomavirus (HPV) plasmids (types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, and 68b) as well as epidemiologic samples. In a plasmid titration series, LiPA and RH did not detect 50 international units (IU) of HPV type 18 (HPV18) in the presence of 5 × 10(4) IU or more of HPV16. HPV DNA (1 to 6 types) in the plasmid challenges at 50 IU or genome equivalents (GE) were identified with an accuracy of 99.9% by LA, 97.3% by LiPA, and 95.4% by RH, with positive reproducibility of 99.8% (kappa = 0.992), 88.2% (kappa = 0.928), and 88.1% (kappa = 0.926), respectively. Two instances of mistyping occurred with LiPA. Of the 120 epidemiologic samples, 76 were positive for high-risk types by LA, 90 by LiPA, and 69 by RH, with a positive reproducibility of 87.3% (kappa = 0.925), 83.9% (kappa = 0.899), and 90.2% (kappa = 0.942), respectively. Although the assays had good concordance in the clinical samples, the greater accuracy and specificity in the plasmid panel suggest that LA has an advantage for internationally comparable genotyping studies.

  18. Performance of a web-based, realtime, tele-ultrasound consultation system over high-speed commercial telecommunication lines.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Sun K; Kim, D K; Jung, S M; Kim, E-K; Lim, J S; Kim, J H

    2004-01-01

    A Web-based, realtime, tele-ultrasound consultation system was designed. The system employed ActiveX control, MPEG-4 coding of full-resolution ultrasound video (640 x 480 pixels at 30 frames/s) and H.320 videoconferencing. It could be used via a Web browser. The system was evaluated over three types of commercial line: a cable connection, ADSL and VDSL. Three radiologists assessed the quality of compressed and uncompressed ultrasound video-sequences from 16 cases (10 abnormal livers, four abnormal kidneys and two abnormal gallbladders). The radiologists' scores showed that, at a given frame rate, increasing the bit rate was associated with increasing quality; however, at a certain threshold bit rate the quality did not increase significantly. The peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) was also measured between the compressed and uncompressed images. In most cases, the PSNR increased as the bit rate increased, and increased as the number of dropped frames increased. There was a threshold bit rate, at a given frame rate, at which the PSNR did not improve significantly. Taking into account both sets of threshold values, a bit rate of more than 0.6 Mbit/s, at 30 frames/s, is suggested as the threshold for the maintenance of diagnostic image quality.

  19. Exploring Differences in Preference for On-Line versus Traditional Classroom Delivery of a Freshmen Introduction to Global Business Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Mark; Guy, Paul; Straus, Peter; Levine, H. T.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigates whether pre-business students, after having completed a traditional in class freshmen introduction to global business course, express a difference in preference for such a course to be delivered online versus classroom or no preference at all. The study further explores whether four variables: 1) number of units of…

  20. 78 FR 48537 - Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Programs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... ADMINISTRATION Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Programs... Administration (SBA) is publishing the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) program Commercialization Benchmark for the 11 participating agencies for public...

  1. Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mires, Peter B.

    2006-01-01

    National Geography Standards for the middle school years generally stress the teaching of latitude and longitude. There are many creative ways to explain the great grid that encircles our planet, but the author has found that students in his college-level geography courses especially enjoy human-interest stories associated with lines of latitude…

  2. The Introgression of RNAi Silencing of γ-Gliadins into Commercial Lines of Bread Wheat Changes the Mixing and Technological Properties of the Dough

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Humanes, Javier; Pistón, Fernando; Giménez, María J.; Martín, Antonio; Barro, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    In the present work the effects on dough quality by the down-regulation of γ-gliadins in different genetic backgrounds of bread wheat were investigated. RNAi-mediated silencing of γ-gliadins was introgressed by conventional crossing into three commercial bread wheat lines (namely ‘Gazul’, ‘Podenco’ and ‘Arpain’), and along with the transgenic line A1152 (cv. Bobwhite) compared with their respective wild types. The protein fractions were quantified by RP-HPLC, whereas the technological and mixing properties were assessed by SDSS test and by the Mixograph instrument. Principal component analysis (PCA) was carried out for both the wild types and the transgenic lines, showing differences in the factors affecting the technological and mixing properties of the dough as a consequence of the reduction of the γ-gliadins. In transgenic lines, the α- and ω-gliadins, and total gliadins negatively affected the dough strength and tolerance to over-mixing, whereas the L/H ratio showed the opposite effect, positively influencing the dough quality. The increase of the SDSS volume in the transgenic lines of ‘Gazul’, ‘Podenco’ and ‘Arpain’ indicates increased gluten strength and quality respect to the wild types. SDSS volume was found to be positively influenced by the amount of glutenins, which were also increased in the transgenic lines. In addition, a positive effect was observed in the MT, PR1 and RBD in some of the transgenic lines of ‘Podenco’ and ‘Arpain’. In conclusion, the down-regulation of γ-gliadins resulted in stronger doughs and a better tolerance to over-mixing in some transgenic lines. Although the reduction of γ-gliadins seems not to have a direct effect on the mixing and bread-making properties, the compensatory effect on the synthesis of the other prolamins may result in stronger doughs with improved over-mixing resistance. PMID:23029328

  3. Commercial Fishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document is a curriculum framework for a program in commercial fishing to be taught in Florida secondary and postsecondary institutions. This outline covers the major concepts/content of the program, which is designed to prepare students for employment in occupations with titles such as net fishers, pot fishers, line fishers, shrimp boat…

  4. How ISO/IEC 17799 can be used for base lining information assurance among entities using data mining for defense, homeland security, commercial, and other civilian/commercial domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, William G.

    2006-04-01

    One goal of database mining is to draw unique and valid perspectives from multiple data sources. Insights that are fashioned from closely-held data stores are likely to possess a high degree of reliability. The degree of information assurance comes into question, however, when external databases are accessed, combined and analyzed to form new perspectives. ISO/IEC 17799, Information technology-Security techniques-Code of practice for information security management, can be used to establish a higher level of information assurance among disparate entities using data mining in the defense, homeland security, commercial and other civilian/commercial domains. Organizations that meet ISO/IEC information security standards have identified and assessed risks, threats and vulnerabilities and have taken significant proactive steps to meet their unique security requirements. The ISO standards address twelve domains: risk assessment and treatment, security policy, organization of information security, asset management, human resources security, physical and environmental security, communications and operations management, access control, information systems acquisition, development and maintenance, information security incident management and business continuity management and compliance. Analysts can be relatively confident that if organizations are ISO 17799 compliant, a high degree of information assurance is likely to be a characteristic of the data sets being used. The reverse may be true. Extracting, fusing and drawing conclusions based upon databases with a low degree of information assurance may be wrought with all of the hazards that come from knowingly using bad data to make decisions. Using ISO/IEC 17799 as a baseline for information assurance can help mitigate these risks.

  5. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of commercially elite rice restorer line using nptII gene as a plant selection marker.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, M; Sairam Reddy, P; Laxmi Narasu, M; Krishna, Gaurav; Rana, Debashis

    2016-01-01

    Transformation of commercially important indica cultivars remains challenging for the scientific community even though Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocols for a few indica rice lines have been well established. We report successful transformation of a commercially important restorer line JK1044R of indica rice hybrid JKRH 401. While following existing protocol, we optimized several parameters for callusing, regeneration and genetic transformation of JK1044R. Calli generated from the rice scutellum tissue were used for transformation by Agrobacterium harboring pCAMBIA2201. A novel two tire selection scheme comprising of Geneticin (G418) and Paramomycin were deployed for selection of transgenic calli as well as regenerated plantlets that expressed neomycin phosphotransferase-II gene encoded by the vector. One specific combination of G418 (30 mg l(-1)) and Paramomycin (70 mg l(-1)) was very effective for calli selection. Transformed and selected calli were detected by monitoring the expression of the reporter gene uidA (GUS). Regenerated plantlets were confirmed through PCR analysis of nptII and gus genes specific primers as well as dot blot using gus gene specific as probe. PMID:27186018

  6. My Car Is a Lemon! Use of the Better Business Bureau's Auto Line[R] Program as a Pedagogical Model of ADR

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steslow, Donna M.

    2010-01-01

    Alternative dispute resolution (ADR) is normally included as part of an introductory business law/legal environment course. While some business schools offer stand-alone ADR courses, the majority do not. As a result, a business student's only exposure to ADR processes may be through a Legal Studies in Business course. Several scholars have created…

  7. Lunar Commercialization Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation describes the goals and rules of the workshop on Lunar Commercialization. The goal of the workshop is to explore the viability of using public-private partnerships to open the new space frontier. The bulk of the workshop was a team competition to create a innovative business plan for the commercialization of the moon. The public private partnership concept is reviewed, and the open architecture as an infrastructure for potential external cooperation. Some possible lunar commercialization elements are reviewed.

  8. Genetic characterization of Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus), Thai indigenous chicken (Gallus domesticus), and two commercial lines using selective functional genes compared to microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Akaboot, P; Duangjinda, M; Phasuk, Y; Kaenchan, C; Chinchiyanond, W

    2012-01-01

    Genetic characterization among Red Junglefowl (GS, Gallus gallus spadiceus), Thai indigenous chicken (TIC, Gallus domesticus) and commercial lines has been widely used for studies of genealogical origin, genetic diversity, and effects of selection. We compared the efficiency of genetic characterization of chicken populations that had been under different intensities of selection using selective functional gene versus microsatellite marker analyses. We genotyped 151 chickens from five populations: Red Junglefowl, TIC and commercial lines (BR, broiler and WL, White Leghorn). Genetic structure analyses using six loci of five functional genes - corresponding to heat tolerance (heat shock protein 70, HSP70/C, HSP70/M), broodiness (vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor-1, VIPR-1), egg production-[24-bp indel (insertion or deletion) prolactin, 24bpPRL], ovulation rate (growth hormone receptor, GHR), and growth (insulin-like growth factor-1, IGF-1) - were compared with 18 microsatellite markers. PCR-RFLP and allele specific PCR were used for functional gene typing. A neighbor-joining tree from Nei's genetic distance was constructed to show genetic relationships. A similar pattern was found with both functional genes and microsatellites. Three groups consisting of BR, WL and TIC-GS-GG were formed. A principal component plot based on individual similarity using Dice's coefficient was also constructed to confirm the relationship. Different patterns were found when using functional genes versus microsatellites. A principal component plot with functional genes also gave three clusters consisting of BR, WL and TIC-GS-GG. A principal component plot using microsatellites gave four clusters, consisting of WL, GG, TIC, and BR-GS. Characterization of BR and GS differs from previous studies. We concluded that genetic characterization with appropriate functional genes is more accurate when differences in genetic make-up among populations are known. Genetic characterization using

  9. From Commercial Schools to Corporate Universities: Explaining the Shift in Proprietary Business Education in the U.S., 1970-1990

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bañuelos, Nidia I.

    2016-01-01

    This study used archival sources to examine the factors that encouraged for-profit business education to shift during the 1970s from small, certificate programs for bookkeepers and secretaries to large, multisite universities for mid-level managers. Using data from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, as well as trend data from the Bureau of Labor…

  10. Genotoxic, mutagenic and cytotoxic effects of the commercial dye CI Disperse Blue 291 in the human hepatic cell line HepG2.

    PubMed

    Tsuboy, M S; Angeli, J P F; Mantovani, M S; Knasmüller, S; Umbuzeiro, G A; Ribeiro, L R

    2007-12-01

    Textile dyes are discarded into the aquatic ecosystem via industrial effluents and potentially expose humans and local biota to adverse effects. The commercial dye CI Disperse Blue 291 which contains the aminoazobenzene 2-[(2-bromo-4,6-dinitrophenyl)azo]-5(diethylamino)-4-methoxyacetanilide (CAS registry no. 56548-64-2), was tested for genotoxicity and cytotoxicity in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2, using the comet assay, micronucleus (MN) test and a cell viability test. Five different concentrations of the test compound were examined: 200 microg/ml, 400 microg/ml, 600 microg/ml, 800 microg/ml and 1000 microg/ml. An increase in comet tail length and in the frequency of MN was detected with exposure of cells to concentrations of the commercial dye from 400 microg/ml. Furthermore, the dye was found to decrease cell viability. The results of this study demonstrate for the first time the genotoxic and mutagenic effects of the dye CI Disperse Blue 291 in mammalian cells, thus stressing the need to develop non-mutagenic dyes and to invest in improving the treatment of effluents. These measures will help to prevent harmful effects that these compounds can have on humans and aquatic organisms that come in contact with them.

  11. Changes in microbial contamination levels of porcine carcasses and fresh pork in slaughterhouses, processing lines, retail outlets, and local markets by commercial distribution.

    PubMed

    Choi, Y M; Park, H J; Jang, H I; Kim, S A; Imm, J Y; Hwang, I G; Rhee, M S

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the changes in microbial contamination levels of each porcine carcass and fresh pork in a general distribution process. A total of 100 commercial pigs were sampled (six sampling sites per individual, total 600 samples) at four sequential stages: slaughterhouse (after carcass grading and boning), processing line, retail outlet, and local market. No significant differences were observed in the contaminant percentages among sampling sites and sample collection years (P>0.05) with the exception of Bacillus cereus. The contaminant percentage of B. cereus at 1st collection year was higher than these of 2nd collection year (28.31% vs. 12.26%, P<0.05). B. cereus and Listeria monocytogenes were the most frequently detected pathogenic bacteria in the slaughterhouse and markets, respectively. On the other hand, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Yersinia enterocolitica were not detected in carcasses or pork collected from any carcass sites and pork samples. However, the frequency of pathogenic bacteria in end-products at local markets was not highly related to the initial contamination of porcine carcasses in the slaughterhouse. Thus, the improvement of microbial safety for pork end-products requires hygienic control of porcine carcasses and meat cutting during all operations in the slaughterhouse, processing line, retail outlet, and local market.

  12. Relative disease susceptibility and clostridial toxin antibody responses in three commercial broiler lines coinfected with Clostridium perfringens and Eimeria maxima using an experimental model of necrotic enteritis.

    PubMed

    Jang, Seung I; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Lee, Sung-Hyen; Lee, Kyung Woo; Lillehoj, Erik P; Hong, Yeong Ho; An, Dong-Jun; Jeoung, D Hye-Young; Chun, Ji-Eun

    2013-09-01

    Necrotic enteritis is an enteric disease of poultry resulting from infection by Clostridium perfringens with coinfection by Eimeria spp. constituting a major risk factor for disease pathogenesis. This study compared three commercial broiler chicken lines using an experimental model of necrotic enteritis. Day-old male Cobb, Ross, and Hubbard broilers were orally infected with viable C. perfringens and E. maxima and fed a high-protein diet to promote the development of experimental disease. Body weight loss, intestinal lesions, and serum antibody levels against alpha-toxin and necrotic enteritis B-like (NetB) toxin were measured as parameters of disease susceptibility and host immune response. Cobb chickens exhibited increased body weight loss compared with Ross and Hubbard breeds and greater gut lesion severity compared with Ross chickens. NetB antibody levels were greater in Cobb chickens compared with the Ross or Hubbard groups. These results suggest that Cobb chickens may be more susceptible to necrotic enteritis in the field compared with the Ross and Hubbard lines.

  13. Efficacy of commercial produce sanitizers against nontoxigenic Escherichia coli O157:H7 during processing of iceberg lettuce in a pilot-scale leafy green processing line.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Gordon R; Buchholz, Annemarie L; Ryser, Elliot T

    2013-11-01

    Chemical sanitizers are routinely used during commercial flume washing of fresh-cut leafy greens to minimize cross-contamination from the water. This study assessed the efficacy of five commercial sanitizer treatments against Escherichia coli O157:H7 on iceberg lettuce, in wash water, and on equipment during simulated commercial production in a pilot-scale processing line. Iceberg lettuce (5.4 kg) was inoculated to contain 10(6) CFU/g of a four-strain cocktail of nontoxigenic, green fluorescent protein-labeled, ampicillin-resistant E. coli O157:H7 and processed after 1 h of draining at ~22 °C. Lettuce was shredded using a commercial slicer, step-conveyed to a flume tank, washed for 90 s using six different treatments (water alone, 50 ppm of peroxyacetic acid, 50 ppm of mixed peracid, or 50 ppm of available chlorine either alone or acidified to pH 6.5 with citric acid [CA] or T-128), and then dried using a shaker table and centrifugal dryer. Various product (25-g) and water (50-ml) samples collected during processing along with equipment surface samples (100 cm(2)) from the flume tank, shaker table, and centrifugal dryer were homogenized in neutralizing buffer and plated on tryptic soy agar. During and after iceberg lettuce processing, none of the sanitizers were significantly more effective (P ≤ 0.05) than water alone at reducing E. coli O157:H7 populations on lettuce, with reductions ranging from 0.75 to 1.4 log CFU/g. Regardless of the sanitizer treatment used, the centrifugal dryer surfaces yielded E. coli O157:H7 populations of 3.49 to 4.98 log CFU/100 cm(2). Chlorine, chlorine plus CA, and chlorine plus T-128 were generally more effective (P ≤ 0.05) than the other treatments, with reductions of 3.79, 5.47, and 5.37 log CFU/ml after 90 s of processing, respectively. This indicates that chlorine-based sanitizers will likely prevent wash water containing low organic loads from becoming a vehicle for cross-contamination.

  14. Commercial Engineering. Report of a Conference on Business Training for Engineers and Engineering Training for Students of Business Held in Washington, D. C., June 23-24, 1919. Bulletin, 1919, No. 58

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swiggett, Glen Levin

    1920-01-01

    The Commissioner of Education authorized the specialist in charge of commercial education of the Bureau of Education to confer with a small group of administrative professors in engineering and commerce for the purpose of discussing ways and means whereby a larger number of students in engineering and commerce might be prepared better for…

  15. Uterine fluid proteins and egg quality characteristics for 2 commercial and 2 heritage laying hen lines in response to manipulation of dietary calcium and vitamin D3.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Ravinder; Rathgeber, Bruce M; Thompson, Kristen L; Macisaac, Janice

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of eggs from 2 selected commercial strains of laying hens and 2 unselected lines of chickens fed diets with different combinations of Ca and vitamin D and relate it to the profile of uterine proteins and ultrastructure of the shell. A group of 4 chickens was housed in each of 24 cages. The group consisted of one representative from each of the following breeds: Lohmann LSL- Lite, Lohmann Classic-Brown, Fayoumi, and Light Sussex. Six dietary combinations of Ca and vitamin D(3) (3.35%, 2,500 IU; 4.10%, 2,500 IU (control); 4.85%, 2,500 IU; 3.35%, 200 IU; 4.10%, 200 IU; and 4.85%, 200 IU) were randomly assigned to 4 replicate cages for 2 treatment periods (26-29 and 56-59 wk of age). Data were analyzed as a split-plot design with cage as the main plot and hen as the subplot. Egg quality traits were different (P < 0.0001) between commercial and heritage breeds. Lohmann Brown had stronger shells with higher specific gravity compared with other breeds. Both commercial and heritage birds responded to a drop in vitamin D3 level by marked reduction in shell thickness. The SDS-PAGE profiles of uterine fluid samples revealed a decrease (P < 0.05) in 200-, 150-, 116-, and ≤6.5-kDa proteins, whereas proteins with molecular weight (MW) of 80, 55, 52, 45, 42, and 28 kDa increased with bird age. A 36- and 52-kDa protein band was most intense for Fayoumi compared with other breeds. Ultrastructural characteristics showed flattened and deeply etched mammillary caps for Lohmann Brown and the presence of type A and type B bodies between mammillary cones in eggshells from Fayoumi and Lohmann Lite. The negative correlation between ultrastructural characteristics, which decrease with bird age, and the 116-kDa uterine protein band could provide insight into reduced eggshell quality as hens age. PMID:23960126

  16. Commercialization of opportunities for materials processing in low gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. S.; Nixon, S. R.

    1983-01-01

    Business infrastructure required to achieve commercial MPS, incentives and disincentives for MPS, NASA/industry working agreements, small business innovation, NASA/industry agreements, joint venture agreements, and commercial spinoffs are addressed.

  17. Modification of a commercial gas chromatography isotope ratio mass spectrometer for on-line carbon isotope dilution: Evaluation of its analytical characteristics for the quantification of organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Alonso Sobrado, Laura; Robledo Fernández, Mario; Cueto Díaz, Sergio; Ruiz Encinar, Jorge; García Alonso, J Ignacio

    2015-11-01

    We describe the instrumental modification of a commercial gas chromatography isotope ratio mass spectrometer (GC-IRMS) and its application for on-line carbon isotope dilution. The main modification consisted in the addition of a constant flow of enriched (13)CO2 diluted in helium after the chromatographic column through the splitter holder located inside the chromatographic oven of the instrument. In addition, and in contrast to the conventional mode of operation of GC-IRMS instruments where the signal at m/z 45 is amplified 100-fold with respect to the signal at m/z 44, the same signal amplification was used in both Faraday cups at m/z 44 and 45. Under these conditions isotope ratio precision for the ratio 44/45 was around 0.05% RSD (n=50). The evaluation of the instrument was performed with mixtures of organic compounds including 11 n-alkanes, 16 PAHs, 12 PCBs and 3 benzothiophenes. It was observed that compounds of very different boiling points could be analysed without discrimination in the injector when a Programmable Temperature Vaporizer (PTV) injector was employed. Moreover, the presence of heteroatoms (Cl or S) in the structure of the organic compounds did not affect their combustion efficiency and therefore the trueness of the results. Quantitative results obtained for all the analytes assayed were excellent in terms of precision (<3% RSD) and accuracy (average relative error≤4%) and what is more important using a single and simple generic internal standard for quantification. PMID:26435309

  18. 18 CFR 1301.8 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Business information... Freedom of Information Act § 1301.8 Business information. (a) In general. Business information obtained by... purposes of this section: (1) Business information means commercial or financial information obtained...

  19. 5 CFR 1820.8 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Business information. 1820.8 Section 1820... OF RECORDS OR TESTIMONY § 1820.8 Business information. (a) In general. Business information obtained.... For purposes of this section: (1) “Business information” means commercial or financial...

  20. 49 CFR 701.9 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Business information. 701.9 Section 701.9... (AMTRAK) AMTRAK FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 701.9 Business information. (a) General. Business... purposes of this section, the following definitions apply: (1) Business information means commercial...

  1. 18 CFR 1301.8 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Business information... Freedom of Information Act § 1301.8 Business information. (a) In general. Business information obtained by... purposes of this section: (1) Business information means commercial or financial information obtained...

  2. 49 CFR 701.9 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Business information. 701.9 Section 701.9... (AMTRAK) AMTRAK FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 701.9 Business information. (a) General. Business... purposes of this section, the following definitions apply: (1) Business information means commercial...

  3. 18 CFR 1301.8 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Business information... Freedom of Information Act § 1301.8 Business information. (a) In general. Business information obtained by... purposes of this section: (1) Business information means commercial or financial information obtained...

  4. 15 CFR 4.9 - Business Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Business Information. 4.9 Section 4.9... of Information Act § 4.9 Business Information. (a) In general. Business information obtained by the... the purposes of this section: (1) Business information means commercial or financial...

  5. 15 CFR 4.9 - Business Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Business Information. 4.9 Section 4.9... of Information Act § 4.9 Business Information. (a) In general. Business information obtained by the... the purposes of this section: (1) Business information means commercial or financial...

  6. 18 CFR 1301.8 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Business information... Freedom of Information Act § 1301.8 Business information. (a) In general. Business information obtained by... purposes of this section: (1) Business information means commercial or financial information obtained...

  7. 5 CFR 1820.8 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Business information. 1820.8 Section 1820... OF RECORDS OR TESTIMONY § 1820.8 Business information. (a) In general. Business information obtained.... For purposes of this section: (1) “Business information” means commercial or financial...

  8. 49 CFR 701.9 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Business information. 701.9 Section 701.9... (AMTRAK) AMTRAK FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 701.9 Business information. (a) General. Business... purposes of this section, the following definitions apply: (1) Business information means commercial...

  9. 5 CFR 1820.8 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Business information. 1820.8 Section 1820... OF RECORDS OR TESTIMONY § 1820.8 Business information. (a) In general. Business information obtained.... For purposes of this section: (1) “Business information” means commercial or financial...

  10. 49 CFR 701.9 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Business information. 701.9 Section 701.9... (AMTRAK) AMTRAK FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 701.9 Business information. (a) General. Business... purposes of this section, the following definitions apply: (1) Business information means commercial...

  11. 18 CFR 1301.8 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Business information... Freedom of Information Act § 1301.8 Business information. (a) In general. Business information obtained by... purposes of this section: (1) Business information means commercial or financial information obtained...

  12. 15 CFR 4.9 - Business Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Business Information. 4.9 Section 4.9... of Information Act § 4.9 Business Information. (a) In general. Business information obtained by the... the purposes of this section: (1) Business information means commercial or financial...

  13. 5 CFR 1820.8 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Business information. 1820.8 Section 1820... OF RECORDS OR TESTIMONY § 1820.8 Business information. (a) In general. Business information obtained.... For purposes of this section: (1) “Business information” means commercial or financial...

  14. 15 CFR 4.9 - Business Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Business Information. 4.9 Section 4.9... of Information Act § 4.9 Business Information. (a) In general. Business information obtained by the... the purposes of this section: (1) Business information means commercial or financial...

  15. Commercialization Assistance Program (CAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Jenny C. Servo, Ph.D.

    2004-07-12

    In order to fulfill the objective of Small Business Innovation Research Program (SBIR), the Department of Energy funds an initiative referred to as the Commercialization Assistance Program (CAP). The over-arching purpose of the CAP is to facilitate transition of the SBIR-funded technology to Phase III defined as private sector investment or receipt of non-sbir dollars to further the commercialization of the technology. Phase III also includes increased sales. This report summarizes the stages involved in the implementation of the Commercialization Assistance Program, a program which has been most successful in fulfilling its objectives.

  16. Business Continuity Planning Resources for Small- and Medium-Sized Businesses

    SciTech Connect

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Lesperance, Ann M.

    2010-05-14

    This document/memo summarizes existing resources and guidance on business continuity planning for small- to medium-sized businesses. DTRA will share this information with large commercial businesses who identified the need to help their suppliers and other key collaborators prepare business continuity plans in order to speed recovery from a wide-area bioterrorism incident.

  17. Commercial Hy-Line W-36 pullet and laying hen venous blood gas and chemistry profiles utilizing the portable i-STAT®1 analyzer

    PubMed Central

    Schaal, T. P.; Arango, J.; Wolc, A.; Brady, J. V.; Fulton, J. E.; Rubinoff, I.; Ehr, I. J.; Persia, M. E.; O'Sullivan, N. P.

    2015-01-01

    Venous blood gas and chemistry reference ranges were determined for commercial Hy-Line W-36 pullets and laying hens utilizing the portable i-STAT®1 analyzer and CG8+ cartridges. A total of 632 samples were analyzed from birds between 4 and 110 wk of age. Reference ranges were established for pullets (4 to 15 wk), first cycle laying hens (20 to 68 wk), and second cycle (post molt) laying hens (70 to 110 wk) for the following traits: sodium (Na mmol/L), potassium (K mmol/L), ionized calcium (iCa mmol/L), glucose (Glu mg/dl), hematocrit (Hct% Packed Cell Volume [PCV]), pH, partial pressure carbon dioxide (PCO2 mm Hg), partial pressure oxygen (PO2 mm Hg), total concentration carbon dioxide (TCO2 mmol/L), bicarbonate (HCO3 mmol/L), base excess (BE mmol/L), oxygen saturation (sO2%), and hemoglobin (Hb g/dl). Data were analyzed using ANOVA to investigate the effect of production status as categorized by bird age. Trait relationships were evaluated by linear correlation and their spectral decomposition. All traits differed significantly among pullets and mature laying hens in both first and second lay cycles. Levels for K, iCa, Hct, pH, TCO2, HCO3, BE, sO2, and Hb differed significantly between first cycle and second cycle laying hens. Many venous blood gas and chemistry parameters were significantly correlated. The first 3 eigenvalues explained ∼2/3 of total variation. The first 2 principal components (PC) explained 51% of the total variation and indicated acid-balance and relationship between blood O2 and CO2. The third PC explained 16% of variation and seems to be related to blood iCa. Establishing reference ranges for pullet and laying hen blood gas and chemistry with the i-STAT®1 handheld unit provides a mechanism to further investigate pullet and layer physiology, evaluate metabolic disturbances, and may potentially serve as a means to select breeder candidates with optimal blood gas or chemistry levels on-farm. PMID:26706355

  18. The Commercial Course: Defense et Illustration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scavillo, Anthony

    The development of commercial foreign language courses by colleges and universities would help to satisfy the need for language enrollments and the expressed need of the international business community for foreign language skills in American business employees. Three major problems inhibit commercial language course development: limited…

  19. CIMFUELS: Commercial practice--tools vs. solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Latour, P.R.

    1997-03-01

    Continuing the them of CIMFUELS` recent editorials on good management practice, the nature of commercial offerings and practices between CIM providers and their fuel and petrochemical operating company customers and clients also warrants discussion. The commercial practices of the CIMFUELS business in this unstructured, fast changing, high technology global business has suffered unduly from inadequate distinction between tools and solutions.

  20. 32 CFR 37.1250 - Commercial firm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1250 Commercial firm. A for-profit firm or segment of a for-profit firm (e.g., a division or other business unit) that does a substantial portion of its business in the commercial marketplace....

  1. Getting smarter about commercialization opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, Pamela; McMakin, Andrea H.; Arnold, Todd

    2005-08-31

    The Disruptive Market Research method, pioneered by Dr. Pam Henderson of Meridian Strategies, helps technology developers make better commercialization decisions and find industry parters. More than 120 entrepreneurial organizations, ranging from the U.S. Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to Fortune 500 firms, have used the method to evaluate the commercial potential of new products and to shape business strategies.

  2. Commercialization Assistance Program

    SciTech Connect

    Jenny C Servo, Ph D

    2008-02-15

    The Commercialization Assistance Program (CAP) is offered to Phase II awardees of the Department of Energy's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) programs. The purpose of this program is to increase both the likelihood and speed of technology transition to Phase III of technologies which DOE has funded. This program has been offered to DOE SBIR firms since 1990 and has resulted in significant and well documented return on investment. This final report decribes the results of the CAP that was offered to participants during the last cycle.

  3. NASA commercial programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Highlights of NASA-sponsored and assisted commercial space activities of 1989 are presented. Industrial R and D in space, centers for the commercial development of space, and new cooperative agreements are addressed in the U.S. private sector in space section. In the building U.S. competitiveness through technology section, the following topics are presented: (1) technology utilization as a national priority; (2) an exploration of benefits; and (3) honoring Apollo-Era spinoffs. International and domestic R and D trends, and the space sector are discussed in the section on selected economic indicators. Other subjects included in this report are: (1) small business innovation; (2) budget highlights and trends; (3) commercial programs management; and (4) the commercial programs advisory committee.

  4. 36 CFR 1005.3 - Business operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Business operations. 1005.3 Section 1005.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.3 Business operations. Engaging in or soliciting any business in the area administered by...

  5. 36 CFR 5.3 - Business operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Business operations. 5.3 Section 5.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.3 Business operations. Engaging in or soliciting any business in...

  6. 12 CFR 13.3 - Business conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Business conduct. 13.3 Section 13.3 Banks and....3 Business conduct. A bank that is a government securities broker or dealer shall observe high standards of commercial honor and just and equitable principles of trade in the conduct of its business as...

  7. 36 CFR 1005.3 - Business operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Business operations. 1005.3 Section 1005.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.3 Business operations. Engaging in or soliciting any business in the area administered by...

  8. 12 CFR 13.3 - Business conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Business conduct. 13.3 Section 13.3 Banks and....3 Business conduct. A bank that is a government securities broker or dealer shall observe high standards of commercial honor and just and equitable principles of trade in the conduct of its business as...

  9. 12 CFR 13.3 - Business conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Business conduct. 13.3 Section 13.3 Banks and....3 Business conduct. A bank that is a government securities broker or dealer shall observe high standards of commercial honor and just and equitable principles of trade in the conduct of its business as...

  10. 36 CFR 1005.3 - Business operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Business operations. 1005.3 Section 1005.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.3 Business operations. Engaging in or soliciting any business in the area administered by...

  11. 36 CFR 1005.3 - Business operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Business operations. 1005.3 Section 1005.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.3 Business operations. Engaging in or soliciting any business in the area administered by...

  12. 36 CFR 5.3 - Business operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Business operations. 5.3 Section 5.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.3 Business operations. Engaging in or soliciting any business in...

  13. 36 CFR 5.3 - Business operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Business operations. 5.3 Section 5.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.3 Business operations. Engaging in or soliciting any business in...

  14. 36 CFR 5.3 - Business operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Business operations. 5.3 Section 5.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.3 Business operations. Engaging in or soliciting any business in...

  15. 12 CFR 13.3 - Business conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Business conduct. 13.3 Section 13.3 Banks and....3 Business conduct. A bank that is a government securities broker or dealer shall observe high standards of commercial honor and just and equitable principles of trade in the conduct of its business as...

  16. 36 CFR 1005.3 - Business operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Business operations. 1005.3 Section 1005.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.3 Business operations. Engaging in or soliciting any business in the area administered by...

  17. 12 CFR 13.3 - Business conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Business conduct. 13.3 Section 13.3 Banks and....3 Business conduct. A bank that is a government securities broker or dealer shall observe high standards of commercial honor and just and equitable principles of trade in the conduct of its business as...

  18. 36 CFR 5.3 - Business operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Business operations. 5.3 Section 5.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.3 Business operations. Engaging in or soliciting any business in...

  19. Fishy Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamee, Mike

    1988-01-01

    The IRS argues that income from alumni associations group life and medical insurance policies is business profit, not tax-exempt contributions to its member associations. The unrelated business income tax (UBIT) is described. (MLW)

  20. E-Business: The Business Officer's Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Mark A.

    2001-01-01

    Contends e-business is particularly the domain of college and university business officers, with today's officers facing an unprecedented opportunity to exercise a critical leadership role in the deployment of advanced information technology solutions on campus. Describes relevant issues and advances, and presents ten initiatives that business…

  1. Business Classroom and Laboratory Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Carl E.; Campbell, Melvin E.

    1983-01-01

    This catalog, intended to enable business educators to furnish classrooms and laboratories for business and office education, lists appropriate equipment, office furniture, and specialty items. Each category identifies vendors' names and addresses and describes their product lines and price ranges. (SK)

  2. Detection of the level of fluoride in the commercially available toothpaste using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy with the marker atomic transition line of neutral fluorine at 731.1 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gondal, M. A.; Maganda, Y. W.; Dastageer, M. A.; Al Adel, F. F.; Naqvi, A. A.; Qahtan, T. F.

    2014-04-01

    Fourth harmonic of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser (wavelength 266 nm) in combination with high resolution spectrograph equipped with Gated ICCD camera has been employed to design a high sensitive analytical system. This detection system is based on Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and has been tested first time for analysis of semi-fluid samples to detect fluoride content present in the commercially available toothpaste samples. The experimental parameters were optimized to achieve an optically thin and in local thermo dynamic equilibrium plasma. This improved the limits of detection of fluoride present in tooth paste samples. The strong atomic transition line of fluorine at 731.102 nm was used as the marker line to quantify the fluoride concentration levels. Our LIBS system was able to detect fluoride concentration levels in the range of 1300-1750 ppm with a detection limit of 156 ppm.

  3. NASA commercial technology. Agenda for change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The essence of NASA's new way of doing business to support the agency's commercial technology mission objectives is described. A summary description of the various changes needed to successfully perform this mission is provided.

  4. Identification of Polymorphisms in the Rabbit Growth Hormone Receptor (GHR) Gene and Association with Finishing Weight in a Commercial Meat Rabbit Line.

    PubMed

    Fontanesi, Luca; Sparacino, Giuseppe; Utzeri, Valerio Joe; Scotti, Emilio; Fornasini, Daniela; Dall'Olio, Stefania; Frabetti, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    A shortcut to identify DNA markers associated with economic traits is to use a candidate gene approach that is still useful in livestock species in which molecular tools and resources are not advanced or not well developed. Mutations in the growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene associated with production traits have been already described in several livestock species. For this reason GHR could be an interesting candidate gene in the rabbit. In this study we re-sequenced all exons and non-coding regions of the rabbit GHR gene in a panel of 10 different rabbits and identified 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). One of them (g.63453192C>G or c.106C>G), located in exon 3 was a missense mutation (p.L36V) substituting an amino acid in a highly conserved position across all mammals. This mutation was genotyped in 297 performance tested rabbits of a meat male line and association analysis showed that the investigated SNP was associated with weight at 70 days (P < 0.05). The most frequent genotype (GG) was in animals with higher weight at this age, suggesting that the high directional selection pressure toward this trait since the constitution of the genotyped line might have contributed to shape allele frequencies at this polymorphic site. PMID:26913548

  5. Commercial Product Activation Using RFID

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedrey, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Radio-frequency identification (RFID) would be used for commercial product activation, according to a proposal. What is new here is the concept of combining RFID with activation - more specifically, using RFID for activating commercial products (principally, electronic ones) and for performing such ancillary functions as tracking individual product units on production lines, tracking shipments, and updating inventories. According to the proposal, an RFID chip would be embedded in each product. The information encoded in the chip would include a unique number for identifying the product. An RFID reader at the point of sale would record the number of the product and would write digital information to the RFID chip for either immediate activation of the product or for later interrogation and processing. To be practical, an RFID product-activation system should satisfy a number of key requirements: the system should be designed to be integrable into the inventory-tracking and the data-processing and -communication infrastructures of businesses along the entire supply chain from manufacture to retail; the system should be resistant to sophisticated hacking; activation codes should be made sufficiently complexity to minimize the probability of activating stolen products; RFID activation equipment at points of sale must be capable to two-way RF communication for the purposes of reading information from, and writing information to, embedded RFID chips; the equipment at points of sale should be easily operable by sales clerks with little or no training; the point-of-sale equipment should verify activation and provide visible and/or audible signals indicating verification or lack thereof; and, the system should be able to handle millions of products per year with minimal human intervention, among other requirements.

  6. The business of demographics.

    PubMed

    Russell, C

    1984-06-01

    The emergence of "demographics" in the past 15 years is a vital tool for American business research and planning. Tracing demographic trends became important for businesses when traditional consumer markets splintered with the enormous changes since the 1960s in US population growth, age structure, geographic distribution, income, education, living arrangements, and life-styles. The mass of reliable, small-area demographic data needed for market estimates and projections became available with the electronic census--public release of Census Bureau census and survey data on computer tape, beginning with the 1970 census. Census Bureau tapes as well as printed reports and microfiche are now widely accessible at low cost through summary tape processing centers designated by the bureau and its 12 regional offices and State Data Center Program. Data accessibility, plummeting computer costs, and businessess' unfamiliarity with demographics spawned the private data industry. By 1984, 70 private companies were offering demographic services to business clients--customized information repackaged from public data or drawn from proprietary data bases created from such data. Critics protest the for-profit use of public data by companies able to afford expensive mainframe computer technology. Business people defend their rights to public data as taxpaying ceitzens, but they must ensure that the data are indeed used for the public good. They must also question the quality of demographic data generated by private companies. Business' demographic expertise will improve when business schools offer training in demography, as few now do, though 40 of 88 graduate-level demographic programs now include business-oriented courses. Lower cost, easier access to business demographics is growing as more census data become available on microcomputer diskettes and through on-line linkages with large data bases--from private data companies and the Census Bureau itself. A directory of private and

  7. Medicine as a business.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Merrill

    2004-09-01

    There is a growing debate over whether medicine should function like a business, guided, as businesses are, by concerns such as profits and customer satisfaction. Of course, for-profit businesses already permeate medicine, and those businesses are not confused about their priorities: providing high quality goods and services people want, at affordable prices. These companies know that they must do well in order to continue doing good. Critics of the business model argue that the profit motive makes health care too expensive and that only by nationalizing the health care system can doctors provide high quality care at an affordable cost to society. However, a survey of journals and newspaper articles about the Canadian health care system, often cited as an anti-business model for U.S. reform, reveals that quality has suffered significantly under that system. Patients wait in long lines for health care, and sometimes cannot get help at all. This paper argues that incentives in the U.S. health care system are complicated, and that health care needs to work more like a business--not less. Doctors don't know whom they are serving--patients, insurers, employers or the government--because it is usually someone other than the patient who it paying the bill. The way to get the incentives structured properly is to allow patients to control more of their health care dollars--perhaps through a system of Medical Savings Accounts. Following the business model is the only way to ensure that medicine provides high quality services at affordable prices--just like every other sector of the economy.

  8. Business Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Lorna; Lewandowski, Carol

    This workbook, designed for workplace literacy courses, contains materials for a business writing course. The course presents the fundamentals of effective business letter writing, focusing on logical organization, word choice, style, tone, and clarity. The course uses students' own examples as well as practice exercises for reinforcement.…

  9. Commercial Communication in the Spanish Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinhardt-Childers, Ilva

    A college course in commercial Spanish is described. The course objectives are to: build a solid foundation of business and professional vocabulary, grammar, spelling, and punctuation; prepare for oral and written communication with commonly-used Spanish business phrases and terminology; expose students to the different types of written…

  10. Commercialism in Schools. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Kirstin

    Businesses are increasingly making inroads into the classroom, particularly in underfunded schools. The dramatic rise in commercial activities in schools has sparked intense public debate, triggering a U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO) report and various regulatory attempts at district, state, and federal levels. This digest offers an overview…

  11. Commercialization of a DOE Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Stephenson, Barry A.

    2008-01-15

    On April 1, 1998, Materials and Chemistry Laboratory, Inc. (MCLinc) began business as an employee-owned, commercial, applied research laboratory offering services to both government and commercial clients. The laboratory had previously been a support laboratory to DoE's gaseous diffusion plant in Oak Ridge (K-25). When uranium enrichment was halted at the site, the laboratory was expanded to as an environmental demonstration center and served from 1992 until 1997 as a DOE Environmental User Facility. In 1997, after the laboratory was declared surplus, it was made available to the employee group who operated the laboratory for DOE as a government-owned, contractor-operated facility. This paper describes briefly the process of establishing the business. Attributes that contributed to the success of MCLinc are described. Some attention is given to lessons learned and to changes that could facilitate future attempts to make similar transitions. Lessons learnt: as with any business venture, operation over time has revealed that some actions taken by the laboratory founders have contributed to its successful operation while others were not so successful. Observations are offered in hopes that lessons learned may suggest actions that will facilitate future attempts to make similar transitions. First, the decision to vest significant ownership of the business in the core group of professionals operating the business is key to its success. Employee-owners of the laboratory have consistently provided a high level of service to its customers while conducting business in a cost-efficient manner. Secondly, an early decision to provide business support services in-house rather than purchasing them from support contractors on site have proven cost-effective. Laboratory employees do multiple tasks and perform overhead tasks in addition to their chargeable technical responsibilities. Thirdly, assessment of technical capabilities in view of market needs and a decision to offer these

  12. Small Business Innovations (Integrated Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Because of the diversity of NASA's information systems, it was necessary to develop DAVID as a central database management system. Under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant, Ken Wanderman and Associates, Inc. designed software tools enabling scientists to interface with DAVID and commercial database management systems, as well as artificial intelligence programs. The software has been installed at a number of data centers and is commercially available.

  13. Morphological and Genetic Evidence for Multiple Evolutionary Distinct Lineages in the Endangered and Commercially Exploited Red Lined Torpedo Barbs Endemic to the Western Ghats of India

    PubMed Central

    Dahanukar, Neelesh; Anvar Ali, Palakkaparambil Hamsa; Tharian, Josin; Raghavan, Rajeev; Antunes, Agostinho

    2013-01-01

    Red lined torpedo barbs (RLTBs) (Cyprinidae: Puntius) endemic to the Western Ghats Hotspot of India, are popular and highly priced freshwater aquarium fishes. Two decades of indiscriminate exploitation for the pet trade, restricted range, fragmented populations and continuing decline in quality of habitats has resulted in their ‘Endangered’ listing. Here, we tested whether the isolated RLTB populations demonstrated considerable variation qualifying to be considered as distinct conservation targets. Multivariate morphometric analysis using 24 size-adjusted characters delineated all allopatric populations. Similarly, the species-tree highlighted a phylogeny with 12 distinct RLTB lineages corresponding to each of the different riverine populations. However, coalescence-based methods using mitochondrial DNA markers identified only eight evolutionarily distinct lineages. Divergence time analysis points to recent separation of the populations, owing to the geographical isolation, more than 5 million years ago, after the lineages were split into two ancestral stocks in the Paleocene, on north and south of a major geographical gap in the Western Ghats. Our results revealing the existence of eight evolutionarily distinct RLTB lineages calls for the re-determination of conservation targets for these cryptic and endangered taxa. PMID:23894533

  14. Morphological and genetic evidence for multiple evolutionary distinct lineages in the endangered and commercially exploited red lined torpedo barbs endemic to the Western Ghats of India.

    PubMed

    John, Lijo; Philip, Siby; Dahanukar, Neelesh; Anvar Ali, Palakkaparambil Hamsa; Tharian, Josin; Raghavan, Rajeev; Antunes, Agostinho

    2013-01-01

    Red lined torpedo barbs (RLTBS) (Cyprinidae: Puntius) endemic to the Western Ghats Hotspot of India, are popular and highly priced freshwater aquarium fishes. Two decades of indiscriminate exploitation for the pet trade, restricted range, fragmented populations and continuing decline in quality of habitats has resulted in their 'Endangered' listing. Here, we tested whether the isolated RLTB populations demonstrated considerable variation qualifying to be considered as distinct conservation targets. Multivariate morphometric analysis using 24 size-adjusted characters delineated all allopatric populations. Similarly, the species-tree highlighted a phylogeny with 12 distinct RLTB lineages corresponding to each of the different riverine populations. However, coalescence-based methods using mitochondrial DNA markers identified only eight evolutionarily distinct lineages. Divergence time analysis points to recent separation of the populations, owing to the geographical isolation, more than 5 million years ago, after the lineages were split into two ancestral stocks in the Paleocene, on north and south of a major geographical gap in the Western Ghats. Our results revealing the existence of eight evolutionarily distinct RLTB lineages calls for the re-determination of conservation targets for these cryptic and endangered taxa. PMID:23894533

  15. Commercial Crew

    NASA Video Gallery

    Phil McAlister delivers a presentation by the Commercial Crew (CC) study team on May 25, 2010, at the NASA Exploration Enterprise Workshop held in Galveston, TX. The purpose of this workshop was to...

  16. Space Commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    A robust and competitive commercial space sector is vital to continued progress in space. The United States is committed to encouraging and facilitating the growth of a U.S. commercial space sector that supports U.S. needs, is globally competitive, and advances U.S. leadership in the generation of new markets and innovation-driven entrepreneurship. Energize competitive domestic industries to participate in global markets and advance the development of: satellite manufacturing; satellite-based services; space launch; terrestrial applications; and increased entrepreneurship. Purchase and use commercial space capabilities and services to the maximum practical extent Actively explore the use of inventive, nontraditional arrangements for acquiring commercial space goods and services to meet United States Government requirements, including measures such as public-private partnerships, . Refrain from conducting United States Government space activities that preclude, discourage, or compete with U.S. commercial space activities. Pursue potential opportunities for transferring routine, operational space functions to the commercial space sector where beneficial and cost-effective.

  17. Small Business Innovations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract resulted in a series of commercially available lasers, which have application in fiber optic communications, difference frequency generation, fiber optic sensing and general laboratory use. Developed under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract, the Phase Doppler Particles Analyzer is a non-disruptive, highly accurate laser-based method of determining particle size, number density, trajectory, turbulence and other information about particles passing through a measurement probe volume. The system consists of an optical transmitter and receiver, signal processor and computer with data acquisition and analysis software. A variety of systems are offered for applications including spray characterization for paint, and agricultural and other sprays. The Microsizer, a related product, is used in medical equipment manufacturing and analysis of contained flows. High frequency components and subsystems produced by Millitech Corporation are marketed for both research and commercial use. These systems, which operate in the upper portion of the millimeter wave, resulted from a number of Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) projects. By developing very high performance mixers and multipliers, the company has advanced the state of the art in sensitive receiver technology. Components are used in receivers and transceivers for monitoring chlorine monoxides, ozone, in plasma characterization and in material properties characterization.

  18. Building Businesses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgeon, Julie

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how Washington University (St. Louis, MO) converted odd space into a program allowing students to be shopkeepers for necessary services and the school assuming the role of landlord. Tips for overseeing student businesses are highlighted. (GR)

  19. Business Schools under Fire: Humanistic Management Education as the Way Forward. Humanism in Business Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amann, Wolfgang, Ed.; Pirson, Michael, Ed.; Dierksmeier, Claus, Ed.; Von Kimakowitz, Ernst, Ed.; Spitzeck, Heiko, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    In a time of instability trust in managers is low. Management education is being scrutinized for its impact on society and business schools have been considered as "silent partners in corporate crime." This book outlines how business schools can get out of the line of fire by presenting the cornerstones of a humanistic business education. This…

  20. 76 FR 60474 - Commercial Item Handbook

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... Defense Acquisition Regulations System Commercial Item Handbook AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations... Commercial Item Handbook. The purpose of the Handbook is to help acquisition personnel develop sound business... the Handbook. DATES: Comments should be submitted in writing to the address shown below on or...

  1. 48 CFR 52.244-6 - Subcontracts for Commercial Items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... subcontracts for commercial items: (i) 52.203-13, Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct (APR 2010) (41... subcontract is funded under the Recovery Act. (iii) 52.219-8, Utilization of Small Business Concerns (May 2014... subcontract (except subcontracts to small business concerns) exceeds $650,000 ($1.5 million for...

  2. 48 CFR 52.244-6 - Subcontracts for Commercial Items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... subcontracts for commercial items: (i) 52.203-13, Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct (APR 2010..., Utilization of Small Business Concerns (Jul 2013) (15 U.S.C. 637(d)(2) and (3)), if the subcontract offers further subcontracting opportunities. If the subcontract (except subcontracts to small business...

  3. Small Business Innovations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Under an Army Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant, Symbiotics, Inc. developed a software system that permits users to upgrade products from standalone applications so they can communicate in a distributed computing environment. Under a subsequent NASA SBIR grant, Symbiotics added additional tools to the SOCIAL product to enable NASA to coordinate conventional systems for planning Shuttle launch support operations. Using SOCIAL, data may be shared among applications in a computer network even when the applications are written in different programming languages. The product was introduced to the commercial market in 1993 and is used to monitor and control equipment for operation support and to integrate financial networks. The SBIR program was established to increase small business participation in federal R&D activities and to transfer government research to industry. InQuisiX is a reuse library providing high performance classification, cataloging, searching, browsing, retrieval and synthesis capabilities. These form the foundation for software reuse, producing higher quality software at lower cost and in less time. Software Productivity Solutions, Inc. developed the technology under Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) projects funded by NASA and the Army and is marketing InQuisiX in conjunction with Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC). The SBIR program was established to increase small business participation in federal R&D activities and to transfer government research to industry.

  4. Wellness strategies for smaller businesses.

    PubMed

    Neely, Marc

    2012-01-01

    While innovative smaller companies are implementing employee wellness programs, many smaller firms may point to a lack of resources, such as staffing and financial resources, to establish and sustain a wellness program. The uncertain economy and rising health care costs have caused many smaller businesses to focus on core business strategies to keep the doors open and the business going. However, innovative companies realize that building a culture of health is a long-term business strategy directly related to improving the bottom line. This article highlights one company's approach to wellness and the results of the company's programs. It also outlines the components of a successful wellness program and suggests practical implementation steps for smaller businesses.

  5. Commercially reasonable--whose responsibility is it?

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jen

    2012-10-01

    According to federal regulations, any business arrangement between a hospital and a physician or physicians must comply with a set standard establishing that the arrangement is commercially reasonable. The commercially reasonable standard can be briefly defined as the requirement that the arrangement make business sense without being contingent on physician referrals. Before engaging outside expertise to assist in making the determination that an arrangement is commercially reasonable, hospital executives can address many key questions with respect to this determination themselves using a checklist of key operational, clinical, and financial considerations. PMID:23088060

  6. The business case for quality.

    PubMed

    Boehler, Richard; Hardesty, Daniel; Gonzales, Eva; Kasnetz, Karen

    2009-10-01

    Among the lessons St. Joseph Medical Center learned in implementing a diabetes care management program were that: There is a sound business case for quality with such a program. A sound business plan based on a track record of accomplishments by other organizations is key to gaining clinician buy-in. Deploying dwindling resources to simultaneously improve care and the organization's bottom line requires collaboration between clinicians and finance.

  7. Small Business Innovations (Helicopters)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The amount of engine power required for a helicopter to hover is an important, but difficult, consideration in helicopter design. The EHPIC program model produces converged, freely distorted wake geometries that generate accurate analysis of wake-induced downwash, allowing good predictions of rotor thrust and power requirements. Continuum Dynamics, Inc., the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) company that developed EHPIC, also produces RotorCRAFT, a program for analysis of aerodynamic loading of helicopter blades in forward flight. Both helicopter codes have been licensed to commercial manufacturers.

  8. Commercial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Togai, Masaki

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on commercial applications of fuzzy logic in Japan are presented. Topics covered include: suitable application area of fuzzy theory; characteristics of fuzzy control; fuzzy closed-loop controller; Mitsubishi heavy air conditioner; predictive fuzzy control; the Sendai subway system; automatic transmission; fuzzy logic-based command system for antilock braking system; fuzzy feed-forward controller; and fuzzy auto-tuning system.

  9. Commercial Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vassallo, Thomas

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in commercial art at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and science…

  10. 48 CFR 19.304 - Disadvantaged business status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Programs 19.304 Disadvantaged business status. (a) To be eligible to receive a benefit as a prime... Business Program Representations, or 52.212-3(c)(4), Offeror Representations and Certifications-Commercial...—Commercial Items, is used to obtain SDB status when the prime contractor may receive a benefit based on...

  11. 16 CFR 254.2 - Deceptive trade or business names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deceptive trade or business names. 254.2 Section 254.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR PRIVATE VOCATIONAL AND DISTANCE EDUCATION SCHOOLS § 254.2 Deceptive trade or business names. (a) It...

  12. 14 CFR 119.9 - Use of business names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use of business names. 119.9 Section 119.9... COMMERCIAL OPERATORS General § 119.9 Use of business names. (a) A certificate holder under this part may not operate an aircraft under part 121 or part 135 of this chapter using a business name other than a...

  13. 14 CFR 119.9 - Use of business names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of business names. 119.9 Section 119.9... COMMERCIAL OPERATORS General § 119.9 Use of business names. (a) A certificate holder under this part may not operate an aircraft under part 121 or part 135 of this chapter using a business name other than a...

  14. 16 CFR 4.14 - Conduct of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conduct of business. 4.14 Section 4.14... RULES § 4.14 Conduct of business. (a) Matters before the Commission for consideration may be resolved.... 208 or otherwise) constitutes a quorum for the transaction of business in that matter. (c)...

  15. 16 CFR 4.14 - Conduct of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conduct of business. 4.14 Section 4.14... RULES § 4.14 Conduct of business. (a) Matters before the Commission for consideration may be resolved.... 208 or otherwise) constitutes a quorum for the transaction of business in that matter. (c)...

  16. 14 CFR 119.9 - Use of business names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of business names. 119.9 Section 119.9... COMMERCIAL OPERATORS General § 119.9 Use of business names. (a) A certificate holder under this part may not operate an aircraft under part 121 or part 135 of this chapter using a business name other than a...

  17. Small Business Innovations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract to Kennedy Space Center, EIC Laboratories invented a Raman Spectrograph with fiber optic sampling for space applications such as sensing hazardous fuel vapors and making on-board rapid analyses of chemicals and minerals. Raman spectroscopy is a laser-based measurement technique that provides through a unique vibrational spectrum a molecular 'fingerprint,' and can function in aqueous environments. EIC combined optical fiber technology with Raman methods to develop sensors that can be operated at a distance from the spectrographic analysis instruments and the laser excitation source. EIC refined and commercialized the technology to create the Fiber Optic Raman Spectrograph and the RamanProbe. Commercial applications range from process control to monitoring hazardous materials.

  18. Bottom Line, Bottom Line

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trachtenberg, Stephen Joel

    2008-01-01

    Unlike most businesses, universities are both capital-and labor-intensive; yet contrary to standard business practice, they wring the most use and value out of their plants and payrolls for fewer than seven months a year. University presidents may appear to be very much like chief executive officers, but their powers to change course--or even a…

  19. Strictly Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Reginald

    2011-01-01

    When Jackson State University opened for classes this year, it marked its fifth anniversary in the online education business by adding a full four-year, undergraduate degree program in early childhood education to its offerings. Jackson State is among a growing number of historically Black colleges tying part of their future survival and growth…

  20. Business Graphics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Genigraphics Corporation's Masterpiece 8770 FilmRecorder is an advanced high resolution system designed to improve and expand a company's in-house graphics production. GRAFTIME/software package was designed to allow office personnel with minimal training to produce professional level graphics for business communications and presentations. Products are no longer being manufactured.

  1. Business Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canipe, Stephen L.

    A brief definition of some fundamentals of microcomputers and of the ways they may be used in small businesses can help potential buyers make informed purchases. Hardware (the mechanical devices from which computers are made) described here are the video display, keyboard, central processing unit, "random access" and "read only" memories, cassette…

  2. Unfinished Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuckett, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Adult learning is not a tidy business: adults fit learning into the spaces left by the other demands on complex lives, and into the spaces left in administrative structures overwhelmingly designed for other people. No simple metric can capture adults' diverse purposes and achievements, and no single programme can capture the full range of things…

  3. The commercialization of plastic surgery.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Eric

    2013-09-01

    The last decade has brought a major challenge to the traditional practice of plastic surgery from corporations that treat plastic surgery as a commercial product and market directly to the public. This corporate medicine model may include promotion of a trademarked procedure or device, national advertising that promises stunning results, sales consultants, and claims of innovation, superiority, and improved safety. This article explores the ethics of this business practice and whether corporate medicine is a desirable model for patients and plastic surgeons.

  4. Commercialization of solar space power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pant, Alok; Sera, Gary

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this research is to help U.S. companies commercialize renewable energy in India, with a special focus on solar energy. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Mid-Continent Technology Transfer Center (MCTTC) is working with ENTECH, Inc., a solar photovoltaic (SPV) systems manufacturer to form partnerships with Indian companies. MCTTC has conducted both secondary and primary market research and obtained travel funding to meet potential Indian partners face to face. MCTTC and ENTECH traveled to India during June 2-20, 1994, and visited New Delhi, Bombay, Pune and Calcutta. Meetings were held with several key government officials and premier Indian business houses and entrepreneurs in the area of solar energy. A firsthand knowledge of India's renewable energy industry was gained, and companies were qualified in terms of capabilities and commitment to the SPV business. The World Bank has awarded India with 280 million to commercialize renewable energies, including 55 million for SPV. There is a market in India for both small-scale (kW) and large SPV (MW) applications. Each U.S. company needs to form a joint venture with an Indian firm and let the latter identify the states and projects with the greatest business potential. Several big Indian companies and entrepreneurs are planning to enter the SPV business, and they currently are seeking foreign technology partners. Since the lager companies have adopted a more conservative approach, however, partnerships with entrepreneurs might offer the quickest route to market entry in India.

  5. Genetic characterization of Bhutanese native chickens based on an analysis of Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus gallus and Gallus gallus spadecieus), domestic Southeast Asian and commercial chicken lines (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Dorji, Nedup; Duangjinda, Monchai; Phasuk, Yupin

    2012-07-01

    The genetic diversity of Bhutanese chickens needs to be understood in order to develop a suitable conservation strategy for these birds in Bhutan. In this, work, we used microsatellite markers to examine the genetic diversity of Bhutanese chickens. Four Bhutanese chicken varieties (Black plumage, Frizzle, Naked neck and Red Junglefowl-like, corresponding to Yuebjha Narp, Phulom, Khuilay and Seim, respectively), two subspecies of Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus gallus and Gallus gallus spadecieus), two varieties of Thai native chickens (Pradhu Hang Dam and Chee; Gallus gallus domesticus) representing the Southeast Asian domestic chicken, and two commercial lines (Broiler and Single Comb White Leghorn) were genotyped with 18 microsatellites that included 16 loci recommended by the FAO/ISAG for investigations of genetic variability in chickens. All loci were polymorphic, with the number of alleles ranging from six (MCW0111) to 23 (MCW0183). Substantial genetic variation was observed in all populations, with the Bhutanese native chicken Yuebjha Narp (Black plumage chicken) showing the lowest genetic variability. Despite extensive intrapopulation variation, the genetic differentiation among 10 populations was moderate. A neighbor-joining tree revealed the genetic relationships involved while principal component analysis showed that Bhutanese native chickens should be given priority in conservation efforts because of their genetic distinctiveness. Chee chickens are especially valuable as a reservoir of predomestic diversity, as indicated by their greater genetic variation and their position in the phylogenetic tree. PMID:23055799

  6. COMMERCIALIZATION DEMONSTRATION OF MID-SIZED SUPERCONDUCTING MAGNETIC ENERGY STORAGE TECHNOLOGY FOR ELECTRIC UTILITYAPPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    CHARLES M. WEBER

    2008-06-24

    As an outgrowth of the Technology Reinvestment Program of the 1990’s, an Agreement was formed between BWXT and the DOE to promote the commercialization of Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) technology. Business and marketing studies showed that the performance of electric transmission lines could be improved with this SMES technology by stabilizing the line thereby allowing the reserved stability margin to be used. One main benefit sought was to double the capacity and the amount of energy flow on an existing transmission line by enabling the use of the reserved stability margin, thereby doubling revenue. Also, electrical disturbances, power swings, oscillations, cascading disturbances and brown/black-outs could be mitigated and rendered innocuous; thereby improving power quality and reliability. Additionally, construction of new transmission lines needed for increased capacity could be delayed or perhaps avoided (with significant savings) by enabling the use of the reserved stability margin of the existing lines. Two crucial technical aspects were required; first, a large, powerful, dynamic, economic and reliable superconducting magnet, capable of oscillating power flow was needed; and second, an electrical power interface and control to a transmission line for testing, demonstrating and verifying the benefits and features of the SMES system was needed. A project was formed with the goals of commercializing the technology by demonstrating SMES technology for utility applications and to establish a domestic capability for manufacturing large superconducting magnets for both commercial and defense applications. The magnet had very low AC losses to support the dynamic and oscillating nature of the stabilizing power flow. Moreover, to economically interface to the transmission line, the magnet had the largest operating voltage ever made. The manufacturing of that design was achieved by establishing a factory with newly designed and acquired equipment

  7. Business Plan Competitions: An Overview. CELCEE Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seymour, Nicole

    This document describes business plan competitions sponsored by universities. The idea began in the early 1980s at the University of Texas when Masters in Business Administration (MBA) students created a friendly competitive activity along the lines of the law schools Moot Court competition. Later the competition became national, and then…

  8. Australian Small Business Participation in Training Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Beverley; Walker, Elizabeth; Brown, Alan

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This purpose of this paper is to investigate the use of on-line training by small businesses in Australia. It explores the relationship between the owners acceptance and use of the Internet, and their current participation in training opportunities. Design/Methodology/Approach: A sample of small businesses which had participated in an…

  9. Business Jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Citation Jet, developed by Cessna Aircraft Company, Wichita, KS, is the first business jet to employ Langley Research Center's natural laminar flow (NLF) technology. NLF reduces drag and therefore saves fuel by using only the shape of the wing to keep the airflow smooth, or laminar. This reduces friction between the air and wing, and therefore, reduces drag. NASA's Central Industrial Applications Center, Rural Enterprises, Inc., Durant, OK, its Kansas affiliate, and Wichita State University assisted in the technology transfer.

  10. Business, Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupree, Andrea

    1998-05-01

    The annual business meeting, which all members are encouraged to attend, will take place on Tuesday afternoon. Come enjoy the President's Ice Cream Party. Come meet new officers. Come nominate candidates for the Nominating Committee. The Nominating Committee is a very important body which provides the slate of candidates for the annual AAS election. Society business will be discussed briefly. Highlighting this meeting will be a panel discussion on: "How to Get Your Paper Published Promptly" Should I mention that Notable Authority Professor Hjalmar Sciatti hates me and my papers? When is it OK to start complaining that no report has arrived? Do I have to do everything the referee says? These and related questions will be addressed at the business meeting in a panel presentation by the editors of the three main AAS publications, Paul Hodge (AJ), Helmut Abt (ApJ), Alex Dalgarno (ApJ Letters), concerning the refereeing and editing process and how authors can interface with it most effectively. There will be time for questions and discussions toward the end, or you can send your questions in advance to askeds@aas.org, so that the most frequent ones can be covered in the presentations.

  11. Commercial Capaciflector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M.

    1991-01-01

    A capacitive proximity/tactile sensor with unique performance capabilities ('capaciflector' or capacitive reflector) is being developed by NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) for use on robots and payloads in space in the interests of safety, efficiency, and ease of operation. Specifically, this sensor will permit robots and their attached payloads to avoid collisions in space with humans and other objects and to dock these payloads in a cluttered environment. The sensor is simple, robust, and inexpensive to manufacture with obvious and recognized commercial possibilities. Accordingly, NASA/GSFC, in conjunction with industry, is embarking on an effort to 'spin' this technology off into the private sector. This effort includes prototypes aimed at commercial applications. The principles of operation of these prototypes are described along with hardware, software, modelling, and test results. The hardware description includes both the physical sensor in terms of a flexible printed circuit board and the electronic circuitry. The software description will include filtering and detection techniques. The modelling will involve finite element electric field analysis and will underline techniques used for design optimization.

  12. Small Business Innovations (Crystal Components)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Scientific Materials Corporation, Bozeman, MT developed the SciMax line of improved Nd:Yag crystals under an Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract with Langley Research Center. They reduced the amount of water trapped in the crystals during growth to improve the optical quality and efficiency. Applications of the crystals include fiber optics, telecommunications, welding, drilling, eye surgery and medical instrumentation.

  13. A Quantitative Transmission Line Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, D. C.; Silbernagel, B. G.

    1969-01-01

    Describes modifications of a commercially available strip-type transmission line, which makes possible reproducible measurements of standing waves on the line. Experimental data yield values for the characteristic impedance, phase velocity and line wavelength of radiation in the transmission line, and the dielectric constant of material in the…

  14. 12 CFR 723.1 - What is a member business loan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What is a member business loan? 723.1 Section... MEMBER BUSINESS LOANS § 723.1 What is a member business loan? (a) General rule. A member business loan... borrower uses the proceeds for the following purposes: (1) Commercial; (2) Corporate; (3) Other...

  15. 16 CFR 1020.5 - What is the Small Business Enforcement Policy?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... (5) The small business failed to make a good faith effort to comply with the law. (6) The small... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What is the Small Business Enforcement... BUSINESS § 1020.5 What is the Small Business Enforcement Policy? (a) When appropriate, the Commission...

  16. MPRS (URBOT) commercialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciccimaro, Donny; Baker, William; Hamilton, Ian; Heikkila, Leif; Renick, Joel

    2003-09-01

    The Man Portable Robotic System (MPRS) project objective was to build and deliver hardened robotic systems to the U.S. Army"s 10 Mountain Division in Fort Drum, New York. The system, specifically designed for tunnel and sewer reconnaissance, was equipped with visual and audio sensors that allowed the Army engineers to detect trip wires and booby traps before personnel entered a potentially hostile environment. The MPRS system has shown to be useful in government and military supported field exercises, but the system has yet to reach the hands of civilian users. Potential users in Law Enforcement and Border Patrol have shown a strong interest in the system, but robotic costs were thought to be prohibitive for law enforcement budgets. Through the Center for Commercialization of Advanced Technology (CCAT) program, an attempt will be made to commercialize the MPRS. This included a detailed market analysis performed to verify the market viability of the technologies. Hence, the first step in this phase is to fully define the marketability of proposed technologies in terms of actual market size, pricing and cost factors, competitive risks and/or advantages, and other key factors used to develop marketing and business plans.

  17. Aerocapacitor commercialization plan

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-12

    The purpose of the Power-One Aerocapacitor Commercialization Plan is to communicate to members of management and to all employees the overall objectives of the corporation. Power-One, Inc., has participated in a US Federal Government Technology Reinvestment Project (TRP), entitled {open_quotes}Advanced Power Conversion based on the Aerocapacitor{close_quotes}: the project is a group effort, with Lawrence Livermore National Labs, GenCorp/Aerojet, PolyStor Corp. (a start-up company), and Power-One forming the consortium. The expected resulting technology is the {open_quotes}Aerocapacitor{close_quotes}, which possesses much higher performance levels than the usual capacitors on the market today. Power-One hopes to incorporate the Aerocapacitor into some of its products, hence enhancing their performance, as well as market privately-labeled aerocapacitors through its distribution channels. This document describes the details of Power-One`s plan to bring to market and commercialize the Aerocapacitor and Aerocapacitor-based products. This plan was formulated while Power-One was part of the Oerocap project. It has since pulled out of this project. What is presented in this plan is the work which was developed prior to the business decision to terminate this work.

  18. Bottom-line empowerment: lessons from the firing line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J. P.

    1993-03-01

    Empowering employees on the firing-line to actively participate in solving business problems can have a significant positive impact on bottom-line performance. Lessons from a number of companies and thousands of people from the firing-line have demonstrated this. Unfortunately, there is no simple, step-by-step method that can be guaranteed to succeed. Getting business results by successfully empowering the firing-line is as much art as science. Yet, as with any art, there are principles that, if rigorously followed, can go a long way to ensuring success. These principles are outlined in this paper as 18 critical success factors to empowerment.

  19. Lunar Commercial Mining Logistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kistler, Walter P.; Citron, Bob; Taylor, Thomas C.

    2008-01-01

    Innovative commercial logistics is required for supporting lunar resource recovery operations and assisting larger consortiums in lunar mining, base operations, camp consumables and the future commercial sales of propellant over the next 50 years. To assist in lowering overall development costs, ``reuse'' innovation is suggested in reusing modified LTS in-space hardware for use on the moon's surface, developing product lines for recovered gases, regolith construction materials, surface logistics services, and other services as they evolve, (Kistler, Citron and Taylor, 2005) Surface logistics architecture is designed to have sustainable growth over 50 years, financed by private sector partners and capable of cargo transportation in both directions in support of lunar development and resource recovery development. The author's perspective on the importance of logistics is based on five years experience at remote sites on Earth, where remote base supply chain logistics didn't always work, (Taylor, 1975a). The planning and control of the flow of goods and materials to and from the moon's surface may be the most complicated logistics challenges yet to be attempted. Affordability is tied to the innovation and ingenuity used to keep the transportation and surface operations costs as low as practical. Eleven innovations are proposed and discussed by an entrepreneurial commercial space startup team that has had success in introducing commercial space innovation and reducing the cost of space operations in the past. This logistics architecture offers NASA and other exploring nations a commercial alternative for non-essential cargo. Five transportation technologies and eleven surface innovations create the logistics transportation system discussed.

  20. Commercial energy audits: headache or opportunity

    SciTech Connect

    Hanneman, J.C.; Crandall, G.C.

    1984-04-12

    A summary of Michigan's 1982 commercial energy audit pilot program illustrates that utilities, shareholders, ratepayers, and private businesses can all benefit from large-scale audit services. Specific benefits to the utilities include market preservation, enhanced community and customer relations, and access to important customer demographic information. The federal Commercial and Apartment Conservation Service (CACS) rules can be more useful than burdensome because they confirm the right and duty of energy utilities to offer energy audits to nonresidential customers. 5 footnotes and references.

  1. Commercial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The near term (one to five year) needs of domestic and foreign commercial suppliers of radiochemicals and radiopharmaceuticals for electromagnetically separated stable isotopes are assessed. Only isotopes purchased to make products for sale and profit are considered. Radiopharmaceuticals produced from enriched stable isotopes supplied by the Calutron facility at ORNL are used in about 600,000 medical procedures each year in the United States. A temporary or permanent disruption of the supply of stable isotopes to the domestic radiopharmaceutical industry could curtail, if not eliminate, the use of such diagnostic procedures as the thallium heart scan, the gallium cancer scan, the gallium abscess scan, and the low radiation dose thyroid scan. An alternative source of enriched stable isotopes exist in the USSR. Alternative starting materials could, in theory, eventually be developed for both the thallium and gallium scans. The development of a new technology for these purposes, however, would take at least five years and would be expensive. Hence, any disruption of the supply of enriched isotopes from ORNL and the resulting unavailability of critical nuclear medicine procedures would have a dramatic negative effect on the level of health care in the United States.

  2. The Business of Testing.

    PubMed

    Jolosky, Theo; Watson, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Theodore Millon was a brilliant man: erudite, thoughtful, confident, deliberate, and curious. He was an integrative thinker. It is widely known how these characteristics manifested themselves in his landmark work in the areas of personality theory, personality development, and personality assessment. What is likely less well known is that he displayed these same characteristics in and to the world of business; in particular, his relationships with those who published and distributed his assessment measures. This article traces those relationships. Various components are explored, ranging from product development to product marketing, from the protection of intellectual property to the development and execution of contracts, from deciding how and when to revise a test to ensuring that his legacy continues long into the future. Although the primary dynamic of these relationships was commercial, the reasons for their success were personal. Common goals, clarity of communication, persistence, respect, and trust allowed these relationships to develop, prosper, evolve, and endure. PMID:26473457

  3. The Business of Testing.

    PubMed

    Jolosky, Theo; Watson, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Theodore Millon was a brilliant man: erudite, thoughtful, confident, deliberate, and curious. He was an integrative thinker. It is widely known how these characteristics manifested themselves in his landmark work in the areas of personality theory, personality development, and personality assessment. What is likely less well known is that he displayed these same characteristics in and to the world of business; in particular, his relationships with those who published and distributed his assessment measures. This article traces those relationships. Various components are explored, ranging from product development to product marketing, from the protection of intellectual property to the development and execution of contracts, from deciding how and when to revise a test to ensuring that his legacy continues long into the future. Although the primary dynamic of these relationships was commercial, the reasons for their success were personal. Common goals, clarity of communication, persistence, respect, and trust allowed these relationships to develop, prosper, evolve, and endure.

  4. On Developing Business Chinese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Wei

    1996-01-01

    Examines the significance of foreign languages for business, particularly Business Chinese, in the 1990s; its curriculum requirements; and the impact of business languages on international business. The article proposes a developmental plan for Business Chinese at the college level including goals, course materials, learning activities, and…

  5. Business Approach To Lunar Base Activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Harrison H.

    2003-01-01

    It remains unlikely that any government or group of governments will make the long-term funding commitments necessary to return to the Moon in support of scientific goals or resource production. If a lunar base is to be established within the foreseeable future, it will support of commercial production and use of unique energy resources Business plan development for commercial production and use of lunar Helium-3 requires a number of major steps, including identification of the required investor base and development of fusion power technology through a series of business bridges that provide required rates of return.

  6. Identification of types of businesses with potential interest in operating and/or exporting ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) plants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-09-01

    This study describes the characteristics of three selected Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)-based lines of business, examines other lines of business and identifies those with similar characteristics, and indicates the types of businesses/corporations that could be expected to have potential interest in operating and/or exporting OTEC plants. An OTEC line of business model is developed to assist companies in making an internal corporate assessment as to whether OTEC should be in their business plan.

  7. Space transfer services as a precursor to space business parks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smitherman, David V.

    1998-01-01

    Boeing Defense and Space Group and NASA, Marshall Space Flight Center conducted a study in 1996-1997 on the topic of commercial space business parks under the sponsorship of the former Office of Advanced Concepts at NASA Headquarters (Marshall 1997). The findings of this 7-month study are used to present possible strategies for near-term commercial developments in space. Related data from NASA studies on public space travel, and commercial space transportation are included along with the author's observations. It is hoped that this analysis will assist future entrepreneurs in the development of commercial space business parks. In conclusion, it appears that a market could soon become viable for commercial space transfer services, and that this market could form the infrastructure to grow the first commercial space business park.

  8. Commercialization of New Beam Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeown, Joseph

    1996-05-01

    The commercialization of electron processing applications is driven by demonstrated technical advantages over current practice. Mature and reliable accelerator technology has permitted more consistent product quality and the development of new processes. However, the barriers to commercial adoption are often not amenable to solution within the laboratory alone. Aspects of the base accelerator technology, plant engineering, production, project management, financing, regulatory control, product throughput and plant operational efficiency all contribute to the business risk. Experiences in building three 10 MeV, 50 kW, IMPELA electron accelerators at approximately 8 M each and achieving cumulative operational availability greater than 98% in commercial environments have identified key parameters defining those aspects. The allowed ranges of these parameters to generate the 1.5 M annual revenue that is typically necessary to support outlays of this scale are presented. Such data have been used in proposals to displace expensive chemicals in the viscose industry, sterilize sewage sludge, detoxify chemically contaminated soils and build radiation service centers for a diversity of applications. The proposals face stiff competition from traditional chemical methods. Quantitative technical and business details of these activities are provided and an attempt is made to establish realistic expectations for the exploitation of electron beam technologies in emerging applications.

  9. 48 CFR 52.244-6 - Subcontracts for Commercial Items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... subcontracts for commercial items: (i) 52.203-13, Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct (APR 2010..., Utilization of Small Business Concerns (DEC 2010) (15 U.S.C. 637(d)(2) and (3)), in all subcontracts that offer further subcontracting opportunities. If the subcontract (except subcontracts to small...

  10. 48 CFR 52.244-6 - Subcontracts for Commercial Items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... subcontracts for commercial items: (i) 52.203-13, Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct (APR 2010..., Utilization of Small Business Concerns (DEC 2010) (15 U.S.C. 637(d)(2) and (3)), in all subcontracts that offer further subcontracting opportunities. If the subcontract (except subcontracts to small...

  11. 19 CFR 103.35 - Confidential commercial information; exempt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... person. Commercial information provided to CBP by a business submitter will be treated as privileged or... made known in any manner except as provided in this section. (b) Notice to business submitters of FOIA requests for disclosure. Except as provided in paragraph (b)(2) of this section, CBP will provide...

  12. Financial issues for commercial space ventures: Paying for the dreams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egan, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    Various financial issues involved in commercial space enterprise are discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on the materials processing area: the current state of business plan and financial developments, what is needed for enhanced probability of success of future materials development efforts in attracting financial backing, and finally, the risks involved in this entire business area.

  13. English in the Ecuadorian Commercial Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alm, Cecilia Ovesdotter

    2003-01-01

    Presents a study completed in Quito, Ecuador that investigates the attitudinal perceptions toward English in advertising in the Ecuadorian commercial context. Findings are the result of four data collection procedures; a questionnaire administered to advertising experts, an analysis of business names in ten shopping centers, an analysis of…

  14. Commercial Photography. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP) for commercial photography is an employer-verified competency list that evolved from a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) job analysis process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives throughout Ohio. The competency list consists of 12 units: (1) business…

  15. Commercial Influences on the Pursuit of Wisdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHenry, Leemon B.

    2007-01-01

    This essay examines the effects of commercialization on education with particular focus on corporatization of academic research. This trend results from a business model of education, which I identify as profit-based inquiry. I contrast profit-based inquiry with Nicholas Maxwell's conception of wisdom-based inquiry and conclude that the business…

  16. Aerospace management techniques: Commercial and governmental applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milliken, J. G.; Morrison, E. J.

    1971-01-01

    A guidebook for managers and administrators is presented as a source of useful information on new management methods in business, industry, and government. The major topics discussed include: actual and potential applications of aerospace management techniques to commercial and governmental organizations; aerospace management techniques and their use within the aerospace sector; and the aerospace sector's application of innovative management techniques.

  17. Commercial French in a Liberal Arts Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrate, Jayne

    Drury College (Missouri) has developed a commercial French course that is practical, situation-oriented, and provides instruction in correspondence and translation. The course is considered part of the cultural segment of the French program. It enrolls majors in business, French, and a variety of other disciplines, and emphasizes contextual…

  18. AGATE animation - business theme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Business jet 5 of 6. Advanced General Aviation Technology Experiment (AGATE). 'Smart airport' technologies are expected to be available in 5-10 years for both recreational and business transportation. Image from AGATE 'business jet' video animation.

  19. Commercial space infrastructure - Giving industry a lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Barbara A.; Wood, Peter W.

    1991-01-01

    Private sector initiatives directed toward establishing a commercial space sector in the fields of commercial space transportation, payload processing, upper stages, launch facilities, and other facilities and equipment are presented. Consideration is given to a payload processing facility that is capable of providing all prelaunch services required by communications satellites targeted for launch on U.S. launch systems. Attention is given to NASA's efforts to promote commercial infrastructure development for the creation of new products and services, leading to new markets and businesses.

  20. A process to help assure successful commercial space ventures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihara, Sam K.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a process for successful space business ventures-a methodology used by highly successful commercial ventures, but relatively new to space business enterprises. What do highly successful commercial business ventures have in common? How do these companies differ from most commercial space ventures? The answer is the implementation of a state-of-the-art customer satisfaction process. Take the case of the latest winners of the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award. What did they do that helped to achieve this performance? The answer is they implemented an effective process that measures and achieves the highest possible level of customer satisfaction. The same process can be implemented by space enterprises to achieve comparable commercial results. This paper describes the six-step process, including examples of each step. It concludes with the strong recommendation that this process be implemented to assure success in the commercial space world.

  1. Risky Business

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yarbrough, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    During my internship I worked on two major projects, recommending improvements for the Center's Risk Management Workshop and helping with the strategic planning efforts for Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA). The risk management improvements is the key project I worked on this semester through my internship, while the strategic planning is the secondary assignment. S&MA Business Office covers both aspects in its delegation, getting both spans some of the work done in the office. A risk is a future event with a negative consequence that has some probability of occurring. Safety and Mission Assurance identifies, analyzes, plans, and tracks risk. The directorate offers the Center a Risk Management Workshop, and part of the ongoing efforts of S&MA is to make continuous improvements to the RM Workshop. By using the Project Management Institute's (PMI) Standard for Risk Management, I performed a gap analysis to make improvements for our materials. I benchmarked the PMI's Risk Management Standard, compared our Risk Management Workshop materials to PMI's standard, and identified any gaps in our material. My major findings were presented to the Business Office of S&MA for a decision on whether or not to incorporate the improvements. These suggestions were made by attending JSC working group meetings, Health, Safety and Environment (HSE) panel reviews and various risk review meetings. The improvements provide better understanding of risk management processes and enhanced risk tracking knowledge and skills. Risk management is an integral part of any engineering discipline, getting exposed to this section of engineering will greatly help shape my career in the future. Johnson Space Center is a world leader in risk management processes; learning risk management here gives me a huge advantage over my peers, as well as understanding decision making in the context of risk management will help me to be a well-rounded engineer. Strategic planning is an area I had not previously

  2. 77 FR 77046 - Defense Business Board; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... ``Taking Advantage of Opportunities for Commercial Satellite Communications Services,'' ``Applying Best... findings and draft recommendations from ``Taking Advantage of Opportunities for Commercial Satellite Communications Services,'' ``Applying Best Business Practices for Corporate Performance Management to DoD,''...

  3. Business Inspiration: Small Business Leadership in Recovery?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rae, David; Price, Liz; Bosworth, Gary; Parkinson, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Business Inspiration was a short, action-centred leadership and innovation development programme designed for owners and managers of smaller firms to address business survival and repositioning needs arising from the UK's economic downturn. The article examines the design and delivery of Business Inspiration and the impact of the programme on…

  4. Commercial, environmental and legislative factors that influence the implementation of fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serfass, Jeffrey A.; Bergman, Michael K.; Rodenhiser, Wendy

    1994-04-01

    Fuel cells and other advanced electric-generation technologies have not experienced a record of successful commercialization efforts. To lower costs for these technologies, it requires substantial production volumes with a significant investment in manufacturing facilities, all dependent on developer confidence in the ultimate market. Yet, market acceptance by buyers requires an adequate demonstration of technical performance and an assurance that these lower costs can be reached. In addition to this fundamental commercialization challenge, there are significant external factors that are greatly influencing the market's (utility's) future implementation of new alternative energy-generating technologies. The factor that has possibly the greatest impact today is the public demand for environmentally benign and renewable resource technologies. There is a growing trend of involvement by consumers, regulators and intervenors in the business and utility industry that is shifting the economic playing field by which industries make resource decisions. Concerns over air pollution, global warming, acid precipitation, depletion of the ozone layer and the hazards of electromagnetic fields (EMF) from power lines, have all led to more stringent regulations and environmental mandates. The utility business environment itself is rapidly changing. Higher public expectations from energy providers and increasing competition are leading to major changes in the American utility sector. Competitive requirements to reduce the cost of utility service is leading to business decisions that provide both opportunities and problems for increased use of alternative energy-generating technologies, like fuel cells, and/or renewables, such as wind and solar photovoltaics. Bringing new energy technologies to market is very expensive and this financial burden cannot be shouldered by the market, manufacturers or federal government alone. Further, for the market to assume a key position in early

  5. Business E-Mail Communication: Some Emerging Tendencies in Register.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gimenez, Julio C.

    2000-01-01

    Investigates whether the spoken nature of electronic mail messages has already started to affect business written communication. Examines register and context of the language as well as the style used in commercial electronic mail. (Author/VWL)

  6. GEO vs. LEO Space Telecommunication Systems Commercial Set Up, Finance &Economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreisel, Joerg

    2002-01-01

    Space-based commercial telecommunication systems - especially in GEO - still represent the big volume segment in commercial space and probably will do so for a while. Although such end-to-end systems both in GEO and LEO are using satellites, ground stations, and service centers, etc., their commercial genesis differs significantly. Based on existing and planned space telecommunication businesses, this paper deals with prime characteristics of commercial GEO and LEO systems and their differences. In a tutorial way the stages of development of both LEO- and GEO-type business ventures are presented. The entire commercial development path is covered (concept, business plan, financing, partnership, growth, etc.). Focus is to understand what drives space telecommunication business and what it takes to start such new commercial space ventures. The perspective given is also based on the author's longstanding background in space commercialization and experiences made as a venture capitalist.

  7. Whole Person Learning: Embedding Ethical Enterprise Leadership in Business Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, E. Vincent; Donohue, Mary

    2012-01-01

    This study introduces a collaborative business education curricular design known as "whole person learning." The post-financial crisis market environment requires business education to encompass curricular, commercial and community skills. Drawing on the Toronto based National Mentoring Program (NMP), "whole person learning"…

  8. Business Plan for the Southwest Regional Spaceport: Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A proposal for a commercial, full-service launch, tracking, and recovery complex for Reusable Launch Vehicles in New Mexico is presented. Vision, mission, business definition, competitive advantages, and business approach are formulated. Management plan and team structure are detailed, and anticipated market is described. Finance and marketing plans are presented. Financial analysis is performed.

  9. 26 CFR 1.892-4T - Commercial activities (temporary regulations).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... commercial activity even if such activity does not constitute the conduct of a trade or business in the... real property or land which is not producing income (other than on its sale or from an investment in... commercial activity regardless of whether such activities constitute a trade or business for purposes...

  10. The ecological research needs of business.

    PubMed

    Armsworth, Paul R; Armsworth, Anastasia N; Compton, Natalie; Cottle, Phil; Davies, Ian; Emmett, Bridget A; Fandrich, Vanessa; Foote, Matthew; Gaston, Kevin J; Gardiner, Phil; Hess, Tim; Hopkins, John; Horsley, Nick; Leaver, Natasha; Maynard, Trevor; Shannon, Delia

    2010-04-01

    Businesses have an unrivalled ability to mobilize human, physical and financial capital, often manage large land holdings, and draw on resources and supply products that impact a wide array of ecosystems. Businesses therefore have the potential to make a substantial contribution to arresting declines in biodiversity and ecosystem services. To realize this potential, businesses require support from researchers in applied ecology to inform how they measure and manage their impacts on, and opportunities presented to them by, biodiversity and ecosystem services.We reviewed papers in leading applied ecology journals to assess the research contribution from existing collaborations involving businesses. We reviewed applications to, and grants funded by, the UK's Natural Environment Research Council for evidence of public investment in such collaborations. To scope opportunities for expanding collaborations with businesses, we conducted workshops with three sectors (mining and quarrying, insurance and manufacturing) in which participants identified exemplar ecological research questions of interest to their sector.Ten to fifteen per cent of primary research papers in Journal of Applied Ecology and Ecological Applications evidenced business involvement, mostly focusing on traditional rural industries (farming, fisheries and forestry). The review of UK research council funding found that 35% of applications mentioned business engagement, while only 1% of awarded grants met stricter criteria of direct business involvement.Some questions identified in the workshops aim to reduce costs from businesses' impacts on the environment and others to allow businesses to exploit new opportunities. Some questions are designed to inform long-term planning undertaken by businesses, but others would have more immediate commercial applications. Finally, some research questions are designed to streamline and make more effective those environmental policies that affect businesses.Business

  11. The ecological research needs of business.

    PubMed

    Armsworth, Paul R; Armsworth, Anastasia N; Compton, Natalie; Cottle, Phil; Davies, Ian; Emmett, Bridget A; Fandrich, Vanessa; Foote, Matthew; Gaston, Kevin J; Gardiner, Phil; Hess, Tim; Hopkins, John; Horsley, Nick; Leaver, Natasha; Maynard, Trevor; Shannon, Delia

    2010-04-01

    Businesses have an unrivalled ability to mobilize human, physical and financial capital, often manage large land holdings, and draw on resources and supply products that impact a wide array of ecosystems. Businesses therefore have the potential to make a substantial contribution to arresting declines in biodiversity and ecosystem services. To realize this potential, businesses require support from researchers in applied ecology to inform how they measure and manage their impacts on, and opportunities presented to them by, biodiversity and ecosystem services.We reviewed papers in leading applied ecology journals to assess the research contribution from existing collaborations involving businesses. We reviewed applications to, and grants funded by, the UK's Natural Environment Research Council for evidence of public investment in such collaborations. To scope opportunities for expanding collaborations with businesses, we conducted workshops with three sectors (mining and quarrying, insurance and manufacturing) in which participants identified exemplar ecological research questions of interest to their sector.Ten to fifteen per cent of primary research papers in Journal of Applied Ecology and Ecological Applications evidenced business involvement, mostly focusing on traditional rural industries (farming, fisheries and forestry). The review of UK research council funding found that 35% of applications mentioned business engagement, while only 1% of awarded grants met stricter criteria of direct business involvement.Some questions identified in the workshops aim to reduce costs from businesses' impacts on the environment and others to allow businesses to exploit new opportunities. Some questions are designed to inform long-term planning undertaken by businesses, but others would have more immediate commercial applications. Finally, some research questions are designed to streamline and make more effective those environmental policies that affect businesses.Business

  12. Business Management Course Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This course guide is designed for teaching about the U.S. business system. Students are introduced to management functions and the background knowledge/skills necessary to be a successful manager. The guide contains 10 competency goals: (1) nature of U.S. business; (2) environment of business; (3) types of business ownership; (4) management…

  13. Does Business Writing Require Information Literacy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Irvin R.; Haras, Catherine; Blaszczynski, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Although the business community increasingly recognizes information literacy as central to its work, there remains the critical problem of measurement: How should employers assess the information literacy of their current or potential workers? In this article, we use a commercially available assessment to investigate the relationship between…

  14. Pharmaceutical technology management--profitable business avenue.

    PubMed

    Puthli, Shivanand P

    2010-01-01

    Growing research expenditure, regulatory framework and generic erosion have forced pharmaceutical companies globally to resort to pharmaceutical technology management (PTM). Indeed, the pharmaceutical industry has witnessed the impact of innovative drug delivery and device technologies and their influence on business. PTM has given a new business insight with greater profits and enhancement of product franchise. Promising breakthrough technologies have not been able to reach a commercial platform largely owing to lack of capital at the preliminary stages of the product development program. Intellectual property plays a considerable role in protecting innovative technologies. Joint ventures and strategic alliances also become important for commercializing a new technology. The synergy of PTM with options of in-licensing is expected to infuse newer opportunities to the pharmaceutical business. PMID:20017657

  15. Commercial aspects of the Long March launch system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mardon, Austin Albert

    The Chinese have moved into the international commercial space business based on the launch capability of the Long March series of rockets. The report briefly describes the following: characteristics of the Long March system and examines the ways in which Long March launch services are marketed; implications surrounding proposed payloads containing U.S.-developed technology; reasons why the Chinese are maintaining a strong presence in the world commercial space market; areas in which the Chinese are interested in expanding their space commercialization business; and the prospects of Chinese-Japanese cooperation.

  16. The ecological research needs of business

    PubMed Central

    Armsworth, Paul R; Armsworth, Anastasia N; Compton, Natalie; Cottle, Phil; Davies, Ian; Emmett, Bridget A; Fandrich, Vanessa; Foote, Matthew; Gaston, Kevin J; Gardiner, Phil; Hess, Tim; Hopkins, John; Horsley, Nick; Leaver, Natasha; Maynard, Trevor; Shannon, Delia

    2010-01-01

    Businesses have an unrivalled ability to mobilize human, physical and financial capital, often manage large land holdings, and draw on resources and supply products that impact a wide array of ecosystems. Businesses therefore have the potential to make a substantial contribution to arresting declines in biodiversity and ecosystem services. To realize this potential, businesses require support from researchers in applied ecology to inform how they measure and manage their impacts on, and opportunities presented to them by, biodiversity and ecosystem services. We reviewed papers in leading applied ecology journals to assess the research contribution from existing collaborations involving businesses. We reviewed applications to, and grants funded by, the UK’s Natural Environment Research Council for evidence of public investment in such collaborations. To scope opportunities for expanding collaborations with businesses, we conducted workshops with three sectors (mining and quarrying, insurance and manufacturing) in which participants identified exemplar ecological research questions of interest to their sector. Ten to fifteen per cent of primary research papers in Journal of Applied Ecology and Ecological Applications evidenced business involvement, mostly focusing on traditional rural industries (farming, fisheries and forestry). The review of UK research council funding found that 35% of applications mentioned business engagement, while only 1% of awarded grants met stricter criteria of direct business involvement. Some questions identified in the workshops aim to reduce costs from businesses’ impacts on the environment and others to allow businesses to exploit new opportunities. Some questions are designed to inform long-term planning undertaken by businesses, but others would have more immediate commercial applications. Finally, some research questions are designed to streamline and make more effective those environmental policies that affect businesses

  17. Business planning for scientists and engineers

    SciTech Connect

    Servo, J.C.; Hauler, P.D.

    1992-03-01

    Business Planning for Scientists and Engineers is a combination text/workbook intended for use by individuals and firms having received Phase II SBIR funding (Small Business Innovation Research). It is used to best advantage in combination with other aspects of the Commercialization Assistance Project developed by Dawnbreaker for the US Department of Energy. Although there are many books on the market which indicate the desired contents of a business plan, there are none which clearly indicate how to find the needed information. This book focuses on the how of business planning: how to find the needed information; how to keep yourself honest about the market potential; how to develop the plan; how to sell and use the plan.

  18. 47 CFR 76.1904 - Encoding rules for defined business models.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Encoding rules for defined business models. 76... defined business models. (a) Commercial audiovisual content delivered as unencrypted broadcast television... the Commission pursuant to a petition with respect to a defined business model other than...

  19. 47 CFR 76.1904 - Encoding rules for defined business models.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Encoding rules for defined business models. 76... defined business models. (a) Commercial audiovisual content delivered as unencrypted broadcast television... the Commission pursuant to a petition with respect to a defined business model other than...

  20. Business of reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, Pierre

    1999-12-01

    The presentation is organized around three themes: (1) The decrease of reception equipment costs allows non-Remote Sensing organization to access a technology until recently reserved to scientific elite. What this means is the rise of 'operational' executive agencies considering space-based technology and operations as a viable input to their daily tasks. This is possible thanks to totally dedicated ground receiving entities focusing on one application for themselves, rather than serving a vast community of users. (2) The multiplication of earth observation platforms will form the base for reliable technical and financial solutions. One obstacle to the growth of the earth observation industry is the variety of policies (commercial versus non-commercial) ruling the distribution of the data and value-added products. In particular, the high volume of data sales required for the return on investment does conflict with traditional low-volume data use for most applications. Constant access to data sources supposes monitoring needs as well as technical proficiency. (3) Large volume use of data coupled with low- cost equipment costs is only possible when the technology has proven reliable, in terms of application results, financial risks and data supply. Each of these factors is reviewed. The expectation is that international cooperation between agencies and private ventures will pave the way for future business models. As an illustration, the presentation proposes to use some recent non-traditional monitoring applications, that may lead to significant use of earth observation data, value added products and services: flood monitoring, ship detection, marine oil pollution deterrent systems and rice acreage monitoring.

  1. Education, Inc.: Turning Learning into a Business. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohn, Alfie, Ed.; Shannon, Patrick, Ed.

    This collection of essays builds a case against those who see children as customers or workers and those who want to turn learning into a business. Following an introduction, The 500-Pound Gorilla by Alfie Kohn, section 1, Commercialism in Schools, contains: (1) Buy Me! Buy Me! (Alex Molnar and Joseph A. Reaves); (2) Commercialism in U.S. Schools…

  2. A moment in time: AIDS and business.

    PubMed

    Bloom, D E; Rosenfield, A

    2000-09-01

    Business has transformed the planet. But this gives it new responsibilities. People now expect business leaders to lead--and not just respond when things go wrong. HIV/AIDS is a global problem, with over 16.3 million people now thought to have died of the disease (Global Summary of HIV/AIDS Epidemic, UNAIDS, December 1999). Without action now, the pandemic will worsen, health services will come under relentless pressure and the number of people dying will increase exponentially. So why should business sit up and take notice? First: money. AIDS is slowly strangling many businesses and economies--and in a global market, everyone eventually suffers. Without profit, there is no business--so the business community needs to act to protect its bottom line. Second: people. Over 80% of those dying are in their 20s, 30s, and 40s. Businesses are losing workers and customers, and human networks that have taken decades to build. Third: imagination. Business is inventive, creative and fast-moving. It has the opportunity to use these strengths for the benefit of the wider community. It's time to pit business ideas (and some money, too) against the threat of AIDS. The course of the AIDS epidemic is not inevitable. The world's businesses have the skills and intensity to make a measurable difference, especially if they find public sector and NGO partners with whom they share a vision. A focused, coordinated, results-driven effort will hit AIDS hard. The HIV virus moves fast (and is mutating all the time). Business has the opportunity to make a difference. It must grasp this opportunity. And grasp if fast. PMID:11051635

  3. A moment in time: AIDS and business.

    PubMed

    Bloom, D E; Rosenfield, A

    2000-09-01

    Business has transformed the planet. But this gives it new responsibilities. People now expect business leaders to lead--and not just respond when things go wrong. HIV/AIDS is a global problem, with over 16.3 million people now thought to have died of the disease (Global Summary of HIV/AIDS Epidemic, UNAIDS, December 1999). Without action now, the pandemic will worsen, health services will come under relentless pressure and the number of people dying will increase exponentially. So why should business sit up and take notice? First: money. AIDS is slowly strangling many businesses and economies--and in a global market, everyone eventually suffers. Without profit, there is no business--so the business community needs to act to protect its bottom line. Second: people. Over 80% of those dying are in their 20s, 30s, and 40s. Businesses are losing workers and customers, and human networks that have taken decades to build. Third: imagination. Business is inventive, creative and fast-moving. It has the opportunity to use these strengths for the benefit of the wider community. It's time to pit business ideas (and some money, too) against the threat of AIDS. The course of the AIDS epidemic is not inevitable. The world's businesses have the skills and intensity to make a measurable difference, especially if they find public sector and NGO partners with whom they share a vision. A focused, coordinated, results-driven effort will hit AIDS hard. The HIV virus moves fast (and is mutating all the time). Business has the opportunity to make a difference. It must grasp this opportunity. And grasp if fast.

  4. Business Value Game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchenko, Artem; Duarte, Vasco

    Agile teams want to deliver maximum business value. That’s easy if the on-site Ccstomer assigns business value to each story. But how does the customer do that? How can you estimate business value? This workshop is run as a game, where teams have to make tough business decisions for their ”organizations”. Teams have to decide which orders to take and what to deliver first in order to earn more. The session gives the participants basic business value estimation techniques, but the main point is to make people live through the business situation and to help them feel the consequences of various choices.

  5. Risky business.

    PubMed

    Baram, M

    1996-10-01

    In prior studies by high-level commissions, emphasis was given to improving the scientific basis and institutional procedures for risk assessment and risk regulation within existing statutory frameworks. Recommendations have led to slow but steady progress. This study is considerably different. It emphasizes a public health approach for efficient use of resources in a new flexible framework for risk management, reductionist approaches to risk assessment and characterization, increased public involvement, and various methods for managing such public involvement. It provides a mix of aspirations and concepts, procedures, and "shop floor rules" for putting the new system of risk management into practice. Concerns remain, however, that bright lines and other rules are at odds with the report's professed aspirations for meaningful public involvement; that ad hoc institutional arrangements for putting each risk in a situational context may not be an efficient use of public and private resources; that techniques for managing stakeholder involvement will be seen as manipulative and may even increase public mistrust and anxieties about risk; and that reductionism by the regulatory clients of risk assessment could diminish progress in the environmental health sciences. Says Lucier, "The goal of risk assessment should be to prevent environmentally or occupationally mediated diseases or injury. This point is not made sufficiently clear in the commission's report. Nevertheless, the report does an admirable job of attempting to merge science, common sense, public perception, public health, economics, and stakeholder interests into a regulatory policy strategy." He continues, "The merging of these diverse inputs will never be easy and should never be overly prescriptive. The complete integration of all relevant information into the risk assessment and risk management process will require greater reliance on expert judgment to make decisions that are timely, that are based on

  6. Risky business.

    PubMed Central

    Baram, M

    1996-01-01

    In prior studies by high-level commissions, emphasis was given to improving the scientific basis and institutional procedures for risk assessment and risk regulation within existing statutory frameworks. Recommendations have led to slow but steady progress. This study is considerably different. It emphasizes a public health approach for efficient use of resources in a new flexible framework for risk management, reductionist approaches to risk assessment and characterization, increased public involvement, and various methods for managing such public involvement. It provides a mix of aspirations and concepts, procedures, and "shop floor rules" for putting the new system of risk management into practice. Concerns remain, however, that bright lines and other rules are at odds with the report's professed aspirations for meaningful public involvement; that ad hoc institutional arrangements for putting each risk in a situational context may not be an efficient use of public and private resources; that techniques for managing stakeholder involvement will be seen as manipulative and may even increase public mistrust and anxieties about risk; and that reductionism by the regulatory clients of risk assessment could diminish progress in the environmental health sciences. Says Lucier, "The goal of risk assessment should be to prevent environmentally or occupationally mediated diseases or injury. This point is not made sufficiently clear in the commission's report. Nevertheless, the report does an admirable job of attempting to merge science, common sense, public perception, public health, economics, and stakeholder interests into a regulatory policy strategy." He continues, "The merging of these diverse inputs will never be easy and should never be overly prescriptive. The complete integration of all relevant information into the risk assessment and risk management process will require greater reliance on expert judgment to make decisions that are timely, that are based on

  7. Commercialization of Coal-to-Liquids Technology

    SciTech Connect

    2007-08-15

    The report provides an overview of the current status of coal-to-liquids (CTL) commercialization efforts, including an analysis of efforts to develop and implement large-scale, commercial coal-to-liquids projects to create transportation fuels. Topics covered include: an overview of the history of coal usage and the current market for coal; a detailed description of what coal-to-liquids technology is; the history of coal-to-liquids development and commercial application; an analysis of the key business factors that are driving the increased interest in coal-to-liquids; an analysis of the issues and challenges that are hindering the commercialization of coal-to-liquids technology; a review of available coal-to-liquids technology; a discussion of the economic drivers of coal-to-liquids project success; profiles of key coal-to-liquids developers; and profiles of key coal-to-liquids projects under development.

  8. Business-to-business: Buying Recycled.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millberg, Laura

    1994-01-01

    A survey of Minnesota businesses about their efforts to buy recycled content products. Results discuss reactive versus proactive policies, the corporate advantage of environmental protection, how efforts are hampered by confusion, suppliers as key informants, and businesses' need for information. (MDH)

  9. Teaching Business Ethics or Teaching Business Ethically?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stablein, Ralph

    2003-01-01

    Notes that one of the most important contexts for ethical decision-making is the nature and operation of "contemporary capitalisms." Suggests that rather than issuing a call for teaching business ethics, the author emphasizes the need for more ethical business teaching. (SG)

  10. NASA Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (OSDBU) within NASA promotes the utilization of small, disadvantaged, and women-owned small businesses in compliance with Federal laws, regulations, and policies. We assist such firms in obtaining contracts and subcontracts with NASA and its prime contractors. The OSDBU also facilitates the participation of small businesses in NASA's technology transfer and commercialization activities. Our driving philosophy is to consider small businesses as our products. Our customers are the NASA Enterprises, Field Centers, Functional Staff Offices, major prime contractors, and other large institutions. We hone the skills of our products to make them marketable to our customers in the performance of NASA missions.

  11. AGATE animation - business theme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Business jet 1 of 6. This composite image symbolizes how Advanced General Aviation Transports Experiment (AGATE) technology will contribute to a Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) early in the 21st century. Image from AGATE 'business' video animation.

  12. The Link: Business, Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AGB Reports, 1984

    1984-01-01

    An excerpt from "Corporate and Campus Cooperation: An Action Agenda" (a report from the Business-Higher Education Forum) explains some methods for strengthening the link between the business and education communities. (Author/MLW)

  13. Risky Business: The Market for Unprotected Commercial Sex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gertler, Paul; Shah, Manisha; Bertozzi, Stefano M.

    2005-01-01

    While condoms are an effective defense against the transmission of HIV, large numbers of sex workers are not using them. We argue that some sex workers are willing to take the risk because clients are willing to pay more to avoid using condoms. Using data from Mexico, we estimate that sex workers received a 23 percent premium for unprotected sex.…

  14. Commercial Scholarship: Spinning Physics Research into a Business Enterprise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Orville

    2013-03-01

    The American Institute of Physics' Center for History of Physics has conducted a three year NSF funded study of physicist entrepreneurs during which we interviewed 140 physicists who have founded ninety-one startups. Forty of those companies have spun research out of twenty-some universities. Startups spun out of university research tend to be technology push companies, creating new potentially disruptive technologies for which markets do not yet clearly exist, in contrast to market pull companies founded to address innovations responding to market demands. This paper addresses the unique issues found in university spinout companies and their responses to them. While technology push companies are generally considered to be higher risk compared to market pull companies, the university spinouts in our study had a higher rate of both SBIR and venture capital funding than did the market pull companies in our study.

  15. Weed control and yield potential for a promising rice line, STG06L-35-061, selected from crosses between weed-suppressive indicas and commercial long-grain rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustainable weed control is an ongoing challenge in rice production. Indica rice lines such as PI 312777 that can suppress Echinochloa crus-galli and other troublesome C4 grass weeds have been evaluated extensively in Arkansas for more than a decade. In an ongoing breeding/selection program, we are...

  16. Commercial Buildings Characteristics, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-29

    Commercial Buildings Characteristics 1992 presents statistics about the number, type, and size of commercial buildings in the United States as well as their energy-related characteristics. These data are collected in the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), a national survey of buildings in the commercial sector. The 1992 CBECS is the fifth in a series conducted since 1979 by the Energy Information Administration. Approximately 6,600 commercial buildings were surveyed, representing the characteristics and energy consumption of 4.8 million commercial buildings and 67.9 billion square feet of commercial floorspace nationwide. Overall, the amount of commercial floorspace in the United States increased an average of 2.4 percent annually between 1989 and 1992, while the number of commercial buildings increased an average of 2.0 percent annually.

  17. English for Business Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatia, Vijay K.; Bremner, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The concept of Business English has undergone some major shifts in the last few years because of a number of developments, such as advances in genre theory and the coming together of English for Business Purposes and Business Communication, inspired by the realization that there is a gap to be bridged between the academy and the globalized…

  18. Discovering the Business Studio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Daved; Meisiek, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, numerous business schools have begun experimenting with studio-based inquiry, often drawing inspiration from professional studios used within art and design schools and from business and governmental studios used for problem-solving and innovation. Business school studios vary considerably in form, ranging from temporary…

  19. Doing business with NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Because many U.S. businesses and companies want to do business with NASA, the Agency sends out procurement specialists to trade shows and conferences and organizes seminars to educate the business public on how to get on procurement lists to become product and service providers to the federal government.

  20. Articulating Business Education Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwen, Beryl C.

    1998-01-01

    Responses from 75 of 108 business educators indicated that most students took business courses to develop both job and personal-use skills; more than 50% were college bound. A substantial overlap between skills taught in secondary and postsecondary business shows a strong possibility for curriculum articulation. (SK)

  1. Business and the Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barchie, Lisa

    By virtue of the different natures of the two institutions, the relationship between business and the media is simultaneously adversarial and symbiotic: the media see themselves as society's watchdog while business sees itself as society's driving economic force. Meanwhile, business relies on the media for information, and the media rely on…

  2. Small Business Pedagogic Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billett, Stephen; Hernon-Tinning, Barnie; Ehrich, Lisa

    2003-01-01

    Understanding how learning for small businesses should best proceed constitutes a worthwhile, yet challenging, pedagogic project. In order to maintain their viability, small businesses need to be able to respond to new practices and tasks. Yet small businesses seem neither attracted to nor to value the kinds of taught courses that are the standard…

  3. Small Business Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Wendell, Ed.

    Intended as a resource for both experienced businesspeople and those new to business, this annotated bibliography provides a list of books, pamphlets, periodicals, and videotapes of value in solving specific business problems. The bibliography begins with a list of resources recommended for the library of every small business and a survey of…

  4. The Business Education Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rader, Martha; Meggison, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The business education curriculum encompasses the educational experiences of business students at all levels. Business education curricula include a variety of programs, courses, units, course objectives, student competencies, assessments, and extracurricular activities that have evolved over the years. Curricula are driven by numerous internal…

  5. First Business Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small Business Administration, Washington, DC. Office of Business Development.

    This guide offers first-time business persons information as well as administrative and operational techniques for one-person business enterprises that have low initial start-up costs and low operational and overhead costs. These one-person businesses can be home based or have site locations outside the home. Included in this guide is a list of…

  6. Partnering with Business Coalitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawlowski, Brett

    2007-01-01

    Many career and technical education (CTE) programs rely heavily on support from the business community to serve their students. However, there is very little information available on building solid business-education partnerships. Most people in the business world will say that they care about education, but how can educators find the people…

  7. Foundational Forces & Hidden Variables in Technology Commercialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, Brandon

    2011-03-01

    The science of physics seems vastly different from the process of technology commercialization. Physics strives to understand our world through the experimental deduction of immutable laws and dependent variables and the resulting macro-scale phenomenon. In comparison, the~goal of business is to make a profit by addressing the needs, preferences, and whims of individuals in a market. It may seem that this environment is too dynamic to identify all the hidden variables and deduct the foundational forces that impact a business's ability to commercialize innovative technologies. One example of a business ``force'' is found in the semiconductor industry. In 1965, Intel co-founder Gordon Moore predicted that the number of transistors incorporated in a chip will approximately double every 24 months. Known as Moore's Law, this prediction has become the guiding principle for the semiconductor industry for the last 40 years. Of course, Moore's Law is not really a law of nature; rather it is the result of efforts by Intel and the entire semiconductor industry. A closer examination suggests that there are foundational principles of business that underlie the macro-scale phenomenon of Moore's Law. Principles of profitability, incentive, and strategic alignment have resulted in a coordinated influx of resources that has driven technologies to market, increasing the profitability of the semiconductor industry and optimizing the fitness of its participants. New innovations in technology are subject to these same principles. So, in addition to traditional market forces, these often unrecognized forces and variables create challenges for new technology commercialization. In this talk, I will draw from ethnographic research, complex adaptive theory, and industry data to suggest a framework with which to think about new technology commercialization. Intel's bio-silicon initiative provides a case study.

  8. Commercial dissemination approaches for solar home systems

    SciTech Connect

    Terrado, E.

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses the issue of providing solar home systems to primarily rural areas from the perspective of how to commercialize the process. He considers two different approaches, one an open market approach and the other an exclusive market approach. He describes examples of the exclusive market approach which are in process in Argentina and Brazil. Coming from a banking background, the business aspects are discussed in detail. He points out the strengths and weaknesses of both approaches toward developing such systems.

  9. You're the Business--A Custom-Made Business Challenge for Modern Languages Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penet, Jean-Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Modern Languages (ML) students often express concerns about their perceived lack of commercial awareness, worrying that this will put them at a disadvantage, compared with business graduates for instance, when applying for jobs. To try and change this perception, Newcastle University's School of Modern Languages (SML) teamed up with the Careers…

  10. Knowledge-Centric Management of Business Rules in a Pharmacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puustjärvi, Juha; Puustjärvi, Leena

    A business rule defines or constraints some aspect of the business. In healthcare sector many of the business rules are dictated by law or medical regulations, which are constantly changing. This is a challenge for the healthcare organizations. Although there is available several commercial business rule management systems the problem from pharmacies point of view is that these systems are overly geared towards the automation and manipulation of business rules, while the main need in pharmacies lies in easy retrieving of business rules within daily routines. Another problem is that business rule management systems are isolated in the sense that they have their own data stores that cannot be accessed by other information systems used in pharmacies. As a result, a pharmacist is burdened by accessing many systems inside a user task. In order to avoid this problem we have modeled business rules as well as their relationships to other relevant information by OWL (Web Ontology Language) such that the ontology is shared among the pharmacy's applications. In this way we can avoid the problems of isolated applications and replicated data. The ontology also encourages pharmacies business agility, i.e., the ability to react more rapidly to the changes required by the new business rules. The deployment of the ontology requires that stored business rules are annotated by appropriate metadata descriptions, which are presented by RDF/XML serialization format. However, neither the designer nor the pharmacists are burdened by RDF/XML format as there are sophisticated graphical editors that can be used.

  11. Blueprint for Business. Reaching a New Work Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Lyn A.; Erden, James Van; Mower, Eleanor; Patel, Apurva; Mitchell, Steve

    This guide is designed to help U.S. businesses successfully hire and retain individuals moving from welfare to work. Section 1 discusses the different circumstances created by the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 and how those changes affect business. Section 2 reviews bottom-line benefits realized by…

  12. Good Conversations: An Enhanced Model to Teach Business Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Grace S.

    2011-01-01

    Business practices are a constant matter of discussion by ethical theorists concerned with the conflicts between profitability and justice (Cherry, Lee, & Chien, 2003). Business decisions are complex and hence likely to be compromised by low-quality or questionable strategies (Carpenter & Sanders, 2008). The line between misbehavior and legal…

  13. Running Schools as a Business: Massacre or Mutuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooston, Paul D.; Ferguson, Judith

    1986-01-01

    To cope with today's tight economy, administrators can make use of their school resources through business collaboration; for example, New Jersey's Princeton Regional School District has improved its "bottom line" by developing various marketing strategies. (CJH)

  14. Modeling approach for business process reengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Mitchell M.; Chen, Yuliu

    1995-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce a modeling approach to define, simulate, animate, and control business processes. The intent is to introduce the undergoing methodology to build tools for designing and managing business processes. Similar to computer aided design (CAD) for mechanical parts, CAD tools are needed for designing business processes. It emphasizes the dynamic behavior of business process. The proposed modeling technique consists of a definition of each individual activity, the network of activities, a control mechanism that describes coordination of these activities, and events that will flow through these activities. Based on the formalism introduced in this modeling technique, users will be able to define business process with minimum ambiguity, take snap shots of particular events in the process, describe the accountability of participants, and view a replay of event streams in the process flow. This modeling approach, mapped on top of a commercial software, has been tested by using examples from real life business process. The examples and testing helped us to identify some of the strengths and weaknesses of this proposed approach.

  15. Commercial Web Site Links.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thelwall, Mike

    2001-01-01

    Discusses business use of the Web and related search engine design issues as well as research on general and academic links before reporting on a survey of the links published by a collection of business Web sites. Results indicate around 66% of Web sites do carry external links, most of which are targeted at a specific purpose, but about 17%…

  16. Commercialism in Experiential Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Steve

    1987-01-01

    Examines perceived threat of commercialism on the ethical foundation of the experiential education movement. Contends that relationship between humanistic values often espoused by experiential educators need not be in conflict with a commercial, profit-oriented perspective. (NEC)

  17. Canadian Business Schools: Going out of Business?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobni, Dawn; Dobni, Brooke

    1996-01-01

    Using Porter's five-forces model (potential entrants, suppliers, buyers, rivalry, substitutes) to analyze competition in Canadian university business schools, the authors conclude that schools are becoming increasingly vulnerable to competitive pressures and that strategic reorientation is necessary. (SK)

  18. NASA commercial programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    An expanded role for the U.S. private sector in America's space future has emerged as a key national objective, and NASA's Office of Commercial Programs is providing a focus for action. The Office supports new high technology commercial space ventures, the commercial application of existing aeronautics and space technology, and expanded commercial access to available NASA capabilities and services. The progress NASA has made in carrying out its new assignment is highlighted.

  19. The Commercial Energy Consumer: About Whom Are We Speaking?

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, Christopher

    2006-05-12

    Who are commercial sector customers, and how do they make decisions about energy consumption and energy efficiency investment? The energy policy field has not done a thorough job of describing energy consumption in the commercial sector. First, the discussion of the commercial sector itself is dominated by discussion of large businesses/buildings. Second, discussion of this portion of the commercial sectors consumption behavior is driven primarily by theory, with very little field data collected on the way commercial sector decision-makers describe their own options, choices, and reasons for taking action. These limitations artificially constrain energy policy options. This paper reviews the extant literature on commercial sector energy consumption behavior and identifies gaps in our knowledge. In particular, it argues that the primary energy policy model of commercial sector energy consumption is a top-down model that uses macro-level investment data to make conclusions about commercial behavior. Missing from the discussion is a model of consumption behavior that builds up to a theoretical framework informed by the micro-level data provided by commercial decision-makers themselves. Such a bottom-up model could enhance the effectiveness of commercial sector energy policy. In particular, translation of some behavioral models from the residential sector to the commercial sector may offer new opportunities for policies to change commercial energy consumption behavior. Utility bill consumption feedback is considered as one example of a policy option that may be applicable to both the residential and small commercial sector.

  20. Commercial Banking Industry Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bright Horizons Children's Centers, Cambridge, MA.

    Work and family programs are becoming increasingly important in the commercial banking industry. The objective of this survey was to collect information and prepare a commercial banking industry profile on work and family programs. Fifty-nine top American commercial banks from the Fortune 500 list were invited to participate. Twenty-two…

  1. Commercialism in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Kirstin

    2001-01-01

    This document gives voice to concerns raised by critics and supporters of commercialism in schools and provides brief descriptions of several important resources on this topic. "Commercial Activities in School" (U.S. General Accounting Office) reports on the nature and frequency of commercial activities in public schools, as well as the laws and…

  2. COMMERCIAL FOODS, MATHEMATICS - I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DORNFIELD, BLANCHE E.

    THE UNDERSTANDING AND MASTERY OF FUNDAMENTAL MATHEMATICS IS A NECESSARY PART OF COMMERCIAL FOODS WORK. THIS STUDENT HANDBOOK WAS DESIGNED TO ACCOMPANY A COMMERCIAL FOODS COURSE AT THE HIGH SCHOOL LEVEL FOR STUDENTS WITH APPROPRIATE APTITUDES AND COMMERCIAL FOOD SERVICE GOALS. THE MATERIAL, TESTED IN VARIOUS INTERESTED CLASSROOMS, WAS PREPARED BY…

  3. Accruals for HANDI 2000 business management system

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.

    1998-08-24

    The Data Integration 2000 Project will result in an integrated and comprehensive set of functional applications containing core information necessary to support the Project Hanford Management Contract. It is based on the Commercial-Off-The-Shelf product solution with commercially proven business processes. The COTS product solution set, of PassPort and People Soft software, supports finance, supply and chemical management/Material Safety Data Sheet, human resources. Accruals are made at the project level. At the inception of each project, Project Management and the Accounts Payable Group make a mutual decision on whether periodic accrual entries should be made for it.

  4. Allocations for HANDI 2000 business management system

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.

    1998-08-24

    The Data Integration 2000 Project will result in an integrated and comprehensive set of functional applications containing core information necessary to support the Project Hanford Management Contract. It is based on the Commercial-Off-The-Shelf product solution with commercially proven business processes. The COTS product solution set, of PassPort and People Soft software, supports finance, supply and chemical management/Material Safety Data Sheet, human resources. Allocations at Fluor Daniel Hanford are burdens added to base costs using a predetermined rate.

  5. Vehicle Scheduling Schemes for Commercial and Emergency Logistics Integration

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaohui; Tan, Qingmei

    2013-01-01

    In modern logistics operations, large-scale logistics companies, besides active participation in profit-seeking commercial business, also play an essential role during an emergency relief process by dispatching urgently-required materials to disaster-affected areas. Therefore, an issue has been widely addressed by logistics practitioners and caught researchers' more attention as to how the logistics companies achieve maximum commercial profit on condition that emergency tasks are effectively and performed satisfactorily. In this paper, two vehicle scheduling models are proposed to solve the problem. One is a prediction-related scheme, which predicts the amounts of disaster-relief materials and commercial business and then accepts the business that will generate maximum profits; the other is a priority-directed scheme, which, firstly groups commercial and emergency business according to priority grades and then schedules both types of business jointly and simultaneously by arriving at the maximum priority in total. Moreover, computer-based simulations are carried out to evaluate the performance of these two models by comparing them with two traditional disaster-relief tactics in China. The results testify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed models. PMID:24391724

  6. Vehicle scheduling schemes for commercial and emergency logistics integration.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaohui; Tan, Qingmei

    2013-01-01

    In modern logistics operations, large-scale logistics companies, besides active participation in profit-seeking commercial business, also play an essential role during an emergency relief process by dispatching urgently-required materials to disaster-affected areas. Therefore, an issue has been widely addressed by logistics practitioners and caught researchers' more attention as to how the logistics companies achieve maximum commercial profit on condition that emergency tasks are effectively and performed satisfactorily. In this paper, two vehicle scheduling models are proposed to solve the problem. One is a prediction-related scheme, which predicts the amounts of disaster-relief materials and commercial business and then accepts the business that will generate maximum profits; the other is a priority-directed scheme, which, firstly groups commercial and emergency business according to priority grades and then schedules both types of business jointly and simultaneously by arriving at the maximum priority in total. Moreover, computer-based simulations are carried out to evaluate the performance of these two models by comparing them with two traditional disaster-relief tactics in China. The results testify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed models. PMID:24391724

  7. Vehicle scheduling schemes for commercial and emergency logistics integration.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaohui; Tan, Qingmei

    2013-01-01

    In modern logistics operations, large-scale logistics companies, besides active participation in profit-seeking commercial business, also play an essential role during an emergency relief process by dispatching urgently-required materials to disaster-affected areas. Therefore, an issue has been widely addressed by logistics practitioners and caught researchers' more attention as to how the logistics companies achieve maximum commercial profit on condition that emergency tasks are effectively and performed satisfactorily. In this paper, two vehicle scheduling models are proposed to solve the problem. One is a prediction-related scheme, which predicts the amounts of disaster-relief materials and commercial business and then accepts the business that will generate maximum profits; the other is a priority-directed scheme, which, firstly groups commercial and emergency business according to priority grades and then schedules both types of business jointly and simultaneously by arriving at the maximum priority in total. Moreover, computer-based simulations are carried out to evaluate the performance of these two models by comparing them with two traditional disaster-relief tactics in China. The results testify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed models.

  8. 47 CFR 76.1904 - Encoding rules for defined business models.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... defined business models. (a) Commercial audiovisual content delivered as unencrypted broadcast television...) Commercial audiovisual content shall not be encoded so as to prevent or limit copying thereof except as... conditional access delivery transmissions; and (2) With respect to any commercial audiovisual...

  9. Technology Management within Product Lines in High Technology Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarangee, Kumar R.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the nuances of product line management has been of great interest to business scholars and practitioners. This assumes greater significance for firms conducting business in technologically dynamic industries, where they face certain challenges regarding the management of multiple, overlapping technologies within their product lines.…

  10. Small business development for molecular diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Anagostou, Anthanasia; Liotta, Lance A

    2012-01-01

    Molecular profiling, which is the application of molecular diagnostics technology to tissue and blood -specimens, is an integral element in the new era of molecular medicine and individualized therapy. Molecular diagnostics is a fertile ground for small business development because it can generate products that meet immediate demands in the health-care sector: (a) Detection of disease risk, or early-stage disease, with a higher specificity and sensitivity compared to previous testing methods, and (b) "Companion diagnostics" for stratifying patients to receive a treatment choice optimized to their individual disease. This chapter reviews the promise and challenges of business development in this field. Guidelines are provided for the creation of a business model and the generation of a marketing plan around a candidate molecular diagnostic product. Steps to commercialization are outlined using existing molecular diagnostics companies as learning examples.

  11. NASA's commercial space program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, Richard H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper will review the goals, status and progress of NASA's commercial space development program administered by the Office of Commercial Programs (OCP). The technologies and flight programs underway by NASA's Centers for Commercial Development (CCDS), NASA's field centers, and the NASA/Industry Joint Endeavor Programs will be summarized. A summary of completed and upcoming commercial payload activities on Shuttle, suborbital rockets, and orbital ELV's will be provided. The new commercial infrastructure and transportation initiatives will be discussed including the Wake Shield Facility, Consort and Joust suborbital rocket programs, the COMET orbital and recovery program, and the Commercial Middeck Accommodation Module Program with Spacehab Inc. Finally, the Commercial Space Station Freedom Program planned by OCP will be reviewed.

  12. 2006 Update of Business Downtime Costs

    SciTech Connect

    Hinrichs, Mr. Doug; Goggin, Mr. Michael

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the downtime cost of power outages to businesses in the commercial and industrial sectors, updating and improving upon studies that have already been published on this subject. The goal is to produce a study that, relative to existing studies, (1) applies to a wider set of business types (2) reflects more current downtime costs, (3) accounts for the time duration factor of power outages, and (4) includes data on the costs imposed by real outages in a well-defined market. This study examines power outage costs in 11 commercial subsectors and 5 industrial subsectors, using data on downtime costs that was collected in the 1990's. This study also assesses power outage costs for power outages of 20 minutes, 1 hour, and 4 hours duration. Finally, this study incorporates data on the costs of real power outages for two business subsectors. However, the current limited state of data availability on the topic of downtime costs means there is room to improve upon this study. Useful next steps would be to generate more recent data on downtime costs, data that covers outages shorter than 20 minutes duration and longer than 4 hours duration, and more data that is based on the costs caused by real-world outages. Nevertheless, with the limited data that is currently available, this study is able to generate a clear and detailed picture of the downtime costs that are faced by different types of businesses.

  13. 75 FR 2457 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Business Systems-Definition and Administration...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Business Systems--Definition and Administration (DFARS Case... Regulation Supplement (DFARS) to improve the effectiveness of DoD oversight of contractor business systems.... Background Contractor business systems and internal controls are the first line of defense against...

  14. 48 CFR 52.219-4 - Notice of price evaluation preference for HUBZone small business concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... successful offers from small business concerns. (2) The factor of 10 percent shall be applied on a line item... preference for HUBZone small business concerns. 52.219-4 Section 52.219-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations... business concerns. As prescribed in 19.1308(b), insert the following clause: Notice of Price...

  15. Why business models matter.

    PubMed

    Magretta, Joan

    2002-05-01

    "Business model" was one of the great buzz-words of the Internet boom. A company didn't need a strategy, a special competence, or even any customers--all it needed was a Web-based business model that promised wild profits in some distant, ill-defined future. Many people--investors, entrepreneurs, and executives alike--fell for the fantasy and got burned. And as the inevitable counterreaction played out, the concept of the business model fell out of fashion nearly as quickly as the .com appendage itself. That's a shame. As Joan Magretta explains, a good business model remains essential to every successful organization, whether it's a new venture or an established player. To help managers apply the concept successfully, she defines what a business model is and how it complements a smart competitive strategy. Business models are, at heart, stories that explain how enterprises work. Like a good story, a robust business model contains precisely delineated characters, plausible motivations, and a plot that turns on an insight about value. It answers certain questions: Who is the customer? How do we make money? What underlying economic logic explains how we can deliver value to customers at an appropriate cost? Every viable organization is built on a sound business model, but a business model isn't a strategy, even though many people use the terms interchangeably. Business models describe, as a system, how the pieces of a business fit together. But they don't factor in one critical dimension of performance: competition. That's the job of strategy. Illustrated with examples from companies like American Express, EuroDisney, WalMart, and Dell Computer, this article clarifies the concepts of business models and strategy, which are fundamental to every company's performance.

  16. Women as a business imperative.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, F N

    1992-01-01

    In 1989, Felice N. Schwartz's HBR article "Management Women and the New Facts of Life" generated a huge debate over the rules established by corporations in their handling of women executives. Now in "Women as a Business Imperative," Schwartz follows up with practical insights about the costs companies incur in passing over qualified businesswomen. In the form of a memo to a fictional CEO, Schwartz describes how the atmosphere within most companies is corrosive to women and must change. Preconceptions harbored by male senior managers about women are so deeply ingrained that many men are not even aware of them. Yet senior managers must help women advance. Those companies that accept their responsibility to make radical change--both in women's treatment and in family support--can improve their bottom lines enormously. Treating women as a business imperative is the equivalent of creating a unique R&D product for which there is great demand. Most companies ignore child care and other family concerns. Many companies hire women to ensure mere adequacy and avoid litigation. Women's ambitions and energies are stifled by such businesses at the same time that women have demonstrated their competence and potential in the best business schools. High turnover results. However, the restraints that now hold women back can be loosened easily. CEOs and other senior managers must support their female employees by (1) acknowledging the fundamental difference between women and men--the biological fact of maternity; (2) allowing flexibility for women and men who need it; (3) providing training that takes advantage of women's leadership potential; and (4) eliminating the corrosive atmosphere and the barriers that exist for women in the workplace. PMID:10117366

  17. Build loyalty in business markets.

    PubMed

    Narayandas, Das

    2005-09-01

    Companies often apply consumer marketing solutions in business markets without realizing that such strategies only hamper the acquisition and retention of profitable customers. Unlike consumers, business customers inevitably need customized products, quantities, or prices. A company in a business market must therefore manage customers individually, showing how its products or services can help solve each buyer's problems. And it must learn to reap the enormous benefits of loyalty by developing individual relationships with customers. To achieve these ends, the firm's marketers must become aware of the different types of benefits the company offers and convey their value to the appropriate executives in the customer company. It's especially important to inform customers about what the author calls nontangible nonfinancial benefits-above-and-beyond efforts, such as delivering supplies on holidays to keep customers' production lines going. The author has developed a simple set of devices-the benefit stack and the decision-maker stack-to help marketers communicate their firm's myriad benefits. The vendor lists the benefits it offers, then lists the customer's decision makers, specifying their concerns, motivations, and power bases. By linking the two stacks, the vendor can systematically communicate how it will meet each decision-maker's needs. The author has also developed a tool called a loyalty ladder, which helps a company determine how much time and money to spend on relationships with various customers. As customers become increasingly loyal, they display behaviors in a predictable sequence, from growing the relationship and providing word-of-mouth endorsements to investing in the vendor company. The author has found that customers follow the same sequence of loyalty behaviors in all business markets. PMID:16171217

  18. Women as a business imperative.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, F N

    1992-01-01

    In 1989, Felice N. Schwartz's HBR article "Management Women and the New Facts of Life" generated a huge debate over the rules established by corporations in their handling of women executives. Now in "Women as a Business Imperative," Schwartz follows up with practical insights about the costs companies incur in passing over qualified businesswomen. In the form of a memo to a fictional CEO, Schwartz describes how the atmosphere within most companies is corrosive to women and must change. Preconceptions harbored by male senior managers about women are so deeply ingrained that many men are not even aware of them. Yet senior managers must help women advance. Those companies that accept their responsibility to make radical change--both in women's treatment and in family support--can improve their bottom lines enormously. Treating women as a business imperative is the equivalent of creating a unique R&D product for which there is great demand. Most companies ignore child care and other family concerns. Many companies hire women to ensure mere adequacy and avoid litigation. Women's ambitions and energies are stifled by such businesses at the same time that women have demonstrated their competence and potential in the best business schools. High turnover results. However, the restraints that now hold women back can be loosened easily. CEOs and other senior managers must support their female employees by (1) acknowledging the fundamental difference between women and men--the biological fact of maternity; (2) allowing flexibility for women and men who need it; (3) providing training that takes advantage of women's leadership potential; and (4) eliminating the corrosive atmosphere and the barriers that exist for women in the workplace.

  19. World commercial aircraft accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, C.Y.

    1993-01-01

    This report is a compilation of all accidents world-wide involving aircraft in commercial service which resulted in the loss of the airframe or one or more fatality, or both. This information has been gathered in order to present a complete inventory of commercial aircraft accidents. Events involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, hijackings, suicides, and industrial ground accidents are included within this list. Included are: accidents involving world commercial jet aircraft, world commercial turboprop aircraft, world commercial pistonprop aircraft with four or more engines and world commercial pistonprop aircraft with two or three engines from 1946 to 1992. Each accident is presented with information in the following categories: date of the accident, airline and its flight numbers, type of flight, type of aircraft, aircraft registration number, construction number/manufacturers serial number, aircraft damage, accident flight phase, accident location, number of fatalities, number of occupants, cause, remarks, or description (brief) of the accident, and finally references used. The sixth chapter presents a summary of the world commercial aircraft accidents by major aircraft class (e.g. jet, turboprop, and pistonprop) and by flight phase. The seventh chapter presents several special studies including a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types with 100 or more fatalities in order of decreasing number of fatalities, a list of collision accidents involving commercial aircrafts, and a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, and hijackings.

  20. Translating climate data for business decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberg, N.

    2015-12-01

    Businesses are bound to play an integral role in global and local climate change adaptation efforts, and integrating climate science into business decision-making can help protect companies' bottom-line and the communities which they depend upon. Yet many companies do not have good means to measure and manage climate risks. There are inherent limiting factors to incorporating climate data into existing operations and sourcing strategies. Spatial and temporal incongruities between climate and business models can make integration cumbersome. Even when such incongruities are resolved, raw climate data must undergo multiple transformations until the data is deemed actionable or otherwise translatable in dollar terms. However, the predictability of future impacts is advancing along with the use of second-order variables such as Cooling Degree Days and Water-Limited Crop productivity, helping business managers make better decisions about future energy and water demand requirements under the prospect of rising temperatures and more variable rainfall. This presentation will discuss the methods and opportunities for transforming raw climate data into business metrics. Results for the 2015 Corporate Adaptation Survey, led by Four Twenty Seven and in partnership with Notre Dame Global Adaptation Index, will also be presented to illustrate existing gaps between climate science and its application in the business context.

  1. Local Gov`t assistance in commercial waste reduction & recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Hannah, C.W.

    1996-08-01

    This paper outlines programs and strategies for reducing the waste stream by targeting the commercial, industrial and institutional sectors. The programs described are implemented by the Wake County Solid Waste Management Division, North Carolina. Findings and recommendations of a task force focusing on the role of the private sector in meeting state waste reduction mandates are summarized. Commercial initiatives, educational initiatives, and a grant program are described. Several case studies are provided which overview the variety of businesses and waste materials addressed.

  2. 13 CFR 115.33 - Surety bonding line.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Surety bonding line. 115.33... Guarantees Subject to Prior Approval § 115.33 Surety bonding line. A surety bonding line is a written... applying for a bonding line, the Surety must provide SBA with information on the applicant as requested....

  3. Introduction to the Beam Business

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamm, Robert W.; Hamm, Marianne E.

    2012-06-01

    The goal of this book is to present for the first time in more than 25 years a review of the broad range of technologies and applications of "Industrial Accelerators". For purposes of this work, we consider any charged particle accelerator that generates an external electron or ion beam for any beam process other than direct medical treatment or basic research to be an industrial accelerator. We do not include self-contained low-energy devices such as cathode ray tubes, X-ray tubes, radio frequency and microwave power tubes, and electron microscopes in this category even though they are used mostly for industrial purposes. However, we do consider the accelerator production of therapeutic or diagnostic radionuclides for nuclear medicine an industrial application because these are either stand-alone ingredients or end products that are for the most part produced by for-profit businesses using commercially-built accelerators...

  4. service line analytics in the new era.

    PubMed

    Spence, Jay; Seargeant, Dan

    2015-08-01

    To succeed under the value-based business model, hospitals and health systems require effective service line analytics that combine inpatient and outpatient data and that incorporate quality metrics for evaluating clinical operations. When developing a framework for collection, analysis, and dissemination of service line data, healthcare organizations should focus on five key aspects of effective service line analytics: Updated service line definitions. Ability to analyze and trend service line net patient revenues by payment source. Access to accurate service line cost information across multiple dimensions with drill-through capabilities. Ability to redesign key reports based on changing requirements. Clear assignment of accountability.

  5. service line analytics in the new era.

    PubMed

    Spence, Jay; Seargeant, Dan

    2015-08-01

    To succeed under the value-based business model, hospitals and health systems require effective service line analytics that combine inpatient and outpatient data and that incorporate quality metrics for evaluating clinical operations. When developing a framework for collection, analysis, and dissemination of service line data, healthcare organizations should focus on five key aspects of effective service line analytics: Updated service line definitions. Ability to analyze and trend service line net patient revenues by payment source. Access to accurate service line cost information across multiple dimensions with drill-through capabilities. Ability to redesign key reports based on changing requirements. Clear assignment of accountability. PMID:26548137

  6. Gendered Discourse about Family Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danes, Sharon M.; Haberman, Heather R.; McTavish, Donald

    2005-01-01

    Language patterns of family business owners were explored by identifying discourse styles and emphasized ideas in four presenting contexts: business, family, intersection of family and business, and business success. The content analysis supports the existence of a general discourse style within family businesses and of similarities and…

  7. 75 FR 55303 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Commercial Service Annual Customer Satisfaction...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ...: Client service principles, export assistance services and business practices. The Annual Customer... International Trade Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Commercial Service Annual Customer Satisfaction Survey AGENCY: International Trade Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  8. Measure Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crissman, Sally

    2011-01-01

    One tool for enhancing students' work with data in the science classroom is the measure line. As a coteacher and curriculum developer for The Inquiry Project, the author has seen how measure lines--a number line in which the numbers refer to units of measure--help students not only represent data but also analyze it in ways that generate…

  9. Speechwriting: The Business Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kessler, Martha Stout

    Several factors have contributed to the increased demand for corporate speechwriters, including the consumer and environmental movements, the economy, foreign competition, and a negative public attitude toward business. Corporate speeches serve a variety of purposes: promoting a corporation within a business community, providing information on…

  10. Teaching Business Italian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trivelli, Remo J.

    The University of Rhode Island's business Italian course is an advanced language course whose focus is the Italian business world and its reflection of values, customs, and traditions. The course begins with presentations on salient features of contemporary Italian, such as syntactical simplification and nominalization, and how the social,…

  11. Is Small Business Doomed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Business Education Forum, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Provides a sampling of viewpoints from businessmen, economists, futurists, and government experts on the future of small business presented at hearings before the Subcommittee on Antitrust, Consumers, and Employment, Committee on Small Business, House of Representatives. Problems of taxes, the economy, and government regulations are discussed from…

  12. Business and Older Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

    This study updates a 1985 study which examined the perceptions, policies, and practices of American business regarding older workers, and placed them in the context of larger economic, demographic, and social trends shaping the business climate. The new survey was conducted in July 1989 among a random sample of 400 companies, with 100 each in 4…

  13. Agriculture Business and Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seperich, George; And Others

    This curriculum guide is intended for vocational agriculture teachers who deliver agricultural business and management programs at the secondary or postsecondary level. It is based on the Arizona validated occupational competencies and tasks for management and supervisory positions in agricultural business. The competency/skill and task list…

  14. Business Education Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Div. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This guide contains instructional materials to aid business education teachers in teaching business skills in Alaska secondary schools. The materials include five units covering the following topics: human relations as a separate unit and as integrated into other daily activities such as planning and organizing work activities and grooming,…

  15. Mind Your Own Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Judith M.; Kirkwood, Hal P., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Like any well-run company deciding on what products and services to offer, a good library should pay attention to customer demand when it is building its business reference collection. What kind of information do business patrons want? Most are looking for company and industry details: a corporate address or name of an officer, financial data for…

  16. Risk Is Their Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Fred D.

    1996-01-01

    The Northwest Pennsylvania Regional Planning and Development Commission, a local development district based in Venango County, focuses on nourishing small business development and entrepreneurship in business incubators owned by local governments. One of the region's resources is the nation's first "teaching factory," which provides job training…

  17. Teaching Business Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKillop, Robyn

    2010-01-01

    Business is integral to the functioning of the national economy, politics, education and everyday living. It is without question that business education is a vital part of the high school experience, and should be seen as required courses rather than electives. Preparing high school students for real life beyond high school happens in the business…

  18. The Business Letter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nederland Independent School District, TX.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grades 9-12. SUBJECT MATTER: Business. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: This guide, designed for direct student use, indicates the parts of a business letter, a placement guide, and steps for typing letters. Worksheets and illustrations indicate forms of block and indented styles; open, closed, and mixed punctuation; the…

  19. IBM Small Business Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Business Machines Corp., Armonk, NY.

    A telephone survey conducted March 15-22, 1991, examined how small businesses are currently performing. Interviewees were 400 small business owners randomly selected from a Dun and Bradstreet list of companies with 50 or fewer employees. Major findings were as follows: (1) owners were survivors, highly confident in their own abilities, and…

  20. Building Tomorrow's Business Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Jim

    2010-01-01

    Modern automobile maintenance, like most skilled-trades jobs, is more than simple nuts and bolts. Today, skilled-trades jobs might mean hydraulics, computerized monitoring equipment, electronic blueprints, even lasers. As chief executive officer of Grainger, a business-to-business maintenance, repair, and operating supplies company that…

  1. Updating Business Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Report from the Curriculum Service Center, 1975

    1975-01-01

    To gather information on how the business education curriculum in secondary schools is being affected by changing trends, questionnaires were sent to State and local business education supervisors. Some aspects of instructional innovations are discussed based on the responses gained from the national survey, particularly the responses of 78 local…

  2. Taylor Business Institute, Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Jerry

    The Office of the State Comptroller in New York audited the records and procedures used in administering the Tuition Assistance Program (TAP) at Taylor Business Institute (Taylor) for the academic years 1995-96 through 1997-98. Taylor, located in Manhattan, offers both degree programs and diploma programs in Accounting, Business Management,…

  3. The Business of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunski, Jonathan F.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a learning game called The Business of Life that demonstrates the cellular processes of photosynthesis and respiration as business transactions. Incorporates the ideas that energy flows through ecosystems as well as through cells of individual organisms. Demonstrates the interdependence of living things and that processes at the cellular…

  4. Business Communication in BELF

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kankaanranta, Anne; Louhiala-Salminen, Leena

    2007-01-01

    The authors' business communication perspective is not in fact that of ESL but rather English as a foreign language (EFL) or, even more so, English as a lingua franca (ELF). To be more specific, they would like to add one more acronym to the list: They teach BELF, by which they refer to ELF for business communication purposes. The authors work as…

  5. None of Your Business?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dozier, Jana

    1989-01-01

    Local business owners in college towns say they can't compete when an institution sells computers, pizza, or books. With unrelated-business income tax legislation a threat, institutions are addressing these concerns by cooperating with retailers. (Author/MSE)

  6. Selective Lessons from Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlechty, Phillip C.

    2008-01-01

    Over the years, the author has participated in many gatherings where business leaders have been invited to provide educational leaders with advice regarding the way they should lead their schools. Some of these events proved satisfying, but others proved disastrous. In this article, the author argues that it is a mistake to invite business leaders…

  7. Exploratory Business Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas Univ., Fayetteville. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This curriculum guide is designed for Arkansas ninth-grade students to explore business careers through the use of competency-based instructional materials. Exploratory business teachers are asked to incorporate the twenty-three units of study into a sequence best suited to their teaching style. Units include such topics as "Social Security,""What…

  8. Veterans in Small Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Community and Junior Colleges, Washington, DC. National Small Business Training Network.

    These materials provide information on conducting small business training seminars for veterans. First, a discussion is presented of the development of the guide based on 1983 field testing of the seminar and evaluations conducted by Small Business Administration (SBA) officials, the seminar contracts, and trainers. The next sections deal with the…

  9. Personal Achievement Reading: Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinton, Janet R.

    Exercises are provided in this set of four workbooks designed to aid students in business programs in building vocabulary and reading skills. Each workbook borrows from business terminology to provide explanations and exercises for a sequential series of instructional objectives. One workbook concentrates on developing the ability to determine…

  10. The Small Business Tradition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dicke, Thomas S.

    1996-01-01

    Recognizes and discusses the special place that small business occupies, not only in American history, but also in American thought and culture. Examines the various conflicts between big and small business. Notes that the division of territory, products, and services between the two is largely defined by economies of scale. (MJP)

  11. 25 CFR 169.22 - Service lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER RIGHTS-OF-WAY OVER INDIAN LANDS § 169.22... power lines to a voltage of 14.5 kv. or less except lines to serve irrigation pumps and commercial and industrial uses which shall be limited to a voltage not to exceed 34.5 kv. A service line shall be for...

  12. Learning Activities for International Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    The National Standards for Business Education include nine areas relating to international business: awareness, communication, environmental factors, ethics, finance, management, marketing, import/export, and organizational structure of international business. (SK)

  13. Enterprise: an International Commercial Space Station Option

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lounge, John M.

    2002-01-01

    In December 1999, the U.S. aerospace company SPACEHAB, Inc., (SPACEHAB) and the Russian aerospace company Rocket and Space Corporation Energia (RSC-Energia), initiated a joint project to establish a commercial venture on the International Space Station (ISS). The approach of this venture is to use private capital to build and attach a commercial habitable module (the "Enterprise Module") to the Russian Segment of the ISS. The module will become an element of the Russian Segment; in return, exclusive rights to use this module for commercial business will be granted to its developers. The Enterprise Module has been designed as a multipurpose module that can provide research accommodation, stowage and crew support services. Recent NASA budget decisions have resulted in the cancellation of NASA's ISS habitation module, a significant delay in its new ISS crew return vehicle, and a mandate to stabilize the ISS program. These constraints limit the ISS crew size to three people and result in very little time available for ISS research support. Since research activity is the primary reason this Space Station is being built, the ISS program must find a way to support a robust international research program as soon as possible. The time is right for a commercial initiative incorporating the Enterprise Module, outfitted with life support systems, and commercially procured Soyuz vehicles to provide the capability to increase ISS crew size to six by the end of 2005.

  14. Commercial launch systems: A risky investment?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupnick, Edwin; Skratt, John

    1996-03-01

    A myriad of evolutionary paths connect the current state of government-dominated space launch operations to true commercial access to space. Every potential path requires the investment of private capital sufficient to fund the commercial venture with a perceived risk/return ratio acceptable to the investors. What is the private sector willing to invest? Does government participation reduce financial risk? How viable is a commercial launch system without government participation and support? We examine the interplay between various forms of government participation in commercial launch system development, alternative launch system designs, life cycle cost estimates, and typical industry risk aversion levels. The boundaries of this n-dimensional envelope are examined with an ECON-developed business financial model which provides for the parametric assessment and interaction of SSTO design variables (including various operational scenarios with financial variables including debt/equity assumptions, and commercial enterprise burden rates on various functions. We overlay this structure with observations from previous ECON research which characterize financial risk aversion levels for selected industrial sectors in terms of acceptable initial lump-sum investments, cumulative investments, probability of failure, payback periods, and ROI. The financial model allows the construction of parametric tradeoffs based on ranges of variables which can be said to actually encompass the ``true'' cost of operations and determine what level of ``true'' costs can be tolerated by private capitalization.

  15. Much Ado about Very Little: The Benefits and Costs of School-Based Commercial Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brent, Brian O.; Lunden, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    School-based commercialism exists whenever a district enters into a relationship with a business that provides access to students or staff in exchange for fiscal or in-kind resources (i.e., goods or services). The practice includes business sponsorship of school activities (e.g., sporting events), exclusive agreements (e.g., pouring rights…

  16. 24 CFR 15.108 - What are HUD's policies concerning designating confidential commercial or financial information...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... general policy concerning business information which may be considered as confidential commercial or... business information to be disclosed; and (3) A disclosure date. (g) What other policies apply to a... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are HUD's policies...

  17. Teaching CAD at the University: Specifically Written or Commercial Software?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Ramon Rubio; Quiros, Javier Suarez; Santos, Ramon Gallego; Penin, Pedro I. Alvarez

    2007-01-01

    At most universities throughout the world Computer Aided Design is taught using commercial programs more suitable for business and industry than for teaching. This led us to write our own design program (GIcad) starting from the best-known standards on the market, but always avoiding unnecessary commands in the first steps of the learning process.…

  18. Commercial Truck/Equipment Technician. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP) for commercial truck and equipment technician is an employer-verified competency list that evolved from a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) job analysis process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives throughout Ohio. The task list of the National…

  19. Commercial Document Delivery Services "Challenged" as EBSCO Drops Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machovec, George S.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the EBSCO decision to stop its traditional commercial document delivery business. High prices for copyright clearance, government subsidized services, electronic formats available on the Internet, Web-based services, and consortium-based licensing activities are discussed as influencing the market for document delivery. (LRW)

  20. The DOE Bioethanol Pilot Plant: A Tool for Commercialization

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, H.

    2000-08-31

    With funding from the DOE National Biofuels Program, NREL has constructed a fermentation pilot plant facility. The plant was explicitly designed to assist industry and outside researchers develop commercial bioprocessing technology. Companies that are exploring biofuels technologies can utilize the facilities and expertise of NREL through a variety of flexible business-venture arrangements.

  1. Assessing Mentoring in Organizations: An Evaluation of Commercial Mentoring Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbreath, Brad; Rose, Gail L.; Dietrich, Kim E.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to inform readers about the types of instruments available for assessing and improving mentoring in organizations. Extensive review of the psychological, business and medical literature was conducted to identify commercially published, practitioner-oriented instruments. All of the instruments that were…

  2. Not for Sale: A Parent Guide to Commercialism in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler-Wall, Brita

    As funding for public education decreases, corporations are "making up" the shortfall by donating seemingly benign teaching aides to schools. While many business-school relationships are positive, many others are commercializing classrooms, aiming to make students "brand-loyal" in the guise of providing free equipment, more information, and new…

  3. Data management plan for HANDI 2000 business management system

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.

    1998-08-25

    The Hanford Data Integration 2000 (HANDI 2000) Project will result in an integrated and comprehensive set of functional applications containing core information necessary to support the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC). It is based on the Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) product solution with commercially proven business processes. The COTS product solution set, of PassPort (PP) and PeopleSoft (PS) software, supports finance, supply and chemical management/Material Safety Data Sheet.

  4. Region and database management for HANDI 2000 business management system

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.

    1998-08-26

    The Data Integration 2000 Project will result in an integrated and comprehensive set of functional applications containing core information necessary to support the Project Hanford Management Contract. It is based on the Commercial-Off-The-Shelf product solution with commercially proven business processes. The COTS product solution set, of PassPort and People Soft software, supports finance, supply and chemical management/Material Safety Data Sheet, human resources.

  5. Infrastructure certification plan for HANDI 2000 business management system

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.E.

    1998-09-17

    Hanford Data Integration 2000 (HANDI 2000) Project will result in an integrated and comprehensive set of functional applications containing core information necessary to support the Project Hanford Management Contract. It is based on the Commercial-Off-The-Shelf product solution with commercially proven business processes. The system will reduce the number of legacy systems maintained today and absorb key systems identified that have Year 2000 issues.

  6. Unfinished Business in Bereavement

    PubMed Central

    Klingspon, Kara L.; Holland, Jason M.; Neimeyer, Robert A.; Lichtenthal, Wendy G.

    2016-01-01

    Unfinished business (incomplete, unexpressed or unresolved relationship issues with the deceased) is frequently discussed as a risk factor for chronic and severe grief reactions. However, few empirical studies have examined this construct. The present study aimed to address this gap in the literature by examining the presence and severity of unfinished business as well as common themes of unfinished business reported in open-ended qualitative narratives among a sample of 224 bereaved individuals. In bivariate analyses, self-reported presence of unfinished business and the severity of distress due to unfinished business were both found to be associated with poorer bereavement outcomes. However, after controlling for potential confounds, distress related to unresolved issues with the deceased emerged as a more robust correlate of these outcomes. Qualitative responses were categorized, and the type of reported unfinished business was not significantly related to the degree of unfinished business distress or other bereavement outcomes. These findings provide preliminary justification for bereavement interventions that aim to ameliorate distress related to unresolved relational issues with the deceased. PMID:26057117

  7. Unfinished Business in Bereavement.

    PubMed

    Klingspon, Kara L; Holland, Jason M; Neimeyer, Robert A; Lichtenthal, Wendy G

    2015-01-01

    Unfinished business (incomplete, unexpressed or unresolved relationship issues with the deceased) is frequently discussed as a risk factor for chronic and severe grief reactions. However, few empirical studies have examined this construct. The present study aimed to address this gap in the literature by examining the presence and severity of unfinished business as well as common themes of unfinished business reported in open-ended qualitative narratives among a sample of 224 bereaved individuals. In bivariate analyses, self-reported presence of unfinished business and the severity of distress due to unfinished business were both found to be associated with poorer bereavement outcomes. However, after controlling for potential confounds, distress related to unresolved issues with the deceased emerged as a more robust correlate of these outcomes. Qualitative responses were categorized, and the type of reported unfinished business was not significantly related to the degree of unfinished business distress or other bereavement outcomes. These findings provide preliminary justification for bereavement interventions that aim to ameliorate distress related to unresolved relational issues with the deceased.

  8. Business Use of Satellite Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edelson, Burton I.; Cooper, Robert S.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews business communications development and discusses business applications of satellite communications, system technology, and prospects for future developments in digital transmission systems. (JN)

  9. Transportation Business Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    The Transportation Business Plan is a step in the process of procuring the transportation system. It sets the context for business strategy decisions by providing pertinent background information, describing the legislation and policies governing transportation under the NWPA, and describing requirements of the transportation system. Included in the document are strategies for procuring shipping casks and transportation support services. In the spirit of the NWPA directive to utilize the private sector to the maximum extent possible, opportunities for business ventures are obvious throughout the system development cycle.

  10. Commercial considerations for immunoproteomics.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Scott M

    2013-01-01

    The underlying drivers of scientific processes have been rapidly evolving, but the ever-present need for research funding is typically foremost amongst these. Successful laboratories are embracing this reality by making certain that their projects have commercial value right from the beginning of the project conception. Which factors to be considered for commercial success need to be well thought out and incorporated into a project plan with similar levels of detail as would be the technical elements. Specific examples of commercial outcomes in the field of Immunoproteomics are exemplified in this discussion. PMID:23963949

  11. Commercial Biomedical Experiments Payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Experiments to seek solutions for a range of biomedical issues are at the heart of several investigations that will be hosted by the Commercial Instrumentation Technology Associates (ITA), Inc. The biomedical experiments CIBX-2 payload is unique, encompassing more than 20 separate experiments including cancer research, commercial experiments, and student hands-on experiments from 10 schools as part of ITA's ongoing University Among the stars program. Here, Astronaut Story Musgrave activates the CMIX-5 (Commercial MDA ITA experiment) payload in the Space Shuttle mid deck during the STS-80 mission in 1996 which is similar to CIBX-2. The experiments are sponsored by NASA's Space Product Development Program (SPD).

  12. What's the matter with business ethics?

    PubMed

    Stark, A

    1993-01-01

    The more business ethics secures its status in campuses across the country, the more bewildering it appears to actual managers. It's not that managers dislike the idea of doing the right thing. As University of Toronto Assistant Professor Andrew Stark argues, far too many business ethicists just haven't offered them the practical advice they need. Before business ethics became a formal discipline, advocates of corporate social responsibility claimed that the market would ultimately reward ethical behavior. But ethics and interests did not always intersect so fruitfully in the real world. And when they did not, managers were left in the dark to grope for the right ethical course. In the 1970s, the brand-new field of business ethics came onto the scene to address this issue. Critical of the "ethics pays" approach, academics held that ethics and interests can and do conflict. Still, scholars took an equally unrealistic line. To them, a manager's motivation could be either altruistic or self-interested, but never both. In short, ethicists still weren't addressing the difficult moral dilemmas that managers face on a day-to-day basis, and only recently have they begun to do so. After some initial stumbles, ethicists are getting their hands dirty and seriously considering the costs of doing the right thing. Finally, a new business ethics is emerging that acknowledges and accepts the messy world of mixed motives. As a result, novel concepts are springing up: moderation, pragmatism, minimalism, among others.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Business Mathematics for Business Education Departments in Pennsylvania's Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parfet, James A.

    This document is meant to be used as a teaching aid to help business teachers in Pennsylvania high schools prepare pupils to assume positions in business offices. Methods are suggested by which business mathematics may be presented to develop the greatest level of pupil achievement. The chapters outline business mathematics in the high school…

  14. Rethinking How Business Purpose Is Taught in Catholic Business Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Lyman; Naughton, Michael; Bojan, William

    2013-01-01

    Business education at a Catholic university should engage students and faculty across the university in critically examining the purpose of business in society. Following the best practices of leading business schools, the Catholic business curriculum has mostly focused on the shareholder and stakeholder approaches--with the shareholder approach…

  15. Air Charter - The Business Airline of the Future...But, Does the Business Traveler Know?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaps, Robert W.; Gardner, Robin C.; Hartung, Jeffrey W.

    2001-01-01

    Historically, FAR Part 121 commercial carriers have provided efficient, economical and safe air transportation for corporate and business users. Recently, however, corporate and business travelers find their travel plans disrupted by delays, bankruptcies, poor service, lost baggage, fare increases, labor strikes and other systemic difficulties that degrade their travel experience to unsatisfactory levels. This article examines these Part 121 service delivery problems and, utilizing a tripartite investigative methodology, examines an alternative air transport mode: FAR Part 135 on-demand charter travel products. This long extant segment of our national air transportation system is set prime to support increased demand for charter services. Corporate and business travelers are set prime to utilize viable, cost effective alternatives to commercial travel products. Two research questions emerge. First is whether corporate and business travelers are aware of Part 135 travel alternatives. Second is whether Part 135 charter service providers are aware of this latent demand and are effectively targeting this demand segment in their marketing efforts. The three-part surveys employed to investigate these questions examined demand side

  16. AGATE animation - business theme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Business jet 6 of 6. Advanced General Aviation Technology Experiment (AGATE). The General Aviation Propulsion Program (GAP). AGATE and GAP are providing industry partners with technologies leading to a Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) in the early 21st century. These investments support the national general aviation 'roadmap' goal to 'enable doorstep-to-destination travel at four times highway speeds to virtually all of the nation's suburban, rural and remote communities.' Image from AGATE 'business jet' video animation.

  17. Caution: business opportunity ahead.

    PubMed

    Costello, M M

    1986-01-01

    Increasing competition in the market for health care services has led many providers to contemplate activities that would not have received consideration a decade ago. Entrepreneurial in nature, these endeavors require a form of business analysis with which many health care administrators are unfamiliar. Evaluation of health care business opportunities should include consideration of market perspective, relative difficulty of implementation and execution, likely response of competition, and unique aspects of the entrepreneurial personality when found in traditional health care organizations.

  18. 48 CFR 1631.203-71 - Business unit General and Administrative (G&A) expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 1631.203-71 Business unit General and Administrative (G&A) expenses. G&A expenses shall be allocated to final cost objectives by a base or method that represents the total activity of the business unit....

  19. Pedagogical Benefits of the Computer in the Foreign Language Business Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Howard

    1987-01-01

    It is beneficial to integrate the teaching of computer use into the foreign language business course through such activities as simulating business and commercial situations. Students will not only learn computer terminology in the foreign language but also expand their practical working vocabulary. (CB)

  20. 76 FR 57956 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Executive Business Development Mission; Clarification and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ... Commercial Service (CS) is publishing this supplement to the Notice of the Renewable Energy and Energy... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Executive Business Development Mission, 76 FR, No. 140, July 21, 2011... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Executive Business Development...

  1. 77 FR 75089 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Accelerated Payments to Small Business Subcontractors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ....232-XX, Providing Accelerated Payments to Small Business Subcontractors, which will require the prime... of commercial items. * * * * * (d) * * * (4) Insert the clause at 52.232-XX, Providing Accelerated... clause. Insert clause 52.232-XX, Providing Accelerated Payments to Small Business Subcontractors, in...

  2. 75 FR 74001 - Application Deadline Extended; Secretarial Business India High Technology Mission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... International Trade Administration Mission Statement Application Deadline Extended; Secretarial Business India... Bangalore, India, February 6-11, 2011. The overall focus of the trip will be commercial opportunities for U..., December 3, 2010. Applications should be submitted to the Office of Business Liaison at...

  3. 78 FR 57619 - Secretarial Infrastructure Business Development Mission to Mexico November 18-23, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... Commercial Service is amending the Notice published at 78 FR 48855, August 12, 2013, regarding the Secretarial Infrastructure Business Development Mission to Mexico November 18-23, 2013, to revise the dates of... International Trade Administration Secretarial Infrastructure Business Development Mission to Mexico November...

  4. Bringing science to business

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemetti, Paul

    2005-06-01

    Bringing science to business seems rather straight forward. Technology is constantly moving forward and new inventions are being brought into the market place. Science parks and technology parks have sprung out all around the globe competing against each other and trying to keep their own doors open by bringing in new business, thereby creating much needed income to keep their operations moving forward. However, only a small handful ofthese centers around the world can truly be considered successful. It is the relationship between the scientists, start-up business, local universities, local government, and invited bigger business that allows the parks to succeed. The individual scientist wishing to enter into business or just hoping to get his invention into the pool of potential ideas; which might end up in the hands of an entrepreneur or an established company, is not always that simple. Universal success principles must be embraced to ensure success. One must believe in oneself and to strive for excellence. One must be able to see the other persons viewpoint and adapt and change his behavior in order to succeed. One must learn to create trust as well as learn to trust. Furthermore, one must learn to focus on the why of the process and not on the how. A market must be identified and benefits of local area must be sold to potential investor or business partners. A local success has in part to do with local cooperation.

  5. Technology Commercialization Program 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    This reference compilation describes the Technology Commercialization Program of the Department of Energy, Defense Programs. The compilation consists of two sections. Section 1, Plans and Procedures, describes the plans and procedures of the Defense Programs Technology Commercialization Program. The second section, Legislation and Policy, identifies legislation and policy related to the Program. The procedures for implementing statutory and regulatory requirements are evolving with time. This document will be periodically updated to reflect changes and new material.

  6. ERC commercialization activities

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The ERC family of companies is anticipating market entry of their first commercial product, a 2.8-MW power plant, in the second quarter of 1999. The present Cooperative Agreement provides for: (1) Commercialization planning and organizational development, (2) Completion of the pre-commercial DFC technology development, (3) Systems and plant design, (4) Manufacturing processes` scale-up to full-sized stack components and assemblies, (5) Upgrades to ERC`s test facility for full-sized stack testing, (6) Sub-scale testing of a DFC Stack and BOP fueled with landfill gas. This paper discusses the first item, that of preparing for commercialization. ERC`s formal commercialization program began in 1990 with the selection of the 2-MW Direct Fuel Cell power plant by the American Public Power Association (APPA) for promotion to the over 2000 municipal utilities comprising APPA`s segment of the utility sector. Since that beginning, the APPA core group expanded to become the Fuel Cell Commercialization Group (FCCG) which includes representation from all markets - utilities and other power generation equipment buyers.

  7. Commercial antibodies and their validation

    PubMed Central

    Voskuil, JLA

    2014-01-01

    Despite an impressive growth in the business of research antibodies a general lack of trust in commercial antibodies remains in place. A variety of issues, each one potentially causing an antibody to fail, underpin the frustrations that scientists endure. Lots of money goes to waste in buying and trying one failing antibody after the other without realizing all the pitfalls that come with the product: Antibodies can get inactivated, both the biological material and the assay itself can potentially be flawed, a single antibody featuring in many different catalogues can be deemed as a set of different products, and a bad choice of antibody type, wrong dilutions, and lack of proper validation can all jeopardize the intended experiments. Antibodies endorsed by scientific research papers do not always meet the scientist’s requirements either due to flawed specifications, or due to batch-to-batch variations. Antibodies can be found with Quality Control data obtained from previous batches that no longer represent the batch on sale. In addition, one cannot assume that every antibody is fit for every application. The best chance of success is to try an antibody that already was confirmed to perform correctly in the required platform. PMID:25324967

  8. Business Information Centres: New Resources Are Not Used.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummond, Janet

    1984-01-01

    Presents findings from survey of Canadian information centers specializing in business, economics, or finance (corporate library, government department library, fee-based service, commercial database, association information center). Questions focused on three broad categories: human resources organization, relative use of different types of…

  9. The consequences of metric production for small manufacturers. Volume 2: Case studies of large business-small business interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hitchcock, H. H.; Coates, J. F.; Canavan, M. M.; Prillaman, G. H.; Nettles, M. S.

    1982-02-01

    Over the last decade, controversy, concern, and conjecture have surrounded the effects of metric conversion on small business. Enthusiasts for metric argue that conversion would benefit small businesses in two ways. It would expand their markets, especially export markets. It would also improve business by making production processes more rational. Dissenters argue that conversion is unnecessary and possibly harmful to the majority of the nation's small businesses. Against this backdrop, the U.S. Metric Board is fulfilling its statutory mission to find out what happens to small businesses that convert to metric. The first phase of the project was a search for small businesses that had made substantial investments in converting to metric. That search showed that small businesses were most likely to invest in metric production in response to large corporations' needs for metric parts and products. The second phase of the research consisted of three case studies of the effects of large companies' conversion on small business suppliers. The team studied how the conversion of a General Electric Company department, two Ford Motor Company product lines, and three divisions of Ingersoll-Rand affected their small business suppliers.

  10. Languages for Business Means Business for Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cothran, Bettina F.

    Georgia State University has developed undergraduate applied language programs in commercial French, German, and Spanish combining practical with theoretical studies. The curricula stress the communicative aspect of language, and are based on the content of certification examinations given in France, Germany, and Spain. Two upper-level courses in…

  11. Small business innovation research program solicitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration invites eligible small business concerns to submit Phase 1 proposals for its 1994 Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program, which is described in this twelfth annual NASA SBIR Program Solicitation. The 1994 solicitation period for Phase 1 proposals begins April 4, 1994 and ends June 15, 1994. Eligible firms with research or research and development capabilities (R/R&D) in any of the listed topic and subtopic areas are encouraged to participate. Through SBIR, NASA seeks innovative concepts addressing the program needs described in the SBIR solicitation subtopics and offering commercial application potential. This document contains program background information, outlines eligibility requirements for SBIR participants, describes the three SBIR program phases, and provides the information qualified offerors need to prepare and submit responsive proposals.

  12. Commercialization of animal biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Faber, D C; Molina, J A; Ohlrichs, C L; Vander Zwaag, D F; Ferré, L B

    2003-01-01

    Commercialization of animal biotechnology is a wide-ranging topic for discussion. In this paper, we will attempt to review embryo transfer (ET) and related technologies that relate to food-producing mammals. A brief review of the history of advances in biotechnology will provide a glimpse to present and future applications. Commercialization of animal biotechnology is presently taking two pathways. The first application involves the use of animals for biomedical purposes. Very few companies have developed all of the core competencies and intellectual properties to complete the bridge from lab bench to product. The second pathway of application is for the production of animals used for food. Artificial insemination (AI), embryo transfer, in vitro fertilization (IVF), cloning, transgenics, and genomics all are components of the toolbox for present and future applications. Individually, these are powerful tools capable of providing significant improvements in productivity. Combinations of these technologies coupled with information systems and data analysis, will provide even more significant change in the next decade. Any strategies for the commercial application of animal biotechnology must include a careful review of regulatory and social concerns. Careful review of industry infrastructure is also important. Our colleagues in plant biotechnology have helped highlight some of these pitfalls and provide us with a retrospective review. In summary, today we have core competencies that provide a wealth of opportunities for the members of this society, commercial companies, producers, and the general population. Successful commercialization will benefit all of the above stakeholders. PMID:12499024

  13. Creating a representative sample of small manufacturing businesses for an integrated workplace safety and smoking cessation intervention study

    PubMed Central

    Egelhoff, Claudia; Katz, Marc; Brosseau, Lisa M; Hennrikus, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to recruit a representative sample of small manufacturing businesses (20-150 employees) for a group-randomized trial of an integrated workplace safety and smoking cessation program. Methods An initial sample was drawn from commercial databases, screened for duplicates or ineligibility and contacted. Participating and non-participating businesses were compared on size, location and type. Employee demographics of participating businesses were compared to a U.S. Census Bureau database of similar businesses. Results From an initial sample of 2716 businesses, 328 were eligible and 47 (9%) agreed to participate. Participating companies tended to be larger. Employees were similar to employees in the Census Bureau dataset. Conclusions Considerable resources were required to identify eligible businesses; commercial databases are the best resource but may not be comprehensive or current. The sample appeared to be representative of small manufacturing businesses in the study region. PMID:26147544

  14. Structuring an MBA Consulting Course: Aligning Pedagogical Strategies to Meet the Needs of a Business School's Critical Stakeholders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roche, Olivier P.; Downie, Yvonne; Diriker, Memo

    2013-01-01

    At a time when business schools of second-tieruniversities face budget constraints, the MBA consulting program has become avehicle to build a school's reputation and to engage the business community inorder to raise financial resources. Business schools also face competition fromon-line programs, and consulting assignments help to define a…

  15. University of Utah, Energy Commercialization Center

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, James

    2014-01-17

    given direct business development support by the ECC, many of whom then generated direct economic development impacts. In addition, the ECC served an important role as community convener, educator and relationship builder through hosting numerous public and private events including: Energize 2013; Millennial Train whistle stop; business plan competition supporter; Clean Tech Open Accelerator organizer; Sustainable Startups Series developer, and much more. While the ECC did not fully apply, develop, and transmit the University of Utah’s TCO commercialization model to cleantech, it nevertheless assisted numerous inventors, entrepreneurs and institutions in furthering the growth of clean energy and energy efficiency technologies. The TCO’s commercialization model was not applied to regional clean tech initiatives for several main reasons. First, flaws with the commercialization model were realized after the ECC’s formation. Second, leadership changes within the TCO and ECC hampered early organizational development and implementation initiatives. Third, misaligned incentives between the ECC, regional universities, institutions, and the State of Utah resulted in a lack of collaboration and knowledge transfer regarding commercialization. In principle, everyone was aligned and willing to collaborate, but reality was much different and challenging.

  16. Phenomorphological characterization of vegetable soybean germplasm lines for commercial production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growing demand for vegetable soybean has renewed interest in producing the crop in the U.S., a significant importer of vegetable soybean despite being the world’s largest producer and exporter of grain-type soybean. Field studies were conducted over three years to1) compare phenomorphological traits...

  17. There's big business in all that garbage

    SciTech Connect

    Burck, C.G.

    1980-04-07

    Waste Management, Inc. has made a national and multinational industry out of solid waste disposal. The three largest companies in the business illustrate how efficient management and equipment, minimal crews, and tight scheduling can lower solid-waste costs for municipalities. Waste management's growth in chemical and hazardous waste disposal has grown with the stiffening of environmental regulations and is reflected in eight chemical operations with laboratories to analyze and monitor wastes. Secure landfills and deep-well sites offer an unprecedented sophisticaion. Waste Management's orientation toward securing hazardous materials and recovering reusable resources, combined with its awareness of commercial practicality are described. (DCK)

  18. 48 CFR 970.1907 - Subcontracting with Small Business, Small Disadvantaged Business and Woman-Owned Small Business...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Small, Small Disadvantaged and Women-Owned Small Business Concerns 970.1907 Subcontracting with Small Business, Small Disadvantaged Business and Woman-Owned Small Business... Business, Small Disadvantaged Business and Woman-Owned Small Business Concerns. 970.1907 Section...

  19. Commercial Biomedical Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Experiments to seek solutions for a range of biomedical issues are at the heart of several investigations that will be hosted by the Commercial Instrumentation Technology Associates (ITA), Inc. Biomedical Experiments (CIBX-2) payload. CIBX-2 is unique, encompassing more than 20 separate experiments including cancer research, commercial experiments, and student hands-on experiments from 10 schools as part of ITA's ongoing University Among the Stars program. Valerie Cassanto of ITA checks the Canadian Protein Crystallization Experiment (CAPE) carried by STS-86 to Mir in 1997. The experiments are sponsored by NASA's Space Product Development Program (SPD).

  20. Commercial Fisheries Surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fabrizio, Mary C.; Richards, R. Anne; Murphy, Brian R.; Willis, David W.

    1996-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe methods for sampling commercial fisheries and identify factors affecting the design of sampling plans. When sampled properly, commercial fisheries can provide important information on the response of aquatic organisms to exploitation; such information can be used by management agencies to develop regulations for ensuring long-term production of the resource and long-term economic benefit. Fishery statistics are typically used to estimate abundance, mortality, recruitment, growth, and other vital characterisitcs of populations. Fishery statistics can also be used to study changes in fish community composition resulting from differential exploitation of species.

  1. AGATE animation - business theme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Business jet 2 of 6. Advanced General Aviation Technology Experiment (AGATE). Few objects convey wealth and power like a private airplane, but one day you won't have to be rich or famous to fly one. NASA is working with industry and other government agencies to develop the technology and vision for business and personal travel of the future. It's a future in which travelers fly to their destinations in small, safe, affordable and easy-to-use jets out of 'smart airports.' Future small aircraft may cost about as much as a luxury automobile. They will use 25% less fuel than today's airplanes with fuel efficiencies rivaling automobiles, but at four times highway speeds. The goal is to put 'wings on America' and enable doorstep-to-destination travel at four times the speed of highways, making it possible to go where you want, when you want - faster than ever. Image from AGATE 'business jet' video animation.

  2. Articulated, Performance-Based Instruction Objectives Guide for Business and Office Education. Final Document for Articulation of Business and Office Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Wm. Edward, Jr.

    A project was undertaken to develop a continuous, competency-based line of vocational training in business and office education programs at the secondary and postsecondary levels that would prepare students for entry-level employment in business and office occupations. To accomplish this goal representatives from 15 South Carolina high schools--2…

  3. Commercial Space Research: Entering a New Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nall, Mark E.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Space Act which established NASA included direction that NASA is to foster to the maximum extent possible the commercial use of space. In order to achieve this, NASA began establishing in 1985, Commercial Space Centers (CSCs). These centers are a consortium of industry, academia, and government. Primarily university based, the CSCs are chartered to partner with industry to help companies learn how using space can improve their bottom line. Responsibility for the Commercial Space Centers rests with the Space Product Development Office at Marshall Space Flight Center. Since the program was established in 1985, SPD has sponsored nearly 180 commercial microgravity research payloads on 30 Shuttle missions. The vast majority of these missions were on the order of 6 days. Most companies have only had on average three flight opportunities to advance their product development efforts. From the product development standpoint of an individual company only three weeks of microgravity time have been obtained to date. Of key importance to a company is the fact that this time has not been continuous. Anywhere from one to three years elapses between flights. Despite these flight constraints, the companies in the SPD program have made considerable progress. For example, over the course of the program through 1999, industry has invested over half a billion dollars in cash and in-kind. Over a dozen new product lines are in development by the industrial partners of the Commercial Space Centers. Now the companies partnered with the SPD program have a new opportunity in the International Space Station. The long duration capability provided by the Station will provide double the amount of per company average microgravity time in just the first increment. Current planning through planning increment 5 shows that commercial investment in space research should now be positioned for greater returns.

  4. Barriers to e-health business processes.

    PubMed

    Mieczkowska, Suzanne; Hinton, Matthew; Barnes, David

    2004-01-01

    This paper builds from recent case study research in commercial organisations to develop the hypothesis that many of the barriers to e-health processes are similar to those encountered by commercial businesses. The paper reports findings from a case study within the pathology department of a UK National Health Service (NHS) Trust. The NHS has a risk-averse culture where many individuals practice defensive behaviour and there are deeply embedded working practices. The paper suggests that if the NHS is to seize the opportunities offered by substantial new investments in e-health systems that utilise internet-based ICTs, greater effort needs to be made to understand and address the socio-cultural factors affecting the UK healthcare system.

  5. 16 CFR 301.42 - Deception as to nature of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deception as to nature of business. 301.42 Section 301.42 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.42 Deception as to nature...

  6. AGATE animation - business theme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Business jet 4 of 6. Advanced General Aviation Technology Experiment (AGATE). The AGATE program is complimented by a NASA Lewis-led program to develop safe, smooth, quiet and affordable propulsion systems for future four-to-six-seat general aviation airplanes. The General Aviation Propulsion (GAP) program is developing diesel prop and jet engines to be flight demonstrated at the year 2000 EAA AirVenture Air Show & Convention in Oshkosh, Wisc. Commericially produced engines based on these demonstrator engines and their manufacturing technologies will soon follow. Image from AGATE 'business jet' video animation.

  7. Assessing new applications and testing business opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atzei, A.; Gampe, F.; Pseiner, K.

    2000-05-01

    The generation of business opportunities from suitable space applications is an essential element of ESA's long term vision. This paper discusses some examples of new space applications and related business opportunities investigated within ESA, namely: HYDROSAT (Hydrological Satellite); OSAT (Operational Service for Air Transportation); CDEDS (Collection and Distribution of Ecological Data by Satellite); The Remote Sensing Forest Map of Europe. HYDROSAT and OSAT are two model missions which serve as cases for service and business ideas. HYDROSAT is a hydrological satellite concept for monitoring arid areas, while OSAT is an operational real-time 3-D high precision weather satellite concept. Both these model missions are briefly discussed, together with two actual application opportunities. One of these, the collection and distribution of ecological data by satellites, was a study performed in close cooperation with the European Commission and later successfully translated into commercial business. This business opportunity is based on ESA-developed Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT) technology for cost efficient two-way transmission of low rate data. More than 200 systems have been installed by industry reaching a turnover of several mission ECUs. In the second application, ESA has produced a map based on remote sensing data classifying the European forest. This product — available as hard copy and digital data set — has become a European standard. For some 300 applications within the scientific area, public domain and industry, the data sets have been used in Geographical Information Systems (GIS). Several thousand hard copies have been distributed on request to a variety of user groups, including national ministries and international organisations.

  8. Gain Purchasing Power the Newfangled Way--On-Line.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milshtein, Amy

    1999-01-01

    Examines how San Diego State University uses computers to cut purchasing costs and boost efficiency and whether their solution can work for other business-to-business needs. How the school developed the totally self-sustaining, on-line and on-time purchasing system is discussed, including solutions to start-up problems. (GR)

  9. A look at commercial buildings in 1995: Characteristics, energy consumption, and energy expenditures

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    The commercial sector consists of business establishments and other organizations that provide services. The sector includes service businesses, such as retail and wholesale stores, hotels and motels, restaurants, and hospitals, as well as a wide range of facilities that would not be considered commercial in a traditional economic sense, such as public schools, correctional institutions, and religious and fraternal organizations. Nearly all energy use in the commercial sector takes place in, or is associated with, the buildings that house these commercial activities. Analysis of the structures, activities, and equipment associated with different types of buildings is the clearest way to evaluate commercial sector energy use. The Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) is a national-level sample survey of commercial buildings and their energy suppliers conducted quadrennially (previously triennially) by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The target population for the 1995 CBECS consisted of all commercial buildings in the US with more than 1,000 square feet of floorspace. Decision makers, businesses, and other organizations that are concerned with the use of energy--building owners and managers, regulators, legislative bodies and executive agencies at all levels of government, utilities and other energy suppliers--are confronted with a buildings sector that is complex. Data on major characteristics (e.g., type of building, size, year constructed, location) collected from the buildings, along with the amount and types of energy the buildings consume, help answer fundamental questions about the use of energy in commercial buildings.

  10. Commercial and Industrial Wiring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaltwasser, Stan; Flowers, Gary

    This module is the third in a series of three wiring publications, includes additional technical knowledge and applications required for job entry in the commercial and industrial wiring trade. The module contains 15 instructional units that cover the following topics: blueprint reading and load calculations; tools and equipment; service;…

  11. Commercial Carpentry: Instructional Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diehl, Donald W.; Penner, Wayman R.

    This manual contains instructional materials which measure student performance on commercial carpentry behavioral objectives; criterion-referenced evaluation instruments are also included. Each of the manual's eleven sections consists of one or more units of instruction. Each instructional unit includes behavioral objectives, suggested activities…

  12. Commercial Earth Observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Through the Earth Observation Commercial Applications Program (EOCAP) at Stennis Space Center, Applied Analysis, Inc. developed a new tool for analyzing remotely sensed data. The Applied Analysis Spectral Analytical Process (AASAP) detects or classifies objects smaller than a pixel and removes the background. This significantly enhances the discrimination among surface features in imagery. ERDAS, Inc. offers the system as a modular addition to its ERDAS IMAGINE software package for remote sensing applications. EOCAP is a government/industry cooperative program designed to encourage commercial applications of remote sensing. Projects can run three years or more and funding is shared by NASA and the private sector participant. Through the Earth Observation Commercial Applications Program (EOCAP), Ocean and Coastal Environmental Sensing (OCENS) developed SeaStation for marine users. SeaStation is a low-cost, portable, shipboard satellite groundstation integrated with vessel catch and product monitoring software. Linked to the Global Positioning System, SeaStation provides real time relationships between vessel position and data such as sea surface temperature, weather conditions and ice edge location. This allows the user to increase fishing productivity and improve vessel safety. EOCAP is a government/industry cooperative program designed to encourage commercial applications of remote sensing. Projects can run three years or more and funding is shared by NASA and the private sector participant.

  13. Commercial Baking. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Nancy

    A project filmed three commercial baking videotapes for use by secondary and adult students in food service programs. The three topics were basic dinner rolls, bread making, and hard breads and rolls. Quick-rise dough recipes were developed, written down, and explained for use with the videotapes. A pretest, posttest, and student guide were…

  14. Commercial Crew Medical Ops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinbaugh, Randall; Cole, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Provide commercial partners with: center insight into NASA spaceflight medical experience center; information relative to both nominal and emergency care of the astronaut crew at landing site center; a basis for developing and sharing expertise in space medical factors associated with returning crew.

  15. Commercial applications of telemedicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Natiello, Thomas A.

    1991-01-01

    Telemedicine Systems Corporation was established in 1976 and is a private commercial supplier of telemedicine systems. These systems are various combinations of communications and diagnostic technology, designed to allow the delivery of health care services to remote facilities. The technology and the health care services are paid for by the remote facilities, such as prisons.

  16. Commercializing Biological Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeLeu, K. L.; Young, M. A.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the only commercial establishment involved in biological control in Australia. The wasp Aphitis melinus, which parasitizes the insect Red Scale, is bred in large numbers and released in the citrus groves where Red Scale is causing damage to the fruit. (JR)

  17. Commercialization of veterinary viral vaccines.

    PubMed

    Flore, P H

    2004-12-01

    If vaccines are to reliably prevent disease, they must be developed, produced and quality-controlled according to very strict regulations and procedures. Veterinary viral vaccine registrations are governed by different rules in different countries, but these rules all emphasize that the quality of the raw materials--the cells, eggs, animals or plants that are used in production--need to be carefully controlled. The veterinary vaccine business is also very cost-conscious. Emphasis over the last 5-10 years has therefore been to develop culture systems that minimize labor and sterility problems and thus provide for reliable and cost-effective production. Implementing these often more complex systems in a production environment takes considerable effort, first in scale-up trials and further down the line in convincing production personnel to change their familiar system for something new and possibly untried. To complete scale-up trials successfully, it is absolutely necessary to understand the biochemistry of the cells and the influence of the virus on the cells under scale-up and later production conditions. Once a viral product can be produced on a large scale, it is imperative that the quality of the end-product is controlled in an intelligent way. One needs to know whether the end-product performs in the animal as was intended during its conception in the research and development department. The development of the appropriate tests to demonstrate this plays an important role in the successful development of a vaccine.

  18. Commercial integration and partnering at Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, J.R.; Babione, R.A.; Shikashio, L.A.; Wacaster, A.J.; Paterson, A.D.

    1994-06-01

    Savannah River Site (SRS), particularly the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) with the experience from the first successful Integrated Technology Demonstration, can provide an excellent foundation for meeting DOE-EM`s objectives with the new DOE-EM five focus area approach. With this in mind, SRTC established an activity to pursue full commercialization of environmental technologies. This report is an assessment of the status of commercialization at SRS and provides recommendations for enhancement as well as some tools critical to implementation. A review was made of the current situation at SRS with regards to taking technology development to commercial fruition. This was done from the perspective of comparing it to known commercialization models and processes. It was found that SRTC already works through many of the steps in these processes. With integration and action-oriented efforts of the inclusion of business and market factors, SRTC could become an aggressive, successful developer of commercialized technologies. Commercial success criteria tools were developed with regards to integrating them with SRTC selection criteria to ensure that all critical factors are covered in technology commercialization project evaluations. Private investors are very clear that their interest lies in funding commercial enterprises, not merely technologies. Mobilizing private capital is critical to real job growth and long-term economic development. Also, potential industry partners were identified that are willing to be involved with SRS` technology applications and regional development efforts. As another important component to success, regional support organizations were reviewed and evaluated.

  19. 48 CFR 1812.301 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses for the acquisition of commercial items. (NASA...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION OF COMMERCIAL ITEMS Solicitation Provisions and Contract...) 1852.219-75, Small Business Subcontracting Reporting. (E) 1852.219-76, NASA 8 Percent Goal. (F)...

  20. Successes of Small Business Innovation Research at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Walter S.; Bitler, Dean W.; Prok, George M.; Metzger, Marie E.; Dreibelbis, Cindy L.; Ganss, Meghan

    2002-01-01

    This booklet of success stories highlights the NASA Glenn Research Center's accomplishments and successes by the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) Programs. These success stories are the results of selecting projects that support NASA missions and also have high commercialization potential. Each success story describes the innovation accomplished, commercialization of the technology, and further applications and usages. This booklet emphasizes the integration and incorporation of technologies into NASA missions and other government projects. The company name and the NASA contact person are identified to encourage further usage and application of the SBIR developed technologies and also to promote further commercialization of these products.

  1. Business Applications of WAP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Steenderen, Margaret

    2002-01-01

    Explains the development of WAP (wireless application protocol), how it works, and what the major advantages and disadvantages are, especially when applied to the use of information. Topics include standardization; mobile communications; the effect of WAP on business tools, electronic commerce, and information services; consumers; corporate users;…

  2. Mental health: everyone's business.

    PubMed

    Dragon, Natalie

    2010-06-01

    Mental health is everyone's business the Australian College of Mental Health Nurses and the Wesley Mission affirmed last month. In the midst of a burgeoning demand for mental health services, the lack of funds allocated to mental health as part of a $7.3 billion health package in the federal budget does not add up.

  3. Oral Communication in Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binnion, John E.; Thomas, Edward G.

    Helping young executives develop oral communication skills is an important task of business schools. A course that requires informal, timed, extemporaneous talks as well as extended formal presentations allows students the opportunity to be evaluated by their peers and by faculty members as they grow in their ability to communicate. Formal…

  4. Hispanic Business Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coca-Cola USA, Atlanta, GA.

    This is a corporate policy statement of the Hispanic business agenda of Coca Cola USA, and the results of a community survey conducted to inform that agenda. The statement outlines several areas of company policy as they relate to Hispanic Americans. These areas include regional marketing, promotion, and community relations strategies, a…

  5. Finding Workable Business Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shatto, Gloria M.

    1985-01-01

    The spirit of cooperation between business and higher education helps to strengthen America's private sector. Cooperative programs with Deere and Company and Rome Industries, with the fast food industry (Chick-fil-A), and with a development firm (Garden Lakes Company) are described. (MLW)

  6. Doing Business with China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Commerce, Washington, DC. Industry and Trade Administration.

    This publication provides background and practical information for those interested in doing business with China. The United States officially recognized the People's Republic of China (PRC) on January 1, 1979. Chinese leaders view international trade as an important factor in transforming China into a modern industrial state as well as an…

  7. Business Development Corporation, Inc.

    SciTech Connect

    Jasek, S.

    1995-12-31

    Business Development Corporation, Inc., is a company specializing in opportunity seeking and business development activities in the {open_quotes}new{close_quotes} post communist Central and Eastern Europe, with particular emphasis on the Republics of Poland and Slovakia. The company currently focuses its expertise on strategic investing and business development between Central Europe and the United States of America. In Poland and Slovakia, the company specializes in developing large scale energy and environmental {open_quotes}infrastructure{close_quotes} development projects on the federal, state, and local level. In addition, the company assists large state owned industries in the transformation and privatization process. Business Development Corporation has assisted and continues to assist in projects of national importance. The staff of experts advise numerous large Polish and Slovak companies, most owned or in the process of privatization, on matters of restructuring, finance, capital structure, strategic parternships or investors, mergers, acquisitions and joint ventures with U.S. based firms. The company also assists and advises on a variety of environmental and energy matters in the public and private sector.

  8. Getting down to Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boser, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    This article describes The Villages High School (VHS), a charter school where students are taught with real-world skills. At Villages High, a unique creation of local development company The Villages Of Lake-Sumter Inc., the curriculum is serious business. Under its charter agreement with the Sumter County school district, the school must provide…

  9. Today's Business Simulation Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, Gary J.

    2004-01-01

    New technologies are transforming the business simulation industry. The technologies come from research in computational fields of science, and they endow simulations with new capabilities and qualities. These capabilities and qualities include computerized behavioral simulations, online feedback and coaching, advanced interfaces, learning on…

  10. Business Mathematics Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EASTCONN Regional Educational Services Center, North Windham, CT.

    This curriculum guide for teaching business mathematics in the Connecticut Vocational-Technical School System is based on the latest thinking of instructors in the field, suggestions from mathematics authorities, and current instructional approaches in education. The curriculum guide consists of six sections: (1) career relationships and…

  11. Business Education Curriculum. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Div. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This revised curriculum gives information on the skills and knowledge students should acquire through a business education program. The competencies listed reflect the skills that employers see as necessary for success in clerical and accounting occupations. The handbook is organized in seven sections that cover the following: (1) the concept of…

  12. The Business of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bers, Trudy; Gelfman, Arnold; Knapp, Jolene

    2008-01-01

    This article describes several community colleges that are taking a more business-like approach, trimming costs, improving efficiencies, and pursuing next-generation innovation--all while keeping the focus squarely where it should be: on learning. At Florida Keys Community College (FKCC), John Keho says his college is taking some strong--though…

  13. Minding the Academy's Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, David J.

    2006-01-01

    As a teacher of educational leadership, the author of this article has observed that an alarming number of his doctoral students tend to view colleges and universities as little more than failed businesses. Students have witnessed a rising tide of corporate executives appointed to top academic posts, suggesting that boards of trustees see higher…

  14. HRD & Business Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    These four papers were presented at a symposium on human resource development (HRD) and business outcomes moderated by Barbara L. Swanson at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development. "Incorporating Continuous Learning into a Cultural Change Process" (Carol Ann Zulauf, Joseph A. Ilacqua), focuses on best practices at…

  15. Developing Rural Business Incubators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Mark L.; Burnier, DeLysa

    1991-01-01

    Offers background on rural entrepreneurship and incubation in the United States, with particular focus on rural incubators at community colleges and regional incubation systems. Explains how incubators, which provide shared services and business/management assistance for tenant companies, differ from other entrepreneurial development strategies.…

  16. Open for Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voyles, Bennett

    2007-01-01

    People know about the Sakai Project (open source course management system); they may even know about Kuali (open source financials). So, what is the next wave in open source software? This article discusses business intelligence (BI) systems. Though open source BI may still be only a rumor in most campus IT departments, some brave early adopters…

  17. Internet Business Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Mary J.

    1993-01-01

    Review of major information providers on the Internet that offer business resources focuses on U.S. government, United Nations, and European Community information and suggests sources for keeping current with new information offerings. Electronic bulletin boards, LC MARVEL, university Gophers, and TECnet are described; and access and subscription…

  18. A Business Plan Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirchner, Charles, Ed.

    This document identifies the information that should be included in a business plan, and in what order, to make it an effective management tool and an effective tool to communicate a proposed or existing company's strengths and potential to potential financiers. Following an introduction, the document explains the following sections of a business…

  19. Business, Economics, Management Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellogg, Edward Zip

    This annotated bibliography includes reference sources pertaining to business, economics, and management that are located in the libraries of the Portland and Gorham campuses of the University of Southern Maine. Specific reference sources are listed under the categories of: (1) indexes and abstracts; (2) dictionaries and encyclopedias, including…

  20. The paperless business office.

    PubMed

    McCormack, J

    1997-06-01

    Many providers are launching a variety of initiatives with the intent of eliminating paper in the business offices, thus streamlining operations and cutting costs. While there are some encouraging signs of progress, plenty of roadblocks still exist that will make such a transition difficult. Key technologies involved include EDI, the Internet, document imaging, COLD technology and automated dialers.

  1. Dancing Partners: Schools & Businesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Howard

    2009-01-01

    Business and education partnerships can be cornerstones of major school improvement efforts and meaningful corporate philanthropy. They also can be frustrating and wasteful if not planned and managed carefully. Partnerships, with their objectives, agreements, memorandums of understanding and budgets, may look like well-planned and carefully…

  2. The Business of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This article is a response to John Silber's article, "Marketing Higher Education: The Survival Value of Integrity." Silber speaks to the very heart of the academy about its integrity and ethics, and does so in timeless fashion through the decades to the current era. In his introduction, he characterizes the "business of education" as inevitable…

  3. 16 CFR 1203.11 - Marking the impact test line.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Marking the impact test line. 1203.11 Section 1203.11 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS The Standard § 1203.11 Marking the impact test line. Prior...

  4. English for Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moulin, Andre

    1974-01-01

    Examines four publications meant for intermediate or even advanced learners of English: first, two handbooks of commercial correspondence, then, two methods designed to develop the four basic language skills. (Author/PMP)

  5. Serving Agriculture's "Big Business"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schake, L. M.

    1970-01-01

    A new dimension and challenge in Extension activities is emerging as some phases of agriculture evolve from small operations to multimillion dollar agribusiness ventures; the beef cattle commercial feedlot industry in the Southwest is a good example. (EB)

  6. Business as a Vocation: Catholic Social Teaching and Business Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkson, Peter K. A.

    2012-01-01

    Building on "Vocation of the Business Leader," the recently released document from the Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace, along with input from Catholic business and educational leaders from around the world, this essay examines five pillars on which a Catholic business school should build its mission: foundations; the purpose of…

  7. Business and Technology Concepts--Business Computations. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield. Dept. of Adult, Vocational and Technical Education.

    This Illinois State Board of Education teacher's guide on business computations is for students enrolled in the 9th or 10th grade. The course provides a foundation in arithmetic skills and their applications to common business problems for the senior high school vocational business courses. The curriculum guide includes teacher and student…

  8. Business Office Clerical/Business Office Services. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Jan

    This curriculum guide for business office clerical/business office services provides instructional materials for Texas business course instructors. The following sections are included: (1) introduction; (2) keyboarding--skills, proofreading, and word processing; (3) filing--alphabetic, numeric, and electronic; (4) operating office…

  9. Incorporating Business Communication in an Integrative Business Seminar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luse, Donna W.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the Integrative Business Seminar in the College of Business Administration at Northeast Louisiana University in which the principal courses in business communication, management, marketing, and finance as well as a segment in problem solving, are taught as one 15-credit hour block in which subject areas are treated as an integrated…

  10. The Great Divide between Business School Research and Business Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dostaler, Isabelle; Tomberlin, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    In their 2005 "Harvard Business Review" article, Bennis and O'Toole described business schools as being "on the wrong track" as a result of their focus on so-called scientific research. Some commentators argue that business schools have slowly lost their relevance since the end of the 1950s when they undertook a major overhaul in response to the…

  11. The Teaching of Business Ethics: An Imperative at Business Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Frederick G.

    2004-01-01

    This study reports the findings of an investigation of MBAs and their views on the teaching of business ethics. The author found that tomorrow's business leaders believe that there are ethical standards that should be followed in business but that current ethical standards do not meet society's needs adequately. Moreover, although most respondents…

  12. Introducing a New Business Course: "Global Business and Sustainability"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, R. Scott; Harry, Sean P.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose--To outline the themes, topics and material used in a new course, Global business and sustainability, for business educators interested in integrating this emerging paradigm into their courses. Design/methodology/approach--The structure, design and reference materials for the Global business and sustainability course are reviewed. Specific…

  13. The English of Business Is the Business of English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Versluis, Edward B.

    Three arguments lead to the conclusion that the English of business is the business of English. First, reluctance to fully appreciate the English of Business stems in part from a serious misunderstanding about the development of written language in the Western tradition. While studying folktales and the origins of myths has made an awareness of…

  14. Our Business World, Business Education: 7711.01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAskill, Ava

    This Quinmester pamphlet presents an overview of the business world and the American free enterprise system, delving into the concept of profit, satisfaction of wants and needs through production and distribution of goods and services, and primary forms of business organization, the effects of business activity on economic growth, and the use of…

  15. Education Business Plan 2008-11: Ministry Business Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The Ministry of Education has identified one core business that is an ongoing key responsibility. It is called "Core Business One: Lead and Support the Education System So That All Students Are Successful at Learning." The core business includes three goals with specific outcomes that describe the end results the Ministry wants to achieve in…

  16. Do Business Schools Value the Competencies that Businesses Value?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Steven Eric; Karns, Lanny A.

    2009-01-01

    The authors used survey research to determine the congruence among the competencies that businesses identify as being indicative of successful managers, the competencies that business schools identify as being indicative of successful graduates, and the competencies that are emphasized in business school curricula. The results show that although…

  17. Taking Care of Business: Equipping Students to Become Business Journalists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannis, Grant

    2016-01-01

    Informed, critical business journalism is vital to a well-functioning society. But students are typically reluctant to study business journalism, often finding the topic intimidating. This article outlines how the author has taught a business journalism course in New Zealand and the United States. The course uses a variety of methods to help the…

  18. Commercial considerations in tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Mansbridge, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    Tissue engineering is a field with immense promise. Using the example of an early tissue-engineered skin implant, Dermagraft, factors involved in the successful commercial development of devices of this type are explored. Tissue engineering has to strike a balance between tissue culture, which is a resource-intensive activity, and business considerations that are concerned with minimizing cost and maximizing customer convenience. Bioreactor design takes place in a highly regulated environment, so factors to be incorporated into the concept include not only tissue culture considerations but also matters related to asepsis, scaleup, automation and ease of use by the final customer. Dermagraft is an allogeneic tissue. Stasis preservation, in this case cryopreservation, is essential in allogeneic tissue engineering, allowing sterility testing, inventory control and, in the case of Dermagraft, a cellular stress that may be important for hormesis following implantation. Although the use of allogeneic cells provides advantages in manufacturing under suitable conditions, it raises the spectre of immunological rejection. Such rejection has not been experienced with Dermagraft. Possible reasons for this and the vision of further application of allogeneic tissues are important considerations in future tissue-engineered cellular devices. This review illustrates approaches that indicate some of the criteria that may provide a basis for further developments. Marketing is a further requirement for success, which entails understanding of the mechanism of action of the procedure, and is illustrated for Dermagraft. The success of a tissue-engineered product is dependent on many interacting operations, some discussed here, each of which must be performed simultaneously and well. PMID:17005024

  19. Commercial considerations in tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Mansbridge, Jonathan

    2006-10-01

    Tissue engineering is a field with immense promise. Using the example of an early tissue-engineered skin implant, Dermagraft, factors involved in the successful commercial development of devices of this type are explored. Tissue engineering has to strike a balance between tissue culture, which is a resource-intensive activity, and business considerations that are concerned with minimizing cost and maximizing customer convenience. Bioreactor design takes place in a highly regulated environment, so factors to be incorporated into the concept include not only tissue culture considerations but also matters related to asepsis, scaleup, automation and ease of use by the final customer. Dermagraft is an allogeneic tissue. Stasis preservation, in this case cryopreservation, is essential in allogeneic tissue engineering, allowing sterility testing, inventory control and, in the case of Dermagraft, a cellular stress that may be important for hormesis following implantation. Although the use of allogeneic cells provides advantages in manufacturing under suitable conditions, it raises the spectre of immunological rejection. Such rejection has not been experienced with Dermagraft. Possible reasons for this and the vision of further application of allogeneic tissues are important considerations in future tissue-engineered cellular devices. This review illustrates approaches that indicate some of the criteria that may provide a basis for further developments. Marketing is a further requirement for success, which entails understanding of the mechanism of action of the procedure, and is illustrated for Dermagraft. The success of a tissue-engineered product is dependent on many interacting operations, some discussed here, each of which must be performed simultaneously and well.

  20. What's a business for?

    PubMed

    Handy, Charles

    2002-12-01

    In the wake of the recent corporate scandals, it's time to reconsider the assumptions underlying American-style stock-market capitalism. That heady doctrine--in which the market is king, success is measured in terms of shareholder value, and profits are an end in themselves--enraptured America for a generation, spread to Britain during the 1980s, and recently began to gain acceptance in Continental Europe. But now, many wonder if the American model is corrupt. The American scandals are not just a matter of dubious personal ethics or of rogue companies fudging the odd billion. And the cure for the problems will not come solely from tougher regulations. We must also ask more fundamental questions: Whom and what is a business for? And are traditional ownership and governance structures suited to the knowledge economy? According to corporate law, a company's financiers are its owners, and employees are treated as property and recorded as costs. But while that may have been true in the early days of industry, it does not reflect today's reality. Now a company's assets are increasingly found in the employees who contribute their time and talents rather than in the stockholders who temporarily contribute their money. The language and measures of business must be reversed. In a knowledge economy, a good business is a community with a purpose, not a piece of property. If, like many European companies, a business considers itself a wealth-creating community consisting of members who have certain rights, those members will be more likely to treat one another as valued partners and take responsibility for telling the truth. Such a community can also help repair the image of business by insisting that its purpose is not just to make a profit but to make a profit in order to do something better.

  1. What's a business for?

    PubMed

    Handy, Charles

    2002-12-01

    In the wake of the recent corporate scandals, it's time to reconsider the assumptions underlying American-style stock-market capitalism. That heady doctrine--in which the market is king, success is measured in terms of shareholder value, and profits are an end in themselves--enraptured America for a generation, spread to Britain during the 1980s, and recently began to gain acceptance in Continental Europe. But now, many wonder if the American model is corrupt. The American scandals are not just a matter of dubious personal ethics or of rogue companies fudging the odd billion. And the cure for the problems will not come solely from tougher regulations. We must also ask more fundamental questions: Whom and what is a business for? And are traditional ownership and governance structures suited to the knowledge economy? According to corporate law, a company's financiers are its owners, and employees are treated as property and recorded as costs. But while that may have been true in the early days of industry, it does not reflect today's reality. Now a company's assets are increasingly found in the employees who contribute their time and talents rather than in the stockholders who temporarily contribute their money. The language and measures of business must be reversed. In a knowledge economy, a good business is a community with a purpose, not a piece of property. If, like many European companies, a business considers itself a wealth-creating community consisting of members who have certain rights, those members will be more likely to treat one another as valued partners and take responsibility for telling the truth. Such a community can also help repair the image of business by insisting that its purpose is not just to make a profit but to make a profit in order to do something better. PMID:12510537

  2. Business School Internships: Legal Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swift, Cathy Owens; Kent, Russell

    1999-01-01

    Explores legal issues involved in business student internships for employers (compensation, workers' compensation, unemployment insurance, termination, equal-opportunities legislation, general liability) and for business schools (equal opportunities-legislation, general liability). (SK)

  3. Small Business's Big Training Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Leslie

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the training needs of small businesses in light of their high failure rate (50 percent). Includes characteristics of successful small businesses, potential training needs, training methods, and topics for seminars. (JOW)

  4. The Legitimacy of Business Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krapels, Roberta H.; Arnold, Vanessa D.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the background of business communication as a profession and as an academic discipline. Describes Kenneth Boulding's model for establishing the legitimacy of a profession, and uses this model to advance the legitimacy of the profession of business communication. (SR)

  5. Run It Like a Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, R. Craig; Worner, Wayne M.

    1981-01-01

    The business practices of corporations are compared to those of public schools. Big business practices that could be adapted to schools include better utilization of facilities; differentiation of staff; bidding for, and consolidation of purchases; and public relations programs. (MLF)

  6. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-2 - Line of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... section. Example 6. Employer B is a diversified engineering firm offering civil, chemical, and aeronautical engineering services to government and private industry. Employer B provides no other property or... civil engineering services, a second providing all its chemical engineering services, a third...

  7. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-2 - Line of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... section. Example 6. Employer B is a diversified engineering firm offering civil, chemical, and aeronautical engineering services to government and private industry. Employer B provides no other property or... civil engineering services, a second providing all its chemical engineering services, a third...

  8. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-2 - Line of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... section. Example 6. Employer B is a diversified engineering firm offering civil, chemical, and aeronautical engineering services to government and private industry. Employer B provides no other property or... civil engineering services, a second providing all its chemical engineering services, a third...

  9. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-2 - Line of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... section. Example 6. Employer B is a diversified engineering firm offering civil, chemical, and aeronautical engineering services to government and private industry. Employer B provides no other property or... civil engineering services, a second providing all its chemical engineering services, a third...

  10. Nanoscale Liquid Jets Shape New Line of Business

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Just as a pistol shrimp stuns its prey by quickly closing its oversized claw to shoot out a shock-inducing, high-velocity jet of water, NanoMatrix, Inc., is sending shockwaves throughout the nanotechnology world with a revolutionary, small-scale fabrication process that uses powerful liquid jets to cut and shape objects. Emanuel Barros, a former project engineer at NASA s Ames Research Center, set out to form the Santa Cruz, California-based NanoMatrix firm and materialize the micro/nano cutting process partially inspired by the water-spewing crustacean. Early on in his 6-year NASA career, Barros led the development of re-flown flight hardware for an award-winning Spacelab project called NeuroLab. This project, the sixteenth and final Spacelab mission, focused on a series of experiments to determine the effects of microgravity on the development of the mammalian nervous system.

  11. 26 CFR 1.132-4 - Line of business limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... variety store items for sale to the employer's employees. See § 1.132-7 for rules relating to employer-operated eating facilities, and see § 1.132-1(e) for rules relating to employer-operated on-premises... employee discounts to that individual on October 5, 1983. (5) Increase of employee discount. If,...

  12. 26 CFR 1.132-4 - Line of business limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... facts as in example (2), except that the employer also operates a chain of dry cleaning stores...; hotels and other lodging places; auto repair, services, and garages; and food stores. (3) Aggregation of... operates a delicatessen with an attached service counter at which food is sold for consumption on...

  13. 26 CFR 1.132-4 - Line of business limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... facts as in example (2), except that the employer also operates a chain of dry cleaning stores...; hotels and other lodging places; auto repair, services, and garages; and food stores. (3) Aggregation of... operates a delicatessen with an attached service counter at which food is sold for consumption on...

  14. Land remote sensing commercialization: A status report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, W. P.; Heacock, E. L.

    1984-01-01

    The current offer by the United States Department of Commerce to transfer the U.S. land remote sensing program to the private sector is described. A Request for Proposals (RFP) was issued, soliciting offers from U.S. firms to provide a commercial land remote sensing satellite system. Proposals must address a complete system including satellite, communications, and ground data processing systems. Offerors are encouraged to propose to take over the Government LANDSAT system which consists of LANDSAT 4 and LANDSAT D'. Also required in proposals are the market development procedures and plans to ensure that commercialization is feasible and the business will become self-supporting at the earliest possible time. As a matter of Federal Policy, the solicitation is designed to protect both national security and foreign policy considerations. In keeping with these concerns, an offeror must be a U.S. Firm. Requirements for data quality, quantity, distribution and delivery are met by current operational procedures. It is the Government's desire that the Offeror be prepared to develop and operate follow-on systems without Government subsidies. However, to facilitate rapid commercialization, an offeror may elect to include in his proposal mechanisms for short term government financial assistance.

  15. {open_quotes}Successful and cost-effective commercial waste prevention and recycling programs{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, A.L.

    1996-08-01

    Components of an integrated solid waste management program are detailed, with emphasis on government and business partnerships. The program incorporates waste reduction, reuse, waste exchange, recycling, composting, and recycled product procurement. Program options, which focus on educational materials, methods, and technical assistance for promoting commercial waste prevention and recycling, are specified for the business, manufacturing, and industrial sectors. A sample commercial recycling program budget and budget description is included.

  16. Application of the airborne ocean color imager for commercial fishing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrigley, Robert C.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of the investigation was to develop a commercial remote sensing system for providing near-real-time data (within one day) in support of commercial fishing operations. The Airborne Ocean Color Imager (AOCI) had been built for NASA by Daedalus Enterprises, Inc., but it needed certain improvements, data processing software, and a delivery system to make it into a commercial system for fisheries. Two products were developed to support this effort: the AOCI with its associated processing system and an information service for both commercial and recreational fisheries to be created by Spectro Scan, Inc. The investigation achieved all technical objectives: improving the AOCI, creating software for atmospheric correction and bio-optical output products, georeferencing the output products, and creating a delivery system to get those products into the hands of commercial and recreational fishermen in near-real-time. The first set of business objectives involved Daedalus Enterprises and also were achieved: they have an improved AOCI and new data processing software with a set of example data products for fisheries applications to show their customers. Daedalus' marketing activities showed the need for simplification of the product for fisheries, but they successfully marketed the current version to an Italian consortium. The second set of business objectives tasked Spectro Scan to provide an information service and they could not be achieved because Spectro Scan was unable to obtain necessary venture capital to start up operations.

  17. Business Plan: The Virginia Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Billie M.

    1997-01-01

    The Virginia Commercial Space Flight Authority (VCSFA) was established on July 1, 1995 and codified at Sections 9-266.1 et seq., Code of Virginia. It is governed by an eleven person Board of Directors representing industry, state and local government and academia. VCSFA has designated the Center for Commercial Space Infrastructure as its Executive Directorate and Operating Agent. This Business Plan has been developed to provide information to prospective customers, prospective investors, state and federal government agencies, the VCSFA Board and other interested parties regarding development and operation of the Virginia Space Flight Center (VSFC) at Wallops Island. The VSFC is an initiative sponsored by VCSFA to achieve its stated objectives in the areas of economic development and education. Further, development of the VSFC is in keeping with the state's economic goals set forth in Opportunity Virginia, the strategic plan for jobs and prosperity, which are to: (1) Strengthen the rapidly growing aerospace industry in space based services including launch services, remote sensing, satellite manufacturing and telecommunications; and (2) Capitalize on intellectual and technical resources throughout the state and become a leader in the development of advanced technology businesses.

  18. Commercial cooking equipment improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Himmel, R.L.

    1981-10-01

    A program to improve the efficiency of gas-fired commercial cooking equipment has focused on deep-fat fryers and the oven, open-top, hot-top, and fry-top sections of ranges. A newly developed infrared deep-fat fryer provided to be 25% more efficient than conventional units. Using the direct-fired forced-convection approach in an oven reduced the fuel consumed during baking by 55%. A range open-top burner system with an experimental power burner consumed 33% less fuel and time than conventional models. Preliminary modifications to heavy-duty hot-top and fry-top sections demonstrated fuel savings of 43% and 30%, respectively. More R and D is planned to incorporate manufacturer suggestions resulting in more complete experimental models that will aid in commercializing these improved appliances.

  19. Commercial jet transport crashworthiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Widmayer, E.; Brende, O. B.

    1982-01-01

    The results of a study to identify areas of research and approaches that may result in improved occupant survivability and crashworthiness of transport aircraft are given. The study defines areas of structural crashworthiness for transport aircraft which might form the basis for a research program. A 10-year research and development program to improve the structural impact resistance of general aviation and commercial jet transport aircraft is planned. As part of this program parallel studies were conducted to review the accident experience of commercial transport aircraft, assess the accident performance of structural components and the status of impact resistance technology, and recommend areas of research and development for that 10-year plan. The results of that study are also given.

  20. The Business of Governing Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gann, Nigel

    2015-01-01

    In September 2015, the Secretary of State for Education asked for more business involvement in schools, and in particular for business leaders' help to improve failing schools. This article questions the twenty-year campaign by all governments to engage business expertise and values in the governance of schools.