Science.gov

Sample records for commercial business lines

  1. The Commercial Open Source Business Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riehle, Dirk

    Commercial open source software projects are open source software projects that are owned by a single firm that derives a direct and significant revenue stream from the software. Commercial open source at first glance represents an economic paradox: How can a firm earn money if it is making its product available for free as open source? This paper presents the core properties of com mercial open source business models and discusses how they work. Using a commercial open source approach, firms can get to market faster with a superior product at lower cost than possible for traditional competitors. The paper shows how these benefits accrue from an engaged and self-supporting user community. Lacking any prior comprehensive reference, this paper is based on an analysis of public statements by practitioners of commercial open source. It forges the various anecdotes into a coherent description of revenue generation strategies and relevant business functions.

  2. Cooperative commercial recycling programs for small business

    SciTech Connect

    Tennes, A.E.

    1996-08-01

    This paper summarizes a pilot commercial recycling program implemented in Illinois from June 1994 through June 1995. The Solid Waste Agency of Northern Cook County (SWANCC) was responsible for program development, implementation and education, solicitation of proposals and funding, and procurement of equipment. Despite poor program continuation response by merchants, the pilot was considered successful in diverting a significant amount of material from landfill and demonstrating that routing density, materials standardization, and container sharing can provide cost-effective commercial recycling. A similar program implemented by SWANCC is also described, which incorporates a committment from volunteer Environmental Control Commission members to actively encourage businesses to continue recycling.

  3. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-2 - Line of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...), or at different levels in the chain of commercial distribution (e.g., wholesale versus retail), or in... manufacture and sale of consumer food and beverage products and the provision of data processing services to... customers among three lines of business, one providing all its consumer food products, a second providing...

  4. Business in orbit - The commercial use of space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillam, I. T., IV

    1985-01-01

    Current and proposed business opportunities in space are discussed. The advantages offered by the zero gravity environment of space are examined. The roles of the Space Shuttle and the Space Station in space commercialization are described. International development and use of the Space Station is proposed. It is observed that the communications satellite industry is a successful space venture, and opportunities for materials processing and pharmaceuticals production in space are considered. The relationship between NASA's Office of Commercial Programs, which assists businesses in space commercialization, and industry is studied. The impact of space commercialization on the national economy and international trade is analyzed.

  5. Business in orbit - The commercial use of space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillam, I. T., IV

    1985-01-01

    Current and proposed business opportunities in space are discussed. The advantages offered by the zero gravity environment of space are examined. The roles of the Space Shuttle and the Space Station in space commercialization are described. International development and use of the Space Station is proposed. It is observed that the communications satellite industry is a successful space venture, and opportunities for materials processing and pharmaceuticals production in space are considered. The relationship between NASA's Office of Commercial Programs, which assists businesses in space commercialization, and industry is studied. The impact of space commercialization on the national economy and international trade is analyzed.

  6. 26 CFR 1.132-4 - Line of business limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... athletic facilities. (iii) Performance of substantial services in more than one line of business. An... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Line of business limitation. 1.132-4 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Specifically Excluded from Gross Income § 1.132-4 Line of business...

  7. Commercial use of space - The space business era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, G. D.

    1985-01-01

    Progress and avenues being explored by NASA to hasten the commercialization of space are described. A task force has recommended that the effort begin at once, that bureaucratic barriers to commercial space activities be removed, and that a partnership between government and industry be seriously explored. The government role is to establish links with private industry, invest in high-leverage technologies and space facilities which will be attractive to commercial ventures, and contribute to commercial enterprises where risks are high and significant economic benefits can be foreseen. The government/industry relationship can be legally evinced by MOUs, joint endeavor agreements, technical exchange agreements and industrial guest investigator arrangements. The Space Station is the first step in that it allows Americans to live and work in space. It is expected that international participation in Space Station development and utilization will accelerate the space business era.

  8. Commercial use of space - The space business era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, G. D.

    1985-01-01

    Progress and avenues being explored by NASA to hasten the commercialization of space are described. A task force has recommended that the effort begin at once, that bureaucratic barriers to commercial space activities be removed, and that a partnership between government and industry be seriously explored. The government role is to establish links with private industry, invest in high-leverage technologies and space facilities which will be attractive to commercial ventures, and contribute to commercial enterprises where risks are high and significant economic benefits can be foreseen. The government/industry relationship can be legally evinced by MOUs, joint endeavor agreements, technical exchange agreements and industrial guest investigator arrangements. The Space Station is the first step in that it allows Americans to live and work in space. It is expected that international participation in Space Station development and utilization will accelerate the space business era.

  9. 14 CFR 137.55 - Business name: Commercial agricultural aircraft operator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Business name: Commercial agricultural... OPERATIONS AGRICULTURAL AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.55 Business name: Commercial agricultural... agricultural aircraft operator certificate. ...

  10. 14 CFR 137.55 - Business name: Commercial agricultural aircraft operator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Business name: Commercial agricultural... OPERATIONS AGRICULTURAL AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.55 Business name: Commercial agricultural... agricultural aircraft operator certificate. ...

  11. 14 CFR 137.55 - Business name: Commercial agricultural aircraft operator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Business name: Commercial agricultural... OPERATIONS AGRICULTURAL AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.55 Business name: Commercial agricultural... agricultural aircraft operator certificate. ...

  12. 14 CFR 137.55 - Business name: Commercial agricultural aircraft operator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Business name: Commercial agricultural... OPERATIONS AGRICULTURAL AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.55 Business name: Commercial agricultural... agricultural aircraft operator certificate. ...

  13. 14 CFR 137.55 - Business name: Commercial agricultural aircraft operator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Business name: Commercial agricultural... OPERATIONS AGRICULTURAL AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.55 Business name: Commercial agricultural... agricultural aircraft operator certificate. ...

  14. A Machine Learning Approach for Business Intelligence Analysis using Commercial Shipping Transaction Data

    SciTech Connect

    Bramer, Lisa M.; Chatterjee, Samrat; Holmes, Aimee E.; Robinson, Sean M.; Bradley, Steven F.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.

    2015-09-30

    Business intelligence problems are particularly challenging due to the use of large volume and high velocity data in attempts to model and explain complex underlying phenomena. Incremental machine learning based approaches for summarizing trends and identifying anomalous behavior are often desirable in such conditions to assist domain experts in characterizing their data. The overall goal of this research is to develop a machine learning algorithm that enables predictive analysis on streaming data, detects changes and anomalies in the data, and can evolve based on the dynamic behavior of the data. Commercial shipping transaction data for the U.S. is used to develop and test a Naïve Bayes model that classifies several companies into lines of businesses and demonstrates an ability to predict when the behavior of these companies changes by venturing into other lines of businesses.

  15. A Technology Plan for Enabling Commercial Space Business

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyles, Garry M.

    1997-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Advanced Space Transportation Program is a customer driven, focused technology program that supports the NASA Strategic Plan and considers future commercial space business projections. The initial cycle of the Advanced Space Transportation Program implementation planning was conducted from December 1995 through February 1996 and represented increased NASA emphasis on broad base technology development with the goal of dramatic reductions in the cost of space transportation. The second planning cycle, conducted in January and February 1997, updated the program implementation plan based on changes in the external environment, increased maturity of advanced concept studies, and current technology assessments. The program has taken a business-like approach to technology development with a balanced portfolio of near, medium, and long-term strategic targets. Strategic targets are influenced by Earth science, space science, and exploration objectives as well as commercial space markets. Commercial space markets include those that would be enhanced by lower cost transportation as well as potential markets resulting in major increases in space business induced by reductions in transportation cost. The program plan addresses earth-to-orbit space launch, earth orbit operations and deep space systems. It also addresses all critical transportation system elements; including structures, thermal protection systems, propulsion, avionics, and operations. As these technologies are matured, integrated technology flight experiments such as the X-33 and X-34 flight demonstrator programs support near-term (one to five years) development or operational decisions. The Advanced Space Transportation Program and the flight demonstrator programs combine business planning, ground-based technology demonstrations and flight demonstrations that will permit industry and NASA to commit to revolutionary new space transportation systems

  16. In the business of dying: questioning the commercialization of hospice.

    PubMed

    Perry, Joshua E; Stone, Robert C

    2011-01-01

    This article critically questions the commercialization of hospice care and the ethical concerns associated with the industry's movement toward "market-driven medicine" at the end of life. For example, the article examines issues raised by an influx of for-profit hospice providers whose business model appears at its core to have an ethical conflict of interest between shareholders doing well and terminal patients dying well. Yet, empirical data analyzing the experience of patients across the hospice industry are limited, and general claims that end-of-life patient care is inferior among for-profit providers or even that their business practices are somehow unseemly when compared to nonprofit providers cannot be substantiated. In fact, non-profit providers are not immune to potentially conflicting concerns regarding financial viability (i.e., "no margin, no mission"). Given the limitations of existing empirical data and contrasting ideological commitments of for-profit versus non-profit providers, the questions raised by this article highlight important areas for reflection and further study. Policymakers and regulators are cautioned to keep ethical concerns in the fore as an increasingly commercialized hospice industry continues to emerge as a dominant component of the U.S. health care system. Both practitioners and researchers are encouraged to expand their efforts to better understand how business practices and commercial interests may compromise the death process of the patient and patient's family--a process premised upon a philosophy and ethical tradition that earlier generations of hospice providers and proponents established as a trusted, end-of-life alternative. © 2011 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  17. Developing New Lines of Business: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clegg, Judith; Smart, Dawn Hanson

    2006-01-01

    Developing a new line of business in an independent consulting firm provides an excellent way to expand, increase income for the company, and create cross-marketing opportunities. If it is not done correctly, however, this potential opportunity can imperil the existence of the business. This chapter's case highlights the benefits new lines of…

  18. Developing New Lines of Business: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clegg, Judith; Smart, Dawn Hanson

    2006-01-01

    Developing a new line of business in an independent consulting firm provides an excellent way to expand, increase income for the company, and create cross-marketing opportunities. If it is not done correctly, however, this potential opportunity can imperil the existence of the business. This chapter's case highlights the benefits new lines of…

  19. A Comparison: Procurement Practices of Government-Oriented and Commercial-Oriented Businesses.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    3. Small Businesses Actively Seek Contracts - 42 4. Financing Research and Development ------- 44 C. SIMILARITIES --------------------------------- 46...contracts with economic escalator is preferable by suppliers to single year cost plus contracts. Government Commercial Oriented Oriented Businesses Busi ...Strongly Agree) majority, Government-oriented businesses responded that they do not finance research and development costs which may be incurred prior to

  20. Business analysis: The commercial mission of the International Asteroid Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The mission of the International Asteroid Mission (IAM) is providing asteroidal resources to support activities in space. The short term goal is to initiate IAM by mining a near-Earth, hydrous carbonaceous chondrite asteroid to service the nearer-term market of providing cryogenic rocket fuel in low lunar orbit (LLO). The IAM will develop and contract for the building of the transportation vehicles and equipment necessary for this undertaking. The long-term goal is to expand operations by exploiting asteroids in other manners, as these options become commercially viable. The primary business issues are what revenue can be generated from the baseline mission, how much will the mission cost, and how funding for this mission can be raised. These issues are addressed.

  1. Using a business practice model to control product line costs.

    PubMed

    Farr, Ronald J; Senn, Girard F; Whitten, Catherine M

    2006-08-01

    Faced with a downward turn in its total joint replacement product line, Avera McKennan Hospital was able to avert further decline and save dollar 500,000 annually by: Reviewing and analyzing the product line's past performance. Developing a business model to govern its new implant supply process. Obtaining physician buy-in. Ensuring vendor compliance with its new contracts. Developing a role as business partner with its orthopedic surgeons.

  2. Germ line mechanics – and unfinished business

    PubMed Central

    Wessel, Gary M.

    2016-01-01

    Primordial germ cells are usually made early in the development of an organism. These are the mother of all stem cells that are necessary for propagation of the species, yet use highly diverse mechanisms between organisms. How they are specified, and when and where they form, are central to developmental biology. Using diverse organisms to study this development is illuminating for understanding the mechanics these cells use in this essential function, and for identifying the breadth of evolutionary changes that have occurred between species. This essay emphasizes how echinoderms may contribute to the patch-work quilt of our understanding of germ line formation during embryogenesis. PMID:26970000

  3. Germ Line Mechanics--And Unfinished Business.

    PubMed

    Wessel, Gary M

    2016-01-01

    Primordial germ cells are usually made early in the development of an organism. These are the mother of all stem cells that are necessary for propagation of the species, yet use highly diverse mechanisms between organisms. How they are specified, and when and where they form, are central to developmental biology. Using diverse organisms to study this development is illuminating for understanding the mechanics these cells use in this essential function and for identifying the breadth of evolutionary changes that have occurred between species. This essay emphasizes how echinoderms may contribute to the patchwork quilt of our understanding of germ line formation during embryogenesis.

  4. A simple line wave generator using commercial explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, John S; Jackson, Scott I; Hill, Larry G

    2009-01-01

    We present a simple and inexpensive explosive line wave generator has been designed using commercial sheet explosive and plane wave lens concepts. The line wave generator is constructed using PETN and RDX based sheet explosive for the slow and fast components respectively. The design permits the creation of any desired line width. A series of experiments were performed on a 100 mm design, measuring the detonation arrival time at the output of the generator using a streak camera. An iterative technique was used to adjust the line wave generator's slow and fast components, so as to minimize the arrival time deviation. Designs, test results, and concepts for improvements will be discussed.

  5. 26 CFR 1.132-4 - Line of business limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) through (g) of this section. (ii) Property and services sold to employees rather than customers. Because the property or services must be offered for sale to customers in the ordinary course of the same line... business are from laundry services sold to customers other than the hospital employer. Only the...

  6. 26 CFR 1.132-4 - Line of business limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ESIC Manual. (ii) Examples. Examples of two-digit classifications are general retail merchandise stores..., the operations are treated as one line of business. (b) Grandfather rule for certain retail stores—(1... of the retail department stores). Therefore, employees of the first member of the affiliated...

  7. Selection and procurement of commercial parts for microsat product line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lay, P.; Cavalin, O.; Chaminade, C.; Mouton, A.

    2002-12-01

    For the microsatellite product line named Myriade using, on a large scale, commercial parts, this paper presents the parts management strategy. The paper describes the adapted methodology with respect to the program risk/cost ratio and identifies the lessons learned from the selection and procurement process.

  8. Statistics of Private Commercial and Business Schools, 1919-20. Bulletin, 1922, No. 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonner, H. R.

    1922-01-01

    This report presents the statistics of 902 private, commercial and business schools reporting in 1920. Only 12 more schools reported in 1920 than in 1918. In addition to these, there were 380 other schools of this character which did not submit a report. Of the 902 schools reporting, 841 were nondenominational commercial schools and 61 were…

  9. A business man views commercial ventures in space.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarff, D. D.; Bloom, H. L.

    1973-01-01

    Paper reviews technical, resource planning and marketing steps an industrial organization must perform in arriving at a decision to undertake space development and production of commercial products or services for Users on the ground. Technical elements are supported by particular examples. Analysis of required resources emphasizes facility and financial inter-relationships between commercial organizations and NASA. Marketing planning covers elements of profitability. Paper addresses questions related to protection of corporate stockholders and public interest, investment decision timing, budget variations. Paper concludes with observations on timeliness of planning shuttle-based commercial ventures and on key industry/NASA problems and decisions.

  10. A business man views commercial ventures in space.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarff, D. D.; Bloom, H. L.

    1973-01-01

    Paper reviews technical, resource planning and marketing steps an industrial organization must perform in arriving at a decision to undertake space development and production of commercial products or services for Users on the ground. Technical elements are supported by particular examples. Analysis of required resources emphasizes facility and financial inter-relationships between commercial organizations and NASA. Marketing planning covers elements of profitability. Paper addresses questions related to protection of corporate stockholders and public interest, investment decision timing, budget variations. Paper concludes with observations on timeliness of planning shuttle-based commercial ventures and on key industry/NASA problems and decisions.

  11. Business Training and Commercial Education. Bulletin, 1921, No. 43

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swiggett, Glen Levin

    1921-01-01

    The period of participation of the United States in the recent war witnessed a revival of interest in training for business with a consequent experimentation in all types and grades of schools, as well as through nonschool agencies, governmental and otherwise. A survey of this field for the two years ending June 30, 1920, reveals an interest even…

  12. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-3 - Separate line of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... third line of business, a fast-food chain. Because Employee X provides at least 50 percent of his... management requirements under paragraphs (b) (4) and (5) to the fast-food chain line of business. Example 4... § 1.414(r)-2. One of its lines of business is the operation of a chain of athletic equipment and...

  13. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-3 - Separate line of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... third line of business, a fast-food chain. Because Employee X provides at least 50 percent of his... management requirements under paragraphs (b) (4) and (5) to the fast-food chain line of business. Example 4... § 1.414(r)-2. One of its lines of business is the operation of a chain of athletic equipment and...

  14. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-3 - Separate line of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... third line of business, a fast-food chain. Because Employee X provides at least 50 percent of his... management requirements under paragraphs (b) (4) and (5) to the fast-food chain line of business. Example 4... § 1.414(r)-2. One of its lines of business is the operation of a chain of athletic equipment and...

  15. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-3 - Separate line of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... third line of business, a fast-food chain. Because Employee X provides at least 50 percent of his... management requirements under paragraphs (b) (4) and (5) to the fast-food chain line of business. Example 4... § 1.414(r)-2. One of its lines of business is the operation of a chain of athletic equipment and...

  16. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-3 - Separate line of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... third line of business, a fast-food chain. Because Employee X provides at least 50 percent of his... management requirements under paragraphs (b) (4) and (5) to the fast-food chain line of business. Example 4... § 1.414(r)-2. One of its lines of business is the operation of a chain of athletic equipment and...

  17. Efficient airflow design for cleanrooms improves business bottom lines

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Tengfang

    2003-01-05

    Based on a review of airflow design factors and in-situ energy measurements in ISO Cleanliness Class-5 cleanrooms, this paper addresses the importance of energy efficiency in airflow design and opportunities of cost savings in cleanroom practices. The paper discusses design factors that can long lastingly affect cleanroom system performance, and demonstrates benefits of energy efficient cleanroom design from viewpoints of environmental control and business operations. The paper suggests that a high performance cleanroom should not only be effective in contamination control, but also be efficient in energy and environmental performance. The paper also suggests that energy efficient design practice stands to bring in immediate capital cost savings and operation cost savings, and should be regarded by management as a strategy to improve business bottom lines.

  18. Commercialization of Los Alamos National Laboratory technologies via small businesses. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brice, R.; Cartron, D.; Rhyne, T.; Schulze, M.; Welty, L.

    1997-06-01

    Over the past decade, numerous companies have been formed to commercialize research results from leading U.S. academic and research institutions. Emerging small businesses in areas such as Silicon Valley, Boston`s Route 128 corridor, and North Carolina`s Research Triangle have been especially effective in moving promising technologies from the laboratory bench to the commercial marketplace--creating new jobs and economic expansion in the process. Unfortunately, many of the U.S. national laboratories have not been major participants in this technology/commercialization activity, a result of a wide variety of factors which, until recently, acted against successful commercialization. This {open_quotes}commercialization gap{close_quotes} exists partly due to a lack, within Los Alamos in particular and the DOE in general, of in-depth expertise and experience in such business areas as new business development, securities regulation, market research and the determination of commercial potential, the identification of entrepreneurial management, marketing and distribution, and venture capital sources. The immediate consequence of these factors is the disappointingly small number of start-up companies based on technologies from Los Alamos National Laboratory that have been attempted, the modest financial return Los Alamos has received from these start-ups, and the lack of significant national recognition that Los Alamos has received for creating and commercializing these technologies.

  19. A Strategic Model for the Business Communication Field Training Decision in the Commercial Enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioannis, Seimenis; Damianos, Sakas P.; Nikolaos, Konstantopoulos

    2009-08-01

    This article examines the factors that affect the decision making of the training managers responsible in case of business communication field as they have emerged from the study of the decision that have taken place in the commercial sector in this specific Greek market. Previous researches have indicated the participation of a number of variables in this kind of decision. The aim of this article is to locate the main factors which determine, in the commercial sector the decision for the training of the employees in the field of business communication. On the basis of quality research, dynamic simulation model have been created for some of this main factors.

  20. Commercial and Corporate Activities of New University Business Schools: A Critical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince, Christopher; Beaver, Graham

    2004-01-01

    Commercial and corporate activities and the income they generate are of increasing importance to all UK higher education institutions. For new or modern university business schools in particular, the falling unit of resource attaching to undergraduate student teaching income and the virtual disappearance of research revenues as a result of the…

  1. Commercial and Corporate Activities of New University Business Schools: A Critical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince, Christopher; Beaver, Graham

    2004-01-01

    Commercial and corporate activities and the income they generate are of increasing importance to all UK higher education institutions. For new or modern university business schools in particular, the falling unit of resource attaching to undergraduate student teaching income and the virtual disappearance of research revenues as a result of the…

  2. Company's Unusual Plan to Package Commercial Software with Business Textbooks Produces a Measure of Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Beverly T.

    1992-01-01

    Course Technology Inc. has developed 10 products combining textbooks with commercial software for college accounting, business, computer science, and statistics courses. Five of the products use Lotus 1-2-3 spreadsheet software. The products have been positively received by teachers and students. (DB)

  3. The commercial development of water repellent coatings for high voltage transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, S. R.; Daniel, A.

    2013-10-31

    The purpose of the Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between UT-Battelle, LLC and Southwire Company was to jointly develop a low cost, commercially viable, water-repellant anti-icing coating system for high voltage transmission lines. Icing of power lines and other structures caused by freezing rain events occurs annually in the United States, and leads to severe and prolonged power outages. These outages cause untold economic and personal distress for many American families and businesses. Researchers at the Department of Energy?s Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee have previously developed a set of superhydrophobic coatings with remarkable anti-icing properties that could potentially be sprayed or painted onto high-tension power lines and pylons. These coatings drastically reduce ice accumulation on these structures during freezing rain events. The project involved obtaining technical input, supplies and test high voltage cables from Southwire, along with the joint development of anti-icing coating techniques, which would result in a commercial license agreement between Southwire and ORNL, and potentially other companies requiring water repellent anti-icing coatings.

  4. The commercial development of water repellent coatings for high voltage transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, Scott Robert

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of the Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between UT-Battelle, LLC and Southwire Company was to jointly develop a low cost, commercially viable, water-repellant anti-icing coating system for high voltage transmission lines. Icing of power lines and other structures caused by freezing rain events occurs annually in the United States, and leads to severe and prolonged power outages. These outages cause untold economic and personal distress for many American families and businesses. Researchers at the Department of Energy s Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee have previously developed a set of superhydrophobic coatings with remarkable anti-icing properties that could potentially be sprayed or painted onto high-tension power lines and pylons. These coatings drastically reduce ice accumulation on these structures during freezing rain events. The project involved obtaining technical input, supplies and test high voltage cables from Southwire, along with the joint development of anti-icing coating techniques, which would result in a commercial license agreement between Southwire and ORNL, and potentially other companies requiring water repellent anti-icing coatings.

  5. The Department of Defense Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Programs: Implementation of the Commercialization Pilot Program and Related Reforms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    Following that Symposium, “the Senate Committee on Small Business & Entrepreneurship proposed legislation that called for a commercialization...Services and the Committee on Small Business and Entrepreneurship of the Senate and the Committee on Armed Services and the Committee on Small...jointly by the Chair and Ranking Minority Member of the Senate Committee on Small Business and 19 Entrepreneurship and the Chair of the House

  6. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-1 - Requirements applicable to qualified separate lines of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... lines of business. 1.414(r)-1 Section 1.414(r)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Plans, Etc. § 1.414(r)-1 Requirements applicable to qualified separate lines of business. (a) In general. Section 414(r) prescribes the conditions under which an employer is treated as operating...

  7. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-1 - Requirements applicable to qualified separate lines of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... lines of business. 1.414(r)-1 Section 1.414(r)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT..., Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.414(r)-1 Requirements applicable to qualified separate lines of business. (a) In general. Section 414(r) prescribes the conditions under which an employer is treated as operating...

  8. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-1 - Requirements applicable to qualified separate lines of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... lines of business. 1.414(r)-1 Section 1.414(r)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT..., Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.414(r)-1 Requirements applicable to qualified separate lines of business. (a) In general. Section 414(r) prescribes the conditions under which an employer is treated as operating...

  9. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-1 - Requirements applicable to qualified separate lines of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... lines of business. 1.414(r)-1 Section 1.414(r)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT..., Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.414(r)-1 Requirements applicable to qualified separate lines of business. (a) In general. Section 414(r) prescribes the conditions under which an employer is treated as operating...

  10. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-1 - Requirements applicable to qualified separate lines of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... lines of business. 1.414(r)-1 Section 1.414(r)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT..., Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.414(r)-1 Requirements applicable to qualified separate lines of business. (a) In general. Section 414(r) prescribes the conditions under which an employer is treated as...

  11. Business Case for a Micro-Combined Heat and Power Fuel Cell System in Commercial Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Makhmalbaf, Atefe; Anderson, David M.; Amaya, Jodi P.; Pilli, Siva Prasad; Srivastava, Viraj; Upton, Jaki F.

    2013-10-30

    Combined heat and power fuel cell systems (CHP-FCSs) provide consistent electrical power and hot water with greater efficiency and lower emissions than alternative sources. These systems can be used either as baseload, grid-connected, or as off-the-grid power sources. This report presents a business case for CHP-FCSs in the range of 5 to 50 kWe. Systems in this power range are considered micro-CHP-FCS. For this particular business case, commercial applications rather than residential or industrial are targeted. To understand the benefits of implementing a micro-CHP-FCS, the characteristics that determine their competitive advantage must first be identified. Locations with high electricity prices and low natural gas prices are ideal locations for micro-CHP-FCSs. Fortunately, these high spark spread locations are generally in the northeastern area of the United States and California where government incentives are already in place to offset the current high cost of the micro-CHP-FCSs. As a result of the inherently high efficiency of a fuel cell and their ability to use the waste heat that is generated as a CHP, they have higher efficiency. This results in lower fuel costs than comparable alternative small-scale power systems (e.g., microturbines and reciprocating engines). A variety of markets should consider micro-CHP-FCSs including those that require both heat and baseload electricity throughout the year. In addition, the reliable power of micro-CHP-FCSs could be beneficial to markets where electrical outages are especially frequent or costly. Greenhouse gas emission levels from micro-CHP-FCSs are 69 percent lower, and the human health costs are 99.9 percent lower, than those attributed to conventional coal-fired power plants. As a result, FCSs can allow a company to advertise as environmentally conscious and provide a bottom-line sales advantage. As a new technology in the early stages of adoption, micro-CHP-FCSs are currently more expensive than alternative

  12. From invention to innovation: Commercialization of new technology by independent and small business inventors

    SciTech Connect

    1989-05-15

    This handbook emerged from the commitment of Energy-Related Inventions Program personnel to supporting the commercialization efforts of independent and small business inventors with new technologies. As you read this document, you will face questions that may seem far removed from technological concerns--questions about the market, your competition, your business structure, and about legal and regulatory requirements. These may seem peripheral to your present and future work. But, make no mistake, you must carefully and honestly consider and answer these if you expect to penetrate the market in sustained way and profit from your work. Over four hundred of your peers--some by success, others by failure--have shown us the lessons incorporated in this volume. By using it, and by commenting on it, you benefit from their collective experience, and make invaluable additions to it. 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Commercialization of Los Alamos National Laboratory technologies via small businesses. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brice, R.; Carton, D.; Rhyne, T.

    1997-06-01

    Appendices are presented from a study performed on a concept model system for the commercialization of Los Alamos National Laboratory technologies via small businesses. Topics include a summary of information from the joint MCC/Los Alamos technology conference; a comparison of New Mexico infrastructure to other areas; a typical licensing agreement; technology screening guides; summaries of specific DOE/UC/Los Alamos documents; a bibliography; the Oak Ridge National Laboratory TCRD; The Ames Center for Advanced Technology Development; Los Alamos licensing procedures; presentation of slides from monthly MCC/Los Alamos review meetings; generalized entrepreneurship model; and a discussion on receiving equity for technology.

  14. Business-IT Alignment Maturity: The Correlation of Performance Indicators and Alignment Maturity within the Commercial Airline Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Timothy K.

    2010-01-01

    During the period from 1978 to 2009, more than 200 commercial airlines were forced to merge, cease operations, or file for bankruptcy protection. The purpose of this quantitative study is to evaluate the global commercial airline industry from an IT-business alignment perspective and correlate the alignment maturity level of each airline with…

  15. Business-IT Alignment Maturity: The Correlation of Performance Indicators and Alignment Maturity within the Commercial Airline Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Timothy K.

    2010-01-01

    During the period from 1978 to 2009, more than 200 commercial airlines were forced to merge, cease operations, or file for bankruptcy protection. The purpose of this quantitative study is to evaluate the global commercial airline industry from an IT-business alignment perspective and correlate the alignment maturity level of each airline with…

  16. 26 CFR 1.132-4T - Line of business limitation-1985 through 1988 (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...; hotels and other lodging places; auto repair, services, and garages; and food stores. (3) Aggregation of... industry of the employer for any of the separate lines of business of the employer to be operated...

  17. Software Product Lines: Reuse That Makes Business Sense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    Product Line Practice • Software Architecture Technology • Predictable Assembly from Certifiable Components Dynamic Systems • Integration of Software... Technology • Predictable Assembly from Certifiable Components Dynamic Systems • Integration of Software-Intensive Systems • Performance-Critical...Line Systems Program The Product Line Systems (PLS) Program • creates, matures, applies, and transitions technology and practices • to effect widespread

  18. Big Business on Campus: Examining the Bottom Line.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wertz, Richard D.

    1997-01-01

    Privatizing college services, however attractive, may come at a price. Institutional concerns about losing control of services, too much outside presence on campus, and loss of collegiality are real issues. Each institution must assess its own situation and monitor its movement toward contracting out services to private business, balancing…

  19. Workplace Literacy: Bottom-Line Business Strategies. Showcase 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida Chamber of Commerce, Tallahassee.

    This report presents a concise and useful overview of the issue of business/education partnerships to develop and implement workplace literacy programs. The first chapter focuses on the challenges of developing a literate work force for Florida. It considers the changing workplace and work force, Florida trends in illiteracy, the impact of…

  20. Teaching Business Communication on the Production Line: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Richard W.

    1993-01-01

    Analyzes the communication training received by over 4,000 workers as part of an effort to implement a team concept production system at a General Motors plant. Presents an overview of the team concept training. Discusses five barriers to effective training, four successful instructional methods, and implications for business communication. (RS)

  1. College Students' Choice Modeling of Taking On-Line International Business Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Robert S.

    2006-01-01

    To understand students' choice behavior of taking on-line international business courses, a survey study is conducted to collect information regarding students' actual choices of taking on-line courses and potential factors that may have impacts on students' choices of online learning. Potential factors such as enrollment status, demographic…

  2. 26 CFR 1.132-4T - Line of business limitation-1985 through 1988 (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... for property or services that are offered for sale to customers in the ordinary course of the same... that line of business. (ii) Property and services sold to employees rather than customers. Since the property or services must be offered for sale to customers in the ordinary course of the same line...

  3. Commercialization in College Sports May Have "Crossed the Line," Report Says

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolverton, Brad

    2009-01-01

    Big-time college sports programs derive 60 percent to 80 percent of their revenue from commercial sources, suggesting that intercollegiate athletics--at least at the elite levels--may have "crossed the line" from an educational to a commercial endeavor. That finding comes from a report, "Tax Preferences for Collegiate Sports," released last week…

  4. Commercialization in College Sports May Have "Crossed the Line," Report Says

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolverton, Brad

    2009-01-01

    Big-time college sports programs derive 60 percent to 80 percent of their revenue from commercial sources, suggesting that intercollegiate athletics--at least at the elite levels--may have "crossed the line" from an educational to a commercial endeavor. That finding comes from a report, "Tax Preferences for Collegiate Sports," released last week…

  5. Validation of commercial business lists as a proxy for licensed alcohol outlets.

    PubMed

    Carlos, Heather A; Gabrielli, Joy; Sargent, James D

    2017-05-19

    Studies of retail alcohol outlets are restricted to regions due to lack of U.S. national data. Commercial business lists (BL) offer a possible solution, but no data exists to determine if BLs could serve as an adequate proxy for license data. This paper compares geospatial measures of alcohol outlets derived from a commercial BL with license data for a large US state. We validated BL data as a measure of off-premise alcohol outlet density and proximity compared to license data for 5528 randomly selected California residential addresses. We calculated three proximity measures (Euclidean distance, road network travel time and distance) and two density measures (kernel density estimation and the count within a 2-mile radius) for each dataset. The data was acquired in 2015 and processed and analyzed in 2015 and 2016. Correlations and reliabilities between density (correlation 0.98; Cronbach's α 0.97-0.99) and proximity (correlations 0.77-0.86; α 0.87-0.92) measures were high. For proximity, BL data matched license in 55-57% of addresses, overstated distance in 19%, and understated in 24-26%. BL data can serve as a reliable proxy for licensed alcohol outlets, thus extending the work that can be performed in studies on associations between retail alcohol outlets and drinking outcomes.

  6. Measure of mechanical impacts in commercial blueberry packing lines and potential damage to blueberry fruit

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Modern blueberry packing lines create impact damage to blueberries which will result in fruit bruising. In this study, impacts created by commercial blueberry packing lines were measured quantitatively using a miniature instrumented sphere. Impacts were recorded at transfer points. Average peakG ...

  7. Biennial Survey of Education in the United States, 1932-1934. Bulletin, 1935, No. 2. Chapter VII: Statistics of Private Commercial and Business Schools, 1932-33

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herlihy, Lester B.

    1934-01-01

    This bulletin is the eighth compilation of statistics on private commercial and business schools made by the Office of Education since 1900. The seventh, or preceding report, on this field of education was published for the year 1929. The effect of the economic situation on private commercial and business schools has been to reduce their…

  8. Classification bias in commercial business lists for retail food stores in the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Aspects of the food environment such as the availability of different types of food stores have recently emerged as key modifiable factors that may contribute to the increased prevalence of obesity. Given that many of these studies have derived their results based on secondary datasets and the relationship of food stores with individual weight outcomes has been reported to vary by store type, it is important to understand the extent to which often-used secondary data correctly classify food stores. We evaluated the classification bias of food stores in Dun & Bradstreet (D&B) and InfoUSA commercial business lists. Methods We performed a full census in 274 randomly selected census tracts in the Chicago metropolitan area and collected detailed store attributes inside stores for classification. Store attributes were compared by classification match status and store type. Systematic classification bias by census tract characteristics was assessed in multivariate regression. Results D&B had a higher classification match rate than InfoUSA for supermarkets and grocery stores, while InfoUSA was higher for convenience stores. Both lists were more likely to correctly classify large supermarkets, grocery stores, and convenience stores with more cash registers and different types of service counters (supermarkets and grocery stores only). The likelihood of a correct classification match for supermarkets and grocery stores did not vary systemically by tract characteristics whereas convenience stores were more likely to be misclassified in predominately Black tracts. Conclusion Researches can rely on classification of food stores in commercial datasets for supermarkets and grocery stores whereas classifications for convenience and specialty food stores are subject to some systematic bias by neighborhood racial/ethnic composition. PMID:22512874

  9. Classification bias in commercial business lists for retail food stores in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Han, Euna; Powell, Lisa M; Zenk, Shannon N; Rimkus, Leah; Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2012-04-18

    Aspects of the food environment such as the availability of different types of food stores have recently emerged as key modifiable factors that may contribute to the increased prevalence of obesity. Given that many of these studies have derived their results based on secondary datasets and the relationship of food stores with individual weight outcomes has been reported to vary by store type, it is important to understand the extent to which often-used secondary data correctly classify food stores. We evaluated the classification bias of food stores in Dun & Bradstreet (D&B) and InfoUSA commercial business lists. We performed a full census in 274 randomly selected census tracts in the Chicago metropolitan area and collected detailed store attributes inside stores for classification. Store attributes were compared by classification match status and store type. Systematic classification bias by census tract characteristics was assessed in multivariate regression. D&B had a higher classification match rate than InfoUSA for supermarkets and grocery stores, while InfoUSA was higher for convenience stores. Both lists were more likely to correctly classify large supermarkets, grocery stores, and convenience stores with more cash registers and different types of service counters (supermarkets and grocery stores only). The likelihood of a correct classification match for supermarkets and grocery stores did not vary systemically by tract characteristics whereas convenience stores were more likely to be misclassified in predominately Black tracts. Researches can rely on classification of food stores in commercial datasets for supermarkets and grocery stores whereas classifications for convenience and specialty food stores are subject to some systematic bias by neighborhood racial/ethnic composition.

  10. Concept of Operations for Commercial and Business Aircraft Synthetic Vision Systems. 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams Daniel M.; Waller, Marvin C.; Koelling, John H.; Burdette, Daniel W.; Capron, William R.; Barry, John S.; Gifford, Richard B.; Doyle, Thomas M.

    2001-01-01

    A concept of operations (CONOPS) for the Commercial and Business (CaB) aircraft synthetic vision systems (SVS) is described. The CaB SVS is expected to provide increased safety and operational benefits in normal and low visibility conditions. Providing operational benefits will promote SVS implementation in the Net, improve aviation safety, and assist in meeting the national aviation safety goal. SVS will enhance safety and enable consistent gate-to-gate aircraft operations in normal and low visibility conditions. The goal for developing SVS is to support operational minima as low as Category 3b in a variety of environments. For departure and ground operations, the SVS goal is to enable operations with a runway visual range of 300 feet. The system is an integrated display concept that provides a virtual visual environment. The SVS virtual visual environment is composed of three components: an enhanced intuitive view of the flight environment, hazard and obstacle defection and display, and precision navigation guidance. The virtual visual environment will support enhanced operations procedures during all phases of flight - ground operations, departure, en route, and arrival. The applications selected for emphasis in this document include low visibility departures and arrivals including parallel runway operations, and low visibility airport surface operations. These particular applications were selected because of significant potential benefits afforded by SVS.

  11. Comparative genetic resistance to Ascaridia galli infections of 4 different commercial layer-lines.

    PubMed

    Schou, T; Permin, A; Roepstorff, A; Sørensen, P; Kjaer, J

    2003-05-01

    1. The objective of the study was to compare the establishment and effect of Asaridia galli infections in 4 different layer-lines. 2. A total of 160 birds comprising 4 different commercial layer-lines, ISA Brown, New Hampshire, Skalborg and a cross of New Hampshire(NH) and Skalborg (Sk), were infected with A. galli eggs. The birds were examined for the presence of parasite eggs and parasites at weeks 3, 6 and 9 post infection (pi). 3. At week 6 pi the chickens of the NH line harboured more larvae compared with the three otherlines. The Sk line chickens excreted more A. galli eggs throughout the study compared with the other lines. Female worms in the Sk line were more fecund than the worms in the other lines. Male and female worms recovered from the Sk line at week 9 pi were longer. Male worms recovered from the NH line 6 weeks pi were shorter than male worms from the other lines. Female worms recovered from the NH line were shorter than the female worms from the ISA line and the Sk line. No differences were seen in weight gain among the 4 lines. 4. The results suggest that genetic factors are involved in the establishment and survival of A. galli in the intestine of layers. Further studies are needed to elucidate the genetic mechanisms behind the observed parasitological findings.

  12. 26 CFR 1.132-4T - Line of business limitation-1985 through 1988 (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the same facts as in example (2), except that the minor line of business also operates a chain of dry...; hotels and other lodging places; auto repair, services, and garages; and food stores. (3) Aggregation of... delicatessen with an attached service counter at which food is sold for consumption on the premises. Assume...

  13. 26 CFR 1.132-4T - Line of business limitation-1985 through 1988 (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the same facts as in example (2), except that the minor line of business also operates a chain of dry...; hotels and other lodging places; auto repair, services, and garages; and food stores. (3) Aggregation of... delicatessen with an attached service counter at which food is sold for consumption on the premises. Assume...

  14. 26 CFR 1.132-4T - Line of business limitation-1985 through 1988 (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ESIC Manual. (ii) Examples. Examples of two-digit classifications are general retail merchandise stores... rule for certain retail stores—(1) In general. The line of business limitation may be relaxed under a... entitled to employee discounts at retail department stores operated by another member of the...

  15. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-5 - Qualified separate line of business-administrative scrutiny requirement-safe harbors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... that Employer D also manufactures computers in the United States and abroad. Employer D apportions its computer operations by designating these operations between two separate lines of business, one consisting... computer subsidiary. As a result, no other separate line of business of Employer D provides to customers of...

  16. Evaluation of verticillium wilt resistance in commercial cultivars and advanced breeding lines of cotton

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Verticillium wilt (VW), caused by Verticillium dahliae Kleb, is one of the most destructive diseases in cotton (Gossypium spp.). The most efficient and cost-effective method of controlling the disease is the use of resistant cotton cultivars. Most commercial cultivars and elite breeding lines are de...

  17. 45 CFR 2507.11 - What are the procedures for the release of commercial business information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Corporation shall afford a business submitter 10 working days to object to disclosure, and to provide the... individuals who have access to such information; and (iii) The type and degree of risk of financial injury to... business information shall be mailed by the Corporation not less than six working days prior to the...

  18. 45 CFR 2507.11 - What are the procedures for the release of commercial business information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Corporation shall afford a business submitter 10 working days to object to disclosure, and to provide the... individuals who have access to such information; and (iii) The type and degree of risk of financial injury to... business information shall be mailed by the Corporation not less than six working days prior to the...

  19. A step-by-step approach to improve data quality when using commercial business lists to characterize retail food environments.

    PubMed

    Jones, Kelly K; Zenk, Shannon N; Tarlov, Elizabeth; Powell, Lisa M; Matthews, Stephen A; Horoi, Irina

    2017-01-07

    Food environment characterization in health studies often requires data on the location of food stores and restaurants. While commercial business lists are commonly used as data sources for such studies, current literature provides little guidance on how to use validation study results to make decisions on which commercial business list to use and how to maximize the accuracy of those lists. Using data from a retrospective cohort study [Weight And Veterans' Environments Study (WAVES)], we (a) explain how validity and bias information from existing validation studies (count accuracy, classification accuracy, locational accuracy, as well as potential bias by neighborhood racial/ethnic composition, economic characteristics, and urbanicity) were used to determine which commercial business listing to purchase for retail food outlet data and (b) describe the methods used to maximize the quality of the data and results of this approach. We developed data improvement methods based on existing validation studies. These methods included purchasing records from commercial business lists (InfoUSA and Dun and Bradstreet) based on store/restaurant names as well as standard industrial classification (SIC) codes, reclassifying records by store type, improving geographic accuracy of records, and deduplicating records. We examined the impact of these procedures on food outlet counts in US census tracts. After cleaning and deduplicating, our strategy resulted in a 17.5% reduction in the count of food stores that were valid from those purchased from InfoUSA and 5.6% reduction in valid counts of restaurants purchased from Dun and Bradstreet. Locational accuracy was improved for 7.5% of records by applying street addresses of subsequent years to records with post-office (PO) box addresses. In total, up to 83% of US census tracts annually experienced a change (either positive or negative) in the count of retail food outlets between the initial purchase and the final dataset. Our study

  20. Life cycle assessment of hybrid vehicles recycling: Comparison of three business lines of dismantling.

    PubMed

    Belboom, Sandra; Lewis, Grégory; Bareel, Pierre-François; Léonard, Angélique

    2016-04-01

    This paper undertakes an environmental evaluation of hybrid vehicles recycling, using industrial data from Comet Traitement SA in Belgium. Three business lines have been modelled and analysed. The first one is relative to the business as usual with a dismantling to recover batteries and engines followed by shredding and post shredding treatments. The second one considers, in addition, the removal of electronic control units (ECU) before shredding followed by same steps than in the first line and the last one is relative to the additional removal of big plastic parts before shredding and business as usual post shredding treatments. Results show non-significant environmental benefits when ECU or large parts of plastics are recovered before shredding. Improvements in terms of environmental benefits are lower than the uncertainty of the results. Indeed, the performing usual process for end-of-life vehicles (ELV) treatment reaches 97% of the ELV which is valorised in terms of metal and energy recoveries. Post shredding treatment units include metals, plastics and energy recovery of residues. Comet business as usual route for ELV valorisation is in accordance with the requirements of the European directive and recommendations for further improvement with dismantling of other parts (ECU or plastics) before shredding are non-relevant in this case.

  1. Portfolio Acquisition - How the DoD Can Leverage the Commercial Product Line Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-30

    investments in M&S, experimentation, and rapid testing capabilities. Portfolio leaders would provide their priorities for research and feedback to...ååì~ä=^Åèìáëáíáçå= oÉëÉ~êÅÜ=póãéçëáìã= qÜìêëÇ~ó=pÉëëáçåë= sçäìãÉ=ff= = Portfolio Acquisition—How the DoD Can Leverage the Commercial Product Line...00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Portfolio Acquisition - How the DoD Can Leverage the Commercial Product Line Model 5a. CONTRACT

  2. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-7 - Determination of the employees of an employer's qualified separate lines of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... testing year, consisting of a software developer, a health food products supplier, a real estate developer... business as follows: Software developer Health food Real estate Ski equipment Substantial-Service Employees...)-5(b), and that the real estate development line of business would satisfy the minimum or...

  3. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-7 - Determination of the employees of an employer's qualified separate lines of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... testing year, consisting of a software developer, a health food products supplier, a real estate developer... business as follows: Software developer Health food Real estate Ski equipment Substantial-Service Employees...)-5(b), and that the real estate development line of business would satisfy the minimum or...

  4. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-7 - Determination of the employees of an employer's qualified separate lines of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... testing year, consisting of a software developer, a health food products supplier, a real estate developer... business as follows: Software developer Health food Real estate Ski equipment Substantial-Service Employees...)-5(b), and that the real estate development line of business would satisfy the minimum or...

  5. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-7 - Determination of the employees of an employer's qualified separate lines of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... testing year, consisting of a software developer, a health food products supplier, a real estate developer... business as follows: Software developer Health food Real estate Ski equipment Substantial-Service Employees...)-5(b), and that the real estate development line of business would satisfy the minimum or...

  6. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-5 - Qualified separate line of business-administrative scrutiny requirement-safe harbors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and electronics; and entertainment, sports, and hotels. Example 1. Among its other business activities... machinery and electronics industry category to customers of Employer D, neither separate line of business... Employer D any property or services in the machinery and electronics industry category. Under these...

  7. Comparison of charged nanoparticle concentrations near busy roads and overhead high-voltage power lines.

    PubMed

    Jayaratne, E R; Ling, X; Morawska, L

    2015-09-01

    Overhead high-voltage power lines are known sources of corona ions. These ions rapidly attach to aerosols to form charged particles in the environment. Although the effect of ions and charged particles on human health is largely unknown, much attention has focused on the increasing exposure as a result of the expanding power network in urban residential areas. However, it is not widely known that a large number of charged particles in urban environments originate from motor vehicle emissions. In this study, for the first time, we compare the concentrations of charged nanoparticles near busy roads and overhead power lines. We show that large concentrations of both positive and negative charged nanoparticles are present near busy roadways and that these concentrations commonly exceed those under high-voltage power lines. We estimate that the concentration of charged nanoparticles found near two freeways carrying around 120 vehicles per minute exceeded the corresponding maximum concentrations under two corona-emitting overhead power lines by as much as a factor of 5. The difference was most pronounced when a significant fraction of traffic consisted of heavy-duty diesel vehicles which typically have high particle and charge emission rates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Quantifying the foodscape: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the validity of commercially available business data.

    PubMed

    Lebel, Alexandre; Daepp, Madeleine I G; Block, Jason P; Walker, Renée; Lalonde, Benoît; Kestens, Yan; Subramanian, S V

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews studies of the validity of commercially available business (CAB) data on food establishments ("the foodscape"), offering a meta-analysis of characteristics associated with CAB quality and a case study evaluating the performance of commonly-used validity indicators describing the foodscape. Existing validation studies report a broad range in CAB data quality, although most studies conclude that CAB quality is "moderate" to "substantial". We conclude that current studies may underestimate the quality of CAB data. We recommend that future validation studies use density-adjusted and exposure measures to offer a more meaningful characterization of the relationship of data error with spatial exposure.

  9. Colleges Are Reviewing Their Commercial Activities as Businesses, States, and IRS Step Up Scrutiny.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchsberg, Gilbert

    1988-01-01

    The small-business community, which has long complained that colleges have an unfair advantage in the marketplace because of their tax-exempt status, has become increasingly vocal in its demands for new taxes and restrictions on the services and products that colleges and other non-profit organizations can offer. (MLW)

  10. Introduction of Business-Commercial-Technical French into the Secondary Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buzash, Michael D.

    This set of materials is designed to help incorporate business and technical French into the secondary school second language curriculum. It consists of a list of goals for introduction of such content, vocabulary lists and related exercises, and a variety of instructional materials and visual aids. Topics addressed include: postal services;…

  11. Selected Resource Materials for Developing Energy Conservation Programs in the Small Business/Commercial Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lengyel, Dorothy L.; And Others

    This annotated bibliography is a selected listing of references for use by small business managers in the development of energy conservation programs. The references are listed under the agency through which they are available. The agency listings are alphabetized and include complete mailing addresses. There are 35 agency listings, many of which…

  12. Selected Resource Materials for Developing Energy Conservation Programs in the Small Business/Commercial Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lengyel, Dorothy L.; And Others

    This annotated bibliography is a selected listing of references for use by small business managers in the development of energy conservation programs. The references are listed under the agency through which they are available. The agency listings are alphabetized and include complete mailing addresses. There are 35 agency listings, many of which…

  13. Development of a commercial line of high-performance fast-steering mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berta, Albert; Hedding, Larry R.; Hoffman, Charlie; Messaros, Michael

    1999-07-01

    Fast-steering mirrors, called FSMs, for short, and sometimes referred to as fine-steering or tip-tilt mirrors, are primarily two-axis devices originally developed for a variety of demanding air and space applications for line-of- sight pointing and beam stabilization. Ball Aerospace has been engaged in the design and development of fast-steering mirrors since 1983. In 1994, Ball began employing lessons learned from these one-of-a-kind custom units to develop a commercial line of low cost (< $DLR50 K), high- performance mirrors to serve the general optics community. This paper first provides a brief overview of our overall FSM development history and some successful applications. Next, our commercial FSMs are described along with performance specifications and test results. Parameters of interest discussed include bandwidth, acceleration, accuracy, reliability, and types of mirror substrates. Test results on two models of commercial 3-in mirrors demonstrating accuracies of < 1 (mu) rad, life and reliability > 108 cycles, and the ability to endure high-level random vibration are presented.

  14. Fuels and Space Propellants for Reusable Launch Vehicles: A Small Business Innovation Research Topic and Its Commercial Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.

    1997-01-01

    Under its Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program (and with NASA Headquarters support), the NASA Lewis Research Center has initiated a topic entitled "Fuels and Space Propellants for Reusable Launch Vehicles." The aim of this project would be to assist in demonstrating and then commercializing new rocket propellants that are safer and more environmentally sound and that make space operations easier. Soon it will be possible to commercialize many new propellants and their related component technologies because of the large investments being made throughout the Government in rocket propellants and the technologies for using them. This article discusses the commercial vision for these fuels and propellants, the potential for these propellants to reduce space access costs, the options for commercial development, and the benefits to nonaerospace industries. This SBIR topic is designed to foster the development of propellants that provide improved safety, less environmental impact, higher density, higher I(sub sp), and simpler vehicle operations. In the development of aeronautics and space technology, there have been limits to vehicle performance imposed by traditionally used propellants and fuels. Increases in performance are possible with either increased propellant specific impulse, increased density, or both. Flight system safety will also be increased by the use of denser, more viscous propellants and fuels.

  15. NASA Johnson Space Center Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Successes, Infusion and Commercializations and Potential International Partnering Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Packard, Kathryn; Goodman, Doug; Whittington, James

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program has served as a beneficial funding vehicle to both US small technology businesses and the Federal Agencies that participate in the program. This paper, to the extent possible, while observing Intellectual Property (IP) laws, will discuss the many SBIR and STTR (SBIR Technology Transfer) successes in the recent history of the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). Many of the participants of the International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES) have based their research and papers on technologies that were made possible by SBIR/STTR awards and post award funding. Many SBIR/STTR successes have flown on Space Shuttle missions, Space X Dragons, and other spacecraft. SBIR/STTR technologies are currently infused on the International Space Station (ISS) and satellites, one of which was a NASA/JAXA (Japanese Space Agency) joint venture. Many of these companies have commercialized their technologies and grown as businesses while helping the economy through the creation of new jobs. In addition, this paper will explore the opportunity for international partnership with US SBIR/STTR companies as up to 49% of the makeup of the company is not required to be American owned. Although this paper will deal with technical achievements, it does not purport to be technical in nature. It will address the many requests for information on successes and opportunities within NASA SBIR and the virtually untapped potential of international partnering.

  16. Development of Novel Glyphosate-Tolerant Japonica Rice Lines: A Step Toward Commercial Release

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Ying; Huang, Shuqing; Liu, Ziduo; Yi, Shuyuan; Zhou, Fei; Chen, Hao; Lin, Yongjun

    2016-01-01

    Glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide for its low cost and high efficiency. However, it is rarely applied directly in rice field due to its toxicity to rice. Therefore, glyphosate-tolerant rice can greatly decrease the cost of rice production and provide a more effective weed management strategy. Although, several approaches to develop transgenic rice with glyphosate tolerance have been reported, the agronomic performances of these plants have not been well evaluated, and the feasibility of commercial production has not been confirmed yet. Here, a novel glyphosate-tolerant gene cloned from the bacterium Isoptericola variabilis was identified, codon optimized (designated as I. variabilis-EPSPS*), and transferred into Zhonghua11, a widely used japonica rice cultivar. After systematic analysis of the transgene integration via PCR, Southern blot and flanking sequence isolation, three transgenic lines with only one intact I. variabilis-EPSPS* expression cassette integrated into intergenic regions were identified. Seed test results showed that the glyphosate tolerance of the transgenic rice was about 240 times that of wild type on plant medium. The glyphosate tolerance of transgenic rice lines was further evaluated based on comprehensive agronomic performances in the field with T3 and T5generations in a 2-year assay, which showed that they were rarely affected by glyphosate even when the dosage was 8400 g ha−1. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the development of glyphosate-tolerant rice lines based on a comprehensive analysis of agronomic performances in the field. Taken together, the results suggest that the selected glyphosate-tolerant rice lines are highly tolerant to glyphosate and have the possibility of commercial release. I. variabilis-EPSPS* also can be a promising candidate gene in other species for developing glyphosate-tolerant crops. PMID:27625652

  17. Development of Novel Glyphosate-Tolerant Japonica Rice Lines: A Step Toward Commercial Release.

    PubMed

    Cui, Ying; Huang, Shuqing; Liu, Ziduo; Yi, Shuyuan; Zhou, Fei; Chen, Hao; Lin, Yongjun

    2016-01-01

    Glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide for its low cost and high efficiency. However, it is rarely applied directly in rice field due to its toxicity to rice. Therefore, glyphosate-tolerant rice can greatly decrease the cost of rice production and provide a more effective weed management strategy. Although, several approaches to develop transgenic rice with glyphosate tolerance have been reported, the agronomic performances of these plants have not been well evaluated, and the feasibility of commercial production has not been confirmed yet. Here, a novel glyphosate-tolerant gene cloned from the bacterium Isoptericola variabilis was identified, codon optimized (designated as I. variabilis-EPSPS (*)), and transferred into Zhonghua11, a widely used japonica rice cultivar. After systematic analysis of the transgene integration via PCR, Southern blot and flanking sequence isolation, three transgenic lines with only one intact I. variabilis-EPSPS (*) expression cassette integrated into intergenic regions were identified. Seed test results showed that the glyphosate tolerance of the transgenic rice was about 240 times that of wild type on plant medium. The glyphosate tolerance of transgenic rice lines was further evaluated based on comprehensive agronomic performances in the field with T3 and T5generations in a 2-year assay, which showed that they were rarely affected by glyphosate even when the dosage was 8400 g ha(-1). To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the development of glyphosate-tolerant rice lines based on a comprehensive analysis of agronomic performances in the field. Taken together, the results suggest that the selected glyphosate-tolerant rice lines are highly tolerant to glyphosate and have the possibility of commercial release. I. variabilis-EPSPS (*) also can be a promising candidate gene in other species for developing glyphosate-tolerant crops.

  18. Growth rate of ascites-resistant versus ascites-susceptible broilers in commercial and experimental lines.

    PubMed

    Druyan, S; Hadad, Y; Cahaner, A

    2008-05-01

    The high growth rate (GR) of contemporary broilers is driven by high rate of feed intake and metabolism. Because of the consequent high oxygen demand, especially when coupled with exposure to high altitude or low temperatures, some broilers fail to regulate oxygen supply and develop the ascites syndrome (AS), which leads to mortality and economic losses. Because of the association between high GR, oxygen demand, and AS, it has been suggested that AS is induced by high GR. If true, further GR enhancement should be avoided because it will increase the proportion of AS-susceptible individuals in contemporary stocks. An alternative hypothesis claims that AS is associated with high actual GR only because the latter increases oxygen demand and that there are genetically AS-resistant broilers that do not develop AS, even when exhibiting high GR. These hypotheses were tested in trials in the years 2002 and 2006, with broilers differing in potential GR: contemporary fast-growing commercial lines and an experimental line derived from commercial broilers in 1986, and (in 2002 only) divergently selected AS-susceptible and AS-resistant lines. A protocol of high-challenge ascites-inducing conditions (AIC) from d 19 was used to distinguish between AS-susceptible and AS-resistant individuals and to determine their GR up to this age. The difference in AS incidence between the divergent lines (93.9 vs. 9.5%) was not explained by the 5% difference in their GR, thus indicating a lack of genetic correlation. In the broiler lines, AS incidence was 31 and 47% in 2002 and 2006, respectively, and 32% in the 1986 slow-growing line. Most broilers that remained healthy under the high-challenge AIC exhibited the same early GR and BW as those that later developed AS. These results, and the relatively high incidence of AS in the slow-growing line, indicate that there is very little, if any, direct genetic association between AS and genetic differences in potential GR, and suggest that AS

  19. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-4 - Qualified separate line of business-fifty-employee and notice requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-employee and notice requirements. 1.414(r)-4 Section 1.414(r)-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE...-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.414(r)-4 Qualified separate line of business—fifty-employee and... line of business (as determined under § 1.414(r)-3) satisfies the 50-employee and notice requirements...

  20. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-4 - Qualified separate line of business-fifty-employee and notice requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-employee and notice requirements. 1.414(r)-4 Section 1.414(r)-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE...-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.414(r)-4 Qualified separate line of business—fifty-employee and... line of business (as determined under § 1.414(r)-3) satisfies the 50-employee and notice requirements...

  1. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-4 - Qualified separate line of business-fifty-employee and notice requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-employee and notice requirements. 1.414(r)-4 Section 1.414(r)-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE...-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.414(r)-4 Qualified separate line of business—fifty-employee and... line of business (as determined under § 1.414(r)-3) satisfies the 50-employee and notice requirements...

  2. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-4 - Qualified separate line of business-fifty-employee and notice requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-employee and notice requirements. 1.414(r)-4 Section 1.414(r)-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE...-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.414(r)-4 Qualified separate line of business—fifty-employee and... line of business (as determined under § 1.414(r)-3) satisfies the 50-employee and notice...

  3. Copper phytoextraction in tandem with oilseed production using commercial cultivars and mutant lines of sunflower.

    PubMed

    Kolbas, A; Mench, M; Herzig, R; Nehnevajova, E; Bes, C M

    2011-01-01

    Use of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) for Cu phytoextraction and oilseed production on Cu-contaminated topsoils was investigated in afield trial at a former wood preservation site. Six commercial cultivars and two mutant lines were cultivated in plots with and without the addition of compost (5% w/w) and dolomitic limestone (0.2% w/w). Total soil Cu ranged from 163 to 1170 mg kg(-1). In soil solutions, Cu concentration varied between 0.16-0.93 mg L(-1). The amendment increased soil pH, reduced Cu exposure and promoted sunflower growth. Stem length, shoot and capitulum biomasses, seed yield, and shoot and leaf Cu concentrations were measured. At low total soil Cu, shoot Cu mineralomass was higher in commercial cultivars, Le., Salut, Energic, and Countri, whereas competition and shading affected morphological traits of mutants. Based on shoot yield (7 Mg DW ha(-1)) and Cu concentration, the highest removal was 59 g Cu ha(-1). At high total soil Cu, shoot Cu mineralomass peaked for mutants (e.g., 52 g Cu ha(-1) for Mutant 1 line) and cultivars Energic and Countri. Energic seed yield (3.9 Mg air-DW ha(-1)) would be sufficient to produce oil Phenotype traits and shoot Cu removal depended on sunflower types and Cu exposure.

  4. Performances of a date dissemination code on telephone lines using commercial modems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cordara, F.; Pettiti, V.; Quasso, R.; Rubiola, E.

    1993-01-01

    A coded time/date information dissemination system (CTD), based on telephone lines and commercial modems, is now in its experimental phase in Italy at IEN. This service, born from a cooperation with other metrological laboratories (TUG, Austria, SNT, Sweden, VSL, The Netherlands), represents an attempt towards an European standardization. Some results of an experimental analysis in which a few modems were tested, both in laboratory conditions and connected to the telephone network, in order to evaluate the timing capability of the system are given. When the system is used in a one-way mode, in many practical cases the modems delay turns out to be the main factor which limits the accuracy, even more than the telephone line delays. If the two-way mode is used, the modems asymmetry, i.e., the delay difference between transmission and reception, is almost always the most important source of uncertainty, provided the link is not including a space segment. Comparing the widely used V.22 modems to the old V.21 ones, the latters turn out to be better both in delay time (30-100 ms V.22, and 7-15 ms V.21) and asymmetry (10-50 micro-s V.22, and 10 ms V.22). Time transfer accuracies of 10 micron-s (same turn) to 100 micro-s (long distance calls) were obtained in two-way mode with commercial V.21 modems.

  5. Performances of a date dissemination code on telephone lines using commercial modems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cordara, F.; Pettiti, V.; Quasso, R.; Rubiola, E.

    1993-01-01

    A coded time/date information dissemination system (CTD), based on telephone lines and commercial modems, is now in its experimental phase in Italy at IEN. This service, born from a cooperation with other metrological laboratories (TUG, Austria, SNT, Sweden, VSL, The Netherlands), represents an attempt towards an European standardization. Some results of an experimental analysis in which a few modems were tested, both in laboratory conditions and connected to the telephone network, in order to evaluate the timing capability of the system are given. When the system is used in a one-way mode, in many practical cases the modems delay turns out to be the main factor which limits the accuracy, even more than the telephone line delays. If the two-way mode is used, the modems asymmetry, i.e., the delay difference between transmission and reception, is almost always the most important source of uncertainty, provided the link is not including a space segment. Comparing the widely used V.22 modems to the old V.21 ones, the latters turn out to be better both in delay time (30-100 ms V.22, and 7-15 ms V.21) and asymmetry (10-50 micro-s V.22, and 10 ms V.22). Time transfer accuracies of 10 micron-s (same turn) to 100 micro-s (long distance calls) were obtained in two-way mode with commercial V.21 modems.

  6. Quantifying the foodscape: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the validity of commercially available business data

    PubMed Central

    Lebel, Alexandre; Daepp, Madeleine I. G.; Block, Jason P.; Walker, Renée; Lalonde, Benoît; Kestens, Yan; Subramanian, S. V.

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews studies of the validity of commercially available business (CAB) data on food establishments (“the foodscape”), offering a meta-analysis of characteristics associated with CAB quality and a case study evaluating the performance of commonly-used validity indicators describing the foodscape. Existing validation studies report a broad range in CAB data quality, although most studies conclude that CAB quality is “moderate” to “substantial”. We conclude that current studies may underestimate the quality of CAB data. We recommend that future validation studies use density-adjusted and exposure measures to offer a more meaningful characterization of the relationship of data error with spatial exposure. PMID:28358819

  7. 26 CFR 54.4977-1T - Questions and answers relating to the election concerning lines of business in existence on...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... concerning lines of business in existence on January 1, 1984 (temporary). 54.4977-1T Section 54.4977-1T... concerning lines of business in existence on January 1, 1984 (temporary). The following questions and answers... section 531(e)(1) of the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (98 Stat. 886), to treat all employees of any line of...

  8. Clinical and pathological responses of pigs from two genetically diverse commercial lines to porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus infection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The response to infection from porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) for two genetically diverse commercial pig lines was investigated. Seventy two pigs from each line, aged 6 weeks, were challenged with PRRSV VR-2385, and 66 littermates served as control. The clinical response...

  9. A commercial elemental on-line coal analyzer using pulsed neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belbot, Michael; Vouvopoulos, George; Paschal, Jonathan

    2001-07-01

    Because of its heterogeneity and the delay involved, traditional laboratory analysis of coal samples does not allow real time control of coal bulk parameters. Large excursions in important parameters (such as sulfur or calorific content) can be expensive and can be avoided with an on-line coal analyzer. The system that we developed utilizes nuclear reactions produced from fast and thermal neutrons and from neutron activation producing isotopes with half-lives longer than a few seconds. Characteristic gamma rays detected with BGO (bismuth germanate) detectors are used for the identification of the various chemical elements. The main features of the analyzer are elemental self-calibration independent of the coal seam; better accuracy in the determination of elements such as carbon, oxygen, and sodium; and diminished radiation risk. A prototype coal analyzer has been built and the first commercial model is currently being developed.

  10. The genetics of feed conversion efficiency traits in a commercial broiler line

    PubMed Central

    Reyer, Henry; Hawken, Rachel; Murani, Eduard; Ponsuksili, Siriluck; Wimmers, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Individual feed conversion efficiency (FCE) is a major trait that influences the usage of energy resources and the ecological footprint of livestock production. The underlying biological processes of FCE are complex and are influenced by factors as diverse as climate, feed properties, gut microbiota, and individual genetic predisposition. To gain an insight to the genetic relationships with FCE traits and to contribute to the improvement of FCE in commercial chicken lines, a genome-wide association study was conducted using a commercial broiler population (n = 859) tested for FCE and weight traits during the finisher period from 39 to 46 days of age. Both single-marker (generalized linear model) and multi-marker (Bayesian approach) analyses were applied to the dataset to detect genes associated with the variability in FCE. The separate analyses revealed 22 quantitative trait loci (QTL) regions on 13 different chromosomes; the integration of both approaches resulted in 7 overlapping QTL regions. The analyses pointed to acylglycerol kinase (AGK) and general transcription factor 2-I (GTF2I) as positional and functional candidate genes. Non-synonymous polymorphisms of both candidate genes revealed evidence for a functional importance of these genes by influencing different biological aspects of FCE. PMID:26552583

  11. Effect of the estrogen receptor locus on reproduction and production traits in four commercial pig lines.

    PubMed

    Short, T H; Rothschild, M F; Southwood, O I; McLaren, D G; de Vries, A; van der Steen, H; Eckardt, G R; Tuggle, C K; Helm, J; Vaske, D A; Mileham, A J; Plastow, G S

    1997-12-01

    We investigated the effect of the estrogen receptor (ESR) gene on growth and reproductive traits in four Large White-based commercial pig lines. A total of 9,015 litter records from 4,262 sows genotyped at the ESR locus were analyzed to determine whether ESR influenced total number born (TNB) or number born alive (NBA). Teat number (TN), test ADG, ADFI, feed:gain ratio (F/G), and ultrasonic backfat (BF) were also analyzed to determine effects of ESR. The TNB and NBA were increased per favorable allele of ESR (P < .01) with additive effects of .42 (.31) and .39 (.31) pigs/litter in the first parity (later parities), respectively. Dominance effects were near zero in parity one, but they were .16 and .14 pigs for TNB and NBA, respectively, in later parities (P < .05). A favorable additive pleiotropic effect was detected for BF (P < .001; -.11 mm per copy of the favorable litter size allele). There were no detectable effects on ADG or F/G (P > .10), although ADF was reduced 18 g/d per copy of the favorable litter size allele (P < .05). Average TN was 13.1 for pigs carrying the favorable litter size allele vs 13.2 for noncarriers (P < .05). Marker-assisted selection using ESR is warranted to increase litter size in the Large White-based lines considered here and will be of considerable economic value to pork producers.

  12. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-4 - Qualified separate line of business-fifty-employee and notice requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-employee and notice requirements. 1.414(r)-4 Section 1.414(r)-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.414(r)-4 Qualified separate line of business—fifty-employee and notice... business (as determined under § 1.414(r)-3) satisfies the 50-employee and notice requirements of §...

  13. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-7 - Determination of the employees of an employer's qualified separate lines of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... qualified separate lines of business. 1.414(r)-7 Section 1.414(r)-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE...-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.414(r)-7 Determination of the employees of an employer's qualified... residual shared employee as defined in § 1.414(r)-11(b)(2) and (4)) is assigned to a single...

  14. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-6 - Qualified separate line of business-administrative scrutiny requirement-individual determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-administrative scrutiny requirement-individual determinations. 1.414(r)-6 Section 1.414(r)-6 Internal Revenue... Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.414(r)-6 Qualified separate line of business... determined under § 1.414(r)-3) that does not satisfy any of the safe harbors in § 1.414(r)-5 for a...

  15. Small Businesses Save Big: A Borrower's Guide To Increase the Bottom Line Using Energy Efficiency (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-01-01

    Dollars saved through energy efficiency can directly impact your bottom line. Whether you are planning for a major renovation or upgrading individual pieces of building equipment, these improvements can help reduce operating costs, save on utility bills, and boost profits. This fact sheet provides a guide for small businesses to find the resources to increase the energy efficiency of their buildings.

  16. Effects of Enron on Future Russian Business Leaders: A Time Line Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludlum, Marty; Moskalionov, Sergei

    2008-01-01

    Russia has emerged as a new capitalistic country with a prior history of corruption under the state controlled regime. Will word of corruption in America stop efforts for an ethical business climate in the new Russia? Has the Enron scandal affected Russian views of business? In pursuit of the answer, the authors surveyed Russian business students…

  17. Effects of Enron on Future Russian Business Leaders: A Time Line Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludlum, Marty; Moskalionov, Sergei

    2008-01-01

    Russia has emerged as a new capitalistic country with a prior history of corruption under the state controlled regime. Will word of corruption in America stop efforts for an ethical business climate in the new Russia? Has the Enron scandal affected Russian views of business? In pursuit of the answer, the authors surveyed Russian business students…

  18. Bottom Line Benefits: Increasing Profits through Targeted Tax and Job Training Incentives. A Handbook for Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Alliance of Business, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This handbook for businesses explains the benefits and incentives provided by the Targeted Jobs Tax Credit (TJTC) and the Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) and shows how businesses can take advantage of them. An introduction summarizes the two pieces of legislation. Section 1 furnishes the specifics on the TJTC and explains how businesses can…

  19. Comparison of growth performance and immune parameters of three commercial chicken lines used in organic production.

    PubMed

    Kjærup, R B; Juul-Madsen, H R; Norup, L R; Sørensen, P; Dalgaard, T S

    2017-05-01

    Owing to the higher demands for avoiding medication and antibiotics, health status of the production animals plays an important role in the poultry industry, especially in organic poultry systems. Immunity plays a major role in keeping the host free from disease, and it is evident that the host's genetic make-up influences immunity and disease resistance/susceptibility in chickens. Previously, breeding strategies aimed at selection for resistance against specific diseases with the risk of creating less disease resistance against other pathogens. Changing breeding strategies towards selection of chickens with a more general and broad disease resistance or robustness may therefore improve the overall health status, animal welfare, and food security in the poultry production. The aim of this study was therefore to compare the immunocompetence of the presumed "robust" Hellevad chickens with two chicken lines widely used in organic production, Bovans Brown (Bovans) and Hisex White (Hisex). The chickens were subjected to a routine vaccination program comprising one parasite and four viral vaccines. The current study indicates that considerable differences in immunocompetence may exist between commercial layer lines used in organic production. The Hellevad chickens were found to have higher body weight at the end of the experiment (17 weeks of age) than the other two lines. Furthermore, Hellevad and Hisex chickens were found to have higher levels of humoral innate immunity with regard to sample to positive ratio of natural antibodies in serum and concentration of mannose-binding lectin in serum as compared to Bovans. Moreover, indications of an inflammatory response were observed in the Bovans at week 5, corresponding to 1 week after vaccination with live infectious bursal disease virus. With regard to adaptive immune parameters such as IgY concentration in blood and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV)-specific antibody titres, the Hellevad and Hisex chickens had lower

  20. Critical care medicine as a distinct product line with substantial financial profitability: the role of business planning.

    PubMed

    Bekes, Carolyn E; Dellinger, R Phillip; Brooks, Daniel; Edmondson, Robert; Olivia, Christopher T; Parrillo, Joseph E

    2004-05-01

    As academic health centers face increasing financial pressures, they have adopted a more businesslike approach to planning, particularly for discrete "product" or clinical service lines. Since critical care typically has been viewed as a service provided by a hospital, and not a product line, business plans have not historically been developed to expand and promote critical care. The major focus when examining the finances of critical care has been cost reduction, not business development. We hypothesized that a critical care business plan can be developed and analyzed like other more typical product lines and that such a critical care product line can be profitable for an institution. In-depth analysis of critical care including business planning for critical care services. Regional academic health center in southern New Jersey. None. As part of an overall business planning process directed by the Board of Trustees, the critical care product line was identified by isolating revenue, expenses, and profitability associated with critical care patients. We were able to identify the major sources ("value chain") of critical care patients: the emergency room, patients who are admitted for other problems but spend time in a critical care unit, and patients transferred to our intensive care units from other hospitals. The greatest opportunity to expand the product line comes from increasing the referrals from other hospitals. A methodology was developed to identify the revenue and expenses associated with critical care, based on the analysis of past experience. With this model, we were able to demonstrate a positive contribution margin of dollar 7 million per year related to patients transferred to the institution primarily for critical care services. This can be seen as the profit related to the product line segment of critical care. There was an additional positive contribution margin of dollar 5.8 million attributed to the critical care portion of the hospital stay of

  1. Commercial potential of natural gas storage in lined rock caverns (LRC)

    SciTech Connect

    1999-11-01

    The geologic conditions in many regions of the United States will not permit the development of economical high-deliverability gas storage in salt caverns. These regions include the entire Eastern Seaboard; several northern states, notably Minnesota and Wisconsin; many of the Rocky Mountain States; and most of the Pacific Northwest. In late 1997, the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) Federal Energy Technology Center engaged Sofregaz US to investigate the commercialization potential of natural gas storage in Lined Rock Caverns (LRC). Sofregaz US teamed with Gaz de France and Sydkraft, who had formed a consortium, called LRC, to perform the study for the USDOE. Underground storage of natural gas is generally achieved in depleted oil and gas fields, aquifers, and solution-mined salt caverns. These storage technologies require specific geologic conditions. Unlined rock caverns have been used for decades to store hydrocarbons - mostly liquids such as crude oil, butane, and propane. The maximum operating pressure in unlined rock caverns is limited, since the host rock is never entirely impervious. The LRC technology allows a significant increase in the maximum operating pressure over the unlined storage cavern concept, since the gas in storage is completely contained with an impervious liner. The LRC technology has been under development in Sweden by Sydkraft since 1987. The development process has included extensive technical studies, laboratory testing, field tests, and most recently includes a storage facility being constructed in southern Sweden (Skallen). The LRC development effort has shown that the concept is technically and economically viable. The Skallen storage facility will have a rock cover of 115 meters (375 feet), a storage volume of 40,000 cubic meters (250,000 petroleum barrels), and a maximum operating pressure of 20 MPa (2,900 psi). There is a potential for commercialization of the LRC technology in the United States. Two regions were studied

  2. 26 CFR 1.936-11 - New lines of business prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... in § 1.936-5(a)(1),Q&A1, and the new business activity is making an integrated product, or an end...-digit SIC code) as the pre-existing business solely because the component product and the integrated...). In March 1997, X Corp. began to also manufacture pills (e.g., finished dosages or an...

  3. 26 CFR 1.936-11 - New lines of business prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... in § 1.936-5(a)(1),Q&A1, and the new business activity is making an integrated product, or an end...-digit SIC code) as the pre-existing business solely because the component product and the integrated...). In March 1997, X Corp. began to also manufacture pills (e.g., finished dosages or an...

  4. 26 CFR 1.936-11 - New lines of business prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... in § 1.936-5(a)(1),Q&A1, and the new business activity is making an integrated product, or an end...-digit SIC code) as the pre-existing business solely because the component product and the integrated...). In March 1997, X Corp. began to also manufacture pills (e.g., finished dosages or an...

  5. 26 CFR 1.936-11 - New lines of business prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... in § 1.936-5(a)(1),Q&A1, and the new business activity is making an integrated product, or an end...-digit SIC code) as the pre-existing business solely because the component product and the integrated...). In March 1997, X Corp. began to also manufacture pills (e.g., finished dosages or an...

  6. 26 CFR 1.936-11 - New lines of business prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... in § 1.936-5(a)(1),Q&A1, and the new business activity is making an integrated product, or an end...-digit SIC code) as the pre-existing business solely because the component product and the integrated...). In March 1997, X Corp. began to also manufacture pills (e.g., finished dosages or an...

  7. The Business Information Services: Old-Line Online Moves to the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Leary, Mick

    1997-01-01

    Although the availability of free information on the World Wide Web has placed traditional, fee-based proprietary online services on the defensive, most major online business services are now on the Web. Highlights several business information providers: Profound, NewsNet and ProQuest Direct, Dow Jones and Wall Street Journal Interactive Edition,…

  8. The Business Information Services: Old-Line Online Moves to the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Leary, Mick

    1997-01-01

    Although the availability of free information on the World Wide Web has placed traditional, fee-based proprietary online services on the defensive, most major online business services are now on the Web. Highlights several business information providers: Profound, NewsNet and ProQuest Direct, Dow Jones and Wall Street Journal Interactive Edition,…

  9. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-6 - Qualified separate line of business-administrative scrutiny requirement-individual determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-administrative scrutiny requirement-individual determinations. 1.414(r)-6 Section 1.414(r)-6 Internal Revenue... (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.414(r)-6 Qualified separate line of business... determined under § 1.414(r)-3) that does not satisfy any of the safe harbors in § 1.414(r)-5 for a testing...

  10. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-6 - Qualified separate line of business-administrative scrutiny requirement-individual determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-administrative scrutiny requirement-individual determinations. 1.414(r)-6 Section 1.414(r)-6 Internal Revenue... (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.414(r)-6 Qualified separate line of business... determined under § 1.414(r)-3) that does not satisfy any of the safe harbors in § 1.414(r)-5 for a testing...

  11. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-6 - Qualified separate line of business-administrative scrutiny requirement-individual determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-administrative scrutiny requirement-individual determinations. 1.414(r)-6 Section 1.414(r)-6 Internal Revenue... (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.414(r)-6 Qualified separate line of business... determined under § 1.414(r)-3) that does not satisfy any of the safe harbors in § 1.414(r)-5 for a testing...

  12. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-6 - Qualified separate line of business-administrative scrutiny requirement-individual determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-administrative scrutiny requirement-individual determinations. 1.414(r)-6 Section 1.414(r)-6 Internal Revenue... (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.414(r)-6 Qualified separate line of business... determined under § 1.414(r)-3) that does not satisfy any of the safe harbors in § 1.414(r)-5 for a...

  13. Climate wise and BSR: Partnering with business to improve the environment and the bottom line

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, R.C.

    1996-05-01

    American companies consume nearly 50 percent of the nation`s energy. These companies, along with the utilities who provide them energy, produce nearly two-thirds of the nation`s greenhouse gas emissions. Developing and nurturing partnerships among companies, utilities and government agencies, and nonprofit organizations can lead to dramatic increases in the efficiency and productivity of American companies while simultaneously decreasing pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. The Business for Social Responsibility (BSR) Education Fund is a not-for-profit business organization that energy efficiency and pollution prevention practices within the business community and serves as a catalyst for change toward more environmentally sustainable development. The BSR Education Fund has joined forces with Climate Wise. A voluntary program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy, to help companies to improve their environmental and economic efficiency by forming partnerships with their local utilities and other business resource providers.

  14. An Attempt at Quantifying Factors that Affect Efficiency in the Management of Solid Waste Produced by Commercial Businesses in the City of Tshwane, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Worku, Yohannes; Muchie, Mammo

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The objective was to investigate factors that affect the efficient management of solid waste produced by commercial businesses operating in the city of Pretoria, South Africa. Methods. Data was gathered from 1,034 businesses. Efficiency in solid waste management was assessed by using a structural time-based model designed for evaluating efficiency as a function of the length of time required to manage waste. Data analysis was performed using statistical procedures such as frequency tables, Pearson's chi-square tests of association, and binary logistic regression analysis. Odds ratios estimated from logistic regression analysis were used for identifying key factors that affect efficiency in the proper disposal of waste. Results. The study showed that 857 of the 1,034 businesses selected for the study (83%) were found to be efficient enough with regards to the proper collection and disposal of solid waste. Based on odds ratios estimated from binary logistic regression analysis, efficiency in the proper management of solid waste was significantly influenced by 4 predictor variables. These 4 influential predictor variables are lack of adherence to waste management regulations, wrong perception, failure to provide customers with enough trash cans, and operation of businesses by employed managers, in a decreasing order of importance. PMID:23209483

  15. A Vice-President from the Business World Brings a New Bottom Line to Penn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Werf, Martin

    1999-01-01

    The executive vice-president of the University of Pennsylvania is credited with making significant changes in both the administration and the campus, using cost-cutting and change strategies from his business experience. Outsourcing, training for employees who might be terminated, substantial savings and new revenue, and gentrification of…

  16. Business, Babies & the Bottom Line: Corporate Innovations and Best Practices in Maternal and Child Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Miriam; Kolarek, Mary Hebert; Newton, Bonnie

    This publication presents the efforts and results of leading large employers to improve the health of mothers and children. Section 1 profiles the pioneering efforts and innovative practices of seven large employers and one business group: Haggar Clothing Co.; Honeywell Inc.; Los Angeles Department of Water and Power; Monfort, Inc.; First Chicago…

  17. Business, Babies & the Bottom Line: Corporate Innovations and Best Practices in Maternal and Child Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Miriam; Kolarek, Mary Hebert; Newton, Bonnie

    This publication presents the efforts and results of leading large employers to improve the health of mothers and children. Section 1 profiles the pioneering efforts and innovative practices of seven large employers and one business group: Haggar Clothing Co.; Honeywell Inc.; Los Angeles Department of Water and Power; Monfort, Inc.; First Chicago…

  18. Evaluation of Commercial Probes for On-Line Electrical Conductivity Measurements during Goat Gland Milking Process

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Gema; Díaz, Jose Ramon; Sabater, Jose Maria; Perez, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of the milk electrical conductivity (EC) during mechanical milking has been widely studied for mastitis detection on cows because its improving of welfare and animal health, although research about small ruminants is scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of three commercial conductimeters to be used during mechanical milking of small ruminant halves, especially Murciano-Granadina goats. The objective of this research was to integrate the probes on the milking unit and to check the suitability of the probe selected. The results presented in this research have guided authors to discard the commercial probes and to establish the requirements of a new probe design that is briefly outlined in the conclusions of this contribution. PMID:22666042

  19. Tobacco, Commercial Speech, and Libertarian Values: The End of the Line for Restrictions on Advertising?

    PubMed Central

    Bayer, Ronald

    2002-01-01

    In June of 2001, the Supreme Court overturned a set of antitobacco measures adopted by the state of Massachusetts designed to protect young people from advertising. Once again, the court expressed its hostility toward measures designed to restrict commercial speech in the name of the social good. In so doing, the court underscored the enduring tension between the libertarian and social welfare dimensions of contemporary democracy and placed into relief the divisions within the American liberal tradition. PMID:11867307

  20. Tobacco, commercial speech, and libertarian values: the end of the line for restrictions on advertising?

    PubMed

    Bayer, Ronald

    2002-03-01

    In June of 2001, the Supreme Court overturned a set of antitobacco measures adopted by the state of Massachusetts designed to protect young people from advertising. Once again, the court expressed its hostility toward measures designed to restrict commercial speech in the name of the social good. In so doing, the court underscored the enduring tension between the libertarian and social welfare dimensions of contemporary democracy and placed into relief the divisions within the American liberal tradition.

  1. Commercial Funding in Academe: Examining the Correlates of Faculty's Use of Industrial and Business Funding for Academic Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szelenyi, Katalin; Goldberg, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the demographic, academic, attitudinal, and institutional correlates of receiving industry or business funding for academic work in a national sample of faculty in the United States. The findings depict a complicated picture of externally funded academic work, with implications for the practical and theoretical understanding of…

  2. Commercial Funding in Academe: Examining the Correlates of Faculty's Use of Industrial and Business Funding for Academic Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szelenyi, Katalin; Goldberg, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the demographic, academic, attitudinal, and institutional correlates of receiving industry or business funding for academic work in a national sample of faculty in the United States. The findings depict a complicated picture of externally funded academic work, with implications for the practical and theoretical understanding of…

  3. A commercial tunable diode laser (TDL) system for on-line remote measurements of automobile emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Konradin; Ropertz, Alexander; Schwabe, Thomas; Fischer, Christian; van Haren, Gunther

    2004-11-01

    An innovative tunable diode laser (TDL) measurement system has been used for the on-line estimation of emissions of cars, driving through the measurement beam of the system. This paper describes the measurement principle and gives first measurement results, taken for different types of cars.

  4. The Anatomy of Program Design for an On-Line Business Management Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barger, Bonita

    2008-01-01

    How does one design an on-line course to bridge theory and practice? How can the feedback of on-going stakeholder (student and administration) be incorporated into the design process to enhance quality? This paper presents the theoretical underpinning of designing an on-line management course recognized as best practice for a "well organized…

  5. Evaluation of 3 Commercially Available, On-Line TOC Analyzers for Monitoring Recycled Water in Semiconductor Processing

    SciTech Connect

    DeGenova, J.; Donovan, R.P.; Morrison, D.

    1998-11-09

    Rapid detection of excursions in the concentration of organic contaminants in water that is being recycled is crucial to the more widespread acceptance of rinse water recycling as a method of reducing water usage in semiconductor manufacturing. In 1995 SEMATECH'SS116 PTAB (Project Technical Advisory Board) arbitrarily targeted a response time of 30s as the goal for the on-line detection of TOC (Total Oxidizable Carbon) in water - a goal thought to simpliilj the design of water recycling systems (less volume required for water storage in the recycle loop) and lead to more widespread adoption of recycling of spent rinse waters by the US semiconductor industry. A subsequent evaluation of the TOC analyzers commercially available in early 1996 demonstrated that the fastest response times were on the order of three minutes ljllef. 1]. This paper updates the 1996 evaluation of commercially available TOC analyzers by assessing modified versions of two of the previously evaluated analyzers and also anew analyzer that became commercially available in 1997.

  6. In vitro penetration of Salmonella Enteritidis through yolk membranes of eggs from 6 genetically distinct commercial lines of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Gast, R K; Jones, D R; Anderson, K E; Guraya, R; Guard, J; Holt, P S

    2010-08-01

    Although deposition of Salmonella Enteritidis inside yolks is less common than deposition in albumen or on the vitelline (yolk) membrane in naturally contaminated eggs laid by infected hens, bacterial migration into the yolk to reach its nutrient-rich contents could lead to extensive multiplication. The present study used an in vitro egg contamination model to assess the ability of small initial numbers of Salmonella Enteritidis to penetrate the vitelline membrane and multiply inside yolks of eggs laid by 6 genetically distinct commercial lines of hens during 24 h of storage at 30 degrees C. Eggs from each line were tested at 4 different hen ages by inoculation of approximately 100 cfu of Salmonella Enteritidis onto the outside of the vitelline membranes of intact yolks in plastic centrifuge tubes and then adding back the albumen into each tube before incubation. Overall, the frequency of penetration of Salmonella Enteritidis into the yolk contents of eggs from individual lines of hens ranged from 30 to 58% and the mean concentration of Salmonella Enteritidis in yolk contents after incubation ranged from 0.8 to 2.0 log(10) cfu/mL. For both of these parameters, values for one hen line were significantly higher than for 2 other lines, but no other differences were observed. Hen age did not have a significant effect on egg yolk penetration by Salmonella Enteritidis. These results indicate that opportunities for the migration and growth of small initial numbers of Salmonella Enteritidis to attain more dangerous levels inside contaminated eggs during storage at warm temperatures can sometimes vary between different lines of laying hens.

  7. Performances of a Date Dissemination Code on Telephone Lines Using Commercial Modems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    equipment, and that the modemsused both at the code generation side and at the users end are by far the most influential factor in the synchronization error...timing reference and ASCII characters generated by a personal computer. The following sections describe in details the format of the CTD and its...line of the code as generated at IEN with full details is shown in Fig. 1. The characters from 1 to 37, identified in Fig. 1 by letters from A to M

  8. Genetic parameters of meat technological quality traits in a grand-parental commercial line of turkey

    PubMed Central

    Le Bihan-Duval, Élisabeth; Berri, Cécile; Baéza, Élisabeth; Santé, Véronique; Astruc, Thierry; Rémignon, Hervé; Le Pottier, Gilles; Bentley, James; Beaumont, Catherine; Fernandez, Xavier

    2003-01-01

    Genetic parameters for meat quality traits and their relationships with body weight and breast development were estimated for a total of 420 male turkeys using REML. The birds were slaughtered in a commercial plant and the traits measured included pH at 20 min (pH20) and 24 h post-mortem (pHu) and colour of the breast and thigh meat. The heritabilities of the rate and the extent of the pH fall in the breast muscle were estimated at h2 = 0.21 ± 0.04 and h2 = 0.16 ± 0.04, respectively. Heritabilities ranging from 0.10 to 0.32 were obtained for the colour indicators in the breast muscle. A marked negative genetic correlation (rg = -0.80 ± 0.10) was found between pH20 and lightness (L*) of breast meat, both traits corresponding to PSE indicators. The pH20 in the thigh muscle had a moderate heritability (h2 = 0.20 ± 0.07) and was partially genetically related to pH20 in the breast muscle (rg = 0.45 ± 0.17). Body weight and breast yield were positively correlated with both initial and ultimate pH and negatively with the lightness of breast meat. PMID:14604511

  9. Fiber-channel audio video standard for military and commercial aircraft product lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Jack E.

    2002-08-01

    Fibre channel is an emerging high-speed digital network technology that combines to make inroads into the avionics arena. The suitability of fibre channel for such applications is largely due to its flexibility in these key areas: Network topologies can be configured in point-to-point, arbitrated loop or switched fabric connections. The physical layer supports either copper or fiber optic implementations with a Bit Error Rate of less than 10-12. Multiple Classes of Service are available. Multiple Upper Level Protocols are supported. Multiple high speed data rates offer open ended growth paths providing speed negotiation within a single network. Current speeds supported by commercially available hardware are 1 and 2 Gbps providing effective data rates of 100 and 200 MBps respectively. Such networks lend themselves well to the transport of digital video and audio data. This paper summarizes an ANSI standard currently in the final approval cycle of the InterNational Committee for Information Technology Standardization (INCITS). This standard defines a flexible mechanism whereby digital video, audio and ancillary data are systematically packaged for transport over a fibre channel network. The basic mechanism, called a container, houses audio and video content functionally grouped as elements of the container called objects. Featured in this paper is a specific container mapping called Simple Parametric Digital Video (SPDV) developed particularly to address digital video in avionics systems. SPDV provides pixel-based video with associated ancillary data typically sourced by various sensors to be processed and/or distributed in the cockpit for presentation via high-resolution displays. Also highlighted in this paper is a streamlined Upper Level Protocol (ULP) called Frame Header Control Procedure (FHCP) targeted for avionics systems where the functionality of a more complex ULP is not required.

  10. Strategy & Action Plan For Accelerating Technology Transfer (T2) and Commercialization of Federal Research in Support of High Growth Businesses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-04

    industry consortia , economic development entities, and State and local governments.” Specifically, increased efforts to facilitate commercialization...both the DoD and industry . Accurate and relevant data are essential in supporting analysis based on actual versus planned outcomes relative to...and industrial innovation are critical to the U.S economic, environmental, and social well-being. Establishes national authorities for T2 across the

  11. HIV drug resistance testing among patients failing second line antiretroviral therapy. Comparison of in-house and commercial sequencing.

    PubMed

    Chimukangara, Benjamin; Varyani, Bhavini; Shamu, Tinei; Mutsvangwa, Junior; Manasa, Justen; White, Elizabeth; Chimbetete, Cleophas; Luethy, Ruedi; Katzenstein, David

    2017-05-01

    HIV genotyping is often unavailable in low and middle-income countries due to infrastructure requirements and cost. We compared genotype resistance testing in patients with virologic failure, by amplification of HIV pol gene, followed by "in-house" sequencing and commercial sequencing. Remnant plasma samples from adults and children failing second-line ART were amplified and sequenced using in-house and commercial di-deoxysequencing, and analyzed in Harare, Zimbabwe and at Stanford, U.S.A, respectively. HIV drug resistance mutations were determined using the Stanford HIV drug resistance database. Twenty-six of 28 samples were amplified and 25 were successfully genotyped. Comparison of average percent nucleotide and amino acid identities between 23 pairs sequenced in both laboratories were 99.51 (±0.56) and 99.11 (±0.95), respectively. All pairs clustered together in phylogenetic analysis. Sequencing analysis identified 6/23 pairs with mutation discordances resulting in differences in phenotype, but these did not impact future regimens. The results demonstrate our ability to produce good quality drug resistance data in-house. Despite discordant mutations in some sequence pairs, the phenotypic predictions were not clinically significant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Host genetic resistance to Marek's disease sustains protective efficacy of herpesvirus of turkey in both experimental and commercial lines of chickens.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shuang; Xie, Qingmei; Dunn, John R; Ernst, Catherine W; Song, Jiuzhou; Zhang, Huanmin

    2014-04-01

    Marek's disease (MD) remains a continual threat to the poultry industry worldwide as the MD virus continues evolving in virulence. MD has been controlled primarily by intensive use of vaccines since 1969. Based on the antigenic and pathogenic differences of the viruses that the vaccines were derived from, commercially available MD vaccines are classified into three categories, MDV-1, -2, and -3 vaccines. This study was designed to compare the protective efficacy of MDV-1 (CVI988/Rispens) and MDV-3 (HVT) vaccines against challenge of a very virulent plus strain of Marek's disease virus (vv+MDV) in experimental and commercial egg-layer lines of chickens under controlled experimental conditions. The two experimental lines (63 and 72) of chickens carry a uniform MHC B*2 haplotype and are known to differ in resistance to MD. One of the two commercial egg-layer lines (WL and BL) segregates for three MHC haplotypes (B*2, B*15, and B*21); the other is unclear. MD incidences of the unvaccinated groups of both experimental lines and both commercial lines were 100% or close to 100% induced by the vv+MDV, 648A. Survived day patterns of the unvaccinated groups significantly differed between the two experimental lines, but did not between the two commercial lines, which suggested the two experimental lines do differ in resistance to MD but not between the two commercial lines. At manufacturers' recommended vaccine dosage, two HVTs conveyed comparable protection for the MD resistant line 63 chickens as did both CVI988/Rispens used in this study. The two HVTs also conveyed comparable protection for both commercial lines of chickens as did one of two CVI988/Rispens (CVI988/Rispens-A). At a 2000PFU uniform dose, HVT and CVI988/Rispens again conveyed comparable protection for the MD resistant experimental line of chickens. The findings suggest vaccine protective efficacy is modulated by factors including the types and the sources of vaccines and the genetic backgrounds of chickens

  13. Investigation of commercial sorbents for the analysis of opioid peptides in human plasma by on-line SPE-CE.

    PubMed

    Benavente, Fernando; Medina-Casanellas, Silvia; Barbosa, José; Sanz-Nebot, Victoria

    2010-05-01

    In this study, we investigated the performance of several commercial sorbents (Sep-pack) C18, (t)C18, C8 and (t)C2, Oasis HLB, Isolute ENV+, Strata-X and Oasis MCX) for the determination of opioid peptides by solid-phase extraction coupled on-line to capillary electrophoresis (SPE-CE). First, standard solutions were analyzed in order to achieve the lowest LOD and the best electrophoretic separations using UV detection. The best results were obtained using C18, C8 and (t)C2 sorbents, which were examined for the analysis of spiked human plasma samples. A double-step sample clean-up pretreatment, which consisted of precipitation with acetonitrile and filtration, was needed to prevent saturation of the on-line SPE microcartridge. The filtration step was critical to obtain optimum analyte recovery and to clean up the sample matrix. A range of centrifugal filters and filtration conditions were tested and the recoveries of the sample pretreatment were evaluated by CE-ESI-MS. The LODs attained through SPE-CE-UV were approximately ten-fold better with C18 than with C8 and (t)C2. The 0.1 microg/mL LODs achieved by C18-SPE-CE-UV were further improved until we could detect 1 ng/mL concentrations of opioid peptides in plasma samples by C18-SPE-CE-ESI-MS, due to the outstanding selectivity of the MS detection.

  14. Industry's Commercial Initiatives on ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, C. E.; Kessler, C.; Lavitola, M. S.

    2002-01-01

    For more than ten years, private industry has worked to develop a commercial human space market and to create a sustainable ISS commercial utilization customer base. Before ISS assembly was underway - and long before NASA and the international space agencies began to craft ISS commercial business terms and conditions - industry planted and nurtured the seeds of interest in exploiting human space utilization for commerce. These early initiatives have yielded the impetus and framework for industry approaches to ISS commercial utilization today and for NASA's and the International Partners' planned accommodation of private sector interests and desires on the ISS. This paper chronicles major industry initiatives for commercial ISS utilization, emphasizing successful marketing and business approaches and why these approaches have a higher likelihood of success than others. It provides an overview of individual companies' initiatives, as well as collaborative efforts that cross company lines and country borders; and it assesses the relative success of each. Rather than emphasize negative issues and barriers, this paper characterizes and prioritizes actionable success factors for industry and government to make ISS commercial utilization a sustainable reality.

  15. Marketing Plan for the Naval Postgraduate School Master of Business Administration to the Navy Unrestricted Line Community

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    because business schools are usually ranked by considering placement of graduates in corporate world. This makes it unrecognized brand in civilian...programs at any other civilian business schools in the country and does not hold the highest of reputations for quality education. 2. Executive...For example, if publications dedicated to evaluating educational institutions fail to mention BPP as one of the best business schools in the country

  16. Differential gene expression profiles of ß-defensins in the crop, intestine, and spleen using a necrotic enteritis model in two commercial broiler chicken lines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Changes in the expression levels of avian ß-defensin (AvBD) mRNAs were evaluated in necrotic enteritis (NE) disease model in two genetically disparate commercial broiler chicken lines, R and C. NE was initiated in the intestinal track by a previously established co-infection model using oral Eimer...

  17. Salmonella infection in a commercial line of ducks; experimental studies on virulence, intestinal colonization and immune protection.

    PubMed Central

    Barrow, P. A.; Lovell, M. A.; Murphy, C. K.; Page, K.

    1999-01-01

    Experimental infections of different salmonella serotypes were established in a commercial line of ducks to provide baseline information on which control measures might be based. The ducks were very resistant to systemic infection with Salmonella typhimurium, S. enteritidis and S. gallinarum within 36 h of hatching. This was associated with an inherent inability of the strains to multiply in the reticulo-endothelial system. The resistance was not associated with poor invasiveness or serum sensitivity. Individual strains of S. typhimurium, S. enteritidis, S. heidelberg and S. orion colonized the gut well and were excreted in the faeces for at least 6 weeks by ducks when they were infected orally within 2 days of hatching. The main sites of colonization were the caeca and, to a lesser extent, the crop. Viable counts of each inoculated strain in the caeca remained in excess of 10(6) c.f.u. 3 weeks after infection although the organisms had been cleared from the spleen by this time. Much less excretion occurred when the birds were infected at 3 weeks of age. When infected ducks, which had cleared themselves of infection, were challenged orally with the homologous strain expressing a different genetic marker, very low levels of excretion of the challenge strain were detected when compared with a control group. After infection low titres of circulating lipopolysaccharide-specific IgG antibodies were detected by an ELISA. Intestinal colonization of newly hatched ducks with an aroA strain of S. enteritidis resulted in extensive colonization which exerted an exclusion effect on the parent strain inoculated 24 h later. PMID:10487648

  18. Development and evaluation of an on-line hide decontamination procedure for use in a commercial beef processing plantt.

    PubMed

    Bosilevac, Joseph M; Nou, Xiangwu; Osborn, Matthew S; Allen, Dell M; Koohmaraie, Mohammad

    2005-02-01

    The hides of cattle are the source of Escherichia coli O157:H7 that contaminates beef carcasses during commercial beef processing. Therefore, effective interventions that reduce hide contamination should reduce subsequent carcass contamination. The first objective of this study was to identify the most effective reagents for decontamination of beef hides. Cattle hides draped over barrels were used for in vitro experiments to compare the efficacy of washes using 1.6% sodium hydroxide, 4% trisodium phosphate, 4% chlorofoam, or 4% phosphoric acid, each followed by a rinse step using either water or acidified (pH 7.0) chlorine at 200 or 500 ppm. All treatments using a water rinse reduced hide coliform counts by 1.5 to 2.5 log CFU/ 100 cm2. Compared with water rinses, 200 and 500 ppm acidified chlorine rinses increased efficacy by approximately 1.0 and 2.0 log CFU/100 cm2, respectively. Vacuuming of the treated areas to remove excess liquid improved hide cleanliness by an average of an additional 1.0 log CFU/100 cm2. The second objective was to evaluate the use of an on-line hide-wash cabinet that used a sodium hydroxide wash and a chlorinated (1 ppm) water rinse. Hides sampled before entering and after exiting the cabinet had aerobic plate counts and Enterobacteriaceae counts that were reduced by 2.1 and 3.4 log CFU/100 cm2, respectively, and the prevalence of E. coli O157 on hides was reduced from 44 to 17% when the cabinet was in use. Preevisceration carcass aerobic plate counts and Enterobacteriaceae counts were both reduced by 0.8 log CFU/100 cm2, and the prevalence of E. coli O157 on preevisceration carcasses was reduced from 17 to 2% when the cabinet was in use. These results support decontamination of hides as an effective means to reduce pathogen contamination of cattle carcasses during processing.

  19. Exploring Differences in Preference for On-Line versus Traditional Classroom Delivery of a Freshmen Introduction to Global Business Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Mark; Guy, Paul; Straus, Peter; Levine, H. T.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigates whether pre-business students, after having completed a traditional in class freshmen introduction to global business course, express a difference in preference for such a course to be delivered online versus classroom or no preference at all. The study further explores whether four variables: 1) number of units of…

  20. Comparative in vitro anti-tick efficacy of commercially available products and newly developed phyto-formulations against field collected and resistant tick lines of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Ajith Kumar, K G; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Kumar, Sachin; Ray, D D; Rawat, A K S; Srivastava, Sharad; Ghosh, Srikant

    2016-12-01

    Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is considered as one of the most widely distributed tick species ecto-parasitizing on livestock and causes fatal diseases with significant production loss. To address the problem of controlling acaricide resistant tick infestations on animals, attention has been paid to develop eco-friendly phyto-acaricides. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the comparative anti-tick activities of commercially available herbal and chemical products with chemically characterized phyto-formulations developed recently against field ticks and resistant tick lines of R. (B.) microplus. The chemical product Butox(®) Vet was found nearly passive against all the tested resistant tick lines. However, one of the commercial polyherbal product, Zerokeet(®) showed an efficacy (E%) of 41.8-75.4 % ([Formula: see text]) using recommended dilution (1:2) against field ticks and resistant tick lines. However, the other commercial product, Erina(®) EP has very limited efficacy against all the tested tick. In comparison, the newly developed phyto-formulation, NBA/13/B/2 and NAC-01 conferred an E% of 82.4-91.3 % ([Formula: see text]) and 62.3-94.6 % ([Formula: see text]), respectively, against tested resistant ticks. Results indicated higher marketing potentiality of newly developed formulation in the existing tick problem scenario.

  1. Objectives in Commercial Engineering: Report of the Second Conference on Business Training for Engineers and Engineering Training for Students of Business, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, May 1 and 2, 1922. Bulletin, 1924, No. 16

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swiggett, Glen Levin

    1924-01-01

    The primary purpose of this conference held in Washington, May 1 and 2, 1922, was to promote through training better coordination of the major operations in industry and commerce. There was an attendance of 215 comprising largely business executives, engineers, and professors of business and engineering. The topics of discussion related to the…

  2. Agrobacterium-mediated high-frequency transformation of an elite commercial maize (Zea mays L.) inbred line.

    PubMed

    Cho, Myeong-Je; Wu, Emily; Kwan, Jackie; Yu, Maryanne; Banh, Jenny; Linn, Wutt; Anand, Ajith; Li, Zhi; TeRonde, Susan; Register, James C; Jones, Todd J; Zhao, Zuo-Yu

    2014-10-01

    An improved Agrobacterium -mediated transformation protocol is described for a recalcitrant commercial maize elite inbred with optimized media modifications and AGL1. These improvements can be applied to other commercial inbreds. This study describes a significantly improved Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol in a recalcitrant commercial maize elite inbred, PHR03, using optimal co-cultivation, resting and selection media. The use of green regenerative tissue medium components, high copper and 6-benzylaminopurine, in resting and selection media dramatically increased the transformation frequency. The use of glucose in resting medium further increased transformation frequency by improving the tissue induction rate, tissue survival and tissue proliferation from immature embryos. Consequently, an optimal combination of glucose, copper and cytokinin in the co-cultivation, resting and selection media resulted in significant improvement from 2.6 % up to tenfold at the T0 plant level using Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 in transformation of PHR03. Furthermore, we evaluated four different Agrobacterium strains, LBA4404, AGL1, EHA105, and GV3101 for transformation frequency and event quality. AGL1 had the highest transformation frequency with up to 57.1 % at the T0 plant level. However, AGL1 resulted in lower quality events (defined as single copy for transgenes without Agrobacterium T-DNA backbone) when compared to LBA4404 (30.1 vs 25.6 %). We propose that these improvements can be applied to other recalcitrant commercial maize inbreds.

  3. The prothrombin time/international normalized ratio (PT/INR) Line: derivation of local INR with commercial thromboplastins and coagulometers--two independent studies.

    PubMed

    Poller, L; Ibrahim, S; Keown, M; Pattison, A; Jespersen, J

    2011-01-01

    The WHO scheme for prothrombin time (PT) standardization has been limited in application, because of its difficulties in implementation, particularly the need for mandatory manual PT testing and for local provision of thromboplastin international reference preparations (IRP). The value of a new simpler procedure to derive international normalized ratio (INR), the PT/INR Line, based on only five European Concerted Action on Anticoagulation (ECAA) calibrant plasmas certified by experienced centres has been assessed in two independent exercises using a range of commercial thromboplastins and coagulometers. INRs were compared with manual certified values with thromboplastin IRP from expert centres and in the second study also with INRs from local ISI calibrations. In the first study with the PT/INR Line, 8.7% deviation from certified INRs was reduced to 1.1% with human reagents, and from 7.0% to 2.6% with rabbit reagents. In the second study, deviation was reduced from 11.2% to 0.4% with human reagents by both local ISI calibration and the PT/INR Line. With rabbit reagents, 10.4% deviation was reduced to 1.1% with both procedures; 4.9% deviation was reduced to 0.5% with bovine/combined reagents with local ISI calibrations and to 2.9% with the PT/INR Line. Mean INR dispersion was reduced with all thromboplastins and automated systems using the PT/INR Line. The procedure using the PT/INR Line provides reliable INR derivation without the need for WHO ISI calibration across the range of locally used commercial thromboplastins and automated PT systems included in two independent international studies. © 2010 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  4. Commercial Fishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document is a curriculum framework for a program in commercial fishing to be taught in Florida secondary and postsecondary institutions. This outline covers the major concepts/content of the program, which is designed to prepare students for employment in occupations with titles such as net fishers, pot fishers, line fishers, shrimp boat…

  5. Commercial Fishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document is a curriculum framework for a program in commercial fishing to be taught in Florida secondary and postsecondary institutions. This outline covers the major concepts/content of the program, which is designed to prepare students for employment in occupations with titles such as net fishers, pot fishers, line fishers, shrimp boat…

  6. The introgression of RNAi silencing of γ-gliadins into commercial lines of bread wheat changes the mixing and technological properties of the dough.

    PubMed

    Gil-Humanes, Javier; Pistón, Fernando; Giménez, María J; Martín, Antonio; Barro, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    In the present work the effects on dough quality by the down-regulation of γ-gliadins in different genetic backgrounds of bread wheat were investigated. RNAi-mediated silencing of γ-gliadins was introgressed by conventional crossing into three commercial bread wheat lines (namely 'Gazul', 'Podenco' and 'Arpain'), and along with the transgenic line A1152 (cv. Bobwhite) compared with their respective wild types. The protein fractions were quantified by RP-HPLC, whereas the technological and mixing properties were assessed by SDSS test and by the Mixograph instrument. Principal component analysis (PCA) was carried out for both the wild types and the transgenic lines, showing differences in the factors affecting the technological and mixing properties of the dough as a consequence of the reduction of the γ-gliadins. In transgenic lines, the α- and ω-gliadins, and total gliadins negatively affected the dough strength and tolerance to over-mixing, whereas the L/H ratio showed the opposite effect, positively influencing the dough quality. The increase of the SDSS volume in the transgenic lines of 'Gazul', 'Podenco' and 'Arpain' indicates increased gluten strength and quality respect to the wild types. SDSS volume was found to be positively influenced by the amount of glutenins, which were also increased in the transgenic lines. In addition, a positive effect was observed in the MT, PR1 and RBD in some of the transgenic lines of 'Podenco' and 'Arpain'. In conclusion, the down-regulation of γ-gliadins resulted in stronger doughs and a better tolerance to over-mixing in some transgenic lines. Although the reduction of γ-gliadins seems not to have a direct effect on the mixing and bread-making properties, the compensatory effect on the synthesis of the other prolamins may result in stronger doughs with improved over-mixing resistance.

  7. The Introgression of RNAi Silencing of γ-Gliadins into Commercial Lines of Bread Wheat Changes the Mixing and Technological Properties of the Dough

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Humanes, Javier; Pistón, Fernando; Giménez, María J.; Martín, Antonio; Barro, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    In the present work the effects on dough quality by the down-regulation of γ-gliadins in different genetic backgrounds of bread wheat were investigated. RNAi-mediated silencing of γ-gliadins was introgressed by conventional crossing into three commercial bread wheat lines (namely ‘Gazul’, ‘Podenco’ and ‘Arpain’), and along with the transgenic line A1152 (cv. Bobwhite) compared with their respective wild types. The protein fractions were quantified by RP-HPLC, whereas the technological and mixing properties were assessed by SDSS test and by the Mixograph instrument. Principal component analysis (PCA) was carried out for both the wild types and the transgenic lines, showing differences in the factors affecting the technological and mixing properties of the dough as a consequence of the reduction of the γ-gliadins. In transgenic lines, the α- and ω-gliadins, and total gliadins negatively affected the dough strength and tolerance to over-mixing, whereas the L/H ratio showed the opposite effect, positively influencing the dough quality. The increase of the SDSS volume in the transgenic lines of ‘Gazul’, ‘Podenco’ and ‘Arpain’ indicates increased gluten strength and quality respect to the wild types. SDSS volume was found to be positively influenced by the amount of glutenins, which were also increased in the transgenic lines. In addition, a positive effect was observed in the MT, PR1 and RBD in some of the transgenic lines of ‘Podenco’ and ‘Arpain’. In conclusion, the down-regulation of γ-gliadins resulted in stronger doughs and a better tolerance to over-mixing in some transgenic lines. Although the reduction of γ-gliadins seems not to have a direct effect on the mixing and bread-making properties, the compensatory effect on the synthesis of the other prolamins may result in stronger doughs with improved over-mixing resistance. PMID:23029328

  8. A rootstock provides water conservation for a grafted commercial tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) line in response to mild-drought conditions: a focus on vegetative growth and photosynthetic parameters.

    PubMed

    Nilsen, Erik T; Freeman, Joshua; Grene, Ruth; Tokuhisa, James

    2014-01-01

    The development of water stress resistant lines of commercial tomato by breeding or genetic engineering is possible, but will take considerable time before commercial varieties are available for production. However, grafting commercial tomato lines on drought resistant rootstock may produce drought tolerant commercial tomato lines much more rapidly. Due to changing climates and the need for commercial production of vegetables in low quality fields there is an urgent need for stress tolerant commercial lines of vegetables such as tomato. In previous observations we identified a scion root stock combination ('BHN 602' scion grafted onto 'Jjak Kkung' rootstock hereafter identified as 602/Jjak) that had a qualitative drought-tolerance phenotype when compared to the non-grafted line. Based on this initial observation, we studied photosynthesis and vegetative above-ground growth during mild-drought for the 602/Jjak compared with another scion-rootstock combination ('BHN 602' scion grafted onto 'Cheong Gang' rootstock hereafter identified as 602/Cheong) and a non-grafted control. Overall above ground vegetative growth was significantly lower for 602/Jjak in comparison to the other plant lines. Moreover, water potential reduction in response to mild drought was significantly less for 602/Jjak, yet stomatal conductance of all plant-lines were equally inhibited by mild-drought. Light saturated photosynthesis of 602/Jjak was less affected by low water potential than the other two lines as was the % reduction in mesophyll conductance. Therefore, the Jjak Kkung rootstock caused aboveground growth reduction, water conservation and increased photosynthetic tolerance of mild drought. These data show that different rootstocks can change the photosynthetic responses to drought of a high yielding, commercial tomato line. Also, this rapid discovery of one scion-rootstock combination that provided mild-drought tolerance suggests that screening more scion-rootstock combination for

  9. A Rootstock Provides Water Conservation for a Grafted Commercial Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) Line in Response to Mild-Drought Conditions: A Focus on Vegetative Growth and Photosynthetic Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Nilsen, Erik T.; Freeman, Joshua; Grene, Ruth; Tokuhisa, James

    2014-01-01

    The development of water stress resistant lines of commercial tomato by breeding or genetic engineering is possible, but will take considerable time before commercial varieties are available for production. However, grafting commercial tomato lines on drought resistant rootstock may produce drought tolerant commercial tomato lines much more rapidly. Due to changing climates and the need for commercial production of vegetables in low quality fields there is an urgent need for stress tolerant commercial lines of vegetables such as tomato. In previous observations we identified a scion root stock combination (‘BHN 602’ scion grafted onto ‘Jjak Kkung’ rootstock hereafter identified as 602/Jjak) that had a qualitative drought-tolerance phenotype when compared to the non-grafted line. Based on this initial observation, we studied photosynthesis and vegetative above-ground growth during mild-drought for the 602/Jjak compared with another scion-rootstock combination (‘BHN 602’ scion grafted onto ‘Cheong Gang’ rootstock hereafter identified as 602/Cheong) and a non-grafted control. Overall above ground vegetative growth was significantly lower for 602/Jjak in comparison to the other plant lines. Moreover, water potential reduction in response to mild drought was significantly less for 602/Jjak, yet stomatal conductance of all plant-lines were equally inhibited by mild-drought. Light saturated photosynthesis of 602/Jjak was less affected by low water potential than the other two lines as was the % reduction in mesophyll conductance. Therefore, the Jjak Kkung rootstock caused aboveground growth reduction, water conservation and increased photosynthetic tolerance of mild drought. These data show that different rootstocks can change the photosynthetic responses to drought of a high yielding, commercial tomato line. Also, this rapid discovery of one scion-rootstock combination that provided mild-drought tolerance suggests that screening more scion

  10. Reaction to frustration in high and low feather pecking lines of laying hens from commercial or semi-natural rearing conditions.

    PubMed

    Rodenburg, T B; Koene, P; Spruijt, B M

    2004-02-27

    The effect of rearing conditions on feather pecking and reaction to frustration was studied in two lines of laying hens. From commercial rearing conditions (large group, no mother hen), seven birds from a high feather pecking line (HC birds) and eight birds from a low feather pecking line (LC birds) were used. From semi-natural rearing conditions (small group, mother hen present) seven birds from the high feather pecking line (HN birds) were used. Feather pecking behaviour of HC, LC, and HN groups was recorded for 30 min. After that, each bird was food deprived and trained to peck a key for a food reward in a Skinnerbox. After training, each bird was subjected to a frustration session in a Skinnerbox, where the feeder was covered with Perspex. Three HC birds showed severe feather pecking, compared with one HN bird and zero LC birds. Differences in reaction to frustration were found between birds from different lines, but not in birds from different rearing conditions. LC birds tended to put their head in the feeder more frequently than HC birds over all sessions. Although limited, this study indicates that rearing conditions influence feather pecking, but not reaction to frustration.

  11. How ISO/IEC 17799 can be used for base lining information assurance among entities using data mining for defense, homeland security, commercial, and other civilian/commercial domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, William G.

    2006-04-01

    One goal of database mining is to draw unique and valid perspectives from multiple data sources. Insights that are fashioned from closely-held data stores are likely to possess a high degree of reliability. The degree of information assurance comes into question, however, when external databases are accessed, combined and analyzed to form new perspectives. ISO/IEC 17799, Information technology-Security techniques-Code of practice for information security management, can be used to establish a higher level of information assurance among disparate entities using data mining in the defense, homeland security, commercial and other civilian/commercial domains. Organizations that meet ISO/IEC information security standards have identified and assessed risks, threats and vulnerabilities and have taken significant proactive steps to meet their unique security requirements. The ISO standards address twelve domains: risk assessment and treatment, security policy, organization of information security, asset management, human resources security, physical and environmental security, communications and operations management, access control, information systems acquisition, development and maintenance, information security incident management and business continuity management and compliance. Analysts can be relatively confident that if organizations are ISO 17799 compliant, a high degree of information assurance is likely to be a characteristic of the data sets being used. The reverse may be true. Extracting, fusing and drawing conclusions based upon databases with a low degree of information assurance may be wrought with all of the hazards that come from knowingly using bad data to make decisions. Using ISO/IEC 17799 as a baseline for information assurance can help mitigate these risks.

  12. A molecular analysis of the patterns of genetic diversity in local chickens from western Algeria in comparison with commercial lines and wild jungle fowls.

    PubMed

    Mahammi, F Z; Gaouar, S B S; Laloë, D; Faugeras, R; Tabet-Aoul, N; Rognon, X; Tixier-Boichard, M; Saidi-Mehtar, N

    2016-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize the genetic variability of village chickens from three agro-ecological regions of western Algeria: coastal (CT), inland plains (IP) and highlands (HL), to reveal any underlying population structure, and to evaluate potential genetic introgression from commercial lines into local populations. A set of 233 chickens was genotyped with a panel of 23 microsatellite markers. Geographical coordinates were individually recorded. Eight reference populations were included in the study to investigate potential gene flow: four highly selected commercial pure lines and four lines of French slow-growing chickens. Two populations of wild red jungle fowls were also genotyped to compare the range of diversity between domestic and wild fowls. A genetic diversity analysis was conducted both within and between populations. Multivariate redundancy analyses were performed to assess the relative influence of geographical location among Algerian ecotypes. The results showed a high genetic variability within the Algerian population, with 184 alleles and a mean number of 8.09 alleles per locus. The values of heterozygosity (He and Ho) ranged from 0.55 to 0.62 in Algerian ecotypes and were smaller than values found in Jungle fowl populations and higher than values found in commercial populations. Although the structuring analysis of genotypes did not reveal clear subpopulations within Algerian ecotypes, the supervised approach using geographical data showed a significant (p < 0.01) differentiation between the three ecotypes which was mainly due to altitude. Thus, the genetic diversity of Algerian ecotypes may be under the influence of two factors with contradictory effects: the geographical location and climatic conditions may induce some differentiation, whereas the high level of exchanges and gene flow may suppress it. Evidence of gene flow between commercial and Algerian local populations was observed, which may be due to unrecorded

  13. Lunar Commercialization Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation outlines a competition that has as its goal to explores the viability of using public-private partnerships to open space frontier for commercial uses. The teams have the objective of designing a business plan to open the space frontier to commercial interests.

  14. Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mires, Peter B.

    2006-01-01

    National Geography Standards for the middle school years generally stress the teaching of latitude and longitude. There are many creative ways to explain the great grid that encircles our planet, but the author has found that students in his college-level geography courses especially enjoy human-interest stories associated with lines of latitude…

  15. Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mires, Peter B.

    2006-01-01

    National Geography Standards for the middle school years generally stress the teaching of latitude and longitude. There are many creative ways to explain the great grid that encircles our planet, but the author has found that students in his college-level geography courses especially enjoy human-interest stories associated with lines of latitude…

  16. Developing an effective business plan.

    PubMed

    Lehman, L B

    1996-06-01

    At some time, virtually all managed care executives, and most physician executives, will be asked to develop business plans. Business plans are thoughtful, comprehensive, and realistic descriptions of the many aspects of the formulation of a new business product or line for market. The author describes what goes into the writing of a business plan and how the physician executive should approach this task.

  17. Lunar Commercialization Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation describes the goals and rules of the workshop on Lunar Commercialization. The goal of the workshop is to explore the viability of using public-private partnerships to open the new space frontier. The bulk of the workshop was a team competition to create a innovative business plan for the commercialization of the moon. The public private partnership concept is reviewed, and the open architecture as an infrastructure for potential external cooperation. Some possible lunar commercialization elements are reviewed.

  18. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of commercially elite rice restorer line using nptII gene as a plant selection marker.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, M; Sairam Reddy, P; Laxmi Narasu, M; Krishna, Gaurav; Rana, Debashis

    2016-01-01

    Transformation of commercially important indica cultivars remains challenging for the scientific community even though Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocols for a few indica rice lines have been well established. We report successful transformation of a commercially important restorer line JK1044R of indica rice hybrid JKRH 401. While following existing protocol, we optimized several parameters for callusing, regeneration and genetic transformation of JK1044R. Calli generated from the rice scutellum tissue were used for transformation by Agrobacterium harboring pCAMBIA2201. A novel two tire selection scheme comprising of Geneticin (G418) and Paramomycin were deployed for selection of transgenic calli as well as regenerated plantlets that expressed neomycin phosphotransferase-II gene encoded by the vector. One specific combination of G418 (30 mg l(-1)) and Paramomycin (70 mg l(-1)) was very effective for calli selection. Transformed and selected calli were detected by monitoring the expression of the reporter gene uidA (GUS). Regenerated plantlets were confirmed through PCR analysis of nptII and gus genes specific primers as well as dot blot using gus gene specific as probe.

  19. From Commercial Schools to Corporate Universities: Explaining the Shift in Proprietary Business Education in the U.S., 1970-1990

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bañuelos, Nidia I.

    2016-01-01

    This study used archival sources to examine the factors that encouraged for-profit business education to shift during the 1970s from small, certificate programs for bookkeepers and secretaries to large, multisite universities for mid-level managers. Using data from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, as well as trend data from the Bureau of Labor…

  20. From Commercial Schools to Corporate Universities: Explaining the Shift in Proprietary Business Education in the U.S., 1970-1990

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bañuelos, Nidia I.

    2016-01-01

    This study used archival sources to examine the factors that encouraged for-profit business education to shift during the 1970s from small, certificate programs for bookkeepers and secretaries to large, multisite universities for mid-level managers. Using data from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, as well as trend data from the Bureau of Labor…

  1. Environmental impact statement/environmental impact report for the proposed marathon industrial/commercial business center tract 5167, Hayward California. Supplement. Draft report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    Joint State Federal environmental impact document concerning a regulatory permit application by Marathon U.S. Realties, Inc. under Section 10 of the River and Harbor Act of 1899 and Section 404 of the Clean Water Act. The proposed project involves a nonwater-oriented industrial, business development with public utilities, and habitat mitigation.

  2. Field testing of an automated wood-combustion system and development of business plan for commercialization of production. Final report for period ending August 1, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    1983-05-24

    A tunnel burner for burning wood chips has been installed and tested at a school building in Durham, NC. The test revealed many problems which did not exist while testing a prototype in laboratories. Controls were found to work reliably. A business plan was developed and is appended. (LEW)

  3. Commercialization of the Space Frontier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piland, William M.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses the current outlook for space business, how growing space business will improve the quality of life for all, and identified strategies for better relating international space research, technology, and space system operations to commercial interests in space. By drawing on recent assessments of the future potential for business in space, opportunities will be defined for encouraging the growth of business uses of space and regaining the public's awareness and support for expanding the space frontier.

  4. Breed effect between Mos rooster (Galician indigenous breed) and Sasso T-44 line and finishing feed effect of commercial fodder or corn.

    PubMed

    Franco, D; Rois, D; Vázquez, J A; Purriños, L; González, R; Lorenzo, J M

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this research was to study the Mos rooster breed growth performance, carcass, and meat quality. The breed effect (Mos vs. Sasso T-44) and finishing feed in the last month (fodder vs. corn) on animal growth, carcass characteristics, meat quality, and fatty and amino acid profiles were studied using a randomized block design with initial weight as covariance. In total, 80 roosters (n = 30 of Sasso T-44 line and n = 50 of Mos breed) were used. They were separated by breed and allocated to 2 feeding treatment groups (concentrate and corn). Each feeding treatment group consisted of 15 and 25 roosters, for Sasso T-44 line and Mos breed, respectively. Finishing feeding did not affect growth parameters in the 2 genotypes of rooster tested (P > 0.05). Nonetheless, the comparison between both types of roosters led to significant differences in growth parameters (P < 0.05). Regarding carcass characteristics, no significant influences of finishing feeding treatment (P > 0.05) were found, and as expected, carcass weight clearly differed between genotypes due to the lower growth rate of Mos roosters. However, drumstick, thigh, and wing percentages were greater in the Mos breed than in the hybrid line. In color instrumental traits, roosters feeding with corn showed breast meat with significantly (P < 0.001) higher a* and b* values than those of cocks feeding with commercial fodder. Values of shear force were less than 2 kg for both genotypes, thus it can be classified as very tender meat. Finishing with corn significantly increased (P < 0.001) the polyunsaturated fatty acid content in the breast; the Mos breed had a polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio of 0.73. The amino acid profile of the indigenous breed was not similar to that of the commercial strain. Finishing feeding treatment had a greater influence than breed effect on amino acid profile.

  5. Remote sensing for industrial applications in the energy business: digital territorial data integration for planning of overhead power transmission lines (OHTLs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrazzino, Alfonso; Volponi, Silvia; Borgogno Mondino, Enrico

    2001-12-01

    An investigation has been carried out, concerning remote sensing techniques, in order to assess their potential application to the energy system business: the most interesting results concern a new approach, based on digital data from remote sensing, to infrastructures with a large territorial distribution: in particular OverHead Transmission Lines, for the high voltage transmission and distribution of electricity on large distances. Remote sensing could in principle be applied to all the phases of the system lifetime, from planning to design, to construction, management, monitoring and maintenance. In this article, a remote sensing based approach is presented, targeted to the line planning: optimization of OHTLs path and layout, according to different parameters (technical, environmental and industrial). Planning new OHTLs is of particular interest in emerging markets, where typically the cartography is missing or available only on low accuracy scale (1:50.000 and lower), often not updated. Multi- spectral images can be used to generate thematic maps of the region of interest for the planning (soil coverage). Digital Elevation Models (DEMs), allow the planners to easily access the morphologic information of the surface. Other auxiliary information from local laws, environmental instances, international (IEC) standards can be integrated in order to perform an accurate optimized path choice and preliminary spotting of the OHTLs. This operation is carried out by an ABB proprietary optimization algorithm: the output is a preliminary path that bests fits the optimization parameters of the line in a life cycle approach.

  6. My Car Is a Lemon! Use of the Better Business Bureau's Auto Line[R] Program as a Pedagogical Model of ADR

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steslow, Donna M.

    2010-01-01

    Alternative dispute resolution (ADR) is normally included as part of an introductory business law/legal environment course. While some business schools offer stand-alone ADR courses, the majority do not. As a result, a business student's only exposure to ADR processes may be through a Legal Studies in Business course. Several scholars have created…

  7. My Car Is a Lemon! Use of the Better Business Bureau's Auto Line[R] Program as a Pedagogical Model of ADR

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steslow, Donna M.

    2010-01-01

    Alternative dispute resolution (ADR) is normally included as part of an introductory business law/legal environment course. While some business schools offer stand-alone ADR courses, the majority do not. As a result, a business student's only exposure to ADR processes may be through a Legal Studies in Business course. Several scholars have created…

  8. Commercialization of clean coal technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Bharucha, N.

    1994-12-31

    The steps to commercialization are reviewed in respect of their relative costs, the roles of the government and business sectors, and the need for scientific, technological, and economic viability. The status of commercialization of selected clean coal technologies is discussed. Case studies related to a clean coal technology are reviewed and conclusions are drawn on the factors that determine commercialization.

  9. Commercial Engineering. Report of a Conference on Business Training for Engineers and Engineering Training for Students of Business Held in Washington, D. C., June 23-24, 1919. Bulletin, 1919, No. 58

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swiggett, Glen Levin

    1920-01-01

    The Commissioner of Education authorized the specialist in charge of commercial education of the Bureau of Education to confer with a small group of administrative professors in engineering and commerce for the purpose of discussing ways and means whereby a larger number of students in engineering and commerce might be prepared better for…

  10. Commercialization of opportunities for materials processing in low gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. S.; Nixon, S. R.

    1983-01-01

    Business infrastructure required to achieve commercial MPS, incentives and disincentives for MPS, NASA/industry working agreements, small business innovation, NASA/industry agreements, joint venture agreements, and commercial spinoffs are addressed.

  11. Genetic characterization of Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus), Thai indigenous chicken (Gallus domesticus), and two commercial lines using selective functional genes compared to microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Akaboot, P; Duangjinda, M; Phasuk, Y; Kaenchan, C; Chinchiyanond, W

    2012-07-19

    Genetic characterization among Red Junglefowl (GS, Gallus gallus spadiceus), Thai indigenous chicken (TIC, Gallus domesticus) and commercial lines has been widely used for studies of genealogical origin, genetic diversity, and effects of selection. We compared the efficiency of genetic characterization of chicken populations that had been under different intensities of selection using selective functional gene versus microsatellite marker analyses. We genotyped 151 chickens from five populations: Red Junglefowl, TIC and commercial lines (BR, broiler and WL, White Leghorn). Genetic structure analyses using six loci of five functional genes - corresponding to heat tolerance (heat shock protein 70, HSP70/C, HSP70/M), broodiness (vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor-1, VIPR-1), egg production-[24-bp indel (insertion or deletion) prolactin, 24bpPRL], ovulation rate (growth hormone receptor, GHR), and growth (insulin-like growth factor-1, IGF-1) - were compared with 18 microsatellite markers. PCR-RFLP and allele specific PCR were used for functional gene typing. A neighbor-joining tree from Nei's genetic distance was constructed to show genetic relationships. A similar pattern was found with both functional genes and microsatellites. Three groups consisting of BR, WL and TIC-GS-GG were formed. A principal component plot based on individual similarity using Dice's coefficient was also constructed to confirm the relationship. Different patterns were found when using functional genes versus microsatellites. A principal component plot with functional genes also gave three clusters consisting of BR, WL and TIC-GS-GG. A principal component plot using microsatellites gave four clusters, consisting of WL, GG, TIC, and BR-GS. Characterization of BR and GS differs from previous studies. We concluded that genetic characterization with appropriate functional genes is more accurate when differences in genetic make-up among populations are known. Genetic characterization using

  12. Efficacy of commercial produce sanitizers against nontoxigenic Escherichia coli O157:H7 during processing of iceberg lettuce in a pilot-scale leafy green processing line.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Gordon R; Buchholz, Annemarie L; Ryser, Elliot T

    2013-11-01

    Chemical sanitizers are routinely used during commercial flume washing of fresh-cut leafy greens to minimize cross-contamination from the water. This study assessed the efficacy of five commercial sanitizer treatments against Escherichia coli O157:H7 on iceberg lettuce, in wash water, and on equipment during simulated commercial production in a pilot-scale processing line. Iceberg lettuce (5.4 kg) was inoculated to contain 10(6) CFU/g of a four-strain cocktail of nontoxigenic, green fluorescent protein-labeled, ampicillin-resistant E. coli O157:H7 and processed after 1 h of draining at ~22 °C. Lettuce was shredded using a commercial slicer, step-conveyed to a flume tank, washed for 90 s using six different treatments (water alone, 50 ppm of peroxyacetic acid, 50 ppm of mixed peracid, or 50 ppm of available chlorine either alone or acidified to pH 6.5 with citric acid [CA] or T-128), and then dried using a shaker table and centrifugal dryer. Various product (25-g) and water (50-ml) samples collected during processing along with equipment surface samples (100 cm(2)) from the flume tank, shaker table, and centrifugal dryer were homogenized in neutralizing buffer and plated on tryptic soy agar. During and after iceberg lettuce processing, none of the sanitizers were significantly more effective (P ≤ 0.05) than water alone at reducing E. coli O157:H7 populations on lettuce, with reductions ranging from 0.75 to 1.4 log CFU/g. Regardless of the sanitizer treatment used, the centrifugal dryer surfaces yielded E. coli O157:H7 populations of 3.49 to 4.98 log CFU/100 cm(2). Chlorine, chlorine plus CA, and chlorine plus T-128 were generally more effective (P ≤ 0.05) than the other treatments, with reductions of 3.79, 5.47, and 5.37 log CFU/ml after 90 s of processing, respectively. This indicates that chlorine-based sanitizers will likely prevent wash water containing low organic loads from becoming a vehicle for cross-contamination.

  13. Relative disease susceptibility and clostridial toxin antibody responses in three commercial broiler lines coinfected with Clostridium perfringens and Eimeria maxima using an experimental model of necrotic enteritis.

    PubMed

    Jang, Seung I; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Lee, Sung-Hyen; Lee, Kyung Woo; Lillehoj, Erik P; Hong, Yeong Ho; An, Dong-Jun; Jeoung, D Hye-Young; Chun, Ji-Eun

    2013-09-01

    Necrotic enteritis is an enteric disease of poultry resulting from infection by Clostridium perfringens with coinfection by Eimeria spp. constituting a major risk factor for disease pathogenesis. This study compared three commercial broiler chicken lines using an experimental model of necrotic enteritis. Day-old male Cobb, Ross, and Hubbard broilers were orally infected with viable C. perfringens and E. maxima and fed a high-protein diet to promote the development of experimental disease. Body weight loss, intestinal lesions, and serum antibody levels against alpha-toxin and necrotic enteritis B-like (NetB) toxin were measured as parameters of disease susceptibility and host immune response. Cobb chickens exhibited increased body weight loss compared with Ross and Hubbard breeds and greater gut lesion severity compared with Ross chickens. NetB antibody levels were greater in Cobb chickens compared with the Ross or Hubbard groups. These results suggest that Cobb chickens may be more susceptible to necrotic enteritis in the field compared with the Ross and Hubbard lines.

  14. 18 CFR 1301.8 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Business information... Freedom of Information Act § 1301.8 Business information. (a) In general. Business information obtained by... purposes of this section: (1) Business information means commercial or financial information obtained by...

  15. 18 CFR 1301.8 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Business information... Freedom of Information Act § 1301.8 Business information. (a) In general. Business information obtained by... purposes of this section: (1) Business information means commercial or financial information obtained by...

  16. 5 CFR 2411.9 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Business information. 2411.9 Section 2411... INFORMATION § 2411.9 Business information. (a) In general. Business information obtained by the Authority from... of this section: (1) Business information means commercial or financial information obtained by the...

  17. 5 CFR 2411.9 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Business information. 2411.9 Section 2411... INFORMATION § 2411.9 Business information. (a) In general. Business information obtained by the Authority from... of this section: (1) Business information means commercial or financial information obtained by...

  18. 49 CFR 701.9 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Business information. 701.9 Section 701.9... (AMTRAK) AMTRAK FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 701.9 Business information. (a) General. Business... purposes of this section, the following definitions apply: (1) Business information means commercial or...

  19. 18 CFR 1301.8 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Business information... Freedom of Information Act § 1301.8 Business information. (a) In general. Business information obtained by... purposes of this section: (1) Business information means commercial or financial information obtained by...

  20. 45 CFR 612.8 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Business information. 612.8 Section 612.8 Public... RECORDS AND INFORMATION § 612.8 Business information. (a) In general. Business information obtained by the... procedures. (b) Definitions. For purposes of this section: (1) Business Information means commercial or...

  1. 5 CFR 1820.8 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Business information. 1820.8 Section 1820... OF RECORDS OR TESTIMONY § 1820.8 Business information. (a) In general. Business information obtained.... For purposes of this section: (1) “Business information” means commercial or financial information...

  2. 49 CFR 701.9 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Business information. 701.9 Section 701.9... (AMTRAK) AMTRAK FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 701.9 Business information. (a) General. Business... purposes of this section, the following definitions apply: (1) Business information means commercial or...

  3. 5 CFR 1820.8 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Business information. 1820.8 Section 1820... OF RECORDS OR TESTIMONY § 1820.8 Business information. (a) In general. Business information obtained.... For purposes of this section: (1) “Business information” means commercial or financial information...

  4. 5 CFR 2411.9 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Business information. 2411.9 Section 2411... INFORMATION § 2411.9 Business information. (a) In general. Business information obtained by the Authority from... of this section: (1) Business information means commercial or financial information obtained by the...

  5. 15 CFR 4.9 - Business Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Business Information. 4.9 Section 4.9... of Information Act § 4.9 Business Information. (a) In general. Business information obtained by the... the purposes of this section: (1) Business information means commercial or financial information...

  6. 6 CFR 5.8 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Business information. 5.8 Section 5.8 Domestic... Freedom of Information Act § 5.8 Business information. (a) In general. Business information obtained by... this section. (b) Definitions. For purposes of this section: (1) Business information means commercial...

  7. 5 CFR 1820.8 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Business information. 1820.8 Section 1820... OF RECORDS OR TESTIMONY § 1820.8 Business information. (a) In general. Business information obtained.... For purposes of this section: (1) “Business information” means commercial or financial information...

  8. 5 CFR 1820.8 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Business information. 1820.8 Section 1820... OF RECORDS OR TESTIMONY § 1820.8 Business information. (a) In general. Business information obtained.... For purposes of this section: (1) “Business information” means commercial or financial information...

  9. 18 CFR 1301.8 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Business information... Freedom of Information Act § 1301.8 Business information. (a) In general. Business information obtained by... purposes of this section: (1) Business information means commercial or financial information obtained by...

  10. 15 CFR 4.9 - Business Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Business Information. 4.9 Section 4.9... of Information Act § 4.9 Business Information. (a) In general. Business information obtained by the... the purposes of this section: (1) Business information means commercial or financial information...

  11. 34 CFR 5.11 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Business information. 5.11 Section 5.11 Education... Available to the Public § 5.11 Business information. (a) General. The Department discloses business... purposes of this section: (1) Business information means commercial or financial information obtained by...

  12. 34 CFR 5.11 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Business information. 5.11 Section 5.11 Education... Available to the Public § 5.11 Business information. (a) General. The Department discloses business... purposes of this section: (1) Business information means commercial or financial information obtained by...

  13. 34 CFR 5.11 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Business information. 5.11 Section 5.11 Education... Available to the Public § 5.11 Business information. (a) General. The Department discloses business... purposes of this section: (1) Business information means commercial or financial information obtained by...

  14. 15 CFR 4.9 - Business Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Business Information. 4.9 Section 4.9... of Information Act § 4.9 Business Information. (a) In general. Business information obtained by the... the purposes of this section: (1) Business information means commercial or financial information...

  15. 6 CFR 5.8 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Business information. 5.8 Section 5.8 Domestic... Freedom of Information Act § 5.8 Business information. (a) In general. Business information obtained by... this section. (b) Definitions. For purposes of this section: (1) Business information means commercial...

  16. 34 CFR 5.11 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Business information. 5.11 Section 5.11 Education... Available to the Public § 5.11 Business information. (a) General. The Department discloses business... purposes of this section: (1) Business information means commercial or financial information obtained by...

  17. 6 CFR 5.8 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Business information. 5.8 Section 5.8 Domestic... Freedom of Information Act § 5.8 Business information. (a) In general. Business information obtained by... this section. (b) Definitions. For purposes of this section: (1) Business information means commercial...

  18. 5 CFR 2411.9 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Business information. 2411.9 Section 2411... INFORMATION § 2411.9 Business information. (a) In general. Business information obtained by the Authority from... of this section: (1) Business information means commercial or financial information obtained by the...

  19. 6 CFR 5.8 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Business information. 5.8 Section 5.8 Domestic... Freedom of Information Act § 5.8 Business information. (a) In general. Business information obtained by... this section. (b) Definitions. For purposes of this section: (1) Business information means commercial...

  20. 49 CFR 701.9 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Business information. 701.9 Section 701.9... (AMTRAK) AMTRAK FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 701.9 Business information. (a) General. Business... purposes of this section, the following definitions apply: (1) Business information means commercial or...

  1. 15 CFR 4.9 - Business Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Business Information. 4.9 Section 4.9... of Information Act § 4.9 Business Information. (a) In general. Business information obtained by the... the purposes of this section: (1) Business information means commercial or financial information...

  2. 6 CFR 5.8 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Business information. 5.8 Section 5.8 Domestic... Freedom of Information Act § 5.8 Business information. (a) In general. Business information obtained by... this section. (b) Definitions. For purposes of this section: (1) Business information means commercial...

  3. 18 CFR 1301.8 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Business information... Freedom of Information Act § 1301.8 Business information. (a) In general. Business information obtained by... purposes of this section: (1) Business information means commercial or financial information obtained by...

  4. 49 CFR 701.9 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Business information. 701.9 Section 701.9... (AMTRAK) AMTRAK FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 701.9 Business information. (a) General. Business... purposes of this section, the following definitions apply: (1) Business information means commercial or...

  5. 5 CFR 2411.9 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Business information. 2411.9 Section 2411... INFORMATION § 2411.9 Business information. (a) In general. Business information obtained by the Authority from... of this section: (1) Business information means commercial or financial information obtained by the...

  6. Social enterprise. Risky business.

    PubMed

    2007-02-15

    The skills needed to run a social enterprise are similar to those needed for conventional business. Accounts for social enterprises will have a 'double bottom line', showing social benefit as well as profit. Finding a good mentor is vital, as is setting out a clear vision and values in your business plan.

  7. 75 FR 43939 - The Americas Business Trade Mission to Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ..., and/or business partners, as well as counseling from Commercial Service trade specialists. In both... to introduce participants to distributors and prospective partners. The Americas Business Trade... International Trade Administration The Americas Business Trade Mission to Mexico AGENCY: International...

  8. Uterine fluid proteins and egg quality characteristics for 2 commercial and 2 heritage laying hen lines in response to manipulation of dietary calcium and vitamin D3.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Ravinder; Rathgeber, Bruce M; Thompson, Kristen L; Macisaac, Janice

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of eggs from 2 selected commercial strains of laying hens and 2 unselected lines of chickens fed diets with different combinations of Ca and vitamin D and relate it to the profile of uterine proteins and ultrastructure of the shell. A group of 4 chickens was housed in each of 24 cages. The group consisted of one representative from each of the following breeds: Lohmann LSL- Lite, Lohmann Classic-Brown, Fayoumi, and Light Sussex. Six dietary combinations of Ca and vitamin D(3) (3.35%, 2,500 IU; 4.10%, 2,500 IU (control); 4.85%, 2,500 IU; 3.35%, 200 IU; 4.10%, 200 IU; and 4.85%, 200 IU) were randomly assigned to 4 replicate cages for 2 treatment periods (26-29 and 56-59 wk of age). Data were analyzed as a split-plot design with cage as the main plot and hen as the subplot. Egg quality traits were different (P < 0.0001) between commercial and heritage breeds. Lohmann Brown had stronger shells with higher specific gravity compared with other breeds. Both commercial and heritage birds responded to a drop in vitamin D3 level by marked reduction in shell thickness. The SDS-PAGE profiles of uterine fluid samples revealed a decrease (P < 0.05) in 200-, 150-, 116-, and ≤6.5-kDa proteins, whereas proteins with molecular weight (MW) of 80, 55, 52, 45, 42, and 28 kDa increased with bird age. A 36- and 52-kDa protein band was most intense for Fayoumi compared with other breeds. Ultrastructural characteristics showed flattened and deeply etched mammillary caps for Lohmann Brown and the presence of type A and type B bodies between mammillary cones in eggshells from Fayoumi and Lohmann Lite. The negative correlation between ultrastructural characteristics, which decrease with bird age, and the 116-kDa uterine protein band could provide insight into reduced eggshell quality as hens age.

  9. Commercialization Assistance Program (CAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Jenny C. Servo, Ph.D.

    2004-07-12

    In order to fulfill the objective of Small Business Innovation Research Program (SBIR), the Department of Energy funds an initiative referred to as the Commercialization Assistance Program (CAP). The over-arching purpose of the CAP is to facilitate transition of the SBIR-funded technology to Phase III defined as private sector investment or receipt of non-sbir dollars to further the commercialization of the technology. Phase III also includes increased sales. This report summarizes the stages involved in the implementation of the Commercialization Assistance Program, a program which has been most successful in fulfilling its objectives.

  10. Business Continuity Planning Resources for Small- and Medium-Sized Businesses

    SciTech Connect

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Lesperance, Ann M.

    2010-05-14

    This document/memo summarizes existing resources and guidance on business continuity planning for small- to medium-sized businesses. DTRA will share this information with large commercial businesses who identified the need to help their suppliers and other key collaborators prepare business continuity plans in order to speed recovery from a wide-area bioterrorism incident.

  11. Relative disease susceptibility and clostridial toxin antibody responses in three commercial broiler lines co-infected with Clostridium perfringens and Eimeria maxima using an experimental model of necrotic enteritis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Necrotic enteritis is an enteric disease of poultry resulting from infection by Clostridium perfringens with co-infection by Eimeria spp. constituting a major risk factor for disease pathogenesis. This study compared three commercial broiler chicken lines using an experimental model of necrotic ente...

  12. The Commercial Course: Defense et Illustration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scavillo, Anthony

    The development of commercial foreign language courses by colleges and universities would help to satisfy the need for language enrollments and the expressed need of the international business community for foreign language skills in American business employees. Three major problems inhibit commercial language course development: limited…

  13. 10 CFR 603.1230 - Commercial firm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Commercial firm. 603.1230 Section 603.1230 Energy... Used in this Part § 603.1230 Commercial firm. A for-profit firm or segment of a for-profit firm (e.g., a division or other business unit) that does a substantial portion of its business in the...

  14. CIMFUELS: Commercial practice--tools vs. solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Latour, P.R.

    1997-03-01

    Continuing the them of CIMFUELS` recent editorials on good management practice, the nature of commercial offerings and practices between CIM providers and their fuel and petrochemical operating company customers and clients also warrants discussion. The commercial practices of the CIMFUELS business in this unstructured, fast changing, high technology global business has suffered unduly from inadequate distinction between tools and solutions.

  15. Getting smarter about commercialization opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, Pamela; McMakin, Andrea H.; Arnold, Todd

    2005-08-31

    The Disruptive Market Research method, pioneered by Dr. Pam Henderson of Meridian Strategies, helps technology developers make better commercialization decisions and find industry parters. More than 120 entrepreneurial organizations, ranging from the U.S. Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to Fortune 500 firms, have used the method to evaluate the commercial potential of new products and to shape business strategies.

  16. A Quantitative Risk Assessment Model Involving Frequency and Threat Degree under Line-of-Business Services for Infrastructure of Emerging Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Jing, Xu; Hu, Hanwen; Yang, Huijun; Au, Man Ho; Li, Shuqin; Xiong, Naixue; Imran, Muhammad; Vasilakos, Athanasios V

    2017-03-21

    The prospect of Line-of-Business Services (LoBSs) for infrastructure of Emerging Sensor Networks (ESNs) is exciting. Access control remains a top challenge in this scenario as the service provider's server contains a lot of valuable resources. LoBSs' users are very diverse as they may come from a wide range of locations with vastly different characteristics. Cost of joining could be low and in many cases, intruders are eligible users conducting malicious actions. As a result, user access should be adjusted dynamically. Assessing LoBSs' risk dynamically based on both frequency and threat degree of malicious operations is therefore necessary. In this paper, we proposed a Quantitative Risk Assessment Model (QRAM) involving frequency and threat degree based on value at risk. To quantify the threat degree as an elementary intrusion effort, we amend the influence coefficient of risk indexes in the network security situation assessment model. To quantify threat frequency as intrusion trace effort, we make use of multiple behavior information fusion. Under the influence of intrusion trace, we adapt the historical simulation method of value at risk to dynamically access LoBSs' risk. Simulation based on existing data is used to select appropriate parameters for QRAM. Our simulation results show that the duration influence on elementary intrusion effort is reasonable when the normalized parameter is 1000. Likewise, the time window of intrusion trace and the weight between objective risk and subjective risk can be set to 10 s and 0.5, respectively. While our focus is to develop QRAM for assessing the risk of LoBSs for infrastructure of ESNs dynamically involving frequency and threat degree, we believe it is also appropriate for other scenarios in cloud computing.

  17. A Quantitative Risk Assessment Model Involving Frequency and Threat Degree under Line-of-Business Services for Infrastructure of Emerging Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Xu; Hu, Hanwen; Yang, Huijun; Au, Man Ho; Li, Shuqin; Xiong, Naixue; Imran, Muhammad; Vasilakos, Athanasios V.

    2017-01-01

    The prospect of Line-of-Business Services (LoBSs) for infrastructure of Emerging Sensor Networks (ESNs) is exciting. Access control remains a top challenge in this scenario as the service provider’s server contains a lot of valuable resources. LoBSs’ users are very diverse as they may come from a wide range of locations with vastly different characteristics. Cost of joining could be low and in many cases, intruders are eligible users conducting malicious actions. As a result, user access should be adjusted dynamically. Assessing LoBSs’ risk dynamically based on both frequency and threat degree of malicious operations is therefore necessary. In this paper, we proposed a Quantitative Risk Assessment Model (QRAM) involving frequency and threat degree based on value at risk. To quantify the threat degree as an elementary intrusion effort, we amend the influence coefficient of risk indexes in the network security situation assessment model. To quantify threat frequency as intrusion trace effort, we make use of multiple behavior information fusion. Under the influence of intrusion trace, we adapt the historical simulation method of value at risk to dynamically access LoBSs’ risk. Simulation based on existing data is used to select appropriate parameters for QRAM. Our simulation results show that the duration influence on elementary intrusion effort is reasonable when the normalized parameter is 1000. Likewise, the time window of intrusion trace and the weight between objective risk and subjective risk can be set to 10 s and 0.5, respectively. While our focus is to develop QRAM for assessing the risk of LoBSs for infrastructure of ESNs dynamically involving frequency and threat degree, we believe it is also appropriate for other scenarios in cloud computing. PMID:28335569

  18. Commercialization Assistance Program

    SciTech Connect

    Jenny C Servo, Ph D

    2008-02-15

    The Commercialization Assistance Program (CAP) is offered to Phase II awardees of the Department of Energy's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) programs. The purpose of this program is to increase both the likelihood and speed of technology transition to Phase III of technologies which DOE has funded. This program has been offered to DOE SBIR firms since 1990 and has resulted in significant and well documented return on investment. This final report decribes the results of the CAP that was offered to participants during the last cycle.

  19. 10 CFR 603.1230 - Commercial firm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Used in this Part § 603.1230 Commercial firm. A for-profit firm or segment of a for-profit firm (e.g., a division or other business unit) that does a substantial portion of its business in the commercial... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commercial firm. 603.1230 Section 603.1230 Energy...

  20. 12 CFR 13.3 - Business conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Business conduct. 13.3 Section 13.3 Banks and....3 Business conduct. A bank that is a government securities broker or dealer shall observe high standards of commercial honor and just and equitable principles of trade in the conduct of its business as a...

  1. 12 CFR 13.3 - Business conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Business conduct. 13.3 Section 13.3 Banks and....3 Business conduct. A bank that is a government securities broker or dealer shall observe high standards of commercial honor and just and equitable principles of trade in the conduct of its business as a...

  2. 36 CFR 1005.3 - Business operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Business operations. 1005.3 Section 1005.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.3 Business operations. Engaging in or soliciting any business in the area administered by the...

  3. 12 CFR 13.3 - Business conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Business conduct. 13.3 Section 13.3 Banks and....3 Business conduct. A bank that is a government securities broker or dealer shall observe high standards of commercial honor and just and equitable principles of trade in the conduct of its business as a...

  4. 36 CFR 5.3 - Business operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Business operations. 5.3 Section 5.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.3 Business operations. Engaging in or soliciting any business in park...

  5. 36 CFR 5.3 - Business operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Business operations. 5.3 Section 5.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.3 Business operations. Engaging in or soliciting any business in park...

  6. 36 CFR 5.3 - Business operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Business operations. 5.3 Section 5.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.3 Business operations. Engaging in or soliciting any business in park...

  7. 12 CFR 13.3 - Business conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Business conduct. 13.3 Section 13.3 Banks and....3 Business conduct. A bank that is a government securities broker or dealer shall observe high standards of commercial honor and just and equitable principles of trade in the conduct of its business as a...

  8. 36 CFR 1005.3 - Business operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Business operations. 1005.3 Section 1005.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.3 Business operations. Engaging in or soliciting any business in the area administered by the...

  9. 36 CFR 5.3 - Business operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Business operations. 5.3 Section 5.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.3 Business operations. Engaging in or soliciting any business in park...

  10. 36 CFR 1005.3 - Business operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Business operations. 1005.3 Section 1005.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.3 Business operations. Engaging in or soliciting any business in the area administered by the...

  11. 36 CFR 1005.3 - Business operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Business operations. 1005.3 Section 1005.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.3 Business operations. Engaging in or soliciting any business in the area administered by the...

  12. 36 CFR 1005.3 - Business operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Business operations. 1005.3 Section 1005.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.3 Business operations. Engaging in or soliciting any business in the area administered by the...

  13. 36 CFR 5.3 - Business operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Business operations. 5.3 Section 5.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.3 Business operations. Engaging in or soliciting any business in park...

  14. 12 CFR 13.3 - Business conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Business conduct. 13.3 Section 13.3 Banks and....3 Business conduct. A bank that is a government securities broker or dealer shall observe high standards of commercial honor and just and equitable principles of trade in the conduct of its business as a...

  15. NASA commercial programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Highlights of NASA-sponsored and assisted commercial space activities of 1989 are presented. Industrial R and D in space, centers for the commercial development of space, and new cooperative agreements are addressed in the U.S. private sector in space section. In the building U.S. competitiveness through technology section, the following topics are presented: (1) technology utilization as a national priority; (2) an exploration of benefits; and (3) honoring Apollo-Era spinoffs. International and domestic R and D trends, and the space sector are discussed in the section on selected economic indicators. Other subjects included in this report are: (1) small business innovation; (2) budget highlights and trends; (3) commercial programs management; and (4) the commercial programs advisory committee.

  16. Designing the IDS business portfolio.

    PubMed

    Etchen, L L; Bouton, J L

    2000-01-01

    The business-value model is a strategic and business decision-making tool that can help integrated delivery systems (IDSs) evaluate the relative value that their individual businesses contribute to their overall systems. To use the model, IDSs first need to identify their individual business lines using criteria such as scope, size, marketability, operations, and competition. Businesses then are categorized as core, continuum, cash, or complementary based on four criteria: system purpose, size as reflected by annual revenue, competitive position, and level of profitability. Standards for these criteria should be set by the IDS in accordance with its market circumstances.

  17. A Small Business Model for Technology Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinman, D. K.

    2002-10-01

    Government funding of technology transfer and technological innovation through the Small Business Innovative Research program has had many successes during the nearly two decades of its operations. A means is suggested here to enhance the conditions for successful commercialization of both existing government technology transfer programs and for developing new technology that address technology needs of the various agencies and departments. Small businesses are critical sources of new technology and have been for many years. A business model that will foster technology innovation and help small businesses be successful developing technology and making the technology commercially viable will enhance the value of the program to the government and small business community.

  18. Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrison, Lynn; Jasper, Gwen

    2015-01-01

    The Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR)/Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) programs fund the research, development, and demonstration of innovative technologies that fulfill NASA's needs as described in the annual Solicitations and have significant potential for successful commercialization. The only eligible participants are small business concern (SBC) with 500 or fewer employees or a nonprofit research institute such as a university or a research laboratory with ties to an SBC. These programs are potential sources of seed funding for the development of small business innovations.

  19. Commercial Hy-Line W-36 pullet and laying hen venous blood gas and chemistry profiles utilizing the portable i-STAT®1 analyzer

    PubMed Central

    Schaal, T. P.; Arango, J.; Wolc, A.; Brady, J. V.; Fulton, J. E.; Rubinoff, I.; Ehr, I. J.; Persia, M. E.; O'Sullivan, N. P.

    2015-01-01

    Venous blood gas and chemistry reference ranges were determined for commercial Hy-Line W-36 pullets and laying hens utilizing the portable i-STAT®1 analyzer and CG8+ cartridges. A total of 632 samples were analyzed from birds between 4 and 110 wk of age. Reference ranges were established for pullets (4 to 15 wk), first cycle laying hens (20 to 68 wk), and second cycle (post molt) laying hens (70 to 110 wk) for the following traits: sodium (Na mmol/L), potassium (K mmol/L), ionized calcium (iCa mmol/L), glucose (Glu mg/dl), hematocrit (Hct% Packed Cell Volume [PCV]), pH, partial pressure carbon dioxide (PCO2 mm Hg), partial pressure oxygen (PO2 mm Hg), total concentration carbon dioxide (TCO2 mmol/L), bicarbonate (HCO3 mmol/L), base excess (BE mmol/L), oxygen saturation (sO2%), and hemoglobin (Hb g/dl). Data were analyzed using ANOVA to investigate the effect of production status as categorized by bird age. Trait relationships were evaluated by linear correlation and their spectral decomposition. All traits differed significantly among pullets and mature laying hens in both first and second lay cycles. Levels for K, iCa, Hct, pH, TCO2, HCO3, BE, sO2, and Hb differed significantly between first cycle and second cycle laying hens. Many venous blood gas and chemistry parameters were significantly correlated. The first 3 eigenvalues explained ∼2/3 of total variation. The first 2 principal components (PC) explained 51% of the total variation and indicated acid-balance and relationship between blood O2 and CO2. The third PC explained 16% of variation and seems to be related to blood iCa. Establishing reference ranges for pullet and laying hen blood gas and chemistry with the i-STAT®1 handheld unit provides a mechanism to further investigate pullet and layer physiology, evaluate metabolic disturbances, and may potentially serve as a means to select breeder candidates with optimal blood gas or chemistry levels on-farm. PMID:26706355

  20. Commercial Hy-Line W-36 pullet and laying hen venous blood gas and chemistry profiles utilizing the portable i-STAT®1 analyzer.

    PubMed

    Schaal, T P; Arango, J; Wolc, A; Brady, J V; Fulton, J E; Rubinoff, I; Ehr, I J; Persia, M E; O'Sullivan, N P

    2016-02-01

    Venous blood gas and chemistry reference ranges were determined for commercial Hy-Line W-36 pullets and laying hens utilizing the portable i-STAT®1 analyzer and CG8+ cartridges. A total of 632 samples were analyzed from birds between 4 and 110 wk of age. Reference ranges were established for pullets (4 to 15 wk), first cycle laying hens (20 to 68 wk), and second cycle (post molt) laying hens (70 to 110 wk) for the following traits: sodium (Na mmol/L), potassium (K mmol/L), ionized calcium (iCa mmol/L), glucose (Glu mg/dl), hematocrit (Hct% Packed Cell Volume [PCV]), pH, partial pressure carbon dioxide (PCO2 mm Hg), partial pressure oxygen (PO2 mm Hg), total concentration carbon dioxide (TCO2 mmol/L), bicarbonate (HCO3 mmol/L), base excess (BE mmol/L), oxygen saturation (sO2%), and hemoglobin (Hb g/dl). Data were analyzed using ANOVA to investigate the effect of production status as categorized by bird age. Trait relationships were evaluated by linear correlation and their spectral decomposition. All traits differed significantly among pullets and mature laying hens in both first and second lay cycles. Levels for K, iCa, Hct, pH, TCO2, HCO3, BE, sO2, and Hb differed significantly between first cycle and second cycle laying hens. Many venous blood gas and chemistry parameters were significantly correlated. The first 3 eigenvalues explained ∼2/3 of total variation. The first 2 principal components (PC) explained 51% of the total variation and indicated acid-balance and relationship between blood O2 and CO2. The third PC explained 16% of variation and seems to be related to blood iCa. Establishing reference ranges for pullet and laying hen blood gas and chemistry with the i-STAT®1 handheld unit provides a mechanism to further investigate pullet and layer physiology, evaluate metabolic disturbances, and may potentially serve as a means to select breeder candidates with optimal blood gas or chemistry levels on-farm.

  1. Commercial lumber

    Treesearch

    Kent A. McDonald; David E. Kretschmann

    1999-01-01

    In a broad sense, commercial lumber is any lumber that is bought or sold in the normal channels of commerce. Commercial lumber may be found in a variety of forms, species, and types, and in various commercial establishments, both wholesale and retail. Most commercial lumber is graded by standardized rules that make purchasing more or less uniform throughout the country...

  2. Identification and fine mapping of quantitative trait loci for growth traits on bovine chromosomes 2, 6, 14, 19, 21, and 23 within one commercial line of Bos taurus.

    PubMed

    Kneeland, J; Li, C; Basarab, J; Snelling, W M; Benkel, B; Murdoch, B; Hansen, C; Moore, S S

    2004-12-01

    We report the identification and fine mapping of QTL for birth weight (BWT), preweaning ADG (PWADG), and postweaning ADG on feed (ADGF) in a commercial line of Bos taurus using an identical-by-descent haplotype sharing method. One hundred seventy-six calves of 12 bulls (9 to 30 male calves from each sire) of the Beefbooster, Inc., M1 line were typed using 71 genetic markers from bovine chromosomes (BTA) 2, 6, 14, 19, 21, and 23 (8 to 16 markers from each chromosome). Sixteen haplotypes were found to have significant (P <0.05) associations with BWT at the comparison-wise threshold. The 16 haplotypes span 13 chromosomal regions, two on BTA 2 (9.1 to 22.5 cM and 95.0 to 100.3 cM), three on BTA 6 (8.2 to 11.8 cM, 35.5 to 49.7 cM, and 83.0 to 86.2 cM), three on BTA 14 (26.0 to 26.7 cM, 36.2 to 46.2 cM, and 52.0 to 67.7 cM), one on BTA 19 (52.0 to 52.7 cM), two on BTA 21 (9.9 to 20.4 cM and 28.2 to 46.1 cM), and two on BTA 23 (23.9 to 36.0 cM and 45.1 to 50.9 cM). Thirteen haplotypes spanning seven chromosomal regions significantly affected (P <0.05) PWADG at the comparison-wise threshold. The seven chromosomal regions include two regions on BTA 6 (11.8 to 44.2 cM and 83.0 to 86.2 cM), one on BTA 14 (26.7 to 50.8 cM), one on BTA 19 (4.8 to 15.9 cM), one on BTA 21 (9.9 to 20.4 cM), and two on BTA 23 (17.3 to 36.0 cM and 45.1 to 50.9 cM). For ADGF, 11 haplotypes were identified to have significant associations (P <0.05) at the comparison-wise threshold. The 11 haplotypes represented eight chromosomal regions, one on BTA 2 (9.1 to 22.5 cM), two on BTA 6 (49.7 to 50.1 cM and 59.6 to 63.6 cM), two on BTA 14 (17.0 to 24.0 cM and 36.2 to 46.2 cM), two on BTA 19 (52.0 to 52.7 cM and 65.1 to 65.7 cM), and one on BTA 21 (46.1 to 53.1 cM). The QTL regions identified and fine mapped in this study will provide a reference for future positional candidate gene research and marker-assisted selection of various growth traits.

  3. Opportunities for commercial organizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vardaman, W. K.; Atkins, H.; Taylor, K. R.

    1984-01-01

    The possible applications of technology of materials processing in low gravity is discussed. A special office established by NASA to familiarize commercial organizations with materials processing in low gravity is described. This office provides information on present research and will, if requested, hold a seminar to present the technological and business aspects of joint investigations and joint endeavors to interested organizations. Arrangements can be made for visits to laboratories where ground based research is in progress.

  4. 32 CFR 37.1250 - Commercial firm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Commercial firm. 37.1250 Section 37.1250... REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1250 Commercial firm... does a substantial portion of its business in the commercial marketplace....

  5. 76 FR 60474 - Commercial Item Handbook

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... Defense Acquisition Regulations System Commercial Item Handbook AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations... Commercial Item Handbook. The purpose of the Handbook is to help acquisition personnel develop sound business strategies for procuring commercial items. DoD is seeking industry input on the contents before...

  6. Fishy Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamee, Mike

    1988-01-01

    The IRS argues that income from alumni associations group life and medical insurance policies is business profit, not tax-exempt contributions to its member associations. The unrelated business income tax (UBIT) is described. (MLW)

  7. Business Center

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn how to do business with EPA's Clean Air Markets, including registering to use the Emissions Collection and Monitoring Plan System (ECMPS), the CAMD Business System (CBS), and learn how to submit monitored emissions data.

  8. E-Business: The Business Officer's Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Mark A.

    2001-01-01

    Contends e-business is particularly the domain of college and university business officers, with today's officers facing an unprecedented opportunity to exercise a critical leadership role in the deployment of advanced information technology solutions on campus. Describes relevant issues and advances, and presents ten initiatives that business…

  9. E-Business: The Business Officer's Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Mark A.

    2001-01-01

    Contends e-business is particularly the domain of college and university business officers, with today's officers facing an unprecedented opportunity to exercise a critical leadership role in the deployment of advanced information technology solutions on campus. Describes relevant issues and advances, and presents ten initiatives that business…

  10. Business process optimization for RHIOs.

    PubMed

    Soti, Praveen; Pandey, Seema

    2007-01-01

    Implementation of an electronic health record (EHR) network entails significant changes in the business processes of participating organizations. Business process management, increased automation, process optimization, user training and end-user adoption together form the keys to success with an EHR. Redesigned processes should be mapped to benefit lines and performance indicators, and monitored continuously to identify improvement opportunities. It is important the new business work flows should match, if not exceed, the existing benchmarks for performance. Business process redesign is all the more challenging in the context of regional health information organizations (RHIOs), as the business processes of the EHR network have to be aligned with existing process flows of several organizations, each with its own preferences and specific requirements. Even so, most of the discrete individual processes have to be converged, streamlined, assimilated and optimized in the redesigned business processes. This paper proposes a methodology for business process redesign and optimization for RHIOs.

  11. 32 CFR 1900.31 - Procedures for business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Procedures for business information. 1900.31... Matters § 1900.31 Procedures for business information. (a) In general. Business information obtained by... definitions apply: (1) Business information means commercial or financial information in which a legal...

  12. 32 CFR 1800.31 - Procedures for business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Procedures for business information. 1800.31... Administrative Matters § 1800.31 Procedures for business information. (a) In general. Business information...: Business information means commercial or financial information in which a legal entity has a recognized...

  13. NASA commercial technology. Agenda for change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The essence of NASA's new way of doing business to support the agency's commercial technology mission objectives is described. A summary description of the various changes needed to successfully perform this mission is provided.

  14. Commercial Communication in the Spanish Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinhardt-Childers, Ilva

    A college course in commercial Spanish is described. The course objectives are to: build a solid foundation of business and professional vocabulary, grammar, spelling, and punctuation; prepare for oral and written communication with commonly-used Spanish business phrases and terminology; expose students to the different types of written…

  15. Commercialism in Schools. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Kirstin

    Businesses are increasingly making inroads into the classroom, particularly in underfunded schools. The dramatic rise in commercial activities in schools has sparked intense public debate, triggering a U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO) report and various regulatory attempts at district, state, and federal levels. This digest offers an overview…

  16. Commercial Security on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddy, Carrie

    1996-01-01

    Discusses commercial security on the Internet and explains public key technology as successfully melding the conflicting requirements of openness for practical business applications and isolation and confidentiality for protection of data. Examples of public key value-added products are described, including encryption, digital signature and…

  17. Commercial Security on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddy, Carrie

    1996-01-01

    Discusses commercial security on the Internet and explains public key technology as successfully melding the conflicting requirements of openness for practical business applications and isolation and confidentiality for protection of data. Examples of public key value-added products are described, including encryption, digital signature and…

  18. Characterization of α/β- and γ-gliadins in commercial varieties and breeding lines of durum wheat using MALDI-TOF and A-PAGE gels.

    PubMed

    Marín, Santiago; Gil-Humanes, Javier; Hernando, Alberto; Barro, Francisco

    2011-12-01

    In this work, gliadin composition has been analyzed in 33 accessions of durum wheat using MALDI-TOF MS and compared with A-PAGE results. The MALDI-TOF MS spectra were 29,900-42,500 Da, which corresponds to the α/β- and γ-gliadin regions in A-PAGE. The average of gliadin peaks per line was 23 for MALDI-TOF MS and only 14.8 bands for A-PAGE. MALDI-TOF MS identified 33 gliadin peaks in the durum wheat collection, 20 of which were unique peaks present in 7 lines. A-PAGE analysis identified 30 bands, of which only 4 were unique. Thus, the MALDI-TOF MS method was more sensitive than A-PAGE for identifying α/β- and γ-gliadins in the 33 durum wheat lines studied. Phylogenetic analyses performed using MALDI-TOF MS data assigned the durum wheat lines to two groups. The utility of MALDI-TOF MS to determine relationships among genotypes and for identification of durum wheat accessions is discussed.

  19. Medicine as a business.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Merrill

    2004-09-01

    There is a growing debate over whether medicine should function like a business, guided, as businesses are, by concerns such as profits and customer satisfaction. Of course, for-profit businesses already permeate medicine, and those businesses are not confused about their priorities: providing high quality goods and services people want, at affordable prices. These companies know that they must do well in order to continue doing good. Critics of the business model argue that the profit motive makes health care too expensive and that only by nationalizing the health care system can doctors provide high quality care at an affordable cost to society. However, a survey of journals and newspaper articles about the Canadian health care system, often cited as an anti-business model for U.S. reform, reveals that quality has suffered significantly under that system. Patients wait in long lines for health care, and sometimes cannot get help at all. This paper argues that incentives in the U.S. health care system are complicated, and that health care needs to work more like a business--not less. Doctors don't know whom they are serving--patients, insurers, employers or the government--because it is usually someone other than the patient who it paying the bill. The way to get the incentives structured properly is to allow patients to control more of their health care dollars--perhaps through a system of Medical Savings Accounts. Following the business model is the only way to ensure that medicine provides high quality services at affordable prices--just like every other sector of the economy.

  20. Detection of the level of fluoride in the commercially available toothpaste using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy with the marker atomic transition line of neutral fluorine at 731.1 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gondal, M. A.; Maganda, Y. W.; Dastageer, M. A.; Al Adel, F. F.; Naqvi, A. A.; Qahtan, T. F.

    2014-04-01

    Fourth harmonic of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser (wavelength 266 nm) in combination with high resolution spectrograph equipped with Gated ICCD camera has been employed to design a high sensitive analytical system. This detection system is based on Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and has been tested first time for analysis of semi-fluid samples to detect fluoride content present in the commercially available toothpaste samples. The experimental parameters were optimized to achieve an optically thin and in local thermo dynamic equilibrium plasma. This improved the limits of detection of fluoride present in tooth paste samples. The strong atomic transition line of fluorine at 731.102 nm was used as the marker line to quantify the fluoride concentration levels. Our LIBS system was able to detect fluoride concentration levels in the range of 1300-1750 ppm with a detection limit of 156 ppm.

  1. Business Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Lorna; Lewandowski, Carol

    This workbook, designed for workplace literacy courses, contains materials for a business writing course. The course presents the fundamentals of effective business letter writing, focusing on logical organization, word choice, style, tone, and clarity. The course uses students' own examples as well as practice exercises for reinforcement.…

  2. Business Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisk, Dorothy A.

    1992-01-01

    This article describes the increasing role of business in sponsoring Grand Awards for the top high school science students in each of 13 disciplines of the International Science and Engineering Fair. Phillips Petroleum Company and other businesses sponsor the student science awards to recognize gifted and talented students and to motivate other…

  3. Business & Operations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agron, Joe

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an interview with John D. Musso, executive director of the Association of School Business Officials (ASBO) International. Musso talks about trends and issues that will most affect school business and operations in 2007 and beyond. Despite the challenges facing school operations, he believes that the key to being successful at…

  4. Commercial Product Activation Using RFID

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedrey, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Radio-frequency identification (RFID) would be used for commercial product activation, according to a proposal. What is new here is the concept of combining RFID with activation - more specifically, using RFID for activating commercial products (principally, electronic ones) and for performing such ancillary functions as tracking individual product units on production lines, tracking shipments, and updating inventories. According to the proposal, an RFID chip would be embedded in each product. The information encoded in the chip would include a unique number for identifying the product. An RFID reader at the point of sale would record the number of the product and would write digital information to the RFID chip for either immediate activation of the product or for later interrogation and processing. To be practical, an RFID product-activation system should satisfy a number of key requirements: the system should be designed to be integrable into the inventory-tracking and the data-processing and -communication infrastructures of businesses along the entire supply chain from manufacture to retail; the system should be resistant to sophisticated hacking; activation codes should be made sufficiently complexity to minimize the probability of activating stolen products; RFID activation equipment at points of sale must be capable to two-way RF communication for the purposes of reading information from, and writing information to, embedded RFID chips; the equipment at points of sale should be easily operable by sales clerks with little or no training; the point-of-sale equipment should verify activation and provide visible and/or audible signals indicating verification or lack thereof; and, the system should be able to handle millions of products per year with minimal human intervention, among other requirements.

  5. Small Business Innovations (Integrated Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Because of the diversity of NASA's information systems, it was necessary to develop DAVID as a central database management system. Under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant, Ken Wanderman and Associates, Inc. designed software tools enabling scientists to interface with DAVID and commercial database management systems, as well as artificial intelligence programs. The software has been installed at a number of data centers and is commercially available.

  6. Consumerism in Business Law--A Natural

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clow, John E.; Furjanic, Sheila

    1974-01-01

    Consumer protection should be a major objective in high school business law classes. Suggested units are the nature of law, sources of legal assistance, sales contracts, use of commercial paper, and rental or ownership of real property. (MS)

  7. Commercial Crew

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Phil McAlister delivers a presentation by the Commercial Crew (CC) study team on May 25, 2010, at the NASA Exploration Enterprise Workshop held in Galveston, TX. The purpose of this workshop was to...

  8. 48 CFR 52.244-6 - Subcontracts for Commercial Items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... clauses in subcontracts for commercial items: (i) 52.203-13, Contractor Code of Business Ethics and... Recovery Act. (iii) 52.219-8, Utilization of Small Business Concerns (MAY 2004) (15 U.S.C. 637(d)(2) and (3... subcontracts to small business concerns) exceeds $650,000 ($1.5 million for construction of any public facility...

  9. 19 CFR 103.35 - Confidential commercial information; exempt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... required by law (other than 5 U.S.C. 552). (c) Procedure when notice given—(1) Opportunity for business... person. Commercial information provided to CBP by a business submitter will be treated as privileged or... made known in any manner except as provided in this section. (b) Notice to business submitters of...

  10. Yes, small firms can commercialize photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Carl W.

    1997-01-01

    Small young companies can commercialize photonics. Many are already doing so and may more are getting started with a small government subsidy from Small Business Innovation Research. Capital is gushing, even begging for good investment opportunities, for companies ready to commit themselves to commercial success.

  11. 36 CFR 327.18 - Commercial activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Commercial activities. 327.18 Section 327.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY RULES AND... § 327.18 Commercial activities. (a) The engaging in or solicitation of business on project land...

  12. 36 CFR 327.18 - Commercial activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial activities. 327.18 Section 327.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY RULES AND... § 327.18 Commercial activities. (a) The engaging in or solicitation of business on project land...

  13. 32 CFR 37.1250 - Commercial firm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1250 Commercial firm. A for-profit firm or segment of a for-profit firm (e.g., a division or other business unit) that... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial firm. 37.1250 Section 37.1250...

  14. Commercial Spanish at Eastern Michigan University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voght, Geoffrey M.

    The commercial Spanish courses at Eastern Michigan University, examinations in commercial Spanish, and cooperative education exchange programs are described, and the university's new programs that combine the study of foreign language and business are briefly addressed. A six-course sequence offered on the junior, senior, and graduate levels cover…

  15. Space Commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    A robust and competitive commercial space sector is vital to continued progress in space. The United States is committed to encouraging and facilitating the growth of a U.S. commercial space sector that supports U.S. needs, is globally competitive, and advances U.S. leadership in the generation of new markets and innovation-driven entrepreneurship. Energize competitive domestic industries to participate in global markets and advance the development of: satellite manufacturing; satellite-based services; space launch; terrestrial applications; and increased entrepreneurship. Purchase and use commercial space capabilities and services to the maximum practical extent Actively explore the use of inventive, nontraditional arrangements for acquiring commercial space goods and services to meet United States Government requirements, including measures such as public-private partnerships, . Refrain from conducting United States Government space activities that preclude, discourage, or compete with U.S. commercial space activities. Pursue potential opportunities for transferring routine, operational space functions to the commercial space sector where beneficial and cost-effective.

  16. Public Private Business Models for Defence Acquisition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-30

    ICT ); emergence of novel Commercial Best Practises (CBPs) in the areas of business and business logistics; and changes in the legislation regarding...Hence, new types of missions have to be provided for. As a consequence, new military concepts have to be considered; new ICT is being implemented; and...public procurement;  LL from the first Gulf War;  Revolutionary development in the area of ICT ;  Emergence of new CBPs in business logistics

  17. Identification of Polymorphisms in the Rabbit Growth Hormone Receptor (GHR) Gene and Association with Finishing Weight in a Commercial Meat Rabbit Line.

    PubMed

    Fontanesi, Luca; Sparacino, Giuseppe; Utzeri, Valerio Joe; Scotti, Emilio; Fornasini, Daniela; Dall'Olio, Stefania; Frabetti, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    A shortcut to identify DNA markers associated with economic traits is to use a candidate gene approach that is still useful in livestock species in which molecular tools and resources are not advanced or not well developed. Mutations in the growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene associated with production traits have been already described in several livestock species. For this reason GHR could be an interesting candidate gene in the rabbit. In this study we re-sequenced all exons and non-coding regions of the rabbit GHR gene in a panel of 10 different rabbits and identified 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). One of them (g.63453192C>G or c.106C>G), located in exon 3 was a missense mutation (p.L36V) substituting an amino acid in a highly conserved position across all mammals. This mutation was genotyped in 297 performance tested rabbits of a meat male line and association analysis showed that the investigated SNP was associated with weight at 70 days (P < 0.05). The most frequent genotype (GG) was in animals with higher weight at this age, suggesting that the high directional selection pressure toward this trait since the constitution of the genotyped line might have contributed to shape allele frequencies at this polymorphic site.

  18. Small Business Innovations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract resulted in a series of commercially available lasers, which have application in fiber optic communications, difference frequency generation, fiber optic sensing and general laboratory use. Developed under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract, the Phase Doppler Particles Analyzer is a non-disruptive, highly accurate laser-based method of determining particle size, number density, trajectory, turbulence and other information about particles passing through a measurement probe volume. The system consists of an optical transmitter and receiver, signal processor and computer with data acquisition and analysis software. A variety of systems are offered for applications including spray characterization for paint, and agricultural and other sprays. The Microsizer, a related product, is used in medical equipment manufacturing and analysis of contained flows. High frequency components and subsystems produced by Millitech Corporation are marketed for both research and commercial use. These systems, which operate in the upper portion of the millimeter wave, resulted from a number of Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) projects. By developing very high performance mixers and multipliers, the company has advanced the state of the art in sensitive receiver technology. Components are used in receivers and transceivers for monitoring chlorine monoxides, ozone, in plasma characterization and in material properties characterization.

  19. Building Businesses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgeon, Julie

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how Washington University (St. Louis, MO) converted odd space into a program allowing students to be shopkeepers for necessary services and the school assuming the role of landlord. Tips for overseeing student businesses are highlighted. (GR)

  20. Small Business Innovations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Under an Army Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant, Symbiotics, Inc. developed a software system that permits users to upgrade products from standalone applications so they can communicate in a distributed computing environment. Under a subsequent NASA SBIR grant, Symbiotics added additional tools to the SOCIAL product to enable NASA to coordinate conventional systems for planning Shuttle launch support operations. Using SOCIAL, data may be shared among applications in a computer network even when the applications are written in different programming languages. The product was introduced to the commercial market in 1993 and is used to monitor and control equipment for operation support and to integrate financial networks. The SBIR program was established to increase small business participation in federal R&D activities and to transfer government research to industry. InQuisiX is a reuse library providing high performance classification, cataloging, searching, browsing, retrieval and synthesis capabilities. These form the foundation for software reuse, producing higher quality software at lower cost and in less time. Software Productivity Solutions, Inc. developed the technology under Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) projects funded by NASA and the Army and is marketing InQuisiX in conjunction with Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC). The SBIR program was established to increase small business participation in federal R&D activities and to transfer government research to industry.

  1. Business Creation and Technology Transfer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinussen, Jeff

    1993-01-01

    It is suggested that small- and medium-sized public universities without a commercial tradition reorganize the research administration function to serve as information clearinghouses, conduct "business intelligence," and identify new technologies and entrepreneurs among researchers. Research administration could include other practical functions…

  2. National Small Business Conference

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-02

    Riley Valerie King Valerie King SAS Barry Alexia Nick Uros Gerri Whaley Shirley Patterson IIS John McDonald...Front Line of Innovation Department of Defense Service-Disabled Veteran-Owned Small Business Strategic Plan Increase: 1. Number of SDVOSBs in Central ...c e - E x c e l l e n c e Changing Environment: Then, Now, and Tomorrow Strategy Peer Competitor? Middle East? Central Asia? WMD? Terror? Failed

  3. Coupling the Actuator Line and Finite Element Methods to Model Fluid Structure Interaction of a Commercial Wind Turbine in the Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motta, Javier; Jha, Pankaj; Campbell, Robert; Schmitz, Sven; Brasseur, James

    2013-11-01

    Wind turbine blades deform in response to unsteady loadings from atmospheric turbulence, causing changes in local angle-of-attack and blade loadings. This interaction is modeled by a fluid-structure interaction (FSI) solver that combines a finite element (FE) solver with an actuator line method (ALM) model for aerodynamic blade loads and vorticity shedding developed by Jha et al. (2013). The FSI solver is embedded within an OpenFOAM large-eddy simulation (LES) solver for daytime atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). The flow and structure solvers are tightly coupled to ensure convergence of blade deformation and its impact on the flow field. The structural deformations are computed using a modal summation approach, where the required modal matrix and resonant frequencies are extracted using Abaqus. The ALM and FE algorithms are being optimized to provide a reasonable balance between accuracy of prediction and computation time, particularly due to the sub-iterations required for blade deformation convergence. We also aim to present an analysis of the coupling between blade loading and deformation on the NREL 5MW turbine operating in the ABL. Supported by the DOE. Graduate Research Assistant, Mechanical Engineering.

  4. Morphological and Genetic Evidence for Multiple Evolutionary Distinct Lineages in the Endangered and Commercially Exploited Red Lined Torpedo Barbs Endemic to the Western Ghats of India

    PubMed Central

    Dahanukar, Neelesh; Anvar Ali, Palakkaparambil Hamsa; Tharian, Josin; Raghavan, Rajeev; Antunes, Agostinho

    2013-01-01

    Red lined torpedo barbs (RLTBs) (Cyprinidae: Puntius) endemic to the Western Ghats Hotspot of India, are popular and highly priced freshwater aquarium fishes. Two decades of indiscriminate exploitation for the pet trade, restricted range, fragmented populations and continuing decline in quality of habitats has resulted in their ‘Endangered’ listing. Here, we tested whether the isolated RLTB populations demonstrated considerable variation qualifying to be considered as distinct conservation targets. Multivariate morphometric analysis using 24 size-adjusted characters delineated all allopatric populations. Similarly, the species-tree highlighted a phylogeny with 12 distinct RLTB lineages corresponding to each of the different riverine populations. However, coalescence-based methods using mitochondrial DNA markers identified only eight evolutionarily distinct lineages. Divergence time analysis points to recent separation of the populations, owing to the geographical isolation, more than 5 million years ago, after the lineages were split into two ancestral stocks in the Paleocene, on north and south of a major geographical gap in the Western Ghats. Our results revealing the existence of eight evolutionarily distinct RLTB lineages calls for the re-determination of conservation targets for these cryptic and endangered taxa. PMID:23894533

  5. 14 CFR 119.9 - Use of business names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of business names. 119.9 Section 119.9... COMMERCIAL OPERATORS General § 119.9 Use of business names. (a) A certificate holder under this part may not operate an aircraft under part 121 or part 135 of this chapter using a business name other than a...

  6. 16 CFR 254.2 - Deceptive trade or business names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Deceptive trade or business names. 254.2... PRIVATE VOCATIONAL AND DISTANCE EDUCATION SCHOOLS § 254.2 Deceptive trade or business names. (a) It is deceptive for an industry member to use any trade or business name, label, insignia, or designation...

  7. 16 CFR 254.2 - Deceptive trade or business names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Deceptive trade or business names. 254.2... PRIVATE VOCATIONAL AND DISTANCE EDUCATION SCHOOLS § 254.2 Deceptive trade or business names. (a) It is deceptive for an industry member to use any trade or business name, label, insignia, or designation...

  8. 22 CFR 130.15 - Confidential business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., confidential business information means commercial or financial information which by law is entitled to... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Confidential business information. 130.15... CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.15 Confidential business information. (a) Any person who is...

  9. 16 CFR 4.14 - Conduct of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conduct of business. 4.14 Section 4.14... RULES § 4.14 Conduct of business. (a) Matters before the Commission for consideration may be resolved.... 208 or otherwise) constitutes a quorum for the transaction of business in that matter. (c) Any...

  10. 16 CFR 4.14 - Conduct of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conduct of business. 4.14 Section 4.14... RULES § 4.14 Conduct of business. (a) Matters before the Commission for consideration may be resolved.... 208 or otherwise) constitutes a quorum for the transaction of business in that matter. (c) Any...

  11. Small Business Innovations (Helicopters)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The amount of engine power required for a helicopter to hover is an important, but difficult, consideration in helicopter design. The EHPIC program model produces converged, freely distorted wake geometries that generate accurate analysis of wake-induced downwash, allowing good predictions of rotor thrust and power requirements. Continuum Dynamics, Inc., the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) company that developed EHPIC, also produces RotorCRAFT, a program for analysis of aerodynamic loading of helicopter blades in forward flight. Both helicopter codes have been licensed to commercial manufacturers.

  12. Commercial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Togai, Masaki

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on commercial applications of fuzzy logic in Japan are presented. Topics covered include: suitable application area of fuzzy theory; characteristics of fuzzy control; fuzzy closed-loop controller; Mitsubishi heavy air conditioner; predictive fuzzy control; the Sendai subway system; automatic transmission; fuzzy logic-based command system for antilock braking system; fuzzy feed-forward controller; and fuzzy auto-tuning system.

  13. European commercial aeronautics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Zandt, J Parker

    1925-01-01

    During the months of June to September, 1924, I personally visited the principal airports of Europe and traveled as a passenger some 6500 air miles on English, French, Romanian, Polish, German and Dutch air lines in order to investigate the development of commercial aviation abroad. The results of the investigation are embodied in a series of reports, of which a summary of the general findings is given below.

  14. Small Business Innovations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract to Kennedy Space Center, EIC Laboratories invented a Raman Spectrograph with fiber optic sampling for space applications such as sensing hazardous fuel vapors and making on-board rapid analyses of chemicals and minerals. Raman spectroscopy is a laser-based measurement technique that provides through a unique vibrational spectrum a molecular 'fingerprint,' and can function in aqueous environments. EIC combined optical fiber technology with Raman methods to develop sensors that can be operated at a distance from the spectrographic analysis instruments and the laser excitation source. EIC refined and commercialized the technology to create the Fiber Optic Raman Spectrograph and the RamanProbe. Commercial applications range from process control to monitoring hazardous materials.

  15. Business Planning Core Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Itzkowitz, G.N.

    2014-01-01

    Thoughtful business planning is pivotal to the success of any business/operational venture. When planned in a thoughtful and detailed manner there are very few operational or financial surprises for an institution or facility (service center) to contend with. At Stony Brook Medicine we include SWOT analysis and a detailed Market Analysis as part of the process. This is bolstered by an initiative to ensure institutional policies are met so that facilities remain in compliance throughout their lifecycle. As we operate 14 facilities we have had the opportunity to become creative in our approach to coordinate activities, virtualize services, integrate new software business-to-business partners, and finally coordinate plans for phased consolidation instead of outright termination of services when required. As the Associate Dean for Scientific Operations and Research Facilities, the shared research facilities (cores) of the Medical School are in my direct line of sight. We understand their value to the meeting our overall research mission. We have found that an active process of monitoring to predict trouble as much as possible is the best approach for facilities. Some case analysis of this type of interaction will be presented as well.

  16. The commercialization of plastic surgery.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Eric

    2013-09-01

    The last decade has brought a major challenge to the traditional practice of plastic surgery from corporations that treat plastic surgery as a commercial product and market directly to the public. This corporate medicine model may include promotion of a trademarked procedure or device, national advertising that promises stunning results, sales consultants, and claims of innovation, superiority, and improved safety. This article explores the ethics of this business practice and whether corporate medicine is a desirable model for patients and plastic surgeons.

  17. Business Graphics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Genigraphics Corporation's Masterpiece 8770 FilmRecorder is an advanced high resolution system designed to improve and expand a company's in-house graphics production. GRAFTIME/software package was designed to allow office personnel with minimal training to produce professional level graphics for business communications and presentations. Products are no longer being manufactured.

  18. Strictly Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Reginald

    2011-01-01

    When Jackson State University opened for classes this year, it marked its fifth anniversary in the online education business by adding a full four-year, undergraduate degree program in early childhood education to its offerings. Jackson State is among a growing number of historically Black colleges tying part of their future survival and growth…

  19. Unfinished Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuckett, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Adult learning is not a tidy business: adults fit learning into the spaces left by the other demands on complex lives, and into the spaces left in administrative structures overwhelmingly designed for other people. No simple metric can capture adults' diverse purposes and achievements, and no single programme can capture the full range of things…

  20. Business Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canipe, Stephen L.

    A brief definition of some fundamentals of microcomputers and of the ways they may be used in small businesses can help potential buyers make informed purchases. Hardware (the mechanical devices from which computers are made) described here are the video display, keyboard, central processing unit, "random access" and "read only" memories, cassette…

  1. Business Machines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pactor, Paul

    1970-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Labor has projected a 106 percent increase in the demand for office machine operators over the next 10 years. Machines with a high frequency of use include printing calculators, 10-key adding machines, and key punch machines. The 12th grade is the logical time for teaching business machines. (CH)

  2. Business Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canipe, Stephen L.

    A brief definition of some fundamentals of microcomputers and of the ways they may be used in small businesses can help potential buyers make informed purchases. Hardware (the mechanical devices from which computers are made) described here are the video display, keyboard, central processing unit, "random access" and "read only" memories, cassette…

  3. Strictly Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Reginald

    2011-01-01

    When Jackson State University opened for classes this year, it marked its fifth anniversary in the online education business by adding a full four-year, undergraduate degree program in early childhood education to its offerings. Jackson State is among a growing number of historically Black colleges tying part of their future survival and growth…

  4. Commercialization of solar space power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pant, Alok; Sera, Gary

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this research is to help U.S. companies commercialize renewable energy in India, with a special focus on solar energy. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Mid-Continent Technology Transfer Center (MCTTC) is working with ENTECH, Inc., a solar photovoltaic (SPV) systems manufacturer to form partnerships with Indian companies. MCTTC has conducted both secondary and primary market research and obtained travel funding to meet potential Indian partners face to face. MCTTC and ENTECH traveled to India during June 2-20, 1994, and visited New Delhi, Bombay, Pune and Calcutta. Meetings were held with several key government officials and premier Indian business houses and entrepreneurs in the area of solar energy. A firsthand knowledge of India's renewable energy industry was gained, and companies were qualified in terms of capabilities and commitment to the SPV business. The World Bank has awarded India with 280 million to commercialize renewable energies, including 55 million for SPV. There is a market in India for both small-scale (kW) and large SPV (MW) applications. Each U.S. company needs to form a joint venture with an Indian firm and let the latter identify the states and projects with the greatest business potential. Several big Indian companies and entrepreneurs are planning to enter the SPV business, and they currently are seeking foreign technology partners. Since the lager companies have adopted a more conservative approach, however, partnerships with entrepreneurs might offer the quickest route to market entry in India.

  5. Development, validation and transfer of a near infrared method to determine in-line the end point of a fluidised drying process for commercial production batches of an approved oral solid dose pharmaceutical product.

    PubMed

    Peinado, Antonio; Hammond, Jonathan; Scott, Andrew

    2011-01-05

    Pharmaceutical companies are progressively adopting and introducing the principles of Quality by Design with the main purpose of assurance and built-in quality throughout the whole manufacturing process. Within this framework, a Partial Least Square (PLS) model, based on Near Infrared (NIR) spectra and humidity determinations, was built in order to determine in-line the drying end point of a fluidized bed process. The in-process method was successfully validated following the principles described within The International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use - ICH Q2 (r1) - Validation of Analytical Procedures: Text and Methodology. However, in some aspects, the cited guidelines were not appropriate to in-process methods developed and validated exclusively with in-line samples and implemented in dynamic systems, such as drying processes. In this work, a customized interpretation of guidelines has been adopted which provided the framework of evidence to support a validated application. The application has been submitted to the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and The European Medicines Agency (EMA) during applications for grant of licences. Representatives from these Regulatory Authorities have specifically reviewed this novel application during on-site inspections, and have subsequently approved both the product and this application. Currently, the NIR method is implemented as a primary in-line method to control the drying end point in real-time (to below a control limit of not greater than 1.2% w/w) for commercial production batches of an approved, solid, oral-dose medicine. The implementation of this in-process method allows real-time control with benefits including a reduction in operation time and labour; sample handling and waste generation; and a reduced risk to product quality in further unit operations due to improved consistency of intermediate output at this stage. To date

  6. 14 CFR 119.9 - Use of business names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of business names. 119.9 Section 119.9... COMMERCIAL OPERATORS General § 119.9 Use of business names. (a) A certificate holder under this part may not operate an aircraft under part 121 or part 135 of this chapter using a business name other than a business...

  7. Florida commercial space initiatives and technology transfer mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Roger L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses commercial space policy for the State of Florida in the context of state initiatives for general technology and economic development. The paper also compares Florida's commercial space initiatives to national space policies and describes mechanisms for transferring space related technologies and research to Florida businesses for subsequent development and commercialization.

  8. Business Ownership and Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaser, Ken, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    Includes five articles: "Women in Management" (Zimmerer); "Business Boot Camp (interviews with young entrepreneurs)" (Kaser); "Plan Your Own Business Project" (Kohns); "Business Education and the Middle Level Student" (Patterson, Leblanc); and "Small Business Ownership Planning" (Fiber). (SK)

  9. Software Product Lines Essentials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    improvement Technology innovation Reuse 7 Software Product Lines Linda Northrop © 2008 Carnegie Mellon University Few Systems Are Unique Most...Focus was small-grained, opportunistic, and technology -driven. Results did not meet business goals. Reuse History 9 Software Product Lines Linda...servers, storage servers, network camera and scanner servers Bold Stroke Avionics Customized solutions for transportation industries E-COM Technology

  10. COMMERCIALIZATION DEMONSTRATION OF MID-SIZED SUPERCONDUCTING MAGNETIC ENERGY STORAGE TECHNOLOGY FOR ELECTRIC UTILITYAPPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    CHARLES M. WEBER

    2008-06-24

    As an outgrowth of the Technology Reinvestment Program of the 1990’s, an Agreement was formed between BWXT and the DOE to promote the commercialization of Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) technology. Business and marketing studies showed that the performance of electric transmission lines could be improved with this SMES technology by stabilizing the line thereby allowing the reserved stability margin to be used. One main benefit sought was to double the capacity and the amount of energy flow on an existing transmission line by enabling the use of the reserved stability margin, thereby doubling revenue. Also, electrical disturbances, power swings, oscillations, cascading disturbances and brown/black-outs could be mitigated and rendered innocuous; thereby improving power quality and reliability. Additionally, construction of new transmission lines needed for increased capacity could be delayed or perhaps avoided (with significant savings) by enabling the use of the reserved stability margin of the existing lines. Two crucial technical aspects were required; first, a large, powerful, dynamic, economic and reliable superconducting magnet, capable of oscillating power flow was needed; and second, an electrical power interface and control to a transmission line for testing, demonstrating and verifying the benefits and features of the SMES system was needed. A project was formed with the goals of commercializing the technology by demonstrating SMES technology for utility applications and to establish a domestic capability for manufacturing large superconducting magnets for both commercial and defense applications. The magnet had very low AC losses to support the dynamic and oscillating nature of the stabilizing power flow. Moreover, to economically interface to the transmission line, the magnet had the largest operating voltage ever made. The manufacturing of that design was achieved by establishing a factory with newly designed and acquired equipment

  11. 16 CFR 1020.5 - What is the Small Business Enforcement Policy?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... (5) The small business failed to make a good faith effort to comply with the law. (6) The small... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What is the Small Business Enforcement... BUSINESS § 1020.5 What is the Small Business Enforcement Policy? (a) When appropriate, the Commission...

  12. Business Plan Competitions: An Overview. CELCEE Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seymour, Nicole

    This document describes business plan competitions sponsored by universities. The idea began in the early 1980s at the University of Texas when Masters in Business Administration (MBA) students created a friendly competitive activity along the lines of the law schools Moot Court competition. Later the competition became national, and then…

  13. Australian Small Business Participation in Training Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Beverley; Walker, Elizabeth; Brown, Alan

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This purpose of this paper is to investigate the use of on-line training by small businesses in Australia. It explores the relationship between the owners acceptance and use of the Internet, and their current participation in training opportunities. Design/Methodology/Approach: A sample of small businesses which had participated in an…

  14. Commercial Capaciflector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vranish, John M.

    1991-12-01

    A capacitive proximity/tactile sensor with unique performance capabilities ('capaciflector' or capacitive reflector) is being developed by NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) for use on robots and payloads in space in the interests of safety, efficiency, and ease of operation. Specifically, this sensor will permit robots and their attached payloads to avoid collisions in space with humans and other objects and to dock these payloads in a cluttered environment. The sensor is simple, robust, and inexpensive to manufacture with obvious and recognized commercial possibilities. Accordingly, NASA/GSFC, in conjunction with industry, is embarking on an effort to 'spin' this technology off into the private sector. This effort includes prototypes aimed at commercial applications. The principles of operation of these prototypes are described along with hardware, software, modelling, and test results. The hardware description includes both the physical sensor in terms of a flexible printed circuit board and the electronic circuitry. The software description will include filtering and detection techniques. The modelling will involve finite element electric field analysis and will underline techniques used for design optimization.

  15. Commercial Capaciflector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M.

    1991-01-01

    A capacitive proximity/tactile sensor with unique performance capabilities ('capaciflector' or capacitive reflector) is being developed by NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) for use on robots and payloads in space in the interests of safety, efficiency, and ease of operation. Specifically, this sensor will permit robots and their attached payloads to avoid collisions in space with humans and other objects and to dock these payloads in a cluttered environment. The sensor is simple, robust, and inexpensive to manufacture with obvious and recognized commercial possibilities. Accordingly, NASA/GSFC, in conjunction with industry, is embarking on an effort to 'spin' this technology off into the private sector. This effort includes prototypes aimed at commercial applications. The principles of operation of these prototypes are described along with hardware, software, modelling, and test results. The hardware description includes both the physical sensor in terms of a flexible printed circuit board and the electronic circuitry. The software description will include filtering and detection techniques. The modelling will involve finite element electric field analysis and will underline techniques used for design optimization.

  16. Business Jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Citation Jet, developed by Cessna Aircraft Company, Wichita, KS, is the first business jet to employ Langley Research Center's natural laminar flow (NLF) technology. NLF reduces drag and therefore saves fuel by using only the shape of the wing to keep the airflow smooth, or laminar. This reduces friction between the air and wing, and therefore, reduces drag. NASA's Central Industrial Applications Center, Rural Enterprises, Inc., Durant, OK, its Kansas affiliate, and Wichita State University assisted in the technology transfer.

  17. Business, Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupree, Andrea

    1998-05-01

    The annual business meeting, which all members are encouraged to attend, will take place on Tuesday afternoon. Come enjoy the President's Ice Cream Party. Come meet new officers. Come nominate candidates for the Nominating Committee. The Nominating Committee is a very important body which provides the slate of candidates for the annual AAS election. Society business will be discussed briefly. Highlighting this meeting will be a panel discussion on: "How to Get Your Paper Published Promptly" Should I mention that Notable Authority Professor Hjalmar Sciatti hates me and my papers? When is it OK to start complaining that no report has arrived? Do I have to do everything the referee says? These and related questions will be addressed at the business meeting in a panel presentation by the editors of the three main AAS publications, Paul Hodge (AJ), Helmut Abt (ApJ), Alex Dalgarno (ApJ Letters), concerning the refereeing and editing process and how authors can interface with it most effectively. There will be time for questions and discussions toward the end, or you can send your questions in advance to askeds@aas.org, so that the most frequent ones can be covered in the presentations.

  18. Small Business Innovations (Crystal Components)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Scientific Materials Corporation, Bozeman, MT developed the SciMax line of improved Nd:Yag crystals under an Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract with Langley Research Center. They reduced the amount of water trapped in the crystals during growth to improve the optical quality and efficiency. Applications of the crystals include fiber optics, telecommunications, welding, drilling, eye surgery and medical instrumentation.

  19. Aerocapacitor commercialization plan

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-12

    The purpose of the Power-One Aerocapacitor Commercialization Plan is to communicate to members of management and to all employees the overall objectives of the corporation. Power-One, Inc., has participated in a US Federal Government Technology Reinvestment Project (TRP), entitled {open_quotes}Advanced Power Conversion based on the Aerocapacitor{close_quotes}: the project is a group effort, with Lawrence Livermore National Labs, GenCorp/Aerojet, PolyStor Corp. (a start-up company), and Power-One forming the consortium. The expected resulting technology is the {open_quotes}Aerocapacitor{close_quotes}, which possesses much higher performance levels than the usual capacitors on the market today. Power-One hopes to incorporate the Aerocapacitor into some of its products, hence enhancing their performance, as well as market privately-labeled aerocapacitors through its distribution channels. This document describes the details of Power-One`s plan to bring to market and commercialize the Aerocapacitor and Aerocapacitor-based products. This plan was formulated while Power-One was part of the Oerocap project. It has since pulled out of this project. What is presented in this plan is the work which was developed prior to the business decision to terminate this work.

  20. MPRS (URBOT) commercialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciccimaro, Donny; Baker, William; Hamilton, Ian; Heikkila, Leif; Renick, Joel

    2003-09-01

    The Man Portable Robotic System (MPRS) project objective was to build and deliver hardened robotic systems to the U.S. Army"s 10 Mountain Division in Fort Drum, New York. The system, specifically designed for tunnel and sewer reconnaissance, was equipped with visual and audio sensors that allowed the Army engineers to detect trip wires and booby traps before personnel entered a potentially hostile environment. The MPRS system has shown to be useful in government and military supported field exercises, but the system has yet to reach the hands of civilian users. Potential users in Law Enforcement and Border Patrol have shown a strong interest in the system, but robotic costs were thought to be prohibitive for law enforcement budgets. Through the Center for Commercialization of Advanced Technology (CCAT) program, an attempt will be made to commercialize the MPRS. This included a detailed market analysis performed to verify the market viability of the technologies. Hence, the first step in this phase is to fully define the marketability of proposed technologies in terms of actual market size, pricing and cost factors, competitive risks and/or advantages, and other key factors used to develop marketing and business plans.

  1. Genetic characterization of Bhutanese native chickens based on an analysis of Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus gallus and Gallus gallus spadecieus), domestic Southeast Asian and commercial chicken lines (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Dorji, Nedup; Duangjinda, Monchai; Phasuk, Yupin

    2012-07-01

    The genetic diversity of Bhutanese chickens needs to be understood in order to develop a suitable conservation strategy for these birds in Bhutan. In this, work, we used microsatellite markers to examine the genetic diversity of Bhutanese chickens. Four Bhutanese chicken varieties (Black plumage, Frizzle, Naked neck and Red Junglefowl-like, corresponding to Yuebjha Narp, Phulom, Khuilay and Seim, respectively), two subspecies of Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus gallus and Gallus gallus spadecieus), two varieties of Thai native chickens (Pradhu Hang Dam and Chee; Gallus gallus domesticus) representing the Southeast Asian domestic chicken, and two commercial lines (Broiler and Single Comb White Leghorn) were genotyped with 18 microsatellites that included 16 loci recommended by the FAO/ISAG for investigations of genetic variability in chickens. All loci were polymorphic, with the number of alleles ranging from six (MCW0111) to 23 (MCW0183). Substantial genetic variation was observed in all populations, with the Bhutanese native chicken Yuebjha Narp (Black plumage chicken) showing the lowest genetic variability. Despite extensive intrapopulation variation, the genetic differentiation among 10 populations was moderate. A neighbor-joining tree revealed the genetic relationships involved while principal component analysis showed that Bhutanese native chickens should be given priority in conservation efforts because of their genetic distinctiveness. Chee chickens are especially valuable as a reservoir of predomestic diversity, as indicated by their greater genetic variation and their position in the phylogenetic tree.

  2. Genetic characterization of Bhutanese native chickens based on an analysis of Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus gallus and Gallus gallus spadecieus), domestic Southeast Asian and commercial chicken lines (Gallus gallus domesticus)

    PubMed Central

    Dorji, Nedup; Duangjinda, Monchai; Phasuk, Yupin

    2012-01-01

    The genetic diversity of Bhutanese chickens needs to be understood in order to develop a suitable conservation strategy for these birds in Bhutan. In this, work, we used microsatellite markers to examine the genetic diversity of Bhutanese chickens. Four Bhutanese chicken varieties (Black plumage, Frizzle, Naked neck and Red Junglefowl-like, corresponding to Yuebjha Narp, Phulom, Khuilay and Seim, respectively), two subspecies of Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus gallus and Gallus gallus spadecieus), two varieties of Thai native chickens (Pradhu Hang Dam and Chee; Gallus gallus domesticus) representing the Southeast Asian domestic chicken, and two commercial lines (Broiler and Single Comb White Leghorn) were genotyped with 18 microsatellites that included 16 loci recommended by the FAO/ISAG for investigations of genetic variability in chickens. All loci were polymorphic, with the number of alleles ranging from six (MCW0111) to 23 (MCW0183). Substantial genetic variation was observed in all populations, with the Bhutanese native chicken Yuebjha Narp (Black plumage chicken) showing the lowest genetic variability. Despite extensive intrapopulation variation, the genetic differentiation among 10 populations was moderate. A neighbor-joining tree revealed the genetic relationships involved while principal component analysis showed that Bhutanese native chickens should be given priority in conservation efforts because of their genetic distinctiveness. Chee chickens are especially valuable as a reservoir of predomestic diversity, as indicated by their greater genetic variation and their position in the phylogenetic tree. PMID:23055799

  3. Characterization of commercially available vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers tuned on Cs D1 line at 894.6  nm for miniature atomic clocks.

    PubMed

    Kroemer, Eric; Rutkowski, Jaroslaw; Maurice, Vincent; Vicarini, Rémy; Hafiz, Moustafa Abdel; Gorecki, Christophe; Boudot, Rodolphe

    2016-11-01

    We report on the metrological characterization of novel commercially available 894.6 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs), dedicated to Cs D1 line spectroscopy experiments. The thermal behavior of the VCSELs is reported, highlighting the existence of a minimum threshold current and maximum output power in the 55°C-60°C range. The laser relative intensity noise, measured to be -108  dB/Hz at 10 Hz Fourier frequency f for a laser power of 25 μW, is reduced with increased power. The VCSELs frequency noise is 108  Hz2/Hz at f=100  Hz. The spectral linewidth of the VCSELs is about 30 MHz. VCSELs injection current can be directly modulated at 4.596 GHz with microwave power in the range of -10 to +0  dBm to generate optical sidebands. A VCSEL was used in a microcell-based Cs atomic clock based on coherent population trapping. A preliminary clock short-term fractional frequency stability of 8×10-11τ-1/2 up to about 100 s is reported, demonstrating the suitability of these VCSELs for miniature atomic clock applications.

  4. Bottom Line, Bottom Line

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trachtenberg, Stephen Joel

    2008-01-01

    Unlike most businesses, universities are both capital-and labor-intensive; yet contrary to standard business practice, they wring the most use and value out of their plants and payrolls for fewer than seven months a year. University presidents may appear to be very much like chief executive officers, but their powers to change course--or even a…

  5. Commercial energy audits: headache or opportunity

    SciTech Connect

    Hanneman, J.C.; Crandall, G.C.

    1984-04-12

    A summary of Michigan's 1982 commercial energy audit pilot program illustrates that utilities, shareholders, ratepayers, and private businesses can all benefit from large-scale audit services. Specific benefits to the utilities include market preservation, enhanced community and customer relations, and access to important customer demographic information. The federal Commercial and Apartment Conservation Service (CACS) rules can be more useful than burdensome because they confirm the right and duty of energy utilities to offer energy audits to nonresidential customers. 5 footnotes and references.

  6. Participating in commercial space ventures: Introduction to NASA Centers for the Commercial Development of Space and the Cooperative Agreements Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    In response to a Presidential directive, NASA has implemented a space policy which actively supports and encourages U.S. industry investment and participation in commercial space ventures. NASA's Office of Commercial Programs (OCP) has played a significant role in stimulating the growth of commercial space activity. Through a variety of programs, OCP encourages commercial interest and involvement in space endeavors by providing access to NASA resources and opportunities for the emerging space industry to reduce the technical, financial, and business risks associated with space-related activities. This manual describes NASA's Commercial Uses of Space Program and introduces participants to four major OCP Commercial programs: Technology Utilization (TU), Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR), Centers for the Commercial Development of Space Flight Agreement (CCDSFA), and Cooperative Agreements Programs. The objective of this manual is to assist U.S. industry identify and pursue the appropriate agreement for participation in a commercial space venture.

  7. Lunar Commercial Mining Logistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kistler, Walter P.; Citron, Bob; Taylor, Thomas C.

    2008-01-01

    Innovative commercial logistics is required for supporting lunar resource recovery operations and assisting larger consortiums in lunar mining, base operations, camp consumables and the future commercial sales of propellant over the next 50 years. To assist in lowering overall development costs, ``reuse'' innovation is suggested in reusing modified LTS in-space hardware for use on the moon's surface, developing product lines for recovered gases, regolith construction materials, surface logistics services, and other services as they evolve, (Kistler, Citron and Taylor, 2005) Surface logistics architecture is designed to have sustainable growth over 50 years, financed by private sector partners and capable of cargo transportation in both directions in support of lunar development and resource recovery development. The author's perspective on the importance of logistics is based on five years experience at remote sites on Earth, where remote base supply chain logistics didn't always work, (Taylor, 1975a). The planning and control of the flow of goods and materials to and from the moon's surface may be the most complicated logistics challenges yet to be attempted. Affordability is tied to the innovation and ingenuity used to keep the transportation and surface operations costs as low as practical. Eleven innovations are proposed and discussed by an entrepreneurial commercial space startup team that has had success in introducing commercial space innovation and reducing the cost of space operations in the past. This logistics architecture offers NASA and other exploring nations a commercial alternative for non-essential cargo. Five transportation technologies and eleven surface innovations create the logistics transportation system discussed.

  8. Commercial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The near term (one to five year) needs of domestic and foreign commercial suppliers of radiochemicals and radiopharmaceuticals for electromagnetically separated stable isotopes are assessed. Only isotopes purchased to make products for sale and profit are considered. Radiopharmaceuticals produced from enriched stable isotopes supplied by the Calutron facility at ORNL are used in about 600,000 medical procedures each year in the United States. A temporary or permanent disruption of the supply of stable isotopes to the domestic radiopharmaceutical industry could curtail, if not eliminate, the use of such diagnostic procedures as the thallium heart scan, the gallium cancer scan, the gallium abscess scan, and the low radiation dose thyroid scan. An alternative source of enriched stable isotopes exist in the USSR. Alternative starting materials could, in theory, eventually be developed for both the thallium and gallium scans. The development of a new technology for these purposes, however, would take at least five years and would be expensive. Hence, any disruption of the supply of enriched isotopes from ORNL and the resulting unavailability of critical nuclear medicine procedures would have a dramatic negative effect on the level of health care in the United States.

  9. Business Continuity Management Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    13 B. BUSINESS IMPACT ANALYSIS ................................................................17 C. RECOVERY STRATEGY...Business Continuity Institute BCM business continuity management BCP business continuity plan BIA business impact analysis... environmental , health and safety ERP Enterprise Resource Planning FEMA Federal Emergency Management Agency FISMA Federal Information Security Management

  10. Tribal Business Assistance Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansdowne, Michele

    The Salish Kootenai College Tribal Business Assistance Center was established in 1994 to provide technical assistance to individuals who are pursuing a small business. The center assists the entrepreneur by way of individual consultation with business advisors, small business workshops, and business administration courses that have been created…

  11. Automatic information retrieval of Chinese business card

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, GuangShun; Pan, Wumo; Jin, Jianming

    2003-01-01

    Document image understanding techniques have been widely used in many application domains. Various kinds of documents have been researched and different methods are developed for information retrieval purpose. In this paper we present a practical method to extract information items from Chinese business card. Before retrieval information in business card, the image of business card had been segmented into little text regions and each text region had been recognized. Because the typeset of business card is variable, and both English and Chinese characters are used, so there are errors in segmentation and recognition result. We focus on building a robust model that can tolerate errors and extract syntax pattern of each text lines in business card, which using both layout information and logical information. By this model, many errors will be identified and adjusted. Finally, correct property will be assigned to each text region in business card, and recognition errors will be corrected.

  12. The Business of Testing.

    PubMed

    Jolosky, Theo; Watson, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Theodore Millon was a brilliant man: erudite, thoughtful, confident, deliberate, and curious. He was an integrative thinker. It is widely known how these characteristics manifested themselves in his landmark work in the areas of personality theory, personality development, and personality assessment. What is likely less well known is that he displayed these same characteristics in and to the world of business; in particular, his relationships with those who published and distributed his assessment measures. This article traces those relationships. Various components are explored, ranging from product development to product marketing, from the protection of intellectual property to the development and execution of contracts, from deciding how and when to revise a test to ensuring that his legacy continues long into the future. Although the primary dynamic of these relationships was commercial, the reasons for their success were personal. Common goals, clarity of communication, persistence, respect, and trust allowed these relationships to develop, prosper, evolve, and endure.

  13. Business Approach To Lunar Base Activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Harrison H.

    2003-01-01

    It remains unlikely that any government or group of governments will make the long-term funding commitments necessary to return to the Moon in support of scientific goals or resource production. If a lunar base is to be established within the foreseeable future, it will support of commercial production and use of unique energy resources Business plan development for commercial production and use of lunar Helium-3 requires a number of major steps, including identification of the required investor base and development of fusion power technology through a series of business bridges that provide required rates of return.

  14. Commercialization of New Beam Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeown, Joseph

    1996-05-01

    The commercialization of electron processing applications is driven by demonstrated technical advantages over current practice. Mature and reliable accelerator technology has permitted more consistent product quality and the development of new processes. However, the barriers to commercial adoption are often not amenable to solution within the laboratory alone. Aspects of the base accelerator technology, plant engineering, production, project management, financing, regulatory control, product throughput and plant operational efficiency all contribute to the business risk. Experiences in building three 10 MeV, 50 kW, IMPELA electron accelerators at approximately 8 M each and achieving cumulative operational availability greater than 98% in commercial environments have identified key parameters defining those aspects. The allowed ranges of these parameters to generate the 1.5 M annual revenue that is typically necessary to support outlays of this scale are presented. Such data have been used in proposals to displace expensive chemicals in the viscose industry, sterilize sewage sludge, detoxify chemically contaminated soils and build radiation service centers for a diversity of applications. The proposals face stiff competition from traditional chemical methods. Quantitative technical and business details of these activities are provided and an attempt is made to establish realistic expectations for the exploitation of electron beam technologies in emerging applications.

  15. Financial issues for commercial space ventures: Paying for the dreams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egan, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    Various financial issues involved in commercial space enterprise are discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on the materials processing area: the current state of business plan and financial developments, what is needed for enhanced probability of success of future materials development efforts in attracting financial backing, and finally, the risks involved in this entire business area.

  16. Commercial Photography. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP) for commercial photography is an employer-verified competency list that evolved from a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) job analysis process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives throughout Ohio. The competency list consists of 12 units: (1) business…

  17. Aerospace management techniques: Commercial and governmental applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milliken, J. G.; Morrison, E. J.

    1971-01-01

    A guidebook for managers and administrators is presented as a source of useful information on new management methods in business, industry, and government. The major topics discussed include: actual and potential applications of aerospace management techniques to commercial and governmental organizations; aerospace management techniques and their use within the aerospace sector; and the aerospace sector's application of innovative management techniques.

  18. English in the Ecuadorian Commercial Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alm, Cecilia Ovesdotter

    2003-01-01

    Presents a study completed in Quito, Ecuador that investigates the attitudinal perceptions toward English in advertising in the Ecuadorian commercial context. Findings are the result of four data collection procedures; a questionnaire administered to advertising experts, an analysis of business names in ten shopping centers, an analysis of…

  19. Commercial Influences on the Pursuit of Wisdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHenry, Leemon B.

    2007-01-01

    This essay examines the effects of commercialization on education with particular focus on corporatization of academic research. This trend results from a business model of education, which I identify as profit-based inquiry. I contrast profit-based inquiry with Nicholas Maxwell's conception of wisdom-based inquiry and conclude that the business…

  20. English in the Ecuadorian Commercial Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alm, Cecilia Ovesdotter

    2003-01-01

    Presents a study completed in Quito, Ecuador that investigates the attitudinal perceptions toward English in advertising in the Ecuadorian commercial context. Findings are the result of four data collection procedures; a questionnaire administered to advertising experts, an analysis of business names in ten shopping centers, an analysis of…

  1. Identification of types of businesses with potential interest in operating and/or exporting ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) plants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-09-01

    This study describes the characteristics of three selected Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)-based lines of business, examines other lines of business and identifies those with similar characteristics, and indicates the types of businesses/corporations that could be expected to have potential interest in operating and/or exporting OTEC plants. An OTEC line of business model is developed to assist companies in making an internal corporate assessment as to whether OTEC should be in their business plan.

  2. Business Schools under Fire: Humanistic Management Education as the Way Forward. Humanism in Business Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amann, Wolfgang, Ed.; Pirson, Michael, Ed.; Dierksmeier, Claus, Ed.; Von Kimakowitz, Ernst, Ed.; Spitzeck, Heiko, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    In a time of instability trust in managers is low. Management education is being scrutinized for its impact on society and business schools have been considered as "silent partners in corporate crime." This book outlines how business schools can get out of the line of fire by presenting the cornerstones of a humanistic business…

  3. Business Schools under Fire: Humanistic Management Education as the Way Forward. Humanism in Business Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amann, Wolfgang, Ed.; Pirson, Michael, Ed.; Dierksmeier, Claus, Ed.; Von Kimakowitz, Ernst, Ed.; Spitzeck, Heiko, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    In a time of instability trust in managers is low. Management education is being scrutinized for its impact on society and business schools have been considered as "silent partners in corporate crime." This book outlines how business schools can get out of the line of fire by presenting the cornerstones of a humanistic business…

  4. AGATE animation - business theme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Business jet 5 of 6. Advanced General Aviation Technology Experiment (AGATE). 'Smart airport' technologies are expected to be available in 5-10 years for both recreational and business transportation. Image from AGATE 'business jet' video animation.

  5. A commercial space technology testbed on ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyle, David R.

    2000-01-01

    There is a significant and growing commercial market for new, more capable communications and remote sensing satellites. Competition in this market strongly motivates satellite manufacturers and spacecraft component developers to test and demonstrate new space hardware in a realistic environment. External attach points on the International Space Station allow it to function uniquely as a space technology testbed to satisfy this market need. However, space industry officials have identified three critical barriers to their commercial use of the ISS: unpredictable access, cost risk, and schedule uncertainty. Appropriate NASA policy initiatives and business/technical assistance for industry from the Commercial Space Center for Engineering can overcome these barriers. .

  6. Commercializing medical technology.

    PubMed

    Scanlon, Kevin J; Lieberman, Mark A

    2007-04-01

    As medicine moves into the 21st century, life saving therapies will move from inception into medical products faster if there is a better synergy between science and business. Medicine appears to have 50-year innovative cycles of education and scientific discoveries. In the 1880's, the chemical industry in Germany was faced with the dilemma of modernization to exploit the new scientific discoveries. The solution was the spawning of novel technical colleges for training in these new chemical industries. The impact of those new employees and their groundbreaking compounds had a profound influence on medicine and medical education in Germany between 1880 and 1930. Germany dominated international science during this period and was a training center for scientists worldwide. This model of synergy between education and business was envied and admired in Europe, Asia and America. British science soon after evolved to dominate the field of science during the prewar and post World War (1930's-1970's) because the German scientists fled Hitler's government. These expatriated scientists had a profound influence on the teaching and training of British scientists, which lead to advances in medicine such as antibiotics. After the Second World War, the US government wisely funded the development of the medical infrastructure that we see today. British and German scientists in medicine moved to America because of this bountiful funding for their research. These expatriated scientists helped drive these medical advances into commercialized products by the 1980's. America has been the center of medical education and advances of biotechnology but will it continue? International scientists trained in America have started to return to Europe and Asia. These American-trained scientists and their governments are very aware of the commercial potential of biotechnology. Those governments are now more prepared to play an active role this new science. Germany, Ireland, Britain, Singapore

  7. Commercializing medical technology

    PubMed Central

    Lieberman, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    As medicine moves into the 21st century, life saving therapies will move from inception into medical products faster if there is a better synergy between science and business. Medicine appears to have 50-year innovative cycles of education and scientific discoveries. In the 1880’s, the chemical industry in Germany was faced with the dilemma of modernization to exploit the new scientific discoveries. The solution was the spawning of novel technical colleges for training in these new chemical industries. The impact of those new employees and their groundbreaking compounds had a profound influence on medicine and medical education in Germany between 1880 and 1930. Germany dominated international science during this period and was a training center for scientists worldwide. This model of synergy between education and business was envied and admired in Europe, Asia and America. British science soon after evolved to dominate the field of science during the prewar and post World War (1930’s–1970’s) because the German scientists fled Hitler’s government. These expatriated scientists had a profound influence on the teaching and training of British scientists, which lead to advances in medicine such as antibiotics. After the Second World War, the US government wisely funded the development of the medical infrastructure that we see today. British and German scientists in medicine moved to America because of this bountiful funding for their research. These expatriated scientists helped drive these medical advances into commercialized products by the 1980’s. America has been the center of medical education and advances of biotechnology but will it continue? International scientists trained in America have started to return to Europe and Asia. These American-trained scientists and their governments are very aware of the commercial potential of biotechnology. Those governments are now more prepared to play an active role this new science. Germany, Ireland, Britain

  8. Coal gasifiers: commercial and technical risk

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, P.A.

    1982-05-01

    At present, only two gasifier designs (Koppers-Totzek and Lurgi) are offered on the basis of the offerer having recent commercial experience with the design. Development and demonstration programs will soon add five new concepts to the list of offerings that lie within the realm of reasonable commercial risk. These include the Allis-Chalmers, British slagging Lurgi, Saarberg-Otto, Texaco, and Westinghouse gasifiers. The actual date these units will become commercial depends on when the developers actually get their demonstration unit on line and operating. Other developers may assume a greater portion of the commercial risk in order to accelerate the introduction of their process into a commercial setting.

  9. School-Business Partnerships: Understanding Business Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badgett, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    School-business partnerships have been shown to enhance educational experiences for students. There has, however, been limited research demonstrating the priorities and perspectives of for-profit business leaders on those partnerships. In order to address that gap, the researcher interviewed business leaders in two different areas of Texas. After…

  10. Business Inspiration: Small Business Leadership in Recovery?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rae, David; Price, Liz; Bosworth, Gary; Parkinson, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Business Inspiration was a short, action-centred leadership and innovation development programme designed for owners and managers of smaller firms to address business survival and repositioning needs arising from the UK's economic downturn. The article examines the design and delivery of Business Inspiration and the impact of the programme on…

  11. Business Inspiration: Small Business Leadership in Recovery?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rae, David; Price, Liz; Bosworth, Gary; Parkinson, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Business Inspiration was a short, action-centred leadership and innovation development programme designed for owners and managers of smaller firms to address business survival and repositioning needs arising from the UK's economic downturn. The article examines the design and delivery of Business Inspiration and the impact of the programme on…

  12. The Business of Business is "English"!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horning, Alice S.

    A current trend indicates that credentials in English can and do move people successfully into business related careers. Colleges of business administration and English departments might take an important cue from the trend and work together to offer a double major or co-major in English business. Such a program would offer undergraduate students…

  13. Business E-Mail Communication: Some Emerging Tendencies in Register.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gimenez, Julio C.

    2000-01-01

    Investigates whether the spoken nature of electronic mail messages has already started to affect business written communication. Examines register and context of the language as well as the style used in commercial electronic mail. (Author/VWL)

  14. Risky Business

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yarbrough, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    During my internship I worked on two major projects, recommending improvements for the Center's Risk Management Workshop and helping with the strategic planning efforts for Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA). The risk management improvements is the key project I worked on this semester through my internship, while the strategic planning is the secondary assignment. S&MA Business Office covers both aspects in its delegation, getting both spans some of the work done in the office. A risk is a future event with a negative consequence that has some probability of occurring. Safety and Mission Assurance identifies, analyzes, plans, and tracks risk. The directorate offers the Center a Risk Management Workshop, and part of the ongoing efforts of S&MA is to make continuous improvements to the RM Workshop. By using the Project Management Institute's (PMI) Standard for Risk Management, I performed a gap analysis to make improvements for our materials. I benchmarked the PMI's Risk Management Standard, compared our Risk Management Workshop materials to PMI's standard, and identified any gaps in our material. My major findings were presented to the Business Office of S&MA for a decision on whether or not to incorporate the improvements. These suggestions were made by attending JSC working group meetings, Health, Safety and Environment (HSE) panel reviews and various risk review meetings. The improvements provide better understanding of risk management processes and enhanced risk tracking knowledge and skills. Risk management is an integral part of any engineering discipline, getting exposed to this section of engineering will greatly help shape my career in the future. Johnson Space Center is a world leader in risk management processes; learning risk management here gives me a huge advantage over my peers, as well as understanding decision making in the context of risk management will help me to be a well-rounded engineer. Strategic planning is an area I had not previously

  15. Bottom-line empowerment: lessons from the firing line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J. P.

    1993-03-01

    Empowering employees on the firing-line to actively participate in solving business problems can have a significant positive impact on bottom-line performance. Lessons from a number of companies and thousands of people from the firing-line have demonstrated this. Unfortunately, there is no simple, step-by-step method that can be guaranteed to succeed. Getting business results by successfully empowering the firing-line is as much art as science. Yet, as with any art, there are principles that, if rigorously followed, can go a long way to ensuring success. These principles are outlined in this paper as 18 critical success factors to empowerment.

  16. Commercial, environmental and legislative factors that influence the implementation of fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serfass, Jeffrey A.; Bergman, Michael K.; Rodenhiser, Wendy

    1994-04-01

    Fuel cells and other advanced electric-generation technologies have not experienced a record of successful commercialization efforts. To lower costs for these technologies, it requires substantial production volumes with a significant investment in manufacturing facilities, all dependent on developer confidence in the ultimate market. Yet, market acceptance by buyers requires an adequate demonstration of technical performance and an assurance that these lower costs can be reached. In addition to this fundamental commercialization challenge, there are significant external factors that are greatly influencing the market's (utility's) future implementation of new alternative energy-generating technologies. The factor that has possibly the greatest impact today is the public demand for environmentally benign and renewable resource technologies. There is a growing trend of involvement by consumers, regulators and intervenors in the business and utility industry that is shifting the economic playing field by which industries make resource decisions. Concerns over air pollution, global warming, acid precipitation, depletion of the ozone layer and the hazards of electromagnetic fields (EMF) from power lines, have all led to more stringent regulations and environmental mandates. The utility business environment itself is rapidly changing. Higher public expectations from energy providers and increasing competition are leading to major changes in the American utility sector. Competitive requirements to reduce the cost of utility service is leading to business decisions that provide both opportunities and problems for increased use of alternative energy-generating technologies, like fuel cells, and/or renewables, such as wind and solar photovoltaics. Bringing new energy technologies to market is very expensive and this financial burden cannot be shouldered by the market, manufacturers or federal government alone. Further, for the market to assume a key position in early

  17. GEO vs. LEO Space Telecommunication Systems Commercial Set Up, Finance &Economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreisel, Joerg

    2002-01-01

    Space-based commercial telecommunication systems - especially in GEO - still represent the big volume segment in commercial space and probably will do so for a while. Although such end-to-end systems both in GEO and LEO are using satellites, ground stations, and service centers, etc., their commercial genesis differs significantly. Based on existing and planned space telecommunication businesses, this paper deals with prime characteristics of commercial GEO and LEO systems and their differences. In a tutorial way the stages of development of both LEO- and GEO-type business ventures are presented. The entire commercial development path is covered (concept, business plan, financing, partnership, growth, etc.). Focus is to understand what drives space telecommunication business and what it takes to start such new commercial space ventures. The perspective given is also based on the author's longstanding background in space commercialization and experiences made as a venture capitalist.

  18. 48 CFR 1352.213-71 - Instructions for submitting quotations under the simplified acquisition threshold-non-commercial.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Threshold—Non-Commercial (APR 2010) (a) North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) code and small business size standard. The NAICS code and small business size standard for this acquisition is ____. (b...

  19. A Quantitative Transmission Line Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, D. C.; Silbernagel, B. G.

    1969-01-01

    Describes modifications of a commercially available strip-type transmission line, which makes possible reproducible measurements of standing waves on the line. Experimental data yield values for the characteristic impedance, phase velocity and line wavelength of radiation in the transmission line, and the dielectric constant of material in the…

  20. A Quantitative Transmission Line Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, D. C.; Silbernagel, B. G.

    1969-01-01

    Describes modifications of a commercially available strip-type transmission line, which makes possible reproducible measurements of standing waves on the line. Experimental data yield values for the characteristic impedance, phase velocity and line wavelength of radiation in the transmission line, and the dielectric constant of material in the…

  1. Whole Person Learning: Embedding Ethical Enterprise Leadership in Business Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, E. Vincent; Donohue, Mary

    2012-01-01

    This study introduces a collaborative business education curricular design known as "whole person learning." The post-financial crisis market environment requires business education to encompass curricular, commercial and community skills. Drawing on the Toronto based National Mentoring Program (NMP), "whole person learning"…

  2. 16 CFR 254.2 - Deceptive trade or business names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Deceptive trade or business names. 254.2... PRIVATE VOCATIONAL AND DISTANCE EDUCATION SCHOOLS § 254.2 Deceptive trade or business names. (a) It is deceptive for an Industry Member to misrepresent, directly or indirectly, expressly or by implication,...

  3. Business Plan for the Southwest Regional Spaceport: Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A proposal for a commercial, full-service launch, tracking, and recovery complex for Reusable Launch Vehicles in New Mexico is presented. Vision, mission, business definition, competitive advantages, and business approach are formulated. Management plan and team structure are detailed, and anticipated market is described. Finance and marketing plans are presented. Financial analysis is performed.

  4. 31 CFR 515.511 - Transactions by certain business enterprises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... commercial, banking or financial business within the United States and which is a national of a designated... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUBAN ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS... conduct of its business activities within the United States. (b) This section does not authorize any...

  5. 31 CFR 500.511 - Transactions by certain business enterprises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... commercial, banking or financial business within the United States and which is a national of any designated... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS... conduct of its business activities within the United States. (b) This section does not authorize any...

  6. 11 CFR 116.3 - Extensions of credit by commercial vendors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ordinary course of the commercial vendor's business and the terms are substantially similar to extensions... credit is extended in the ordinary course of the corporation's business and the terms are substantially.... (c) Ordinary course of business. In determining whether credit was extended in the ordinary course of...

  7. Suggestions for the Organization of a Course in Commercial French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Jacqueline

    1978-01-01

    Comments and suggestions are offered for organizing a class in commercial French. Two subjects must be taught: basic business transactions and procedures applicable to both the U.S. and France and French commercial terminology, stressing the differences between French and American practices. (SW)

  8. The ecological research needs of business.

    PubMed

    Armsworth, Paul R; Armsworth, Anastasia N; Compton, Natalie; Cottle, Phil; Davies, Ian; Emmett, Bridget A; Fandrich, Vanessa; Foote, Matthew; Gaston, Kevin J; Gardiner, Phil; Hess, Tim; Hopkins, John; Horsley, Nick; Leaver, Natasha; Maynard, Trevor; Shannon, Delia

    2010-04-01

    Businesses have an unrivalled ability to mobilize human, physical and financial capital, often manage large land holdings, and draw on resources and supply products that impact a wide array of ecosystems. Businesses therefore have the potential to make a substantial contribution to arresting declines in biodiversity and ecosystem services. To realize this potential, businesses require support from researchers in applied ecology to inform how they measure and manage their impacts on, and opportunities presented to them by, biodiversity and ecosystem services.We reviewed papers in leading applied ecology journals to assess the research contribution from existing collaborations involving businesses. We reviewed applications to, and grants funded by, the UK's Natural Environment Research Council for evidence of public investment in such collaborations. To scope opportunities for expanding collaborations with businesses, we conducted workshops with three sectors (mining and quarrying, insurance and manufacturing) in which participants identified exemplar ecological research questions of interest to their sector.Ten to fifteen per cent of primary research papers in Journal of Applied Ecology and Ecological Applications evidenced business involvement, mostly focusing on traditional rural industries (farming, fisheries and forestry). The review of UK research council funding found that 35% of applications mentioned business engagement, while only 1% of awarded grants met stricter criteria of direct business involvement.Some questions identified in the workshops aim to reduce costs from businesses' impacts on the environment and others to allow businesses to exploit new opportunities. Some questions are designed to inform long-term planning undertaken by businesses, but others would have more immediate commercial applications. Finally, some research questions are designed to streamline and make more effective those environmental policies that affect businesses.Business

  9. Business Management Course Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This course guide is designed for teaching about the U.S. business system. Students are introduced to management functions and the background knowledge/skills necessary to be a successful manager. The guide contains 10 competency goals: (1) nature of U.S. business; (2) environment of business; (3) types of business ownership; (4) management…

  10. Is Business Ethics Dying?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pamental, George L.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the need for business ethics courses in undergraduate and graduate business degree programs. Describes reasons for and objections to such programs. Explains that business ethics instruction requires varied case studies, adequate teaching materials, cooperation between philosophers and business faculty, and instructors who are forthcoming…

  11. Does Business Writing Require Information Literacy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Irvin R.; Haras, Catherine; Blaszczynski, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Although the business community increasingly recognizes information literacy as central to its work, there remains the critical problem of measurement: How should employers assess the information literacy of their current or potential workers? In this article, we use a commercially available assessment to investigate the relationship between…

  12. Pharmaceutical technology management--profitable business avenue.

    PubMed

    Puthli, Shivanand P

    2010-01-01

    Growing research expenditure, regulatory framework and generic erosion have forced pharmaceutical companies globally to resort to pharmaceutical technology management (PTM). Indeed, the pharmaceutical industry has witnessed the impact of innovative drug delivery and device technologies and their influence on business. PTM has given a new business insight with greater profits and enhancement of product franchise. Promising breakthrough technologies have not been able to reach a commercial platform largely owing to lack of capital at the preliminary stages of the product development program. Intellectual property plays a considerable role in protecting innovative technologies. Joint ventures and strategic alliances also become important for commercializing a new technology. The synergy of PTM with options of in-licensing is expected to infuse newer opportunities to the pharmaceutical business.

  13. The ecological research needs of business

    PubMed Central

    Armsworth, Paul R; Armsworth, Anastasia N; Compton, Natalie; Cottle, Phil; Davies, Ian; Emmett, Bridget A; Fandrich, Vanessa; Foote, Matthew; Gaston, Kevin J; Gardiner, Phil; Hess, Tim; Hopkins, John; Horsley, Nick; Leaver, Natasha; Maynard, Trevor; Shannon, Delia

    2010-01-01

    Businesses have an unrivalled ability to mobilize human, physical and financial capital, often manage large land holdings, and draw on resources and supply products that impact a wide array of ecosystems. Businesses therefore have the potential to make a substantial contribution to arresting declines in biodiversity and ecosystem services. To realize this potential, businesses require support from researchers in applied ecology to inform how they measure and manage their impacts on, and opportunities presented to them by, biodiversity and ecosystem services. We reviewed papers in leading applied ecology journals to assess the research contribution from existing collaborations involving businesses. We reviewed applications to, and grants funded by, the UK’s Natural Environment Research Council for evidence of public investment in such collaborations. To scope opportunities for expanding collaborations with businesses, we conducted workshops with three sectors (mining and quarrying, insurance and manufacturing) in which participants identified exemplar ecological research questions of interest to their sector. Ten to fifteen per cent of primary research papers in Journal of Applied Ecology and Ecological Applications evidenced business involvement, mostly focusing on traditional rural industries (farming, fisheries and forestry). The review of UK research council funding found that 35% of applications mentioned business engagement, while only 1% of awarded grants met stricter criteria of direct business involvement. Some questions identified in the workshops aim to reduce costs from businesses’ impacts on the environment and others to allow businesses to exploit new opportunities. Some questions are designed to inform long-term planning undertaken by businesses, but others would have more immediate commercial applications. Finally, some research questions are designed to streamline and make more effective those environmental policies that affect businesses

  14. Business planning for scientists and engineers

    SciTech Connect

    Servo, J.C.; Hauler, P.D.

    1992-03-01

    Business Planning for Scientists and Engineers is a combination text/workbook intended for use by individuals and firms having received Phase II SBIR funding (Small Business Innovation Research). It is used to best advantage in combination with other aspects of the Commercialization Assistance Project developed by Dawnbreaker for the US Department of Energy. Although there are many books on the market which indicate the desired contents of a business plan, there are none which clearly indicate how to find the needed information. This book focuses on the how of business planning: how to find the needed information; how to keep yourself honest about the market potential; how to develop the plan; how to sell and use the plan.

  15. 76 FR 71313 - U.S. Automotive Parts and Components Business Development Mission to Russia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ... Government officials and decision-makers, one-on-one meetings with potential business partners and site... business partners that match their market interests. Timetable Sunday, April 22 (Moscow, Russia)--Arrive... business partners. The Commercial Service will assist in booking hotels at favorable rates, but...

  16. 16 CFR 1020.3 - What are the qualifications and duties of the Small Business Ombudsman?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the regulatory problems that small businesses experience; (4) Perform the Ombudsman duties in addition... working relationship with appropriate officials in the Small Business Administration, in national trade... the Small Business Ombudsman? 1020.3 Section 1020.3 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY...

  17. 48 CFR 252.219-7003 - Small business subcontracting plan (DoD contracts).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.219-7003 Small business subcontracting plan...-9, Small Business Subcontracting Plan, clause of this contract. (a) Definitions. Historically black... division-wide commercial items subcontracting plans, the term small disadvantaged business, when used...

  18. 47 CFR 76.1904 - Encoding rules for defined business models.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Encoding rules for defined business models. 76... defined business models. (a) Commercial audiovisual content delivered as unencrypted broadcast television... the Commission pursuant to a petition with respect to a defined business model other than unencrypted...

  19. 47 CFR 76.1904 - Encoding rules for defined business models.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Encoding rules for defined business models. 76... defined business models. (a) Commercial audiovisual content delivered as unencrypted broadcast television... the Commission pursuant to a petition with respect to a defined business model other than unencrypted...

  20. 16 CFR 500.5 - Name and place of business of manufacturer, packer or distributor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Name and place of business of manufacturer... business of manufacturer, packer or distributor. (a) The label of a consumer commodity shall specify conspicuously the name and place of business of the manufacturer, packer, or distributor. Where the...

  1. Education, Inc.: Turning Learning into a Business. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohn, Alfie, Ed.; Shannon, Patrick, Ed.

    This collection of essays builds a case against those who see children as customers or workers and those who want to turn learning into a business. Following an introduction, The 500-Pound Gorilla by Alfie Kohn, section 1, Commercialism in Schools, contains: (1) Buy Me! Buy Me! (Alex Molnar and Joseph A. Reaves); (2) Commercialism in U.S. Schools…

  2. Education, Inc.: Turning Learning into a Business. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohn, Alfie, Ed.; Shannon, Patrick, Ed.

    This collection of essays builds a case against those who see children as customers or workers and those who want to turn learning into a business. Following an introduction, The 500-Pound Gorilla by Alfie Kohn, section 1, Commercialism in Schools, contains: (1) Buy Me! Buy Me! (Alex Molnar and Joseph A. Reaves); (2) Commercialism in U.S. Schools…

  3. A moment in time: AIDS and business.

    PubMed

    Bloom, D E; Rosenfield, A

    2000-09-01

    Business has transformed the planet. But this gives it new responsibilities. People now expect business leaders to lead--and not just respond when things go wrong. HIV/AIDS is a global problem, with over 16.3 million people now thought to have died of the disease (Global Summary of HIV/AIDS Epidemic, UNAIDS, December 1999). Without action now, the pandemic will worsen, health services will come under relentless pressure and the number of people dying will increase exponentially. So why should business sit up and take notice? First: money. AIDS is slowly strangling many businesses and economies--and in a global market, everyone eventually suffers. Without profit, there is no business--so the business community needs to act to protect its bottom line. Second: people. Over 80% of those dying are in their 20s, 30s, and 40s. Businesses are losing workers and customers, and human networks that have taken decades to build. Third: imagination. Business is inventive, creative and fast-moving. It has the opportunity to use these strengths for the benefit of the wider community. It's time to pit business ideas (and some money, too) against the threat of AIDS. The course of the AIDS epidemic is not inevitable. The world's businesses have the skills and intensity to make a measurable difference, especially if they find public sector and NGO partners with whom they share a vision. A focused, coordinated, results-driven effort will hit AIDS hard. The HIV virus moves fast (and is mutating all the time). Business has the opportunity to make a difference. It must grasp this opportunity. And grasp if fast.

  4. NASA Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (OSDBU) within NASA promotes the utilization of small, disadvantaged, and women-owned small businesses in compliance with Federal laws, regulations, and policies. We assist such firms in obtaining contracts and subcontracts with NASA and its prime contractors. The OSDBU also facilitates the participation of small businesses in NASA's technology transfer and commercialization activities. Our driving philosophy is to consider small businesses as our products. Our customers are the NASA Enterprises, Field Centers, Functional Staff Offices, major prime contractors, and other large institutions. We hone the skills of our products to make them marketable to our customers in the performance of NASA missions.

  5. Concordance of commercial data sources for neighborhood-effects studies.

    PubMed

    Hoehner, Christine M; Schootman, Mario

    2010-07-01

    Growing evidence supports a relationship between neighborhood-level characteristics and important health outcomes. One source of neighborhood data includes commercial databases integrated with geographic information systems to measure availability of certain types of businesses or destinations that may have either favorable or adverse effects on health outcomes; however, the quality of these data sources is generally unknown. This study assessed the concordance of two commercial databases for ascertaining the presence, locations, and characteristics of businesses. Businesses in the St. Louis, Missouri area were selected based on their four-digit Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes and classified into 14 business categories. Business listings in the two commercial databases were matched by standardized business name within specified distances. Concordance and coverage measures were calculated using capture-recapture methods for all businesses and by business type, with further stratification by census-tract-level population density, percent below poverty, and racial composition. For matched listings, distance between listings and agreement in four-digit SIC code, sales volume, and employee size were calculated. Overall, the percent agreement was 32% between the databases. Concordance and coverage estimates were lowest for health-care facilities and leisure/entertainment businesses; highest for popular walking destinations, eating places, and alcohol/tobacco establishments; and varied somewhat by population density. The mean distance (SD) between matched listings was 108.2 (179.0) m with varying levels of agreement in four-digit SIC (percent agreement = 84.6%), employee size (weighted kappa = 0.63), and sales volume (weighted kappa = 0.04). Researchers should cautiously interpret findings when using these commercial databases to yield measures of the neighborhood environment.

  6. Concordance of Commercial Data Sources for Neighborhood-Effects Studies

    PubMed Central

    Schootman, Mario

    2010-01-01

    Growing evidence supports a relationship between neighborhood-level characteristics and important health outcomes. One source of neighborhood data includes commercial databases integrated with geographic information systems to measure availability of certain types of businesses or destinations that may have either favorable or adverse effects on health outcomes; however, the quality of these data sources is generally unknown. This study assessed the concordance of two commercial databases for ascertaining the presence, locations, and characteristics of businesses. Businesses in the St. Louis, Missouri area were selected based on their four-digit Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes and classified into 14 business categories. Business listings in the two commercial databases were matched by standardized business name within specified distances. Concordance and coverage measures were calculated using capture–recapture methods for all businesses and by business type, with further stratification by census-tract-level population density, percent below poverty, and racial composition. For matched listings, distance between listings and agreement in four-digit SIC code, sales volume, and employee size were calculated. Overall, the percent agreement was 32% between the databases. Concordance and coverage estimates were lowest for health-care facilities and leisure/entertainment businesses; highest for popular walking destinations, eating places, and alcohol/tobacco establishments; and varied somewhat by population density. The mean distance (SD) between matched listings was 108.2 (179.0) m with varying levels of agreement in four-digit SIC (percent agreement = 84.6%), employee size (weighted kappa = 0.63), and sales volume (weighted kappa = 0.04). Researchers should cautiously interpret findings when using these commercial databases to yield measures of the neighborhood environment. PMID:20480397

  7. Teaching Business Ethics or Teaching Business Ethically?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stablein, Ralph

    2003-01-01

    Notes that one of the most important contexts for ethical decision-making is the nature and operation of "contemporary capitalisms." Suggests that rather than issuing a call for teaching business ethics, the author emphasizes the need for more ethical business teaching. (SG)

  8. Business-to-business: Buying Recycled.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millberg, Laura

    1994-01-01

    A survey of Minnesota businesses about their efforts to buy recycled content products. Results discuss reactive versus proactive policies, the corporate advantage of environmental protection, how efforts are hampered by confusion, suppliers as key informants, and businesses' need for information. (MDH)

  9. Teaching Business Ethics or Teaching Business Ethically?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stablein, Ralph

    2003-01-01

    Notes that one of the most important contexts for ethical decision-making is the nature and operation of "contemporary capitalisms." Suggests that rather than issuing a call for teaching business ethics, the author emphasizes the need for more ethical business teaching. (SG)

  10. AGATE animation - business theme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Business jet 1 of 6. This composite image symbolizes how Advanced General Aviation Transports Experiment (AGATE) technology will contribute to a Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) early in the 21st century. Image from AGATE 'business' video animation.

  11. Knowledge-Centric Management of Business Rules in a Pharmacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puustjärvi, Juha; Puustjärvi, Leena

    A business rule defines or constraints some aspect of the business. In healthcare sector many of the business rules are dictated by law or medical regulations, which are constantly changing. This is a challenge for the healthcare organizations. Although there is available several commercial business rule management systems the problem from pharmacies point of view is that these systems are overly geared towards the automation and manipulation of business rules, while the main need in pharmacies lies in easy retrieving of business rules within daily routines. Another problem is that business rule management systems are isolated in the sense that they have their own data stores that cannot be accessed by other information systems used in pharmacies. As a result, a pharmacist is burdened by accessing many systems inside a user task. In order to avoid this problem we have modeled business rules as well as their relationships to other relevant information by OWL (Web Ontology Language) such that the ontology is shared among the pharmacy's applications. In this way we can avoid the problems of isolated applications and replicated data. The ontology also encourages pharmacies business agility, i.e., the ability to react more rapidly to the changes required by the new business rules. The deployment of the ontology requires that stored business rules are annotated by appropriate metadata descriptions, which are presented by RDF/XML serialization format. However, neither the designer nor the pharmacists are burdened by RDF/XML format as there are sophisticated graphical editors that can be used.

  12. Foundational Forces & Hidden Variables in Technology Commercialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, Brandon

    2011-03-01

    The science of physics seems vastly different from the process of technology commercialization. Physics strives to understand our world through the experimental deduction of immutable laws and dependent variables and the resulting macro-scale phenomenon. In comparison, the~goal of business is to make a profit by addressing the needs, preferences, and whims of individuals in a market. It may seem that this environment is too dynamic to identify all the hidden variables and deduct the foundational forces that impact a business's ability to commercialize innovative technologies. One example of a business ``force'' is found in the semiconductor industry. In 1965, Intel co-founder Gordon Moore predicted that the number of transistors incorporated in a chip will approximately double every 24 months. Known as Moore's Law, this prediction has become the guiding principle for the semiconductor industry for the last 40 years. Of course, Moore's Law is not really a law of nature; rather it is the result of efforts by Intel and the entire semiconductor industry. A closer examination suggests that there are foundational principles of business that underlie the macro-scale phenomenon of Moore's Law. Principles of profitability, incentive, and strategic alignment have resulted in a coordinated influx of resources that has driven technologies to market, increasing the profitability of the semiconductor industry and optimizing the fitness of its participants. New innovations in technology are subject to these same principles. So, in addition to traditional market forces, these often unrecognized forces and variables create challenges for new technology commercialization. In this talk, I will draw from ethnographic research, complex adaptive theory, and industry data to suggest a framework with which to think about new technology commercialization. Intel's bio-silicon initiative provides a case study.

  13. Commercial dissemination approaches for solar home systems

    SciTech Connect

    Terrado, E.

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses the issue of providing solar home systems to primarily rural areas from the perspective of how to commercialize the process. He considers two different approaches, one an open market approach and the other an exclusive market approach. He describes examples of the exclusive market approach which are in process in Argentina and Brazil. Coming from a banking background, the business aspects are discussed in detail. He points out the strengths and weaknesses of both approaches toward developing such systems.

  14. Military Business Success

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT Military Business Success By: Lieutenant...TITLE AND SUBTITLE: Military Business Success 6. AUTHOR(S) Ahmad, Mohamad Krastev, Radostin Puciato, Arkadiusz 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7. PERFORMING...unlimited. MILITARY BUSINESS SUCCESS Mohamad Ahmad, Lieutenant Colonel, Malaysian Air Force Radostin Krastev, Captain, Bulgarian Air

  15. Small Business Pedagogic Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billett, Stephen; Hernon-Tinning, Barnie; Ehrich, Lisa

    2003-01-01

    Understanding how learning for small businesses should best proceed constitutes a worthwhile, yet challenging, pedagogic project. In order to maintain their viability, small businesses need to be able to respond to new practices and tasks. Yet small businesses seem neither attracted to nor to value the kinds of taught courses that are the standard…

  16. Discovering the Business Studio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Daved; Meisiek, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, numerous business schools have begun experimenting with studio-based inquiry, often drawing inspiration from professional studios used within art and design schools and from business and governmental studios used for problem-solving and innovation. Business school studios vary considerably in form, ranging from temporary…

  17. Food Business Entrepreneurship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Peter

    Though not a very traditional career path for food scientists, one option is to go into business for yourself by starting a food business. Food business entrepreneurship is a difficult career that entails long work hours, extensive decision making, and tasks that require knowledge beyond food science. However, there is high potential for rewards, including financial rewards, career progression, and personal flexibility.

  18. Partnering with Business Coalitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawlowski, Brett

    2007-01-01

    Many career and technical education (CTE) programs rely heavily on support from the business community to serve their students. However, there is very little information available on building solid business-education partnerships. Most people in the business world will say that they care about education, but how can educators find the people…

  19. Business English: Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montag, Elizabeth J.; Shaw, Warren

    Intended as an English elective subject for senior high school students, this business English course guide provides students with the communication tools that can lead to success in the business world. Units cover the following topics: introduction to Business English (punctuation, grammar, spelling, vocabulary, and use of reference tools);…

  20. English for Business Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatia, Vijay K.; Bremner, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The concept of Business English has undergone some major shifts in the last few years because of a number of developments, such as advances in genre theory and the coming together of English for Business Purposes and Business Communication, inspired by the realization that there is a gap to be bridged between the academy and the globalized…

  1. English for Business Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatia, Vijay K.; Bremner, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The concept of Business English has undergone some major shifts in the last few years because of a number of developments, such as advances in genre theory and the coming together of English for Business Purposes and Business Communication, inspired by the realization that there is a gap to be bridged between the academy and the globalized…

  2. The Business Education Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rader, Martha; Meggison, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The business education curriculum encompasses the educational experiences of business students at all levels. Business education curricula include a variety of programs, courses, units, course objectives, student competencies, assessments, and extracurricular activities that have evolved over the years. Curricula are driven by numerous internal…

  3. Small Business Pedagogic Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billett, Stephen; Hernon-Tinning, Barnie; Ehrich, Lisa

    2003-01-01

    Understanding how learning for small businesses should best proceed constitutes a worthwhile, yet challenging, pedagogic project. In order to maintain their viability, small businesses need to be able to respond to new practices and tasks. Yet small businesses seem neither attracted to nor to value the kinds of taught courses that are the standard…

  4. Small Business Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Wendell, Ed.

    Intended as a resource for both experienced businesspeople and those new to business, this annotated bibliography provides a list of books, pamphlets, periodicals, and videotapes of value in solving specific business problems. The bibliography begins with a list of resources recommended for the library of every small business and a survey of…

  5. Small Business Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Wendell, Ed.

    Intended as a resource for both experienced businesspeople and those new to business, this annotated bibliography provides a list of books, pamphlets, periodicals, and videotapes of value in solving specific business problems. The bibliography begins with a list of resources recommended for the library of every small business and a survey of…

  6. Discovering the Business Studio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Daved; Meisiek, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, numerous business schools have begun experimenting with studio-based inquiry, often drawing inspiration from professional studios used within art and design schools and from business and governmental studios used for problem-solving and innovation. Business school studios vary considerably in form, ranging from temporary…

  7. Open for Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutler, Edward

    1984-01-01

    Describes the development and outcomes of Lane Community College's (LCC) Business Assistance Center, which offers a wide range of management assistance services to local small businesses. Explains how state-funded programs, based on the LCC model, resulted in a network of Small Business Development Centers. (CBC)

  8. First Business Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small Business Administration, Washington, DC. Office of Business Development.

    This guide offers first-time business persons information as well as administrative and operational techniques for one-person business enterprises that have low initial start-up costs and low operational and overhead costs. These one-person businesses can be home based or have site locations outside the home. Included in this guide is a list of…

  9. Business Reengineering - Government Viability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-04-01

    3 EXPLANATION OF THE DOD FRAMEWORK FOR MANAGING PROCESS IMPROVEMENT..... 5 STRATEGIC AND BUSINESS PLANNING PHASE (1...STRATEGIC AND BUSINESS PLANNING PHASE (1): Planning activities analyze the current process baseline benchmarking the current external environment and...these questions to access the status of your organization and its need for reorganization change. Strategic Business Planning " What, if any, change

  10. Doing business with NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Because many U.S. businesses and companies want to do business with NASA, the Agency sends out procurement specialists to trade shows and conferences and organizes seminars to educate the business public on how to get on procurement lists to become product and service providers to the federal government.

  11. You're the Business--A Custom-Made Business Challenge for Modern Languages Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penet, Jean-Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Modern Languages (ML) students often express concerns about their perceived lack of commercial awareness, worrying that this will put them at a disadvantage, compared with business graduates for instance, when applying for jobs. To try and change this perception, Newcastle University's School of Modern Languages (SML) teamed up with the Careers…

  12. Risky Business: The Market for Unprotected Commercial Sex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gertler, Paul; Shah, Manisha; Bertozzi, Stefano M.

    2005-01-01

    While condoms are an effective defense against the transmission of HIV, large numbers of sex workers are not using them. We argue that some sex workers are willing to take the risk because clients are willing to pay more to avoid using condoms. Using data from Mexico, we estimate that sex workers received a 23 percent premium for unprotected sex.…

  13. Commercial Scholarship: Spinning Physics Research into a Business Enterprise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Orville

    2013-03-01

    The American Institute of Physics' Center for History of Physics has conducted a three year NSF funded study of physicist entrepreneurs during which we interviewed 140 physicists who have founded ninety-one startups. Forty of those companies have spun research out of twenty-some universities. Startups spun out of university research tend to be technology push companies, creating new potentially disruptive technologies for which markets do not yet clearly exist, in contrast to market pull companies founded to address innovations responding to market demands. This paper addresses the unique issues found in university spinout companies and their responses to them. While technology push companies are generally considered to be higher risk compared to market pull companies, the university spinouts in our study had a higher rate of both SBIR and venture capital funding than did the market pull companies in our study.

  14. Leveraging Venture Capital and Commercial Business: Enhancing Stability Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-24

    need (figure 2), as suggested in 1934 by A.H. Maslow , the motivation to participate in armed insurgency as a wage-earning means begins to become...bottom of the pyramid) elements representing basic physiological needs ; the top of the pyramid represents advanced needs Maslow identified as self...1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed , and

  15. Commercial Buildings Characteristics, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-29

    Commercial Buildings Characteristics 1992 presents statistics about the number, type, and size of commercial buildings in the United States as well as their energy-related characteristics. These data are collected in the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), a national survey of buildings in the commercial sector. The 1992 CBECS is the fifth in a series conducted since 1979 by the Energy Information Administration. Approximately 6,600 commercial buildings were surveyed, representing the characteristics and energy consumption of 4.8 million commercial buildings and 67.9 billion square feet of commercial floorspace nationwide. Overall, the amount of commercial floorspace in the United States increased an average of 2.4 percent annually between 1989 and 1992, while the number of commercial buildings increased an average of 2.0 percent annually.

  16. Commercialization in North Carolina High Schools: A Survey of Principals' Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Bona, Joseph; Chaudhuri, Rittik; Jean-Baptiste, Joshua; Menachem, Peter; Wurzburg, Meggan

    2003-01-01

    Surveyed North Carolina high school principals to explore their views on schoolhouse commercialism (both the propriety and the utility of having a commercial presence at school). Principals viewed commercialism as a way to improve their schools, and thus, their students' education. Although businesses, principals, and students appeared to be…

  17. Military Payloads Hosted on Commercial Satellites: How Can the Space and Missile Systems Center Increase the Number of Commercially Hosted Military Payload Contract Awards

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    2269 E-mail: acsc.der.researchorgmailbox@us.af.mil AIR UNIVERSITY AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE Military Payloads Hosted on Commercial Satellites ...Significance 2 Purpose of the Study 2 Background 3 Commercially Hosted Military Payloads Defined 3 Commercial Satellite Industry Acquisition...Culture 4 Evaluation 8 Challenge: Commercial Satellite and Military Payload Alignment 10 Challenge: SMC as a Business Partner 11 Challenge: SMC

  18. Commercial Web Site Links.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thelwall, Mike

    2001-01-01

    Discusses business use of the Web and related search engine design issues as well as research on general and academic links before reporting on a survey of the links published by a collection of business Web sites. Results indicate around 66% of Web sites do carry external links, most of which are targeted at a specific purpose, but about 17%…

  19. Commercial Web Site Links.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thelwall, Mike

    2001-01-01

    Discusses business use of the Web and related search engine design issues as well as research on general and academic links before reporting on a survey of the links published by a collection of business Web sites. Results indicate around 66% of Web sites do carry external links, most of which are targeted at a specific purpose, but about 17%…

  20. Business System Planning Project, Preliminary System Design

    SciTech Connect

    EVOSEVICH, S.

    2000-10-30

    CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG) is currently performing many core business functions including, but not limited to, work control, planning, scheduling, cost estimating, procurement, training, and human resources. Other core business functions are managed by or dependent on Project Hanford Management Contractors including, but not limited to, payroll, benefits and pension administration, inventory control, accounts payable, and records management. In addition, CHG has business relationships with its parent company CH2M HILL, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection and other River Protection Project contractors, government agencies, and vendors. The Business Systems Planning (BSP) Project, under the sponsorship of the CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. Chief Information Officer (CIO), have recommended information system solutions that will support CHG business areas. The Preliminary System Design was developed using the recommendations from the Alternatives Analysis, RPP-6499, Rev 0 and will become the design base for any follow-on implementation projects. The Preliminary System Design will present a high-level system design, providing a high-level overview of the Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) modules and identify internal and external relationships. This document will not define data structures, user interface components (screens, reports, menus, etc.), business rules or processes. These in-depth activities will be accomplished at implementation planning time.

  1. Good Conversations: An Enhanced Model to Teach Business Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Grace S.

    2011-01-01

    Business practices are a constant matter of discussion by ethical theorists concerned with the conflicts between profitability and justice (Cherry, Lee, & Chien, 2003). Business decisions are complex and hence likely to be compromised by low-quality or questionable strategies (Carpenter & Sanders, 2008). The line between misbehavior and…

  2. Blueprint for Business. Reaching a New Work Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Lyn A.; Erden, James Van; Mower, Eleanor; Patel, Apurva; Mitchell, Steve

    This guide is designed to help U.S. businesses successfully hire and retain individuals moving from welfare to work. Section 1 discusses the different circumstances created by the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 and how those changes affect business. Section 2 reviews bottom-line benefits realized by…

  3. Blueprint for Business. Reaching a New Work Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Lyn A.; Erden, James Van; Mower, Eleanor; Patel, Apurva; Mitchell, Steve

    This guide is designed to help U.S. businesses successfully hire and retain individuals moving from welfare to work. Section 1 discusses the different circumstances created by the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 and how those changes affect business. Section 2 reviews bottom-line benefits realized by…

  4. Good Conversations: An Enhanced Model to Teach Business Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Grace S.

    2011-01-01

    Business practices are a constant matter of discussion by ethical theorists concerned with the conflicts between profitability and justice (Cherry, Lee, & Chien, 2003). Business decisions are complex and hence likely to be compromised by low-quality or questionable strategies (Carpenter & Sanders, 2008). The line between misbehavior and…

  5. The Commercial Energy Consumer: About Whom Are We Speaking?

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, Christopher

    2006-05-12

    Who are commercial sector customers, and how do they make decisions about energy consumption and energy efficiency investment? The energy policy field has not done a thorough job of describing energy consumption in the commercial sector. First, the discussion of the commercial sector itself is dominated by discussion of large businesses/buildings. Second, discussion of this portion of the commercial sectors consumption behavior is driven primarily by theory, with very little field data collected on the way commercial sector decision-makers describe their own options, choices, and reasons for taking action. These limitations artificially constrain energy policy options. This paper reviews the extant literature on commercial sector energy consumption behavior and identifies gaps in our knowledge. In particular, it argues that the primary energy policy model of commercial sector energy consumption is a top-down model that uses macro-level investment data to make conclusions about commercial behavior. Missing from the discussion is a model of consumption behavior that builds up to a theoretical framework informed by the micro-level data provided by commercial decision-makers themselves. Such a bottom-up model could enhance the effectiveness of commercial sector energy policy. In particular, translation of some behavioral models from the residential sector to the commercial sector may offer new opportunities for policies to change commercial energy consumption behavior. Utility bill consumption feedback is considered as one example of a policy option that may be applicable to both the residential and small commercial sector.

  6. Canadian Business Schools: Going out of Business?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobni, Dawn; Dobni, Brooke

    1996-01-01

    Using Porter's five-forces model (potential entrants, suppliers, buyers, rivalry, substitutes) to analyze competition in Canadian university business schools, the authors conclude that schools are becoming increasingly vulnerable to competitive pressures and that strategic reorientation is necessary. (SK)

  7. Canadian Business Schools: Going out of Business?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobni, Dawn; Dobni, Brooke

    1996-01-01

    Using Porter's five-forces model (potential entrants, suppliers, buyers, rivalry, substitutes) to analyze competition in Canadian university business schools, the authors conclude that schools are becoming increasingly vulnerable to competitive pressures and that strategic reorientation is necessary. (SK)

  8. NASA commercial programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    An expanded role for the U.S. private sector in America's space future has emerged as a key national objective, and NASA's Office of Commercial Programs is providing a focus for action. The Office supports new high technology commercial space ventures, the commercial application of existing aeronautics and space technology, and expanded commercial access to available NASA capabilities and services. The progress NASA has made in carrying out its new assignment is highlighted.

  9. Running Schools as a Business: Massacre or Mutuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooston, Paul D.; Ferguson, Judith

    1986-01-01

    To cope with today's tight economy, administrators can make use of their school resources through business collaboration; for example, New Jersey's Princeton Regional School District has improved its "bottom line" by developing various marketing strategies. (CJH)

  10. Vehicle scheduling schemes for commercial and emergency logistics integration.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaohui; Tan, Qingmei

    2013-01-01

    In modern logistics operations, large-scale logistics companies, besides active participation in profit-seeking commercial business, also play an essential role during an emergency relief process by dispatching urgently-required materials to disaster-affected areas. Therefore, an issue has been widely addressed by logistics practitioners and caught researchers' more attention as to how the logistics companies achieve maximum commercial profit on condition that emergency tasks are effectively and performed satisfactorily. In this paper, two vehicle scheduling models are proposed to solve the problem. One is a prediction-related scheme, which predicts the amounts of disaster-relief materials and commercial business and then accepts the business that will generate maximum profits; the other is a priority-directed scheme, which, firstly groups commercial and emergency business according to priority grades and then schedules both types of business jointly and simultaneously by arriving at the maximum priority in total. Moreover, computer-based simulations are carried out to evaluate the performance of these two models by comparing them with two traditional disaster-relief tactics in China. The results testify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed models.

  11. Vehicle Scheduling Schemes for Commercial and Emergency Logistics Integration

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaohui; Tan, Qingmei

    2013-01-01

    In modern logistics operations, large-scale logistics companies, besides active participation in profit-seeking commercial business, also play an essential role during an emergency relief process by dispatching urgently-required materials to disaster-affected areas. Therefore, an issue has been widely addressed by logistics practitioners and caught researchers' more attention as to how the logistics companies achieve maximum commercial profit on condition that emergency tasks are effectively and performed satisfactorily. In this paper, two vehicle scheduling models are proposed to solve the problem. One is a prediction-related scheme, which predicts the amounts of disaster-relief materials and commercial business and then accepts the business that will generate maximum profits; the other is a priority-directed scheme, which, firstly groups commercial and emergency business according to priority grades and then schedules both types of business jointly and simultaneously by arriving at the maximum priority in total. Moreover, computer-based simulations are carried out to evaluate the performance of these two models by comparing them with two traditional disaster-relief tactics in China. The results testify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed models. PMID:24391724

  12. Commercialization of Nanotechnology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    NATO LECTURES M. Meyyappan Commercialization of Nanotechnology Abstract Nanotechnology is an enabling technology and as such, will have an...years), medium term (10 years) and long term (> 15 years) prospects. In addition, the challenges currently being faced to commercialize nanotechnology...will be discussed in detail. A summary outlining efforts across the world in terms of commercialization , startup activities, participation of major

  13. Commercial Radio as Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothenbuhler, Eric W.

    1996-01-01

    Compares the day-to-day work routines of commercial radio with the principles of a theoretical communication model. Illuminates peculiarities of the conduct of communication by commercial radio. Discusses the application of theoretical models to the evaluation of practicing institutions. Offers assessments of commercial radio deriving from…

  14. Commercial Banking Industry Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bright Horizons Children's Centers, Cambridge, MA.

    Work and family programs are becoming increasingly important in the commercial banking industry. The objective of this survey was to collect information and prepare a commercial banking industry profile on work and family programs. Fifty-nine top American commercial banks from the Fortune 500 list were invited to participate. Twenty-two…

  15. COMMERCIAL FOODS, MATHEMATICS - I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DORNFIELD, BLANCHE E.

    THE UNDERSTANDING AND MASTERY OF FUNDAMENTAL MATHEMATICS IS A NECESSARY PART OF COMMERCIAL FOODS WORK. THIS STUDENT HANDBOOK WAS DESIGNED TO ACCOMPANY A COMMERCIAL FOODS COURSE AT THE HIGH SCHOOL LEVEL FOR STUDENTS WITH APPROPRIATE APTITUDES AND COMMERCIAL FOOD SERVICE GOALS. THE MATERIAL, TESTED IN VARIOUS INTERESTED CLASSROOMS, WAS PREPARED BY…

  16. Allocations for HANDI 2000 business management system

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.

    1998-08-24

    The Data Integration 2000 Project will result in an integrated and comprehensive set of functional applications containing core information necessary to support the Project Hanford Management Contract. It is based on the Commercial-Off-The-Shelf product solution with commercially proven business processes. The COTS product solution set, of PassPort and People Soft software, supports finance, supply and chemical management/Material Safety Data Sheet, human resources. Allocations at Fluor Daniel Hanford are burdens added to base costs using a predetermined rate.

  17. Accruals for HANDI 2000 business management system

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.

    1998-08-24

    The Data Integration 2000 Project will result in an integrated and comprehensive set of functional applications containing core information necessary to support the Project Hanford Management Contract. It is based on the Commercial-Off-The-Shelf product solution with commercially proven business processes. The COTS product solution set, of PassPort and People Soft software, supports finance, supply and chemical management/Material Safety Data Sheet, human resources. Accruals are made at the project level. At the inception of each project, Project Management and the Accounts Payable Group make a mutual decision on whether periodic accrual entries should be made for it.

  18. Volume tracking of commercial recyclables: An economic and environmental analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, S.L.

    1996-08-01

    The objective of the tracking study was to gather data on the amount of cardboard and office paper that businesses in the sample were recycling on a weekly basis. The data was then translated into information about potential monetary and environmental savings that could be realized by the businesses if they continued to recycle. The study was intended to help persuade the commercial sector that recycling can save them money. After eight weeks of tracking, almost 80% of the businesses involved in the study decided to continue recycling based on the study results. Detailed tracking data from the study is provided.

  19. Small business development for molecular diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Anagostou, Anthanasia; Liotta, Lance A

    2012-01-01

    Molecular profiling, which is the application of molecular diagnostics technology to tissue and blood -specimens, is an integral element in the new era of molecular medicine and individualized therapy. Molecular diagnostics is a fertile ground for small business development because it can generate products that meet immediate demands in the health-care sector: (a) Detection of disease risk, or early-stage disease, with a higher specificity and sensitivity compared to previous testing methods, and (b) "Companion diagnostics" for stratifying patients to receive a treatment choice optimized to their individual disease. This chapter reviews the promise and challenges of business development in this field. Guidelines are provided for the creation of a business model and the generation of a marketing plan around a candidate molecular diagnostic product. Steps to commercialization are outlined using existing molecular diagnostics companies as learning examples.

  20. 2006 Update of Business Downtime Costs

    SciTech Connect

    Hinrichs, Mr. Doug; Goggin, Mr. Michael

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the downtime cost of power outages to businesses in the commercial and industrial sectors, updating and improving upon studies that have already been published on this subject. The goal is to produce a study that, relative to existing studies, (1) applies to a wider set of business types (2) reflects more current downtime costs, (3) accounts for the time duration factor of power outages, and (4) includes data on the costs imposed by real outages in a well-defined market. This study examines power outage costs in 11 commercial subsectors and 5 industrial subsectors, using data on downtime costs that was collected in the 1990's. This study also assesses power outage costs for power outages of 20 minutes, 1 hour, and 4 hours duration. Finally, this study incorporates data on the costs of real power outages for two business subsectors. However, the current limited state of data availability on the topic of downtime costs means there is room to improve upon this study. Useful next steps would be to generate more recent data on downtime costs, data that covers outages shorter than 20 minutes duration and longer than 4 hours duration, and more data that is based on the costs caused by real-world outages. Nevertheless, with the limited data that is currently available, this study is able to generate a clear and detailed picture of the downtime costs that are faced by different types of businesses.

  1. Why business models matter.

    PubMed

    Magretta, Joan

    2002-05-01

    "Business model" was one of the great buzz-words of the Internet boom. A company didn't need a strategy, a special competence, or even any customers--all it needed was a Web-based business model that promised wild profits in some distant, ill-defined future. Many people--investors, entrepreneurs, and executives alike--fell for the fantasy and got burned. And as the inevitable counterreaction played out, the concept of the business model fell out of fashion nearly as quickly as the .com appendage itself. That's a shame. As Joan Magretta explains, a good business model remains essential to every successful organization, whether it's a new venture or an established player. To help managers apply the concept successfully, she defines what a business model is and how it complements a smart competitive strategy. Business models are, at heart, stories that explain how enterprises work. Like a good story, a robust business model contains precisely delineated characters, plausible motivations, and a plot that turns on an insight about value. It answers certain questions: Who is the customer? How do we make money? What underlying economic logic explains how we can deliver value to customers at an appropriate cost? Every viable organization is built on a sound business model, but a business model isn't a strategy, even though many people use the terms interchangeably. Business models describe, as a system, how the pieces of a business fit together. But they don't factor in one critical dimension of performance: competition. That's the job of strategy. Illustrated with examples from companies like American Express, EuroDisney, WalMart, and Dell Computer, this article clarifies the concepts of business models and strategy, which are fundamental to every company's performance.

  2. Understanding Business Analytics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-05

    Business Analytics, Decision Analytics, Business Intelligence, Advanced Analytics, Data Science . . . to a certain degree, to label is to limit - if only...broad category of inquiry that can be used to help drive changes and improvements in business practices. Data Science : the study of where infor...Management Sciences (INFORMS) This scientific process of transforming data into insight with ana- lytics for better decision-making has taken the form

  3. Small Business Procurement Event

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-13

    Small Business Procurement Event 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK...distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES NDIA 27th Navy Gold Coast Small Business Procurement Event , 12-13 Aug 2014, San Diego, CA. 14. ABSTRACT...18 Target the Small Business Accessible Market within the Department of the Navy $77.8B Department of the Navy Total SB Eligible Spend

  4. Business Partnerships with Schools: Policy Guidelines for Schools Seeking To Establish and Maintain Productive and Ethical Relationships with Corporations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Kirstin

    2001-01-01

    This report focuses on business partnerships with schools. Supporters of school-business partnerships point out many potential benefits to schools, students, businesses, employees, and the community at large, while critics warn against the harmful effects of what they term "schoolhouse commercialism." Topics addressed include corporate…

  5. 75 FR 2457 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Business Systems-Definition and Administration...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    .... Background Contractor business systems and internal controls are the first line of defense against waste... internal control reviews and other business system audits to the list of ``business systems'' defined at... system or systems for accounting methods, procedures, and controls established to gather,...

  6. Commercial-Off-the-Shelf (COTS): Doing It Right

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    include using COTS as major sub-systems, as weapon systems, and, finally, within large enterprise business management systems. vi  Acoustic Rapid...and financial management . DLA made the decision to use a COTS-based solution, to leverage commercial development and future upgrades, as well as, to...government specifications and contract clauses that were not reflective of commercial practices. In 1986, the Blue Ribbon Commission on Defense Management

  7. Local Gov`t assistance in commercial waste reduction & recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Hannah, C.W.

    1996-08-01

    This paper outlines programs and strategies for reducing the waste stream by targeting the commercial, industrial and institutional sectors. The programs described are implemented by the Wake County Solid Waste Management Division, North Carolina. Findings and recommendations of a task force focusing on the role of the private sector in meeting state waste reduction mandates are summarized. Commercial initiatives, educational initiatives, and a grant program are described. Several case studies are provided which overview the variety of businesses and waste materials addressed.

  8. Build loyalty in business markets.

    PubMed

    Narayandas, Das

    2005-09-01

    Companies often apply consumer marketing solutions in business markets without realizing that such strategies only hamper the acquisition and retention of profitable customers. Unlike consumers, business customers inevitably need customized products, quantities, or prices. A company in a business market must therefore manage customers individually, showing how its products or services can help solve each buyer's problems. And it must learn to reap the enormous benefits of loyalty by developing individual relationships with customers. To achieve these ends, the firm's marketers must become aware of the different types of benefits the company offers and convey their value to the appropriate executives in the customer company. It's especially important to inform customers about what the author calls nontangible nonfinancial benefits-above-and-beyond efforts, such as delivering supplies on holidays to keep customers' production lines going. The author has developed a simple set of devices-the benefit stack and the decision-maker stack-to help marketers communicate their firm's myriad benefits. The vendor lists the benefits it offers, then lists the customer's decision makers, specifying their concerns, motivations, and power bases. By linking the two stacks, the vendor can systematically communicate how it will meet each decision-maker's needs. The author has also developed a tool called a loyalty ladder, which helps a company determine how much time and money to spend on relationships with various customers. As customers become increasingly loyal, they display behaviors in a predictable sequence, from growing the relationship and providing word-of-mouth endorsements to investing in the vendor company. The author has found that customers follow the same sequence of loyalty behaviors in all business markets.

  9. Translating climate data for business decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberg, N.

    2015-12-01

    Businesses are bound to play an integral role in global and local climate change adaptation efforts, and integrating climate science into business decision-making can help protect companies' bottom-line and the communities which they depend upon. Yet many companies do not have good means to measure and manage climate risks. There are inherent limiting factors to incorporating climate data into existing operations and sourcing strategies. Spatial and temporal incongruities between climate and business models can make integration cumbersome. Even when such incongruities are resolved, raw climate data must undergo multiple transformations until the data is deemed actionable or otherwise translatable in dollar terms. However, the predictability of future impacts is advancing along with the use of second-order variables such as Cooling Degree Days and Water-Limited Crop productivity, helping business managers make better decisions about future energy and water demand requirements under the prospect of rising temperatures and more variable rainfall. This presentation will discuss the methods and opportunities for transforming raw climate data into business metrics. Results for the 2015 Corporate Adaptation Survey, led by Four Twenty Seven and in partnership with Notre Dame Global Adaptation Index, will also be presented to illustrate existing gaps between climate science and its application in the business context.

  10. Proceedings of the EMU Conference on Foreign Languages for Business and the Professions (Dearborn, Michigan, April 5-7, 1984). Part III: Taking the Humanities to Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voght, Geoffrey M., Ed.

    Part III of the proceedings contains 12 presentations. They are: "The Role of Business Language in the Traditional Curriculum" (Michel Rocchi); "Foreign Languages for Business and the Professions Belong in the Liberal Arts" (Robert A. Kreiter); "How Much and How Far? Commercial French and the Student, Instructor, Administrator, and the Business…

  11. Gendered Discourse about Family Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danes, Sharon M.; Haberman, Heather R.; McTavish, Donald

    2005-01-01

    Language patterns of family business owners were explored by identifying discourse styles and emphasized ideas in four presenting contexts: business, family, intersection of family and business, and business success. The content analysis supports the existence of a general discourse style within family businesses and of similarities and…

  12. Gendered Discourse about Family Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danes, Sharon M.; Haberman, Heather R.; McTavish, Donald

    2005-01-01

    Language patterns of family business owners were explored by identifying discourse styles and emphasized ideas in four presenting contexts: business, family, intersection of family and business, and business success. The content analysis supports the existence of a general discourse style within family businesses and of similarities and…

  13. 25 CFR 169.22 - Service lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... power lines to a voltage of 14.5 kv. or less except lines to serve irrigation pumps and commercial and... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Service lines. 169.22 Section 169.22 Indians BUREAU OF... Service lines. (a) An agreement shall be executed by and between the landowner or a legally authorized...

  14. 25 CFR 169.22 - Service lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... power lines to a voltage of 14.5 kv. or less except lines to serve irrigation pumps and commercial and... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Service lines. 169.22 Section 169.22 Indians BUREAU OF... Service lines. (a) An agreement shall be executed by and between the landowner or a legally authorized...

  15. 25 CFR 169.22 - Service lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... power lines to a voltage of 14.5 kv. or less except lines to serve irrigation pumps and commercial and... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Service lines. 169.22 Section 169.22 Indians BUREAU OF... Service lines. (a) An agreement shall be executed by and between the landowner or a legally authorized...

  16. 25 CFR 169.22 - Service lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... power lines to a voltage of 14.5 kv. or less except lines to serve irrigation pumps and commercial and... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Service lines. 169.22 Section 169.22 Indians BUREAU OF... Service lines. (a) An agreement shall be executed by and between the landowner or a legally authorized...

  17. 25 CFR 169.22 - Service lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... power lines to a voltage of 14.5 kv. or less except lines to serve irrigation pumps and commercial and... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Service lines. 169.22 Section 169.22 Indians BUREAU OF... Service lines. (a) An agreement shall be executed by and between the landowner or a legally authorized...

  18. Regulating Commercial Telephone Solicitations,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-03-01

    also proposed that telephone subscribers be given the right to indicate if they do not want to receive commercial advertising calls , whether from...federal government should prohibit all commercial advertising calls. Advertisers have rights to free speech , and some consumers, I am told , don ’t...of the same arguments against giving subscribers the right to refuse commercial advertising calls that they made in 1965. They have stated that placing

  19. Business Economics Courses for Business Students: A Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Evan J.

    1979-01-01

    Suggests that business students should be offered business-related economics courses on subjects such as managerial economics and business conditions analysis. Philosophy and content of these courses are suggested. (DB)

  20. Business Economics Courses for Business Students: A Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Evan J.

    1979-01-01

    Suggests that business students should be offered business-related economics courses on subjects such as managerial economics and business conditions analysis. Philosophy and content of these courses are suggested. (DB)

  1. Commercialization of space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, James T.; Stone, Barbara A.

    1988-01-01

    Space-commercialization activities are grouped into five categories: private sector development from existing technology for private sector use; pure privatization; private sector development for U.S. government use; private sector development from novel technology for private sector use; and, finally, full commercialization. The commercialization of space categories is defined, and the key issues in each are highlighted. A description of key NASA actions is included for each category. It is concluded that NASA and other government agency involvement is a common thread across the spectrum of space commercialization activities.

  2. International Business Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendon, Donald W.

    The new International Business major within the School of Business, begun in fall 1989, is an ongoing, enriched program for highly motivated students of above-average scholastic achievement. Its primary purposes are to (1) prepare students to understand America's trading partners and (2) teach the technical knowledge needed in an international…

  3. School Business Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, K. Forbis; And Others

    This textbook reviews the principal concerns within each of 13 major responsibility areas in school business administration. The first chapter assesses the political, social, and economic context in which schools function and school administrators work. The role and function of the school business administrator within this context is addressed in…

  4. Business and Older Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

    This study updates a 1985 study which examined the perceptions, policies, and practices of American business regarding older workers, and placed them in the context of larger economic, demographic, and social trends shaping the business climate. The new survey was conducted in July 1989 among a random sample of 400 companies, with 100 each in 4…

  5. Exploration of Business (9).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This guide provides teachers with a business exploration curriculum for grade 9. The course is designed to introduce beginning students to the language of business, to careers, to consumerism, to economics, and to technology. An "Overview" section presents the rationale, describes the program structure, and lists program goals and…

  6. Business Communication in BELF

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kankaanranta, Anne; Louhiala-Salminen, Leena

    2007-01-01

    The authors' business communication perspective is not in fact that of ESL but rather English as a foreign language (EFL) or, even more so, English as a lingua franca (ELF). To be more specific, they would like to add one more acronym to the list: They teach BELF, by which they refer to ELF for business communication purposes. The authors work as…

  7. General Business 101.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This teaching guide contains guidelines for conducting a secondary-level general business course. Intended to serve as an introduction to business and consumer fundamentals, the course provides socioeconomic background useful to students seeking vocational preparation for office and clerical occupations. The goals and objectives of the course are…

  8. The Business of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunski, Jonathan F.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a learning game called The Business of Life that demonstrates the cellular processes of photosynthesis and respiration as business transactions. Incorporates the ideas that energy flows through ecosystems as well as through cells of individual organisms. Demonstrates the interdependence of living things and that processes at the cellular…

  9. Selective Lessons from Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlechty, Phillip C.

    2008-01-01

    Over the years, the author has participated in many gatherings where business leaders have been invited to provide educational leaders with advice regarding the way they should lead their schools. Some of these events proved satisfying, but others proved disastrous. In this article, the author argues that it is a mistake to invite business leaders…

  10. Teaching Business Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKillop, Robyn

    2010-01-01

    Business is integral to the functioning of the national economy, politics, education and everyday living. It is without question that business education is a vital part of the high school experience, and should be seen as required courses rather than electives. Preparing high school students for real life beyond high school happens in the business…

  11. Agriculture Business and Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seperich, George; And Others

    This curriculum guide is intended for vocational agriculture teachers who deliver agricultural business and management programs at the secondary or postsecondary level. It is based on the Arizona validated occupational competencies and tasks for management and supervisory positions in agricultural business. The competency/skill and task list…

  12. Learning About Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    In the teacher's guide, learning experiences focus on helping students in primary grades develop their understanding of the interrelationships among businesses, workers, and families through examinations of local stores and businesses and of the workers who work in them. Students are given the opportunity to acquire economical awareness and…

  13. International Business Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendon, Donald W.

    The new International Business major within the School of Business, begun in fall 1989, is an ongoing, enriched program for highly motivated students of above-average scholastic achievement. Its primary purposes are to (1) prepare students to understand America's trading partners and (2) teach the technical knowledge needed in an international…

  14. IBM Small Business Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Business Machines Corp., Armonk, NY.

    A telephone survey conducted March 15-22, 1991, examined how small businesses are currently performing. Interviewees were 400 small business owners randomly selected from a Dun and Bradstreet list of companies with 50 or fewer employees. Major findings were as follows: (1) owners were survivors, highly confident in their own abilities, and…

  15. Veterans in Small Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Community and Junior Colleges, Washington, DC. National Small Business Training Network.

    These materials provide information on conducting small business training seminars for veterans. First, a discussion is presented of the development of the guide based on 1983 field testing of the seminar and evaluations conducted by Small Business Administration (SBA) officials, the seminar contracts, and trainers. The next sections deal with the…

  16. General Business 101.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This teaching guide contains guidelines for conducting a secondary-level general business course. Intended to serve as an introduction to business and consumer fundamentals, the course provides socioeconomic background useful to students seeking vocational preparation for office and clerical occupations. The goals and objectives of the course are…

  17. Comprehensive Business Technology Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford. Bureau of Vocational Program Planning and Development.

    This curriculum is designed to provide elective courses in business for academic track high school students in Connecticut. The guide is organized in three sections. The first section introduces the concept of business education for nonvocational students, lists the objectives of the courses, describes the course structure, explains the idea of…

  18. A Bilingual Business Major?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barger-Merino, Kathleen A.

    Foreign language skills are necessary not only in international commerce but also in domestic business with the growing Hispanic American population. Many Hispanics have only minimal English skills and prefer to do business in Spanish and use Spanish language media. Because Hispanic Americans account for a significant portion of the consumer…

  19. Business Education Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Nancy; And Others

    This curriculum guide recommends the essential content for high school programs in business education in South Carolina. It contains course outlines which are based on competencies needed in the labor market and/or for personal business management. The guide contains 20 course descriptions which are arranged in alphabetical order. Each course is…

  20. The Business Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selden, William H., Jr.

    The publication is designed to serve as a guide for those responsible for business education in Pennsylvania, emphasizing curriculum planning and the development of course guidelines. Chapter one deals with planning the business education program within the framework of the principles of curriculum construction. Program implementation at the…