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Sample records for commercial drivers

  1. Exercise among commercial truck drivers.

    PubMed

    Turner, Lisa M; Reed, Deborah B

    2011-10-01

    This study examines the exercise habits and perceived barriers to exercise of a convenience sample of 300 commercial truck drivers. Participants reported minimal amounts of exercise, with nearly 20% not exercising in the past week. A high prevalence of obesity was found in this sample: 93.3% of study participants had a body mass index (BMI) of 25 or higher. Drivers with BMIs of greater than 30 were significantly more likely to rate the exercise environment as terrible/bad. Drivers who had at least one health condition engaged in significantly less aerobic exercise, used fewer strengthening exercises, did not exercise for 30 minutes continuously, and had a higher BMI. Drivers who spent most of their off-duty time in their truck while their partner drove were also significantly more likely to not exercise regularly. Most drivers cited lack of time and place as the primary barriers to exercising. This study adds to the limited knowledge about exercise behaviors among commercial truck drivers.

  2. 49 CFR 383.23 - Commercial driver's license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Commercial driver's license. 383.23 Section 383.23... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Single License Requirement § 383.23 Commercial driver's license....

  3. 49 CFR 383.23 - Commercial driver's license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Commercial driver's license. 383.23 Section 383.23... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Single License Requirement § 383.23 Commercial driver's license....

  4. 49 CFR 383.23 - Commercial driver's license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Commercial driver's license. 383.23 Section 383.23... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Single License Requirement § 383.23 Commercial driver's license....

  5. 49 CFR 383.23 - Commercial driver's license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Commercial driver's license. 383.23 Section 383.23... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Single License Requirement § 383.23 Commercial driver's license....

  6. Comparison of Visual Status of Iranian Military and Commercial Drivers

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemi, Mohammad; Hoseini Yazdi, Seyed Hosein; Heravian, Javad; Jafarzadehpur, Ebrahim; Rezaee, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is no legal requirement for Iranian military truck drivers to undergo regular visual checkups as compared to commercial truck drivers. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the impact of drivers’ visual checkups by comparing the visual function of Iranian military and commercial truck drivers. Patients and Methods: In this comparative cross-sectional study, two hundred military and 200 commercial truck drivers were recruited and their Visual Acuity (VA), Visual Field (VF), color vision and Contrast Sensitivity (CS) were assessed and compared using the Snellen chart, confrontation screening method, D15 test and Pelli-Robson letter chart, respectively. A questionnaire regarding driving exposure and history of motor-vehicle crashes (MVCs) was also filled by drivers. Results were analyzed using an independent samples t-test, one-way ANOVA (assessing difference in number of MVCs across different age groups), chi-square test and Pearson correlation at statistical significance level of P < 0.05. Results: Mean age was 41.6 ± 9.2 for the military truck drivers and 43.4 ± 10.9 for commercial truck drivers (P > 0.05). No significant difference between military and commercial drivers was found in terms of driving experience, number of MVCs, binocular VA, frequency of color vision defects and CS scores. In contrast, the last ocular examination was significantly earlier in military drivers than commercial drivers (P < 0.001). In addition, 4% of military drivers did not meet the national standards to drive as opposed to 2% of commercial drivers. There was a significant but weak correlation between binocular VA and age (r = 0.175, P < 0.001). However, CS showed a significantly moderate correlation with age (r = -0.488, P < 0.001). Conclusions: The absence of legal requirement for regular eye examination in military drivers caused the incompetent drivers to be missed in contrast to commercial drivers. The need for scientific revision of VA standard for

  7. Obstructive Sleep Apnea in North American Commercial Drivers

    PubMed Central

    KALES, Stefanos N.; STRAUBEL, Madeleine G.

    2013-01-01

    The most common medical cause of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Specifically, among an estimated 14 million US commercial drivers, 17–28% or 2.4 to 3.9 million are expected to have OSA. Based on existing epidemiologic evidence, most of these drivers are undiagnosed and not adequately treated. Untreated OSA increases the risk of vehicular crashes as documented in multiple independent studies and by meta-analysis. Therefore, identifying commercial drivers with OSA and having them effectively treated should decrease crash-related fatalities and injuries. Several strategies are available for screening and identifying drivers with OSA. The simplest and most effective objective strategies use body mass index (BMI) cutoffs for obesity. Functional screens are promising adjuncts to other objective tests. The most effective approach will likely be a combination of a good questionnaire; BMI measures; and a careful physician-obtained history complemented by a functional screen. PMID:24317450

  8. Obstructive sleep apnea in North American commercial drivers.

    PubMed

    Kales, Stefanos N; Straubel, Madeleine G

    2014-01-01

    The most common medical cause of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Specifically, among an estimated 14 million US commercial drivers, 17-28% or 2.4 to 3.9 million are expected to have OSA. Based on existing epidemiologic evidence, most of these drivers are undiagnosed and not adequately treated. Untreated OSA increases the risk of vehicular crashes as documented in multiple independent studies and by meta-analysis. Therefore, identifying commercial drivers with OSA and having them effectively treated should decrease crash-related fatalities and injuries. Several strategies are available for screening and identifying drivers with OSA. The simplest and most effective objective strategies use body mass index (BMI) cutoffs for obesity. Functional screens are promising adjuncts to other objective tests. The most effective approach will likely be a combination of a good questionnaire; BMI measures; and a careful physician-obtained history complemented by a functional screen.

  9. 77 FR 30919 - Commercial Driver's License Testing and Commercial Learner's Permit Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ...), DOT. ACTION: Notice of regulatory guidance and applicability of ``tank vehicle'' definition. SUMMARY... Commercial Learner's Permit Standards.'' Among other things, the rule revised the definition of ``tank vehicle.'' The change required additional drivers, primarily those transporting certain tanks...

  10. State of Wisconsin Commercial Drivers License Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madison Area Technical Coll., WI.

    This instructor's manual contains seven units for a course to prepare students to pass the Wisconsin Commercial Driver's License test. The units cover the following: (1) introduction (rules and laws); (2) vehicle inspection; (3) transporting cargo safely; (4) transporting passengers; (5) air brakes; (6) combination vehicles; and (7) introduction…

  11. Prevalence of drug use in commercial tractor-trailer drivers.

    PubMed

    Couper, Fiona J; Pemberton, Melissa; Jarvis, Anjanette; Hughes, Marty; Logan, Barry K

    2002-05-01

    An enforcement emphasis project, "Operation Trucker Check," was established in order to determine the extent to which commercial tractor-trailer drivers were operating their vehicles while impaired by drugs. A total of 1079 drivers and their vehicles were assessed for driver and equipment violations, and drivers additionally underwent preliminary field sobriety tests conducted by drug recognition expert (DRE) officers. Anonymous urine specimens for drug analysis were requested, and 822 urine specimens were obtained in total. Compliance with the drug-testing portion was voluntary, and there was a 19% refusal rate. Overall, 21% of the urine specimens tested positive for either illicit, prescription, and/or over-the-counter drugs, and 7% tested positive for more than one drug. Excluding caffeine and nicotine, the largest number of positive findings (9.5%) were for CNS stimulants, such as methamphetamine, amphetamine, phentermine, ephedrine/pseudoephedrine, and cocaine. The second most frequently encountered drug class were the cannabinoids, with 4.3% of drivers testing positive for marijuana metabolites. Only 11 drivers (1.3%) were positive for alcohol. Sixteen truck drivers (1.6%) were charged with driving under the influence of drugs after a full DRE evaluation was conducted. The results indicate that in spite of comprehensive drug testing in the trucking industry, some tractor-trailer drivers are continuing to take illicit and other drugs with the potential of having a negative effect on their driving ability. On the other hand, only a few drivers were, in fact, deemed to be under the influence of drugs at the time of driving when evaluated by DRE officers.

  12. Assessment and Policy for Commercial Driver License Referrals

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Christopher M.; Khanna, Amit; Strohl, Kingman P.

    2007-01-01

    This report describes experiences, subsequent action, and policy recommendations regarding sleep disorders assessment of veterans in relation to a commercial driver medical examiner referral. A series of 6 veterans were seen in our sleep clinic, presenting with an order from a commercial driver medical examiner (CDME) for polysomnography and/or Multiple Sleep Latency Testing (PSG/MSLT). We searched the literature for an evidence-based justification for handling this referral, and we concluded that there is neither federal policy nor current evidence to suggest that any current diagnostic test, including PSG/MSLT and/or MWT, is capable of predicting which individual drivers are at risk for fall-asleep crashes. The best indicator of risk is self-reported sleepiness, regardless of cause. Thus, we concluded that an administrative request for a “PSG/MSLT” is not a rational use of VA resources. Procedures and a policy for the Cleveland VA system were developed to respond to the request for evaluation, recognizing that sleep problems and disorders other than sleep apnea may be present in this population. An educational component was an important feature of this response. We suspect that this approach may be appropriate for managed care systems in general. Citation: Miller CM; Khanna A; Strohl KP. Assessment and policy for commercial driver license referrals. J Clin Sleep Med 2007;3(4):417-423. PMID:17694732

  13. 76 FR 39018 - Commercial Driver's License Testing and Commercial Learner's Permit Standards; Corrections

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... rule amends the commercial driver's license (CDL) knowledge and skills testing standards and establishes new minimum Federal standards for States to issue the commercial learner's permit (CLP). Since the... compliance--general requirements. * * * * * (f) A State must come into substantial compliance with...

  14. 49 CFR 391.67 - Farm vehicle drivers of articulated commercial motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Farm vehicle drivers of articulated commercial... SAFETY REGULATIONS QUALIFICATIONS OF DRIVERS AND LONGER COMBINATION VEHICLE (LCV) DRIVER INSTRUCTORS Limited Exemptions § 391.67 Farm vehicle drivers of articulated commercial motor vehicles. The...

  15. 49 CFR 391.67 - Farm vehicle drivers of articulated commercial motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Farm vehicle drivers of articulated commercial... SAFETY REGULATIONS QUALIFICATIONS OF DRIVERS AND LONGER COMBINATION VEHICLE (LCV) DRIVER INSTRUCTORS Limited Exemptions § 391.67 Farm vehicle drivers of articulated commercial motor vehicles. The...

  16. 49 CFR 391.67 - Farm vehicle drivers of articulated commercial motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Farm vehicle drivers of articulated commercial... SAFETY REGULATIONS QUALIFICATIONS OF DRIVERS AND LONGER COMBINATION VEHICLE (LCV) DRIVER INSTRUCTORS Limited Exemptions § 391.67 Farm vehicle drivers of articulated commercial motor vehicles. The...

  17. 49 CFR 391.67 - Farm vehicle drivers of articulated commercial motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Farm vehicle drivers of articulated commercial... SAFETY REGULATIONS QUALIFICATIONS OF DRIVERS AND LONGER COMBINATION VEHICLE (LCV) DRIVER INSTRUCTORS Limited Exemptions § 391.67 Farm vehicle drivers of articulated commercial motor vehicles. The...

  18. 49 CFR 391.67 - Farm vehicle drivers of articulated commercial motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Farm vehicle drivers of articulated commercial... SAFETY REGULATIONS QUALIFICATIONS OF DRIVERS AND LONGER COMBINATION VEHICLE (LCV) DRIVER INSTRUCTORS Limited Exemptions § 391.67 Farm vehicle drivers of articulated commercial motor vehicles. The...

  19. Driver Training Simulator for Backing Up Commercial Vehicles with Trailers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Uwe; Wojke, Philipp; Zöbel, Dieter

    Backing up tractors with trailers is a difficult task since the kinematic behavior of articulated vehicles is complex and hard to control. Especially unskilled drivers are overstrained with the complicated steering process. To learn and practice the steering behavior of articulated vehicles, we developed a 3D driving simulator. The simulator can handle different types of articulated vehicles like semi-trailers, one- and two-axle trailers, or gigaliners. The use of a driving simulator offers many advantages over the use of real vehicles. One of the main advantages is the possibility to learn the steering behavior of all vehicle types. Drivers can be given more and better driving instructions like collision warnings or steering hints. Furthermore, the driver training costs can be reduced. Moreover, mistakes of the student do not lead to real damages and costly repairs. The hardware of the simulator consists of a low cost commercial driving stand with original truck parts, a projection of the windshield and two flat panel monitors for the left and right exterior mirrors. Standard PC hardware is used for controlling the driving stand and for generating the realtime 3D environment. Each aspect of the simulation like realistic vehicle movements or generation of different views, is handled by a specific software module. This flexible system can be easily extended which offers the opportunity for other uses than just driver training. Therefore, we use the simulator for the development and test of driver assistance systems.

  20. 77 FR 26989 - Commercial Driver's License Testing and Commercial Learner's Permit Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ... the commercial driver's license (CDL) knowledge and skills testing standards and established new... skills testing standards, which was published in the Federal Register on Monday, May 9, 2011 (76 FR 26853). List of Subjects 49 CFR Part 384 Administrative practice and procedure, Alcohol abuse, Drug...

  1. Induction linac drivers for commercial heavy-ion beam fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Keefe, D.

    1987-11-01

    This paper discusses induction linac drivers necessary to accelerate heavy ions at inertial fusion targets. Topics discussed are: driver configurations, the current-amplifying induction linac, high current beam behavior and emittance growth, new considerations for driver design, the heavy ion fusion systems study, and future studies. 13 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab. (LSP)

  2. Factors contributing to intercity commercial bus drivers' crash involvement risk.

    PubMed

    Besharati, Mohammad Mehdi; Kashani, Ali Tavakoli

    2017-03-20

    The aim of this study was to examine the influence of demographic, environmental and occupational factors as well as behavioural characteristics of intercity bus drivers, on their crash involvement risk. A total number of 107 intercity bus drivers from Tehran, Iran were participated in the study. Logistic regression model suggested that smokers, those who drive during night to morning, less experienced drivers as well as those who operate older buses are more likely to be involved in crashes. In addition, one unit increase in the weekly driving hours might significantly increase the drivers' crash involvement risk. The model results also indicated that hazard monitoring, fatigue proneness and thrill seeking might be considered as other significant predictors of crash involvement risk. Implications of results are discussed.

  3. 75 FR 2921 - Commercial Driver's License Standards: Application for Exemption; Volvo Trucks North America (Volvo)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Commercial Driver's License Standards: Application for Exemption; Volvo Trucks North America (Volvo) AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA... United States. Volvo believes the knowledge and skills tests and training program that Swedish...

  4. Health assessment of commercial drivers: a meta-narrative systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Abu Dabrh, Abd Moain; Firwana, Belal; Cowl, Clayton T; Steinkraus, Lawrence W; Prokop, Larry J; Murad, Mohammad Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Background Motor vehicle accidents associated with commercial driving are an important cause of occupational death and impact public safety. Objectives We summarise the evidence regarding the type, prevalence and impact of medical conditions discovered during health assessment of commercial drivers. Evidence review We conducted a systematic review of multiple electronic databases and made a manual search for relevant studies that enrolled commercial drivers in any country and reported the outcomes of health assessment carried out in the context of commercial driving through November 2012. Data were extracted by a pair of independent reviewers and synthesised using a metanarrative approach. Results We identified 32 studies of moderate methodological quality enrolling 151 644 commercial drivers (98% men). The prevalence of multiple health conditions was high (sleep disorders 19%, diabetes 33%, hypertension 23% and obesity 45%). Some conditions, such as sleep disorders and obesity, were linked to increased risk of crashes. Evidence on several other highly relevant medical conditions was lacking. Cost-effectiveness data were sparse. Conclusions Several medical conditions are highly prevalent in commercial drivers and can be associated with increased risk of crashes, thus providing a rationale for health assessment of commercial drivers. PMID:24604478

  5. Estimated cost of crashes in commercial drivers supports screening and treatment of obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Gurubhagavatula, Indira; Nkwuo, Jonathan E; Maislin, Greg; Pack, Allan I

    2008-01-01

    Sleep apnea among commercial drivers may increase the risk of fall-asleep crashes, which incur large expenses. Drivers of passenger cars whose apnea is treated experience lower crash risk. Among community-based holders of commercial driver's licenses, we considered three methods for identifying sleep apnea syndrome: (1) in-lab polysomnography; (2) selective in-lab polysomnography for high-risk drivers, where high risk is first identified by body mass index, age and gender, followed by oximetry in a subset of drivers; (3) not screening. The costs for each of these three programs equaled the sum of the costs of testing, treatment of identified cases, and crashes. Assuming that treatment prevents apnea-related crashes, polysomnography is not cost-effective, because it was more expensive than the cost of crashes when no screening is done. Screening with BMI, age and gender, however, with confirmatory in-lab polysomnography only on high-risk drivers was cost-effective, as long as a high proportion (73.8%) of screened drivers accepts treatment. These findings indicate that strategies that reduce reliance on in-laboratory polysomnography may be more cost-effective than not screening, and that treatment acceptance may need to be a condition of employment for affected drivers.

  6. 75 FR 32983 - Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards: Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-10

    ...). NAAA NAAA is a trade association representing those engaged in the commercial application of fertilizer... fertilizers and limited quantities of diesel fuel or liquid fertilizer. NAAA wants FMCSA, by exemption,...

  7. 49 CFR 383.23 - Commercial driver's license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... Effective November 21, 1991, the Administrator determined that the new Licencias Federales de Conductor... the Canadian National Safety Code or a new Licencia Federal de Conductor issued by Mexico is... does not operate a commercial motor vehicle transporting hazardous materials as defined in § 383.5....

  8. An integrative review of screening for obstructive sleep apnea in commercial vehicle drivers.

    PubMed

    Burns, Nadine

    2014-03-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea has been a concern for commercial vehicle drivers for several decades. An increasing body of knowledge supports the idea that insufficient sleep can affect drivers' abilities to react efficiently and expediently, leading to motor vehicle accidents. Insufficient sleep can be described as short sleep periods, prolonged driving time, and dysfunctional sleep breathing. Commercial motor vehicle drivers are required to undergo physical examinations at least once every 2 years to maintain certification. Medical examiners are encouraged to screen for obstructive sleep apnea during these biannual examinations. Current literature identifies four frequently used screening tools for obstructive sleep apnea: STOP Questionnaire, STOP-Bang Questionnaire, Berlin Questionnaire, and Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Medical examiners must determine which screening method is valid, reliable, and has sufficient evidence to support its use.

  9. Test analysis and research on static choice reaction ability of commercial vehicle drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lingchao; Wei, Lang; Qiao, Jie; Tian, Shun; Wang, Shengchang

    2017-03-01

    Drivers' choice reaction ability has a certain relation with safe driving. It has important significance to research its influence on traffic safety. Firstly, the paper uses a choice reaction detector developed by research group to detect drivers' choice reaction ability of commercial vehicles, and gets 2641 effective samples. Then by using mathematical statistics method, the paper founds that average reaction time from accident group has no difference with non-accident group, and then introduces a variance rate of reaction time as a new index to replace it. The result shows that the test index choice reaction errors and variance rate of reaction time have positive correlations with accidents. Finally, according to testing results of the detector, the paper formulates a detection threshold with four levels for helping transportation companies to assess commercial vehicles drivers.

  10. 75 FR 28499 - Medical Certification Requirements as Part of the Commercial Driver's License (CDL); Technical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... 391 Motor carriers, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Safety. 0 In consideration of the...--COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES 0 1. The authority citation for part 383... Pub. L. 109- 59, 119 Stat. 1144, 1726; and 49 CFR 1.73. 0 2. In Sec. 383.71, revise paragraph (a)...

  11. 76 FR 4412 - Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards; Volvo Trucks North America, Renewal of Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards; Volvo Trucks.... ACTION: Notice of final disposition. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces its final decision regarding Volvo Trucks North America's (Volvo) application for an exemption for Andreas Hamsten to enable him to continue...

  12. 76 FR 68328 - Commercial Driver's License Information System State Procedures Manual, Release 5.2.0

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ... Information System State Procedures Manual, Release 5.2.0 AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration... Administrators, Inc.'s (AAMVA) Commercial Driver's License Information System (CDLIS) State Procedures Manual... information system that serves as the clearinghouse and depository of information about the...

  13. 78 FR 59328 - Commercial Driver's License Standards: Definition of Tank Vehicle Used for Determining the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-26

    ... Standards: Definition of Tank Vehicle Used for Determining the License Endorsement Requirement AGENCY...), request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA proposes to revise its definition of ``tank vehicle.'' Commercial driver's license (CDL) holders who operate such vehicles are required to obtain a tank...

  14. The sleep of commercial vehicle drivers under the 2003 hours-of-service regulations.

    PubMed

    Hanowski, Richard J; Hickman, Jeffery; Fumero, Maria C; Olson, Rebecca L; Dingus, Thomas A

    2007-11-01

    Previous research has found that commercial drivers get an average of 5.18 h of sleep per night. The revised hours-of-service (HOS) regulations (in the United States) are in place to provide drivers with more opportunities to get sleep. However, are drivers really getting more sleep under these new regulations? Also, is there a relationship between sleep quantity and involvement in critical incident (crashes, near-crashes, or crash-relevant conflicts)? Data from 73 truck drivers, collected during a naturalistic driving study after the implementation of the 2003 HOS regulations, were analyzed to determine overall sleep quantity (using actigraphy), along with sleep quantity prior to being involved in a critical incident. Sixty-two drivers had at least seven consecutive days (Monday through Sunday) of reliable actigraphy data; mean sleep quantity per 24-h period (midnight centered using the Cole-Kripke algorithm) for these drivers was 6.28 h (S.D.=1.42 h). Fifty-eight critical incidents were recorded in the 10th and 11th driving hours. Analysis results indicated that drivers received significantly less sleep in the period prior to a critical incident as compared to their mean overall sleep quantity. The results of this study indicate drivers may be getting more sleep under the revised 2003 HOS regulations as compared to the old regulations. In addition, significantly less sleep in the 24-h period prior to involvement in a critical incident suggests driver fatigue may have been a potential contributing factor in these critical incidents.

  15. The economics of personalized medicine: commercialization as a driver of return on investment.

    PubMed

    Keeling, Peter; Roth, Mollie; Zietlow, Tom

    2012-09-15

    Optimizing commercialization of drugs is the sine qua non of the pharmaceutical industry and intensive work has been done to characterize fully the drivers of drug adoption and understand the resources required to optimize those drivers for full adoption of drugs. Conversely, while the pharmaceutical industry is actively embracing the new personalized medicine (PM) paradigm, much work remains to be done to understand fully what drives adoption of targeted therapies and how to resource those drivers appropriately. While the industry is slowly learning from its early missteps, progress is still inhibited by a lack of understanding of the specific hurdles that individual development teams face in developing and commercializing targeted therapies and the requirement for budgets specifically aimed at driving test adoption. This article considers the benefits of optimizing commercial planning in the PM space and the potential negative impact in potentially failing to optimize that planning. Real world insights are used to illustrate that a far broader commercial lens is required in the PM space and will touch on functional areas not usually included in the context of 'commercial' decisions.

  16. The influence of daily sleep patterns of commercial truck drivers on driving performance.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guang Xiang; Fang, Youjia; Guo, Feng; Hanowski, Richard J

    2016-06-01

    Fatigued and drowsy driving has been found to be a major cause of truck crashes. Lack of sleep is the number one cause of fatigue and drowsiness. However, there are limited data on the sleep patterns (sleep duration, sleep percentage in the duration of non-work period, and the time when sleep occurred) of truck drivers in non-work periods and the impact on driving performance. This paper examined sleep patterns of 96 commercial truck drivers during non-work periods and evaluated the influence these sleep patterns had on truck driving performance. Data were from the Naturalistic Truck Driving Study. Each driver participated in the study for approximately four weeks. A shift was defined as a non-work period followed by a work period. A total of 1397 shifts were identified. Four distinct sleep patterns were identified based on sleep duration, sleep start/end point in a non-work period, and the percentage of sleep with reference to the duration of non-work period. Driving performance was measured by safety-critical events, which included crashes, near-crashes, crash-relevant conflicts, and unintentional lane deviations. Negative binomial regression was used to evaluate the association between the sleep patterns and driving performance, adjusted for driver demographic information. The results showed that the sleep pattern with the highest safety-critical event rate was associated with shorter sleep, sleep in the early stage of a non-work period, and less sleep between 1 a.m. and 5 a.m. This study also found that male drivers, with fewer years of commercial vehicle driving experience and higher body mass index, were associated with deteriorated driving performance and increased driving risk. The results of this study could inform hours-of-service policy-making and benefit safety management in the trucking industry.

  17. Commercial Motor Vehicle Driver Positive Airway Pressure Therapy Adherence in a Sleep Center

    PubMed Central

    Colvin, Loretta J.; Dace, Gayla A.; Colvin, Ryan M.; Ojile, Joseph; Collop, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To assess positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy adherence in commercial motor vehicle (CMV) drivers presenting to a sleep center. Methods: A retrospective chart review of 120 drivers evaluated for obstructive sleep apnea OSA and 53 initiated on PAP therapy in a single sleep center over a one-year period (2012); PAP therapy data were collected up to 1 year. Results: Early PAP usage best predicted adherence up to 1 year (p < 0.0001) compared to patient factors, OSA disease characteristics, and treatment elements analyzed. The proportion of participants adherent to therapy was 68.0% at 1 week, decreasing to 39.6% at 1 year, with 31.1% lost to follow-up by 1 year. In the group categorized based on adherence at week 1, 80.6% were adherent at 1 month, decreasing to 52.8% at 1 year. For the group non-adherent at 1 week, 29.4% were adherent at 1 month, decreasing to 11.7% at 1 year. Participants were predominantly male (75.8%), middle-aged (median 50.5 years), and African American (71.7%). Of those referred to the sleep center, 86.7% had OSA (median apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] or respiratory event index [REI] 20.1), with 51.0% of the OSA group having an AHI or REI > 20 and initiating PAP therapy. Conclusions: Early PAP utilization patterns predicted one year adherence for our CMV driver population within a sleep clinic setting. OSA testing of these CMV drivers after occupational health referral identifies high proportions of undiagnosed OSA, with approximately half requiring PAP therapy based on current published treatment recommendations. Citation: Colvin LJ, Dace GA, Colvin RM, Ojile J, Collop N. Commercial motor vehicle driver positive airway pressure therapy adherence in a sleep center. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(4):477–485. PMID:26715403

  18. The influence of daily sleep patterns of commercial truck drivers on driving performance

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guang Xiang; Fang, Youjia; Guo, Feng; Hanowski, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Fatigued and drowsy driving has been found to be a major cause of truck crashes. Lack of sleep is the number one cause of fatigue and drowsiness. However, there are limited data on the sleep patterns (sleep duration, sleep percentage in the duration of non-work period, and the time when sleep occurred) of truck drivers in non-work periods and the impact on driving performance. This paper examined sleep patterns of 96 commercial truck drivers during non-work periods and evaluated the influence these sleep patterns had on truck driving performance. Data were from the Naturalistic Truck Driving Study. Each driver participated in the study for approximately four weeks. A shift was defined as a non-work period followed by a work period. A total of 1397 shifts were identified. Four distinct sleep patterns were identified based on sleep duration, sleep start/end point in a non-work period, and the percentage of sleep with reference to the duration of non-work period. Driving performance was measured by safety-critical events, which included crashes, near-crashes, crash-relevant conflicts, and unintentional lane deviations. Negative binomial regression was used to evaluate the association between the sleep patterns and driving performance, adjusted for driver demographic information. The results showed that the sleep pattern with the highest safety-critical event rate was associated with shorter sleep, sleep in the early stage of a non-work period, and less sleep between 1 a.m. and 5 a.m. This study also found that male drivers, with fewer years of commercial vehicle driving experience and higher body mass index, were associated with deteriorated driving performance and increased driving risk. The results of this study could inform hours-of-service policy-making and benefit safety management in the trucking industry. PMID:26954762

  19. Surveying the Impact of Work Hours and Schedules on Commercial Motor Vehicle Driver Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Hege, Adam; Perko, Michael; Johnson, Amber; Yu, Chong Ho; Sönmez, Sevil; Apostolopoulos, Yorghos

    2015-01-01

    Background Given the long hours on the road involving multiple and interacting work stressors (i.e., delivery pressures, irregular shifts, ergonomic hazards), commercial drivers face a plethora of health and safety risks. Researchers goal was to determine whether and to what extent long-haul trucker work schedules influence sleep duration and quality. Methods Survey and biometric data collected from male long-haul truck drivers at a major truckstop in central North Carolina over a six month period. Results Daily hours worked (mean = 11 hours, 55 minutes) and frequency of working over government-mandated daily HOS regulations (23.8% “frequently or always”) were statistically significant predictors of sleep duration. Miles driven per week (mean = 2,812.61), irregular daily hours worked (63.8%), and frequency of working over the daily hour limit (23.8% “frequently or always”) were statistically significant predictors of sleep quality. Conclusion Implications of findings suggest a comprehensive review of the regulations and operational conditions for commercial motor vehicle drivers be undertaken. PMID:26106509

  20. Commercial vehicles and road safety in Pakistan: exploring high-risk attributes among drivers and vehicles.

    PubMed

    Mir, Mohammed Umer; Razzak, Junaid Abdul; Ahmad, Khabir

    2013-01-01

    Road traffic injuries are on the rise in developing countries with a disproportionately high number of crashes involving commercial vehicles. Baseline information on risk factors is necessary to develop targeted prevention programmes. A survey of commercial drivers was conducted at the largest bus and truck station in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Structured interviews elicited information from 857 drivers on their socio-demographics, high-risk driving behaviours, fatigue, use of drugs while driving, vehicle maintenance and health conditions, as well as crash involvement. A binary logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the factors associated with crash involvement in the last five years. Overall, 92 (11.2%) drivers reported having had a road crash in the last 5 years. Factors independently associated with the occurrence of crashes were alcohol use (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.1-4.4), poor vehicle maintenance (OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.7-7.01) and lack of seat belt use (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.3-5.6). The high prevalence of high-risk attributes in the study population indicates a great need for targeted risk prevention.

  1. Visual function among commercial vehicle drivers in the central region of Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Boadi-Kusi, Samuel Bert; Kyei, Samuel; Asare, Frederick Afum; Owusu-Ansah, Andrew; Awuah, Agnes; Darko-Takyi, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Aim To determine the relationship between some visual functions: colour vision defects, abnormal stereopsis, visual acuity and the occurrence of road traffic accident (RTAs) among commercial vehicle drivers in the central region of Ghana, and to assess their knowledge of these anomalies. Method A descriptive cross-sectional study employing a multi-stage random sampling approach was conducted in the major commercial towns within the central region of Ghana. Participants were taken through a comprehensive eye examination after the administration of a structured questionnaire. Results 520 male commercial vehicle drivers were enrolled for this study with a mean age of 39.23 years ±10.96 years and mean visual acuity of 0.02 ± 0.08 logMAR. Protans were more likely to be involved in RTAs (χ2 = 6.194, p = 0.034). However, there was no statistically significant association between abnormal stereopsis (OR = 0.89 95% CI: 0.44–1.80, p = 0.56), poor vision due to refractive error (χ2 = 3.090, p = 0.388) and the occurrence of RTAs. While 86.9% were aware of abnormal stereopsis, only 45% were aware of colour vision defects. There was a statistically significant association between stereopsis anomaly and colour vision defect (r = 0.371, p < 0.005). Conclusion The study found an association between protanopia and RTAs but none between stereopsis anomalies, refractive errors and the occurrence of RTAs. Drivers were less knowledgeable on colour vision defects as compared to stereopsis anomalies. PMID:26364760

  2. Road rage and road traffic accidents among commercial vehicle drivers in Lahore, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, M A; Shaikh, I A; Siddiqui, Z

    2012-04-01

    Road rage and road traffic accidents increase the burden of morbidity and mortality in a population. A cross-sectional survey with convenience sampling was conducted among commercial vehicle drivers in Lahore, Pakistan (n = 901) to record their behaviours/experiences regarding road rage and road traffic accidents. Respondents were asked about incidents of shouting/cursing/rude gestures or threats to physically hurt the person/vehicle, by others or themselves, in the previous 24 hours or 3 months, and their involvement in road traffic accidents in the previous 12 months. Auto-rickshaw drivers were significantly more likely to report various road rage experiences/behaviours and involvement in accidents compared with bus and wagon drivers. A total of 112 respondents (12.4%) reported being involved in a road traffic accident in the previous 12 months but traffic police did not record the accident in 52.7% of cases. The results of this study underline the need to improve road safety in Pakistan.

  3. A Statistical Analysis of the Economic Drivers of Battery Energy Storage in Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Matthew; Simpkins, Travis; Cutler, Dylan; Anderson, Kate

    2016-11-21

    There is significant interest in using battery energy storage systems (BESS) to reduce peak demand charges, and therefore the life cycle cost of electricity, in commercial buildings. This paper explores the drivers of economic viability of BESS in commercial buildings through statistical analysis. A sample population of buildings was generated, a techno-economic optimization model was used to size and dispatch the BESS, and the resulting optimal BESS sizes were analyzed for relevant predictor variables. Explanatory regression analyses were used to demonstrate that peak demand charges are the most significant predictor of an economically viable battery, and that the shape of the load profile is the most significant predictor of the size of the battery.

  4. A Statistical Analysis of the Economic Drivers of Battery Energy Storage in Commercial Buildings: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Matthew; Simpkins, Travis; Cutler, Dylan; Anderson, Katie

    2016-11-01

    There is significant interest in using battery energy storage systems (BESS) to reduce peak demand charges, and therefore the life cycle cost of electricity, in commercial buildings. This paper explores the drivers of economic viability of BESS in commercial buildings through statistical analysis. A sample population of buildings was generated, a techno-economic optimization model was used to size and dispatch the BESS, and the resulting optimal BESS sizes were analyzed for relevant predictor variables. Explanatory regression analyses were used to demonstrate that peak demand charges are the most significant predictor of an economically viable battery, and that the shape of the load profile is the most significant predictor of the size of the battery.

  5. Integration of Computer-Based Virtual Check Ride System--Pre-Trip Inspection in Commercial Driver License Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makwana, Alpesh P.

    2009-01-01

    "Pre-Trip Inspection" of the truck and trailer is one of the components of the current Commercial Driver's License (CDL) test. This part of the CDL test checks the ability of the student to identify the important parts of the commercial vehicle and their potential defects. The "Virtual Check Ride System" (VCRS), a…

  6. Truck drivers, middlemen and commercial sex workers: AIDS and the mediation of sex in south west Uganda.

    PubMed

    Gysels, M; Pool, R; Bwanika, K

    2001-06-01

    Although long distance truck drivers have been implicated in the spread of HIV in Africa, there is a paucity of studies of their sexual cultures. This paper reports on a study of the sexual culture of drivers, mediators and commercial sex workers (CSWs) in a roadside truck stop on the Trans-Africa highway in south west Uganda. Sixty-nine truck drivers, six middlemen and 12 CSWs were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires. Interviewing truck drivers also entailed participating in the town's nightlife and spending much time in the bars. Truck drivers stop briefly at the truck stop for various reasons: to eat, sleep, have sex and sell goods they are carrying. Middlemen mediate the latter two activities. Middlemen buy goods from the drivers and introduce them to 'suitable' women with whom they can have casual sex. Most drivers have sex when they spend the night at the truck stop, and most make use of the services of the middlemen. The most important reasons why drivers use middlemen are that the latter speak the local languages and, in particular, know the trustworthy and 'safe' (HIV-negative) women. The CSWs use middlemen mainly because they are a guarantee that the driver will pay and they usually ensure that drivers pay well. The mediation system is becoming increasingly professionalized. Most drivers claimed to use condoms during casual sex, and this was confirmed by the CSWs. General use of condoms is encouraging, particularly given the context of a culture generally opposed to condoms. The idea that middlemen can recognize 'safe' women is worrying. However, given their key position, middlemen could form the hub of an opinion leader type intervention focused on drivers and the professional group of sex workers described here, providing condoms, advising about the importance of condom use in all casual sexual encounters, giving information about HIV and STDs, and possibly referring drivers and women to appropriate sources of HIV counselling and testing

  7. 77 FR 33098 - Hours of Service of Drivers of Commercial Motor Vehicles; Regulatory Guidance for Oilfield Exception

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 395 Hours of Service of Drivers of Commercial Motor Vehicles; Regulatory Guidance for Oilfield Exception AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety... Operations Division, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation,...

  8. High-risk of obstructive sleep apnea and excessive daytime sleepiness among commercial intra-city drivers in Lagos metropolis

    PubMed Central

    Ozoh, Obianuju B.; Okubadejo, Njideka U.; Akanbi, Maxwell O.; Dania, Michelle G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The burden of obstructive sleep apnea among commercial drivers in Nigeria is not known. Aim: To assess the prevalence of high risk of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) among intra-city commercial drivers. Setting and Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study in three major motor parks in Lagos metropolis. Materials and Methods: Demographic, anthropometric and historical data was obtained. The risk of OSA and EDS was assessed using the STOP BANG questionnaire and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, respectively. Statistical Analysis: The relationship between the OSA risk, EDS risk and past road traffic accident (RTA) was explored using the Pearson's chi square. Independent determinants of OSA risk, EDS risk and past RTA, respectively, were assessed by multiple logistic regression models. Result: Five hundred male commercial drivers (mean age (years) ±SD = 42.36 ± 11.17 and mean BMI (kg/m2) ±SD = 25.68 ± 3.79) were recruited. OSA risk was high in 244 (48.8%) drivers and 72 (14.4%) had EDS. There was a positive relationship between OSA risk and the risk of EDS (Pearson's X2 = 28.2, P < 0.001). Sixty-one (12.2%) drivers had a past history of RTA but there was no significant relationship between a past RTA and either OSA risk (X2 = 2.05, P = 0.15) or EDS risk (X2 = 2.7, P = 0.1), respectively. Abdominal adiposity, regular alcohol use and EDS were independent determinants of OSA risk while the use of cannabis and OSA risk were independent determinants of EDS. No independent risk factor for past RTA was identified. Conclusion: A significant proportion of commercial drivers in Lagos metropolis are at high risk of OSA and EDS. PMID:24249946

  9. Temporal separation and self-rating of alertness as indicators of driver fatigue in commercial motor vehicle operators.

    PubMed

    Belz, Steven M; Robinson, Gary S; Casali, John G

    2004-01-01

    This on-road field investigation employed, for the first time, a completely automated trigger-based data collection system capable of evaluating driver performance in an extended-duration real-world commercial motor vehicle environment. The study examined the use of self-assessment of fatigue (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale) and temporal separation (minimum time to collision, minimum headway, and mean headway) as indicators of driver fatigue. Without exception, the correlation analyses for both the self-rating of alertness and temporal separation yielded models low in associative ability; neither metric was found to be a valid indicator of driver fatigue. In addition, based upon the data collected for this research, preliminary evidence suggests that driver fatigue onset within a real-world driving environment does not appear to follow the standard progression of events associated with the onset of fatigue within a simulated driving environment. Application of this research includes the development of an on-board driver performance/fatigue monitoring system that could potentially assist drivers in identifying the onset of fatigue.

  10. 75 FR 33663 - Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards; Volvo Trucks North America, Renewal of Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-14

    ... States for Volvo. Each of these individuals holds a valid Swedish CDL. FMCSA believes the training program and knowledge and skills testing that drivers must undergo to obtain a Swedish CDL ensure a level... number of States willing to issue such license. Renewal of the exemption will enable the five drivers...

  11. 77 FR 17105 - Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards; Rotel North American Tours, LLC; Application for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ... Tours of Germany. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Pearlie Robinson, FMCSA Driver and Carrier... Germany (currently, Rotel Tours, Das Rollende Hotel, through Georg Hoeltl GmBh & Co.Kg, Tittling, or... employer. The driver-employees of Rotel Tours of Germany are utilized by Rotel North American Tours,...

  12. 77 FR 4881 - Commercial Driver's license (CDL) Standards; Rotel North American Tours, LLC; Application for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    .... requirements. German drivers are preferred because they speak the language fluently and perform a variety of... believes these drivers possess sufficient knowledge, skills, and experience to ensure a level of safety... German-issued CDL must undergo a training program and pass knowledge and skills tests. FMCSA...

  13. 76 FR 19023 - Commercial Driver's License Information System State Procedures Manual, Release 5.2.0

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... Information System State Procedures Manual, Release 5.2.0 AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration... Driver's License Information System (CDLIS) State Procedures Manual (the Manual). All State driver... to maintain an information system that serves as the clearinghouse and depository of...

  14. The Association between risk factors and low back pain among commercial vehicle drivers in peninsular Malaysia: a preliminary result.

    PubMed

    Tamrin, Shamsul Bahri Mohd; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Jalaludin, Juliana; Aziz, Nasaruddin Abdul; Jemoin, Nizam; Nordin, Rusli; Li Naing, Ayub; Abdullah, Yunus; Abdullah, Mazlan

    2007-04-01

    To determine the risk factors associated with complain of low back pain. A cross sectional study was done from June 2004 until August 2005. Seven hundred and sixty commercial vehicle drivers from 11 bus companies in central, northern and eastern regions in Malaysia participated in this study. Modified Nordic questionnaire was used to determine the prevalence of low back pain; Maestro human vibration meter was used to measure the personal R.M.S values of lateral, anterior-posterior and vertical axes. Modified Owas was used to assess the awkward posture of the driver torso namely, bending forward movement, leaning, sitting straight and twisting. Profile of Mood States (POMS) was used to evaluate the mood states of bus drivers with complain of low back pain. A high prevalence of low back pain (60.4%) among Malaysian commercial vehicle drivers was found. Logistic regression analysis controlling for age, income, education level and non occupational activities revealed that the following factors were related to low back pain: Tension-anxiety [1.080, 95% CI 1.041-1.121], depression dejection [1.047, 95% CI 1.023-1.072], anger-hostility [1.053, 95% CI 1.027-1.081], fatigue [1.132, 95% CI 1.089-1.177] and confusion [1.114, 95% CI 1.061-1.169] of POMS, length of employment [1.001, 95% CI 1.0-1.003], steering wheel adjustment [1.521, 95% CI 1.101-2.101], perception of exposing to vibration [1.943, 95% CI 1.389-2.719]. In conclusion, combinations of risks lead to high increase of low back pain complain among Malaysian bus drivers.

  15. 75 FR 45200 - Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards; Rotel North American Tours, LLC; Application for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... are equipped with onboard sleeping and eating facilities. The drivers, in addition to operating the... cuisine. In addition, each bus is equipped with sleeping accommodations for the passengers. Rotel...

  16. Understanding commercial truck drivers' decision-makin process concerning distracted driving.

    PubMed

    Swedler, David I; Pollack, Keshia M; Gielen, Andrea C

    2015-05-01

    A concurrent mixed methods design was used to explore personal and workplace factors, informed by the Theory of Planned Behavior, that affect truck drivers' decision-making about distracted driving on the job. Qualitative data were collected via semi-structured interviews with experts in truck safety and distracted driving, and quantitative data were collected via online survey of truck drivers in the United States. Findings from the interviews illustrated how drivers perceived distractions and the importance of supervisors enforcing organizational distracted driving policies. Survey results found that behavioral intentions were most important in regards to texting and crash and near-crash outcomes, while perceived norms from management best described the correlation between dispatch device use and negative crash-related outcomes. By using a mixed methods design, rather than two separate studies, these findings revealed nuanced differences into the influence of supervisors on distracted driving.

  17. An analysis of driving and working hour on commercial motor vehicle driver safety using naturalistic data collection.

    PubMed

    Soccolich, Susan A; Blanco, Myra; Hanowski, Richard J; Olson, Rebecca L; Morgan, Justin F; Guo, Feng; Wu, Shih-Ching

    2013-09-01

    Current hours-of-service (HOS) regulations prescribe limits to commercial motor vehicle (CMV) drivers' operating hours. By using naturalistic-data-collection, researchers were able to assess activities performed in the 14-h workday and the relationship between safety-critical events (SCEs) and driving hours, work hours, and breaks. The data used in the analyses were collected in the Naturalistic Truck Driving Study and included 97 drivers and about 735,000 miles of continuous driving data. An assessment of the drivers' workday determined that, on average, drivers spent 66% of their shift driving, 23% in non-driving work, and 11% resting. Analyses evaluating the relationship between driving hours (i.e., driving only) and SCE risk found a time-on-task effect across hours, with no significant difference in safety outcomes between 11th driving hour and driving hours 8, 9 or 10. Analyses on work hours (i.e., driving in addition to non-driving work) found that risk of being involved in an SCE generally increased as work hours increased. This suggests that time-on-task effects may not be related to driving hours alone, but implies an interaction between driving hours and work hours: if a driver begins the day with several hours of non-driving work, followed by driving that goes deep into the 14-h workday, SCE risk was found to increase. Breaks from driving were found to be beneficial in reducing SCEs (during 1-h window after a break) and were effective in counteracting the negative effects of time-on-task.

  18. Road traffic injuries in Kenya: a survey of commercial motorcycle drivers

    PubMed Central

    Matheka, Duncan Mwangangi; Omar, Faraj Alkizim; Kipsaina, Chebiwot; Witte, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Motorcycle injuries contribute a substantial number of deaths and hospital admissions in Kenya. There is paucity of data to inform prevention strategies to address the issue. Therefore, the current study sought to explore the characteristics of 2 and 3-wheeler related road traffic injuries (RTIs) in Kenya. Methods A cross-sectional survey of motorcycle drivers involved in a RTI in the preceding 3 months was conducted in 11 urban and rural sites in Kenya's Thika town through face- to -face structured interviews. Drivers’ demographic information, comprehensive crash characteristics and socioeconomic impact of injury data were collected. Results Of 200 drivers injured, 98% were male, with average age of 28.4 years (SD±6.6). Of these drivers, 33% were not wearing any protective equipment. Negligence was the most reported cause of crash (33%), followed by slippery roads (21.0%) and speeding (17.5%). The risk of sustaining a bodily injury was 1.3 times higher in drivers who had not received prevention education compared to those who had received such education. People injured at night were 5 times more likely to sustain a bodily injury compared to those injured during the day. Only 8.5% of the drivers reported the injury incident to the police. Conclusion Majority of motorcycle related injuries in Thika town occur among young, productive, working-age male drivers. A high proportion of injuries are due to negligence on riding while not wearing any protective equipment compounded by lack of injury prevention education. Initiatives to foster helmet wearing, provision of high-quality affordable helmets, responsible driving and advocacy for stronger legislation, are recommended. PMID:26401211

  19. 76 FR 25761 - Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards; Volvo Trucks North America, Renewal of Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ... vehicles (CMVs) in the United States. All hold valid Swedish CDLs. FMCSA believes that the training program and knowledge and skills testing that drivers must undergo to obtain a Swedish CDL ensure a level of... residents of Sweden, and cannot easily obtain a non-resident CDL, given the small number of States...

  20. 75 FR 8181 - Commercial Driver's License Standards: Application for Exemption; Volvo Trucks North America (Volvo)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... States. Volvo believes the knowledge and skills tests and training program that Swedish drivers undergo... United States. The Volvo employee holds a valid Swedish CDL. Volvo states the exemption is needed to... any of the United States. A copy of the application is in Docket No. FMCSA-2006-25756. The...

  1. 75 FR 45198 - Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards; Volvo Trucks North America, Renewal of Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... United States. This individual holds a valid Swedish CDL. FMCSA believes that the training program and knowledge and skills testing that drivers must undergo to obtain a Swedish CDL ensure a level of safety... number of States willing to issue such a license. Renewal of the exemption will enable Mr. Hamsten...

  2. 75 FR 35515 - Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards: Granting of Exemption; Volvo Trucks North America

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-22

    ... holds a valid CDL issued in Sweden but lacks the U.S. residency necessary to obtain a CDL issued by one... a citizen and resident of Sweden; therefore, he cannot apply for a CDL in any State of the United... that are assembled, sold or primarily used in the U.S. Volvo currently employs this driver in...

  3. 75 FR 33661 - Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards; Rotel North American Tours, LLC; Application for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-14

    ... submitting the comment (or signing the comment, if submitted on behalf of an association, business, labor... and Canada for German and Austrian tourists. Rotel bus drivers operate the CMV during the day. They... consider all comments received by close of business on July 14, 2010. All comments will be available...

  4. 76 FR 34635 - Medical Certification Requirements as Part of the Commercial Driver's License (CDL); Extension of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ... qualification requirements must retain a paper copy of the medical examiner's certificate. Interstate motor... are able to post the medical self-certification and medical examiner's certificate data on the... driver record data from a CDL holder's medical self- certification and medical examiner's...

  5. Portable diagnostic devices for identifying obstructive sleep apnea among commercial motor vehicle drivers: considerations and unanswered questions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunbai; Berger, Mark; Malhotra, Atul; Kales, Stefanos N

    2012-11-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a syndrome defined by breathing abnormalities during sleep, can lead to fatigue and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) with an increased risk of motor vehicle crashes. Identifying commercial motor vehicle operators with unrecognized OSA is a major public health priority. Portable monitors (PMs) are being actively marketed to trucking firms as potentially lower-cost and more accessible alternatives to the reference standard of in-laboratory polysomnography (PSG) in the diagnosis of OSA among commercial motor vehicle operators. Several factors regarding PMs remain uncertain in this unique patient population: their sensitivity and specificity; the cost-benefit ratio of the PMs versus PSG; potential barriers from human factors; and evolving technologic advancement. Human factors that alter test accuracy are a major concern among commercial drivers motivated to gain/maintain employment. Current available data using PMs as a diagnostic tool among CMV operators indicate relatively high data loss and high loss to follow-up. Loss to follow-up has also been an issue using PSG in commercial motor vehicle operators. Furthermore, PM testing and PM results interpretation protocols may have no sleep specialist oversight, and sometimes minimal physician oversight and involvement. Additional studies comparing unattended and unmonitored PMs directly against full in-laboratory PSG are needed to provide evidence for their efficacy among commercial motor vehicle operators.

  6. Commercial Motor Vehicle Driver Obstructive Sleep Apnea Screening and Treatment in the United States: An Update and Recommendation Overview

    PubMed Central

    Colvin, Loretta J.; Collop, Nancy A.

    2016-01-01

    No regulatory mandate exists in the United States (U.S.) for comprehensive obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) risk assessment and stratification for commercial motor vehicle (CMV) drivers. Current Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) requirements are outdated and depend largely on subjective report, a less reliable strategy in an occupational setting. Without FMCSA standards, sleep specialists, occupational medical examiners and employers rely on a collection of medical consensus recommendations to establish standards of care. These recommendations advise OSA risk assessment through a combination of focused medical history, physical examination, questionnaires, and accident history, which increase OSA detection compared to current FMCSA standards. For those diagnosed with OSA, consensus-based risk stratification helps identify CMV drivers who may benefit from OSA treatment and establish minimum standards for assessing treatment efficacy and adherence. Unfortunately no consolidated recommendation exists; rather, publications span medical and governmental literature in a patchwork fashion that no longer fully reflect current practice due to subsequent advances in OSA diagnosis, treatment, and technology. Based on searches of medical literature, internet materials, and reference lists from existing publications, an overview and discussion of key published recommendations regarding OSA assessment and treatment in CMV operators is provided. Suggestions for incorporating these recommendations into clinical sleep medicine practice in the U.S. are presented. The challenge for sleep specialists is maintaining the delicate balance between recommendations impacting standard of care and associated medico-legal impact with stakeholder interests from medical, regulatory, industry and public perspectives while providing high quality and efficient care. Citation: Colvin LJ, Collop NA. Commercial motor vehicle driver obstructive sleep apnea screening and treatment in the

  7. Naturalistic field study of the restart break in US commercial motor vehicle drivers: Truck driving, sleep, and fatigue.

    PubMed

    Sparrow, Amy R; Mollicone, Daniel J; Kan, Kevin; Bartels, Rachel; Satterfield, Brieann C; Riedy, Samantha M; Unice, Aaron; Van Dongen, Hans P A

    2016-08-01

    Commercial motor vehicle (CMV) drivers in the US may start a new duty cycle after taking a 34-h restart break. A restart break provides an opportunity for sleep recuperation to help prevent the build-up of fatigue across duty cycles. However, the effectiveness of a restart break may depend on its timing, and on how many nighttime opportunities for sleep it contains. For daytime drivers, a 34-h restart break automatically includes two nighttime periods. For nighttime drivers, who are arguably at increased risk of fatigue, a 34-h restart break contains only one nighttime period. To what extent this is relevant for fatigue depends in part on whether nighttime drivers revert back to a nighttime-oriented sleep schedule during the restart break. We conducted a naturalistic field study with 106 CMV drivers working their normal schedules and performing their normal duties. These drivers were studied during two duty cycles and during the intervening restart break. They provided a total of 1260days of data and drove a total of 414,937 miles during the study. Their duty logs were used to identify the periods when they were on duty and when they were driving and to determine their duty cycles and restart breaks. Sleep/wake patterns were measured continuously by means of wrist actigraphy. Fatigue was assessed three times per day by means of a brief psychomotor vigilance test (PVT-B) and a subjective sleepiness scale. Data from a truck-based lane tracking and data acquisition system were used to compute lane deviation (variability in lateral lane position). Statistical analyses focused on 24-h patterns of duty, driving, sleep, PVT-B performance, subjective sleepiness, and lane deviation. Duty cycles preceded by a restart break containing only one nighttime period (defined as 01:00-05:00) were compared with duty cycles preceded by a restart break containing more than one nighttime period. During duty cycles preceded by a restart break with only one nighttime period, drivers

  8. Comparison of the prevalence of substance use and psychiatric disorders between government- and self-employed commercial drivers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shih-Ku; Lee, Chao-Hui; Pan, Chun-Hung; Hu, Wei-Hern

    2003-08-01

    Five hundred and five city government-employed bus drivers (GED) and 506 self-employed drivers (SED) who were primarily taxi drivers attending annual health check-ups were studied. A two-step survey was applied. Data on basic demographics were collected, the 12-item Chinese Health Questionnaire (CHQ), Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST), Drug Abuse Screen Test (DAST) questionnaires were administered and urine drug screening for amphetamine and benzodiazepines was performed in all subjects. Subjects with MAST scores > or =3, DAST > or =5 from both groups and CHQ > or =4 for the GED group and CHQ > or =7 for the SED group were regarded as a high-risk group; and subjects with normal MAST, DAST and CHQ results serving as the comparison group were invited for further interview by psychiatric specialists using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. The mean CHQ scores were 0.94 +/- 1.53 for the GED group and 2.08 +/- 2.42 for the SED group. The mean MAST scores for the GED and SED groups were 0.23 +/- 0.58 and 0.38 +/- 1.12; and the mean DAST scores were 1.03 +/- 0.85 and 1.41 +/- 1.89, respectively. The positive rate for benzodiazepines in urine screening by enzyme immunoassay was 8.3% for the GED group, and 8.5% for the SED group. After specification using liquid chromatography, this rate reduced to 4.6% and 3.7%, respectively. Only one subject in the SED group tested positive for urine amphetamine. The SED group had a higher rate of neurotic problems, psychiatric diagnosis and a higher frequency of substance use than the GED group. These findings suggest that different work style of commercial drivers may contribute to this phenomenon. The rate of psychiatric diagnosis was significantly higher in the high-risk subjects from both groups. Questionnaires such as CHQ, DAST and MAST are useful tools to screen out subjects at high risk of psychiatric disorders during routine health checks in labor workers.

  9. Developing policy regarding obstructive sleep apnea and driving among commercial drivers in the United States and Japan

    PubMed Central

    FILOMENO, Ronald; IKEDA, Ai; TANIGAWA, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS) has emerged as a global public health problem. OSAS is largely recognized as a factor for increased risk of vehicular related accidents for those diagnosed and undiagnosed. This article serves as a country report that reviews current and potential policies regarding OSAS induced drowsy driving in both Japan and the United States of America. In addition to reviewing policies, various case finding techniques are also explored as methods to reduce accidents due to OSAS induced drowsy driving. Evaluation of the effectiveness of methods used in the United States of America and Japan for safe driving among commercial drivers is a key step to decreasing vehicular related accidents through stronger policy development and subsequent enforcement. Case finding has emerged as one of the most effective and realistic methods to detect OSAS in the driving population based on research done in the U.S. and Japan. Subsequently, case finding can lead to treatment to further prevent future accidents from occurring due to OSAS drowsy driving. PMID:27151306

  10. The Prevalence of Self-Reported Smoking and Validation with Urinary Cotinine Among Commercial Drivers in Major Parks in Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Dania, Michelle G.; Irusen, Elvis M.

    2014-01-01

    The validity of self-reported smoking is questionable because smokers are inclined to deny smoking. We aimed to determine the prevalence of self-reported smoking among intra-city commercial drivers in Lagos, and assess its validity based on urinary cotinine assessment. This study was conducted at three major motor parks in Lagos, Nigeria. Information on smoking status and habits was obtained from 500 consecutive male drivers using a structured questionnaire during a face-to-face interview. Eighty-one self-reported smokers and non-smokers were selected by systematic random sampling for urinary cotinine assessment using cotinine strips. The prevalence of self-reported smoking was compared to the prevalence of smoking based on urinary cotinine and the specificity and positive predictive values of self-reported smoking was determined. Prevalence of self-reported current smoking was 32% and 17.9% of non-smokers were passive smokers. Among 81 drivers in whom urinary cotinine assessment was performed, the prevalence of smoking based on self-report was 34 (42%) compared to 41 (50.6%) when based on urinary cotinine, (X2=38.56, P<0.001). The rate of misclassification among self-reported non-smokers as smokers was 21.3% and misclassification rate for self-reported smokers as non-smokers was 8.8%. The sensitivity of self-reported smoking in accurately classifying smoking status was 91.2% and the specificity was 78.7%. The prevalence of self-reported cigarette smoking among commercial drivers in Lagos is high and a significant proportion of self-reported non-smokers are passive smokers. Self-reported smoking status obtained during face-to-face interview appears unreliable in obtaining accurate smoking data in our locality. PMID:28299115

  11. 78 FR 41852 - Hours of Service for Commercial Motor Vehicle Drivers; Regulatory Guidance Concerning Off-Duty Time

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ... Drivers; Regulatory Guidance Concerning Off-Duty Time AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration... meal and other routine stops made during a work shift as off-duty time. The Agency has reviewed the... record meal and other routine stops made during a tour of duty as off-duty time? Guidance: 1. The...

  12. State Oversight of Commercial Driver-Training Schools in Virginia. House Document No. 5. Report of the Joint Legislative Audit and Review Commission to the Governor and the General Assembly of Virginia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State General Assembly, Richmond. Joint Legislative Audit and Review Commission.

    In 1998, Virginia's Joint Legislative Audit and Review Commission (JLARC) was directed to evaluate the effectiveness of the Virginia Department of Motor Vehicle's (DMV's) oversight of commercial driver training schools (CDTS) in Virginia. The evaluation included the following research activities: mail surveys of DMV CDTS oversight staff and CDTS…

  13. A nutrition/health mindset on commercial Big Data and drivers of food demand in modern and traditional systems.

    PubMed

    Dubé, Laurette; Labban, Alice; Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Heslop, Gabriela; Ma, Yu; Paquet, Catherine

    2014-12-01

    Building greater reciprocity between traditional and modern food systems and better convergence of human and economic development outcomes may enable the production and consumption of accessible, affordable, and appealing nutritious food for all. Information being key to such transformations, this roadmap paper offers a strategy that capitalizes on Big Data and advanced analytics, setting the foundation for an integrative intersectoral knowledge platform to better inform and monitor behavioral change and ecosystem transformation. Building upon the four P's of marketing (product, price, promotion, placement), we examine digital commercial marketing data through the lenses of the four A's of food security (availability, accessibility, affordability, appeal) using advanced consumer choice analytics for archetypal traditional (fresh fruits and vegetables) and modern (soft drinks) product categories. We demonstrate that business practices typically associated with the latter also have an important, if not more important, impact on purchases of the former category. Implications and limitations of the approach are discussed.

  14. Idaho Driver Education Administrative Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise.

    This guide provides information for school administrators and directors of commercial driver training schools about conducting driver education courses in Idaho. The first part of the guide, which applies to both public schools and commercial schools, covers the following areas: administration, sample letters and forms, instructional time…

  15. Commercial Driver Compliance Improvement Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Pryor, Mark L. [D-AR

    2010-09-29

    09/29/2010 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. (text of measure as introduced: CR S7798-7799) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  16. Older Drivers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Affects Driving Tips for Safe Driving Making Your Vehicle Safe Regulations Affecting Older Drivers When Driving Skills ... Like drivers of any age, they use their vehicles to go shopping, do errands, and visit the ...

  17. Managing Small-Scale Commercial Fisheries for Adaptive Capacity: Insights from Dynamic Social-Ecological Drivers of Change in Monterey Bay

    PubMed Central

    Aguilera, Stacy E.; Cole, Jennifer; Finkbeiner, Elena M.; Le Cornu, Elodie; Ban, Natalie C.; Carr, Mark H.; Cinner, Joshua E.; Crowder, Larry B.; Gelcich, Stefan; Hicks, Christina C.; Kittinger, John N.; Martone, Rebecca; Malone, Daniel; Pomeroy, Carrie; Starr, Richard M.; Seram, Sanah; Zuercher, Rachel; Broad, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Globally, small-scale fisheries are influenced by dynamic climate, governance, and market drivers, which present social and ecological challenges and opportunities. It is difficult to manage fisheries adaptively for fluctuating drivers, except to allow participants to shift effort among multiple fisheries. Adapting to changing conditions allows small-scale fishery participants to survive economic and environmental disturbances and benefit from optimal conditions. This study explores the relative influence of large-scale drivers on shifts in effort and outcomes among three closely linked fisheries in Monterey Bay since the Magnuson-Stevens Fisheries Conservation and Management Act of 1976. In this region, Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax), northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax), and market squid (Loligo opalescens) fisheries comprise a tightly linked system where shifting focus among fisheries is a key element to adaptive capacity and reduced social and ecological vulnerability. Using a cluster analysis of landings, we identify four modes from 1974 to 2012 that are dominated (i.e., a given species accounting for the plurality of landings) by squid, sardine, anchovy, or lack any dominance, and seven points of transition among these periods. This approach enables us to determine which drivers are associated with each mode and each transition. Overall, we show that market and climate drivers are predominantly attributed to dominance transitions. Model selection of external drivers indicates that governance phases, reflected as perceived abundance, dictate long-term outcomes. Our findings suggest that globally, small-scale fishery managers should consider enabling shifts in effort among fisheries and retaining existing flexibility, as adaptive capacity is a critical determinant for social and ecological resilience. PMID:25790464

  18. Managing small-scale commercial fisheries for adaptive capacity: insights from dynamic social-ecological drivers of change in Monterey Bay.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Stacy E; Cole, Jennifer; Finkbeiner, Elena M; Le Cornu, Elodie; Ban, Natalie C; Carr, Mark H; Cinner, Joshua E; Crowder, Larry B; Gelcich, Stefan; Hicks, Christina C; Kittinger, John N; Martone, Rebecca; Malone, Daniel; Pomeroy, Carrie; Starr, Richard M; Seram, Sanah; Zuercher, Rachel; Broad, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Globally, small-scale fisheries are influenced by dynamic climate, governance, and market drivers, which present social and ecological challenges and opportunities. It is difficult to manage fisheries adaptively for fluctuating drivers, except to allow participants to shift effort among multiple fisheries. Adapting to changing conditions allows small-scale fishery participants to survive economic and environmental disturbances and benefit from optimal conditions. This study explores the relative influence of large-scale drivers on shifts in effort and outcomes among three closely linked fisheries in Monterey Bay since the Magnuson-Stevens Fisheries Conservation and Management Act of 1976. In this region, Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax), northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax), and market squid (Loligo opalescens) fisheries comprise a tightly linked system where shifting focus among fisheries is a key element to adaptive capacity and reduced social and ecological vulnerability. Using a cluster analysis of landings, we identify four modes from 1974 to 2012 that are dominated (i.e., a given species accounting for the plurality of landings) by squid, sardine, anchovy, or lack any dominance, and seven points of transition among these periods. This approach enables us to determine which drivers are associated with each mode and each transition. Overall, we show that market and climate drivers are predominantly attributed to dominance transitions. Model selection of external drivers indicates that governance phases, reflected as perceived abundance, dictate long-term outcomes. Our findings suggest that globally, small-scale fishery managers should consider enabling shifts in effort among fisheries and retaining existing flexibility, as adaptive capacity is a critical determinant for social and ecological resilience.

  19. 49 CFR 383.71 - Driver application procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Driver application procedures. 383.71 Section 383... DRIVER'S LICENSE STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Testing and Licensing Procedures § 383.71 Driver application procedures. (a) Initial Commercial Driver's License. Prior to obtaining a CDL, a person must...

  20. 49 CFR 383.71 - Driver application and certification procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Driver application and certification procedures... REGULATIONS COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Testing and Licensing Procedures § 383.71 Driver application and certification procedures. (a) Commercial Learner's Permit. Prior...

  1. 49 CFR 383.71 - Driver application and certification procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Driver application and certification procedures... REGULATIONS COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Testing and Licensing Procedures § 383.71 Driver application and certification procedures. (a) Commercial Learner's Permit. Prior...

  2. 49 CFR 383.71 - Driver application and certification procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Driver application and certification procedures... REGULATIONS COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Testing and Licensing Procedures § 383.71 Driver application and certification procedures. (a) Commercial Learner's Permit. Prior...

  3. 49 CFR 383.71 - Driver application and certification procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Driver application and certification procedures... REGULATIONS COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Testing and Licensing Procedures § 383.71 Driver application and certification procedures. (a) Commercial Learner's Permit. Prior...

  4. School Bus Safety Issues. Hearing on Examining Defective Handrails Which Have Been Found on School Buses across the Country, the Need for a School Bus Specific Commercial Drivers' License, and the Use of Public Transportation by Students, of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United States Senate. One Hundred Fourth Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    The hearing was held to examine the following student-transportation safety issues: defective handrails on school buses; the need for a school-bus specific-commercial driver's license; and the use of public transportation by students. Senator Mike DeWine presided over the hearing. The document contains testimonies and prepared statements of…

  5. Tractor Trailer Driver's Training Programs. Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Hampshire Vocational Technical Coll., Nashua.

    This document describes a project to develop a 320-hour tractor trailer driver training program and a 20-hour commercial driver licensing upgrade training program. Of 34 graduates from the training program, 28 secured employment in the trucking industry. From August 1989 to June 1990, 725 students were trained in the upgrade training program with…

  6. 49 CFR 383.33 - Notification of driver's license suspensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... driver's license suspended, revoked, or canceled by a State or jurisdiction, who loses the right to... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Notification of driver's license suspensions. 383... REGULATIONS COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Notification Requirements...

  7. 49 CFR 383.33 - Notification of driver's license suspensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... driver's license suspended, revoked, or canceled by a State or jurisdiction, who loses the right to... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notification of driver's license suspensions. 383... REGULATIONS COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Notification Requirements...

  8. 78 FR 26109 - Qualification of Drivers; Application for Exemptions; Hearing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-03

    ... driver's license from Ohio. He would like to drive any type of CMV, if he is granted an exemption. Daniel I. Grossinger Mr. Grossinger holds a driver's license from Maryland. His family owns a landscaping.... Hoffman Mr. Hoffman holds a class A Commercial driver's license (CDL) from South Dakota. He has...

  9. 75 FR 54958 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications... granted, the exemptions would enable these individuals to qualify as drivers of commercial motor vehicles... such an exemption from the vision requirement in 49 CFR 391.41(b)(10), which applies to drivers of...

  10. 49 CFR 383.33 - Notification of driver's license suspensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... driver's license suspended, revoked, or canceled by a State or jurisdiction, who loses the right to... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Notification of driver's license suspensions. 383... REGULATIONS COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Notification Requirements...

  11. 49 CFR 383.33 - Notification of driver's license suspensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... driver's license suspended, revoked, or canceled by a State or jurisdiction, who loses the right to... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Notification of driver's license suspensions. 383... REGULATIONS COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Notification Requirements...

  12. 49 CFR 383.33 - Notification of driver's license suspensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... driver's license suspended, revoked, or canceled by a State or jurisdiction, who loses the right to... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Notification of driver's license suspensions. 383... REGULATIONS COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Notification Requirements...

  13. 49 CFR 384.220 - Problem Driver Pointer System information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Problem Driver Pointer System information. 384.220... COMPLIANCE WITH COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE PROGRAM Minimum Standards for Substantial Compliance by States § 384.220 Problem Driver Pointer System information. Before issuing a CLP or CDL to any person,...

  14. 77 FR 76166 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ...; FMCSA- 2002-12294; FMCSA-2006-24783 FMCSA-2006-26066] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications... commercial motor vehicle (CMV) drivers. DATES: This decision is effective January 13, 2013. Comments must be... 49 CFR 391.41(b)(10), which applies to drivers of CMVs in interstate commerce, for a two-year...

  15. 78 FR 67462 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision... commercial motor vehicle (CMV) drivers. DATES: This decision is effective December 31, 2013. Comments must be... requirements in 49 CFR 391.41(b)(10), which applies to drivers of CMVs in interstate commerce, for a...

  16. 49 CFR 383.21 - Number of drivers' licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Number of drivers' licenses. 383.21 Section 383.21... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Single License Requirement § 383.21 Number of drivers' licenses....

  17. 76 FR 26681 - Hours of Service of Drivers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    ... Service of Drivers AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice... service (HOS) for commercial motor vehicle drivers. The Agency is reopening the comment period on the NPRM....gov/2008/pdf/E8-785.pdf . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Thomas Yager, Chief, Driver and...

  18. 78 FR 10250 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision... commercial motor vehicle (CMV) drivers. DATES: This decision is effective March 7, 2013. Comments must be...(b)(10), which applies to drivers ] of CMVs in interstate commerce, for a two-year period if it...

  19. 49 CFR 384.234 - Driver medical certification recordkeeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Driver medical certification recordkeeping. 384... REGULATIONS STATE COMPLIANCE WITH COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE PROGRAM Minimum Standards for Substantial Compliance by States § 384.234 Driver medical certification recordkeeping. The State must meet the...

  20. 49 CFR 383.21 - Number of drivers' licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Number of drivers' licenses. 383.21 Section 383.21... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Single License Requirement § 383.21 Number of drivers' licenses....

  1. 49 CFR 383.21 - Number of drivers' licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Number of drivers' licenses. 383.21 Section 383.21... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Single License Requirement § 383.21 Number of drivers' licenses....

  2. 49 CFR 383.51 - Disqualification of drivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Disqualification of drivers. 383.51 Section 383.51... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Driver Disqualifications and Penalties § 383.51 Disqualification...

  3. 78 FR 8689 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision... commercial motor vehicle (CMV) drivers. DATES: This decision is effective March 4, 2013. Comments must be... exemption from the vision requirements in 49 CFR 391.41(b)(10), which applies to drivers of CMVs...

  4. 77 FR 76167 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision... commercial motor vehicle (CMV) drivers. DATES: This decision is effective January 17, 2013. Comments must be... 49 CFR 391.41(b)(10), which applies to drivers of CMVs in interstate commerce, for a two-year...

  5. 78 FR 74223 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision... commercial motor vehicle (CMV) drivers. DATES: This decision is effective January 5, 2014. Comments must be... 391.41(b)(10), which applies to drivers of CMVs in interstate commerce, for a two-year period if...

  6. 49 CFR 384.225 - CDLIS driver recordkeeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false CDLIS driver recordkeeping. 384.225 Section 384... COMPLIANCE WITH COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE PROGRAM Minimum Standards for Substantial Compliance by States § 384.225 CDLIS driver recordkeeping. The State must: (a) CLP or CDL holder. Post and maintain as...

  7. 78 FR 32703 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision... commercial motor vehicle (CMV) drivers. DATES: July 1, 2013. Comments must be received on or before July 1... applies to drivers of CMVs in interstate commerce, for a two-year period if it finds ``such...

  8. 49 CFR 383.21 - Number of drivers' licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Number of drivers' licenses. 383.21 Section 383.21... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Single License Requirement § 383.21 Number of drivers' licenses....

  9. 78 FR 67460 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ...] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration... maintained without the exemptions for these commercial motor vehicle (CMV) drivers. DATES: This decision is... applies to drivers of CMVs in interstate commerce, for a two-year period if it finds ``such...

  10. 78 FR 32708 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision... commercial motor vehicle (CMV) drivers. DATES: July 1, 2013. Comments must be received on or before July 1... 391.41(b)(10), which applies to drivers of CMVs in interstate commerce, for a two-year period if...

  11. 78 FR 63301 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision... commercial motor vehicle (CMV) drivers. DATES: This decision is effective September 10, 2013. Comments must... 391.41(b)(10), which applies to drivers of CMVs in interstate commerce, for a two-year period if...

  12. 49 CFR 384.225 - CDLIS driver recordkeeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false CDLIS driver recordkeeping. 384.225 Section 384... COMPLIANCE WITH COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE PROGRAM Minimum Standards for Substantial Compliance by States § 384.225 CDLIS driver recordkeeping. The State must: (a) CDL holder. Post and maintain as part of...

  13. 77 FR 64582 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ...; FMCSA- 2008-0106; FMCSA-2010-0161; FMCSA-2010-0187] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications... these commercial motor vehicle (CMV) drivers. DATES: This decision is effective October 22, 2012... requirements in 49 CFR 391.41(b)(10), which applies to drivers of CMVs in interstate commerce, for a...

  14. 76 FR 37168 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision... commercial motor vehicle (CMV) drivers. DATES: This decision is effective July 16, 2011. Comments must be... 391.41(b)(10), which applies to drivers of CMVs in interstate commerce, for a two-year period if...

  15. 49 CFR 384.234 - Driver medical certification recordkeeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Driver medical certification recordkeeping. 384... REGULATIONS STATE COMPLIANCE WITH COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE PROGRAM Minimum Standards for Substantial Compliance by States § 384.234 Driver medical certification recordkeeping. The State must meet the...

  16. 49 CFR 384.220 - Problem Driver Pointer System information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Problem Driver Pointer System information. 384.220... COMPLIANCE WITH COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE PROGRAM Minimum Standards for Substantial Compliance by States § 384.220 Problem Driver Pointer System information. Before issuing a CLP or CDL to any person,...

  17. 49 CFR 383.21 - Number of drivers' licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Number of drivers' licenses. 383.21 Section 383.21... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Single License Requirement § 383.21 Number of drivers' licenses....

  18. 49 CFR 384.225 - CDLIS driver recordkeeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false CDLIS driver recordkeeping. 384.225 Section 384... COMPLIANCE WITH COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE PROGRAM Minimum Standards for Substantial Compliance by States § 384.225 CDLIS driver recordkeeping. The State must: (a) CLP or CDL holder. Post and maintain as...

  19. 49 CFR 384.225 - CDLIS driver recordkeeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false CDLIS driver recordkeeping. 384.225 Section 384... COMPLIANCE WITH COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE PROGRAM Minimum Standards for Substantial Compliance by States § 384.225 CDLIS driver recordkeeping. The State must: (a) CLP or CDL holder. Post and maintain as...

  20. 78 FR 62938 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision... commercial motor vehicle (CMV) drivers. DATES: This decision is effective October 31, 2013. Comments must be... 391.41(b)(10), which applies to drivers of CMVs in interstate commerce, for a two-year period if...

  1. 49 CFR 384.220 - Problem Driver Pointer System information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Problem Driver Pointer System information. 384.220... COMPLIANCE WITH COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE PROGRAM Minimum Standards for Substantial Compliance by States § 384.220 Problem Driver Pointer System information. Before issuing a CLP or CDL to any person,...

  2. 49 CFR 383.51 - Disqualification of drivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Disqualification of drivers. 383.51 Section 383.51... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Driver Disqualifications and Penalties § 383.51 Disqualification...

  3. 78 FR 18667 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ...-0174; FMCSA-2010-0287; FMCSA-2010-0372; FMCSA-2010-0385; FMCSA-2011-0010] Qualification of Drivers... exemptions for these commercial motor vehicle (CMV) drivers. DATES: This decision is effective April 21, 2013...(b)(10), which applies to drivers of CMVs in interstate commerce, for a two-year period if it...

  4. 49 CFR 384.234 - Driver medical certification recordkeeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Driver medical certification recordkeeping. 384... REGULATIONS STATE COMPLIANCE WITH COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE PROGRAM Minimum Standards for Substantial Compliance by States § 384.234 Driver medical certification recordkeeping. The State must meet the...

  5. 49 CFR 384.225 - CDLIS driver recordkeeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false CDLIS driver recordkeeping. 384.225 Section 384... COMPLIANCE WITH COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE PROGRAM Minimum Standards for Substantial Compliance by States § 384.225 CDLIS driver recordkeeping. The State must: (a) CLP or CDL holder. Post and maintain as...

  6. 49 CFR 384.220 - Problem Driver Pointer System information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Problem Driver Pointer System information. 384.220... COMPLIANCE WITH COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE PROGRAM Minimum Standards for Substantial Compliance by States § 384.220 Problem Driver Pointer System information. Before issuing a CLP or CDL to any person,...

  7. Teaching Driver Education Technology to Novice Drivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Anthony

    A cybernetic unit in driver education was developed to help grade 10 students develop the skills needed to acquire and process driver education information and prepare for the driving phase of driver education in grade 11. Students used a simulator to engage in a series of scenarios designed to promote development of social, behavioral, and mental…

  8. 49 CFR 383.52 - Disqualification of drivers determined to constitute an imminent hazard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disqualification of drivers determined to... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Driver Disqualifications and Penalties § 383.52 Disqualification of drivers determined to constitute...

  9. 49 CFR 384.213 - State penalties for drivers of CMVs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false State penalties for drivers of CMVs. 384.213... COMPLIANCE WITH COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE PROGRAM Minimum Standards for Substantial Compliance by States § 384.213 State penalties for drivers of CMVs. The State must impose on drivers of CMVs...

  10. 49 CFR 384.213 - State penalties for drivers of CMVs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false State penalties for drivers of CMVs. 384.213... COMPLIANCE WITH COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE PROGRAM Minimum Standards for Substantial Compliance by States § 384.213 State penalties for drivers of CMVs. The State must impose on drivers of CMVs...

  11. 49 CFR 384.213 - State penalties for drivers of CMVs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false State penalties for drivers of CMVs. 384.213... COMPLIANCE WITH COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE PROGRAM Minimum Standards for Substantial Compliance by States § 384.213 State penalties for drivers of CMVs. The State must impose on drivers of CMVs...

  12. 49 CFR 383.52 - Disqualification of drivers determined to constitute an imminent hazard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Disqualification of drivers determined to... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Driver Disqualifications and Penalties § 383.52 Disqualification of drivers determined to constitute...

  13. 49 CFR 383.52 - Disqualification of drivers determined to constitute an imminent hazard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Disqualification of drivers determined to... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Driver Disqualifications and Penalties § 383.52 Disqualification of drivers determined to constitute...

  14. 49 CFR 383.52 - Disqualification of drivers determined to constitute an imminent hazard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Disqualification of drivers determined to... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Driver Disqualifications and Penalties § 383.52 Disqualification of drivers determined to constitute...

  15. 49 CFR 384.213 - State penalties for drivers of CMVs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false State penalties for drivers of CMVs. 384.213... COMPLIANCE WITH COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE PROGRAM Minimum Standards for Substantial Compliance by States § 384.213 State penalties for drivers of CMVs. The State must impose on drivers of CMVs...

  16. 49 CFR 383.52 - Disqualification of drivers determined to constitute an imminent hazard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Disqualification of drivers determined to... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Driver Disqualifications and Penalties § 383.52 Disqualification of drivers determined to constitute...

  17. Driver Education Saves Gas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Automobile Association, Falls Church, VA. Traffic Engineering and Safety Dept.

    The argument that driver education should be dropped because driver education cars use gas is shortsighted. High school driver education is an excellent vehicle for teaching concepts of energy conservation. A small investment in fuel now can result in major savings of gasoline over a student's lifetime. In addition good driver education courses…

  18. Driver drowsiness detection using multimodal sensor fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, Elena O.; Aarabi, Parham; Philiastides, Marios G.; Mohajer, Keyvan; Emami, Majid

    2004-04-01

    This paper proposes a multi-modal sensor fusion algorithm for the estimation of driver drowsiness. Driver sleepiness is believed to be responsible for more than 30% of passenger car accidents and for 4% of all accident fatalities. In commercial vehicles, drowsiness is blamed for 58% of single truck accidents and 31% of commercial truck driver fatalities. This work proposes an innovative automatic sleep-onset detection system. Using multiple sensors, the driver"s body is studied as a mechanical structure of springs and dampeners. The sleep-detection system consists of highly sensitive triple-axial accelerometers to monitor the driver"s upper body in 3-D. The subject is modeled as a linear time-variant (LTV) system. An LMS adaptive filter estimation algorithm generates the transfer function (i.e. weight coefficients) for this LTV system. Separate coefficients are generated for the awake and asleep states of the subject. These coefficients are then used to train a neural network. Once trained, the neural network classifies the condition of the driver as either awake or asleep. The system has been tested on a total of 8 subjects. The tests were conducted on sleep-deprived individuals for the sleep state and on fully awake individuals for the awake state. When trained and tested on the same subject, the system detected sleep and awake states of the driver with a success rate of 95%. When the system was trained on three subjects and then retested on a fourth "unseen" subject, the classification rate dropped to 90%. Furthermore, it was attempted to correlate driver posture and sleepiness by observing how car vibrations propagate through a person"s body. Eight additional subjects were studied for this purpose. The results obtained in this experiment proved inconclusive which was attributed to significant differences in the individual habitual postures.

  19. Commercial considerations for immunoproteomics.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Scott M

    2013-01-01

    The underlying drivers of scientific processes have been rapidly evolving, but the ever-present need for research funding is typically foremost amongst these. Successful laboratories are embracing this reality by making certain that their projects have commercial value right from the beginning of the project conception. Which factors to be considered for commercial success need to be well thought out and incorporated into a project plan with similar levels of detail as would be the technical elements. Specific examples of commercial outcomes in the field of Immunoproteomics are exemplified in this discussion.

  20. Innovation Driver Nanoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakner, Hubert

    2013-03-01

    When addressing the global societal challenges most solutions will require Nano electronics and Smart Systems - therefore innovation today is mainly based on nanoelectronics which has become one of the most important key enabling technologies and innovation drivers. Nanoelectronics has been extended by other microtechnologies. This results in additional functionalities. The combination of analog and digital electronics, the integration of sensors and actuators, of power devices and rf components on wafer level makes it possible to shrink shoebox sized systems to the size of a matchbox. But there is no innovation without research. Europe (Germany) is top in invention but poor in commercialization - many good ideas fail when going from research to production within the so-called Valley of Death. To overcome this, a clear strategy is necessary. Silicon Saxony, the big Saxonian cluster on micro- and nanoelectronics is presented as a best practice example: clear focus, addressing whole value chains and establishing joint technology platforms has led to a remarkable commercial success in the Dresden area.

  1. Driver Behavior and Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Patricia

    School bus driver behavior and motivation are continuing concerns for leaders/administrators in the field of transportation. Motivation begins with selection of a potential new driver. Drivers must like children and be patient, loyal, and punctual. The applicant's background must be verified, in view of the national concern for child safety.…

  2. 78 FR 76757 - Regulatory Guidance on Hours of Service of Drivers Rest Break Requirement; Drivers Who Become...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ...This regulatory guidance addresses application of the 30- minute break rule to interstate drivers of commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) who begin their duty days as ``short haul'' drivers exempt from the break rule, but who occasionally exceed the short haul distance or time limits. Such drivers are then subject to the break requirement and must prepare a record-of-duty-status (RODS) for the......

  3. 49 CFR 391.15 - Disqualification of drivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Disqualification of drivers. (e) Disqualification for violation of prohibition of texting while driving a...) of this section. (2) Duration. Disqualification for violation of prohibition of texting while driving...) General. A driver who is disqualified shall not drive a commercial motor vehicle. A motor carrier...

  4. 77 FR 52388 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision... commercial motor vehicle (CMV) drivers. DATES: This decision is effective September 23, 2012. Comments must... may renew an exemption from the vision requirements in 49 CFR 391.41(b)(10), which applies to...

  5. 77 FR 52389 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ... of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA... maintained without the exemptions for these commercial motor vehicle (CMV) drivers. DATES: This decision is... may renew an exemption from the vision requirements in 49 CFR 391.41(b)(10), which applies to...

  6. 76 FR 72031 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate... from the diabetes prohibition in 49 CFR 391.41(b) (3), which applies to drivers of CMVs in...

  7. 49 CFR 384.213 - State penalties for drivers of CMVs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE PROGRAM Minimum Standards for Substantial Compliance by States... civil and criminal penalties that are consistent with the penalties prescribed under part 383, subpart...

  8. 77 FR 74271 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces receipt of... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. If granted, the... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications;...

  9. 76 FR 47291 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... for exemption from the diabetes mellitus standard; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces... insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate...

  10. 77 FR 36333 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces receipt of... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. If granted,...

  11. 78 FR 20381 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces receipt of... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. If granted,...

  12. 76 FR 17478 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... for exemption from the diabetes mellitus standard; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces... insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate...

  13. 77 FR 5870 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces receipt of... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. If granted,...

  14. 78 FR 79062 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces receipt of... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. If granted,...

  15. 78 FR 65031 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in... August 19, 2013, FMCSA published a notice of receipt of Federal diabetes exemption applications from...

  16. 78 FR 76398 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in... October 23, 2013, FMCSA published a notice of receipt of Federal diabetes exemption applications from...

  17. 75 FR 57329 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-20

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in... notice of receipt of Federal diabetes exemption applications from twenty-one individuals and...

  18. 76 FR 25769 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... exemption from the diabetes mellitus standard; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces receipt of... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. If granted,...

  19. 78 FR 76399 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in... October 23, 2013, FMCSA published a notice of receipt of Federal diabetes exemption applications from ]...

  20. 78 FR 35088 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in... notice of receipt of Federal diabetes exemption applications from 20 individuals and requested...

  1. 78 FR 78479 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... prohibition against persons with insulin- treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles... individuals listed in this notice have recently requested such an exemption from the diabetes prohibition...

  2. 76 FR 32012 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... for exemption from the diabetes mellitus standard; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces... insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate...

  3. 77 FR 75493 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-20

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in... notice of receipt of Federal diabetes exemption applications from 14 individuals and requested...

  4. 78 FR 5559 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in..., FMCSA published a notice of receipt of Federal diabetes exemption applications from 26 individuals...

  5. 75 FR 28684 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... prohibiting persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles... . Background On March 26, 2010, FMCSA published a Notice of receipt of Federal diabetes exemption...

  6. 76 FR 26792 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in... diabetes exemption applications from eighteen individuals and requested comments from the public (76...

  7. 76 FR 9862 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... exemption from the diabetes mellitus standard; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces receipt of... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. If granted,...

  8. 77 FR 536 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-05

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in... notice of receipt of Federal diabetes exemption applications from eighteen individuals and...

  9. 75 FR 63536 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... exemption from the diabetes mellitus standard; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces receipt of... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. If granted,...

  10. 78 FR 50486 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... for exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces... insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate...

  11. 75 FR 64394 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-19

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in... notice of receipt of Federal diabetes exemption applications from thirty-five individuals and...

  12. 76 FR 61140 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... for exemption from the diabetes mellitus standard; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces... insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate...

  13. 77 FR 38383 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in... diabetes exemption applications from 23 individuals and requested comments from the public (77 FR...

  14. 78 FR 38435 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces receipt of... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. If granted,...

  15. 77 FR 25227 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in... diabetes exemption applications from seventeen individuals and requested comments from the public (77...

  16. 75 FR 65056 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in... notice of receipt of Federal diabetes exemption applications from thirty-nine individuals and...

  17. 77 FR 532 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-05

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in... notice of receipt of Federal diabetes exemption applications from twenty individuals and...

  18. 75 FR 50797 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-17

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in... receipt of Federal diabetes exemption applications from twenty individuals and requested comments from...

  19. 78 FR 38439 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces receipt of... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. If granted,...

  20. 76 FR 1495 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-10

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in... notice of receipt of Federal diabetes exemption applications from twenty-one individuals and...

  1. 77 FR 40941 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-11

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces receipt of... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. If granted,...

  2. 78 FR 14406 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... for exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces... insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate...

  3. 77 FR 5873 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in... notice of receipt of Federal diabetes exemption applications from fifteen individuals and...

  4. 77 FR 48587 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... for exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces... insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate...

  5. 78 FR 68139 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces receipt of... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. If granted,...

  6. 75 FR 38598 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... prohibiting persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles... . Background On May 21, 2010, FMCSA published a Notice of receipt of Federal diabetes exemption...

  7. 77 FR 51845 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in... notice of receipt of Federal diabetes exemption applications from 23 individuals and requested...

  8. 76 FR 61139 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... prohibiting persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles... notice of receipt of Federal diabetes exemption applications from thirty-three individuals and...

  9. 77 FR 65931 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA... with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in...

  10. 78 FR 16758 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... for exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces... insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate...

  11. 76 FR 47290 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... prohibiting persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles... notice of receipt of Federal diabetes exemption applications from twenty-three individuals and...

  12. 77 FR 65929 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in... notice of receipt of Federal diabetes exemption applications from 14 individuals and requested...

  13. 78 FR 76400 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in... October 23, 2013, FMCSA published a notice of receipt of Federal diabetes exemption applications from...

  14. 75 FR 1449 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in... . Background On October 29, 2009, FMCSA published a notice of receipt of Federal diabetes...

  15. 76 FR 79756 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-22

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... for exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces... insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate...

  16. 78 FR 77784 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in... October 28, 2013, FMCSA published a notice of receipt of Federal diabetes exemption applications from...

  17. 78 FR 26419 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces receipt of... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. If granted,...

  18. 78 FR 39825 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in... a notice of receipt of Federal diabetes exemption applications from 16 individuals and...

  19. 78 FR 1926 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in... notice of receipt of Federal diabetes exemption applications from 12 individuals and requested...

  20. 78 FR 26422 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in... notice of receipt of Federal diabetes exemption applications from 20 individuals and requested...

  1. 77 FR 533 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-05

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces receipt of... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. If granted,...

  2. 78 FR 76397 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in... October 23, 2013, FMCSA published a notice of receipt of Federal diabetes exemption applications from...

  3. 76 FR 66120 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... exemption from the diabetes mellitus standard; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces receipt of... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. If granted,...

  4. 77 FR 18302 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... for exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces... insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate...

  5. 78 FR 1923 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces receipt of... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. If granted,...

  6. 77 FR 59447 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ... [Docket No. FMCSA-2012-0281] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY... from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces receipt of... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. If granted,...

  7. 75 FR 28677 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... exemptions from the diabetes mellitus standard; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces receipt of... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. If granted,...

  8. 78 FR 1927 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces receipt of... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. If granted,...

  9. 77 FR 46791 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-06

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in... notice of receipt of Federal diabetes exemption applications from 17 individuals and requested...

  10. 78 FR 16032 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-13

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces receipt of... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. If granted,...

  11. 77 FR 75492 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-20

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in... notice of receipt of Federal diabetes exemption applications from 16 individuals and requested...

  12. 77 FR 52384 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes...: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments... against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles...

  13. 75 FR 69734 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... [Docket No. FMCSA-2010-0355] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY... from the diabetes mellitus standard; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces receipt of... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. If granted,...

  14. 76 FR 27376 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in... diabetes exemption applications from seventeen individuals and requested comments from the public (76...

  15. 78 FR 22599 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces receipt of... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. If granted,...

  16. 78 FR 50482 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... for exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces... insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate...

  17. 76 FR 17475 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... for exemption from the diabetes mellitus standard; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces... insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate...

  18. 76 FR 9867 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in... notice of receipt of Federal diabetes exemption applications from fifteen individuals and...

  19. 76 FR 44650 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in... diabetes exemption applications from nineteeen individuals and requested comments from the public (76...

  20. 77 FR 3549 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-24

    ... [Docket No. FMCSA-2011-0368] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY... from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces receipt of... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. If granted,...

  1. 76 FR 47288 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in... diabetes exemption applications from fifteen individuals and requested comments from the public (76...

  2. 76 FR 32015 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... prohibiting persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles... notice of receipt of Federal diabetes exemption applications from twenty-three individuals and...

  3. 76 FR 1496 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-10

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... for exemption from the diabetes mellitus standard; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces... insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate...

  4. 76 FR 79759 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-22

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in... notice of receipt of Federal diabetes exemption applications from eighteen individuals and...

  5. 76 FR 21792 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... for exemption from the diabetes mellitus standard; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces... insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate...

  6. 76 FR 9854 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... exemption from the diabetes mellitus standard; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces receipt of... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. If granted,...

  7. 78 FR 63302 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... his vision deficiency.'' Mr. Reno reported that he has driven straight trucks for 26 years..., ``Field is stable . . . color vision is normal . . . I believe he is qualified for commercial driving... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications;...

  8. Older drivers' risks of at-fault motor vehicle collisions.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Masao; Nakahara, Shinji; Taniguchi, Ayako

    2015-08-01

    In aging societies, increasing numbers of older drivers are involved in motor vehicle collisions (MVCs), and preserving their safety is a growing concern. In this study, we focused on whether older drivers were more likely to cause MVCs and injuries than drivers in other age groups. To do so we compared at-fault MVC incidence and resulting injury risks by drivers' ages, using data from Japan, a country with a rapidly aging population. The at-fault MVC incidence was calculated based on distance traveled made for non-commercial purposes, and the injury risks posed to at-fault drivers and other road users per at-fault MVCs. We used MVC data for 2010 from the National Police Agency of Japan and driving exposure data from the Nationwide Person Trip Survey conducted by a Japanese governmental ministry in 2010. The at-fault MVC incidence showed a U-shaped curve across the drivers' ages, where teenage and the oldest drivers appeared to be the highest risk groups in terms of causing MVCs, and the incidence was higher for female drivers after age 25. The injury risk older drivers posed to other vehicle occupants because of their at-fault MVCs was lower than for drivers in other age groups, while their own injury risk appeared much higher. As the number of older drivers is increasing, efforts to reduce their at-fault MVCs appear justified.

  9. 49 CFR 383.31 - Notification of convictions for driver violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Notification of convictions for driver violations... REGULATIONS COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Notification Requirements and Employer Responsibilities § 383.31 Notification of convictions for driver violations. (a) Except...

  10. 49 CFR 383.31 - Notification of convictions for driver violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Notification of convictions for driver violations... REGULATIONS COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Notification Requirements and Employer Responsibilities § 383.31 Notification of convictions for driver violations. (a) Except...

  11. 49 CFR 383.31 - Notification of convictions for driver violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Notification of convictions for driver violations... REGULATIONS COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Notification Requirements and Employer Responsibilities § 383.31 Notification of convictions for driver violations. (a) Each person...

  12. 49 CFR 383.31 - Notification of convictions for driver violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Notification of convictions for driver violations... REGULATIONS COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Notification Requirements and Employer Responsibilities § 383.31 Notification of convictions for driver violations. (a) Each person...

  13. 49 CFR 383.31 - Notification of convictions for driver violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notification of convictions for driver violations... REGULATIONS COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Notification Requirements and Employer Responsibilities § 383.31 Notification of convictions for driver violations. (a) Each person...

  14. Increasing Seat Belt Use in Service Vehicle Drivers with a Gearshift Delay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Houten, Ron; Malenfant, J. E. Louis; Reagan, Ian; Sifrit, Kathy; Compton, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated a device that prevents drivers from shifting vehicles into gear for up to 8 s unless seat belts are buckled. Participants were 101 commercial drivers who operated vans, pickups, or other light trucks from the U.S. and Canada. The driver could escape or avoid the delay by fastening his or her seat belt before shifting out of…

  15. 77 FR 75491 - Entry-Level Driver Training; Public Listening Session

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-20

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Entry-Level Driver Training; Public Listening Session AGENCY... the issue of entry-level training for drivers of commercial motor vehicles (CMVs). Specifically, the... implement the entry-level driver training (ELDT) provisions in the Moving Ahead for Progress in the...

  16. Thermally Activated Driver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinard, William H.; Murray, Robert C.; Walsh, Robert F.

    1987-01-01

    Space-qualified, precise, large-force, thermally activated driver (TAD) developed for use in space on astro-physics experiment to measure abundance of rare actinide-group elements in cosmic rays. Actinide cosmic rays detected using thermally activated driver as heart of event-thermometer (ET) system. Thermal expansion and contraction of silicone oil activates driver. Potential applications in fluid-control systems where precise valve controls are needed.

  17. The roads ahead: collision risks, trends, and safety of drivers.

    PubMed

    Straus, Sandy Helene; Gu, Xiaojun

    2009-06-01

    The propensity of fatal traffic collisions transcends driver age and reinforces the need to evaluate, among other factors, the impact of roadway lighting and other features of driver vision, perception, and performance. Collisions may result from a driver's inability to notice delineation, recognize warnings, and other possible road safety controls during various lighting conditions. Hence we compare the relative accident involvement ratio (RAIR) of collisions of millions of drivers from two U.S. States over an 11-year period, 1991-2001. We associate collision trends through RAIR with bathtub curves that are commonly identified with product failure and reliability engineering. Hence we observe the need for improved and automated driver's license testing techniques and applications, especially as these relate to the visual and cognitive abilities of drivers of all ages. Our findings may ultimately improve motorist safety, save lives, and benefit numerous other states, countries, and agencies, including, but not limited to, aviation, commercial vehicles, maritime, and rail sectors, among others.

  18. 49 CFR 383.91 - Commercial motor vehicle groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Commercial motor vehicle groups. 383.91 Section... DRIVER'S LICENSE STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Vehicle Groups and Endorsements § 383.91 Commercial motor vehicle groups. (a) Vehicle group descriptions. Each driver applicant must possess and...

  19. 49 CFR 383.91 - Commercial motor vehicle groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Commercial motor vehicle groups. 383.91 Section... DRIVER'S LICENSE STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Vehicle Groups and Endorsements § 383.91 Commercial motor vehicle groups. (a) Vehicle group descriptions. Each driver applicant must possess and...

  20. A Simple Wave Driver

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temiz, Burak Kagan; Yavuz, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    This study was done to develop a simple and inexpensive wave driver that can be used in experiments on string waves. The wave driver was made using a battery-operated toy car, and the apparatus can be used to produce string waves at a fixed frequency. The working principle of the apparatus is as follows: shortly after the car is turned on, the…

  1. Help Wanted: Drivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoober, Scott

    1999-01-01

    A booming economy and low unemployment make it harder than ever before to lure and retain good school-bus drivers. Lack of money for good wages has prompted some innovative recruitment and retention tactics. Chicago has turned to the rolls of people going off welfare as a source of bus-driver candidates. The Trans Group, headquartered in Chestnut…

  2. Mortality among professional drivers.

    PubMed

    Rafnsson, V; Gunnarsdóttir, H

    1991-10-01

    The mortality of truck drivers and taxi drivers was studied in Reykjavík. The national mortality rate was used for comparison, and the follow-up lasted until 1 December 1988. The 868 truck drivers (28,788.0 person-years) had an excess of lung cancer deaths [24 observed, 11.2 expected, standardized mortality ratio (SMR) 2.14], but fewer deaths than expected from respiratory diseases (15 observed versus 30.1 expected). The SMR from lung cancer did not steadily increase as the duration of employment increased, nor did it change with the length of follow-up. The SMR values did not deviate substantially from unity for the taxi drivers. Since the high mortality from lung cancer among the truck drivers did not seem to be due to their smoking habits, it might have been caused by one or more occupational factors, especially in light of this group's exposure to engine exhaust gases.

  3. Synchrotron based proton drivers

    SciTech Connect

    Weiren Chou

    2002-09-19

    Proton drivers are the proton sources that produce intense short proton bunches. They have a wide range of applications. This paper discusses the proton drivers based on high-intensity proton synchrotrons. It gives a review of the high-intensity proton sources over the world and a brief report on recent developments in this field in the U.S. high-energy physics (HEP) community. The Fermilab Proton Driver is used as a case study for a number of challenging technical design issues.

  4. Mass drivers. 3: Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, W.; Bowen, S.; Cohen, S.; Fine, K.; Kaplan, D.; Kolm, M.; Kolm, H.; Newman, J.; Oneill, G. K.; Snow, W.

    1979-01-01

    The last of a series of three papers by the Mass-Driver Group of the 1977 Ames Summer Study is presented. It develops the engineering principles required to implement the basic mass-driver. Optimum component mass trade-offs are derived from a set of four input parameters, and the program used to design a lunar launcher. The mass optimization procedures is then incorporated into a more comprehensive mission optimization program called OPT-4, which evaluates an optimized mass-driver reaction engine and its performance in a range of specified missions. Finally, this paper discusses, to the extent that time permitted, certain peripheral problems: heating effects in buckets due to magnetic field ripple; an approximate derivation of guide force profiles; the mechanics of inserting and releasing payloads; the reaction mass orbits; and a proposed research and development plan for implementing mass drivers.

  5. Electronic Driver Education Simulator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spence, Keith R.

    1980-01-01

    Describes the collision avoidance simulator, which provides both a hands-on prolect for digital electronics students and a motivation device for driver education students. Gives details of the electrical construction and operation of the simulator. (JOW)

  6. Evaluating Driver Drowsiness Countermeasures.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, John G; Brown, Timothy L; Schwarz, Chris W; Lee, John D; Kang, Julie; Higgins, James S

    2017-03-21

    Objective Driver drowsiness contributes to a substantial number of fatal and non-fatal crashes, with recent estimates attributing up to 21% of fatal crashes to drowsiness. This paper describes recent NHTSA research on in-vehicle drowsiness countermeasures. Recent advances in technology and state detection algorithms have shown success in detecting drowsiness using a variety of data sources, including camera-based eye tracking, steering wheel position, yaw rate, and vehicle lane position. However, detection is just the first step in reducing drowsy driving crashes. Countermeasures are also needed to provide feedback to the driver, modify driver behavior, and prevent crashes. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of in-vehicle drowsiness countermeasures in reducing drowsy lane departures. The tested countermeasures included different warning modalities in either a discrete or staged interface. Methods Data were collected from 72 young adult drivers (age 21-32) in the high-fidelity full-motion National Advanced Driving Simulator. Drivers completed a 45-minute simulated nighttime drive at two time points, late night and early morning, where drowsiness was manipulated by continuous hours awake. 48 drivers were exposed to one of six countermeasures that varied along two dimensions, type and modality. The countermeasures relied on a steering-based drowsiness detection algorithm developed in prior NHTSA research. 24 drivers received no countermeasure and were used as a baseline comparison. System effectiveness was measured by lane departures and standard deviation in lateral position (SDLP). Results There was a reduction in drowsy lane departure frequency and lane position variability for drivers with countermeasures compared to the baseline no-countermeasure group. Importantly, the data suggest that multi-stage alerts, which provide an indication of increasing urgency, were more effective in reducing drowsy lane departures than single-stage discrete

  7. Drunk Driver Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Systems Technology, Inc. developed a technique to study/measure behavioral changes brought on by long term isolation is now being used in a system for determining whether a driver is too drunk to drive. Device is intended to discourage intoxicated drivers from taking to the road by advising them they are in no condition to operate a vehicle. System is being tested experimentally in California.

  8. Driver Adaptive Warning Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-03-01

    this threshold, an alarm is triggered. Since TLC based systems can have user defined thresholds, a warning can be given as early as desired. However, the...Driver Adaptive Warning Systems Thesis Proposal Parag H. Batavia CMU-RI-TR-98-07 The Robotics Institute Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh...control number. 1. REPORT DATE MAR 1998 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-1998 to 00-00-1998 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Driver Adaptive Warning

  9. Graduated Driver Licensing

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Lyndel J.; Allen, Siobhan; Armstrong, Kerry; Watson, Barry; King, Mark J.; Davey, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Graduated driver licensing (GDL) aims to gradually increase the exposure of new drivers to more complex driving situations and typically consists of learner, provisional and open licence phases. The first phase, the learner licence, is designed to allow novice drivers to obtain practical driving experience in lower risk situations. The learner licence can delay licensure, encourage novice drivers to learn under supervision, mandate the number of hours of practice required to progress to the next phase and encourage parental involvement. The second phase, the provisional licence, establishes various driving restrictions and thereby reduces exposure to situations of higher risk, such as driving at night, with passengers or after drinking alcohol. Parental involvement with a GDL system appears essential in helping novices obtain sufficient practice and in enforcing compliance with restrictions once the new driver obtains a provisional licence. Given the significant number of young drivers involved in crashes within Oman, GDL is one countermeasure that may be beneficial in reducing crash risk and involvement for this group. PMID:25364543

  10. Driver Improvement Training and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittenburg, John A.; And Others

    The last phase of the NHTSA-U.S. Coast Guard Driver Improvement Training and Evaluation Project is described. Begun in July 1970, the project had two basic objectives. The first was to determine whether or not driver training programs do, in fact, significantly reduce driver errors and accidents and improve overall driver efficiency. The second…

  11. Identification of driver model parameters.

    PubMed

    Reński, A

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents a driver model, which can be used in a computer simulation of a curved ride of a car. The identification of the driver parameters consisted in a comparison of the results of computer calculations obtained for the driver-vehicle-environment model with different driver data sets with test results of the double lane-change manoeuvre (Standard No. ISO/TR 3888:1975, International Organization for Standardization [ISO], 1975) and the wind gust manoeuvre. The optimisation method allows to choose for each real driver a set of driver model parameters for which the differences between test and calculation results are smallest. The presented driver model can be used in investigating the driver-vehicle control system, which allows to adapt the car construction to the psychophysical characteristics of a driver.

  12. Discrete Driver Assistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klette, Reinhard; Jiang, Ruyi; Morales, Sandino; Vaudrey, Tobi

    Applying computer technology, such as computer vision in driver assistance, implies that processes and data are modeled as being discretized rather than being continuous. The area of stereo vision provides various examples how concepts known in discrete mathematics (e.g., pixel adjacency graphs, belief propagation, dynamic programming, max-flow/min-cut, or digital straight lines) are applied when aiming for efficient and accurate pixel correspondence solutions. The paper reviews such developments for a reader in discrete mathematics who is interested in applied research (in particular, in vision-based driver assistance). As a second subject, the paper also discusses lane detection and tracking, which is a particular task in driver assistance; recently the Euclidean distance transform proved to be a very appropriate tool for obtaining a fairly robust solution.

  13. Traffic Safety Facts, 2001: Young Drivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This document provides statistical information on U.S. traffic accidents involving young drivers. Data tables include: (1) driver fatalities and drivers involved in fatal crashes among drivers 15 to 20 years old, 1991-2001; (2) drivers involved in fatal crashes and driver involvement rates by age group, 2001; (3) drivers 15 to 20 years old…

  14. Young Drivers. Traffic Safety Facts, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This document provides statistical information on U.S. traffic accidents involving young drivers. Data tables include: (1) driver fatalities and drivers involved in fatal crashes among drivers 15 to 20 years old, 1990-2000; (2) drivers involved in fatal crashes and driver involvement rates by age group, 2000; (3) drivers 15 to 20 years old…

  15. Look-ahead driver feedback and powertrain management

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, Rajeev

    2014-12-31

    Commercial medium and heavy vehicles, though only a small portion of total vehicle population, play a significant role in energy consumption. In 2012, these vehicles accounted for about 5775.5 trillion btu of energy consumption and 408.8 million tons of CO2 emissions annually, which is a quarter of the total energy burden of highway transportation in the United States [1]. This number is expected to surpass passenger car fuel use within the next few decades. In the meantime, most commercial vehicle fleets are running at a very low profit margin. It is a well known fact that fuel economy can vary significantly between drivers, even when they operate the same vehicle on the same route. According to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Natural Resource Canada (NRCan), there is up to 35% fuel economy difference between drivers within the same commercial fleet [2] [3], [4]. Similar results were obtained from a Field Operation Test conducted by Eaton Corporation [5]. During this test as much as 30% fuel economy difference was observed among pick-up-and-delivery drivers and 11% difference was observed among line-haul drivers. The driver variability can be attributed to the fact that different drivers react differently to driving conditions such as road grade, traffic, speed limits, etc. For instance, analysis of over 600k miles of naturalistic heavy duty truck driving data [5] indicates that an experienced driver anticipates a downhill and eases up on the throttle to save fuel while an inexperienced driver lacks this judgment.

  16. Improving Driver Performance. A Curriculum for Licensed Drivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Highway Users Federation for Safety and Mobility, Washington, DC.

    Curriculum material presented in this manual is for use in the development of an instructional program for drivers who either want or need to improve their driving performance. Three principal units are included: man and highway transportation, driver performance, and factors influencing driver behavior. Each unit is further divided into episodes…

  17. The Bicycle Driver's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg. Bureau of Curriculum Services.

    Designed to emphasize the concept of the bicycle driver vs. the popular term, bicycle rider, this manual contains guidelines on bicycle safety, addressing itself both to parents and children. The main section topics are: (1) parent responsibility; (2) choosing a bicycle, fitting it to the child, and learning to drive; (3) bicycle equipment,…

  18. Florida Driver Education Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mick, Susan H.

    This student edition contains the same basic information as the official Florida Driver Handbook, but the reading difficulty of the material has been sharply reduced. It also provides activity-oriented exercises and review tests on this material. Introductory materials include a complete listing of all activities given, some vocabulary exercises…

  19. Seven Performance Drivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Linda

    2003-01-01

    Recent work with automotive e-commerce clients led to the development of a performance analysis methodology called the Seven Performance Drivers, including: standards, incentives, capacity, knowledge and skill, measurement, feedback, and analysis. This methodology has been highly effective in introducing and implementing performance improvement.…

  20. Driver irritation and aggressive behaviour.

    PubMed

    Björklund, Gunilla M

    2008-05-01

    A sample of 98 drivers responded to a Swedish version of the UK Driving Anger Scale [UK DAS; [Lajunen, T., Parker, D., Stradling, S.G., 1998. Dimensions of driver anger, aggressive and highway code violations and their mediation by safety orientation in UK drivers. Transport. Res. Part F 1, 107-121]. The results indicated that the Swedish version, like the British original, measures three sources of driver irritation: "progress impeded", "reckless driving", and "direct hostility". Structural equation modelling was used to investigate the relationships between the three sources of self-reported driver irritation, aggressive actions, speed, sex, age, and annual mileage. The models suggested a positive relationship between the amount of driver irritation and frequency of aggressive actions for all three sources of irritation. Female drivers tended to become more irritated than male drivers, while the male drivers tended to act aggressively more often. Surprisingly, drivers who reported that they enjoy fast speeds did not become more irritated than slower drivers when obstructed. The important conclusions are that experienced irritation often leads to openly aggressively actions, and that expression of aggressive behaviours may be a cause of other drivers' feeling of irritation.

  1. Using Accelerator Pedal Force to Increase Seat Belt Use of Service Vehicle Drivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Houten, Ron; Hilton, Bryan; Schulman, Richard; Reagan, Ian

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated a device that applied a sustained increase in accelerator pedal back force whenever drivers exceeded a preset speed criterion without buckling their seat belts. This force was removed once the belt was fastened. Participants were 6 commercial drivers who operated carpet-cleaning vans. During baseline, no contingency was in…

  2. Negativity Bias in Dangerous Drivers

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Jing; Qu, Weina; Sun, Xianghong; Zhang, Kan; Ge, Yan

    2016-01-01

    The behavioral and cognitive characteristics of dangerous drivers differ significantly from those of safe drivers. However, differences in emotional information processing have seldom been investigated. Previous studies have revealed that drivers with higher anger/anxiety trait scores are more likely to be involved in crashes and that individuals with higher anger traits exhibit stronger negativity biases when processing emotions compared with control groups. However, researchers have not explored the relationship between emotional information processing and driving behavior. In this study, we examined the emotional information processing differences between dangerous drivers and safe drivers. Thirty-eight non-professional drivers were divided into two groups according to the penalty points that they had accrued for traffic violations: 15 drivers with 6 or more points were included in the dangerous driver group, and 23 drivers with 3 or fewer points were included in the safe driver group. The emotional Stroop task was used to measure negativity biases, and both behavioral and electroencephalograph data were recorded. The behavioral results revealed stronger negativity biases in the dangerous drivers than in the safe drivers. The bias score was correlated with self-reported dangerous driving behavior. Drivers with strong negativity biases reported having been involved in mores crashes compared with the less-biased drivers. The event-related potentials (ERPs) revealed that the dangerous drivers exhibited reduced P3 components when responding to negative stimuli, suggesting decreased inhibitory control of information that is task-irrelevant but emotionally salient. The influence of negativity bias provides one possible explanation of the effects of individual differences on dangerous driving behavior and traffic crashes. PMID:26765225

  3. Earning a driver's license.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, A F

    1997-01-01

    Teenage drivers in the United States have greatly elevated crash rates, primarily a result of qualities associated with immaturity and lack of driving experience. State licensing systems vary substantially, but most have allowed quick and easy access to driving with full privileges at a young age, contributing to the crash problem. Formal driver education has not been an effective crash prevention measure. Following the introduction of graduated licensing in New Zealand, Australia, and Canada, this system has been considered in many states and has been implemented in some. Graduated systems phase in full privilege driving, requiring initial experience to be gained under conditions of lower risk. The author describes the first five multistage graduated systems enacted in the United States in 1996 and 1997. Factors that will influence the acceptability and effectiveness of these new licensing systems are discussed. Images p[452]-a p454-a p456-a p457-a p460-a PMID:10822470

  4. Robotic Intelligence Kernel: Driver

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-16

    The INL Robotic Intelligence Kernel-Driver is built on top of the RIK-A and implements a dynamic autonomy structure. The RIK-D is used to orchestrate hardware for sensing and action as well as software components for perception, communication, behavior and world modeling into a single cognitive behavior kernel that provides intrinsic intelligence for a wide variety of unmanned ground vehicle systems.

  5. Drivers, Trends and Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco, Arthur S.; Gerlagh, Reyer; Suh, Sangwon; Barrett, John A.; de Coninck, Heleen; Diaz Morejon, Cristobal Felix; Mathur, Ritu; Nakicenovic, Nebojsa; Ahenkorah, Alfred Ofosu; Pan, Jiahua; Pathak, Himanshu; Rice, Jake; Richels, Richard G.; Smith, Steven J.; Stern, David; Toth, Ferenc L.; Zhou, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Chapter 5 analyzes the anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emission trends until the present and the main drivers that explain those trends. The chapter uses different perspectives to analyze past GHG-emissions trends, including aggregate emissions flows and per capita emissions, cumulative emissions, sectoral emissions, and territory-based vs. consumption-based emissions. In all cases, global and regional trends are analyzed. Where appropriate, the emission trends are contextualized with long-term historic developments in GHG emissions extending back to 1750.

  6. 76 FR 1493 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-10

    ... violations in a CMV. Thomas S. Roth Mr. Roth, 50, has had a prosthetic right eye since childhood. The visual... optometrist noted, ``In my medical opinion and the guidelines set by the State of Pennsylvania, Mr. Roth has sufficient vision to perform the drivers tasks required to operate a commercial vehicle.'' Mr. Roth...

  7. 77 FR 63411 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-16

    ... exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces receipt of... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. If granted, the... individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with the criteria described...

  8. 75 FR 27616 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in... diabetes exemption applications from fifty-three individuals and requested comments from the public (75...

  9. 75 FR 44049 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in.../E8-785.pdf . Background On June 16, 2010, FMCSA published a Notice of receipt of Federal...

  10. 76 FR 37882 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in... diabetes exemption applications from twenty-one individuals and requested comments from the public (76...

  11. 76 FR 37171 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in... diabetes exemption applications from twenty-four individuals and requested comments from the public (76...

  12. 77 FR 59450 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ... [FMCSA Docket No. FMCSA-2012-0164] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus... insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate... diabetes exemption applications from 19 individuals and requested comments from the public (77 FR...

  13. 76 FR 53707 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-29

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes... persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in... diabetes ] exemption applications from twenty-two individuals and requested comments from the public (76...

  14. Operational cost drivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholz, Arthur L.; Dickinson, William J.

    1988-01-01

    To be economically viable, the operations cost of launch vehicles must be reduced by an order of magnitude as compared to the Space Transportation System (STS). A summary of propulsion-related operations cost drivers derived from a two-year study of Shuttle ground operations is presented. Examples are given of the inordinate time and cost of launch operations caused by propulsion systems designs that did not adequately consider impacts on prelaunching processing. Typical of these cost drivers are those caused by central hydraulic systems, storable propellants, gimballed engines, multiple propellants, He and N2 systems and purges, hard starts, high maintenance turbopumps, accessibility problems, and most significantly, the use of multiple, nonintegrated RCS, OMS, and main propulsion systems. Recovery and refurbishment of SRBs have resulted in expensive crash and salvage operations. Vehicle system designers are encouraged to be acutely aware of these cost drivers and to incorporate solutions (beginning with the design concepts) to avoid business as usual and costs as usual.

  15. Commercial Crew

    NASA Video Gallery

    Phil McAlister delivers a presentation by the Commercial Crew (CC) study team on May 25, 2010, at the NASA Exploration Enterprise Workshop held in Galveston, TX. The purpose of this workshop was to...

  16. Space Commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    A robust and competitive commercial space sector is vital to continued progress in space. The United States is committed to encouraging and facilitating the growth of a U.S. commercial space sector that supports U.S. needs, is globally competitive, and advances U.S. leadership in the generation of new markets and innovation-driven entrepreneurship. Energize competitive domestic industries to participate in global markets and advance the development of: satellite manufacturing; satellite-based services; space launch; terrestrial applications; and increased entrepreneurship. Purchase and use commercial space capabilities and services to the maximum practical extent Actively explore the use of inventive, nontraditional arrangements for acquiring commercial space goods and services to meet United States Government requirements, including measures such as public-private partnerships, . Refrain from conducting United States Government space activities that preclude, discourage, or compete with U.S. commercial space activities. Pursue potential opportunities for transferring routine, operational space functions to the commercial space sector where beneficial and cost-effective.

  17. Heavy ion driver technology

    SciTech Connect

    Keefe, D.

    1988-09-01

    Major differences between fusion drivers and traditional accelerators include the following. The final beam current needed (/approximately/20 kA in a short pulse) is very much larger for a driver; such beams are dominated by repulsive space-charge effects since, even at 10 GeV, the ions are non-relativistic (v/c = 0.3). Also, the optical quality of the beams (called emittance by accelerator people) must be extremely good to ensure a suitably small focal spot at the pellet. Two schemes, one with a rf linac and storage rings, the other with a single-pass current-amplifying induction linac, are under study, the latter exclusively in the US. The induction linac approach lends itself to an examination in a sequence of scaled-down laboratory experiments since the most difficulties are expected to occur at the low energy end. Experiments and simulation have centered on a study of the transverse and longitudinal control of space-charge-dominated beams which are best described in terms of a non-neutral plasma rather than the traditional single-particle dynamics picture. An understanding of the high-current instability limits is required for arriving at a safe driver design. The final on-target beam current is so high that it must be carried in 16 separate focusing channels leading into the combustion chamber. While the energy deposition of the ions is expected to be entirely classical, there is a wealth of plasma physics phenomena to be explored (by theory and simulation) in the final propagation of these beams through the low-density gas in the chamber and in the environment of the hot target; it is important that none of these could result in a significant portion of the beam missing the focal spot. 13 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  18. The RIA driver linac.

    SciTech Connect

    Shepard, K. W.

    2002-09-23

    The driver linac for the U.S. RIA project will be a 1.4 GV superconducting linac capable of accelerating the full mass range of ions from 900 MeV protons to 400 MeV/u uranium, and delivering a cw beam of 400 kW shared by at least two targets simultaneously. Elements of the linac are being developed at several U.S. laboratories. The current status of linac design and development is reviewed with emphasis on changes in the baseline design since the last linac conference.

  19. Model Curriculum for Commercial Driving Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale. Safety Center.

    Eight units of study, each divided into three or four episodes, make up this Illinois driver's education curriculum for commercial schools. Each unit contains behavioral objectives for the unit and for the individual episodes, each of which is broken down into sub-objectives with corresponding content information or tasks to be performed. The…

  20. Fast SCR Thyratron Driver

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, M.N.; /SLAC

    2007-06-18

    As part of an improvement project on the linear accelerator at SLAC, it was necessary to replace the original thyratron trigger generator, which consisted of two chassis, two vacuum tubes, and a small thyratron. All solid-state, fast rise, and high voltage thyratron drivers, therefore, have been developed and built for the 244 klystron modulators. The rack mounted, single chassis driver employs a unique way to control and generate pulses through the use of an asymmetric SCR, a PFN, a fast pulse transformer, and a saturable reactor. The resulting output pulse is 2 kV peak into 50 {Omega} load with pulse duration of 1.5 {mu}s FWHM at 180 Hz. The pulse risetime is less than 40 ns with less than 1 ns jitter. Various techniques are used to protect the SCR from being damaged by high voltage and current transients due to thyratron breakdowns. The end-of-line clipper (EOLC) detection circuit is also integrated into this chassis to interrupt the modulator triggering in the event a high percentage of line reflections occurred.

  1. Driver behaviour at roadworks.

    PubMed

    Walker, Guy; Calvert, Malcolm

    2015-11-01

    There is an incompatibility between how transport engineers think drivers behave in roadworks and how they actually behave. As a result of this incompatibility we are losing approximately a lane's worth of capacity in addition to those closed by the roadworks themselves. The problem would have little significance were it not for the fact a lane of motorway costs approx. £30 m per mile to construct and £43 k a year to maintain, and that many more roadworks are planned as infrastructure constructed 40 or 50 years previously reaches a critical stage in its lifecycle. Given current traffic volumes, and the sensitivity of road networks to congestion, the effects of roadworks need to be accurately assessed. To do this requires a new ergonomic approach. A large-scale observational study of real traffic conditions was used to identify the issues and impacts, which were then mapped to the ergonomic knowledge-base on driver behaviour, and combined to developed practical guidelines to help in modelling future roadworks scenarios with greater behavioural accuracy. Also stemming from the work are novel directions for the future ergonomic design of roadworks themselves.

  2. A simple wave driver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kağan Temiz, Burak; Yavuz, Ahmet

    2015-08-01

    This study was done to develop a simple and inexpensive wave driver that can be used in experiments on string waves. The wave driver was made using a battery-operated toy car, and the apparatus can be used to produce string waves at a fixed frequency. The working principle of the apparatus is as follows: shortly after the car is turned on, the wheel starts to turn at a constant angular speed. A rod that is fixed on the wheel turns at the same constant angular speed, too. A tight string that the wave will be created on is placed at a distance where the rod can touch the string. During each rotation of the wheel, the rod vibrates the string up and down. The vibration frequency of this rod equals the wheel’s rotation frequency, and this frequency value can be measured easily with a small magnet and a bicycle speedometer. In this way, the frequency of the waves formed in the rope can also be measured.

  3. Fatal Traffic Crashes Involving Drinking Drivers: What have we Learned?

    PubMed Central

    Fell, James C.; Tippetts, A. Scott; Voas, Robert B.

    2009-01-01

    Alcohol involvement in fatal crashes (any driver with a blood alcohol concentration [BAC] = .01g/dL or greater) in 2007 was more than three times higher at night (6 p.m.–6 a.m.) than during the day (6 a.m.–6 p.m.) (62% versus 19%). Alcohol involvement was 35% during weekdays compared to 54% on weekends. Nearly one in four drivers (23%) of personal vehicles (e.g., passenger cars or light trucks) and more than one in four motorcyclists (27%) in fatal crashes were intoxicated (i.e., had a BAC equal to or greater than the .08 g/dL illegal limit in the United States). In contrast, only 1% of the commercial drivers of heavy trucks had BACs equal to .08 g/dL or higher. More than a quarter (26%) of the drivers with high BACs (≥.15 g/dL) did not have valid licenses. The 21- to 24-age group had the highest proportion (35%) of drivers with BACs≥.08 g/dL, followed by the 25- to 34-age group (29%). The oldest and the youngest drivers had the lowest percentages of BACs≥ .08 g/dL: those aged 75 or older were at 4%, and those aged 16 to 20 were at 17%. Utah had the lowest rate of intoxicated drivers in fatal crashes at one in every eight drivers (12%), followed by Kentucky, Indiana, Iowa, New Hampshire, and Kansas, all at 17%. Montana (31%), South Carolina (31%), and North Dakota (39%) all had more than 3 in 10 drivers in fatal crashes who were intoxicated in 2007. The United States enjoyed a remarkable downward trend in alcohol-related crashes between 1982 and 1995, which has since leveled off. That trend coincided with a period during which per capita national alcohol consumption declined, the number of young drivers decreased, and the proportion of female drivers increased. Those factors alone, however, did not appear to account for the overall reduction. This provides further evidence that impaired-driving laws and safety program activity may have been responsible for at least some of the decline. However, there was a general worldwide decline in alcohol

  4. Commercial Fishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document is a curriculum framework for a program in commercial fishing to be taught in Florida secondary and postsecondary institutions. This outline covers the major concepts/content of the program, which is designed to prepare students for employment in occupations with titles such as net fishers, pot fishers, line fishers, shrimp boat…

  5. Idaho Driver Education Instructional Guide. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise.

    This driver education instructional safety guide is organized in three sections: Driver Education; Motorcycle Education; and Driver Education for the Handicapped. The driver education section contains 10 units dealing with the following topics: parent orientation; student orientation; basic control skills; driver performance; driving regulations;…

  6. 49 CFR 380.109 - Driver testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Driver testing. 380.109 Section 380.109... REQUIREMENTS Longer Combination Vehicle (LCV) Driver-Training and Driver-Instructor Requirements-General § 380.109 Driver testing. (a) Testing methods. The driver-student must pass knowledge and skills tests...

  7. 49 CFR 380.109 - Driver testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Driver testing. 380.109 Section 380.109... REQUIREMENTS Longer Combination Vehicle (LCV) Driver-Training and Driver-Instructor Requirements-General § 380.109 Driver testing. (a) Testing methods. The driver-student must pass knowledge and skills tests...

  8. 49 CFR 380.109 - Driver testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Driver testing. 380.109 Section 380.109... REQUIREMENTS Longer Combination Vehicle (LCV) Driver-Training and Driver-Instructor Requirements-General § 380.109 Driver testing. (a) Testing methods. The driver-student must pass knowledge and skills tests...

  9. 49 CFR 380.109 - Driver testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Driver testing. 380.109 Section 380.109... REQUIREMENTS Longer Combination Vehicle (LCV) Driver-Training and Driver-Instructor Requirements-General § 380.109 Driver testing. (a) Testing methods. The driver-student must pass knowledge and skills tests...

  10. Fast thyratron driver

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, M.N.; Cassel, R.L.

    1991-04-01

    A fast solid-state pulse generator used as a thyratron grid driver for kicker pulsers, has been developed and built with power MOSFETs and a transmission line transformer. The MOSFET, pulsed on and off by a pair of P-N channel HEXFETs, switches charged capacitors into the transformer connected in parallel on one end and in series on the other end to step up the voltage. The resulting output pulse parameters are 2 kilovolts peak (into 50 Ohms), 13 nanoseconds risetime (10--90%), 250 nanoseconds duration, and less than 50 picoseconds pulse-to-pulse jitter. Various methods are employed to protect the MOSFETs from thyratron arc back, including the use of TransZorbs and a magnetic diode. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Incorporating knowledge into commercially available systems.

    PubMed

    Roberts, J

    2000-01-01

    The ways in which a potential commercial 'user' treats different knowledge types are explored in this paper. The issues are dealt with by the pragmatism with which a marketing manager might evaluate an opportunity. Academics are typically motivated by drivers that are different from a commercial 'push'. Thus partnership is needed for a productive compromise; addressing questions such as why should academic institutions let commercial organizations have their intellectual capital. The paper considers issues of hand-over, product maintenance and a continued development partnership, especially in a volatile [Inter] net-based age.

  12. Hybrid MOSFET/Driver for Ultra-Fast Switching

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, T

    2009-07-14

    The ultra-fast switching of power MOSFETs, in about 1ns, is very challenging. This is largely due to the parasitic inductance that is intrinsic to commercial packages used for both MOSFETs and drivers. Parasitic gate and source inductance not only limit the voltage rise time on the MOSFET internal gate structure but can also cause the gate voltage to oscillate. This paper describes a hybrid approach that substantially reduces the parasitic inductance between the driver and MOSFET gate, as well as between the MOSFET source and its external connection. A flip chip assembly is used to directly attach a die-form power MOSFET and driver on a PCB. The parasitic inductances are significantly reduced by eliminating bond wires and minimizing lead length. The experimental results demonstrate ultra-fast switching of the power MOSFET with excellent control of the gate-source voltage.

  13. Development drivers for waste management.

    PubMed

    Wilson, David C

    2007-06-01

    This paper identifies six broad groups of drivers for development in waste management. Public health led to the emergence of formalized waste collection systems in the nineteenth century, and remains a key driver in developing countries. Environmental protection came to the forefront in the 1970s, with an initial focus on eliminating uncontrolled disposal, followed by the systematic increasing of technical standards. Today, developing countries seem still to be struggling with these first steps; while climate change is also emerging as a key driver. The resource value of waste, which allows people to make a living from discarded materials, was an important driver historically, and remains so in developing countries today. A current trend in developed countries is closing the loop, moving from the concept of 'end-of-pipe' waste management towards a more holistic resource management. Two underpinning groups of drivers are institutional and responsibility issues, and public awareness. There is no, one single driver for development in waste management: the balance between these six groups of drivers has varied over time, and will vary between countries depending on local circumstances, and between stakeholders depending on their perspective. The next appropriate steps towards developing a sustainable, integrated waste management system will also vary in each local situation.

  14. 49 CFR 1572.201 - Transportation of hazardous materials via commercial motor vehicle from Canada or Mexico to and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... subpart for purposes of this section: FAST means Free and Secure Trade program of the Bureau of Customs... 1572.5. (d) FAST card. A commercial motor vehicle driver who holds a current Free and Secure Trade (FAST) program card satisfies the requirements of this section. Commercial motor vehicle drivers...

  15. Commercial Capaciflector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vranish, John M.

    1991-12-01

    A capacitive proximity/tactile sensor with unique performance capabilities ('capaciflector' or capacitive reflector) is being developed by NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) for use on robots and payloads in space in the interests of safety, efficiency, and ease of operation. Specifically, this sensor will permit robots and their attached payloads to avoid collisions in space with humans and other objects and to dock these payloads in a cluttered environment. The sensor is simple, robust, and inexpensive to manufacture with obvious and recognized commercial possibilities. Accordingly, NASA/GSFC, in conjunction with industry, is embarking on an effort to 'spin' this technology off into the private sector. This effort includes prototypes aimed at commercial applications. The principles of operation of these prototypes are described along with hardware, software, modelling, and test results. The hardware description includes both the physical sensor in terms of a flexible printed circuit board and the electronic circuitry. The software description will include filtering and detection techniques. The modelling will involve finite element electric field analysis and will underline techniques used for design optimization.

  16. Commercial Capaciflector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M.

    1991-01-01

    A capacitive proximity/tactile sensor with unique performance capabilities ('capaciflector' or capacitive reflector) is being developed by NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) for use on robots and payloads in space in the interests of safety, efficiency, and ease of operation. Specifically, this sensor will permit robots and their attached payloads to avoid collisions in space with humans and other objects and to dock these payloads in a cluttered environment. The sensor is simple, robust, and inexpensive to manufacture with obvious and recognized commercial possibilities. Accordingly, NASA/GSFC, in conjunction with industry, is embarking on an effort to 'spin' this technology off into the private sector. This effort includes prototypes aimed at commercial applications. The principles of operation of these prototypes are described along with hardware, software, modelling, and test results. The hardware description includes both the physical sensor in terms of a flexible printed circuit board and the electronic circuitry. The software description will include filtering and detection techniques. The modelling will involve finite element electric field analysis and will underline techniques used for design optimization.

  17. INCREASING SEAT BELT USE IN SERVICE VEHICLE DRIVERS WITH A GEARSHIFT DELAY

    PubMed Central

    Van Houten, Ron; Malenfant, J.E. Louis; Reagan, Ian; Sifrit, Kathy; Compton, Richard; Tenenbaum, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated a device that prevents drivers from shifting vehicles into gear for up to 8 s unless seat belts are buckled. Participants were 101 commercial drivers who operated vans, pickups, or other light trucks from the U.S. and Canada. The driver could escape or avoid the delay by fastening his or her seat belt before shifting out of park. Unbelted participants experienced either a constant delay (8 s) or a variable delay (M  =  8 s). A 16-s delay was introduced for those U.S. drivers who did not show significant improvement. Seat belt use increased from 48% to 67% (a 40% increase) for U.S. drivers and from 54% to 74% (a 37% increase) for Canadian drivers. The fixed delay was more effective for U.S. drivers than the variable delay, but there was no difference between these two delay schedules for Canadian drivers. After the driver fastened his or her seat belt, it tended to remain fastened for the duration of the trip. PMID:21358899

  18. 78 FR 17875 - Commercial Driver's License Testing and Commercial Learner's Permit Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-25

    ... States from placing a digital color image or photograph or black and white laser engraved photograph or... reconsideration on the grounds that prohibiting the inclusion of a digital color image or photograph or black and... invested in technologies to develop secure CLPs that may or may not include a digital color image...

  19. 76 FR 26853 - Commercial Driver's License Testing and Commercial Learner's Permit Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    ... Policy Act Executive Order 13211 (Energy Effects) List of Subjects The Final Rule I. Legal Basis This... below, the responsible agency is referred to as the FMCSA, regardless of whether the action described occurred before or after the transfer of responsibility from FHWA to FMCSA in January 2000.) Since the...

  20. Characteristics of Two Groups of Angry Drivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deffenbacher, Jerry L.; Filetti, Linda B.; Richards, Tracy L.; Lynch, Rebekah S.; Oetting, Eugene R.

    2003-01-01

    High anger drivers acknowledging problems with driving anger and interest in counseling (high anger/problem [HP] drivers) were compared with high and low anger drivers not acknowledging problems with driving anger and seeking counseling (high and low/nonproblem [HNP and LNP, respectively] drivers). High anger groups reported more anger while…

  1. 49 CFR 396.13 - Driver inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Driver inspection. 396.13 Section 396.13... MAINTENANCE § 396.13 Driver inspection. Before driving a motor vehicle, the driver shall: (a) Be satisfied that the motor vehicle is in safe operating condition; (b) Review the last driver vehicle...

  2. 49 CFR 396.13 - Driver inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Driver inspection. 396.13 Section 396.13... MAINTENANCE § 396.13 Driver inspection. Before driving a motor vehicle, the driver shall: (a) Be satisfied that the motor vehicle is in safe operating condition; (b) Review the last driver vehicle...

  3. 49 CFR 396.13 - Driver inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Driver inspection. 396.13 Section 396.13... MAINTENANCE § 396.13 Driver inspection. Before driving a motor vehicle, the driver shall: (a) Be satisfied that the motor vehicle is in safe operating condition; (b) Review the last driver vehicle...

  4. 49 CFR 396.13 - Driver inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Driver inspection. 396.13 Section 396.13... MAINTENANCE § 396.13 Driver inspection. Before driving a motor vehicle, the driver shall: (a) Be satisfied that the motor vehicle is in safe operating condition; (b) Review the last driver vehicle...

  5. 49 CFR 396.13 - Driver inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Driver inspection. 396.13 Section 396.13... MAINTENANCE § 396.13 Driver inspection. Before driving a motor vehicle, the driver shall: (a) Be satisfied that the motor vehicle is in safe operating condition; (b) Review the last driver vehicle...

  6. 49 CFR 380.507 - Driver responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Driver responsibilities. 380.507 Section 380.507... REQUIREMENTS Entry-Level Driver Training Requirements § 380.507 Driver responsibilities. Each entry-level driver must receive training required by § 380.503....

  7. 49 CFR 380.507 - Driver responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Driver responsibilities. 380.507 Section 380.507... REQUIREMENTS Entry-Level Driver Training Requirements § 380.507 Driver responsibilities. Each entry-level driver must receive training required by § 380.503....

  8. 49 CFR 380.507 - Driver responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Driver responsibilities. 380.507 Section 380.507... REQUIREMENTS Entry-Level Driver Training Requirements § 380.507 Driver responsibilities. Each entry-level driver must receive training required by § 380.503....

  9. 49 CFR 380.507 - Driver responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Driver responsibilities. 380.507 Section 380.507... REQUIREMENTS Entry-Level Driver Training Requirements § 380.507 Driver responsibilities. Each entry-level driver must receive training required by § 380.503....

  10. Road rage behaviour and experiences of rickshaw drivers in Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, M A; Shaikh, I A; Siddiqui, Z

    2011-08-01

    A cross-sectional survey with convenience sampling was conducted among rickshaw drivers in Rawalpindi, Pakistan to study their road rage behaviour and experiences. Cumulatively 318 male drivers participated in this study. The most common forms of road rage reported were: having been shouted at; and having experienced rude gestures from other drivers (78.9% each). Least common forms of road rage reported were: threats of physical hurt or having actually been physically hurt ( < or = 3% each). Rickshaw drivers with shorter driving time (< or = 10 years) had significantly more road rage experiences than those who had been driving for more than 10 years (P < 0.01). There is a need for nationally representative surveys to study road age in commercial vehicle drivers so as to improve road safety in Pakistan.

  11. Commercial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The near term (one to five year) needs of domestic and foreign commercial suppliers of radiochemicals and radiopharmaceuticals for electromagnetically separated stable isotopes are assessed. Only isotopes purchased to make products for sale and profit are considered. Radiopharmaceuticals produced from enriched stable isotopes supplied by the Calutron facility at ORNL are used in about 600,000 medical procedures each year in the United States. A temporary or permanent disruption of the supply of stable isotopes to the domestic radiopharmaceutical industry could curtail, if not eliminate, the use of such diagnostic procedures as the thallium heart scan, the gallium cancer scan, the gallium abscess scan, and the low radiation dose thyroid scan. An alternative source of enriched stable isotopes exist in the USSR. Alternative starting materials could, in theory, eventually be developed for both the thallium and gallium scans. The development of a new technology for these purposes, however, would take at least five years and would be expensive. Hence, any disruption of the supply of enriched isotopes from ORNL and the resulting unavailability of critical nuclear medicine procedures would have a dramatic negative effect on the level of health care in the United States.

  12. Power requirements for commercial communications spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billerbeck, W. J.

    Historical data on commercial spacecraft power systems are presented and their power requirements to the growth of satellite communications channel usage are related. Some approaches for estimating future power requirements of this class of spacecraft through the year 2000 are proposed. The key technology drivers in satellite power systems are addressed. Several technological trends in such systems are described, focusing on the most useful areas for research and development of major subsystems, including solar arrays, energy storage, and power electronics equipment.

  13. Stress among package truck drivers.

    PubMed

    Orris, P; Hartman, D E; Strauss, P; Anderson, R J; Collins, J; Knopp, C; Xu, Y; Melius, J

    1997-02-01

    In 1992, a cross-sectional questionnaire study of package truck drivers in one company was conducted at four widely scattered sites throughout the US; 317 drivers participated, representing 82% of those eligible. The package truck drivers scored significantly above the US working population comparison norm on all summary and individual scales derived from the SCL 90-R, indicating a substantial increase in psychologic distress for this group. The Global Severity Index, the best single summary measure of psychological distress in the SCL 90-R, revealed a mean T score for the drivers of 64.20, 91st percentile of the normative population. The group perceived significantly more daily stressful events than the average working adult, and their sensitivity to these events was also increased. Role overload, a component of the Occupational Stress Inventory, was the most consistent factor associated with symptoms of psychological distress on multiple regression analysis. This study suggests that job stress is a psychological health hazard for these drivers.

  14. Key drivers of airline loyalty.

    PubMed

    Dolnicar, Sara; Grabler, Klaus; Grün, Bettina; Kulnig, Anna

    2011-10-01

    This study investigates drivers of airline loyalty. It contributes to the body of knowledge in the area by investigating loyalty for a number of a priori market segments identified by airline management and by using a method which accounts for the multi-step nature of the airline choice process. The study is based on responses from 687 passengers. Results indicate that, at aggregate level, frequent flyer membership, price, the status of being a national carrier and the reputation of the airline as perceived by friends are the variables which best discriminate between travellers loyal to the airline and those who are not. Differences in drivers of airline loyalty for a number of segments were identified. For example, loyalty programs play a key role for business travellers whereas airline loyalty of leisure travellers is difficult to trace back to single factors. For none of the calculated models satisfaction emerged as a key driver of airline loyalty.

  15. UWB dual burst transmit driver

    SciTech Connect

    Dallum, Gregory E; Pratt, Garth C; Haugen, Peter C; Zumstein, James M; Vigars, Mark L; Romero, Carlos E

    2012-04-17

    A dual burst transmitter for ultra-wideband (UWB) communication systems generates a pair of precisely spaced RF bursts from a single trigger event. An input trigger pulse produces two oscillator trigger pulses, an initial pulse and a delayed pulse, in a dual trigger generator. The two oscillator trigger pulses drive a gated RF burst (power output) oscillator. A bias driver circuit gates the RF output oscillator on and off and sets the RF burst packet width. The bias driver also level shifts the drive signal to the level that is required for the RF output device.

  16. Evaluation of the elderly driver.

    PubMed

    Craig, Kevin W; Zweig, Steven C

    2007-01-01

    Driving is a daily activity for people across the country. Most Americans, including the elderly, consider it a right. Driving, however, is dangerous and can become more challenging as people age. While evaluating the elderly driver is not a simple task, it is a responsibility that must be shared by Missouri physicians. This paper describes the epidemiology of this problem, common mistakes made by elderly drivers, risk factors that can cause unsafe driving, and strategies physicians can use to evaluate their elderly patients' ability to drive.

  17. Teaching French via Driver Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berwald, Jean-Pierre

    1980-01-01

    Driver instruction through the medium of a foreign language is useful in teaching vocabulary, grammar, and culture. The maps, driving manuals, and cars stimulate discussion and communication. Course techniques can include Asher's concept of Total Physical Response wherein students act in response to commands in the foreign language. (PMJ)

  18. Fuel-Cell Drivers Wanted

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Todd; Jones, Rick

    2004-01-01

    While the political climate seems favorable for the development of fuel-cell vehicles for personal transportation, the market's demand may not be so favorable. Nonetheless, middle level students will be the next generation of drivers and voters, and they need to be able to make informed decisions regarding the nation's energy and transportation…

  19. Driver Education and Driving Simulators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, James H.

    This study was concerned with--(1) the conditions of transfer of training, (2) armed forces research on the use of synthetic training devices in the learning of complex skills, (3) armed forces research on the use of training devices in learning judgmental skills, and (4) training devices used in driver education. A section with a summary,…

  20. 49 CFR 380.507 - Driver responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS SPECIAL TRAINING REQUIREMENTS Entry-Level Driver Training Requirements § 380.507 Driver responsibilities. Each...

  1. Applications of a new mass-driver concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oneill, G. K.

    1981-01-01

    A description of the operating principles and requirements of a novel mass-driver concept is presented. The design obtains acceleration of payload bucket coils by means of transverse focussing from strong, off-axis restoring forces that are produced by drive coils operating in a 'pull-only' mode. The concept offers the unprecedented possibility of operating high-performance mass-drivers entirely within the limitations of existing commercial switching devices, such as silicon-controlled rectifiers, spark gaps, vacuum-triggered arcs or vacuum mechanical switches. Representative applications of the concept described are: (1) a large-diameter magnetic lunar launcher for payloads having autonomous maneuvering; (2) an intermediate-diameter launcher with long operational life; and (3) a reaction engine for orbit transfer of large, massive objects.

  2. Applications of a new mass-driver concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oneill, G. K.

    1981-09-01

    A description of the operating principles and requirements of a novel mass-driver concept is presented. The design obtains acceleration of payload bucket coils by means of transverse focussing from strong, off-axis restoring forces that are produced by drive coils operating in a 'pull-only' mode. The concept offers the unprecedented possibility of operating high-performance mass-drivers entirely within the limitations of existing commercial switching devices, such as silicon-controlled rectifiers, spark gaps, vacuum-triggered arcs or vacuum mechanical switches. Representative applications of the concept described are: (1) a large-diameter magnetic lunar launcher for payloads having autonomous maneuvering; (2) an intermediate-diameter launcher with long operational life; and (3) a reaction engine for orbit transfer of large, massive objects.

  3. 49 CFR 380.109 - Driver testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS SPECIAL TRAINING....109 Driver testing. (a) Testing methods. The driver-student must pass knowledge and skills tests in... be administered by any qualified driver-instructor. The skills tests, based on actual operation of...

  4. Energy Education Resource Guide for Driver Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyerhoff, Richard

    This guide is designed to help driver education teachers in Iowa to integrate energy conservation education into the traditional high school driver education course. Following an explanation of the necessity for teaching energy conservation with driver education, the course guide is divided into seven units. The units cover vehicle selection,…

  5. 40 CFR 1066.280 - Driver's aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Driver's aid. 1066.280 Section 1066... VEHICLE-TESTING PROCEDURES Dynamometer Specifications § 1066.280 Driver's aid. Use good engineering judgment to provide a driver's aid that facilitates compliance with the requirements of § 1066.430....

  6. 40 CFR 1066.280 - Driver's aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Driver's aid. 1066.280 Section 1066... VEHICLE-TESTING PROCEDURES Dynamometer Specifications § 1066.280 Driver's aid. Use good engineering judgment to provide a driver's aid that facilitates compliance with the requirements of § 1066.430....

  7. Driving performance and driver discomfort in an elevated and standard driving position during a driving simulation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jordan; Mansfield, Neil; Gyi, Diane; Pagett, Mark; Bateman, Bob

    2015-07-01

    The primary purposes of a vehicle driver's seat, is to allow them to complete the driving task comfortably and safely. Within each class of vehicle (e.g. passenger, commercial, industrial, agricultural), there is an expected driving position to which a vehicle cabin is designed. This paper reports a study that compares two driving positions, in relation to Light Commercial Vehicles (LCVs), in terms of driver performance and driver discomfort. In the 'elevated' driving position, the seat is higher than usually used in road vehicles; this is compared to a standard driving position replicating the layout for a commercially available vehicle. It is shown that for a sample of 12 drivers, the elevated position did not, in general, show more discomfort than the standard position over a 60 min driving simulation, although discomfort increased with duration. There were no adverse effects shown for emergency stop reaction time or for driver headway for the elevated posture compared to the standard posture. The only body part that showed greater discomfort for the elevated posture compared to the standard posture was the right ankle. A second experiment confirmed that for 12 subjects, a higher pedal stiffness eliminated the ankle discomfort problem.

  8. OPTO-22 DRIVER. OPTO-22 Driver for LabView

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.W.

    1991-01-28

    OPTO-22 DRIVER consists of a set of LabVIEW (National Instruments, Austin, TX) virtual instruments (VIs) that handle low-level communications with signal conditioning equipment by Opto-22 (Huntington Beach, CA). The OPTOMUX protocol is support, which requires the use of a serial port and supports multidrop communications. With this package, users can connect hundreds of Opto-22 modules to their LabVIEW system and access all features of the hardware, including analog and digital input and outputs.

  9. Improved blood pressure control among school bus drivers with hypertension.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Joseph; Severance-Fonte, Tina; Morandi-Matricaria, Elizabeth; Wogen, Jenifer; Frech-Tamas, Feride

    2010-04-01

    The impact of a hypertension awareness and educational program, BP DownShift, was evaluated among school bus drivers in a southern US state. At baseline (August 2007), blood pressure (BP) measurements, self-reported demographics, and hypertension awareness and management practices were collected from drivers who consented to participate in the study. Interventions included 4 educational mailings, installation of BP machines at all bus terminals, and access to free dietitian consultations and gym memberships. BP was evaluated using Department of Transportation guidelines. BP was remeasured and a survey was administered at follow-up (May 2008). At baseline, 208 drivers consented to the BP screening; 120 (58%) returned for a follow-up assessment. Most participants completing the study were female (73%) and African American (72%). Mean age was 50 years and mean body mass index was 32 kg/m(2); 52% of participants were obese. In all, 58% of participants reported a prior diagnosis of hypertension by a physician, and 63% reported taking antihypertensive medication. Both systolic and diastolic BP (SBP and DBP) were lower at follow-up (135/82 mmHg vs. 145/87 mmHg at baseline; P < 0.001, both comparisons); 42% had a reduction in SBP > 10 mmHg, and 44% had a reduction in DBP > 5 mmHg. At follow-up, 58% were controlled to BP < 140/90, compared to 38% at baseline (P < 0.001). At follow-up, an increased proportion of previously diagnosed drivers reported home BP monitoring, healthy diet, and regular exercise as components of hypertension self-management. The implementation of our hypertension education, self-management, and awareness program was associated with an improvement in BP control, which may positively impact commercial driver's license recertification as well as improve employee health.

  10. Prevalence and factors associated with road traffic crash among taxi drivers in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    La, Quang Ngoc; Lee, Andy H; Meuleners, Lynn B; Van Duong, Dat

    2013-01-01

    Injury due to road traffic crash is a major cause of ill health and premature deaths in developing countries. Taxis provide a main mode of public transport in Vietnam but there has been little research on the risk of crash for taxi drivers. This retrospective study collected information on taxi crashes for the period 2006-2009 by interviewing drivers from five taxi companies in Hanoi, Vietnam, using a structured questionnaire. Of the total 1214 participants recruited, 276 drivers reported at least one crash, giving an overall crash prevalence of 22.7%. Among the crashed group, 50 drivers (18.1%) were involved in two to four crashes. Logistic regression analysis further identified age of driver, type of driving licence, employment status, perceived sufficiency of income, seat-belt usage, and traffic infringement history to be significantly associated with the crash risk. Further prospective and qualitative studies are recommended to provide detailed crash characteristics as well as behaviour and perception of taxi drivers, so that an effective intervention can be developed to improve road safety and to prevent injury of these commercial drivers.

  11. Factors Contributing to Crashes among Young Drivers

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Lyndel J.; Davey, Jeremy; Watson, Barry; King, Mark J.; Armstrong, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    Young drivers are the group of drivers most likely to crash. There are a number of factors that contribute to the high crash risk experienced by these drivers. While some of these factors are intrinsic to the young driver, such as their age, gender or driving skill, others relate to social factors and when and how often they drive. This article reviews the factors that affect the risk of young drivers crashing to enable a fuller understanding of why this risk is so high in order to assist in developing effective countermeasures. PMID:25097763

  12. Visualization drivers for Geant4

    SciTech Connect

    Beretvas, Andy; /Fermilab

    2005-10-01

    This document is on Geant4 visualization tools (drivers), evaluating pros and cons of each option, including recommendations on which tools to support at Fermilab for different applications. Four visualization drivers are evaluated. They are OpenGL, HepRep, DAWN and VRML. They all have good features, OpenGL provides graphic output without an intermediate file. HepRep provides menus to assist the user. DAWN provides high quality plots and even for large files produces output quickly. VRML uses the smallest disk space for intermediate files. Large experiments at Fermilab will want to write their own display. They should proceed to make this display graphics independent. Medium experiment will probably want to use HepRep because of it's menu support. Smaller scale experiments will want to use OpenGL in the spirit of having immediate response, good quality output and keeping things simple.

  13. Global desertification: Drivers and feedbacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Odorico, Paolo; Bhattachan, Abinash; Davis, Kyle F.; Ravi, Sujith; Runyan, Christiane W.

    2013-01-01

    Desertification is a change in soil properties, vegetation or climate, which results in a persistent loss of ecosystem services that are fundamental to sustaining life. Desertification affects large dryland areas around the world and is a major cause of stress in human societies. Here we review recent research on the drivers, feedbacks, and impacts of desertification. A multidisciplinary approach to understanding the drivers and feedbacks of global desertification is motivated by our increasing need to improve global food production and to sustainably manage ecosystems in the context of climate change. Classic desertification theories look at this process as a transition between stable states in bistable ecosystem dynamics. Climate change (i.e., aridification) and land use dynamics are the major drivers of an ecosystem shift to a “desertified” (or “degraded”) state. This shift is typically sustained by positive feedbacks, which stabilize the system in the new state. Desertification feedbacks may involve land degradation processes (e.g., nutrient loss or salinization), changes in rainfall regime resulting from land-atmosphere interactions (e.g., precipitation recycling, dust emissions), or changes in plant community composition (e.g., shrub encroachment, decrease in vegetation cover). We analyze each of these feedback mechanisms and discuss their possible enhancement by interactions with socio-economic drivers. Large scale effects of desertification include the emigration of “environmental refugees” displaced from degraded areas, climatic changes, and the alteration of global biogeochemical cycles resulting from the emission and long-range transport of fine mineral dust. Recent research has identified some possible early warning signs of desertification, which can be used as indicators of resilience loss and imminent shift to desert-like conditions. We conclude with a brief discussion on some desertification control strategies implemented in different

  14. 78 FR 3069 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Epilepsy and Seizure Disorders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ...FMCSA announces its decision to grant requests from 22 individuals for exemptions from the regulatory requirement that interstate commercial motor vehicle (CMV) drivers have ``no established medical history or clinical diagnosis of epilepsy or any other condition which is likely to cause loss of consciousness or any loss of ability to control a CMV.'' The regulation and the associated advisory......

  15. 76 FR 61137 - Hours of Service of Drivers: Western Pilot Service Application for Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ... commercial motor vehicle (CMV) after the 70th hour of cumulative on-duty time in any 8-day period. FMCSA... and be ready to mix, load, fuel, and service its aircraft at all times during daylight hours and must... and mental work in a given day. While Western's drivers wait for an aircraft to be dispatched or...

  16. The drivers of tropical speciation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Brian Tilston; McCormack, John E; Cuervo, Andrés M; Hickerson, Michael J; Aleixo, Alexandre; Cadena, Carlos Daniel; Pérez-Emán, Jorge; Burney, Curtis W; Xie, Xiaoou; Harvey, Michael G; Faircloth, Brant C; Glenn, Travis C; Derryberry, Elizabeth P; Prejean, Jesse; Fields, Samantha; Brumfield, Robb T

    2014-11-20

    Since the recognition that allopatric speciation can be induced by large-scale reconfigurations of the landscape that isolate formerly continuous populations, such as the separation of continents by plate tectonics, the uplift of mountains or the formation of large rivers, landscape change has been viewed as a primary driver of biological diversification. This process is referred to in biogeography as vicariance. In the most species-rich region of the world, the Neotropics, the sundering of populations associated with the Andean uplift is ascribed this principal role in speciation. An alternative model posits that rather than being directly linked to landscape change, allopatric speciation is initiated to a greater extent by dispersal events, with the principal drivers of speciation being organism-specific abilities to persist and disperse in the landscape. Landscape change is not a necessity for speciation in this model. Here we show that spatial and temporal patterns of genetic differentiation in Neotropical birds are highly discordant across lineages and are not reconcilable with a model linking speciation solely to landscape change. Instead, the strongest predictors of speciation are the amount of time a lineage has persisted in the landscape and the ability of birds to move through the landscape matrix. These results, augmented by the observation that most species-level diversity originated after episodes of major Andean uplift in the Neogene period, suggest that dispersal and differentiation on a matrix previously shaped by large-scale landscape events was a major driver of avian speciation in lowland Neotropical rainforests.

  17. Car drivers' attitudes towards motorcyclists: a survey.

    PubMed

    Crundall, David; Bibby, Peter; Clarke, David; Ward, Patrick; Bartle, Craig

    2008-05-01

    Motorcyclists are over-represented in UK traffic accident statistics. Many car-motorcycle accidents are however due to the inappropriate actions of car drivers. It is predicted that car drivers at risk of collision with motorcycles have divergent attitudes and beliefs about motorcyclists compared to safer drivers, which may lead to a deficient mental model guiding their interactions with motorcyclists. To assess car drivers' attitudes towards motorcyclists, a survey was undertaken. Respondents filled in 26 general and motorcycle-related items and the 24 items of the reduced Driver Behaviour Questionnaire. Compared to an experienced dual driver group (who both drive cars and ride motorcycles), all other drivers showed divergent beliefs and attitudes. Four factors were extracted from the motorcycle items: negative attitudes, empathic attitudes, awareness of perceptual problems, and spatial understanding. Car drivers with a moderate amount of experience (between 2 and 10 years driving) held the most negative views and reported the most violations. The results have lead to several suggestions for interventions aimed at decreasing the divergence between drivers' perceptions of motorcyclists, and the perceptions of experienced dual drivers.

  18. Hospital admissions among male drivers in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Hannerz, H; Tuchsen, F

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To facilitate decisions about interventions and to establish baseline values for future evaluation of preventive efforts, the aim of the present study was to elucidate the disease pattern among male professional drivers in Denmark. The study differentiated between drivers of goods vehicles and drivers of passenger transport.
METHODS—Cohorts of all 20-59 year old Danish male professional drivers in the years 1981, 1986, 1991, and 1994 were formed, to calculate age standardised hospital admission ratios (SHRs) and time trends (1981-97) for many diagnostic aggregations.
RESULTS—SHRs for diseases in practically all systems and organs of the body were higher among professional drivers than they were in the male working population at large. Also drivers of passenger transport, compared with drivers of goods vehicles, had significantly high SHRs due to infectious and parasitic diseases, diseases of the circulatory system, and diseases of the respiratory system, and significantly lower rates of injury. For both driver groups, the SHRs for acute myocardial infarction increased with time whereas the SHR for acute gastritis decreased, and for drivers of passenger transport an increasing SHR for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, was found over time.
CONCLUSION—Drivers of passenger transport and drivers of goods vehicles differ in their disease patterns. The results support the hypothesis that preventive efforts are needed in both groups, but underline that different strategies are required for different categories of drivers.


Keywords: professional drivers; hospital admissions; surveillance system PMID:11245742

  19. 75 FR 22581 - Energy Conservation Program for Commercial Equipment: Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ... Electric & Electronics USA, Inc. (Mitsubishi) for a similar line of commercial multi-split air-conditioning... from being tested using the current DOE test procedures. As stated above, Daikin asserts that the two... efficiency driver. The current DOE test procedure for commercial products tends to rate these...

  20. 49 CFR 392.22 - Emergency signals; stopped commercial motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... REGULATIONS DRIVING OF COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Stopped Commercial Motor Vehicles § 392.22 Emergency signals... activate the vehicular hazard warning signal flashers and continue the flashing until the driver places the warning devices required by paragraph (b) of this section. The flashing signals shall be used during...

  1. 49 CFR 392.22 - Emergency signals; stopped commercial motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... REGULATIONS DRIVING OF COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Stopped Commercial Motor Vehicles § 392.22 Emergency signals... activate the vehicular hazard warning signal flashers and continue the flashing until the driver places the warning devices required by paragraph (b) of this section. The flashing signals shall be used during...

  2. 49 CFR 392.22 - Emergency signals; stopped commercial motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... REGULATIONS DRIVING OF COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Stopped Commercial Motor Vehicles § 392.22 Emergency signals... activate the vehicular hazard warning signal flashers and continue the flashing until the driver places the warning devices required by paragraph (b) of this section. The flashing signals shall be used during...

  3. Recent developments in mass drivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oneill, G. K.

    1981-01-01

    In the past eight months a new mass driver concept has been explored through calculation and inductance model verification. It retains the linear synchronous principle and freedom from arcs, plasmas or physical contact between the accelerated bucket and accelerator. However, it discards passive magnetic flight and obtains transverse focussing from strong off-axis restoring forces produced by drive coils operating in a pull-only mode. This paper gives the reasoning on which the new concept is based, and applies the concept to a lunar catapult design.

  4. Mass drivers. 1: Electrical design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, W.; Bowen, S.; Fine, K.; Kaplan, D.; Kolm, M.; Kolm, H.; Newman, J.; Oneill, G. K.; Snow, W.

    1979-01-01

    A mass driver is an electrical device used to accelerate payloads of any material to a high velocity. Small vehicles (called buckets) containing superconducting coils carry the payloads. These buckets are accelerated by pulsed magnetic fields, timed by information on their position, and are guided by induced magnetic fields set up in a surrounding guideway. Upon reaching the correct velocity, the buckets release their payloads, then they are slowed for recirculation to be reused. A rationale is presented that leads to a relatively simple and near-optimum design, as well as basic programs for calculating acceleration. The transverse oscillation frequencies are found to be invariant to guideway transverse dimensions.

  5. Driver models for personalised driving assistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefèvre, Stéphanie; Carvalho, Ashwin; Gao, Yiqi; Tseng, H. Eric; Borrelli, Francesco

    2015-12-01

    We propose a learning-based driver modelling approach which can identify manoeuvres performed by drivers on the highway and predict the future driver inputs. We show how this approach can be applied to provide personalised driving assistance. In a first example, the driver model is used to predict unintentional lane departures and a model predictive controller is used to keep the car in the lane. In a second example, the driver model estimates the preferred acceleration of the driver during lane keeping, and a model predictive controller is implemented to provide a personalised adaptive cruise control. For both applications, we use a combination of real data and simulation to evaluate the proposed approaches.

  6. Precise Characterization of a Laser Current Driver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troxel, Daylin

    2009-10-01

    I will be presenting a characterization of our unique low-noise laser current driver. Our current driver improves on the typical model used in laboratories, giving extra current stability and lower noise. I will discuss our techniques for measuring the noise and drift and the results we obtained. The current driver has a lower noise and drift than any other current driver with a published value, so it has value in making precision measurements. Many other labs have expressed interest in our design as there is a need for this type of current driver in many applications. The current driver demonstrates some interesting applications of electronics principles and uses of electric components, as well as practical considerations in designing circuitry.

  7. Psychological reactions of drivers to railway suicide.

    PubMed

    Tranah, T; Farmer, R D

    1994-02-01

    Around 90 London Underground train drivers experience a person jumping or falling in front of their train each year. The majority of these incidents are suicides or attempted suicides. 76 drivers were interviewed in order to assess the range of responses to these incidents. The following psychometric instruments were used: Present State Examination (PSE9); Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Interview; General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28); Impact of Events Scale (IES); Post-Traumatic Symptom Scale; Recent Difficulties/Events scale; Perceived Stress Scale and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ). When interviewed 1 month after the incident 13 (17.11%) drivers presented with PTSD. Diagnoses other than PTSD e.g. neurotic depression and phobic state were present in 24 (31.58%) drivers (including 12 of the 13 PTSD cases who had one additional diagnosis). On the basis of diagnoses three groups were identified: Group 1 drivers had PTSD and in most cases an additional PSE9 diagnosis; Group 2 drivers had a PSE9 diagnosis only; Group 3 drivers were not cases. 56 drivers were again interviewed 6 months after the incident to assess duration of caseness and/or symptoms and to identify any cases of delayed onset. Two drivers were still cases at 6 months (neurotic depression and phobic state), no driver presented with PTSD at 6 months. At 6 months there was a significant drop in symptom scores compared with measures taken at 1 month. These results suggest that although approximately one-third of drivers suffered a severe psychological reaction following a railway suicide, when interviewed again 6 months after the incident most drivers reported a marked reduction in symptoms.

  8. Commercial Buildings Characteristics, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-29

    Commercial Buildings Characteristics 1992 presents statistics about the number, type, and size of commercial buildings in the United States as well as their energy-related characteristics. These data are collected in the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), a national survey of buildings in the commercial sector. The 1992 CBECS is the fifth in a series conducted since 1979 by the Energy Information Administration. Approximately 6,600 commercial buildings were surveyed, representing the characteristics and energy consumption of 4.8 million commercial buildings and 67.9 billion square feet of commercial floorspace nationwide. Overall, the amount of commercial floorspace in the United States increased an average of 2.4 percent annually between 1989 and 1992, while the number of commercial buildings increased an average of 2.0 percent annually.

  9. Driver behaviour profiles for road safety analysis.

    PubMed

    Ellison, Adrian B; Greaves, Stephen P; Bliemer, Michiel C J

    2015-03-01

    Driver behaviour is a contributing factor in over 90 percent of road crashes. As a consequence, there is significant benefit in identifying drivers who engage in unsafe driving practices. Driver behaviour profiles (DBPs) are introduced here as an approach for evaluating driver behaviour as a function of the risk of a casualty crash. They employ data collected using global positioning system (GPS) devices, supplemented with spatiotemporal information. These profiles are comprised of common risk scores that can be used to compare drivers between each other and across time and space. The paper details the development of these DBPs and demonstrates their use as an input into modelling the factors that influence driver behaviour. The results show that even having controlled for the influence of the road environment, these factors remain the strongest predictors of driver behaviour suggesting different spatiotemporal environments elicit a variety of psychological responses in drivers. The approach and outcomes will be of interest to insurance companies in enhancing the risk-profiling of drivers with on-road driving and government through assessing the impacts of behaviour-change interventions.

  10. Mass Driver Two - A status report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow, W. R.; Dunbar, R. S.; Kubby, J. A.; Oneill, G. K.

    1982-01-01

    The current status of Mass Driver Two, a linear synchronous motor for accelerating payloads or reaction mass, is discussed. Mass Driver Two combines all the essential elements of an operational mass driver with the exception of bucket recirculation and payload handling. These essential elements include: magnetic flight, vacuum environment, superconducting bucket coils, high acceleration (nominally 500 g's), optical position sensing and electronic triggering, power circuitry similar to that of a flight article, and regenerative braking. Mass Driver Two is operated on a single shot basis.

  11. Global environmental drivers of influenza

    PubMed Central

    Deyle, Ethan R.; Maher, M. Cyrus; Hernandez, Ryan D.; Basu, Sanjay; Sugihara, George

    2016-01-01

    In temperate countries, influenza outbreaks are well correlated to seasonal changes in temperature and absolute humidity. However, tropical countries have much weaker annual climate cycles, and outbreaks show less seasonality and are more difficult to explain with environmental correlations. Here, we use convergent cross mapping, a robust test for causality that does not require correlation, to test alternative hypotheses about the global environmental drivers of influenza outbreaks from country-level epidemic time series. By moving beyond correlation, we show that despite the apparent differences in outbreak patterns between temperate and tropical countries, absolute humidity and, to a lesser extent, temperature drive influenza outbreaks globally. We also find a hypothesized U-shaped relationship between absolute humidity and influenza that is predicted by theory and experiment, but hitherto has not been documented at the population level. The balance between positive and negative effects of absolute humidity appears to be mediated by temperature, and the analysis reveals a key threshold around 75 °F. The results indicate a unified explanation for environmental drivers of influenza that applies globally. PMID:27799563

  12. Economic drivers of mineral supply

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Lorie A.; Sullivan, Daniel E.; Sznopek, John L.

    2003-01-01

    The debate over the adequacy of future supplies of mineral resources continues in light of the growing use of mineral-based materials in the United States. According to the U.S. Geological Survey, the quantity of new materials utilized each year has dramatically increased from 161 million tons2 in 1900 to 3.2 billion tons in 2000. Of all the materials used during the 20th century in the United States, more than half were used in the last 25 years. With the Earth?s endowment of natural resources remaining constant, and increased demand for resources, economic theory states that as depletion approaches, prices rise. This study shows that many economic drivers (conditions that create an economic incentive for producers to act in a particular way) such as the impact of globalization, technological improvements, productivity increases, and efficient materials usage are at work simultaneously to impact minerals markets and supply. As a result of these economic drivers, the historical price trend of mineral prices3 in constant dollars has declined as demand has risen. When price is measured by the cost in human effort, the price trend also has been almost steadily downward. Although the United States economy continues its increasing mineral consumption trend, the supply of minerals has been able to keep pace. This study shows that in general supply has grown faster than demand, causing a declining trend in mineral prices.

  13. 49 CFR 391.11 - General qualifications of drivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General qualifications of drivers. 391.11 Section... QUALIFICATIONS OF DRIVERS AND LONGER COMBINATION VEHICLE (LCV) DRIVER INSTRUCTORS Qualification and Disqualification of Drivers § 391.11 General qualifications of drivers. (a) A person shall not drive a...

  14. 49 CFR 391.11 - General qualifications of drivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General qualifications of drivers. 391.11 Section... QUALIFICATIONS OF DRIVERS AND LONGER COMBINATION VEHICLE (LCV) DRIVER INSTRUCTORS Qualification and Disqualification of Drivers § 391.11 General qualifications of drivers. (a) A person shall not drive a...

  15. 49 CFR 395.13 - Drivers declared out of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Drivers declared out of service. 395.13 Section... SERVICE OF DRIVERS § 395.13 Drivers declared out of service. (a) Authority to declare drivers out of... to this subchapter) is authorized to declare a driver out of service and to notify the motor...

  16. 49 CFR 395.13 - Drivers declared out of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drivers declared out of service. 395.13 Section... SERVICE OF DRIVERS § 395.13 Drivers declared out of service. (a) Authority to declare drivers out of... to this subchapter) is authorized to declare a driver out of service and to notify the motor...

  17. 49 CFR 395.13 - Drivers declared out of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Drivers declared out of service. 395.13 Section... SERVICE OF DRIVERS § 395.13 Drivers declared out of service. (a) Authority to declare drivers out of... to this subchapter) is authorized to declare a driver out of service and to notify the motor...

  18. 49 CFR 395.13 - Drivers declared out of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Drivers declared out of service. 395.13 Section... SERVICE OF DRIVERS § 395.13 Drivers declared out of service. (a) Authority to declare drivers out of... to this subchapter) is authorized to declare a driver out of service and to notify the motor...

  19. 49 CFR 395.13 - Drivers declared out of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Drivers declared out of service. 395.13 Section... SERVICE OF DRIVERS § 395.13 Drivers declared out of service. (a) Authority to declare drivers out of... to this subchapter) is authorized to declare a driver out of service and to notify the motor...

  20. NASA commercial programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    An expanded role for the U.S. private sector in America's space future has emerged as a key national objective, and NASA's Office of Commercial Programs is providing a focus for action. The Office supports new high technology commercial space ventures, the commercial application of existing aeronautics and space technology, and expanded commercial access to available NASA capabilities and services. The progress NASA has made in carrying out its new assignment is highlighted.

  1. Fatal traffic accidents among trailer truck drivers and accident causes as viewed by other truck drivers.

    PubMed

    Häkkänen, H; Summala, H

    2001-03-01

    Causality factors, the responsibility of the driver and driver fatigue-related factors were studied in fatal two-vehicle accidents where a trailer truck driver was involved during the period of 1991-1997 (n = 337). In addition, 251 long-haul truck drivers were surveyed in order to study their views regarding contributing factors in accidents involving trucks and the development of possible countermeasure against driver fatigue. Trailer truck drivers were principally responsible for 16% of all the accidents. Younger driver age and driving during evening hours were significant predictors of being principally responsible. In addition, the probability of being principally responsible for the accident increased by a factor of over three if the driver had a chronic illness. Prolonged driving preceding the accident, accident history or traffic offence history did not have a significant effect. Only 2% of the drivers were estimated to have fallen asleep while driving just prior to the accident, and altogether 4% of the drivers had been tired prior to the accident. Of the drivers 13% had however, been driving over 10 h preceding the accident (which has been criminally punishably in Finland since 1995 under the EC regulation) but no individual factors had a significant effect in predicting prolonged driving. The surveyed views regarding causes of truck accidents correspond well with the accident analysis. Accidents were viewed as being most often caused by other road users and driver fatigue was viewed to be no more than the fifth (out of eight) common cause of accidents. The probability of viewing fatigue as a more common cause increased significantly if the driver had experienced fatigue-related problems while driving. However, nearly half of the surveyed truck drivers expressed a negative view towards developing a technological countermeasure against driver fatigue. The negative view was not related to personal experiences of fatigue-related problems while driving.

  2. Commercial Banking Industry Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bright Horizons Children's Centers, Cambridge, MA.

    Work and family programs are becoming increasingly important in the commercial banking industry. The objective of this survey was to collect information and prepare a commercial banking industry profile on work and family programs. Fifty-nine top American commercial banks from the Fortune 500 list were invited to participate. Twenty-two…

  3. Commercialization of Nanotechnology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    NATO LECTURES M. Meyyappan Commercialization of Nanotechnology Abstract Nanotechnology is an enabling technology and as such, will have an...years), medium term (10 years) and long term (> 15 years) prospects. In addition, the challenges currently being faced to commercialize nanotechnology...will be discussed in detail. A summary outlining efforts across the world in terms of commercialization , startup activities, participation of major

  4. Commercial Radio as Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothenbuhler, Eric W.

    1996-01-01

    Compares the day-to-day work routines of commercial radio with the principles of a theoretical communication model. Illuminates peculiarities of the conduct of communication by commercial radio. Discusses the application of theoretical models to the evaluation of practicing institutions. Offers assessments of commercial radio deriving from…

  5. COMMERCIAL FOODS, MATHEMATICS - I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DORNFIELD, BLANCHE E.

    THE UNDERSTANDING AND MASTERY OF FUNDAMENTAL MATHEMATICS IS A NECESSARY PART OF COMMERCIAL FOODS WORK. THIS STUDENT HANDBOOK WAS DESIGNED TO ACCOMPANY A COMMERCIAL FOODS COURSE AT THE HIGH SCHOOL LEVEL FOR STUDENTS WITH APPROPRIATE APTITUDES AND COMMERCIAL FOOD SERVICE GOALS. THE MATERIAL, TESTED IN VARIOUS INTERESTED CLASSROOMS, WAS PREPARED BY…

  6. Impact Driver With Integral Sliding Hammer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, Bilby J.

    1987-01-01

    Tool combines impact driver with sliding dead-blow hammer. Used for any purpose for which ordinary impact driver used; tightening fasteners or driving starter holes for drill. Tool protects user from accidental injury and surrounding equipment from damage that might occur from ordinary arm-wielded hammer. Especially useful in underwater work.

  7. California's Bus Driver's Training Course. Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This instructor's manual was designed to help graduates of the California Bus Driver Instructor Course provide effective instruction to school bus driver trainees. It contains enough material for 20-30 hours of classroom training. The information is organized in 12 instructional units that cover the following topics: introduction to the course;…

  8. Hallways to Highways. Driver Education 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    The purpose of this guide is to provide direction and assistance to driver education instructors and school administrators as they plan and implement quality programs of traffic safety instruction. Materials are divided into seven chapters conveying: (1) the organization and administration of driver and traffic safety education, (2) the driving…

  9. About Assessment Criteria of Driver's Accidental Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobanova, Yuliya I.; Glushko, Kirill V.

    2016-01-01

    The article points at the importance of studying the human factor as a cause of accidents of drivers, especially in loosely structured traffic situations. The description of the experiment on the measurement of driver's accidental abilities is given. Under accidental ability is meant the capability to ensure the security of driving as a behavior…

  10. Physics at an upgraded Fermilab proton driver

    SciTech Connect

    Geer, S.; /Fermilab

    2005-07-01

    In 2004 the Fermilab Long Range Planning Committee identified a new high intensity Proton Driver as an attractive option for the future, primarily motivated by the recent exciting developments in neutrino physics. Over the last few months a physics study has developed the physics case for the Fermilab Proton Driver. The potential physics opportunities are discussed.

  11. Graduated Driver Licensing: The New Zealand Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begg, Dorothy; Stephenson, Shaun

    2003-01-01

    Evaluates the graduated driver-licensing (GDL) system in New Zealand. Describes driver licensing and crash fatality rates before and after the implementation of GDL in 1987. Reports that GDL has contributed to a reduction in crashes among young people. (Contains 2 figures and 6 references.) (AUTHOR/WFA)

  12. Evaluation of Driver Education and Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, Harry H.; And Others

    What contributions do driver education and training programs make to the Nation's highway safety program? An answer to this question was sought through a synthesis of four feasibility studies concerning the effectiveness of current or proposed driver education programs. These preliminary investigations failed to identify any clear proof that…

  13. 49 CFR 177.816 - Driver training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Driver training. 177.816 Section 177.816... Information and Regulations § 177.816 Driver training. (a) In addition to the training requirements of § 177... employee who will operate a motor vehicle has been trained in the applicable requirements of 49 CFR...

  14. Versatile subnanosecond laser diode driver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Żbik, Mateusz; Wieczorek, Piotr Z.

    2016-09-01

    This article presents a laser diode driver that provides a fast modulation of a laser beam. A pulsed current source was designed and built to test Infra-Red (I-R) receivers in the Time Domain (TD). The proposed solution allows to estimate pulse responses of various photodetectors, whereas the testing was performed with a PiN photodetector. The pulse response brings the information on the behavior of the device under test in a wide frequency range. In addition, an experimental application of the proposed method is presented too. System discussed in this paper has been fully designed and manufactured in Warsaw University of Technology (WUT) in Institute of Electronic Systems (ISE).

  15. Displaceable Gear Torque Controlled Driver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Joseph S., Jr. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are provided for a torque driver including a displaceable gear to limit torque transfer to a fastener at a precisely controlled torque limit. A biasing assembly biases a first gear into engagement with a second gear for torque transfer between the first and second gear. The biasing assembly includes a pressurized cylinder controlled at a constant pressure that corresponds to a torque limit. A calibrated gage and valve is used to set the desired torque limit. One or more coiled output linkages connect the first gear with the fastener adaptor which may be a socket for a nut. A gear tooth profile provides a separation force that overcomes the bias to limit torque at the desired torque limit. Multiple fasteners may be rotated simultaneously to a desired torque limit if additional output spur gears are provided. The torque limit is adjustable and may be different for fasteners within the same fastener configuration.

  16. Stability analysis of automobile driver steering control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, R. W.

    1981-01-01

    In steering an automobile, the driver must basically control the direction of the car's trajectory (heading angle) and the lateral deviation of the car relative to a delineated pathway. A previously published linear control model of driver steering behavior which is analyzed from a stability point of view is considered. A simple approximate expression for a stability parameter, phase margin, is derived in terms of various driver and vehicle control parameters, and boundaries for stability are discussed. A field test study is reviewed that includes the measurement of driver steering control parameters. Phase margins derived for a range of vehicle characteristics are found to be generally consistent with known adaptive properties of the human operator. The implications of these results are discussed in terms of driver adaptive behavior.

  17. 77 FR 40142 - Applications for Exemption: Commercial Driver's License (CDL) and Hours-of-Service (HOS) of Drivers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ... carrier operations without the exemption [49 CFR 381.305(b)]. The application must include a written assessment of the safety impacts the exemption may have. It must also describe how the applicant would ensure... application, the safety assessment, and all other information relevant to the application. The Agency...

  18. Fatigue: a major cause of commercial livestock truck accidents.

    PubMed

    Woods, Jennifer; Grandin, Temple

    2008-01-01

    Accident reports on 415 commercial livestock truck accidents were tabulated between 1994 and June 2007 in the United States and Canada. Data was collected from Google internet searches of newspaper and television news reports, unpublished industry sources and Alberta government agencies. Fifty-nine percent of the accidents occurred during the early morning hours from midnight to 9:00 am and 80% involved a single vehicle. Driver error was blamed for 85% of the wrecks. In 83% of the accidents, the vehicle rolled over and 84% of the truckers tipped over on their right side. In North America, vehicles travel on the right-hand side of the road and if a driver falls asleep at the wheel he usually drifts off toward the right. Driver fatigue is the most likely explanation for many of these accidents.

  19. Modeling of Driver Steering Operations in Lateral Wind Disturbances toward Driver Assistance System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurata, Yoshinori; Wada, Takahiro; Kamiji, Norimasa; Doi, Shun'ichi

    Disturbances decrease vehicle stability and increase driver's mental and physical workload. Especially unexpected disturbances such as lateral winds have severe effect on vehicle stability and driver's workload. This study aims at building a driver model of steering operations in lateral wind toward developing effective driver assistance system. First, the relationship between the driver's lateral motion and its reactive quick steering behavior is investigated using driving simulator with lateral 1dof motion. In the experiments, four different wind patterns are displayed by the simulator. As the results, strong correlation was found between the driver's head lateral jerk by the lateral disturbance and the angular acceleration of the steering wheel. Then, we build a mathematical model of driver's steering model from lateral disturbance input to steering torque of the reactive quick feed-forward steering based on the experimental results. Finally, validity of the proposed model is shown by comparing the steering torque of experimental results and that of simulation results.

  20. Modeling aggressive driver behavior at unsignalized intersections.

    PubMed

    Kaysi, Isam A; Abbany, Ali S

    2007-07-01

    The processing of vehicles at unsignalized intersections is a complex and highly interactive process, whereby each driver makes individual decisions about when, where, and how to complete the required maneuver, subject to his perceptions of distances, velocities, and own car's performance. Typically, the performance of priority-unsignalized intersections has been modeled with probabilistic approaches that consider the distribution of gaps in the major-traffic stream and their acceptance by the drivers of minor street vehicles based on the driver's "critical gap". This paper investigates the aggressive behavior of minor street vehicles at intersections that are priority-unsignalized but operate with little respect of control measures. The objective is to formulate a behavioral model that predicts the probability that a driver performs an aggressive maneuver as a function of a set of driver and traffic attributes. Parameters that were tested and modeled include driver characteristics (gender and age), car characteristics (performance and model year), and traffic attributes (number of rejected gaps, total waiting time at head of queue, and major-traffic speed). Binary probit models are developed and tested, based on a collected data set from an unsignalized intersection in the city of Beirut, to determine which of the studied variables are statistically significant in determining the aggressiveness of a specific driver. Primary conclusions reveal that age, car performance, and average speed on the major road are the major determinants of aggressive behavior. Another striking conclusion is that the total waiting time of the driver while waiting for an acceptable gap is of little significance in incurring the "forcing" behavior. The obtained model is incorporated in a simple simulation framework that reflects driver behavior and traffic stream interactions in estimating delay and conflict measures at unsignalized intersections. The simulation results were then compared

  1. Sensory properties and drivers of liking for Greek yogurts.

    PubMed

    Desai, N T; Shepard, L; Drake, M A

    2013-01-01

    Greek yogurt is currently the largest growing sector in the dairy industry. Because no standard of identity exists for Greek yogurts in the United States, and they can be made by a variety of methods, variability in sensory properties is expected. Knowledge of consumer perception and specific drivers of liking will be useful information for product developers. The objective of this study was to document the sensory properties of commercial Greek yogurts and to determine drivers of liking through descriptive profiling and consumer testing. Flavor and texture attributes of commercial Greek yogurts (n = 24) were evaluated in triplicate by a trained descriptive sensory panel. An online survey (n = 520) was used to collect consumer usage and attitude information for Greek yogurts before consumer acceptance testing. Consumer acceptance testing (n = 155) was then conducted on commercial Greek yogurts (n = 10). Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were used for data analysis. Sensory properties of yogurt differed with fat content and manufacture (Greek vs. fortified Greek). Full-fat yogurts were characterized by firmness and denseness, whereas low- and non-fat yogurts lacked firmness, denseness, cohesiveness, and, after stirring, viscosity. Fortified Greek yogurts generally had more surface shine and jiggle and lower denseness compared with traditional Greek yogurts. Fewer flavor differences were observed among yogurts compared with texture differences. Fortified Greek yogurts displayed a burnt/beefy flavor not documented in traditional Greek yogurts, but this flavor was not evident in all fortified Greek yogurts. Consumer preferred Greek yogurts with firm, dense texture, moderate sweet aromatic, milkfat and dairy sour flavors, and moderate sour taste. Consumers were aware of the increased protein content of Greek yogurts but generally unaware of differences between strained and fortified Greek yogurts; both strained Greek and fortified Greek yogurts received

  2. A Linear Magnetic Field Scan Driver.

    PubMed

    Quine, Richard W; Czechowski, Tomasz; Eaton, Gareth R

    2009-02-01

    A linear magnetic field scan driver was developed to provide a rapidly scanning magnetic field for use in electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The driver consists of two parts: a digitally synthesized ramp waveform generator and a power amplifier to drive the magnetic field coils. Additionally, the driver provides a trigger signal to a data collection digitizer that is synchronized to the ramp waveform. The driver can also drive an arbitrary current waveform supplied from an external source. The waveform generator is computer controlled through a serial data interface. Additional functions are controlled by the user from the driver front panel. The frequency and amplitude of the waveform are each separately controlled with 12-bit resolution (one part in 4,096). Several versions of the driver have been built with different frequency and amplitude ranges. Frequencies range from 500 to 20,000 Hz. Field sweep amplitudes range up to 80 G(pp). This article also gives a brief description of the field coils that are driven by the driver.

  3. A Linear Magnetic Field Scan Driver

    PubMed Central

    QUINE, RICHARD W.; CZECHOWSKI, TOMASZ; EATON, GARETH R.

    2009-01-01

    A linear magnetic field scan driver was developed to provide a rapidly scanning magnetic field for use in electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The driver consists of two parts: a digitally synthesized ramp waveform generator and a power amplifier to drive the magnetic field coils. Additionally, the driver provides a trigger signal to a data collection digitizer that is synchronized to the ramp waveform. The driver can also drive an arbitrary current waveform supplied from an external source. The waveform generator is computer controlled through a serial data interface. Additional functions are controlled by the user from the driver front panel. The frequency and amplitude of the waveform are each separately controlled with 12-bit resolution (one part in 4,096). Several versions of the driver have been built with different frequency and amplitude ranges. Frequencies range from 500 to 20,000 Hz. Field sweep amplitudes range up to 80 Gpp. This article also gives a brief description of the field coils that are driven by the driver. PMID:19838315

  4. Does advanced driver training improve situational awareness?

    PubMed

    Walker, Guy H; Stanton, Neville A; Kazi, Tara A; Salmon, Paul M; Jenkins, Daniel P

    2009-07-01

    Over 70 years of experiential evidence suggests that a specific form of advanced driver training, one based on an explicit system of car control, improves driver situation awareness (SA). Five experimental hypotheses are developed. They propose that advanced driving should increase the number of information elements in the driver's working memory, increase the interconnection between those elements, increase the amount of 'new' information in memory as well as the prominence of existing information, and that finally, it should stimulate behaviours that help drivers evolve better situations to be aware of. An approach to SA based on Neisser's perceptual cycle theory is anchored to a network based methodology. This is applied within the context of a longitudinal on-road study involving three groups of 25 drivers, all of whom were measured pre- and post-intervention. One experimental group was subject to advanced driver training and two further groups provided control for time and for being accompanied whilst driving. Empirical support is found for all five hypotheses. Advanced driving does improve driver SA but not necessarily in the way that existing situation focused, closed loop models of the concept might predict.

  5. Drivers' behaviour at roundabouts in Riyadh.

    PubMed

    Al-Saleh, K; Bendak, S

    2012-01-01

    As is the case in many cities, roundabouts are used extensively in Riyadh. However, instead of improving safety, driving through roundabouts in Riyadh can be a dangerous experience as many drivers do not follow regulations. Unfortunately, no official statistics exist on accidents or violations at roundabouts and no studies have been done to assess this problem. A field study to collect data on drivers' behaviour at five roundabouts in Riyadh was done and a questionnaire was randomly distributed to drivers to explore this issue. Results showed that the percentage of drivers breaching at least one traffic regulation is approximately 90% of all drivers driving through these roundabouts, with leaving without flashing and entering the roundabout without giving way being the most frequent violation types. Questionnaire results from 384 respondents showed that there is a lack of information among most drivers on roundabout driving regulations and that driver training and licensing process does not include enough information related to this matter. Finally, practical suggestions as how to tackle this issue in terms of education, training and policing are given.

  6. Measurement of driver calibration and the impact of feedback on drivers' estimates of performance.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Shannon C; Horrey, William J; Liang, Yulan

    2016-03-01

    Recent studies focused on driver calibration show that drivers are often miscalibrated, either over confident or under confident, and the magnitude of this miscalibration changes under different conditions. Previous work has demonstrated behavioral and performance benefits of feedback, yet these studies have not explicitly examined the issue of calibration. The objective of this study was to examine driver calibration, i.e., the degree to which drivers are accurately aware of their performance, and determine whether feedback alters driver calibration. Twenty-four drivers completed a series of driving tasks (pace clocks, traffic light, speed maintenance, and traffic cones) on a test track. Drivers drove three different blocks around the test track: (1) baseline block, where no participants received feedback; (2) feedback block, where half of the participants received performance feedback while the other half received no feedback; (3) a no feedback block, where no participants received feedback. Results indicated that across two different calibration measures, drivers were sufficiently calibrated to the pace clocks, traffic light, and traffic cone tasks. Drivers were not accurately aware of their performance regarding speed maintenance, though receiving feedback on this task improved calibration. Proper and accurate measurements of driver calibration are needed before designing performance feedback to improve calibration as these feedback systems may not always yield the intended results.

  7. Approaches of truck drivers and non-truck drivers toward reckless on-road behavior.

    PubMed

    Rosenbloom, Tova; Eldror, Ehud; Shahar, Amit

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the reported approaches of truck drivers to those of non-truck drivers toward reckless on-road behaviors. One hundred and sixty-seven adult males, including 70 non-truck drivers, completed the questionnaires voluntarily. The truck drivers were employees of a concrete manufacturing company working at various company plants throughout Israel. Seventy were professional mixer truckers and 27 were tip-truckers. The participants completed the Reckless Driving Self-Report Scale based on Taubman Ben-Ari et al. [Taubman Ben-Ari, O., Florian, V., Mikulincer, M., 1999. The impact of mortality salience on reckless driving: a test of terror management mechanisms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 76, 35-45], adapted for truck drivers for this study. It was expected that non-professional, as compared to professional (truck) drivers, would be more permissive regarding reckless driving, since driving risks are less prominent in their daily driving experience. An ANOVA performed on mean reckless-driving scores yielded significant results. The post hoc Schéffe test indicated significantly higher reckless-driving scores for automobile drivers as compared to both mixer-truck driver scores and tip-truck driver scores. In addition, the reckless-driving scores for mixer-truck drivers were significantly higher than the tip-truck driver scores. We discuss various explanations for the findings and consider possible implications for training strategies in organizations as well as for media campaigns focused on mutual safe road use of truck drivers and private vehicle drivers.

  8. Camera-based driver assistance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimm, Michael

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, camera-based driver assistance systems have taken an important step: from laboratory setup to series production. This tutorial gives a brief overview on the technology behind driver assistance systems, presents the most significant functionalities and focuses on the processes of developing camera-based systems for series production. We highlight the critical points which need to be addressed when camera-based driver assistance systems are sold in their thousands, worldwide - and the benefit in terms of safety which results from it.

  9. Stakeholders' Partnership Synergy and its Impact on Commercialization of New Technologies: Renewable Energy Industry Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manoukian, Agassy

    This study examines the impact of the partnership synergy and inter-organizational cooperation between government (federal, state, local), public agencies, private companies and local on successful communities commercialization of renewable energy (RE) technologies. The study produced several interesting results: (i) a model was developed that analyzes the role of partnership synergy on technology commercialization, conceptualizing the relationships among partnership drivers, partnership synergy, resources, and commercialization performance; (ii) the major drivers motivating stakeholders of RE projects have been identified and differences between those were recognized; (iii) a novel theoretical and analytical basis of commercialization through partnership and synergy has been established; (iv) interrelated effects of partnership synergy, dynamic capabilities and technology implementation mechanisms on various performance measures of project success have also been identified. Overall, this study and its conceptual model provide a richer understanding of the factors that lead to successful commercialization of RE technologies, possibly applicable to other infrastructural projects, as well.

  10. Lunar Commercialization Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation describes the goals and rules of the workshop on Lunar Commercialization. The goal of the workshop is to explore the viability of using public-private partnerships to open the new space frontier. The bulk of the workshop was a team competition to create a innovative business plan for the commercialization of the moon. The public private partnership concept is reviewed, and the open architecture as an infrastructure for potential external cooperation. Some possible lunar commercialization elements are reviewed.

  11. Regulating Commercial Telephone Solicitations,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-03-01

    also proposed that telephone subscribers be given the right to indicate if they do not want to receive commercial advertising calls , whether from...federal government should prohibit all commercial advertising calls. Advertisers have rights to free speech , and some consumers, I am told , don ’t...of the same arguments against giving subscribers the right to refuse commercial advertising calls that they made in 1965. They have stated that placing

  12. Food consumption trends and drivers

    PubMed Central

    Kearney, John

    2010-01-01

    A picture of food consumption (availability) trends and projections to 2050, both globally and for different regions of the world, along with the drivers largely responsible for these observed consumption trends are the subject of this review. Throughout the world, major shifts in dietary patterns are occurring, even in the consumption of basic staples towards more diversified diets. Accompanying these changes in food consumption at a global and regional level have been considerable health consequences. Populations in those countries undergoing rapid transition are experiencing nutritional transition. The diverse nature of this transition may be the result of differences in socio-demographic factors and other consumer characteristics. Among other factors including urbanization and food industry marketing, the policies of trade liberalization over the past two decades have implications for health by virtue of being a factor in facilitating the ‘nutrition transition’ that is associated with rising rates of obesity and chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. Future food policies must consider both agricultural and health sectors, thereby enabling the development of coherent and sustainable policies that will ultimately benefit agriculture, human health and the environment. PMID:20713385

  13. The proton driver design study

    SciTech Connect

    Editors: W. Chou, C.M. Ankenbrandt and E.I. Malamud

    2001-03-08

    In a 1997 summer study, a team led by Steve Holmes formulated a development plan for the Fermilab proton source and described the results in TM-2021. Subsequently, at the end of 1998, a task group was formed to prepare a detailed design of a high intensity facility called the Proton Driver to replace the Fermilab Booster. In the past two years the design effort has attracted more than fifty participants, mostly from the Beams Division. Physicists and engineers from the Technical Division and FESS as well as other institutions, including the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), Stanford University, University of Hawaii, CERN in Switzerland, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in England and the IHEP in Russia also contributed heavily. The results of that effort are summarized in this document describing the design of a 16 GeV synchrotron, two new beam transport lines (a 400 MeV injection line and a 12/16 GeV extraction line), and related improvements to the present negative ion source and the 400 MeV Linac. A construction cost estimate is presented in Appendix A.

  14. Design considerations for composite fuselage structure of commercial transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, G. W.; Sakata, I. F.

    1981-01-01

    The structural, manufacturing, and service and environmental considerations that could impact the design of composite fuselage structure for commercial transport aircraft application were explored. The severity of these considerations was assessed and the principal design drivers delineated. Technical issues and potential problem areas which must be resolved before sufficient confidence is established to commit to composite materials were defined. The key issues considered are: definition of composite fuselage design specifications, damage tolerance, and crashworthiness.

  15. USING ACCELERATOR PEDAL FORCE TO INCREASE SEAT BELT USE OF SERVICE VEHICLE DRIVERS

    PubMed Central

    Van Houten, Ron; Hilton, Bryan; Schulman, Richard; Reagan, Ian

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated a device that applied a sustained increase in accelerator pedal back force whenever drivers exceeded a preset speed criterion without buckling their seat belts. This force was removed once the belt was fastened. Participants were 6 commercial drivers who operated carpet-cleaning vans. During baseline, no contingency was in place for unbuckled trips. The pedal resistance was introduced via a multiple baseline design across groups. On the first day of treatment, the device was explained and demonstrated for all drivers of the vehicle. The treatment was associated with an immediate sustained increase in seat belt compliance to 100%. Occasionally, drivers initially did not buckle during a trip and encountered the force. In all instances, they buckled within less than 25 s. These results suggest that the increased force was sufficient to set up an establishing operation to reinforce seat belt buckling negatively. Drivers indicated that they were impressed with the device and would not drive very long unbelted with the pedal force in place. PMID:21541142

  16. DriverNet: uncovering the impact of somatic driver mutations on transcriptional networks in cancer.

    PubMed

    Bashashati, Ali; Haffari, Gholamreza; Ding, Jiarui; Ha, Gavin; Lui, Kenneth; Rosner, Jamie; Huntsman, David G; Caldas, Carlos; Aparicio, Samuel A; Shah, Sohrab P

    2012-12-22

    Simultaneous interrogation of tumor genomes and transcriptomes is underway in unprecedented global efforts. Yet, despite the essential need to separate driver mutations modulating gene expression networks from transcriptionally inert passenger mutations, robust computational methods to ascertain the impact of individual mutations on transcriptional networks are underdeveloped. We introduce a novel computational framework, DriverNet, to identify likely driver mutations by virtue of their effect on mRNA expression networks. Application to four cancer datasets reveals the prevalence of rare candidate driver mutations associated with disrupted transcriptional networks and a simultaneous modulation of oncogenic and metabolic networks, induced by copy number co-modification of adjacent oncogenic and metabolic drivers. DriverNet is available on Bioconductor or at http://compbio.bccrc.ca/software/drivernet/.

  17. [Investigation of Legionella pneumophila seropositivity in the professional long distance drivers as a risky occupation].

    PubMed

    Polat, Yusuf; Ergin, Cağri; Kaleli, Ilknur; Pinar, Ahmet

    2007-04-01

    Contaminated water sources, reservoirs and systems such as evaporative condensers of air-conditioners are known to be the main transmission routes of Legionella spp. which are ubiquitous aquatic bacteria. By virtue of this point the aim of this study was to investigate the rate of Legionella pneumophila seropositivity in a profession considered as risky due to the direct and prolonged exposure to air-conditioning and air-circulating systems. For this purpose, in the period of February-August 2004 a total of 79 male subjects (63 were bus drivers and 16 were driver assistants) who were continously travelling to two different route (South part as hot climate and Middle/North parts as cold climate of Turkey) from Denizli province coach station (a province located in internal Aegian where accepted as crossroads), were included to the study. The mean age and mean working duration of bus drivers were 43.0 +/- 1.1 years and 20.0 +/- 1.1 years, respectively, while these values were 22.5 +/- 0.9 years and 4.0 +/- 0.6 years, respectively, for the drivers' assistants. The serum samples collected from the subjects were screened by a commercial indirect immunofluorescence method (Euroimmun, Germany) using L. pneumophila serogrup 1-14 antigens for the presence of specific antibodies. Additionally, air-conditioners' moisture exhaust samples of the busses in which seropositive subjects travelling with have been examined by culture and 5S rRNA gene targeted polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods, for the presence of Legionella spp. The overall L. pneumophila seropositivity rate was detected as 15.2% (12/79). This rate was 19% (12/63) for bus drivers while all of the drivers' assistants were found seronegative. The seropositivity rate was found statistically higher in the personnel who were travelling to the hot climates (10/36, 27.8%) than those who travel to cold climates (2/43, 4.6%), (p < 0.05). The culture and PCR yielded negative results for Legionella spp. in the exhaust

  18. Trials, tribulations, and pitfalls using commercial instruments for data acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Lee,R.C.; Olsen, R. H.; Unger, K. L.

    2009-10-12

    Brookhaven National Laboratory's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) uses many commercially available instruments - for example spectrum analyzers, oscilloscopes, digital volt meters, signal generators - as integral parts of instrumentation and control systems. Typically these systems are remotely controlled. Using commercial instruments has many benefits. Manufactures have the skill, knowledge, and experience to produce high quality products. The price performance ratio is hard to duplicate. There are also disadvantages. Proprietary interfaces, single platform drivers, and reliable operation provide challenges for implementation and unattended operation. Several of the systems used at RHIC will be described. Their issues and solutions will be presented.

  19. Comparative optimism among drivers: an intergenerational portrait.

    PubMed

    Gosselin, Dominique; Gagnon, Sylvain; Stinchcombe, Arne; Joanisse, Mélanie

    2010-03-01

    We describe a large cross-sectional study examining comparative optimism (CO) regarding the risk of car crash in three age cohorts (17-26, 27-64, 65 and older). The participants completed a questionnaire in which they were asked to indicate their personal risk of being in an at-fault crash over nine driving related events in comparison to young drivers, mid-aged drivers, and older drivers. The results indicated that all three age groups exhibited CO, but that the level varied according to the age group on which they had to base their comparative judgment. Interestingly, greater CO was constantly observed when the three age groups compared themselves to older drivers. Also, young males exhibited greater CO than female of the same age group.

  20. Physics at a new Fermilab proton driver

    SciTech Connect

    Geer, Steve; /Fermilab

    2006-04-01

    In 2004, motivated by the recent exciting developments in neutrino physics, the Fermilab Long Range Planning Committee identified a new high intensity Proton Driver as an attractive option for the future. At the end of 2004 the APS ''Study on the Physics of Neutrinos'' concluded that the future US neutrino program should have, as one of its components, ''A proton driver in the megawatt class or above and neutrino superbeam with an appropriate very large detector capable of observing Cp violation and measuring the neutrino mass-squared differences and mixing parameters with high precision''. The presently proposed Fermilab Proton Driver is designed to accomplish these goals, and is based on, and would help develop, Linear Collider technology. In this paper the Proton Driver parameters are summarized, and the potential physics program is described.

  1. Driver circuit for solid state light sources

    DOEpatents

    Palmer, Fred; Denvir, Kerry; Allen, Steven

    2016-02-16

    A driver circuit for a light source including one or more solid state light sources, a luminaire including the same, and a method of so driving the solid state light sources are provided. The driver circuit includes a rectifier circuit that receives an alternating current (AC) input voltage and provides a rectified AC voltage. The driver circuit also includes a switching converter circuit coupled to the light source. The switching converter circuit provides a direct current (DC) output to the light source in response to the rectified AC voltage. The driver circuit also includes a mixing circuit, coupled to the light source, to switch current through at least one solid state light source of the light source in response to each of a plurality of consecutive half-waves of the rectified AC voltage.

  2. The drivers of tropical deforestation: a comprehensive review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanford, T. J.; Boucher, D.; Elias, P.; Lininger, K.; May-Tobin, C.; Roquemore, S.; Saxon, E.; Martin, J.; Mulik, K.

    2011-12-01

    Tropical forests are disappearing around the world. This clearing causes around 15% of global carbon emissions, leads to the rapid loss of biodiversity, and destroys the livelihoods of many indigenous peoples. We comprehensively reviewed the literature on drivers of tropical deforestation and found a number of trends. While deforestation was predominately driven by small farmers and government action in the 1970s and 1980s, since the 1990s most deforestation has been driven by large scale commercial agriculture. In Latin America, and Brazil in particular, forest clearing has mostly been due to expansion of cattle pastures and for a period in the late 1990s and early 2000s soy bean expansion. In Southeast Asia, deforestation has mainly been due to expansion of oil palm plantations and timber harvesting. In Africa small farmers and wood fuel collection still play a role, although deforestation rates are considerably lower there than in other regions. Additionally, increased urbanization and trends toward a diet based on meat, particularly beef, have help drive deforestation. Biofuels policies around the world are also adding demand, both directly for vegetable oil, and by expanding demand for competing crops such as corn. We examine the extent to which biofuels demand directly and indirectly acts as a driver of deforestation, and the policies that can mitigate this problem by analyzing alternative scenarios of biofuel expansion and their impact on land use change, commodity prices and green house gas emissions.

  3. Professional drivers: protection needed for a high-risk occupation.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, S P; Wong, J; Baron, R D

    1976-01-01

    "On the job" motor vehicle deaths number more than 4,000 annually in the U.S. and comprise nearly one-third of all work-related deaths. Yet the Department of Labor has set no standards relating to on-the-road safety of the millions of workers whose jobs entail large amounts of driving, and Department of Transportation standards affecting occupational safety cover only drivers in interstate commerce. Drivers of some commercial vehicles, such as heavy trucks, are at special risk of injury because trucks have usually been exempted for many years from federal motor vehicle safety standards--such as standards for brakes and seatbelts--designed to prevent crashes or protect occupants in crashes. Observations based on a series of 150 fatal crashes involving tractor trailers illustrate the need for better protection of this large population of high-risk workers. Clarification of responsibility within the various federal agencies and application of available knowledge and technology are essential. PMID:937611

  4. Transport Device Driver's Assistance Vision Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szpytko, Janusz; Gbyl, Michał

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review solutions whose task is to actively correct decision-making processes of the vehicle's driver on the basis of information obtained from the surroundings and the presentation of a tool that makes it possible to react to the changes of the psychophysical condition of the driver. The system is implemented by the Matlab application environment on the basis on the image activated by a webcam.

  5. Drivers of desertification and their impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantel, S.; Van Lynden, G. V. L.; Karavitis, C. A.; Kosmas, C.; Van der Werff ten Bosch, M. J.

    2012-04-01

    Drivers of desertification and their impact An inventory was made of drivers of desertification and how they impact on the degradation process. The major drivers of desertification were analysed and compared between 16 sites around the globe. For each of these sites factors were scored with a perceived influence on desertification. Most of these factors, from the socio-cultural, environmental, and economic dimensions, appeared to be related to land management and planning and to (de-)population. They cause a number of temporary or permanent changes in the landscape, which, by themselves or in combination, lead to degradation of vegetation and soils. Most sites have several forms of land degradation occurring in and around their study area of which erosion by water is the dominant one. Other degradation types occurring in sites were: wind erosion, soil salinization, seawater intrusion in the groundwater, vegetation and biodiversity decline, groundwater depletion, decreased productivity/ carrying capacity, soil fertility decline, water logging and water pollution. As a first step, data and information was gathered on policies, desertification status and processes and on socio-economic conditions. The DPSIR framework (Driving force, Pressure, State, Impact, Response) provides a structure for assessment of the impact of past measures on the status of the environment or to formulate effective measures. In analysing the data, the different data items were structured in and formulated to elements fitting the DPSIR chain. Then possible connections between these different aspects were analysed. In our analysis nine major drivers were reported for the various sites, of which one was environmental, three drivers were related to land management, one driver was related to planning and policies, three drivers were related to socio-economic conditions, and one driver related to legal land status. Depending on the specific desertification process, factors may be positively or

  6. Association between Supervisory Driver Offences and Novice Driver Crashes Post-Licensure.

    PubMed

    Senserrick, Teresa; Boufous, Soufiane; Ivers, Rebecca; Stevenson, Mark; Norton, Robyn; Williamson, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This research explore associations between driving offences of learner supervisory drivers and subsequent crashes as novice independent drivers in a prospective cohort of 20,822 drivers aged 17-24 in New South Wales, Australia, on their first independent driver licence. Information on demographics, primary supervisory drivers, and various risk factors was collected via an online questionnaire and subsequently linked to police-reported crashes two years later. Poisson regression determined that the unadjusted relative risk of crash was 1.35 (CI 1.14-1.60) for novices whose supervisors had offences, with this association remaining when adjusting for supervisor age, gender and relationship to the novice (RR=1.37, CI 1.16-1.63), but not when additionally controlling for novice driver demographics and characteristics (RR=1.50, CI 0.83-2.70). These findings suggest newly-licensed drivers previously supervised by drivers with recent traffic offences have a one-third higher risk of crashing. This risk is independent of the supervisor demographics, but mitigated by the young drivers' personal characteristics. Careful consideration should be given to policy developments regarding supervised driving requirements that rely heavily on parents to adopt this role.

  7. Performance Enhancement of Unsteady Ejectors Investigated Using a Pulsejet Driver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paxson, Daniel E.

    2003-01-01

    Unsteady ejectors are currently under investigation for use in some pulse detonation engine (PDE) propulsion systems. This is due primarily to their potential high performance in comparison to steady ejectors of similar dimensions relative to the source or driver jet. Although some experimental work has been done in the past to study thrust augmentation with unsteady ejectors, there is no proven theory by which optimal design parameters can be selected and an effective ejector constructed for a given pulsed flow. Therefore, an experimental facility was developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center to study the correlation between ejector design and performance, and to get a better understanding of the flow phenomena that result in thrust augmentation. A commercially available pulsejet was used for the unsteady driving jet. This was paired with a basic, yet flexible, ejector design that allowed parametric evaluation of the effects that length, diameter, and inlet radius have on performance.

  8. Evaluating the evaluation of cancer driver genes

    PubMed Central

    Tokheim, Collin J.; Papadopoulos, Nickolas; Kinzler, Kenneth W.; Vogelstein, Bert; Karchin, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Sequencing has identified millions of somatic mutations in human cancers, but distinguishing cancer driver genes remains a major challenge. Numerous methods have been developed to identify driver genes, but evaluation of the performance of these methods is hindered by the lack of a gold standard, that is, bona fide driver gene mutations. Here, we establish an evaluation framework that can be applied to driver gene prediction methods. We used this framework to compare the performance of eight such methods. One of these methods, described here, incorporated a machine-learning–based ratiometric approach. We show that the driver genes predicted by each of the eight methods vary widely. Moreover, the P values reported by several of the methods were inconsistent with the uniform values expected, thus calling into question the assumptions that were used to generate them. Finally, we evaluated the potential effects of unexplained variability in mutation rates on false-positive driver gene predictions. Our analysis points to the strengths and weaknesses of each of the currently available methods and offers guidance for improving them in the future. PMID:27911828

  9. Evaluating the evaluation of cancer driver genes.

    PubMed

    Tokheim, Collin J; Papadopoulos, Nickolas; Kinzler, Kenneth W; Vogelstein, Bert; Karchin, Rachel

    2016-12-13

    Sequencing has identified millions of somatic mutations in human cancers, but distinguishing cancer driver genes remains a major challenge. Numerous methods have been developed to identify driver genes, but evaluation of the performance of these methods is hindered by the lack of a gold standard, that is, bona fide driver gene mutations. Here, we establish an evaluation framework that can be applied to driver gene prediction methods. We used this framework to compare the performance of eight such methods. One of these methods, described here, incorporated a machine-learning-based ratiometric approach. We show that the driver genes predicted by each of the eight methods vary widely. Moreover, the P values reported by several of the methods were inconsistent with the uniform values expected, thus calling into question the assumptions that were used to generate them. Finally, we evaluated the potential effects of unexplained variability in mutation rates on false-positive driver gene predictions. Our analysis points to the strengths and weaknesses of each of the currently available methods and offers guidance for improving them in the future.

  10. SSL Luminaire with Novel Driver Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Heikman, Sten; Robinson, Clark

    2011-07-07

    Cree has developed a new high-efficiency light emitting diode (LED) technology platform capable of providing low-cost, high performance luminaires that can be adopted across a variety of SSL applications. This development is built on Cree’s high brightness LED platform to design a novel LED chip that enables a high-efficiency driver architecture to improve the overall luminaire system efficacy. These system efficiency gains were realized using an integrated approach tailoring the LED chip characteristics to allow for the high-efficiency driver technology platform. The reliability of the new LED design was robust at the component level under accelerated testing conditions. Luminaires were assembled integrating the novel LED and driver technology to demonstrate the system improvement. Cree has successfully completed this project by developing a novel LED architecture that enables a new driver design with 93% efficiency. This technology was showcased in an LED luminaire that produced 725 lumens at an efficacy of 87.4 lumens per watt (LPW). The correlated color temperature (CCT) of the luminaire was 2708 K with a color rendering index (CRI) of 91. The novel LEDs and driver led to a 9% system performance improvement compared to the standard LEDs and driver scheme.

  11. Lunar Commercialization Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation outlines a competition that has as its goal to explores the viability of using public-private partnerships to open space frontier for commercial uses. The teams have the objective of designing a business plan to open the space frontier to commercial interests.

  12. Commercial Crew Launch America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thon, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation is intended to discuss NASA's long term human exploration goals of our solar system. The emphasis will be on how our CCP (Commercial Crew Program) supports our space bound human exploration goals by encouraging commercial entities to perform missions to LEO (Low Earth Orbit), thus allowing NASA to focus on beyond LEO human exploration missions.

  13. Workshop on transport for a common ion driver

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, C.C.; Lee, E.; Langdon, B.

    1994-12-31

    This report contains research in the following areas related to beam transport for a common ion driver: multi-gap acceleration; neutralization with electrons; gas neutralization; self-pinched transport; HIF and LIF transport, and relevance to common ion driver; LIF and HIF reactor concepts and relevance to common ion driver; atomic physics for common ion driver; code capabilities and needed improvement.

  14. 49 CFR 380.111 - Substitute for driver training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Substitute for driver training. 380.111 Section... TRAINING REQUIREMENTS Longer Combination Vehicle (LCV) Driver-Training and Driver-Instructor Requirements-General § 380.111 Substitute for driver training. (a) Grandfather clause. The LCV...

  15. 29 CFR 541.504 - Drivers who sell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drivers who sell. 541.504 Section 541.504 Labor Regulations... Outside Sales Employees § 541.504 Drivers who sell. (a) Drivers who deliver products and also sell such... sales. In determining the primary duty of drivers who sell, work performed incidental to and...

  16. 29 CFR 541.504 - Drivers who sell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drivers who sell. 541.504 Section 541.504 Labor Regulations... Outside Sales Employees § 541.504 Drivers who sell. (a) Drivers who deliver products and also sell such... sales. In determining the primary duty of drivers who sell, work performed incidental to and...

  17. 49 CFR 380.111 - Substitute for driver training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Substitute for driver training. 380.111 Section... TRAINING REQUIREMENTS Longer Combination Vehicle (LCV) Driver-Training and Driver-Instructor Requirements-General § 380.111 Substitute for driver training. (a) Grandfather clause. The LCV...

  18. 29 CFR 541.504 - Drivers who sell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drivers who sell. 541.504 Section 541.504 Labor Regulations... Outside Sales Employees § 541.504 Drivers who sell. (a) Drivers who deliver products and also sell such... sales. In determining the primary duty of drivers who sell, work performed incidental to and...

  19. 29 CFR 541.504 - Drivers who sell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drivers who sell. 541.504 Section 541.504 Labor Regulations... Outside Sales Employees § 541.504 Drivers who sell. (a) Drivers who deliver products and also sell such... sales. In determining the primary duty of drivers who sell, work performed incidental to and...

  20. 29 CFR 541.504 - Drivers who sell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drivers who sell. 541.504 Section 541.504 Labor Regulations... Outside Sales Employees § 541.504 Drivers who sell. (a) Drivers who deliver products and also sell such... sales. In determining the primary duty of drivers who sell, work performed incidental to and...

  1. 49 CFR 380.111 - Substitute for driver training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Substitute for driver training. 380.111 Section... TRAINING REQUIREMENTS Longer Combination Vehicle (LCV) Driver-Training and Driver-Instructor Requirements-General § 380.111 Substitute for driver training. (a) Grandfather clause. The LCV...

  2. 49 CFR 380.111 - Substitute for driver training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Substitute for driver training. 380.111 Section... TRAINING REQUIREMENTS Longer Combination Vehicle (LCV) Driver-Training and Driver-Instructor Requirements-General § 380.111 Substitute for driver training. (a) Grandfather clause. The LCV...

  3. Technology Transfer and Commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Katherine; Chapman, Diane; Giffith, Melanie; Molnar, Darwin

    2001-01-01

    During concurrent sessions for Materials and Structures for High Performance and Emissions Reduction, the UEET Intellectual Property Officer and the Technology Commercialization Specialist will discuss the UEET Technology Transfer and Commercialization goals and efforts. This will include a review of the Technology Commercialization Plan for UEET and what UEET personnel are asked to do to further the goals of the Plan. The major goal of the Plan is to define methods for how UEET assets can best be infused into industry. The National Technology Transfer Center will conduct a summary of its efforts in assessing UEET technologies in the areas of materials and emissions reduction for commercial potential. NTTC is assisting us in completing an inventory and prioritization by commercialization potential. This will result in increased exposure of UEET capabilities to the private sector. The session will include audience solicitation of additional commercializable technologies.

  4. Reliability of drivers in urban intersections.

    PubMed

    Gstalter, Herbert; Fastenmeier, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    The concept of human reliability has been widely used in industrial settings by human factors experts to optimise the person-task fit. Reliability is estimated by the probability that a task will successfully be completed by personnel in a given stage of system operation. Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) is a technique used to calculate human error probabilities as the ratio of errors committed to the number of opportunities for that error. To transfer this notion to the measurement of car driver reliability the following components are necessary: a taxonomy of driving tasks, a definition of correct behaviour in each of these tasks, a list of errors as deviations from the correct actions and an adequate observation method to register errors and opportunities for these errors. Use of the SAFE-task analysis procedure recently made it possible to derive driver errors directly from the normative analysis of behavioural requirements. Driver reliability estimates could be used to compare groups of tasks (e.g. different types of intersections with their respective regulations) as well as groups of drivers' or individual drivers' aptitudes. This approach was tested in a field study with 62 drivers of different age groups. The subjects drove an instrumented car and had to complete an urban test route, the main features of which were 18 intersections representing six different driving tasks. The subjects were accompanied by two trained observers who recorded driver errors using standardized observation sheets. Results indicate that error indices often vary between both the age group of drivers and the type of driving task. The highest error indices occurred in the non-signalised intersection tasks and the roundabout, which exactly equals the corresponding ratings of task complexity from the SAFE analysis. A comparison of age groups clearly shows the disadvantage of older drivers, whose error indices in nearly all tasks are significantly higher than those of the other groups

  5. Commercial Biomedical Experiments Payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Experiments to seek solutions for a range of biomedical issues are at the heart of several investigations that will be hosted by the Commercial Instrumentation Technology Associates (ITA), Inc. The biomedical experiments CIBX-2 payload is unique, encompassing more than 20 separate experiments including cancer research, commercial experiments, and student hands-on experiments from 10 schools as part of ITA's ongoing University Among the stars program. Here, Astronaut Story Musgrave activates the CMIX-5 (Commercial MDA ITA experiment) payload in the Space Shuttle mid deck during the STS-80 mission in 1996 which is similar to CIBX-2. The experiments are sponsored by NASA's Space Product Development Program (SPD).

  6. Driver Education Curriculum Guide. Administrative Guide for Driver and Traffic Safety Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This guide is a practical and informative handbook designed to assist administrators in establishing effective driver and traffic safety education programs. It is concerned with the standards for driver and traffic safety education in Ohio and the organization, procedures, and guidelines for carrying out those responsibilities. Responsibilities…

  7. Novice drivers' individual trajectories of driver behavior over the first three years of driving.

    PubMed

    Roman, Gabriela D; Poulter, Damian; Barker, Edward; McKenna, Frank P; Rowe, Richard

    2015-09-01

    Identifying the changes in driving behavior that underlie the decrease in crash risk over the first few months of driving is key to efforts to reduce injury and fatality risk in novice drivers. This study represented a secondary data analysis of 1148 drivers who participated in the UK Cohort II study. The Driver Behavior Questionnaire was completed at 6 months and 1, 2 and 3 years after licensure. Linear latent growth models indicated significant increases across development in all four dimensions of aberrant driving behavior under scrutiny: aggressive violations, ordinary violations, errors and slips. Unconditional and conditional latent growth class analyses showed that the observed heterogeneity in individual trajectories was explained by the presence of multiple homogeneous groups of drivers, each exhibiting specific trajectories of aberrant driver behavior. Initial levels of aberrant driver behavior were important in identifying sub-groups of drivers. All classes showed positive slopes; there was no evidence of a group of drivers whose aberrant behavior decreased over time that might explain the decrease in crash involvement observed over this period. Male gender and younger age predicted membership of trajectories with higher levels of aberrant behavior. These findings highlight the importance of early intervention for improving road safety. We discuss the implications of our findings for understanding the behavioral underpinnings of the decrease in crash involvement observed in the early months of driving.

  8. Factors associated with self-reported driver sleepiness and incidents in city bus drivers.

    PubMed

    Anund, Anna; Ihlström, Jonas; Fors, Carina; Kecklund, Göran; Filtness, Ashleigh

    2016-08-05

    Driver fatigue has received increased attention during recent years and is now considered to be a major contributor to approximately 15-30% of all crashes. However, little is known about fatigue in city bus drivers. It is hypothesized that city bus drivers suffer from sleepiness, which is due to a combination of working conditions, lack of health and reduced sleep quantity and quality. The overall aim with the current study is to investigate if severe driver sleepiness, as indicated by subjective reports of having to fight sleep while driving, is a problem for city based bus drivers in Sweden and if so, to identify the determinants related to working conditions, health and sleep which contribute towards this. The results indicate that driver sleepiness is a problem for city bus drivers, with 19% having to fight to stay awake while driving the bus 2-3 times each week or more and nearly half experiencing this at least 2-4 times per month. In conclusion, severe sleepiness, as indicated by having to fight sleep during driving, was common among the city bus drivers. Severe sleepiness correlated with fatigue related safety risks, such as near crashes.

  9. DriverDB: an exome sequencing database for cancer driver gene identification

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Wei-Chung; Chung, I-Fang; Chen, Chen-Yang; Sun, Hsing-Jen; Fen, Jun-Jeng; Tang, Wei-Chun; Chang, Ting-Yu; Wong, Tai-Tong; Wang, Hsei-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Exome sequencing (exome-seq) has aided in the discovery of a huge amount of mutations in cancers, yet challenges remain in converting oncogenomics data into information that is interpretable and accessible for clinical care. We constructed DriverDB (http://ngs.ym.edu.tw/driverdb/), a database which incorporates 6079 cases of exome-seq data, annotation databases (such as dbSNP, 1000 Genome and Cosmic) and published bioinformatics algorithms dedicated to driver gene/mutation identification. We provide two points of view, ‘Cancer’ and ‘Gene’, to help researchers to visualize the relationships between cancers and driver genes/mutations. The ‘Cancer’ section summarizes the calculated results of driver genes by eight computational methods for a specific cancer type/dataset and provides three levels of biological interpretation for realization of the relationships between driver genes. The ‘Gene’ section is designed to visualize the mutation information of a driver gene in five different aspects. Moreover, a ‘Meta-Analysis’ function is provided so researchers may identify driver genes in customer-defined samples. The novel driver genes/mutations identified hold potential for both basic research and biotech applications. PMID:24214964

  10. Association between Supervisory Driver Offences and Novice Driver Crashes Post-Licensure

    PubMed Central

    Senserrick, Teresa; Boufous, Soufiane; Ivers, Rebecca; Stevenson, Mark; Norton, Robyn; Williamson, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This research explore associations between driving offences of learner supervisory drivers and subsequent crashes as novice independent drivers in a prospective cohort of 20,822 drivers aged 17–24 in New South Wales, Australia, on their first independent driver licence. Information on demographics, primary supervisory drivers, and various risk factors was collected via an online questionnaire and subsequently linked to police-reported crashes two years later. Poisson regression determined that the unadjusted relative risk of crash was 1.35 (CI 1.14–1.60) for novices whose supervisors had offences, with this association remaining when adjusting for supervisor age, gender and relationship to the novice (RR=1.37, CI 1.16–1.63), but not when additionally controlling for novice driver demographics and characteristics (RR=1.50, CI 0.83–2.70). These findings suggest newly-licensed drivers previously supervised by drivers with recent traffic offences have a one-third higher risk of crashing. This risk is independent of the supervisor demographics, but mitigated by the young drivers’ personal characteristics. Careful consideration should be given to policy developments regarding supervised driving requirements that rely heavily on parents to adopt this role. PMID:21050613

  11. Factors associated with self-reported driver sleepiness and incidents in city bus drivers

    PubMed Central

    ANUND, Anna; IHLSTRÖM, Jonas; FORS, Carina; KECKLUND, Göran; FILTNESS, Ashleigh

    2016-01-01

    Driver fatigue has received increased attention during recent years and is now considered to be a major contributor to approximately 15–30% of all crashes. However, little is known about fatigue in city bus drivers. It is hypothesized that city bus drivers suffer from sleepiness, which is due to a combination of working conditions, lack of health and reduced sleep quantity and quality. The overall aim with the current study is to investigate if severe driver sleepiness, as indicated by subjective reports of having to fight sleep while driving, is a problem for city based bus drivers in Sweden and if so, to identify the determinants related to working conditions, health and sleep which contribute towards this. The results indicate that driver sleepiness is a problem for city bus drivers, with 19% having to fight to stay awake while driving the bus 2–3 times each week or more and nearly half experiencing this at least 2–4 times per month. In conclusion, severe sleepiness, as indicated by having to fight sleep during driving, was common among the city bus drivers. Severe sleepiness correlated with fatigue related safety risks, such as near crashes. PMID:27098307

  12. Safety Challenges and Oversight in the Motorcoach Industry: Attitudes and Perceptions of Drivers, Roadside Inspectors, and Federal Investigators

    PubMed Central

    Braver, Elisa R.; Dodd, Robert S.; Cheung, Ivan; Long, Lindsay O.

    2012-01-01

    Interstate motorcoach travel has been the fastest-growing transportation mode in recent years. To identify challenges to monitoring compliance with motorcoach safety regulations and to examine factors affecting safety, four focus groups with a total of 32 participants were conducted during 2011, one with federal safety investigators, one with state motor carrier inspectors, and two with motorcoach drivers. Investigators and inspectors expressed concern about falsified logbooks, inadequate sleep among motorcoach drivers, hazards from speeding motorcoaches, practices by motorcoach carriers to mask ownership and avoid oversight, and difficulties keeping up with rapid motorcoach industry growth. Drivers described problems with getting sufficient sleep, pressure to drive longer than permitted, and fears of motor carriers giving them less work if they turned down driving jobs. Drivers said that driving 72–74 mph was acceptable in light traffic. To help assess workload among personnel performing safety oversight, data on numbers of motor carriers, commercial motor vehicles, federal investigators, and state inspectors were obtained from the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). The data suggested a heavy workload (2.13 inspectors per 1,000 commercial motor vehicles). The focus groups of inspectors, investigators, and drivers indicated the existence of serious motorcoach safety problems, provided insight about the multiple factors contributing to them, and described major obstacles to effective safety oversight. The qualitative nature of focus group research means that these notable findings will need to be measured using other methods such as surveys and observational studies. PMID:23169117

  13. Redesign of Transjakarta Bus Driver's Cabin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mardi Safitri, Dian; Azmi, Nora; Singh, Gurbinder; Astuti, Pudji

    2016-02-01

    Ergonomic risk at work stations with type Seated Work Control was one of the problems faced by Transjakarta bus driver. Currently “Trisakti” type bus, one type of bus that is used by Transjakarta in corridor 9, serving route Pinang Ranti - Pluit, gained many complaints from drivers. From the results of Nordic Body Map questionnaires given to 30 drivers, it was known that drivers feel pain in the neck, arms, hips, and buttocks. Allegedly this was due to the seat position and the button/panel bus has a considerable distance range (1 meter) to be achieved by drivers. In addition, preliminary results of the questionnaire using Workstation Checklist identified their complaints about uncomfortable cushion, driver's seat backrest, and the exact position of the AC is above the driver head. To reduce the risk level of ergonomics, then did research to design the cabin by using a generic approach to designing products. The risk analysis driver posture before the design was done by using Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA), Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA), and Quick Exposure Checklist (QEC), while the calculation of the moment the body is done by using software Mannequin Pro V10.2. Furthermore, the design of generic products was done through the stages: need metric-matrix, house of quality, anthropometric data collection, classification tree concept, concept screening, scoring concept, design and manufacture of products in the form of two-dimensional. While the design after design risk analysis driver posture was done by using RULA, REBA, and calculation of moments body as well as the design visualized using software 3DMax. From the results of analysis before the draft design improvements cabin RULA obtained scores of 6, REBA 9, and the result amounted to 57.38% QEC and moment forces on the back is 247.3 LbF.inch and on the right hip is 72.9 LbF.in. While the results of the proposed improvements cabin design RULA obtained scores of 3, REBA 4, and the moment of force on

  14. NASA commercial programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Highlights of NASA-sponsored and assisted commercial space activities of 1989 are presented. Industrial R and D in space, centers for the commercial development of space, and new cooperative agreements are addressed in the U.S. private sector in space section. In the building U.S. competitiveness through technology section, the following topics are presented: (1) technology utilization as a national priority; (2) an exploration of benefits; and (3) honoring Apollo-Era spinoffs. International and domestic R and D trends, and the space sector are discussed in the section on selected economic indicators. Other subjects included in this report are: (1) small business innovation; (2) budget highlights and trends; (3) commercial programs management; and (4) the commercial programs advisory committee.

  15. Comparing Commercial WWW Browsers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notess, Greg R.

    1995-01-01

    Four commercial World Wide Web browsers are evaluated for features such as handling of WWW protocols and different URLs: FTP, Telnet, Gopher and WAIS, and e-mail and news; bookmark capabilities; navigation features; file management; and security support. (JKP)

  16. Cryogenic Applications of Commercial Electronic Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchanan, Ernest D.; Benford, Dominic J.; Forgione, Joshua B.; Moseley, S. Harvey; Wollack, Edward J.

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a range of techniques useful for constructing analog and digital circuits for operation in a liquid Helium environment (4.2K), using commercially available low power components. The challenges encountered in designing cryogenic electronics include finding components that can function usefully in the cold and possess low enough power dissipation so as not to heat the systems they are designed to measure. From design, test, and integration perspectives it is useful for components to operate similarly at room and cryogenic temperatures; however this is not a necessity. Some of the circuits presented here have been used successfully in the MUSTANG and in the GISMO camera to build a complete digital to analog multiplexer (which will be referred to as the Cryogenic Address Driver board). Many of the circuit elements described are of a more general nature rather than specific to the Cryogenic Address Driver board, and were studied as a part of a more comprehensive approach to addressing a larger set of cryogenic electronic needs.

  17. Cryogenic applications of commercial electronic components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchanan, Ernest D.; Benford, Dominic J.; Forgione, Joshua B.; Harvey Moseley, S.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2012-10-01

    We have developed a range of techniques useful for constructing analog and digital circuits for operation in a liquid Helium environment (4.2 K), using commercially available low power components. The challenges encountered in designing cryogenic electronics include finding components that can function usefully in the cold and possess low enough power dissipation so as not to heat the systems they are designed to measure. From design, test, and integration perspectives it is useful for components to operate similarly at room and cryogenic temperatures; however this is not a necessity. Some of the circuits presented here have been used successfully in the MUSTANG [1] and in the GISMO [2] camera to build a complete digital to analog multiplexer (which will be referred to as the Cryogenic Address Driver board). Many of the circuit elements described are of a more general nature rather than specific to the Cryogenic Address Driver board, and were studied as a part of a more comprehensive approach to addressing a larger set of cryogenic electronic needs.

  18. Directing driver attention with augmented reality cues

    PubMed Central

    Rusch, Michelle L.; Schall, Mark C.; Gavin, Patrick; Lee, John D.; Dawson, Jeffrey D.; Vecera, Shaun; Rizzo, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    This simulator study evaluated the effects of augmented reality (AR) cues designed to direct the attention of experienced drivers to roadside hazards. Twenty-seven healthy middle-aged licensed drivers with a range of attention capacity participated in a 54 mile (1.5 hour) drive in an interactive fixed-base driving simulator. Each participant received AR cues to potential roadside hazards in six simulated straight (9 mile long) rural roadway segments. Drivers were evaluated on response time for detecting a potentially hazardous event, detection accuracy for target (hazard) and non-target objects, and headway with respect to the hazards. Results showed no negative outcomes associated with interference. AR cues did not impair perception of non-target objects, including for drivers with lower attentional capacity. Results showed near significant response time benefits for AR cued hazards. AR cueing increased response rate for detecting pedestrians and warning signs but not vehicles. AR system false alarms and misses did not impair driver responses to potential hazards. PMID:24436635

  19. Railway suicide: the psychological effects on drivers.

    PubMed

    Farmer, R; Tranah, T; O'Donnell, I; Catalan, J

    1992-05-01

    People have jumped (or fallen) in front of trains on the London Underground system in increasing numbers throughout the twentieth century. During the past decade there have been about 100 such incidents each year, of which around 90 would involve the train driver witnessing his train strike the person on the track. Most are suicides or attempts at suicide. They represent major unexpected and violent events in the lives of the train drivers and it might be expected that some of them would respond by developing a post-traumatic stress reaction of the type identified by Horowitz (1976) or other adverse psychological reactions or both. The research reported in this paper was designed to characterize the range of responses of drivers to the experiences of killing or injuring members of the public during the course of their daily work. It was found that 16.3% of the drivers involved in incidents did develop post-traumatic stress disorder and that other diagnoses, e.g. depression and phobic states, were present in 39.5% of drivers when interviewed one month after the incident.

  20. Technology Commercialization Program 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    This reference compilation describes the Technology Commercialization Program of the Department of Energy, Defense Programs. The compilation consists of two sections. Section 1, Plans and Procedures, describes the plans and procedures of the Defense Programs Technology Commercialization Program. The second section, Legislation and Policy, identifies legislation and policy related to the Program. The procedures for implementing statutory and regulatory requirements are evolving with time. This document will be periodically updated to reflect changes and new material.

  1. Driver anger on the information superhighway: A content analysis of online complaints of offensive driver behaviour.

    PubMed

    Wickens, Christine M; Wiesenthal, David L; Hall, Ashley; Roseborough, James E W

    2013-03-01

    In recent years, several websites have been developed allowing drivers to post their complaints about other motorists online. These websites allow drivers to describe the nature of the offensive behaviour and to identify the offending motorist by vehicle type, colour, and license plate number. Some websites also ask drivers to list the location where the event took place and the exact date and time of the offence. The current study was a content analysis of complaints posted to RoadRagers.com between 1999 and 2007 (N=5624). The purpose of the study was to: (1) assess the research value of this novel data source; (2) demonstrate the value of content analysis to the study of driver behaviour; (3) further validate an existing coding scheme; (4) determine whether this new data source would replicate previous research findings regarding the most frequent types of driver complaints and temporal distribution of these reports; (5) provide recommendations for improved driver training and public safety initiatives based on these data. A coding scheme that was originally developed for an assessment of complaints submitted to the Ontario Provincial Police (OPP) (Wickens et al., 2005) was revised to accommodate the new dataset. The inter-rater reliability of the revised coding scheme as applied to the website complaints was very good (kappa=.85). The most frequently reported improper driver behaviours were cutting/weaving, speeding, perceived displays of hostility, and tailgating. Reports were most frequent on weekdays and during the morning and afternoon rush hour. The current study replicated several findings from the analysis of reports to the OPP, but possible differences in the sample and data collection method also produced some differences in findings. The value of content analysis to driver behaviour research and of driver complaint websites as a data source was demonstrated. Implications for driver safety initiatives and future research will be discussed.

  2. ERC commercialization activities

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The ERC family of companies is anticipating market entry of their first commercial product, a 2.8-MW power plant, in the second quarter of 1999. The present Cooperative Agreement provides for: (1) Commercialization planning and organizational development, (2) Completion of the pre-commercial DFC technology development, (3) Systems and plant design, (4) Manufacturing processes` scale-up to full-sized stack components and assemblies, (5) Upgrades to ERC`s test facility for full-sized stack testing, (6) Sub-scale testing of a DFC Stack and BOP fueled with landfill gas. This paper discusses the first item, that of preparing for commercialization. ERC`s formal commercialization program began in 1990 with the selection of the 2-MW Direct Fuel Cell power plant by the American Public Power Association (APPA) for promotion to the over 2000 municipal utilities comprising APPA`s segment of the utility sector. Since that beginning, the APPA core group expanded to become the Fuel Cell Commercialization Group (FCCG) which includes representation from all markets - utilities and other power generation equipment buyers.

  3. ERC commercialization activities

    SciTech Connect

    Maru, H.C.

    1995-12-01

    The ERC family of companies is anticipating market entry of their first commercial product, a 2.8-MR power plant, in the second quarter of 1999. The present Cooperative Agreement provides for: (1) Commercialization planning and organizational development, (2) Completion of the pre-commercial DFC technology development, (3) Systems and plant design, (4) Manufacturing processes` scale-up to full- sized stack components and assemblies, (5) Upgrades to ERC`s test facility for full-sized stack testing, and (6) Sub-scale testing of a DFC Stack and BOP fueled with landfill gas. This paper discusses the first item, that of preparing for commercialization. ERC`s formal commercialization program began in 1990 with the selection of the 2-MR Direct Fuel Cell power plant by the American Public Power Association (APPA) for promotion to the over 2000 municipal utilities comprising APPA`s segment of the utility sector. Since that beginning, the APPA core group expanded to become the Fuel Cell Commercialization Group (FCCG) which includes representation from all markets - utilities and other power generation equipment buyers.

  4. Improving Energy Efficiency in Federal Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Nasseri, Cyrus H.; Somasundaram, Sriram; Winiarski, David W.

    2004-08-27

    This paper is an overview of various activities underway in the Federal sector to help improve the energy efficiency in new and existing Federal commercial buildings. The two main drivers for the energy efficiency upgrades within the Federal sector are Executive Orders (E.O.) from the Executive branch and the legislative requirements passed by the legislative branch and then signed into law by the Executive branch of the U.S. Federal Government. The recent Executive Orders pertaining to this discussion are the E.O. 12902 (1994) and the E.O. 13123 (1999). The legislative requirements are contained in the Energy Policy Act (EPACT) of 1992 which amended the Energy Conservation and Production Act (ECPA) and the pending Energy Policy Act of 2003.

  5. Mandatory driver training and road safety: the Quebec experience.

    PubMed Central

    Potvin, L; Champagne, F; Laberge-Nadeau, C

    1988-01-01

    In January 1983, the Quebec Government made driver training courses mandatory for any person seeking a first driver's license. Using accident and licensure data over a five-year period, we conducted an evaluation of the impact of the enactment of mandatory driver training on: the risk of accident for newly licensed drivers; the mortality and morbidity of these accidents; the number of new drivers; and the mean age of licensure. Results of our time series analyses show that this legislation had no appreciable effect on the risk of accident or on the mortality/morbidity rate per accident for newly licensed drivers aged 18 and over. However, since 1983, the number of women under 18 years of age getting their first driver's license has increased by 20 per cent, and their mean age has decreased from over 18 to under 18. Mandatory driver training may have increased the numbers and risks of accidents for young, primarily female, drivers. PMID:3407821

  6. Determinants and Drivers of Infectious Disease Threat Events in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Lindgren, Elisabet; Balkanyi, Laszlo; Espinosa, Laura; Almqvist, My S.; Penttinen, Pasi; Rocklöv, Joacim

    2016-01-01

    Infectious disease threat events (IDTEs) are increasing in frequency worldwide. We analyzed underlying drivers of 116 IDTEs detected in Europe during 2008–2013 by epidemic intelligence at the European Centre of Disease Prevention and Control. Seventeen drivers were identified and categorized into 3 groups: globalization and environment, sociodemographic, and public health systems. A combination of >2 drivers was responsible for most IDTEs. The driver category globalization and environment contributed to 61% of individual IDTEs, and the top 5 individual drivers of all IDTEs were travel and tourism, food and water quality, natural environment, global trade, and climate. Hierarchical cluster analysis of all drivers identified travel and tourism as a distinctly separate driver. Monitoring and modeling such disease drivers can help anticipate future IDTEs and strengthen control measures. More important, intervening directly on these underlying drivers can diminish the likelihood of the occurrence of an IDTE and reduce the associated human and economic costs. PMID:26982104

  7. Driver sleepiness on YouTube: A content analysis.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, A N; Filtness, A J

    2017-02-01

    Driver sleepiness is a major contributor to severe crashes and fatalities on our roads. Many people continue to drive despite being aware of feeling tired. Prevention relies heavily on education campaigns as it is difficult to police driver sleepiness. The video sharing social media site YouTube is extremely popular, particularly with at risk driver demographics. Content and popularity of uploaded videos can provide insight into the quality of publicly accessible driver sleepiness information. The purpose of this research was to answer two questions; firstly, how prevalent are driver sleepiness videos on YouTube? And secondly, what are the general characteristics of driver sleepiness videos in terms of (a) outlook on driver sleepiness, (b) tone, (c) countermeasures to driver sleepiness, and, (d) driver demographics. Using a keywords search, 442 relevant videos were found from a five year period (2nd December 2009-2nd December 2014). Tone, outlook, and countermeasure use were thematically coded. Driver demographic and video popularity data also were recorded. The majority of videos portrayed driver sleepiness as dangerous. However, videos that had an outlook towards driver sleepiness being amusing were viewed more often and had more mean per video comments and likes. Humorous videos regardless of outlook, were most popular. Most information regarding countermeasures to deal with driver sleepiness was accurate. Worryingly, 39.8% of videos with countermeasure information contained some kind of ineffective countermeasure. The use of humour to convey messages about the dangers of driver sleepiness may be a useful approach in educational interventions.

  8. Linear transformer driver for pulse generation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Alexander A; Mazarakis, Michael G; Sinebryukhov, Vadim A; Volkov, Sergey N; Kondratiev, Sergey S; Alexeenko, Vitaly M; Bayol, Frederic; Demol, Gauthier; Stygar, William A

    2015-04-07

    A linear transformer driver includes at least one ferrite ring positioned to accept a load. The linear transformer driver also includes a first power delivery module that includes a first charge storage devices and a first switch. The first power delivery module sends a first energy in the form of a first pulse to the load. The linear transformer driver also includes a second power delivery module including a second charge storage device and a second switch. The second power delivery module sends a second energy in the form of a second pulse to the load. The second pulse has a frequency that is approximately three times the frequency of the first pulse. The at least one ferrite ring is positioned to force the first pulse and the second pulse to the load by temporarily isolating the first pulse and the second pulse from an electrical ground.

  9. Hazard perception of motorcyclists and car drivers.

    PubMed

    Rosenbloom, Tova; Perlman, Amotz; Pereg, Avihu

    2011-05-01

    The current study compares hazard perception (HP) performance of 50 male drivers with and without a motorcycle license in order to generalize results. A video-based HP test, measuring reaction times to traffic scenes, was administered to these two groups of drivers. Participants with a motorcycle license performed better than participants without a motorcycle license. ANOVA indicated that learning improved linearly for participants with a motorcycle license but not for participants without a motorcycle license. No evidence that HP was predicted by age was found. HP scores for drivers who reported previous involvement in an accident were lower than for those who reported not being involved in an accident. The results are discussed in the context of sensitivity and response bias models.

  10. Why HID headlights bother older drivers

    PubMed Central

    Mainster, M A; Timberlake, G T

    2003-01-01

    Driving requires effective coordination of visual, motor, and cognitive skills. Visual skills are pushed to their limit at night by decreased illumination and by disabling glare from oncoming headlights. High intensity discharge (HID) headlamps project light farther down roads, improving their owner’s driving safety by increasing the time available for reaction to potential problems. Glare is proportional to headlamp brightness, however, so increasing headlamp brightness also increases potential glare for oncoming drivers, particularly on curving two lane roads. This problem is worse for older drivers because of their increased intraocular light scattering, glare sensitivity, and photostress recovery time. An analysis of automobile headlights, intraocular stray light, glare, and night driving shows that brightness rather than blueness is the primary reason for the visual problems that HID headlights can cause for older drivers who confront them. The increased light projected by HID headlights is potentially valuable, but serious questions remain regarding how and where it should be projected. PMID:12488274

  11. Analysis of driver performance under reduced visibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaeppler, W. D.

    1982-01-01

    Mathematical models describing vehicle dynamics as well as human behavior may be useful in evaluating driver performance and in establishing design criteria for vehicles more compatible with man. In 1977, a two level model of driver steering behavior was developed, but its parameters were identified for clear visibility conditions only. Since driver performance degrades under conditions of reduced visibility, e.g., fog, the two level model should be investigated to determine its applicability to such conditions. The data analysis of a recently performed driving simulation experiment showed that the model still performed reasonably well under fog conditions, although there was a degradation in its predictive capacity during fog. Some additional parameters affecting anticipation and lag time may improve the model's performance for reduced visibility conditions.

  12. Drivers' perceptions and reactions to roadside memorials.

    PubMed

    Tay, Richard

    2009-07-01

    Despite their growing popularity in North America, little research has been conducted on understanding the effects of roadside memorials on drivers' behaviour. In this study, an online survey of 810 drivers found that public opinions on the policy options as well as drivers' self-reported reactions to the presence of roadside memorials were fairly divided. In addition, an on-road experiment was conducted to examine the short term effects of roadside memorials at two intersections. Our results showed that the number of red light violations was reduced by 16.7% in the 6 weeks after the installation of the mock memorials compared to the 6 weeks before whereas the number of violations at two comparison sites experienced an increase of 16.8%.

  13. A model of Beijing drivers' scrambling behaviors.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jing; Bai, Yun; Tao, Li; Atchley, Paul

    2011-07-01

    A major, but unstudied, cause of crashes in China is drivers that "scramble" to gain the right of way in violation of traffic regulations. The motivation of this study is to explore the features of drivers' scrambling behaviors and the attitudes and driving skills that influence them. In this study, we established a scrambling behavior scale, and developed a driving attitude scale and a driving skill scale using factor analysis of an Internet survey of 486 drivers in Beijing. A structural equation model of scrambling behavior toward cars and pedestrians/cyclists was developed with attitudes and skills as predictors of behavior. Skills and attitudes of approval toward violations of traffic rules did not predict scrambling behaviors, while the motivation for safety and attitudes against violating traffic rules led to reduced scrambling behaviors. The current work highlights this peculiar aspect of Chinese roads and suggests methods to reduce the behavior.

  14. Maximum forces sustained during various methods of exiting commercial tractors, trailers and trucks.

    PubMed

    Fathallah, F A; Cotnam, J P

    2000-02-01

    Many commercial vehicles have steps and grab-rails to assist the driver in safely entering/exiting the vehicle. However, many drivers do not use these aids. The purpose of this study was to compare impact forces experienced during various exit methods from commercial equipment. The study investigated impact forces of ten male subjects while exiting two tractors, a step-van, a box-trailer, and a cube-van. The results showed that exiting from cab-level or trailer-level resulted in impact forces as high as 12 times the subject's body weight; whereas, fully utilizing the steps and grab-rails resulted in impact forces less than two times body weight. An approach that emphasizes optimal design of entry/exit aids coupled with driver training and education is expected to minimize exit-related injuries.

  15. Mobility and its liminal context: exploring sexual partnering among truck drivers crossing the Southern Brazilian border.

    PubMed

    Lippman, Sheri A; Pulerwitz, Julie; Chinaglia, Magda; Hubbard, Alan; Reingold, Arthur; Díaz, Juan

    2007-12-01

    Mobile populations, including truck drivers, are at elevated risk of acquiring HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). However, measures of mobility have been poorly operationalized and little research exists exploring the psychosocial context of mobility and sexual risk taking. A systematic sample of 1775 male truck drivers underwent interview at two customs stations on the Southern Brazilian international border in 2003. The psychosocial effect of being mobile was assessed by clustering truckers based on perceptions of the liminal environment, or being outside of one's normal social environment. The relationship between physical mobility (nights spent at home) and liminal cluster with sexual partnerships was assessed. The clustering procedure yielded three dispositions towards the liminal environment. Compared to truckers in the baseline cluster, those who perceive the environment as (1) very, or (2) moderately permissive had increased odds of reporting a commercial sex partner in the past six months and reported increased numbers of commercial partners. For each week slept at home, the odds of reporting a commercial partner decreased by a factor of 0.73 and the average number of commercial partners decreased by a rate of 0.76. Physical and psychosocial measures of mobility were associated independently with increased partnering on the road. Additional exploration of how the liminal environment shapes mobile populations' sexual decision making and vulnerability to STI is warranted.

  16. High performance thyratron driver with low jitter.

    PubMed

    Verma, Rishi; Lee, P; Springham, S V; Tan, T L; Rawat, R S

    2007-08-01

    We report the design and development of insulated gate bipolar junction transistor based high performance driver for operating thyratrons in grounded grid mode. With careful design, the driver meets the specification of trigger output pulse rise time less than 30 ns, jitter less than +/-1 ns, and time delay less than 160 ns. It produces a -600 V pulse of 500 ns duration (full width at half maximum) at repetition rate ranging from 1 Hz to 1.14 kHz. The developed module also facilitates heating and biasing units along with protection circuitry in one complete package.

  17. Tecnology innovation related to comfort on commercial vehicles.

    PubMed

    Martini, M; Ferrero, D

    2012-01-01

    The scope of this article is to show the Iveco activity in terms of comfort improvement in all its product Portfolio, focusing on innovation research and realization of tools to get better the life of the driver on commercial vehicles. Comfort related to the ergonomics, thermal, vibrational comfort and after-treatment system in order to improve the life of driver and passengers. It is to remember that Commercial vehicles have different use from a car. For example an heavy truck cabin is not only a place where to drive 8 hours a day, but it is at the same time, an office, a place where to eat, where to sleep and to have a rest. The effort in the last 10 years of Iveco is to improve the comfort of the life of the drivers, utilizing continuous research in standards and innovative systems in order to increase the security and life improvement, focusing also on worldwide legislation as a partner in European committees for health and safety.

  18. Validation of the Driver Behaviour Questionnaire in a representative sample of drivers in Australia.

    PubMed

    Stephens, A N; Fitzharris, M

    2016-01-01

    The Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ) is a widely used measure of driving behaviours that may increase a driver's risk of crash involvement. However, there are several different versions of the DBQ varying in terms of number of items and factor structure. The aim of the current research was to assess the construct validity of the popular 28-item four-factor DBQ solution in a representative sample of drivers in Australia. A further aim was to test the factorial invariance of the measure across gender, age and also between fleet and non-fleet drivers using multigroup confirmatory factor analyses. Data on a range of attitudes towards road safety were collected using an online survey. A stratified sampling procedure was undertaken to ensure the age, gender and location distributions of participants were representative of the Australian population. A total of 2771 responses were obtained from fully licensed motor vehicle drivers (male: 46%). Confirmatory factor analysis supported the 28-item four-factor DBQ in the Australian sample. The DBQ was also found to be gender-invariant and strong partial measurement invariance was found for drivers aged from 26 to 64, but not for younger (17-25) or older (65-75) drivers. Modifications to the DBQ suggest how the DBQ can be improved for use in these two age groups.

  19. Kin-Driver: a database of driver mutations in protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Simonetti, Franco L; Tornador, Cristian; Nabau-Moretó, Nuria; Molina-Vila, Miguel A; Marino-Buslje, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Somatic mutations in protein kinases (PKs) are frequent driver events in many human tumors, while germ-line mutations are associated with hereditary diseases. Here we present Kin-driver, the first database that compiles driver mutations in PKs with experimental evidence demonstrating their functional role. Kin-driver is a manual expert-curated database that pays special attention to activating mutations (AMs) and can serve as a validation set to develop new generation tools focused on the prediction of gain-of-function driver mutations. It also offers an easy and intuitive environment to facilitate the visualization and analysis of mutations in PKs. Because all mutations are mapped onto a multiple sequence alignment, analogue positions between kinases can be identified and tentative new mutations can be proposed for studying by transferring annotation. Finally, our database can also be of use to clinical and translational laboratories, helping them to identify uncommon AMs that can correlate with response to new antitumor drugs. The website was developed using PHP and JavaScript, which are supported by all major browsers; the database was built using MySQL server. Kin-driver is available at: http://kin-driver.leloir.org.ar/

  20. Efficacy of side air bags in reducing driver deaths in driver-side collisions.

    PubMed

    Braver, Elisa R; Kyrychenko, Sergey Y

    2004-03-15

    Side air bags, a relatively new technology designed to protect the head and/or torso in side-impact collisions, are becoming increasingly common in automobiles. Their efficacy in preventing US driver deaths among cars struck on the near (driver's) side was examined using data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System and the General Estimates System. Risk ratios for driver death per nearside collision during 1999-2001 were computed for head/torso and torso-only side air bags in cars from model years 1997-2002, relative to cars without side air bags. Confounding was addressed by adjusting nearside risk ratios for front- and rear-impact mortality, which is unaffected by side air bags. Risk ratios were 0.55 (95% confidence interval: 0.43, 0.71) for head/torso air bags and 0.89 (95% confidence interval: 0.79, 1.01) for torso-only air bags. Risk was reduced when cars with head/torso air bags were struck by cars/minivans (significant) or pickup trucks/sport utility vehicles (nonsignificant). Risk was reduced in two-vehicle collisions and among male drivers and drivers aged 16-64 years. Protective effects associated with torso-only air bags were observed in single-vehicle crashes and among male and 16- to 64-year-old drivers. Head/torso side air bags appear to be very effective in reducing nearside driver deaths, whereas torso-only air bags appear less protective.

  1. Enhancing digital driver models: identification of distinct postural strategies used by drivers.

    PubMed

    Kyung, Gyouhyung; Nussbaum, Maury A; Babski-Reeves, Kari L

    2010-03-01

    Driver workspace design and evaluation is, in part, based on assumed driving postures of users and determines several ergonomic aspects of a vehicle, such as reach, visibility and postural comfort. Accurately predicting and specifying standard driving postures, hence, are necessary to improve the ergonomic quality of the driver workspace. In this study, a statistical clustering approach was employed to reduce driving posture simulation/prediction errors, assuming that drivers use several distinct postural strategies when interacting with automobiles. 2-D driving postures, described by 16 joint angles, were obtained from 38 participants with diverse demographics (age, gender) and anthropometrics (stature, body mass) and in two vehicle classes (sedans and SUVs). Based on the proximity of joint angle sets, cluster analysis yielded three predominant postural strategies in each vehicle class (i.e. 'lower limb flexed', 'upper limb flexed' and 'extended'). Mean angular differences between clusters ranged from 3.8 to 52.4 degrees for the majority of joints, supporting the practical relevance of the distinct clusters. The existence of such postural strategies should be considered when utilising digital human models (DHMs) to enhance and evaluate driver workspace design ergonomically and proactively. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This study identified drivers' distinct postural strategies, based on actual drivers' behaviours. Such strategies can facilitate accurate positioning of DHMs and hence help design ergonomic driver workspaces.

  2. Academic Innovation in the Commercial Domain: Case Studies of Successful Transfers of University-Developed Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Joshua B.

    In recent years, considerable attention has been directed toward higher educations role as a driver of economic reform. Yet, surprisingly little is known about the processes and mechanisms by which academic innovations are successfully commercialized. The specific question is, what factors explain why some licensed innovations become bona fide…

  3. Television Commercials' Effects on Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quisenberry, James D.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses research focused on characteristics of children's TV commercials, the relationship between commercials and children's learning and reasoning, and effects of commercials on children's language, attitudes, and beliefs. (Author/RH)

  4. CMOS VCSEL driver circuit for 25+Gbps/channel short-reach parallel optical links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Masumi

    This thesis proposes a new CMOS driver for Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting LASER (VCSEL) diode arrays. A VCSEL is a promising light source for optical communication. However, its threshold voltage (1.5V for a 850-nm VCSEL) exceeds the rated supply voltage of nanoscale CMOS technologies. This makes difficult designing a driver sourcing a modulated current to a VCSELs anode directly, an arrangement suitable for low-cost parallel optical links. To overcome this problem, a combination of analog circuit techniques is proposed including a novel pad shield driving technique. A prototype fabricated in a 65-nm CMOS technology achieved 26-Gb/s bit-rate and 1.80-pJ/b power efficiency with an optical modulation amplitude (OMA) of +1.8dBm and 3.1ps-rms jitter when driving a 850-nm 14Gb/s commercial VCSEL. This is the highest-speed anode-driving CMOS VCSEL driver reported to date. Also it has the best power efficiency and the smallest area (0:024 mm2) amongst anode-driving drivers in any process technology.

  5. Commercialization of new biotechnology: a systematic review of 16 commercial case studies in a novel manufacturing sector.

    PubMed

    Paul, Matthew J; Thangaraj, Harry; Ma, Julian K-C

    2015-10-01

    The 1980s and 1990s saw a major expansion of biotechnology into new areas of science including genomics and recombinant technologies. This was coupled to the widespread emergence of academics into the commercial sector as they were encouraged to spin out companies or commercialize their intellectual property. There were many opportunities to raise investment, and extraordinary success stories were prominent across many areas of technology. The field of plant biotechnology for manufacturing recombinant pharmaceuticals (molecular pharming) emerged and was developed in this period. Like other biotechnologies, this was an exciting new development which offered some very obvious benefits and commercial advantages. In particularly, plant molecular pharming represented a highly novel and potentially disruptive manufacturing technology for recombinant proteins. Twenty-five years on, a series of interviews with senior members of sixteen of the most prominent companies involved in the field provides insight into the original drivers for commercialization, strategic thinking and planning behind key commercial decisions and an insider view into the major reasons for commercial success or failure. These observations and recurring themes identified across a number of commercial ventures remain relevant today, as new biotech companies continue to spin out of the world of academia.

  6. Defining Operational Space Suit Requirements for Commercial Orbital Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alpert, Brian K.

    2015-01-01

    As the commercial spaceflight industry transitions from suborbital brevity to orbital outposts, spacewalking will become a major consideration for tourists, scientists, and hardware providers. The challenge exists to develop a space suit designed for the orbital commercial spaceflight industry. The unique needs and requirements of this industry will drive space suit designs and costs that are unlike any existing product. Commercial space tourists will pay for the experience of a lifetime, while scientists may not be able to rely on robotics for all operations and external hardware repairs. This study was aimed at defining space suit operational and functional needs across the spectrum of spacewalk elements, identifying technical design drivers and establishing appropriate options. Recommendations from the analysis are offered for consideration

  7. Commercial scale research and assessment of poultry welfare.

    PubMed

    Dawkins, Marian Stamp

    2012-01-01

    1. Commercial level research on poultry welfare is increasingly important because of the insight it gives into what improves welfare in the context of other important drivers such as human health, environmental impact and cost. 2. There are, however, a number of problems with conducting commercial level research - such as conflicts over aims, financial compensation and legal issues - that need to be addressed if the gains from commercial research are to be optimized. Cooperation between all parties and mutual understanding of the different priorities that may exist between industry and academia are essential. 3. Three important developments for the future are: the setting up of a 'data bank', the application of new statistical methods for analyzing data and new technology for assessing welfare automatically.

  8. Survey of Laser Markets Relevant to Inertial Fusion Energy Drivers, information for National Research Council

    SciTech Connect

    Bayramian, A J; Deri, R J; Erlandson, A C

    2011-02-24

    Development of a new technology for commercial application can be significantly accelerated by leveraging related technologies used in other markets. Synergies across multiple application domains attract research and development (R and D) talent - widening the innovation pipeline - and increases the market demand in common components and subsystems to provide performance improvements and cost reductions. For these reasons, driver development plans for inertial fusion energy (IFE) should consider the non-fusion technology base that can be lveraged for application to IFE. At this time, two laser driver technologies are being proposed for IFE: solid-state lasers (SSLs) and KrF gas (excimer) lasers. This document provides a brief survey of organizations actively engaged in these technologies. This is intended to facilitate comparison of the opportunities for leveraging the larger technical community for IFE laser driver development. They have included tables that summarize the commercial organizations selling solid-state and KrF lasers, and a brief summary of organizations actively engaged in R and D on these technologies.

  9. Commercial space services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    An overview of space service opportunities as identified by a Wyle Laboratories' research team is given. Through the use of a baseline space scenario, a variety of space hardware, services, and commercial activities are identified and related on a time-phased basis. A model is presented to relate the potential functions of government and the private sector in a commercialized space environment during the period 1984 to 2004. Barriers, incentives and key issues are likewise identified and addressed to aid in the implementation of private sector activities for spacerelated programs. Broader awareness, legislative actions, incentive development and benefit analyses are considered in the presentation. The time-phased plan provides a useful planning and management tool, allows broader communication, and supports overall space commercialization program assessment.

  10. Commercial Biomedical Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Experiments to seek solutions for a range of biomedical issues are at the heart of several investigations that will be hosted by the Commercial Instrumentation Technology Associates (ITA), Inc. Biomedical Experiments (CIBX-2) payload. CIBX-2 is unique, encompassing more than 20 separate experiments including cancer research, commercial experiments, and student hands-on experiments from 10 schools as part of ITA's ongoing University Among the Stars program. Valerie Cassanto of ITA checks the Canadian Protein Crystallization Experiment (CAPE) carried by STS-86 to Mir in 1997. The experiments are sponsored by NASA's Space Product Development Program (SPD).

  11. Design Drivers of Water Data Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentine, D.; Zaslavsky, I.

    2008-12-01

    The CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System (HIS) is being developed as a geographically distributed network of hydrologic data sources and functions that are integrated using web services so that they function as a connected whole. The core of the HIS service-oriented architecture is a collection of water web services, which provide uniform access to multiple repositories of observation data. These services use SOAP protocols communicating WaterML (Water Markup Language). When a client makes a data or metadata request using a CUAHSI HIS web service, these requests are made in standard manner, following the CUAHSI HIS web service signatures - regardless of how the underlying data source may be organized. Also, regardless of the format in which the data are returned by the source, the web services respond to requests by returning the data in a standard format of WaterML. The goal of WaterML design has been to capture semantics of hydrologic observations discovery and retrieval and express the point observations information model as an XML schema. To a large extent, it follows the representation of the information model as adopted by the CUASHI Observations Data Model (ODM) relational design. Another driver of WaterML design is specifications and metadata adopted by USGS NWIS, EPA STORET, and other federal agencies, as it seeks to provide a common foundation for exchanging both agency data and data collected in multiple academic projects. Another WaterML design principle was to create, in version 1 of HIS in particular, a fairly rigid and simple XML schema which is easy to generate and parse, thus creating the least barrier for adoption by hydrologists. WaterML includes a series of elements that reflect common notions used in describing hydrologic observations, such as site, variable, source, observation series, seriesCatalog, and data values. Each of the three main request methods in the water web services - GetSiteInfo, GetVariableInfo, and GetValues - has a

  12. Driver and Traffic Safety Education Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Div. of General Education.

    The policy statement outlines New York State standards regarding: (1) the driver's education program; (2) vehicles in the program; (3) administration, supervision, and organization of summer school programs; (4) teachers in the program; and (5) pupils in the program. A glossary defines terms and instructional objectives. Program policies…

  13. Driver behaviour with adaptive cruise control.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Neville A; Young, Mark S

    2005-08-15

    This paper reports on the evaluation of adaptive cruise control (ACC) from a psychological perspective. It was anticipated that ACC would have an effect upon the psychology of driving, i.e. make the driver feel like they have less control, reduce the level of trust in the vehicle, make drivers less situationally aware, but workload might be reduced and driving might be less stressful. Drivers were asked to drive in a driving simulator under manual and ACC conditions. Analysis of variance techniques were used to determine the effects of workload (i.e. amount of traffic) and feedback (i.e. degree of information from the ACC system) on the psychological variables measured (i.e. locus of control, trust, workload, stress, mental models and situation awareness). The results showed that: locus of control and trust were unaffected by ACC, whereas situation awareness, workload and stress were reduced by ACC. Ways of improving situation awareness could include cues to help the driver predict vehicle trajectory and identify conflicts.

  14. Driver and Traffic Safety Education Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts State Dept. of Education, Boston. Bureau of Elementary and Secondary Education.

    Materials contained in this Massachusetts curriculum guide are based on concepts and procedures developed by the Highway Users Federation for Safety and Mobility. The guide examines the philosophy of driver education, discusses such legal aspects as certification of students and teachers, presents a comprehensive classroom and behind-the-wheel…

  15. Fail-safe bidirectional valve driver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujimoto, H.

    1974-01-01

    Cross-coupled diodes are added to commonly used bidirectional valve driver circuit to protect circuit and power supply. Circuit may be used in systems requiring fail-safe bidirectional valve operation, particularly in chemical- and petroleum-processing control systems and computer-controlled hydraulic or pneumatic systems.

  16. Multi-Phase Driver Education Teaching Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst-Euless-Bedford Independent School District, Hurst, TX.

    For use in planning and conducting functional multi-phase driver education programs, this teacher's guide consists of four phases of instruction: classroom activities, simulated application, in-car range practice, and in-car public practice. Contents are divided into three instructional sections, with the first combining the classroom activities…

  17. Evasive and Emergency Curriculum for Driver Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1976

    An advanced course to increase the student's driving ability and knowledge of the automobile is presented in this curriculum guide for use by high school driver education instructors. The course is designed for students who have been driving for 6 to 12 months or who have mastered basic driving skills. Focus is on advanced driving techniques,…

  18. Vehicle automation: a remedy for driver stress?

    PubMed

    Funke, G; Matthews, G; Warm, J S; Emo, A K

    2007-08-01

    The present study addressed the effects of stress, vehicle automation and subjective state on driver performance and mood in a simulated driving task. A total of 168 college students participated. Participants in the stress-induction condition completed a 'winter' drive, which included periodic loss of control episodes. Participants in the no-stress-induction condition were not exposed to loss of control. An additional, independent manipulation of vehicle speed was also conducted, consisting of two control conditions requiring manual speed regulation and a third in which vehicle speed was automatically regulated by the simulation. Stress and automation both influenced subjective distress, but the two factors did not interact. Driver performance data indicated that vehicle automation impacted performance similarly in the stress and no-stress conditions. Individual differences in subjective stress response and performance were also investigated. Resource theory provides a framework that partially but not completely explains the relationship between vehicle automation and driver stress. Implications for driver workload, safety and training are discussed.

  19. What Are Drivers for Informal Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schürmann, Eva; Beausaert, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The topic of informal learning at work has received increasing attention in the past years. The purpose of this study is to explore in which informal learning activities employees engage and what are the drivers for informal learning. Design/Methodology/Approach: Semi-structured interviews were taken from ten human resources (HR) and ten…

  20. Michael Driver: A Career Life to Remember

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundby, Dianne; Derr, C. Brooklyn

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present a retrospective of the career life of Michael Driver, from the time of his Princeton graduate studies and early faculty years at Purdue University through the over three decades he spent at USC. Design/methodology/approach: The history and development of his theoretical and research interests are…

  1. Driver Education for Motorcycle Operation. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council, Forrest M.; And Others

    A three-year pilot project was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of implementing a statewide off-road motorcycle training program for beginning drivers in North Carolina. The first year of the program involved approximately 422 students from five locations, the second year involved seven sites across the State. The three basic criteria for the…

  2. 45 CFR 1310.16 - Driver qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Driver qualifications. 1310.16 Section 1310.16 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, HEAD...

  3. 45 CFR 1310.16 - Driver qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Driver qualifications. 1310.16 Section 1310.16 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, HEAD...

  4. 49 CFR 398.3 - Qualifications of drivers or operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... be less than a total of 140 degrees; ability to distinguish colors red, green and yellow; drivers... at its principal place of business for every driver employed or used by it a legible certificate of...

  5. 49 CFR 398.3 - Qualifications of drivers or operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... be less than a total of 140 degrees; ability to distinguish colors red, green and yellow; drivers... at its principal place of business for every driver employed or used by it a legible certificate of...

  6. CHOICE OF PROTON DRIVER PARAMETERS FOR A NEUTRINO FACTORY.

    SciTech Connect

    KIRK, H.G.; BERG, J.S.; FERNOW, R.C.; GALLARDO, J.C.; SIMOS, N.; WENG, W.

    2006-06-23

    We discuss criteria for designing an optimal ''green field'' proton driver for a neutrino factory. The driver parameters are determined by considerations of space charge, power capabilities of the target, beam loading and available RF peak power.

  7. DUI Rates Decline for U.S. Drivers

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_162819.html DUI Rates Decline for U.S. Drivers But that doesn't mean roads will be ... 15 percent for 2002. Despite this decrease, however, drivers and their passengers remain at risk. An estimated ...

  8. [The elderly driver's perception of risk: do older drivers still express comparative optimism? ].

    PubMed

    Spitzenstetter, Florence; Moessinger, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    People frequently express comparative optimism ; that is, they believe they are less likely than average to experience negative events. The aim of the present study is, first, to observe whether people of more than 65 years are still optimists when they evaluate driving-related risks; and second, to test the assumption that older drivers show less optimism when they compare themselves with average-age drivers than when they compare themselves with same-age drivers. Our results reveal that drivers of more than 65 years do, indeed, express comparative optimism, but, contrary to our expectation, only in a limited number of cases does the age of the comparison target appear to have an effect. These results are particularly discussed in terms of self-image enhancement.

  9. Aggregate driver model to enable predictable behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, A.; Chakravarty, T.; Banerjee, T.; Balamuralidhar, P.

    2015-09-01

    The categorization of driving styles, particularly in terms of aggressiveness and skill is an emerging area of interest under the broader theme of intelligent transportation. There are two possible discriminatory techniques that can be applied for such categorization; a microscale (event based) model and a macro-scale (aggregate) model. It is believed that an aggregate model will reveal many interesting aspects of human-machine interaction; for example, we may be able to understand the propensities of individuals to carry out a given task over longer periods of time. A useful driver model may include the adaptive capability of the human driver, aggregated as the individual propensity to control speed/acceleration. Towards that objective, we carried out experiments by deploying smartphone based application to be used for data collection by a group of drivers. Data is primarily being collected from GPS measurements including position & speed on a second-by-second basis, for a number of trips over a two months period. Analysing the data set, aggregate models for individual drivers were created and their natural aggressiveness were deduced. In this paper, we present the initial results for 12 drivers. It is shown that the higher order moments of the acceleration profile is an important parameter and identifier of journey quality. It is also observed that the Kurtosis of the acceleration profiles stores major information about the driving styles. Such an observation leads to two different ranking systems based on acceleration data. Such driving behaviour models can be integrated with vehicle and road model and used to generate behavioural model for real traffic scenario.

  10. Commercializing Biological Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeLeu, K. L.; Young, M. A.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the only commercial establishment involved in biological control in Australia. The wasp Aphitis melinus, which parasitizes the insect Red Scale, is bred in large numbers and released in the citrus groves where Red Scale is causing damage to the fruit. (JR)

  11. Kids vs. commercials.

    PubMed

    Lewis, M A; Lewis, C E

    1975-11-01

    A game show with fifth and sixth graders effectively demonstrated their ability to critically evaluate television commercials about health-related products. While the family physician is in a unique position to affect future drug utilization patterns of children by counseling parents, a more active role, such as this exercise in the evaluation of TV messages, may be even more effective.

  12. Commercial Baking. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Nancy

    A project filmed three commercial baking videotapes for use by secondary and adult students in food service programs. The three topics were basic dinner rolls, bread making, and hard breads and rolls. Quick-rise dough recipes were developed, written down, and explained for use with the videotapes. A pretest, posttest, and student guide were…

  13. The Commercial Speech Doctrine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luebke, Barbara F.

    In its 1942 ruling in the "Valentine vs. Christensen" case, the Supreme Court established the doctrine that commercial speech is not protected by the First Amendment. In 1975, in the "Bigelow vs. Virginia" case, the Supreme Court took a decisive step toward abrogating that doctrine, by ruling that advertising is not stripped of…

  14. Estolides - Ready for commercialization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Estolides have shown great promise as a bio-based lubricant and are ready for commercialization. Estolides are nontoxic and biodegradable. Testing has shown estolides have increased oxidative stability over vegetable oil based lubricants and have a relatively low pour point, allowing them to be use...

  15. Commercial applications of telemedicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Natiello, Thomas A.

    1991-01-01

    Telemedicine Systems Corporation was established in 1976 and is a private commercial supplier of telemedicine systems. These systems are various combinations of communications and diagnostic technology, designed to allow the delivery of health care services to remote facilities. The technology and the health care services are paid for by the remote facilities, such as prisons.

  16. Commercial Crew Medical Ops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinbaugh, Randall; Cole, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Provide commercial partners with: center insight into NASA spaceflight medical experience center; information relative to both nominal and emergency care of the astronaut crew at landing site center; a basis for developing and sharing expertise in space medical factors associated with returning crew.

  17. Commercial Earth Observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Through the Earth Observation Commercial Applications Program (EOCAP) at Stennis Space Center, Applied Analysis, Inc. developed a new tool for analyzing remotely sensed data. The Applied Analysis Spectral Analytical Process (AASAP) detects or classifies objects smaller than a pixel and removes the background. This significantly enhances the discrimination among surface features in imagery. ERDAS, Inc. offers the system as a modular addition to its ERDAS IMAGINE software package for remote sensing applications. EOCAP is a government/industry cooperative program designed to encourage commercial applications of remote sensing. Projects can run three years or more and funding is shared by NASA and the private sector participant. Through the Earth Observation Commercial Applications Program (EOCAP), Ocean and Coastal Environmental Sensing (OCENS) developed SeaStation for marine users. SeaStation is a low-cost, portable, shipboard satellite groundstation integrated with vessel catch and product monitoring software. Linked to the Global Positioning System, SeaStation provides real time relationships between vessel position and data such as sea surface temperature, weather conditions and ice edge location. This allows the user to increase fishing productivity and improve vessel safety. EOCAP is a government/industry cooperative program designed to encourage commercial applications of remote sensing. Projects can run three years or more and funding is shared by NASA and the private sector participant.

  18. Commercial and Industrial Wiring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaltwasser, Stan; Flowers, Gary

    This module is the third in a series of three wiring publications, includes additional technical knowledge and applications required for job entry in the commercial and industrial wiring trade. The module contains 15 instructional units that cover the following topics: blueprint reading and load calculations; tools and equipment; service;…

  19. Commercial Carpentry: Instructional Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diehl, Donald W.; Penner, Wayman R.

    This manual contains instructional materials which measure student performance on commercial carpentry behavioral objectives; criterion-referenced evaluation instruments are also included. Each of the manual's eleven sections consists of one or more units of instruction. Each instructional unit includes behavioral objectives, suggested activities…

  20. Motor vehicle driver injury and marital status: a cohort study with prospective and retrospective driver injuries

    PubMed Central

    Whitlock, G; Norton, R; Clark, T; Jackson, R; MacMahon, S

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association of marital status with risk of motor vehicle driver injury. Design: A cohort study with prospective and retrospective outcomes. Setting: New Zealand. Participants: A total of 10 525 adults (a volunteer sample of a multi-industry workforce, n = 8008; and a random sample of urban electoral rolls, n = 2517). Exposure variable: Self reported marital status, assessed from a questionnaire administered in 1992–93 (baseline). Main outcome measure: Motor vehicle driver injury resulting in admission of the driver to hospital and/or the driver's death, during the period 1988–98; hospitalisation and mortality data were obtained by record linkage to national health databases. Results: During 108 741 person-years of follow up, 139 driver injury cases occurred (85 before baseline, 54 after). After adjustment for age, sex, and study cohort, never married participants had twice the risk of driver injury (hazard ratio [HR] 2.06, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.35 to 3.16) as married participants (HR 1.00). The relative risk for never married participants was slightly higher (HR 2.29), though less precise (95% CI 1.39 to 3.76), after further adjustment for alcohol intake, driving exposure, area of residence, body mass index, and occupational status. Conclusions: After taking age, sex, and other variables into account, never married people had a substantially higher risk of driver injury than married people. While requiring corroboration, these findings imply that it may be appropriate for driver injury countermeasures to be targeted to never married people. PMID:14760024